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Sample records for caesalpinioideae structural aspects

  1. Chemical constituents of the flowers of Pterogyne nitens (caesalpinioideae); Constituintes quimicos das flores Pterogyne nitens (caesalpinioideae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regasini, Luis Octavio; Fernandes, Daniara Cristina; Castro-Gamboa, Ian; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Furlan, Maysa; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica]. E-mail: bolzaniv@iq.unesp.br; Barreiro, Eliezer Jesus [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia. Centro de Ciencias da Saude; Cardoso-Lopes, Elaine Monteiro; Young, Maria Claudia Marx; Torres, Luce Brandao [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas; Vellosa, Jose Carlos Rebuglio; Oliveira, Olga Maria Mascarenhas de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica e Tecnologia

    2008-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of the flowers of Pterogyne nitens (Caesalpinioideae) resulted in the isolation and identification of nine phenolic derivatives, quercetin 3-O-sophoroside, taxifolin, astilbin, ourateacatechin, caffeic, ferulic, sinapic, chlorogenic and gallic acid, besides two guanidine alkaloids, pterogynine, pterogynidine. This is the first time these compounds have been reported in P. nitens flowers. As this is a monospecific genus, these secondary metabolites may have taxonomical significance. Their structures were assigned on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, including two-dimensional NMR techniques. (author)

  2. Révision du genre Eurypetalum Harms (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obiang-Mbomio, D.; Breteler, F.J.

    2007-01-01

    Revision of the genus Eurypetalum Harms (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae). Th e African genus Eurypetalum Harms (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae) of Lower Guinea is revised. Two species, E. tessmannii and E. unijugum, are recognized. Th ey are illustrated and their distributions are mapped. Eurypetalum

  3. Aspects of hadronic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, P.L.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of the current phenomenological models of hadron structure, whose theoretical basis is the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), is presented. A short introduction to the QCD permits to focalize the relevant properties which are attached to those models. Following, bag-like models (in particular, MIT bag and chiral extensions) and potential-like models among them the Karl and Isgur non-relativistic model and a semi-relativistic model, free of the Klein paradox, with equal scalar-vetorial mixture of confinement potential are shortly studied. Enphasis is given to the baryons, treated, basically, as three-quarks systems. (L.C.) [pt

  4. 'Shelter' object safety. Structural aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivosheev, P.I.; Nemchinov, Yu.I.; Bambura, A.N.; Sokolov, A.P.; Shenderovich, V.Ya.; Vasyagin, R.V.; Klyuchnikov, A.A.; Shcherbin, V.N.; Rud'ko, V.M.; Tokarevskij, V.V.; Belousov, E.L.; Khejger, D.; Gorodetskij, L.

    2001-01-01

    In 1997 the group of the international experts including Ukrainian organizations and 'Shelter' Object ChNPP are developed the plan of SO transformation into ecological safe status (plan SIP). The realization of the plan was carried out on basis of international tender. The results of structural aspects of SO safety and it transformation into ecological safe state (ESS) are resented in this report

  5. Role of the lens in controlling physical dormancy break and germination of Delonix regia (Fabaceae: Caesalpinioideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganathan, G K; Wu, G-R; Han, Y-Y; Liu, B L

    2017-01-01

    Physical dormancy occurs in all three subfamilies of Fabaceae, namely Mimosoideae, Papilionoideae and Caesalpinioideae, making it one of the largest plant families in terms of number of species with physical dormancy. However, little is known about the water gap structure and germination ecology of species in Caesalpinioideae. Freshly collected seeds of Delonix regia (Caesalpinioideae) did not imbibe water, thus they had physical dormancy. Both dry heat and wet heat were effective in breaking dormancy, however, longer duration was required at 80 °C and shorter duration at 90 °C. Seeds buried in the field for 2 years germinated to 21% and 42% after the first and second summer, respectively, compared with 3% germination in seeds at the time of maturity. Seeds incubated at 15/60 °C in the laboratory (mimicking summer conditions) for 3 months supported this conclusion, as dormancy was relieved in 18% and 24% of seeds stored dry and watered intermediately, respectively. All the dormancy breaking treatments resulted in lifting of palisade layers in the lens region to form a circular lid-like opening, i.e. water gap (Type II simple). Blocking experiments confirmed that water entered only through the lens and no secondary water entry point was observed. No apparent changes in morphology/anatomy of the hilum region were noted in dormant and non-dormant (water permeable) seeds. These results suggest that summer temperatures could open the lens in a proportion of seeds every year and that germination occurs during the subsequent wet season in the tropics. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  6. Wood anatomy of tribe Detarieae and comparison with tribe Caesalpinieae (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae) in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melandri, José Luis; de Pernía, Narcisana Espinoza

    2009-01-01

    We studied the wood anatomy of 29 species belonging to 10 genera of the tribe Detarieae, subfamily Caesalpinioideae and compare them with tribe Caesalpinieae. Detarieae is the largest of four tribes of Caesalpinioideae, with 84 genera, only eleven occur in Venezuela with species of timber importance. The specimens were collected in Venezuela and include wood samples from the collection of the Laboratorio de Anatomía de Maderas de la Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Ambientales de la Universidad de Los Andes, Venezuela, and of the Forest Products Laboratory of the USDA Forest Service in Madison, Wisconsin, USA. The terminology and methodology used followed the IAWA List of Microscopic Features for Hardwood Identification of the IAWA Committee, 1989. Measurements from each specimen were averaged (vessel diameters, vessel element lengths, intervessels pit size, fibre lengths and ray height). The species of Detarieae can be separated using a combination of diagnostic features. Wood characters that provide the most important diagnosis and may be used in systematics of Detarieae include: intercellular axial canals, rays heterocellular, rays exclusively or predominantly uniseriate, prismatic crystals common in ray cells, irregular storied structure and fibre wall thickness. For comparative anatomy between Detarieae and Caesalpinieae: intercellular axial canals, heterocellular rays, rays exclusively or predominantly uniseriate, prismatic crystals common in ray cells (in Detarieae) and regular storied structure, fibres septate, fibre wall thick or very thick, rays homocellular, multiseriate rays and silica bodies (in Caesalpinieae). Axial parenchyma is typically a good diagnostic feature for Leguminosae, but not for Detarieae and Caesalpinieae comparisons.

  7. Licensing aspects of structural integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.J.; Hemsworth, B.; Boydon, F.M.D.; Harrop, L.P.; Waters, R.

    1992-01-01

    Examples are given of the wide variety of structural integrity assessments of nuclear plant carried out by the United Kingdom Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) and the consequent need for a flexible approach within the framework provided by the Safety Assessment Principles. The paper describes the use of the Special Case Procedure and draws the distinction between the assessment of incredibility of failure of components and components whose failures are considered within the design basis. Assessment examples provided are the Sizewell B reactor pressure vessel, Magnox reactor pressure vessels, the Prototype Fast Reactor core support structure, Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor steam plant, Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) vessels, and Steam Generating Heavy Water Reactor pressure tubes. (author)

  8. Structuring factoring business: accounting aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Vygivska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article theoretically substantiates the fact that factoring belongs to the main operational activity of a factoring company, and this allowed structuring the factoring business by types of activity. The lack of a unified approach to the classification of factoring (factoring services made it possible to systematize and refine their classification as a basis for developing accounting and analytical support for risk management of factoring business. The authors single out such classification signs as: the right of the reverse claim (reverse, irretrievable, a territorial feature (international, internal, the subject of the factoring contract (real, consensual, the availability of notification of the debtor (conventional, confidential. The structuring of factoring business contributes to the identification of the risks of the economic activities of a factoring company depending on the type of factoring, the development of methodological support for the bookkeeping of factoring transactions in a risk environment, the search for risk management practices and the determination of management effectiveness in general.

  9. Statistical aspects of nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikh, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    The statistical properties of energy levels and a statistical approach to transition strengths are discussed in relation to nuclear structure studies at high excitation energies. It is shown that the calculations can be extended to the ground state domain also. The discussion is based on the study of random matrix theory of level density and level spacings, using the Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble (GOE) concept. The short range and long range correlations are also studied statistically. The polynomial expansion method is used to obtain excitation strengths. (A.K.)

  10. Caesalpinioideae (Leguminosae nos Campos Rupestres do Parque Estadual do Itacolomi, MG, Brasil Caesalpinioideae (Leguminosae in "Campos Rupestres" of Itacolomi State Park, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquíria Ferreira Dutra

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho consiste do estudo florístico de Caesalpinioideae dos Campos Rupestres do Parque Estadual do Itacolomi (PEI, localizado no sul da Cadeia do Espinhaço. As coletas foram mensais, no período entre setembro/2003 e outubro/2004. Foram encontradas 13 espécies de Caesalpinioideae, reunidas em três gêneros: Bauhinia, Chamaecrista e Senna. O gênero Chamaecrista foi o que mais se destacou em número de espécies. Foram elaboradas chaves para identificação das espécies, além de diagnoses, ilustrações e comentários sobre afinidades, distribuição geográfica e fenologia das mesmas.This work consists of a floristic study of the Caesalpinioideae in "Campos Rupestres" at Itacolomi State Park, southern Espinhaço Range. Collections were carried out monthly from September 2003 to October 2004. Thirteen species of Caesalpinioideae belonging to three genera were found: Bauhinia, Chamaecrista and Senna. The genus Chamaecrista had the highest number of species. Species identification keys are presented, as well as descriptions, illustrations and comments on morphological relationships, geographic distribution and phenology.

  11. Some aspects of fluid-structure coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulak, R.F.

    1982-01-01

    The numerical simulation of nonlinear, transient fluid-structure interactions (FSI) is a current area of concern by researchers in various fields, including the field of nuclear reactor safety. This paper primarily discusses the formulation used in an algorithm that couples three-dimensional hydrodynamic and structural domains. The fluid domain is governed by the Navier-Stokes equations, and the structural domain is governed by the equations of nonlinear structural dynamics. Here, both the fluid and structure are discretized using finite elements. The fluid is discretized with eight-noded quasi-Eulerian hexahedrons and the structural components are represented by Lagrangian triangular plate elements. The semi-discretized equations of motion are solved using an explicit temporal integrator. The coupling is accomplished by satisfying interface mechanics. The structure imposes kinematic constraints to the moving fluid boundary, and the fluid in turn provides an external loading on the structure. At each interface node, normals are computed from the nodal basis functions of only the hydrodynamic nodes. By defining the interface normal in this manner, it becomes independent of the type of structural boundary (i.e. shell, plate, continuum etc.) and thus makes this aspect of the coupling independent of the structure type. Results for several problems are presented and these include a comparison between analytical results for a FSI problem and numerical predictions

  12. Clustering aspects in nuclear structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, M.; Saito, K.; Watanabe, T.; Kumano, S.

    2011-01-01

    For understanding an anomalous nuclear effect experimentally observed for the beryllium-9 nucleus at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, clustering aspects are studied in structure functions of deep inelastic lepton-nucleus scattering by using momentum distributions calculated in antisymmetrized (or fermionic) molecular dynamics (AMD) and also in a simple shell model for comparison. According to AMD, the 9 Be nucleus consists of two α-like clusters with a surrounding neutron. The clustering produces high-momentum components in nuclear wave functions, which affects nuclear modifications of the structure functions. We investigated whether clustering features could appear in the structure function F 2 of 9 Be along with studies for other light nuclei. We found that nuclear modifications of F 2 are similar in both AMD and shell models within our simple convolution description although there are slight differences in 9 Be. It indicates that the anomalous 9 Be result should be explained by a different mechanism from the nuclear binding and Fermi motion. If nuclear-modification slopes d(F 2 A /F 2 D )/dx are shown by the maximum local densities, the 9 Be anomaly can be explained by the AMD picture, namely by the clustering structure, whereas it certainly cannot be described in the simple shell model. This fact suggests that the large nuclear modification in 9 Be should be explained by large densities in the clusters. For example, internal nucleon structure could be modified in the high-density clusters. The clustering aspect of nuclear structure functions is an unexplored topic which is interesting for future investigations.

  13. Structural aspects of some hydrobenzofuran neolignans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Massayoshi

    2012-01-01

    The neolignans are defined as dimers of allylphenol and propenylphenol between itself or crossed, whose bond does not occur by the 8-8' carbons like lignans. This review centered on stereochemical aspects of the hydrobenzofuran type, a widespread skeleton among neolignans. The chemical structures established based on spectrometric data are registered in the literature. The absolute configurations reported previously were determined by chiroptical techniques. Some chemical transformations with neolignans, performed in previous studies, afforded products which are accumulated in other vegetal species and contributed to assign the unknown stereochemistry of these natural compounds. Possible biosynthetic pathways are also proposed. (author)

  14. Exotic nuclei: another aspect of nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobaczewski, J.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Flocard, H.; Garcia Borge, M.J.; Nowacki, F.; Rombouts, S.; Theisen, Ch.; Marques, F.M.; Lacroix, D.; Dessagne, P.; Gaeggeler, H.

    2002-01-01

    This document gathers the lectures made at the Joliot Curie international summer school in 2002 whose theme that year was exotic nuclei. There were 11 contributions whose titles are: 1) interactions, symmetry breaking and effective fields from quarks to nuclei; 2) status and perspectives for the study of exotic nuclei: experimental aspects; 3) the pairing interaction and the N = Z nuclei; 4) borders of stability region and exotic decays; 5) shell structure of nuclei: from stability to decay; 6) variational approach of system with a few nucleons; 7) from heavy to super-heavy nuclei; 8) halos, molecules and multi-neutrons; 9) macroscopic approaches for fusion reactions; 10) beta decay: a tool for spectroscopy; 11) the gas phase chemistry of super-heavy elements

  15. Gauge field vacuum structure in geometrical aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konopleva, N.P.

    2003-01-01

    Vacuum conception is one of the main conceptions of quantum field theory. Its meaning in classical field theory is also very profound. In this case the vacuum conception is closely connected with ideas of the space-time geometry. The global and local geometrical space-time conceptions lead to different vacuum definitions and therefore to different ways of physical theory construction. Some aspects of the gauge field vacuum structure are analyzed. It is shown that in the gauge field theory the vacuum Einstein equation solutions describe the relativistic vacuum as common vacuum of all gauge fields and its sources. Instantons (both usual and hyperbolical) are regarded as nongravitating matter, because they have zero energy-momentum tensors and correspond to vacuum Einstein equations

  16. Conjugated Polymers and Oligomers: Structural and Soft Matter Aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book identifies modern topics and current trends of structural and soft matter aspects of conjugated polymers and oligomers. Each chapter recognizes an active research line where structural perspective dominates research and therefore the book covers fundamental aspects of persistent...

  17. Some structural aspects of urbanization in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, M; Hailemariam, A

    1987-07-01

    This article studies the emerging patterns of urbanization in Ethiopia. Over the period from 1967-1984, a number of structural changes have occurred which are likely to play a dominant role in the future urban growth in Ethiopia. In spite of its long history of settled population, Ethiopia did not witness sustained growth of urban centers. Ethiopia is 1 of the least urbanized areas in the Third World. A 3rd aspect of urbanization in Ethiopia is the wide range of regional differentials in the level of urbanization. Most of the urban population is concentrated in 2 administrative regions--Shoa and Eritrea. A more balanced urban growth may, inter alia, involve a better spread in terms of higher education, industrialization, provision of health and social services, and the development of communication and commercial infrastructure. Another striking feature of urbanization in Ethiopia is that growth has not been disproportionately concentrated in the largest urban centers. The largest urban centers have not assumed an inordinately higher level of primacy. The basic form of the curve depicting the relationship between the size of a locality and its rank has remained unchanged over the period. The post-revolution land reforms and the new socioeconomic structure emerging from reorganization of the society appear to have a rural-urban migration inhibiting effect. Some of the country's regional differentials may be associated with environmental factors.

  18. Some aspects of arctic offshore floating structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubbad, Raed Khalil

    2011-01-15

    The present work highlights some aspects related to the analyses of Arctic offshore floating structures. This thesis consists of five papers, which can be divided into two main categories. One category deals with the dynamics of slender structures with an emphasis on the prediction and suppression of vortex induced vibrations (VIV), and the other category examines the process of interaction between sloping structures and sea ice with focus on developing a numerical model to simulate this process in real time. Slender structures, such as mooring lines and marine risers, are very important for the offshore petroleum industry, which is currently approaching deeper waters. Increasingly, attention has been focused on predicting the susceptibility of these structures to VIV. In this thesis, two asymptotic techniques namely, the local analysis and the WKB methods, were used to derive closed-form solutions for the natural frequencies and mode shapes of slender line-like structures. Both the top-tensioned nearly-vertical configuration and the catenary configuration were considered. The accuracy of the solutions derived was established through comparison with other analytic solution techniques and with results of numerical finite element solutions. The effects of the bending stiffness and the effects of approximating the tension variation as a linear function were discussed. Experimental data on the multi-modal in-line and cross-flow response behaviour of a towed catenary model were analysed to examine the usefulness of the solutions for predicting the response frequencies and envelopes due to VIV. Helical strakes are often used as a mitigating measure to suppress the VIV of slender structures. This thesis presented an innovative method to fit ropes helically to a riser in the installation phase. Such a procedure will help to overcome the handling problem associated with the use of conventional sharp-edged strakes. Experimental investigations were then performed to verify

  19. The main aspects of the Vivitron mechanical structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudiot, G.; Koenig, R.; Esteve, T.; Peter, R.; Strebel, A.

    1989-05-01

    The main aspects of the Vivitron mechanical structure are discussed through a description of the tank and the internal structure. The results of the calculated constraints on the structure are presented

  20. Structural aspects of high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sequeira, A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the general structure of HTSC is known to be perovskite related involving layered stacking of perovskite and rock-salt like slabs with a specific sequence for a given type of structure. The prototype structures of various type of HTSC are now well established. Their detailed structural parameters are well documented. It is clear from that the number of oxygen atoms present in many of these structures is different from, and generally much less than, the number of anionic sites available. If the number of oxygens are in excess, they could of course occupy the interstitial sites. For example, in pure oxygen La 2 CuO 4+δ , the excess oxygen has been shown to go into interstitial sites. Although the prototypic structures of all HTSC are well established, their actual structures can have significant variations from the prototypes. In fact, their real structures are not yet fully known. Being nonstoichiometric, they are essentially metastable, entropy stabilized structures which exhibit wide compositional fluctuations and oxygen disorder effects. Their superconducting properties are known to be sensitive to their oxygen content and according to some theories the mechanism of superconductivity is presumably related to the oxygen defects or defectons. Neutron diffraction happens to be the method of choice for probing detailed structural features involving oxygen defects and associated distortions which are known to play a significant role on the properties of HTSC

  1. Structural integrity aspects of reactor safety

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A large experimental programme supported the structural integrity demonstration. ... Categories in which the structures, systems and components (SSC) are .... One of the ways in which the decision to live with the defect can be aided is the .... The Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) (figure 18) being designed by BARC ...

  2. Structuring group medical practices: tax planning aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassman, A S; Conetta, T F

    1992-01-01

    This article is the first in a series addressing the structuring of group medical practice entities, shareholder relationships, and general representation factors. In this article, a general background in federal tax planning is provided, including strategies for minimization of income tax payment and the potential problems that may be encountered when a group practice is not carefully structured.

  3. Concrete structures under impact loading: general aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Baeră

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic loading conditions distress the structural integrity of a structure differently than the static ones. Such actions transfer high rate strains and instant energy waves to the structure, inducing the possibility of imminent collapse and casualties as a direct consequence. In the latest years, considering the dramatic increase of terrorist threats and global warming, the structural safety criteria imply more than ever the need to withstand this kind of loading (e.g., missiles and blast, projectiles, strong winds, tornados and earthquakes in addition to the static ones. The aim of this paper is to provide a general overview with regard to impact loading in terms of defining the phenomenon from physical and mechanical perspective, its complex local or global effect on the targeted structure, relevant material characteristics, main research approaches, namely theoretical studies and experimental procedures developed for improving the predictability of the dynamic loads and their effects. New directions in developing superior cementitious composites, with better characteristics in terms of dynamic loading performance are also emphasized.

  4. Molecular and structural aspects of oocyte maturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hölzenspies, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    In the mammalian ovary, oocytes are contained within follicles, specialized structures that facilitate oocyte growth and development. During the reproductive cycle, several follicles are recruited into growth, and through a process of selection, one (human, cow) or several (mouse, pig) of these

  5. Structural aspects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.C.; Cummings, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    On April 26, 1986 the world's worst nuclear power plant accident occurred at the Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in the USSR. This paper presents a discussion of the design of the Chernobyl Power Plant, the sequence of events that led to the accident and the damage caused by the resulting explosion. The structural design features that contributed to the accident and resulting damage will be highlighted. Photographs and sketches obtained from various worldwide news agencies will be shown to try and gain a perspective of the extent of the damage. The aftermath, clean-up, and current situation will be discussed and the important lessons learned for the structural engineer will be presented. 15 refs., 10 figs

  6. Towards aspect-oriented functional--structural plant modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieslak, Mikolaj; Seleznyova, Alla N; Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw; Hanan, Jim

    2011-10-01

    Functional-structural plant models (FSPMs) are used to integrate knowledge and test hypotheses of plant behaviour, and to aid in the development of decision support systems. A significant amount of effort is being put into providing a sound methodology for building them. Standard techniques, such as procedural or object-oriented programming, are not suited for clearly separating aspects of plant function that criss-cross between different components of plant structure, which makes it difficult to reuse and share their implementations. The aim of this paper is to present an aspect-oriented programming approach that helps to overcome this difficulty. The L-system-based plant modelling language L+C was used to develop an aspect-oriented approach to plant modelling based on multi-modules. Each element of the plant structure was represented by a sequence of L-system modules (rather than a single module), with each module representing an aspect of the element's function. Separate sets of productions were used for modelling each aspect, with context-sensitive rules facilitated by local lists of modules to consider/ignore. Aspect weaving or communication between aspects was made possible through the use of pseudo-L-systems, where the strict-predecessor of a production rule was specified as a multi-module. The new approach was used to integrate previously modelled aspects of carbon dynamics, apical dominance and biomechanics with a model of a developing kiwifruit shoot. These aspects were specified independently and their implementation was based on source code provided by the original authors without major changes. This new aspect-oriented approach to plant modelling is well suited for studying complex phenomena in plant science, because it can be used to integrate separate models of individual aspects of plant development and function, both previously constructed and new, into clearly organized, comprehensive FSPMs. In a future work, this approach could be further

  7. ASPECTS REGARDING THE STRUCTURE OF GRADUATION PAPERS IN INDUSTRIAL DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOLOŞ Codruţa

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents aspects regarding the structure, themes and content of graduation papers in the specialization of Industrial Design within Petru Maior University of Târgu Mures.

  8. A new species of Bauhinia L. (Caesalpinioideae, Leguminosae) from Nakhon Phanom Province, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatan, Wannachai

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new liana species of the subfamily Caesalpinioideae (Leguminosae), namely Bauhinia nakhonphanomensis, collected from the Phulangkha National Park, Nakhon Pranom Province, Thailand, is described and illustrated. It is easily recognized by the following combination of characters: tendrilled liana, entire leaves, acuminate or caudate leaf apices, oblong or elliptic floral bud, floral bud 25–35 mm long, raceme or panicle inflorescence, 10–13 mm long hypanthium, anther opening by longitudinal slits. Important comparative morphological characters with some closely related species are discussed. PMID:24194667

  9. A new species of Bauhinia L. (Caesalpinioideae, Leguminosae from Nakhon Phanom Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wannachai Chatan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A new liana species of the subfamily Caesalpinioideae (Leguminosae, namely Bauhinia nakhonphanomensis, collected from the Phulangkha National Park, Nakhon Pranom Province, Thailand, is described and illustrated. It is easily recognized by the following combination of characters: tendrilled liana, entire leaves, acuminate or caudate leaf apices, oblong or elliptic floral bud, floral bud 25–35 mm long, raceme or panicle inflorescence, 10–13 mm long hypanthium, anther opening by longitudinal slits. Important comparative morphological characters with some closely related species are discussed.

  10. Towards aspect-oriented functional–structural plant modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieslak, Mikolaj; Seleznyova, Alla N.; Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw; Hanan, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Functional–structural plant models (FSPMs) are used to integrate knowledge and test hypotheses of plant behaviour, and to aid in the development of decision support systems. A significant amount of effort is being put into providing a sound methodology for building them. Standard techniques, such as procedural or object-oriented programming, are not suited for clearly separating aspects of plant function that criss-cross between different components of plant structure, which makes it difficult to reuse and share their implementations. The aim of this paper is to present an aspect-oriented programming approach that helps to overcome this difficulty. Methods The L-system-based plant modelling language L+C was used to develop an aspect-oriented approach to plant modelling based on multi-modules. Each element of the plant structure was represented by a sequence of L-system modules (rather than a single module), with each module representing an aspect of the element's function. Separate sets of productions were used for modelling each aspect, with context-sensitive rules facilitated by local lists of modules to consider/ignore. Aspect weaving or communication between aspects was made possible through the use of pseudo-L-systems, where the strict-predecessor of a production rule was specified as a multi-module. Key Results The new approach was used to integrate previously modelled aspects of carbon dynamics, apical dominance and biomechanics with a model of a developing kiwifruit shoot. These aspects were specified independently and their implementation was based on source code provided by the original authors without major changes. Conclusions This new aspect-oriented approach to plant modelling is well suited for studying complex phenomena in plant science, because it can be used to integrate separate models of individual aspects of plant development and function, both previously constructed and new, into clearly organized, comprehensive FSPMs. In

  11. Phylogeography of the Tree Hymenaea stigonocarpa (Fabaceae: Caesalpinioideae) and the Influence of Quaternary Climate Changes in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Ana Carolina Simões; Lemos-Filho, José Pires; Ribeiro, Renata Acácio; Santos, Fabrício Rodrigues; Lovato, Maria Bernadete

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Hymenaea stigonocarpa (Fabaceae: Caesalpinioideae) is an endemic tree from the Brazilian cerrado (savanna vegetation), a biome classified as a hotspot for conservation priority. This study investigates the phylogeographic structure of H. stigonocarpa, in order to understand the processes that have led to its current spatial genetic pattern. Methods The polymorphism level and spatial distribution of variants of the plastid non-coding region between the genes psbC and trnS were investigated in 175 individuals from 17 populations, covering the greater part of the total distribution of the species. Molecular diversity indices were calculated and intra-specific relationships were inferred by the construction of haplotype networks using the median-joining method. Genetic differentiation among populations and main geographical groups was evaluated using spatial analysis of molecular variance (SAMOVA). Key Results Twenty-three different haplotypes were identified. The level of differentiation among the populations analysed was relatively high (FST = 0·692). Phylogeographic analyses showed a clear association between the haplotype network and geographic distribution of populations, revealing three main geographical groups: western, central and eastern. SAMOVA corroborated this finding, indicating that most of the variation can be attributed to differences among these three groups (58·8 %), with little difference among populations within groups (FSC = 0·252). Conclusions The subdivision of the geographic distribution of H. stigonocarpa populations into three genetically differentiated groups can be associated with Quaternary climatic changes. The data suggest that during glacial times H. stigonocarpa populations became extinct in most parts of the southern present-day cerrado area. Milder climatic conditions in the north and eastern portions of the cerrado resulted in maintenance of populations in these regions. Thus it is inferred that the most

  12. Fragile yet Ductile : Structural Aspects of Reinforced Glass Beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louter, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the structural aspects of reinforced glass beams. The concept of these beams, which are intended for building applications, is to provide redundancy even if the glass is broken. This redundancy is obtained through a small reinforcement section that is bonded at the

  13. Course 12: Proteins: Structural, Thermodynamic and Kinetic Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, A. V.

    1 Introduction 2 Overview of protein architectures and discussion of physical background of their natural selection 2.1 Protein structures 2.2 Physical selection of protein structures 3 Thermodynamic aspects of protein folding 3.1 Reversible denaturation of protein structures 3.2 What do denatured proteins look like? 3.3 Why denaturation of a globular protein is the first-order phase transition 3.4 "Gap" in energy spectrum: The main characteristic that distinguishes protein chains from random polymers 4 Kinetic aspects of protein folding 4.1 Protein folding in vivo 4.2 Protein folding in vitro (in the test-tube) 4.3 Theory of protein folding rates and solution of the Levinthal paradox

  14. Structural analysis of a ship on global aspect using ANSYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. Muzibur; Kamol, Rajia Sultana; Islam, Reyana

    2017-12-01

    Ship is a complex geometry which undergoes a combination of loadings such as hydrostatic, hydrodynamic, wind, wave etc. at sea and thus adequate strength in a ship has always been one of the most challenging tasks for the ship designers. International Maritime Organization (IMO) and classification societies are providing the standards to ensure the adequacy of strength for the ship against all demands throughout its service life. Thus, structural analysis is needed to assess the overall strength of hull, and the means in this regard are based on finite element method which may be applied either local or global aspect of the ship. This paper is an attempt to carry out the structural analysis of a ship in global aspect using ANSYS software to locate the most stress concentration and deformed area, which will have ultimate effect on fatigue fracture.

  15. Gilbertiodendron grandistipulatum (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae), a singular species from West Central Africa and new record for Congo (Brazzaville)

    OpenAIRE

    De La Estrella, Manuel; Devesa, Juan Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Gilbertiodendron (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae) is an endemic tropical African genus of ca. 30 species, most of which are trees of primary forest. The highest concentration of species and morphological variation is found in the Guineo-Congolian region, particularly in Gabon. One of those species is G. grandistipulatum, which is easily recognized by its stipules (up to 18 cm long) and flowers (adaxial petal up to 12.5 × 14 cm). The taxonomy, habitat and distribution of G. grandistipultaum are ...

  16. Structural and chemical aspects of HPMA copolymers as drug carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, Karel; Subr, Vladimír

    2010-02-17

    Synthetic strategies and chemical and structural aspects of the synthesis of HPMA copolymer conjugates with various drugs and other biologically active molecules are described and discussed in this chapter. The discussion is held from the viewpoint of design and structure of the polymer backbone and biodegradable spacer between a polymer and drug, structure and methods of attachment of the employed drugs to the carrier and structure and methods of conjugation with targeting moieties. Physicochemical properties of the water-soluble polymer-drug conjugates and polymer micelles including mechanisms of drug release are also discussed. Detailed description of biological behavior of the polymer-drug conjugates as well as application of the copolymers for surface modification and targeting of gene delivery vectors are not included, they are presented and discussed in separate chapters of this issue. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Three-Dimensional Structural Aspects of Protein–Polysaccharide Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masamichi Nagae

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Linear polysaccharides are typically composed of repeating mono- or disaccharide units and are ubiquitous among living organisms. Polysaccharide diversity arises from chain-length variation, branching, and additional modifications. Structural diversity is associated with various physiological functions, which are often regulated by cognate polysaccharide-binding proteins. Proteins that interact with linear polysaccharides have been identified or developed, such as galectins and polysaccharide-specific antibodies, respectively. Currently, data is accumulating on the three-dimensional structure of polysaccharide-binding proteins. These proteins are classified into two types: exo-type and endo-type. The former group specifically interacts with the terminal units of polysaccharides, whereas the latter with internal units. In this review, we describe the structural aspects of exo-type and endo-type protein-polysaccharide interactions. Further, we discuss the structural basis for affinity and specificity enhancement in the face of inherently weak binding interactions.

  18. High aspect ratio titanium nitride trench structures as plasmonic biosensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shkondin, Evgeniy; Repän, Taavi; Takayama, Osamu

    2017-01-01

    High aspect ratio titanium nitride (TiN) grating structures are fabricated by the combination of deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) and atomic layer deposition (ALD) techniques. TiN is deposited at 500 ◦C on a silicon trench template. Silicon between vertical TiN layers is selectively etched...... to fabricate the high aspect ratio TiN trenches with the pitch of 400 nm and height of around 2.7 µm. Dielectric functions of TiN films with different thicknesses of 18 - 105 nm and post-annealing temperatures of 700 - 900 ◦C are characterized by an ellipsometer. We found that the highest annealing temperature...... of 900 ◦C gives the most pronounced plasmonic behavior with the highest plasma frequency, ωp = 2.53 eV (λp = 490 nm). Such high aspect ratio trench structures function as a plasmonic grating sensor that supports the Rayleigh-Woods anomalies (RWAs), enabling the measurement of changes in the refractive...

  19. Selected Aspects of Computer Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczecina M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some important aspects concerning material constants of concrete and stages of modeling of reinforced concrete structures. The problems taken into account are: a choice of proper material model for concrete, establishing of compressive and tensile behavior of concrete and establishing the values of dilation angle, fracture energy and relaxation time for concrete. Proper values of material constants are fixed in simple compression and tension tests. The effectiveness and correctness of applied model is checked on the example of reinforced concrete frame corners under opening bending moment. Calculations are performed in Abaqus software using Concrete Damaged Plasticity model of concrete.

  20. Power system damping - Structural aspects of controlling active power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelsson, O.

    1997-04-01

    Environmental and economical aspects make it difficult to build new power lines and to reinforce existing ones. The continued growth in demand for electric power must therefore to a great extent be met by increased loading of available lines. A consequence is that power system damping is reduced, leading to a risk of poorly damped power oscillations between the generators. This thesis proposes the use of controlled active loads to increase damping of such electro-mechanical oscillations. The focus is on structural aspects of controller interaction and of sensor and actuator placement. On-off control based on machine frequency in a single machine infinite bus system is analysed using energy function analysis and phase plane plots. An on-off controller with estimated machine frequency as input has been implemented. At a field test it damped oscillations of a 0.9 MW hydro power generator by controlling a 20kW load. The linear analysis uses two power system models with three and twenty-three machines respectively. Each damper has active power as output and local bus frequency or machine frequency as input. The power system simulator EUROSTAG is used both for generation of the linearized models and for time simulations. Measures of active power mode controllability and phase angle mode observability are obtained from the eigenvectors of the differential-algebraic models. The geographical variation in the network of these quantities is illustrated using the resemblance to bending modes of flexible mechanical structures. Eigenvalue sensitivities are used to determine suitable damper locations. A spring-mass equivalent to an inter-area mode provides analytical expressions, that together with the concept of impedance matching explain the structural behaviour of the power systems. For large gains this is investigated using root locus plots. 64 refs, 99 figs, 20 tabs

  1. Filogeografía del complejo Caesalpinia hintonii: (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae: Poincianella Phylogeography of the Caesalpinia hintonii complex (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae: Poincianella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Sotuyo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesar del crecido número de estudios que se ha realizado para explorar la estructura genética y filogeográfica en especies mexicanas, hay carencia de estudios para especies de selva baja, zonas con alto grado de endemismo. Para un mejor entendimiento de dichas áreas se realizó un estudio filogeográfico y el fechamiento de las especies del complejo Caesalpinia hintonii distribuido en la depresión del río Balsas y el valle de Tehuacán-Cuicatlán. Se determinó la estructura filogeográfica del complejo analizando las secuencias de 4 regiones de plastidio (intrón trnL, espaciador trnL-F, espaciador psbA-trnH y espaciador accD-psaI en todas las poblaciones disponibles. Se estimó la fecha del origen del complejo mediante un método no paramétrico (NPRS. Las diversidades haplotídicas (0.64-1 y las diferencias nucleotídicas (3.8-11.52 en todas las especies fueron altas respecto a valores registrados para otras plantas. Las poblaciones de C. oyamae, morfológicamente indistintas están genéticamente estructuradas y presentan 3 haplogrupos donde el flujo génico entre ellos es bajo y se consideraron entidades crípticas. Las poblaciones de C. hintonii son un grupo genéticamente homogéneo a pesar de ser morfológicamente distintas. Las poblaciones de C. macvaughii forman 2 linajes divergentes entre los que existe flujo génico (Nm=1.41. Los eventos de divergencia en 2 grandes linajes al este y oeste del río Balsas pueden explicarse por eventos geológicos. Los resultados indican que el complejo se encuentra bajo divergencia y en algunos casos radiación morfostática.Although many phylogeographic studies have been conducted to analyze the genetic and phylogeographic structure of Mexican species, such studies are nearly absent for plants of dry seasonal forest, precincts with high level of endemism. To better understand this areas, we undertook a phylogeographic study and dating were carried out on the Caesalpinia hintonii complex

  2. KEY ASPECTS OF ENSURING ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Abramyan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based on the review of the foreign and national academic literature and intended to emphasize the issues of ensuring energy efficiency of buildings and structures applicable to all the countries as for reconstruction of existing buildings as for erection of new ones . The author highlights the key aspects of the provision of energy efficiency of buildings and structures in some foreign countries. The conclusion is made that the studies are mainly aimed at discovering new heat insulation materials, whereby polystyrene insulation is found to be the most widespread wall insulation material in a number of countries. At the same time, it is observed that the ongoing research is focused on solutions to optimize the structure of walling systems in terms of both insulant thickness and the number and sequence of insulation layers in the walling structure. A conclusion is made that hyper insulation of external walls leads to considerable expenses arising due to cooling during the summer season. The use of prefabricated vacuum panels as a heat insulation layer and off-the-shelf single-layer structures, subject to their heat insulation characteristics, appears a more constructive way to meet the energy efficiency requirements, as the arrangement of ideal air space in multilayered walls proves a significant challenge today. One of the most promising ways to ensure energy efficiency is the use of multifunctional polyvalent walls and provision of polyvalent heat supply from renewable energy sources. Since energy efficiency depends on the spatial arrangement of buildings, construction must ensure a minimum ratio of the area of enclosing structures to the overall building volume (by adding on new facilities in case of reconstruction. It is noted that a systemic approach to ensuring energy efficiency of buildings is impossible without proper regard to the environmental parameters of heat insulation materials.

  3. Structural Reliability Aspects in Design of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2007-01-01

    Reliability assessment, optimal design and optimal operation and maintenance of wind turbines are an area of significant interest for the fast growing wind turbine industry for sustainable production of energy. Offshore wind turbines in wind farms give special problems due to wake effects inside...... the farm. Reliability analysis and optimization of wind turbines require that the special conditions for wind turbine operation are taken into account. Control of the blades implies load reductions for large wind speeds and parking for high wind speeds. In this paper basic structural failure modes for wind...... turbines are described. Further, aspects are presented related to reliability-based optimization of wind turbines, assessment of optimal reliability level and operation and maintenance....

  4. Morphological analyses suggest a new taxonomic circumscription for Hymenaea courbaril L. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Isys Mascarenhas; Funch, Ligia Silveira; de Queiroz, Luciano Paganucci

    2014-01-01

    Hymenaea is a genus of the Resin-producing Clade of the tribe Detarieae (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) with 14 species. Hymenaea courbaril is the most widespread species of the genus, ranging from southern Mexico to southeastern Brazil. As currently circumscribed, Hymenaea courbaril is a polytypic species with six varieties: var. altissima, var. courbaril, var. longifolia, var. stilbocarpa, var. subsessilis, and var. villosa. These varieties are distinguishable mostly by traits related to leaflet shape and indumentation, and calyx indumentation. We carried out morphometric analyses of 14 quantitative (continuous) leaf characters in order to assess the taxonomy of Hymenaea courbaril under the Unified Species Concept framework. Cluster analysis used the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) based on Bray-Curtis dissimilarity matrices. Principal Component Analyses (PCA) were carried out based on the same morphometric matrix. Two sets of Analyses of Similarity and Non Parametric Multivariate Analysis of Variance were carried out to evaluate statistical support (1) for the major groups recovered using UPGMA and PCA, and (2) for the varieties. All analyses recovered three major groups coincident with (1) var. altissima, (2) var. longifolia, and (3) all other varieties. These results, together with geographical and habitat information, were taken as evidence of three separate metapopulation lineages recognized here as three distinct species. Nomenclatural adjustments, including reclassifying formerly misapplied types, are proposed.

  5. Morphological analyses suggest a new taxonomic circumscription for Hymenaea courbaril L. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isys Souza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hymenaea is a genus of the Resin-producing Clade of the tribe Detarieae (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae with 14 species. Hymenaea courbaril is the most widespread species of the genus, ranging from southern Mexico to southeastern Brazil. As currently circumscribed, H. courbaril is a polytypic species with six varieties: var. altissima, var. courbaril, var. longifolia, var. stilbocarpa, var. subsessilis, and var. villosa. These varieties are distinguishable mostly by traits related to leaflet shape and indumentation, and calyx indumentation. We carried out morphometric analyses of 14 quantitative (continuous leaf characters in order to assess the taxonomy of H. courbaril under the Unified Species Concept framework. Cluster analysis used the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA based on Bray-Curtis dissimilarity matrices. Principal Component Analyses (PCA were carried out based on the same morphometric matrix. Two sets of Analyses of Similarity and Non Parametric Multivariate Analysis of Variance were carried out to evaluate statistical support (1 for the major groups recovered using UPGMA and PCA, and (2 for the varieties. All analyses recovered three major groups coincident with (1 var. altissima, (2 var. longifolia, and (3 all other varieties. These results, together with geographical and habitat information, were taken as evidence of three separate metapopulation lineages recognized here as three distinct species. Nomenclatural adjustments, including reclassifying formerly misapplied types, are proposed.

  6. Modelling the spatial distribution of endemic Caesalpinioideae in Central Africa, a contribution to the evaluation of actual protected areas in the region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ndayishimiye, Joël; Greve, Michelle; Stoffelen, P.

    2012-01-01

    of the Caesalpinioideae that are endemic in Central Africa (Democratic Republic of the Congo, Burundi and Rwanda). The objectives of this study were to identify the environmental factors that constrain their distribution, to determine the potential areas where each species could be present, to assess the current...

  7. Occurrence and damage caused by Pygiopachymerus lineola (Chevrolat, 1971 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae in Cassia fistula L. (Caesalpiniaceae: Caesalpinioideae fruits in Maceió, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmelyne Ketllen Soares Luz da Costa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cassia fistula L. (Caesalpiniaceae: Caesalpinioideae is an ornamental plant popularly known by golden–shower, Indian– laburnum or purging–cassia; in Brazil it is named canafístula, cássia–imperial or cássia–chuva–de–ouro. Native to Asia, it also occurs in the Americas and Africa, being one of the most used in landscaping projects, seedling production and urban forestry in Brazil by the large yellow hanging beauty flowers. It is known that many tree species have their seeds signifi­cantly damaged by several insect groups, especially seed beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae, that become the seeds unviable and consequently diminishing the seedlings production. The objective of this study was to determine the natural control agents of the C. fistula seeds (seed predators through the determination of species involved in the predation, the ratio of egg viability and description the some biological functions aspects (feeding and reproduction. The work was conducted at the Entomology Laboratory, Natural History Museum, Federal University of Alagoas, Maceió. Were collected from each plant of C. fistula 20 fully developed pods and with dried eggs on its surface. The insects were placed in 70% alcohol and identified to the species level. In the sample A, 89% of string beans showed the predation phenomenon; in B, 95%; and C, 88%. The hole numbers / pod in samples A, B and C were respectively: 3–26, 1–19 and 1 to 18. The predator numbers / pod were: in A, 10 to 26; in B, 1–8; and in C, 2 to 14. The three samples showed high positive correlation (r > 0.8, revealing that the number of holes is very close to the number of insects that emerged from the pods. Viable eggs oc­curred in the 84.2% of pods in A, 100% in B, and 83.3% in C.

  8. Structural aspects of Lorentz-violating quantum field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambiaso, M.; Lehnert, R.; Potting, R.

    2018-01-01

    In the last couple of decades the Standard Model Extension has emerged as a fruitful framework to analyze the empirical and theoretical extent of the validity of cornerstones of modern particle physics, namely, of Special Relativity and of the discrete symmetries C, P and T (or some combinations of these). The Standard Model Extension allows to contrast high-precision experimental tests with posited alterations representing minute Lorentz and/or CPT violations. To date no violation of these symmetry principles has been observed in experiments, mostly prompted by the Standard-Model Extension. From the latter, bounds on the extent of departures from Lorentz and CPT symmetries can be obtained with ever increasing accuracy. These analyses have been mostly focused on tree-level processes. In this presentation I would like to comment on structural aspects of perturbative Lorentz violating quantum field theory. I will show that some insight coming from radiative corrections demands a careful reassessment of perturbation theory. Specifically I will argue that both the standard renormalization procedure as well as the Lehmann-Symanzik-Zimmermann reduction formalism need to be adapted given that the asymptotic single-particle states can receive quantum corrections from Lorentz-violating operators that are not present in the original Lagrangian.

  9. Nodulation in Dimorphandra wilsonii Rizz. (Caesalpinioideae), a Threatened Species Native to the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Márcia Bacelar; Peix, Alvaro; de Faria, Sergio Miana; Mateos, Pedro F.; Rivera, Lina P.; Simões-Araujo, Jean L.; França, Marcel Giovanni Costa; dos Santos Isaias, Rosy Mary; Cruz, Cristina; Velázquez, Encarna; Scotti, Maria Rita; Sprent, Janet I.; James, Euan K.

    2012-01-01

    The threatened caesalpinioid legume Dimorphandra wilsonii, which is native to the Cerrado biome in Brazil, was examined for its nodulation and N2-fixing ability, and was compared with another, less-threatened species, D. jorgei. Nodulation and potential N2 fixation was shown on seedlings that had been inoculated singly with five bradyrhizobial isolates from mature D. wilsonii nodules. The infection of D. wilsonii by two of these strains (Dw10.1, Dw12.5) was followed in detail using light and transmission electron microscopy, and was compared with that of D. jorgei by Bradyrhizobium strain SEMIA6099. The roots of D. wilsonii were infected via small transient root hairs at 42 d after inoculation (dai), and nodules were sufficiently mature at 63 dai to express nitrogenase protein. Similar infection and nodule developmental processes were observed in D. jorgei. The bacteroids in mature Dimorphandra nodules were enclosed in plant cell wall material containing a homogalacturonan (pectic) epitope that was recognized by the monoclonal antibody JIM5. Analysis of sequences of their rrs (16S rRNA) genes and their ITS regions showed that the five D. wilsonii strains, although related to SEMIA6099, may constitute five undescribed species of genus Bradyrhizobium, whilst their nodD and nifH gene sequences showed that they formed clearly separated branches from other rhizobial strains. This is the first study to describe in full the N2-fixing symbiotic interaction between defined rhizobial strains and legumes in the sub-family Caesalpinioideae. This information will hopefully assist in the conservation of the threatened species D. wilsonii. PMID:23185349

  10. Mathematical aspects of Rietveld refinement and crystal structure ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    The core mathematics, goodness-of-fit parameters of Rietveld refinement technique is introduced for structural ... transducers in medical and solar applications (Obmann ..... Prince 1985 in Structure and statistics in crystallography (ed.).

  11. Structural and computational aspects of simple and influence games

    OpenAIRE

    Riquelme Csori, Fabián

    2014-01-01

    Simple games are a fundamental class of cooperative games. They have a huge relevance in several areas of computer science, social sciences and discrete applied mathematics. The algorithmic and computational complexity aspects of simple games have been gaining notoriety in the recent years. In this thesis we review different computational problems related to properties, parameters, and solution concepts of simple games. We consider different forms of representation of simple games, regular...

  12. Generic structural mechanics aspects of fusion magnet systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, M.; Powell, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Structural mechanic requirements for future large superconducting fusion magnets are assessed. Current structural analysis methods and standards do not yet appear sufficient for a complete evaluation of such systems, under all potential operating and accident conditions. Recommendations are made for development of needed structural methods and specialized standards for fusion magnets. These include, among others, better composite structural methods with various failure criteria for metallic, as well as non-metallic materials, coupled thermal-electrical-structural codes, incorporating winding and fabrication effects, and use of probabilistic methods for life prediction. In order to help meet program goals for fusion commericialization, it is recommended that such work be initiated relatively soon. (orig.)

  13. Some Fundamental Aspects of Mechanics of Nano composite Materials and Structural Members

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guz, A.N.; Rushchitsky, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is devoted to formulation and analysis of fundamental aspects of mechanics of nano composite materials and structural members. These aspects most likely do not exhaust all of the possible fundamental characteristics of mechanics of nano composite materials and structural members, but, nevertheless, they permit to form the skeleton of direction of mechanics in hand. The proposed nine aspects are described and commented briefly.

  14. The Acceptance of Universalism: The Importance of Selected Aspects of School Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Robert A.

    This report describes a study that investigated empirically the relationships between selected aspects of the organizational structure of elementary schools and the extent to which students endorsed the norm of universalism. Four aspects of structure were studied: degree of departmentalization, school enrollment, student-teacher ratio, and extent…

  15. Some aspects of the interaction between systems- and structural reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueller, G.K.; Schmitt, W.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the interaction between systems- and structural reliability analysis with reference to the design of structural components of LWR. Presently the evaluation of systems reliability is carried out apart from structural reliability analysis. Moreover, two basically different methodologies are used for analysis. While in systems analysis the simplified binary approach is still generally accepted, in structural reliability one has to resort to more sophisticated procedures to obtain realistic results. The interactive effect may be illustrated as follows: For example, the integrity of the primary circuit interacts with the integrity of the containment structure. This means that the probability of occurrence of the pipe rupture which may cause a LOCA and consequently leads to a build-up of temperature and pressure within the containment affects directly its structural reliability. The piping system, particularly the primary piping, in turn interacts with the protective system, which is part of the safety system. This piping structure is also subjected to various operational loading conditions. In a numerical example dealing with leakage probabilities of pipes it is shown how methods of structural reliability may be used to gain more insight in the estimation of failure rates of system components. (orig.)

  16. Quantal and dissipative aspects in nuclear structure and dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, Denis

    1999-01-01

    This work is devoted to the description of both quantal and statistical aspects in a coherent theoretical framework that goes beyond a mean-field approximation. It is shown that among the possible methods, the Extended mean-field theory (ETDHF) is able to describe relaxation by including correlation effects. This theory is first applied to cold and hot giant resonances. After having developed a extended version of the linear response theory the effect of collisions on the response of 40 Ca is studied. It is shown that collisions contribute to the spreading width of giant resonances and become a dominant decay channel at high temperature. The generalization of these methods through the modelization of the Hamiltonian as a series of couplings in cascade has enabled to go beyond ETDHF. Thus, phenomena as multi-scale Ericson fluctuations and interferences in the nuclear response are predicted. The study of larger amplitudes requires the introduction of transport theories for the nuclear dynamics. Thus the deexcitation of hot and compressed nuclei has been studied with mean-field theories. This analysis has clarified the link between the equation of state and the dynamical expansion in finite Systems. A comparison with semi-classical has further shown the importance of quantum effects and has demonstrated the necessity to take into account nucleon collisions in a quantum framework. The possibility to apply ETDHF to nuclear dynamics in the general case is then discussed. A rapid and reliable method, tested on a schematic model is proposed to solve the extended mean-field. The application of ETDHF to the monopolar expansion of 16 O has finally demonstrated the interesting perspectives of this theory for describing dissipative aspects in quantum dynamics. Finally, the introduction of quantum stochastic approaches is discussed. (author) [fr

  17. Basic materials and structures aspects for hypersonic transport vehicles (HTV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinheil, E.; Uhse, W.

    A Mach 5 transport design is used to illustrate structural concepts and criteria for materials selections and also key technologies that must be followed in the areas of computational methods, materials and construction methods. Aside from the primary criteria of low weight, low costs, and conceivable risks, a number of additional requirements must be met, including stiffness and strength, corrosion resistance, durability, and a construction adequate for inspection, maintenance and repair. Current aircraft construction requirements are significantly extended for hypersonic vehicles. Additional consideration is given to long-duration temperature resistance of the airframe structure, the integration of large-volume cryogenic fuel tanks, computational tools, structural design, polymer matrix composites, and advanced manufacturing technologies.

  18. Nonlinear aspects of structural fatigue damage assessment and accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leis, B.N.

    1977-01-01

    The present paper reviews a recently developed concept for structural fatigue analysis which is capable of accounting for nonlinearities in both the above noted transformations. It is shown that, for cases where the local stressing and straining is proportional, the multiplicity of initiation sites and mechanisms observed to dominate structural fatigue resistance can be explained in terms of these additional nonlinearities. The ability of current concepts for structural fatigue analysis which account for nonlinear action to handle situaions where nonproportional stressing occurs in fatigue critical locations is next examined. Limitations in the assumptions made in fatigue analysis are shown to essentially preclude the application of present technology to that class of problems. A new approach whereby the present fatigue analysis procedures based on a deformation-type plasticity analysis can be extended to handle the nonproportional cycling by their application on a 'memory event' by 'memory event' basis is postulated and discussed in the context of a simple component

  19. Structural aspects of coaxial oxy-fuel flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditaranto, M.; Sautet, J. C.; Samaniego, J. M.

    Oxy-fuel combustion has been proven to increase thermal efficiency and to have a potential for NOx emission reduction. The study of 25-kW turbulent diffusion flames of natural gas with pure oxygen is undertaken on a coaxial burner with quarl. The structural properties are analysed by imaging the instantaneous reaction zone by OH* chemiluminescence and measuring scalar and velocity profiles. The interaction between the flame front and the shear layers present in the coaxial jets depends on the momentum ratio which dictates the turbulent structure development. Flame length and NOx emission sensitivity to air leaks in the combustion chamber are also investigated.

  20. Nuclear-structure aspects of theoretical neutron physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloviev, V.G.

    1976-01-01

    The structure of neutron resonances is studied on the basis of the semimicroscopic nuclear theory. Few-quasiparticle components of the wave functions of neutron resonances are calculated which determine the neutron and radiational strength functions. It is stated that it is necessary to clarify the role of their many-quasiparticle components. The structure of neutron resonances is studied within the framework of the general approach based on the operator form of the wave functions. The role of three-quasiparticle components in the wave functions of neutron resonances is studied and the cases of validity of the valence neutron model are pointed out. It is shown that the experimental information about the structure of neutron resonances is limited to few-quasiparticle components which are of 10 -3 -10 -6 part of the normalization of their wave functions. To study the structure of neutron resonances it is necessary to find the values of many-quasiparticle components of the wave functions. The ways of experimental finding of these components based on the study of γ-transitions between highly excited states are discussed. The fragmentation of single-particle states in deformed nuclei is studied within the framework of the model based on the quasiparticle--phonon interactions. The S-, p-, and α-wave neutron strength functions are determined

  1. Chiral symmetry and nucleon structure: Low energy aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weise, W.

    1989-01-01

    The symmetries and currents of QCD at low energy and long wavelength are realized in the form of mesons, rather than quarks and gluons. In this talk I summarize the merits, but also the limits, of chiral non-linear meson theories and their soliton solutions, in descriptions of nucleon structure and the nucleon-nucleon interaction. (orig.)

  2. Structural aspects of crotalic venom proteins modified by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Karina Corleto de

    2010-01-01

    Snake bites are a serious public health problem, especially in subtropical countries. In Brazil, the Ministry of Health notified around 26 000 accidents in 2008. The genus Crotalus (rattlesnakes) accounts for approximately 7% of the total, with a high mortality rate of 72% when untreated with the specific serum, the only effective treatment in case of snake bites. In Brazil, the serum is produced in horses which, despite the large size, have a reduced lifespan due to the high toxicity of the antigen. Ionizing radiation has proven to be an excellent tool for reducing the toxicity of venoms and isolated toxins, resulting in better immunogens for serum production, and contributing to the welfare of serum producing animals. Since the action of gamma radiation on venoms and toxins has not been yet fully clarified from the structural point of view, we proposed in this paper, to characterize two toxins of the species Crotalus durissus terrificus: crotoxin and crotamine. After isolation of the toxins of interest by chromatographic techniques, they were subjected to structural analysis with the application of the following methods: Fluorescence, Circular Dichroism, Differential Calorimetry and Infrared Spectroscopy. These tests showed that both crotamine as crotoxin when subjected to gamma radiation, showed changes in their structural conformation compared with the samples in the native state. Such changes probably occur in the secondary and tertiary structure and may explain the changes on the biological activity of these toxins. (author)

  3. Structural aspects of the evaluation of agent organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossi, D.; Dignum, F.P.M.; Dignum, V.; Dastani, M.; Royakkers, L.M.M.; Noriega, P.; Vázquez-Salceda, J.; Boella, G.; Boissier, O.; Dignum, V.; Fornara, N.; Matson, E.

    2007-01-01

    A multi-agent system can be analyzed and specified as an organization consisting of roles and their relations. The performance of an organization depends on many factors among which the type of its organizational structure, i.e., the set of relations holding between its roles. This work focuses on

  4. Structure, context, complexity, organization: physical aspects of information and value

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eriksson, Karl-Erik; Lindgren, Kristian; Månsson, Bengt Å

    1987-01-01

    ... and of information theory are general enough to play such a role. The authors have been involved in studies of the handling of natural resources in human societies. There we met problems and ideas which led us to the theme of this book: a perspective and a set of concepts, useful for describing and understanding processes in which structure emerges. T...

  5. Two aspects of relevance in structured argumentation: minimality and paraconsistency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grooters, Diana; Prakken, H.

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies two issues concerning relevance in structured argumentation in the context of the ASPIC+ framework, arising from the combined use of strict and defeasible inference rules. One issue arises if the strict inference rules correspond to classical logic. A longstanding problem is how

  6. Structural aspect on the Slano blato landslide (Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Placer

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The active landslide Slano blato above Lokavec in the Vipava valley, Slovenia, is a complex phenomenon. The hinterland of the landslide consists of the large fossil block of Mala Gora that slid about 300 m down the slope of Mt. Čaven, and was tilted with respect to the slope. We presume that the corresponding failure surface is concavelyshaped. The block consist in its lower part of Eocene flysch beds and in its upper part of Triassic carbonate rocks that are thrust over the flysch. It is probable that due to gravitational slumping the flysch basement obtained a concave shape, that serves as a catchment structure for retaining the ground water. It slowly percolates throughthe crushed calcarenitic layers in flysch. According to available data the Slano blato was triggered in 1887 by earthworks, and in 2000 by natural erosion processes. The structural characteristics allow the assumption that movement occurs in crushed and weathered flysch beds that are percolated by a steady or periodical supply ofgroundwater from the structural reservoir in the Mala Gora fossil slumped block. Coexistence of the older structural and the younger active weathered material landslides can be observed also at other localities along the thrust front of the Trnovo and Hrušica (Nanos nappe. Especially interesting in this respect are the Razdrto and Strane landslides.

  7. Structural aspects of DNA in its replication and repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, S.; Pal, B.C.; Foote, R.S.; Bates, R.C.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Snow, E.T.; Wobbe, C.R.; Morse, C.C.; Snyder, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    The research objective of this laboratory is to investigate the structure of DNA, the mechanism of DNA replication and its regulation, and the mechanism and role of repair of the altered DNA in the expression of heritable changes. This research has two broad aims, namely investigation of (a) the regulation of DNA replication in mammals, using parvovirus DNA as a model system and (b) the role of DNA repair in mutagenesis and carcinogenesis induced by simple alkylating mutagens

  8. Do edaphic aspects alter vegetation structures in the Brazilian restinga?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Soares Santos-Filho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The vegetation of the Brazilian restinga (coastal woodland presents a variety of species and different characteristics, encompassing fields, fruit groves and forests on quartzarenic neosols. We hypothesised that the structure of the restinga landscape along the coast of the state of Piauí is influenced by edaphic factors and presents a pattern similar to that of other northeastern restingas. We evaluated three restingas in Piauí, using the quarter method to determine their structure. Composite soil samples were collected to determine their chemical and physical properties. Edaphic variables were correlated with plant species by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA. Phytosociological data for all three areas indicated regenerating vegetation comprising several small individuals, 82.5% of which showed a diameter at ground level < 13 cm. We also observed considerable tillering. In two of the areas, there was a predominance of Fabaceae species, such as Caesalpinia pyramidalis and Copaifera martii. Although the structural characteristics of the restingas studied were similar to those of other northeastern restingas, the former showed lower Shannon diversity indices (2.18-2.44. The CCA indicated that species distribution was influenced by edaphic factors such as pH, aluminium content and amount of organic matter. The restingas studied were similar to others along the Brazilian coast.

  9. Selected Aspects of Agro-structural Change within the Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Streifeneder

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available La région couverte par la Convention alpine a connu un recul important des exploitations agricoles (– 40 % entre 1980 et 2000. Des régions stables (Autriche, Suisse côtoient des régions profondément transformées (Italie, Slovénie. Les modifications agrostructurelles ont conduit à des bouleversements majeurs dans les structures de fonctionnement (agrandissement des exploitations, abandon de surface agricole utile, partages diversifiés des types socio-économiques d’exploitations. Cela résulte de divers facteurs, qu’ils soient culturels (l’attachement aux traditions agricoles, l’identification de la société au monde agricole, politico-agricoles (Politique Agricole Commune, OMC ou économiques (opportunités de revenus non-agricoles et fonctionnels (taille des exploitations. Au-delà des différenciations nationales et régionales majeures au sein de l’arc alpin (abandon d’exploitations modéré à fort, les exploitations agricoles affrontent les mêmes enjeux en ce qui concerne les transformations des structures agricoles (ex : abandon d’exploitation et augmentation de la taille des exploitations restantes. En comparaison avec la moyenne à l’échelle alpine de l’évolution du nombre d’exploitations et des surfaces agricoles utiles (1980-2000, on peut observer des tendances modérées (Autriche/Suisse/Allemagne, dynamiques (Italie/Slovénie ou non corrélées (France.The Alpine region registered a substantial abandonment of farms (-40% between 1980 and 2000. Both Alpine regions with a relatively stable situation (AT, CH and regions with significant agricultural changes (IT, SI exist next to each other. The agro-structural change has led to profound changes in operational structures (enlargement of farms, abandonment of utilised agricultural areas, varying shares of socio-economic farm types. This resulted from various cultural (e.g. relatedness to agricultural traditions, identification of the society with

  10. [Max Weber's illness--sociologic aspects of the depressive structure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommer, J; Frommer, S

    1993-05-01

    Between 1897 and 1902 the economist and sociologist Max Weber from Heidelberg suffered from a severe depressive crisis with multiple recurrences of its symptomatology in the following years. The biographic background of the disease process is examined. Questions regarding the specific diagnosis are discussed. Furthermore, his work shows that Weber was indirectly deeply concerned with the cultural, historical and social background conditions of depressive experience and behavior in the context of his study on Protestantic Ethics and the Spirit of Capitalism. Weber's definition of modern society as an iron cage, determined by Occidental Rationalism, shows that this cultural background demands a great amount of role conformity from the individual. Weber's theoretical approach should spark interest in the current psychopathological discussion of the characteristic structural features of a depressed personality.

  11. Metallization of high aspect ratio, out of plane structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vazquez, Patricia; Dimaki, Maria; Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2009-01-01

    This work is dedicated to developing a novel three dimensional structure for electrochemical measurements in neuronal studies. The final prototype will allow not only for the study and culture on chip of neuronal cells, but also of brain tissue. The use of out-of-plane electrodes instead of planar...... ones increases the sensitivity of the system and increases the signal-to-noise ratio in the recorded signals, due to the higher availability of surface area. The main bottleneck of the out-of-plane electrode fabrication lies in the metallization process for transforming them into active electrodes......, since the coverage of the side walls of almost vertical pillars is not trivial by standard processes in a clean room facility. This paper will discuss the different steps taken towards this goal and present the results that we have obtained so far....

  12. Structure and evolutionary aspects of matrix metalloproteinases: a brief overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sudip; Mandal, Malay; Chakraborti, Tapati; Mandal, Amritlal; Chakraborti, Sajal

    2003-11-01

    The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc dependent endopeptidases known for their ability to cleave one or several extracellular matrix (ECM) constituents, as well as non-matrix proteins. They comprise a large family of proteinases that share common structural and functional elements and are products of different genes. All members of this family contain a signal peptide, a propeptide and a catalytic domain. The catalytic domain contains two zinc ions and at least one calcium ion coordinated to various residues. All MMPs, with the exception matrilysin, have a hemopexin/vitronectin-like domain that is connected to the catalytic domain by a hinge or linker region. The hemopexin-like domain influences tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP) binding, the binding of certain substrates, membrane activation, and some proteolytic activities. It has been proposed that the origin of MMPs could be traced to before the emergence of vertebrates from invertebrates. It appears conceivable that the domain assemblies occurred at an early stage of the diversification of different MMPs and that they progressed through the evolutionary process independent of one another, and perhaps parallel to each other.

  13. Aspects of structural landscape of human islet amyloid polypeptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Jianfeng, E-mail: hjf@bit.edu.cn; Dai, Jin, E-mail: daijing491@gmail.com [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Li, Jing, E-mail: jinglichina@139.com [Institute of Biopharmaceutical Research, Yangtze River Pharmaceutical Group Beijing Haiyan Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, Beijing 102206 (China); Peng, Xubiao, E-mail: xubiaopeng@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 803, S-75108 Uppsala (Sweden); Niemi, Antti J., E-mail: Antti.Niemi@physics.uu.se [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 803, S-75108 Uppsala (Sweden); Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique CNRS UMR 6083, Fédération Denis Poisson, Université de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, F37200 Tours (France)

    2015-01-28

    The human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) co-operates with insulin to maintain glycemic balance. It also constitutes the amyloid plaques that aggregate in the pancreas of type-II diabetic patients. We have performed extensive in silico investigations to analyse the structural landscape of monomeric hIAPP, which is presumed to be intrinsically disordered. For this, we construct from first principles a highly predictive energy function that describes a monomeric hIAPP observed in a nuclear magnetic resonance experiment, as a local energy minimum. We subject our theoretical model of hIAPP to repeated heating and cooling simulations, back and forth between a high temperature regime where the conformation resembles a random walker and a low temperature limit where no thermal motions prevail. We find that the final low temperature conformations display a high level of degeneracy, in a manner which is fully in line with the presumed intrinsically disordered character of hIAPP. In particular, we identify an isolated family of α-helical conformations that might cause the transition to amyloidosis, by nucleation.

  14. Mammalian cells exposed to ionizing radiation: structural and biochemical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabanero, M.; Flores V, L. L.; Azorin V, J. C.; Vallejo, M. A.; Cordova F, T.; Sosa A, M.; Castruita D, J. P.; Barbosa S, G.

    2015-10-01

    Acute or chronic exposure to ionizing radiation is a factor that may be hazardous to health. It has been reported that exposure to low doses of radiation (less than 50 mSv / year) and subsequently exposure to high doses have greater effects in people. However, it is unknown molecular and biochemical level alteration. This study, analyzes the susceptibility of a biological system (HeLa Atcc CCL-2 human cervix cancer cell line) to ionizing radiation (6 and 60 mSv/ 90). Our evaluate multiple variables such as: total protein profile, mitochondrial metabolic activity (XTT assay), cell viability (Trypan blue exclusion assay), cytoskeleton (actin micro filaments), nuclei (D API), genomic DNA. The results indicate, that cells exposed to ionizing radiation structurally show alterations in nuclear phenotype and aneuploidy, further disruption in the tight junctions and consequently on the distribution of actin micro filaments. Similar alterations were observed in cells treated with a genotoxic agent (200μM H 2 O 2 /1 h). In conclusion, this multi-criteria assessment enables precise comparisons of the effects of radiation between any biological systems. However, it is necessary to determine stress markers for integration of the effects of ionizing radiation. (Author)

  15. Mammalian cells exposed to ionizing radiation: structural and biochemical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabanero, M.; Flores V, L. L. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Departamento de Biologia, DCNE, Noria Alta s/n, 36250 Guanajuato, Gto. (Mexico); Azorin V, J. C.; Vallejo, M. A.; Cordova F, T.; Sosa A, M. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Departamento de Ingenieria Fisica, DCI, Loma del Bosque 103, Col. Lomas del Campestre, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Castruita D, J. P. [Universidad de Guadalajara, Departamento de Ecologia, CUCBA, Las Agujas, 45100 Zapopan, Jalisco (Mexico); Barbosa S, G., E-mail: myrna.sabanero@gmail.com [Universidad de Guanajuato, Departamento de Ciencias Medicas, DCS, 20 de Enero No. 929, Col. Obregon, 37000 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Acute or chronic exposure to ionizing radiation is a factor that may be hazardous to health. It has been reported that exposure to low doses of radiation (less than 50 mSv / year) and subsequently exposure to high doses have greater effects in people. However, it is unknown molecular and biochemical level alteration. This study, analyzes the susceptibility of a biological system (HeLa Atcc CCL-2 human cervix cancer cell line) to ionizing radiation (6 and 60 mSv/ 90). Our evaluate multiple variables such as: total protein profile, mitochondrial metabolic activity (XTT assay), cell viability (Trypan blue exclusion assay), cytoskeleton (actin micro filaments), nuclei (D API), genomic DNA. The results indicate, that cells exposed to ionizing radiation structurally show alterations in nuclear phenotype and aneuploidy, further disruption in the tight junctions and consequently on the distribution of actin micro filaments. Similar alterations were observed in cells treated with a genotoxic agent (200μM H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/1 h). In conclusion, this multi-criteria assessment enables precise comparisons of the effects of radiation between any biological systems. However, it is necessary to determine stress markers for integration of the effects of ionizing radiation. (Author)

  16. Theoretical aspects of electronic structure of high Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.P.

    1990-01-01

    Although the mechanism responsible for the high T c superconductivity is still unknown, it is nevertheless clear that superconductivity in hole doped materials depends sensitively on the number of holes, C h , per CuO 2 plane. A correlation between C h and T c has been established. In this paper we present several examples of the critical dependence of the charge transfer and thus the value of C h on the cristallographic characteristics. For example, our electronic structure investigations of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6.5 using several configurations of the oxygen atoms on the chains show that the order-disorder phenomena of the oxygen atoms play a crucial role on the value of C h and T c . We have also studied the variation of the charge transfer and C h as a function of hydrostatic pressure for several cuprates: La 1.85 Sr 0.15 CuO 4 (ΔT c /Δp ∼ 0.3 - 0.4 K/kbar); YBa 2 Cu 4 O 8 (ΔT c /Δp ∼ 5.5 K/kbar). We show that the values of C h increase under pressure [fr

  17. Structural aspects of elastic deformation of a metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hufnagel, T. C.; Ott, R. T.; Almer, J.

    2006-01-01

    We report the use of high-energy x-ray scattering to measure strain in a Zr 57 Ti 5 Cu 20 Ni 8 Al 10 bulk metallic glass in situ during uniaxial compression in the elastic regime up to stresses of approximately 60% of the yield stress. The strains extracted in two ways--directly from the normalized scattering data and from the pair correlation functions--are in good agreement with each other for length scales greater than 4 A. The elastic modulus calculated on the basis of this strain is in good agreement with that reported for closely related amorphous alloys based on macroscopic measurements. The strain measured for atoms in the nearest-neighbor shell, however, is smaller than that for more distant shells, and the effective elastic modulus calculated from the strain on this scale is therefore larger, comparable to crystalline alloys of similar composition. These observations are in agreement with previously proposed models in which the nominally elastic deformation of a metallic glass has a significant anelastic component due to atomic rearrangements in topologically unstable regions of the structure. We also observe that the distribution of the atomic-level stresses in the glass becomes more uniform during loading. This implies that the stiffness of metallic glasses may have an entropic contribution, analogous to the entropic contribution in rubber elasticity

  18. Structural and microstructural aspects of asbestos-cement waste vitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaszko, Józef; Zawada, Anna; Przerada, Iwona; Lubas, Małgorzata

    2018-04-01

    The main goal of the work was to evaluate the vitrification process of asbestos-cement waste (ACW). A mixture of 50 wt% ACW and 50 wt% glass cullet was melted in an electric furnace at 1400 °C for 90 min and then cast into a steel mold. The vitrified product was subjected to annealing. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to evaluate the effects of the vitrification. The chemical constitution of the material before and after the vitrification process was also analyzed. It was found that the vitrified product has an amorphous structure in which the components of asbestos-cement waste are incorporated. MIR spectroscopy showed that the absorption bands of chrysotile completely disappeared after the vitrification process. The results of the spectroscopic studies were confirmed by X-ray studies - no diffraction reflections from the chrysotile crystallographic planes were observed. As a result of the treatment, the fibrous asbestos construction, the main cause of its pathogenic properties, completely disappeared. The vitrified material was characterized by higher resistance to ion leaching in an aquatic environment than ACW and a smaller volume of nearly 72% in relation to the apparent volume of the substrates. The research has confirmed the high effectiveness of vitrification in neutralizing hazardous waste containing asbestos and the FT-IR spectroscopy was found to be useful to identify asbestos varieties and visualizing changes caused by the vitrification process. The work also presents the current situation regarding the utilization of asbestos-containing products.

  19. Key Techniques on Preparing High Aspect Ratio Micro and Nano Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jian, Zhao; Lianhe, Dong; Xiaoli, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    effectively. The mechanism of action between NaCl and HSQ was analyzed. The collapse and adhesion of resist structure due to the effect of gas-liquid interfacial capillary surface tension were suppressed by the CO2 supercritical drying method. Large-area dense nano-structures with the aspect ratio of 12...

  20. Hot embossing of photonic crystal polymer structures with a high aspect ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schelb, Mauno; Vannahme, Christoph; Kolew, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    ). A nickel tool for the replication of structures with lateral dimensions of 110 nm and heights of approximately 370 nm is fabricated via electroplating of a nanostructured sample resulting in an aspect ratio of approximately 3.5. The structures are subsequently hot embossed into PMMA and COC substrates....

  1. A study of the morphoanatomical characters of the leaves of Chamaecrista (L. Moench sect. Apoucouita (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítalo Antônio Cotta Coutinho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Little attention has been paid to species of Chamaecrista sect. Apoucouita (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae, especially regarding anatomical studies. When only vegetative material is available, the identification of such species may be difficult. Additionally, vegetative material of some species of C. sect. Apoucouita may be even harder to identify because they can resemble species of Inga Mill. (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae. The present study focused on recognizing morphoanatomical characters of leaves that are taxonomically useful for the species of C. sect. Apoucouita by employing standard anatomical techniques. The arrangement of the vascular system in the petiole/rachis, dorsiventral mesophyll, mucilage idioblasts in the epidermis of leaflets and hypostomatic leaves were some of the characters shared by all species studied. Length of the petiole, position and type of extrafloral nectaries, leaflet venation, presence and type of papillae on the epidermis of the leaflet blades and sclereids in the mesophyll were some of the characters useful in the distinction of taxa. The vascular arrangement of the petiole/rachis is a promising character in the distinction of species of C. sect. Apoucouita and Inga. Based on morphoanatomical data, the taxonomic revision of some species and varieties ascribed to C. sect. Apoucouita is suggested.

  2. Insect herbivores associated with an evergreen tree Goniorrhachis marginata Taub. (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) in a tropical dry forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J O; Neves, F S

    2014-08-01

    Goniorrhachis marginata Taub. (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) is a tree species found in Brazilian tropical dry forests that retain their leaves during the dry season. That being, we addressed the following question: i) How do insect diversity (sap-sucking and chewing), leaf herbivory and defensive traits (tannin and leaf sclerophylly) vary on the evergreen tree species G. marginata between seasons? The abundance of sap-sucking insects was higher in the dry season than in the rainy season. However, we did not verify any difference in the species richness and abundance of chewing insects between seasons. Leaf herbivory was higher in the rainy season, whereas leaf sclerophylly was higher in the dry season. However, herbivory was not related to sclerophylly. Insect herbivores likely decrease their folivory activity during the dry season due to life history patterns or changes in behaviour, possibly entering diapause or inactivity during this period. Therefore, G. marginata acts as a likely keystone species, serving as a moist refuge for the insect fauna during the dry season in tropical dry forest, and the presence of this evergreen species is crucial to conservation strategies of this threatened ecosystem.

  3. Structural Aspects, Institutional Aspects, and Actors in the Organizational Field of Textbook Publishing : a case study on high school “Contemporary Society”

    OpenAIRE

    小原, 明恵

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify the organizational field of high school “Contemporary Society” textbook publishing using triadic relationship among structure, institutions, and actors as an analytical framework. Firstly, the Course of Study for high school “Contemporary Society” is explained as the institutional aspect of textbook publishing field. Secondly, the structural aspects of textbook publishing industry such as the market size, the number of publishers and textbooks, and the ...

  4. Crescimento inicial de Dimorphandra wilsonii (Fabaceae - Caesalpinioideae em diferentes condições de fertilidade em solo de cerrado Early development of Dimorphandra wilsonii (Fabaceae - Caesalpinioideae in Cerrado under different soil fertility conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Bacelar Fonseca

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Dimorphandra wilsonii Rizz. é uma espécie arbórea criticamente ameaçada de extinção. Foi descrita para áreas de maior fertilidade no Domínio do cerrado; entretanto, atualmente ocorre em áreas isoladas e de baixa fertilidade natural. Com o objetivo de avaliar a adaptação desta espécie a condições de oligotrofia, plantas foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação em solo destas áreas oligotróficas, mas com diferentes níveis de fertilidade. A partir da análise de fertilidade do solo foram definidas as doses de macronutrientes (NPK e a dose de calcário a serem utilizadas nos tratamentos que se constituíram de dois níveis de calagem e três níveis de adubação. Após 220 dias do plantio, os tratamentos que aumentaram significativamente o crescimento foram aqueles que receberam adubação com a dose indicada de NPK em solo não corrigido pela calagem e aquele que teve o solo calado e adubado com duas vezes a dose indicada de NPK. A calagem por si só não promoveu maior crescimento, mas propiciou respostas crescentes de crescimento a níveis crescentes de disponibilidade de nutrientes. Foram encontrados nódulos radiculares em todos os tratamentos, e os resultados permitiram concluir que a espécie apresenta requerimento nutricional coerente com sua área de origem no Domínio do Cerrado. Também foi possível ressaltar a fixação biológica de nitrogênio, incomum em Caesalpinioideae, como estratégia adaptativa para crescimento em áreas com baixa oferta de nutrientes.Dimorphandra wilsonii Rizz. is a critically endangered tree species. It has been described for sites of higher soil fertility in the Cerrado Domain. However, it occurs nowadays in isolated areas of low natural fertility. To study species adaptation to oligotrophic conditions, plants were grown in a greenhouse in soils from oligotrophic sites but with different levels of fertility. After soil fertility analysis, the macronutrients (NPK and lime doses to be used in

  5. Lee-side flow structures of very low aspect ratio cruciform wing–body configurations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tuling, S

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A numerical and experimental investigation was performed to study the dominant flow structures in the lee side of a cruciform wing–body configuration at supersonic speeds in the + orientation. The wings or strakes are of very low aspect ratio...

  6. Structural and quantitative aspects of radical formation after heavy ion bombardment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dusemund, B; Hoffmann, A K; Weiland, B; Huettermann, J [Klinikum Homburg (Germany). Fachrichtung Biophysik

    1997-09-01

    In this report the authors present a summary of their recent attempts aiming at clarifying some basic structural and quantitative aspects of free radical formation in DNA constituents and in DNA as well as of product analysis from nucleotide model compounds. (orig./MG)

  7. Addressing special structure in the relevance feedback learning problem through aspect-based image search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Huiskes (Mark)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we focus on a number of issues regarding special structure in the relevance feedback learning problem, most notably the effects of image selection based on partial relevance on the clustering behavior of examples. We propose a simple scheme, aspect-based image search, which

  8. Effects of anabolic hormones on structural, metabolic and functional aspects of skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio de Oliveira Pires

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2009v11n3p350   This study reviewed information regarding the effects of anabolic hormones on strength gain and muscle hypertrophy, emphasizing the physiological mechanisms that may increase muscle strength. Structural, metabolic and functional aspects were analyzed and special attention was paid to the dose-response relationship. The Pubmed database was searched and studies were selected according to relevance and date of publication (last 15 years. The administration of high testosterone doses (~600 mg/week potentiates the effects of strength training, increasing lean body mass, muscle fiber type IIA and IIB cross-sectional area, and the number of myonuclei. There is no evidence of conversion between MHC isoforms. The interaction between testosterone administration and strength training seems to modify some metabolic pathways, increasing protein synthesis, glycogen and ATP-CP muscle stores and improving fat mobilization. Changes in 17-estradiol concentration or in the ACTH-cortisol and insulin-glucagon ratios seem to be associated with these metabolic alterations. Regarding performance, testosterone administration may improve muscle strength by 5-20% depending on the dose used. On the other hand, the effects of growth hormone on the structural and functional aspects of skeletal muscle are not evident, with this hormone more affecting metabolic aspects. However, strictly controlled human studies are necessary to establish the extent of the effects of anabolic hormones on structural, metabolic and functional aspects.

  9. Effects of anabolic hormones on structural, metabolic and functional aspects of skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio de Oliveira Pires

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study reviewed information regarding the effects of anabolic hormones on strength gain and muscle hypertrophy, emphasizing the physiological mechanisms that may increase muscle strength. Structural, metabolic and functional aspects were analyzed and special attention was paid to the dose-response relationship. The Pubmed database was searched and studies were selected according to relevance and date of publication (last 15 years. The administration of high testosterone doses (~600 mg/week potentiates the effects of strength training, increasing lean body mass, muscle fiber type IIA and IIB cross-sectional area, and the number of myonuclei. There is no evidence of conversion between MHC isoforms. The interaction between testosterone administration and strength training seems to modify some metabolic pathways, increasing protein synthesis, glycogen and ATP-CP muscle stores and improving fat mobilization. Changes in 17-estradiol concentration or in the ACTH-cortisol and insulin-glucagon ratios seem to be associated with these metabolic alterations. Regarding performance, testosterone administration may improve muscle strength by 5-20% depending on the dose used. On the other hand, the effects of growth hormone on the structural and functional aspects of skeletal muscle are not evident, with this hormone more affecting metabolic aspects. However, strictly controlled human studies are necessary to establish the extent of the effects of anabolic hormones on structural, metabolic and functional aspects.

  10. Structural Aspects LiNbO3 Nanoparticles and Their Ferromagnetic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Moreno, Carlos A.; Farias-Mancilla, Rurik; Elizalde-Galindo, Jose T.; González-Hernández, Jesus; Hurtado-Macias, Abel; Bahena, Daniel; José-Yacamán, Miguel; Ramos, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    We present a solid-state synthesis of ferromagnetic lithium niobate nanoparticles (LiNbO3) and their corresponding structural aspects. In order to investigate the effect of heat treatments, two batches of samples with a heat-treated (HT) and non-heat-treated (nHT) reduction at 650 °C in 5% of hydrogen/argon were considered to investigate the multiferroic properties and their corresponding structural aspects; using magnetometry and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Results indicate the existence of ferromagnetic domains with a magnetic moment per unit cell of 5.24 × 10−3 μB; caused mainly due to voids and defects on the nanoparticle surface, as confirmed by STEM measurements. PMID:28788242

  11. Some structural aspects that are relevant for synthesis of planetary gear trains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajasri, I. [Pathfinder Engineering College, Hanamkonda (India); Gupta, A.V.S.S.K.S. [JNTU, Hyderabad (India); Rao, Y.V.D. [BITS-Pilani. Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Hyderabad (India)

    2012-07-01

    Gear Trains are typically used in various mechanisms including wind turbines and robots to transmit specified motion and/or torque between two or more shafts and wind turbines need drives and overdrives that amplify the speed of turbine shaft and provide high speed at generator shaft. Planetary gear trains (PGT) are compact, easy to build and operate. Therefore PGTs are most suitable for such drives including over drives. Graph theory used in synthesis of the PGTs is also useful to identify various possible structural aspects of the PGTs. Generation of PGTs is followed by the test for isomorphism in PGTs generated. In this context various structural aspects relevant for the synthesis of PGTs is described. (Author)

  12. Electronic Health Record in Occupational Medicine: Specific Aspects and Requirements of Data Structuring and Standardization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin TRIFF

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The service of occupational medicine of a specific economic agent, as integrated part of the System of Labor Health and Safety, requires efficient, well-organized information management through standardized and computerized data processing and exploitation. Legal requirements and practical aspects of information management in occupational medicine trigger necessary operational modifications in the Electronic Health File. The goal of the paper is to present basic requirements of structuring the electronic health file and the necessary standards in recording specific data.

  13. Sustainability of transport structures - some aspects of the nonlinear reliability assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukl, Radomír; Sajdlová, Tereza; Strauss, Alfred; Lehký, David; Novák, Drahomír

    2017-09-01

    Efficient techniques for both nonlinear numerical analysis of concrete structures and advanced stochastic simulation methods have been combined in order to offer an advanced tool for assessment of realistic behaviour, failure and safety assessment of transport structures. The utilized approach is based on randomization of the non-linear finite element analysis of the structural models. Degradation aspects such as carbonation of concrete can be accounted in order predict durability of the investigated structure and its sustainability. Results can serve as a rational basis for the performance and sustainability assessment based on advanced nonlinear computer analysis of the structures of transport infrastructure such as bridges or tunnels. In the stochastic simulation the input material parameters obtained from material tests including their randomness and uncertainty are represented as random variables or fields. Appropriate identification of material parameters is crucial for the virtual failure modelling of structures and structural elements. Inverse analysis using artificial neural networks and virtual stochastic simulations approach is applied to determine the fracture mechanical parameters of the structural material and its numerical model. Structural response, reliability and sustainability have been investigated on different types of transport structures made from various materials using the above mentioned methodology and tools.

  14. Different methods to alter surface morphology of high aspect ratio structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leber, M., E-mail: moritz.leber@utah.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Shandhi, M.M.H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hogan, A. [Blackrock Microsystems, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Solzbacher, F. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Bhandari, R.; Negi, S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Blackrock Microsystems, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Graphical abstract: Surface engineering of high aspect ratio silicon structures. - Highlights: • Multiple roughening techniques for high aspect ratio devices were investigated. • Modification of surface morphology of high aspect ratio silicon devices (1:15). • Decrease of 76% in impedance proves significant increase in surface area. - Abstract: In various applications such as neural prostheses or solar cells, there is a need to alter the surface morphology of high aspect ratio structures so that the real surface area is greater than geometrical area. The change in surface morphology enhances the devices functionality. One of the applications of altering the surface morphology is of neural implants such as the Utah electrode array (UEA) that communicate with single neurons by charge injection induced stimulation or by recording electrical neural signals. For high selectivity between single cells of the nervous system, the electrode surface area is required to be as small as possible, while the impedance is required to be as low as possible for good signal to noise ratios (SNR) during neural recording. For stimulation, high charge injection and charge transfer capacities of the electrodes are required, which increase with the electrode surface. Traditionally, researchers have worked with either increasing the roughness of the existing metallization (platinum grey, black) or other materials such as Iridium Oxide and PEDOT. All of these previously investigated methods lead to more complicated metal deposition processes that are difficult to control and often have a critical impact on the mechanical properties of the metal films. Therefore, a modification of the surface underneath the electrode's coating will increase its surface area while maintaining the standard and well controlled metal deposition process. In this work, the surfaces of the silicon micro-needles were engineered by creating a defined microstructure on the electrodes surface using several

  15. Simultaneous fabrication of very high aspect ratio positive nano- to milliscale structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long Qing; Chan-Park, Mary B; Zhang, Qing; Chen, Peng; Li, Chang Ming; Li, Sai

    2009-05-01

    A simple and inexpensive technique for the simultaneous fabrication of positive (i.e., protruding), very high aspect (>10) ratio nanostructures together with micro- or millistructures is developed. The method involves using residual patterns of thin-film over-etching (RPTO) to produce sub-micro-/nanoscale features. The residual thin-film nanopattern is used as an etching mask for Si deep reactive ion etching. The etched Si structures are further reduced in size by Si thermal oxidation to produce amorphous SiO(2), which is subsequently etched away by HF. Two arrays of positive Si nanowalls are demonstrated with this combined RPTO-SiO(2)-HF technique. One array has a feature size of 150 nm and an aspect ratio of 26.7 and another has a feature size of 50 nm and an aspect ratio of 15. No other parallel reduction technique can achieve such a very high aspect ratio for 50-nm-wide nanowalls. As a demonstration of the technique to simultaneously achieve nano- and milliscale features, a simple Si nanofluidic master mold with positive features with dimensions varying continuously from 1 mm to 200 nm and a highest aspect ratio of 6.75 is fabricated; the narrow 200-nm section is 4.5 mm long. This Si master mold is then used as a mold for UV embossing. The embossed open channels are then closed by a cover with glue bonding. A high aspect ratio is necessary to produce unblocked closed channels after the cover bonding process of the nanofluidic chip. The combined method of RPTO, Si thermal oxidation, and HF etching can be used to make complex nanofluidic systems and nano-/micro-/millistructures for diverse applications.

  16. Architectural and structural engineering aspects of protective design for nuclear power plants against terrorist attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musacchio, J.M.; Rozen, A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the results of several threat studies which have been performed, provides collective data on costs, and discusses, in a general sense, architectural/structural aspects of passive protection design measures which have been developed and utilized at several nuclear power plants. By combining relevant architectural and structural measures in the standard design, it is possible to substantially reduce the vulnerability of nuclear power plants to terrorist attack and the estimated damage to a manageable level with a minimal investment. (orig./HP)

  17. COGNITIVE STRUCTURING OF TEXT COMPREHENSION PROCESS IN THE ASPECT OF MICROLINGUISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolodina Nina Ivanovna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The theory of mnemo-units of knowledge in the aspect of microliguistics is deliberated in the article. Mnemo-unit of knowledge is considered to be a unit of knowledge in the operative memory, which cannot be verbalized but can be explained. The singling out such units, on the one hand, gives the opportunity to construct the structural scheme of comprehension process, and, on the other hand, to justify the theory of comprehension process as the process of operating with tiny recognized and unrecognized units which have schematic or contour fixation in the human's memory. The process of text comprehension is analyzed and compared with the process of making saccades. Given examples about the eyesight fixation on the words picked out on the line allow to speak about the fixation of attention only on these words. The summing up of such theоretic and practical data leads to the opportunity to base the theory of mnemo-units of knowledge in the aspect of microlinguistics. The comprehension process demands supporting the steady connections between the mnemo-units of knowledge. In their turn, the steady connections between the mnemo-units of knowledge, which are necessary for production of thinking forms, are insured by constant activization of the same units at the same sequence. Constant and sequent activization of the same units of knowledge leads to the human thinking process stereotyping. The cognitive model of structural thinking process is built in the article. The analysis of received data on stereotyped comprehension process allows to reveal the fact that the activization of one mnemo-units group demands the activization of another mnemo-units group. Activated mnemo-units groups determine the psychological structure of personality. In this aspect the motivation and the behavior are the necessary steps in the cognitive model of structural comprehension process while the psychological structure is considered.

  18. Search and rescue in collapsed structures: engineering and social science aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tawil, Sherif; Aguirre, Benigno

    2010-10-01

    This paper discusses the social science and engineering dimensions of search and rescue (SAR) in collapsed buildings. First, existing information is presented on factors that influence the behaviour of trapped victims, particularly human, physical, socioeconomic and circumstantial factors. Trapped victims are most often discussed in the context of structural collapse and injuries sustained. Most studies in this area focus on earthquakes as the type of disaster that produces the most extensive structural damage. Second, information is set out on the engineering aspects of urban search and rescue (USAR) in the United States, including the role of structural engineers in USAR operations, training and certification of structural specialists, and safety and general procedures. The use of computational simulation to link the engineering and social science aspects of USAR is discussed. This could supplement training of local SAR groups and USAR teams, allowing them to understand better the collapse process and how voids form in a rubble pile. A preliminary simulation tool developed for this purpose is described. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2010.

  19. Structural analysis of reinforced concrete structures under monotonous and cyclic loadings: numerical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepretre, C.; Millard, A.; Nahas, G.

    1989-01-01

    The structural analysis of reinforced concrete structures is usually performed either by means of simplified methods of strength of materials type i.e. global methods, or by means of detailed methods of continuum mechanics type, i.e. local methods. For this second type, some constitutive models are available for concrete and rebars in a certain number of finite element systems. These models are often validated on simple homogeneous tests. Therefore, it is important to appraise the validity of the results when applying them to the analysis of a reinforced concrete structure, in order to be able to make correct predictions of the actual behaviour, under normal and faulty conditions. For this purpose, some tests have been performed at I.N.S.A. de Lyon on reinforced concrete beams, subjected to monotonous and cyclic loadings, in order to generate reference solutions to be compared with the numerical predictions given by two finite element systems: - CASTEM, developed by C.E.A./.D.E.M.T. - ELEFINI, developed by I.N.S.A. de Lyon

  20. Differentiation in a geographical mosaic of plants coevolving with ants: phylogeny of the Leonardoxa africana complex (Fabaceae: Caesalpinioideae) using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouat, C; McKey, D; Douzery, E J P

    2004-05-01

    Comprising four allopatric subspecies that exhibit various grades of ant-plant interactions, from diffuse to obligate and symbiotic associations, the Leonardoxa africana complex (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae) provides a good opportunity to investigate the evolutionary history of ant-plant mutualisms. A previous study of the L. africana complex based on chloroplast DNA noncoding sequences revealed a lack of congruence between clades suggested by morphological and plastid characters. In this study, we analysed phylogenetic relationships within the L. africana complex using a Bayesian probability approach on amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. The results reported permit partial validation of the four subspecies of L. africana previously defined by morphological and ecological markers. Incongruences between phylogenies based on chloroplast DNA and amplified fragment length polymorphism markers are discussed in the light of morphological and ecological data, and confronted with hypotheses of convergence, lineage sorting and introgression.

  1. Microscopic silicon-based lateral high-aspect-ratio structures for thin film conformality analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Feng; Arpiainen, Sanna; Puurunen, Riikka L.

    2015-01-01

    Film conformality is one of the major drivers for the interest in atomic layer deposition (ALD) processes. This work presents new silicon-based microscopic lateral high-aspect-ratio (LHAR) test structures for the analysis of the conformality of thin films deposited by ALD and by other chemical vapor deposition means. The microscopic LHAR structures consist of a lateral cavity inside silicon with a roof supported by pillars. The cavity length (e.g., 20–5000 μm) and cavity height (e.g., 200–1000 nm) can be varied, giving aspect ratios of, e.g., 20:1 to 25 000:1. Film conformality can be analyzed with the microscopic LHAR by several means, as demonstrated for the ALD Al 2 O 3 and TiO 2 processes from Me 3 Al/H 2 O and TiCl 4 /H 2 O. The microscopic LHAR test structures introduced in this work expose a new parameter space for thin film conformality investigations expected to prove useful in the development, tuning and modeling of ALD and other chemical vapor deposition processes

  2. Structural aspects of some hydrobenzofuran neolignans; Aspectos estruturais de algumas neolignanas hidrobenzofuranicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Massayoshi, E-mail: myoshida@iq.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IQ/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Centro de Biotecnologia da Amazonia, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The neolignans are defined as dimers of allylphenol and propenylphenol between itself or crossed, whose bond does not occur by the 8-8' carbons like lignans. This review centered on stereochemical aspects of the hydrobenzofuran type, a widespread skeleton among neolignans. The chemical structures established based on spectrometric data are registered in the literature. The absolute configurations reported previously were determined by chiroptical techniques. Some chemical transformations with neolignans, performed in previous studies, afforded products which are accumulated in other vegetal species and contributed to assign the unknown stereochemistry of these natural compounds. Possible biosynthetic pathways are also proposed. (author)

  3. Modeling and characterization of dielectrophoretically structured piezoelectric composites using piezoceramic particle inclusions with high aspect ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Ende, D. A.; Maier, R. A.; van Neer, P. L. M. J.; van der Zwaag, S.; Randall, C. A.; Groen, W. A.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the piezoelectric properties at high electric fields of dielectrophoretically aligned PZT—polymer composites containing high aspect ratio particles (such as short fibers) are presented. Polarization and strain as a function of electric field are evaluated. The properties of the composites are compared to those of PZT-polymer composites with equiaxed particles, continuous PZT fiber-polymer composites, and bulk PZT ceramics. From high-field polarization and strain measurements, the effective field dependent permittivity and piezoelectric charge constant in the poling direction are determined for dielectrophoresis structured PZT-polymer composites, continuous PZT fiber-polymer composites, and bulk PZT ceramics. The changes in dielectric properties of the inclusions and the matrix at high fields influence the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of the composites. It is found that the permittivity and piezoelectric charge constants increase towards a maximum at an applied field of around 2.5-5 kV/mm. The electric field at which the maximum occurs depends on the aspect ratio and degree of alignment of the inclusions. Experimental values of d33 at low and high applied fields are compared to a model describing the composites as a continuous polymer matrix containing PZT particles of various aspect ratios arranged into chains. Thickness mode coupling factors were determined from measured impedance data using fitted equivalent circuit model simulations. The relatively high piezoelectric strain constants, voltage constants, and thickness coupling factors indicate that such aligned short fiber composites could be useful as flexible large area transducers.

  4. Load assumption for fatigue design of structures and components counting methods, safety aspects, practical application

    CERN Document Server

    Köhler, Michael; Pötter, Kurt; Zenner, Harald

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the fatigue behaviour of structural components under variable load amplitude is an essential prerequisite for safe and reliable light-weight design. For designing and dimensioning, the expected stress (load) is compared with the capacity to withstand loads (fatigue strength). In this process, the safety necessary for each particular application must be ensured. A prerequisite for ensuring the required fatigue strength is a reliable load assumption. The authors describe the transformation of the stress- and load-time functions which have been measured under operational conditions to spectra or matrices with the application of counting methods. The aspects which must be considered for ensuring a reliable load assumption for designing and dimensioning are discussed in detail. Furthermore, the theoretical background for estimating the fatigue life of structural components is explained, and the procedures are discussed for numerous applications in practice. One of the prime intentions of the authors ...

  5. Problematic Alcohol Use and Problem Gambling: Associations to Structural and Functional aspects of Social Ties in a Finnish Population Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordmyr Johanna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available AIMS – This study aims to explore associations between structural and functional aspects of social networks and relationships (here labelled social ties among individuals exhibiting problematic alcohol use and problem gambling, respectively.

  6. The Contradictions and Compartmentalizing the Interactions between Integrated Business Structures: Aspect of Branding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nifatova Olena M.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at identifying contradictions and developing a compartmentalizing as to the interaction between integrated business structures, taking into consideration the branding approach to management. The main specific features and contradictions that arise in the process of integration in the domestic market of mergers and acquisitions have been allocated. The contradictions identified were systematized and substantiated at three economic levels: macro-, meso-, and microeconomic. A compartmentalizing of the business units interaction in a merge or an acquisition process has been proposed. This compartmentalizing takes account of the branding aspect through the introduction of «brands interaction» – cluster interaction, circular interaction, holding interaction, linear interaction, which enhances the scientific view of exploring the problem of business units interaction in the process of the formations becoming integrated. The development of a compartmentalizing as to the interaction between integrated business structures, taking into consideration the branding approach to management, would provide a more effective use of the fundamental nature of branding as synergistic force in terms of the system of integration of business structures at the current stage of development of the national economy. Further development of branding issues in this sphere will have a significant impact on the functioning of the integrated business structures with the participation of Ukrainian companies.

  7. Some aspects of the chemistry of fast reactor fuel, structural material and decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesan, V.

    2012-01-01

    The chemistry of materials pertaining to fast reactors is both fascinating and challenging considering the nature of materials involved such as the fuel, coolant, control and shielding materials in addition to the interactions between the structural materials and the fuel/coolant depending on the nature and conditions involved. The different chemical forms of fuel materials, the need to operate up to high burnups with consequent interactions of the fuel with clad materials, the need to close the fuel cycle by recovery of the fuel materials from spent fuels for refabrication and the necessity to manage the waste, throw a host of challenges which make their study scientifically interesting and technologically important. The use of liquid sodium as coolant in fast reactor heat transport systems combined with its inherent chemical reactivity opens up an interesting branch of chemistry involving liquid sodium especially in contact with structural materials during normal operation of the reactor and with fuels in the event of fuel pin failure. The phenomenon of sodium wetting and the associated corrosion of structural materials in contact with it combined with the need to carryout decontamination of such materials make it interesting to examine and evaluate their suitability for reuse without compromising on their structural integrity. Boron being the material of choice for control and shielding applications in fast reactors with varying isotopic enrichment and the technological challenge to produce large quantities of boron carbide makes it unique. Some of these aspects are addressed in this paper. (author)

  8. Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio nano structures using a nano x-ray shadow mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Chul; Lee, Seung S

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a novel method for the fabrication of high-aspect-ratio nano structures (HAR-nano structures) using a nano x-ray shadow mask and deep x-ray lithography (DXRL). The nano x-ray shadow mask is fabricated by depositing an x-ray absorber layer (Au, 3 µm) onto the back side of a nano shadow mask. The nano shadow mask is produced with nano-sized apertures whose dimensions are reduced to several tens of nanometers by the accumulation of low-stress silicon nitride (Si x N y ) using the LPCVD process on the shadow mask. A shadow mask containing apertures with a size of 1 µm is fabricated on a bulk micromachined Si x N y membrane. The thickness of an absorber layer must be in the range of several tens of micrometers in order to obtain a contrast of more than 100 for the conventional DXRL process at the Pohang Light Source (PLS). However, a 3 µm thick absorber layer can provide a sufficient contrast if the modified DXRL of the central beam-stop method is used, which blocks high-energy x-rays. A nano shadow mask with 30 nm sized apertures is fabricated and a nano x-ray shadow mask with 250 nm sized apertures is fabricated by depositing a 3 µm thick absorber layer on a nano shadow mask with 500 nm sized apertures. HAR-nano structures (circles with a diameter of 420 nm and lines with a width of 274 nm) with aspect ratios of over 10:1 on a 3.2 µm SU-8 are successfully fabricated by using the nano x-ray shadow mask and the central beam-stop method

  9. The structural and content aspects of abstracts versus bodies of full text journal articles are different.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, K Bretonnel; Johnson, Helen L; Verspoor, Karin; Roeder, Christophe; Hunter, Lawrence E

    2010-09-29

    An increase in work on the full text of journal articles and the growth of PubMedCentral have the opportunity to create a major paradigm shift in how biomedical text mining is done. However, until now there has been no comprehensive characterization of how the bodies of full text journal articles differ from the abstracts that until now have been the subject of most biomedical text mining research. We examined the structural and linguistic aspects of abstracts and bodies of full text articles, the performance of text mining tools on both, and the distribution of a variety of semantic classes of named entities between them. We found marked structural differences, with longer sentences in the article bodies and much heavier use of parenthesized material in the bodies than in the abstracts. We found content differences with respect to linguistic features. Three out of four of the linguistic features that we examined were statistically significantly differently distributed between the two genres. We also found content differences with respect to the distribution of semantic features. There were significantly different densities per thousand words for three out of four semantic classes, and clear differences in the extent to which they appeared in the two genres. With respect to the performance of text mining tools, we found that a mutation finder performed equally well in both genres, but that a wide variety of gene mention systems performed much worse on article bodies than they did on abstracts. POS tagging was also more accurate in abstracts than in article bodies. Aspects of structure and content differ markedly between article abstracts and article bodies. A number of these differences may pose problems as the text mining field moves more into the area of processing full-text articles. However, these differences also present a number of opportunities for the extraction of data types, particularly that found in parenthesized text, that is present in article bodies

  10. Aspect has a greater impact on alpine soil bacterial community structure than elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jieyun; Anderson, Barbara J; Buckley, Hannah L; Lewis, Gillian; Lear, Gavin

    2017-03-01

    Gradients in environmental conditions, including climate factors and resource availability, occur along mountain inclines, providing a 'natural laboratory' to explore their combined impacts on microbial distributions. Conflicting spatial patterns observed across elevation gradients in soil bacterial community structure suggest that they are driven by various interacting factors at different spatial scales. Here, we investigated the relative impacts of non-resource (e.g. soil temperature, pH) and resource conditions (e.g. soil carbon and nitrogen) on the biogeography of soil bacterial communities across broad (i.e. along a 1500 m mountain elevation gradient) and fine sampling scales (i.e. along sunny and shady aspects of a mountain ridge). Our analysis of 16S rRNA gene data confirmed that when sampling across distances of soil pH. These findings highlight the need to incorporate knowledge of multiple factors, including site aspect and soil pH for the appropriate use of elevation gradients as a proxy to explore the impacts of climate change on microbial community composition. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. The vortex structure and flux creep within superconducting permanent-magnet high aspect-ratio discs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, J.H.P.; Younas, I.

    1997-01-01

    Inhomogeneous type II superconducting discs magnetized by an applied field will retain some magnetization when field is switched off so the superconducting disc will behave as a permanent magnet after flux creep has reduced to a low value.This paper examines the superconducting vortex structure within superconducting permanent-magnet high aspect-ratio discs which is consistent with the calculated magnetic field distribution.The discs, with radius R, have the axis along the z-direction and the mid-plane of the disc corresponds to z = 0. These discs with large aspect ratios in the remnant state have a region between radius r l and R where the magnetic field is reversed. Surrounding the line r = r l and z = 0 there is a region where H cl which is in the Meissner state. Near r l the vortex lines are strongly curved. For radii r l vortex lines creep to larger values of r. For radii r > r l vortex lines creep to smaller values of r, meet at r l with vortex lines of opposite sign and form a continuous loop which decreases in size and is finally annihilated in the Meissner region. Flux creep induces lossless currents in the Meissner region. (author)

  12. Scale for positive aspects of caregiving experience: development, reliability, and factor structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kate, N; Grover, S; Kulhara, P; Nehra, R

    2012-06-01

    OBJECTIVE. To develop an instrument (Scale for Positive Aspects of Caregiving Experience [SPACE]) that evaluates positive caregiving experience and assess its psychometric properties. METHODS. Available scales which assess some aspects of positive caregiving experience were reviewed and a 50-item questionnaire with a 5-point rating was constructed. In all, 203 primary caregivers of patients with severe mental disorders were asked to complete the questionnaire. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, cross-language reliability, split-half reliability, and face validity were evaluated. Principal component factor analysis was run to assess the factorial validity of the scale. RESULTS. The scale developed as part of the study was found to have good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, cross-language reliability, split-half reliability, and face validity. Principal component factor analysis yielded a 4-factor structure, which also had good test-retest reliability and cross-language reliability. There was a strong correlation between the 4 factors obtained. CONCLUSION. The SPACE developed as part of this study has good psychometric properties.

  13. Simulation and Measurement of Neuroelectrodes' Characteristics with Integrated High Aspect Ratio Nano Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Nick

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Improving the interface between electrodes and neurons has been the focus of research for the last decade. Neuroelectrodes should show small geometrical surface area and low impedance for measuring and high charge injection capacities for stimulation. Increasing the electrochemically active surface area by using nanoporous electrode material or by integrating nanostructures onto planar electrodes is a common approach to improve this interface. In this paper a simulation approach for neuro electrodes' characteristics with integrated high aspect ratio nano structures based on a point-contact-model is presented. The results are compared with experimental findings conducted with real nanostructured microelectrodes. In particular, effects of carbon nanotubes and gold nanowires integrated onto microelectrodes are described. Simulated and measured impedance properties are presented and its effects onto the transfer function between the neural membrane potential and the amplifier output signal are studied based on the point-contact-model. Simulations show, in good agreement with experimental results, that electrode impedances can be dramatically reduced by the integration of high aspect ratio nanostructures such as gold nanowires and carbon nanotubes. This lowers thermal noise and improves the signal-to-noise ratio for measuring electrodes. It also may increase the adhesion of cells to the substrate and thus increase measurable signal amplitudes.

  14. Structural, Chemical and Biological Aspects of Antioxidants for Strategies Against Metal and Metalloid Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaran J. S. Flora

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress contributes to the pathophysiology of exposure to heavy metals/metalloid. Beneficial renal effects of some medications, such as chelation therapy depend at least partially on the ability to alleviate oxidative stress. The administration of various natural or synthetic antioxidants has been shown to be of benefit in the prevention and attenuation of metal induced biochemical alterations. These include vitamins, N-acetylcysteine, α-lipoic acid, melatonin, dietary flavonoids and many others. Human studies are limited in this regard. Under certain conditions, surprisingly, the antioxidant supplements may exhibit pro-oxidant properties and even worsen metal induced toxic damage. To date, the evidence is insufficient to recommend antioxidant supplements in subject with exposure to metals. Prospective, controlled clinical trials on safety and effectiveness of different therapeutic antioxidant strategies either individually or in combination with chelating agent are indispensable. The present review focuses on structural, chemical and biological aspects of antioxidants particularly related to their chelating properties.

  15. Structural design aspects of magnetic coils for a linear theta-pinch hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomew, R.J.

    1976-02-01

    The structural design aspects of a linear theta-pinch hybrid reactor (LTPHR) are centered in the solenoidal adiabatic compression coil (ACC) which must support the high magnetic pulse forces that tend to expand the coil and separate the leads. The structural model is represented by the theory of elasticity solution to a thick-walled cylinder. Dynamic amplification (or attenuation) is considered by a shock spectrum technique. A composite material is postulated, where the conductor material for each strand is clad with a high-strength stainless steel with insulation considered. Yield strength (for isolated-pulse operation) and endurance limit (for repetitive-pulse operation) for the high-strength steel impose magnetic field strength constraints on the coil design. These constraints are combined in an overall energy balance calculation that includes neutronic considerations to determine an optimum ACC design. The computer code ENBAL was used to incorporate neutronic, electrical, and structural constraints into the overall energy balance of the LTPHR. The lead separation problem is solved by designing spaced clamps to hold the leads together over great distances

  16. Topology optimization aided structural design: Interpretation, computational aspects and 3D printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakis, Georgios; Kanellopoulos, Ioannis; Sotiropoulos, Stefanos; Lagaros, Nikos D

    2017-10-01

    Construction industry has a major impact on the environment that we spend most of our life. Therefore, it is important that the outcome of architectural intuition performs well and complies with the design requirements. Architects usually describe as "optimal design" their choice among a rather limited set of design alternatives, dictated by their experience and intuition. However, modern design of structures requires accounting for a great number of criteria derived from multiple disciplines, often of conflicting nature. Such criteria derived from structural engineering, eco-design, bioclimatic and acoustic performance. The resulting vast number of alternatives enhances the need for computer-aided architecture in order to increase the possibility of arriving at a more preferable solution. Therefore, the incorporation of smart, automatic tools in the design process, able to further guide designer's intuition becomes even more indispensable. The principal aim of this study is to present possibilities to integrate automatic computational techniques related to topology optimization in the phase of intuition of civil structures as part of computer aided architectural design. In this direction, different aspects of a new computer aided architectural era related to the interpretation of the optimized designs, difficulties resulted from the increased computational effort and 3D printing capabilities are covered here in.

  17. Spin-transfer phenomena in layered magnetic structures: Physical phenomena and materials aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenberg, P.; Buergler, D.E.; Dassow, H.; Rata, A.D.; Schneider, C.M.

    2007-01-01

    During the past 20 years, layered structures consisting of ferromagnetic layers and spacers of various material classes with a thickness of only a few nanometers have revealed a variety of exciting and potentially very useful phenomena not present in bulk material. Representing distinct manifestations of spin-transfer processes, these phenomena may be categorized into interlayer exchange coupling (IEC), giant magnetoresistance (GMR), tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR), and the more recently discovered spin-transfer torque effect leading to current-induced magnetization switching (CIMS) and current-driven magnetization dynamics. These phenomena clearly confer novel material properties on magnetic layered structures with respect to the (magneto-)transport and the magnetostatic as well as magnetodynamic behavior. Here, we will first concentrate on the less well understood aspects of IEC across insulating and semiconducting interlayers and relate the observations to TMR in the corresponding structures. In this context, we will also discuss more recent advances in TMR due to the use of electrodes made from Heusler alloys and the realization of coherent tunneling in epitaxial magnetic tunneling junctions. Finally, we will review our results on CIMS in epitaxial magnetic nanostructures showing that normal and inverse CIMS can occur simultaneously in a single nanopillar device. In all cases discussed, material issues play a major role in the detailed understanding of the spin-transfer effects, in particular in those systems that yield the largest effects and are thus of utmost interest for applications

  18. Aspergillus niger biofilms for celulasas production: some structural and physiological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretty K. Villena

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus niger biofilms developed on polyester cloth were evaluated considering two aspects related to the growth on surfaces: structure and physiological behavior focused on cellulase production. The biofilm structure was assessed by using electron scanning microphotographs from inoculation and adsorption to 120 h growth. The microphotographs show that biofilm formation can be divided into three phases: 1 Adhesion, which is strongly increased by Aspergillus spore hydrophobicity; 2 Initial growth and development phase from spore germination, that begins 4 to 10 h after inoculation and continues up to 24 h when almost all available surface has been colonized; 3 Maturation phase in which biomass density is highly increased from 48 h after inoculation until 120 h growth when an internal channel organization that assures medium flow through biofilm is clearly evident as it is frequently reported for bacterial biofilms.Biofilm cellulolytic enzyme activity and productivity were also evaluated, being up to 40% and 55%, respectively, higher than that attained by freely suspended cultures. These results are in agreement with the behavior of most surface living microorganisms, which generally show a higher metabolic activity because of a differential gene expression. This work is a first attempt to understand the structure and physiology of industrial filamentous fungal biofilms as a response to the scarce available information in comparison with the vast and detailed information related to bacterial and pathogenic yeast biofilms.

  19. Exotic nuclei: another aspect of nuclear structure; Les noyaux exotiques: un autre regard sur la structure nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobaczewski, J [Warsaw Univ., Institute of Theoretical Physics (Poland); Blumenfeld, Y; Flocard, H; Garcia Borge, M J; Nowacki, F; Rombouts, S; Theisen, Ch; Marques, F M; Lacroix, D; Dessagne, P; Gaeggeler, H

    2002-07-01

    This document gathers the lectures made at the Joliot Curie international summer school in 2002 whose theme that year was exotic nuclei. There were 11 contributions whose titles are: 1) interactions, symmetry breaking and effective fields from quarks to nuclei; 2) status and perspectives for the study of exotic nuclei: experimental aspects; 3) the pairing interaction and the N = Z nuclei; 4) borders of stability region and exotic decays; 5) shell structure of nuclei: from stability to decay; 6) variational approach of system with a few nucleons; 7) from heavy to super-heavy nuclei; 8) halos, molecules and multi-neutrons; 9) macroscopic approaches for fusion reactions; 10) beta decay: a tool for spectroscopy; 11) the gas phase chemistry of super-heavy elements.

  20. Morphoanatomy of nectaries of Chamaecrista (L. Moench sections Chamaecrista , Caliciopsis and Xerocalyx (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinalva dos Santos Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Nectaries are specialized structures that secrete nectar. Several species of Chamaecrista possess nectaries on the petiole, which have been shown to vary widely in morphology and the chemical nature of their secretion. However, a comprehensive investigation of the nectaries of the clade formed by sect. Chamaecrista, Caliciopsis and Xerocalyx has yet to be performed. Our study aimed to confirm whether or not the leaf glands of species of this clade are in fact nectaries, determine the chemical nature of their secretion and expand the morphoanatomical database on leaf nectaries in Chamaecrista with the intention of contributing to the taxonomy and phylogeny of the genus. Samples from herbarium and field-collected material were subjected to standard methods for light and scanning electron microscopy. Four different forms of nectaries were observed: urceolate, patelliform, verruciform and cupuliform. The nectaries were found to comprise a single-layered epidermis, nectary parenchyma, subnectary parenchyma and vascularization. Polysaccharides, lipids, phenolic compounds and proteins were detected in secretions. Although anatomical similarities were observed among the studied species, their morphology differed. Moreover, the glands are indeed nectaries and are similar to those observed in other species of the genus Chamaecrista. These data hold potential taxonomic usefulness for the studied sections.

  1. Powder X-ray diffraction studies of structural and kinetic aspects of polymorphism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, F.C.

    1999-01-01

    Polymorphism is a poorly understood phenomenon that is of considerable technological interest to the pharmaceutical industry. The polymorph selected can influence the bioavailability, processing and stability of the pharmaceutical dosage form. In this study structural, kinetic and thermodynamics aspects of polymorphism and polymorphic phase transformations have been examined using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). The compound sulphathiazole is a well-studied model in the investigation of polymorphism and crystal growth. There are five known polymorphic forms and the structure of form V was unknown until this study. The difficulty has been that it has not been possibly to prepare crystals of appropriate size and quality for single crystal diffraction. Furthermore, structure solution from powder data for organic molecules is almost impossible. Despite the challenge the structure of sulphathiazole form V have been solved ab initio from powder data using direct methods. With 16 non-hydrogen atoms in the molecule and two molecules in the asymmetric unit, this structure represents a significant advance in terms of the complexity of an organic structure solved from PXRD data. The structural data should be invaluable for rationalizing experimental observations and the development of theoretical ideas regarding polymorphism and crystal growth. The second part of the study, has examined kinetics of polymorphic phase transformations as a function of pressure combined with temperature using real-time synchrotron PXRD. The significance of pressure arises from the fact that phase transitions can be induced in pharmaceuticals during tabletting. The phase transformation behaviour of rubidium iodide (chosen as a simple test model) has been investigated as a function of isobaric pressure at ambient and elevated temperatures. The kinetics have been characterized by using the Johnson-Melil-Avrami equation. The effect of successive cycling across the transition pressure was also

  2. Large-scale phylogeography of the disjunct Neotropical tree species Schizolobium parahyba (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchetto-Zolet, Andreia C; Cruz, Fernanda; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Simon, Marcelo F; Salgueiro, Fabiano; Margis-Pinheiro, Marcia; Margis, Rogerio

    2012-10-01

    Neotropical rainforests exhibit high levels of endemism and diversity. Although the evolutionary genetics of plant diversification has garnered increased interest, phylogeographic studies of widely distributed species remain scarce. Here we describe chloroplast and nuclear variation patterns in Schizolobium parahyba (Fabaceae), a widespread tree in Neotropical rainforests that harbor two varieties with a disjunct distribution. Chloroplast and nuclear sequence analyses yielded 21 and 4 haplotypes, respectively. Two genetic diversity centers that correlate with the two known varieties were identified: the Southeastern Atlantic forest and the Amazonian basin. In contrast, the populations from southern and northeastern Atlantic forests and Andean-Central American forests exhibited low levels of genetic diversity and divergent haplotypes, likely related to historical processes that impact the flora and fauna in these regions, such as a founder's effect after dispersion and demographic expansion. Phylogeographic and demographic patterns suggest that episodes of genetic isolation and dispersal events have shaped the evolutionary history for this species, and different patterns have guided the evolution of S. parahyba. Moreover, the results of this study suggest that the dry corridor formed by Cerrado and Caatinga ecoregions and the Andean uplift acted as barriers to this species' gene flow, a picture that may be generalized to most of the plant biodiversity tropical woodlands and forests. These results also reinforce the importance of evaluating multiple genetic markers for a more comprehensive understanding of population structure and history. Our results provide insight into the conservation efforts and ongoing work on the genetics of population divergence and speciation in these Neotropical rainforests. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Aspects of the design and structural analysis of the prestressed cast iron nuclear reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.G.

    1978-09-01

    The development of the prestressed cast iron nuclear reactor pressure vessel up to the present time is reviewed, and the current status is outlined of the techniques used for its structural analysis. Details of the manufacturing processes involved in the production of the castings, and problems of inspecting them to the standards required for a nuclear application are discussed. A method for the detailed modelling of the cast iron segments is proposed, using the finite element technique with plate bending elements, and criteria for obtaining accurate results are derived. The application of the technique to the analysis of a single cast segment situated in the wall of a PCIPV has enabled an accurate determination of the stress field to be made. Account is taken of the effect of the vessel displacements on the tendon stresses at normal vault pressure and at high overpressure. Studies by this method of several different casting designs have identified favourable features, which have been incorporated into an optimised design. The sensitivity of the structure to a machining error in a casting and to the failure or removal of circumferential and axial tendons is examined, making use of axisymmetric and three-dimensional global finite element solutions to provide boundary conditions for detailed local analyses. Some aspects of the economics of the cast iron reactor pressure vessel are discussed, and recommendations are made for further research in areas relevant to the assessment of the reliability of the vessel. (author)

  4. Bosch-like method for creating high aspect ratio poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) structures

    KAUST Repository

    Haiducu, Marius

    2012-02-02

    This paper presents a method for etching millimetre-deep trenches in commercial grade PMMA using deep-UV at 254 nm. The method is based on consecutive cycles of irradiation and development of the exposed areas, respectively. The exposure segment is performed using an inexpensive, in-house built irradiation box while the development part is accomplished using an isopropyl alcohol (IPA):H2O developer. The method was tested and characterized by etching various dimension square test structures in commercial grade, mirrored acrylic. The undercut of the sidewalls due to the uncollimated nature of the irradiation light was dramatically alleviated by using a honeycomb metallic grid in between the irradiation source and the acrylic substrate and by rotating the latter using a direct current (DC) motor-driven stage. By using an extremely affordable set-up and non-toxic, environmentally friendly materials and substances, this process represents an excellent alternative to microfabricating microfluidic devices in particular and high aspect ratio structures in general using PMMA as substrate. © 2012 SPIE.

  5. High aspect ratio lead zirconate titanate tube structures: I. Template assisted fabrication - vacuum infiltration method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Kovaľ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Polycrystalline Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT microtubes are fabricated by a vacuum infiltration method. The method is based on repeated infiltration of precursor solution into macroporous silicon (Si templates at a sub-atmospheric pressure. The pyrolyzed PZT tubes of a 2-µm outer diameter, extending to over 30 µm in length were released from the template using a selective isotropic-pulsed XeF2 reactive ion etching of silicon. Free-standing microtubes, partially anchored at the bottom of the Si template, were then crystallized in pure oxygen atmosphere at 750 °C for 2 min using a rapid thermal annealer. The perovskite phase of the final PZT tubes was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis. The XRD spectrum also revealed a small amount of the pyrochlore phase in the structure and signs of possible fluoride contamination caused most likely by the XeF2 etching process. The surface morphology was examined using scanning electron microscopy. It was demonstrated that the whole surface of the pore walls was conformally coated during the repeated infiltration of templates, resulting in straight tubes with closed tips formed on the opposite ends as replicas of the pore bottoms. These high aspect ratio ferroelectric structures are suggested as building units for developing miniaturized electronic devices, such as memory storage (DRAM trenched capacitors, piezoelectric scanners and actuators, and are of fundamental value for the theory of ferroelectricity in systems with low dimensionality.

  6. Analyzing the structural aspects of Isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway proteins in Ocimum species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muktesh Chandra

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Generally thought that the extremely diverse array of secondary metabolites observed within Ocimum species defends against a comparable diverse array of biotic pests, pathogens and herbivores encountered around its natural range. Along with defense the diverse array of secondary metabolite also leads to the therapeutic and remedial property which justifies Ocimum as natural medicinal and aromatic casket. Many of the defense compounds, aroma compounds and medicinal derivatives are secondary metabolites isolated from trichome glands, mainly consist of terpenoids as well as phenylpropanoids. Various pathways fabricating these compounds are known viz. mevalonate pathway (MVA, phenylpropanoid pathway and MEP pathways. The enzyme cascade responsible for various secondary metabolites, need to be explored in various aspects. Here we had studied the MVA pathway enzymes in O. basilicum and O. gratissimum to figure out variations in enzyme structures due to speciation. Hence, in depth analysis of the transcriptome of O. basilicum and O. gratissimum, varrying in qualitative and quantitative aspects of essential oil were carried out. The transcriptome data from NCBI server was assembled using bioinformatic approaches. nr database at NCBI repository used for annotation, which assigned 60% contigs to known functions. Contigs corresponding to Mevalonate pathway enzymes are isolated using perl pipelines developed in our lab, which were further assembled using CLC workbench to remove redundancy and make larger stretch of sequence. Blastx of these larger sequences assigned them function and they are mapped to validated sequences to make full length. Data from both species led us to overall seven enzymes (total 14 of MVA pathway. These enzymes are studied in detail for various physio-chemical properties, steriochemical properties and motif/domain for protein-protein interaction (PPI study. Homolog models of all enzymes were predicted, against templates from RCSB

  7. Caesalpiniaceae (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Ding; Larsen, K.; Larsen, S.S.

    1996-01-01

    In Malesia the family contains 25 indigenous genera and 8 genera with only introduced species, as follows (in brackets the number of native and/or introduced species in Malesia): Acrocarpus (1), Afzelia (2), Amherstia (1), Bauhinia (69), Brownea (4), Caesalpinia (22), Cassia (4), Chamaecrista (5),

  8. Structural and dynamical aspects of Streptococcus gordonii FabH through molecular docking and MD simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Amen; Abbasi, Sumra Wajid; Azam, Syed Sikander

    2015-07-01

    β-Ketoacyl-ACP-synthase III (FabH or KAS III) has become an attractive target for the development of new antibacterial agents which can overcome the multidrug resistance. Unraveling the fatty acid biosynthesis (FAB) metabolic pathway and understanding structural coordinates of FabH will provide valuable insights to target Streptococcus gordonii for curing oral infection. In this study, we designed inhibitors against therapeutic target FabH, in order to block the FAB pathway. As compared to other targets, FabH has more interactions with other proteins, located on the leading strand with higher codon adaptation index value and associated with lipid metabolism category of COG. Current study aims to gain in silico insights into the structural and dynamical aspect of S. gordonii FabH via molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The FabH protein is catalytically active in dimerization while it can lock in monomeric state. Current study highlights two residues Pro88 and Leu315 that are close to each other by dimerization. The active site of FabH is composed of the catalytic triad formed by residues Cys112, His249, and Asn279 in which Cys112 is involved in acetyl transfer, while His249 and Asn279 play an active role in decarboxylation. Docking analysis revealed that among the studied compounds, methyl-CoA disulfide has highest GOLD score (82.75), binding affinity (-11 kcal/mol) and exhibited consistently better interactions. During MD simulations, the FabH structure remained stable with the average RMSD value of 1.7 Å and 1.6 Å for undocked protein and docked complex, respectively. Further, crucial hydrogen bonding of the conserved catalytic triad for exhibiting high affinity between the FabH protein and ligand is observed by RDF analysis. The MD simulation results clearly demonstrated that binding of the inhibitor with S. gordonii FabH enhanced the structure and stabilized the dimeric FabH protein. Therefore, the inhibitor has the potential to become

  9. High-aspect-ratio, silicon oxide-enclosed pillar structures in microfluidic liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lisa C; Lavrik, Nickolay V; Sepaniak, Michael J

    2010-11-15

    The present paper discusses the ability to separate chemical species using high-aspect-ratio, silicon oxide-enclosed pillar arrays. These miniaturized chromatographic systems require smaller sample volumes, experience less flow resistance, and generate superior separation efficiency over traditional packed bed liquid chromatographic columns, improvements controlled by the increased order and decreased pore size of the systems. In our distinctive fabrication sequence, plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of silicon oxide is used to alter the surface and structural properties of the pillars for facile surface modification while improving the pillar mechanical stability and increasing surface area. The separation behavior of model compounds within our pillar systems indicated an unexpected hydrophobic-like separation mechanism. The effects of organic modifier, ionic concentration, and pressure-driven flow rate were studied. A decrease in the organic content of the mobile phase increased peak resolution while detrimentally effecting peak shape. A resolution of 4.7 (RSD = 3.7%) was obtained for nearly perfect Gaussian shaped peaks, exhibiting plate heights as low as 1.1 and 1.8 μm for fluorescein and sulforhodamine B, respectively. Contact angle measurements and DART mass spectrometry analysis indicate that our employed elastomeric soft bonding technique modifies pillar properties, creating a fortuitous stationary phase. This discovery provides evidence supporting the ability to easily functionalize PECVD oxide surfaces by gas-phase reactions.

  10. Recommendations on basic requirements for intensive care units: structural and organizational aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentin, Andreas; Ferdinande, Patrick

    2011-10-01

    To provide guidance and recommendations for the planning or renovation of intensive care units (ICUs) with respect to the specific characteristics relevant to organizational and structural aspects of intensive care medicine. The Working Group on Quality Improvement (WGQI) of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM) identified the basic requirements for ICUs by a comprehensive literature search and an iterative process with several rounds of consensus finding with the participation of 47 intensive care physicians from 23 countries. The starting point of this process was an ESICM recommendation published in 1997 with the need for an updated version. The document consists of operational guidelines and design recommendations for ICUs. In the first part it covers the definition and objectives of an ICU, functional criteria, activity criteria, and the management of equipment. The second part deals with recommendations with respect to the planning process, floorplan and connections, accommodation, fire safety, central services, and the necessary communication systems. This document provides a detailed framework for the planning or renovation of ICUs based on a multinational consensus within the ESICM.

  11. Potential pollinators of Comolia ovalifolia DC Triana (Melastomataceae) and Chamaecrista ramosa (Vog.) H.S. Irwin and Barneby var. ramosa (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae), in restinga, Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Rebouças, P; Gimenes, M

    2011-05-01

    Comolia ovalifolia DC Triana (Melastomataceae) and Chamaecrista ramosa (Vog.) H.S. Irwin and Barneby var. ramosa (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae) are tropical plant species found in restinga (herbaceous-shrubby, sandy costal ecosystems). They have flowers with poricidal anthers and are pollinated by bees. The study sought to analyse potential pollinators of both plants during visits to their flowers in a restinga area in Bahia. The flowering displayed by both species was considered continuous and long duration, constantly providing pollen to floral visitors. C. ovalifolia was visited by 17 species of bees and C. ramosa by 16 species, predominantly from the Apidae family (with a similarity index of 74%). The behavior displayed by these visiting bees was of vibrating anthers. The small-sized Euglossa sp. Latreille, 1802 and Florilegus similis Urban, 1970 bees played less of a role as pollinators, since they rarely touched the flower stigma during harvests and were thus considered opportunist visitors or casual pollinators. Centris decolorata Lepetier, 1841 (= C. leprieuri) and Xylocopa subcyanea Perez, 1901 are large bees and were considered efficient pollinators of C. ovalifolia and C. ramosa because of the higher frequency and constancy of their visits, and their favourable behaviour and size for pollen transfer between flowers, which guarantees the survival of these native restinga plant species.

  12. Phylogenetic relationships in the genus Leonardoxa (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) inferred from chloroplast trnL intron and trnL-trnF intergenic spacer sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouat, Carine; Gielly, Ludovic; McKey, Doyle

    2001-01-01

    The African genus LEONARDOXA: (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) comprises two Congolean species and a group of four mostly allopatric subspecies principally located in Cameroon and clustered together in the L. africana complex. LEONARDOXA: provides a good opportunity to investigate the evolutionary history of ant-plant mutualisms, as it exhibits various grades of ant-plant interactions from diffuse to obligate and symbiotic associations. We present in this paper the first molecular phylogenetic study of this genus. We sequenced both the chloroplast DNA trnL intron (677 aligned base pairs [bp]) and trnL-trnF intergene spacer (598 aligned bp). Inferred phylogenetic relationships suggested first that the genus is paraphyletic. The L. africana complex is clearly separated from the two Congolean species, and the integrity of the genus is thus in question. In the L. africana complex, our data showed a lack of congruence between clades suggested by morphological and chloroplast characters. This, and the low level of molecular divergence found between subspecies, suggests gene flow and introgressive events in the L. africana complex.

  13. New aspects of the structure of the proton revealed by the collider Hera; Nouveaux aspects de la structure du proton avec le collisionneur HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z

    2000-12-01

    Since its commissioning in 1991, the ep collider HERA has been running successfully for almost a decade without stopping improving its performance. In this report, the inclusive cross section and structure function measurements for the deep inelastic scattering of neutral and charged current processes in the full HERA kinematic domain are reviewed. The results are compared with the Standard Model expectations for the deep inelastic scattering processes. The new insights into the proton structure and on the underlying strong and electroweak interactions are discussed. (author)

  14. Ionic core–shell dendrimers with a polycationic core: structural aspects and host–guest binding properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Coevering, R.; Bruijnincx, P.C.A.; Lutz, M.; Spek, A.L.; van Koten, G.; Klein Gebbink, R.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The structural aspects and host–guest binding properties of ionic core–shell dendrimers [1]Br8 and [2]Br4, which bear a polycationic core and a neutral shell of Fréchet-type poly(benzyl aryl ether) dendrons, have been investigated by means of dendritic wedges [3]Br2 and [4]Br, that resemble one of

  15. General aspects of slip from technique in the construction of containment structure of the Narora Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilak, M.M.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes one of the modern techniques of construction methods, i.e. use of slip form technique. Important features in adopting the above technique and its impact on construction aspects and design parameters in respect of containment structure are briefly discussed. (author)

  16. Structural design aspects of innovative designs under development in the current US Liquid Metal-Cooled Reactor program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidensticker, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    The US Liquid Metal-Cooled Reactor (LMR) program has been restructured and is now focussed on the development of innovative plant designs which emphasize shorter construction times, increased use of passive, inherently safe features, cost-competitiveness with LWR plants, and minimization of safety-related systems. These changes have a considerable effect on the structural design aspects of the LMR plant. These structural problems and their solutions now under study form the main focus of this paper. (orig.)

  17. Bacterial vaginosis (clue cell-positive discharge) : diagnostic, ultra-structural and therapeutic aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.I. van der Meijden (Willem)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis deals with several aspects of (abnormal) vaginal discharge, focusing especially on clue cell-positive discharge (bacterial vaginosis, nonspecific vaginitis). It reports data on epidemiology and clinical features, pathogenesis, and treatment of this vaginal disease entity,

  18. Framework to model neutral particle flux in convex high aspect ratio structures using one-dimensional radiosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manstetten, Paul; Filipovic, Lado; Hössinger, Andreas; Weinbub, Josef; Selberherr, Siegfried

    2017-02-01

    We present a computationally efficient framework to compute the neutral flux in high aspect ratio structures during three-dimensional plasma etching simulations. The framework is based on a one-dimensional radiosity approach and is applicable to simulations of convex rotationally symmetric holes and convex symmetric trenches with a constant cross-section. The framework is intended to replace the full three-dimensional simulation step required to calculate the neutral flux during plasma etching simulations. Especially for high aspect ratio structures, the computational effort, required to perform the full three-dimensional simulation of the neutral flux at the desired spatial resolution, conflicts with practical simulation time constraints. Our results are in agreement with those obtained by three-dimensional Monte Carlo based ray tracing simulations for various aspect ratios and convex geometries. With this framework we present a comprehensive analysis of the influence of the geometrical properties of high aspect ratio structures as well as of the particle sticking probability on the neutral particle flux.

  19. 11th International Conference on Clustering Aspects of Nuclear Structure and Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Preface The 11 th edition of the International Conference on Clustering Aspects of Nuclear Structure and Dynamics (CLUSTER‘16) was held in Napoli, Italy, on May 23-27 2016. All the Conference Sessions took place in the magnificent Complesso Monumentale dei Ss. Marcellino e Festo , located in the Historical Centre of Naples. This is one of the most prestigious building complexes of the Federico II University of Naples, the main home institution of the organizers, together with the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (Naples division). This building is 500 years old; in the XVIII century, it was reshaped by Luigi Vanvitelli, a famous architect of the pre-Neoclassical period in Italy, designer of the prestigious Royal Palace in the near town of Caserta. The site of Plenary Sessions was the Church of Ss. Marcellino e Festo , where all the participants were surrounded by the Baroque frescoes by Belisario Corenzio and, among the others, the paintings of Battistello Caracciolo, Massimo Stanzione, Giuseppe Simonelli and Francesco De Mura, important artists of the late Baroque period in South Italy. The sites of Parallel Sessions were two halls in the arcade of the S. Marcellino cloister: this gave the opportunity to the participants to enjoy the beauty of the architecture of the cloister with its fountains, gardens, sculptures. As organizers of the Conference, our main aims were: (1) to provide an excellent programme, with the expectation to be a reference point for the Nuclear Cluster Physics in the next four years; (2) to assure a very relaxing stay to the participants, allowing them to explore the bounty of artistic, and also culinary, masterpieces that Naples offers to its guests. The first point was assured by all the conveners that, with their excellent talks, gave a very precise and complete overview of the most recent achievements on Nuclear Cluster Physics, both from the experimental and theoretical point of view. We are indebted with the International

  20. Ecologie et gestion des espèces multi-usages du genre Erythrophleum (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae en Afrique (synthèse bibliographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorel, AP.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecology and management of the multipurpose Erythrophleum species (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae in Africa. A review. Introduction. Widespread in Africa, the Erythrophleum genus includes four tropical tree species with a high economic and socio-cultural value: Erythrophleum ivorense, Erythrophleum suaveolens, Erythrophleum africanum and Erythrophleum lasianthum. Appropriate knowledge of the ecology and the distribution of these species is required for their sustainable management. This paper is based on an extensive literature review and summarizes the available information on the African Erythrophleum species in terms of botany, phylogeography, ecology, forestry and ethnobotany. Literature. Erythrophleum ivorense, E. suaveolens, E. africanum and E. lasianthum are morphologically different and occur in distinct climatic areas. They are non-pioneer light demander (E. ivorense and E. suaveolens or pioneer species (E. africanum. Their primary mode of dispersal is via ballochore. The seeds have a dormancy period and can remain in the soil for several years. Their reproductive and foliar phenologies are regular and annual. Growth rate varies between species, ranging from 0.65 cm per year for E. ivorense to 0.16 cm per year for E. africanum. These trees are used in traditional medicine. Only E. ivorense and E. suaveolens (Tali are mainly logged for timber. Conclusions. Erythrophleum species ecological data are better informed for E. ivorense and E. suaveolens because of their economic importance. This review highlights the existing lack of knowledge regarding the phenology (effects of climate, fructification periods, the minimum diameter of fructification and the mechanisms of natural seed dormancy breakage. Targeting such weaknesses is required to create or re-evaluate methods of conservation and/or enhancement of populations and logging practices.

  1. Different measures of structural similarity tap different aspects of visual object processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The structural similarity of objects has been an important variable in explaining why some objects are easier to categorize at a superordinate level than to individuate, and also why some patients with brain injury have more difficulties in recognizing natural (structurally similar) objects than...... artifacts (structurally distinct objects). In spite of its merits as an explanatory variable, structural similarity is not a unitary construct, and it has been operationalized in different ways. Furthermore, even though measures of structural similarity have been successful in explaining task and category-effects...

  2. Crystal structure of aspartame anhydrate from powder diffraction data. Structural aspects of the dehydration process of aspartame

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guguta, C.; Meekes, H.L.M.; Gelder, R. de

    2006-01-01

    Aspartame has three pseudo-polymorphic forms, two hydrates and a hemi-hydrate, for which crystal structures were determined from single-crystal diffraction data. This paper presents the crystal structure of the anhydrate, which was obtained by dehydrating the hemi-hydrate. The crystal structure of

  3. Sacrificial structures for deep reactive ion etching of high-aspect ratio kinoform silicon x-ray lenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stöhr, Frederik; Michael-Lindhard, Jonas; Hübner, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the realization of complex high-aspect ratio silicon structures with feature dimensions from 100 lm to 100nm by deep reactive ion etching using the Bosch process. As the exact shape of the sidewall profiles can be crucial for the proper functioning of a device, the authors...... of the sacrificial structures was accomplished by thermal oxidation and subsequent selective wet etching. The effects of the dimensions and relative placement of sacrificial walls and pillars on the etching result were determined through systematic experiments. The authors applied this process for exact sidewall...

  4. Thermal, structural, and fabrication aspects of diamond windows for high power synchrotron x-ray beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khounsary, A.M.; Phillips, W.

    1992-01-01

    Recent advances in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technology have made it possible to produce thin free-standing diamond foils that can be used as the window material in high heat load, synchrotron beamlines. Numerical simulations suggest that these windows can offer an attractive and at times the only altemative to beryllium windows for use in third generation x-ray synchrotron radiation beamlines. Utilization, design, and fabrication aspects of diamond windows for high heat load x-ray beamlines are discussed, as are the microstructure characteristics bearing on diamond's performance in this role. Analytic and numerical results are also presented to provide a basis for the design and testing of such windows

  5. Some structural aspects of language are more stable than others: a comparison of seven methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Dediu

    Full Text Available Understanding the patterns and causes of differential structural stability is an area of major interest for the study of language change and evolution. It is still debated whether structural features have intrinsic stabilities across language families and geographic areas, or if the processes governing their rate of change are completely dependent upon the specific context of a given language or language family. We conducted an extensive literature review and selected seven different approaches to conceptualising and estimating the stability of structural linguistic features, aiming at comparing them using the same dataset, the World Atlas of Language Structures. We found that, despite profound conceptual and empirical differences between these methods, they tend to agree in classifying some structural linguistic features as being more stable than others. This suggests that there are intrinsic properties of such structural features influencing their stability across methods, language families and geographic areas. This finding is a major step towards understanding the nature of structural linguistic features and their interaction with idiosyncratic, lineage- and area-specific factors during language change and evolution.

  6. Preliminary aspects concerning phytoplankton structure in the Balta Mare – Carja 1 fish farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria FETECAU

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents information on the structure and the dynamics of the water ecosystem’s phytoplankton of the Carja 1 fish farm - Vaslui County, carps and Asian cyprinids are grown ascommon fish. To establish the structure and the dynamics of the phytoplankton, two samples from 6 stations were taken in the spring and in the autumn, using of a Garmin GPS 7- type navigation system.When analysing the number of individuals and the algae species present in the phytoplankton’s structure, one can notice the low development level of the vegetable plankton. From the quantity point of view, one can notice the numerical abundance of the clorophyceae in all the analysed samples. The dominant species were: Scenedesmus acuminatus, Scenedesmus quadricauda, Tetrastrum staurogenieforme. The small number of species and algae specimens determined in the phytoplankton’s structure emphasizes the reduced level of trophicity and biodiversity of the analysed ecosystem.

  7. Aspects of Structure and Dynamics at a Refugee Centre in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackrill, Thomas Edward

    1996-01-01

    This article presents an empirical analysis that is part of a practice research project carried out at a Danish Red Cross refugee centre in Copenhagen. It focuses on the relation between the individual refugee and the receiving institution. It points out how the organizational structure...... of a particular refugee centre enables discord between refugees and centre workers as well as among the centre staff. It analyses some of the dynamics of the conflicts that are facilitated by the structure...

  8. The structure and institutions: a regional aspect of interaction in the economic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Stepanovich Tarasevich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article with the help of two-sector model of the economic system, the interaction of national and regional economy is investigated. This interaction is observed from the position of development of material structure and institutions. As the key structural parameter of an economy, the proportion between sector of excess resources and sector of scarce resources is taken. The situation when sector of excess resources prevails over sector of scarce resources forms structural conditions for the creation of the market institutions. If a sector of excess resources is smaller than a sector of scarce resources, the conditions for the emergence of institutions of government regulation are formed. Two cases are analyzed: the first one concerns the situation of a simple national economy consisting of 2 provisory regions. The second is the case of the national economy consisting of many regions. The authors show that material structure of a total combination of regions defines institutions of the market or state regulation for the national economy as a whole. The institutions formed at the level of the national economy, can support or resist the development of structure of the region. The conditions are observed under which united institutions of the national economy contradict a development of structure of the individual region.

  9. Under-explored aspects of structural adjustment: Growing inequalities among women and implications for feminist movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder

    2008-01-01

    , privatization of the public sector and exposing domestic industries to foreign market competition. Contrary to promised benefits, SAPs have resulted in escalating poverty and inequality, deteriorating health, education and housing conditions, and degradation of the environment. Women in ‘developing countries...... that can thwart neo-liberal and concomitant fundamentalist forces. With a focus on India, the essay highlights the escalating disparities among women that have remained under-researched, and accentuates the need to investigate the repercussions of these egregious inequities for feminist organizations.......’ have faced the major brunt as SAPs have transformed crucial aspects of their lives. While the outcomes of SAPs for women have been well-documented, most extant literature views women as a homogenous group ignoring differential impacts of economic reforms across class, caste, religion and other social...

  10. Electrical properties of transparent CNT and ITO coatings on PET substrate including nano-structural aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joung-Man; Wang, Zuo-Jia; Kwon, Dong-Jun; Gu, Ga-Young; Lawrence DeVries, K.

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectra and surface resistance measurement were used to investigate optical transmittance and conductive properties of carbon nanotube (CNT) and indium tin oxide (ITO) coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. Conductive CNT and ITO coatings were successfully fabricated on PET by a spray-coating method. Thin coatings of both materials exhibited good conductivity and transparency. Changes in electrical and optical properties of the coatings were studied as a function of the coating suspension concentration. Interfacial durability of the coatings on PET substrates was also investigated under fatigue and bending loads. CNT coated substrates, with high aspect ratios, exhibited no detectable change in surface resistance up to 2000 cyclic loadings, whereas the ITO coated substrates exhibited a substantial increase in surface resistance at 1000 loading cycles. This change in resistance is attributed to a reduction in the number and effectiveness of the electrical contact points due to the inherent brittle nature of ITO.

  11. Organization aspect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Mehandjiev, N.; Mehandjiev, N.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Following the BOAT framework discussed in Chapter 1, this chapter describes the organization aspect of the CrossWork approach. It shows how the business requirements identified in the previous chapter can be fulfilled by dynamic organization structures and business processes in Networks of

  12. Some aspects of the reliability-based design of reactor containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueller, G.I.

    1975-01-01

    It is generally recognized that the load which a structure is likely to experience during its design life as well as its resistance are to be represented by random variables. A rational design procedure for reactor containment structures can therefore only be carried out within a probabilistic framework. Internal load conditions caused by system failure such as loss-of-coolant accident, pressure loads etc., and external load conditions caused for instance by impact due to aircraft crashes, external pressure waves and natural hazards such as earthquakes, floods, hurricanes are described by extreme value distributions of the Fisher-Tippett types. Statistical and physical arguments are given to support their application. The occurrence of these rare events with respect to time is modeled by a Poisson process. The yield strength of the containment structure for both steel (liner) and reinforced concrete shells is also modeled by extreme value distributions (of the smallest values). The failure criterion considered here is that of collapse determined by plastic yieldline formation. A failure mechanism as considered here describes a particular regime of plastic line formation. The probability of failure of a structure under a single load application of load types likely to occur during the design life of the structure is to be determined by integrating over all possible mechanisms. Finally Freudenthal's reliability function is utilized to combine the information derived above so that a containment design for given design lifes and reliabilities is possible. (orig.) [de

  13. Cyberlexicography in LSP: New Aspects of Components and Structures in the Dictionary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Anne Lise; Duvå, Grete

    2005-01-01

    In the pre-electronic days the structure of a dictionary was discussed within pre-established frames, the controversial part being - more or less - how much information to include and in which order. Electronic devices offer a much wider set of possibilities within which no obvious pattern seems...... to have been established. In this paper, we shall focus on the strengths and weaknesses of a number of existing electronic dictionaries, and we shall make some suggestions as to how to reach an optimum and how to change the components and the structures of the internet dictionary accordingly....

  14. Steric structure and thermodynamic aspects of Dy3+ complexes with aminobenzoic acids in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrashina, Yu.G.; Mustafina, A.R.; Vul'fson, S.G.

    1994-01-01

    Stability and structure of dysprosium(3) aminobenzoate complexes with molar ratios Dy:L 1:1 and 1:2 (HL-aminobenzoic acid) in aqueous solutions are determined on the basis of pH-metric and paramagnetic birefringence data. The increase of conjugation effect in the series of benzoic, meta- ortho-, and para-aminobenzoic acid results in the increase of stability of 1:1 and 1:2 complexes. Features of the structure and coordination of ligands in dysprosium complexes with meta-, ortho-, and para-aminobenzoic acid are considered. 11 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  15. Main aspects of the design of a support structure of a LMFBR with particular reference to the explosive accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuliano, V.; Lazzeri, L.

    1977-01-01

    The aim of this paper is a review of the main aspects of the design of a support structure of a LMFBR tank, with particular reference to the analysis of the non-linear dynamic behaviour of the structure in the plastic range under the effect of an explosive accident within the tank. The structure is composed by a L-shaped flange, which supports the tank, connected by means of nine square beams to a rigid box-type ring, fixed to the concrete. The plug of the tank is connected to the L-shaped figure by means of a group of SS bars. The non-linear dynamic analysis of the explosive accident has been carried out on a lumped mass model, with elastic-plastic elements which simulate main components of the support structure and tank. The impulsive load connected to the explosive accident has been modelled (on the basis of extensive comparative studies carried out) as two triangular pressure impulses acting on the plug and on the botton of the tank. A large amount of results, which describe displacements, velocities and accelerations of the plug, of the tank, and of the support structure, together with the forces and stresses acting on the main structural components are presented and discussed, with particular reference to the influence of the various parameters involved in the analysis. (Auth.)

  16. Associations between structural quality aspects and process quality in Dutch early childhood education and care settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, P.L.; Leseman, P.P.M.; Verhagen, J.; Mulder, H.

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between structural quality and process quality in early childhood education and care (ECEC) has been addressed in several studies. However, the findings are not conclusive. The present study was conducted in the Netherlands, which has a strongly regulated mid-quality ECEC system

  17. What do children know and understand about universal gravitation? Structural and developmental aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frappart, S.; Raijmakers, M.; Frède, V.

    2014-01-01

    Children's understanding of universal gravitation starts at an early age but changes until adulthood, which makes it an interesting topic for studying the development and structure of knowledge. Children's understanding of gravitation was tested for a variety of contexts and across a wide age range

  18. New Biochemical Pathway for Biphenyl Degradation in Plants: Structural, Mechanistic and Biotechnological Aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacios, L. F.; Campos, V. M.; Merino, I.; Gomez, L.

    2009-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PVBs) and other structurally-related xenobiotics are amongst the most relevant organic pollutants known today. while some bacterial species can metabolize PCBs, with varying efficiency, no catabolic pathways have yet been described in plants. This is so despite the great potential of (at least some) plant species for soil and groundwater decontamination, a technology known as phyto remediation. (Author)

  19. Structural and Functional Aspects of the Sensor Histidine Kinase PrrB from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nowak, E.; Panjikar, S.; Morth, J.P.

    2006-01-01

    We describe the solution structures of two- and three-domain constructs of the sensor histidine kinase PrrB from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which allow us to locate the HAMP linker relative to the ATP binding and dimerization domains. We show that the three-domain construct is active both...

  20. Conformational aspects of dibenzo-tetroxecin: A structural, Raman spectroscopic and computational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Keith C.; McAdam, C. John; Moratti, Stephen C.; Shillito, Georgina E.; Simpson, Jim

    2017-10-01

    Crystalline dibenzo-tetroxecin (I) has been prepared from a reaction between catechol and dichloromethane and its molecular and crystal structure, together with the Raman spectrum of the material in the solid state and in solution, is reported. The molecular structure shows the molecule adopts an anti or stepped conformation. Density functional theory (DFT) optimisation and frequency calculations using the B3LYP functional with the 6-31G(d) basis set showed the presence of syn- and anti-conformers of (I), with the anti-conformer predicted to be the lower in energy by 13.6 kJ mol-1. The vibrational frequencies and relative Raman intensities of the anti-conformer are well modelled by the DFT calculations. The bond lengths and angles obtained for the anti-conformer are also in good agreement with the crystal structure. The crystal structure of (I) is stabilised by intermolecular Csbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds that generate a three dimensional network.

  1. Reliability of photogrammetry in the evaluation of the postural aspects of individuals with structural scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Karen Ruggeri; Colombo, Alexandra Siqueira; Ribeiro, Ana Paula; João, Sílvia Maria Amado

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of photogrammetry in the measurement of the postural deviations in individuals with idiopathic scoliosis. Twenty participants with scoliosis (17 women and three men), with a mean age of 23.1 ± 9 yrs, were photographed from the posterior and lateral views. The postural aspects were measured with CorelDRAW software. High inter-rater and test-retest reliability indices were found. It was observed that with more severity of scoliosis, greater were the variations between the thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis measures obtained by the same examiner from the left lateral view photographs. A greater body mass index (BMI) was associated with greater variability of the trunk rotation measures obtained by two independent examiners from the right, lateral view (r = 0.656; p = 0.002). The severity of scoliosis was also associated with greater inter-rater variability measures of trunk rotation obtained from the left, lateral view (r = 0.483; p = 0.036). Photogrammetry demonstrated to be a reliable method for the measurement of postural deviations from the posterior and lateral views of individuals with idiopathic scoliosis and could be complementarily employed for the assessment procedures, which could reduce the number of X-rays used for the follow-up assessments of these individuals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Structural aspects of cold-formed steel section designed as U-shape composite beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggaff, Anis; Tahir, Mahmood Md.; Azimi, Mohammadamin; Alhajri, T. M.

    2017-11-01

    Composite beam construction usually associated with old-style Hot-Rolled Steel Section (HRSS) has proven to act much better in compare with Cold-Formed Steel Section (CFSS) sections due to thicker section. Due, it's getting popular to replace HRSS with CFSS in some aspects as a composite beam. The advantages such as lightweight, cost effective and easy to install have contributed to the apply CFSS as a preferred construction material for composite beam. There is a few technical data available regarding the application of the usage of CFSS as a composite system, despite the potentials use for residential and light-weight industrial constructions. This paper presents an experimental tests results which have been conducted using CFSS as composite beam. Composite action of CFSS arranged as double beam with Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) slab are integrated together with bolted shear connectors were used. A full-scale test comprised of 3 proposed composite beam specimens with bolted shear connector spaced at 300 mm interval of grade 8.8 was using single nut with washer on flange of CFS, cast to the slab and loaded until failed. The test show that the bolted shear connector yielded better capacity of ultimate strength and ultimate moment for the proposed composite beam. It can be concluded that, bolted shear connectors of 16 mm in diameter performed better than the other diameter size of bolted shear connectors.

  3. Sequence, structure and function relationships in flaviviruses as assessed by evolutive aspects of its conserved non-structural protein domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fonseca, Néli José; Lima Afonso, Marcelo Querino; Pedersolli, Natan Gonçalves; de Oliveira, Lucas Carrijo; Andrade, Dhiego Souto; Bleicher, Lucas

    2017-10-28

    Flaviviruses are responsible for serious diseases such as dengue, yellow fever, and zika fever. Their genomes encode a polyprotein which, after cleavage, results in three structural and seven non-structural proteins. Homologous proteins can be studied by conservation and coevolution analysis as detected in multiple sequence alignments, usually reporting positions which are strictly necessary for the structure and/or function of all members in a protein family or which are involved in a specific sub-class feature requiring the coevolution of residue sets. This study provides a complete conservation and coevolution analysis on all flaviviruses non-structural proteins, with results mapped on all well-annotated available sequences. A literature review on the residues found in the analysis enabled us to compile available information on their roles and distribution among different flaviviruses. Also, we provide the mapping of conserved and coevolved residues for all sequences currently in SwissProt as a supplementary material, so that particularities in different viruses can be easily analyzed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Calorimetric Studies and Structural Aspects of Ionic Liquids in Designing Sorption Materials for Thermal Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brünig, Thorge; Krekić, Kristijan; Bruhn, Clemens; Pietschnig, Rudolf

    2016-11-02

    The thermal properties of a series of twenty-four ionic liquids (ILs) have been determined by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) with the aim of simulating processes involving water sorption. For eleven water-free ILs, the molecular structures have been determined by X-ray crystallography in the solid state, which have been used to derive the molecular volumes of the ionic components of the ILs. Moreover, the structures reveal a high prevalence of hydrogen bonding in these compounds. A relationship between the molecular volumes and the experimentally determined energies of dilution could be established. The highest energies of dilution observed in this series were obtained for the acetate-based ILs, which underlines their potential as working fluids in sorption-based thermal energy storage systems. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Structural aspects of magnetic fluid stabilization in aqueous agarose solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagornyi, A.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv (Ukraine); Petrenko, V.I., E-mail: vip@nf.jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv (Ukraine); Avdeev, M.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Yelenich, O.V.; Solopan, S.O.; Belous, A.G. [V.I.Vernadsky Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of the Ukrainian NAS, Kyiv (Ukraine); Gruzinov, A.Yu. [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ivankov, O.I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute for Safety Problems of Nuclear Power Plants of the Ukrainian NAS, Kyiv (Ukraine); Bulavin, L.A. [Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv (Ukraine); Institute for Safety Problems of Nuclear Power Plants of the Ukrainian NAS, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2017-06-01

    Structure characterization of magnetic fluids (MFs) synthesized by three different methods in aqueous solutions of agarose was done by means of small-angle neutron (SANS) and synchrotron X-ray scattering (SAXS). The differences in the complex aggregation observed in the studied magnetic fluids were related to different stabilizing procedures of the three kinds of MFs. The results of the analysis of the scattering (mean size of single polydisperse magnetic particles, fractal dimensions of the aggregates) are consistent with the data of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). - Highlights: • MFs synthesized by three different methods in agarose solution were studied. • all MFs are agglomerated colloidal systems whose structures are nevertheless stable in time. • differences in the complex aggregation were observed in the studied magnetic fluids. • results of the SAXS and SANS analysis are consistent with TEM data.

  6. Structural aspects of the nucleolus and its associated heterochromatin in neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessacq, T.P.; Vidal Rioja, L.A.

    1975-01-01

    The study of the structure of the nucleolus has received considerable attention in recent years. Most data have been provided by a number of electromicroscopical studies which to some extent are confirmatory of the previous opticomicroscopical findings of Estable and Sotelo (1951, 1952, 1955), Davis (1960), Altmann, Stoecker, and Thoenes (1963), O'Donell (1961), Lettre, and Siebs (1961), Bernhard, Bauer, Gropp, Haguenau and Oberling (1955) among others. In a recent work Melker (1970) points out the existence in neurons of a mammal of a particular arrangement of the nucleolus and its associated chromatin very similar to that already established in avian neurons (Pessacq 1969). The research reported here adds some new structural facts on nucleolar-heterochromatinic rapports which although recognizable in a great variety of cellular types appears with schematic clearness only in a limited number of highly specialized cells of some species. (auth.)

  7. Synthesis, structural and luminescent aspect of Tb3+ doped Sr2SnO4 phosphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taikar, Deepak R.

    2016-01-01

    A novel green emitting, Tb 3+ doped Sr 2 SnO 4 phosphor was synthesized by the co-precipitation method and its photoluminescence characterization was performed. Sr 2 SnO 4 has an ordered tetragonal K 2 NiF 4 -type structure with space group I4/mmm. The structure of Sr 2 SnO 4 consists of SnO 6 octahedra. From the structure of Sr 2 SnO 4 , it was observed that the sites of Sn 4+ ions have inverse symmetry while the Sr 2+ ions have the low symmetry. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the formation of Sr 2 SnO 4 :Tb 3+ . Photoluminescence measurements showed that the phosphor exhibited bright green emission at about 543 nm attributed to 5 D 4 à 7 F 5 transition of Tb 3+ ion under UV excitation. The emission spectra did not exhibit conventional blue emission peaks of Tb 3+ ions due to 5 D 3 → 7 F J transitions in the spectral region 350-470 nm. The excitation spectra indicate that this compound may be useful as a lamp phosphor. (author)

  8. Structural aspects of crotoxin modified by ionizing radiation; Aspectos estruturais da crotoxina modificada pela radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Karina Corleto de; Albero, Felipe Guimaraes; Zezell, Denise Maria; Spencer, Patrick Jack; Nascimento, Nanci do, E-mail: kcorleto@usp.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-03-15

    Ionizing radiation has proven to be an excellent tool for reducing the toxicity of venoms and isolated toxins, resulting in better immunogens for serum production, the only effective treatment in case of snake bites, and contributing to the welfare of serum-producing animals. Since the action of gamma radiation of venoms and toxins has not been yet fully clarified from the structural point of view, we proposed in this paper, to characterize the crotoxin, a venom protein of the species Crotalus durissus terrificus by Circular Dichroism (CD) and Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. After chromatographic techniques, crotoxin was irradiated with 2.0 kGy ({sup 60}Co source). The CD spectra obtained of native and irradiated crotoxin solutions showed changes between the samples in characteristic regions of -sheet and-helix . The Infrared analyse showed expressive changes in the spectra of the native and irradiated crotoxin (amide I band region). These tests showed that crotoxin when subjected to gamma radiation, showed changes in their structural conformation compared with the samples in the native state. Such changes probably occur in the secondary structure and may explain its neurotoxic activity loss. (author)

  9. Structural aspects of catalytic mechanisms of endonucleases and their binding to nucleic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhukhlistova, N. E.; Balaev, V. V.; Lyashenko, A. V.; Lashkov, A. A., E-mail: alashkov83@gmail.com [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2012-05-15

    Endonucleases (EC 3.1) are enzymes of the hydrolase class that catalyze the hydrolytic cleavage of deoxyribonucleic and ribonucleic acids at any region of the polynucleotide chain. Endonucleases are widely used both in biotechnological processes and in veterinary medicine as antiviral agents. Medical applications of endonucleases in human cancer therapy hold promise. The results of X-ray diffraction studies of the spatial organization of endonucleases and their complexes and the mechanism of their action are analyzed and generalized. An analysis of the structural studies of this class of enzymes showed that the specific binding of enzymes to nucleic acids is characterized by interactions with nitrogen bases and the nucleotide backbone, whereas the nonspecific binding of enzymes is generally characterized by interactions only with the nucleic-acid backbone. It should be taken into account that the specificity can be modulated by metal ions and certain low-molecular-weight organic compounds. To test the hypotheses about specific and nonspecific nucleic-acid-binding proteins, it is necessary to perform additional studies of atomic-resolution three-dimensional structures of enzyme-nucleic-acid complexes by methods of structural biology.

  10. Some aspects of floor spectra of 1DOF nonlinear primary structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Politopoulos, I.; Feau, C.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the influence of the nonlinear behaviour of the primary structure on floor spectra is investigated by means of simple models. The general trends of floor spectra for different types of nonlinear behaviour of one degree of freedom (1DOF) primary structure are shown and we point out their common futures and their differences. A special attention is given to the cases of elastoplastic and nonlinear elastic behaviours and methods to determine an equivalent linear oscillator are proposed. The properties (frequency and damping) of this equivalent linear oscillator are quite different from the properties of equivalent linear oscillators commonly considered in practice. In particular, in the case of elastoplastic behaviour, there is no frequency shift and damping is smaller than assumed by other methods commonly used. In the case of nonlinear elastic behaviour, the concept of an equivalent frequency which is a random variable is used. Finally, a design floor spectrum of primary structures, exhibiting energy dissipating nonlinear behaviour is proposed. (authors)

  11. Evaluation Aspects of Building Structures Reconstructed After a Failure or Catastrophe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krentowski, Janusz R.; Knyziak, Piotr

    2017-10-01

    The article presents the characteristics of several steel structures, among others modernized industrial dye house, school sports hall, truck repair workshop, that have been rebuilt after a disaster or a catastrophe. The structures were analyzed in detail, and the evaluation and reconstruction processes were described. The emergencies that occurred during exploitation of the buildings were the result of multiple mistakes: incorrectly defined intervals between inspections, errors during periodic inspections, incorrect repair work recommendations. The concepts of reinforcement work implemented by the authors, enabling the long-term future failure-free operation of the objects, were presented. Recommendations for monitoring of the facilities, applied after reinforcement or reconstruction, have been formulated. The methodology for the implementation of specialized investigations, such as geodetic, optical, geological, chemical strength tests, both destructive and non-destructive, has been defined. The need to determine the limit values of deformations, deflections, damage or other faults of structural elements and the entire rebuilt facilities, as well as defining conditions for objects’ withdrawal from operation in subsequent exceptional situations was indicated.

  12. Some physical problems in biology: Aspects of the origin and structure of the first cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chela Flores, J.

    1995-01-01

    A review is presented within the framework of the theory of evolution, after it has been extrapolated from the population level to the cellular and molecular levels. From Darwin's seminal and persuasive insight - the theory of common descent - we assume, with him, that ''probably all the organic beings which have ever lived on this earth have descended from some one primordial form, into which life was first breathed''. We are now aware that his primordial cell may have been a protocyanobacterium, but it has often been called 'a last universal ancestor', a 'breakthrough organism', or a 'progenote', a term introduced by Woese which has gained wide acceptance. Strictly speaking, in the 'intermediate period', ranging from the first living cell to the progenote, life may have evolved in the absence of significant diversity, effectively as a single phylum, incorporating organisms whose genetic systems were already based on DNA. Earlier still, prior to the encapsulation of nucleic acids in microspheres, evolution may already have been at work on RNA molecules (the 'RNA world'). This takes our discussion into the period of chemical evolution, a concept first put forward by Oparin, whose principal merit is to have formulated the underlying problem in clear scientific terms. This review does not attempt to be comprehensive. It is mainly devoted to the discussion of certain concepts that may have played a relevant role in the pathway that led to the origin and evolution of the progenote. We do not dwell on the main events of the intermediate period. The topic that we have chosen to include are: the origin of chirality of protein amino acids, the origin of translation, and the origin of the genome. We conclude with some comments on one further aspect of the evolutionary process - the development of biodiversity - by considering the origin of the first eukaryotic cell, an event which, according to the fossil record, may have preceded the evolutionary radiation in the early

  13. Structure and mechanism of calmodulin binding to a signaling sphingolipid reveal new aspects of lipid-protein interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Erika; Harmat, Veronika; Tóth, Judit; Vértessy, Beáta G.; Módos, Károly; Kardos, József; Liliom, Károly

    2010-01-01

    Lipid-protein interactions are rarely characterized at a structural molecular level due to technical difficulties; however, the biological significance of understanding the mechanism of these interactions is outstanding. In this report, we provide mechanistic insight into the inhibitory complex formation of the lipid mediator sphingosylphosphorylcholine with calmodulin, the most central and ubiquitous regulator protein in calcium signaling. We applied crystallographic, thermodynamic, kinetic, and spectroscopic approaches using purified bovine calmodulin and bovine cerebral microsomal fraction to arrive at our conclusions. Here we present 1) a 1.6-Å resolution crystal structure of their complex, in which the sphingolipid occupies the conventional hydrophobic binding site on calmodulin; 2) a peculiar stoichiometry-dependent binding process: at low or high protein-to-lipid ratio calmodulin binds lipid micelles or a few lipid molecules in a compact globular conformation, respectively, and 3) evidence that the sphingolipid displaces calmodulin from its targets on cerebral microsomes. We have ascertained the specificity of the interaction using structurally related lipids as controls. Our observations reveal the structural basis of selective calmodulin inhibition by the sphingolipid. On the basis of the crystallographic and biophysical characterization of the calmodulin–sphingosylphosphorylcholine interaction, we propose a novel lipid-protein binding model, which might be applicable to other interactions as well.—Kovacs, E., Harmat, V., Tóth, J., Vértessy, B. G., Módos, K., Kardos, J., Liliom, K. Structure and mechanism of calmodulin binding to a signaling sphingolipid reveal new aspects of lipid-protein interactions. PMID:20522785

  14. Selected aspects of GDP value and structure development in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Smutka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Africa belongs to the poorest regions of the world. This statement may be applied especially to its sub-Saharan part. The paper analyses some basic structural characteristics related to the economic development of sub-Saharan region. The article reveals existing differences between countries and regions of sub-Saharan Africa and analyses key problems which influence economic development of individual states. An emphasis is placed on analysing an unsuitable GDP structure and on external economic relations which affect this structure. Results of an investigation show that the GDP of sub-Saharan countries is to a large extend generated by the primary sector of their economies, which is dominant in the total GDP value and its position is continuously strengthening due to a high dynamics of its growth. Having regard to the external environment, there can be stated that the foreign trade has contributed to the GDP growth of the whole region only to a limited degree (this does not apply to all countries seen as individuals. The integration process in sub-Saharan Africa may be characterized as questionable. Many integration groupings are operating in the region, but their influence on economic growth is limited due a low potential for mutual cooperation based on specialisation and use of comparative advantages. The economies of sub-Saharan countries are very sensitive to changes in their external economic environment. In this regard, there is important to highlight the very strong sensitivity of the GDP in the sub-Saharan region in relation to the World GDP (mainly to European and US GDP because both regions belong to the most important trading partners of Africa as a whole.

  15. Structural aspects of the distinct biochemical properties of glutaredoxin 2 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Discola, Karen Fulan; Cussiol, Jose Renato Rosa; Monteiro, Gisele; Soares Netto, Luis Eduardo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IB/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias. Dept. de Genetica e Biologia Evolutiva; Oliveira, Marcos Antonio de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (DB/UNESP), Sao Vicente, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia; Barcena, Jose Antonio; Porras, Pablo; Padilla, Carmen Alicia [Universidad de Cordoba (Spain). Dept. de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular; Guimaraes, Beatriz Gomes [Synchrotron SOLEIL, Saint-Aubin (France)

    2009-07-01

    Glutaredoxins (Grxs) are small thiol-dependent oxidoreductases with disulfide reductase activity endowed by at least one cysteine at their active sites. Although Grxs are implicated in many cellular processes. including protein folding and protection against reactive oxygen species, few of their targets are known. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, eight Grxs isoforms were identified (ScGrx 1-8). Two of them (ScGrx 1-2) are dithioic possessing a conserved Cys-Pro-Tyr-Cys motif. In spite of the fact that ScGrx1 and ScGrx2 share 85% of aminoacid sequence similarity, we have shown that ScGrx2 is fifteen times more active as oxidoreductase than ScGrx1. In an attempt to better understand the mechanisms and differences between yeast dithiol Grxs activities, we elucidated the crystallographic structures of ScGrx2 in the oxidized state and of the ScGrx2-C30S mutant with a glutathionyl mixed disulfide at resolutions of 2.05 and 1.91 A, respectively. Comparisons among these structures and those available for ScGrx1 provided insights into the remarkable functional divergence between these enzymes. We hypothesize that the substitutions of Ser23 and Gln52 in SeGrx1 by Ala23 and Glu52 in ScGrx2 can modify the capability of the active site C-terminal cysteine to attack the mixed disulfide between the N-terminal active site cysteine and the glutathione molecule. Mutagenesis studies supported this hypothesis. The observed structural and functional differences between ScGrx1 and ScGrx2 may reflect variations in substrate specificity and non-redundant biological functions. (author)

  16. Aspects of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction in Two Dimensional Magnetic Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Anirban

    Research on topologically protected chiral magnetic structures such as magnetic domain walls (DWs) and skyrmions, have gained extensive interest because of their possible applications in magnetic data storage industries. The recently observed chiral DW structures in ultrathin ferromagnetic lms with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy has been attributed to the presence of a strong Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). In this thesis, the DMI mediated by the conduction electrons in two dimensional magnetic systems such as magnetic thin lms or at the interfaces between two magnetic materials has been studied. I calculate the Ruderman-Kittel- Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) type indirect exchange coupling between two magnetic moments at nite temperature using the free electron band. At high temperature, the coupling strength decays with distance faster than the coupling at zero temperature but the period of oscillation remains same. However, the free electron band alone could not produce DMI. In the next step, I show addition of Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC) with the spin-polarized conduction electron band produces the DMI between two magnetic ions. The essential feature of this DMI is: the coupling strength increases with the strength of RSOC, but decreases signi cantly with the Heisenberg exchange coupling. The DMI calculated with this model well explains the possibility of preferred Neel or Bloch DW structures with specifc chirality. In addition: I study switching of magnetization with ultrafast laser pulse by inverse Faraday e ect (IFE) where an optically induced non-equilibrium orbital momentum generates an e ective magnetic eld via spin-orbit coupling for magnetization switching. I calculate the magnitude of induced orbital moment for the generic itinerant band and show that magnitude is not large enough to make the switching by a single pulse, however, switching could be possible if multiple pulses are applied to the material.

  17. Structural aspects of the distinct biochemical properties of glutaredoxin 2 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discola, Karen Fulan; Cussiol, Jose Renato Rosa; Monteiro, Gisele; Soares Netto, Luis Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    Glutaredoxins (Grxs) are small thiol-dependent oxidoreductases with disulfide reductase activity endowed by at least one cysteine at their active sites. Although Grxs are implicated in many cellular processes. including protein folding and protection against reactive oxygen species, few of their targets are known. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, eight Grxs isoforms were identified (ScGrx 1-8). Two of them (ScGrx 1-2) are dithioic possessing a conserved Cys-Pro-Tyr-Cys motif. In spite of the fact that ScGrx1 and ScGrx2 share 85% of aminoacid sequence similarity, we have shown that ScGrx2 is fifteen times more active as oxidoreductase than ScGrx1. In an attempt to better understand the mechanisms and differences between yeast dithiol Grxs activities, we elucidated the crystallographic structures of ScGrx2 in the oxidized state and of the ScGrx2-C30S mutant with a glutathionyl mixed disulfide at resolutions of 2.05 and 1.91 A, respectively. Comparisons among these structures and those available for ScGrx1 provided insights into the remarkable functional divergence between these enzymes. We hypothesize that the substitutions of Ser23 and Gln52 in SeGrx1 by Ala23 and Glu52 in ScGrx2 can modify the capability of the active site C-terminal cysteine to attack the mixed disulfide between the N-terminal active site cysteine and the glutathione molecule. Mutagenesis studies supported this hypothesis. The observed structural and functional differences between ScGrx1 and ScGrx2 may reflect variations in substrate specificity and non-redundant biological functions. (author)

  18. Three-layered models of Ganymede and Callisto - compositions, structures, and aspects of evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, S.; Mckinnon, W.B.

    1988-01-01

    The structural models presently defined for Ganymede and Callisto, which encompass a pure-ice upper layer, a mixed ice/rock lower mantle, and a rock core, incorporate three alternative rock component candidates representing various degrees of silicate hydration and oxidation. The three-layered model facilitates close study of the radius increase required for the internal differentiation of an ice-rock satellite; such expansion is determined to be most significant early in the process, and less so as differentiation approaches completion. The probability of postaccretional melting due to radiogenic heating is calculated. 78 references

  19. Aspects of gene structure and functional regulation of the isozymes of Na,K-ATPase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, P.L.

    2001-01-01

    genomes, the genes of four alpha-subunit and at least three beta-subunit isoforms of Na,K-ATPase are identified and two gamma-subunits are expressed in kidney. The isoforms combine in a number of Na,K-ATPase isozymes that are expressed in a tissue and cell specific manner. Models of the molecular...... mechanism of regulation of these isozymes have become more reliable due to progress in understanding the three-dimensional protein structure and conformational transitions mediating transfer of energy from the P-domain to intramembrane Na+ and K+ binding sites....

  20. Structural and functional aspects of the multidrug efflux pump AcrB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher, Thomas; Brandstätter, Lorenz; Pos, Klaas M

    2009-08-01

    The tripartite efflux system AcrA/AcrB/TolC is the main pump in Escherichia coli for the efflux of multiple antibiotics, dyes, bile salts and detergents. The inner membrane component AcrB is central to substrate recognition and energy transduction and acts as a proton/drug antiporter. Recent structural studies show that homotrimeric AcrB can adopt different monomer conformations representing consecutive states in an allosteric functional rotation transport cycle. The conformational changes create an alternate access drug transport tunnel including a hydrophobic substrate binding pocket in one of the cycle intermediates.

  1. Intercalation and structural aspects of macroRAFT agents into MgAl layered double hydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessislava Kostadinova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing attention has been devoted to the design of layered double hydroxide (LDH-based hybrid materials. In this work, we demonstrate the intercalation by anion exchange process of poly(acrylic acid (PAA and three different hydrophilic random copolymers of acrylic acid (AA and n-butyl acrylate (BA with molar masses ranging from 2000 to 4200 g mol−1 synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT polymerization, into LDH containing magnesium(II and aluminium(III intralayer cations and nitrates as counterions (MgAl-NO3 LDH. At basic pH, the copolymer chains (macroRAFT agents carry negative charges which allowed the establishment of electrostatic interactions with the LDH interlayer and their intercalation. The resulting hybrid macroRAFT/LDH materials displayed an expanded interlamellar domain compared to pristine MgAl-NO3 LDH from 1.36 nm to 2.33 nm. Depending on the nature of the units involved into the macroRAFT copolymer (only AA or AA and BA, the intercalation led to monolayer or bilayer arrangements within the interlayer space. The macroRAFT intercalation and the molecular structure of the hybrid phases were further characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR and solid-state 13C, 1H and 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopies to get a better description of the local structure.

  2. Nuclear structure and nuclear reaction aspects of Faessler and Greiner's rotation-vibration coupling theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspelund, O.

    In the nuclear structure part, the foundations of Faessler and Greiner's rotation-vibration coupling theory are reviewed, whereafter an alternative derivation of Faessler and Greiner's Hamiltonian is presented. A non-spherical quadrupole phonon number N is defined and used in the matrix elements reported for odd-even/even-odd nuclei. These matrix elements are shown to evince oblate-prolate effects that can be exploited for assessing the signs of quadrupole deformations. In the nuclear reaction part, the wave functions emerging from the structure part are applied in a complete and consistent description of elastic and inelastic particle scattering, one-nucleon transfer, and particle/γ-ray angular correlations. The intentions are to demonstrate that anomolous angular distributions and 1=2 j-effects observed in one-nucleon transfer are interrelated phenomena, that can be satisfactorily explained in terms of the elementary vibrational excitation modes inherent in Faessler and Greiner's theory. The latter is regarded as a non-spherical approach to the theory of the quadrupole component of the nuclear potential energy surface. (Auth.)

  3. Crystal structure studies with the Paris-Edinburgh cell: Neutron scattering aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveday, J. S.; Wilson, R. M.; Nelmes, R. J.; Besson, J. M.; Klotz, S.; Hamel, G.; Hull, S.

    1994-07-01

    The count rates achieved in neutron powder diffraction experiments create difficulties for high-pressure experiments because large sample volumes (˜100 mm3) must be used. Until recently it has been difficult to build suitable pressure cells with such large volumes and hence the maximum pressure for neutron diffraction has remained at the relatively low value of 3 GPa. We have now developed a pressure cell (the Paris-Edinburgh cell) which is capable of exceeding 10 GPa with a sample volume of ˜100 mm3 for use at the U.K. spallation source ISIS. Considerable effort has been devoted to the opimization of the cell, shielding, and detector geometry to enable the best possible data to be recorded. Finite-element calculations to correct for the systematic errors introduced by the attenuation of the pressure-cell materials have been developed and tested. As a result of this work we are now able to obtain accurate structural data to ˜12 GPa and recent studies of phase IV of ND3, the behaviour of the O-D bondlength in D2O ice VIII, and the structural pressure dependence of B4C illustrate the importance of the extension of neutron-diffraction studies to such pressures.

  4. Nearest-Neighbor Interactions and Their Influence on the Structural Aspects of Dipeptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunajyoti Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this theoretical study, the role of the side chain moiety of C-terminal residue in influencing the structural and molecular properties of dipeptides is analyzed by considering a series of seven dipeptides. The C-terminal positions of the dipeptides are varied with seven different amino acid residues, namely. Val, Leu, Asp, Ser, Gln, His, and Pyl while their N-terminal positions are kept constant with Sec residues. Full geometry optimization and vibrational frequency calculations are carried out at B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p level in gas and aqueous phase. The stereo-electronic effects of the side chain moieties of C-terminal residues are found to influence the values of Φ and Ω dihedrals, planarity of the peptide planes, and geometry around the C7   α-carbon atoms of the dipeptides. The gas phase intramolecular H-bond combinations of the dipeptides are similar to those in aqueous phase. The theoretical vibrational spectra of the dipeptides reflect the nature of intramolecular H-bonds existing in the dipeptide structures. Solvation effects of aqueous environment are evident on the geometrical parameters related to the amide planes, dipole moments, HOMOLUMO energy gaps as well as thermodynamic stability of the dipeptides.

  5. ASPECTS REGARDING THE ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE, QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF SPORT IN HIGHER EDUCATION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin BUHAȘ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses sport in higher education in rel ation to its organization structure, quality and sports performance. We have studied documents, normative acts and the way in which certain decisional factors involved in higher education sports activities are organized. The lack of a concrete strategy inthis respect, renders the information sources to be relatively limited. Particularly, our research was based on scientific documentation, historical method and document analysis. There is a small number of legitimated athletes related to the number of higher education students. Higher education sport is a non-functional system, it cannot generate a representative number of participants in the National University Championships, and the international representation is not a natural consequence of the internal competition. Therefore, it is imperative for higher education sports to be the foundation of performance sports. This involves changing both the approach to this phenomenon and its organizational structure. Also, the development of human resources and sports infrastructure are essential conditions for the development ofsports activity.

  6. Aspects of structural health and condition monitoring of offshore wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniadou, I; Dervilis, N; Papatheou, E; Maguire, A E; Worden, K

    2015-02-28

    Wind power has expanded significantly over the past years, although reliability of wind turbine systems, especially of offshore wind turbines, has been many times unsatisfactory in the past. Wind turbine failures are equivalent to crucial financial losses. Therefore, creating and applying strategies that improve the reliability of their components is important for a successful implementation of such systems. Structural health monitoring (SHM) addresses these problems through the monitoring of parameters indicative of the state of the structure examined. Condition monitoring (CM), on the other hand, can be seen as a specialized area of the SHM community that aims at damage detection of, particularly, rotating machinery. The paper is divided into two parts: in the first part, advanced signal processing and machine learning methods are discussed for SHM and CM on wind turbine gearbox and blade damage detection examples. In the second part, an initial exploration of supervisor control and data acquisition systems data of an offshore wind farm is presented, and data-driven approaches are proposed for detecting abnormal behaviour of wind turbines. It is shown that the advanced signal processing methods discussed are effective and that it is important to adopt these SHM strategies in the wind energy sector.

  7. The static structure factor of liquid 4He: some new aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, K.Y.

    1986-08-01

    The thesis is concerned with three complementary problems. The first deals with a new interpretation of the elusive nature of the roton. This is motivated by the observation that the 'rotonic' minimum in the dispersion curve, which is intimately related to the principal peak of the static structure factor, is a common feature not only for He II but also for He I and almost all other condensed systems. The second problem concerns the precise asymptotic behaviour of the pair correlation function for liquid sup 4 He, whose Fourier transform is essentially the long-wavelength liquid structure factor. The third problem deals with the implications of this new formulation as related to Bose-Einstein condensation and superfluidity, as well as to other physical properties of the system. The thesis concludes with a partial list of open problems and with two possible extensions, including a complete development of an exceedingly simple method for determining the second virial coefficient of the sup 4 He gas over a wide temperature range. 122 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs. (A.M.H)

  8. STRUCTURAL ASPECTS OF STRONG INHIBITION AND ROLE OF SCAFFOLD FOR SERINE PROTEASE INHIBITORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhimli Dasgupta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Canonical serine protease inhibitors inhibit their cognate enzymes by binding tightly at the enzyme active site in a substrate-like manner, being cleaved extremely slowly compared to a true substrate. They interact with cognate enzymes through P3-P2 region of the inhibitory loop while the scaffold hardly makes any contact. Neighbouring scaffolding residues like arginine or asparagine shape-up the inhibitory loop and religate the cleaved scissile bond. The specificity of the inhibitor can be altered by mutating the hyper solvent accessible P1 residue without changing loop-scaffold interactions. To understand the loop-scaffold compatibility, we prepared three chimeric proteins ECIL-WCIS , ETIL-WCIS , and STIL-WCIS , where the inhibitory loops of ECI, ETI, and STI were placed on the scaffold of their homologue WCI. Results showed that although ECIL-WCIS and STIL-WCIS behave like inhibitors, ETIL-WCIS behaves like a substrate. Crystal structure of ETIL-WCIS and its comparison with ETI indicated that three novel scaffolding residues Trp88, Arg74, and Tyr113 in ETI act as barrier to confine the inhibitory loop to canonical conformation. Absence of this barrier in the scaffold of WCI makes the inhibitory loop flexible in ETIL-WCIS leading to a loss of canonical conformation, explaining its substrate-like behaviour. Furthermore, complex structures of the inhibitors with their cognate enzymes indicate that rigidification of the inhibitory loop at the enzyme active site is necessary for efficient inhibition.

  9. Fundamental aspects of the structural and electrolyte properties of Li2OHCl from simulations and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jason; Hood, Zachary D.; Holzwarth, N. A. W.

    2017-12-01

    Solid-state electrolytes that are compatible with high-capacity electrodes are expected to enable the next generation of batteries. As a promising example, Li2OHCl was reported to have good ionic conductivity and to be compatible with a lithium metal anode even at temperatures above 100 ∘C . In this work, we explore the fundamental properties of Li2OHCl by comparing simulations and experiments. Using calculations based on density functional theory, including both static and dynamic contributions through the quasiharmonic approximation, we model a tetragonal ground state, which is not observed experimentally. An ordered orthorhombic low-temperature phase was also simulated, agreeing with experimental structural analysis of the pristine electrolyte at room temperature. In addition, comparison of the ordered structures with simulations of the disordered cubic phase provide insight into the mechanisms associated with the experimentally observed abrupt increase in ionic conductivity as the system changes from its ordered orthorhombic to its disordered cubic phase. A large Haven ratio for the disordered cubic phase is inferred from the computed tracer diffusion coefficient and measured ionic conductivity, suggesting highly correlated motions of the mobile Li ions in the cubic phase of Li2OHCl . We find that the OH bond orientations participate in gating the Li ion motions which might partially explain the predicted Li-Li correlations.

  10. Leaf colleters in Tontelea micrantha (Celastraceae, Salacioideae): ecological, morphological and structural aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadante-Simões, Maria Olívia; Paiva, Elder Antônio Sousa

    2013-08-01

    The colleter secretion can be useful to protect plants of Cerrado (Brazilian savanna) biome during the long and pronounced dry season. This study describes the presence of colleters in Tontelea micrantha and represents the first record of these structures in Celastraceae. To investigate colleter structure and their secretory processes, young leaves were collected, fixed, and processed according to conventional techniques for light, and electron microscopy. Colleters were observed at the marginal teeth on the leaf. They produce mucilaginous secretions that spread over the leaf surface. After secretory phase, colleters abscise. The secretory epithelium is uniseriate and composed of elongated cells whose dense cytoplasm is rich in organelles. The ultrastructure of the secretory cells is compatible with the pectin-rich secretion. Observations of the young leaves surface revealed the presence of superficial hydrophilic secretion films that appeared to have the function of maintaining the water status of those organs. Copyright © 2013 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Aspects of structural health and condition monitoring of offshore wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniadou, I.; Dervilis, N.; Papatheou, E.; Maguire, A. E.; Worden, K.

    2015-01-01

    Wind power has expanded significantly over the past years, although reliability of wind turbine systems, especially of offshore wind turbines, has been many times unsatisfactory in the past. Wind turbine failures are equivalent to crucial financial losses. Therefore, creating and applying strategies that improve the reliability of their components is important for a successful implementation of such systems. Structural health monitoring (SHM) addresses these problems through the monitoring of parameters indicative of the state of the structure examined. Condition monitoring (CM), on the other hand, can be seen as a specialized area of the SHM community that aims at damage detection of, particularly, rotating machinery. The paper is divided into two parts: in the first part, advanced signal processing and machine learning methods are discussed for SHM and CM on wind turbine gearbox and blade damage detection examples. In the second part, an initial exploration of supervisor control and data acquisition systems data of an offshore wind farm is presented, and data-driven approaches are proposed for detecting abnormal behaviour of wind turbines. It is shown that the advanced signal processing methods discussed are effective and that it is important to adopt these SHM strategies in the wind energy sector. PMID:25583864

  12. Broken symmetry within crystallographic super-spaces: structural and dynamical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariette, Celine

    2013-01-01

    Aperiodic crystals have the property to possess long range order without translational symmetry. These crystals are described within the formalism of super-space crystallography. In this manuscript, we will focus on symmetry breaking which take place in such crystallographic super-space groups, considering the prototype family of n-alkane/urea. Studies performed by X-ray diffraction using synchrotron sources reveal multiple structural solutions implying or not changes of the dimension of the super-space. Once the characterization of the order parameter and of the symmetry breaking is done, we present the critical pre-transitional phenomena associated to phase transitions of group/subgroup types. Coherent neutron scattering and inelastic X-ray scattering allow a dynamical analysis of different kind of excitations in these materials (phonons, phasons). The inclusion compounds with short guest molecules (alkane C n H 2n+2 , n varying from 7 to 13) show at room temperature unidimensional 'liquid-like' phases. The dynamical disorder along the incommensurate direction of these materials generates new structural solutions at low temperature (inter-modulated monoclinic composite, commensurate lock-in). (author) [fr

  13. Structural and Cohersion Funds: Theoretical and Statistical Aspects in Romania and EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Viorel BRAŞOVEANU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper approaches structural and cohesion funds for the financial perspective 2007-2013. The article describes briefly the evolution of regional development policy, the financial allocations, the impact of EU funds within cohesion policy, legal and institutional framework in Romania, and the institutions which are responsible for the management of EU funds. In Romania, the absorption of structural and cohesion funds is still a problem due to high rejection rate and the existing problems in procuring their own funds by the beneficiaries, such as beneficiary’s contribution, starting the project and covering the non-eligible expenditures. Romanian authorities should increase the absorption rate on transport sector and other sectors where absorption is a problem. Access to Social and Cohesion Funds represents for Romania an opportunity to develop balanced regions, to modernize transportation and environmental infrastructure to support rural development, employment opportunities for labor market, and to promote social policies to increase living standards. Romania has to consider “Life Long Learning” as a priority in the development of the human resources. Less bureaucracy is necessary for a normal development of procedures for refund claims. Also, it is necessary to shorten the time for reimbursement and to simplify related procedures. By increasing the amounts reimbursed, the authorities would increase the possibility to use EU funds more quickly. Preventive control can eliminate situations of default of non-eligible expenditure.

  14. Financial aspects of a seismic base isolation system for a steel high-rack structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilar, V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the effects and costs of implementing a base isolation system for the mitigation of the seismic risk of an existing steel rack structure. Different realistic distributions of the payload mass and occupancy levels, which form different plan asymmetric variants, have been analysed. The results obtained by the pushover analysis (N2 method are presented as top floor envelopes and as plastic hinge damage patterns. In the presented cost study, the cost of the implementation of the proposed base isolation system is compared with the estimated costs of structural repairs to the damaged structural members of the superstructure, as well as with estimated expenses of the downtime period. The results have shown that base isolation is, in general, not economically feasible for lower ground motion intensities, whereas it could be of great benefit in the case of moderate and high intensities, especially if the downtime period is taken into account.El presente artículo trata sobre los efectos y costes de implementación de un sistema de aislamiento en cimentación para la mitigación del riesgo sísmico de la estructura de un bastidor de acero en altura prexistente. Se han analizado diferentes distribuciones realistas de la masa contribuyente y de los niveles de ocupación, conformando diferentes variantes asimétricas en planta. Se presentan los resultados obtenidos mediante el método N2 (análisis estático incremental no lineal como envolventes de las plantas superiores y como patrones de deterioro en estado plástico. En el estudio de costos presentado, el coste de implementación del sistema de aislamiento propuesto se compara con los costes estimados de reparación de los elementos superestructurales y los costes derivados del período de desocupación. Los resultados muestran que, en general, el aislamiento en la base no resulta viable económicamente para movimientos de baja intensidad, pero puede ser muy beneficioso en el caso de

  15. Entanglement beyond tensor product structure: algebraic aspects of quantum non-separability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derkacz, Łukasz; Gwóźdź, Marek; Jakóbczyk, Lech

    2012-01-01

    An algebraic approach to quantum non-separability is applied to the case of two qubits. It is based on the partition of the algebra of observables into independent subalgebras and the tensor product structure of the Hilbert space is not exploited. Even in this simple case, such a general formulation has some advantages. Using algebraic formalism, we can explicitly show the relativity of the notion of entanglement to the observables measured in the system and characterize separable and non-separable pure states. As a universal measure of non-separability of pure states, we propose to take the so-called total correlation. This quantity depends on the state as well as on the algebraic partition. Its numerical value is given by the norm of the corresponding correlation matrix. (paper)

  16. Structural and topological aspects of borophosphate glasses and their relation to physical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Christian; Youngman, R.E.; Wang, J.

    2015-01-01

    We establish a topological model of alkali borophosphate and calcium borophosphate glasses that describes both the effect of the network formers and network modifiers on physical properties. We show that the glass transition temperature (Tg), Vickers hardness (HV), liquid fragility (m) and isobaric....... The origin of the effect of the type of network modifying oxide on Tg, HV, m and ΔCp of calcium borophosphate glasses is revealed in terms of the modifying ion sub-network. The same topological principles quantitatively explain the significant differences in physical properties between the alkali...... and the calcium borophosphate glasses. This work has implications for quantifying structure-property relations in complex glass forming systems containing several types of network forming and modifying oxides....

  17. True strain-temperature diagram and structural aspects of molybdenum fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, A.D.; Gornaya, I.D.; Moiseev, V.F.; Pechkovskij, Eh.P.; Ponomarev, S.S.; Trefilov, V.I.

    1982-01-01

    For the purpose of studying the regularities of tough fracture of polycrystal molybdenum and explaining characteristic types of uniaxial tensile fractures in the 100-1000 deq C temperature range it is suggested for the first time to use the true strain-temperature (TST) diagram which combines a diagram of structural states and temperature dependence of a number of critical strains reflecting the dynamics of emergence and development of micro-non continuities in a tension specimen. It is shown that in the polycrystal molybdenum the basic parameters controlling the course and the magnitude of separate strain stages as well as the transition to fracture are the strain hardening coefficient and the elasticity limit relation to the strain hardening coefficient at the first stage (homoo.eneous dislocations distribution stage). The TST diagram permits also to explain the following phenomena: the nature of cold brittleness upper temperature, the observed change of fracture mechanisms with the temperature increase, the fracture surface origin

  18. Selected aspects in the structure of beta-delayed particle spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honkanen, J.; Aeystoe, J.; Eskola, K.

    1986-01-01

    Some weak beta-delayed particle emitters in the T z =-3/2, -1, -1/2, +1/2 and +5/2 series are reviewed. Selected features of the delayed particle emission are discussed in terms of experimental delayed particle data and (p,γ), (p,p') and (p,n) reaction data. Experimental beta transition strengths are compared with the existing complete shell-model calculations for the sd-shell nuclei. The effect of the Gamow-Teller giant resonance on the structure of the delayed particle spectra is considered. The correlation between the widths of two decay channels, protons and alpha particles, and the preceeding beta decay is studied in the case of the 40 Sc decay. (orig.)

  19. Aspects of second-order analysis of structured inhomogeneous spatio-temporal processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Ghorbani, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Statistical methodology for spatio-temporal point processes is in its infancy. We consider second-order analysis based on pair correlation functions and K-functions for general inhomogeneous spatio-temporal point processes and for inhomogeneous spatio-temporal Cox processes. Assuming spatio......-temporal separability of the intensity function, we clarify different meanings of second-order spatio-temporal separability. One is second-order spatio-temporal independence and relates to log-Gaussian Cox processes with an additive covariance structure of the underlying spatio-temporal Gaussian process. Another...... concerns shot-noise Cox processes with a separable spatio-temporal covariance density. We propose diagnostic procedures for checking hypotheses of second-order spatio-temporal separability, which we apply on simulated and real data....

  20. Main aspects of the design of a support structure of a LMFBR with particular reference to the explosive accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuliano, V.; Lazzeri, L.

    1977-01-01

    The aim of this paper is a review of the main aspects of the design of a support structure of a LMFBR tank, with particular reference to the analysis of the non-linear dynamic behavior of the structure in the plastic range under the effect of an explosive accident within the tank. The structure is composed by a L-shaped flange, which supports the tank, connected by means of nine square beams to a rigid box-type ring, fixed to the concrete. The plug of the tank is connected to the L-shaped flange by means of a group of SS bars. The non-linear dynamic analysis of the explosive accident has been carried out on a lumped mass model, with elastic-plastic elements which simulate main components of the support structure and tank. The impulsive load connected to the explosive accident has been modelled (on the basis of extensive comparative studies carried out) as two triangular pressure impulses has been the object of a parametric evaluation. The dynamic transient on the support structure during and after the explosive accident for each couple of pressure impulses has been analyzed by means of modified version of the NON SAP code running on a CDC 7600 computer. A large amount of results, which describe displacements, velocities and accelerations of the plug, of the tank, and of the support structure, together with the forces and stresses acting on the main structural components are presented and discussed, with particular reference to the influence of the various parameters involved in the analysis

  1. Fundamental structural aspects and features in the bioengineering of the gas exchangers: comparative perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, J N

    2002-01-01

    Over its life, an organism's survival and success are determined by the inventory of vital adaptations that its progenitors have creatively appropriated, devised and harnessed along the evolutionary pathway. Such conserved attributes provide the armamentarium necessary for withstanding the adverse effects of natural selection. Refinements of the designs of the respiratory organs have been critical for survival and phylogenetic advancement of animal life. Gas exchangers have changed in direct response to the respiratory needs of whole organisms in different environmental states and conditions. Nowhere else is the dictum that in biology 'there are no rules but only necessities' more manifest than in the evolutionary biology of the gas exchangers. The constructions have been continually fashioned and refined to meet specific needs. Solutions to common respiratory needs have been typified by profound structural convergence. Over the evolutionary continuum, as shifts in environmental situations occurred, infinitely many designs should theoretically have emerged. Moreover, without specific selective pressures and preference for certain designs, considering that there are only two naturally occurring respirable fluid media (air and water), air-lungs, water-lungs, air-gills and water-gills would have formed to similar extents. Factors such as body size, phylogenetic level of development, respiratory medium utilized and habitats occupied have permutatively prescribed the design of the gas exchangers. The construction of the modern gas exchangers has eventuated through painstaking cost-benefit analysis. Trade-offs and compromises have decreed only a limited number of structurally feasible and functionally competent outcomes. The morphological congruity (analogy) of the gas exchangers indicates that similar selective pressures have compelled the designs. Solutions to metabolic demands for molecular O2 have only differed in details. Passive physical diffusion, for example, is

  2. Anatomia dos órgãos vegetativos de Hymenaea martiana Hayne (Caesalpinioideae-Fabaceae: espécie de uso medicinal em Caetité-BA Anatomy of vegetative organs of Hymenaea martiana Hayne (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae: a species of medicinal use in Caetité-Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hymenaea martiana Hayne (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae apresenta grande valor na medicina popular em Caetité. A casca, entrecasca do caule e a resina, são utilizadas no tratamento de diversos males. Neste estudo são apresentadas a caracterização anatômica e histoquímica dos órgãos vegetativos. Amostras foram coletadas e processadas segundo técnicas usuais em anatomia vegetal e histoquímica. Todos os órgãos apresentam, em visão transversal, epiderme unisseriada e cavidades secretoras. Cutícula espessa ocorre em todos os órgãos aéreos. A raiz é tetrarca. Colênquima lacunar foi encontrado no caule. Bainha de fibras esclerenquimáticas envolve os feixes vasculares dos órgãos aéreos. Células pétreas ocorrem no pecíolo. Tricomas tectores ocorrem em ambas as faces da folha. A folha é hipoestomática com estômatos paracíticos e o mesofilo é dorsiventral. Cristais de oxalato de cálcio ocorrem no caule, pecíolo e lâmina foliar. Compostos fenólicos ocorrem na raiz, pecíolo e nervura central da folha. Grãos de amido ocorrem na raiz, caule e pecíolo. Lipídios ocorrem em todos os órgãos. Acredita-se que compostos fenólicos e cavidades secretoras de resina podem justificar a utilidade medicinal da espécie pela população de Caetité.Hymenaea martiana Hayne (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae shows a great value in folk medicine in Caetité. Its bark, stem-bark and resin are used to treat various ailments. In this study, the anatomical and histochemical characterization of vegetative organs is reported. Samples were collected and processed according to usual techniques of plant anatomy and histochemistry. All organs have, by cross-sectional view, uniseriate epidermis and secretory cavities. Thick cuticle occurs in all aerial organs. The root is tetrarch. Lacunar collenchyma was found in the stem. Sclerenchymatic sheath of fibers surrounds the vascular bundles of the aerial organs. Stone cells occur in the petiole. Trichomes occur

  3. Some Aspects of Structural Modeling of Damage Accumulation and Fracture Processes in Metal Structures at Low Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Lepov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of brittle fracture of structures at low temperature conditions connected to damage accumulation and ductile-brittle transition in metals. The data for locomotive tire contact impact fatigue and spalling are presented. The results of experimental testing showed the impact toughness drop at low temperature. The internal friction method was applied to revealing of the mechanism of dislocation microstructure changes during the low temperature ductile-brittle transition. It has been shown for the first time that the transition is not connected to interatomic interactions but stipulated by thermofluctuation on nucleus such as microcracks and by their further growth and coalescence. From now on, the proposed mechanism would be used for theoretical and numerical modeling of damage accumulation and fracture in materials.

  4. Vertical Subsurface Flow Mixing and Horizontal Anisotropy in Coarse Fluvial Aquifers: Structural Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggenberger, P.; Huber, E.

    2014-12-01

    Detailed descriptions of the subsurface heterogeneities in coarse fluvial aquifer gravel often lack in concepts to distinguish between the essence and the noise of a permeability structure and the ability to extrapolate site specific hydraulic information at the tens to several hundred meters scale. At this scale the heterogeneity strongly influences the anisotropies of the flow field and the mixing processes in groundwater. However, in many hydrogeological models the complexity of natural systems is oversimplified. Understanding the link between the dynamics of the surface processes of braided-river systems and the resulting subsurface sedimentary structures is the key to characterizing the complexity of horizontal and vertical mixing processes in groundwater. From the different depositional elements of coarse braided-river systems, the largest permeability contrasts can be observed in the scour-fills. Other elements (e.g. different types of gravel sheets) show much smaller variabilities and could be considered as a kind of matrix. Field experiments on the river Tagliamento (Northeast Italy) based on morphological observation and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys, as well as outcrop analyses of gravel pit exposures (Switzerland) allowed us to define the shape, sizes, spatial distribution and preservation potential of scour-fills. In vertical sections (e.g. 2D GPR data, vertical outcrop), the spatial density of remnant erosional bounding surfaces of scours is an indicator for the dynamics of the braided-river system (lateral mobility of the active floodplain, rate of sediment net deposition and spatial distribution of the confluence scours). In case of combined low aggradation rate and low lateral mobility the deposits may be dominated by a complex overprinting of scour-fills. The delineation of the erosional bounding surfaces, that are coherent over the survey area, is based on the identification of angular discontinuities of the reflectors. Fence diagrams

  5. Framework for Structural Online Health Monitoring of Aging and Degradation of Secondary Systems due to some Aspects of Erosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gribok, Andrei [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Patnaik, Sobhan [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Williams, Christian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pattanaik, Marut [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kanakala, Raghunath [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report describes the current state of research related to critical aspects of erosion and selected aspects of degradation of secondary components in nuclear power plants. The report also proposes a framework for online health monitoring of aging and degradation of secondary components. The framework consists of an integrated multi-sensor modality system which can be used to monitor different piping configurations under different degradation conditions. The report analyses the currently known degradation mechanisms and available predictive models. Based on this analysis, the structural health monitoring framework is proposed. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program began to evaluate technologies that could be used to perform online monitoring of piping and other secondary system structural components in commercial NPPs. These online monitoring systems have the potential to identify when a more detailed inspection is needed using real-time measurements, rather than at a pre-determined inspection interval. This transition to condition-based, risk informed automated maintenance will contribute to a significant reduction of operations and maintenance costs that account for the majority of nuclear power generation costs. There is unanimous agreement between industry experts and academic researchers that identifying and prioritizing inspection locations in secondary piping systems (for example, in raw water piping or diesel piping) would eliminate many excessive in-service inspections. The proposed structural health monitoring framework takes aim at answering this challenge by combining long-range guided wave technologies with other monitoring techniques, which can significantly increase the inspection length and pinpoint the locations that degraded the most. More widely, the report suggests research efforts aimed at developing, validating, and deploying online corrosion monitoring techniques for complex geometries, which are pervasive in NPPs.

  6. Framework for Structural Online Health Monitoring of Aging and Degradation of Secondary Systems due to some Aspects of Erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribok, Andrei; Patnaik, Sobhan; Williams, Christian; Pattanaik, Marut; Kanakala, Raghunath

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the current state of research related to critical aspects of erosion and selected aspects of degradation of secondary components in nuclear power plants. The report also proposes a framework for online health monitoring of aging and degradation of secondary components. The framework consists of an integrated multi-sensor modality system which can be used to monitor different piping configurations under different degradation conditions. The report analyses the currently known degradation mechanisms and available predictive models. Based on this analysis, the structural health monitoring framework is proposed. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program began to evaluate technologies that could be used to perform online monitoring of piping and other secondary system structural components in commercial NPPs. These online monitoring systems have the potential to identify when a more detailed inspection is needed using real-time measurements, rather than at a pre-determined inspection interval. This transition to condition-based, risk informed automated maintenance will contribute to a significant reduction of operations and maintenance costs that account for the majority of nuclear power generation costs. There is unanimous agreement between industry experts and academic researchers that identifying and prioritizing inspection locations in secondary piping systems (for example, in raw water piping or diesel piping) would eliminate many excessive in-service inspections. The proposed structural health monitoring framework takes aim at answering this challenge by combining long-range guided wave technologies with other monitoring techniques, which can significantly increase the inspection length and pinpoint the locations that degraded the most. More widely, the report suggests research efforts aimed at developing, validating, and deploying online corrosion monitoring techniques for complex geometries, which are pervasive in NPPs.

  7. STRUCTURAL AND STRATEGIC ASPECTS OF PROFESSIONALLY ORIENTED SPEECH OF A PSYCHOLOGIST MEDIATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Levchyk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents characteristic speech patterns of psychologist-mediator on the basis of five staged model of his professional speech behavior that involves the following five speech activities: introductory talks with the conflict parties; clarifying of the parties’ positions; finding the optimal solution to the problem; persuasion in the legality of a compromise; execution of the agreement between the parties. Each of these stages of the mediation process in terms of mental and speech activities of a specialist have been analyzed and subsequently the structure of mediator’s communication has been derived. The concept of a "strategy of verbal behavior" considering professional activity of a psychologist-mediator has been described in terms of its correlation with the type of negotiation behaviors of disputants. The basic types of opponents’ behavior in negotiations ‒ namely avoidance, concession, denial, aggression have been specified. The compliance of strategy of speech of mediator’s behavior to his chosen style of mediation has been discovered. The tactics and logic of mediator’s speech behavior according to the stages of mediation conversation have been determined. It has been found out that the mediator’s tactics implies application of specific professional speech skills to conduct a dialogue in accordance with the chosen strategy as well as emotional and verbal reaction of conflict sides in the process of communication.

  8. Materials and structural aspects of advanced gas-turbine helicopter engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freche, J. C.; Acurio, J.

    1979-01-01

    Advances in materials, coatings, turbine cooling technology, structural and design concepts, and component-life prediction of helicopter gas-turbine-engine components are presented. Stationary parts including the inlet particle separator, the front frame, rotor tip seals, vanes and combustors and rotating components - compressor blades, disks, and turbine blades - are discussed. Advanced composite materials are considered for the front frame and compressor blades, prealloyed powder superalloys will increase strength and reduce costs of disks, the oxide dispersion strengthened alloys will have 100C higher use temperature in combustors and vanes than conventional superalloys, ceramics will provide the highest use temperature of 1400C for stator vanes and 1370C for turbine blades, and directionally solidified eutectics will afford up to 50C temperature advantage at turbine blade operating conditions. Coatings for surface protection at higher surface temperatures and design trends in turbine cooling technology are discussed. New analytical methods of life prediction such as strain gage partitioning for high temperature prediction, fatigue life, computerized prediction of oxidation resistance, and advanced techniques for estimating coating life are described.

  9. Characterization and anti-settlement aspects of surface micro-structures from Cancer pagurus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T; Regan, F; McGuinness, K; Connor, N E O’

    2014-01-01

    Tuning surface and material properties to inhibit or prevent settlement and attachment of microorganisms is of interest for applications such as antifouling technologies. Here, optimization of nano- and microscale structures on immersed surfaces can be utilized to improve cell removal while reducing adhesion strength and the likelihood of initial cellular attachment. Engineered surfaces capable of controlling cellular behaviour under natural conditions are challenging to design due to the diversity of attaching cell types in environments such as marine waters, where many variations in cell shape, size and adhesion strategy exist. Nevertheless, understanding interactions between a cell and a potential substrate for adhesion, including topographically driven settlement cues, offers a route to designing surfaces capable of controlling cell settlement. Biomimetic design of artificial surfaces, based upon microscale features from natural surfaces, can be utilized as model surfaces to understand cell–surface interactions. The microscale surface features of the carapace from the crustacean Cancer pagurus has been previously found to influence the rate of attachment of particular organisms when compared to smooth controls. However, the nature of microscale topographic features from C. pagurus have not been examined in sufficient detail to allow design of biomimetic surfaces. In this work, the spatial distribution, chemical composition, size and shape descriptors of microscale surface features from C. pagurus are characterized in detail for the first time. Additionally, the influence of topography from C. pagurus on the settlement of marine diatoms is examined under field conditions. (paper)

  10. Structural and functional aspects of trypsin–gold nanoparticle interactions: An experimental investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nidhin, Marimuthu [Department of Chemistry, Amity School of Applied Sciences, Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Amity University Haryana Amity Education Valley, Gurgaon, Haryana 122413 (India); Ghosh, Debasree [Department of Nanotechnology, Amity School of Applied Sciences, Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Amity University Haryana Amity Education Valley, Gurgaon, Haryana 122413 (India); Yadav, Himanshu; Yadav, Nitu [Department of Chemistry, Amity School of Applied Sciences, Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Amity University Haryana Amity Education Valley, Gurgaon, Haryana 122413 (India); Majumder, Sudip, E-mail: sudip22m@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Amity School of Applied Sciences, Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Amity University Haryana Amity Education Valley, Gurgaon, Haryana 122413 (India)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Trypsin undergoes activation on incubation with gold nanoparticles. • Enhanced activity depends on the stoichiometry of the mixture. • Higher concentration of nanoparticles damage stability and conformation of trypsin. • Gold nanoparticles undergo morphological change on incubation with trypsin. - Abstract: Trypsin (Trp) is arguably the most important member of the serine proteases. Constructs made up of gold nanoparticles (GNP) with trypsin have been known to exhibit increased efficiency and stability in various experiments. Here we report simple Trp–GNP constructs mixed in different trypsin-to-GNP ratios which exhibit higher efficiencies in biochemical assay, varying resistance to autolysis and higher ability in cell trypsinization. Trp–GNP constructs in different trypsin-to-GNP ratios exhibit prolonged and sustained activity compared to native trypsin in N-α-p-benzoyl-p-nitroanilide (BAPNA) assay as monitored by UV-Visible spectroscopy. The activity was monitored as a function of decreasing rate of linear release of p-nitro aniline (resulting from the cleavage of BAPNA by trypsin) with time during the assay, whose absorbance was measured at 410 nm (λ{sub max} p-nitro aniline). We have done extensive studies to understand structural basis of this trypsin GNP interaction by using atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and circular dichroism (CD) techniques. Our findings suggest that on interaction, the gold nanoparticles probably form an adherent layer on trypsin that effectively changes the morphology and dimensions of the nanoconstructs. However, trypsin-to-GNP ratio is extremely important, as higher concentration of GNP might damage the conformation of protein. Stability studies related to denaturation show that 1:1 Trp–GNP constructs exhibit maximum stability and high efficiency in all assays performed.

  11. Biomaterials from blends of fluoropolymers and corn starch—implant and structural aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, João D.A.S. [Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, UNESP Univ Estadual Paulista, 19060-900 Presidente Prudente, SP, Brazil. (Brazil); Condensed Matter Physics Department, CellMat Laboratory, Faculty of Science, University of Valladolid, Valladolid Spain (Spain); Camargo, Regina C.T.; Filho, José C.S.C.; Alves, Neri [Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, UNESP Univ Estadual Paulista, 19060-900 Presidente Prudente, SP, Brazil. (Brazil); Rodriguez-Perez, Miguel A. [Condensed Matter Physics Department, CellMat Laboratory, Faculty of Science, University of Valladolid, Valladolid Spain (Spain); Constantino, Carlos J.L., E-mail: case@fct.unesp.br [Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, UNESP Univ Estadual Paulista, 19060-900 Presidente Prudente, SP, Brazil. (Brazil)

    2014-03-01

    The development of polymeric blends to be used as matrices for bone regeneration is a hot topic nowadays. In this article we report on the blends composed by corn starch and poly(vinylidene fluoride), PVDF, or poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene), P(VDF-TrFE), to obtain biocompatible materials. Blends were produced by compressing/annealing and chemically/structurally characterized by micro-Raman scattering and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectroscopies, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), besides in vivo study to evaluate the tissue response. Vibrational spectroscopy reveals no chemical interaction between the polymers and starch, absence of material degradation due to compressing/annealing process or organism implantation, and maintenance of α and ferroelectric crystalline phases of PVDF and P(VDF-TrFE), respectively. As a consequence of absence of interaction between polymers and starch, it was possible to identify by SEM each material, with starch acting as filler. Elastic modulus (E′) obtained from DMA measurement, independent of the material proportion used in blends, reaches values close to those of cancellous bone. Finally, the in vivo study in animals shows that the blends, regardless of the composition, were tolerated by cancellous bone. - Highlights: • Spectroscopy shows no chemical interaction between the polymers and starch. • It was possible to identify by SEM each material, with starch acting as filler. • The modulus of elasticity (E′) reaches values close to those of cancellous bone. • In vivo study in animals shows that the blends were tolerated by cancellous bone. • Cell aggregates present at outside region of implanted samples suggest bone healing.

  12. Structural and functional aspects of trypsin–gold nanoparticle interactions: An experimental investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nidhin, Marimuthu; Ghosh, Debasree; Yadav, Himanshu; Yadav, Nitu; Majumder, Sudip

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Trypsin undergoes activation on incubation with gold nanoparticles. • Enhanced activity depends on the stoichiometry of the mixture. • Higher concentration of nanoparticles damage stability and conformation of trypsin. • Gold nanoparticles undergo morphological change on incubation with trypsin. - Abstract: Trypsin (Trp) is arguably the most important member of the serine proteases. Constructs made up of gold nanoparticles (GNP) with trypsin have been known to exhibit increased efficiency and stability in various experiments. Here we report simple Trp–GNP constructs mixed in different trypsin-to-GNP ratios which exhibit higher efficiencies in biochemical assay, varying resistance to autolysis and higher ability in cell trypsinization. Trp–GNP constructs in different trypsin-to-GNP ratios exhibit prolonged and sustained activity compared to native trypsin in N-α-p-benzoyl-p-nitroanilide (BAPNA) assay as monitored by UV-Visible spectroscopy. The activity was monitored as a function of decreasing rate of linear release of p-nitro aniline (resulting from the cleavage of BAPNA by trypsin) with time during the assay, whose absorbance was measured at 410 nm (λ_m_a_x p-nitro aniline). We have done extensive studies to understand structural basis of this trypsin GNP interaction by using atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and circular dichroism (CD) techniques. Our findings suggest that on interaction, the gold nanoparticles probably form an adherent layer on trypsin that effectively changes the morphology and dimensions of the nanoconstructs. However, trypsin-to-GNP ratio is extremely important, as higher concentration of GNP might damage the conformation of protein. Stability studies related to denaturation show that 1:1 Trp–GNP constructs exhibit maximum stability and high efficiency in all assays performed.

  13. A defining aspect of human resilience in the workplace: a structural modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everly, George S; Davy, Jeanettte A; Smith, Kenneth J; Lating, Jeffrey M; Nucifora, Frederick C

    2011-06-01

    It has been estimated that up to 90% of the US population is exposed to at least 1 traumatic event during their lifetime. Although there is growing evidence that most people are resilient, meaning that they have the ability to adapt to or rebound from adversity, between 5% and 10% of individuals exposed to traumatic events meet criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder. Therefore, identifying the elements of resilience could lead to interventions or training programs designed to enhance resilience. In this article, we test the hypothesis that the effects of stressor conditions on outcomes such as job-related variables may be mediated through the cognitive and affective registrations of those events, conceptualized as subjective stress arousal. The subjects were 491 individuals employed in public accounting, who were sampled from a mailing list provided by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. The stressors used in this study were role ambiguity, role conflict, and role overload and the outcome measures were performance, turnover intentions, job satisfaction, and burnout. Stress arousal was measured using a previously developed stress arousal scale. We conducted a series of 2 EQS structural modeling analyses to assess the impact of stress arousal. The first model examined only the direct effects from the role stressors to the outcome constructs. The second model inserted stress arousal as a mediator in the relations between the role stressors and the outcomes. The results of our investigation supported the notion that subjective stress arousal provides greater explanatory clarity by mediating the effects of stressors upon job-related outcome. Including stress arousal in the model provided a much more comprehensive understanding of the relation between stressor and outcomes, and the contribution of role ambiguity and role conflict were better explained. By understanding these relations, anticipatory guidance and crisis intervention programs can be

  14. Structural dynamics and quantum mechanical aspects of shikonin derivatives as CREBBP bromodomain inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sarmistha; Dash, Raju

    2018-05-04

    The Proteins involved in the chemical modification of lysine residues in histone, is currently being excessively focused as the therapeutic target for the treatment of cell related diseases like cancer. Among these proteins, the epigenetic reader, CREB-binding protein (CREBBP) bromodomain is one of the most prominent targets for effective anticancer drug design, which is responsible for the reorganization of acetylated histone lysine residues. Therefore, this study employed an integrative approach of structure based drug design, in combination with Molecular Dynamics (MD) and QM/MM study to identify as well as to describe the binding mechanism of two shikonin derivatives, acetylshikonin and propionylshikonin as inhibitors of CREBBP bromodomain. Here induced fit docking strategy was employed to explore the important intrinsic interactions of ligands with CREBBP bromodomain, consistently molecular dynamics simulation with two different methods and binding energy calculations by MM-GBSA and MM-PBSA were adopted to determine the stability of intermolecular interactions between protein and ligands. The results showed that both these derivatives made direct contacts with the important conserved residues of the active site, where propionylshikonin demonstrated stronger binding and stability than acetylshikonin, according to molecular dynamics simulation and binding free energy calculations. Further, QM/MM energy calculation was employed to study the chemical reactivity of the propionylshikonin and also to describe the mechanism of non bonded interactions between the propionylshikonin and CREBBP bromodomain. Though this study demands in vitro and in vivo experiments to evaluate the efficiency of the compound, these insights would assist to design more potent CREBBP bromodomain inhibitor, guiding the site of modification of propionylshikonin moiety for designing selective inhibitors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Biomaterials from blends of fluoropolymers and corn starch—implant and structural aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, João D.A.S.; Camargo, Regina C.T.; Filho, José C.S.C.; Alves, Neri; Rodriguez-Perez, Miguel A.; Constantino, Carlos J.L.

    2014-01-01

    The development of polymeric blends to be used as matrices for bone regeneration is a hot topic nowadays. In this article we report on the blends composed by corn starch and poly(vinylidene fluoride), PVDF, or poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene), P(VDF-TrFE), to obtain biocompatible materials. Blends were produced by compressing/annealing and chemically/structurally characterized by micro-Raman scattering and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectroscopies, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), besides in vivo study to evaluate the tissue response. Vibrational spectroscopy reveals no chemical interaction between the polymers and starch, absence of material degradation due to compressing/annealing process or organism implantation, and maintenance of α and ferroelectric crystalline phases of PVDF and P(VDF-TrFE), respectively. As a consequence of absence of interaction between polymers and starch, it was possible to identify by SEM each material, with starch acting as filler. Elastic modulus (E′) obtained from DMA measurement, independent of the material proportion used in blends, reaches values close to those of cancellous bone. Finally, the in vivo study in animals shows that the blends, regardless of the composition, were tolerated by cancellous bone. - Highlights: • Spectroscopy shows no chemical interaction between the polymers and starch. • It was possible to identify by SEM each material, with starch acting as filler. • The modulus of elasticity (E′) reaches values close to those of cancellous bone. • In vivo study in animals shows that the blends were tolerated by cancellous bone. • Cell aggregates present at outside region of implanted samples suggest bone healing

  16. Impulsivity and Concussion in Juvenile Rats: Examining Molecular and Structural Aspects of the Frontostriatal Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harleen Hehar

    Full Text Available Impulsivity and poor executive control have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many developmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Similarly, concussions/mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI have been associated with increased risk for neuropsychiatric disorders and the development of impulsivity and inattention. Researchers and epidemiologists have therefore considered whether or not concussions induce symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, or merely unmask impulsive tendencies that were already present. The purpose of this study was to determine if a single concussion in adolescence could induce ADHD-like impulsivity and impaired response inhibition, and subsequently determine if inherent impulsivity prior to a pediatric mTBI would exacerbate post-concussion symptomology with a specific emphasis on impulsive and inattentive behaviours. As these behaviours are believed to be associated with the frontostriatal circuit involving the nucleus accumbens (NAc and the prefrontal cortex (PFC, the expression patterns of 8 genes (Comt, Drd2, Drd3, Drd4, Maoa, Sert, Tph1, and Tph2 from these two regions were examined. In addition, Golgi-Cox staining of medium spiny neurons in the NAc provided a neuroanatomical examination of mTBI-induced structural changes. The study found that a single early brain injury could induce impulsivity and impairments in response inhibition that were more pronounced in males. Interestingly, when animals with inherent impulsivity experienced mTBI, injury-related deficits were exacerbated in female animals. The single concussion increased dendritic branching, but reduced synaptic density in the NAc, and these changes were likely associated with the increase in impulsivity. Finally, mTBI-induced impulsivity was associated with modifications to gene expression that differed dramatically from the gene expression pattern associated with inherent impulsivity, despite very similar behavioural phenotypes. Our

  17. The relationship between sociosexuality and aspects of body image in men and women: a structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammsayer, Thomas H; Troche, Stefan J

    2013-10-01

    The present study investigated the association between individual differences in sociosexual orientation and four aspects of body image in 156 male and 136 female students. While men were characterized by a less restricted sociosexual orientation, higher self-perceived physical attractiveness, and more pronounced self-rated physical assertiveness, women placed more emphasis on accentuation of body presentation. Structural equation modeling revealed significant positive relationships between sociosexual attitudes and physical attractiveness and accentuation of body presentation as well as between sociosexual behavior and physical attractiveness for the total sample. When introducing sex as a grouping variable, the attitudinal and behavioral components of sociosexuality were reliably related to both physical attractiveness and accentuation of body presentation as two aspects of body image in men, but not in women. Furthermore, our findings suggest that accentuation of body presentation represents a goal-directed behavior in men to increase the likelihood of having uncommitted sex but serves additional functions widely unrelated to unrestrictive sociosexual behavior in women.

  18. Aspectos estruturais da membrana eritrocitária Structural aspects of the erythrocyte membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Murador

    2007-06-01

    ócito e é ainda responsável pela estabilidade sob mecanismos de estresse. Essa revisão da membrana eritrocitária é importante para um melhor entendimento das reações transfusionais, onde a formação de anticorpos contra antígenos de alta freqüência dificulta a transfusão compatível. O estudo da diversidade antigênica, a caracterização bioquímica de diferentes proteínas trará uma contribuição para o estabelecimento da saúde, assim como para o diagnóstico, desenvolvimento de tecnologias, como a produção de anticorpos monoclonais e conduta terapêutica para muitas enfermidades.This article describes the structures and functions of the erythrocyte membrane and its importance in transfusional medicine. The erythrocyte membrane is one of the best known membranes in terms of structure, function and genetic disorders. As any other plasma membrane, it mediates transport functions. It also provides the erythrocytes with their resilience and deformability. According to the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT, more than 500 antigens are expressed in the erythrocyte membrane, and around 270 are involved in transfusion reaction cases and hemolytic diseases of the fetus and newborn. In the ISBT classification, the high frequency series is represented by antigens in more than 99% of population (high prevalence antigen. In transfusion, the absence of these antigens determines severe problems as for example, one woman without the P antigen suffered 6 repetitive miscarriages due to placental insufficiency, which was caused by an antibody formed against the absent P antigen. Some important erythrocyte membrane proteins are described here including Band 3, Glycophorins and spectrin. The most abundant integral membrane protein is Band 3 and its main function is to mediate exchange of chloride and bicarbonate anions across the plasma membrane. The second most abundant integral membrane protein in the human erythrocyte is sialoglycoprotein glycophorin A (GPA

  19. PREFACE: 10th International Conference on Clustering Aspects of Nuclear Structure and Dynamics (CLUSTER'12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovas, R. G.; Dombrádi, Zs; Kiss, G. G.; Kruppa, A. T.; Lévai, G.

    2013-04-01

    As Editors of this Proceedings volume and organizers as well as participants of the Conference, let us sum up a few facts about the Conference and let us add some subjective notes. The conference was held at Köolcsey Centre, a prestigious site of scientific and business meetings and cultural events in the city of Debrecen, Hungary, 24-28 September 2012. The city was chosen as the home of the Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, the home institution of the organizers. The Institute was visited by some of the participants. The organizing team was complemented by some belonging to the University of Debrecen, which made it possible to hold the conference dinner in the marvellous covered 'ceremonial court' of the University. The participants were taken for an excursion and wine tasting to a wine cellar at Tokaj, centre of, historically, the most significant wine producing area in Hungary. By coincidence, the closing day coincided with the day of what is called the Researchers' Night in the European Union. That night, (or rather, that evening) every year there is a public lecture in the Institute of Nuclear Research for a general audience, mainly secondary-school pupils. The public lecture scheduled on this occasion was held by one of the participants of the conference who represented the world outside Hungary and yet was able to deliver a talk in Hungarian. He is Professor Kálmán Varga, Vanderbilt University. The title of his talk was Simulation of Nanosystems ( http://kutatokejszakaja.hu/2012/esemenynaptar/esemeny.php?id=112&menu_id=4). There were 115 registered participants, representing 22 countries of Europe, Africa, Asia, Central, South and North America. We had 44 plenary talks and 47 talks presented in parallel sessions. In the Programme list the talks are arranged following the session structure of the Conference. In this list the invited speakers are marked by asterisks. All the talks in the plenary sessions were invited talks

  20. Associations between the structural and functional aspects of social relations and poor mental health: a cross-sectional register study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Røntved Hansen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social relations influence mental health through different pathways. To capture the complexity of social relations, it is beneficial to consider both the structural (e.g., reachability of social network and social integration and functional (e.g., instrumental and emotional support aspects of the concept. Both aspects are rarely investigated simultaneously. This study aimed to examine the association between the structural and functional aspects of social relations and poor mental health. Methods The study was designed as a cross-sectional register study. We used data on mental health and social relations from 15,839 individuals aged 16–92 years with a mean age of 49.0 years (SD 17.9 who responded to The North Denmark Region Health Survey 2013 among residents in Northern Jutland, Denmark. The 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey measured mental health; a cut-off point of 44.5 was used to dichotomize participants into poor and good mental health. The categorization of social relations was inspired by Berkman et al.’s conceptual model of social relations and health. The analyses were performed with survey logistic regression. Results We found that 21.6% (n = 3422 of participants reported poor mental health, and 59% (n = 2020 of these were women. Being in contact with family and friends less than once a month statistically significantly increased the risk for poor mental health (Family OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.51–2.10 and Friends OR = 2.65, 95% CI = 2.30–3.06. The individuals who were not in contact with their network as often as they liked had a significantly higher risk for poor mental health (OR = 2.40, 95% CI = 2.20–2.62. Lack of instrumental support was associated with a higher risk for poor mental health (OR = 2.81, 95% CI = 2.26–3.48. We found an interaction between age and emotional support; the youngest population had the highest risk for poor mental health when they did not have access to

  1. Associations between the structural and functional aspects of social relations and poor mental health: a cross-sectional register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Lise Røntved; Pedersen, Stinna Bibi; Overgaard, Charlotte; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Ullits, Line Rosenkilde

    2017-11-03

    Social relations influence mental health through different pathways. To capture the complexity of social relations, it is beneficial to consider both the structural (e.g., reachability of social network and social integration) and functional (e.g., instrumental and emotional support) aspects of the concept. Both aspects are rarely investigated simultaneously. This study aimed to examine the association between the structural and functional aspects of social relations and poor mental health. The study was designed as a cross-sectional register study. We used data on mental health and social relations from 15,839 individuals aged 16-92 years with a mean age of 49.0 years (SD 17.9) who responded to The North Denmark Region Health Survey 2013 among residents in Northern Jutland, Denmark. The 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey measured mental health; a cut-off point of 44.5 was used to dichotomize participants into poor and good mental health. The categorization of social relations was inspired by Berkman et al.'s conceptual model of social relations and health. The analyses were performed with survey logistic regression. We found that 21.6% (n = 3422) of participants reported poor mental health, and 59% (n = 2020) of these were women. Being in contact with family and friends less than once a month statistically significantly increased the risk for poor mental health (Family OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.51-2.10 and Friends OR = 2.65, 95% CI = 2.30-3.06). The individuals who were not in contact with their network as often as they liked had a significantly higher risk for poor mental health (OR = 2.40, 95% CI = 2.20-2.62). Lack of instrumental support was associated with a higher risk for poor mental health (OR = 2.81, 95% CI = 2.26-3.48). We found an interaction between age and emotional support; the youngest population had the highest risk for poor mental health when they did not have access to emotional support (Young OR = 5.26, 95% CI = 3

  2. FRAMEWORK FOR STRUCTURAL ONLINE HEALTH MONITORING OF AGING AND DEGRADATION OF SECONDARY PIPING SYSTEMS DUE TO SOME ASPECTS OF EROSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gribok, Andrei V.; Agarwal, Vivek

    2017-06-01

    This paper describes the current state of research related to critical aspects of erosion and selected aspects of degradation of secondary components in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The paper also proposes a framework for online health monitoring of aging and degradation of secondary components. The framework consists of an integrated multi-sensor modality system, which can be used to monitor different piping configurations under different degradation conditions. The report analyses the currently known degradation mechanisms and available predictive models. Based on this analysis, the structural health monitoring framework is proposed. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program began to evaluate technologies that could be used to perform online monitoring of piping and other secondary system structural components in commercial NPPs. These online monitoring systems have the potential to identify when a more detailed inspection is needed using real time measurements, rather than at a pre-determined inspection interval. This transition to condition-based, risk-informed automated maintenance will contribute to a significant reduction of operations and maintenance costs that account for the majority of nuclear power generation costs. Furthermore, of the operations and maintenance costs in U.S. plants, approximately 80% are labor costs. To address the issue of rising operating costs and economic viability, in 2017, companies that operate the national nuclear energy fleet started the Delivering the Nuclear Promise Initiative, which is a 3 year program aimed at maintaining operational focus, increasing value, and improving efficiency. There is unanimous agreement between industry experts and academic researchers that identifying and prioritizing inspection locations in secondary piping systems (for example, in raw water piping or diesel piping) would eliminate many excessive in-service inspections. The proposed structural health monitoring framework takes aim at

  3. Two aspects of one loop structure: Unitarity delay in the Standard Model and modular invariance in string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, C.

    1989-08-01

    We study two aspects of one loop structures in quantum field theories which describe two different areas of particle physics: the one loop unitarity behavior of the Standard Model of electroweak interactions and modular invariance of string model theory. Loop expansion has its importance in that it contains quantum fluctuations due to all physical states in the theory. Therefore, by studying the various models to one loop, we can understand how the contents of the theory can contribute to physically measurable quantities and how the consistency at quantum level restricts the physical states of the theory, as well. In the first half of the thesis, we study one loop corrections to the process {ital e}{sup +}{ital e}{sup {minus}} {yields} {ital W}{sup +}{ital W}{sup {minus}}. In this process, there is a delicate unitarity-saving cancellation between s-channel and t-channel tree level Feynman diagrams. If the one loop contribution due to heavy particles corrects the channels asymmetrically, the cancellation, hence unitarity, will be delayed up to the mass scale of these heavy particles. We refer to this phenomena as the unitarity delay effect. Due to this effect, cross section below these mass scales can have significant radiative corrections which may provide an appropriate window through which we can see the high energy structure of the Standard Model from relatively low energy experiments. In the second half, we will show how quantum consistency can restrict the physical states in string theory. 53 refs., 13 figs.

  4. Ontogênese, anatomia e ultra-estrutura dos nectários extraflorais de Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne (Fabaceae - Caesalpinioideae Ontogenesis, anatomy, and ultrastructure of Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne (Fabaceae - Caesalpinioideae extrafloral nectaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élder Antônio Sousa Paiva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O jatobá-do-cerrado (Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne apresenta nectários extraflorais (NEFs, os quais são descritos pela primeira vez no gênero. Neste trabalho foram estudadas a distribuição, ontogênese, estrutura e ultra-estrutura dos nectários extraflorais (NEFs. Amostras de folhas em várias fases de desenvolvimento foram coletadas, fixadas e processadas para estudos em microscopia de luz e eletrônica de transmissão e varredura, segundo técnicas convencionais. Testes histoquímicos foram empregados para determinar a natureza química da secreção. Os NEFs estão distribuídos por todo o limbo, sendo mais concentrados nos terços basal e médio de cada folíolo. Estes nectários são embutidos no mesofilo, apresentam tecido secretor envolvido por uma endoderme e são vascularizados por xilema e floema. A atividade secretora dos NEFs é limitada à fase juvenil da folha. Nas folhas mais velhas, os NEFs tornam-se não funcionais. O tecido secretor dos NEFs é formado a partir da protoderme, enquanto a endoderme tem origem no meristema fundamental. No tecido secretor de nectários funcionais as células apresentam citoplasma denso, núcleo volumoso, mitocôndrias, plastídios com sistema de membranas pouco desenvolvido, gotas de óleo dispersas no citosol, dictiossomos e segmentos de retículo endoplasmático liso. A secreção é liberada por meio de rupturas cuticulares e apresenta polissacarídeos e lipídios.Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne, known as "jatobá-do-cerrado" has extrafloral nectaries (EFNs, which are reported for the first time in Hymenaea genus. In this research the origin, distribution, structure, and ultrastructure of the EFNs were studied. Samples of leaflets at different developmental stages were collected, fixed and processed by standard methods for analyses at light and electronic microscopes; histochemical tests were employed to determine the nature of secretion products. EFNs are distributed all over

  5. Aspects of the structure of film expression and anthropological paradigm of films reception in Croatian cinema and TV distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svilicić, Niksa

    2012-09-01

    This research paper deals with one part of a comprehensive study called "Causality of narratological-semiotic aspects of the structure of film expression and paradigms of reception of Croatian feature film". It is conceived as a response to the hypothesis that the expression of narrative-semiotic terms correlate with the reception of the Croatian feature film audience and all them leads into a broader holistic i.e. anthropological context.The basic idea of scientific research is to analyze the complete feature productions since Croatian independence 1991 to date, presented at the National Film Festival (film festival in Pula), identify, define and isolate positive social narrative-semiotic stereotypes, which can then serve as a paradigm of better ratings and increase of the currently very low rating of domestic films in Croatian cinemas, as well as TV distribution. In other words, the paper will be analyzed and processed by a range of different effects based on narrative-semiotic, set design and mise-en-scène motives, used in the Croatian feature films since independence to date, that we assume to positively influence the mood of the viewer, and thus increase the rating of the film.

  6. Evolutionary aspects of non-cell-autonomous regulation in vascular plants: structural background and models to study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiia I. Evkaikina

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodesmata (PD serve for the exchange of information in form of miRNA, proteins and mRNA between adjacent cells in the course of plant development. This fundamental role of PD is well established in angiosperms but has not yet been traced back to the evolutionary ancient plant taxa where functional studies lag behind studies of PD structure and ontogenetic origin. There is convincing evidence that the ability to form secondary (post-cytokinesis PD, which can connect any adjacent cells, contrary to primary PD which form during cytokinesis and link only cells of the same lineage, appeared in the evolution of higher plants at least twice: in seed plants and in some representatives of the Lycopodiophyta. The (inability to form secondary PD is manifested in the symplastic organization of the shoot apical meristem (SAM which in most taxa of seedless vascular plants differs dramatically from that in seed plants. Lycopodiophyta appear to be suitable models to analyze the transport of developmental regulators via PD in SAMs with symplastic organization both different from, as well as analogous to, that in angiosperms, and to understand the evolutionary aspects of the role of this transport in the morphogenesis of vascular plant taxa.

  7. Power plant design study of a high aspect ratio Tokamak using a SiC composite structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Y.; Takase, H.; Shinya, K.

    1998-01-01

    The DREAM (drastically easy maintenance) tokamak is a fusion power plant which is designed from the viewpoint of maintenance feasibility. For this purpose, the DREAM reactor uses a plasma with a very high aspect ratio (A) and adopts SiC as a structural material. The choice of SiC affects the design of the core plasma, i.e. large inboard shield thickness, low synchrotron radiation reflectivity, and small plasma elongation for positional stability. The objectives of this study are to explore the feasibility of a high-A device, such as a power plant, and to clarify the technological impact of SiC material on the plasma design. Plasma size is optimized by the physics guidelines similar to ITER. The plasma major and minor radii of DREAM are 16 m and 2 m, respectively, and the average neutron wall load is 2.5 MW m -2 , the maximum toroidal field is 20 T, and the fusion power is 5.5 GW. Steady-state operation is obtained with 50 MW of external current-drive power and 90% bootstrap current. The divertor heat load is estimated to be about 10 MW m -2 . A radiative divertor concept is adopted to achieve a low divertor plasma temperature. The DREAM tokamak concept is found to be a possible candidate for a future power plant with more than 5 GW of fusion power and an acceptable divertor condition. (orig.)

  8. Studies of extractant molecules in solution and at liquid-liquid interfaces: structural and mechanistic aspects of synergy effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baaden, Marc

    2000-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations reported herein provide new important insights into cation recognition and complexation in solution as well as liquid-liquid extraction, with a particular focus on the microscopic events taking place at the interface between two immiscible liquids. Preliminary studies concerned the representation of the trivalent rare earth cations La 3+ , Eu 3+ and Yb 3+ in force field simulations, probing structural and energetic features on an experimentally characterized model system based on substituted pyridine dicarboxamide ligands. Complexation of such cations by a novel calixarene derivative was investigated showing unexpected features, such as the position of the cation in the complex. Independent experimental studies published subsequently support these findings. Another part of the work is related to industrial liquid-liquid extraction systems using tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) as co-solvent, extractant, surfactant and synergist. We investigate 1) concentration effects simulating up to 60 TBP at a water/chloroform interface, 2) acidity using a neutral and ionic model of HNO 3 and 3) synergistic aspects of mixed TBP/calixarene extraction systems. These simulations provide the first microscopic insights into such issues. We finally addressed the topic of solute transfer across the water/chloroform interface. The potential of mean force for such a process has been calculated by both standard methods and novel approaches [fr

  9. Instability and associated roll structure of Marangoni convection in high Prandtl number liquid bridge with large aspect ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, T.; Nishino, K.; Kawamura, H.; Ueno, I.; Matsumoto, S.

    2015-02-01

    This paper reports the experimental results on the instability and associated roll structures (RSs) of Marangoni convection in liquid bridges formed under the microgravity environment on the International Space Station. The geometry of interest is high aspect ratio (AR = height/diameter ≥ 1.0) liquid bridges of high Prandtl number fluids (Pr = 67 and 207) suspended between coaxial disks heated differentially. The unsteady flow field and associated RSs were revealed with the three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry. It is found that the flow field after the onset of instability exhibits oscillations with azimuthal mode number m = 1 and associated RSs traveling in the axial direction. The RSs travel in the same direction as the surface flow (co-flow direction) for 1.00 ≤ AR ≤ 1.25 while they travel in the opposite direction (counter-flow direction) for AR ≥ 1.50, thus showing the change of traveling directions with AR. This traveling direction for AR ≥ 1.50 is reversed to the co-flow direction when the temperature difference between the disks is increased to the condition far beyond the critical one. This change of traveling directions is accompanied by the increase of the oscillation frequency. The characteristics of the RSs for AR ≥ 1.50, such as the azimuthal mode of oscillation, the dimensionless oscillation frequency, and the traveling direction, are in reasonable agreement with those of the previous sounding rocket experiment for AR = 2.50 and those of the linear stability analysis of an infinite liquid bridge.

  10. Two Aspects of the Simplex Model: Goodness of Fit to Linear Growth Curve Structures and the Analysis of Mean Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandys, Frantisek; Dolan, Conor V.; Molenaar, Peter C. M.

    1994-01-01

    Studied the conditions under which the quasi-Markov simplex model fits a linear growth curve covariance structure and determined when the model is rejected. Presents a quasi-Markov simplex model with structured means and gives an example. (SLD)

  11. On the structure of cellular solutions in Rayleigh-Benard-Marangoni flows in small-aspect-ratio containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Henk A.

    1992-01-01

    Multiple steady flow patterns occur in surface-tension/buoyancy-driven convection in a liquid layer heated from below (Rayleigh-Benard-Marangoni flows). Techniques of numerical bifurcation theory are used to study the multiplicity and stability of two-dimensional steady flow patterns (rolls) in rectangular small-aspect-ratio containers as the aspect ratio is varied. For pure Marangoni flows at moderate Biot and Prandtl number, the transitions occurring when paths of codimension 1 singularities intersect determine to a large extent the multiplicity of stable patterns. These transitions also lead, for example, to Hopf bifurcations and stable periodic flows for a small range in aspect ratio. The influence of the type of lateral walls on the multiplicity of steady states is considered. 'No-slip' lateral walls lead to hysteresis effects and typically restrict the number of stable flow patterns (with respect to 'slippery' sidewalls) through the occurrence of saddle node bifurcations. In this way 'no-slip' sidewalls induce a selection of certain patterns, which typically have the largest Nusselt number, through secondary bifurcation.

  12. A density functional reactivity theory (DFRT) based approach to understand the effect of symmetry of fullerenes on the kinetic, thermodynamic and structural aspects of carbon NanoBuds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarmah, Amrit; Roy, Ram Kinkar, E-mail: rkroy2@rediffmail.com

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of the interaction between fullerene (C{sub 32}) and SWCNT using CDASE scheme. • Role of symmetry of fullerenes as well as the site of covalent attachment to the SWCNT in the structural stability of the NanoBud structure. • Increase in the fullerene symmetry improves the relative stability of hybrid NanoBud structure. - Abstract: In the present study, we have rationalized the effect of variation in the symmetry of relatively smaller fullerene (C{sub 32}) on the mode of its interaction with semi-conducting Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs) in the process of formation of stable hybrid carbon NanoBuds. Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters, along with the charge transfer values associated with the interaction between fullerene and SWCNTs, have been evaluated using an un-conventional and computationally cost–effective method based on density functional reactivity theory (DFRT). In addition to this, conventional DFT based studies are also performed to substantiate the growth of NanoBud structures formed by the interaction between fullerene and SWCNTs. The findings of the present study suggest that the kinetic, thermodynamic and structural aspects of hybrid carbon NanoBuds are significantly influenced by both the symmetry of C{sub 32} fullerene and its site of covalent attachment to the SWCNT.

  13. CONSTRUCTIVE ASPECTS INFLUENCE ON STIFFNESS OF DIAPHRAGM WALLS IN FRAME CONSTRUCTIONS WITH (LIGHT STEEL THIN –WALLED STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Savytskyi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The dependences of influence of structural features of diaphragms of lightweight steel framing braced wall structures on their stiffness are determined. On the basis of dependences the procedure for estimation of stiffness of a diaphragm of any configuration that allows making decisions for maintenance of building stiffness is developed.

  14. Trade-off between Photon Management Efficacy and Material Quality in Thin-Film Solar Cells on Nanostructured Substrates of High Aspect Ratio Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan H. Chin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Although texturing of the transparent electrode of thin-film solar cells has long been used to enhance light absorption via light trapping, such texturing has involved low aspect ratio features. With the recent development of nanotechnology, nanostructured substrates enable improved light trapping and enhanced optical absorption via resonances, a process known as photon management, in thin-film solar cells. Despite the progress made in the development of photon management in thin-film solar cells using nanostructures substrates, the structural integrity of the thin-film solar cells deposited onto such nanostructured substrates is rarely considered. Here, we report the observation of the reduction in the open circuit voltage of amorphous silicon solar cells deposited onto a nanostructured substrate with increasing areal number density of high aspect ratio structures. For a nanostructured substrate with the areal number density of such nanostructures increasing in correlation with the distance from one edge of the substrate, a correlation between the open circuit voltage reduction and the increase of the areal number density of high aspect ratio nanostructures of the front electrode of the small-size amorphous silicon solar cells deposited onto different regions of the substrate with graded nanostructure density indicates the effect of the surface morphology on the material quality, i.e., a trade-off between photon management efficacy and material quality. This observed trade-off highlights the importance of optimizing the morphology of the nanostructured substrate to ensure conformal deposition of the thin-film solar cell.

  15. Structural aspects of the new quasi-2-D heavy fermion materials CeIrIns and CeRhIns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshopoulou, E.G.; Moshopoulou, E.G.; Fisk, Z.; Sarrao, J.L.; Thompson, J.D.; Fisk, Z.

    2002-01-01

    The title compounds are new heavy fermion materials. They adopt a quasi two-dimensional crystal structure and exhibit unusual (for a heavy fermion system) low temperature properties. Although the study of their physical and structural behaviour at low temperatures and/or high pressures is still in progress, we present here some results concerning their average crystal structure, and we discuss very briefly their similarities and differences with the compounds CeIn3 and UTGa 5 (T: Co, Ni, Ir, Pd, Cu, Ru). (authors)

  16. Typography for Graphic Communication [and] Typographic Access Structures for Educational Texts [and] Graphic Aspects of Complex Texts: Typography as Macropunctuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Robert

    The three papers included in this report address typography for graphic communication, typographic access structures for educational texts, and typography as macropunctuation. The first paper considers the consequences of an aesthetic bias in the literature of typography, and identifies two misleading assumptions about textbooks; i.e., that print…

  17. Aspects of mast building and the fine structure of “amphipod silk” glands in Dyopedos bispinis (Amphipoda, Dulichiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neretin, N.Y.; Zhadan, A.E.; Tzetlin, A.B.

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the biology of Dyopedos bispinis, a mast-building amphipod that is abundant near the N. Pertsov White Sea Biological Station. To examine the peculiarities of mast building in Dyopedos bispinis, we studied the social structure of individuals inhabiting the masts

  18. Advances in Alkenone Paleotemperature Proxies: Analytical Methods, Novel Structures and Haptophyte Species, Biosynthesis, New indices and Ecological Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.; Longo, W. M.; Zheng, Y.; Richter, N.; Dillon, J. T.; Theroux, S.; D'Andrea, W. J.; Toney, J. L.; Wang, L.; Amaral-Zettler, L. A.

    2017-12-01

    Alkenones are mature, well-established paleo-sea surface temperature proxies that have been widely applied for more than three decades. However, recent advances across a broad range of alkenone-related topics at Brown University are inviting new paleoclimate and paleo-environmental applications for these classic biomarkers. In this presentation, I will summarize our progress in the following areas: (1) Discovery of a freshwater alkenone-producing haptophyte species and structural elucidation of novel alkenone structures unique to the species, performing in-situ temperature calibrations, and classifying alkenone-producing haptophytes into three groups based on molecular ecological approaches (with the new species belonging to Group I Isochrysidales); (2) A global survey of Group I haptophyte distributions and environmental conditions favoring the presence of this alga, as well as examples of using Group I alkenones for paleotemperature reconstructions; (3) New gas chromatographic columns that allow unprecedented resolution of alkenones and alkenoates and associated structural isomers, and development of a new suite of paleotemperature and paleoenvironmental proxies; (4) A new liquid chromatographic separation technique that allows efficient cleanup of alkenones and alkenoates (without the need for saponification) for subsequent coelution-free gas chromatographic analysis; (5) Novel structural features revealed by new analytical methods that now allow a comprehensive re-assessment of taxonomic features of various haptophyte species, with principal component analysis capable of fully resolving species biomarker distributions; (6) Development of UK37 double prime (UK37'') for Group II haptophytes (e.g., those occurring in saline lakes and estuaries), that differs from the traditional unsaturation indices used for SST reconstructions; (7) New assessment of how mixed inputs from different alkenone groups may affect SST reconstructions in marginal ocean environments and

  19. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Podocarpus lambertii: genome structure, evolutionary aspects, gene content and SSR detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila do Nascimento Vieira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Podocarpus lambertii (Podocarpaceae is a native conifer from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest Biome, which is considered one of the 25 biodiversity hotspots in the world. The advancement of next-generation sequencing technologies has enabled the rapid acquisition of whole chloroplast (cp genome sequences at low cost. Several studies have proven the potential of cp genomes as tools to understand enigmatic and basal phylogenetic relationships at different taxonomic levels, as well as further probe the structural and functional evolution of plants. In this work, we present the complete cp genome sequence of P. lambertii. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The P. lambertii cp genome is 133,734 bp in length, and similar to other sequenced cupressophytes, it lacks one of the large inverted repeat regions (IR. It contains 118 unique genes and one duplicated tRNA (trnN-GUU, which occurs as an inverted repeat sequence. The rps16 gene was not found, which was previously reported for the plastid genome of another Podocarpaceae (Nageia nagi and Araucariaceae (Agathis dammara. Structurally, P. lambertii shows 4 inversions of a large DNA fragment ∼20,000 bp compared to the Podocarpus totara cp genome. These unexpected characteristics may be attributed to geographical distance and different adaptive needs. The P. lambertii cp genome presents a total of 28 tandem repeats and 156 SSRs, with homo- and dipolymers being the most common and tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexapolymers occurring with less frequency. CONCLUSION: The complete cp genome sequence of P. lambertii revealed significant structural changes, even in species from the same genus. These results reinforce the apparently loss of rps16 gene in Podocarpaceae cp genome. In addition, several SSRs in the P. lambertii cp genome are likely intraspecific polymorphism sites, which may allow highly sensitive phylogeographic and population structure studies, as well as phylogenetic studies of species of

  20. Territorial Dioceses and Ethnic Episcopies in the Structure of the Church Organization of the First Bulgarian Kingdom (Canonical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archpriest Alexander Zadornov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The coexistence of ethnic and territorial principles in the structure of ecclesiastical organizations is a well known fact in church history. Both principles are equally legitimate from the point of view of canonical law. The “ethnic principle” was based on legal norms of the so-called 34th Apostolic Rule, and contrary to the opinion of scholars of the 19th century, it was still in use after the era of the Ecumenical Councils. This fact must be considered by students of the history of Church organizations in the First Bulgarian Kingdom, too. The observations regarding the structure of church organizations in Simeonic Bulgaria make it possible to assume the coexistence of ethnic and territorial principles of church organizations in his kingdom. As is known, Slavonic church schools were established in the southwestern part of the First Bulgarian Kingdom after 886. They were aimed at training the Slavonic clergy for the Slavonic church organization. In 893, the Bulgarian King Simeon was elevated to the throne, and a Slavonic eparchy headed by St. Clement of Ohrid was established in the southwestern territories of the First Bulgarian Kingdom. As a result, heterogeneous church organizations were established in the region, and church structures of ethnic and territorial types appeared. They differ from each other by the language of their church services. Old Church Slavonic must have been used as a liturgical language in the ethnic Slavonic eparchy. Since direct historical evidence for such heterogeneous church structure in the First Bulgarian Kingdom is absent, new interpretations of sources made on the basis of canonical law can be of importance for Slavonic studies.

  1. Investigating the structural changes of uranium dioxide dependent on additives, Phase I - Uranium-oxide system from structural-phase aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manojlovic, Lj.

    1962-12-01

    Having in mind the complex structure of the system uranium-oxygen, and that experimental studies of this system lead to controversial conclusions, an extensive review and analysis of the papers published on this subject were needed. This review wold be very useful for interpreting the expected structural changes of the uranium dioxide dependent on the additives

  2. Crack arrest: some comments on microscopic and macroscopic aspects in relation to the assurance of structural integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidbury, D.P.G.; Druce, S.G.; Tomkins, B. [AEA Technology, Risley (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    Fracture prevention in high integrity structures in general, and steel nuclear reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) in particular, is based upon the avoidance of crack initiation, with due regard to real or postulated defects, material toughness and anticipated normal and off-normal loading conditions. However, avoidance of crack initiation can never be guaranteed in any absolute sense. Thus, in cases where there is the possibility of an initiated crack propagating by brittle, cleavage fracture, the crack arrest concept may be usefully applied to provide some additional assurance of structural integrity. Within this context, the mechanical processes operative during the initiation and arrest of cleavage cracks are briefly compared and contrasted. The empirical evidence for indexing and onset-of-upper-shelf temperature for initiation (OUST) and the crack arrest temperature (CAT) relative to the Pellini drop-weight nil-ductility transition temperature (NDTT) is examined, and estimates of the parameter (OUST-CAT) are made for a range of steels. In the light of this, correlations between small-scale tests and more structurally relevant, large-scale tests are examined in relation to both initiation- and arrest-based failure avoidance methodologies. (author).

  3. Electronic and structural aspects of spin transitions observed by optical microscopy. The case of [Fe(ptz)6](BF4)2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Christian; Mishra, Haritosh; Boukheddaden, Kamel; Denise, Stéphane; Bouchez, Guillaume; Collet, Eric; Ameline, Jean-Claude; Naik, Anil D; Garcia, Yann; Varret, François

    2010-02-11

    The colorimetric analysis of images recorded with an optical microscope during the onset of the spin crossover transformation allows monitoring separately the involved electronic and structural aspects, through the separation of resonant absorption and scattering effects. Complementary information can also be obtained by using the polarized modes of the microscope. These potentialities are illustrated by the observation of [Fe(ptz)(6)](BF(4))(2) single crystals during the onset of the thermal transitions in the 110-140 K range. We characterized the interplay between the electronic (HS LS) and structural (order disorder) transformations. Elastic stresses and mechanical effects (hopping, self-cleavage) generated by the volume change upon electronic transition are also illustrated, with their impact on the photoswitching properties of the crystals.

  4. Structural and thermodynamic aspects of the dissociation of cyclopentadienyl rings from homoleptic cyclopentadienyl early transition metal, cerium, and thorium derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Bin; Cheng Feng; Li Qianshu; Xie Yaoming; King, R. Bruce; Schaefer, Henry F.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Density functional theory indicates that for Cp 4 M the S 4 structures are saddle points and the minima have C 1 symmetry with all η 5 -Cp rings for M = Ce and Th, three η 5 -Cp rings and one η 5 -Cp ring for M = Zr, and two η 5 -Cp rings and two η 5 -Cp rings for M = Ti and Hf. The dissociation energies for Cp 4 M → Cp 3 M + Cp · increase in the sequence Ti 3h structures with all η 5 -Cp rings are genuine minima for most of the Cp 3 M compounds except for Cp 3 Ti, which has a Cs symmetry minimum with two η 5 -Cp rings and one η 2 -Cp ring. The dissociation energies for Cp 3 M → Cp 2 M + Cp · increase in the sequence V 4 M the S 4 structures are saddle points. → The minima for Cp 4 M have all η 5 -Cp rings for M = Ce and Th, three η 5 -Cp rings and one η 1 -Cp ring for M = Zr, and two η 5 -Cp rings and two η 5 -Cp rings for M = Ti and Hf. → The dissociation energies for Cp 4 M → Cp 3 M + Cp · increase in the sequence Ti 3h structures with all η 5 -Cp rings are genuine minima for all of the Cp 3 M compounds except for Cp 3 Ti. → The dissociation energies for Cp 3 M → Cp 2 M + Cp · increase in the sequence V 4 M (M = Ti, Zr, Ce, Hf, Th), Cp 3 M (M = Sc, Y, most lanthanides, Ti, Zr, Hf, Th), and Cp 2 M (M = Ti, V). Density functional theory shows that the Cp 4 M structures with unusual S 4 symmetry are saddle points for the d-block metals Ti, Zr, Hf but genuine minima for the f-block metals Ce and Th. The true equilibrium Cp 4 M geometries have C 1 symmetry with two η 5 -Cp rings and two η 1 -Cp rings for M = Ti and Hf but three η 5 -Cp rings and one η 1 -Cp ring for M = Zr. The dissociation energies for Cp 4 M → Cp 3 M + Cp · are substantial and in the order Ti 3h structures with all η 5 -Cp rings are genuine minima for most of the Cp 3 M compounds except for Cp 3 Ti, which has a C s symmetry minimum with two η 5 -Cp rings and one η 2 -Cp ring, and Cp 3 V, which has two η 5 -Cp rings and one η 1 -Cp ring

  5. The Effects of Information Technology on Library and Documentation Centers: A Review of Social, Structural, Managerial and Functional Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut Kurulgan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the context of protecting academic and cultural heritage, the purpose of libraries and information and documentation centers is to research, document, and archive and to transfer to future generations, domestically and internationally, a society ’s culture. This study examines the structural, functional and administrative innovations that have resulted from the implementation of information technology (IT in libraries since the 1990 ’s. The study also mentions how IT can be used in an efficient way in libraries and information and documentation centers.

  6. Study of the electroforming technology for high-aspect ratio micro structure which was machined by using proton beam writing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, N.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we develop the formation process of Ni electrodeposited micro patterns, which is used for MEMS devices or nano-imprinting. The purpose of my study is creating the new process of fabricating 3-D complicated micro-pattern or micro-devices using electroforming and proton beam writing. In general, 'Through mask process' (like a LIGA process) is usually used to fabricate Ni electrodeposited micro patterns for making MEMS devices or microfabricated-molds. The strong point of 'Through mask process' is the simple shape of the electrode. It makes the deposition process easy, because the electrodeposited films just glow up from the bottom to top surface of the mold. And the shape of the electrodeposited films is the same as the electrode pattern from the bottom to top, like a simple pillar shape. However, this process also has some problems. In case of using 'Through mask process', it is difficult to fabricate the complicated 3-D shaped structures, which are bended, parted or severed at some part of the structure between the bottom and top, like a device with a micro sensor or micro total analysis system. In order to overcome these limitations, we try to fabricate Ni electrodeposited micro patterns using 'the Damascene process' and proton beam writing. (author)

  7. Hydrologic aspects of marsh ponds during winter on the Gulf Coast Chenier Plain, USA: Effects of structural marsh management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolduc, F.; Afton, A.D.

    2004-01-01

    The hydrology of marsh ponds influences aquatic invertebrate and waterbird communities. Hydrologic variables in marsh ponds of the Gulf Coast Chenier Plain are potentially affected by structural marsh management (SMM: levees, water control structures and impoundments) that has been implemented since the 1950s. Assuming that SMM restricts tidal flows and drainage of rainwater, we predicted that SMM would increase water depth, and concomitantly decrease salinity and transparency in impounded marsh ponds. We also predicted that SMM would increase seasonal variability in water depth in impounded marsh ponds because of the potential incapacity of water control structures to cope with large flooding events. In addition, we predicted that SMM would decrease spatial variability in water depth. Finally, we predicted that ponds of impounded freshwater (IF), oligohaline (IO), and mesohaline (IM) marshes would be similar in water depth, temperature, dissolved oxygen (O2), and transparency. Using a priori multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) contrast, we tested these predictions by comparing hydrologic variables within ponds of impounded and unimpounded marshes during winters 1997-1998 to 1999-2000 on Rockefeller State Wildlife Refuge, near Grand Chenier, Louisiana. Specifically, we compared hydrologic variables (1) between IM and unimpounded mesohaline marsh ponds (UM); and (2) among IF, IO, and IM marshes ponds. As predicted, water depth was higher and salinity and O2 were lower in IM than in UM marsh ponds. However, temperature and transparency did not differ between IM and UM marsh ponds. Water depth varied more among months in IM marsh ponds than within those of UM marshes, and variances among and within ponds were lower in IM than UM marshes. Finally, all hydrologic variables, except salinity, were similar among IF, IO, and IM marsh ponds. Hydrologic changes within marsh ponds due to SMM should (1) promote benthic invertebrate taxa that tolerate low levels of O2 and

  8. Structural aspects of the solvation shell of lysine and acetylated lysine: A Car-Parrinello and classical molecular dynamics investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnevale, V.; Raugei, S.

    2009-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a post-translational modification, which modulates the affinity of protein-protein and/or protein-DNA complexes. Its crucial role as a switch in signaling pathways highlights the relevance of charged chemical groups in determining the interactions between water and biomolecules. A great effort has been recently devoted to assess the reliability of classical molecular dynamics simulations in describing the solvation properties of charged moieties. In the spirit of these investigations, we performed classical and Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations on lysine and acetylated-lysine in aqueous solution. A comparative analysis between the two computational schemes is presented with a focus on the first solvation shell of the charged groups. An accurate structural analysis unveils subtle, yet statistically significant, differences which are discussed in connection to the significant electronic density charge transfer occurring between the solute and the surrounding water molecules.

  9. The delayed proton emission in the A≃65-77 mass region, statistical aspects and structure effects

    CERN Document Server

    Giovinazzo, J; Miehé, C

    2000-01-01

    In the decay of the series of T sub Z =1/2 nuclei, sup 6 sup 5 Ge, sup 6 sup 9 Se, sup 7 sup 3 Kr and sup 7 sup 7 Sr, a statistical analysis was applied to the beta delayed proton emission to obtain nuclear structure information. New results emerge from this study, in the light of improvements in the experimental techniques and developments of the analysis method. Experimental results are analysed by comparison with a statistical model, in order to extract information on level densities and partial transition widths of the proton emitting nuclei. Limitations of the existing descriptions of processes for nuclei far from stability are pointed out.

  10. Modeling growth kinetics of thin films made by atomic layer deposition in lateral high-aspect-ratio structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylilammi, Markku; Ylivaara, Oili M. E.; Puurunen, Riikka L.

    2018-05-01

    The conformality of thin films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) is studied using all-silicon test structures with long narrow lateral channels. A diffusion model, developed in this work, is used for studying the propagation of ALD growth in narrow channels. The diffusion model takes into account the gas transportation at low pressures, the dynamic Langmuir adsorption model for the film growth and the effect of channel narrowing due to film growth. The film growth is calculated by solving the diffusion equation with surface reactions. An efficient analytic approximate solution of the diffusion equation is developed for fitting the model to the measured thickness profile. The fitting gives the equilibrium constant of adsorption and the sticking coefficient. This model and Gordon's plug flow model are compared. The simulations predict the experimental measurement results quite well for Al2O3 and TiO2 ALD processes.

  11. Effects of 137Cs and 90Sr on structure and functional aspects of the microflora in agricultural used soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedree, Bastian

    2013-01-01

    At long sight 137 Cs and 90 Sr are the main radionuclides responsible for the contamination of agricultural soils due to core melts in nuclear power plants such as Chernobyl or Fukushima. Once deposited on the soil surface, the two radionuclides remain in the upper soil layer for several decades. In the upper soil layer the highest microbial activity can be found, due to high organic matter contents, warm temperatures and gas exchange with the atmosphere. Hence, in contaminated soils microorganisms in upper soil layers (e.g. the plow layer on agricultural fields) are exceedingly exposed to radioactivity. However, no data are available how radioactive contaminations with 137 Cs or 90 Sr in a realistic order of magnitude affect the microbial community and its functions in soils. This dissertation discusses the effects of radioactive contaminations on the microbial community structure and some of its functions in soils. Therefore, typical agricultural soils, an Orthic Luvisol from field site Merzenhausen and a Gleyic Cambisol from field site Kaldenkirchen-Huelst were artificially contaminated with various concentrations of 137 Cs and 90 Sr and partly applied with radiolabeled substrates and incubated in soil microcosms under controlled laboratory conditions. The lower radionuclide concentrations corresponded to the contaminations in the Chernobyl exclusion zone, the higher concentrations were up to 50-fold that of the maximum occurring hotspots ( 137 Cs) in this zone. In three experiments the effects of the ionizing radiation on the bacterial and the fungal community structure (16S and 18S rDNA DGGE), the degradation of 14 C-labeled wheat straw or uniformly ring-labeled 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, the development of the fungal biomass (ergosterol quantification) and the chemical composition of the soil organic matter ( 13 C CP/MAS NMR) were investigated. In half of the microcosms the soils were autoclaved and reinoculated with native soil, with intention to

  12. Searching possibilities of a composite structure of quarks from the jet studies in the ATLAS experiment: physical and experimental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brette, Ph.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis presents the searching possibilities of a composite structure of quark from the jet studies in the ATLAS experiment. ATLAS is one of the major detectors on the LHC, the next proton-proton collider at CERN. The general physic framework of the quark compositeness is first introduced, the its expected search from the contact terms in the channel 2 → 2 is explained. After a description of the ATLAS apparatus and of the prototype of the hadronic scintillating tiles calorimeter, various experimental properties of the hadron calorimeter with respect to the jet measurement are studied. The effect of the non-linearity of the calorimeter response is particularly discussed, including the light red out with the photomultipliers. The laser monitoring system enables a full control of the gain stability of the photomultipliers and of their non-linearity for large signals. Its design and the measured performance are shown. Finally, by considering both the expected performances of the ATLAS detector and the theoretical uncertainties, it appears that the compositeness scale controlled at the LHC, for quarks, should reach 15 to 20 TeV depending upon the luminosity, from jet measurement up to 3 TeV. (author)

  13. Structural aspects of the fermion-boson mapping in two-dimensional gauge and anomalous gauge theories with massive fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belvedere, L.V.; Souza Dutra, A. de; Natividade, C.P.; Queiroz, A.F. de

    2002-01-01

    Using a synthesis of the functional integral and operator approaches we discuss the fermion-boson mapping and the role played by the Bose field algebra in the Hilbert space of two-dimensional gauge and anomalous gauge field theories with massive fermions. In QED 2 with quartic self-interaction among massive fermions, the use of an auxiliary vector field introduces a redundant Bose field algebra that should not be considered as an element of the intrinsic algebraic structure defining the model. In anomalous chiral QED 2 with massive fermions the effect of the chiral anomaly leads to the appearance in the mass operator of a spurious Bose field combination. This phase factor carries no fermion selection rule and the expected absence of Θ-vacuum in the anomalous model is displayed from the operator solution. Even in the anomalous model with massive Fermi fields, the introduction of the Wess-Zumino field replicates the theory, changing neither its algebraic content nor its physical content

  14. Fission-fusion and lineal effect: aspects of the population structure of the Semai Senoi of Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fix, A G

    1975-09-01

    Analysis of histories and genealogies from seven relatively unacculturated, swidden-farming Semai settlements shows that the composition of local groups fluctuates through time. This instability is similar to a pattern which Neel and his colleagues have suggested is typical of primitive society, the fission-fusion model. In addition, the individuals comprising Semai fission groups are kinsmen which implies that the number of independent genomes represented is markedly less than the number of individual migrants (the lineal effect). Fission groups may form new villages or fuse with an established settlement. In either case, the genetic effects of such migration are more pronounced than would be expected on the basis of founder effect or random migration. Despite several conspicuous differences in social organization between the Semai and the South American Indians (e.g., bilateral vs. unilineal descent) whose population structure provided the empirical basis for the fission-fusion, lineal effect model, the basic similarities are striking. The Semai case thus lends support to the proposition that this pattern may be of some generality in technologically primitive populations.

  15. Structural aspects of pressure effects on infrared spectra of mixed-chain phosphatidylcholine assemblies in D2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, P.T.; Huang, C.H.

    1989-01-01

    The barotropic behavior of D 2 O dispersions of 1-stearoyl-2-caproyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, C(18):C(10)PC, a highly asymmetric phospholipid in which the length of the fully extended acyl chain at the sn-1 position of the glycerol backbone is twice as long as that at the sn-2 position, has been investigated by high-pressure Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. This asymmetric phosphatidylcholine bilayer at room temperature displays a pressure-induced phase transition corresponding to the liquid-crystalline----gel phase transition at 1.4 kbar. A conformational ordering of the lipid acyl chains is observed to take place abruptly at the transition pressure of 1.4 kbar. However, the lamellar lipid molecules and their acyl chains remain to be orientationally disordered in the gel phase until the applied pressure reaches 5.5 kbar. In the gel phase of fully hydrated C(18):C(10)PC, the asymmetric lipid molecules assemble into mixed interdigitated bilayers with perpendicular orientation of the zigzag planes among neighboring acyl chains. The role of excess water played in the interchain structure and the behavior of excess water and bound water under high pressure are also discussed

  16. Aspects of the structural and late thermal evolution of the Redbank Thrust system, central Australia: constraints from the Speares Metamorphics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biermeier, C.; Wiesinger, M.; Stuewe, K.; Foster, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    We present new data on the field geology and late thermal evolution of the Redbank Thrust system in the Arunta Block of central Australia. Geochronological and field data from the Speares Meta-morphics are also used to relate the thermal evolution of the Redbank Thrust system to the structural evolution of the region. We show that several stages in the evolution might be discerned. An originally sedimentary sequence was intruded by mafic intrusions and then deformed during partial melting to form the principal foliation observed in the region (D1). This sequence was then folded during D2 into upright folds with north- to northeast-plunging fold axes. These events are likely to correlate with the Strangways and/or Argilke and Chewings Orogenies known from previous studies. Subsequently, the Redbank Thrust was initiated during D3. This event is recognised by deflection of the host rocks into the shear zone and might therefore have been associated with a component of strike-slip motion. It occurred probably at or before 1500-1400 Ma. Subsequent north-over-south thrust motion in the Redbank Thrust formed the intense mylonitic fabric and folded the mylonitic fabric during D4 into asymmetric folds with shallow fold axes. New 40 Ar/ 39 Ar K-feldspar ages from three samples collected from variably deformed branches of the Redbank Thrust and undeformed rocks in the Speares Metamorphics suggest that most parts of the Redbank Thrust system cooled relatively slowly after metamorphism and deformation in the Mesoproterozoic so that the D4 thrusting might have been very long-lived. Minimum ages of the K-feldspar age spectra show that the entire region cooled below 200 deg C by approximately 300 Ma. Apatite fission track ages from nine samples show that cooling through the apatite partial annealing zone occurred during Cretaceous time (ca 150-70 Ma) and modelled cooling histories are consistent with the cooling rates obtained from the K-feldspar data. They indicate that final

  17. Cross-cultural opening in German outpatient mental healthcare service: an exploratory study of structural and procedural aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mösko, Mike-Oliver; Gil-Martinez, Fernanda; Schulz, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Mental healthcare services need to be sensitive towards the cultural needs of patients. Cross-cultural opening is an organizational process to fulfil these needs. This study aims to provide representative structural and procedural data regarding the use of German outpatient mental healthcare services by allochthonous patients, the diversity of psychotherapists in outpatient mental healthcare service, the cross-cultural encounters of therapists and the cross-cultural sensitivity of psychotherapists working in this healthcare area. Of all public outpatient psychotherapists in Hamburg, 81% (n = 485) participated in this survey. Regarding the distribution of the population in this metropolis, allochthonous therapists were underrepresented. Unlike the overall distribution of foreign inhabitants, the largest groups of immigrant therapists came from England, German-speaking countries and other countries within the European Union. The proportion of allochthonous patients in outpatient mental healthcare service was almost half of the proportion of the allochthonous in the general population. Psychotherapists with a migration background regarded themselves as having a higher level of cross-cultural sensitivity than their native colleagues, especially those who have had fewer cross-cultural encounters. Overall, psychotherapists named different challenges in providing cross-cultural treatment. For the German outpatient mental healthcare service to be more accessible to immigrants and their descendants, a greater number of bilingual psychotherapists must gain access to the mental healthcare service, and more advanced cross-cultural sensitivity training and supervision should be provided. German outpatient psychotherapists are culturally and linguistically diverse. Nevertheless, psychotherapists with a migration background are underrepresented in outpatient mental healthcare services. Patients with a migration background are also underrepresented in the German outpatient mental

  18. Structural aspects of inotropic bipyridine binding. Crystal structure determination to 1.9 A of the human serum transthyretin-milrinone complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtczak, A; Luft, J R; Cody, V

    1993-03-25

    The crystal structure of human transthyretin (TTR) complexed with milrinone (2-methyl-5-cyano-3,4'-bipyridin-6(1H)-one), a positive inotropic cardiac agent, has been refined to R = 17.4% for 8-1.9-A resolution data. This report provides the first detailed description of protein interactions for an inotropic bipyridine agent which is an effective thyroid hormone binding competitor to transthyretin. Milrinone is bound along the 2-fold axis in the binding site with its substituted pyridone ring located deep within the channel of the two identical binding domains of the TTR tetramer. In this orientation the 5-cyano group occupies the same site as the 3'-iodine in the TTR complex with 3,3'-diiodothyronine (Wojtczak, A., Luft, J., and Cody, V. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 353-357), which is 3.5 A deeper in the channel than thyroxine (Blake, C. C. F., and Oately, S. J., (1977) Nature 268, 115-120). These structural results confirm computer modeling studies of milrinone structural homology with thyroxine and its TTR binding interactions and explain the effectiveness of milrinone competition for thyroxine binding to TTR. To understand the weaker binding affinity of the parent inotropic drug, amrinone (5-amino-3,4'-bipyridin-6(1H)-one), modeling studies of its TTR binding were carried out which indicate that the 5-amino group cannot participate in strong interactions with TTR and the lack of the 2-methyl further weakens amrinone binding.

  19. Molecular Aspects of Structure, Gating, and Physiology of pH-Sensitive Background K2P and Kir K+-Transport Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Francisco V.; Pablo Cid, L.; Teulon, Jacques; Niemeyer, María Isabel

    2015-01-01

    K+ channels fulfill roles spanning from the control of excitability to the regulation of transepithelial transport. Here we review two groups of K+ channels, pH-regulated K2P channels and the transport group of Kir channels. After considering advances in the molecular aspects of their gating based on structural and functional studies, we examine their participation in certain chosen physiological and pathophysiological scenarios. Crystal structures of K2P and Kir channels reveal rather unique features with important consequences for the gating mechanisms. Important tasks of these channels are discussed in kidney physiology and disease, K+ homeostasis in the brain by Kir channel-equipped glia, and central functions in the hearing mechanism in the inner ear and in acid secretion by parietal cells in the stomach. K2P channels fulfill a crucial part in central chemoreception probably by virtue of their pH sensitivity and are central to adrenal secretion of aldosterone. Finally, some unorthodox behaviors of the selectivity filters of K2P channels might explain their normal and pathological functions. Although a great deal has been learned about structure, molecular details of gating, and physiological functions of K2P and Kir K+-transport channels, this has been only scratching at the surface. More molecular and animal studies are clearly needed to deepen our knowledge. PMID:25540142

  20. Influence of different aspect ratios on the structural and electrical properties of GaN thin films grown on nanoscale-patterned sapphire substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Fang-Wei [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Ke, Wen-Cheng, E-mail: wcke@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Chun-Hong; Liao, Bo-Wei; Chen, Wei-Kuo [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

    2016-07-01

    Highlights: • Nanoscale patterned sapphire substrate was prepared by anodic-aluminum-oxide etching mask. • Influence of aspect ratio of NPSS on structural and electrical properties of GaN films was studied. • Low dislocation density and high carrier mobility of GaN films were grown on high aspect ratio NPSS. - Abstract: This study presents GaN thin films grown on nanoscale-patterned sapphire substrates (NPSSs) with different aspect ratios (ARs) using a homemade metal-organic chemical vapor deposition system. The anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) technique is used to prepare the dry etching mask. The cross-sectional view of the scanning electron microscope image shows that voids exist between the interface of the GaN thin film and the high-AR (i.e. ∼2) NPSS. In contrast, patterns on the low-AR (∼0.7) NPSS are filled full of GaN. The formation of voids on the high-AR NPSS is believed to be due to the enhancement of the lateral growth in the initial growth stage, and the quick-merging GaN thin film blocks the precursors from continuing to supply the bottom of the pattern. The atomic force microscopy images of GaN on bare sapphire show a layer-by-layer surface morphology, which becomes a step-flow surface morphology for GaN on a high-AR NPSS. The edge-type threading dislocation density can be reduced from 7.1 × 10{sup 8} cm{sup −2} for GaN on bare sapphire to 4.9 × 10{sup 8} cm{sup −2} for GaN on a high-AR NPSS. In addition, the carrier mobility increases from 85 cm{sup 2}/Vs for GaN on bare sapphire to 199 cm{sup 2}/Vs for GaN on a high-AR NPSS. However, the increased screw-type threading dislocation density for GaN on a low-AR NPSS is due to the competition of lateral growth on the flat-top patterns and vertical growth on the bottom of the patterns that causes the material quality of the GaN thin film to degenerate. Thus, the experimental results indicate that the AR of the particular patterning of a NPSS plays a crucial role in achieving GaN thin film with

  1. Financial aspects of decommissioning (key aspects of decommissioning costing)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danska, V.

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation the following aspects of NPPs decommissioning are discussed: Requirements and purpose of decommissioning costing; Decommissioning costing methodologies; Standardised decommissioning cost structure; Input data for cost estimate process; Waste management in cost estimate process; Grading aspects in cost estimating; Cost control in decommissioning projects; Summary of the cost estimation process; Conclusions and recommendations.

  2. Does gender moderate the subjective measurement and structural paths in behavioural and cognitive aspects of gambling disorder in treatment-seeking adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David; Battersby, Malcolm; Harvey, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Gender differences have been observed in the pathogenesis of gambling disorder and gambling related urge and cognitions are predictive of relapse to problem gambling. A better understanding of these mechanisms concurrently may help in the development of more directed therapies. We evaluated gender effects on behavioural and cognitive paths to gambling disorder from self-report data. Participants (N=454) were treatment-seeking problem gamblers on first presentation to a gambling therapy service between January 2012 and December 2014. We firstly investigated if aspects of gambling related urge, cognitions (interpretive bias and gambling expectancies) and gambling severity were more central to men than women. Subsequently, a full structural equation model tested if gender moderated behavioural and cognitive paths to gambling severity. Men (n=280, mean age=37.4years, SD=11.4) were significantly younger than women (n=174, mean age=48.7years, SD=12.9) (pgambling severity, gambling related urge, interpretive bias and gambling expectancies. The paths for urge to gambling severity and interpretive bias to gambling severity were stronger for men than women and statistically significant (pgambling expectancies to gambling severity were insignificant for both men and women. This study detected an important signal in terms of theoretical mechanisms to explaining gambling disorder and gender differences. It has implications for treatment development including relapse prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Structure and relative importance of ponderomotive forces and current drive generated by converted fast waves in pre-heated low aspect ratio tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuperman, S.; Bruma, C.; Komoshvili, K

    2003-05-12

    The generation in low aspect ratio tokamaks (LARTs) of ponderomotive forces and non-inductive current drive by the resonant fast wave-plasma interaction with mode conversion to kinetic Alfven waves (KAWs) and subsequent deposition, mainly by resonant electron Landau damping, is considered. The calculations follow the rigorous solution of the full wave equations upon using a dielectric tensor operator consisting of (i) a parallel conductivity including both kinetic effects (collisionless Landau damping on passing electrons) and collisional damping on both trapped electrons and passing electrons+ions and (ii) perpendicular components provided by the resistive two-fluid model equations. The fast waves are launched by an antenna located on the low field side and extending {+-}45 deg. about the equatorial plane. A parametric investigation of the structure and importance of the various components of the ponderomotive forces and current drive generated in START-like plasmas is carried out and their suitability for supplementing the required non-rf toroidal equilibrium current is demonstrated.

  4. Developmental aspects of English argument structure constructions for Korean-speaking second language learners: Usage-based constructional approaches to language development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyu-Ho Shin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates developmental aspects of English Argument Structure Constructions (ASCs for Korean-speaking second language (L2 learners, providing evidence of how they manifest human domain-general cognitive systems during language acquisition via usage-based constructional approaches to language development. Participants were instructed on six English ASC types with their representative verbs for three months. The data from grammaticality preference tasks, writing tests, and free-writing tasks were analysed. Comprehension data from the grammaticality preference tasks showed significant improvement in understanding ASCs after instruction, supporting sentence-level generalisations for language comprehension independent of individual verbs. The production data from the writing tests demonstrated more frequent use of two-argument constructions than three-argument ones, which indicates the internal complexity between ASC types. The results of the writing tests also displayed skewed exploitation of verbs representative of the target ASCs, implying a frequency-sensitive nature of language acquisition. All production data further revealed active use of prefabricated chunks and incorporation of new and old language items. Taken all together, these observations suggest language learners’ merging narrowly stabilised L2 routines with other (non-linguistic resources as necessary, sustaining efficiency in a sentence-building process, under the superintendence of cognitive factors when satisfying communicative intents.

  5. Medicinal Plants in the Broad-Leaf Mixed Coniferous Forest of Tshothang Chiwog, Bhutan: Floristic Attributes, Vegetation Structure, Ethnobotany, and Socioeconomic Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngawang Jamba

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Himalayan Kingdom of Bhutan, located in one of the global biodiversity hotspots, is endowed with abundant floral wealth, including a wide array of medicinal plants (MPs. However, over-exploitation of these resources is widespread, and only a few studies have assessed the richness and diversity of Bhutanese forests and in particular about the MP resources. A vegetation survey was conducted in Tshothang Chiwog, south-eastern Bhutan to characterize the floristic structure of the broad-leaf mixed coniferous forests with a special focus on MPs. A questionnaire survey involving 40 farmers was also conducted to assess the ethnobotanical and socioeconomic aspects of MP extraction. A total of 157 plant species (38 trees, 19 shrubs, 85 herbs and ferns, and 15 climbers, representing 74 families and 137 genera were identified from the study area, of which 69 species (14 trees, 10 shrubs, 38 herbs and ferns, and seven climbers, belonging to 41 families and 69 genera were medicinally important. The most species-rich families of medicinal plants were: Asteraceae (eight spp., Apiaceae (four spp., Polygonaceae, Brassicaceae, Zingiberaceae, and Urticaceae (three species each. Herbaceous flora exhibited the highest diversity (Simpson diversity index, D = 0.97 and Shannon-Weiner index, H′ = 5.82, followed by trees and shrubs (D = 0.95 and 0.92 and H′ = 4.86 and 3.97, respectively. All but one herb showed abundance-to-frequency ratio (A/F ≥0.05, signifying a contagious distribution pattern (large aggregated distribution. Girth class distribution of trees followed an inverse J-shaped pattern. Results of the ethnobotanic study documented 55 MPs. MP collection, as reported by the interviewees, generally improved the socioeconomic status of the people of Tshothang Chiwog. Apart from improving the livelihood security of the local people, aspects relating to health care and culture are also important. Respondents were also concerned about the declining MP wealth

  6. AspectKE*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fan; Masuhara, Hidehiko; Aotani, Tomoyuki

    2010-01-01

    Enforcing security policies to distributed systems is difficult, in particular, when a system contains untrusted components. We designed AspectKE*, a distributed AOP language based on a tuple space, to tackle this issue. In AspectKE*, aspects can enforce access control policies that depend......KE*, and demonstrate usefulness of AspectKE* through a security aspect for a distributed chat system....

  7. Structural systematics of rare earth complexes. III. Structural characterization of lanthanoid (III) picrate hydrates: gadolinium picrate dodecahydrate - an x-ray-induced phase modifications? - and some general aspects of structural chemistry of lanthanoid picrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrowfield, J.M.; Weimin, Lu; Brian, W.S.; White, A.H.

    1994-01-01

    In the course of the previous studies (Parts I and II), an unusual result was observed in the case of the structure determination of hydrated gadolinium(III) picrate. Midway through data collection, the monoclinic P2 1 /c phase modification (X-ray-induced?) to a similar cell more nearly resembling that of the La→Pr structure type recorded previously, with no loss of crystal integrity, and with useful data sets being obtained on both forms. Redetermination of the structure with a fresh sample yielded no reproduction of the anomaly. These results are recorded and discussed, together with an overview of the consequences of the data of Parts I-III in relation to those of other literature in the field. 13 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig

  8. Aspects and Polymorphism in AspectJ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenz, David Harel; Ernst, Erik

    2003-01-01

    There are two important points of view on inclusion or subtype polymorphism in object-oriented programs, namely polymorphic access and dynamic dispatch. These features are essential for object-oriented programming, and it is worthwhile to consider whether they are supported in aspect-oriented......J as the basis for the presentation. The results are not exclusive to AspectJ---aspectual polymorphism may make aspects in any comparable AOSD language more expressive and reusable across programs, while preserving safety....

  9. Practical Aspects of CMOS Layout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stassen, Flemming

    1996-01-01

    The topics covered in these notes are the practical aspects and limitations of layout, when random process variations result in electrical parameters, which are not constant but rather statistically distributed.The focus is on design methods for reducing or eliminating the effects. The notes cover...... three aspects:1) to introduce layout structures robust to process variations2) to present simplistic models for analog building blocks with the aim of analysing consequences of parameter variations3) to present the basic noise considerations which guide the layout of supply structures etc....

  10. Verb aspect, alternations and quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetla Koeva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Verb aspect, alternations and quantification In this paper we are briefly discuss the nature of Bulgarian verb aspect and argue that the verb aspect pairs are different lexical units with different (although related meaning, different argument structure (reflecting categories, explicitness and referential status of arguments and different sets of semantic and syntactic alternations. The verb prefixes resulting in perfective verbs derivation in some cases can be interpreted as lexical quantifiers as well. Thus the Bulgarian verb aspect is related (in different way both with the potential for the generation of alternations and with the prefixal lexical quantification. It is shown that the scope of the lexical quantification by means of verbal prefixes is the quantified verb phrase and the scope remains constant in all derived alternations. The paper concerns the basic issues of these complex problems, while the detailed description of the conditions satisfying particular alternation or particular lexical quantification are subject of a more detailed study.

  11. An investigation on the structure, spectroscopy and thermodynamic aspects of Br2((-))(H2O)n clusters using a conjunction of stochastic and quantum chemical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naskar, Pulak; Chaudhury, Pinaki

    2016-06-28

    In this work we obtained global as well as local structures of Br2((-))(H2O)n clusters for n = 2 to 6 followed by the study of IR-spectral features and thermochemistry for the structures. The way adopted by us to obtain structures is not the conventional one used in most cases. Here we at first generated excellent quality pre-optimized structures by exploring the suitable empirical potential energy surface using stochastic optimizer simulated annealing. These structures are then further refined using quantum chemical calculations to obtain the final structures, and spectral and thermodynamic features. We clearly showed that our approach results in very quick and better convergence which reduces the computational cost and obviously using the strategy we are able to get one [i.e. global] or more than one [i.e. global and local(s)] energetically lower structures than those which are already reported for a given cluster size. Moreover, IR-spectral results and the evolutionary trends in interaction energy, solvation energy and vertical detachment energy for global structures of each size have also been presented to establish the utility of the procedure employed.

  12. Alocação de recursos (carboidratos no desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de Schizolobium parahyba (Vell. S.F. Blake (Fabaceae - Caesalpinioideae Resource allocation (carbohydrates in the inicial development of seedlings of Schizolobium parahyba (Vell. S.F. Blacke (Fabaceae - Caesalpinioideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Wehmuth Alves Weidlich

    2010-08-01

    between biomass, total soluble sugar and starch have shown the mobilization of the store from cotyledons to the other structures of the plant while the reduction of biomass and sugars of cotyledons result in an increase of biomass in epicotyls, stems and roots of the seedling.

  13. New insights into structural and stratigraphic aspects of central Northern Switzerland from the Nagra 2D reflection seismic campaign 2011/12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, B.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, some findings resulting from the interpretation of reprocessed and newly acquired 2D seismic data in the central Northern Switzerland are presented. The seismic examples illustrate the relationship between basement and cover-tectonics and offer a closer look at seismic-stratigraphic characteristics which can be observed in the Middle Jurassic sequence. The new 2D seismic data have closed an important data gaps between the Nagra siting regions 'Jura Ost' and Nördlich Lägern' proposed for radioactive waste disposal and allow clarification of the general structural framework and internal composition of the Permo-Carboniferous Through. Furthermore, the kinematic relationships between the basement and cover structures can be studied and the newly acquired seismic data have allowed detailed depositional structures and seismic facies changes within the Mid-Upper Dogger sequence to be recognized, particularly east and west of the lower Aare valley. (author)

  14. Structural aspects of crotalic venom proteins modified by ionizing radiation; Aspectos estruturais de proteinas do veneno crotalico modificadas por radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Karina Corleto de

    2010-07-01

    Snake bites are a serious public health problem, especially in subtropical countries. In Brazil, the Ministry of Health notified around 26 000 accidents in 2008. The genus Crotalus (rattlesnakes) accounts for approximately 7% of the total, with a high mortality rate of 72% when untreated with the specific serum, the only effective treatment in case of snake bites. In Brazil, the serum is produced in horses which, despite the large size, have a reduced lifespan due to the high toxicity of the antigen. Ionizing radiation has proven to be an excellent tool for reducing the toxicity of venoms and isolated toxins, resulting in better immunogens for serum production, and contributing to the welfare of serum producing animals. Since the action of gamma radiation on venoms and toxins has not been yet fully clarified from the structural point of view, we proposed in this paper, to characterize two toxins of the species Crotalus durissus terrificus: crotoxin and crotamine. After isolation of the toxins of interest by chromatographic techniques, they were subjected to structural analysis with the application of the following methods: Fluorescence, Circular Dichroism, Differential Calorimetry and Infrared Spectroscopy. These tests showed that both crotamine as crotoxin when subjected to gamma radiation, showed changes in their structural conformation compared with the samples in the native state. Such changes probably occur in the secondary and tertiary structure and may explain the changes on the biological activity of these toxins. (author)

  15. High Aspect Ratio Plasmonic Nanotrench Structures with Large Active Surface Area for Label-Free Mid-Infrared Molecular Absorption Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shkondin, Evgeniy; Repän, Taavi; Panah, Mohammad Esmail Aryaee

    2018-01-01

    . Here, we demonstrate the enhancement of infrared absorption in plasmonic trench structures that function as hyperbolic metamaterials. The metamaterial is composed of plasmonic trenches made of aluminum-doped zinc oxide. We use a 5 nm thick silica layer as a model analyte conformally coated around...

  16. Structural aspects of B2O3-substituted (PbO)0.5(SiO2)0.5 glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudarsan, V.; Kulshreshtha, S.K.; Shrikhande, V.K.; Kothiyal, G.P.

    2002-01-01

    Lead borosilicate glasses having general formulae (PbO) 0.5-x (SiO 2 ) 0.5 (B 2 O 3 ) x with 0.0≤x≤0.4 and (PbO) 0.5 (SiO 2 ) 0.5-y (B 2 O 3 ) y with 0.0≤y≤0.5 have been prepared by a conventional melt-quench method and characterized by 29 Si, 11 B magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR techniques and infrared spectroscopy, as regards their structural features. From 29 Si NMR results, it has been inferred that with increasing concentration of boron oxide, (PbO) 0.5-x (SiO 2 ) 0.5 (B 2 O 3 )x glasses exhibit a systematic increase in the number of Q 4 structural units of Si at the expense of Q 2 structural units, along with the formation of Si-O-B linkages. On the other hand, for (PbO) 0.5 (SiO 2 ) 0.5-y (B 2 O 3 ) y glasses, there is no direct interaction between SiO 2 and B 2 O 3 in the glass network, as revealed by the 29 Si MAS NMR studies. Boron exists in both trigonal and tetrahedral configurations for these two series of glasses and for the (PbO) 0.5 (SiO 2 ) 0.5-y (B 2 O 3 ) y series of glasses; the relative concentration of these two structural units remains almost constant with increasing B 2 O 3 concentration. In contrast, for (PbO) 0.5-x (SiO 2 ) 0.5 (B 2 O 3 ) x glasses, there is a slight increase in the number of BO 3 structural units above x = 0.2, as there is a competition between SiO 2 and B 2 O 3 for interaction with Pb 2+ , thereby leading to the formation of BO 3 structural units. For both series of glasses, the thermal expansion coefficient is found to decrease with increasing B 2 O 3 concentration, the effect being more pronounced for the (PbO) 0.5-x (SiO 2 ) 0.5 (B 2 O 3 ) x series of glasses due to the increased concentration of Q 4 structural units of silicon and better cross-linking as a result of the formation of Si-O-B-type linkages. (author)

  17. Continued Analysis on Multiscale Aspects of Tropical Cyclone Formation, Structure Change and Predictability in the Western North Pacific Region as Part of the TCS08 DRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    Atmospheric Administration. The published paper was entitled “Structure of the Eye and Eyewall of Hurricane Hugo (1989) and was published in Mon. Wea. Rev., 136, 1237-1259. ...developments in tropical cyclone intensification theory A new paradigm of tropical cyclone intensification and hurricane boundary layer dynamics has been... Hurricane Rita (2005) show strong support for the second spin-up mechanism in the concentric eyewall lifecycle. Didlake and Houze (2011) found a

  18. International Workshop on Structural and Functional Aspects of the Cholinergic Synapse Held in Jerusalem, Isreal on 30 August-4 September 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    16 vesaaicol analogues and 9 other compounds of widely varying structures. Only for a weakly binding diner of vesamicol, hexsmethonium and chloroquine ...surface of the vesicle menbrane by use cf a Lambrars-impermaant analogue of vesamicol. Rate processes for association and diissociation of vesamicol...vesamicol analogue occupied the receptor and inhibited ( 14 C]ACh transport. Addition of excess avidin "neutralized’ the biotinylated veasai:ol end freed the

  19. Some aspects of hydrogen plasma treatment of anti-modulation doped near surface GaAs/AlGaAs single quantum well structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumai, Yu.A.; Gobsch, G.; Goldhahn, R.; Stein, N.; Golombek, A.; Nakov, V.; Cheng, T.S.

    1999-01-01

    The MBE grown anti-modulation doped GaAs/AlGaAs structures with near surface single quantum wells were exposed to a DC hydrogen plasma (∼400 eV) and investigated using PL, PLE and PR spectroscopy at 5 K. Strong acceptor related free to bound transition (FB) dominates for quantum well related PL but excitonic features are still observed in PLE spectra. After hydrogen plasma treatment the PL intensity of FB transition from quantum well was strongly increased for above AlGaAs band gap excitation and was unchanged for below AlGaAs one. These results are consistent with atomic hydrogen passivation of deep defects in AlGaAs barriers. At the same time radiative excitonic recombination was quenched by hydrogenation. PLE and PR spectra indicate on a strong increase of electric field in subsurface region of the structure after hydrogenation. The increase of electric field in anti-modulation doped structure after hydrogen plasma treatment is supposed to be due to passivation by atomic hydrogen of surface states that leads to unpinning of Fermi level from mid gap to carbon acceptor level position in GaAs cap layer. It causes the further band bending and surface electric field increase that strongly suppress excitonic recombination in near surface quantum wells

  20. Influences of metallic doping on anatase crystalline titanium dioxide: From electronic structure aspects to efficiency of TiO2-based dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Thuy Trang; Tran, Van Nam; Bach, Thanh Cong

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we examined the influences of metallic X dopants (X = Be, Mg, Ca, Zn, Al, W and Nb) on the electronic structure of anatase TiO 2 in the framework of density functional theory (DFT). The dopant-induced electronic structure modifications are believed to directly change the photovoltaic (PV) behaviors of the X-doped TiO 2 based DSSCs. The dopants are shown to either directly inhibit the intrinsic Ti 3+ and oxygen vacancy surface defects of TiO 2 or enhance these defects depending on their valence states. These dopant-induced defect modifications, in turn, strongly affect the PV behaviors of the DSSCs. The combined effect of electronic structure and surface-defect modifications determined the photoelectric efficiency of the device. - Highlights: • Ca, Al and W dopants strongly distort the lattice and narrowed the band gap. • Nb negatively shifts while the others positive shift the conduction band bottom. • Nb and W dopants reduce Ti 4+ to Ti 3+ without forming oxygen vacancy. • Be, Mg, Ca, Zn and Al dopants induce oxygen vacancy without Ti 3+ . • Nb and W inhibit the surface defects while the others do the reversed manner

  1. Structure/functional aspects of the human riboflavin transporter-3 (SLC52A3): role of the predicted glycosylation and substrate-interacting sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Veedamali S; Sabui, Subrata; Teafatiller, Trevor; Bohl, Jennifer A; Said, Hamid M

    2017-08-01

    The human riboflavin (RF) transporter-3 (hRFVT-3; product of the SLC52A3 gene) plays an essential role in the intestinal RF absorption process and is expressed exclusively at the apical membrane domain of polarized enterocytes. Previous studies have characterized different physiological/biological aspects of this transporter, but nothing is known about the glycosylation status of the hRFVT-3 protein and role of this modification in its physiology/biology. Additionally, little is known about the residues in the hRFVT-3 protein that interact with the ligand, RF. We addressed these issues using appropriate biochemical/molecular approaches, a protein-docking model, and established intestinal/renal epithelial cells. Our results showed that the hRFVT-3 protein is glycosylated and that glycosylation is important for its function. Mutating the predicted N -glycosylation sites at Asn 94 and Asn 168 led to a significant decrease in RF uptake; it also led to a marked intracellular (in the endoplasmic reticulum, ER) retention of the mutated proteins as shown by live-cell confocal imaging studies. The protein-docking model used in this study has identified a number of putative substrate-interacting sites: Ser 16 , Ile 20 , Trp 24 , Phe 142 , Thr 314 , and Asn 315 Mutating these potential interacting sites was indeed found to lead to a significant inhibition in RF uptake and to intracellular (ER) retention of the mutated proteins (except for the Phe 142 mutant). These results demonstrate that the hRFVT-3 protein is glycosylated and this glycosylation is important for its function and cell surface expression. This study also identified a number of residues in the hRFVT-3 polypeptide that are important for its function/cell surface expression.

  2. Human Development VII: A Spiral Fractal Model of Fine Structure of Physical Energy Could Explain Central Aspects of Biological Information, Biological Organization and Biological Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have made a draft of a physical fractal essence of the universe, a sketch of a new cosmology, which we believe to lay at the root of our new holistic biological paradigm. We present the fractal roomy spiraled structures and the energy-rich dancing “infinite strings” or lines of the universe that our hypothesis is based upon. The geometric language of this cosmology is symbolic and both pre-mathematical and pre-philosophical. The symbols are both text and figures, and using these we step by step explain the new model that at least to some extent is able to explain the complex informational system behind morphogenesis, ontogenesis, regeneration and healing. We suggest that it is from this highly dynamic spiraled structure that organization of cells, organs, and the wholeness of the human being including consciousness emerge. The model of ““dancing fractal spirals” carries many similarities to premodern cultures descriptions of the energy of the life and universe. Examples are the Native American shamanistic descriptions of their perception of energy and the old Indian Yogis descriptions of the life-energy within the body and outside. Similar ideas of energy and matter are found in the modern superstring theories. The model of the informational system of the organism gives new meaning to Bateson’s definition of information: “A difference that makes a difference”, and indicates how information-directed self-organization can exist on high structural levels in living organisms, giving birth to their subjectivity and consciousness.

  3. Structural aspects of displacive transformations: what can optical microscopy contribute? Dehydration of Sm2(C2O43·10H2O as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Matvienko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available For martensitic transformations the macroscopic crystal strain is directly related to the corresponding structural rearrangement at the microscopic level. In situ optical microscopy observations of the interface migration and the change in crystal shape during a displacive single crystal to single crystal transformation can contribute significantly to understanding the mechanism of the process at the atomic scale. This is illustrated for the dehydration of samarium oxalate decahydrate in a study combining optical microscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction.

  4. New approaches for the reliability-oriented structural optimization considering time-variant aspects; Neue Ansaetze fuer die zuverlaessigkeitsorientierte Strukturoptimierung unter Beachtung zeitvarianter Aspekte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuschel, N.

    2000-07-01

    The optimization of structures with respect to cost, weight or performance is a well-known application of the nonlinear optimization. However reliability-based structural optimization has been subject of only very few studies. The approaches suggested up to now have been unsatisfactory regarding general possibility of application or easy handling by user. The objective of this thesis is the development of general approaches to solve both optimization problems, the minimization of cost with respect to constraint reliabilty and the maximization of reliability under cost constraint. The extented approach of an one-level-method will be introduced in detail for the time-invariant problems. Here, the reliability of the sturcture will be analysed in the framework of the First-Order-Reliability-Method (FORM). The use of time-variant reliability analysis is necessary for a realistic modelling of many practical problems. Therefore several generalizations of the new approaches will be derived for the time-variant reliability-based structural optimization. Some important properties of the optimization problems are proved. In addition some interesting extensions of the one-level-method, for example the cost optimization of structural series systems and the cost optimization in the frame of the Second-Order-Reliabiity-Method (SORM), are presented in the thesis. (orig.) [German] Die Optimierung von Tragwerken im Hinblick auf die Kosten, das Gewicht oder die Gestalt ist eine sehr bekannte Anwendung der nichtlinearen Optimierung. Die zuverlaessigkeitsorientierte Strukturoptimierung wurde dagegen weit seltener untersucht. Die bisher vorgeschlagenen Ansaetze koennen bezueglich ihrer allgemeinen Verwendbarkeit oder ihrer nutzerfreundlichen Handhabung nicht befriedigen. Das Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit ist nun die Entwicklung allgemeiner Ansaetze zur Loesung der beiden Optimierungsprobleme, einer Kostenminimierung unter Zuverlaessigkeitsrestriktionen und einer

  5. Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering on iso-C2H2Cl2 around the chlorine K-edge: Structural and dynamical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawerk, Elie; Carniato, Stéphane; Journel, Loïc; Marchenko, Tatiana; Simon, Marc; Piancastelli, Maria Novella; Žitnik, Matjaž; Bučar, Klemen; Bohnic, Rok

    2014-01-01

    We report a theoretical and experimental study of the high resolution resonant K α X-ray emission lines around the chlorine K-edge in gas phase 1,1-dichloroethylene. With the help of ab initio electronic structure calculations and cross section evaluation, we interpret the lowest lying peak in the X-ray absorption and emission spectra. The behavior of the K α emission lines with respect to frequency detuning highlights the existence of femtosecond nuclear dynamics on the dissociative Potential Energy Surface of the first K-shell core-excited state

  6. Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering on iso-C2H2Cl2 around the chlorine K-edge: Structural and dynamical aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawerk, Elie; Carniato, Stéphane; Journel, Loïc; Marchenko, Tatiana; Piancastelli, Maria Novella; Žitnik, Matjaž; Bučar, Klemen; Bohnic, Rok; Kavčič, Matjaž; Céolin, Denis; Khoury, Antonio; Simon, Marc

    2014-10-01

    We report a theoretical and experimental study of the high resolution resonant Kα X-ray emission lines around the chlorine K-edge in gas phase 1,1-dichloroethylene. With the help of ab initio electronic structure calculations and cross section evaluation, we interpret the lowest lying peak in the X-ray absorption and emission spectra. The behavior of the Kα emission lines with respect to frequency detuning highlights the existence of femtosecond nuclear dynamics on the dissociative Potential Energy Surface of the first K-shell core-excited state.

  7. Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering on iso-C₂H₂Cl₂ around the chlorine K-edge: structural and dynamical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawerk, Elie; Carniato, Stéphane; Journel, Loïc; Marchenko, Tatiana; Piancastelli, Maria Novella; Žitnik, Matjaž; Bučar, Klemen; Bohnic, Rok; Kavčič, Matjaž; Céolin, Denis; Khoury, Antonio; Simon, Marc

    2014-10-14

    We report a theoretical and experimental study of the high resolution resonant K(α) X-ray emission lines around the chlorine K-edge in gas phase 1,1-dichloroethylene. With the help of ab initio electronic structure calculations and cross section evaluation, we interpret the lowest lying peak in the X-ray absorption and emission spectra. The behavior of the K(α) emission lines with respect to frequency detuning highlights the existence of femtosecond nuclear dynamics on the dissociative Potential Energy Surface of the first K-shell core-excited state.

  8. Linear signal hyperintensity adjacent to the subchondral bone plate at the knee on T2-weighted fat-saturated sequences: imaging aspects and association with structural lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondim Teixeira, Pedro Augusto; Balaj, Clemence [CHU Hopital Central, Service D' Imagerie Guilloz, Nancy (France); Universite de Lorraine, IADI, UMR S 947, Nancy (France); Marie, Beatrice [CHU Hopital Central, Service d' Anatomo-Pathologie, Nancy (France); Lecocq, Sophie; Louis, Matthias; Blum, Alain [CHU Hopital Central, Service D' Imagerie Guilloz, Nancy (France); Braun, Marc [CHU Hopital Central, Service de Neuroradiologie, Nancy (France)

    2014-11-15

    To describe the association between linear T2 signal abnormalities in the subchondral bone and structural knee lesions. MR studies of patients referred for the evaluation of knee pain were retrospectively evaluated and 133 of these patients presented bone marrow edema pattern (BMEP) (study group) and while 61 did not (control group). The presence of linear anomalies of the subchondral bone on T2-weighted fat-saturated sequences was evaluated. The findings were correlated to the presence of structural knee lesions and to the duration of the patient's symptoms. Histologic analysis of a cadaveric specimen was used for anatomic correlation. Linear T2 hyperintensities at the subchondral bone were present in 41 % of patients with BMEP. None of the patients in the control group presented this sign. When a subchondral linear hyperintensity was present, the prevalence of radial or root tears was high and that of horizontal tears was low (71.4 and 4.8 %, respectively). Sixty-nine percent of the patients with a subchondral insufficiency fracture presented a subchondral linear hyperintensity. It was significantly more prevalent in patients with acute or sub-acute symptoms (p < 0.0001). The studied linear T2 hyperintensity is located at the subchondral spongiosa and can be secondary to local or distant joint injuries. Its presence should evoke acute and sub-acute knee injuries. This sign is closely related to subchondral insufficiency fractures and meniscal tears with a compromise in meniscal function. (orig.)

  9. Aspects of nonviral gene therapy: correlation of molecular parameters with lipoplex structure and transfection efficacy in pyridinium-based cationic lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvizi, Paria; Jubeli, Emile; Raju, Liji; Khalique, Nada Abdul; Almeer, Ahmed; Allam, Hebatalla; Manaa, Maryem Al; Larsen, Helge; Nicholson, David; Pungente, Michael D; Fyles, Thomas M

    2014-01-30

    This study seeks correlations between the molecular structures of cationic and neutral lipids, the lipid phase behavior of the mixed-lipid lipoplexes they form with plasmid DNA, and the transfection efficacy of the lipoplexes. Synthetic cationic pyridinium lipids were co-formulated (1:1) with the cationic lipid 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-ethylphosphocholine (EPC), and these lipids were co-formulated (3:2) with the neutral lipids 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) or cholesterol. All lipoplex formulations exhibited plasmid DNA binding and a level of protection from DNase I degradation. Composition-dependent transfection (beta-galactosidase and GFP) and cytotoxicity was observed in Chinese hamster ovarian-K1 cells. The most active formulations containing the pyridinium lipids were less cytotoxic but of comparable activity to a Lipofectamine 2000™ control. Molecular structure parameters and partition coefficients were calculated for all lipids using fragment additive methods. The derived shape parameter values correctly correlated with observed hexagonal lipid phase behavior of lipoplexes as derived from small-angle X-ray scattering experiments. A transfection index applicable to hexagonal phase lipoplexes derived from calculated parameters of the lipid mixture (partition coefficient, shape parameter, lipoplex packing) produced a direct correlation with transfection efficiency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Prospective study on the dose distribution to the acoustic structures during postoperative 3D conformal radiotherapy for parotid tumors. Dosimetric and audiometric aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    To analyze dose distribution in the hearing organ and to evaluate the dose effect on the hearing thresholds in patients treated with post-parotidectomy 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). A total of 17 patients received post-parotidectomy 3D-CRT (median dose: 63 Gy). The audiometric evaluation comprised pure tone audiometry and tympanometry performed before radiotherapy (RT) and 3, 6, and 24 months after RT. The ear structures were delineated on planning computer tomography scans. Mean and maximum doses were calculated and dose-volume histograms were plotted. Before RT, the median baseline audiometric thresholds were normal. At 3 months post-RT, 3 patients were diagnosed as having middle ear underpressure and/or effusion that resolved completely by 6 months. During 2-year follow-up, none of the ears showed perceptive hearing loss at speech frequencies. The mean doses at ipsilateral external auditory canal, mastoids cells, tympanic case, Eustachian tube, semicircular canals, and cochlea were 44.8 Gy, 39.0 Gy, 30.9 Gy, 33.0 Gy, 19.6 Gy, and 19.2 Gy, respectively. The doses to the contralateral ear were negligible, except for the Eustachian tube (up to 28.2 Gy). Post-parotidectomy 3D-CRT is associated with relatively low doses to the ear and the surrounding structures. Post-RT audiometry did not show any permanent (neither conductive nor perceptive) hearing impairment. Only in 3 patients were there signs of transient unilateral dysfunction of the Eustachian tube observed during the first few months after RT. Longer follow-up and larger patient series are warranted to confirm these preliminary findings. (orig.)

  11. Towards a better understanding of the geometrical and orientational aspects of the electronic structure of halogens (F–I) adsorption on graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widjaja, Hantarto; Jiang, Zhong-Tao; Altarawneh, Mohammednoor; Yin, Chun-Yang; Goh, Bee-Min; Mondinos, Nicholas; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Examines the orientation (zigzag, armchair) effects of F/Cl/Br/I-adsorbed graphene. • F cases are site-dependent, while Cl/Br/I cases have minimal orientation dependence. • F is adsorbed to graphene at about three times stronger than Cl/Br/I. • To prompt re-examination of elemental-graphene systems to account for orientation. - Abstract: Adding impurities or doping through adsorption is an effective way to modify the properties of graphene-based materials. The capability of making predictions pertinent to the trends of elemental adsorption on graphene is very instrumental towards a better understanding of the more complex adsorption cases. It also affords useful guidelines for fabricating 2-D graphene materials with novel properties. The electronic structure of elemental adsorption on graphene is affected by side of adsorption (single- or double-sided), site of adsorption (i.e. bridge, hollow or top), and the relative orientation of the adsorbed sites (i.e. zigzag or armchair). In this contribution, we apply density functional theory (DFT) calculations to investigate the electronic structures of halogens (F, Cl, Br, I) adsorbed on graphene at lower concentrations spanning 1:6, 1:8 and 1:18 atomic ratios, in order to elucidate effects of adsorption trends. We demonstrate that adsorption of F is merely site-dependent (top). On the contrary, adsorptions of Cl, Br and I display a minimal dependence towards orientation (i.e. the effects of the deployed supercells). Our findings provide a deeper understanding of the elemental adsorption on graphene in terms of geometry which may aid in reexamining previous studies and producing better predictions for future studies, in which the inclusion of orientation is indispensable.

  12. Chemical and mineralogical aspects of clay-salt slimes of 'Belaruskali' using for the preparation of nano-structured sorbents of radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maskalchuk, L.; Baklay, A.; Leontieva, T. [Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research - Sosny, NAS of Belarus, Minsk, P.O.Box 119, 220109 (Belarus)

    2016-07-01

    n the context of intensive nuclear-power engineering development there is an urgent need to solve a range of technological and environmental challenges associated with generation, treatment and disposal of radioactive waste. In this regards, the problems of radioactive waste safe management and rehabilitation of radioactively contaminated soils in the result of the radiation accidents at the Chernobyl and Fukushima Daiichi NPPs are especially significant. Concerning that, investigation of effective and low cost sorption materials for radionuclides immobilization has a special relevance. In order to solve the above mentioned problems, it is supposed to develop a resource-saving technology for production of multi-purpose nano-structured sorbents of radionuclides ({sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr) with predetermined physicochemical properties based on the waste of potash industry - clay-salt slimes (CSS) of the JSC 'Belaruskali'. The performed research has shown that the CSS samples have a high fixing ability in relation to {sup 137}Cs. The main sorption-active minerals in CSS are illite and montmorillonite. The degree of sorption is 99.6%, K{sub d} is 1.2*10{sup 5} l/kg, RIP(K) is 6343 mmol/kg. The modification of the S-1 sample allows to enlarge the content of sorption-active minerals tentatively in 3.5 times, thereafter RIP(K) for the S-3 sample may be significantly increased. Based on the obtained experimental data, CSS of the JSC 'Belaruskali' can be estimated as a perspective initial material for production of multi-purpose nano-structured sorbents of radionuclides. (authors)

  13. The ethical aspects of mass communication

    OpenAIRE

    Наталья Ивановна Клушина

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the ethical aspects of mass communication and key trends of russian media language. The author analyses ethics and law in modern journalism, culture of speech in media discourse, intentional, structural and social aspects of mass communication. Ethics of mass communication presupposes the observance of legal and moral norms, social responsibility and respect for the audience.

  14. The ethical aspects of mass communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталья Ивановна Клушина

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the ethical aspects of mass communication and key trends of russian media language. The author analyses ethics and law in modern journalism, culture of speech in media discourse, intentional, structural and social aspects of mass communication. Ethics of mass communication presupposes the observance of legal and moral norms, social responsibility and respect for the audience.

  15. Gestational surrogacy: Psychosocial aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Ruiz-Robledillo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Innovation in assisted reproductive technologies together with increased infertility and new family structures are increasing the use of gestational surrogacy as a means to have children. Before, during and after the process, it is necessary to study the psychosocial characteristics of triad members: the gestational surrogate, intended parents, and offspring. Research has indicated positive adaptation to the process and benefits for all members of the triad. Altruism is the main motivation of surrogates. Notably, psychological well-being has been found to be higher in individuals who have become parents through surrogacy than in those who have used egg donation or have followed a natural process of conception. Moreover, no differences in psychosocial characteristics have been observed in the offspring, compared with children born through natural conception or egg donation. Results highlight the positive aspects of surrogacy. Future research should investigate psychosocial factors that modulate the process, acting as risk and protective factors for well-being of the triad members, and identify the optimal profiles of surrogates for the process to be a success.

  16. Effects of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr on structure and functional aspects of the microflora in agricultural used soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niedree, Bastian

    2013-11-01

    At long sight {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr are the main radionuclides responsible for the contamination of agricultural soils due to core melts in nuclear power plants such as Chernobyl or Fukushima. Once deposited on the soil surface, the two radionuclides remain in the upper soil layer for several decades. In the upper soil layer the highest microbial activity can be found, due to high organic matter contents, warm temperatures and gas exchange with the atmosphere. Hence, in contaminated soils microorganisms in upper soil layers (e.g. the plow layer on agricultural fields) are exceedingly exposed to radioactivity. However, no data are available how radioactive contaminations with {sup 137}Cs or {sup 90}Sr in a realistic order of magnitude affect the microbial community and its functions in soils. This dissertation discusses the effects of radioactive contaminations on the microbial community structure and some of its functions in soils. Therefore, typical agricultural soils, an Orthic Luvisol from field site Merzenhausen and a Gleyic Cambisol from field site Kaldenkirchen-Huelst were artificially contaminated with various concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr and partly applied with radiolabeled substrates and incubated in soil microcosms under controlled laboratory conditions. The lower radionuclide concentrations corresponded to the contaminations in the Chernobyl exclusion zone, the higher concentrations were up to 50-fold that of the maximum occurring hotspots ({sup 137}Cs) in this zone. In three experiments the effects of the ionizing radiation on the bacterial and the fungal community structure (16S and 18S rDNA DGGE), the degradation of {sup 14}C-labeled wheat straw or uniformly ring-labeled 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, the development of the fungal biomass (ergosterol quantification) and the chemical composition of the soil organic matter ({sup 13}C CP/MAS NMR) were investigated. In half of the microcosms the soils were autoclaved and reinoculated

  17. MODERN ASPECTS OF BRIDGES MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Kazakevych

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The major concepts of the elaboration and realization of the bridge construction monitoring systemic approach are presented in this paper. The main peculiarity of the bridge monitoring modern aspect is pointed out here, namely, the transition from the demands of providing the reliability to the demands of providing the whole complex of the structure consumer qualities. The criteria of diagnostics of the bridge exploitation reliability as the fundamental aim of monitoring are formulated here.

  18. Some probabilistic aspects of fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Some probabilistic aspects of fracture in structural and mechanical components are examined. The principles of fracture mechanics, material quality and inspection uncertainty are formulated into a conceptual and analytical framework for prediction of failure probability. The role of probabilistic fracture mechanics in a more global context of risk and optimization of decisions is illustrated. An example, where Monte Carlo simulation was used to implement a probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis, is discussed. (orig.)

  19. Alba from Thermoplasma volcanium belongs to α-NAT's: An insight into the structural aspects of Tv Alba and its acetylation by Tv Ard1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chao; Pathak, Chinar; Lee, Sang Jae; Lee, Ki-Young; Jang, Sun-Bok; Nam, Minjoo; Im, Hookang; Yoon, Hye-Jin; Lee, Bong-Jin

    2016-01-15

    The Alba superfamily proteins have been regarded as a conserved group of proteins in archaea and eukarya, which have shown to be important in nucleic acid binding, chromatic organization and gene regulation. These proteins often belong to the N-acetyltransferase (NAT) category (N(α)-acetyltransferases or N(ε)-acetyltransferases) and undergo post-translational modifications. Here, we report the crystal structure of Alba from Thermoplasma volcanium (Tv Alba) at 2.4 Å resolution. The acetylation of Tv Alba was monitored and the N-terminal of Tv Alba has been shown to interact with acetyl coenzyme A (Ac-CoA). The chemical shift perturbation experiments of Tv Alba were performed in the presence of Ac-CoA and/or Tv Ard1, another T. volcanium protein that treats Tv Alba as a substrate. To examine the DNA binding capabilities of Tv Alba alone and in the presence of Ac-CoA and/or Tv Ard1, EMSA experiments were carried out. It is shown that although Tv Alba binds to Ac-CoA, the acetylation of Tv Alba is not related with its binding to dsDNA, and the involvement of the N-terminus in Ac-CoA binding demonstrates that Tv Alba belongs to the N(α)-acetyltransferase family. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Special aspects of motivation of the structural subdivisions of the state emergency service of Ukraine in terms of physical self-culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stetsenko A.I.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the motivation of employees of structural subdivisions of the State Emergency Service of Ukraine to improve their level of professional competence by means of physical training. Material: questionnaire survey of 130 rescue workers aged 25 to 40 years. Results: the main motives of rescue team personnel for physical culture and sports activities are gain in physical health and professional competence, while performing rescue missions. It was established that, when on duty, most of the firefighters and rescue workers are not engaged in physical exercise at all; household chores and poor state of health in case of men prevent rescue team employees from doing exercises outside of working hours. It was found that fire-rescue specialists give preference to the development of muscle strength during professional physical trainings and would like to perform power exercises. Conclusions: the low level of motivation of current fire-rescue workers for physical self-improvement requires optimization of control over professional physical education in departments of the State Emergency Service of Ukraine.

  1. Effects of synthetic and naturally occurring flavonoids on Na+, K+-ATPase: Aspects of the structure-activity relationship and action mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, T.; Oka, K.; Akiba, M.

    1989-01-01

    A comparative study was made of the effects of 15 synthetic and naturally occurring flavonoids on the hydrolytic activity of Na + , K + -adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase). Twelve of the flavonoids examined were mono-hydroxy or mono-methoxy derivatives. All inhibited Na + , K + -ATPase from dog kidney cortex when present at concentrations from 40-1000 μM. Flavones possessing cyclohexyl instead of the phenyl group were the most potent with IC 50 at 257-320 μM. Structure-activity relationships were observed among the following mono-substituted flavones as: (i) 2-cyclohexyl-benzopyran-4-one much-gt 2-phenyl-benzopyran-4-one; (ii) 2-cyclohexyl-7-hydroxybenzopyran-4-one > 2-cyclohexyl-6-hydroxy-benzopyran-4-one > 2-cyclohexyl-5-hydroxybenzopyran-4-one. Some flavonoids showing potent inhibitory activity were also examined for ouabain-displacement activity on human erythrocytes. Hardly and of the flavonoids were able to block [ 3 H] ouabain binding to erythrocytes. These results suggest that the mechanism by which flavonoid block Na + , K + -ATPase is not related to the cardiac glycoside-specific binding site(s) of this enzyme

  2. Iheringichthys labrosus (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae in the Piquiri River, Paraná, Brazil: population structure and some aspects of its reproductive biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlei J. Holzbach

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the population structure (spatial and temporal distribution, sex ratio, length distribution and length/weight relationship and reproductive biology of Iheringichthys labrosus. This species is of importance as fisheries resource in the Paraná River basin. Fish were sampled, bimonthly, with gill and trammel nets at three sampling sites (Campina, Apertado and Altônia, located in the Piquiri River, between November 2002 and September 2003. In this study, 164 individuals were collected; the largest capture occurred in Campina site, with 209.88 individuals/1000 m² of net for 24 hours, while the shift of largest capture was night time (N and the month was July. Females occurred in larger numbers than males in all periods. The growth was allometric positive and the reproduction period was from the beginning of September to the end of December, with the majority of the individuals showing a standard length between 13.0 and 20.0 cm.

  3. Effects of synthetic and naturally occurring flavonoids on Na sup + , K sup + -ATPase: Aspects of the structure-activity relationship and action mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, T.; Oka, K.; Akiba, M. (Tokyo College of Pharmacy (Japan))

    1989-01-01

    A comparative study was made of the effects of 15 synthetic and naturally occurring flavonoids on the hydrolytic activity of Na{sup +}, K{sup +} -adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase). Twelve of the flavonoids examined were mono-hydroxy or mono-methoxy derivatives. All inhibited Na{sup +}, K{sup +} -ATPase from dog kidney cortex when present at concentrations from 40-1000 {mu}M. Flavones possessing cyclohexyl instead of the phenyl group were the most potent with IC{sub 50} at 257-320 {mu}M. Structure-activity relationships were observed among the following mono-substituted flavones as: (i) 2-cyclohexyl-benzopyran-4-one {much gt} 2-phenyl-benzopyran-4-one; (ii) 2-cyclohexyl-7-hydroxybenzopyran-4-one {gt} 2-cyclohexyl-6-hydroxy-benzopyran-4-one {gt} 2-cyclohexyl-5-hydroxybenzopyran-4-one. Some flavonoids showing potent inhibitory activity were also examined for ouabain-displacement activity on human erythrocytes. Hardly and of the flavonoids were able to block ({sup 3}H) ouabain binding to erythrocytes. These results suggest that the mechanism by which flavonoid block Na{sup +}, K{sup +} -ATPase is not related to the cardiac glycoside-specific binding site(s) of this enzyme.

  4. [Psychosomatic aspects of parent-child relations in atopic eczema in childhood. II. Child-rearing style, the family situation in a drawing test and structured interview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, J; Palos, E

    1986-11-01

    To evaluate the style of education in this group of children, "scale versions" according to Stapf were used. Mothers of atopic children were found to be significantly more "strict" in their educational approach compared with control mothers (P less than 0.01). There was no significant difference between the two groups of fathers. In particular, mothers of atopic children significantly more often favored "grown-up" behavior in their children and the capacity to enjoy the joy of children was significantly less pronounced compared with controls. In the children's drawings, children with atopic eczema lacked the "friendly atmosphere" expressed in drawings of control children. Fathers of atopic children were drawn significantly smaller than the respective mothers. In animal drawings, children with atopic eczema mostly selected unpleasant or dangerous animals to describe their parents, brothers, or sisters. From the structured interviews, the following points were remarkable: atopic children more often display aggressive thoughts or behavior against their parents than do controls. Mothers of atopic children react less spontaneously and less emotionally to children's emotions. Maternal affection often takes place as a hygienic ritual or in a body and achievement-oriented fashion. Mothers of atopic children like them to behave in a "grown-up" manner.

  5. Safety Aspects for Vertical Wall Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Burcharth, H. F.; Christiani, E.

    1996-01-01

    In this appendix some safety aspects in relation to vertical wall breakwaters are discussed. Breakwater structures such as vertical wall breakwaters are used under quite different conditions. The expected lifetime can be from 5 years (interim structure) to 100 years (permanent structure) and the ...

  6. Fibrinogen-Related Proteins in Tissue Repair: How a Unique Domain with a Common Structure Controls Diverse Aspects of Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuliani-Alvarez, Lorena; Midwood, Kim S

    2015-05-01

    Significance: Fibrinogen-related proteins (FRePs) comprise an intriguing collection of extracellular molecules, each containing a conserved fibrinogen-like globe (FBG). This group includes the eponymous fibrinogen as well as the tenascin, angiopoietin, and ficolin families. Many of these proteins are upregulated during tissue repair and exhibit diverse roles during wound healing. Recent Advances: An increasing body of evidence highlights the specific expression of a number of FRePs following tissue injury and infection. Upon induction, each FReP uses its FBG domain to mediate quite distinct effects that contribute to different stages of tissue repair, such as driving coagulation, pathogen detection, inflammation, angiogenesis, and tissue remodeling. Critical Issues: Despite a high degree of homology among FRePs, each contains unique sequences that enable their diversification of function. Comparative analysis of the structure and function of FRePs and precise mapping of regions that interact with a variety of ligands has started to reveal the underlying molecular mechanisms by which these proteins play very different roles using their common domain. Future Directions: Fibrinogen has long been used in the clinic as a synthetic matrix serving as a scaffold or a delivery system to aid tissue repair. Novel therapeutic strategies are now emerging that harness the use of other FRePs to improve wound healing outcomes. As we learn more about the underlying mechanisms by which each FReP contributes to the repair response, specific blockade, or indeed potentiation, of their function offers real potential to enable regulation of distinct processes during pathological wound healing.

  7. Taxonomic and epidemiological aspects of the bovine viral diarrhoea virus 2 species through the observation of the secondary structures in the 5' genomic untranslated region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Giangaspero

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 2 (BVDV-2 strains demonstrated in cattle, sheep and adventitious contaminants of biological products were evaluated by the palindromic nucleotide substitutions (PNS method at the three variable loci (V1, V2 and V3 in the 5’ untranslated region (UTR, to determine their taxonomic status. Variation in conserved genomic sequences was used as a parameter for the epidemiological evaluation of the species in relation to geographic distribution, animal host and virulence. Four genotypes were identified within the species. Taxonomic segregation corresponded to geographic distribution of genotype variants. Genotype 2a was distributed worldwide and was also the only genotype that was circulating in sheep and cattle. Genotypes 2b, 2c and 2d were restricted to South America. Genotypes 2a and 2d were related to the contamination of biological products. Genetic variation could be related to the spread of BVDV-2 species variants in different geographic areas. Chronologically, the species emerged in North America in 1978 and spread to the United Kingdom and Japan, continental Europe, South America and New Zealand. Correlation between clinical features related with isolation of BVDV-2 strains and genetic variation indicated that subgenotype 1, variant 4 of genotype 2a, was related to a haemorrhagic syndrome. These observations suggest that the evaluation of genomic secondary structures, by identifying markers for expression of virus biological activities and species evolutionary history, may be a useful tool for the epidemiological evaluation of BVDV-2 species and possibly of other species of the genus Pestivirus.

  8. Aspect-Oriented Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, Lodewijk; Videira Lopes, Cristina; Moreira, Ana; Demeyer, Serge

    1999-01-01

    Aspect-oriented programming is a promising idea that can improve the quality of software by reduce the problem of code tangling and improving the separation of concerns. At ECOOP'97, the first AOP workshop brought together a number of researchers interested in aspect-orientation. At ECOOP'98, during

  9. Cultural Aspects of Suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari D. Maharajh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Undefined cultural factors cannot be dismissed and significantly contribute to the worldwide incidence of death by suicide. Culture is an all embracing term and defines the relationship of an individual to his environment. This study seeks to investigate the effect of culture on suicide both regionally and internationally. Culture-bound syndrome with suicidal behaviours specific to a particular culture or geographical region are discussed. Opinions are divided as to the status of religious martyrs. The law itself is silent on many aspects of suicidal behaviour and despite decriminalization of suicide as self-murder, the latter remains on the statutes of many developing countries. The Caribbean region is of concern due to its steady rise in mean suicide rate, especially in Trinidad and Tobago where socio-cultural factors are instrumental in influencing suicidal behaviour. These include transgenerational cultural conflicts, psycho-social problems, media exposure, unemployment, social distress, religion and family structure. The methods used are attributed to accessibility and lethality. Ingestion of poisonous substances is most popular followed by hanging. The gender differences seen with regard to suicidality can also be attributed to gender related psychopathology and psychosocial differences in help-seeking behaviour. These are influenced by the cultural environment to which the individual is exposed. Culture provides coping strategies to individuals; as civilization advances many of these coping mechanisms are lost unclothing the genetic predisposition of vulnerable groups. In the management of suicidal behaviour, a system of therapeutic re-culturation is needed with an emphasis on relevant culture- based therapies.

  10. INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION: PSYCHOLINGUISTIC ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrofanova, I.I.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers language as the organization of the speech of any person in any situation, without which it is impossible to characterize the internal structure of the speech stream. Language is exactly a system of guidelines necessary for the activity in the social world. Communication is primarily nothing but as a way of making one or another correction in the image of the interlocutor’s world. In order for a language to serve as a means of communication, it must have a single or a similar understanding of reality behind it. Conversely, the unity of understanding the reality and the unity of coherence presuppose the possibility of adequate communication. A mandatory component of communication is the communicative act, that is, the act of sharing information between people. The speech, i.e. the natural sound language is an important means of conveying information that defines this aspect of the communication process as verbal communication. The idea of dialogue as the space, in which the exchange of information takes place, is defined as initial. Essentially, it is the dialogue that in this case acts as the backbone principle in dealing with problems of language. It is here that the essence of social and psychological transition to the analysis of communication is most visibly concentrated. An individual essentially "lives" in the world of Another person’s worlds, and studying the words of this person, he or she studies the "world" of Another person. Thus, the dialogue is not merely the interaction (verbal with another person, but, ultimately, the interaction with the world of culture.

  11. Organisational aspects, research required, educational aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueterjans, H.

    1987-01-01

    In addition to the clinical testing of NMR imaging, there were activities for studying the basic principles of NMR spectroscopy, also for routine applications in university clinics and larger hospitals. Equipment is available now at different places; research projects should be coordinated in order to ensure direct access to the equipment for a sufficient, task-specific period of time. There is demand for research in this field in the Federal Republic of Germany. Education and further training should be organised taking into account physical and medical aspects. (TRV) [de

  12. Summary on Theoretical Aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Soffer, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    During the five days of this conference a very dense scientific program has enlighted our research fields, with the presentation of large number of interesting lectures. I will try to summarize the theoretical aspects of some of these new results.

  13. General safety aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In this part next aspects are described: (1) Priority to safety; (2) Financial and human resources;; (3) Human factor; (4) Operator's quality assurance system; (5) Safety assessment and Verification; (6) Radiation protection and (7) Emergency preparedness

  14. Criminal aspects domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Smetanová, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    Smetanová, Kristina. Criminal aspects of domestic violence The topic of this thesis is the criminal aspects of domestic violence. The aim of the thesis is to describe this dangerous and complicated social problem and focus on outlining the possibilities of protection under Czech criminal law. The thesis consists of eight chapters. The first chapter explains what the domestic violence is and which sources, types and characters does it have.The second chapter shows who can be the violent person...

  15. Foundational aspects of security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzikokolakis, Konstantinos; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Palamidessi, Catuscia

    2014-01-01

    This Special Issue of the Journal of Computer Security focuses on foundational aspects of security, which in recent years have helped change much of the way we think about and approach system security.......This Special Issue of the Journal of Computer Security focuses on foundational aspects of security, which in recent years have helped change much of the way we think about and approach system security....

  16. Structural aspects of superconducting fusion magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, M.; Lehner, J.; Powell, J.

    1977-01-01

    Some methods for studying various static, dynamic, elastic-plastic, and fracture mechanics problems of superconducting magnets are described. Sample solutions are given for the UWMAK-I magnet. Finite element calculations were used

  17. Structural aspects of proton-pumping ATPases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walker, J. E.; Fearnley, I. M.; Lutter, R.; Todd, R. J.; Runswick, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    ATP synthase is found in bacteria, chloroplasts and mitochondria. The simplest known example of such an enzyme is that in the eubacterium Escherichia coli; it is a membrane-bound assembly of eight different polypeptides assembled with a stoichiometry of alpha 3 beta 3 gamma 1 delta 1 epsilon 1

  18. Biological and geophysical aspects of coastal structures

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.

    Geological processes, that occur in the nearshore environment : The nearshore, environments have been strongly influencEd. by sealevel changes throughout the geological history. Much of the shallow-water region is also strongly affectEd. by waves...

  19. Solid surfaces : some theoretical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, M.P.

    1978-01-01

    An appraisal of the current situation concerning some of the theoretical aspects of solid surfaces is presented. First of all the characterization of the surfaces that involves the surface geometry and atomic composition for both the clean and adsorbed surfaces is discussed. Under this, the methods for determining the surface structure (such as low energy electron diffraction, field electron and field ion microscopy, photo emission spectroscopy and atomic scattering) and methods for determining the surface composition by the Auger electron spectroscopy are outlined. In the second part, emphasis is on the electronic structure of the clean and adsorbed surfaces. The measurements of ultra-violet and X-ray photo electron spectra are shown to yield the information about the surface electronic structure. In this context the many body effects such as, shake-up and relaxation energy etc. are discussed. Finally the status of the theory in relation to the experiments on angular resolved and polarization dependent photo emission are presented. (auth.)

  20. DEFINICIONES PERSONALES Y ASPECTOS ESTRUCTURALES DEL CONCEPTO DE LÍMITE FINITO DE UNA FUNCIÓN EN UN PUNTO (Personal Definitions and Structural Aspects of the Concept of Finite Limit of a Function at one Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Ruiz-Hidalgo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Describimos e interpretamos las definiciones aportadas por un grupo de estudiantes de bachillerato sobre el concepto de límite finito de una función en un punto en términos de aspectos estructurales, compilados y sintetizados de investigaciones previas. Los aspectos estructurales son la interpretación como objeto o como proceso de la noción de límite, los algoritmos y las destrezas prácticas para su cálculo, su alcanzabilidad y su rebasabilidad. A partir de ellos, analizamos las definiciones recogidas. Entre los resultados, destacamos la riqueza de significado de estas definiciones por razón del carácter no alcanzable y no rebasable atribuido al límite y por su consideración dual como objeto o proceso. We describe and interpret the individual definitions of a group of non-compulsory secondary education students related to the concept of finite limit of a function at one point in terms of structural aspects compiled and synthesized from prior research. These aspects are the interpretation of the limit notion as an object or a process, its exact or approximate character, the algorithms and practical skills for its calculation, its reachability and its possibility of being exceeded. Among the results we point out the richness of meaning from these definitions by the not reachable and not exceedable attributed character of the limit, and also by the dual consideration of the limit as an object or process.

  1. DESIGN ASPECTS IN AIRPLANE EVOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENUŞ Marilena

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes to present a few important aspects from aerodynamics and aerospace technology. It also, presents important points regarding the improvement of airplanes as a result of research in shape modelling, materials, aerodynamics and 3d design. Several examples based on constructive structures are offered. The embodiment design of a traditional airplane is presented in order to offer directions of conceptual development for improving its performance parameters and shapes. The virtual scale models are created by computer in Catia V5, in order to provide the validation of the features and the performance of aerodynamic configuration in the wind tunnel.

  2. Cognitive aspects of color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derefeldt, Gunilla A. M.; Menu, Jean-Pierre; Swartling, Tiina

    1995-04-01

    This report surveys cognitive aspects of color in terms of behavioral, neuropsychological, and neurophysiological data. Color is usually defined as psychophysical color or as perceived color. Behavioral data on categorical color perception, absolute judgement of colors, color coding, visual search, and visual awareness refer to the more cognitive aspects of color. These are of major importance in visual synthesis and spatial organization, as already shown by the Gestalt psychologists. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological findings provide evidence for an interrelation between cognitive color and spatial organization. Color also enhances planning strategies, as has been shown by studies on color and eye movements. Memory colors and the color- language connections in the brain also belong among the cognitive aspects of color.

  3. Quantifying Quality Aspects of Multimodal Interactive Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kühnel, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This book systematically addresses the quantification of quality aspects of multimodal interactive systems. The conceptual structure is based on a schematic view on human-computer interaction where the user interacts with the system and perceives it via input and output interfaces. Thus, aspects of multimodal interaction are analyzed first, followed by a discussion of the evaluation of output and input and concluding with a view on the evaluation of a complete system.

  4. Organisational aspects of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Jacqueline; Pegram, Anne

    2015-03-04

    Organisational aspects of care, the second essential skills cluster, identifies the need for registered nurses to systematically assess, plan and provide holistic patient care in accordance with individual needs. Safeguarding, supporting and protecting adults and children in vulnerable situations; leading, co-ordinating and managing care; functioning as an effective and confident member of the multidisciplinary team; and managing risk while maintaining a safe environment for patients and colleagues, are vital aspects of this cluster. This article discusses the roles and responsibilities of the newly registered graduate nurse. Throughout their education, nursing students work towards attaining this knowledge and these skills in preparation for their future roles as nurses.

  5. Tense, aspect, and modality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfau, R.; Steinbach, M.; Woll, B.; Pfau, R.; Steinbach, M.; Woll, B.

    2012-01-01

    Cross-linguistically, the grammatical categories tense, aspect, and modality - when they are overtly expressed - are generally realized by free morphemes (such as adverbials and auxiliaries) or by bound inflectional markers. The discussion in this chapter will make clear that this generalization

  6. Toxicological aspects of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Puertas, P.

    1991-01-01

    Different toxicological aspects of water have been studied, remarking the activity of various chemical substances in the organism. These substances are divided in: trace metals (Sb, As, Cd, Zn, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se), other contaminants (CN-, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, pesticides, detergents) and radioactivity. Finally, some considerations on this subject are made [es

  7. Aspects of strangeness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dover, C.B.

    1995-01-01

    We review various aspects of strangeness production in relativistic heavy ion collisions from AGS to CERN energies. The experimental data are briefly summarized and various possible theoretical interpretations of these data are evaluated, such as quark-gluon- plasma (QGP), hadron gas (HG) thermal models, or event generators (cascade models). Some comments on the production of strange clusters are offered

  8. Aspect-Oriented Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopes, C.; Bergmans, Lodewijk; Lopes, C.

    1999-01-01

    Aspect-oriented programming is a promising idea that can improve the quality of software by reduce the problem of code tangling and improving the separation of concerns. At ECOOP’97, the first AOP workshop brought together a number of researchers interested in aspectorientation. At ECOOP’98, during

  9. Gout. Radiological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo Suarez, Jose Felix; Pena Cortes, Mario; Rondon Herrera, Federico; Iglesias Gamarra, Antonio; Calvo Paramo, Enrique

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we reviewed the clinical and radiological aspects of gout, showing the most frequent radiological findings that can guide to the correct diagnosis of the disease. The cases that we presented here have been analyzed for many years in our rheumatology service, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Hospital San Juan de Dios, Bogota

  10. Medical Aspects of Surfing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renneker, Mark

    1987-01-01

    The medical aspects of surfing include ear and eye injuries and sprains and strains of the lower back and neck, as well as skin cancer from exposure to the sun. Treatment, rehabilitation, and prevention of these problems are discussed. Surfing is recommended as part of an exercise program for reasonably healthy people. (Author/MT)

  11. Structuralism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piaget, Jean

    Provided is an overview of the analytical method known as structuralism. The first chapter discusses the three key components of the concept of a structure: the view of a system as a whole instead of so many parts; the study of the transformations in the system; and the fact that these transformations never lead beyond the system but always…

  12. The projection of Inner Aspect in Vietnamese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trang Phan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Several semantic and syntactic distinctions, which have largely been neglected in the Vietnamese linguistic literature, are drawn together in this paper in a comparative context with other better-studied languages in order to indicate that Inner Aspect is projected within the VP shell and independently of the projection of Outer Aspect – a structural proposal originally advanced by Travis (2010. Overall, Vietnamese with its isolating character and rigid word order provides us with unusually direct evidence for an articulated VP structure.

  13. Delusion disorder: Neuropsychological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leposavić Ivana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies concerned with neuropsychological aspect of delusions, were mainly focused on specific forms of this disorder. Comparatively small number of investigations were concerned with cognitive deficiencies accompanying the delusions. The substance of this study includes the detection of neuropsychological disfunctions in patients with persistent delusion disorder, and in tracing of these cognitive distortions to appropriate brain regions. Besides, characteristics of attribution style in these patients are analysed, from the aspect of their connections with unadjusted localized input for their reasoning system. The investigation is designed as a comparative study. The sample includes: a group of patients with persistent delusion disorder; a group of patients with paranoid schizophrenia; a group of healthy individuals. The participants have been tested by a neuropsychological battery that represents the following cognitive functions: attention, memory, vizuospatial and vizuoconstruction organization, executive ability, verbal divergent thinking. Projective Rorschach's method was used for estimation of attribution style.

  14. Behavioural aspects of terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistedt, Samuel J

    2013-05-10

    Behavioural and social sciences are useful in collecting and analysing intelligence data, understanding terrorism, and developing strategies to combat terrorism. This article aims to examine the psychopathological concepts of terrorism and discusses the developing roles for behavioural scientists. A systematic review was conducted of studies investigating behavioural aspects of terrorism. These studies were identified by a systematic search of databases, textbooks, and a supplementary manual search of references. Several fundamental concepts were identified that continue to influence the motives and the majority of the behaviours of those who support or engage in this kind of specific violence. Regardless of the psychological aspects and new roles for psychiatrists, the behavioural sciences will continue to be called upon to assist in developing better methods to gather and analyse intelligence, to understand terrorism, and perhaps to stem the radicalisation process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Aspects of B physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1987-01-01

    Various aspects of weak decays are commented on. Probing of the standard model and of phenomena beyond the standard model are discussed, followed by a theoretical view of B mesons and some experimental observations on B mesons. The point is made that any data on B decay would be interesting in that it would provide powerful new constraints in analyses of the standard model and extensions thereof

  16. LNG project - contractual aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Bruno Almeida

    2008-07-01

    This paper intends to provide from the legal point of view an outline of the main challenges of a LNG project in the upstream, regulatory aspects, liquefaction, financing and midstream through a basic checklist; an overview of the contractual complexity of a LNG project; some basic discussion of particular LNG contract clauses; and a comparative analysis between the classic clauses of a Gas Transportation Agreement (GTA) through a gas pipeline and LNG logistic. (author)

  17. Rectenna session: Micro aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Two micro aspects of rectenna design are discussed: evaluation of the degradation in net rectenna RF to DC conversion efficiency due to power density variations across the rectenna (power combining analysis) and design of Yagi-Uda receiving elements to reduce rectenna cost by decreasing the number of conversion circuits (directional receiving elements). The first of these involves resolving a fundamental question of efficiency potential with a rectenna, while the second involves a design modification with a large potential cost saving.

  18. MARKETING MIX THEORETICAL ASPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Margarita Išoraitė

    2016-01-01

    Aim of article is to analyze marketing mix theoretical aspects. The article discusses that marketing mix is one of the main objectives of the marketing mix elements for setting objectives and marketing budget measures. The importance of each element depends not only on the company and its activities, but also on the competition and time. All marketing elements are interrelated and should be seen in the whole of their actions. Some items may have greater importance than others; it depends main...

  19. Futurological aspects of globalisation

    OpenAIRE

    Kostić Aleksandar V.

    2013-01-01

    The author examines futurological aspects of globalization having in mind various models of historical processes. He describes the changes as "futuroshock", thus presenting a dilemma whether the changes are only a momentum or a pre-planned concept. He especially stresses the Toffler’s conclusion that turns a new page in futurology - examining the dangers that follow the changes. According to him, predictions are made with the help of practically all the sciences in two basic directions: explo...

  20. ETHICAL ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Amantova-Salmane, Liene

    2015-01-01

    Ethics can be defined as a reflection on nature and a definition of “the good”. Individuals value qualities and things dissimilarly, most visibly, but they also value their goods in different ways, in different relations to each other, for different reasons, and to different ends. These differences are very applicable to sustainability. In other words, sustainability cannot be achieved without attention to its ethical dimensions. The aim of this research is to examine the ethical aspects of s...

  1. Criminal Aspects of Artificial Abortion

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmanová, Leona

    2016-01-01

    Criminal Aspects of Artificial Abortion This diploma thesis deals with the issue of artificial abortion, especially its criminal aspects. Legal aspects are not the most important aspects of artificial abortion. Social, ethical or ideological aspects are of the same importance but this diploma thesis cannot analyse all of them. The main issue with artificial abortion is whether it is possible to force a pregnant woman to carry a child and give birth to a child when she cannot or does not want ...

  2. Nutritional Aspects of Dysphagia Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, C; Brito-de la Fuente, E; Clavé, P; Costa, A; Assegehegn, G

    This chapter describes the nutritional aspects of dysphagia management by starting with the definition of these two conditions (dysphagia and malnutrition) that share three main clinical characteristics: (a) their prevalence is very high, (b) they can lead to severe complications, and (c) they are frequently underrecognized and neglected conditions. From an anatomical standpoint, dysphagia can result from oropharyngeal and/or esophageal causes; from a pathophysiological perspective, dysphagia can be caused by organic or structural diseases (either benign or malignant) or diseases causing impaired physiology (mainly motility and/or perception disorders). This chapter gathers up-to-date information on the screening and diagnosis of oropharyngeal dysphagia, the consequences of dysphagia (aspiration pneumonia, malnutrition, and dehydration), and on the nutritional management of dysphagic patients. Concerning this last topic, this chapter reviews the rheological aspects of swallowing and dysphagia (including shear and elongational flows) and its influence on the characteristics of the enteral nutrition for dysphagia management (solid/semisolid foods and thickened liquids; ready-to-use oral nutritional supplements and thickening powders), with special focus on the real characteristics of the bolus after mixing with human saliva. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. AspectJ in action practical aspect-oriented programming

    CERN Document Server

    Laddad, Ramnivas

    2003-01-01

    A guide to aspect-oriented programming and the AspectJ language, this book provides code examples that enable quick implementation of functionality in a system. Thorough introductions to AOP and AspectJ will help developers learn or advance their knowledge of AspectJ. Examples of everyday situations in which AspectJ solutions can be applied, such as logging, policy enforcement, resource pooling, business logic, thread-safety, authentication and authorization, and transaction management are provided. In addition, design patterns and idioms are covered, as is business rule implementation. The latest technologies, such as JEES, JAAS, and log4j, are explained and connected with AspectJ.

  4. Knockout reactions: experimental aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortina Gil, D. [Santiago de Compostela Univ. (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    The availability of radioactive beams has given rise to intense activity in the field of direct reactions. The removal of one(two)-nucleon (referred to as nucleon knockout in this text) from a fast exotic projectile has been extensively investigated. This lecture provides a general overview of the experimental results achieved using this technique. The sensitivity of the method to different experimental aspects is illustrated with a few examples. Special attention is given to the application of nucleon-knockout reactions as a general purpose spectroscopic tool. (author)

  5. Strategic Aspects of Bundling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podesta, Marion

    2008-01-01

    The increase of bundle supply has become widespread in several sectors (for instance in telecommunications and energy fields). This paper review relates strategic aspects of bundling. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze profitability of bundling strategies according to the degree of competition and the characteristics of goods. Moreover, bundling can be used as price discrimination tool, screening device or entry barriers. In monopoly case bundling strategy is efficient to sort consumers in different categories in order to capture a maximum of surplus. However, when competition increases, the profitability on bundling strategies depends on correlation of consumers' reservations values. (author)

  6. Aspects of nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hageboe, E.; Salbu, B.

    1987-01-01

    The aspects of nuclear science presented in this book result from a symposium that was held in Oslo in October 1985. On this special occasion the rapid development of nuclear science as an interdisciplinary field was illustrated with brief presentations of some selected areas. These areas represent parts of the main interests of the Section for Nuclear Chemistry in the Department of Chemistry at the University of Oslo. This section has for decades been among the leading laboratories for nuclear chemistry in Scandinavia, thanks to its founder and inspiring leader professor Alexis C. Pappas

  7. Ethical aspects of business

    OpenAIRE

    Konečná, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    This thesis covers the topic of the ethical aspects of business. The paper defines what an ethics and a business ethics are and it describes selected tools of business ethics. The practical part focuses on building company called Skanska and on its view of business ethics. This part consists of an interview with managing director of Skanska SK a.s. and of a questionnaire survey. The main goal of this thesis is to analyze the level of the business ethics in this building company. The main rese...

  8. Analytic aspects of convexity

    CERN Document Server

    Colesanti, Andrea; Gronchi, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the international conference Analytic Aspects in Convexity, which was held in Rome in October 2016. It offers a collection of selected articles, written by some of the world’s leading experts in the field of Convex Geometry, on recent developments in this area: theory of valuations; geometric inequalities; affine geometry; and curvature measures. The book will be of interest to a broad readership, from those involved in Convex Geometry, to those focusing on Functional Analysis, Harmonic Analysis, Differential Geometry, or PDEs. The book is a addressed to PhD students and researchers, interested in Convex Geometry and its links to analysis.

  9. Radiographic aspects of xeroradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, G.U.V.; Fatouros, P.P.

    1980-01-01

    The quality of a conventional radiographic image can be characterized in terms of five basic parameters; density, contrast, latitude, resolution and noise. Since xeroradiographic images exhibit very limited broad area contrasts, and image formation is predominantly due to edge enhancement, a straightforward description of image quality using the same five parameters is not adequate. A detailed study was made of the radiographic aspects of xeroradiography with special reference to mammography, and a summary of major findings to date with appropriate references to published papers is presented

  10. Radiological aspects of Arthroplasties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Sara Eugenia; Barragan, John Henry; Narvaez, Jorge Andres

    2008-01-01

    The development of new surgical techniques, of new prosthetic materials, and the increase in life expectancy with greater coverage of health services has ugmented the performance of hip replacements in our country. The radiologist should be familiar with the different surgical techniques and prosthetic devices, the evaluation of its components and associated complications. The most frequently performed arthroplasties are: shoulder, elbow, hip and knee replacement. This article reviews the most frequent prosthetic devices used, the radiological aspects of arthroplasties and their most common complications.

  11. Knockout reactions: experimental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortina Gil, D.

    2007-01-01

    The availability of radioactive beams has given rise to intense activity in the field of direct reactions. The removal of one(two)-nucleon (referred to as nucleon knockout in this text) from a fast exotic projectile has been extensively investigated. This lecture provides a general overview of the experimental results achieved using this technique. The sensitivity of the method to different experimental aspects is illustrated with a few examples. Special attention is given to the application of nucleon-knockout reactions as a general purpose spectroscopic tool. (author)

  12. Aspects of W∞ symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sezgin, E.

    1991-08-01

    We review the structure of W ∞ algebras, their super and topological extensions, and their contractions down to (super) w ∞ . Emphasis is put on the field theoretic realizations of these algebras. We also review the structure of w ∞ and W ∞ gravities and comment on various applications of W ∞ symmetry. (author). 42 refs

  13. Aspects of control measures in occupational hygiene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lumens, M.

    1997-01-01


    This thesis focuses on two aspects which are of major importance in the broad field of control measures in occupational hygiene: the selection of control measures in a structured way and the impact of factors modifying the effectiveness of these control measures.

    The main

  14. J. Piaget's theory of intelligence: operational aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xenia Naidenova

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The Piaget's theory of intelligence is considered from the point of view of genesis and gradual development of human thinking operations. Attention is given to operational aspects of cognitive structures and knowledge. The significance of the Piaget's theory of intelligence is revealed for modeling conceptual reasoning in the framework of artificial intelligence.

  15. Practical aspects of MRI of the prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoș Cuzino

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the main aspects of sectional anatomy, lymph nodes and adjacent structures as well as MRI examination standard protocol for prostate cancer diagnosis. Using MRI multiparametric examination we succeed in classifying efficiently the malignant prostatic tumors using PI- RADS system. Also, using MRI multiparametric examination we can evaluate the effectiveness of prostate cancer treatment

  16. Aspects of the furniture industry in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Heanue, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation examines aspects of networking, industrial organisation, innovation, and industrial agglomeration in the Irish furniture manufacturing industry. With its focus on firm behaviour, industrial organisation and industrial structure the research is located within the tradition of industrial economics. Based on heterodox economic perspectives and utilising a variety of methods (albeit principally case study based), the dissertation provides new theoretical and empirical knowle...

  17. Energy and social aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, D.; Gomez, Y.

    2008-01-01

    In this section, the social aspects of Cuba's energy system are described, based on the accessibility and availability of energy services and the affordability and acceptance of these energy services by the population. Accessibility refers to the existence of modern energy services and supporting infrastructures that allow the population, regardless of income level, place of residence, race, religion, etc., the use of modern fuels. Logistics and the economy determine the amount and kinds of energy and energy services available in each place. Even if energy services are accessible to the population, problems with their availability during particular time periods may exist; thus, this section discusses the problems of availability of modern fuels in Cuba. Affordability relates to the ability of the population to pay for the energy services that are accessible and available. Energy prices should be low enough (without affecting the profitability of the producing companies) to enable everyone's minimum requirements for modern energy services to be satisfied. Acceptability concerns the social and/or environmental problems related to energy chains, ranging from production and use to the disposal of waste generated by energy production. Making an assessment of the acceptability of an energy option is often difficult and sometimes involves many issues, including social, environmental, cultural, economic and religious aspects at local and regional levels

  18. Diabetic patients: Psychological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adili, Fatemeh; Larijani, Bagher; Haghighatpanah, Mohammadreza

    2006-11-01

    This study was undertaken to consider the psychological aspect of diabetes with regard to improving clinical outcomes. The review was limited to literature reports on the causes, solutions, and treatments of some common psychological problems known to complicate diabetes management. A literature search was undertaken using Pub-Med, CINAHL, Proquest, Elsevier, Blackwell Synergy, Ovid, Ebsco, Rose net, and Google websites, including studies published in English journals between 1995 and 2006. Therefore about 88 articles were selected based on the inclusion criteria. In earlier studies, relatively little empirical research was found to substantiate the effect of psychological counseling in complicated diabetes. The greatest deficits were seen in areas of mental health, self-esteem parent impact, and family cohesion. There were some different factors, which influence the psychological aspect of diabetic patients, such as age, gender, place of living, familial and social support, motivation, energy, life satisfaction, and lifestyle. There are various types of solutions for coping with the psychological problems in diabetic clients. The most essential solution lies in educating the patients and healthcare providers on the subject. Before initiating each educational intervention, a thorough assessment would be crucial. Treatment plans may benefit from cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), behavior family therapy, improving family communication, problem-solving skills, and providing motivation for diabetic patients. Moreover, it seems that the close collaboration between diabetologists and psychologists would be fruitful.

  19. MACROECONOMIC ASPECTS OF COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Hooke

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the process of globalization of world economic processes, the role of individual national economies increases, comparative advantages of the development of a country are formed, and their competitiveness is ensured. That is why it is worth emphasizing the importance of increasing the competitiveness of each individual country, based on its internal capacity. In a broad aspect, the competitiveness of the national economy is perceived as the ability of the country to ensure the balance of its external proportions and to avoid those constraints imposed by the foreign economic sphere, to self-organizing the improvement of their world economic ties. The competitiveness of the economy at the macro level is associated with the duration of the cycle of reproduction of the main productive assets and, accordingly, the jobs, productive forces of society and determined by the overall economic efficiency of investment. The criteria of competitiveness of the national economy are the growth of social productivity of labor, increase of social and economic efficiency of production and standard of living of the population. The competitiveness of the national economy determines sustainable socio-economic development of the country, as well as sustainable development predetermines the competitiveness of not only the country, but also all its levels. Scientific results are obtained using special methods of research of economic objects and phenomena, that is, based on the correlation and regressive, comparative analysis (establishing the relationship between the indicator factor, as well as economic modeling. Findings. Generalizing analysis and the importance of the macroeconomic aspect of competitiveness were used in the research paper, which will allow to better respond to the economic situation, in accordance with the trends of the “green” transformation of the economy; which in turn will solve important problems of the development and implementation of its

  20. Political and economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neil, C.

    1997-01-01

    The political and socio-economic aspects of oil and gas exploration in Canada's Arctic and the Beaufort Sea were reviewed. The federal government was very interested in developing the North because they saw oil and gas development in the North as a means of strengthening sovereignty claims. The projected profits from Northern oil and gas development were also very attractive, and after dealing with environmental and social concerns, the government granted the necessary drilling permits. The federal government also made allowances for huge tax incentives for the oil and gas companies to encourage exploration. Although oil has been found, large-scale production in the Beaufort Sea never materialized. During the period from 1984 to 1988, world prices for oil fell and it was no longer economical to undertake frontier production. Beaufort Sea operation were shut down as the oil industry changed its focus to more cost-effective reservoirs in southern Canada. 1 fig

  1. Technological Aspects: High Voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faircloth, D C

    2013-01-01

    This paper covers the theory and technological aspects of high-voltage design for ion sources. Electric field strengths are critical to understanding high-voltage breakdown. The equations governing electric fields and the techniques to solve them are discussed. The fundamental physics of high-voltage breakdown and electrical discharges are outlined. Different types of electrical discharges are catalogued and their behaviour in environments ranging from air to vacuum are detailed. The importance of surfaces is discussed. The principles of designing electrodes and insulators are introduced. The use of high-voltage platforms and their relation to system design are discussed. The use of commercially available high-voltage technology such as connectors, feedthroughs and cables are considered. Different power supply technologies and their procurement are briefly outlined. High-voltage safety, electric shocks and system design rules are covered. (author)

  2. Formal aspects of resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana-Maria Drigă

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of resilience has represented during the recent years a leading concern both in Romania, within the European Union and worldwide. Specialists in economics, management, finance, legal sciences, political sciences, sociology, psychology, grant a particular interest to this concept. Multidisciplinary research of resilience has materialized throughout the time in multiple conceptualizations and theorizing, but without being a consensus between specialists in terms of content, specificity and scope. Through this paper it is intended to clarify the concept of resilience, achieving an exploration of the evolution of this concept in ecological, social and economic environment. At the same time, the paper presents aspects of feedback mechanisms and proposes a formalization of resilience using the logic and mathematical analysis.

  3. CUSTOMER LOYALTY THEORETICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita IŠORAITĖ

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Customer loyalty - is a voluntary user solution for a long time to build relationships with the company. Loyalty is the user's desire for a long time to continue their relationship with a particular company, because loyal customers are those who purchase goods/services of the company from time to time. Loyalty can be treated as a customer desire, willingness to be a regular customer for a long time, buying and using the goods of the chosen companies by recommending them to friends and colleagues. Loyalty can be seen as a multi-dimension, covering behavioral and positional components, where positional aspect reflects customers' approach to business, while the behavioral dimension reveals a frequent and regular shopping, purchase quantity, size, range, availability, etc.

  4. Pecan cultivation: general aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diniz Fronza

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Given the increasing investment in the pecan production in southern Brazil, it becomes necessary researches, assisting in solve problems and proposition of technical and methodology to enhance this production chain. Thus, the present review aimed to survey the existing information about the culture, both on the world and the Brazilian scene. Issues related to botany, climate and soil requirements, alignment and planting density, cultivars, pests and diseases, among other technical aspects of this culture will be addressed. Pecan nut presents nutraceutical properties that are beneficial to human health, which has increased its demand from consumers. However, there are few research results with pecan nut in Brazil and there are many gaps in scientific knowledge about this culture, especially as regards the management of pests and diseases control, irrigation and nutrition, in Brazilian conditions.

  5. Technological Aspects: High Voltage

    CERN Document Server

    Faircloth, D.C.

    2013-12-16

    This paper covers the theory and technological aspects of high-voltage design for ion sources. Electric field strengths are critical to understanding high-voltage breakdown. The equations governing electric fields and the techniques to solve them are discussed. The fundamental physics of high-voltage breakdown and electrical discharges are outlined. Different types of electrical discharges are catalogued and their behaviour in environments ranging from air to vacuum are detailed. The importance of surfaces is discussed. The principles of designing electrodes and insulators are introduced. The use of high-voltage platforms and their relation to system design are discussed. The use of commercially available high-voltage technology such as connectors, feedthroughs and cables are considered. Different power supply technologies and their procurement are briefly outlined. High-voltage safety, electric shocks and system design rules are covered.

  6. Aspects, Wrappers and Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on Object Infrastructure Framework (OIF), an Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP) system. The presentation begins with an introduction to the difficulties and requirements of distributed computing, including functional and non-functional requirements (ilities). The architecture of Distributed Object Technology includes stubs, proxies for implementation objects, and skeletons, proxies for client applications. The key OIF ideas (injecting behavior, annotated communications, thread contexts, and pragma) are discussed. OIF is an AOP mechanism; AOP is centered on: 1) Separate expression of crosscutting concerns; 2) Mechanisms to weave the separate expressions into a unified system. AOP is software engineering technology for separately expressing systematic properties while nevertheless producing running systems that embody these properties.

  7. ADTT safety aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thedeen, T.

    1997-01-01

    Beside the technical problems of ADTT which remain to be solved it is crucial for the ADTT progress that safety and economical aspects are considered already during the research and planning phases. Safety here stands for the converse of risk, negative consequences for human life and health and the environment together with the corresponding probabilities. The system to be considered includes all phases of an ADTT plant, a life cycle analysis (LCA). The risk analysis is useful for two purposes: comparison with other ways of handling nuclear waste, e.g. geological repository and for valuation of different construction designs. Due to lack of precise plans and adequate data the analysis will be more of a qualitative than quantitative type. The main risks appear in connection with repair and replacement work. 2 refs., 1 fig

  8. Legal aspects of dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomarola, H.

    1976-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiations is regulated in France in all fields of application. The main principles governing inspection activities in the food industry are outlined. Conventional preservation methods are mentioned, after which a discussion is devoted to the preservation of food products by irradiation treatment and the increasing importance given to this technique. Consumer protection automatically implies the obligatory use of dosimetry by inspection organisms if the irradiated merchandise is likely to serve for human or animal consumption. Irradiation treatment permits are granted in a context of specific statutory texts mentioned here. Supervision is constant, but always both realistic and flexible. Each aspect of this treatment is discussed in maximum detail if not quite exhaustively, with special emphasis on dosimetry as an indispensable safety factor [fr

  9. Psychiatric aspects of burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalal P

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries and their subsequent treatment cause one of the most excruciating forms of pain imaginable. The psychological aspects of burn injury have been researched in different parts of the world, producing different outcomes. Studies have shown that greater levels of acute pain are associated with negative long-term psychological effects such as acute stress disorder, depression, suicidal ideation, and post-traumatic stress disorder for as long as 2 years after the initial burn injury. The concept of allostatic load is presented as a potential explanation for the relationship between acute pain and subsequent psychological outcomes. A biopsychosocial model is also presented as a means of obtaining better inpatient pain management and helping to mediate this relationship.

  10. ROBOTIC SURGERY: BIOETHICAL ASPECTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo; Souza, Camila Ribeiro; Maia, Polyana Mendes; Siqueira, Sávio Lana

    2016-01-01

    The use of robots in surgery has been increasingly common today, allowing the emergence of numerous bioethical issues in this area. To present review of the ethical aspects of robot use in surgery. Search in Pubmed, SciELO and Lilacs crossing the headings "bioethics", "surgery", "ethics", "laparoscopy" and "robotic". Of the citations obtained, were selected 17 articles, which were used for the preparation of the article. It contains brief presentation on robotics, its inclusion in health and bioethical aspects, and the use of robots in surgery. Robotic surgery is a reality today in many hospitals, which makes essential bioethical reflection on the relationship between health professionals, automata and patients. A utilização de robôs em procedimentos cirúrgicos tem sido cada vez mais frequente na atualidade, o que permite a emergência de inúmeras questões bioéticas nesse âmbito. Apresentar revisão sobre os aspectos éticos dos usos de robôs em cirurgia. Realizou-se revisão nas bases de dados Pubmed, SciELO e Lilacs cruzando-se os descritores "bioética", "cirurgia", "ética", "laparoscopia" e "robótica". Do total de citações obtidas, selecionou-se 17 artigos, os quais foram utilizados para a elaboração do artigo. Ele contém breve apresentação sobre a robótica, sua inserção na saúde e os aspectos bioéticos da utilização dos robôs em procedimentos cirúrgicos. A cirurgia robótica é uma realidade, hoje, em muitas unidades hospitalares, o que torna essencial a reflexão bioética sobre as relações entre profissionais da saúde, autômatos e pacientes.

  11. Geometrical aspects of quantum spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    Various geometrical aspects of quantum spaces are presented showing the possibility of building physics on quantum spaces. In the first chapter the authors give the motivations for studying noncommutative geometry and also review the definition of a Hopf algebra and some general features of the differential geometry on quantum groups and quantum planes. In Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 the noncommutative version of differential calculus, integration and complex structure are established for the quantum sphere S 1 2 and the quantum complex projective space CP q (N), on which there are quantum group symmetries that are represented nonlinearly, and are respected by all the aforementioned structures. The braiding of S q 2 and CP q (N) is also described. In Chapter 4 the quantum projective geometry over the quantum projective space CP q (N) is developed. Collinearity conditions, coplanarity conditions, intersections and anharmonic ratios is described. In Chapter 5 an algebraic formulation of Reimannian geometry on quantum spaces is presented where Riemannian metric, distance, Laplacian, connection, and curvature have their quantum counterparts. This attempt is also extended to complex manifolds. Examples include the quantum sphere, the complex quantum projective space and the two-sheeted space. The quantum group of general coordinate transformations on some quantum spaces is also given

  12. THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF SCHOOL TEXTBOOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sveriene, Audrone

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available School textbook is an important part of general education. Some theoretical works were written on school textbook theory. The question about textbook concept, structure and functions wasunder the dispute a long time in Lithuania and abroad.The main purpose of this article is to analyse and summarize the experience of researchers school textbook theory from Lithuania and foreign countries. The tasks of article are to determineconcept of textbook, describe the structure and the functions of the textbook. Famous scientists in this field are D. Zujev (Russia, P. Weinbrenner, F. Pingel (Germany, J. Mikk (Estonia, E. B. Johnsen (Norway, A. Choppin (France, F. M. Gerard and X. Roegiers Belgium, R. Bamberger (Austria. There are many interpretations of textbook concept, and different suggestions what is a textbook. In Lithuania the textbook concept was discussed with some specialists of Educational Development Centre and the Ministry of Education and Science. The Requirements on textbook development were approved in Lithuania only in 2003. According to the research litterature, the main aspect of the textbook is to meet the requirements of curriculum. The textbook consists of text, paratext and illustrations. All these parts of the textbook play many functions in education. The main function of the textbook is to motivate students. Other important functions of the textbook are: information, systematisation, coordination, differentiation, guidance education, learning strategy, value education, aesthetical.

  13. A família do p53: aspectos estruturais e funcionais do p73 e do p63 The p53 family: structural and functional aspects of p73 and p63

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Ribeiro-Silva

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O p53 é um gene regulador chave do ciclo celular que, quando sofre mutações, leva ao desenvolvimento de neoplasias, atuando, portanto, como um gene supressor tumoral em condições normais. Recentemente foram identificados genes homólogos ao p53 denominados p73 e p63, provavelmente oriundos de um gene ancestral comum. Apesar da grande homologia estrutural, os membros da família do p53 possuem diferenças funcionais entre si. O presente artigo tem por finalidade discorrer sobre os principais aspectos estruturais e funcionais do p73 e do p63, ressaltando seus papéis na tumorigênese humana. O p73 ativa vários genes responsivos ao p53 e, quando superexpresso, inibe a ação do p53. Raramente encontra-se mutado em neoplasias, e seu papel na tumorigênese humana ainda é motivo de controvérsias. O p63 não é um gene supressor tumoral clássico, sendo essencial para a manutenção de uma população de células precursoras (células-tronco em vários tecidos epiteliais. O p63 marca as células basais de vários órgãos epiteliais, como a pele e a próstata, podendo ser considerado um marcador de indiferenciação celular. O p63 é um marcador recentemente descrito e ainda requer maior investigação para determinar seu papel no desenvolvimento de neoplasias em humanos.The p53 gene has a key role in the cell cycle control. When mutated, it promotes the development of neoplasms, acting in so far as a tumor suppressor gene in normal conditions. Recently, genes homologue to p53 were identified, named p73 e p63, probably originated from a common ancestral gene. Despite the great structural homology, the members of p53 family have functional differences. This article aims to discourse about the major structural and functional aspects of p73 and p63, reinforcing their role in human tumorigenesis. P73 activates several p53 responsive genes and, when overexpressed, inhibits the p53 action. It is rarely mutated in neoplasms and its role in human

  14. Developmental aspects of ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belle, J. van

    2015-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that ADHD is a heterogeneous disorder, both in its clinical presentation (phenotype) and the underlying aetiology. This heterogeneity makes it difficult to identify causal pathways that link the phenotype to brain structure and functioning. In an attempt to go beyond

  15. Psychiatric Aspects of Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Sezgin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Infertility can be defined as a crisis with cultural, religious, and class related aspects, which coexists with medical, psychiatric, psychological, and social problems. Relation between psychiatric and psychological factors stem from a mutual interaction of both. Family is an important institution in maintaining human existence and raising individuals in line with society's expectations. Fertility and reproduction are seen as universal functions unique to women with raising children as the expected result of the family institution. Incidence of infertility has increased recently and can become a life crisis for a couple. Even though not being able to have a child affects both sexes emotionally, women feel greater amounts of stress, pressure, anxiety, and depression.Consequences of infertility arise from short and long-term devastating effects on both individual's physical and mental health, and marital system. Many studies focus on infertility related psychological and psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety, grief, marital conflict, gender differences, relation between the causes of infertility and psychopathology, the effects of psychiatric evaluation and intervention -when necessaryon the course of infertility treatment, pregnancy rates, and childbirth. The most important underlying causes of high levels of stress and anxiety that infertile women experience are the loss of maternity, reproduction, sense of self, and genetic continuity. In this review article is to investigate the relationship between medically unexplained symptoms and psychiatric symptoms. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(2.000: 165-185

  16. Epistemological risk aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardashkin I.B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers risk in the context of the main characteristics of non-classical epistemology. It states that non-classical epistemology is characterized by transformation, according to which the major priority of cognitive activity shifts the focus from the present to the past. In this situation a subject is keen not on what he or she has learnt but on what can be learnt. Truth being a crucial criterion of scientific knowledge is becoming of less priority, while risk is becoming more and more significant and acts as one of the major epistemology measurements. Risk is gaining the status of epistemological phenomenon, which shows a growing degree of uncertainty as a cognitive process background and the necessity for a subject to learn the world (make decisions under the conditions of uncertainty degree strengthening. The author states that risk is a comprehensive notion and it obtains a base value for all other aspects of its application, specifically, in the role of epistemological phenomenon.

  17. Neutronic and thermalhydraulic aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, J.B. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. de Mecanique et de Technologie; Bergeonneau, P. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. d`Etudes des Reacteurs

    1995-12-31

    Precise computation of neutron flux in the core of a nuclear reactor represents one of the basic aspects of reactor design and operation. Neutron flux is computed by solving Boltzmann`s linear equation. Anyway, the direct solution of the equation involves too great a number of operations for practical application, leading up to TeraFlops or even PetaFlops supercomputing capabilities. Physical and mathematical models are then required to handle the extensive variety of configurations encountered. Numerical methods must be adapted to the rapid evolution of computer power, as also computer architecture: sequential, vector or parallel. Physical and mathematical models must allow for very fast estimation for online control and monitoring, adequate quantification for industrial studies and high-precision, best estimate computations. Coupling of neutronics to mechanics and two-phase flow thermohydraulics must be implemented in order to improve the accuracy in best-estimate computation schemes and to take into account the transient behaviour of the plant during normal operation or incidents. In this field of continuous improvement, the new methods applied in Reactor Physics lead obviously to good results and provide the improvements required in the future for the needs of efficiency, safety and advanced fuel cycle. This trend and the ``evolutionary`` implementation in large and modular software systems will be illustrated by the example of the SAPHYR system. (authors). 3 tabs.

  18. Neutronic and thermalhydraulic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.B.; Bergeonneau, P.

    1995-01-01

    Precise computation of neutron flux in the core of a nuclear reactor represents one of the basic aspects of reactor design and operation. Neutron flux is computed by solving Boltzmann's linear equation. Anyway, the direct solution of the equation involves too great a number of operations for practical application, leading up to TeraFlops or even PetaFlops supercomputing capabilities. Physical and mathematical models are then required to handle the extensive variety of configurations encountered. Numerical methods must be adapted to the rapid evolution of computer power, as also computer architecture: sequential, vector or parallel. Physical and mathematical models must allow for very fast estimation for online control and monitoring, adequate quantification for industrial studies and high-precision, best estimate computations. Coupling of neutronics to mechanics and two-phase flow thermohydraulics must be implemented in order to improve the accuracy in best-estimate computation schemes and to take into account the transient behaviour of the plant during normal operation or incidents. In this field of continuous improvement, the new methods applied in Reactor Physics lead obviously to good results and provide the improvements required in the future for the needs of efficiency, safety and advanced fuel cycle. This trend and the ''evolutionary'' implementation in large and modular software systems will be illustrated by the example of the SAPHYR system. (authors). 3 tabs

  19. HISTORICAL ASPECTS OF PHALLOPLASTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Kyzlasov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction of the penis in transgender operations, amputation of the penis, congenital deformities and anomalies of the penis was and remains today an important issue in plastic surgery of the urogenital region. The only method to restore the penis is phalloplasty. In general, over the past decades, generations of clinicians have different ways and flaps for total fallouretheral reconstruction. Thus was formulated the characteristics of an ideal flap for the formation of neophallos, which should be safe, sensitive, without hair, and with long leg. However, despite the fact that the characteristics of a perfect flap, nowadays there is no “gold standard” in the formation of neophallos, as phalloplasty is a fairly complicated surgery, and the choice of method depends on many factors. The choice of methodology is determined by the plastics surgeon and to each patient is individual, depends on the etiology of the disease and the possibility of choosing the form of the donor’s transplant. This article presents a literature review devoted to the historical aspects of phalloplasty. In the article, in chronological order reflected the evolution of the different forming methods neofallos, phallourethrоplasty, describes their advantages and disadvantages.

  20. [Economic aspects of epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argumosa, A; Herranz, J L

    2000-06-01

    The economic magnitude of epilepsy is determined by its effect on the employment status of the patients, the cost of drug treatment for them and the healthcare system and the repercussion worldwide. Studies of the cost of the disease show that it has economic importance due to the sum of the direct and indirect costs caused by it. In the case of epilepsy, the results of studies in various countries led to the creation of a Commission on Economic Aspects of Epilepsy. The lack of epidemiological studies regarding epilepsy in Spain may explain the lack of publications on this subject in our country. The percentage of the total cost due to antiepileptic drugs is considerable and will probably increase in the future. The pharmaco-economic evaluation made by cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness, cost-usefulness analysis and studies to minimize costs should serve to use healthcare resources in the most effective manner and justify the rational use of the new antiepileptic drugs. The economic impact of epilepsy is added to the repercussion of the disease itself on the patient and his family. The different distribution of costs in children and adults with epilepsy suggest the need for intervention at an early age to try to reduce the long term economic and personal repercussions. The pharmaco-economic evaluation of the new antiepileptic drugs will make it clear whether their considerable cost is worth paying for their greater effectivity.

  1. Electrical aspects of rainout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenkilde, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    Rainout commonly denotes the aggregate of phenomena associated with precipitation scavenging of radioactivity from a cloud of nuclear debris that is within a natural rain cloud. (In contrast, the term, washout, is applicable when the nuclear cloud is below the rain cloud and the term, fallout, commonly denotes the direct gravitational settling of contaminated solid material from a nuclear cloud.) Nuclear debris aerosols may be scavenged within natural clouds by a variety of different physical processes which may involve diffusion, convection, impaction, nucleation, phoresis, turbulence, and/or electricity among others. Processes which involve electrical aspects are scrutinized for their susceptibility to the intimate presence of the radioactive-cloud environment. This particular choice of electrical processes is not accidental. Nearly all of the listed processes were examined earlier by Williams. His rough estimates suggested that electrical effects, and to a lesser extent turbulence, could enhance the scavenging of those submicron aerosols which reside in the size-range that bridges the minimum in the scavenging rate coefficient which is commonly called the Greenfield gap. This minimum in the scavenging-rate coefficient is created by the simultaneous reduction of scavenging via diffusion and the reduction of scavenging via inertial impaction. However, Williams omitted the specific influence of a radioactive environment. This report aims to remedy this omission

  2. Enantiostylous types of Cassiinae species (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, N M; Cotarelli, V M; Souza, D P; Novo, R R; Siqueira Filho, J A; Oliveira, P E; Castro, C C

    2015-05-01

    Species of the subtribe Cassiinae present a wide diversity of floral types. Until recently it was considered that this diversity did not extend to their reproductive mechanisms. However, studies have recorded some variations in the enantiostylous pattern in this plant group. This study aims to investigate the morphological and functional variations of enantiostyly in species of the subtribe Cassiinae. Additionally, it proposes the recognition of enantiostylous types (ET) based on pollen deposition and capture mode. Morphological data were collected in fresh and fixed (alcohol 70%) buds and flowers, and also using photos and rehydrated material from herbarium sheets, for a total of 59 species. The parameters used to establish the ETs were pollination type, nature of pollen deposition on the pollinator body, deposition type, number of petals involved in pollen deposition, and pollen pathway. Morpho-functional features allowed the recognition of seven enantiostylous types (Flexuosa, Cana, Macranthera, Martiana, Amiciella, Repens and Ramosa) that present several levels of complexity. The type Ramosa was the most common and the Cana type was the least common. The types Repens, Martiana and Flexuosa do not have reciprocal pollen deposition, thus species with these types may be considered atypical. The groups resulting from similarity analysis partially coincide with the clades proposed in phylogenetic studies of Cassiinae. The recognition of functional ETs is important for understanding the evolution of reproductive strategies of Cassiinae species, and indicates an interesting line of investigation of enantiostyly in other plant groups. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  3. SOCIAL ASPECTS OF COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimova A. V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important conditions of the existence of every organization, every enterprise is to insure the long-term sustainable development, one of the conditions of which is the increase of an organizational competitiveness. In modern economic conditions, social aspects of competitiveness are now in the foreground of interest, because just the strategy of social responsibility (SSR of modern enterprises can assure some commercial benefits, in responding, at the same time, to the social demands and in creating its well-being. Such an approach is in the basis of the notion of competitiveness. Along with «rigid parameters», such as price characteristics, the capability to deal with competitors, effective financial and production policies, «flexible factors» of competitiveness are of a big importance: a personnel potential, individual and collective competencies, organizational and managerial capabilities. As a result, we have formulated a research hypothesis: the organizational competitiveness is defined by individual and collective competencies of an organization, is based on socially responsible actions, confirms the demand for the object and insures its sustainable long-term development. Any organization should base all its actions aimed to increase its competitiveness on its intellectual potential, or on the management of individual and collective competencies that assure the sustainable development and the goal achievement. For every organizational strategic action, an effective combination of these competencies exists. So, we suggest a new definition of competitiveness: it is a social and economic category of understanding of the social responsibility, having as a central element individual and collective competencies, based on socially responsible actions of an enterprise, insuring its long-term sustainable development.

  4. Sociological aspects of rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babuccu, Orhan; Latifoğlu, Osman; Atabay, Kenan; Oral, Nursen; Coşan, Behçet

    2003-01-01

    Although the psychological aspect of the rhinoplasty operation has been a subject of interest for a long time, with the exception of a few studies, sociological factors have been almost totally ignored. In this prospective study the personality characteristics and socioeconomic backgrounds of 216 rhinoplasty patients were evaluated. Between 1994 and 2000, a questionnaire and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) were given preoperatively to 157 females and 59 males. The MMPI was also given to age-matched people as a control. Six months after surgery, patients were called on the telephone and asked to rate their satisfaction. According to questionnaire, a great majority of the rhinoplasty patients were young, unmarried women with high education levels. In the rhinoplasty group, one or more scales of the inventory were not in the normal ranges in 45% of the patients, whereas this proportion in the control group was 28% (p childish, highly active, impulsive, competitive, reactive, perfectionistic about themselves, talkative, and emotionally superficial. Male patients could be described as rigid, stubborn, over-sensitive, suspicious, perfectionistic, pessimistic, over-reactive, and having somatizations. Tension and anxiety with feelings of inferiority were found to be characteristics of the male patients. The satisfaction rate after six months was reported as 72%. There was no significant correlation between MMPI results and demographic variables, nor satisfaction rate. In conclusion, the rhinoplasty patients in our study are young people at the very beginning of their careers. It could be that their personalities and socioeconomic backgrounds combine to make aesthetic surgery rewarding enough, both socially and personally, to encourage them to follow through.

  5. Promoting Cognitive and Social Aspects of Inquiry through Classroom Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hui; Wei, Xin; Duan, Peiran; Guo, Yuying; Wang, Wenxia

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how Chinese physics teachers structured classroom discourse to support the cognitive and social aspects of inquiry-based science learning. Regarding the cognitive aspect, we examined to what extent the cognitive processes underlying the scientific skills and the disciplinary reasoning behind the content knowledge were taught.…

  6. Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, R.L.; Holmes, J.A.; Houlberg, W.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Strickler, D.J.; Brown, T.G.; Wiseman, G.W.

    1980-06-01

    The Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study (LARTS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) investigated the potential for producing a viable longburn tokamak reactor by enhancing the volt-second capability of the ohmic heating transformer through the use of high aspect ratio designs. The plasma physics, engineering, and economic implications of high aspect ratio tokamaks were assessed in the context of extended burn operation. Using a one-dimensional transport code plasma startup and burn parameters were addressed. The pulsed electrical power requirements for the poloidal field system, which have a major impact on reactor economics, were minimized by optimizing the startup and shutdown portions of the tokamak cycle. A representative large aspect ratio tokamak with an aspect ratio of 8 was found to achieve a burn time of 3.5 h at capital cost only approx. 25% greater than that of a moderate aspect ratio design tokamak

  7. Criminological aspects of crime recidivism

    OpenAIRE

    Lelková, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Criminological aspects of criminal recidivism The topic of this thesis are the criminological aspects of criminal recidivism and goal is to present a complete outline of some of the basic ideas related to the concept of criminal recidivism and to introduce the reader to its selected criminological aspects. This thesis is divided into four chapters. The introductory chapter is focused on the concept of criminal recidivism itself, and similarly defines the various concepts with emphasis on the ...

  8. ASPECTS OF INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemy Varshapetian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available For manufacturing companies to succeed in today's unstable economic environment, it is necessary to restructure the main components of its activities: designing innovative product, production using modern reconfigurable manufacturing systems, a business model that takes into account the global strategy and management methods using modern management models and tools. The first three components are discussed in numerous publications, for example, (Koren, 2010 and is therefore not considered in the article. A large number of publications devoted to the methods and tools of production management, for example (Halevi, 2007. On the basis of what was said in the article discusses the possibility of the integration of only three methods have received in recent years, the most widely used, namely: Six Sigma method - SS (George et al., 2005 and supplements its-Design for six sigm? - DFSS (Taguchi, 2003; Lean production transformed with the development to the "Lean management" and further to the "Lean thinking" - Lean (Hirano et al., 2006; Theory of Constraints, developed E.Goldratt - TOC (Dettmer, 2001. The article investigates some aspects of this integration: applications in diverse fields, positive features, changes in management structure, etc.

  9. Economic aspects of metals recover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Daria; Kwaśniewska, Dobrawa

    2018-03-01

    One of the modern economy models is circular economy in which wastes should be considered as resource and used in an efficient and sustainable way. This also concerns to metals included in scraps. However, the need for metal recovery from waste is not only the result of the latest economic trends but also the result of large and constantly changing demand for metals. Shrinking natural sources of metals, concentrations of ores in small number of countries in the world and resulting from this dependence on import, geopolitical situation, new technologies demands are only a few most important determinants that have been changing the structure of the metal market over years. In this chapter, authors focused on the presentation of economic aspects of metal recovery from various sources. The chapter presents the characteristic of metal market elements (supply, demand and price) and changes that took place over decades, underlining the structure of precious and highly desirable metal market elements. Balance between the demand and supply ensures price stability and rationalizes inflation. However, growing demand on many means that secure supply chains, such as recycling and material recovery, are essential to ensure continuity in the supply chain and guarantee unrestricted technological progress and innovation. The data included in this chapter presents also the concentration of different metals and group of metals in wastes pointing that recycling of waste can become one of the possibilities of acquiring missing and critical metals. Metal-laden wastes include a few groups: waste electrical and electronic equipments, catalysts of different application, introduced on chemical, petrochemical or automotive market, galvanic wastes and wastewaters. The profitability assessment of recycling processes is very complicated. Nevertheless cited data shows that profitability of recovery depends on the metal analyzed and the type of waste. It must be underline that an optimized

  10. Prototyping and Composing Aspect Languages: using an Aspect Interpreter Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, W.K.; Bergmans, Lodewijk; Aksit, Mehmet

    2008-01-01

    Domain specific aspect languages (DSALs) are becoming more popular because they can be designed to represent recurring concerns in a way that is optimized for a specific domain. However, the design and implementation of even a limited domain-specific aspect language can be a tedious job. To address

  11. Prototyping and Composing Aspect Languages: using an Aspect Interpreter Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, W.K.; Bergmans, Lodewijk; Aksit, Mehmet

    2007-01-01

    Domain speci��?c aspect languages (DSALs) are becoming more popular because they can be designed to represent recurring concerns in a way that is optimized for a speci��?c domain. However, the design and implementation of even a limited domain-speci��?c aspect language can be a tedious job. To

  12. Business Property - tax and accounting aspects

    OpenAIRE

    ANTOŇŮ, Ivona

    2007-01-01

    In this Bachelor's thesis I have examined the issue of business assets while focusing on the aspects of taxation and book-keeping. The objective of this work is an analysis of the limits of business assets in accordance with valid Czech legislations and the application of book-keeping and taxation consequences in practical terms of changes in business assets. The theoretic section characterizes business assets in terms of physical and legal entities, the company's proprietary structure, which...

  13. GENDER ASPECTS OF MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS IN RETAIL

    OpenAIRE

    DEPUTATOVA ELENA YURYEVNA

    2016-01-01

    Situation in Russian retail demonstrates a highly competitive structure. Irrespective of segmentation ways, many retailers have still been using common ways of marketing communications and the search of loyal customers remains an elusive target for many companies. The problem is that a great variety of retailers have similar offers both to men and women, ignoring the fact it should be different. The article deals with differences of men and women consumer behavior aspects in choosing shops, t...

  14. Environmental aspects of fusion reactors 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casini, G.; Ponti, C.; Rocco, P.

    1986-01-01

    The aspects of the environmental impact as expected from future fusion reactors are reviewed. The radioactive inventories consist in tritium and neutron-induced radioactivity in the structures. An analysis is performed of the radioactive releases from the different plant's systems in normal and accident conditions and typical emissions to the ambient are defined. Information is given on the waste management problems. Two appendixes give general information on tritium and safety guidelines

  15. Ecological aspects of nephrolithiasis in arid zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khajrli, G.Z.

    2003-01-01

    The ecological aspects of Mangystau region were studied, which is considered to be the waterless area of Kazakhstan according to its climatic and geographic conditions. Also the water quality from the water sources and its micro- and macro- chemical structure were tested for the 10 years period, its pollution was shown. The analysis of samples produced oil at the Mangyshlak Peninsula proved that concentration of microelements with toxic effect (they are vanadium and molybdenum) exceeds allowed norm considerably

  16. SOME ASPECTS REGARDING BALANCE SHEET ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILIE RĂSCOLEAN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some aspects of the analysis based on the balance sheet at an economic entity. Attempting to use economic analysis as a support tool in the decision. The case study is performed on the financial accounts of a company, analyzing the structure of the assets using the following rates: the rate of intangible assets; rate of tangible assets; rate financial assets; rate stocks; rate receivables and cash and cash equivalents rate. Liability structure is analyzed using the following rates: the rate of financial stability; global financial autonomy rate; overall borrowing rate; term borrowing rate.

  17. Tense and Aspect in English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen-Nielsen, Niels

    2013-01-01

    In the 1990's the author cooperated with Carl Bache on a grammar of English. It turned out that the views they had previously arrived at individually on tense and aspect could be combined by operating with a fused system involving four ordered choices resulting in sixteen tense-aspect forms...

  18. Electronic textbooks: didactic aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Elena O.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern process of training proceeding in the information and education environment demands a textbook of a new format differing from that one of a traditional paper book. Research has shown that a new textbook is a specially designed subject information and education environment. Filling of this environment (the textbook - navigator, the textbook script, a set of materials for independent work, etc., structuring information (as the script of an educational process, the designer of a process of training, the integrator of the specified types is shown in the article. Characteristics of textbooks of a new generation are provided: orientation towards realizing the complete process of training from positing aims to a reflection of results, ensuring the maximum independence of pupils, accounting of specific features of pupils, granting opportunities of creation by pupils of an own educational product. Components of the subject information and education environment are presented: subject and target, substantial and organizational, estimated and reflexive components. The reformative and constructive tasks providing an activity orientation of the electronic textbook are considered.

  19. Marketing aspect of paramedical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugalić Sretenka L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available That's how the primary medical and ecological reasons as the well being for humanity came out of the satisfaction of specific health needs. Through operationally of these outcomes it tried to prove the need and the intentions of the customers, and through methodologies and strategies which stand to our service. Further developing activity acted as a useful to the innovation of the product and vertical structure of marketing, through the change in the way of thinking of the medical and pharmaceutical profession. The paper is concepted so that the received material inserted to the content part, do the following: 1. Meaning, characteristics and developing possibilities of phytotherapy; 2. Dimensions of market in managing of phytotherapic assortment. By observing the final results, which were obtained through means of representative sources and other research of phytotherapic products, it can be expected that the same can be applicable to broader spectrum in practice with kind input to the marketing ideas. Models, presented here, is meant to be for innovative applications in the medical marketing concept, by the results of wide spending in the food service industry (domain of dietetics, at manufacture of food for children at the manufacture of 'medical cosmetics' and cosmetic-druggist assortments (products for hygiene, shampoos, soap, creams and bubbles for bath.

  20. Aspects of B decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faller, Sven

    2011-01-01

    B-meson decays are a good probe for testing the flavour sector of the standard model of particle physics. The standard model describes at present all experimental data satisfactorily, although some ''tensions'' exist, i.e. two to three sigma deviations from the predictions, in particular in B decays. The arguments against the standard model are thus purely theoretical. These tensions between experimental data and theoretical predictions provide an extension of the standard model by new physics contributions. Within the flavour sector main theoretical uncertainties are related to the hadronic matrix elements. For exclusive semileptonic anti B → D (*) l anti ν decays QCD sum rule techniques, which are suitable for studying hadronic matrix elements, however, with substantial, but estimable hadronic uncertainties, are used. The exploration of new physics effects in B-meson decays is done in an twofold way. In exclusive semileptonic anti B → D (*) l anti ν decays the effect of additional right-handed vector as well as left- and right-handed scalar and tensor hadronic current structures in the decay rates and the form factors are studied at the non-recoil point. As a second approach one studied the non-leptonic B 0 s →J/ψφ and B 0 →J/ψK S,L decays discussing CP violating effects in the time-dependent decay amplitudes by considering new physics phase in the B 0 - anti B 0 mixing phase. (orig.)

  1. Aspects of B decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faller, Sven

    2011-03-04

    B-meson decays are a good probe for testing the flavour sector of the standard model of particle physics. The standard model describes at present all experimental data satisfactorily, although some ''tensions'' exist, i.e. two to three sigma deviations from the predictions, in particular in B decays. The arguments against the standard model are thus purely theoretical. These tensions between experimental data and theoretical predictions provide an extension of the standard model by new physics contributions. Within the flavour sector main theoretical uncertainties are related to the hadronic matrix elements. For exclusive semileptonic anti B {yields} D{sup (*)}l anti {nu} decays QCD sum rule techniques, which are suitable for studying hadronic matrix elements, however, with substantial, but estimable hadronic uncertainties, are used. The exploration of new physics effects in B-meson decays is done in an twofold way. In exclusive semileptonic anti B {yields} D{sup (*)}l anti {nu} decays the effect of additional right-handed vector as well as left- and right-handed scalar and tensor hadronic current structures in the decay rates and the form factors are studied at the non-recoil point. As a second approach one studied the non-leptonic B{sup 0}{sub s}{yields}J/{psi}{phi} and B{sup 0}{yields}J/{psi}K{sub S,L} decays discussing CP violating effects in the time-dependent decay amplitudes by considering new physics phase in the B{sup 0}- anti B{sup 0} mixing phase. (orig.)

  2. Genetic aspects of polydactyly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zguricas, J; Heutink, P; Heredero, L; Deurloo, J; Oostra, B A; Snijders, P J; Lindhout, D; Hovius, S E

    1996-07-01

    The early limb development follows the similar pattern in all vertebrates since different species develop using the same regulatory genes in the formation of the body plan. Some of these genes remained well conserved during evolution and can be traced back as far as Drosophila--while some others changed their structure or developed new functions. This is why the limbs from different animals still look different from one another. However, all existing tetrapods have, like Homo Sapiens, limbs with five, or fewer digits. It has been argued that the interplay of the factors controlling the patterning and differentiation during the embryonal limb development can provide five distinct "genotypes" allowing development of only five different digits. This would imply that the Greek definition of polydactyly, namely "duplication of the finger or a part of it", is correct, not only in morphological but also in a genetical sense. Genes involved in the determination of the outline of the limb are candidates for disorders like polydactyly and syndactyly. Recently, we have localised the gene for triphalangeal thumb (TPT) on chromosome 7q. As almost 50% of our patient population also had rudimentary postaxial polydactyly and/or syndactyly, the interesting question arose whether the TPT gene also was responsible for isolated post-axial polydactyly. Our preliminary evidence suggests, however, that different gene(s) are involved in the pathomorphogenesis of postaxial polydactyly. Studies of human congenital hand malformations--combined with genetic studies in lower vertebrates--will help us to understand not only the molecular basis of these disorders, but also to get insight into the fascinating mechanisms involved in the normal development of the human hand.

  3. OOAspectZ and aspect-oriented UML class diagrams for Aspect-oriented software modelling (AOSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Vidal Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Regarding modularised software development, Aspect-oriented programming (AOP identifies and represents individually crosscutting concerns during the software development cycle’s programming stage. This article proposes and applies OOAspectZ to formal Aspect-oriented requirement specifications for prior stages of the software development cycle. It particularly concerns requirement specification and the structural design of data and behaviour, along with describing and applying Aspect-oriented UML class diagrams to designing classes, aspects and associations among classes and aspects during Aspect-oriented software development (AOSD.OOAspectZ is a language integrating both Object-Z and AspectZ formal languages whereas Aspect-oriented UML class diagrams represent AOP code, object class and crosscutting concern class structure by means of stereotypes. This article shows and applies the main OOAspectZ and AO UML class diagram characteristics to Aspect-oriented software modelling (AOSM using a classic example of AOP. Ideas for future work concerning an actual AOP version are also indicated.

  4. Morphological aspects of radiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Congdon, C C; Fliedner, T M

    1971-04-01

    The injury to haemopoietic and lymphatic tissues produced by ionizing irradiation in various species of mammals including man is one of the major features of the biological effects of radiation (Bond et al. 1965,' Cottier, 1961). At the moment of injury and for a short time thereafter relatively little morphological evidence of cell damage in bone marrow other than cessation of cell division and DNA synthesis is seen. Within a few hours, however, depending on the level of exposure, major destruction of red bone marrow tissue can occur. In this chapter the histologic changes in bone marrow are summarized for correlation with the functional aspects of the change in the target tissue, particularly its cell renewal features and where possible the remarkable flux or migration of cells through bone marrow and lymphatic tissues. This latter topic of cellular traffic represents the outcome of extensive physiological studies on haemopoiesis and lymphopoiesis by mammalian radiobiologists. The initial injury, the structural changes and the physiological consequences are the first half of the radiation injury sequence. Regeneration also has morphological features of major importance to the understanding of radiation haematology. It is common to discuss radiation effects on biological materials from the point of view of external or internal sources of exposure. In addition exposure rate, whole body or partial body, type and quality of the ionizing source are features that must be taken into account. While these features are extremely important, the simplest approach to understanding histologic effects on the bone marrow is to assume acute penetrating whole-body exposure in the lethal range. With this background the differences related to variations in the conditions of exposure can usually be understood. The individual human or animal organism receiving the exposure must also be considered in the final outcome of the experience because age, sex, nutritional status and presence

  5. Tense and aspect in Lamnsoʹ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lendzemo Constantine Yuka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Yuka (1997 has identified three broad tenses in Lamnso’2. A closer look at these tenses and their specification of time reference willreveal a more complex tense structure of multiple past and future timeallusions that distinguish different degrees of remoteness to the pastand future tense categories. This paper seeks to determine the variousdegrees of remoteness to a given tense category exhibited in Lamnso’. This paper investigates the relative relationship(s between a tense marker that denotes the time of an action and the time reference preceding or following that action within the clause. It also examines aspect, interpreted as the way of conceiving the flow of an event (Comrie, 1976. This study identifies seven tense forms for Lamnso’ (P3, P2, P1, P0, F1, F2 and F3., which specify time distinctions from the remote past (P3 to the remote future (F3 and three aspect forms. These ten tense and aspect forms combine with distinctive tones and time adverbials to derive a time reference structure whose cut-off points are sometimes fluid and non-rigid.

  6. Chapter 3. Physicochemical aspects of structure formation and physico technical properties of materials obtained from soil-cement mixtures. 3.1. Formation features of nucleuses of binding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidov, D.Kh.

    2011-01-01

    It is determined that structure formation of hardening systems depends on their thermodynamic stability. According to the investigations author concluded that probability of nucleuses formation depended on surface energy of new formations, chemical potential, temperature and value of interphase energy.

  7. Polyurethane elastomers from morphology to mechanical aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Prisacariu, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive account of the physical / mechanical behaviour of polyurethanes (PU´s) elastomers, films and blends of variable crystallinity. Aspects covered include the elasticity and inelasticity of amorphous to crystalline PUs, in relation to their sensitivity to chemical and physical structure. A study is made of how aspects of the constitutive responses of PUs vary with composition: the polyaddition procedure, the hard segment, soft segment and chain extender (diols and diamines) are varied systematically in a large number of systems of model and novel crosslinked andthermoplastic PUs. Results will be related to: microstructural changes, on the basis of evidence from x-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS), and also dynamic mechanical analyses (DMA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and IR dichroism. Inelastic effects will be investigated also by including quantitative correlations between the magnitude of the Mullins effect and the fractional energy dissipation by hysteresis under cyclic straining, g...

  8. Large aspect ratio tokamak study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, R.L.; Holmes, J.A.; Houlberg, W.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Strickler, D.J.; Brown, T.G.; Sardella, C.; Wiseman, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    The Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study (LARTS) investigated the potential for producing a viable long burn tokamak reactor through enhanced volt-second capability of the ohmic heating transformer by employing high aspect ratio designs. The plasma physics, engineering, and economic implications of high aspect ratio tokamaks were accessed in the context of extended burn operation. Plasma startup and burn parameters were addressed using a one-dimensional transport code. The pulsed electrical power requirements for the poloidal field system, which have a major impact on reactor economics, were minimized by optimizing the field in the ohmic heating coil and the wave shape of the ohmic heating discharge. A high aspect ratio reference reactor was chosen and configured

  9. Topological Aspects of Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egghe, Leo; Rousseau, Ronald

    1998-01-01

    Discusses topological aspects of theoretical information retrieval, including retrieval topology; similarity topology; pseudo-metric topology; document spaces as topological spaces; Boolean information retrieval as a subsystem of any topological system; and proofs of theorems. (LRW)

  10. Aspect of the conformal invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, M.

    1990-11-01

    This thesis is about the study of several physical and mathematical aspects of critical phenomena at two dimensions. These phenomena have remarkable symmetry properties in the coordonnates changes keeping the angles. They are named conformal theories

  11. Administrative Aspects of Human Experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, George W.

    1992-01-01

    The following administrative aspects of scientific experimentation with human subjects are discussed: the definition of human experimentation; the distinction between experimentation and treatment; investigator responsibility; documentation; the elements and principles of informed consent; and the administrator's role in establishing and…

  12. Ethical aspects of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streithofen, H.B.

    1989-01-01

    The nuclear controversy comprises many ethical aspects, e.g. the waste disposal problem. Nuclear opponents should not neglect the environmental protection aspect; for example, the use of nuclear power alone brought about an 8% reduction of the CO 2 burden in 1987. Our responsibility towards nature and humans in the Third World leaves us no alternative to nuclear power. On the other hand, the nuclear power debate should not become a matter of religious beliefs. (DG) [de

  13. Physical aspects of radioisotope brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    The present report represents an attempt to provide, within a necessarily limited compass, an authoritative guide to all important physical aspects of the use of sealed gamma sources in radiotherapy. Within the report, reference is made wherever necessary to the more extensive but scattered literature on this subject. While this report attempts to cover all the physical aspects of radioisotope 'brachytherapy' it does not, of course, deal exhaustively with any one part of the subject. 384 refs, 3 figs, 6 tabs

  14. Cosmological aspects of superstring models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binetruy, P.

    1986-10-01

    I consider more specifically the cosmological aspects of supersymmetry breaking in ''superstring models'' (grand unified models which are believed to describe the effective theory obtained by compactification of superstring theories). The most interesting aspects are related to the presence of flat directions in the scalar potential (vacuum degeneracies). These flat directions are discussed both in the hidden sector of these models (do they give rise to inflation) and in the observable sector of quarks, leptons and Higgs particles, in connection with baryogenesis

  15. Characteristic aspects of pion-condensed phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsuka, Tatsuyuki; Tamagaki, Ryozo; Tatsumi, Toshitaka.

    1993-01-01

    Characteristic aspects of pion-condensed phases are described in a simple model, for the system involving only nucleons and pions which interact through the π-N P-wave interaction. We consider one typical version in each of three kinds of pion condensation; the one of neutral pions (π 0 ), the one of charged pions (π C ) and the combined one in which both the π 0 and π C condensations are coexistent. Emphasis is put on the description to clarify the novel structures of the nucleon system which are realized in the pion-condensed phases. At first, it is shown that the π 0 condensation is equivalent to the particular nucleonic phase realized by a structure change of the nucleon system, where the attractive first-order effect of the one-pion-exchange (OPE) tensor force is brought about coherently. The aspects of this phase are characterized by the layered structure with a specific spin-isospin order with one-dimensional localization (named the ALS structure in short), which provides the source function for the condensed π 0 field. We utilize both descriptions with use of fields and potentials for the π 0 condensation. Next, the π C condensation realized in neutron-rich matter is described by adopting a version of the traveling condensed wave. In this phase, the nucleonic structure becomes the Fermi gas consisting of quasi-neutrons described by a superposition of neutron and proton. In this sense the structure change of the nucleon system for the π C condensation is moderate, and the field description is suitable. Finally, we describe a coexistent pion condensation, in which both the π 0 and π C condensations coexist without interference in such a manner that the π C condensation develops in the ALS structure. The model adopted here provides us with the characteristic aspects of the pion-condensed phases persisting in the realistic situation, where other ingredients affecting the pion condensation are taken into account. (author)

  16. Ab initio/GIAO-CCSD(T) study of structures, energies, and 13C NMR chemical shifts of C4H7(+) and C5H9(+) ions: relative stability and dynamic aspects of the cyclopropylcarbinyl vs bicyclobutonium ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, George A; Surya Prakash, G K; Rasul, Golam

    2008-07-16

    The structures and energies of the carbocations C 4H 7 (+) and C 5H 9 (+) were calculated using the ab initio method. The (13)C NMR chemical shifts of the carbocations were calculated using the GIAO-CCSD(T) method. The pisigma-delocalized bisected cyclopropylcarbinyl cation, 1 and nonclassical bicyclobutonium ion, 2 were found to be the minima for C 4H 7 (+) at the MP2/cc-pVTZ level. At the MP4(SDTQ)/cc-pVTZ//MP2/cc-pVTZ + ZPE level the structure 2 is 0.4 kcal/mol more stable than the structure 1. The (13)C NMR chemical shifts of 1 and 2 were calculated by the GIAO-CCSD(T) method. Based on relative energies and (13)C NMR chemical shift calculations, an equilibrium involving the 1 and 2 in superacid solutions is most likely responsible for the experimentally observed (13)C NMR chemical shifts, with the latter as the predominant equilibrating species. The alpha-methylcyclopropylcarbinyl cation, 4, and nonclassical bicyclobutonium ion, 5, were found to be the minima for C 5H 9 (+) at the MP2/cc-pVTZ level. At the MP4(SDTQ)/cc-pVTZ//MP2/cc-pVTZ + ZPE level ion 5 is 5.9 kcal/mol more stable than the structure 4. The calculated (13)C NMR chemical shifts of 5 agree rather well with the experimental values of C 5H 9 (+).

  17. Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma A. Abdel Razek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive cycle of the eared horse mussel, Modiolus auriculatus, was followed for one year from February, 2011 to January, 2012 based on 240 individuals collected from Hurghada, north coast of Red Sea, Egypt. The gonadal maturation of M. auriculatus was examined by means of macroscopic and histological preparations of the mantle. Annual cycle with periods of growth, maturity and discharge of gonadic products occurs simultaneously in both sexes. Ripe individuals were observed throughout the year. The largest number of spawning for the individuals occurred from March to June and July for the population. So, it was clear to identify one heavy spawning period for this species. Sexation of M. auriculatus did not differ significantly from 1:1. Sexes were distinguishable in all individuals at the ripe stage with a shell length greater than 3.00 cm. A direct positive correlation was observed between gonad index and water temperature.

  18. Achieving high aspect ratio wrinkles by modifying material network stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Wang, Yan; McCarthy, Thomas J; Crosby, Alfred J

    2017-06-07

    Wrinkle aspect ratio, or the amplitude divided by the wavelength, is hindered by strain localization transitions when an increasing global compressive stress is applied to synthetic material systems. However, many examples from living organisms show extremely high aspect ratios, such as gut villi and flower petals. We use three experimental approaches to demonstrate that these high aspect ratio structures can be achieved by modifying the network stress in the wrinkle substrate. We modify the wrinkle stress and effectively delay the strain localization transition, such as folding, to larger aspect ratios by using a zero-stress initial wavy substrate, creating a secondary network with post-curing, or using chemical stress relaxation materials. A wrinkle aspect ratio as high as 0.85, almost three times higher than common values of synthetic wrinkles, is achieved, and a quantitative framework is presented to provide understanding the different strategies and predictions for future investigations.

  19. Liquid-metal aspects of HYLIFE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W.R.; Hoffman, N.J.; McDowell, M.W.

    1980-01-01

    The High Yield Lithium Injection Fusion Energy (HYLIFE) converter is a reactor concept for an inertial fusion electric power plant. In this concept, flowing molten lithium protects the structures of the fusion chamber from the deleterious effects of deuterium-tritium (DT) fusion reactions and converts the pulsed fusion energy into steay thermal power. Lithium is circulated as the primary coolant to transfer heat to an intermediate sodium loop which drives a superheated steam cycle. Lithium is also the source of the tritium fuel which is recovered via a molten-salt extraction process. The liquid-metal aspects of the HYLIFE plant with particular emphasis on the lithium systems

  20. Biomass energy utilisation - ecological and economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plamen Gramatikov

    2009-01-01

    Biomass is the world's fourth largest energy source today and it represents about 35% of the primary energy supply in developing countries. Biomass is a versatile source of energy in that it can produce electricity, heat, transport fuel and it can be stored. The problems (technical, economic, etc.) which have to be solved by treatment of biomass are discussed in this work. The average quantities of biomass resources of some European countries are presented and the structure, percentage of products and their calorific values are estimated. Keywords: Biomass Energy Potential, Ecological & Economic Aspects

  1. Statistical aspects of fish stock assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Casper Willestofte

    for stock assessment by application of state-of-the-art statistical methodology. The main contributions are presented in the form of six research papers. The major part of the thesis deals with age-structured assessment models, which is the most common approach. Conversion from length to age distributions...... statistical aspects of fish stocks assessment, which includes topics such as time series analysis, generalized additive models (GAMs), and non-linear state-space/mixed models capable of handling missing data and a high number of latent states and parameters. The aim is to improve the existing methods...

  2. ACCOUNTING ASPECTS OF PRICING AND TRANSFER PRICING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TÜNDE VERES

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The pricing methods in practice need really complex view of the business situation and depend on the strategy and market position of a company. The structure of a price seems simple: cost plus margin. Both categories are special area in the management accounting. Information about the product costs, the allocation methodologies in cost accounting, the analyzing of revenue and different level of the margin needs information from accounting system. This paper analyzes the pricing methods from management accounting aspects to show out the role of the accounting system in the short term and long term pricing and transfer pricing decisions.

  3. Investigation of different physical aspects such as structural, mechanical, optical properties and Debye temperature of Fe2ScM (M=P and As) semiconductors: A DFT-based first principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Md. Lokman; Rahaman, Md. Zahidur

    2018-04-01

    By using first principles calculation dependent on the density functional theory (DFT), we have investigated the mechanical, structural properties and the Debye temperature of Fe2ScM (M=P and As) compounds under various pressures up to 60 GPa. The optical properties have been investigated under zero pressure. Our calculated optimized structural parameters of both the materials are in good agreement with other theoretical predictions. The calculated elastic constants show that Fe2ScM (M=P and As) compounds are mechanically stable under external pressure below 60 GPa. From the elastic constants, the shear modulus G, the bulk modulus B, Young’s modulus E, anisotropy factor A and Poisson’s ratio ν are calculated by using the Voigt-Reuss-Hill approximation. The Debye temperature and average sound velocities are also investigated from the obtained elastic constants. The detailed analysis of all optical functions reveals that both compounds are good dielectric material.

  4. Assigment of environmental aspect and impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanzelová Marcela

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental management system (EMS is a part of the management system that includes the organizational structure, planning activities, responsibilities, practices, procedures, processes and resources for developing, implementing, achieving, reviewing and maintaining the environmental policy. The EMS provides the order and consistency for organizations to adress environmental cocerns through the allocation of resources, assignment of responsibilities, and the ongoing evaluation of practices, procedures and processes. The ISO 14001 requires the implementation of the EMS in accordance with defined, internationally recognized standards. The ISO standard specifies requirements for establishing an environmental policy, determining environmental aspects & impacts of products (activities services, planning environmental objectives and measurable targets, implementation & operation of programs to meet objectives and targets, checking &corrective action, and management review. The Environmental aspect is an element of organization’s activities, product or services that can interact with the environment. A significant environmental aspect is that with a significant environmental impact. The environmental impact is any change to the environment, whether adverse or beneficial wholly or partially resulting from an oranization’s activities, products or services.

  5. Separation of energy companies. Judicial aspects. Fiscal aspects of unbundling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slotboom, M.M.; Ter Heegde, A.

    2005-01-01

    There is much discussion in the Netherlands about the plan of the Dutch government to separate (unbundle) energy companies into a commercial energy supply business and a network business. In a series of articles attention will be paid to the legal aspects of the separation (unbundling) [nl

  6. Environmental aspects of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, Sir F.

    1984-01-01

    The paper discusses the environmental aspects of nuclear power, including the problems of waste, with special reference to the effect on humans. The following aspects are covered: the public fear of the risk of cancer, the kind of exposure that people are likely to have, what can be and is being done about it; recommendations and activities of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, the UK Health and Safety Executive, the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate, the National Radiological Protection Board and other relevant organisations; public relations in relation to nuclear facilities' operations. (U.K.)

  7. Legal aspects of radiactive installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malheiros, T.M.M.; Knoefell, T.M.J.

    1988-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to discuss the main legal aspects related to the application of ionizing radiation in the industry, medicine, agriculture, scientific activities to envisage from the in force legislation the competence and responsibility for the control of radiation facilities comprising regulation, licensing and inspection. Legislation does not embrace all the aspects related to radiation facilities regarding to the specific provisions on civil liability concerning damages caused by non nuclear radiological accidents. The law nr.6.453 is applied only to nuclear accident, as defined in its rules. (author) [pt

  8. Linguistic aspects of writing for professional purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Përgjegji

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Writing for Professional Purposes is considered as a means of communication between professionals who belong to two communities that have different languages, but share the same knowledge or expertise. The article gives a hint on how writing for specific purposes evolved to give rise to the creation of Writing for Professional Purposes. The social, cultural and cognitive aspects are an essential part of Writing for Professional Purposes since the physical act of writing cannot be considered only a result or product of the knowledge the individual possesses but also a social and cultural act. Therefore, the social and cultural aspects of writing explains the specificities and the intricacies of the effects these aspects have on writing for it is considered as an inseparable part of social and cultural groups. On the other hand, the cognitive aspect of writing explains and emphasizes the mental activities of the individual during the decision-making process while he/she is writing planning and editing their material having in mind the audience. On the same line of reasoning, writing for professional purposes in a second language means that the writer has to consider the audience twice; first, there is an audience who shares the same knowledge or expertise and second, the audience does not have the same language. Consequently, writing in another language that is not the first language with a specific jargon as well as a specific grammatical structure brings about a lot of difficulties. Hence, writing in professional contexts in the mother tongue implies only writing in a specialized version of a language already known to the writer, but writing in a target language means that the writer has to learn the target language and the specialized version of that language.

  9. Comprehensive Aspectual UML Approach to Support AspectJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aws Magableh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Unified Modeling Language is the most popular and widely used Object-Oriented modelling language in the IT industry. This study focuses on investigating the ability to expand UML to some extent to model crosscutting concerns (Aspects to support AspectJ. Through a comprehensive literature review, we identify and extensively examine all the available Aspect-Oriented UML modelling approaches and find that the existing Aspect-Oriented Design Modelling approaches using UML cannot be considered to provide a framework for a comprehensive Aspectual UML modelling approach and also that there is a lack of adequate Aspect-Oriented tool support. This study also proposes a set of Aspectual UML semantic rules and attempts to generate AspectJ pseudocode from UML diagrams. The proposed Aspectual UML modelling approach is formally evaluated using a focus group to test six hypotheses regarding performance; a “good design” criteria-based evaluation to assess the quality of the design; and an AspectJ-based evaluation as a reference measurement-based evaluation. The results of the focus group evaluation confirm all the hypotheses put forward regarding the proposed approach. The proposed approach provides a comprehensive set of Aspectual UML structural and behavioral diagrams, which are designed and implemented based on a comprehensive and detailed set of AspectJ programming constructs.

  10. Comprehensive Aspectual UML approach to support AspectJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magableh, Aws; Shukur, Zarina; Ali, Noorazean Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Unified Modeling Language is the most popular and widely used Object-Oriented modelling language in the IT industry. This study focuses on investigating the ability to expand UML to some extent to model crosscutting concerns (Aspects) to support AspectJ. Through a comprehensive literature review, we identify and extensively examine all the available Aspect-Oriented UML modelling approaches and find that the existing Aspect-Oriented Design Modelling approaches using UML cannot be considered to provide a framework for a comprehensive Aspectual UML modelling approach and also that there is a lack of adequate Aspect-Oriented tool support. This study also proposes a set of Aspectual UML semantic rules and attempts to generate AspectJ pseudocode from UML diagrams. The proposed Aspectual UML modelling approach is formally evaluated using a focus group to test six hypotheses regarding performance; a "good design" criteria-based evaluation to assess the quality of the design; and an AspectJ-based evaluation as a reference measurement-based evaluation. The results of the focus group evaluation confirm all the hypotheses put forward regarding the proposed approach. The proposed approach provides a comprehensive set of Aspectual UML structural and behavioral diagrams, which are designed and implemented based on a comprehensive and detailed set of AspectJ programming constructs.

  11. An approach for the assessment of the statistical aspects of the SEA coupling loss factors and the vibrational energy transmission in complex aircraft structures: Experimental investigation and methods benchmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhaj, M.; von Estorff, O.; Peiffer, A.

    2017-09-01

    In the application of Statistical Energy Analysis "SEA" to complex assembled structures, a purely predictive model often exhibits errors. These errors are mainly due to a lack of accurate modelling of the power transmission mechanism described through the Coupling Loss Factors (CLF). Experimental SEA (ESEA) is practically used by the automotive and aerospace industry to verify and update the model or to derive the CLFs for use in an SEA predictive model when analytical estimates cannot be made. This work is particularly motivated by the lack of procedures that allow an estimate to be made of the variance and confidence intervals of the statistical quantities when using the ESEA technique. The aim of this paper is to introduce procedures enabling a statistical description of measured power input, vibration energies and the derived SEA parameters. Particular emphasis is placed on the identification of structural CLFs of complex built-up structures comparing different methods. By adopting a Stochastic Energy Model (SEM), the ensemble average in ESEA is also addressed. For this purpose, expressions are obtained to randomly perturb the energy matrix elements and generate individual samples for the Monte Carlo (MC) technique applied to derive the ensemble averaged CLF. From results of ESEA tests conducted on an aircraft fuselage section, the SEM approach provides a better performance of estimated CLFs compared to classical matrix inversion methods. The expected range of CLF values and the synthesized energy are used as quality criteria of the matrix inversion, allowing to assess critical SEA subsystems, which might require a more refined statistical description of the excitation and the response fields. Moreover, the impact of the variance of the normalized vibration energy on uncertainty of the derived CLFs is outlined.

  12. Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering on iso-C{sub 2}H{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} around the chlorine K-edge: Structural and dynamical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawerk, Elie, E-mail: eliekawerk@hotmail.com, E-mail: ekawerk@units.it [CNRS, UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, F-75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 06, UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, F-75005 Paris (France); Laboratoire de Physique Appliquée, Faculté des Sciences II, Université Libanaise, 90656 Jdeidet el Metn, Liban (Libya); Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università di Trieste, Via L. Giorgieri 1, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Carniato, Stéphane; Journel, Loïc; Marchenko, Tatiana; Simon, Marc [CNRS, UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, F-75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 06, UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, F-75005 Paris (France); Piancastelli, Maria Novella [CNRS, UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, F-75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 06, UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, F-75005 Paris (France); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Žitnik, Matjaž; Bučar, Klemen; Bohnic, Rok [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); and others

    2014-10-14

    We report a theoretical and experimental study of the high resolution resonant K{sub α} X-ray emission lines around the chlorine K-edge in gas phase 1,1-dichloroethylene. With the help of ab initio electronic structure calculations and cross section evaluation, we interpret the lowest lying peak in the X-ray absorption and emission spectra. The behavior of the K{sub α} emission lines with respect to frequency detuning highlights the existence of femtosecond nuclear dynamics on the dissociative Potential Energy Surface of the first K-shell core-excited state.

  13. Fundamental aspects of nuclear reactor fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olander, D.R.

    1976-01-01

    The book presented is designed to function both as a text for first-year graduate courses in nuclear materials and as a reference for workers involved in the materials design and performance aspects of nuclear power plants. The contents are arranged under the following chapter headings: statistical thermodynamics, thermal properties of solids, crystal structures, cohesive energy of solids, chemical equilibrium, point defects in solids, diffusion in solids, dislocations and grain boundaries, equation of state of UO/sub 2/, fuel element thermal performance, fuel chemistry, behavior of solid fission products in oxide fuel elements, swelling due to fission gases, pore migration and fuel restructuring kinetics, fission gas release, mechanical properties of UO/sub 2/, radiation damage, radiation effects in metals, interaction of sodium and stainless steel, modeling of the structural behavior of fuel elements and assemblies. (DG)

  14. Fundamental aspects of nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olander, D.R.

    1976-01-01

    The book presented is designed to function both as a text for first-year graduate courses in nuclear materials and as a reference for workers involved in the materials design and performance aspects of nuclear power plants. The contents are arranged under the following chapter headings: statistical thermodynamics, thermal properties of solids, crystal structures, cohesive energy of solids, chemical equilibrium, point defects in solids, diffusion in solids, dislocations and grain boundaries, equation of state of UO 2 , fuel element thermal performance, fuel chemistry, behavior of solid fission products in oxide fuel elements, swelling due to fission gases, pore migration and fuel restructuring kinetics, fission gas release, mechanical properties of UO 2 , radiation damage, radiation effects in metals, interaction of sodium and stainless steel, modeling of the structural behavior of fuel elements and assemblies

  15. Aspects of human chlamydial infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.H. Tjiam

    1987-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis takes a closer look at three aspects of human chlamydial infections. With regard to diagnosis the influence of logistics on the sensitivity of the culture method is discussed, along with optimalization of the culture itself and an evaluation of new diagnostic methods.

  16. Aspect Composition using Composition Filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, Lodewijk; Aksit, Mehmet; Tekinerdogan, B.; Aksit, Mehmet

    2002-01-01

    This chapter first discusses a number of software reuse and extension problems in current object-oriented languages. For this purpose, a change case for a simplified mail system is presented. Each evolution step in the change case consists of the addition or refinement of certain aspects to existing

  17. Legal Aspects of the Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrull, Alexandre Lopez; Oppenheim, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to legal aspects of the Web: copyright; domain names and trademarks; linking, framing, caching, and spamdexing; patents; pornography and censorship on the Internet; defamation; liability; conflict of laws and jurisdiction; legal deposit; and spam, i.e., unsolicited mails.…

  18. Hispathologic aspects of Lyme Borreliosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Johannes de

    1994-01-01

    As a result of the recent interest in Lyme disease a large number of papers has been published on its different aspects. The purpose of this thesis is to present a comprehensive study of the most important histopathological manifestations based on the experience obtained during the last 11 years. In

  19. Neurochemical aspects of childhood autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B. Minderaa (Ruud)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractThe topic of this thesis is neurochemical aspects of infantile autism. The experimental work is centered around the most robust and consistant neurochemical finding in child psychiatry, namely that group mean whole blood serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) values are

  20. Verbal aspects in West Greenlandic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann

    2017-01-01

    In this article, lexical aspectual types in West Greenlandic are investigated in the five aspectual types, states, achievements, semelfactives, activities and accomplishments. It is shown that derivational verbalizing affixes include aspectual type congruent with the lexical aspect and how the as...

  1. Computational Aspects of Asynchronous CA

    OpenAIRE

    Chandesris, Jérôme; Dennunzio, Alberto; Formenti, Enrico; Manzoni, Luca

    2011-01-01

    This work studies some aspects of the computational power of fully asynchronous cellular automata (ACA). We deal with some notions of simulation between ACA and Turing Machines. In particular, we characterize the updating sequences specifying which are "universal", i.e., allowing a (specific family of) ACA to simulate any TM on any input. We also consider the computational cost of such simulations.

  2. Tumeurs mandibulaires : Aspects epidemiologiques et ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Study the anatomopathological and epidemiological aspects of the tumors of the mandible in order to compare the literature data. Methodology: It is an analytic, descriptive and retrospective study conducted over a period of 10 years at the ENT and the Anatomo-pathology Departments of CHU in Lomé. Results: ...

  3. Social aspects of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koryakin, Yu.I.

    1990-01-01

    Social aspects of nuclear power crisis in the USSR are considered. It is shown that the system of economic and social stimulation and different compensations widely used abroad when locating nuclear power plants, is the effective factor, providing loyal attitude to them

  4. Crimean Referendum: International Legal Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Geistlinger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the key aspects of the accession of the Republic of Crimea to the Russian Federation as the example of enforcement of the people’s right to self-determination, secured in UN Charter. International law basis of the accession, as well analysis of key reasons and consequences of this international precedent are under consideration.

  5. Fascioliasis hepatis - computed tomography aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goebel, N.; Markwalder, K.; Siegenthaler, W.

    1984-12-01

    In a patient with liver fascioliasis (already excreting eggs with the faeces) a CT scan of the liver showed after i.v. contrast injection a relatively characteristic aspect with multiple, small, hypodense areas, partly in formations of bunches of grapes, partly in a street-like arrangement towards the portal vein - bile duct - areas. 9 months later the hypodense lesions had markedly decreased.

  6. Economical aspects of nuclear energetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celinski, Z.

    2000-01-01

    The economical aspects of nuclear power generation in respect to costs of conventional energetics have been discussed in detail. The costs and competitiveness of nuclear power have been considered on the base of worldwide trends taking into account investment and fuel costs as well as 'social' costs being result of impact of different types of energetics on environment, human health etc

  7. Nuclear medicine software: safety aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    A brief editorial discusses the safety aspects of nuclear medicine software. Topics covered include some specific features which should be incorporated into a well-written piece of software, some specific points regarding software testing and legal liability if inappropriate medical treatment was initiated as a result of information derived from a piece of clinical apparatus incorporating a malfunctioning computer program. (U.K.)

  8. Institutional and socioeconomic aspects of water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauchenschwandtner, H.; Pachel, M.

    2012-04-01

    Institutional and socioeconomic aspects of water supply Within the project CC-WaterS the participating researchers of the Vienna University of Economics and B.A. have been responsible for the analysis of the socioeconomic aspects related to water supply and climate change, the assessment of future water demands in the City of Vienna, as well as an estimation of economic consequences of possible water shortages and possible scope for the introduction of new legal guidelines. The institutional and socioeconomic dimensions of drinking water and sanitation systems are being examined by utilisation of different prognostic scenarios in order to assess future costs of water provisioning and future demands of main water users, thus providing an information basis and recommendations for policy and decision makers in the water sector. These dimensions, for example, include EU legislation - especially the Water Framework Directive -, national legislations and strategies targeted at achieving sustainability in water usage, best practices and different forms of regulating water markets, and an analysis of the implications of demographic change. As a basis this task encompasses research of given institutional, social, and legal-political structures in the area of water supply. In this course we provide an analysis of the structural characteristics of water markets, the role of water prices, the increasing perception of water as an economic good as well as implications thereof, the public awareness in regard to climate change and water resources, as well as related legal aspects and involved actors from regional to international level; and show how water resources and the different systems of water provisioning are affected by (ideological) conflicts on various levels. Furthermore, and in order to provide a solid basis for management recommendations related to climate change and water supply, an analytical risk-assessment framework based on the concepts of new institutional

  9. Aspects of the feeding and population structure of Leporinus piau Fowler, 1941 (Actinopterygii, Characiformes, Anostomidae of Taperoá II Dam, semi arid region of Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Karla Araujo Montenegro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the population structure, weight-length relationship and sexual ratio of Leporinus piau. It also attempted to evaluate the relationship between the alimentary activity and the reproductive period, and to identify the diet and alimentary regimen. Six collections were made in the months of October and December of 2005 and March, June, August and October of 2006, using casting, seining and gill nets. Some specimens were sent to the UFPB Ichthyological Collection. The 89 collected individuals presented lengths varying from 6.2cm to 22cm. The growth of the species was of the negative allometric type. There was a significant predominance of males. The alimentary diet of L. piau was apparently variable, suggesting omnivorousness.

  10. Structural and thermodynamic aspects of aqueous solution of trivalent lanthanides complexation by hydrophobic compounds of tartaric acid, by gluconic acid and related molecules. Outlook for liquid-liquid extraction of these cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giroux, Sebastien

    1999-01-01

    This work deals with the complexation of lanthanide(III) ions by different molecules and with the synthesis of hydrophobic molecules able to extract them of an aqueous solution. Its aim is to describe the systems obtained by the determination of the formation constants of the species and by the description of their structure. The aim of this work is also to obtain a selective complexation of lanthanides(III) towards actinides(III), because this aim presents a great interest in the reprocessing of radioactive wastes. The complexation studies have been followed by potentiometry, NMR, UV-visible spectroscopy and circular dichroism. The first mixtures studied are the couples: lanthanide(III)-gluconic acid (LH). The complexes system they formed has been described and the structures have been specified; a strong complexation has been revealed. The MLH -2 specie induces a selectivity between the lanthanides(III) equivalent to those obtained with EDTA and its uncharged character allows to consider the use of gluconic acid as extractant. The use of ligands as glucosaminic acid or glucamine slows the beginning of the complexation until pH= 6-7. The neutral specie MLH -2 is formed too. In order to use the complexing properties of gluconic acid and its selective character towards lanthanides(III), the synthesis of molecules derived containing a long alkyl chain with a hydrophobic character has been carried out for using them as extracting agents. An original method of the preparation of tartramides is presented. This preparation consists of an amidation of one of the carboxylic functions of the tartaric acid by a fatty amine. These molecules, surface-active, complex the lanthanides(III) and extract them in an organic phase using the tri-n-butyl phosphate as co-extractant. (O.M.)

  11. Complex strain paths in polycrystalline copper: microstructural aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Vieira

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Microstructural aspects of polycrystalline copper sheets subjected to complex strain paths were analysed in this work. Dislocation structures developed during the strain paths (rolling and tension and the evolution of this microstructure during reloading have been studied. The active slip systems developed in each strain path were used to explain the microstructural evolution. The heterogeneous surface deformation observed on polished tensile specimens prestrained in rolling was also analysed. The structural aspects are related with the mechanical behaviour of the material, namely with the increase in yield stress in reloading, the work hardening evolution and the premature occurrence of plastic instability for some prestrain values.

  12. A Raman spectroscopic study of the structural aspects of K2MgCl4 and Cs2MgCl4 as solid single crystals and molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooker, M.H.

    1975-01-01

    Polarized Raman spectra have been obtained for oriented single crystals of K 2 MgCl 4 and Cs 2 MgCl 4 at 77 and 298 K. The data are in excellent agreement with factor group analyses based on the space groups I 4 /mmm (D 17 4 /subh/) and Pnma (D 16 2 /subh/) for the K 2 MgCl 4 and Cs 2 MgCl 4 crystals. In K 2 MgCl 4 the magnesium is surrounded by six chloride ions in a distorted octahedral arrangement with a network structure such that neighboring octahedra share corners. In Cs 2 MgCl 4 a discrete tetrahedral MgCl 4 2- species is present. The 35 Cl-- 37 Cl isotopic splitting of the symmetric stetching mode of the tetrahedral MgCl 4 2- species has been resolved at 77 K and is similar to that observed for CCl 4 . Raman spectra for the high temperature solids and molten salts suggest that the coordination number of magnesium changes from six in solid K 2 MgCl 4 to four in the melt, whereas Cs 2 MgCl 4 melts with retention of the MgCl 4 2- tetrahedral complex. Additional evidence is presented to support previous reports that the MgCl 4 2- tetrahedral species is the principal complex ion in the melts, although a fraction of the magnesium appears to be present in a polynuclear complex, perhaps Mg 2 Cl 6 2-

  13. Toxicological aspects of energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    Part I reviews the principles of toxicology, describes the biological fate of chemicals in the body, discusses basic pathobiology, and reviews short-term toxicity tests. Part II describes the toxicology and pathology of pollutants in several important organ systems. The greatest emphasis is placed on the respiratory tract because of its high probability as a route of exposure to pollutants from energy technologies and its high sensitivity to pollutant related tissue damage. Part III describes the toxicological aspects of specific chemical classes associated with fossil fuels; these include polycyclic hydrocarbons, gases and metals. Part IV describes the biomedical effects associated with each energy technology, including coal and oil, fossil fuel and biomass conversions, solar and geothermal and radiological health aspects associated with uranium mining, nuclear fission and fusion, and with nonionising radiations and electromagnetic fields

  14. Selected aspects of fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, D.

    2003-01-01

    In this lecture, we present selected aspects of nuclear fusion. The importance of the initial geometry of the reaction and its relation to fusion barrier are first discussed. The effect of deformation leading to the notion of barrier distribution is then illustrated. After a brief overview of the advantages of macroscopic theories, the dynamics of nuclear system under large amplitude motion is reviewed. The di-nuclear concept is presented to understand the competition between fusion and quasi-fission. This concept is then generalized to account for the dissipative dynamics in multidimensional collective space. The last part of this lecture is devoted to new aspects encountered with radioactive beams specific properties of very extended neutron rich system, influence of pygmy or soft dipole resonances and charge exchange far from stability are discussed. (author)

  15. Ethical aspect price decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubor Aleksandar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Price decision making in a marketing program framework creatings is a complicated and delicated part of marketing management, especially to keep in sight culminating of mass external factors. In a market economies price policy as a marketing mix instrument rarely is regulated by the law, which opening the ethical aspect questions of price decision making process. The ethics in the price decision making means consideration of the inner law of the individual (marketing managers and/or consumers, whose irreverence does not entail any juridical sanctions, rather its application is sanctioned by the self - awareness. The acception and stability of the ethical aspect price decision making are determined by the characteristic of selected marketing environment.

  16. Liposarcome dorsal: aspect clinique rare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbessi, Odry; Arrob, Adil; Fiqhi, Kamal; Khalfi, Lahcen; Nassih, Mohammed; El Khatib, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Décrit la première fois par Virchow en 1860, le liposarcome est une tumeur mésenchymateuse rare. Cette rareté est relative car les liposarcomes représentent quand même 14 à 18% de l'ensemble des tumeurs malignes des parties molles et ils constituent le plus fréquent des sarcomes des parties molles. Pour la majorité des auteurs, il ne se développerait jamais sur un lipome ou une lipomatose préexistant. Nous rapportons un cas de volumineux liposarcome de la face dorsale du tronc. L'histoire de la maladie, l'aspect clinique inhabituel « de tumeur dans tumeur », l'aspect de la pièce opératoire nous fait évoquer la possibilité de la transformation maligne d'un lipome bénin préexistant. PMID:26113914

  17. High aspect ratio spheromak experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, S.; Schmid, P.

    1987-05-01

    The Reversatron RFP (R/a = 50cm/8cm) has been operated as an ohmically heated spheromak of high aspect ratio. We find that the dynamo can drive the toroidal field upward at rates as high as 10 6 G/sec. Discharges can be initiated and ramped upward from seed fields as low as 50 G. Small toroidal bias fields of either polarity (-0.2 < F < 0.2) do not significantly affect operation. 5 refs., 3 figs

  18. Criminal aspects of domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Váňová, Radka

    2013-01-01

    Criminal aspects of domestic violence SUMMARY Domestic violence is a serious social concern with high level of latency. The domestic violence victims protection is ensured by legal standarts of Civil, Administrative and Criminal Law and other legal standarts. Criminal Law is one of the important instruments for tackling of serious forms of domestic violence. However Criminal Law is an instrument "ultima ratio" which needs claiming of subsidiarity principal of the crime repression. The purpose...

  19. Dual topological unitarization -- phenomenological aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, C.I.

    1978-01-01

    An assessment is provided on the viability of dual topological unitarization as a practical scheme for organizing and interpreting hadronic phenomena at current machine energies. Previous detailed reviews are complemented, with emphasis on phenomenological aspects and more recent developments. Diffraction scattering, a test of P--f identity hypothesis, the flavor model, the P--f identity versus the Veneziano two-jet picture, and an illustration of the new phenomenology are included. 24 references

  20. Psychiatric Aspects of Childhood Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Raman Deep PATTANAYAK; Rajesh SAGAR

    2012-01-01

    How to Cite this Article: Pattanayak RD, Sagar R. Psychiatric Aspects of Childhood Epilepsy. Iran J Child Neurol 2012;6(2):9-18.Childhood epilepsy is a chronic, recurrent disorder of unprovoked seizures. Theonset of epilepsy in childhood has significant implications for brain growth anddevelopment. Seizures may impair the ongoing neurodevelopmental processes and compromise the child’s intellectual and cognitive functioning, leading totremendous cognitive, behavioral and psychosocial consequen...

  1. Fascioliasis hepatis - computed tomography aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goebel, N.; Markwalder, K.; Siegenthaler, W.; Zurich Univ.

    1984-01-01

    In a patient with liver fascioliasis (already excreting eggs with the faeces) a CT scan of the liver showed after i.v. contrast injection a relatively characteristic aspect with multiple, small, hypodense areas, partly in formations of bunches of grapes, partly in a street-like arrangement towards the portal vein - bile duct - areas. 9 months later the hypodense lesions had markedly decreased. (orig.) [de

  2. Medical aspects of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messerschmidt, O.

    1990-01-01

    Reactor accidents and nuclear bomb explosions are compared including the release of radioactivity in an accident, results of risk studies, emergency measures of nuclear power plants, and evacuation of the population. The medical aspects refer to the prophylaxies of the thyroid gland, contamination and decontamination of body surfaces, recommendations of the ICRP, radiation injury after total body exposure and medical problems after a reactor accident. (DG)

  3. The structural and energetic aspects of substrate binding and the mechanism of action of the DapE-encoded N-succinyl-L,L-diaminopimelic acid desuccinylase (DapE) investigated using a hybrid QM/MM method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Debodyuti; Mishra, Sabyashachi

    2014-12-21

    With increasing cases of fatal bacterial infections and growing antibiotic resistance, unrelenting efforts are necessary for identification of novel antibiotic targets and new drug molecules. The dapE-encoded N-succinyl-L,L-diaminopimelic acid desuccinylase (DapE) is a di-nuclear Zn containing enzyme in the lysine biosynthetic pathway which is indispensable for bacterial survival and absent in the human host, thus a potential antibiotic target. The DapE enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of N-succinyl-L,L-diaminopimelic acid (SDAP) to give rise to succinic acid and L,L-diaminopimelic acid. The mechanism of action of the DapE catalyzed SDAP hydrolysis is investigated employing a hybrid QM/MM computational method. The DapE side chains, such as, Arg178, Thr325, Asn345, are found to play a role in substrate identification and stabilization of the enzyme active site. Furthermore, a glycine rich loop (Gly322-Ser326) is found to facilitate tight binding of the substrate in the enzyme active site. The catalytic reaction progresses via a general acid-base hydrolysis mechanism where Glu134 first acts as a Lewis base by activating the catalytic water molecule in the active site, followed by guiding the resulting hydroxyl ion for a nucleophilic attack on the substrate, and finally acts as a Lewis acid by donating a proton to the substrate. The intermediates and transition states along the reaction pathway have been structurally and energetically characterized. A conformational change in the side chain of Asp100, which bridges the two Zn centers of the enzyme, is observed which facilitates the enzymatic action by lowering the activation energy and leads to the formation of a new intermediate during the catalytic reaction. The nucleophilic attack is found to be the rate determining step.

  4. ABOUT SOLUTION OF MULTIPOINT BOUNDARY PROBLEMS OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS WITH THE USE OF COMBINED APPLICATION OF FINITE ELEMENT METHOD AND DISCRETE-CONTINUAL FINITE ELEMENT METHOD PART 2: SPECIAL ASPECTS OF FINITE ELEMENT APPROXIMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel A. Akimov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As is well known, the formulation of a multipoint boundary problem involves three main components: a description of the domain occupied by the structure and the corresponding subdomains; description of the conditions inside the domain and inside the corresponding subdomains, the description of the conditions on the boundary of the domain, conditions on the boundaries between subdomains. This paper is a continuation of another work published earlier, in which the formulation and general principles of the approximation of the multipoint boundary problem of a static analysis of deep beam on the basis of the joint application of the finite element method and the discrete-continual finite element method were considered. It should be noted that the approximation within the fragments of a domain that have regular physical-geometric parameters along one of the directions is expedient to be carried out on the basis of the discrete-continual finite element method (DCFEM, and for the approximation of all other fragments it is necessary to use the standard finite element method (FEM. In the present publication, the formulas for the computing of displacements partial derivatives of displacements, strains and stresses within the finite element model (both within the finite element and the corresponding nodal values (with the use of averaging are presented. Boundary conditions between subdomains (respectively, discrete models and discrete-continual models and typical conditions such as “hinged support”, “free edge”, “perfect contact” (twelve basic (basic variants are available are under consideration as well. Governing formulas for computing of elements of the corresponding matrices of coefficients and vectors of the right-hand sides are given for each variant. All formulas are fully adapted for algorithmic implementation.

  5. Some global aspects regarding nuclear spent fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohai, Dumitru; Postoaca, Marius Marcel

    2002-01-01

    The globalization means the worldwide extension of certain aspects of social or economic processes, structural or environmental changes, or concerning working methodologies, technical activity, industrial production, etc. At present the emergence of global aspects is more frequently observed, being determined by the rapid development of computerized systems and of transfer of information, by the development of big transnational companies and due to the increasing international co-operation. Some of the manifested global aspects could be beneficial for the development of the human society, other could be not. It is necessary to perform an adequate analysis from this view point and to promote appropriate measures to enhance the positive global aspects and to mitigate the negative global aspects. These measures can have a good efficiency only if they are pursued at global level, but for this it is necessary to build an adequate international coordinating body, having the corresponding instruments for action. The global aspects identified in the field of nuclear power may be divided into two categories, namely: - related to the main features of nuclear power; - regarding the specific features of some subdivisions of the field, as for example, spent fuel management. In the paper both categories are discussed. The influence of the global aspects on the development of nuclear power and particularly on the back end activities of the fuel cycle, is also presented. At the same time, some possible actions for enhancing nuclear power development are proposed

  6. Aspects of leak before break quantification in pressurized pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellen, R.A.J.; Darlaston, B.J.L.; Connors, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    In fitness for purpose studies of pressurized structures containing defects, the concept of leak before break is often invoked. As the assumptions used in the concept are sometimes very pessimistic it is desirable to be able to quantify them more precisely. Two aspects are currently receiving attention; these are the way in which a crack profile develops during fatigue and what happens when the remaining ligament below the crack fails. These aspects are being evaluated experimentally and theoretically. Data are presented from tests on pipes subjected to cyclic pressure and subsequently failed. An analytical approach is proposed on the question of ligament failure, this being based on the development of some recent work on flat plates. The overall question of leak before break is considered. As the understanding and confidence increases, it is possible to reduce the range of interest and focus on specific aspects of the problem. This paper examines these aspects. (author)

  7. Structural Aspects of Flexible Aircraft Control (les Aspects structuraux du controle actif et flexible des aeronefs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-05-01

    est constitude par un .les pressions sur la gouveme et le ensemble de 17 pouts de jauge , de 20 moment de charni~re sont surestimds accildrom~tes, de...avec les corrdlations calcul-essais 130 mm). des rdponses dc jauges de contraintes A 12 Le calcul, comme les essais, permettent chargements statiques...encastrement au mur * 250 capteurs ( pression, jauge , acc~l6romnbtre, fibre optique) gouverne encastrement ~-axe dispositif de s6curit6 ~ guen BLJTEE A JEUl

  8. Aspectos estruturais e funcionais do apoio social de idosos do Município de São Paulo, Brasil Structural and functional aspects of social support for the elderly in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Etsuko da Costa Rosa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo descrever a distribuição das redes sociais e de apoio em idosos no Município de São Paulo, Brasil, por características sócio-econômicas e demográficas. Estudou-se amostra probabilística de 1.568 idosos (60 ou mais anos da cidade de São Paulo (inquérito sobre Saúde, Bem-estar e Envelhecimento - SABE, focalizando-se as dimensões estruturais e funcionais das redes sociais. Para a análise dos dados utilizou-se a regressão logística simples e múltipla. As melhores condições nas redes sociais foram observadas nos menores patamares de renda e as piores entre os mais velhos e os "não casados". Para as mulheres, as chances de estarem "não casadas" aumentaram significativamente quanto pior era o seu nível educacional. O "status de coabitação" foi o que mais influenciou o apoio funcional, onde "morar só" aumentou significativamente as chances de não ocorrerem as trocas sociais. Os modelos de regressão logística múltipla construídos separadamente por gênero sugerem que idade, estado civil, renda per capita e escolaridade estão associados com as redes sociais entre os idosos. No entanto, essas relações manifestam-se de modos desiguais entre gêneros e entre as características sócio-demográficas para as diferentes dimensões da rede social.This study aimed to describe the distribution of social support networks for the elderly in the City of São Paulo, Brazil, based on socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. A probability sample of 1,568 elderly persons (> 60 years was studied (SABE query, focusing on structural and functional dimensions of social networks. Univariate and multiple logistic regression models were used to analyze the data. The best conditions in social networks were in the lowest income levels and the worst among older and unmarried people. For women, unmarried marital status was significantly associated with lower schooling. Cohabiting had the strongest influence on

  9. Design Aspects of Wet Scrubber System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun-Chul; Bang, Young-suk; Jung, Woo-Young; Lee, Doo-Yong [FNC Technology Co. Ltd., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The water pool in the wet scrubber system has advantage to cope with decay heat based on the thermal hydraulic balance such as condensation and evaporation inside it. This study focuses on the design aspects of the wet scrubber system to estimate the required water pool mass during the mission time and size of the scrubbing tank including inner structures. The design of the wet scrubber system include the estimation of the required water mass during the mission time and sizing of the scrubber vessel to contain the water pool. The condensation due to the inlet steam and evaporation due to the steam and non-condensable gas superheat and decay heat from filtered fission products should be considered to estimate the water mass required to maintain its function during the mission time. On the other hand, the level swelling due to the noncondensable gas is another important design aspect on the sizing of the scrubber vessel and determination of the entry elevation of the filtration components such as the droplet separator or filter. The minimum water level based on the minimum collapsed water level should be higher than the exit of scrubber nozzle.

  10. Design Aspects of Wet Scrubber System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun-Chul; Bang, Young-suk; Jung, Woo-Young; Lee, Doo-Yong

    2015-01-01

    The water pool in the wet scrubber system has advantage to cope with decay heat based on the thermal hydraulic balance such as condensation and evaporation inside it. This study focuses on the design aspects of the wet scrubber system to estimate the required water pool mass during the mission time and size of the scrubbing tank including inner structures. The design of the wet scrubber system include the estimation of the required water mass during the mission time and sizing of the scrubber vessel to contain the water pool. The condensation due to the inlet steam and evaporation due to the steam and non-condensable gas superheat and decay heat from filtered fission products should be considered to estimate the water mass required to maintain its function during the mission time. On the other hand, the level swelling due to the noncondensable gas is another important design aspect on the sizing of the scrubber vessel and determination of the entry elevation of the filtration components such as the droplet separator or filter. The minimum water level based on the minimum collapsed water level should be higher than the exit of scrubber nozzle

  11. Regulatory aspects of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowlan, N.V.

    1985-01-01

    The role of the Nuclear Energy Board in relation to radiation safety in Ireland is described. The Board has the duty to control by licence all activities involving ionizing radiation, as well as providing advice and information to the Government on all aspects of radiation safety. The licensing procedures used by the Board, including site approval, construction, commissioning, source loading and commercial operation, in the licensing of large irradiation facilities were described, and an outline of the proposed new legislation which may become necessary if and when the irradiation of food for commercial purposes begins in Ireland is given

  12. Aspects of agents for safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotte, U.

    1999-01-01

    With the development of the Internet and the WWW, information treatment has gained a new dimension. (Intelligent) software agents are one of the means expected to relieve human staff of the burden of information overload, and in the future to contribute to safeguards data acquisition, data evaluation and decision-making. An overview is given for the categories of Internet, intranet and desktop agents. Aspects of the potential application of agents are described in three fields: information access and delivery, collaboration and workflow management, adaptive interfaces and learning assistants. Routine application of agents is not yet in sight, but the scientific and technical progress seems to be encouraging. (author)

  13. Solar energy conversion. Chemical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Likhtenshtein, Gertz [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel). Dept. of Chemistry

    2012-07-01

    Finally filling a gap in the literature for a text that also adopts the chemist's view of this hot topic, Professor Likhtenshtein, an experienced author and internationally renowned scientist, considers different physical and engineering aspects in solar energy conversion. From theory to real-life systems, he shows exactly which chemical reactions take place when converting light energy, providing an overview of the chemical perspective from fundamentals to molecular harvesting systems and solar cells. This essential guide will thus help researchers in academia and industry better understand solar energy conversion, and so ultimately help this promising, multibillion euro/dollar field to expand. (orig.)

  14. Aspect-oriented programming evaluated

    CERN Document Server

    Kleinschmager, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Hauptbeschreibung Aspect-oriented-programming is a relatively new technique that has evolved on top of the already well-established approach of object-oriented programming. When it is used correctly, it promises to remove many redundant parts of a code that appear repeatedly in an application, essentially untangling the original code. Thus, it can lead to a cleaner, more separated software design, to greater modularity and maintainability. Time-savings in software engineering can also be huge cost-savings, and anything that increases software quality is a welcome sight in an industr

  15. Ethical aspects of transformational leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, V R; Koroll, C J

    1994-10-01

    The requirements of leadership in the current environment of health care reform necessitate a clear distinction between leadership and management, an alteration in traditional leadership roles, and an evaluation of the knowledge and skills needed to address the ethical issues that arise from such reform. Transformational leadership is well suited to the current climate in health care because of the manner in which it actively embraces and encourages innovation and change. The article explores the elements of transformational leadership, describes the need for transformational leaders to be cognizant of the ethical aspects of their roles, and outlines the responsibilities of transformational leaders as moral agents.

  16. Some aspects of international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera A, V.E.

    1984-01-01

    The present work deals with some aspects of International cooperation which are directly related with Science and Technology in general, but which have total validity in Nuclear Science and Technology. It is meant particularly for Latin-American countries as a whole. Some ideas meant to review the factors that act on the development of Science and Technology are briefly developed; the number of positive achievements reached in Sc. and T.; is recounted; the problems to be overcome in Sc. and T. are numbered and, finally, some propositions for increasing international cooperation in Science and Technology are exposed. (Author)

  17. Fundamental aspects of cathodic sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harman, R.

    1979-01-01

    The main fundamental aspects and problems of cathodic sputtering used mainly for thin film deposition and sputter etching are discussed. Among many types of known sputtering techniques the radiofrequency /RF/ diode sputtering is the most universal one and is used for deposition of metals, alloys, metallic compounds, semiconductors and insulators. It seems that nowadays the largest number of working sputtering systems is of diode type. Sometimes also the dc or rf triode sputtering systems are used. The problems in these processes are practically equivalent and comparable with the problems in the diode method and therefore our discussion will be, in most cases applicable for both, the diode and triode methods

  18. Psychological aspects of cosmetic rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, P

    1984-07-01

    This paper summarises some of the major findings of a doctoral research entitled "Psychological Aspects of Cosmetic Rhinoplasty" carried out when the author was working in the United Kingdom on a thesis that was accepted for the degree of PhD by the University of London. From the point of view of the clinical psychologist there can be no doubt that cosmetic rhinoplasty does have largely beneficial short- and long-term psychological and behavioural effects on patients who request the operation and several observations and experiments are described to account for the efficacy and therapeutic value of this operation.

  19. Mechanical engineering aspects of TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citrolo, J.C.

    1983-04-01

    This paper briefly presents the principles which characterize a tokamak and discusses the mechanical aspects of TFTR, particularly the toroidal field coils and the vacuum chamber, in the context of being key components common to all tokamaks. The mechanical loads on these items as well as other design requirements are considered and the solutions to these requirements as executed in TFTR are presented. Future technological developments beyond the scope of TFTR, which are necessary to bring the tokamak concept to a full fusion-power system, are also presented. Additional methods of plasma heating, current drive, and first wall designs are examples of items in this category

  20. Nutritional aspects related to endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Halpern

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY This literature review analyzed the evidence on nutritional aspects related to the pathogenesis and progression of endometriosis. Diets deficient in nutrients result in changes in lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and promote epigenetic abnormalities, that may be involved in the genesis and progression of the disease. Foods rich in omega 3 with anti-inflammatory effects, supplementation with Nacetylcysteine, vitamin D and resveratrol, in addition to the increased consumption of fruits, vegetables (preferably organic and whole grains exert a protective effect, reducing the risk of development and possible regression of disease. Dietary re-education seems to be a promising tool in the prevention and treatment of endometriosis.

  1. The structuralist tradition in economics: methodological and macroeconomics aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FABRÍCIO MISSIO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the structuralist tradition in economics, emphasizing the role that structures play in the economic growth of developing countries. Since the subject at hand is evidently too large to cover in a single article, an emphasis has been brought to bear upon the macroeconomic elements of such a tradition, while also exploring its methodological aspects. It begins by analysing some general aspects of structuralism in economics (its evolution and origins associated with ECLAC thought, in this instance focusing on the dynamics of the center-periphery relationship. Thereafter, the macroeconomic structuralism derived from the works of Taylor (1983, 1991 is presented, followed by a presentation of neo-structuralism. Centred on the concept of systemic competitiveness, this approach defines a strategy to achieve the high road of globalization, understood here as an inevitable process in spite of its engagement being dependent on the policies adopted. The conclusions show the genuine contributions of this tradition to economic theory.

  2. Maintenance and material aspects of DREAM reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, S.; Nishio, S.; Yamada, R.; Seki, Y.; Kurihara, R.; Adachi, J.; Yamazaki, S.

    2000-01-01

    A concept of a commercial fusion power reactors (Fusion Power: 5.5 GW, electric output: 2.7 GW) having high environmental safety, high thermal efficiency and high availability has been studied in JAERI. The gross reactor configuration was designed to achieve good maintainability, high performance breeding blanket, high efficient power generation system and little radwastes. Design was based on the use of low activation structural material (SiC/SiC composites) and helium as a coolant. In this paper, maintenance and material aspects of DREAM reactor design is discussed. The concluding remarks are as follows. (1) The difficulty of development of maintenance tool is alleviated by sector replacement and the radiation dose environment less than 10 Gy/h in a reactor chamber. (2) Design requirement and present status of SiC/SiC composites was investigated. (3) The SiC/SiC composite development program is planned to satisfy the requirements of DREAM reactor

  3. Database Aspects of Location-Based Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2004-01-01

    in the databases underlying high-quality services. Several integrated representations - which capture different aspects of the same infrastructure - are needed. Further, all other content that can be related to geographical space must be integrated with the infrastructure representations. The chapter describes...... the general concepts underlying one approach to data modeling for location-based services. The chapter also covers techniques that are needed to keep a database for location-based services up to date with the reality it models. As part of this, caching is touched upon briefly. The notion of linear referencing......Adopting a data management perspective on location-based services, this chapter explores central challenges to data management posed by location-based services. Because service users typically travel in, and are constrained to, transportation infrastructures, such structures must be represented...

  4. Fundamental and applied aspects of astronomical seeing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulman, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that despite recent advances in the use of spacecraft as observatory platforms, much astronomy is still conducted from the surface of the earth. The literature on astronomical seeing and observatory site selection is widely scattered throughout journals and conference reports concerned with various disciplines. This survey has the objective to represent the state of the subject up to 1982. A description of the history and prospects of the considered subject is presented, and the optics of seeing are examined. The meteorology of seeing is discussed, taking into account aspects of micrometeorology and small-scale turbulence near the surface, the diurnal cycle in the planetary boundary layer, the temperature structure above the planetary boundary layer, and the effects of terrain. Attention is given to the calculation of system performance from microthermal data, optical methods for the measurement of seeing, and techniques for minimizing image-degrading effects of the atmosphere. 279 references

  5. Modeling business processes: theoretical and practical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Dubininа

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The essence of process-oriented enterprise management has been examined in the article. The content and types of information technology have been analyzed in the article, due to the complexity and differentiation of existing methods, as well as the specificity of language, terminology of the enterprise business processes modeling. The theoretical aspects of business processes modeling have been reviewed and the modern traditional modeling techniques received practical application in the visualization model of retailers activity have been studied in the article. In the process of theoretical analysis of the modeling methods found that UFO-toolkit method that has been developed by Ukrainian scientists due to it systemology integrated opportunities, is the most suitable for structural and object analysis of retailers business processes. It was designed visualized simulation model of the business process "sales" as is" of retailers using a combination UFO-elements with the aim of the further practical formalization and optimization of a given business process.

  6. Civilizational and ethical aspects of environmental safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Danilo Ž.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available These considerations of civilizational and ethical aspects of environmental safety start by a reference to the conceptual determination of this safety, and its foundation on a conception of the Planet Earth as a political and geological space, originating in the development of life forms. In this sense, the author understands the structures of the Earth's ecosystem, its unity, and the disruption of this unity with consequences for its survival and the survival of the human civilization itself. In the context of this approach, the author points to the need to preserve the environmental safety from the standpoint of equality and justice, stressing that justice is a legal category, especially when it is associated with the laws of nature, laws which are also associated with man as a natural being.

  7. [Physiological aspects of music and longevity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymnikowa, M

    The article provides an overview of the results of studies on the effect of music on the function of various physiological systems of the organism including the nervous, cardiovascular and endocrine systems, also on the effect of Mozart's music and the later mature Baroque music. Particular attention is paid to information on the influence of different kinds of music (classical, jazz and rock), of the nature and of the degree of musical activity (listeners, amateurs and professional performers) on cognitive and behavioral function, on health status, life expectancy and longevity. Structural acoustical attributes of music defining its treatment effect, are described with the comparison of aspects of rock music and of classical music. The article also considers the prospects for using of music in the treatment and prevention of age-associated diseases.

  8. Mathematical aspects of multi-porosity continua

    CERN Document Server

    Straughan, Brian

    2017-01-01

    This book is devoted to describing theories for porous media where such pores have an inbuilt macro structure and a micro structure. For example, a double porosity material has pores on a macro scale, but additionally there are cracks or fissures in the solid skeleton. The actual body is allowed to deform and thus the underlying theory is one of elasticity. Various different descriptions are reviewed. Chapter 1 introduces the classical linear theory of elastodynamics together with uniqueness and continuous dependence results. Chapters 2 and 3 review developments of theories for double and triple porosity using a pressure-displacement structure and also using voids-displacement. Chapter 4 compares various aspects of the pressure-displacement and voids-displacement theories via uniqueness studies and wave motion analysis. Mathematical analyses of double and triple porosity materials are included concentrating on uniqueness and stability studies in chapters 5 to 7. In chapters 8 and 9 the emphasis is on wa...

  9. Nonlinear aspects of quantum plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, Padma K; Eliasson, B

    2010-01-01

    Dense quantum plasmas are ubiquitous in planetary interiors and in compact astrophysical objects (e.g., the interior of white dwarf stars, in magnetars, etc.), in semiconductors and micromechanical systems, as well as in the next-generation intense laser-solid density plasma interaction experiments and in quantum X-ray free-electron lasers. In contrast to classical plasmas, quantum plasmas have extremely high plasma number densities and low temperatures. Quantum plasmas are composed of electrons, positrons and holes, which are degenerate. Positrons (holes) have the same (slightly different) mass as electrons, but opposite charge. The degenerate charged particles (electrons, positrons, and holes) obey the Fermi-Dirac statistics. In quantum plasmas, there are new forces associated with (i) quantum statistical electron and positron pressures, (ii) electron and positron tunneling through the Bohm potential, and (iii) electron and positron angular momentum spin. Inclusion of these quantum forces allows the existence of very high-frequency dispersive electrostatic and electromagnetic waves (e.g., in the hard X-ray and gamma-ray regimes) with extremely short wavelengths. In this review paper, we present theoretical backgrounds for some important nonlinear aspects of wave-wave and wave-electron interactions in dense quantum plasmas. Specifically, we focus on nonlinear electrostatic electron and ion plasma waves, novel aspects of three-dimensional quantum electron fluid turbulence, as well as nonlinearly coupled intense electromagnetic waves and localized plasma wave structures. Also discussed are the phase-space kinetic structures and mechanisms that can generate quasistationary magnetic fields in dense quantum plasmas. The influence of the external magnetic field and the electron angular momentum spin on the electromagnetic wave dynamics is discussed. Finally, future perspectives of the nonlinear quantum plasma physics are highlighted. (reviews of topical problems)

  10. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE INTERNAL CONTROL SYSTEM FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa I. Egorova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodological aspects of the internal control system formation are stated in the article. The great attention is focused on the problems of financial statements misrepresentation. The basic principles and structure of the internal control system are discussed in this article.

  11. Aspect-based Relevance Learning for Image Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Huiskes (Mark)

    2005-01-01

    htmlabstractWe analyze the special structure of the relevance feedback learning problem, focusing particularly on the effects of image selection by partial relevance on the clustering behavior of feedback examples. We propose a scheme, aspect-based relevance learning, which guarantees that feedback

  12. Design aspects of a deployable tensegrity-hollow-rope footbridge

    OpenAIRE

    Rhode-Barbarigos , Landolf; Bel Hadj Ali , Nizar; Motro , René; Smith , Ian F.C.

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Tensegrity structures are composed of cables and struts in a pre-stressed self-equilibrium. Although tensegrity first appeared in the 1950s, it is seldom used in civil engineering. This paper focuses on the design aspects of a deployable tensegrity-hollow-rope footbridge. Deployment is usually not a critical design case for traditional deployable structures. However, for tensegrity systems deployment may be critical due to the actuation required. In this paper, deploym...

  13. PRACTICAL ASPECTS REGARDING FIDUCIARY OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazil Oglindă

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The trusts have been frequently used in the countries which function under the Anglo-Saxon law system, but it most certainly represents an innovation in the new Romanian legislation. For this reason, in this paper, we tried to highlight the main differences between the trust regulated in the Romanian Civil code and its corespondent in other legal systems. Observing that the trust in an institution that is mainly theoretical, and the reluctance of practicioners in using it, we tried to analyze the trust, regarding its practical side. In this paper, we will take into consideration the following aspects: the rights that the trustee acquires after establishing the trust, that will be explained through the new regulations regarding the division of assets, the quality of the parties and the limits in which the trustee may be held liable. Other important aspects are: the means that the new regulations provide in order to protect the interests of the creditors and at the same time, the fiduciary assets; the formalities which the law requires and the means of termination of the contract. In the end, in order to identify alternative solutions, we will compare the trust (regulated in the Civil code with the management of assets that belong to a third party.

  14. Phenomenological aspects of unified theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peccei, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    The author briefly discusses two new phenomena of recent interest, the 5/sup th/ force and variant axions. The former, for its elucidation, will require further gravitational experiments, but the author concludes that variant axions are now definitely rules out experimentally. Various aspects of superstring phenomenology are then addressed, including some of the generic predictions of superstrings and some of its generic problems. In particular, he discusses some of the phenomenological consequences of having an extra Z 0 boson and the circumstances under which this excitation is a genuine prediction of superstrings. Since it is likely that a more reliable relic of superstrings will be provided by the presence of superpartners at low energy (≤ TeV), he discusses some of the bounds for squarks and gluinos obtained at the SppS collider and the expectations for their production at the Tevatron. As a final topic, he touches upon some of the consequences that result from having the Fermi scale arise from an underlying theory. Some aspects of the composite Higgs model and of the strongly coupled standard model are briefly reviewed

  15. Investigating legal aspects of cyberbullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Simone; Smith, Peter K; Blumberg, Herbert H

    2012-11-01

    In the UK schools are required by law to protect students from bullying; the responsibility of teachers to govern such behaviour has been extended outside the school setting to include cyberbullying. In this investigation, cyberbullying in secondary education is explored from the student perspective using a qualitative method of enquiry. Reported awareness and understanding about the legal aspects of cyberbullying are investigated; consideration is given to legislation, cybercrime, children's rights, school sanctions and safeguarding responsibilities. A total of 197 male and female students aged between 11 and 14 years old participated. Despite the availability of information on guidelines and legislation at national, local, and school level, this does not appear to have reached ground level of the individual student. There is a considerable gap between what students should know and what they report to be aware of with regard to legal aspects of cyberbullying. To address concerns of keeping up with the pace of change in cyberbullying, a collaborative approach is required with young people and adults sharing expertise.

  16. Thermophysical aspects of WWER safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolochko, Vladimir N.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents a review of the main thermophysical aspects of NPPs safety and efficiency increase applied to WWERs. Improvement of operating WWER units is the main short-term and medium-term tasks of the utilities in Ukraine. The new generation of reactors for increasing the reactor facilities efficiency should utilize achievements of thermo physics research results. The thermophysical aspects of NPPs safety and efficiency are envisaged in the context of the atomic energy development strategy. The analysis of thermophysical processes occurring in the core shows that a number of problems concerning boiling crisis and heat exchange intensification during transient and accidents are not solved in spite of numerous calculations and experimental research. The up-to-date safety conception includes severe accidents consideration for safety assessment. Review of severe accidents management is presented. Additional validation of the West advanced thermal hydraulic codes which are applied for WWERs reassessment calculations is required. Contribution of the processes which might occur in WWER containment to safety problems solving is considered as well. (author)

  17. Neurological aspects of lead intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehner, H

    1980-05-08

    This study gives a survey over the medical and scientific literature on lead intoxications, which were published until 1979. Neurologic aspects are of particular interest. At present dramatic cases of lead intoxications occur only rarely. However, there are numerous studies about cases of chronical, partly subclinical intoxications. This chronical type of lead intoxication can become manifest clinically as relatively vague symptoms, for example vertigos, insomnia, headaches and weakness. Contrary to this, serious encephalopathies, even with fatal outcome, and polyneuropathies with typical paresis of the radial nerve are preferably observed in acute lead intoxications. Besides the numerous sources of intoxication, also the different opinions found in literature are discussed, concerning the effects of lead on the human body. The fact that there are differing opinions about the limiting value of the blood-lead level at which intoxication symptoms have to be expected, becomes apparent when the determined blood-lead level values are compared and evaluated. Besides the description of general intoxication effects, the discussion of the neurologic aspects found in literature - not only those concerning the central, but also the peripheral system - are preferably concerned. Reports about neuropsychical alterations due to lead exposure, which are mainly found in children, supplement the numerous descriptions of the macroscopic and microscopic alterations of the nervous system provoked by lead. Finally the therapeutic and prophylactic measures given in the literature are discussed.

  18. Ethical aspects on rare diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Luis A; Galindo, Gilberto Cely

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss several of the most relevant subjects related to ethics on Rare Diseases. Some general aspects are discussed such as the socio-psychological problems that confront the patients and their families that finally lead to marginalization and exclusion of patients affected by these diseases from the health programs, even in wealthy countries. Then we address problems related to diagnosis and some ethical aspects of newborn screening, prenatal, pre-implantation diagnosis and reference centers, as well as some conditions that should be met by the persons and institutions performing such tasks. Alternatives of solutions for the most critical situations are proposed. Subsequently the orphan drugs subject is discussed not only from the availability point of view, prizes, industrial practices, and purchasing power in developed and developing societies. The research related to rare disease in children and other especially vulnerable conditions, the need for informed consent, review boards or ethics comities, confidentiality of the information, biobanks and pharmacogenetics are discussed.

  19. Aspect as a Communicative Category

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durst-Andersen, Per

    2018-01-01

    On the basis of internal evidence from primarily the use of imperfective forms and external evidence from primarily first language acquisition, it is argued that English, Russian, and French aspect differ from one another, because they go back to an obligatory choice among three possible communic......On the basis of internal evidence from primarily the use of imperfective forms and external evidence from primarily first language acquisition, it is argued that English, Russian, and French aspect differ from one another, because they go back to an obligatory choice among three possible...... communicative directions: should a grammatical category be grounded in the speaker's experience of a situation, in the situation referred to or in the hearer as information about the situation? The progressive vs. non-progressive distinction in English is acquired in the present tense of atelic (simplex) verbs...... to the meta-distinction between atelic (simplex) and telic (complex) verbs. It is second-person oriented. The specific order arrived at reflects the Peircean categories of Firstness, Secondness, and Thirdness and their predictions. This can account for the fact that the English and Russian types can be found...

  20. CONTROVERSIAL ASPECTS REGARDING TAX EVASION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea-Constantin SINESCU

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the paper, we have highlighted some controversial aspects regarding the crime of tax evasion, referring to some important decisions of the High Court of Cassation and Justice and also of the Bucharest Court of Appeal. Debating upon the impunity provision stated by art. 10 of Law no. 241/2005, the study also sheds light upon the issue of the perspective of the judicial organs regarding the juridical regime of the tax due for dividends. The main focus of the paper leads to the situations when there is legal ground for the tax due for dividends to be considered part of the damage caused by tax evasion crime. The study includes a short analysis of some relevant provisions of the Romanian Fiscal Code and also some aspects deriving from decisions issued by the Administrative and Tax Litigation Chamber of The High Court of Cassation and Justice concerning the legal regime of dividends. Consequently, the authors are presenting both perspectives of the interpretation of the issue regarding the tax due for dividends to be considered part of the damage caused by tax evasion crime, resulting from two decisions of the two Criminal Sections of The Bucharest Court of Appeal, also arguing in favour of the most solid interpretation among them