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Sample records for caesalpinia pyramidalis tul

  1. The Ethanol Extract of the Inner Bark of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Tul. Reduces Urinary Bladder Damage during Cyclophosphamide-Induced Cystitis in Rats

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    Janaína P. Moraes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC is a common side effect of cyclophosphamide therapy, which deserves new therapeutic strategies, such as those based on natural products. The ethanol extract of the inner bark of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Tul. (EECp possesses anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antioxidant activities as previously showed by our group. We have investigated the effect of EECp on the cyclophosphamide-induced HC. Cystitis was induced in male Wistar rats by the injection of cyclophosphamide. These animals were pretreated with EECp (100–400 mg/kg, vehicle, or mesna. Myeloperoxidase activity and malondialdehyde formation were measured in urinary bladder and other tissues. Bladder edema and histopathological alterations and serum nitric oxide metabolites concentration NOx- were also evaluated. Treatment with EECp (100–400 mg/kg or mesna impaired the increase of myeloperoxidase activity in urinary bladder and the serum NOx- induced by cyclophosphamide but did not reduce edema in this tissue, as did mesna. Total histological score was reduced by EECp (100 mg/kg. Lung myeloperoxidase activity, which was increased by cyclophosphamide, was decreased significantly by EECp (400 mg/kg. EECp also diminished the malondialdehyde formation in bladder, lung, and spleen, although these parameters were not affected by cyclophosphamide. These results indicate that EECp reduced urinary bladder damage during cyclophosphamide-induced HC in rats.

  2. The Ethanol Extract of the Inner Bark of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Tul.) Reduces Urinary Bladder Damage during Cyclophosphamide-Induced Cystitis in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Janaína P.; Pereira, Denyson S.; Matos, Alexandre S.; Santana, Danielle G.; Santos, Cliomar A.; Estevam, Charles S.; Fakhouri, Ricardo; de Lucca Junior, Waldecy; Camargo, Enilton A.

    2013-01-01

    Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is a common side effect of cyclophosphamide therapy, which deserves new therapeutic strategies, such as those based on natural products. The ethanol extract of the inner bark of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Tul.) (EECp) possesses anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antioxidant activities as previously showed by our group. We have investigated the effect of EECp on the cyclophosphamide-induced HC. Cystitis was induced in male Wistar rats by the injection of cyclophosphamide. These animals were pretreated with EECp (100–400 mg/kg), vehicle, or mesna. Myeloperoxidase activity and malondialdehyde formation were measured in urinary bladder and other tissues. Bladder edema and histopathological alterations and serum nitric oxide metabolites concentration NOx − were also evaluated. Treatment with EECp (100–400 mg/kg) or mesna impaired the increase of myeloperoxidase activity in urinary bladder and the serum NOx − induced by cyclophosphamide but did not reduce edema in this tissue, as did mesna. Total histological score was reduced by EECp (100 mg/kg). Lung myeloperoxidase activity, which was increased by cyclophosphamide, was decreased significantly by EECp (400 mg/kg). EECp also diminished the malondialdehyde formation in bladder, lung, and spleen, although these parameters were not affected by cyclophosphamide. These results indicate that EECp reduced urinary bladder damage during cyclophosphamide-induced HC in rats. PMID:24348180

  3. Anatomia e densidade básica da madeira de Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. (Fabaceae), espécie endêmica da caatinga do Nordeste do Brasil

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    Silva,Lazaro Benedito da; Santos, Francisco de Assis Ribeiro dos; GASSON, PETER; Cutler, David

    2009-01-01

    Este trabalho objetivou estudar a anatomia e a densidade básica da madeira de Caesalpinia pyramidalis utilizada pelas comunidades locais, ocorrente na caatinga de Pernambuco, nos municípios de Serra Talhada e Sertânia, assim como comparar a percentagem dos elementos do lenho no tronco e nos galhos, na própria árvore, a fim de estabelecer o potencial total do lenho para produção de energia. As amostras do lenho do tronco (DAP) e de ramos de seis árvores da espécie foram coletadas nos dois muni...

  4. Anatomia e densidade básica da madeira de Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. (Fabaceae), espécie endêmica da caatinga do Nordeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Lazaro Benedito da; Santos, Francisco de Assis Ribeiro dos; GASSON, PETER; Cutler, David

    2009-01-01

    p.436-445 Este trabalho objetivou estudar a anatomia e a densidade básica da madeira de Caesalpinia pyramidalis utilizada pelas comunidades locais, ocorrente na caatinga de Pernambuco, nos municípios de Serra Talhada e Sertânia, assim como comparar a percentagem dos elementos do lenho no tronco e nos galhos, na própria árvore, a fim de estabelecer o potencial total do lenho para produção de energia. As amostras do lenho do tronco (DAP) e de ramos de seis árvores da espécie foram coletadas ...

  5. Anatomia e densidade básica da madeira de Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. (Fabaceae, espécie endêmica da caatinga do Nordeste do Brasil Wood anatomy and basic density of Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. (Fabaceae, an endemic species of Northeast Brazil

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    Lazaro Benedito da Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou estudar a anatomia e a densidade básica da madeira de Caesalpinia pyramidalis utilizada pelas comunidades locais, ocorrente na caatinga de Pernambuco, nos municípios de Serra Talhada e Sertânia, assim como comparar a percentagem dos elementos do lenho no tronco e nos galhos, na própria árvore, a fim de estabelecer o potencial total do lenho para produção de energia. As amostras do lenho do tronco (DAP e de ramos de seis árvores da espécie foram coletadas nos dois municípios acima citados, em 2002. As análises das amostras seguiram os métodos usualmente empregados em estudo de anatomia de madeiras. Pelos parâmetros anatômicos do lenho e a elevada densidade básica (>0,84 g/cm³, concluiu-se que Caesalpinia pyramidalis revela grande quantidade de celulose e lignina, portanto apresentou perspectivas seguras para produção de álcool combustível e carvão vegetal. Pode-se propor o uso do lenho do tronco e dos galhos como combustível, desde a fase jovem da madeira, pela grande concentração de fibras, menor concentração de vasos e menor quantidade de parênquima, nos espécimes dos dois municípios.This work aimed to study the anatomy and basic density of Caesalpinia pyramidalis wood, used by local populations in the municipalities of Serra Talhada and Sertânia (Pernambuco, to assess the percentage of wood elements in the trunk and branches in both localities, and in the tree itself, in order to establish total wood potential for energy production. Samples of the trunk (dbh and of branches from six trees of the species were collected in 2002. Sample analysis followed the usual methods of wood anatomy studies. Based on the anatomical parameters of the trunk and the high basic density (>0.84 g/cm³, we conclude that Caesalpinia pyramidalis wood contains an enormous amount of cellulose and lignin. Due to these features, this species showed good perspectives for the production of alcohol and charcoal. The

  6. Occurrence of biflavones in leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis specimens

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    Marcus V. Bahia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The chloroform partition of methanol extract of leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis was submitted to different chromatographic procedures which afforded besides agathisflavone and taxifolin, the minor biflavones loniflavone, amentoflavone, 5'- hydroxyamentoflavone and podocarpusflavone A. The structures of the compounds were established on the basis of NMR and MS data analysis. Besides, the content of biflavones of different specimens of C. pyramidalis, which are collected in different habitats of the Brazilian semi-arid region, was determinated by LC-APCI-MS analysis. These analysis demonstrated that only the specimens harvested in Bahia state showed collectively the presence of agathisflavone, amentoflavone, sequoiaflavone and podocarpusflavone A.

  7. Biological Effect of Leaf Aqueous Extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis in Goats Naturally Infected with Gastrointestinal Nematodes

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    Roberto Robson Borges-dos-Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-eight goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes were randomly divided into four groups (n=12: negative control (G1 (untreated, positive control (G2 (treated with doramectin, 1 mL/50 Kg b.w., and G3 and G4 treated with 2.5 and 5 mg/Kg b.w. of a leaf aqueous extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (CP. Fecal and blood samples were regularly collected for the evaluation of fecal egg count (FEC, hematological and immunological parameters to assess the anthelmintic activity. In treated animals with CP, there was noted a significant reduction of 54.6 and 71.2% in the mean FEC (P<0.05. An increase in IgA levels was observed in G3 and G4 (P<0.05, during the experimental period, suggesting that it was stimulated by the extract administration. In conclusion, the results showed that CP provoked a protective response in infected animals treated with them. This response could be partly explained by the CP chemical composition.

  8. Evaluation of the Interaction between the Poincianella pyramidalis (Tul. LP Queiroz Extract and Antimicrobials Using Biological and Analytical Models.

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    Thiago P Chaves

    Full Text Available Poincianella pyramidalis (Tul. LP Queiroz (Fabaceae is an endemic tree of northeastern Brazil, occurring mainly in the Caatinga. Its medicinal use is widespread and is an important therapeutic option against diarrhea, dysentery, and respiratory and urinary infections, among other diseases. In this study we determined the chemical marker and evaluated the interaction between P. pyramidalis extract and a commercial antimicrobial through the use of biological and analytical models. To obtain the extract, an ethanol-water mixture (50:50 v/v was used as solvent. It was nebulized in a spray dryer using colloidal silicon dioxide as a drying adjuvant. The extract (ENPp was subjected to HPLC analysis to verify the presence of certain secondary metabolites. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of the extract against Gram-negative bacteria was determined by broth microdilution and the MIC of synthetic antimicrobial drugs in the presence and absence of the extract. The antioxidant activity of ENPp was evaluated by the DPPH method. The compatibility between the antimicrobial and the extract was evaluated by thermal analysis (TG/DTA. The acute toxicity of the extract was evaluated in vivo in rodents. The results indicate significant additive action of the extract on synthetic antibiotics, considerable antioxidant activity and absence of toxicity. This extract shows high potential for the development of formulations for antimicrobial therapy when used with a vegetable-active ingredient.

  9. Karyomorphology and karyotype asymmetry in the South American Caesalpinia species (Leguminosae and Caesalpinioideae).

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    Rodrigues, P S; Souza, M M; Corrêa, R X

    2014-10-20

    With the purpose of addressing the pattern of karyotype evolution in Caesalpinia species, chromosome morphology was characterized in five species from Brazil, and karyotypic asymmetry was analyzed in 14 species from South America. All accessions had the chromosome number 2n = 24, which was first described here for Caesalpinia laxiflora Tul. and Cenostigma macrophyllum Tul. The karyotype formula of C. laxiflora, Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul., and C. macrophyllum was 12 m. The formula varies amongst the populations of Caesalpinia bracteosa Tul. (11 m + 1 sm) and Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (10 m + 2 sm and 9 m + 3 sm). The intra- and interspecific variations in chromosome length were significant (analysis of variance, P karyotype (AI = 10.52), whereas Caesalpinia paraguarienses (D. Parodi) Burkat. and Caesalpinia gilliesii (Hook.) Benth. had the most symmetrical karyotypes (AI = 0.91 and 1.10, respectively). There has been a trend to lower AI values for the Caesalpinia s.l. species assigned in Libidibia and intermediate values for those combined into Poincianella. On the other hand, the karyotypes of Erythrostemon species had extremely different AI values. This study confirms the existence of karyotype variability in Caesalpinia s.l. while revealing a possible uniformity of this trait in some of the new genera that are being divided from Caesalpinia s.l. More broadly, the 2n = 24 chromosome number is conserved. Metacentric chromosomes and low AI values predominate among Caesalpinia s.l. and Cenostigma.

  10. Superação da dormência em sementes de Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul Overcoming dormancy of Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul

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    Edna Ursulino Alves

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Espécies florestais com sementes duras freqüentemente apresentam consideráveis problemas para os viveiristas, porque seus tegumentos duros e impermeáveis à água dificultam e retardam a germinação. Por isso, desenvolveu-se este experimento em casa de vegetação no Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal da Paraíba, com o objetivo de determinar metodologias para superar a dormência de sementes de catingueira. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro repetições de 25 sementes. As sementes foram submetidas a 12 tratamentos: testemunha - sementes intactas (T1, escarificação mecânica feita manualmente com lixa nº. 80 (T2, desponte - pequeno corte na região oposta à micrópila (T3, imersão no ácido sulfúrico concentrado por 6, 8 e 10 min (T4, T5 e T6, respectivamente, imersão em água nas temperaturas de 60, 70 e 80 ºC por 1 min (T7, T8 e T9, respectivamente e imersão em água fria por 24, 48 e 72 h (T10, T11 e T12, respectivamente. As sementes foram semeadas em bandejas plásticas com areia umedecida esterilizada. Através de avaliações diárias durante 21 dias, verificaram-se as características de porcentagem de emergência, primeira contagem de emergência, índice de velocidade de emergência, comprimento e massa seca das plântulas. Os resultados evidenciaram que os tratamentos pré-germinativos promoveram a germinação das sementes de catingueira, e a escarificação manual com lixa, imersão em ácido sulfúrico concentrado por 8 e 10 min e imersão em água a 80 ºC por 1 min revelaram ser os métodos mais efetivos.Forest species with hard seeds often cause important problems for nursery managers because their hard and water impermeable seed coats hinder and delay germination. For this reason, an experiment was carried out to determine methodologies for overcoming dormancy of catingueira seeds, under greenhouse conditions, in the Center for Agricultural Sciences, of the Federal University of Paraíba. The experiment was arranged in a complete randomized design, with four replicates of 25 seeds/treatment. Seeds were subjected to 12 treatments: control - intact seeds (T1, mechanical scarification using fine sandpaper nº. 80 (T2, coating cutting in the opposite side of micropylar region (T3, immersion in sulfuric acid (98% for 6, 8 and 10 minutes (T4, T5 and T6, respectively, immersion in water at 60, 70 and 80ºC for one minute (T7, T8 and T9, respectively, immersion in water at room temperature for 24, 48 and 72 hours (T10, T11 and T12, respectively. The seeds were sown in plastic trays with sterilized humidified sand. Daily evaluations were carried out during 21 days observing characteristics of emergence percentage, emergence first count, emergence velocity index, height and dry matter weight of seedlings. The results demonstrated that germinative pre-treatments increased seed germination of catingueira seeds, and higher values were observed with manual scarification with sandpaper, immersion in concentrated sulfuric acid during eight and ten minutes and immersion in water at 80ºC for one minute were the most effective methods.

  11. Qualidade fisiológica de sementes de diferentes árvores matrizes de Poincianella pyramidalis (Tul. L. P. Queiroz

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    Cosmo Rufino de Lima

    Full Text Available A catingueira [Poincianella pyramidalis (Tul. L. P. Queiroz] é uma espécie arbórea endêmica do bioma Caatinga, bastante explorada devido ao seu potencial madeireiro, forrageiro e farmacológico. Face à relevância de sua importância, este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar a qualidade fisiológica das sementes entre matrizes de P. pyramidalis por meio de testes fisiológicos para fins de restauração ambiental. O estudo de campo foi conduzido na Fazenda Açude, município de Soledade-PB, onde foram selecionados 28 matrizes de catingueira, sendo as análises, realizadas no Laboratório de Análise de Sementes do Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal da Paraíba. Foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: teor de água, peso de mil sementes, número de sementes por quilograma, germinação, vigor {primeira contagem e índice de velocidade de germinação, comprimento e massa seca de plântulas, emergência, índice de velocidade e primeira contagem de emergência, envelhecimento acelerado (procedimento tradicional e solução saturada de NaCl}. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com os dados submetidos à análise de variância e a comparação entre as médias realizadas pelo teste de Scott-Knott a 5% de probabilidade. Com base nos resultados, a qualidade fisiológica das sementes de Poincianella pyramidalis varia mesmo quando oriundas de matrizes de uma única área de coleta; o teste de envelhecimento acelerado, utilizado no método tradicional, no período de 24 horas e à temperatura de 41 ºC mostra ser o teste de vigor mais eficiente na avaliação do potencial fisiológico das sementes de P. pyramidalis.

  12. Dendrophysiological plant strategies of Poincianella pyramidalis (Tul. L.P. Queiroz after wood herbivory in semiarid region of Paraíba - Brazil

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    Otacilio Antunes Santana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The increase in Equus africanus asinus Linnaeus population in semiarid areas of Northeast Brazil had significant impacts on wild and rural areas. The objective of this work was to analyze the herbivory of E. africanus asinus on Poincianella pyramidalis (Tul. L.P. Queiroz and determine the dendrophysiological strategies P. pyramidalis used during and after damage caused by E. africanus asinus. The selected areas have significant populations of P. pyramidalis with amplified importance value higher than 50%. Two areas were established: one control and another experimental, with presence of E. africanus asinus. The study was carried out from 2001 to 2015. The evaluated variables of P. pyramidalis were: sap flow, basic density, diameter, volume, biomass and leaf area index. The increase of abandoned E. africanus asinus in semiarid areas resulted in impact and responses from P. pyramidalis. This plant species compensates for biomass losses and physiological activities reduction with two strategies: i increase in the belowground biomass stock, and ii increase in sap flow in undisturbed branches.

  13. Efeito da temperatura e do substrato na germinação de sementes de Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinoideae Effect of temperature and substrate on seed germination of Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinoideae

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    Juliana Domingues Lima

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. é uma leguminosa arbórea tropical que ocorre na região amazônica, sendo muito utilizada como planta medicinal e na arborização e paisagismo urbanos. Para viabilizar a produção de mudas, determinaram-se a melhor temperatura e o melhor substrato para a germinação das sementes. Sementes recém-colhidas apresentaram teor médio de água de 7,46%, porcentagem de germinação de 3,33% e baixo ganho de água durante a embebição, mostrando dormência tegumentar. A escarificação mecânica com lixa nº 40 foi um método eficiente para superação da dormência, comprovado pela alta porcentagem de germinação e embebição de água em sementes escarificadas. A porcentagem de germinação dessas sementes foi influenciada pela temperatura, mas não pelo substrato. Com base no tempo médio de germinação, recomenda-se a temperatura de 30 ºC e areia como substrato para germinação mais rápida de sementes escarificadas.Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. is a tropical legume tree occurring in the Amazon region, commonly used as medicine plant and in urban landscaping. To make seedling production feasible the best temperature and substrate for seed germination were determined. Recently harvested seeds present 7.46% mean moisture content, 3.33% germination percentage and lower moisture gain during soaking, showing tegument dormancy. Mechanical scarification with 40 grit sandpaper was proven an efficient method to overcome the dormancy, resulting in higher germination percentage and water imbibition in scarified seeds. The germination percentage of scarified seeds was influenced by temperature, but not by substrate. Based on the mean germination time, it is recommended the temperature of 30ºC and sand like substrate for faster germination of scarified seeds.

  14. Crescimento inicial de mudas de pau ferro (Caesalpinia ferreaMart. ex Tul. var. leiostachya Benth. sob diferentes regimes hídricos Initial growth of wood iron (Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex. Tul var. leiostachya Benth under different hydric regimes

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    Nádia Regina Lenhard

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este estudo avaliar o crescimento inicial de mudas de pau-ferro (Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex. Tul. var. leiostachya Benth -Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae sob quatro regimes hídricos (alagamento, 70%, 40% e 12,5% de capacidade de campo. As mudas foram submetidas aos tratamentos aos 60 dias de idade. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições de oito mudas por tratamento. Após 7 dias de permanência sob tratamento, iniciaram-se as avaliações. O diâmetro (6,5 mm, teor relativo de água (52,45%, área foliar específica (174,58 g cm², taxa de crescimento relativo (0,0160 g g-1, taxa assimilatória líquida (0,0004 g dm-2 dias-1 e peso específico de folha (0,0062 g cm² não variaram estatisticamente entre os tratamentos. As mudas sob 70% CC apresentaram maior altura (84,6cm, tamanho da raiz (28,9 cm, massa seca da raiz (6,24 g, área foliar (376,0 cm², massa seca da folha (1,98 g, massa seca da parte aérea (8,27 g e teor de clorofila (31,67 ìg cm². A razão de peso específico (0,2368 g g-1 e o teor de nitrogênio (0,37 g kg-1 foram maiores sob 12,5% CC. A razão de área foliar (35,09 g g-1 foi menor sob 12,5% CC. Dessa forma, a melhor condição para a produção das mudas é em 70% da capacidade de campo.The objective of this study was to evaluate the initial growth of Caesapinia ferrea Mart ex. Tul var. leiostachva Benth (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae under four hidric regimes (overflow, 70, 40 and 12.5% of field capacity. The seedlings were submitted to the treatments after 60 days of age. The experimental delineation was completely randomized with four repetitions of eight seedlings for treatment. After 7 days of permanence under treatment, the evaluations had been initiated. The diameter (6,5 mm, relative water content (52.45%, specific foliar area (174.58 g cm², rate of relative growth (0.0160 g g-1, liquid assimilated rate (0.0004 g dm-2 days-1 and specific weight of leaf (0.0062 g

  15. BIOMETRIA DE FRUTOS E SEMENTES E SUPERAÇÃO DE DORMÊNCIA DE JUCÁ (Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul (LEGUMINOSAE - CAESALPINOIDEAE

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    Francisco Augusto Alves Câmara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to study the characteristics biometrics of the fruit and the effect of the physical and chemical scarification in the germination of seeds of Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. Ripe fruits were collected in August of 2007 of existent trees in the campus of the Rural Federal University of the Semi-arid, Mossoró- RN. The evaluations were carried at the Laboratory of Analysis of Seeds of the Department of Vegetable Sciences of UFERSA. The germination test was constituted of witness and 4 treatments (types of common vinegar: vinegar of alcohol, vinegar of red wine and vinegar of white wine and hot water to 65ºC, with 4 repetitions of 50 seeds. The sowing was in containers plastic with dimensions of 32.5 x 24 x 4 cm (length, width and depth. The used substrates were sand washed sterilized previously and being irrigated with water distilled. The appraised characteristics were: mass of the fresh matter and matter dries of the seedling, germination percentage and index of emergency velocity. The immersion of the seeds in vinegar of white wine favors the germination, the index of germination velocity and the accumulation of fresh and dry matter of the juca seedlings.

  16. Fluctuating asymmetry of and herbivory on Poincianella pyramidalis (Tul. L.P. Queiroz (Fabaceae in pasture and secondary tropical dry forest

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    Viviane Andrade Ribeiro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants subjected to stressful environments tend to be more asymmetric with reduced defenses and are therefore more vulnerable to herbivory. This study investigates the relationship between herbivory and fluctuating asymmetry (FA in Poincianella pyramidalis in two contrasting habitat types in the Brazilian caatinga (shrublands. We tested the following hypotheses: that FA occurs in P. pyramidalis; that FA of P. pyramidalis leaves is greater in individuals located in pasture than in those located in secondary tropical dry forest; that herbivory by insects (leaf chewers and leaf miners increases in parallel with increases in the level of FA; and that herbivory is more common in pasture than in secondary tropical dry forest. In each of the two environments, we sampled 20 plants and evaluated 400 leaflets. We submitted FA data to the Shapiro-Wilk test of normality, and we investigated the other variables using generalized linear models. We found that FA was present in all P. pyramidalis individuals evaluated but was greater in those located in the more degraded habitat (pasture. In addition, although herbivory was similar between the two habitats, there was positive relationship between FA and herbivory. This indicates that herbivores select plants that are more asymmetric, regardless of the type of habitat involved, which might be attributable to the mechanisms posited in the plant stress hypothesis.

  17. Efeitos da luminosidade no crescimento de mudas de Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinoideae Effects of luminosity on the growth seedlings of Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinoideae

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    Juliana Domingues Lima

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia ferrea é uma espécie muito utilizada como planta medicinal e na arborização e paisagismo urbano no estado do Amapá. Entretanto, informações ecofisiológicas a seu respeito são escassas. A luz é um importante fator ambiental que controla processos associados ao acúmulo de matéria seca, contribuindo assim para o crescimento vegetal. Diante disso, estudou-se o efeito de diferentes níveis de luminosidade sobre o crescimento de mudas desta espécie. Para tal, plântulas foram repicadas para sacos plásticos contendo mistura de solo e areia (2:1, sendo mantidas a pleno sol, sob sombreamento artificial com redução de 50% e 70% da luminosidade e sob sombreamento natural de um dossel fechado de floresta. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco repetições. Mudas submetidas ao sombreamento natural tiveram seu crescimento fortemente inibido. A pleno sol, as mudas apresentaram maiores taxas assimilatórias líquida (TAL, menor razão parte aérea/raiz (RPAR e menor razão de área foliar (RAF. Verificou-se pouca diferença no crescimento e alocação de biomassa entre mudas mantidas sob 50 e 70% de sombreamento, sendo que as mudas desses tratamentos atingiram valores mais altos de RPAR e RAF. Isto indica existência de plasticidade, o que reflete no aumento potencial da captura de luz, importante para manter o crescimento e a sobrevivência das mudas em baixa luminosidade. Em conjunto, os resultados mostraram ajustamento morfológico e fisiológico aos diferentes níveis de luminosidade em Caesalpinia ferrea.Caesalpinia ferrea is a species used a lot as a medicinal plant, for urban arborization and landscape design in the state of Amapa. Yet there is not much ecophysiological information available on it. Light is an important environment factor that controls processes associates with the accumulation of dry matter, contributing thus for plant growth. The object of this research was to study the effect of

  18. Desempenho germinativo da invasora Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit. e comparação com Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. e Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L. Sw. (Fabaceae Germination performance of the invader Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit. compared to Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. and C. pulcherrima (L. Sw. (Fabaceae

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    Nilson Gonçalves da Fonseca

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O sucesso das plantas na colonização de novas áreas está fortemente relacionado ao comportamento germinativo das sementes nas condições ambientais locais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o desempenho germinativo da exótica invasora Leucaena leucocephala ao das leguminosas (Caesalpinia ferrea, nativa e C. pulcherrima, exótica não consideradas invasoras. Sementes não escarificadas foram expostas às temperaturas de 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 e 40 °C, sob um fotoperíodo de 12 horas, durante 100 dias. Tanto a porcentagem final quanto a velocidade de germinação apresentaram diferenças significativas entre as três espécies. C. ferrea teve baixo desempenho, com temperatura ótima para a germinação a 25°C, porcentagem de germinação de 59% e IVG de 0,68 sementes d-1. Já C. pulcherrima, apresentou altas porcentagens de germinação em todas as temperaturas testadas, com faixa ótima entre 20-40 °C. As sementes de L. leucocephala apresentaram as menores porcentagens de germinação e temperatura ótima de 35 °C. O desempenho germinativo desta exótica não se sobressai ao das demais espécies estudadas e fatores como a pressão de propágulos, escarificação natural e bom desempenho em outras fases da vida devem contribuir para seu perfil de invasora.Success in establishing and colonizing new areas is directly related to germination behaviour of seeds under local environmental conditions. This work aimed to compare germination performance of the exotic invader Leucaena leucocephala to two legumes (Caesalpinia ferrea, native, and C. pulcherrima, exotic which are not considered invasive. Non-scarified seeds were exposed to constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40ºC, within a photoperiod of 12 hours, for 100 days. Both final germination percentage and germination speed showed significant differences among the three species. C. ferrea had low germination percentage, with optimal germination temperature at 25ºC, reaching

  19. Superação da dormência em sementes de Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. var. ferrea de duas populações

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fatima Barbosa Coelho

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 O objetivo no presente trabalho foi superar a dormência de sementes de Caesalpinia ferrea. As sementes foram obtidas em duas populações no município de Acarape e no distrito de Antonio Diogo no Ceará. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições de 50 sementes. Os tratamentos usados foram a sementes de Acarape intactas, b sementes de Acarape escarificadas, c sementes de Antonio Diogo intactas e d sementes de Antonio Diogo escarificadas. A escarificação foi feita com desponte com tesoura de poda no tegumento do lado oposto ao hilo da semente. As características avaliadas foram porcentagem de emergência, índice de velocidade de emergência, comprimento da parte aérea e da raiz principal das plântulas. O maior pico de emergência ocorreu aos sete dias após a semeadura. A porcentagem de emergência foi maior nas sementes de Acarape e Antonio Diogo escarificadas (58,25 e 58,50 respectivamente, enquanto as sementes não escarificadas apresentaram menos de 15% de emergência. O índice de velocidade de emergência foi maior nas sementes de Acarape e Antonio Diogo escarificadas (7,94 e 7,20 respectivamente. Os resultados comprovam a dormência tegumentar de sementes de Caesalpinia férrea, a eficiência da escarificação mecânica na superação da dormência e que há diferença no processo germinativo de sementes de diferentes populações Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE

  20. In vitro callogenesis of Poincianella pyramidalis (catingueira

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    Kicia K.P. Gomes-Copeland

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This work describes the establishment of procedures to induce in vitro callogenesis from Poincianella pyramidalis (Tul. L. P. Queiroz, Fabaceae, explants. Nodal, internodal and leaf segments were isolated from in vitro germinated seedlings and cultured in MS medium with 0, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg l-1 of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. After 30 days, the explants with induced callus showed a quadratic response for the segments nodal, internodal and leaf, with increasing the callus formation in 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentrations of 6.28, 6.49 and 4.91 mg l-1, respectively. In 30 days there was a linear oxidation rise with the increase to the 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. After 60 days, oxidation values were minimum, at 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentrations of 5.13 mg l-1 (internodal and 3.98 mg l-1 (leaf. The highest callus production was observed after 30 days in the presence of 6.09 mg l-1, 5.82 mg l-1 and 4.91 mg l-1 of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in nodal, internodal and leaf segments, respectively. After 60 days these segments showed peaks of production at 7.0 mg l-1 (nodal, 6.15 mg l-1 (internodal and 5.08 mg l-1 (leaf of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. For callus induction the intake of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid was essential. The greater intensity in callus formation was observed in 4.91 mg l-1 in leaf segments after 30 days.

  1. The economic potential of Echinochloa pyramidalis (Lam.) Hitchc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, Echinochloa pyramidalis, well-known forage adapted to the drying vegetated beds for wastewater and faecal sludge treatments with similar characteristics as ... Keywords: Echinochloa pyramidalis, economic potential, forage production, nutritional values, sanitation technology, vertical-flow constructed wetlands ...

  2. Co-composting of sewage sludge and Echinochloa pyramidalis (Lam.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yaoundé-Cameroon) in order to assess the effect of three sewage sludge: Macrophyte ratios on the co-composting process and compost quality. The ratios were T1: 25 kg of plant material (Echinochloa pyramidalis) and 75 kg sludge; T2: 50 kg ...

  3. Variation and incidence of agenesis of the pyramidalis muscles in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recognition of the variations in occurrence, shape and size of the pyramidalis muscle in different races, sexes and nationals and its relevance in flap and graft, this study was carried out to determine the incidence of its agenesis, variation in occurrence, shape and mean values of length and breadth in Nigerian males.

  4. Growth and yield potential of Echinochloa pyramidalis (Lam.) Hitchc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    results revealed that salinity and flooding combined with salinity stresses had similar effect on plant survival, height and density, leading to ... Key words: Constructed wetlands, Echinochloa pyramidalis, faecal sludge, flooding, growth, salinity, yield potential. ...... for their financial and logistic support (IFS, Sweden grant No.

  5. New microsatellite markers for Campanula pyramidalis (Campanulaceae) and cross-amplification in closely related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosavljević, Ivan; Jakse, Jernej; Satovic, Zlatko; Javornik, Branka; Janković, Ivana; Liber, Zlatko

    2015-03-01

    Microsatellite markers were identified and characterized to study the genetic diversity and structure, conservation status, taxonomy, and biogeography of subspecific taxa and populations of Campanula pyramidalis (Campanulaceae). Eleven microsatellite markers were developed from genomic libraries enriched for di- and trinucleotide repeats. A total of 80 alleles were observed in the tested natural population. The number of alleles per locus, observed heterozygosity, and expected heterozygosity ranged from four to 13, 0.217 to 0.913, and 0.521 to 0.895, respectively. The new microsatellite markers will be useful for studying genetic diversity and structure as well as for better assessing the conservation status of subspecific taxa and populations of C. pyramidalis. Furthermore, a set of seven loci was successfully cross-amplified in C. secundiflora and C. versicolor and will be of great value for addressing unsolved taxonomic and biogeographic issues within the C. pyramidalis species complex.

  6. New microsatellite markers for Campanula pyramidalis (Campanulaceae) and cross-amplification in closely related species1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosavljević, Ivan; Jakse, Jernej; Satovic, Zlatko; Javornik, Branka; Janković, Ivana; Liber, Zlatko

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were identified and characterized to study the genetic diversity and structure, conservation status, taxonomy, and biogeography of subspecific taxa and populations of Campanula pyramidalis (Campanulaceae). Methods and Results: Eleven microsatellite markers were developed from genomic libraries enriched for di- and trinucleotide repeats. A total of 80 alleles were observed in the tested natural population. The number of alleles per locus, observed heterozygosity, and expected heterozygosity ranged from four to 13, 0.217 to 0.913, and 0.521 to 0.895, respectively. Conclusions: The new microsatellite markers will be useful for studying genetic diversity and structure as well as for better assessing the conservation status of subspecific taxa and populations of C. pyramidalis. Furthermore, a set of seven loci was successfully cross-amplified in C. secundiflora and C. versicolor and will be of great value for addressing unsolved taxonomic and biogeographic issues within the C. pyramidalis species complex. PMID:25798343

  7. Chemical constituents of the wood from Zanthoxylum quinduense Tul. (Rutaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patino Ladino, Oscar Javier; Cuca Suarez, Luis Enrique, E-mail: ojpatinol@unal.edu.c [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia). Facultad de Ciencias. Dept. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the wood from Zanthoxylum quinduense Tul. allowed the isolation and identification of norchelerythrine, decarine, 6-acetonyldihydrochelerythrine, syringaresinol, evofilin C, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, vanillic acid, a mixture of b-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol and a mixture of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and their esters derivatives. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques and comparison with literature data and the mixture of sterols and fatty acids were identified by GC/MS. The antifungal activity of the ethanolic extract, fractions and pure compounds against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici was determined by bioautography. Evofilin C and nochelerytrine were the only substances that present antifungal activity. (author)

  8. “Effect of Giant Rat's Tail Grass (Sporobolus pyramidalis p.beauv) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria ... p.beauv) on the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and heavy metals content of contaminated soils. Residual TPH and heavy metals ... (Sporobolus pyramidalis p.beauv) has the potential to ameliorate crude oil toxicity at different crude oil contamination.

  9. Chemical Constituents of Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth Alston

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    Song Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study targets the chemical constituents of Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth Alston and investigates the bioactivities of the isolated compounds. Fourteen known compounds were isolated using column chromatography, and structural identification was performed by physical and spectral analyses. The biological activities of the compounds were also evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT and 2,2-diphenlyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assays. Emodin (6, baicalein (9, and apigenin (12 displayed antitumor activities against the MGC-803 cell line, while quercetin (2, rutin (5, baicalein (9, and epicatechin (13 showed stronger DPPH scavenging activities compared with ascorbic acid. Andrographolide (1, quercetin (2, bergenin (4, rutin (5, emodin (6, betulin (7, baicalein (9, polydatin (10, salicin (11, and apigenin (12, were obtained from C. decapetala (Roth Alston for the first time.

  10. Chemical constituents of the wood from Zanthoxylum quinduense Tul. (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Javier Patiño Ladino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the wood from Zanthoxylum quinduense Tul. allowed the isolation and identification of norchelerythrine, decarine, 6-acetonyldihydrochelerythrine, syringaresinol, evofilin C, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, vanillic acid, a mixture of β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol and a mixture of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and their esters derivatives. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques and comparison with literature data and the mixture of sterols and fatty acids were identified by GC/MS. The antifungal activity of the ethanolic extract, fractions and pure compounds against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici was determined by bioautography. Evofilin C and nochelerytrine were the only substances that present antifungal activity.

  11. Textile wastewater biocoagulation by Caesalpinia spinosa extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Revelo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2014/12/06 - Accepted: 2015/03/24The textile industry in Ecuador is still a matter of concern because of the inappropriate disposal of their effluents into the local water supply. The present research was carried out in Pelileo (Tungurahua-Ecuador where textile wastewaters are discharged into waterways. An environmentally friendly solution to treat highly contaminated organic textile wastewaters is herein evaluated: a remediation process of biocoagulation was performed using extracts from the Caesalpinia spinosa plant also known as guarango or tara. It was determined that using C. spinosa extracts to treat wastewater has the same statistical effect as when applying a chemical coagulant (polyaluminum chloride 15%. Activated zeolite adsorbed color residuals from treated water to obtain turbidity removal more than 90%. A mathematical model showed that turbidity removal between 50-90% can be obtained by applying 25-45 g/L of guarango extracts and zeolite per 700 mL of textile wastewater. The natural coagulation using C. spinosa extracts produced 85% less sludge than polyaluminum chloride, and removed high organic matter content in the wastewater (1050 mg/L by 52%.

  12. Immunomodulatory activities of the ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia bonducella seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shruti; Mehta, Archana; John, Jinu; Mehta, Pradeep; Vyas, Suresh Prasad; Shukla, Savita

    2009-09-07

    Caesalpinia bonducella FLEMING (Caesalpiniaceae) is a plant well known for its medicinal value in Indian Ayurveda. However, to prove its efficiency for the clinical utilization, more experimental data will be beneficial. The present study involved the investigation of immunomodulatory activities of ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia bonducella seeds. Neutrophil adhesion test, haemagglutinating antibody (HA) titre, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response, phagocytic activity and cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression were determined by in vivo experiments. The evaluation of immunomodulatory potential by oral administration of ethanolic seed extract of Caesalpinia bonducella (200-500 mg/kg) evoked a significant increase in percent neutrophil adhesion to nylon fibers as well as a dose-dependent increase in antibody titre values, and potentiated the delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction induced by sheep red blood cells. Also it prevented myelosuppression in cyclophosphamide drug treated rats and good response towards phagocytosis in carbon clearance assay. The results obtained in this study indicate that Caesalpinia bonducella possesses potential immunomodulatory activity and has therapeutic potential for the prevention of autoimmune diseases.

  13. A New Diterpenoid from the Seeds of Caesalpinia sappan Linn

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    Yong-Jiang Xu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A new cassane-type d iterpene, named Phangininoxy A (1 and one known Phanginin A (2 were isolated from the exact of seeds of Caesalpinia sappan Linn. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, mainly 1D and 2D NMR.

  14. Flavonoids content in extracts secang (Caesalpinia Sappan L. maceration method infundation analysis and visible ultraviolet spectrophotometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youstiana Dwi Rusita

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Secang (Caesalpinia sappan L has a component of a chemical compound essential oils, flavonoids, benzopyran, sapanin, brazilin, caesalpin S, caesalpin P, sapanon A, sapanon B. Flavonoids are chemical components that can be used in medical and industrial fields. This study aimed to determine the levels of flavonoids contained in extracts secang results maceration and extraction methods infundation. This study used quantitative and descriptive research design. This study using purposive sampling with two sample of Caesalpinia sappan L extract result of infundation and maceration. Analysis using univariate analysis. This study shows that there are types of flavonoids flavones, flavonols and flavanols on extracts of Caesalpinia sappan L results maceration method, and there are flavonoid types of flavones, flavonols and flavanols on extracts of Caesalpinia sappan L results infundation method. Flavonoid content test results showed that the levels of flavonoids in extracts of Caesalpinia sappan L results maceration 0.0539% whereas the levels of flavonoids in the extract of Caesalpinia sappan L results infundation methods 0.1902%. Necessary standardization of botanicals Caesalpinia sappan L to determine the levels of flavonoids using ultraviolet visible spectrophotometer, and the analysis of the levels of flavonoids in the extract of Caesalpinia sappan L using different solvents. As a follow-up is necessary to design the manufacture of dosage formulations of the active ingredient flavanoid compounds from the extract of Caesalpinia sappan L.

  15. Phytoextraction potential of poplar (Populus alba L. var. pyramidalis Bunge) from calcareous agricultural soils contaminated by cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yahu; Nan, Zhongren; Jin, Cheng; Wang, Ning; Luo, Huanzhang

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the phytoextraction potential of Populus alba L. var. pyramidalis Bunge for cadmium (Cd) contaminated calcareous soils, a concentration gradient experiment and a field sampling experiment (involving poplars of different ages) were conducted. The translocation factors for all experiments and treatments were greater than 1. The bioconcentration factor decreased from 2.37 to 0.25 with increasing soil Cd concentration in the concentration gradient experiment and generally decreased with stand age under field conditions. The Cd concentrations in P. pyramidalis organs decreased in the order of leaves > stems > roots. The shoot biomass production in the concentration gradient experiment was not significantly reduced with soil Cd concentrations up to or slightly over 50 mg kg(-1). The results show that the phytoextraction efficiency of P. pyramidalis depends on both the soil Cd concentration and the tree age. Populus pyramidalis is most suitable for remediation of slightly Cd contaminated calcareous soils through the combined harvest of stems and leaves under actual field conditions.

  16. Test de germination des graines de Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La présente étude a pour objectif d'évaluer la germination des graines de deux provenances (Ouèdo/Bénin et Atakpamè/Togo) de Caesalpinia bonduc sur différents types de substrats (terreau chauffé, terreau traité aux fongicide et insecticide-nématicide et terreau non traité). Pour chacune des provenances, deux lots de ...

  17. Chromosome number and karyotype of the endangered Amazonian woody Centrolobium paraense Tul. species

    OpenAIRE

    Nair Dahmer; Maria Teresa Schifino Wittmann; Paulo Emilio Kaminski

    2009-01-01

    Centrolobium paraense Tul., popularly known in Brazil as “pau-rainha”, is a species with a high timberpotential, presently endangered due to deforestation of the Amazonian region and indiscriminate wood extraction. Chromosomenumber and karyotype morphology of this species are presented for the first time. All the individuals of the three populationsanalyzed are diploid, with 2n=2x=20 chromosomes. The chromosomes ranging from ca. 1.7 to 4 μm in size. The karyotypeis composed of three metacentr...

  18. Germination, carbohydrate composition and vigor of cryopreserved Caesalpinia echinata seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fonsêca Zanotti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the germination and vigor of Caesalpinia echinata (Brazilwood seeds stored at negative temperatures. Recently harvested seeds were cryopreserved at -18º or -196ºC and periodically evaluated for germination, seed vigor and carbohydrate composition. The temperatures did not influence the germination percentages or vigor. The germination percentage decreased from 88% in recently harvested seeds to 60% after 730 days of storage. The different temperature and storage times tested did not affect the vigor seed germination as indicated by the measures of plant growth and survival. The different temperatures used did not cause changes in the carbohydrate composition. The tegument cell walls were rich in lignin, arabinose and xylose. The cytoplasm of the cotyledons and embryos had high levels of glucose, fructose, and sucrose. The cryopreservation technique here presented was effective in the conservation of Brazilwood seeds for the medium term.

  19. Evaluation of wound healing property of Caesalpinia mimosoides Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Pradeep Bhaskar; Hegde, Shruti; Upadhya, Vinayak; Hegde, Ganesh R; Habbu, Prasanna V; Mulgund, Gangadhar S

    2016-12-04

    Caesalpinia mimosoides Lam. is one of the important traditional folk medicinal plants in the treatment of skin diseases and wounds used by healers of Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka state (India). However scientific validation of documented traditional knowledge related to medicinal plants is an important path in current scenario to fulfill the increasing demand of herbal medicine. The study was carried out to evaluate the claimed uses of Caesalpinia mimosoides using antimicrobial, wound healing and antioxidant activities followed by detection of possible active bio-constituents. Extracts prepared by hot percolation method were subjected to preliminary phytochemical analysis followed by antimicrobial activity using MIC assay. In vivo wound healing activity was evaluated by circular excision and linear incision wound models. The extract with significant antimicrobial and wound healing activity was investigated for antioxidant capacity using DPPH, nitric oxide, antilipid peroxidation and total antioxidant activity methods. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also determined by Folin-Ciocalteu, Swain and Hillis methods. Possible bio-active constituents were identified by GC-MS technique. RP-UFLC-DAD analysis was carried out to quantify ethyl gallate and gallic acid in the plant extract. Preliminary phytochemical analysis showed positive results for ethanol and aqueous extracts for all the chemical constituents. The ethanol extract proved potent antimicrobial activity against both bacterial and fungal skin pathogens compared to other extracts. The efficacy of topical application of potent ethanol extract and traditionally used aqueous extracts was evidenced by the complete re-epithelization of the epidermal layer with increased percentage of wound contraction in a shorter period. However, aqueous extract failed to perform a consistent effect in the histopathological assessment. Ethanol extract showed effective scavenging activity against DPPH and nitric

  20. Gastroprotective activity of Cenostigma macrophyllum Tul. var. acuminata Teles Freire leaves on experimental ulcer models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, A F S C; Fernandes, H B; Silva, F V; Oliveira, I S; Freitas, F F B P; Machado, F D F; Costa, C L S; Arcanjo, D D R; Chaves, M H; Oliveira, F A; Oliveira, R C M

    2013-10-28

    Cenostigma macrophyllum Tul. var. acuminata Teles Freire (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae), popularly known in Brazil as "caneleiro", is widely used in folk medicine against gastrointestinal diseases. In previous studies, the ethanol extract of leaves from Cenostigma macrophyllum Tul. var. acuminata Teles Freire had shown antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant and antiulcerogenic activities. The aim of this study was to assess the gastroprotective effect of the hydroalcoholic fraction of leaves of Cenostigma macrophyllum Tul. var. acuminata Teles Freire (Cm-FHA), as well as to elucidate the possible underlying mechanisms of action. Mice were used for the evaluation of the acute toxicity, and mice and rats to study the gastroprotective activity. The potential gastroprotective of Cm-FHA was assessed on different gastric ulcer models in rodents, such as absolute ethanol, HCl/ethanol, ischemia-reperfusion, cold restraint stress and indomethacin. The participation of prostaglandins, NO-synthase pathway and ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP) in gastroprotective activity of Cm-FHA were evaluated after treatment with a cyclooxygenase inhibitor (indomethacin), a NO-synthase inhibitor (L-NAME) and a KATP channel blocker (glibenclamide 5mg/kg), respectively. Likewise, the catalase activity was determinated in order to assess the possible participation of antioxidant mechanisms. No signs of acute toxicity was observed after oral acute administration of Cm-FHA, considering the analyzed parameters. Likewise, Cm-FHA promoted a protective effect against gastric ulcers induced by absolute ethanol (lesion inhibition by 40% at both 100 and 200mg/kg), HCl/ethanol (lesion inhibition by 50 or 48% at 100 or 200mg/kg, respectively), ischemia-reperfusion (lesion inhibition by 49 or 90% at 100 or 200mg/kg, respectively) and cold restraint stress (lesion inhibition by 63 or 76% at 100 or 200mg/kg, respectively), as well as a increase of catalase activity was

  1. Chromosome number and karyotype of the endangered Amazonian woody Centrolobium paraense Tul. species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair Dahmer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Centrolobium paraense Tul., popularly known in Brazil as “pau-rainha”, is a species with a high timberpotential, presently endangered due to deforestation of the Amazonian region and indiscriminate wood extraction. Chromosomenumber and karyotype morphology of this species are presented for the first time. All the individuals of the three populationsanalyzed are diploid, with 2n=2x=20 chromosomes. The chromosomes ranging from ca. 1.7 to 4 μm in size. The karyotypeis composed of three metacentric, three submetacentric (one with a satellite on the short arm, three acrocentric and onesubacrocentric chromosome pairs. Other Centrolobium species and populations should be analyzed in order to assess theextent of intraspecific and interspecific variation in chromosome number and morphology, if any.

  2. Effects of nutrient omission in Caesalpinia echinata plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Valiengo Valeri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth, the morphological alterations and the mineral composition of brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata plants caused by mineral nutrients omission in a green house experiment. The experimental units were distributed in the green house according to a completely random design. The treatments, each repeated five times, were the following : check (natural soil, complete (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Mn, and Zn and a complete solution but for the omission of one of the nutrients in parenthesis. Each plot was represented by a plant growing in a 7 dm3 vase filled with Quartzarenic Neosol. The analyzed variables were the following: visual nutritional deficiency symptoms, plant height, stem diameter, shoot dry matter, stem, branches and leaves included, and leaf nutrients level. The omission of nitrogen limited plant growth in height and shoot biomass production. The first visual deficiency symptoms were those due to N omission followed by those caused by P, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, and Mn omissions. Later on the K and B deficiency symptoms became visible. The omission of a nutrient always caused its level in the leaves to be significantly lower than that found when it was not omitted.

  3. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential of Caesalpinia ferrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Maria A. Lima

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. belongs to the family Fabaceae. Known as pau-ferro and jucá, it is used in folk medicine to treat diabetes, as antipyretic and antirheumatic. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of the ethanol extract of the fruits of C. ferrea (EECf. In the evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity, EECf (50 mg/kg produced significantly inhibition of ear edema by 66.6% compared to control. Indomethacin (10 mg/kg showed inhibition of 83.9% compared to control. EECf (50 mg/kg inhibited of vascular permeability induced by acetic acid and was also able to reduce of cell migration to the peritoneal cavity induced by thioglycolate. In the writhing test induced by acid acetic, EECf (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg significantly reduced the number of contortions by 24.9, 46.9 and 74.2%, respectively. In the formalin test, EECf presented effects only in the second phase. The results provided experimental evidence for the effectiveness of the traditional use of C. ferrea in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain.

  4. [Isolation and characterization of a DRE-binding transcription factor from Yinxin poplar (Populus alba x P. alba var. pyramidalis)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hong-Xia; Jia, Zhi-Ping; Zhang, Hai-Chao; Liu, Jing-Mei; Song, Yu-Xia

    2005-11-01

    Dehydration-Responsive Element Binding ( DREB) transcription factors, specifically binding with dehydration reponsive element (DRE), activate a variety of stress-responsive genes in plants under abiotic stresses (dehydration, high salt and low temperature). Using PCR and homologous EST search, we isolated a DREB-like gene from Yinxin poplar (Populus alba x P. alba var. pyramidalis) named PaDREB2. Yeast One-hybrid experiment demonstrated that PaDREB2 protein could function as a DREB transcription factor activating target gene expression by specifically binding to DRE cis-element. To study the expression pattern of PaDREB2, RT-PCR was carried out. And the results showed that PaDREB2 is induced by low temperature, drought and high salt.

  5. [Cotton laccase gene overexpression in transgenic Populus alba var. pyramidalis and its effects on the lignin biosynthesis in transgenic plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji; Zhu, Mu Lan; Wei, Zhi Ming

    2008-02-01

    Using petioles as explants, a cotton laccase cDNA (GaLA C1) was introduced into Populus alba var. pyramidalis by A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation. PCR and Southern blot analysis indicated that transgene was stably integrated into the genome of transformants. Enzyme assay showed that laccase activity was obviously increased in transformants. As compared with untransformed control, total lignin content in all tested transgenic lines was elevated in varying degrees (as highest as 21.5%). Histochemical staining of lignin further confirmed that overexpressing GaLA C1 could result in increased lignin content in transformants. Together, our data strongly suggested that GaLA C1 may participate in lignin synthesis and this is the first direct transgenic evidence for the involvement of plant laccases in lignification.

  6. Filogeografía del complejo Caesalpinia hintonii: (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae: Poincianella Phylogeography of the Caesalpinia hintonii complex (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae: Poincianella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Sotuyo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesar del crecido número de estudios que se ha realizado para explorar la estructura genética y filogeográfica en especies mexicanas, hay carencia de estudios para especies de selva baja, zonas con alto grado de endemismo. Para un mejor entendimiento de dichas áreas se realizó un estudio filogeográfico y el fechamiento de las especies del complejo Caesalpinia hintonii distribuido en la depresión del río Balsas y el valle de Tehuacán-Cuicatlán. Se determinó la estructura filogeográfica del complejo analizando las secuencias de 4 regiones de plastidio (intrón trnL, espaciador trnL-F, espaciador psbA-trnH y espaciador accD-psaI en todas las poblaciones disponibles. Se estimó la fecha del origen del complejo mediante un método no paramétrico (NPRS. Las diversidades haplotídicas (0.64-1 y las diferencias nucleotídicas (3.8-11.52 en todas las especies fueron altas respecto a valores registrados para otras plantas. Las poblaciones de C. oyamae, morfológicamente indistintas están genéticamente estructuradas y presentan 3 haplogrupos donde el flujo génico entre ellos es bajo y se consideraron entidades crípticas. Las poblaciones de C. hintonii son un grupo genéticamente homogéneo a pesar de ser morfológicamente distintas. Las poblaciones de C. macvaughii forman 2 linajes divergentes entre los que existe flujo génico (Nm=1.41. Los eventos de divergencia en 2 grandes linajes al este y oeste del río Balsas pueden explicarse por eventos geológicos. Los resultados indican que el complejo se encuentra bajo divergencia y en algunos casos radiación morfostática.Although many phylogeographic studies have been conducted to analyze the genetic and phylogeographic structure of Mexican species, such studies are nearly absent for plants of dry seasonal forest, precincts with high level of endemism. To better understand this areas, we undertook a phylogeographic study and dating were carried out on the Caesalpinia hintonii complex

  7. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties

    OpenAIRE

    María Gabriela Gallego; Gordon, Michael H.; Francisco Segovia; María Pilar Almajano Pablos

    2016-01-01

    The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD) and Caesalpinia spinosa “Tara” (CS) were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts...

  8. Performance of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract as photo sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, S.; Vivek, P.; Saravana Kumar, G.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2015-02-01

    A natural dye extracted from Caesalpinia sappan heartwood was used as photo sensitizer for the first time to fabricate titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles based dye sensitized solar cells. Brazilin and brazilein are the major pigments present in the natural dye and their optimized molecular structure were calculated using Density functional theory (DFT) at 6-31G (d) level. The HOMO-LUMO were performed to reveal the energy gap using optimized structure. Pure TiO2 nanoparticles in anatase phase were synthesized by sol-gel technique. The pure and natural dye sensitized TiO2 nanoparticles were subjected to structural, optical, spectral and morphological studies. Low cost and environment friendly dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated using natural dye sensitized TiO2 based photo anode. The solar light to electron conversion efficiency of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract sensitized dye sensitized solar cell is 1.1%.

  9. Light as an indicator of ecological succession in brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata Lam.)

    OpenAIRE

    Mengarda,Liana H. G.; Souza,Rogério L. F. de; Campostrini, Eliemar; Reis,Fabrício O.; Vendrame,Wagner A.; Cuzzuol,Geraldo R. F.

    2009-01-01

    The ecophysiological behavior of brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata Lam.) plants was evaluated as affected by light quantity and quality. Nine-month-old plants were cultivated under 0%, 50%, and 80% artificial shading, and natural shading imposed by a closed canopy for a period of 392 days. At the end of that period growth parameters were measured, including relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), leaf area ratio (LAR), specific leaf mass (SLM) and root:shoot ratio (R:S). Highe...

  10. Cytogenetic characterization of Caesalpinia spinosafrom Tarma and Palca (Junín

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    Alberto López

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Somatic chromosomes of Caesalpinia spinosa (Feuillée ex Molina Kuntze, “Tara”, wild populations of Huinco and Palca (Junín regions were studied. The specie were diploid (2n=24. Chromosomes were small. The karyotypes showed the same chromosome number, they found differences in morphological parameters of the same, with the karyotype formula for the town of Huinco: 6m + 6 sm and the town of Palca: 5m + 7 sm.

  11. In Vitro Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Gallic Acid Isolated From Caesalpinia Decapetala Wood

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    Upendra Bhadoriya

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Antioxidant capacities and phenolic contents of Gallic Acid isolated from plant Caesalpinia decapetala were investigated. Caesalpinia decapetala is a plant used to treat burns, biliousness and stomach disorders. Methods: The antioxidant activity was estimated by the ABTS and DPPH methods. The total phenolic was measured using Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Identification of isolated Gallic Acid was also performed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC using Cosmosil C18 column (150mm x 4.6mm, 5毺 m particle. The mobile phase was a mixture of ethyl acetate: ethanol: water (1:5:4, v/v/v delivered at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min-1. Results: The total phenolic content was found to be 4.31% (w/w. Isolation of Gallic Acid with optimum yield was performed using a mixture of solvents (Ethanol: Water 65:35. Isolated Gallic Acid showed significant in vitro free radical scavenging activity in both model; but in ABTS assay significant % inhibition of free radical was observed as compared to DPPH assay. Conclusions: Research concluded that Caesalpinia decapetala extract can be used as potent antioxidant which can play vital role against the diseases like neurodegenerative disorders, inflammation, viral infections and gastric ulcer

  12. Isolation and Culture of Leaf Protoplasts from In Vitro Subcultured Poplars: Populus tomentosa, Populus alba cv. Pyramidalis×Populus tomentosa and Populus maximowiczii×Populus plantierensis

    OpenAIRE

    KANG, Jae-Myung; IDE, Yuji; SASAKI, Satohiko

    1995-01-01

    Leaf protolasts were successfully isolated from in vitro cultured plantlets of Populus tomentosa, Populus alba cv. Pyramidalis×Populus tomentosa and Populus maximowiczii×Populus plantierensis by using enzyme solution containing 1% Cellulase 'Onozuka'RS and 0.25% Pectolyase Y-23 in 0.6M mannitol solution. Cell division and cell cluster formation were observed in P. maximowiczii×P. plantierensis during successive culture in a modified MS liquid medium containing BAP and 2,4-D, from which ammoni...

  13. Ocurrencia de Argyrotaenia sphaleropa Meyrick (1909 (Lepidoptero: Tortricidae en Caesalpinia spinosa (Molina Kuntze Britton & Rose (1824

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    Hipólito Murga Orrillo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Los derivados de las vainas de tara (Caesalpinia spinosa (Molina Kuntze Britton & Rose (1824, presentan crecientes demandas industriales. En octubre del 2015 en la provincia de San Marcos, región Cajamarca, se verificó la ocurrencia de ataque de Argyrotaenia aphaleropa Meyrick (1909 a vainas de tara, produciendo daños directos, interfiriendo en su desarrollo y crecimiento, depreciando comercialmente el producto, generando restricciones en las exportaciones; por lo que esta plaga demanda su manejo integrado para disminuir la incidencia y evitar el ingreso a otras regiones libres de ataques.

  14. Effect of Leaves of Caesalpinia decapetala on Oxidative Stability of Oil-in-Water Emulsions

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    María Gabriela Gallego

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth Alston (Fabaceae (CD is used in folk medicine to prevent colds and treat bronchitis. This plant has antitumor and antioxidant activity. The antioxidant effects of an extract from Caesalpinia decapetala (Fabaceae were assessed by storage of model food oil-in-water emulsions with analysis of primary and secondary oxidation products. The antioxidant capacity of the plant extract was evaluated by the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays and by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy. Lyophilized extracts of CD were added at concentrations of 0.002%, 0.02% and 0.2% into oil-in-water emulsions, which were stored for 30 days at 33 ± 1 °C, and then, oxidative stability was evaluated. The CD extract had high antioxidant activity (700 ± 70 µmol Trolox/g dry plant for the ORAC assay, mainly due to its phenolic components: gallic acid, quercetin, catechin, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and p-coumaric acid. At a concentration of 0.2%, the extract significantly reduced the oxidative deterioration of oil-in-water emulsions. The results of the present study show the possibility of utilizing CD as a promising source of natural antioxidants for retarding lipid oxidation in the food and cosmetic industries.

  15. Effect of Leaves of Caesalpinia decapetala on Oxidative Stability of Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, María Gabriela; Skowyra, Monika; Gordon, Michael H.; Azman, Nurul Aini Mohd; Almajano, María Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth) Alston (Fabaceae) (CD) is used in folk medicine to prevent colds and treat bronchitis. This plant has antitumor and antioxidant activity. The antioxidant effects of an extract from Caesalpinia decapetala (Fabaceae) were assessed by storage of model food oil-in-water emulsions with analysis of primary and secondary oxidation products. The antioxidant capacity of the plant extract was evaluated by the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays and by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Lyophilized extracts of CD were added at concentrations of 0.002%, 0.02% and 0.2% into oil-in-water emulsions, which were stored for 30 days at 33 ± 1 °C, and then, oxidative stability was evaluated. The CD extract had high antioxidant activity (700 ± 70 µmol Trolox/g dry plant for the ORAC assay), mainly due to its phenolic components: gallic acid, quercetin, catechin, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and p-coumaric acid. At a concentration of 0.2%, the extract significantly reduced the oxidative deterioration of oil-in-water emulsions. The results of the present study show the possibility of utilizing CD as a promising source of natural antioxidants for retarding lipid oxidation in the food and cosmetic industries. PMID:28273843

  16. Performance of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract as photo sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, S; Vivek, P; Saravana Kumar, G; Murugakoothan, P

    2015-02-25

    A natural dye extracted from Caesalpinia sappan heartwood was used as photo sensitizer for the first time to fabricate titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles based dye sensitized solar cells. Brazilin and brazilein are the major pigments present in the natural dye and their optimized molecular structure were calculated using Density functional theory (DFT) at 6-31G (d) level. The HOMO-LUMO were performed to reveal the energy gap using optimized structure. Pure TiO2 nanoparticles in anatase phase were synthesized by sol-gel technique. The pure and natural dye sensitized TiO2 nanoparticles were subjected to structural, optical, spectral and morphological studies. Low cost and environment friendly dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated using natural dye sensitized TiO2 based photo anode. The solar light to electron conversion efficiency of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract sensitized dye sensitized solar cell is 1.1%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Substrate in the emergence and initial growth of seedlings of Caesalpinia pulcherrima

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    Magnólia Martins Alves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Caesalpinia pulcherrima is an exotic species belongs to the Fabaceae family commonly known as flamboyant-mirim, and widely used for urban forestry. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different substrates on the emergence and early seedlings growth of C. pulcherrima . The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse belonging to the Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal da Paraíba. The experimental design was completely randomized and treatments had 14 substrates: sand, vegetable soil, vermiculite, wood dust, carbonized rice straw, vegetable soil + sand 1:1, sand + wood dust 1:1, sand + carbonized rice straw 1:1, earth + wood dust 1:1, vegetable soil + carbonized rice straw 1:1, vermiculite + sand 1:1, vermiculite + wood dust 1:1, vermiculite + earth 1:1 and vermiculite + carbonized rice straw 1:1. Evaluation of the effect of the treatments was through the following determinations: percentage of emergency, first count, index of germination speed, length and dry weight of roots and shoots. The vermiculite, vegetable soil + sand 1:1, vermiculite + sand 1:1, vermiculite + saw dust 1:1, are suitable for emergence and early growth of seedlings of Caesalpinia pulcherrima . Substrates saw dust and carbonized rice straw were responsible for the worst performers on emergence and seedling development.

  18. Effect of Leaves of Caesalpinia decapetala on Oxidative Stability of Oil-in-Water Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, María Gabriela; Skowyra, Monika; Gordon, Michael H; Azman, Nurul Aini Mohd; Almajano, María Pilar

    2017-03-04

    Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth) Alston (Fabaceae) (CD) is used in folk medicine to prevent colds and treat bronchitis. This plant has antitumor and antioxidant activity. The antioxidant effects of an extract from Caesalpinia decapetala (Fabaceae) were assessed by storage of model food oil-in-water emulsions with analysis of primary and secondary oxidation products. The antioxidant capacity of the plant extract was evaluated by the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays and by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Lyophilized extracts of CD were added at concentrations of 0.002%, 0.02% and 0.2% into oil-in-water emulsions, which were stored for 30 days at 33 ± 1 °C, and then, oxidative stability was evaluated. The CD extract had high antioxidant activity (700 ± 70 µmol Trolox/g dry plant for the ORAC assay), mainly due to its phenolic components: gallic acid, quercetin, catechin, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and p-coumaric acid. At a concentration of 0.2%, the extract significantly reduced the oxidative deterioration of oil-in-water emulsions. The results of the present study show the possibility of utilizing CD as a promising source of natural antioxidants for retarding lipid oxidation in the food and cosmetic industries.

  19. Actividad antiinflamatoria de flores y hojas de Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. (Swartz Anti-inflammatory activity of flowers and leaves of Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. (Swartz

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    Germán Eduardo Matiz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Partes aéreas de la planta Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. (Swartz han sido usadas en medicina tradicional al sur del Departamento de Cundinamarca para el tratamiento de afecciones inflamatorias. Objetivo: Evaluar la actividad antiinflamatoria de flores, hojas y frutos verdes de Caesalpinia pulcherrima para cuantificar su actividad antiinflamatoria en modelos murinos de inflamación aguda y subcrónica. Metodología: Este estudio cuantificó la actividad antiinflamatoria de diferentes extractos de tejidos aéreos de esta especie encontrada en Colombia por dos modelos de inflamación aguda, el edema auricular inducido por TPA (acetato de 12-O-tetradecanoil-forbol y el edema plantar inducido por carragenina; así como el modelo de inflamación sub-crónico de granuloma inducido por pellet de algodón. Resultados: Los extractos de flores mostraron la mayor actividad antiinflamatoria en el modelo del TPA, en tanto que las hojas fueron más efectivas en disminuir el granuloma, en el modelo del pellet de algodón. No se observó ninguna actividad antiinflamatoria de ningún extracto en el modelo de carragenina. Los frutos verdes no mostraron actividad en ningún modelo. Conclusión: Los resultados demostraron la efectividad que el uso etnobotánico le atribuye a esta planta. Los extractos activos obtenidos mostraron el potencial uso de esta planta en la fabricación fitoterapéuticos efectivos. Salud UIS 2011; 43 (3: 281-287Introduction: Aerial parts of Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. (Swartz have been used in traditional medicine in southern Cundinamarca Department for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Objective: Evaluate the antiinflammatory activity of flowers, leaves and green fruits of the plant to quantify inflammatory activity of acute and subchronic murine inflammation models. Methodology: This study quantified the anti-inflammatory activity of different extracts of aerial tissues of this species for two models of acute

  20. Hepatoprotective Potential of Caesalpinia crista against Iron-Overload-Induced Liver Toxicity in Mice

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    Rhitajit Sarkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the ameliorating effect of Caesalpinia crista Linn. (CCME extract on iron-overload-induced liver injury. Iron overload was induced by intraperitoneal administration of iron dextran into mice. CCME attenuated the percentage increase in liver iron and serum ferritin levels when compared to control group. CCME also showed a dose-dependent inhibition of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and liver fibrosis. The serum enzyme markers were found to be less, whereas enhanced levels of liver antioxidant enzymes were detected in CCME-treated group. In presence of CCME, the reductive release of ferritin iron was increased significantly. Furthermore, CCME exhibited DPPH radical scavenging and protection against Fe2+-mediated oxidative DNA damage. The current study confirmed the hepatoprotective effect of CCME against the model hepatotoxicant iron overload and the activity is likely related to its potent antioxidant and iron-chelating property.

  1. Repellent Action of Carapa guianensis and Caesalpinia ferrea for flies species of Calliphoridae family

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    Ciciane Pereira Marten Fernandes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Myiases occur by the infestation of fly larvae in tissues of live vertebrate animals, resulting in economic loss. Phytotherapy is considered an important alternative in the control of insects, which may reduce the economic impacts . Carapa guianensis is a plant that has been studied as a repellent against mosquitoes and Caesalpinia ferrea is reported in tropical climates, and there are few studies about its repellent action. The present study was designed to evaluate the repellent action of s C. guianensis and C. ferrea plants on flies species of the Calliphoridae family. W.O.T. traps containing deteriorated bovine liver and herbs cream of at concentrations of 20 and 50% were used to catch the flies. It was reported that the creams containing C. ferrea at concentrations of 20 and 50% and C. guianensis at the concentration of 50% have repellent effect against species of Calliphoridae family.

  2. Antioxidant potential of hydro-methanolic extract of seed of Caesalpinia bonduc: An in vitro study

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    Kishalay Jana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the over production of reactive oxygen species is harmful for living organisms and it damages major cellular constituents such as DNA, protein, and lipid. At present, searching of new plant sources having free radical scavenging activity is an important field of research in phytomedicine as natural products are safe and relatively low cost. In this respect, attention has been focused to evaluate the antioxidant potential of hydro-methanolic extract of seed of Caesalpinia bonduc (Caesalpenacae using different in vitro models. To evaluate the antioxidant activity, extract was examined on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging effect, scavenging of hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical scavenging potential, and anti-lipid peroxidation activity by biochemical methods. Total phenol and flavonoids contents in the said extract were measured biochemically as per standard methods. Results were compared with butylated hydroxyl toluene and α-tocopherol. Results indicated that hydro-methanolic extract has strong scavenging activity on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical with IC 50 value 157.4 μg/ml, hydroxyl radical with IC 50 value 61.9 μg/ml and hydrogen peroxide with IC 50 value 64.32 μg/ml. Hydro-methanolic extract also showed notable inhibition in lipid peroxidation having IC 50 value 58.87 μg/ml. Phytochemical study focused that the extract is rich in phenolic compounds (24.66 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dried extract and flavonoids (136.65 mg quercetin equivalent/g dried extract. Findings of the experiment indicated that the hydro-methanolic extract of seed of Caesalpinia bonduc is a source of natural antioxidants.

  3. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, María Gabriela; Gordon, Michael H.; Segovia, Francisco; Almajano Pablos, María Pilar

    2016-01-01

    The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD) and Caesalpinia spinosa “Tara” (CS) were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts at a high concentration had lower tensile strength with higher elongation at break points, compared to the control film (p antioxidant activity in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and Trolox equivalence antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays when added at 0.2%. The application of gelatine film containing CD and CS was found to be effective in delaying lipid oxidation and deterioration of beef patty quality during storage. Therefore, the films prepared in this study offered an alternative edible coating for the preservation of fresh food. PMID:27043638

  4. Structure of a fragment of Atlantic Rainforest in regeneration with occurrence of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (brazil-wood

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    Liliane Baldan Zani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the phytosociological structure of a remaining fragment of Atlantic Rainforest undergoing regeneration in the town of Aracruz-ES in a forest board with natural occurrence of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. We installed 10 sample units (plots of 10 x 50m, sampling all individuals with DBH≥5cm and <10cm. Altogether, we sampled 500 individuals distributed into 181 species. The richest families were Leguminosae (35, Sapotaceae (18, and Myrtaceae (14. The most important species were Caesalpinia echinata Lam., Eugenia tinguyensis Cambess., and Pterocarpus rohrii Vahl. The Shannon index (H’ was 4.89 and the equability (J’ was 0.94. This area is one of the last remaining fragments with brazil-wood from the state of Espirito Santo and the population of this species is well preserved at the site, it occurs very frequently, emphasizing the importance of preserving small forest fragments to conserve biodiversity.

  5. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, María Gabriela; Gordon, Michael H; Segovia, Francisco; Almajano Pablos, María Pilar

    2016-03-31

    The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD) and Caesalpinia spinosa "Tara" (CS) were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts at a high concentration had lower tensile strength with higher elongation at break points, compared to the control film (p gelatine film containing CD and CS was found to be effective in delaying lipid oxidation and deterioration of beef patty quality during storage. Therefore, the films prepared in this study offered an alternative edible coating for the preservation of fresh food.

  6. In vitro antioxidant activity, phytochemical screening, cytotoxicity and total phenolic content in extracts of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (Caesalpiniaceae) pods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbhare, M R; Sivakumar, T; Udavant, P B; Dhake, A S; Surana, A R

    2012-04-01

    Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. Swartz (Caesalpiniaceae) is an ornamental plant also used as a common medicinal plant in India, Taiwan and South-East Asian countries. Majority of the diseases/disorders are mainly linked to oxidative stress due to free radicals. The aims of this study were to screen for phytochemical constituents, evaluate cytotoxicity, in vitro antioxidant activity and estimation of total phenolic content of extracts of pods of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, steroids and alkaloids. Brine Shrimp Lethality (BSL) bioassay was used to investigate the cytotoxic effects. The LC50(microg mL(-1)) values obtained for extracts as 750 microg mL(-1) for petroleum ether extract, 800 microg mL(-1) for chloroform extract and 900 microg mL(-1) for methanol extract. The total phenolic content of the methanolic extract was 38.04% w/w, equivalent to gallic acid. Petroleum ether, chloroform and methanolic extracts of Caesalpinia pulcherrima and standard ascorbic acid were found to be scavenger of DPPH radical with an IC50 of 124.75, 112.08, 54.34 and 13.86 microg mL(-1), respectively. Methanolic extract was good scavenger of DPPH radical. Petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate soluble fraction of methanolic extracts of pods of Caesalpinia pulcherrima and ascorbic acid were found to be scavenger of nitric oxide radical with an IC50 of 93.32, 65.12, 54.83 and 12.59 microg mL(-1), respectively. Ethyl acetate soluble fraction was found to be good scavenger of nitric oxide radical. Our conclusion provides support that the crude extracts of C. pulcherrima is a probable source of natural antioxidants and this justified its uses in folkloric medicines.

  7. The Effect of Prazosin and Oxybutynin on the Symptoms Due to Using Double J Catheter in Patients Underwent TUL

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    K. Tavakkoli Tabassi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Double J catheter has been used for years as an independent practice or a part of other urological practices. Although these catheters have solved many patients’ problems but those can cause symptoms and problems for patients. The aim of this study was the investigation the effect of prazosin and oxybutynin on the degree of symptoms due to using Double J catheter. Methods: In this interventional study, patients who underwent TUL from July 2008 to march 2008 in the lithotripsy ward of Imam Reza hospital were entered to the study and randomly divided in 3 groups randomly. In the first group, placebo, in the second group, oxybutynin, in the third group prazosin were prescribed. Three weeks later standard questionnaire Ureteric Stent Symptom Questionnaire (USSQ was completed. After collecting data, was analyzed using SPSS software. Results: A total of 113 patients (70 men 43 women were included to the study. The mean age was 39 years. There were no significance difference among urinary symptoms score pain of body and physical activity problems in three groups (P>0.05, but there was a significant difference in general health and work problems among them (P<0.05. Conclusion: Oxybutynin caused a low effect on improvement of general health and work problems in patients who were studied. It might Prazosin does not has a sufficient time to affect on urinary symptoms, because of shortness of usage.

  8. Gastroprotective Effect of Xylopia langsdorffiana A. St.-Hil. & Tul. (Annonaceae: Involvement of Endogenous Sulfhydryls Compounds and Nitric Oxide

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    Camila de Albuquerque Montenegro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Xylopia langsdorffiana A. St.-Hil. & Tul., belonging to the Annonaceae family, popularly known as "pimenteira-da-terra" was selected for study on the basis of chemotaxonomic criteria because various chemical compounds (among these the diterpenes with pharmacological activities have been isolated. We investigated the acute toxicity of the ethanolic extract (EtOHE and hexane phase (HexPh obtained from the leaves of X. langsdorffiana (XL and its ability to prevent gastric mucosa ulceration in animal models. The results suggest that XL-EtOHE has low toxicity to mice treated with a single dose of 2000 mg/kg (p.o. and the inhibition the formation of gastric lesions induced by ethanol, restraint-hypothermic stress and NSAIDs. In the pylorus ligature model, XL-EtOHE (500 mg/kg and XL-HexPh (250 mg/kg showed gastric protection with both oral (p.o. and intraduodenal (i.d. administration, yet without altering the gastric juice parameters (pH, [H +], and volume. XL-HexPh (250 mg/kg did not increase mucus production, and both EtOHE and HexPh induced gastroprotection with a certain dependency on sulfhydryls groups and nitric oxide.

  9. Maturação de frutos de Caesalpinia echinata Lam., pau-brasil Maturation of fruits of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brasil wood

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    Francismar Francisco Alves Aguiar

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se parâmetros indicativos da maturação de frutos de árvores de Caesalpinia echinata, visando determinar a melhor época de colheita para propagação. Foram utilizadas 10 plantas-matriz cultivadas em Mogi-Guaçu, SP, nas quais foram etiquetadas 250 inflorescências no pico da floração para acompanhamento da maturação. As coletas de frutos tiveram início a partir da 5ª semana após a antese, prolongando-se até a 9ª, com intervalos de sete dias. Em cada coleta, analisaram-se os parâmetros: comprimento, largura e teor de água dos frutos; teor de água das sementes (após três dias de exposição ao sol para deiscência do fruto e extração da semente; porcentagem de germinação e peso de matéria seca de frutos, sementes e plântulas. Observou-se, ainda, a coloração dos frutos como parâmetro visual de maturação das sementes. O experimento foi repetido por três anos. Os testes de germinação foram realizados em caixas Gerbox contendo vermiculita umedecida com água destilada. As sementes foram colocadas para germinar em câmara regulada para 30 ºC e fotoperíodo de 12 horas O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições de 25 sementes por parcela, nos anos de 1991, 1992 e 1993. As leituras de germinação foram realizadas nos 4º e 8º dias após a semeadura. Pelos resultados, conclui-se que o momento ideal para coleta dos frutos de C. echinata é no estádio de pré-dispersão (entre a 8º e 9º após a antese visualizado através da coloração, quando estes mudam de verde para castanho.Several indicative parameters regarding fruit maturity of Caesalpinia echinata were studied in order to establish the ideal harvest time. Ten matrix plants were cultivated in Moji-Guaçu, SP (22°11' to 1022°18' S and 47°13' to 47°20' WG, altitude between 600m and 730m. The climate of the region is classified as Cwa. Two hundred and fifty blossoms were tagged during the the peak

  10. Potencial de rizobactérias no crescimento de mudas de sibipiruna (caesalpinia peltophoroides BENTH Epotential of rhizobacterias for the growth of seedlings of sibipiruna (Caesalpinia peltophoroides BENTH

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    Jeane de Fátima Cunha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o potencial de isolados de rizobactérias na germinação de sementes e no crescimento de mudas de sibipiruna (Caesalpinia peltophoroides. Testaram-se os isolados pré-selecionados para eucalipto, Ca, FL2, MF2, MF4, RC3, R1, 3918, S1, S2 e CIIB. Para tanto, amostras de substrato à base de vermiculita e casca de arroz carbonizada (1:1 foram tratados com 5 mL de uma suspensão de cada isolado (OD540= 0,2 A/ tubete de 55 cc de capacidade, correspondendo a cerca de 10 ufc/mL. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado (DIC com cinco repetições por tratamento, com 20 sementes cada. Aos 40 dias, avaliaram-se a porcentagem de germinação e a massa seca de raízes e da parte aérea. Verificou-se aumento significativo em matéria seca de raiz e da parte aérea para todos os isolados de rizobactérias testados, em relação à testemunha. Todos os isolados proporcionaram aumento significativo na germinação, à exceção do 3918 e CIIB que não diferiram da testemunha. Entre os isolados testados, quatro destacaram-se como os mais promissores (FL2, MF4, MF2 e CIIB. Os resultados obtidos mostram ganhos significativos na produção de mudas, sem nenhum ajuste no manejo ou na estrutura do viveiro. Além desse ganho direto, pode-se ter um melhor aproveitamento da estrutura física dos viveiros, ao se diminuir o tempo de formação das mudas, reduzindo-se o custo de produção.The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of growth-promoting rhizobacteria for seed germination and biomass of the root system and aerial part of seedlings of sibipiruna ( Caesalpinia Peltophoroides: . Isolates pre-selected for eucalyptus were used, Ca, FL2, MF2, MF4, RC3, R1, 3918, S1, S2 and CIIB. Thus, samples of vermiculite-based substrate and carbonized rice hull (1:1 were treated with 5 mL of a suspension of each isolate (OD540= 0.2 A/ tubette of 55 cc capacity corresponding to around 10 ufc/mL. The experimental

  11. Impact of Plant-Derived Flavonoids on Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Silvia Lima; Silva, Victor Diogenes Amaral; Dos Santos Souza, Cleide; Santos, Cleonice Creusa; Paris, Irmgard; Muñoz, Patricia; Segura-Aguilar, Juan

    2016-07-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders have a common characteristic that is the involvement of different cell types, typically the reactivity of astrocytes and microglia, characterizing gliosis, which in turn contributes to the neuronal dysfunction and or death. Flavonoids are secondary metabolites of plant origin widely investigated at present and represent one of the most important and diversified among natural products phenolic groups. Several biological activities are attributed to this class of polyphenols, such as antitumor activity, antioxidant, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory, among others, which give significant pharmacological importance. Our group have observed that flavonoids derived from Brazilian plants Dimorphandra mollis Bent., Croton betulaster Müll. Arg., e Poincianella pyramidalis Tul., botanical synonymous Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. also elicit a broad spectrum of responses in astrocytes and neurons in culture as activation of astrocytes and microglia, astrocyte associated protection of neuronal progenitor cells, neuronal differentiation and neuritogenesis. It was observed the flavonoids also induced neuronal differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells and human pluripotent stem cells. Moreover, with the objective of seeking preclinical pharmacological evidence of these molecules, in order to assess its future use in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, we have evaluated the effects of flavonoids in preclinical in vitro models of neuroinflammation associated with Parkinson's disease and glutamate toxicity associated with ischemia. In particular, our efforts have been directed to identify mechanisms involved in the changes in viability, morphology, and glial cell function induced by flavonoids in cultures of glial cells and neuronal cells alone or in interactions and clarify the relation with their neuroprotective and morphogetic effects.

  12. Antileishmanial Effect of 5,3′-Hydroxy-7,4′-dimethoxyflavanone of Picramnia gracilis Tul. (Picramniaceae Fruit: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies

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    Sara M. Robledo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Species of Picramnia genus are used in folk medicine to treat or prevent skin disorders, but only few species have been studied for biological activity and chemical composition. P. gracilis Tul. is a native species from Central and South America and although its fruits are edible, phytochemical analysis or medicinal uses of this species are not known. In the search of candidates to antileishmanial drugs, this work aimed to evaluate the antileishmanial activity of P. gracilis Tul. in in vitro and in vivo studies. Only ethanolic extract of fruits showed leishmanicidal activity. The majoritarian metabolite was 5,3′-hydroxy-7,4′-dimethoxyflavanone ether that exhibited high activity against L. (V. panamensis (EC50 17.0 + 2.8 mg/mL, 53.7 μM and low toxicity on mammalian U-937 cells, with an index of selectivity >11.8. In vivo studies showed that the flavanone administered in solution (2 mg/kg/day or cream (2% induces clinical improvement and no toxicity in hamsters with CL. In conclusion, this is the first report about isolation of 5,3′-hydroxy-7,4′-dimethoxyflavanone of P. gracilis Tul. The leishmanicidal activity attributed to this flavanone is also reported for the first time. Finally, the in vitro and in vivo leishmanicidal activity reported here for 5,3′-hydroxy-7,4′-dimethoxyflavanone offers a greater prospect towards antileishmanial drug discovery and development.

  13. Avaliação do potencial toxicológico e farmacológico das folhas de Caesalpinia echinata Lam

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth Sampaio Grangeiro, Ana

    2009-01-01

    Caesalpinia echinata Lam, popularmente conhecida como pau-brasil ou pernambuco, é uma árvore considerada de valor histórico e econômico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a toxicidade aguda e as atividades antinociceptiva, antiinflamatória e antitumoral frente ao Sarcoma 180 do extrato bruto etanólico das folhas de Caesalpinia echinata Lam. A toxicidade aguda foi avaliada através da metodologia da Organização para Cooperação Econômica e Desenvolvimento (OECD 423), que pr...

  14. Evaluation of Caesalpinia bonduc seed coat extract for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity

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    Dayanand M Kannur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, Caesalpinia bonduc seed coat extract (CBSCE has been evaluated for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity C. bonduc seeds have been attributed with anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties in the folklore medicine. Here in our study, we have tried to carry out the systematic evaluation of the seed coat extract of C. bonduc to substantiate these claims. C. bonduc seed coat was extracted with 95% ethanol and concentrated; further, the extract was screened for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. The studies were carried using Carrageenan-induced Paw Edema, Egg albumin-induced paw edema, Eddy′s Hot Plate Test, Tail Immersion Method so as to prove acclaimed properties. The data was analyzed statistically by Students′ ′t′ test. The results indicate that seed coat extract has the ability to decrease the induced inflammation at varied doses in Carrageenan model as well as in the Egg albumin model in rats. The antinociceptive results indicate that the extract has the ability to increase the pain threshold of the animals and reduce the pain factor, thereby inducing analgesia. Thus, it can be concluded that CBSCE posses analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity.

  15. Antitumor activity and antioxidant status of Caesalpinia bonducella against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice.

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    Gupta, Malaya; Mazumder, Upal Kanti; Kumar, Ramanathan Sambath; Sivakumar, Thangavel; Vamsi, Madgula Lakshmi Mohan

    2004-02-01

    The methanol extract of Caesalpinia bonducella FLEMING (Caesalpiniaceae) leaves (MECB) were evaluated for antitumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC)-bearing Swiss albino mice. The extract was administered at the doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight per day for 14 days after 24 h of tumor inoculation. After the last dose and 18 h fasting, the mice were sacrificed. The present study deals with the effect of MECB on the growth of transplantable murine tumor, life span of EAC-bearing hosts, hematological profile, and biochemical parameters such as lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities. MECB caused significant (P<0.01) decrease in tumor volume, packed cell volume, and viable cell count; and it prolonged the life span of EAC-tumor bearing mice. Hematological profile converted to more or less normal levels in extract-treated mice. MECB significantly (P<0.05) decreased the levels of lipid peroxidation and significantly (P<0.05) increased the levels of GSH, SOD, and CAT. The MECB was found to be devoid of conspicuous short-term toxicity in the mice when administered daily (i.p.) for 14 days at the doses of 50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg. The treated mice showed conspicuous toxic symptoms only at 300 mg/kg. The results indicate that MECB exhibited significant antitumor and antioxidant activity in EAC-bearing mice.

  16. Caesalpinia decapetala Extracts as Inhibitors of Lipid Oxidation in Beef Patties

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    Maria G. Gallego

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the effects of Caesalpinia decapetala (CD extracts on lipid oxidation in ground beef patties. Plant extracts and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT were individually added to patties at both 0.1% and 0.5% (w/w concentrations. We assessed the antioxidant efficacy of CD by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay and evaluated their potential as natural antioxidants for meat preservation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS values, hexanal content, fatty acid composition and color parameters. These were tested periodically during 11 days of refrigerated storage. TBARS levels were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05 in the samples containing plant extracts or BHT than in the non-treated control. In addition, the beef patties formulated with the selected plant extracts showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05 better color stability than those without antioxidants. These results indicate that edible plant extracts are promising sources of natural antioxidants and can potentially be used as functional preservatives in meat products.

  17. PASS-Predicted Hepatoprotective Activity of Caesalpinia sappan in Thioacetamide-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Rats

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    Farkaad A. Kadir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The antifibrotic effects of traditional medicinal herb Caesalpinia sappan (CS extract on liver fibrosis induced by thioacetamide (TAA and the expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1, α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA in rats were studied. A computer-aided prediction of antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities was primarily performed with the Prediction Activity Spectra of the Substance (PASS Program. Liver fibrosis was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by TAA administration (0.03% w/v in drinking water for a period of 12 weeks. Rats were divided into seven groups: control, TAA, Silymarin (SY, and CS 300 mg/kg body weight and 100 mg/kg groups. The effect of CS on liver fibrogenesis was determined by Masson’s trichrome staining, immunohistochemical analysis, and western blotting. In vivo determination of hepatic antioxidant activities, cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1, and matrix metalloproteinases (MPPS was employed. CS treatment had significantly increased hepatic antioxidant enzymes activity in the TAA-treated rats. Liver fibrosis was greatly alleviated in rats when treated with CS extract. CS treatment was noted to normalize the expression of TGF-β1, αSMA, PCNA, MMPs, and TIMP1 proteins. PASS-predicted plant activity could efficiently guide in selecting a promising pharmaceutical lead with high accuracy and required antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties.

  18. Evaluation of Caesalpinia bonduc seed coat extract for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannur, Dayanand M.; Paranjpe, Mukta P.; Sonavane, Lalit V.; Dongre, Prerana P.; Khandelwal, Kishanchand R.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, Caesalpinia bonduc seed coat extract (CBSCE) has been evaluated for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity C. bonduc seeds have been attributed with anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties in the folklore medicine. Here in our study, we have tried to carry out the systematic evaluation of the seed coat extract of C. bonduc to substantiate these claims. C. bonduc seed coat was extracted with 95% ethanol and concentrated; further, the extract was screened for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. The studies were carried using Carrageenan-induced Paw Edema, Egg albumin-induced paw edema, Eddy's Hot Plate Test, Tail Immersion Method so as to prove acclaimed properties. The data was analyzed statistically by Students’ ‘t’ test. The results indicate that seed coat extract has the ability to decrease the induced inflammation at varied doses in Carrageenan model as well as in the Egg albumin model in rats. The antinociceptive results indicate that the extract has the ability to increase the pain threshold of the animals and reduce the pain factor, thereby inducing analgesia. Thus, it can be concluded that CBSCE posses analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:23057003

  19. Caesalpinia decapetala Extracts as Inhibitors of Lipid Oxidation in Beef Patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Maria G; Gordon, Michael H; Segovia, Francisco J; Almajano, María P

    2015-07-31

    In this study we investigated the effects of Caesalpinia decapetala (CD) extracts on lipid oxidation in ground beef patties. Plant extracts and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were individually added to patties at both 0.1% and 0.5% (w/w) concentrations. We assessed the antioxidant efficacy of CD by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and evaluated their potential as natural antioxidants for meat preservation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values, hexanal content, fatty acid composition and color parameters. These were tested periodically during 11 days of refrigerated storage. TBARS levels were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) in the samples containing plant extracts or BHT than in the non-treated control. In addition, the beef patties formulated with the selected plant extracts showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) better color stability than those without antioxidants. These results indicate that edible plant extracts are promising sources of natural antioxidants and can potentially be used as functional preservatives in meat products.

  20. Hepatoprotective effect of Caesalpinia gilliesii and Cajanus cajan proteins against acetoaminophen overdose-induced hepatic damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Maha Z; Aly, Hanan F; Abo-Elmatty, Dina M; Desoky, M M; Ibrahim, N; Younis, Eman A

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to evaluate two proteins derived from the seeds of the plants Cajanus cajan (Leguminosae) and Caesalpinia gilliesii (Leguminosae) for their abilities to ameliorate the toxic effects of chronic doses of acetoaminphen (APAP) through the determination of certain biochemical parameters including liver marker enzymes: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin. Also, total protein content and hepatic marker enzyme, lactate dehydrogenase were studied. Moreover, liver antioxidants, glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide, and lipid peroxides were determined in this study. Hepatic adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), adenylate energy charge (ATP, adenosine diphosphate, adenosine monophosphate, and inorganic phosphate), and phosphate potential, serum interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and myeloperoxidase were also examined in the present study. On the other hand, histopathological examination of intoxicated and liver treated with both proteins was taken into consideration. The present results show disturbances in all biochemical parameters and hepatic toxicity signs including mild vascular congestion, moderate inflammatory changes with moderate congested sinusoids, moderate nuclear changes (pyknosis), moderate centrilobular necrosis, fatty changes, nuclear pyknosis vascular congestion, and change in fatty centrilobular necrosis liver. Improvement in all biochemical parameters studied was noticed as a result of treatment intoxicated liver with C. gilliesii and C. cajan proteins either paracetamol with or post paracetamol treatment. These results were documented by the amelioration signs in rat's hepatic architecture. Thus, both plant protein extracts can upregulate and counteract the inflammatory process, minimize damage of the liver, delay disease progression, and reduce its complications. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Caesalpinia echinata Lam. - BRAZILWOOD: THERMAL BEHAVIOR, STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS, AND RESISTANCE TO BIODETERIORATION IN STATIC SYSTEMS

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    Ana Paula Pinto Pinheiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Wood is the best-known biological material used as a raw material since the dawn of mankind until present days. As a natural and renewable composite, its lifetime is limited by the degradation of its basic elements. This degradation can be caused by chemical reactions or by biological agents capable of accelerating the process of deterioration. In this work, the wear, thermal, and micro-structural characteristics, as also the bio-degradation behavior in static systems, of the wood species Brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata were studied under laboratory conditions in order to use these woods in design. The results show that Brazilwood has a good visual performance after abrasion test, since it has not shown any representative roughness increase. In addition, Brazilwood has high level of crystallinity of, approximately, 68% and was almost insensitive to fungi attack, forming only 5.3 x 103 CFU/mL. Besides, its texture did not change due to exposure to water or sweat.

  2. In vitro propagation of Caesalpinia spinosa (Mol. O. Kuntz from axillary buds of selected trees

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    Jenny E Núñez Núñez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Guarango or tara [Caesalpinia spinosa (Mol. O. Kuntz] is a tree native to the Andes, with great economic importance and for reforestation programs. The aim of this work was to in vitro propagate this specie from axillary buds of selected trees. During in vitro establishment, the effect of sodium hypochlorite (3.0% with different times of disinfection (5.0, 10, 15 min, as well as the effect of 6-BAP on the in vitro response of buds were studied. For multiplication, different combination of 6-BAP with 0.1 mg l-1 ANA were tested. A free-growth regulator culture medium was used for rooting. The best results for in vitro establishment were achieved with a disinfection treatment with sodium hypochlorite 3.0% for 10 minutes and cultivation in a culture medium with 0.25 mg l-1 6-BAP, which 90% of buds in vitro established, with a length of 6.71 cm. The highest multiplication rate of shoot (2.88 per explant was obtained with 1.0 mg l-1 6-BAP and 0.1 mg l-1 ANA, after 60 days of culture. The 55% of these shoots developed roots in a half-strength basal salts MS culture medium free of regulators of growth.   Keywords: biodiversity, conservation, forest plant, guarango, tissue culture

  3. Enhanced in vitro dissolution of Iloperidone using Caesalpinia Pulcherrima mucoadhesive microspheres

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    Pradum Pundlikrao Ige

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to improve the solubility and dissolution rate of Iloperidone. Microspheres containing Iloperidone were prepared by spray drying using mucilage extracted from seeds of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. The novelty of this work is that, the extraction of mucilage and its usage for preparation of drug loaded microspheres. The prepared microspheres were characterized by SEM, DSC, XRPD, FTIR, 1H-NMR, particle size, drug content, entrapment efficiency, in vitro dissolution and ex vivo mucoadhesion. Based on particle size, drug content, ex vivo mucoadhesive strength and in vitro drug release, the best formulation was optimized. Percent entrapment efficiency and mean particle size for optimized formulation was found to be 73.49 and 3.27 ± 1.23 μm, respectively. More precisely, mucilage of C. pulcherrima could be significant carrier of (drug and polymer ratio 1:5 microspheres for the development of oral drug delivery.

  4. Constituintes químicos voláteis das flores e folhas do pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata, Lam.

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    Rezende Claudia M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The volatile constituents obtained from a static cryogenic headspace of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Leguminosae showed E-beta-ocimene as the major compound (57.2%, beside other monoterpenes, C6 derivatives like n-hexanal and (E-2-hexenal and nitrogen compounds such as indole and methyl anthranilate. From the essential oil of the leaves obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus, (E-3-hexen-1-ol was identified as the major constituent while phenolic compounds were the most representative class of secondary metabolites.

  5. Development of a UV/Vis spectrophotometric method for analysis of total polyphenols from Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth

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    Fernanda G. Bueno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia peltophoroides is a domesticated tree found in Brazil. It was necessary to develop an analytical method to determine the content of total polyphenols (TP in this herbal drug. The pre-analytical method was standardized for analysis time, wavelength, and the best standard to use. The optimum conditions were: pyrogallol, 760 nm, and 30 min respectively. Under these conditions, validation by UV/Vis spectrophotometry proved to be reliable for TP of the crude extract and semipurified fractions from C. peltophoroides. Standardization is required for every herbal drug, and this method proved to be linear, precise, accurate, reproducible, robust, and easy to perform.

  6. In vitro and in vivo assessment of the anti-malarial activity of Caesalpinia pluviosa

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    Eberlin Marcos N

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To overcome the problem of increasing drug resistance, traditional medicines are an important source for potential new anti-malarials. Caesalpinia pluviosa, commonly named "sibipiruna", originates from Brazil and possess multiple therapeutic properties, including anti-malarial activity. Methods Crude extract (CE was obtained from stem bark by purification using different solvents, resulting in seven fractions. An MTT assay was performed to evaluate cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells. The CE and its fractions were tested in vitro against chloroquine-sensitive (3D7 and -resistant (S20 strains of Plasmodium falciparum and in vivo in Plasmodium chabaudi-infected mice. In vitro interaction with artesunate and the active C. pluviosa fractions was assessed, and mass spectrometry analyses were conducted. Results At non-toxic concentrations, the 100% ethanolic (F4 and 50% methanolic (F5 fractions possessed significant anti-malarial activity against both 3D7 and S20 strains. Drug interaction assays with artesunate showed a synergistic interaction with the F4. Four days of treatment with this fraction significantly inhibited parasitaemia in mice in a dose-dependent manner. Mass spectrometry analyses revealed the presence of an ion corresponding to m/z 303.0450, suggesting the presence of quercetin. However, a second set of analyses, with a quercetin standard, showed distinct ions of m/z 137 and 153. Conclusions The findings show that the F4 fraction of C. pluviosa exhibits anti-malarial activity in vitro at non-toxic concentrations, which was potentiated in the presence of artesunate. Moreover, this anti-malarial activity was also sustained in vivo after treatment of infected mice. Finally, mass spectrometry analyses suggest that a new compound, most likely an isomer of quercetin, is responsible for the anti-malarial activity of the F4.

  7. Leishmanicidal compounds of Nectria pseudotrichia, an endophytic fungus isolated from the plant Caesalpinia echinata (Brazilwood

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    Betania Barros Cota

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In a screen of extracts from plants and fungi to detect antileishmanial activity, we found that the ethyl acetate extract of the fungus Nectria pseudotrichia, isolated from the tree Caesalpinia echinata (Brazilwood, is a promising source of bioactive compounds. OBJECTIVES The aims of this study were to isolate and determine the chemical structures of the compounds responsible for the antileishmanial activity of the organic extract from N. pseudotrichia. METHODS Compounds were isolated by chromatographic fractionation using semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography, and their chemical structures were determined by analytical and spectral data and by comparison with published data. The antileishmanial activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated in intracellular amastigote forms of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis expressing firefly luciferase as reporter gene, and cytotoxicity was determined in Vero and THP-1 mammalian cell lines by MTT assay. FINDINGS Fractionation of the extract yielded seven compounds: 10-acetyl trichoderonic acid A (1, 6′-acetoxy-piliformic acid (2, 5′,6′-dehydropiliformic acid (3, piliformic acid (4, hydroheptelidic acid (5, xylaric acid D (6, and cytochalasin D (7. Compounds 1, 2 and 3 are reported here for the first time. Compounds 1, 2, and 5 were more active, with IC50 values of 21.4, 28.3, and 24.8 µM, respectively, and showed low toxicity to Vero and THP-1 cells. MAIN CONCLUSIONS N. pseudotrichia produces secondary metabolites that are more toxic to intracellular amastigote forms of L. (V. braziliensis than to mammalian cells.

  8. Carbon Sequestration of Caesalpinia platyloba S. Watt (Leguminosae) (Lott 1985) in the Tropical Deciduous Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Gustavo, Norma; Martínez-Salvador, Martín; García-Hernández, José Luís; Norzagaray-Campos, Mariano; Luna-González, Antonio; González-Ocampo, Héctor Abelardo

    2015-01-01

    Caesalpinia platyloba was evaluated as an alternative for the retention of atmospheric carbon and as a feasible and viable economic activity in terms of income for tropical deciduous forest (TDF) peasants in the carbon markets. A total of 110 trees of C. platyloba from plantations and a TDF in the Northwest of Mexico were sampled. Growth (increase in height, diameter, and volume curves) was adjusted to assess their growth. Growth of individuals (height, diameter at breast height [DBH], age, and tree crown cover) was recorded. The Schumacher model (H = β(0)e(β1 • E-1)), by means of the guided curve method, was used to adjust growth models. Information analysis was made through the non-linear procedure with the multivariate secant or false position (DUD) method using the SAS software. Growth and increase models revealed acceptable adjustments (pseudo R(2)>0.8). C. platyloba reaches >8m of height with 12 cm in diameter and 550 cm(3) of volume, presenting the highest increase at 11 years considered as basal age. Highest significant density of wood was in good quality sites (0.80 g • cm(-3)), with a carbon content (average of 99.15tC • ha(-1)) at the highest density of 2500 trees • ha(-1) (without thinning). Average incomes of US$483.33tC • ha(-1) are expected. The profitability values (NPW = US$81,646.65, IRR = 472%, and B/C = 0.82) for C. platyloba make its cultivation a viable and profitable activity, considering a management scheme of the income derived from wood selling and from carbon credits.

  9. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gabriela Gallego

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD and Caesalpinia spinosa “Tara” (CS were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts at a high concentration had lower tensile strength with higher elongation at break points, compared to the control film (p < 0.05. Films exhibited antioxidant activity in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC and Trolox equivalence antioxidant capacity (TEAC assays when added at 0.2%. The application of gelatine film containing CD and CS was found to be effective in delaying lipid oxidation and deterioration of beef patty quality during storage. Therefore, the films prepared in this study offered an alternative edible coating for the preservation of fresh food.

  10. Growth of Suspension Cultured Cell of Populus euphratica, Populus alba cv. Pyramidalis and Populus maximowiczii×Populus plantierensis in NaCl Containing Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Hailong; Watanabe, Shin; IDE, Yuji

    1999-01-01

    Populus euphratica, Populus alba cv. Pyramidalis, Populus maximowiczii×Populus plantierensisの3種のポプラの培養細胞について,培地へのNaClの添加量を徐々に増加させた場合の耐性を評価した。NaClを添加した最初の培養では,P. euphratica, P. maximowiczii×P. plantierensisの細胞は,200mMのNaCl添加では成長が著しく抑制された。また,P. alba cv. Pyramidalisの細胞では150mMのNaCl添加で成長が抑制された。しかし,培養を繰り返すうちに細胞はNaClに対する適応性を発達させ,6回目の継代培養終了時には,P. euphraticaの細胞は200mM, P. alba cv. Pyramidalisの細胞は150mMのNaCl添加培地でも良好な成長が可能になった。しかし,P. maximowiczii×P. plantierensisの細胞は,100mMまででしか良好な成長を示さなくなった。高NaCl条件下において種ごと...

  11. Long-term cryopreservation of pyramidalis muscle specimens as a source of striated muscle stem cells for treatment of post-prostatectomy stress urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumino, Yasuhiro; Hirata, Yuji; Hanada, Mari; Akita, Yasuyuki; Sato, Fuminori; Mimata, Hiromitsu

    2011-08-01

    Stem-cell injection into the degenerated external urethral sphincter is a new treatment modality for stress urinary incontinence (SUI). We examined the possibility of long-term cryopreserved pyramidalis muscle (PM) specimens as a source of striated muscle stem cells for the treatment of post-prostatectomy SUI. PM specimens were obtained from five male patients (mean age, 61-70 years) who underwent radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer. Specimens (volume, approximately 125 mm³ ) were obtained from the incisional edge, minced, and stored at -80°C in a freezing medium (Cell Banker 1®). After 24-60 months, the specimens were thawed and directly incubated at 37°C. Satellite cells were selectively cultured by magnetic affinity cell sorting using an anti-neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) antibody. Osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation were induced by bone morphogenic protein-7 (BMP-7) and γ-linolenic acid, respectively. NCAM-positive cells (>99% purity) were selectively cultured from all cryopreserved PM specimens and confirmed as being of striated muscle origin by the expression of desmin and MyoD. They fused and differentiated into multinucleated myotubes 7 days after incubation in a differentiation induction medium. Stimulation by BMP-7 and γ-linolenic acid induced expression of alkaline phosphatase (osteoblast marker) and lipid deposition within the cytoplasm (adipocyte characteristic), respectively. Long-term cryopreserved PM specimens can be used to culture muscle stem cells. Therefore, this method may be utilized for SUI treatment when necessary. Moreover, complete remove of the prostate gland without fear of injury to the urethral sphincter may be possible in patients with apical cancer or T3 prostate cancer. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. (Tul.) LP Queiroz

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    1Universidade Federal do Piauí, Departamento de Ciências da Natureza, BR 135, km 03, Planalto Horizonte, Bom. Jesus - PI, Brazil. 2Laboratório de Desenvolvimento e Ensaios de Medicamentos (LABDEM) – Universidade Estadual da Paraíba, Rua das. Baraúnas, 351 - Bairro Universitário Campina Grande, Paraíba, ...

  13. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of the polyphenolic fractions isolated from the seed coat of Abrus precatorius and Caesalpinia crista.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobin, Lubna; Saeed, Syed Asad; Ali, Rashida; Saeed, Syed Ghufran; Ahmed, Rahil

    2017-09-26

    Crude seed coat extracts from Abrus precatorius and Caesalpinia crista were purified into four different fractions namely phenolic acids, flavonols, flavanols and anthocyanin which were then examined for their polyphenol contents and antimicrobial potentials. The fractions derived from seed coat of A. precatorius were found more potent with high phenolic and flavonoid contents as compared to C. crista fractions. The significant antibacterial activity was observed against all strain tested by the fractions of both samples apart from anthocyanin fraction. It was interesting to note that the phenolic acid fractions of both samples was found more active against gram-negative bacteria, while gram-positive bacteria were found to be more sensitive towards flavonol fractions. The phenolic acid and flavonol fractions being potent antibacterial were selected to demonstrate the antifungal capacity of two samples. Among them, phenolic acid fraction of both samples was found active towards all the fungal strain.

  14. Efecto antibacteriano in vitro de diferentes concentraciones del extracto etan??lico de Caesalpinia spinosa (tara) frente a Streptococcus mutans ATCC 35668

    OpenAIRE

    AUTOR: Centuri??n Villar, Karina Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar el efecto antibacteriano in vitro del extracto etan??lico de Caesalpinia Spinosa (Tara) sobre Streptococcus mutans ATCC 35668. La muestra estuvo conformada por 64 observaciones, distribuidas en 4 grupos de 4 placas Petri cada uno, en cada placa se coloc?? el porcentaje de concentraci??n de estudio, frente a tres controles: control positivo (Clorhexidina al 0.12%), control negativo (Etanol) y un porcentaje de concentraci??n similar (para comp...

  15. Estudio de factibilidad para la implementación de una finca productora de guaranga (Caesalpinia spinosa) en el sector San Guillermo, Imbabura, Ecuador 2014.

    OpenAIRE

    Arteaga Rodríguez, Byron Apolinario

    2015-01-01

    The Ecuador by geography is rich in flora fauna country, same to be exploited in different areas. The rich Ecuadorian soil is one of the key factors to promote the development of agricultural projects, benefiting sectors of popular economy, where agriculture is the main income source. The guarango (Caesalpinia spinosa) is a wild plant which are harvested pods and nuggets, which since ancient times they were used as plant input - natural in the method of tanning leather to waterproof Pondos...

  16. SENYAWA KIMIA DAN ARAH WARNA KAYU SECANG (Caesalpinia sappan Linn DAN GAMBIR (Uncaria gambir PADA BERBAGAI KONDISI EKSTRAKSI UNTUK PEWARNAAN BATIK

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    Titiek Pujilestari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKTumbuhan pembawa warna mengandung senyawa kimia yang berbeda beda baik jumlah maupun jenis senyawanya. Senyawa-senyawa dominan pembawa warna mempunyai ketahanan tertentu pada berbagai kondisi suhu . Suhu ekstraksi zat warna alam dari tumbuhan mempengaruhi arah warna. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kandungan senyawa kimia dan arah warna kayu secang dan gambir. Ekstraksi zat warna alam dilakukan pada berbagai variasi suhu pemanasan yaitu 50 oC, 75 oC, 100 oC dan perendaman dalam alkohol selama 7 (tujuh hari pada suhu kamar. Zat warna alam yang diperoleh diaplikasikan untuk pewarna batik pada kain katun dan sutera. Arah warna ditentukan melalui fiksasi menggunakan tawas, kapur dan tujung. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa suhu ekstraksi berpengaruh pada senyawa kimia zat warna alam kayu secang dan gambir.  Jumlah senyawa zat warna alam pada kayu secang semakin berkurang seiring dengan peningkatan suhu ekstraksi.  Pada gambir jumlah senyawa zat warna paling banyak diperoleh pada suhu ekstraksi 75 oC. Senyawa zat warna dominan pada kayu secang adalah cyclohexanone sedang pada gambir  adalah methyl 3,4 dideutero 3 nonenoate 3. Arah warna kayu secang merah sampai merah kecoklatan dan pada gambir warna kecoklatan sampai coklat tua.ABSTRACTColor bearing plant contains chemical compounds that vary both the number and types of compounds. Compounds dominant color carriers having different resistance at various temperature conditions. The temperature of the extraction of natural dyes from plants affects the direction of color. This study aims to determine the content of chemical compounds and direction color of Caesalpinia sappan Linn and Uncaria gambir. Extraction of natural dyes made at various heating temperature is 50 ° C, 75 ° C, 100 ° C and soaking in alcohol for seven (7 days at room temperature. Natural dyes obtained is applied to dye batik on cotton and silk. Directions color is determined by fixation using alum, lime and

  17. Antiplasmodial, cytotoxic activities and characterization of a new naturally occurring quinone methide pentacyclic triterpenoid derivative isolated from Salacia leptoclada Tul. (Celastraceae) originated from Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruphin, Fatiany Pierre; Baholy, Robijaona; Emmanue, Andrianarivo; Amelie, Raharisololalao; Martin, Marie-Therese; Koto-te-Nyiwa, Ngbolua

    2013-10-01

    To validate scientifically the traditional use of Salacia leptoclada Tul. (Celastraceae) (S. leptoclada) and to isolate and elucidate the structure of the biologically active compound. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the acetonic extract of the stem barks of S. leptoclada was carried out by a combination of chromatography technique and biological experiments in viro using Plasmodium falciparum and P388 leukemia cell lines as models. The structure of the biologically active pure compound was elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Biological screening of S. leptoclada extracts resulted in the isolation of a pentacyclic triterpenic quinone methide. The pure compound exhibited both in vitro a cytotoxic effect on murine P388 leukemia cells with IC50 value of (0.041±0.020) μg/mL and an antiplasmodial activity against the chloroquine-resistant strain FC29 of Plasmodium falciparum with an IC50 value of (0.052±0.030) μg/mL. Despite this interesting anti-malarial property of the lead compound, the therapeutic index was weak (0.788). In the best of our knowledge, the quinone methide pentacyclic triterpenoid derivative compound is reported for the first time in S. leptoclada. The results suggest that furthers studies involving antineoplastic activity is needed for the development of this lead compound as anticancer drug. Copyright © 2013 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Bioactive endophytic fungi isolated from Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brazilwood) and identification of beauvericin as a trypanocidal metabolite from Fusarium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Fernanda Fraga; Sales Junior, Policarpo A; Romanha, Alvaro José; Araújo, Márcio S S; Siqueira, Ezequias P; Resende, Jarbas M; Alves, Tânia M A; Martins-Filho, Olindo A; Santos, Vera Lúcia dos; Rosa, Carlos A; Zani, Carlos L; Cota, Betania Barros

    2015-02-01

    Aiming to identify new sources of bioactive secondary metabolites, we isolated 82 endophytic fungi from stems and barks of the native Brazilian tree Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Fabaceae). We tested their ethyl acetate extracts in several in vitro assays. The organic extracts from three isolates showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli [minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) 32-64 μg/mL]. One isolate inhibited the growth of Salmonella typhimurium (MIC 64 μg/mL) and two isolates inhibited the growth of Klebsiella oxytoca (MIC 64 μg/mL), Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis (MIC 64-128 μg/mL). Fourteen extracts at a concentration of 20 μg/mL showed antitumour activities against human breast cancer and human renal cancer cells, while two isolates showed anti-tumour activities against human melanoma cancer cells. Six extracts were able to reduce the proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, indicating some degree of selective toxicity. Four isolates were able to inhibit Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and one isolate inhibited Trypanosoma cruzi by at least 40% at 20 μg/mL. The trypanocidal extract obtained from Fusarium sp. [KF611679] culture was subjected to bioguided fractionation, which revealed beauvericin as the compound responsible for the observed toxicity of Fusarium sp. to T. cruzi. This depsipeptide showed a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 1.9 μg/mL (2.43 μM) in a T. cruzi cellular culture assay.

  19. Proposed mechanism of antibacterial mode of action of Caesalpinia bonducella seed oil against food-borne pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Shukla

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial mechanism of action of Caesalpinia bonducella seed oil on membrane permeability of Listeria monocytogenes NCIM 24563 (MIC: 2 mg/mL and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 (MIC: 4 mg/mL was determined by measuring the extracellular ATP concentration, release of 260-nm absorbing materials, leakage of potassium ions and measurement of relative electrical conductivity of the bacterial cells treated at MIC concentration. Its mode of action on membrane integrity was confirmed by release of extracellular ATP (1.42 and 1.33 pg/mL, loss of 260-nm absorbing materials (4.36 and 4.19 optical density, leakage of potassium ions (950 and 1000 mmol/L and increase in relative electrical conductivity (12.6 and 10.5% against food-borne pathogenic bacteria L. monocytogenes and E. coli, respectively. These findings propose that C. bonducella oil compromised its mode of action on membrane integrity, suggesting its enormous food and pharmacological potential.

  20. Cytotoxic and Pro-Apoptotic Effects of Cassane Diterpenoids from the Seeds of Caesalpinia sappan in Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Bao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemical study on the seeds of Caesalpinia sappan led to the isolation of five new cassane diterpenoids, phanginins R‒T (1–3 and caesalsappanins M and N (4 and 5, together with seven known compounds 6–12. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR and HRESIMS analyses. The absolute configurations of compounds 1 and 4 were determined by the corresponding CD spectra. All the isolated compounds were tested for their cytotoxicity against ovarian cancer A2780 and HEY, gastric cancer AGS, and non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells. Compound 1 displayed significant toxicity against the four cell lines with the IC50 values of 9.9 ± 1.6 µM, 12.2 ± 6.5 µM, 5.3 ± 1.9 µM, and 12.3 ± 3.1 µM, respectively. Compound 1 induced G1 phase cell cycle arrest in A2780 cells. Furthermore, compound 1 dose-dependently induced A2780 cells apoptosis as evidenced by Hoechst 33342 staining, Annexin V positive cells, the up-regulated cleaved-PARP and the enhanced Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. What’s more, compound 1 also promoted the expression of the tumor suppressor p53 protein. These findings indicate that cassane diterpenoids might have potential as anti-cancer agents, and further in vivo animal studies and structural modification investigation are needed.

  1. Effect of ethanolic seed extract of Caesalpinia bonducella on female reproductive system of albino rat: a focus on antifertility efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilaram

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of oral administration of the ethanolic seed extract of Caesalpinia bonducella on the reproductive system in Wistar female albino rat. Methods: The study was divided into four groups. The group I received distilled water and served as vehicle treated control. Groups II, III and IV were orally administered 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight dose of seed extract respectively, for 10 consecutive days and subsequently euthanized twenty four hours after the last dose. Results: The treatment prolonged the length of estrous cycle with significant increase in the duration of diestrus stage. The analysis of the principal hormones viz. LH, FSH, estradiol and progesterone showed significantly decreased levels in dose-dependant manner. Ovarian and uterine weight was significantly reduced as compared to that of the control group. Histoarchitectural observations revealed follicular atresia and degeneration of corpora lutea in ovary. Oviduct showed degeneration of mucosal folds and epithelium cells. Uterus showed evidence of degeneration of endometrial epithelium and endometrial glands. Lamina propria and muscularis layer of vagina were found slightly disorganized. Conclusions: It can be concluded that significant decrease in the hormone levels, reproductive organs weight and alterations in histoarchitecture of reproductive organs might be due to antiestrogenic nature of seed extract.

  2. Fungistatic Activity Of Essential Oils Extracted from Peumus boldus Mol., Laureliopsis philippiana (Looser Schodde and Laurelia sempervirens (Ruiz & Pav. Tul. (Chilean Monimiaceae Actividad Fungistática de Extractos de Aceites Asenciales de Peumus boldus Mol., Laureliopsis philippiana (Looser Schodde y Laurelia sempervirens (Ruiz & Pav. Tul. (Monimiaceae chilenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalis Bittner

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Components of essential oils from the Chilean Monimiaceae, boldo (Peumus boldus Mol., tepa (Laureliopsis philippiana (Looser Schodde, and laurel (Laurelia sempervirens (Ruiz & Pav. Tul. were determined using Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry (GCMS and fungistatic activity of the essential oils was tested against Rhizoctonia solani Kühn (Donk, Pythium irregulare Buisman, Ceratocystis pilifera (Fr. C. Moreau, Phragmidium violaceum (Schultz G. Winter, and Fusarium oxysporum Schltdl. The essential oils of the Monimiaceae species shared some common components; all three had the 3-carene, α-phellandrene, and α-pinene terpenes. L. philippiana and L. sempervirens also had safrole.The main components were ascaridol in P. boldus oil, 3-carene in L. philippiana, and safrole in L. sempervirens. The essential oil from L. sempervirens showed the highest fungistatic activity with significant differences in dose as well as exposure. P. violaceum was the most sensitive strain and P. irregulare the most resistant of all the essential oils (P. boldus extract affected growth by only 19%. Therefore, essential oils from these three plants could be used to control the fungal strains studied.Se determinaron los compuestos de aceites esenciales de Monimiaceae chilenas, boldo (Peumus boldus Mol., tepa (Laureliopsis philippiana (Looser Schodde, y laurel (Laurelia sempervirens (Ruiz & Pav. Tul. a través de cromatografía de gas con espectrometría de masas (CG-EM y se midió la actividad fungistática de los aceites sobre los hongos Rhizoctonia solani Kühn (Donk, Pythium irregulare Buisman, Ceratocystis pilifera (Fr. C. Moreau, Phragmidium violaceum (Schultz Winter y Fusarium oxysporum Schltdl. Los aceites esenciales de las especies de Monimiaceae tienen algunos compuestos en común; en las especies estudiadas se encontró que todos tenían los terpenos 3-careno, α-felandreno, y α-pineno. L. philippiana y L. sempervirens además tienen safrol. En cambio

  3. Explorando la variabilidad morfométrica del conjunto de camélidos pequeños durante el Arcaico Tardío y el Formativo Temprano en Quebrada Tulán, norte de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cartajena Fasting

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Frequently, it is possible to differentiate among large and small size camelids when analysing registers from archaeological sites located at the occidental slope of Puna de Atacama. However, larger animals have received most of the attention having less knowledge about the group of small size camelids. In this paper and by using osteometric methods we study this small size later group. On one hand, we analyse different variables that may affect variability among modern alpacas and vicuñas collections. We focus our work on differences among anterior and posterior phalanxes, inter specific variation and sexual dimorphism. On the other hand, we analyse first phalanxes from Tulán-52 (Late Archaic ca. 4500-3800 BP and Tulán-54 (Early Formative ca. 3200-2300 BP characterising their variability through time by comparing current and archaeological samples. Both archaeofaunal assemblages are similar despite their temporal distance. The analyzed specimens correspond to vicuñas denoting the importance of vicuña hunting through time

  4. Preparation of demipermanent and semipermanent hair dyes gels from ethanol extract of Caesalpinia sappan L. using carbomer as gelling agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrawati, T.; Syahrin, A.; Irpan

    2017-07-01

    Caesalpinia sappan L. (Cs L) contains of essential oils, saponin, brazilin, brazilein, alkaloids, flavonoids and tannins that have a function as cationic natural dyes. The aim of this research was to prepare the ethanol extract of Cs L wood and to prepare demi-permanent and semi-permanent of hair dye gels by using Carbomer of 2 % and 1.5 % as gelling agent and Cs L extract as cationic dyes. The Extract of Cs L was macerated by using ethanol of 96 % as the solvent, and then thickened. Three formula of demi-permanent hair dye gels were made by using Cs L extract of 3 %, 6% and 9 %. Three formula of semi-permanent hair dye gels were made by using Cs L extract of 2.50 %, 7.00 % and 10.50 %. Those hair dyes gels were prepared by swelling and mixing methods. All products of hair dyes gels were evaluated with organoleptic test, homogeneity test, pH test, consistency test, rheological properties test and dyeing effect test. The demi-permanent hair dye gels products had brown to brown dark black colors, pH of 5.05-5.43, homogeny, specific Cs L odor, and had pseudoplastic thixotropic flow characteristic. The semi-permanent hair dye gels products had red color pH of 6.5-6.25, homogeny, Cs L odor, and have pseudoplastic thixotropic flow characteristics. The optimum formula of demi-permanent was formula gel that contained of 6 % extract of Cs L and the optimum formula of permanent hair dyes gel was formula that contained of 10.50 % extract of Cs L.

  5. Anisotropic Snowman-Like Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized byCaesalpinia sappanExtract andIn VitroAntibacterial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, You Jeong; Park, Youmie

    2018-06-01

    Anisotropic snowman-like silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using the extract of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood as a reducing agent in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. Two surface plasmon resonance bands of the orange solution were observed at 446 nm and 539 nm in UV-visible spectra. High-resolution X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the face-centered cubic structure of the AgNPs. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images clearly revealed snowman-like AgNPs with an average size of 34.36 ± 11.44 nm. The C-O functional group was most likely involved in the synthesis of the AgNPs, which was demonstrated by Fourier transform infrared spectra. Most interestingly, the snowman-like AgNPs exhibited higher antibacterial activity than the spherical AgNPs and the extract alone. Among the tested strains, the snowman-like AgNPs showed the highest activity against Staphylococcus aureus, with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 4.69 μg/mL for the extract and 0.443 μg/mL for the silver. The antibacterial activity of the snowman-like AgNPs increased 24-fold against S. aureus. These results strongly suggested that the snowman-like AgNPs synthesized from C. sappan extract have potential for treating infected disease caused by S. aureus when the antibacterial activity was combined from plant extract and AgNPs. To our knowledge, the present report is the first in which the snowman-like AgNPs synthesized using a plant extract as a reducing agent showed excellent In Vitro antibacterial activity.

  6. Comparative study on anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Caesalpinia crista and Centella asiatica leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, B N; Girish, T K; Raghavendra, R H; Naidu, K Akhilender; Rao, U J S Prasada; Rao, K S

    2014-04-01

    Amyloidosis, oxidative stress and inflammation have been strongly implicated in neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease. Traditionally, Caesalpinia crista and Centella asiatica leaf extracts are used to treat brain related diseases in India. C. crista is used as a mental relaxant drink as well as to treat inflammatory diseases, whereas C. asiatica is reported to be used to enhance memory and to treat dementia. The present study is aimed to understand the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of C. asiatica and C. crista leaf extracts. Phenolic acid composition of the aqueous extracts of C. crista and C. asiatica were separated on a reverse phase C18 column (4.6 x 250 mm) using HPLC system. Antioxidant properties of the leaf extracts were determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and the reducing potential assay. The anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous extracts of C. crista and C. asiatica were studied using 5-lipoxygenase assay. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) were isolated from blood by Ficoll-Histopaque density gradient followed by hypotonic lysis of erythrocytes. Gallic, protocatechuic, gentisic, chlorogenic, caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids were the phenolic acids identified in C. crista and C. asiatica leaf aqueous extracts. However, gallic acid and ferulic acid contents were much higher in C. crista compared to C. asiatica. Leaf extracts of C. asiatica and C. crista exhibited antioxidant properties and inhibited 5-lipoxygenase (anti-inflammatory) in a dose dependent manner. However, leaf extracts of C. crista had better antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity compared to that of C. asiatica. The better activity of C. crista is attributed to high gallic acid and ferulic acid compared to C. asiatica. Thus, the leaf extract of C. crista can be a potential therapeutic role for Alzheimer's disease.

  7. Bioactive endophytic fungi isolated from Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brazilwood and identification of beauvericin as a trypanocidal metabolite from Fusarium sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Fraga Campos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to identify new sources of bioactive secondary metabolites, we isolated 82 endophytic fungi from stems and barks of the native Brazilian tree Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Fabaceae. We tested their ethyl acetate extracts in several in vitro assays. The organic extracts from three isolates showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli [minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC 32-64 μg/mL]. One isolate inhibited the growth of Salmonella typhimurium (MIC 64 μg/mL and two isolates inhibited the growth of Klebsiella oxytoca (MIC 64 μg/mL, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis (MIC 64-128 μg/mL. Fourteen extracts at a concentration of 20 μg/mL showed antitumour activities against human breast cancer and human renal cancer cells, while two isolates showed anti-tumour activities against human melanoma cancer cells. Six extracts were able to reduce the proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, indicating some degree of selective toxicity. Four isolates were able to inhibit Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis and one isolate inhibited Trypanosoma cruzi by at least 40% at 20 μg/mL. The trypanocidal extract obtained from Fusarium sp. [KF611679] culture was subjected to bioguided fractionation, which revealed beauvericin as the compound responsible for the observed toxicity of Fusarium sp. to T. cruzi. This depsipeptide showed a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 1.9 μg/mL (2.43 μM in a T. cruzi cellular culture assay.

  8. Estrutura de um fragmento de Floresta Atlântica em regeneração com ocorrência de Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (pau-brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Baldan Zani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2012v25n4p75   Este trabalho teve por objetivo analisar a estrutura fitossociológica de um fragmento remanescente de Floresta Atlântica em regeneração no município de Aracruz-ES em uma floresta de tabuleiro com ocorrência natural de Caesalpinia echinata Lam. Foram instaladas 10 unidades amostrais (parcelas de 10 x 50m sendo amostrados todos os indivíduos com DAP≥5cm e <10cm. Ao todo foram amostrados 500 indivíduos distribuídos em 181 espécies. As famílias com maior riqueza foram Leguminosae (35, Sapotaceae (18 e Myrtaceae (14. As espécies mais importantes foram Caesalpinia echinata Lam., Eugenia tinguyensis Cambess. e Pterocarpus rohrii Vahl. O índice de Shannon (H’ foi de 4,89 e a equabilidade (J’ foi de 0,94. Essa área é um dos últimos fragmentos remanescentes com pau-brasil nativo do estado do Espírito Santo e a população dessa espécie encontra-se bem preservada no local, ocorrendo com grande frequência, enfatizando a importância da preservação de pequenos fragmentos florestais para conservação da biodiversidade.

  9. A gallotannin-rich fraction from Caesalpinia spinosa (Molina) Kuntze displays cytotoxic activity and raises sensitivity to doxorubicin in a leukemia cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, Diana M; Pombo, Luis Miguel; Urueña, Claudia Patricia; Hernandez, John Fredy; Fiorentino, Susana

    2012-04-10

    Enhancement of tumor cell sensitivity may help facilitate a reduction in drug dosage using conventional chemotherapies. Consequently, it is worthwhile to search for adjuvants with the potential of increasing chemotherapeutic drug effectiveness and improving patient quality of life. Natural products are a very good source of such adjuvants. The biological activity of a fraction enriched in hydrolysable polyphenols (P2Et) obtained from Caesalpinia spinosa was evaluated using the hematopoietic cell line K562. This fraction was tested alone or in combination with the conventional chemotherapeutic drugs doxorubicin, vincristine, etoposide, camptothecin and taxol. The parameters evaluated were mitochondrial depolarization, caspase 3 activation, chromatin condensation and clonogenic activity. We found that the P2Et fraction induced mitochondrial depolarization, activated caspase 3, induced chromatin condensation and decreased the clonogenic capacity of the K562 cell line. When the P2Et fraction was used in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs at sub-lethal concentrations, a fourfold reduction in doxorubicin inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) was seen in the K562 cell line. This finding suggested that P2Et fraction activity is specific for the molecular target of doxorubicin. Our results suggest that a natural fraction extracted from Caesalpinia spinosa in combination with conventional chemotherapy in combination with natural products on leukemia cells may increase therapeutic effectiveness in relation to leukemia.

  10. Caracteres das sementes, plântulas e plantas jovens de Ormosia arborea (Vell. Harms E Ormosia fastigiata Tul. (Leg-papilionoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Gurski

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ormosia arborea (Vell. Harms e Ormosia fastigiata Tul. são espécies similares em muitos caracteres morfológicos, o que resulta em dificuldade na sua identificação, tanto em campo quanto em material herborizado. Neste estudo foram descritas as características morfológicas das sementes e morfoanatômicas das plântulas e plantas jovens de O. arborea e O. fastigiata, coletadas em restinga e em mata ciliar, respectivamente. Sementes e plântulas foram processadas segundo técnicas usuais. As sementes de O. arborea são mais pesadas e têm germinação hipógea criptocotiledonar. O caule contém tricomas tectores esparsos e grande quantidade de lenticelas e, na raiz, nodulações. A folha apresenta parênquima paliçádico de células mais curtas, com base mais larga e presença de pigmentos vacuolares, espaços intercelulares conspícuos no parênquima esponjoso, tricomas tectores restritos à nervura principal e células epidérmicas da face adaxial maiores que as da face abaxial. A germinação de O. fastigiata é fanerocotiledonar, e a plântula possui muitos tricomas ao longo do caule e lenticelas restritas à região basal deste. As folhas apresentam tricomas tectores em todas as nervuras, com parênquima paliçádico de células tipicamente alongadas e parênquima esponjoso com espaços intercelulares reduzidos. Tais características são consistentes para separar as plântulas e sementes dessas espécies, que têm a mesma denominação popular e contribuem com informações úteis para o meio produtivo.

  11. Avaliação do uso da casca do fruto e das folhas de Caesalpinia ferrea Martius como suplemento nutricional de Fe, Mn e Zn Evaluation of the use of the fruit peel and leaves of Caesalpinia ferrea Martius as a nutritional supplement of Fe, Mn and Zn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clelivaldo Santos da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As plantas medicinais podem ser usadas como fontes alternativas de nutrientes minerais na dieta alimentar. Elementos como ferro, manganês e zinco apresentam biodisponibilidade variável em função de suas formas químicas (espécies presentes em um alimento. Este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar o teor e a biodisponibilidade de ferro, manganês e zinco em extratos da casca do fruto e das folhas de Caesalpinia ferrea Martius por Espectrometria de Absorção Atômica com Chama (FAAS. Os agentes extratores testados foram as soluções de NaOH 0,05 mol. L-1, tampão Tris-HCl 0,05 mol.L-1 (pH= 8, tampão Tris-HCl 0,05 mol.L-1 (pH = 8 em dodecil sulfato de sódio (SDS 1% (m/v, HCl 0,05 mol.L-1 e água quente (60 ºC. A casca do fruto e as folhas de Caesalpinia ferrea Martius apresentaram níveis altos de ferro e manganês quando comparados aos de outras plantas medicinais. Os elementos estudados mostraram predominante associação com compostos de alta e baixa massa molecular, espécies solúveis e insolúveis em água. Dentre os elementos analisados, o ferro apresentou melhor biodisponibilidade na casca do fruto e nas folhas. Manganês e zinco se mostraram mais biodisponível nas folhas. A casca do fruto e as folhas de Caesalpinia ferrea Martius podem ser uma fonte alternativa de ferro, manganês e zinco na dieta alimentar.Medicinal plants can be used as alternative sources of mineral nutrients in the alimentary diet. Elements such as iron, manganese, and zinc present variable bioavailability due to their chemical form (species present in foods. This work has the objective of evaluating the concentration and bioavailability of iron, manganese, and zinc in extracts of the peel and leaves of Caesalpinia ferrea Martius by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS. The extraction agents tested were 0.05 mol.L-1 NaOH, 0.05 mol.L-1 Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.0, 0.05 mol.L-1 Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.0 containing 1% (m/v sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS, 0.05 mol.L-1

  12. O Ácido (8)17,12E,14-labdatrieno-18-óico (labdano302), diterpeno tipo labdano isolado de Xylopia langsdorffiana St. Hil. & Tul. (Annonaceae) relaxa a traquéia isolada de cobaia

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro,Luciano A. A.; Tavares,Josean F.; Andrade,Nilza C. de; Silva,Marcelo S. da; Silva,Bagnólia A. da

    2007-01-01

    A espécie Xylopia langsdorffiana St. Hil.. & Tul. é popularmente conhecida como "pimenteira-da-terra" no Sudeste do Brasil. A partir do fracionamento do extrato etanólico, obtido das cascas do caule desta espécie, foi isolado um diterpeno tipo labdano, identificado como sendo o ácido 8(17),12E,14-labdatrieno-18-óico, e que neste trabalho é codificado como labdano302. O labdano302 relaxou o tônus basal dos anéis de traquéia isolada de cobaia com um valor de CE50 de 6,7 ± 0,5 x 10-8 ...

  13. O Ácido (8)17,12E,14-labdatrieno-18-óico (labdano302), diterpeno tipo labdano isolado de Xylopia langsdorffiana St. Hil. & Tul. (Annonaceae) relaxa a traquéia isolada de cobaia

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Luciano A. A.; Tavares, Josean F.; Andrade, Nilza C. de; Silva, Marcelo S. da; Silva, Bagnólia A. da

    2007-01-01

    A espécie Xylopia langsdorffiana St. Hil.. & Tul. é popularmente conhecida como "pimenteira-da-terra" no Sudeste do Brasil. A partir do fracionamento do extrato etanólico, obtido das cascas do caule desta espécie, foi isolado um diterpeno tipo labdano, identificado como sendo o ácido 8(17),12E,14-labdatrieno-18-óico, e que neste trabalho é codificado como labdano302. O labdano302 relaxou o tônus basal dos anéis de traquéia isolada de cobaia com um valor de CE50 de 6,7 ± 0,5 x 10-8 M. O diterp...

  14. Diversidade e eficiência simbiótica de estirpes de rizóbios isoladas de nódulos de pau-rainha (Centrolobium paraense Tul.)

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Cardoso Baraúna

    2013-01-01

    Centrolobium paraense Tul. conhecida popularmente como pau-rainha é uma leguminosa arbórea que ocorre em ilhas de mata, florestas de transição e matas de galerias das savanas de Roraima. Esta leguminosa se beneficia do processo de fixação biológica de nitrogênio (FBN) através da simbiose com bactérias do grupo rizóbio. No entanto, pouco se sabe sobre a diversidade e a eficiência dessas bactérias em simbiose com pau-rainha. Este estudo teve como objetivo a caracterização de rizóbios associados...

  15. Investigação da presença de efedrinas em Ephedra tweediana Fisch & C.A. Meyer e em E. triandra Tul. (Ephedraceae coletadas em Porto Alegre/RS

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    Bruna de S. Boff

    Full Text Available Amostras de Ephedra tweediana Fisch & C.A. Meyer, coletadas de populações nativas da Reserva Biológica do Lami José Lutzenberger (Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, e amostras de Ephedra triandra Tul., obtidas de plantas cultivadas em Porto Alegre/RS, foram extraídas com acetona, derivatizadas com ciclohexanona e analisadas por CG/EM. Para verificação da eficiência da metodologia, além das amostras de Ephedra tweediana e E. triandra, foram analisadas cinco amostras comerciais de Ephedra, de procedências distintas, cedidas por farmácias de manipulação locais. Os resultados encontrados indicam a ausência de efedrinas em Ephedra tweediana e E. triandra e presença de efedrina e/ou pseudoefedrina nas amostras comerciais.

  16. Woods with physical, mechanical and acoustic properties similar to those of Caesalpinia echinata have high potential as alternative woods for bow makers

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    Eduardo Luiz Longui

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For nearly two hundred years, Caesalpinia echinata wood has been the standard for modern bows. However, the threat of extinction and the enforcement of trade bans have required bow makers to seek alternative woods. The hypothesis tested was that woods with physical, mechanical and acoustic properties similar to those of C. echinata would have high potential as alternative woods for bows. Accordingly, were investigated Handroanthus spp., Mezilaurus itauba, Hymenaea spp., Dipteryx spp., Diplotropis spp. and Astronium lecointei. Handroanthus and Diplotropis have the greatest number of similarities with C. echinata, but only Handroanthus spp. showed significant results in actual bow manufacture, suggesting the importance of such key properties as specific gravity, speed of sound propagation and modulus of elasticity. In practice, Handroanthus and Dipteryx produced bows of quality similar to that of C. echinata.

  17. Traditional use, phytochemistry and biological activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional use, phytochemistry and biological activities of Poincianella pyramidalys (Tul.) LP Queiroz. Thiago Pereira Chaves, Joanda Paolla Raimundo e Silva, Francinalva Dantas de Medeiros, José Hamilton da Costa Filho, Laianne Carla Batista Alencar, Cleildo Pereira Santana, Delcio de Castro Felismino, Karlete ...

  18. EFECTO INHIBIDOR DEL EXTRACTO ETANÓLICO DE CAESALPINIA SPINOSA (TAYA) EN COMPARACIÓN A HIDRÓXIDO DE CALCIO, PARAMONOCLOROFENOL ALCANFORADO Y CLORHEXIDINA EN GEL AL 2%, SOBRE CEPAS DE ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS. ESTUDIO IN VITRO

    OpenAIRE

    FLORES ARMAS, CINTYA LISET

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to compare the inhibitory effect in vitro of the etanolic extract Caesalpinia spinosa (taya) to calcium hidroxide, camphorated paramonochlorophenol, and 2% chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis. The susceptibility test was made, using the method of dissemination in discs. The strains os e. faecalis were sown in plates containing culture médium Mueller Hinton, and placed discs with differents concentrations of etanolic extract, calcium hidroxide...

  19. Avaliação da incorporação de galactomanana de Caesalpinia pulcherrima em sorvetes e comparação com estabilizantes comerciais

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    Antonia Ariana Camelo Passos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Com o mercado cada vez mais competitivo e consumidores mais exigentes é de suma importância buscar alternativas mais eficientes e diversificadas para a melhoria da qualidade de sorvetes. Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver sorvetes sabor goiaba utilizando galactomanana de Caesalpinia pulcherrima em substituição a estabilizantes, avaliar suas propriedades e comparar com dois estabilizantes comumente utilizados (goma xantana e super liga neutra. Para caracterizar os sorvetes foram feitas análises de overrun, resistência ao derretimento, umidade, cinzas, proteínas, lipídios, carboidratos, sólidos totais e pH. A qualidade microbiológica foi investigada pelas análises de coliformes a 45 °C/g, Estafilococos coagulase positiva/g e Salmonella sp/25 g. Sensorialmente, foram avaliados a intenção de compra e os atributos sensoriais de cor, aroma, textura, sabor e impressão global. Foram realizadas três formulações de sorvetes, modificando o estabilizante empregado: super liga neutra (T1, galactomanana de C. pulcherrima (T2 e goma xantana (T3. A taxa de derretimento mostrou-se similar até 35 minutos para as três formulações, mostrando-se comportamentos lineares. As amostras de sorvetes apresentaram um bom valor de overrun. Nenhuma das variáveis físico-químicas apresentou diferença estatística entre si. Sensorialmente, a formulação T2 apresentou desempenho semelhante a T1 e T3. No entanto, o sorvete da formulação T3 apresentou no atributo textura uma nota melhor que o estabilizante super liga neutra (T1. Todas as formulações apresentaram altos índices de intenção de compra por parte dos provadores. Todos os sorvetes produzidos apresentaram-se de acordo com a legislação vigente demonstrando que a galactomanana de Caesalpinia pulcherrima pode ser utilizada como substituto aos estabilizantes convencionais.

  20. Efeito inibitório do extrato hexânico dos folíolos de Caesalpinia spinosa em Fusarium solani e Phoma tarda - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i2.1329 Inhibitory effect of Caesalpinia spinosa leaflets crude extract on Fusarium solani and Phoma tarda - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i2.1329

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Miranda

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Extrato hexânico foi obtido dos folíolos do falso pau-brasil (Caesalpinia spinosa e incorporado em BDA (batata-dextrose-ágar, obtendo-se as concentrações de 2204 mg L-1, 4460 mg L-1, 6370 mg L-1, 7644 mg L-1 e 16179 mg L-1. Foi avaliado o crescimento micelial de Fusarium solani e Phoma tarda. Os resultados mostraram o efeito inibitório do extrato em porcentagens variáveis de 3,95% a 32,20% para P. tarda e de 7,29% a 33,83% para F. solani, conforme as doses crescentes do extrato, cuja fungitoxidade evidencia seu potencial alternativo aos métodos físicos e químicos de controle da fusariose em vários cultivos e mancha de Phoma no cafeeiroIn order to evaluate the plant extract effect on the in vitro growth of Fusarium solani and Phoma tarda, hexane crude extract from spiny holdback (Caesalpinia spinosa leaflets was obtained and incorporated into potato-dextrose-agar (PDA at 2204 mg L-1, 4460 mg L-1, 6370 mg L-1, 7644 mg L-1 and 16179 mg L-1 concentrations. The hexane crude extract inhibited mycelial growth at the range of 3,95% to 32,20% of P. tarda and 7,29% to 33,83% of F. solani, according to the extract concentration. It was demonstrated that the extract has antifungal activity and might be an alternative to physical or chemical control methods of fusariosis disease in several cultivations and of Phoma spot on coffee plant leaf

  1. Brazilein from Caesalpinia sappan L. Antioxidant Inhibits Adipocyte Differentiation and Induces Apoptosis through Caspase-3 Activity and Anthelmintic Activities against Hymenolepis nana and Anisakis simplex

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    Chia-Hua Liang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazilein, a natural, biologically active compound from Caesalpinia sappan L., has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and to inhibit the growth of several cancer cells. This study verifies the antioxidant and antitumor characteristics of brazilein in skin cancer cells and is the first time to elucidate the inhibition mechanism of adipocyte differentiation, cestocidal activities against Hymenolepis nana, and reduction of spontaneous movement in Anisakis simplex. Brazilein exhibits an antioxidant capacity as well as the ability to scavenge DPPH• and ABTS•+ free radicals and to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Brazilein inhibited intracellular lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells and suppressed the induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ, the master regulator of adipogenesis, suggesting that brazilein presents the antiobesity effects. The toxic effects of brazilein were evaluated in terms of cell viability, induction of apoptosis, and the activity of caspase-3 in BCC cells. The inhibition of the growth of skin cancer cells (A431, BCC, and SCC25 by brazilein is greater than that of human skin malignant melanoma (A375 cells, mouse leukemic monocyte macrophage (RAW 264.7 cells, and noncancerous cells (HaCaT and BNLCL2 cells. The anthelmintic activities of brazilein against Hymenolepis nana are better than those of Anisakis simplex.

  2. Caracterização físico-química e biológica do caule de Caesalpinia ferrea Mart.

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    A. P. Z. Frasson

    Full Text Available Visando estabelecer parâmetros para o controle da qualidade do caule de Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. (Caesalpiniaceae, foram realizados testes preconizados pela Farmacopéia Brasileira IV e pela Organização Mundial da Saúde para a avaliação da pureza, através das determinações de materiais estranhos, cinzas totais, cinzas insolúveis em ácido, umidade, ensaios-limites de cloretos e sulfatos, além da pesquisa de contaminantes microbianos no material pulverizado. Para a caracterização dos constituintes, eventualmente presentes na droga vegetal, foram realizadas as determinações de taninos, dos índices de espuma, intumescimento e amargor e o teste de hemólise; também foi realizada a caracterização do extrato etanólico bruto e suas frações por cromatografia em camada delgada.

  3. Brazilein from Caesalpinia sappan L. Antioxidant Inhibits Adipocyte Differentiation and Induces Apoptosis through Caspase-3 Activity and Anthelmintic Activities against Hymenolepis nana and Anisakis simplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chia-Hua; Chan, Leong-Perng; Chou, Tzung-Han; Chiang, Feng-Yu; Yen, Chuan-Min; Chen, Pin-Ju; Ding, Hsiou-Yu; Lin, Rong-Jyh

    2013-01-01

    Brazilein, a natural, biologically active compound from Caesalpinia sappan L., has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and to inhibit the growth of several cancer cells. This study verifies the antioxidant and antitumor characteristics of brazilein in skin cancer cells and is the first time to elucidate the inhibition mechanism of adipocyte differentiation, cestocidal activities against Hymenolepis nana, and reduction of spontaneous movement in Anisakis simplex. Brazilein exhibits an antioxidant capacity as well as the ability to scavenge DPPH(•) and ABTS(•+) free radicals and to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Brazilein inhibited intracellular lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells and suppressed the induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR γ ), the master regulator of adipogenesis, suggesting that brazilein presents the antiobesity effects. The toxic effects of brazilein were evaluated in terms of cell viability, induction of apoptosis, and the activity of caspase-3 in BCC cells. The inhibition of the growth of skin cancer cells (A431, BCC, and SCC25) by brazilein is greater than that of human skin malignant melanoma (A375) cells, mouse leukemic monocyte macrophage (RAW 264.7 cells), and noncancerous cells (HaCaT and BNLCL2 cells). The anthelmintic activities of brazilein against Hymenolepis nana are better than those of Anisakis simplex.

  4. Molecular characterization of Cryptococcus gattii genotype AFLP6/VGII isolated from woody debris of divi-divi (Caesalpinia coriaria), Bonaire, Dutch Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Ferry; Chowdhary, Anuradha; Prakash, Anupam; Yntema, Jan-Bart; Meis, Jacques F

    2014-01-01

    The basidiomycetous yeast Cryptococcus gattii is an emerging and primary pathogen. There is a lack of information about its environmental spread outside outbreak regions in Mediterranean Europe, North and South America. Environmental sampling for C. gattii and molecular characterization of the obtained isolates will provide an insight into the global spread of the various genotypes. Woody debris of native divi-divi (Caesalpinia coriaria) trees were sampled across Bonaire, Dutch Caribbean. Colonies suspected for Cryptococcus species were subjected to standard mycology investigations and identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Isolates identified as C. gattii were subjected to amplified fragment length polymorphism genotyping, mating-type analysis and multi-locus sequence typing. Ten colonies of C. gattii were cultured from different trunk hollows of the same divi-divi tree. Molecular characterization showed that all isolates were genotype AFLP6/VGII and mating-type α. Multi-locus sequence typing revealed that all isolates were genetically indistinguishable from each other. C. gattii is present in the environment of Bonaire, which suggests that this yeast is likely to be present in the environment of other Caribbean islands. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Biochemical Aspects of a Serine Protease from Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brazilwood Seeds: A Potential Tool to Access the Mobilization of Seed Storage Proteins

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    Priscila Praxedes-Garcia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several proteins have been isolated from seeds of leguminous, but this is the first report that a protease was obtained from seeds of Caesalpinia echinata Lam., a tree belonging to the Fabaceae family. This enzyme was purified to homogeneity by hydrophobic interaction and anion exchange chromatographies and gel filtration. This 61-kDa serine protease (CeSP hydrolyses H-D-prolyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-arginine-p-nitroanilide (Km 55.7 μM in an optimum pH of 7.1, and this activity is effectively retained until 50∘C. CeSP remained stable in the presence of kosmotropic anions (PO4 3−, SO4 2−, and CH3COO− or chaotropic cations (K+ and Na+. It is strongly inhibited by TLCK, a serine protease inhibitor, but not by E-64, EDTA or pepstatin A. The characteristics of the purified enzyme allowed us to classify it as a serine protease. The role of CeSP in the seeds cannot be assigned yet but is possible to infer that it is involved in the mobilization of seed storage proteins.

  6. Characterization and Quantification of the Compounds of the Ethanolic Extract from Caesalpinia ferrea Stem Bark and Evaluation of Their Mutagenic Activity

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    Carlos César Wyrepkowski

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia ferrea Martius has traditionally been used in Brazil for many medicinal purposes, such as the treatment of bronchitis, diabetes and wounds. Despite its use as a medicinal plant, there is still no data regarding the genotoxic effect of the stem bark. This present work aims to assess the qualitative and quantitative profiles of the ethanolic extract from the stem bark of C. ferrea and to evaluate its mutagenic activity, using a Salmonella/microsome assay for this species. As a result, a total of twenty compounds were identified by Flow Injection Analysis Electrospray Ionization Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry (FIA-ESI-IT-MS/MSn in the ethanolic extract from the stem bark of C. ferrea. Hydrolyzable tannins predominated, principally gallic acid derivatives. The HPLC-DAD method was developed for rapid quantification of six gallic acid compounds and ellagic acid derivatives. C. ferrea is widely used in Brazil, and the absence of any mutagenic effect in the Salmonella/microsome assay is important for pharmacological purposes and the safe use of this plant.

  7. Fungos associados com sementes de flamboyant-mirim (Caesalpinia pulcherrima: incidência, efeito na germinação, transmissão e controle

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    José George Ferreira Medeiros

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Most pathogens that cause diseases in crops can be transported and transmitted by seeds, with great economic significance. The objective of this work was to assess the incidence of pathogens and their effect in the germination and vigor of Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. seeds. The seed sanity experiment was completely randomized with five treatments, and ten repetitions. The seeds were immersed in extracts of Allamanda cathartica, Momordica charantia and Foenicullum. vulgare for five minutes, and the control was immersed in sterile water. For the germination test, 200 seeds were used, distributed in four replicates of 50 seeds per treatment. The vigor tests consisted of the first count and germination speed index. The evaluation of fungi transmission were performed during the germination test, by counting the symptoms in the primary root, hypocotyl and epicotyl. The treatments reduced the incidence of Cladosporium sp., Aspergillus sp. Rhizopus sp., Penicillium sp. Nigrospora sp and Pestalotiasp..It was also found the fungus Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. associated with the lesions in the seed integument. The treatments provided a higher percentage of germination of seedlings. Higher percentages of germination were observed when oil extracts of Allamanda cathartica, Momordica charantia and Foenicullum vulgare were used.

  8. Effects of ovule and seed abortion on brood size and fruit costs in the leguminous shrub Caesalpinia gilliesii (Wall. ex Hook. D. Dietr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Calviño

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For several plant species, brood size results from the abortion of ovules and seeds. However, these processes have rarely been studied together in wild plants. In some of the leguminous species studied, seed abortion has been found to depend on pollen quality and on the position of the ovule or fruit. The direct consequence for the mother plant is that fruit costs increase as the seed:ovule ratio decreases. However, because ovule abortion occurs earlier than does seed abortion, the former can reduce the biomass invested per seed (i.e., fruit costs more efficiently than does the latter. Here, the frequencies of aborted ovules and seeds were analyzed in relation to the type of pollination treatment (open pollination vs. hand cross-pollination and ovule/fruit position within pods of the leguminous shrub Caesalpinia gilliesii. The influence of ovule and seed abortion on fruit costs was analyzed by comparing the pericarp mass per seed between fruits with different frequencies of aborted ovules and seeds. The rate of ovule abortion was similar between hand cross-pollinated and open-pollinated fruits but was higher than that of seed abortion in one- and two-seeded fruits, as well as in those at stylar positions and in distal fruits. Hand cross-pollination reduced seed abortion but did not increase the seed:ovule ratio. In addition, fruits that aborted ovules were found to be less costly than were those that aborted seeds. From the mother plant perspective, these results indicate that ovule abortion is a more efficient mechanism of reducing fruit costs than is seed abortion, because fertilization opportunities decrease with position, and show that brood size is significantly influenced by the fate of the ovule at the pre-zygotic stage.

  9. Synergy of aminoglycoside antibiotics by 3-Benzylchroman derivatives from the Chinese drug Caesalpinia sappan against clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, G Y; Han, Z Q; Hao, X Y; Han, J; Li, Z S; Wang, G C

    2014-06-15

    The in vitro antimicrobial activities of three 3-Benzylchroman derivatives, i.e. Brazilin (1), Brazilein (2) and Sappanone B (3) from Caesalpinia sappan L. (Leguminosae) were assayed, which mainly dealt with synergistic evaluation of aminoglycoside and other type of antibiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by the three compounds through the Chequerboard and Time-kill curve methods. The results showed that Compounds 1-3 alone exhibited moderate to weak activity against methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and other standard strains by MICs/MBCs ranged from 32/64 to >1024/>1024 μg/ml, with the order of activity as 1>2>3. Chequerboard method showed significant anti-MRSA synergy of 1/Aminoglycosides (Gentamicin, Amikacin, Etimicin and Streptomycin) combinations with (FICIs)50 at 0.375-0.5. The combined (MICs)50 values (μg/ml) reduced from 32-128/16-64 to 4-8/4-16, respectively. The percent of reduction by MICs ranged from 50% to 87.5%, with a maximum of 93.8% (1/16 of the alone MIC). Combinations of 2 and 3 with Aminoglycosides and the other antibiotics showed less potency of synergy. The dynamic Time-killing experiment further demonstrated that the combinations of 1/aminoglycoside were synergistically bactericidal against MRSA. The anti-MRSA synergy results of the bacteriostatic (Chequerboard method) and bactericidal (time-kill method) efficiencies of 1/Aminoglycoside combinations was in good consistency, which made the resistance reversed by CLSI guidelines. We concluded that the 3-Benzylchroman derivative Brazilin (1) showed in vitro synergy of bactericidal activities against MRSA when combined with Aminoglycosides, which might be beneficial for combinatory therapy of MRSA infection. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  10. Mobilização de reservas durante a germinação das sementes e crescimento das plântulas de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae Mobilization of the reserves during germination of seeds and growth of seedlings of Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Borges Corte

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a mobilização de reservas de sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. durante a germinação e crescimento inicial das plântulas. As variações nas reservas de carbiodratos, lipídios e proteínas foram analisadas desde o período pré-germinativo (0 a 5 dias após a semeadura - DAS até a total senescência e abscisão dos cotilédones, aos 35 DAS, por meio de testes bioquímicos nos cotilédones das sementes. Os resultados indicaram que os lipídios constituem o principal composto de reserva nos cotilédones, contribuindo com cerca de 50% de massa seca. Carboidratos solúveis representaram 32%, as proteínas solúveis 7,7% e o amido 6,8% de massa seca dos cotilédones. Os lipídios sofreram marcante decréscimo entre 5 e 10 dias após a semeadura, período em que se observou elevada taxa de crescimento das plântulas. Carboidratos e proteínas solúveis exibiram tendência gradativa de queda, enquanto no amido, isso quase não foi detectado. A redução do peso de massa seca dos cotilédones foi bem correlacionada com o aumento da biomassa da plântula.This work aimed at studying the mobilization seed reserves during germination and initial growth of seedlings of Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. The variations in carbohydrate, lipid and protein reserves were analyzed from the pre-sprouting period (0 to 5 days after sowing -DAS to the total senescence and abscission of seeds. The results showed that lipids constitute the main reserve compound in the cotyledon, contributing with almost 50 % of its dry mass weight. Soluble carbohydrates represent 32 %, the soluble proteins 7.7 % and starch 6.8 % of the dry mass weight of cotyledons. Lipids showed a marked decrease between 5 and 10 days after sowing, period of a high seedling growth rate. Carbohydrates and soluble proteins showed a gradual tendency to decrease, while starch was almost non-detectable. The reduction in cotyledon dry mass of weight

  11. O Ácido (817,12E,14-labdatrieno-18-óico (labdano302, diterpeno tipo labdano isolado de Xylopia langsdorffiana St. Hil. & Tul. (Annonaceae relaxa a traquéia isolada de cobaia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano A. A. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available A espécie Xylopia langsdorffiana St. Hil.. & Tul. é popularmente conhecida como "pimenteira-da-terra" no Sudeste do Brasil. A partir do fracionamento do extrato etanólico, obtido das cascas do caule desta espécie, foi isolado um diterpeno tipo labdano, identificado como sendo o ácido 8(17,12E,14-labdatrieno-18-óico, e que neste trabalho é codificado como labdano302. O labdano302 relaxou o tônus basal dos anéis de traquéia isolada de cobaia com um valor de CE50 de 6,7 ± 0,5 x 10-8 M. O diterpeno labdano302 relaxou de maneira dependente de concentração os anéis pré-contraídos com carbacol (10-6 M, tanto na presença (CE50 = 1,4 ± 0,7 x 10-5 M como na ausência de epitélio funcional (CE50 = 1,5 ± 0,3 x 10-5 M, bem como anéis pré-contraídos com 18 ou 60 mM de KCl, apresentando valores de CE50 de 2,3 ± 0,4 x 10(7 M e 1,8 ± 0,8 x 10-5 M, respectivamente. Este efeito relaxante, sobre as contrações induzidas por 18 mM de KCl, tanto foi significantemente mais potente quanto mais eficaz quando comparado ao efeito sobre as contrações induzidas por 60 mM de KCl. Assim, labdano302 mostra um efeito relaxante em traquéia isolada de cobaia, tanto em seu tônus basal como sob estímulo contrátil, aparentemente sem a participação dos fatores relaxantes derivados do epitélio, contudo com possível participação dos canais de K+.

  12. Morfologia foliar de indivíduos jovens e adultos de Caesalpinia echinata Lam. numa floresta semidecídua do Sul da Bahia Leaf morphology of saplings and adult individuals of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. in a semidecidual forest of Southern Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Sanches

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Caesalpiniaceae é uma espécie arbórea que ocorre naturalmente no interior da floresta e atinge os estratos superiores do dossel por meio de pequenas clareiras. Objetivou-se, neste estudo, comparar alguns aspectos da morfologia foliar entre indivíduos adultos, cujas folhas se encontravam em pleno sol e jovens no sub-bosque. O estudo foi realizado numa floresta semidecídua, localizada no Município de Jussari, Bahia. Inicialmente, foram localizados e marcados oito indivíduos adultos e oito jovens para cada adulto. Foram coletadas e analisadas oito folhas para cada adulto e três para cada jovem, em duas épocas (setembro/novembro de 2004 e abril de 2005. Em geral, as áreas das folhas, das ráquis e dos folíolos, o comprimento das ráquis, a largura das folhas, o número de pinas e a massa seca das folhas foram significativamente superiores nos indivíduos jovens, ao passo que as massas específicas das folhas e dos folíolos foram significativamente superiores nos indivíduos adultos. Tanto nos adultos quanto nos jovens, nas duas épocas de coleta foram verificadas relações altamente significativas entre a massa seca e a área das folhas. Os resultados indicaram que folhas de C. echinata apresentam características que maximizam a absorção de luz onde este recurso é limitante e, ao mesmo tempo, direcionam maior alocação de carbono para os tecidos de suporte. Tais resultados estão de acordo com o observado no estádio sucessional da espécie analisada e com a sua estratégia de ocupação dos espaços gerados pela formação de pequenas clareiras, em ambiente de mata semidecídua.Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Caesalpiniaceae is a tree species that naturally regenerates in the forest understory and reaches the upper canopy through small gaps. We conducted a study with the objective of comparing some aspects of leaf morphology of adult individuals, in which the leaves were exposed to full sunlight, and saplings

  13. Histochemical aspects of reserves mobilization of Caesalpinia peltophoroides (Leguminosae seeds during germination and seedlings early growth Estudo Histoquímico da mobilização de reservas de sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides (Leguminosae durante a germinação e crescimento inicial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Borges Corte

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate reserve mobilization in Caesalpinia peltophoroides seeds during germination and initial seedling growth. The variation in these compounds was analyzed from the pre-germination period (0 to 5 days after sowing - DAS to the total cotyledon senescence and abscission at 35 DAS. For this histochemical tests were made on cotyledons fixed in FAA50 or included in glycol-metacrylate. To follow the mobilization of the main reserve compounds, sudan III was used to detect total lipids, xylidine Ponceau to detect total proteins, lugol to detect starch and polarized light to visualize the crystals. The lipids, present in a great quantity in the cotyledon, gradually decreased in the period studied. A greater quantity of starch was observed on the 10th DAS than in the previous periods and it was totally consumed by 30 DAS. The distribution pattern and the morphology of the protein material were very modified by 10 DAS, a period during which it was intensely consumed, remaining only parietally fragments distributed, that practically disappeared at 25 DAS. The calcium oxalate druses were not consumed during the period studied, there was only crystal agglutination.Este trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo da mobilização de reservas de sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. durante a germinação e crescimento inicial das plântulas. As variações nesses compostos foram analisadas desde o período pré-germinativo (0 a 5 dias após a semeadura - DAS até a total senescência e abscisão dos cotilédones, aos 35 DAS. Para isso, foram realizados testes histoquímicos em cotilédones fixados em FAA50 ou incluídos em glicol-metacrilato. Para acompanhamento da mobilização dos principais compostos de reserva, foi usado o sudan III para detecção de lipídios totais, xylidine Ponceau para proteínas totais, Lugol para amido e luz polarizada para visualização dos cristais. Os lipídios, presentes em maior

  14. Meios de cultura, reguladores de crescimento e fontes de nitrogênio na regulação da calogênese do pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. Culture media, growth regulators and nitrogen sources in callus formation regulation of Brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Terra Werner

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A regulação da calogênese é o primeiro passo para a embriogênese somática indireta in vitro. Nesse sentido, foram investigados os efeitos de diferentes meios de cultura, reguladores de crescimento e fontes nitrogenadas no desenvolvimento de calos em tecidos foliares de Caesalpinia echinata (pau-brasil. Explantes foliares foram cultivados em meios de cultura MS, B5, White e WPM. Testou-se, também, o efeito dos compostos nitrogenados (NH4NO3, KNO3 e glutamina e a interação entre auxinas (2,4-D, AIA e AIB e citocininas (BAP e KIN na desdiferenciação celular indicado pela formação de calos. Os meios MS, B5 e White não foram significantemente diferentes e proporcionaram melhores resultados. Em meio MS contendo as fontes nitrogenadas 2,4 g L-1 NH4NO3 e 1,35 g L-1 glutamina + 4,11 g L-1 de KNO3 na presença de 1,0 mg L-1 2,4-D e 5,0 mg L-1 BAP ocorreu maior proliferação celular indicada pela massa fresca dos calos. As combinações dos reguladores 0,5 mg L-1 2,4-D + 5 mg L-1 BAP e 0,5 mg L-1 AIB + 5,0 mg L-1 BAP suplementado com 2,4 g L-1 NH4NO3 em meio MS estimularam o crescimento dos calos. De maneira geral, os calos apresentaram aspectos friáveis, não embriogênicos, com acúmulo de fenóis e presença de áreas meristemáticas (meristemóides.The regulation of callus formation is the first step to indirect somatic embryogenesis in vitro. Therefore, we investigated hormonal and nutrient factors on development of callus in leaf tissues of Caesalpinia echinata (Brazilwood. Explants were cultivated in culture media MS, B5, WPM, and White. The effect of nitrogen sources (NH4NO3, KNO3 and glutamine and the interaction between auxins (2,4-D, IAA and IBA and cytokinins (BAP and KIN were also evaluated. Media MS, B5 and White were not significantly different and provided better results. MS medium containing 2.4 g L-1 NH4NO3, 1.35 g L-1 glutamine, and 4.11 g L-1 of KNO3 in the presence of 1 mg.L-1 2,4-D and 5 mg.L-1 BAP increased cellular

  15. Enraizamento de estacas de Pau-Brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. tratadas com ácido indol butírico e ácido naftaleno acético Rooting cuttings of Pau-Brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. treated with indole butyric acid and naphthalene acetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurício Endres

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. tem grande valor cultural no Brasil e a sua propagação por sementes é dificultada pela rápida perda do poder germinativo delas. A estaquia pode ser usada para a produção de mudas de espécies florestais, principalmente quando existem algumas dificuldades de propagação por sementes. Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar o efeito de concentrações e fontes de auxinas sobre o enraizamento de estacas de pau-brasil. Estacas com cerca de 12cm de comprimento e de um a dois pares de folhas foram tratadas na base com ácido indol butírico (AIB, ácido naftaleno acético (ANA na forma líquida ou na forma de pó nas concentrações de 0, 1.250, 2.500, 5.000, 10.000mg L-1 ou mg Kg-1, respectivamente. As estacas foram transferidas para substrato contendo areia e mantidas sob nebulização (90-95% UR. Aos 120 dias de estaquia, foram avaliados a mortalidade, a retenção foliar, a formação de calo e a percentagem de estacas enraizadas. As estacas apresentaram índices de sobrevivência de até 70%. A formação de calos não foi relacionada com a concentração de auxinas utilizadas. O maior índice de enraizamento de estacas de pau-brasil, em torno de 16%, foi resgistrada com a utilização do ácido indolbutírico (AIB e do ácido naftalenoacético (ANA na concentração 2.500mg L-1. Os altos índices de sobrevivência e os baixos índices de enraizamento sugerem que as estacas devem permanecer por mais tempo sob nebulização, a fim de induzir o seu processo de enraizamento.The 'pau-brasil' tree (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. have a high cultural value in Brazil and its seed propagation is very difficult because of its rapid losses of germination potential. Cuttings propagation has been considered as alternative method to propagate forest species that seed propagation is poor. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA and naphthalene acetic (NAA acid on

  16. Envolvimento dos canais de potássio na ação espasmolítica do ácido 8(17), 12E, 14-labdatrieno-18-óico (labdano-302), isolado de Xylopia langsdorfiana A. St.-Hil. & Tul. em íleo isolado de cobaia

    OpenAIRE

    Macêdo, Cibério Landim

    2008-01-01

    O ácido 8(17),12e,14-labdatrieno-18-óico (labdano-302) é um diterpeno isolado das cascas do caule de Xylopia langsdorfiana A. St.-Hil. & Tul. Em estudos anteriores Ribeiro (2003) demonstrou que o labdano-302 inibiu as contrações fásicas induzidas por carbacol (CCh) e histamina (CI50 = 1,7  0,5 e 0,9  0,2 x 10-5 M, respectivamente) em íleo de cobaia. O objetivo desse estudo foi investigar o mecanismo de ação espasmolítica do labdano-302 neste órgão. As contrações is...

  17. EXPLORANDO LA VARIABILIDAD MORFOMÉTRICA DEL CONJUNTO DE CAMÉLIDOS PEQUEÑOS DURANTE EL ARCAICO TARDÍO Y EL FORMATIVO TEMPRANO EN QUEBRADA TULÁN, NORTE DE CHILE / Exploring the morphometric variability of lesser camelids from Quebrada Tulán (northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cartajena Fasting

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Frecuentemente en el registro arqueofaunístico de sitios arqueológicos ubicados en la vertiente occidental de la puna de Atacama, es posible diferenciar un conjunto de camélidos grandes y otro de menor tamaño. En general, el grupo de camélidos grandes ha recibido mayor atención, existiendo un escaso conocimiento del grupo de tamaño más pequeño. En este trabajo se explora el conjunto de camélidos pequeños a través de la utilización de métodos osteométricos. Por una parte, se consideran colecciones actuales de alpacas y vicuñas en las que se analizan las distintas variables que pudiesen estar incidiendo en la variabilidad de los conjuntos. Se otorga especial énfasis a la diferenciación entre falanges anteriores y posteriores, variación interespecífica y dimorfismo sexual. Por otra parte, se analizan las primeras falanges de los sitios Tulán-52 (Arcaico Tardío ca. 4500-3800 A.P. y Tulán-54 (Formativo Temprano ca. 3200-2300 A.P. con el fin de caracterizar la variabilidad que presentan los conjuntos a través del tiempo, mediante la comparación de los resultados del análisis de muestras actuales y arqueológicas. Ambos conjuntos arqueofaunísticos son muy similares a pesar de las diferencias temporales. Los especimenes analizados corresponderían a vicuñas, lo que denotaría la importancia de la caza de la vicuña a través del tiempo.Palabras clave:arqueofaunas,osteometria, alpacas, vicuñasAbstractFrequently, it is possible to differentiate among large and small size camelids when analysing registers from archaeological sites located at the occidental slope of Puna de Atacama. However, larger animals have received most of the attention having less knowledge about the group of small size camelids. In this paper and by using osteometric methods we study this small size later group. On one hand, we analyse different variables that may affect variability among modern alpacas and vicuñas collections. We focus our work on

  18. Distinctive patterns of callose deposition provide an early sign of ovule abortion1 in the andromonoecious shrub Caesalpinia gilliesii Patrones distintivos de deposición de calosa proveen evidencia temprana de aborto de óvulos en el arbusto andromonoico Caesalpinia gilliesii

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    A. Calviño

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Ovule abortion may lead to the partial or complete reduction of the number of functional ovules in the ovary and then is the primary factor that determines the sexual expression of the plant. In different species, ovule abortion was associated with the presence of callose in advanced ovules. Based on these observations, we studied the pattern of ovule development and callose deposition in both perfect and staminate flowers of the andromonoecious shrub Caesalpinia gilliesii. The obtained results showed that all ovules reached the 8-nucleate stage of embryo sac development and exhibited callose deposition at advanced stages. Nevertheless, from the 2-nucleate stage, a distinct spatial pattern of callose deposition within the ovule was observed between perfect and staminate flowers. Differences in callose deposition suggest that not callose per se but its distribution pattern in the ovule tissues is the main factor that triggers ovule isolation and abortion and leads to flowers with non-functional pistils in this species. Furthermore, previous observed differential growth rates between perfect and staminate flowers support for resource depletion as the likely underlying mechanism of ovule fate in C. gilliesii.El aborto de óvulos puede llevar a la reducción parcial o completa de óvulos fértiles en el ovario, pudiendo ser entonces un factor primario que determine la expresión sexual de toda la planta. En diferentes especies de plantas, el aborto de los óvulos ha sido asociado con la presencia de calosa en estadios avanzados del desarrollo de los óvulos. Basado en estas observaciones, se estudiaron el desarrollo de los óvulos y el patrón de deposición de calosa tanto en flores perfectas como estaminadas en el arbusto andromonoico C. gilliesii. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que los sacos embrionarios alcanzan el estadio de desarrollo 8-nucleado en todos los óvulos, y que presentan deposición de calosa en los estadios avanzados. Sin

  19. Pharmacological profile of Caesalpinia bonducella Flem | Ahmed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caesalpiniabonducella Flem. (local name: natalkanta, kutum kanta) isemployed tocure various disorders such as urinary disorders, diarrhoea, dysentery, leucorrhoea, piles, wounds, indolentulcers, skind iseases, leprosy, toothache. The present study was performed to investigate the scientific basis for the traditional uses of ...

  20. Free radical scavenging activity of Pterogyne nitens Tul. (Fabaceae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... and the mechanism of antioxidant action of hydroxyflavones. Free. Radical Biol. Med. 31: 868-881. Lorenzi H (1998). Árvores brasileiras; manual de identificação e cultivo de plantas arbóreas do Brasil. Plantarum, Nova Odessa, p. 162. Markham KR, Ternai B, Stanley R, Geiger H, Mabry TJ (1978). Carbon-.

  1. DEFORMATION DEPENDENT TUL MULTI-STEP DIRECT MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WIENKE,H.; CAPOTE, R.; HERMAN, M.; SIN, M.

    2007-04-22

    The Multi-Step Direct (MSD) module TRISTAN in the nuclear reaction code EMPIRE has been extended in order to account for nuclear deformation. The new formalism was tested in calculations of neutron emission spectra emitted from the {sup 232}Th(n,xn) reaction. These calculations include vibration-rotational Coupled Channels (CC) for the inelastic scattering to low-lying collective levels, ''deformed'' MSD with quadrupole deformation for inelastic scattering to the continuum, Multi-Step Compound (MSC) and Hauser-Feshbach with advanced treatment of the fission channel. Prompt fission neutrons were also calculated. The comparison with experimental data shows clear improvement over the ''spherical'' MSD calculations and JEFF-3.1 and JENDL-3.3 evaluations.

  2. Estudo comparativo da susceptibilidade de isolados clínicos de Cryptococcus neoformans (Sanfelice, 1895 frente a alguns antifúngicos de uso hospitalar e extratos vegetais obtidos de plantas medicinais da região semiárida sergipana

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    A. M. BARBOSA JUNIOR

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O uso de plantas medicinais no combate as micoses é uma prática comum nas comunidades rurais e, neste contexto, o objetivo desse trabalho foi analisar o perfil de sensibilidade de isolados clínicos de C. neoformans frente a extratos brutos aquosos e antifúngicos de uso hospitalar utilizando a técnica de difusão em disco. Esses produtos naturais foram obtidos de plantas medicinais popularmente utilizadas por comunidades do sertão sergipano. Foram analisados os extratos brutos aquosos de juazeiro (Ziziphus joazeiro Mart., catingueira (Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul., quixabeira (Bumelia sartorum Mart. e jatobá (Hymenaea courbaril L.. Do juazeiro foi testado o extrato preparado a partir do infuso da entrecasca e da decocção da folha. Da catingueira foi utilizado o extrato preparado a partir do infuso das folhas. Da quixabeira o extrato utilizado foi preparado a partir da decocção da entrecasca e do jatobá maceração da entrecasca. Todos esses produtos naturais foram submetidos aos seguintes tratamentos: exposição ou não a luz ultravioleta e autoclavagem (121ºC por 10minutos. Em paralelo as leveduras patogênicas foram testadas frente aos seguintes antifúngicos de uso hospitalar: anfotericina B, fluconazol, Itraconazol, Miconazol e cetoconazol. Todos os extratos brutos aquosos apresentaram ação antifúngica frente a todas as linhagens clínicas de Cryptococcus neoformans. O tratamento de submeter à autoclavagem e exposição à luz ultravioleta apresentaram melhores resultados de ação antifúngica. Sendo que o tratamento de autoclavar o extrato bruto aquoso prevaleceu estatisticamente com os melhores resultados. Outros estudos de atividade antimicrobiano são necessários para corroborar a ação antimicótica dos produtos natuais testados, como pro exemplo killer-time e fracionamento do teste de micodiluição. No teste de sensibilidade dos antifúngicos realizado foi demonstrado que as leveduras apresentaram resist

  3. LEVANTAMENTO FITOSSOCIOLÓGICO DE REMANESCENTES FLORESTAIS NO MUNICÍPIO DE MOSSORÓ - RN

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    POLLYANA MONA SOARES DIAS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The municipal district of Mossoró - RN is inserted into the Caatinga biome and like other coun- ties its vegetation is notably mischaracterized. Thus a phytosociological study of forest remnants was conduct- ed in Mossoró, seeking knowledge of forest wealth for possible conservation. Bibliographic and cartographic materials were consulted, as well as maps were used for better spatial visualization of forest remnants. Areas where there are forest remnants were highlighted and four sites were chosen to characterize the vegetation. At these sites, the phytosociological study was conducted by installing plots of 20 x 20 m, within which were esti- mated height and diameter at breast height (DBH of all living individuals of the shrub and herbs layers. The phytosociological parameters considered were: Margal ef and Menhinick Diversity Index, Frequency, Density, Dominance and Coverage and Importance Percentage Index. It was found that Poincianella pyramidalis (Tul. and Croton sonderianus Mull. Arg. have excelled in number of individuals, frequency and density. Poincianel- la pyramidalis (Tul. was the one that stood out in most of the analyzed parameters. Species that stand out in an area are found at low frequency in the other. This variation can be probably explained by several factors, one of them may be the anthropic level among the studied areas. Diversity indices indicated that Point 4 showed the greatest diversity and the lowest point 3. However, the Caatinga vegetation of the areas analyzed has low diver- sity, probably by the effects of human disturbance, but with proper planning and managements could avoid its complete disappearance.

  4. “Effect of giant rat's tail grass ( Sporobolus pyramidalis p.beauv ) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Residual TPH and heavy metals (chromium, Cr and lead, Pb) were quantified as an index for assessing the post-phytoremediated crude oil contaminated soils. Crude oil pollution levels of ... content of the soil. Keywords: Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon, Heavy Metals, Phytoremediation, giant rat's tail, crude oil contamination ...

  5. Étude ethnobotanique et screening phytochimique de Caesalpinia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrateur

    Yves-Alain BÉKRO1*, Janat A. MAMYRBEKOVA BÉKRO1, Boua B. BOUA1, Fézan H. TRA BI2 & Ehouan E. ÉHILÉ2. 1Laboratoire de Chimie Bioorganique et de ... extraits bruts des racines de Cb a révélé qu'elles renferment des stérols, polyterpènes, flavonoïdes, saponines, tannins, sucres réducteurs, coumarines et des ...

  6. Étude ethnobotanique et screening phytochimique de Caesalpinia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    En effet, sur les quinze (15) espèces de plantes médicinales (réparties entre 14 familles) utilisées pour le traitement de diverses pathologies liées aux troubles de ... extraits bruts des racines de Cb a révélé qu\\'elles renferment des stérols, polyterpènes, flavonoïdes, saponines, tannins, sucres réducteurs, coumarines et des ...

  7. Does Caesalpinia bonducella ameliorate genotoxicity? An in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Md. Sultan Ahmad

    2013-06-10

    Jun 10, 2013 ... intermittent fevers, and for expelling intestinal worms. In Cey- lon, they are applied for toothache, ... chromosomal damage at metaphase stage gives a more precise and detailed picture of the clastogenic ... Utmost care was taken to avoid a cut across the esophagus or the intestine, which could otherwise ...

  8. ENRAIZAMENTO DE ESTACAS DE CAESALPINIA ECHINATA LAM. EM HIDROPONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Valiengo Valeri

    2012-01-01

    ethanol solution containing 0, 1000, 3000 and 5000 mg L-1 of IBA during 5 seconds. The cuttings were maintained in the hydroponic system for 90 days and, for additional 90 days in plastic bags containing substrate (Plantmax® under intermittent mist. After 90 and 180 days of rooting, the percentage of cuttings that survived, the rooting percentage and the number and length of adventious root were evaluated. Cuttings should be treated with IBA at 100 mg L-1 for 14 hours and placed to root in a hydroponic system.

  9. Does Caesalpinia bonducella ameliorate genotoxicity? An in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study is to investigate the antimutagenic and antigenotoxic potential of alcoholic extracts of C. bonducella against methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) induced genotoxicity. In this experiment we have used in vitro method i.e., human lymphocyte culture and in vivo method in bone marrow cells of albino mice, ...

  10. Anti-bacterial activity of some Brazilian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Maria Raquel Ferreira; de Souza Luna, Josiane; dos Santos, Aldenir Feitosa; de Andrade, Maria Cristina Caño; Sant'Ana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart; Genet, Jean-Pierre; Marquez, Béatrice; Neuville, Luc; Moreau, Nicole

    2006-04-21

    Extracts from various organs of 25 plants of Brazilian traditional medicine were assayed with respect to their anti-bacterial activities against Escherichia coli, a susceptible strain of Staphylococcus aureus and two resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus harbouring the efflux pumps NorA and MsrA. Amongst the 49 extracts studied, 14 presented anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, including the ethanolic extracts from the rhizome of Jatropha elliptica, from the stem barks of Schinus terebinthifolius and Erythrina mulungu, from the stems and leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis and Serjania lethalis, and from the stem bark and leaves of Lafoensia pacari. The classes of compounds present in the active extracts were determined as a preliminary step towards their bioactivity-guided separation. No extracts were active against Escherichia coli.

  11. Spatial pattern analysis and demography of two tropical trees in the Brazilian Caatinga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Fontes Manzan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspidosperma pyrifolium (Apocynaceae and Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Fabaceae share the same habitat in the Brazilian Caatinga domain. In this paper, we investigate the intra and inter-species interactions between these two plants using spatial pattern analysis among cohorts. The results showed that the adult trees of each species present higher densities at distances shorter than 9 m to 12 m. However, due to seed dispersal via autochory, we expected a more aggregate density for C. pyramidalis than A. pyrifolium as the later disperses seeds through anemochory. Difference in spatial aggregation among cohorts was not observed and therefore the results contradict the expectations of the Janzen-Connell hypothesis. It is likely that this is associated with anthropogenic factors in the past such as fire, animal husbandry and logging. Using a bivariate analysis of the neighborhood density, we also confirmed the significant coexistence between the two species. This coexistence could be explained by the process of positive interspecific interactions, such as facilitation, which is common in semi-arid regions under stressful conditions.

  12. Acclimation of seedlings of Gnetum leyboldii Tul. Gnetaceae to light changes in a tropical rain forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Celis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The neotropical liana Gnetum leyboldii Gnetaceae is a gymnosperm that resembles angiosperms in wood anatomy, overall morphology, and seed dispersal mechanism. Like other woody lianas, seedlings germinate in the shaded forest understory and start climbing towards the canopy, being eposed to sites with etreme differences in light conditions. However, the etent of physiological and structural adjustment to contrasting light conditions in the early regeneration stages of Gnetum is unknown. To answer this question, we analyzed seedling growth and photosynthetic responses using a common garden eperiment with two light regimes: full sun and low light 20 of full sun at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. We also characterized the germination pattern of this species. We monitored one and half-month old seedlings for four months. Leaf structure finely adapted to light treatments, but gas echange properties were buffered by large seed reserves, which dominated biomass distribution about 50 of the total biomass, followed by stem 27, leaf 16 and root biomass 6 across light conditions. The presence of large seeds and the low photosynthetic rates of seedlings in both environments show that G. leyboldii is specialized to eploit deep shade. More research is needed to determine if the patterns found in G. leyboldii are typical of similar lianas that initially eploit deep-shaded understories in their ascension to the canopy.

  13. Biochemical Responses of Peach Leaves Infected with Taphrina Deformans Berk/Tul.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubka Koleva-Valkova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytopathogenic fungus Taphrina deformans causing the so called “leaf curl disease” in peach trees leads to severe yield losses due to the development of leaf hypertrophy and subsequent necrosis and scission. Because of its economic importance, the molecular mechanisms underlying the onset and progression of the disease are of considerable interest to the agricultural science. In this study various biochemical parameters, including the activities of the antioxidant enzymes guaiacol peroxidase, syringaldazine peroxidase and catalase, total polyphenols and anthocyanin content, concentration of free proline, antiradical activity and quantity of plastid pigments, were characterized. All these were measured in both leaves with clear symptoms and distally situated leaves from the same plant that show no signs of the infection. The results demonstrate that the pathogen induces considerable biochemical changes concerning enzymatic and non‑enzymatic elements of the plant defense and antioxidant systems. Moreover, it seems that the fungus provokes a systemic response detectable even in the tissues without observable symptoms.

  14. Species choice, provenance and species trials among native Brazilian species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drumond, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    Six papers from the conference are presented. Drumond, M.A., Potential of species native to the semi-arid tropics, 766-781, (Refs. 18), reports on Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Mimosa species, Schinopsis brasiliensis, Spondias tuberosa, Ziziphus joazeiro, Cnidoscolus phyllacanthus, Bursera leptophleos (leptophloeos), Tabebuia impetiginosa, Astronium urundeuva, and Mimosa caesalpinia. Monteiro, R.F.R., Speltz, R.M., Gurgel, J.T. do A.; Silvicultural performance of 24 provenances of Araucaria angustifolia in Parana, 814-824, (Refs. 8). Pires, C.L. da S., Kalil Filho, A.N., Rosa, P.R.F. da, Parente, P.R., Zanatto, A.C.S.; Provenance trials of Cordia alliodora in the State of Sao Paulo, 988-995, (Refs. 9). Nogueira, J.C.B., Siqueira, A.C.M.F., Garrido, M.A.O., Gurgel Garrido, L.M. do A., Rosa, P.R.F., Moraes, J.L. de, Zandarin, M.A., Gurgel Filho, O.A., Trials of some native species in various regions of the State of Sao Paulo, 1051-1063, (Refs. 9) describes Centrolobium tomentosum, Peltophorum dubium, Tabebuia vellosoi, Cariniana legalis, and Balfourodendron riedelianum. Batista, M.P., Borges, J.F., Franco, M.A.B.; Early growth of a native species in comparison with exotics in northeastern Para, Brazil, 1105-1110, (Refs. 3). Jacaranda copaia is compared with Gmelina arborea, Pinus caribaea various hondurensis, Eucalyptus deglupta, and E. urophylla. Lima, P.C.F., Souza, S.M. de, Drumond, M.A.; Trials of native forest species at Petrolina, Pernambuco, 1139-1148, (Refs. 8), deals with Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Piptadenia obliqua, Pithecellobium foliolosum, Astronium urundeuva, Schinopsis brasiliensis, Cassia excelsa, Caesalpinia pyramidalis, Parkia platycephala, Pseudobombax simplicifolium, Tabebuia impetiginosa, Caesalpinia ferrea, and Aspidosperma pyrifolium. 18 references.

  15. Establishment of a Callus Culture System of Populus euphratica, Populus alba cv. Pyramidalis and Populus maximowiczii × Populus plantierensis

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Hailong; Watanabe, Shin; IDE, Yuji

    1998-01-01

    Populus euphratica(コトカケヤナギ,中国名,胡楊),Populus alba cv. Pyramidalis(中国名,新疆楊),Populus maximowiczii×Populus plantierensis(品種名,FS-51)の3種類のポプラについてカルス培養の基本的手法を確立した。BAP,NAA,2,4-Dを単独あるいは組み合わせて添加したMS培地上でカルス誘導が可能であった。誘導されたカルスは,BAPを0.2mg/l,NAAを1.0mg/l含むMS培地上で継代培養可能であった。また,継代2回目のカルスをBAPを単独あるいはNAAまたはGA3を組み合わせたMS培地上でシュートが再生した。これらのシュートは,1/2MS培地にさしつけることにより発根して植物体が再生した。三種類すべてでカルスの培養と植物体の再生が可能であったが,種によって適当なホルモン条件は異なっていた。...

  16. The pyramidalis-anterior pubic ligament-adductor longus complex (PLAC) and its role with adductor injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schilders, Ernest; Bharam, Srino; Golan, Elan

    2017-01-01

    crest and anterior pubic ligament and attaches to the linea alba on the medial border. The proximal adductor longus attaches to the pubic crest and anterior pubic ligament. The anterior pubic ligament is also a fascial anchor point connecting the lower anterior abdominal aponeurosis and fascia lata....... The rectus abdominis, however, is not attached to the adductor longus; its lateral tendon attaches to the cranial border of the pubis; and its slender internal tendon attaches inferiorly to the symphysis with fascia lata and gracilis. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrates a strong direct connection between...

  17. Histochemical and ultrastructural study of Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae seeds Estudo histoquímico e ultraestrutural de sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Borges Corte

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to correlate data on light microscopy observations through histochemical analysis and polarized light techniques and investigations in transmission electron microscopy (TEM to characterize the reserve materials in C. peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae cotyledons, popularly known as "sibipiruna", a tropical tree species with wide distribution in Brazil. The cotyledon mesophyll, especially in the abaxial face, is rich in unsaturated neutral lipids contained in numerous lipid bodies dispersed in the cytoplasm. Proteins, more concentrated in the adaxial face of the cotyledons, occur in all the mesophyll and are stored in protein bodies containing globoids, with variable number and size, responsible for accumulation of mineral reserves. Calcium oxalate druses have distribution restricted to the cotyledons adaxial face and are associated with protein bodies. Starch, also distributed all over the cotyledon mesophyll, occurs in small amounts in plastids with developed lamellar system. Secretory cavities rich in phenolic compounds occur among procambial strands.Este trabalho procurou correlacionar dados de observações em microscopia de luz através de técnicas histoquímicas e de luz polarizada e investigações em microscopia eletrônica de transmissão para caracterizar os materiais de reserva em cotilédones de C. peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae, conhecida popularmente como sibipiruna, ou falso pau-brasil, uma espécie tropical com ampla distribuição no Brasil. O mesofilo cotiledonar, especialmente na face abaxial, apresenta-se rico em lipídios neutros, insaturados, contidos em numerosos corpos lipídicos dispersos no citoplasma. As proteínas, mais concentradas na face adaxial dos cotilédones, ocorrem em todo o mesofilo e são armazenadas em corpos proteicos contendo globoides, com número e tamanho variáveis, responsáveis pelo acúmulo de reservas minerais. Drusas de oxalato de cálcio têm distribuição restrita à face adaxial dos cotilédones e estão associadas aos corpos proteicos. O amido, também distribuído por todo o mesofilo cotiledonar, ocorre em pequena quantidade em plastídios, com sistema lamelar desenvolvido. Entre os cordões procambiais ocorrem cavidades secretoras ricas em compostos fenólicos.

  18. FT-Raman spectroscopic study of skin wound healing in diabetic rats treated with Cenostigma macrophyllum Tul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Nayana Pinheiro Machado de Freitas; Martins, Marcelino, E-mail: nayanamachado@oi.com.br [Faculdade Diferencial Integral (FACID), Teresina, PI (Brazil); Costa, Charlytton Luis Sena da; Maia Filho, Antonio Luis [Universidade Estadual do Piaui (UESPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil); Raniero, Leandro; Martin, Airton Abrahao; Arisawa, Emilia Angela Loschiavo [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento

    2014-07-01

    Introduction: patients with diabetes mellitus exhibit a delay in the lesion repair process. The active components of Cenostigma macrophyllum may represent a viable alternative to facilitate the recovery of these lesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of emulsion oil-water Cenostigma macrophyllum in the repair process of lesions in rats with induced diabetes. Methods: 63 male rats (Wistar, 200-250 g body weight, 30-40 days old) were distributed into the following groups: control (C), diabetic (D) and diabetic treated with Cenostigma macrophyllum (P), subdivided based on the experimental times, days 7, 14 and 28, with 21 animals per main group. Diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced by administration of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg via penile vein and 12-h fasting) and confirmed at day 21 (glycemic index > 240 mg/dL). In the animals of group P, 0.5 ml of the oil-water emulsion obtained from the plant seed was used. The samples were removed and hemisectioned, and one portion was used for the quantitative histological analysis of collagen using Masson's trichrome staining, while another portion was analyzed by FT-Raman spectroscopy. Results: A higher percentage area of the volume of collagen fibers was observed for the experimental time Day 14 in group P compared with group D (p < 0.001). Regarding the ratio of areas of the amides I (1700-1600 cm{sup -1}) and III (1245-1345 cm{sup -1}), the groups D and P show the opposite behavior. Conclusion: Cenostigma macrophyllum accelerated the repair process in skin of diabetic ratsfor14 days. (author)

  19. CARACTERIZAÇÃO FLORÍSTICO-FITOSSOCIOLÓGICA DO COMPONENTE LENHOSO DE UM TRECHO DE CAATINGA NO SEMIÁRIDO PARAIBANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROZILEUDO DA SILVA GUEDES

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The caatinga vegetation has many physiognomies and in a general way is degraded by human pressure, so it is important to characterize phytosociologically its various facies. This study aimed to characterize the composition and structure of the woody component of a relatively homogeneous remnant of caatinga vegetation in semiarid region of Paraiba, in a region locally called as Seridó. We sampled all shrub-tree species, alive or dead, still foot, with basal circumference > 10 cm (at 30 cm from the base and total height > 1m. Ten plots of 20 x 20 m were allocated, randomly distributed across the study area. The total density was 1622.5 ind./ha, distributed in 21 species, 21 genera and 11 botanical families. The main species, according to the index of importance value were Poincianella pyramidalis (Tul. L.P. Queiroz, Aspidosperma pyrifolium Mart., Commiphora leptophloeos (Mart. J.B. Gillett and Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell. Brenan. Despite being an area that is considered well preserved within the region, the studied community has a high density of individuals with small diameter shafts (D0,3 ¿ 6 cm (63%. The Shannon index (3.38 may be considered medium and the Pielou equability (0.85 indicates floristic heterogeneity of the shrub-arboreal component. The floristic composition and species richness are similar to those found in other studied areas of the region, except by the high abundance of Commiphora leptophloeos and Amburana cearensis (Allemão A.C. Sm.

  20. Kinetics of solute leachate from imbibing Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brazilwood seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor Martini Neto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The electrical conductivity of leachates from imbibing seeds has been used as a vigor test for several species. The adaptation of this methodology to different species requires knowledge on the leaching kinetics of electrolytes. For Brazilwood seeds, the classic method was not satisfactory and rapid tests are essential because they have low storage capacity at room temperature. Leaching kinetics during seed imbibition is a function of physiological quality, presence or absence of seed coat, imbibing temperature and the initial moisture content of seed. In this study, the electrolyte leaching rate of six different categories of seeds, from two regions, was evaluated in seeds with and without seed coat and incubated with different moisture contents and at different temperatures. The results showed that the electrolyte leaching rate in Brazilwood seeds is independent of the physiological quality, the presence or absence of seed coat and imbibition temperature, but these factors changed the total amount of electrolytes leached. The leaching rate increased in the first few minutes of imbibition, suggesting that the adjustment of the methodology must consider the reduction in imbibition time, reduction in temperature, use of a controlled and slower pre-imbibition, and replacement of the imbibition solution after the first few minutes.

  1. Caracteristicas anatomicas y propiedades fisicas de la madera de Caesalpinia gaumeri Greenm en Dzan, Yucatan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Interian-Ku, Victor Manuel; Borja de la Rosa, Maria Amparo; Valdez-Hernandez, Juan Ignacio; Garcia-Moya, Edmundo; Romero-Manzanares, Angelica; Vaquera-Huerta, Humberto

    2011-01-01

    .... Con la finalidad de contribuir al conocimiento tecnologico de sus atributos y proponer usos potenciales de la madera de esta especie, se describieron sus caracteristicas anatomicas y propiedades fisicas...

  2. Synthesis and characterization of natural red dye from Caesalpinia sappan linn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulyanto, Subur, E-mail: subur.mulyanto@poltekba.ac.id [Graduate Program of Mechanical Engineering, SebelasMaret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta (Indonesia); Department of Mechanical Engineering, State Polytechnic of Balikpapan, Jl. Soekarno-Hatta Km.8 Balikpapan (Indonesia); Suyitno,, E-mail: suyitno@uns.ac.id; Rachmanto, Rendy Adhi, E-mail: rendy.ar@gmail.com; Hidayat, Lullus Lambang Govinda, E-mail: lulus-l@yahoo.com; Hadi, Syamsul, E-mail: syamsulhadi@ft.uns.ac.id [Department of Mechanical Engineering, SebelasMaret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta (Indonesia); Wibowo, Atmanto Heru, E-mail: aheruwibowo@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, SebelasMaret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    The study reports the synthesis and characterization of natural red dye. The dyes were extracted from woods of Caesalpiniasappanlinn at varied temperatures of 70, 80, 90, and 100°C for three hours. The dry wood chips and water at a ratio of 6:1 were immersed in the reactor of 150 liters. The absorbance spectra of the natural red dyes were measured by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. Meanwhile, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to investigate the functional groups of the natural red dyes. In addition, the basic production cost was calculated and the fastness property towards cotton fabrics was investigated according to the Indonesia national standard of 105-C06:2010, 105-B01:2010, and 0288-2008. The results showed that the functional groups found the extracted red dyes indicated the complex bond of brazilein with peak absorbance at a wavelength of 538-540 nm. The extraction temperature also changed the functional group of brazilein. From the color, the absorbance peak, the functional groups, and the main production cost, the best parameter to synthesize the natural red dyes from Caesalpiniasappanlinn was at a temperature of 80°C for two hours. Moreover, the natural red dyes has the fastness to wash resistance, light resistance, and scrub resistance by 4-5, 4, and 3-4, respectively. However, further studies for synthesis the natural red dyes by using a continuous reactor are required to identify the naturally complex compounds in brazilein for improving the fastness properties and for reducing the cost.

  3. ESSENTIAL OIL OF Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden IN STIMULATING MYCORRHIZAL SIBIPIRUNA SEEDLINGS (Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Bemfica Steffen; Zaida Inês Antoniolli; Gerusa Pauli Kist Steffen; Rodrigo Ferreira da Silva

    2012-01-01

    RESUMO Os metabólitos secundários extraídos de espécies florestais formadoras de ectomicorrizas podem estimular a simbiose entre fungos ectomicorrízicos e espécies florestais nativas do Rio Grande do Sul. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o efeito do óleo essencial de eucalipto na formação de associação ectomicorrízica e no crescimento de mudas de sibipiruna, em condições de casa de vegetação. Plântulas de sibipiruna foram submetidas a quatro tratamentos constituídos pela presença e au...

  4. FLORÍSTICA E FITOSSOCIOLOGIA DE QUATRO REMANESCENTES VEGETACIONAIS EM ÁREAS DE SERRA NO CARIRI PARAIBANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEDRO THIAGO BARBOSA DE OLIVEIRA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It was studied vegetal remainders into four mountain areas: Serra de Bodopitá (Area1, Serra de Bodocongó (Area 2, Serra do Monte (Area 3 and Serra do Canoió (Area 4 located in paraiban Cariri. The study aimed at determines the phytossociolical parameters and for this was used the program Mata Nativa 2. It was also calculated the indexes of Shannon, Pielou equability, diversity of species and families. From the 2972 sampled individuals, 633 belonged to Area 1, 602 to Area 2, 908 to Area 3 and 829 to Area 4. All of them were distributed in 54 species belonged to 25 botanic families. It was observed that the families Fabaceae and Euphorbiaceae had the largest number of species and individuals and after them Cactaceae, Anacardiaceae and Apocynaceae. The Shannon indexes values in Areas 1, 2, 3 and 4 were respectively 2.65; 2.93; 2.35 e 2.59 nats.esp.-1 . The founded densities were 3165 individuals.ha-1 in Area 1, 3010 individuals.ha-1 in Area 2, 4540 individuals.ha-1 in Area 3 and 4145 individuals.ha-1 in Area 4. The four areas had the same species with the most importance values being them: Caesalpinia pyramidalis, Aspidosperma pyrifolium, Bauhinia cheilantha, Piptadenia stipulacea.

  5. New records of some Ascomycete truffle fungi from Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz TÜRKOÐLU; Michael Angelo CASTELLANO

    2014-01-01

    We report the first records of 6 Ascomycete truffle taxa in Turkey: Genea verrucosa Vittad., Genea klotzschii Berk. & Broome, Stephensia bombycina (Vittad.) Tul. & C.Tul., Terfezia olbiensis Tul. & C.Tul., Tuber excavatum Vittad., and Tuber rufum Pico. We also...

  6. Avaliação da toxicidade e farmacocinética do Trachylobano-360, um diterpeno isolado de Xylopia langsdorffiana St. Hil. & Tul. (Annonaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pita, João Carlos Lima Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    A avaliação do perfil farmacocinético e toxicológico é essencial no estudo de novos candidatos a fármacos. No entanto, estes estudos são escassos e vêm sendo realizados, em muitos casos, após o início dos ensaios clínicos. Trachylobano-360 (T-360), o diterpeno ácido ent-7-acetoxitrachylobano-18-óico, obtido de Xylopia langsdorffiana, apresenta atividades antitumoral e espasmolítica, tornando-se uma molécula promissora. Além disso, não há relatos na literatura de estudos toxicológicos e farm...

  7. INFLUÊNCIA DAS CONCENTRAÇÕES DE ÁCIDO SULFÚRICO NA GERMINAÇÃO IN VITRO DE Pterogyne nitens TUL. (FABACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosália Nazareth Rosa Trindade

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações de ácido sulfúrico na desinfestação, oxidação e germinação in vitro de sementes de Pterogyne nitens. O experimento foi conduzido no laboratório de Cultura de Tecidos Vegetais do IFMG. O delineamento foi inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro repetições de 12 sementes, sendo estudado o efeito de cinco concentrações de ácido sulfúrico. A avaliação do número de sementes germinadas, oxidadas e desinfestadas foi feita três vezes por semana, por 20 dias. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância. As maiores porcentagens de desinfestação 27,08 e 16,67% foi observado nas sementes tratadas com 25 e 100% do ácido. Os tratamentos com 75 e 100% de ácido sulfúrico não se diferenciaram e apresentaram maiores porcentagens de germinação (93,75 e 83,33%, respectivamente e oxidação (89,58 e 83,33 %, respectivamente. A concentração de 100% de ácido sulfúrico apresentou os melhores resultados para a desinfestação e germinação.

  8. The notion of "Nzâmbi Ampûngu Tulêndo:" an outcome of the being-force concept

    OpenAIRE

    luyaluka, Kiatezua Lubanzadio

    2015-01-01

    1 Introduction p. 1 2 Methodological approach of the research. p. 2 3 The origin of the concept of fetish. p. 3 4 Original meaning of n’kisi. p. 4 5 Kinds of n’kisi. p. 5 6 The veiling of the concept of n’kisi. p. 5 7 The bad consequences of the assimilation of n’kisi to fetish. p. 5 8 The meaning of the word mpungu. p. 6 9 The mpûngu and the being-force concept. p. 8 10 Conclusion. p. 9 11 Bibliography. p. 10; A language is a dynamic feature of a culture which usually undergoes mutation as t...

  9. SUPERAÇÃO DA DORMÊNCIA E INFLUÊNCIA DO CONDICIONAMENTO OSMÓTICO EM SEMENTES DE Pterogyne nitens TUL. (FABACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KELLY PELLIZZARO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to evaluate the influence of priming and efficiency of two methods of scarification on dormancy break of brave peanut seeds. After scarification with sulfuric acid and sandpaper, seeds were placed in mannitol solutions at concentrations 0.0 (control, -0.25, -0.50, -0.75 and -1.00 MPa for six days at 10 °C. Water content and germination percentage were determined. It was observed that, at 0.0 MPa, the seeds were scarified with H2SO4 had higher water content than the scarified with sandpaper, this may be related to uniform wear in the seed coat caused by H2SO4. For the water content, due the concentrations of mannitol, there was a significant linear response, only for the chemical scarification. However, it was observed null for both. The maximum responses of germination were 79.36% (chemical scarification and 95.56% (scarification with a maximum point of -0.41 MPa either. The scarification with sandpaper was most effective, however, at concentrations above -0.41 MPa, it was observed reduction in germination percentage.

  10. Assessment of the healing activity of jucá pods [Libidibia ferrea (Mart. ex Tul. L. P. Queiroz] in cutaneous lesions of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frascisca Gomes Carvalho

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the healing activity of the powdered pod of L. ferrea in cutaneous wound healing in preclinical test in rats. Eighteen rats were divided into two groups: the positive control group (PCG treated with Kollagenase® and the experimental group (EG treated with an ointment prepared with the powder of Libidibia ferrea. The lesions were clinically evaluated on 0 - 21st days, when histopathological analysis was also performed. In this study, the clinical analysis showed that although the rate of contraction of the lesions in EG was lower than in PCG, there was significant reduction in the wound of the group treated with ointment obtained from the powder of L. ferrea. Furthermore, the morphometric data showed that from the 3rd to 21st day after operation, the EG presented significant reduction in the rate of contraction of the skin lesions. Histological analysis revealed that the clinical and histological parameters of EG were similar to PCG. Although the biological activity of the powder remains unclarified, our results clearly showed the wound healing with the use of the powder of the pod of Libidibia ferrea in skin lesions. These finds provide subsidies for a similar research.

  11. Biological aspects and control of a Gracillariidae (Gracillariidae: Lepidoptera in Caesalpinia spinosa (Mol. Kuntze (1898, in Cajamarca, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hipólito Murga

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Determine biological target, identify natural enemies, and establish appropriate periods of controlling a pest gracillariid tare. The biological aspects and natural enemies in field and laboratory were evaluated, appropriate control periods was determined by host-pest interaction. The results, egg lasts 7.8 days and measured 0.34x0.21 mm; presents four instars larvae and lasts 35.7 days, ranging from measures between 1st and the 4th instar from 0.09 to 0.65 mm diameter brain; the pupa lasts 14.3 days and measured 6.7mmx1.1mm; adult takes 7.5 days and measured 13.43 mm wingspan. Presents natural enemies, family Encyrtidae, Ichneumonidae, and genres Chelonus sp., Chrysoperla sp., Hemerobius sp., Cicloneda sp., Hippodamia sp., and Zelus spp. The best times control occur when the phenology of the tara is between R3.1 to R3.3 and R4 to R6.

  12. Leaf antioxidant fluctuations and growth responses in saplings of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (brazilwood) under an urban stressing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulbovas, Patricia; de Moraes, Regina Maria; Spasiani Rinaldi, Mirian Cilene; Luiza Cunha, Adriana; Carvalho Delitti, Welington Braz; Domingos, Marisa

    2010-05-01

    We intended to establish how efficient the leaf antioxidant responses of C. echinata are against oxidative environmental conditions observed in an urban environment and their relations to growth and biomass parameters. Plants were grown for 15 months in four sites: Congonhas and Pinheiros, affected by pollutants from vehicular emissions; Ibirapuera, affected by high O(3) concentrations; and a greenhouse with filtered air. Fifteen plants were quarterly removed from each site for analysis of antioxidants, growth and biomass. Plants growing in polluted sites showed alterations in their antioxidants. They were shorter, had thicker stems and produced less leaf biomass than plants maintained under filtered air. The fluctuations in the levels of antioxidants were significantly influenced by combined effects of climatic and pollution variables. The higher were the antioxidant responses and the concentrations of pollutant markers of air contamination in each site the slower were the growth and biomass production. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gallego, María Gabriela; Gordon, Michael H; Segovia, Francisco; Almajano Pablos, María Pilar

    2016-01-01

    The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions...

  14. Antioxidant properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of tara (Caesalpinia spinosa) pods in vitro and in model food emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowyra, Monika; Falguera, Víctor; Gallego, Gabriela; Peiró, Sara; Almajano, María Pilar

    2014-03-30

    The successful replacement of some synthetic food antioxidants by safe natural antioxidants has fostered intensive search for new vegetable sources of antioxidants. In our study the phenol and flavonoid content of extracts of tara pods was determined. The antioxidant activity was also studied by three different analytical assays: the measurement of scavenging capacity against a radical ABTS⁺ , the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). All analyzed samples showed a good antioxidant capacity, but the use of a solution of ethanol 75% in a 1 h ultrasonic process allowed achieving the greatest quantity of phenolics (0.464 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) g⁻¹ dry weight (DW) ) and the highest antioxidant activity measured by the ABTS⁺ and ORAC methods (10.17 and 4.29 mmol L⁻¹ Trolox equivalents (TE) g⁻¹ DW, respectively). The best method for efficient extraction of flavonoids (3.08 mg catechin equivalent (CE) g⁻¹ DW) was a 24 h maceration in cold water. Two extracts obtained with ethanol 75% and water were added to a model food system (oil-in-water emulsion) and the oxidative stability was studied during storage at 38 °C. Oxidation was monitored by determination of the peroxide value. The addition of 48 µg mL⁻¹ ethanol extract to the emulsion delayed oxidation to the same extent as 17.8 µg mL⁻¹ of Trolox, while water extract was only effective in the early stages of the oxidation process. The results of this study indicate that ethanolic tara extracts may be suitable for use in food, cosmetic and nutraceutical applications. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. VISÃO DE COMUNIDADES RURAIS EM JUAZEIRINHO/PB REFERENTE À EXTINÇÃO DA BIODIVERSIDADE DA CAATINGA

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    Lânia Isis Ferreira Alves

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The current model of economic development is based on a predatory and exculpatory vision, which discloses a way of being inhuman. Implying in changes of perception, thoughts and values, it has seen, that the form as the nature is explored in accordance with varies the ambient perception of the community or group. This work objectified to analyze the perception of Juazeirinho/PB agricultural communities referring the extinction of biodiversity of caatinga, aiming at to delineate sensitization strategies that make possible the valuation of this biome. The work portrays a carried through participant research with the communities Escurinha and Mendonça. For the collection of data direct comment was used, with visits to the communities, dynamics, half-structuralized interview and accomplishment of meeting. According to community some vegetal and animal species are disappearing. Between the animals they are cited: corduniz (Nothura sp, gato do mato (Felisa tigrina, gato maracajá (Felis wildi, mocó (Kerodon rupestris, preá (Gálea sprixii, Tejo (Família Teiidae, tatu peba (Euphractus sexcinctus, tatu verdadeiro (Dasypus novmcinctus e o guaxinim (Procyon camcrivorus.Between vegetables they had been cited: Aveloz (Euphorbia gimnoclada, Imbuzeiro (Spondias tuberosa, Aroeira (Myracroduom unrudeuva, Caatingueira (Caesalpinia pyramidali, Baraúna (Schnopsis brasiliensis, Quixabeira (Bumelia sertorum, Mufumbo (Combretum leprosum. We can verify that it is necessary to promote changes in the ambient perception of the studied communities, thus allowing, to awake for problematic ambient, to point and to search solutions, that take the valuation of local biodiversity.

  16. Evaluation of seed extracts from plants found in the Caatinga biome for the control of Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Patrícia Batista Barra Medeiros; de Oliveira, Julliete Medeiros; Chagas, Juliana Macêdo; Rabelo, Luciana Maria Araujo; de Medeiros, Guilherme Fulgêncio; Giodani, Raquel Brant; da Silva, Elizeu Antunes; Uchôa, Adriana Ferreira; de Fátima de Freire Melo Ximenes, Maria

    2014-10-01

    Dengue fever, currently the most important arbovirus, is transmitted by the bite of the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Given the absence of a prophylactic vaccine, the disease can only be controlled by combating the vector insect. However, increasing reports of resistance and environmental damage caused by insecticides have led to the urgent search for new safer alternatives. In this regard, plants stand out as a source of easy-to-obtain biodegradable insecticide molecules. Twenty (20) plant seed extracts from the Caatinga, an exclusively Brazilian biome, were prepared. Sodium phosphate (50 mM, pH 8.0) was used as extractor. The extracts were used in bioassays and submitted to partial characterisation. A Probit analysis of insecticides was carried out, and intergroup differences were verified by the Student's t test and ANOVA. All the extracts exhibited larvicidal and ovipositional deterrence activity. The extracts of Amburana cearenses, Piptadenia viridiflora, Erythrina velutina, Myracrodruon urundeuva and Schinopsis brasiliensis were also pupicides, while the extracts of P. viridiflora, E. velutina, A. cearenses, Anadenanthera colubrina, Diocleia grandiflora, Bauhinia cheilantha, Senna spectabilis, Caesalpinia pyramidalis, Mimosa regnelli and Genipa americana displayed adulticidal activity. Egg laying was compromised when females were fed extracts of Ricinus communis, Croton sonderianus and S. brasiliensis. At least two proteins with insecticidal activity were found in all the extracts. Phenol compounds were identified in all the extracts and flavonoids, triterpenes or alkaloids in 14 of them. The results show the potential of plant seed extracts from the Caatinga as a source of active molecules against A. aegypti mosquitos.

  17. AVALIAÇÃO DE PLANTAS MEDICINAIS NO COMBATE A MASTITE BOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samoel Alexandre Fonseca Dantas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mastite é a inflamação da glândula mamária da vaca, sendo infecto-contagiosa que mais se propaga nos rebanhos e geralmente causando grandes prejuízos a indústria de laticínios, pode ser provocada por cerca de 130 agentes envolvidos, dentre eles, bactérias, vírus, algas e fungos. As bactérias são os agentes de maior importância como causa da doença. Por esta razão o IFRN aprovou o projeto para avaliação de qual o melhor tratamento com plantas medicinais nativas a ser utilizada na cura da mastite. O enfoque do resultado do projeto estaria direcionado para o diagnóstico e cura da doença na criação de rebanhos leiteiros de pequenos produtores do Vale do Assu. Para a realização desse diagnóstico e investigação sobre planta medicinal a ser utilizado nas vacas acometidas pela mastite, serão realizados exames de antibiograma para investigar a susceptibilidade da bactéria a determinadas plantas. Nos resultados preliminares, realizados em laboratório, foi identificado que a casca do caule do cajueiro roxo (Anacardium occidentale L tem ação antibiótica e a flor da catingueira (Caesalpinia pyramidalis inibe a proliferação das bactérias existentes no leite de vacas infectadas com mastite sub-clínica. Desta maneira, sugere-se a possibilidade do uso deste vegetal no combate e cura a esta doença. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Mastite, Antibiograma, Plantas medicinais.

  18. VISÃO DE COMUNIDADES RURAIS EM JUAZEIRINHO/PB REFERENTE À EXTINÇÃO DA BIODIVERSIDADE DA CAATINGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lânia Isis Ferreira Alves

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The current model of economic development is based on a predatory and exculpatory vision, which discloses a way of being inhuman. Implying in changes of perception, thoughts and values, it has seen, that the form as the nature is explored in accordance with varies the ambient perception of the community or group. This work objectified to analyze the perception of Juazeirinho/PB agricultural communities referring the extinction of biodiversity of caatinga, aiming at to delineate sensitization strategies that make possible the valuation of this biome. The work portrays a carried through participant research with the communities Escurinha and Mendonça. For the collection of data direct comment was used, with visits to the communities, dynamics, half-structuralized interview and accomplishment of meeting. According to community some vegetal and animal species are disappearing. Between the animals they are cited: corduniz (Nothura sp, gato do mato (Felisa tigrina, gato maracajá (Felis wildi, mocó (Kerodon rupestris, preá (Gálea sprixii, Tejo (Família Teiidae, tatu peba (Euphractus sexcinctus, tatu verdadeiro (Dasypus novmcinctus e o guaxinim (Procyon camcrivorus.Between vegetables they had been cited: Aveloz (Euphorbia gimnoclada, Imbuzeiro (Spondias tuberosa, Aroeira (Myracroduom unrudeuva, Caatingueira (Caesalpinia pyramidali, Baraúna (Schnopsis brasiliensis, Quixabeira (Bumelia sertorum, Mufumbo (Combretum leprosum. We can verify that it is necessary to promote changes in the ambient perception of the studied communities, thus allowing, to awake for problematic ambient, to point and to search solutions, that take the valuation of local biodiversity.

  19. Antioxidant activity and potential photoprotective from amazon native flora extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Francislene J; Caneschi, César A; Vieira, José L F; Barbosa, Wagner; Raposo, Nádia R B

    2016-08-01

    Plant species are sources of active compounds that can fight and/or prevent damage caused by reactive oxygen species, which enables the development of natural products that can help to prevent premature aging caused by exposure to solar radiation. This study assessed the antioxidant and photoprotective activities of six dried extracts of plants from the Brazilian Amazon biome. Plant extracts were prepared in 70% (v/v) ethanol by dynamic maceration for 72h in the dark, and then filtered, concentrated and lyophilized. The extracts were subjected to a phytochemical screening. The antioxidant activity was measured using a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay and the photoprotection assay was performed using the diffuse transmittance technique. The data obtained from the antioxidant activity assay was evaluated by Student's t-test for independent samples, with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences v.14.0 for Windows software. The flavonoids represent a special metabolites class present in all analyzed extracts. The antioxidant activity (μgmL(-1)) decreased in the following order: Aniba canelilla (1.80±0.16), Brosimum acutifolium (2.84±0.38), Dalbergia monetaria (5.46±0.17) or Caesalpinia pyramidalis (6.45±1.18), Arrabidaea chica (15.35±0.86), and Aspidosperma nitidum (99.14±2.3). Only D. monetaria showed a considerable sun protection factor allowing for labeling (6.0±0.3). The D. monetaria extract was considered the most promising sample because it had optimal antioxidant and photoprotective activities against solar radiation, considering the limit established by regulatory agencies. These extracts with antioxidant potential can be used in photoprotective formulations, providing synergistic photoprotective effect or elevating the adeed value of the product. Additionally, these formulations are attractive to a population who searchs for products made with natural ingredients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. New records of truffle fungi (Basidiomycetes) from Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz Turkoglu; Michael Angelo. Castellano

    2013-01-01

    We report the first records of 5 truffle taxa in Turkey: Gymnomyces xanthosporus (Hawker) A.H.Sm., Hymenogaster griseus Vittad., Hymenogaster olivaceous Vittad., Hymenogaster thwaitesii Berk. & Broome, and Hymenogaster vulgaris Tul. & C.Tul. We also report a new...

  1. Avaliação das atividades antioxidante, anti e pró-hemolítica do extrato etanólico das folhas de Pterogyne nitens Tul. (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae Evaluation of antioxidant, anti- and pro-hemolytic activities of ethanol extract from the leaves of Pterogynenitens Tul. (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Pasquini-Netto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa de produtos naturais permite a descoberta de novos princípios ativos, ou ainda, a descoberta de novas atividades para extratos de plantas (amplamente utilizados pela população brasileira e princípios ativos naturais já conhecidos. Pterogyne nitens é uma planta cuja descrição das atividades é relativamente recente e, portanto, tem no extrato bruto boa fonte para pesquisas na área de produtos naturais. Desta forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o perfil antioxidante do extrato bruto etanólico das folhas de P. nitens e possível interferência sobre a hemólise provocada pelo radical AAPH•. No estudo da ação antioxidante das espécies estudadas, ABTS•+, DPPH•, H2O2 e HOCl, encontrou-se os valores de IC50 de 5,0 µg mL-1, 17 µg mL-1, sem ação e 3,9 µg mL-1, respectivamente, valores relativamente baixos e que indicam bom potencial antioxidante. Foram encontradas atividades pró-hemolítica e anti-hemolítica para o extrato de forma concentração-dependente. O extrato estudado mostro boa fonte de moléculas naturais com potencial de ação biológica.The search for natural products as a widespread practice enables the discovery of new active principles, or the discovery of new activities for plant extracts (extensively used by the population and natural active principles already known. Pterogynenitensis is a plant whose descriptions of activities are relatively recent and therefore has in its crude extract a good source for research in the field of natural products. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant profile of crude ethanol extract from P. nitens leaves and a possible influence on the hemolysis caused by AAPH• radical. For the studied oxidant species, ABTS•+, DPPH•, HOCl and H2O2, the IC50 values were found of 5.0 µg mL-1, 17 µg mL-1, no action at all, and 3.9 µg mL-1, respectively, relatively low values, indicating a good antioxidant potential. Pro- and anti-hemolytic activities were found for the extract in a concentration-dependent way. The studied extract showed to be a good source of natural molecules with potential biological action.

  2. Capacidad antioxidante de poblaciones silvestres de “tara” (Caesalpinia spinosa de las localidades de Picoy y Santa Fe (Provincia de Tarma, departamento de Junín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto López S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El Perú es el principal abastecedor de “tara”, gracias a que nuestro país posee una gran variedad de climas y tipos de suelos, haciendo posible la obtención de este cultivo durante la mayor parte del año. El departamento de Junín cuenta con poblaciones naturales de “tara” que aun no han sido caracterizadas bioquímica ni genéticamente, que podrían aprovecharse en beneficio de las comunidades locales. En este trabajo se reporta la capacidad antioxidante de “tara” provenientes de las localidades de Picoy y Santa Fe, ambas ubicadas en Tarma, Junín. Se utilizó la técnica del DPPH y del ABTS para valorar la capacidad antioxidante; para la determinación de fenoles y flavonoides se utilizó el reactivo de Folin-Ciocalteau según la técnica de Singleton. La muestra de Picoy reportó mayor cantidad de fenoles siendo de 563.70 mg/g de extracto seco, mientras que la cantidad de flavonoides fue de 0.664 mg/g. La capacidad antioxidante mostro una mejor respuesta en la muestra de Picoy, reportándose mediante el DPPH un IC50 1.244 mg/ml y con el ABTS un 35.3% de inhibición. Estos datos podrían aprovecharse para incrementar el valor agregado y mejorar la oferta de este recurso en dicha localidad debido a sus mejores características antioxidantes.

  3. Molecular characterization of Cryptococcus gattii genotype AFLP6/VGII isolated from woody debris of divi-divi (Caesalpinia coriaria), Bonaire, Dutch Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen, F.; Chowdhary, A.; Prakash, A.; Yntema, J.B.; Meis, J.F.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The basidiomycetous yeast Cryptococcus gattii is an emerging and primary pathogen. There is a lack of information about its environmental spread outside outbreak regions in Mediterranean Europe, North and South America. Environmental sampling for C. gattii and molecular characterization

  4. Influência do pastejo e da precipitação sobre a fenologia de quatro espécies em área de caatinga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Nunes Parente

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este experimento avaliar o efeito do pastejo caprino sobre a fenologia do marmeleiro (Croton sonderianus Müll. Arg., catingueira (Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tull., malva (Malva sylvestris L. e pereiro (Aspidosperma pyrifolium Mart. em área de caatinga no Cariri paraibano. O experimento foi conduzido na fazenda experimental Bacia-Escola pertencente à UFPB, São João do Cariri, PB, no ano de 2008. Foram monitoradas cinco plantas por piquete, com leituras semanais, num total de 28 no período de 05/03/2008 a 19/10/2008, observando-se as seguintes variáveis: número total de folhas, folhas verdes, folhas amarelas, folhas secas, frutos e flores.Os tratamentos consistiram em três taxas de lotação e foram distribuídos em três piquetes: T1 (3,1 an/ha, T2 (1,5 an/ha e T3 (0 an/ha. Para análise dos dados, agruparam-se as leituras por datas nas respectivas semanas. Foi verificado efeito do pastejo sobre os parâmetros fenológicos observados, notadamente no tratamento com maior taxa de lotação, para as espécies do marmeleiro e da malva, ocasionando redução antecipada do total de folhas, flores e frutos, promovendo alteração na fenologia dessas espécies. Observou-se menor efeito do pastejo sobre a fenologia do pereiro, e não foi verificado efeito sobre a catingueira. Notou-se que os pulsos de precipitação foram suficientes para desencadear os eventos fenológicos nas espécies. A precipitação interferiu no comportamento fenológico das espécies, desencadeando o período de brotamento logo após os primeiros eventos de chuvas, bem como a floração e frutificação, acontecendo em meados do período chuvoso. A queda de folhas ocorre logo após o término do período chuvoso na catingueira, marmeleiro e malva, sendo mais persistente no pereiro.

  5. Study design and methods of the BoTULS trial: a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the clinical effect and cost effectiveness of treating upper limb spasticity due to stroke with botulinum toxin type A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Laura

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following a stroke, 55–75% of patients experience upper limb problems in the longer term. Upper limb spasticity may cause pain, deformity and reduced function, affecting mood and independence. Botulinum toxin is used increasingly to treat focal spasticity, but its impact on upper limb function after stroke is unclear. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical and cost effectiveness of botulinum toxin type A plus an upper limb therapy programme in the treatment of post stroke upper limb spasticity. Methods Trial design : A multi-centre open label parallel group randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation. Participants : Adults with upper limb spasticity at the shoulder, elbow, wrist or hand and reduced upper limb function due to stroke more than 1 month previously. Interventions : Botulinum toxin type A plus upper limb therapy (intervention group or upper limb therapy alone (control group. Outcomes : Outcome assessments are undertaken at 1, 3 and 12 months. The primary outcome is upper limb function one month after study entry measured by the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT. Secondary outcomes include: spasticity (Modified Ashworth Scale; grip strength; dexterity (Nine Hole Peg Test; disability (Barthel Activities of Daily Living Index; quality of life (Stroke Impact Scale, Euroqol EQ-5D and attainment of patient-selected goals (Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. Health and social services resource use, adverse events, use of other antispasticity treatments and patient views on the treatment will be compared. Participants are clinically reassessed at 3, 6 and 9 months to determine the need for repeat botulinum toxin type A and/or therapy. Randomisation : A web based central independent randomisation service. Blinding : Outcome assessments are undertaken by an assessor who is blinded to the randomisation group. Sample size : 332 participants provide 80% power to detect a 15% difference in treatment successes between intervention and control groups. Treatment success is defined as improvement of 3 points for those with a baseline ARAT of 0–3 and 6 points for those with ARAT of 4–56. Trial registration ISRCTN78533119 EudraCT 2004-002427-40 CTA 17136/0230/001 Funding National Institute for Health Research, Health Technology Assessment Programme. Ipsen Ltd provide botulinum toxin type A (Dysport®.

  6. Allelopathy by extracts of Caatinga species on melon seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreya Kalyana de Oliveira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The melon crop is of great socioeconomic importance in Brazil and some species from the Caatinga biome show allelopathic effects on other species. The aim of this study was to assess leaf and seed extracts of cumaru (Amburana cearensis (Allemao A.C. Sm., the jujube tree (Zizyphus joazeiro Mart., Jucá (Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. Ex. Tul. Var. Ferrea and mulungu (Erythrina velutina Willd. on the emergence of melon seeds (Cucumis melo L.. Leaves and seeds were used to produce extracts for each species at concentrations of a 1%, b 0.5% c 0.25%, d 0.125% and e 0% (control. The experiment was conducted with each extract type and its respective concentrations in a completely randomized design, with four replicates, each of 20 seeds. The percentage emergence and rate index, percentage of abnormal seedlings, seedling dry matter and seedling shoot and root length were assessed. Seed extracts of A. cearensis prevented melon germination, whereas the other extracts had no effect on this variable. Leaf extracts of A. cearensis and leaf and seed extracts of Z. joazeiro, C. ferrea and E. velutina resulted in abnormal melon seedlings. The percentage of abnormal melon seedlings exceeded 30% when treated with C. ferrea seed extract at the highest concentration. Most extracts did not affect seedling dry matter, but E. velutina leaf and seed extract increased the dry matter accumulation of melon seedlings and Z. joazeiro seed extract decreased dry matter accumulation at a concentration of 0.25%. The highest concentrations of mulungu and jucá leaf extracts promoted the shoot growth of melon seedlings. The extract from E. velutina seeds negatively affected root length compared to the control, similar to the effect of C. ferrea and E. velutina leaf extracts at the highest concentrations. Extracts of different organs of Caatinga plants can affect the emergence and characteristics related to seedling growth, depending on the concentration. Most extracts did not affect

  7. Suppression of root-knot nematode by mycosymbionts on pyrethrum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) obtained from pyrethrum fields were screened for efficacy in improving pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum cinerariefolium Vis.) growth and in suppressing a root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne hapla Chitwood in the greenhouse. The fungi screened were Glomus macrocarpum Tul and Tul, ...

  8. Is Antibiotic Prophylaxis Necessary in Patients Undergoing Ureterolithotripsy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Pasha Meysamie

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Transurethral Ureterolithotripsy (TUL is a frequently used procedure in urology departments. Many urologists perform TUL without antibiotic prophylaxis; however the use of chemoprophylaxis before TUL remains a controversial issue in urology. Thisstudy was carried out to assess the safety of omitting antibiotic prophylaxis prior to TUL. In a prospective randomized clinical trial from January 2005 to December 2007, 114 patients with ureteral stones were enrolled; Fifty seven had preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis administered before TUL and fifty seven patients underwent TUL without antibiotic prophylaxis. The rate of postoperative infectious complications (fever, positive blood culture, significant bactriuria, the length of hospital stay and overall stone free rate were compared between the two groups. There was no statistically significant difference between two groups in the operation time, length of hospital stay, postoperative bacteriuria, positive urine culture, postoperative fever and overall success rate of TUL. It appears that the incidence of infectious complications does not increase in patients undergoing TUL without antibiotic prophylaxis if they have negative pre-operative urine culture and antiseptic technique have been performed thorough the procedure.

  9. POPULATION DENSITIES AND THE RANGE-CARRYING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sporobolus pyramidalis. Bothriochloa ins cui pta. Sporobolus stapfianus .. Michrochloa abyssinica. Hyparrhenia rufa. Digitaria gazensis. Chloris gay ana. Brachiaria decumbens .. Panicum maximum. Eragrostis racemosa .. Tragus berteronianus .,. Cynodon dactylon. Axonopus flexuosus .. Chloris sp. Bothriochloa radicans .

  10. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Hyparrhenia (Hyparrhenia mfa), Guine grass (Panicum maximum) and sporobolus (Sporobolus pyramidalis) were ... demonstrated the benefits of field borders of napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and Sudan grass (Sorghum vulgare ...

  11. Klíčivost vybraných druhů vstavačovitých rostlin na obnovených loukách na území CHKO Bílé Karpaty.

    OpenAIRE

    SUCHÁČEK, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to examine the germination of eight orchid species (Anacamptis pyramidalis, Gymnadenia conopsea subsp. conopsea, Platanthera bifolia, Neottia ovata, Traunsteinera globosa, Orchis mascula subsp. speciosa, Orchis ustulata subsp. aestivalis, Orchis militaris) on restored meadows of various ages in the southwest of the White Carpathians protected landscape area. During the evaluation, it was discovered that two species (A. pyramidalis and G. conopsea) had better germina...

  12. CARACTERÍSTICAS FÍSICO-QUÍMICAS E ENERGÉTICAS DE DUAS ESPÉCIES DE OCORRÊNCIA NO SEMIÁRIDO BRASILEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Nicó de Medeiros Neto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The native vegetation from Brazilian Northeast has been explored and used intensively and inadequately asa source of energy and material for rural constructions. Now, it is recognized how important it is to get to know the characteristic of the wood produced by this vegetation. Thus, this study aims to provide information on the physicochemical and energetic characteristics of wood, carbonization yields and characterization of the charcoal from wood of Poincianella pyramidalis Tul. L.P.Queiroz and Handroanthus impertiginosus (Mart. ex DC. Mattos. To meet the goal five trees from each species were cut down and randomly sample at Santa Barbara Farm, located in the municipality of São Mamede-PB. The trees were properly identified and transported to the Department of Forest Products Technology (STPF at the Federal University of Campina Grande. Thirty centimeters sections were removed from each tree at 0 (base, 25, 50, 75 and100 % of the commercial height (trunk diameter > 5 cm. A 2.5 cm thick disc was removed from the median part of each 30 cm section, and each disc was subdivided in four wedge pieces, passing through the trunk pith. Two opposite wedge pieces were used to determine the basic density of wood, ant the other two pieces were put aside in order to carry out physical, chemical and energetic analyses, carbonization yields andcharacterization of the charcoal produced by the studied species. Basic density was determined according to the method of hydrostatic balance and to determine the average basic density of eachtree, the volume between sections of each disc was used as a weighting factor. After the air drying, thesamples intended for chemical analysis were transformed into sawdust and quantitative determinations of total extractiveswere performed, lignin, ashes, and the holocellulose content was estimated by difference. The samples intended for carbonization were processed into chips, and carbonized in an electric oven (furnace for 5h30

  13. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder-Numan, Jeannette

    1999-01-01

    After his work on the Neotropical species of Caesalpinia (Lewis, 1994; PhD thesis) Lewis was able to recognise broad morphological groups within Caesalpinia s.l. He carried out a preliminary cladistic analysis to show the evolutionary relationships within this complex group (Lewis & Schrire, 1995).

  14. Aspectos biológicos y control de un gracilláriido (Gracillariidae: Lepidóptera en Caesalpinia spinosa (Mol. Kuntze (1898, en Cajamarca, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hipólito Murga Orrillo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se tuvo por objetivo determinar aspectos biológicos, identificar enemigos naturales, y establecer periodos oportunos de control de un gracillariido plaga de tara. Los aspectos biológicos y los enemigos naturales se evaluaron en campo y en laboratorio, los periodos oportunos de control se determinó por interacción hospedero - plaga. Los resultados, el huevo dura 7,8 días y mide 0,34x0,21mm; la larva presenta 4 instares y dura 35,7 días, variando de medidas entre 1 o y 4 o instar de 0,09 a 0,65 mm de diámetro de encéfalo ; la pupa dura 14,3 días y mide 6,7mmx1,1mm ; el adulto dura 7,5 días y mide 13,43 mm de expansión alar. Presenta enemigos naturales, familias Encyrtidae, Ichneumonidae, y géneros Chelonus sp., Chrysoperla sp., Hemerobius sp., Cicloneda sp . , Hipodamia sp., y Zelus spp. Las mejores épocas de control ocurren cuando la fenología de la tara est á entre R3.1 a R4 y R3.3 a R6.

  15. Quantification of storage proteins during seed imbibition of native species from the brazilian caatinga vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Francisco Santos da Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Poincianella pyramidalis (Fabaceae, Schinopsis brasiliensis (Anacardiaceae and Sideroxylon obtusifolium (Sapotaceae are native species of the Caatinga vegetation from northeastern Brazil and have both biological importance and potential economic uses. Little is known about the water uptake and degradation of storage proteins during seed germination of these species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the imbibition and quantify the amount of storage proteins during seed germination of P. pyramidalis, S. brasiliensis and S. obtusifolium. Two lots of S. obtusifolium seeds with different vigour were used. Four replicates of 20 seeds of P. pyramidalis, S. brasiliensis and S. obtusifolium, were sown onto gerboxes with blotting paper soaked in distilled water and incubated during 72, 200 and 624 hours. Before and after imbibition seeds were weighed and frozen at until the sequential extraction and analysis of the seed storage proteins. Based on our results, we conclude that seed germination of P. pyramidalis, S. brasiliensis and S. obtusifolium has a well-defined triphasic imbibition. All storage proteins content of P. pyramidalis and S. brasiliensis seeds degraded along with the seed imbibition. Likewise, the content of albumins, globulins and glutelins decreased as S. obtusifolium seeds absorbed water.

  16. Your Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Should You Go to School? Breast Cancer Your Muscles KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Muscles Print A A ... and skeletal (say: SKEL-uh-tul) muscle. Smooth Muscles Smooth muscles — sometimes also called involuntary muscles — are ...

  17. Taksokunn / Mihkel Kärmas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kärmas, Mihkel, 1974-

    2006-01-01

    Eesti suurima taksokontserni AS-i Tulika Grupp looja Mati Saar karjäärist ning konkurentsist Tallinna taksonduses. Vt. samas: Sohver registrinumbriga TUL 001; Taksojuhi kaks lepet; Avameelse taksojuhi pihtimusi

  18. Plaat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Laseringi kauplustes müügilolevatest heliplaatidest: Khillem "Vill", Annie Lennox "Songs Of Mass Destruction", M.I.A. "Kala", Ian Brown "The World Is Yours", Pedigree "Ghosts And Corpses", Mari Kalkun "Üü Tulõk"

  19. Screening of antibacterial potentials of some medicinal plants from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cyperus rotundus, Caesalpinia bonducella, Tinospora cordifolia, Gardenia gummifera, Ailanthus excelsa, Acacia arabica, Embelia ribes and Ventilago maderspatana from Melghat forest were screened for their antibacterial potential against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, ...

  20. Characteristics of ten tropical hardwoods from certified forests in Bolivia. Part I, Weathering characteristics and dimensional change

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam Williams; Regis Miller; John Gangstad

    2001-01-01

    Ten tropical hardwoods from Bolivia were evaluated for weathering performance (erosion rate, dimensional stability, warping, surface checking, and splitting). The wood species were Amburana cearensis (roble), Anadenanthera macrocarpa (curupau), Aspidosperma cylindrocarpon (jichituriqui), Astronium urundeuva (cuchi), Caesalpinia cf. pluviosa (momoqui), Diplotropis...

  1. 526-IJBCS-Article-Prof Victorine Mbadu Zebe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR GATSING

    community and live too on submerged organic fragments (Durand and Lévêque, 1981). The roots observed in the diet of D. affinis suggest that this fish feeds in benthos while the predominance of Echinochloa pyramidalis leaves in the stomach contents of. D. antonii shows that it climbs again to the surface for feeding.

  2. Removal of faecal bacteria and nutrients from domestic wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LEKEUFACK Martin

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the removal of faecal bacteria and nutrients from domestic wastewater, in surface flow wetlands vegetated with Echinochloa pyramidalis. Horizontal surface flow. (HSF) wetlands were fed with primarily treated domestic wastewater at organic loading rates varying from 20.74 to 27.15 g ...

  3. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management - Vol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of ingested crude oil contaminated diets on antioxidant enzyme and lipid profile in Wistar albino rat · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... “Effect of giant rat's tail grass (Sporobolus pyramidalis p.beauv) on Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) and Heavy metals content of crude oil polluted soils” ...

  4. RAPD analysis of the genetic diversity among accessions of Fabaceous forages (Poincianella spp) from the Caatinga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, R F M; Araujo Neto, R B; Nascimento, M P S B C; Lima, P S C

    2014-08-01

    Among members of the Fabaceae family, native to the Brazilian Caatinga, the species Poincianella pyramidalis and P. bracteosa exhibit particular potential as forage for cattle, sheep and goats. With the aim of establishing genetic relationships within Poincianella, random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis was performed on eight accessions of P. pyramidalis and two accessions of P. bracteosa, originating from the semiarid zone of the state of Piauí, northeastern Brazil, and present in the germplasm bank of Embrapa Meio Norte (Teresina, Piauí, Brazil). Amplification reactions using 11 selected arbitrary sequence primers generated 167 fragments with an overall polymorphism of 70.38%. Five monomorphic loci were generated exclusively in P. pyramidalis accessions, while three unique monomorphic loci were associated with P. bracteosa, and these represented potential species-specific markers. The similarity coefficients between Poincianella accessions were low (mean value 0.59) but with a wide variation (range 0.443 to 0.748). The similarity matrix and the dendrogram constructed using the unweighted pair group method allowed the separation of Poincianella accessions into two major clusters represented by the two distinct species, while the accessions of P. pyramidalis could be separated further into three subgroups. The high level of genetic diversity detected in the genus Poincianella could be used in future breeding programs to produce enhanced cultivars, although the variability could be better exploited if more specimens were collected from other locations within the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil.

  5. Removal of faecal bacteria and nutrients from domestic wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the removal of faecal bacteria and nutrients from domestic wastewater, in surface flow wetlands vegetated with Echinochloa pyramidalis. Horizontal surface flow (HSF) wetlands were fed with primarily treated domestic wastewater at organic loading rates varying from 20.74 to 27.15 g ...

  6. ECOLOGO-GENETIC MONITORING OF CULTIVATED AND WILD PLANT POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. SHPAKOV

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative estimation of genotypic structure dynamic of three plant species: Nicotiana tabacum L., Anacamptus pyramidalis (L. Rich., Teucrium chamaedrys L. in different ecological conditions has been conducted. The effectiveness of systemic analyses of the trait complex with the aim of ecologo-genetic monitoring of the plant population has been established.

  7. Phytogéographie

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Végétation de bas-fond Dominantes : Anogeissus leiocarpus ; Panicum anabaptistum. Dominantes de second rang : Hexalobus monopetalus, Securinega virosa, Sterculia setigera. Compagnes : Crossopteryx febrifuga, Detarium microcarpum, Prosopis africana, Lonchocarpus laxiflorus, Holarrhena floribunda, Sclerocarya birrea, Tamarindus indica, Terminalia avicennioides, Grewia flavescens, Grewia barteri, Combretum nigricans ; Sporobolus pyramidalis. À Ligazan, par exemple...

  8. A TAXONOMIC REVISION OF GOUANIA (RHAMNACEAE) IN MADAGASCAR AND THE OTHER ISLANDS OF THE WESTERN INDIAN OCEAN (THE COMORO AND MASCARENE ISLANDS, AND THE SEYCHELLES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buerki, Sven; Phillipson, Peter B; Callmander, Martin W

    2011-07-01

    A taxonomic revision of the genus Gouania Jacq. (Rhamnaceae) is presented for Madagascar and the other western Indian Ocean islands. Seventeen species are recognized, of which nine are described and published as new (all endemic to Madagascar): G. ambrensis Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., G. callmanderi Buerki, G. cupreifolia Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., G. cupuliflora Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., G. gautieri Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., G. perrieri Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., G. phillipsonii Buerki, G. taolagnarensis Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., and G. zebrifolia Buerki, Phillipson & Callm. Sixteen species occur in Madagascar, of which 13 are endemic and three are common to Madagascar and one or more of the smaller Indian Ocean islands. The latter include G. laxiflora Tul., a species which is also present on mainland Africa. One species, G. mauritiana Lam., is endemic to Réunion Island. We recognize two subspecies within G. scandens (Gaertn.) R. B. Drumm.: G. scandens subsp. scandens and G. scandens subsp. glandulosa (Boivin ex Tul.) Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., the latter transferred from G. glandulosa Boivin ex Tul. Past confusion about the identity of this species is discussed. Five names are lectotypified: G. aphrodes Tul., G. glandulosa [= G. scandens subsp. glandulosa], G. laxiflora, G. lineata Tul., and G. tiliifolia Lam. Both lectotype and epitype are designated for G. mauritiana. Conservation assessments are provided for all species within their primary areas of occurrence.

  9. [Percutaneous Nephrolithotripsy for Renal Transplant Lithiasis: A Case Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oida, Takeshi; Kanemitsu, Toshiyuki; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Fujimoto, Nobumasa; Koide, Takuo

    2016-02-01

    A 54-year-old man was introduced to our hospital for follow-up examinations after renal transplantation. At the initial visit, a 25 mm renal transplant stone was noted, which had enlarged to 32 mm at an examination 1 year later. We first attempted transurethral lithotripsy (TUL), but failed due to ureteral stricture. However, we could completely remove the stone in 2 sessions of percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PNL). The incidence of urinary lithiasis after renal transplantation ranges from 0.17-1.8%, for which PNL and TUL are frequently used. Although considered to be accompanied with risks of bleeding, bowel injury, and renal dysfunction, PNL is effective for urinary lithiasis after renal transplantation. TUL is less invasive, but access may be difficult when the ureter has an unusual course or ureteral stricture exists, as in our patient.

  10. Trincas nas calçadas e espécies muito utilizadas na arborização: comparação entre Sibipiruna ( Caesalpinia pluviosa Dc.) e Falsa-murta (Murraya paniculata (L.) Jacq.), no município de Piracicaba/SP

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Volpe-Filik

    2009-01-01

    A arborização urbana oferece diversos benefícios para a população, e sua necessidade vem aumentando com o crescimento das cidades. Mas como qualquer outro equipamento urbano, existe custo de implantação, manutenção e, também, prejuízos. Dentre os potenciais prejuízos da arborização urbana, estão os danos em calçamentos e estruturas de construção civil. Este trabalho objetivou identificar quais os parâmetros que influenciam esses danos e, auxiliar na definição de políticas públicas para a arbo...

  11. Dicty_cDB: VSF330 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available for mitochondrial products. 44 0.085 2 BD282706 |BD282706.1 Flea head, nerve cord, hindgut and malpighian tu...l and complete sequences. 48 0.14 1 BF779305 |BF779305.1 3169-17 hindgut and Malpighian tubule subtracted cD

  12. Field assessment of vulnerability to fungi diseases of varieties and forms of nectarine (Prunus persica (L. Batsch. subsp. nectarina (Ait. Shof. displaying male sterility characteristic from Niktskyi Botanic Garden collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ю. О. Іващенко

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The varieties and forms of nectarine resistant to fungi diseases (Clasterosporium carpophilum (Lev. Aderh., Taphrina deformans Tul., Sphaerotheca pannosa (Wallr. Fr. Lev. var. persicae Woronich having the practical interest for modern technology growing and for breeding on these characteristics have been selected.

  13. Perspectives of breeding fungal diseases resistant cultivars of nectarine (Prunus persica (L. Batsch. subsp. nectarina (Ait. Shof.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Є. П. Шоферістов

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There are allocated some forms of distant hybrids with weak degree of fungal diseases lesion (Taphrina deformans (Berk. Tul., Sphaerotheca pannosa (Lev. var. persicae Woron., Clasterosporium carpophilum Aderh., Monilia cinerea Bonord. и Monilia fructigena Fr. that are of practical interest for breeding such cultivars of peach and nectarine that will resist these pathogens.

  14. On Scholarly Communication and the Digital Humanities: An Interview with Kathleen Fitzpatrick

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Lopez; Fred Rowland; Kathleen Fitzpatrick

    2015-01-01

    In Brief: At Temple University Libraries (TUL), librarian Fred Rowland began conducting interviews and sharing them as streaming audio through TUL’s website in 2007. The following interview transcript with digital humanities scholar Kathleen Fitzpatrick offers insight into her work and a discussion about the future of scholarly communication. An introduction has been added to the […

  15. Dicty_cDB: CHD873 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |AJ287320.1 Arabidopsis thaliana chi gene for chalcone flavanone isomerase, exons 1-4, ecotype Yo-0. 48...|AJ287319.1 Arabidopsis thaliana chi gene for chalcone flavanone isomerase, exons 1-4, ecotype Tul-0. 48...|AJ287318.1 Arabidopsis thaliana chi gene for chalcone flavanone isomerase, exons 1-4, ecotype Ri-0. 48

  16. SOME FACTORS AFFECTING FERTILITY IN DRY COWS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Afrikaner koeie en verre binnc die oerste 3 weke vur die toeheiroen gcdek is en 95%Uinne ncge weke. Slcgr 67gohet draglig geraek. Nogatbrre korrelasies ven omgowingstemporttuur met die aantal ruksrvolle dekkbrys en beretting hct getoon det'n noue omgekeorde verwantshsp tulsGn ho€ tempcrature (> 30o) en die ...

  17. Pop / Tõnis Kahu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kahu, Tõnis, 1962-

    2007-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Swizz Beazz "One Man Band Man", Mari Kalkun "Üü tulõk", KT Tunstall "Drastic Fantastic", Foo Fighters "Echoes, Silence, Patience & Grace", Athlete "Beyond The Neighbourhood", David Toop "Sound Body", David Sylvian "When Loud Weather Buffeted Naoshima", Taraf De Haidouks "Mashkarada"

  18. Phytochemical And Anti-Sickling Properties Of Hymenocardia acidia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical And Anti-Sickling Properties Of Hymenocardia acidia (Tul). KC Iyadi, R Nia, AB Antai. Abstract. The plant Hymenocardia acidia is a member of the family Euphorciaceae. The various morphological parts are used in Nigeria for the treatment of eye infections, diarrhoea, dysentery, rheumatic pains and most ...

  19. Comparative efficacy of tulathromycin versus a combination of florfenicol-oxytetracycline in the treatment of undifferentiated respiratory disease in large numbers of sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Champour

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of tulathromycin (TUL with a combination of florfenicol (FFC and long-acting oxytetracycline (LAOTC in the treatment of naturally occurring undifferentiated respiratory diseases in large numbers of sheep. In this study, seven natural outbreaks of sheep pneumonia in Garmsar, Iran were considered. From these outbreaks, 400 sheep exhibiting the signs of respiratory diseases were selected, and the sheep were randomly divided into two equal groups. The first group was treated with a single injection of TUL (dosed at 2.5 mg/kg body weight, and the second group was treated with concurrent injections of FFC (dosed at 40 mg/kg bwt and LAOTC (dosed at 20 mg/kg bwt. In the first group, 186 (93% sheep were found to be cured 5 days after the injection, and 14 (7% sheep needed further treatment, of which 6 (3% were cured, and 8 (4% died. In the second group, 172 (86% sheep were cured after the injections, but 28 (14% sheep needed further treatment, of which 10 (5% were cured, and 18 (9% died. This study revealed that TUL was more efficacious as compared to the combined treatment using FFC and LAOTC. As the first report, this field trial describes the successful treatment of undifferentiated respiratory diseases in large numbers of sheep. Thus, TUL can be used for the treatment of undifferentiated respiratory diseases in sheep. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 279-284

  20. URBAN TREE SURVEY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF BRASILIA CAMPUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Luis Kurihara

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A census of all the trees on 111 ha was conducted at the University of Brasilia campus. A total of 5,011 trees with DBHover 5 cm were identified and their DBH, diameter at 30 cm on ground level, diameter under the bifurcation point, height up to the firstbifurcation and the total height of the tree were measured. Phenological observation was also carried out. A great diversity of treeswas found composed of 49 botanical families and 154 species. The main species are Acrocomia aculeata, Syagrus oleracea, Ingamarginata, Pterogyne nitens, Caesalpinia ferrea, Caesalpinia pluviosa, Peltophorum dubium, Pachira aquatica, Syzygium cuminiand Tabebuia impetiginosa.

  1. Diversity of endophytic fungi from various Aegean and Mediterranean orchids (saleps)

    OpenAIRE

    GEZGİN, Yüksel; ELTEM, Rengin

    2014-01-01

    The diversity and host specificity of endophytic and Rhizoctonia-like fungi were investigated in orchids from the Aegean and Mediterranean regions. Endophytic fungi from various Aegean and Mediterranean orchids (Anacamptis pyramidalis (L.) L.C.M.Richard, Orchis sancta L., Ophrys fusca Link., and Serapias vomeracea subsp. orientalis Greuter) were isolated and identified partially. Surface sterilisation of roots and tubers was carried out in laminar airflow under aseptic conditions. Several mod...

  2. Comparative efficacy of enrofloxacin and tulathromycin for treatment of preweaning respiratory disease in dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heins, B D; Nydam, D V; Woolums, A R; Berghaus, R D; Overton, M W

    2014-01-01

    Preweaning respiratory disease continues to have a substantial effect on the current and future productivity of dairy replacement animals. Establishing an effective treatment plan for the preweaned calf may have a significant effect on well-being and lifetime productivity by limiting any early development of chronic disease. The primary objective of this study was to examine the efficacy of treatment with tulathromycin (TUL) or enrofloxacin (ENR) on the risk of re-treatment, with a secondary objective of investigating the effect of disease and subsequent treatment choice on average daily gain (ADG). A total of 1,141 Holstein heifers from 4 farms were observed and systematically scored for evidence of respiratory disease from birth through weaning or the time of death. At the time of diagnosis, calves were randomly and blindly allocated into 2 treatment groups. The overall incidence of respiratory disease was 60.9%. In the univariable analysis, the incidence of re-treatment between 7 and 10d of initial therapy for calves treated with ENR was greater than that in calves treated with TUL (27.6 vs. 21.2%). After adjusting for farm ID, clinical score at first treatment, and weight at first treatment, the odds of re-treatment were 1.5 times higher for calves treated with ENR than with TUL. The percentage of calves that required more than one re-treatment was higher for calves that received ENR compared with those that received TUL (9.3 vs. 4.1%). We observed no difference in ADG between calves treated with ENR or TUL, and no difference in ADG between calves that were treated for respiratory disease and those that were not treated for respiratory disease. Appropriate drug therapy for preweaning respiratory disease may have an important role in reducing the odds of re-treatment during the preweaning period. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Atividade moluscicida de alguns produtos naturais sobre Biomphalaria glabrata Molluscicide activity of some natural products on Biomphalaria glabrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelymar Martineli Mendes

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada, em laboratório, a ação moluscicida de extratos aquosos (macerado e fervido, hexânico e etanólico de Aristolochia brasiliensis, Caesalpinia peltophoroides, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Delonix regia, Spathodea campanulata e Tibouchina scrobiculata. As soluções dos extratos obtidos foram testadas sobre caramujos adultos e desovas de Biomphalaria glabrata, criados em laboratório, nas concentrações de 1, 10, 20, 200 e 1000ppm. Dos extratos testado o mais ativo foi o etanólico das flores da D. regia (flamboyant que apresentou atividade moluscicida sobre caramujos adultos na concentração de 20ppm.The molluscicide activity of aqueous (macerated and boiled, hexamic and ethylic extracts of Aristolochia brasiliensis, Caesalpinia peltophoroides, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Delonix regia, Spathodea campanulata and Tibouchina scrobiculata was evaluated in the laboratory. The solutions obtained from those extracts were tested on adults and egg masses of Biomphalaria glabrata reared in the laboratory at 1, 10, 20, 100 and 1000ppm concentrations. The most active of the extracts studied was D. regia flowers' (flamboyant ethylic extracts which presented molluscicidal activity on adult snails at 20ppm.

  4. MACROSCOPICAL AND MICROSCOPICAL STUDIES ON THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caesalpinia crista leaves are bipinnate of about six pairs with alternate leaflets while the stem us fibrous, cylindrical hollow and prickly. Microscopical examination revealed the presence of strained cuticle, straight-walled epidermal cells, paracytic stomata, unicellular covering trichomes, fibres, prisms as well as cluster of ...

  5. Caesalpiniaceae (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Ding; Larsen, K.; Larsen, S.S.

    1996-01-01

    In Malesia the family contains 25 indigenous genera and 8 genera with only introduced species, as follows (in brackets the number of native and/or introduced species in Malesia): Acrocarpus (1), Afzelia (2), Amherstia (1), Bauhinia (69), Brownea (4), Caesalpinia (22), Cassia (4), Chamaecrista (5),

  6. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ekeanyanwu, RC. Vol 6, No 3 (2010) - Articles Vulnerability and adaptations of Niger-delta coast to sea level rise. Abstract · Vol 6, No 3 (2010) - Articles Phytochemical characteristics and in vitro antibacterial activity of caesalpinia pulcherrima stem bark extracts against some clinical isolates. Abstract. ISSN: 0794-4713.

  7. Antitumor and antioxidant potential of Tragia Plukenetii R.Smith on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... ... Mazumder UK, Sambath Kumar R, Sivakumar T, Mohan vamsi ML (2004). Antitumor Activity and Antioxidant Status of. Caesalpinia bonducella Against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma in Swiss. Albino Mice. J. Pharmacol. Sci. 94: 177-184. Hogland HC (1982). Hematological complications of cancer chemothe-.

  8. Identification of Compounds and Insecticidal Activity of the Root of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caesalpinia pulcherrima (Caesalpiniaceae) is an ornamental plant with several ethnomedicinal uses. The present study was designed to investigate the brine shrimp cytotoxicity and insecticidal activity of oil obtained from C. pulcherrima root. The powdered root was extracted with methanol and then defatted with petroleum ...

  9. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd. (THE AMERICAN SUMACH, DIVI-DIVI) of. Caesalpiniaceae is a small unarmed tree reaching up to 10 m in height with a spreading crown. Leaves are alternate and twice compound. The flowers are small, about 0.6 cm (enlarged 5 times here), greenish-yellow, fragrant and appear in dense ...

  10. Environ: E00125 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00125 Sappan wood (JP17) Crude drug Calcium oxalate [CPD:C17478], Brazilin [CPD:C...09920], alpha-Phellandrene [CPD:C09875], Ocimene [CPD:C09873] Caesalpinia sappan [TAX:483143] Same as: D06754 Fabaceae (pea family) Sappan wood Major component: Brazilin [CPD:C09920] ...

  11. Evaluation of the toxicological profile of the leaves and young twigs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute and sub-acute toxicological effects of ethanolic extract of the leaves and young twigs of Caesalpinia bonduc were carried out on albino rats. Single extract doses from 2000 to 5000 mg/kg body weight were administered orally and monitored for 14 days in acute study, while extract doses from 200 to 1600 mg/kg body ...

  12. Screening of traditionally used plants for in vivo antimalarial activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Leguminosae) and Caesalpinia bonducella L. Fleming (Fabaceae) were screened for antimalarial activity to establish validity of their claims. The extracts exhibited antimalarial activity in the 4-day Peter's suppressive antimalarial assay in mice inoculated with red blood cells parasitized with Plasmodium berghei.

  13. SURVEY OF WILD PLANT SEEDS AND THEIR VALUE IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bixa orellana Linn. Bixaceae. Osun-buke. Shrub. Skin diseases, malaria. 12. Canna indica Linn. Cannaceae. Ido. Herb. Asthma. 13. Bulchholzia coriacea Engl. Capparidaceae. Obi –ata. Tree. Antimicrobials, gonorrhea. 14. Afzelia africana. Smith. Ceasalpiniaceae Apa. Tree. Gonorrhea. 15. Caesalpinia bonduc (Linn).

  14. Rhizopogon (Rhizopogonaceae: hypogeous fungi in exotic plantations from the State of São Paulo, Brazil Rhizopogon (Rhizopogonaceae: fungos hipógeos em plantações exóticas no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuri Goulart Baseia

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey on the genus Rhizopogon, associated with roots of exotic trees in State of São Paulo (Brazil, was undertaken from January /1999 to September/2000. Three species were identified: R. luteolus Fr., R. roseolus Corda sensu A. H. Smith and R. rubescens Tul. This is the first report of R. luteolus and R. roseolus from Brazil.Um estudo sobre o gênero Rhizopogon, associado com raízes de árvores exóticas no Estado de São Paulo (Brasil, foi realizado de Janeiro/1999 até Setembro/2000. Três espécies foram identificadas: R. luteolus Fr., R. roseolus Corda sensu A. H. Smith e R. rubescens Tul. Este é o primeiro registro de R.. luteolus e R.. roseolus para o Brasil.

  15. Diversity of microfungi on branches of Castanea sativa in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamčíková Katarína

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Localities in Castanea sativa Mill. plantations were visited in a study aimed at identifying the mycoflora of C. sativa in Slovakia [excluding Cryphonectria parasitica (Murr., Barr for which much data is available]. Samples from chestnut tree branches and stems were examined visually and microscopically. Seven species of microfungi were recorded, three with their anamorphs. Coryneum modonium (Sacc. Griffon & Maubl. and Phomopsis castaneae Woron. were the most common. Libertella quercina Tul. & C. Tul. was identified in both states (anamorph and teleomorph at two new localities. The records of Gloniopsis praelonga (Schwein. Underw. & Earle and Dothidotthia celtidis (Ellis & Everh. M. E. Barr are the first for Slovakia. These species were rare, found only in one locality. Two microscopic fungi were detected: Valsa ambiens (Pers. Fr. [Cytospora ambiens (Nitschke Sacc.] and Diplodina castaneae Prill. & Delacr.

  16. La vivienda y la sustentabilidad en la Riviera Maya: los desbordes del turismo

    OpenAIRE

    Bagnera, Paola; Pennisi, Belén

    2015-01-01

    Access to urban land of the tourist 1cities 2towns of the Mexican Caribbean demonstrates an 1unequal 2unfair and fragmented configuration where social housing embodies responses that, with uncertain degree of sustainability, reproduces inequitable conditions on the exercise of the right to the town. This study presents the results of the recognition of this particular production of residential borders in localities of Quintana Roo, Mexico: Cozumel, Playa del Carmen and Tulúm, by taking into a...

  17. Os gêneros Zanthoxylum L. e Esenbeckia Kunth (Rutaceae no Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil The genera Zanthoxylum L. and Esenbeckia Kunth (Rutaceae in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Figueiredo Melo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho consiste no levantamento das espécies dos gêneros Zanthoxylum e Esenbeckia ocorrentes em Pernambuco. Foi baseado nos caracteres morfológicos das espécies obtidas em campo e nos materiais de 16 herbários brasileiros. Foram registradas nove espécies de Zanthoxylum: Z. caribaeum Lam., Z. fagara (L. Sarg., Z. gardneri Engl., Z. hamadryadicum Pirani, Z. monogynum A. St.-Hil., Z. petiolare A. St.-Hil & Tul., Z. rhoifolium Lam., Z. stelligerum Turcz. e Z. syncarpum Tul. Para Esenbeckia foram verificadas cinco espécies: E. almawillia Kaastra, E. febrifuga (A. St.-Hil. Juss. ex Mart., E. garandiflora Mart., E. leiocarpa Engl. e E. pilocarpoides Kunth. Para reconhecimento das espécies são apresentadas chaves de identificação, descrições, ilustrações, distribuição geográfica, comentários e nomes vulgares.This work is a survey of the species of Zanthoxylum and Esenbeckia occuring in the State of Pernambuco. It was based on morphological characters of the species obtained during field trips and of specimens from 16 Brazilian herbaria. Nine species were recorded for Zanthoxylum: Z. caribaeum Lam., Z. fagara (L. Sarg., Z. gardneri Engl., Z. hamadryadicum Pirani, Z. monogynum A. St.-Hil., Z. petiolare A. St.-Hil & Tul., Z. rhoifolium Lam., Z. stelligerum Turcz., and Z. syncarpum Tul. Esenbeckia comprised five species: E. almawillia Kaastra, E. febrifuga (A. St.Hil. Juss. ex Mart., E. grandiflora Mart., E. leiocarpa Engl., and E. pilocarpoides Kunth. Identication keys, descriptions, ilustrations, geographic distribution, common names, and comments on the species are presented.

  18. Conference on Biological Actions and Medical Applications of Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO), 15-17 September 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    after chronic administration." The major biochemical changes reported in DMSO-affected lenses are decreased concentration of urea. uric acid ...concentrations up to 284) m NI were n ut toxic: to PM N metabolism or structare.9 /)SC 1Dts]tulN We found that DIS() protected hyaluironic acid against...Ascorbic Acid Forty-one of 65 patients with Sjdgren’s syndrome received 30(/, DMSO. Ten patients received 30/, DMSO with 5 ml of 5%c ascorbic acid . Ten

  19. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, , 10/28/1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    • • , • \\ I J i I , I I • , j r USlON£ BaTTlE U Clil tUl[ VlJU SPRAY UGH u~;:.[rn[ . [j,LtlHS 1[' f:,'.tf lI.:'T':H SI'RAY fufl uta 1'1'[ Rt ~~ I,r Pl t~_:i. no" • • • • BUY ...

  20. Bradyrhizobium neotropicale sp. nov., isolated from effective nodules of Centrolobium paraense

    OpenAIRE

    Zilli, Jerri E; Baraúna, Alexandre C; da Silva, Krisle; De Meyer, Sofie; Farias, Eliane NC; Kaminski, Paulo E; da Costa, Ismaele B; Ardley, Julie K; Willems, Anne; Camacho, Natalia N; Dourado, Fernanda dos S; O'Hara, Graham

    2014-01-01

    Root nodule bacteria were isolated from Centrolobium paraense Tul. grown in soils from the Amazon region, State of Roraima (Brazil). 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of seven strains (BR 10247(T), BR 10296, BR 10297, BR 10298, BR 10299, BR 10300 and BR 10301) placed them in the genus Bradyrhizobium with the closest neighbours being the type strains of Bradyrhizobium paxllaeri (98.8 % similarity), Bradyrhizobium icense (98.8 %), Bradyrhizobium lablabi (98.7 %), Bradyrhizobium jicamae (98.6 %), ...

  1. Measuring of beat up force on weaving machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bílek Martin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The textile material (warp is stressed cyclically at a relative high frequency during the weaving process. Therefore, the special measuring device for analysis of beat up force in the textile material during the weaving process, has been devised in the Weaving Laboratory of the TUL. This paper includes a description of this measuring device. The experimental part includes measurements results for various materials (PES and VS and various warp thread densities of the produced fabric.

  2. Generation of a new transgenic mouse model for assessment of tau gene silencing therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromholt, Susan; Reitano, Christian; Brown, Hilda; Lewis, Jada; Borchelt, David R

    2016-09-05

    Targeting the expression of genes has emerged as a potentially viable therapeutic approach to human disease. In Alzheimer's disease, therapies that silence the expression of tau could be a viable strategy to slow disease progression. We produced a novel strain of transgenic mice that could be used to assess the efficacy of gene knockdown therapies for human tau, in live mice. We designed a tetracycline-regulated transgene construct in which the cDNA for human tau was fused to ubiquitin and to luciferase to create a single fusion polyprotein, termed TUL. When expressed in brain, the TUL polyprotein was cleaved by ubiquitin-processing enzymes to release the luciferase as an independent protein, separating the half-life of luciferase from the long-lived tau protein. Treatment of bigenic tTA/TUL mice with doxycycline produced rapid declines in luciferase levels visualized by in vivo imaging and ex vivo enzyme measurement. This new mouse model can be used as a discovery tool in optimizing gene targeting therapeutics directed to reduce human tau mRNA levels.

  3. CERN is awarded environmental label

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Ophrys apifera, or bee orchid: the most widespread variety at our site. Anacamptis pyramidalis or pyramidal orchid: another common variety, with close to 2500 plants counted in 2005. This year, a Himantoglossum robertianum or giant orchid was spotted for the first time, an extremely rare specimen to find in our region. The monkey orchid, Orchis simia, gets its name from the bizarre shape of its labellum (this is actually the third petal, hanging down from the flower), which may remind you of a monkey. Himantoglossum hircinum, the lizard orchid, occurs periodically on the site. It has a rather strong odour, which is why in French it is called orchis bouc (goat orchid).

  4. Antimalarial activity of three Pakistani medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irshad, Saba; Mannan, Abdul; Mirza, Bushra

    2011-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the in vitro anti-malarial activity of three medicinal plants, Picrorhiza kurroa, Caesalpinia bonducella and Artemisia absinthium of Pakistan. Different extracts of various parts of these plants were prepared by maceration and percolation, and were evaluated for their antimalarial activity. Aqueous, cold alcoholic and hot alcoholic extracts of Picrorhiza kurroa showed 34%, 100% and 90% inhibition in growth of Plasmodium falciparum, respectively, at 2.00 mg/ml. While aqueous, cold alcoholic and hot alcoholic extracts of Caesalpinia bonducella showed 65%, 56% and 76% inhibition in growth of Plasmodium falciparum, respectively at same concentrations. In the case of Artemisia absinthium, aqueous, cold alcoholic and hot alcoholic extract of Artemisia absinthium showed 35%, 55% and 21% inhibition in growth of Plasmodium falciparum, respectively at 2.00 mg/ml. In our study, extracts of Picrorhiza kurroa were found good for traditional therapy with highly significant results.

  5. HIV-1 protease inhibitory effects of some selected plants in Caesalpiniaceae and Papilionaceae families

    OpenAIRE

    Pranee Rattanasuwan; Sanan Subhadhirasakul; Supinya Tewtrakul

    2003-01-01

    Fifty-two ethanol and water extracts of the plants in Caesalpiniaceae and Papilionaceae families were screened for their HIV-1 protease (HIV-1 PR) inhibitory activities using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique. Among the tested extracts, Cassia garrettiana (wood, water extract) showed the most potent inhibitory activity against HIV-1 PR, followed by Cassia garrettiana (wood, EtOH extract) and Caesalpinia sappan (wood, EtOH extract) with IC50 of 18, 32 and 75 μg/ml, respec...

  6. Cambial variants of liana species (Fabaceae) in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng-Zehn YANG; Po-Hao CHEN; Kung-Cheng LIN

    2016-01-01

    In order to better understand variation in cambium in lianas in Taiwan and to aid identification of liana species, we examined the stem structure of ten species of lianas belonging to the family Fabaceae. Samples were collected mainly from southern and eastern Taiwan and were selected from plants with different stem diameters in order to compare the structural similarities of plants. The results showed that cambium had a normal appearance and stems were round in Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb.,...

  7. Cambial variants of liana species (Fabaceae in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Zehn YANG

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to better understand variation in cambium in lianas in Taiwan and to aid identification of liana species, we examined the stem structure of ten species of lianas belonging to the family Fabaceae. Samples were collected mainly from southern and eastern Taiwan and were selected from plants with different stem diameters in order to compare the structural similarities of plants. The results showed that cambium had a normal appearance and stems were round in Caesalpinia bonduc (L. Roxb., Caesalpinia crista L., and Caesalpinia minax Hance. We noted a combination of furrowed xylem and dissected xylem in Bauhinia championii (Benth. Benth., shallowly furrowed xylem in Acacia caesia (L. Willd., Centrosema pubescens Benth., and Mimosa diplotricha C. Wright ex Sauvalle, a combination of flattened stem and interxylary phloem in Entada koshunensis Hayata & Kaneh. and Entada phaseoloides (L. Merr., and a combination of external vascular cylinder and flattened stem in Pueraria montana (Lour. Merr. Of these lianas, three species, -A. caesia, B. championii, and C. crista, -experienced two distinct developmental growth phases. We concluded that variations in cambium and xylem deposition are associated with the size of the stems. Medullary bundles occurred in the pith of P. montana, an observation that has not previously been recorded. We present the first description and photographs of these bundles and the external vascular cylinder in the pith, and it is recommended that further study of this species be conducted.

  8. Tratamentos pré-germinativos em sementes de duas espécies do gênero Poincianella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elane Grazielle Borba de Sousa Ferreira

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se nesse trabalho avaliar o efeito de diferentes tratamentos pré- germinativos em sementes de Poincianella bracteosa e Poincianella pyramidalis. Foram testados os seguintes tratamentos: embebição em água por 24 horas; embebição em água a 80 ºC até atingir a temperatura ambiente; escarificação com lixa; escarificação com lixa seguida da embebição em água por 24 horas; escarificação química com ácido sulfúrico concentrado por 30 segundos, 1; 5 e 10 minutos e a testemunha. A avaliação do efeito dos tratamentos foi feita pelas variáveis: germinação, primeira contagem e índice de velocidade de germinação, comprimento da raiz principal e da parte aérea e a determinação da massa seca da raiz e da parte aérea das plântulas. Concluiu-se que as sementes de P. bracteosa e P. pyramidalis não apresentam dormência tegumentar.

  9. Immatures of Acanthocinini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia A. Casari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Immatures of Acanthocinini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae. Larva and pupa of Eutrypanus dorsalis (Germar, 1928, collected in trunks of Pinus elliottii Engelm., and Paratenthras martinsi Monné, 1998, collected in spathes of Scheelea phalerata (Mart. ex Spreng. Burret, are described and illustrated. Larva and pupa of Lophopoeum timbouvae Lameere, 1884, collected in Hymenaea corbaril L., Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong and Pterogyne nitens Tul., are redescribed and illustrated. A table with all described immatures of Lamiinae, and a comparison among the immatures of Acanthocinini are presented. Biological notes and new records are also included.

  10. Studies on the virulence and attenuation of Trypanosoma cruzi using immunodeficient animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basombrío Miguel Ángel

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue invasion and pathology by Trypanosoma cruzi result from an interaction between parasite virulence and host immunity. Successive in vivo generations of the parasite select populations with increasing ability to invade the host. Conversely, prolonged in vitro selection of the parasite produces attenuated sublines with low infectivity for mammals. One such subline (TCC clone has been extensively used in our laboratory as experimental vaccine and tested in comparative experiments with its virulent ancestor (TUL. The experiments here reviewed aimed at the use of immunodeficient mice for testing the infectivity of TCC parasites. It has not been possible to obtain virulent, revertant sublines by prolonged passaged in such mice.

  11. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of wheat bunt spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y.G.; Schmitt, R.A. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (USA). Dept. of Chemistry; Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (USA). Radiation Center); Trione, E.J. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (USA). Dept. of Botany); Laul, J.C. (Battelle Pacific Northwest Labs., Richland, WA (USA))

    1982-01-01

    The concentrations of seventeen elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Br, Rb, La, Sm) in two species of fungus which cause wheat bunt disease, Tilletia caries (DC.) Tul. and Tilletia controversa Kuehn, were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. A standard sequential INAA procedure was used. Differences in the K and Cl concentrations between these two species of spores are large and therefore can be used as a criterion of distinguishing between the two species of fungus.

  12. Ultra-light duct for an anechoic wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambourion, J.; Lewy, S.; Papirnyk, O.; Rahier, G.; Remandet, J.-N.

    1989-01-01

    A tunnel ultra-light (or TUL) is a duct composed of acoustically transparent cloth designed to transform an open-jet wind tunnel into a closed-jet wind tunnel. This concept is of interest (a priori) for anechoic wind tunnels because it improves the aerodynamic quality without hindering the measurement of sound in the far field. A full scale device designed for the 3 m diameter test section of CEPRA 19 was described. The apparatus installation did not develop any significant problems, and the mechanical support turned out to be excellent. Aerodynamic and acoustic tests are discussed. Certain imperfections in the installation as tested - instabilities above 25 m/s and acceptable cloth transmission up to 4kHz were revealed. The system as tested could eventually be used in certain applications, for example, in ground based transport. However, the concept of TUL must be developed further to arrive at a reliable mechanism for use in a large number of applications.

  13. Rare wild Orchids at CERN Meyrin

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    There are several "Floral Nature Reserve - Late Mowing" zones at CERN Meyrin. The blossoms of a rare and a not so rare type of wild orchid are currently in flower. The rare one is the bee orchid (Ophrys Apifera) which is a protected perennial. They are very unusual and in some years can appear in great numbers and then sometimes only reappear after a decade. They live in a symbiotic relationship with a soil-dwelling fungus. Its name stems from the fact that its brown, furry lip resembles and smells like a female bee, a mimicry used to attract drones to aid in pollination. The much more distributed species is the pyramidal orchid (Anacamptis Pyramidalis), which due to its size and its bright pink colour is already visible when you pass by in your car. Photos were taken on the late mowing zone adjacent to route Einstein opposite building 57 on 4 June 2005.

  14. Rare wild Orchids at CERN Meyrin

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    There are several "Floral Nature Reserve - Late Mowing" zones at CERN Meyrin. The blossoms of a rare and a not so rare type of wild orchid are currently in flower. The rare one is the bee orchid (Ophrys Apifera) which is a protected perennial. They are very unusual and in some years can appear in great numbers and then sometimes only reappear after a decade. They live in a symbiotic relationship with a soil-dwelling fungus. Its name stems from the fact that its brown, furry lip resembles and smells like a female bee, a mimicry used to attract drones to aid in pollination. The much more distributed species is the pyramidal orchid (Anacamptis Pyramidalis), which due to its size and its bright pink colour is already visible when you pass by in your car.

  15. Purpose of Introduction as a Predictor of Invasiveness among Introduced Shrubs in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Leonard Seburanga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduced shrub flora in Rwanda was analyzed and the risk of invasion was assessed based on the species’ purposes of introduction. The results showed that more than half of invasive alien shrubs in Rwanda were introduced as ornamentals. They include Agave americana L., Bryophyllum proliferum Bowie ex Hook., Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth Alston, Lantana camara L., and Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsley A. Gray. However, these represented only 3.16% of the total number of introduced ornamental shrubs. At the time when the study was conducted, no introduced food crop had become invasive. Species introduced for purposes other than food or culinary use showed higher likelihood of becoming invasive.

  16. Characterization of reaction products of iron and iron salts and aqueous plant extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaen, J.A. [Universidad de Panama, Centro de Investigaciones con Tecnicas Nucleares/Depto. de Quimica (Panama); Garcia de Saldana, E.; Hernandez, C. [Universidad de Panama, Maestria en Ciencias Quimicas (Panama)

    1999-11-15

    The complexes formed in aqueous solution as a result of a reaction of iron and iron salts (Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}) and some plant extracts were analyzed using Moessbauer spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared. The extracts were obtained from Opuntia elatior mill., Acanthocereus pentagonus (L.) Britton, Mimosa tenuiflora, Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd., Bumbacopsis quinata (Jacq.) Dugand and Acacia mangium Willd., plants growing wildly in different zones of the Isthmus of Panama. Results suggest the formation of mono- and bis-type complexes, and in some cases, the occurrence of a redox reaction. The feasibility of application of the studied extracts as atmospheric corrosion inhibitors is discussed.

  17. Characterization of reaction products of iron and iron salts and aqueous plant extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaén, J. A.; García de Saldaña, E.; Hernández, C.

    1999-11-01

    The complexes formed in aqueous solution as a result of a reaction of iron and iron salts (Fe2+ and Fe3+) and some plant extracts were analyzed using Mössbauer spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared. The extracts were obtained from Opuntia elatior mill., Acanthocereus pentagonus (L.) Britton, Mimosa tenuiflora, Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd., Bumbacopsis quinata (Jacq.) Dugand and Acacia mangium Willd., plants growing wildly in different zones of the Isthmus of Panama. Results suggest the formation of mono- and bis-type complexes, and in some cases, the occurrence of a redox reaction. The feasibility of application of the studied extracts as atmospheric corrosion inhibitors is discussed.

  18. HIV-1 protease inhibitory effects of some selected plants in Caesalpiniaceae and Papilionaceae families

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    Pranee Rattanasuwan

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-two ethanol and water extracts of the plants in Caesalpiniaceae and Papilionaceae families were screened for their HIV-1 protease (HIV-1 PR inhibitory activities using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC technique. Among the tested extracts, Cassia garrettiana (wood, water extract showed the most potent inhibitory activity against HIV-1 PR, followed by Cassia garrettiana (wood, EtOH extract and Caesalpinia sappan (wood, EtOH extract with IC50 of 18, 32 and 75 μg/ml, respectively. The isolation of active substances against HIV-1 PR of these two plants will be further investigated.

  19. Mangrove plant diversity in Sepanjang Island, East Java

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    SUHARDJONO

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Inventarisasi flora mangrove di Pulau Sepanjnag telah dilakukan. Tercatat 36 jenis tumbuhan mangrove tersebar di 8 lokasi (Pajang Barat, Segentong, Dermaga Sepanjang, Turunan Ceremeh, Calung dan Tarungguk.. Sekitar 23 jenis diantaranya telah ditetapkan oleh IUCN (1997 sebagai tumbuhan langka dengan status kelangkaan terkikis (LR sampai kritis (CR. Rhizophora apiculata, Ceriops tagal, C. decandra, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Excoecaria agallocha, Xylocarpus moluccensis, X. granatum dan Lumnitzera racemosa, merupakan jenis-jenis yang dijumpai hampir di seluruh lokasi. Sedangkan beberapa jenis hanya ditemukan di lokasi tertentu seperti Calophyllum inophyllum dijumpai di Pajan Barat, Caesalpinia bundoc, Scaevola taccada dan Wedelia biflora di Tanjung Perak, dan Bruguiera sexangula hanya ditemukan di Tanjung Kiaok.

  20. Water-Channel Estimation of Eulerian and Lagrangian Time Scales of the Turbulence in Idealized Two-Dimensional Urban Canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bernardino, Annalisa; Monti, Paolo; Leuzzi, Giovanni; Querzoli, Giorgio

    2017-11-01

    Lagrangian and Eulerian statistics are obtained from a water-channel experiment of an idealized two-dimensional urban canopy flow in neutral conditions. The objective is to quantify the Eulerian (TE) and Lagrangian (TL) time scales of the turbulence above the canopy layer as well as to investigate their dependence on the aspect ratio of the canopy, AR, as the latter is the ratio of the width ( W) to the height ( H) of the canyon. Experiments are also conducted for the case of flat terrain, which can be thought of as equivalent to a classical one-directional shear flow. The values found for the Eulerian time scales on flat terrain are in agreement with previous numerical results found in the literature. It is found that both the streamwise and vertical components of the Lagrangian time scale, T_u^L and T_w^L , follow Raupach's linear law within the constant-flux layer. The same holds true for T_w^L in both the canopies analyzed (AR= 1 and AR= 2) and also for T_u^L when AR = 1. In contrast, for AR = 2, T_u^L follows Raupach's law only above z=2H. Below that level, T_u^L is nearly constant with height, showing at z=H a value approximately one order of magnitude greater than that found for AR = 1. It is shown that the assumption usually adopted for flat terrain, that β =TL/TE is proportional to the inverse of the turbulence intensity, also holds true even for the canopy flow in the constant-flux layer. In particular, γ /i_u fits well β _u =T_u^L /T_u^E in both the configurations by choosing γ to be 0.35 (here, i_u =σ _u / \\bar{u} , where \\bar{u} and σ _u are the mean and the root-mean-square of the streamwise velocity component, respectively). On the other hand, β _w =T_w^L /T_w^E follows approximately γ /i_w =0.65/( {σ _w /\\bar{u} } ) for z > 2H, irrespective of the AR value. The second main objective is to estimate other parameters of interest in dispersion studies, such as the eddy diffusivity of momentum (KT) and the Kolmogorov constant (C_0). It is

  1. The role of grass volatiles on oviposition site selection by Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles coluzzii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmare, Yelfwagash; Hill, Sharon R; Hopkins, Richard J; Tekie, Habte; Ignell, Rickard

    2017-02-07

    The reproductive success and population dynamics, of Anopheles malaria mosquitoes is strongly influenced by the oviposition site selection of gravid females. Mosquitoes select oviposition sites at different spatial scales, starting with selecting a habitat in which to search. This study utilizes the association of larval abundance in the field with natural breeding habitats, dominated by various types of wild grasses, as a proxy for oviposition site selection by gravid mosquitoes. Moreover, the role of olfactory cues emanating from these habitats in the attraction and oviposition stimulation of females was analysed. The density of Anopheles larvae in breeding sites associated with Echinochloa pyramidalis, Echinochloa stagnina, Typha latifolia and Cyperus papyrus, was sampled and the larvae identified to species level. Headspace volatile extracts of the grasses were collected and used to assess behavioural attraction and oviposition stimulation of gravid Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles coluzzii mosquitoes in wind tunnel and two-choice oviposition assays, respectively. The ability of the mosquitoes to differentiate among the grass volatile extracts was tested in multi-choice tent assays. Anopheles arabiensis larvae were the most abundant species found in the various grass-associated habitats. The larval densities described a hierarchical distribution, with Poaceae (Echinochloa pyramidalis and Echinochloa stagnina)-associated habitat sites demonstrating higher densities than that of Typha-associated sites, and where larvae were absent from Cyperus-associated sites. This hierarchy was maintained by gravid An. arabiensis and An. coluzzii mosquitoes in attraction, oviposition and multi-choice assays to grass volatile extracts. The demonstrated hierarchical preference of gravid An. coluzzii and An. arabiensis for grass volatiles indicates that vegetation cues associated with larval habitats are instrumental in the oviposition site choice of the malaria mosquitoes

  2. O gênero Billbergia Thunb. (Bromeliaceae no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil The genus Billbergia Thunb. (Bromeliaceae in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

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    Joana Viana de Barros

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Billbergia Thunb. é atualmente constituído por 64 espécies distribuídos em dois centros de diversidade: a Mata Atlântica e a Floresta Amazônica. No Estado do Rio de Janeiro, o gênero é representado por 14 espécies ocorrentes em ecossistemas florestais e nas restingas: B. amoena (Lodd. Lindl., B. brasiliensis L.B. Sm., B. distachia (Vell. Mez, B. euphemiae E. Morren, B. horrida Regel, B. iridifolia (Nees & Mart. Lindl., B. lymanii E. Pereira & Leme, B. macracantha E. Pereira, B. pyramidalis (Sims Lindl., B. sanderiana E.Morren, B. tweediana Baker, B. vittata Brongn. ex C.Morel e B. zebrina (Herb. Lindl. O trabalho consta de descrições, ilustrações e comentários taxonômicos e fitogeográficos das espécies.The genus Billbergia Thunb. comprises 64 species occurring in two centers of diversity: Atlantic Forest and Amazon Forest. In Rio de Janeiro State, the genus is represented by 14 species found in Atlantic forest and restinga: B. amoena (Lodd. Lindl., B. brasiliensis L.B. Sm., B. distachia (Vell. Mez, B. euphemiae E. Morren, B. horrida Regel, B. iridifolia (Nees & Mart. Lindl., B. lymanii E. Pereira & Leme, B. macracantha E. Pereira, B. pyramidalis (Sims Lindl., B. sanderiana E. Morren, B. tweediana Baker, B. vittata Brongn. ex C.Morel and B. zebrina (Herb. Lindl. Here we present descriptions, figures and notes on taxonomy and geographic distribution of the species.

  3. LEVANTAMENTO FLORÍSTICO DO ESTRATO ARBUSTIVO-ARBÓREO EM ÁREAS CONTÍGUAS DE CAATINGA NO CARIRI PARAIBANO

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    KALLIANNA DANTAS ARAUJO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to make a floristic survey of the shrubby-arboreous stratum in three contiguous areas of Caatinga in the Cariri of Paraiba. The survey was accomplished in the "Estação Experimental Bacia Escola/UFPB", municipality of São João do Cariri, PB Brazilian Northeast. The experiment consisted of three areas of 3.2 ha, where three parallel transects had been established, in a distance of 20 m from each other, and there were marked ten parcels with equidistant systematic distribution (10 m x 10 m, having been sampled 30 parcels from each area. The floristic survey was carried through by the method of parcels. There was fulfilled a grouping analysis using the index of similarity of Jaccard. The number of parcels showed was enough to reflect the plantdiversity of the studied places; the families with highest number of species in the arboreous-shrubby stratum were Cactaceae and Euphorbiaceae; the species that had been common in the three areas, , were: Aspidosperma pyrifolium, Croton blanchetianus, Poincianella pyramidalis, Jatropha mollisssima, Malva sp., Pilosocereus gounellei, Spondias tuberosa and Opuntia palmadora. The arboreous habitat presented seven species, being higher to the shrubby component that was presented with five species. The more conspicuous arboreous elements had been: Poincianella pyramidalis (Caesalpiniaceae and Aspidosperma pyrifolium (Apocynaceae. The most important shrubs were: Croton blanchetianus and Jatropha mollisssima (Euphorbiaceae. The analysis made by the index of floristic similarity indicated that the similarity was considered high by the three area, because they presented a Jaccard index higher than 0.25.

  4. Can environmental variation affect seedling survival of plants in northeastern Mexico?

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    García Jaime F.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of global warming increase the frequency and intensity of many climate events such as rainfall. We evaluated the effects of environmental conditions on early stage seedling survival of the native thorn scrub species Caesalpinia mexicana A. Gray, Celtis pallida Torr., Cordia boissieri A. DC., and Ebenopsis ebano (Berland. Barneby and J.W. Grimes, during the summer of 2009 and 2010. The experimental design had two factors, two levels of rainfall and three microhabitats of thorn scrub: (i open interspace, (ii thorn scrub edge and (iii under the canopy of dense thorn scrub. In dense thorn scrub, seedling survival was higher for Caesalpinia mexicana and Celtis pallida, and for Cordia boissieri and Ebenopsis ebano seedling survival was higher in dense thorn scrub and thorn scrub edge. The effect of rainfall on seedling survival depended on the year. Rainfall in 2010 and dense thorn scrub increased seedling survival of native species. For survival, the limiting factors of microhabitats appear to change across the years. Besides rainfall events, biological aspects like competition and mycorrhiza effects would need to be considered in models of plant establishment.

  5. Anticonvulsant effect of the ethanol extract of Caesalpiniapulcherrima (L. Sw., Fabaceae, leaves

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    Dinesh Kumar

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ethanol extract of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L. Sw., Fabaceae, leaves (CPEE was investigated for anticonvulsant effect against maximal electroshock (MES and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ induced seizures in rats and mice at dose levels 200 and 400 mg/kg, i.p. respectively. Diazepam (3 mg/kg, i.p. was used as a standard anticonvulsant drug for comparison. CPEE was found to be safe up to the dose of 4000 mg/kg in mice, when administered intraperitoneally. The extract at 400 mg/kg dose produced significant (p<0.01 anticonvulsant effect w.r.t. control against PTZ-induced clonic seizures. In MES-induced seizure model, there were no significant alterations in the onset as well as duration of hind limb extension seizures as compared to control at a dose of 200 mg/kg when administered intraperitoneally. However, the extract (CPEE, 400 mg/kg i.p. significantly (p<0.01 delayed the onset as well as decreased the duration of hind limb extension seizures (HLES as compared to control. However, the extract, CPEE, percentage protection of the animals was increased at higher dose (200 mg/kg in both the models. The results of the study suggest that ethanol extract of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L. Sw. leaves possess anticonvulsant effect.

  6. LEVANTAMENTO DE ESPÉCIES ARBÓREAS EM VIA URBANA DO MUNICÍPIO DE FOZ DO IGUAÇU-PARANÁ

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    Felipe Samways Santos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The afforestation of a municipality must be planned and based on technical criteria that allow the deployment of the species is done correctly. In Foz do Iguaçu-PR, the absence of a municipal plan of urban forestry brings in some conflicting situations like the presence of exotic species and not recommended for urban forestry in municipal roads. This study aimed to inventory the trees in the central stretch of Avenida Juscelino Kubitschek. The survey was conducted by the Forest Inventory Method 100%, characterized by cover all arboreal individuals present at the site of research. 114 individual trees of five species were found, as follows: ‘Ipê amarelo’ (Tabebuia alba, ‘Sibipiruna’ (Caesalpinia pluviosa, ‘Alfeneiro’ (Ligustrum vulgare e ‘Oiti’ (Licania tomentosa, belonging to four families (Fabaceae, Bignoniaceae, Oleaceae and Chrysobalanaceae and five different genres (Tipuana, Tabeluia, Caesalpinia, Ligustrum and Licania. The species Tipuana tipu showed the most frequent, with 92 individuals. The Oiti species (Licania tomentosa had only 1 individual. It was observed that 60% of the species found are native and 40% are exotic. It is possible to consider that there are many misconceptions regarding the arboreal population present at the site, indicating that the planting of the species was carried out at random and without technical criteria. Thus, it is evident need for management and planning for future implanted species are appropriate for the site. Keywords: urban diagnosis; tree species; urban tree.

  7. EFFECTS OF EXTRACTIVES AND DENSITY ON NATURAL RESISTANCE OF WOODS TO TERMITE Nasutitermes corniger

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    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the natural resistance of wood to wood-destroying organisms is of fundamental importance in the choice of species to be used in buildings and furniture industry. Thus, the effects of extractives and wood density on biological resistance of Acacia mangium, Casuarina equisetifolia, Corymbia torelliana, Eucalyptus cloeziana, Tectona grandis and Caesalpinia echinata woods to the xylophagous termite Nasutitermes corniger was evaluated under laboratory conditions. Test samples, with dimensions of 2.00 x 2.54 x 0.64 cm (radial x tangential x longitudinal in four positions in pith-bark direction (internal heart, intermediate heart, outer heart and sapwood were taken. The woods were exposed to termite action for 28 days in no-choice feeding test. The samples not selected for the termite test were turned into sawdust and the extractive contents were obtained using the shavings that passed through the sieve of 40 and were retained in the sieve of 60 mesh. The wood natural resistance, within the pith-bark positions, for the studied species, is not correlated with the density and extractive content. However, among the woods, those with higher density and extractive content are more resistant. The woods with greater biological resistance to the termite Nasutitermes corniger (smaller mass loss, waste and survival time of insects are Corymbia torelliana and Caesalpinia echinata and of less resistance is Casuarina equisetifolia.

  8. Effects Total Solar Eclipse to Nasty Behaviour of the Several Legume Plants as a Result Student Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggraeni, S.; Diana, S.; Supriatno, B.

    2017-09-01

    Some group students of plant Physiology course have given task to do free inquiry. They investigated of the nasty behaviour of several legume plants in response to changes in light during the partial solar eclipse that occurred at March 9, 2016. The investigation carried out in UPI Bandung, West Java, Indonesia, which is in the penumbra region of a total solar eclipse with the location coordinates of latitude: -6.86105, longitude: 07.59071, S 6057’ 37.53553 “and E 107035’ 24.29141”. They were measuring the movement of opening leaves every ten minutes at the beginning of the start until the end of the eclipse compared with the behaviour without eclipsing. Influence is expressed by comparing the leaf opening movement (measured in the form of leaf angular) at the time of the eclipse with a normal day. Each group was observed for one plant of the legume, there are: Mimosa pudica, Bauhinia purpurea, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, and Arachis pintoi. The results showed that the changes in leaf angular in plants Mimosa pudica, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, and Arachis pintoi differently significant, except for Bauhinia purpurea. In conclusion, the total solar eclipse in the penumbra area affects the movement of some nasty legume plants. It is recommended to conduct a study of the nasty behaviour of legume plants in the area umbra in the path of a total solar eclipse.

  9. Subterranean termites in urban forestry: tree preference and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzenon, F J; Campos, A E C

    2015-04-01

    Urban tree deterioration is a common problem all over the world. Inappropriate plant species choice and inadequate planting may lead to micro and macro organism attacks, such as pests and diseases. Subterranean termite damage is common and may promote tree falls. In order to help urban forestry planning, this work was carried out for 9 years on 1477 street trees in a neighborhood in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Plants were identified to species, grouped as native, exotic plants, and palm trees, and their measures of circumference at breast height (CBH) were taken, in order to evaluate if subterranean termite damages are related to tree size and plant group. Four subterranean termite species were identified infesting up to 27% of the plants, with Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann) being the most common. Palm trees were not damaged by subterranean termites, while native plants are the most susceptible, especially Caesalpinia pluviosa var. peltophoroides (Fabaceae). Among the native plants monitored C. pluviosa var. peltophoroides, Caesalpinia ferrea var. leiostachya, Erythrina speciosa, Piptadenia gonoacantha (Fabaceae), Gochnatia polymorpha (Asteraceae), Tibouchina granulosa (Melastomataceae), and Handroanthus spp. (Bignoniaceae), the latter was the least damaged. Exotic plants were also susceptible with the exception of Lagerstroemia indica (Lythraceae) and Platanus acerifolia (Platanaceae). Correlation analysis showed that the higher the CBH value, the higher the percentage of internal damage by C. gestroi. Infested trees were treated with imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, and subterranean termites were effectively controlled during the 9-year study.

  10. [Antibacterial activity determination of six kinds of natural herbs in yunnan on normal oral predominant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-hong; Liu, Juan; Yang, Li-chuan; Zhang, Can-hua; Li, Gang

    2010-04-01

    To determine the antibacterial activity of six kinds of natural herbs in Yunnan on normal oral predominant bacteria in vitro. Agar dilution method, the antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobes which was recommended by National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standard (NCCLs), was used to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of herbs to 21 kinds of oral model strains and clinical isolates. The results were expressed by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). All six kinds of herbs were effective to the oral predominant bacteria. For the ten kinds of cariogenic bacteria, the MIC of caesalpinia sappan lignum was between 5-10 mg x mL(-1), and the MIC of other herbs was above 20 mg x mL(-1). For the eleven kinds of predominant bacteria which normally involved in pulp periapical disease and periodontitis, the MIC of caesalpinia sappan lignum was below 0.062 5 mg x mL(-1), and the MIC of the terminalia chebula retz was between 10-20 mg x mL(-1), and the others were above 20 mg x mL(-1). The six kinds of herbs in Yunnan could be used in treatment or prevention of oral bacterial diseases.

  11. Tendency toward crossover of the effective susceptibility exponent from its doubled Ising value to its doubled mean-field value near a double critical point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, U K

    2008-10-07

    DCP and with the extent of structuring in the system. The utility of the field variable t(UL) in analyzing re-entrant phase transitions is demonstrated. The effective susceptibility exponent as a function of t(UL) displays a nonmonotonic crossover from its asymptotic 3D-Ising value toward a value slightly lower than its nonasymptotic mean-field value of 1. This behavior in the nonasymptotic, high t(UL) region is interpreted in terms of the possibility of a nonmonotonic crossover to the mean-field value from lower values, as foreseen earlier in micellar systems.

  12. Julien Mallet: Le tsapiky, une jeune musique de Madagascar. Ancêtres, cassettes et bals poussières

    OpenAIRE

    Samson, Guillaume

    2011-01-01

    Ce premier livre de Julien Mallet s’inscrit dans une tendance récente de l’ethnomusicologie en France. Rompant avec la tradition d’une ethnomusicologie plutôt rurale, monographique, patrimoniale et/ou muséale, l’auteur privilégie l’étude des « productions musicales récentes » (p. 9), en les inscrivant dans une approche contemporaine des sociétés dans lesquelles elles s’insèrent. À travers le tsapiky, « jeune musique » de la région de Tuléar, il entend comprendre les processus actuels de produ...

  13. Envolvimento de canais para potássio e de nucleotídios cíclicos no mecanismo de ação tocolítico do ácido 8(17),12E,14-labdatrieno-18-óico (labdano-302) em útero isolado de rata.

    OpenAIRE

    Travassos, Rafael de Almeida

    2010-01-01

    O ácido 8(17),12E,14-labdatrieno-18-óico (labdano-302) é um diterpeno isolado das cascas do caule de Xylopia langsdorfiana A. St.-Hil. & Tul. Em estudos anteriores Ribeiro (2003) demonstrou que o labdano-302 inibiu de maneira eqüipotente as contrações fásicas induzidas por carbacol e ocitocina em útero de rata. Assim, o objetivo desse estudo foi investigar o mecanismo de ação tocolítico do labdano-302. As contrações isométricas e isotônicas foram monitoradas e os parâmetros de potência e efic...

  14. La dirección de los recursos humanos y las nuevas tecnologías de la información y la comunicación (formación a distancia y e-trabajo)

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Maria do Rosário Alves de

    2005-01-01

    El estudio pretende sobresalir las implicaciones de Nuevas Tecnologías de Información y Comunicación en la Dirección de Recursos Humanos, la Formación a Distancia y sobre el e-Trabajo. La investigación empírica pretende esencialmente retratar de forma innovadora la realidad empresarial portuguesa en el ámbito de las Tecnologías de Información y Comunicación. La Tesis doctoral está constituida por la Introducción y diez capítulos distribuidos en cinco partes: La Parte I, contiene el capítul...

  15. Numerical simulation methodologies for design and development of Diffuser-Augmented Wind Turbines – analysis and comparison

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    Michał Lipian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Different numerical computation methods used to develop a methodology for fast, efficient, reliable design and comparison of Diffuser-Augmented Wind Turbine (DAWT geometries are presented. The demand for such methods is evident, following the multitude of geometrical parameters that influence the flow character through ducted turbines. The results of the Actuator Disk Model (ADM simulations will be confronted with a simulation method of higher order of accuracy, i.e. the 3D Fully-resolved Rotor Model (FRM in the rotor design point. Both will be checked for consistency with the experimental results measured in the wind tunnel at the Institute of Turbo-machinery (IMP, Lodz University of Technology (TUL. An attempt to find an efficient method (with a compromise between accuracy and design time for the flow analysis pertinent to the DAWT is a novel approach presented in this paper.

  16. CRM-järjestelmän hyödyt ja haitat: Case ICT-alan yritys

    OpenAIRE

    Äikäs, Kasperi

    2014-01-01

    Tämän tutkimuksellisen opinnäytetyön aiheena on tutkia CRM-järjestelmän hyötyjä ja haittoja ICT- alan pienyrityksessä. Työn tarkoituksena on perehtyä suomalaisen ICT-alan yrityksen käyttämään CRM- eli asiakkuudenhallintajärjestelmään, ja erityisesti tutkia CRM-järjestelmän hyötyjä ja haittoja yrityksen liiketoiminnan toteuttamisen työkaluna. Lisäksi opinnäytetyössä tehdään katselmus kohdeyrityksen CRM-järjestelmään. CRM on liiketoiminnan asiakkuudenhal-linnan tietojärjestelmä. CRM nimitys tul...

  17. Fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em rizosferas de três espécies de fitobiontes instaladas em área de mata ciliar revegetada Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in rhizospheres of three phytobionts established in a revegetated riparian area

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    Rosilaine Carrenho

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o comportamento das espécies de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA estabelecidas em áreas revegetadas de mata ciliar, foram coletadas amostras de solo rizosférico de Croton urucurana Baill., Inga striata Willd. e Genipa americana L. Estas plantas são indígenas em matas ciliares, sendo a primeira considerada pioneira, a segunda, secundária inicial e a terceira, espécie clímax. Vinte e duas espécies de FMA foram identificadas. O maior número de espécies foi observado em rizosferas de C. urucurana e I. striata (15 espécies, enquanto o maior número de esporos foi observado em rizosferas de G. americana (511 esporos/100g solo. Glomus apresentou o maior número de espécies (10, seguindo-se de Acaulospora (6, Scutellospora (4, Gigaspora e Entrophospora (cada com uma espécie. Quanto à freqüência das espécies, G. macrocarpum Tul. & Tul. ocorreu em maior número de amostras em Croton; G. claroideum Schenck & Smith, G. etunicatum Becker & Gerd., G. macrocarpum e G. occultum Walker predominaram em Genipa, e E. kentinensis Wu & Liu, G. etunicatum e G. macrocarpum, em Inga. Concluiu-se que o número de esporos de FMA tende a aumentar com o estádio sucessional, enquanto os índices diversidade, riqueza e equabilidade de espécies de Glomales tendem a diminuir nas comunidades estabelecidas nas rizosferas da espécie clímax.To evaluate the specific composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF established in recomposed areas of gallery forest, samples of rhizospheric soil were collected from Croton urucurana Baill., Inga striata Willd. and Genipa americana L. These plants are indigenous in gallery forests, being the first considered as pioneer, the second as early secondary and G. americana as climax, according to the successional stages. Twenty-two species of AMF were identified. The highest richness was observed in rhizospheres of C. urucurana and I. striata (15 species, while the highest number of spores

  18. First report of Maconellicoccus hirsutus(Green, 1908 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae and the associated parasitoid Anagyrus kamali Moursi, 1948 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae, in Brazil

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    AL Marsaro Júnior

    Full Text Available The pink hibiscus mealybug (PHM, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae and the associated hymenopterous parasitoid, Anagyrus kamali Moursi, 1948 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae, are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of the PHM were collected on nine hosts plants, Annona muricata L. (Anonnaceae, Glycine max (L. Merr. (Fabaceae, Centrolobium paraensis Tul. (Fabaceae, Inga edulis Mart. (Fabaceae, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvaceae, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae, Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae, Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck (Rutaceae and Solanum lycopersicum L. (Solanaceae, in four municipalities in the north-northeast of the state of Roraima. The plants C. paraensis, I. edulis and C. sinensis are recorded for the first time as a hosts for PHM. Characteristic injuries observed on the host plants infested by PHM and suggestions for its management are presented.

  19. First report of Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green, 1908) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) and the associated parasitoid Anagyrus kamali Moursi, 1948 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Penteado-Dias, A M; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

    2013-05-01

    The pink hibiscus mealybug (PHM), Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and the associated hymenopterous parasitoid, Anagyrus kamali Moursi, 1948 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of the PHM were collected on nine hosts plants, Annona muricata L. (Anonnaceae), Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabaceae), Centrolobium paraensis Tul. (Fabaceae), Inga edulis Mart. (Fabaceae), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvaceae), Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae), Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae) and Solanum lycopersicum L. (Solanaceae), in four municipalities in the north-northeast of the state of Roraima. The plants C. paraensis, I. edulis and C. sinensis are recorded for the first time as a hosts for PHM. Characteristic injuries observed on the host plants infested by PHM and suggestions for its management are presented.

  20. Respostas de Acacia mangium Willd e Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel a fungos micorrízicos arbusculares nativos provenientes de áreas degradadas pela mineração de bauxita na Amazônia Responses of Acacia mangium Willd and Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel to native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from remaining areas of bauxite mining in Amazon

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    Ney Freitas Marinho

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A resposta de Acacia mangium Willd (mangium e Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel (tachi à inoculação de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA, oriundos de áreas em recuperação após a extração de bauxita, foi avaliada em experimento com delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com 14 tratamentos (duas espécies leguminosas e sete tipos de solo e três repetições. Avaliou-se o número de esporos no solo, a colonização micorrízica, a matéria seca total, o P acumulado, a dependência micorrízica das mudas, e a abundância e a freqüência de espécies. O número de propágulos infectivos (NPI foi estudado em delineamento em blocos casualizados, com oito diluições de solo inóculo, cinco repetições e uma planta isca (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. Utilizou-se substrato da mistura de um Planossolo mais areia lavada e fosfato de rocha araxá (0,60 g/kg. O número de esporos aumentou em função do tempo de cobertura das leguminosas. A colonização micorrízica foi mais intensa no tachi. Os valores de matéria seca dessa espécie foram inferiores aos de mangium, que por sua vez extraiu em torno de seis vezes mais P do substrato. Em geral, mangium, ao contrário do tachi, foi facultativa à presença dos FMA, sugerindo sua utilização na recuperação de áreas degradadas sem inoculação prévia. Dentre as 39 espécies de FMA identificadas, Glomus macrocarpum Tul. & Tul. apresentou maior índice de abundância e freqüência (IAF e maior NPI, destacando-se entre as espécies pioneiras, ao passo que outras apareceram apenas em estádios sucessionais mais avançados das áreas em recuperação.The responses of Acacia mangium Willd (mangium and Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel (tachi to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF inoculation collected from areas under reclamation after bauxite mining, was evaluated in an completely randomized design distributed in 14 treatments (two legume, species and seven soil types, with three replicates. Evaluated

  1. Preparation of genomic DNA for RAPD analysis from thick-walled dormant teliospores of Tilletia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, D R; Weber, D J

    1995-07-01

    We describe a method for isolating genomic DNA from teliospores of Tilletia caries (DC) Tul., T. controversa Kuhn and T. foetida (T. laevis) (Wallr.) Liro. for random-amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. DNA analysis of teliospores of covered smut or bunt has been difficult because of the thick wall and the high lipid content of the spores. This method overcomes these problems and yields sufficient quantities of DNA from the three species' teliospores for RAPDs. DNA quality appears to be good with very little degradation. RAPD amplifications of the extracted DNAs are reproducible and produce numerous large molecular weight bands from each individual. This procedure should permit the use of DNA analysis techniques to study species and races of Tilletia as well as fungi with similar spore structure.

  2. Revisiting the Gram-negative lipoprotein paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoVullo, Eric D; Wright, Lori F; Isabella, Vincent; Huntley, Jason F; Pavelka, Martin S

    2015-05-01

    The processing of lipoproteins (Lpps) in Gram-negative bacteria is generally considered an essential pathway. Mature lipoproteins in these bacteria are triacylated, with the final fatty acid addition performed by Lnt, an apolipoprotein N-acyltransferase. The mature lipoproteins are then sorted by the Lol system, with most Lpps inserted into the outer membrane (OM). We demonstrate here that the lnt gene is not essential to the Gram-negative pathogen Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis strain Schu or to the live vaccine strain LVS. An LVS Δlnt mutant has a small-colony phenotype on sucrose medium and increased susceptibility to globomycin and rifampin. We provide data indicating that the OM lipoprotein Tul4A (LpnA) is diacylated but that it, and its paralog Tul4B (LpnB), still sort to the OM in the Δlnt mutant. We present a model in which the Lol sorting pathway of Francisella has a modified ABC transporter system that is capable of recognizing and sorting both triacylated and diacylated lipoproteins, and we show that this modified system is present in many other Gram-negative bacteria. We examined this model using Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which has the same Lol architecture as that of Francisella, and found that the lnt gene is not essential in this organism. This work suggests that Gram-negative bacteria fall into two groups, one in which full lipoprotein processing is essential and one in which the final acylation step is not essential, potentially due to the ability of the Lol sorting pathway in these bacteria to sort immature apolipoproteins to the OM. This paper describes the novel finding that the final stage in lipoprotein processing (normally considered an essential process) is not required by Francisella tularensis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The paper provides a potential reason for this and shows that it may be widespread in other Gram-negative bacteria. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. The geochemical variations of the upper cenozoic volcanism along the Calama Olacapato El Toro transversal fault system in central Andes (˜24°S): petrogenetic and geodynamic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteini, M.; Mazzuoli, R.; Omarini, R.; Cas, R.; Maas, R.

    2002-02-01

    In this paper, we present new geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic data for several Upper Miocene volcanic centres aligned along one of the most extensive transcurrent lineament in the Central Andes, the Calama-Olacapato-El Toro (COT). The transversal volcanic belt along COT is constituted by large composite volcanoes and a caldera structure; they are, from NW to SE, Puntas Negras, Rincon, Tul Tul, Del Medio and Pocitos (TUMEPO), Quevar Aguas Calientes and Tastil. In order to compare chemical data from the different centres along the COT transect, differentiation effects were minimised by using data extrapolated at 60% SiO2 with least-square regression method. In the western sector of the COT, the volcanic products of Puntas Negras and Rincon show relatively high K2O and 87Sr/86Sr and low Rb/Cs, Ta/Th, La/Yb, 143Nd/144Nd. To the east, the TUMEPO products have high Sr and 143Nd/144Nd, La/Yb and Ba/Rb and low Y, 87Sr/86Sr. In the easternmost COT sector, Quevar, Aguas Calientes and Tastil volcanic complexes exhibit low La/Yb, high87Sr/Sr86 and low 143Nd/144Nd. On the basis of these data, we propose a petrogenetic and geodynamical model for Central Andes at 24°S. In correspondence of Miocene-Quaternary volcanic arc (Puntas Negras and Rincon), the magmas inherited a calcalkaline signature partly modified by upper crustal and/or sediment assimilation. In the central eastern sector, melting, assimilation, storage and homogenisation (MASH) processes occurred at the base of a thickened crust. In this COT sector, TUMEPO products show an evident lower crust signature and could be considered representative for MASH derived magmas. In the easternmost sector, Quevar, Aguas Calientes and Tastil products could represent magmas generated by partial melting of underthrusted Brasilian shield and mixed with magmas derived by MASH processes.

  4. Investigation Patients with Urinary Stones from the Aspect of Epidemiologic Parameters Admitted at Urology Department of Imam Reza Hospital During Years 2005-2008

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    K. Tavakkoli Tabassi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urolithiasis is one of the most frequent diseases of urinary system which forms high percentage of patients who come to Urology wards. Therefore, study of epidemiological characteristics of patients of each ward can be helpful for making the best general decision. Methods: First, we devided 5133 cases who had come to Urology department of imam Reza hospital of mashhad during 2005-2008, in 2 groups and then in 6 groups. We investigated and compared 2 groups of lithotripsy and surgery from the aspect of epidemiological characteristics. So, we did for 6 groups: pyelolithotomy and nephrolithotomy, ureterolithotomy, ureteroscopy and TUL, PNL, ESWL, cystolitholapaxy. Results: From 5133 cases, mean age of 43.41, men to female ratio 2.1, 90.1% had done lithotripsy and 9.2% surgery. Percentage of patients of pyelolithotomy and nephrolithotomy was 3.5% ureterolithotomy 0.8%, ureteroscopy and TUL39.5%, PNL 4.9%, ESWL 49.5%, cystolitholapaxy 1.9%. Mean stay in hospital for 1.31±0.19 and for surgery 4.84±0.16, in ESWL 0.81±0.25 and in pyelolithotomy and nephrolithotomy 5.09±0.17 days. During years 2005-2008 percentage of ESWL was : 59.9, 51.4 & 38.4% of all admissions in these years. PNLs percentage was: 3.8, 5.51, 5.53%. Choosing of PNL in urban people was highest (84.5% and for rural people pyelolithotomy and nephrolithotomy is the most technique in use. Conclusion: Despite of other advanced countries high percentage of our patients undergo open surgery especially in rural people, yet. So, we should provide facilities of education and financials for modern and lower costs of urinary tract stone treatments.

  5. Species arboreal as a bioindicator of the environmental pollution: Analysis by SR-TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirito de Vives, Ana Elisa [Methodist University of Piracicaba, Rodovia Iracemapolis/Santa Barbara, km 01, Santa Barbara D' Oeste 13450-000, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Moreira, Silvana [State University of Campinas, Cidade Universitaria ' Zeferino Vaz' , Campinas 13083-970, SP (Brazil); Boscolo Brienza, Sandra Maria [Methodist University of Piracicaba, Rodovia do Acucar, Km 156, Piracicaba 13400-911, SP (Brazil); Medeiros, Jean Gabriel S.; Filho, Mario Tomazello [University of Sao Paulo, Av. Padua Dias, 11 Piracicaba 13418-900, SP (Brazil); Araujo Domingues Zucchi, Orgheda Luiza [University of Sao Paulo, Av. dos Bandeirantes, 390 Ribeirao Preto 14040-901, SP (Brazil); Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do [University of Sao Paulo, Av. Centenario, 303 Piracicaba 13400-970, SP (Brazil); Barroso, Regina Cely [State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier, 524 Rio de Janeiro 20550-900, RJ (Brazil)

    2007-08-21

    This paper aims to study the environmental pollution in the tree development, in order to evaluate its use as bioindicator in urban and countrysides. The sample collection was carried out in Piracicaba city, Sao Paulo State, that presents high level of environmental contamination in water, soil and air, due to industrial activities, vehicle combustion, sugar-cane leaves burning in the harvesting, etc. The species Caesalpinia peltophoroides ('Sibipiruna') was selected because it is often used in urban arborization. Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence technique (SR-TXRF) was employed to identify and quantify the elements and metals of nutritional and toxicological importance in the wood samples. The analysis was performed in the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory, using a white beam for excitation and an Si(Li) detector for X-ray detection. In several samples were quantified P, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Sr, Ba and Pb elements.

  6. Monitoring environmental pollution of trace elements in tree-rings by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: Silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Brienza, Sandra Maria B. [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil) Faculdade de Ciencias Matematicas, da Natureza e de Tecnologia da Informacao]. E-mail: sbrienza@unimep.br; Medeiros, Jean Gabriel S.; Tomazello Filho, Mario [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz]. E-mail: jeangm@esalq.usp.br; mtomazel@esalq.usp.br; Zucchi, Orgheda L.A.D. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: virgilio@cena.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    This paper aims to study the environmental pollution in the tree development, as a manner to evaluate its use as bioindicator in urban and country sides. The sample collecting was carry out in Piracicaba city, Sao Paulo State, that presents high level of environmental contamination of the water, soil and air, due industrial activities, vehicles combustion, sugar-cane leaves burning in the harvesting, etc. It was selected the Caesalpinia peltophoroides ('Sibipiruna') specie because its very used in urban arborization. It was employed the analytical technique named total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) to identify and quantify the elements and metals of nutritional and toxicological importance in the wood samples. The analysis was done in the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory, using a white beam for excitation and a Si(Li) detector for characteristic X-ray detection. It was quantified the P, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Sr, Ba e Pb elements. (author)

  7. Pre dye treated titanium dioxide nanoparticles synthesized by modified sol-gel method for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, S.; Vivek, P.; Arumanayagam, T.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2015-06-01

    Pure and pre dye treated titanium dioxide nanoparticles were prepared by sol-gel and modified sol-gel methods, respectively. The pre dye treatment has improved the properties of TiO2, such as uniform dye adsorption, reduced agglomeration, improved morphology and less dye aggregation. The brazilein pigment-rich Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract was used as natural dye sensitizer for pure and pre dye treated TiO2 nanoparticles. Low cost and environment friendly dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) fabricated using pure and pre dye treated TiO2 nanoparticles sensitized by natural dye showed solar light to electron conversion efficiencies of 1.09 and 1.65 %, respectively. The pre dye treated TiO2-based DSSC showed 51 % improvement in efficiency when compared to that of conventionally prepared DSSC.

  8. Evaluación de la calidad del aceite de once semillas de leguminosas del desierto sonorense

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    Ortega-Nieblas, M.

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to generate information that lead to an efficient and diversifícate use of the natural resources that the Sonoran Desert offers, as it is the great variety of Leguminosae or Fabaceae plants, oils from seeds or Prosopis chilensis, Prosopis velutina (mezquite, Cercidium floridium (palo azul, Cercidium praecox (palo de brea, Acacia constricta (vinorama, Acacia cymbyspina (chirahui, Acacia occidentalis (tesota, Acacia mcmurphy (tepehuaje, Desmanthus palmeri (mezquitillo, Caesalpinia caladenia (palo dorado, and Caesalpinia pumila (palo piojo were analyzed. The oils were extracted from each seed with hexane, and their physicochemical characteristics were evaluated. The oil content varied from 9 to 16% in the different seeds. Their indexes of acidity, peroxides and free fatty acid content were low and within the accepted values. Fatty acids separated by gas chromatography predominating indicate the oleic and linoleic. All analyzed crude oils were of good quality, comparable to commercial and oils of wild legume seeds from the same region.

    A fin de generar información que conduzca a un uso eficiente y diversificado de los recursos naturales que ofrece el Desierto Sonorense, como es la gran variedad de plantas de la familia Leguminosae ó Fabaceae, se analizaron los aceites de las semillas: Prosopis chilensis, Prosopis velutina (mezquite, (palo azul, Cercidium praecox (palo de brea, Acacia constricta (vinorama, Acacia cymbyspina (chirahui, Acacia occidentalis (tésota, Acacia mcmurphy (tepeguaje, Desmanthus palmeri (mezquitillo, Caesalpinia caladenia (palo dorado, y Caesalpinia pumila (palo piojo. Los aceites de cada semilla fueron extraídos con hexano, se evaluaron las características fisico-químicas de calidad y la cuantificación de ácidos grasos por cromatografía de gases. El contenido de

  9. Estrutura do componente arbóreo de um trecho de Floresta Atlântica na Área de Proteção Ambiental da Serra da Capoeira Grande, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil Phytossociological survey of the tree layer in an area of Atlantic Forest, in Área de Proteção Ambiental Serra da Capoeira Grande, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Luna Peixoto

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A Área de Proteção Ambiental (APA da Serra da Capoeira Grande (22º54'10"S e 43º12'27"W tem área total de 80 ha e é um dos últimos remanescentes florestais com ocorrência natural de Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (pau-brasil no município do Rio de Janeiro. A estrutura deste importante fragmento florestal foi estudada utilizando-se o método dos quadrantes. Foram alocados 200 pontos amostrais e o critério de inclusão foi de 15 cm de circunferência do tronco a 1,30 m acima do solo. Nos 200 pontos amostrados foram encontradas 44 espécies distribuídas em 36 gêneros e 22 famílias. As famílias que apresentaram maiores valores de importância (VI foram Solanaceae (com 34,1% do VI, Leguminosae (Mimosoideae com 16,4%, Papilionoideae com 7,9% e Caesalpinioideae com 2,1%, Nyctaginaceae (13%, Anacardiaceae (6,5% e Flacourtiaceae (6,1%. As espécies com maior número de indivíduos na área apresentaram também maior VI: Metternichia princeps Mik. (com 40,4% dos indivíduos e 33,7% do VI, Pseudopiptadenia contorta (DC. G.P. Lewis & M.P. Lima (9,3 e 12,6%, Guapira hirsuta (Choisy Lundell (7,5 e 7,8%, Astronium fraxinifolium Schott ex Spreng. (5,6 e 5,7%. Caesalpinia echinata Lam. apresentou 2,4% dos indivíduos amostrados e 2,1% do VI. A distribuição diamétrica da comunidade, assim como da maioria das principais populações, apresentou grande número de indivíduos nas menores classes, decrescendo gradualmente. Este fato reflete uma abundante regeneração da maioria das espécies amostradas.The Área de Proteção Ambiental Serra da Capoeira Grande is a 80 ha site and one of the last forest remnants in Rio de Janeiro municipality where Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (brazilwood occurs naturally. Trees were sampled according to the point-centered-quarter method. The inclusion criteria was PBH ³ 15 cm and a total of 200 points were surveyed. 44 species were identified, belonging to 36 genera and 22 botanical families The families with the higher

  10. SCREENING OF THE ACARICIDAL EFFICACY OF PHYTOCHEMICAL EXTRACTS ON THE CATTLE TICK Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Acari: ixodidae BY LARVAL IMMERSION TEST

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    Jose Alberto Rosado-Aguilar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the acaricidal efficacy of selected native plants from Yucatán, Mexico on acaricide resistant larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. Methanolic extracts from roots, leaves, stems, and stem barks of 15 plants were tested using the modified larval immersion test. A final concentration of 10% (100 mg/ml of plant crude-extract was used. The percentage mortality from different plants and extracts were: Petiveria alliacea  leaves (95.7±2.9 % and stems (99.2±0.5 %; Diospyros anisandra leaves (87.9±8.6 % and stem bark (98.8±1.0 %; Havardia albicans leaves (93.0±12.0 %, Caesalpinia gaumeri (90.1±4.8 % and Capraria biflora (86.6±9.9 %, stems of Solanum tridinamum (98.0±1.7 % and Solanum erianthum (97.8±1.8 %, stem bark of Bursera simaruba (99.1±0.7 % and Cassearia corymbosa (99.5±0.5 %; and the root of Ocimum micrantun (87.0±3.2 %. We concluded that plants from Yucatan, Mexico showed a high acaricidal efficacy that could be used to control R. (B. microplus acaricide resistant larvae. P. alliacea, Havardia albicans and Caesalpinia gaumeri were of the most encouraging plants to be used as an acaricide. Further studies are needed to evaluate these plants on adult ticks (in vivo conditions and to identify the active compound(s on R. (B. microplus.

  11. Exploring the biological activity of condensed tannins and nutritional value of tree and shrub leaves from native species of the Argentinean Dry Chaco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Elisa M; Cherry, Nicole; Lambert, Barry D; Muir, James P; Nazareno, Mónica A; Arroquy, Jose I

    2017-11-01

    Tropical tree or shrub leaves are an important source of nutrients for ruminants and a potential source of biologically active compounds that may affect ruminal metabolism of nutrients. Therefore, eight woody species from the native flora of Argentinean Dry Chaco, rich in secondary compounds such as condensed tannins (CT), were assessed for their nutritional value, CT fractions and in vitro true digestibility of dry matter, as well as biological activity (BA). Differences among species were found in contents of total phenol, protein-precipitating phenols (PPP), bound proteins to PPP (BP) and BP/PPP (P species in potential BA as indicated by protein precipitation. The major CT of each species were isolated and purified for use as a standard. Although Schinopsis balansae had the most (P ≤ 0.05) total CT (19.59% DM), Caesalpinia paraguariensis had greater (P ≤ 0.05) BA with the most PPP (530.21% dry matter). Larrea divaricata, at 0.97, followed by Acacia aroma, at 0.89, had CT with the highest (P ≤ 0.05) BP/PPP ratios, followed by Prosopis alba (0.59). There were differences in nutritive value and bioactivity among species. Those with the greatest CT were not necessarily those with the most BA. Caesalpinia paraguariensis, S. balansae and L. divaricata were the most promising species as native forage CT sources. Cercidiurm praecox (20.87% CP; 18.14% acid detergent fiber) and Prosopis nigra (19.00% CP; 27.96% acid detergent fiber) showed the best (P ≤ 0.05) nutritive values. According to their nutritive traits, these species might be complementary in grass-based ruminant diets. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Ensaios preliminares em laboratório para verificar a ação moluscicida de algumas espécies da flora brasileira Preliminary laboratory tests of the molluscicide activity of some species of Brazilian flora

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    Nelymar Martineli Mendes

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se em laboratório a atividade moluscicida de 68 extratos de 23 plantas brasileiras. As soluções em água desclorada dos extratos hexânicos e etanólico, nas concentrações de 1, 10 e 100 ppm, foram testadas sobre caramujos adultos e desovas de Biomphalaria glabrata, criados em laboratório. As plantas que demonstraram ação moluscicida na concentração de 100 ppm foram: Arthemisia verlotorum Lamotte, Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth, Cassia rugosa G.Don., Eclipta alba Hassk, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, Euphorbia splendens Bojer, Joannesia princeps Vell, Leonorus sibiricus L.,Macrosiphonia guaranitica Muell,Nerium oleander L., Palicourea nicotianaefolia Cham, e Schlech., Panicum maximum M., Rumex crispus L., Ruta graveolens L., e Stryphnodendron barbatiman M.The molluscicide activity of sixty-eight extracts from twenty-three Brazilian plants was studied in the laboratory. The solutions, in dechlorinated water, of hexanic and ethylic extracts at 1, 10 and 100 ppm concentrations, were tested on adult snails and egg masses of Biomphalaria glabrata, reared in the laboratory. The plants with molluscicide activity on adult snails and/or egg masses at 100 ppm concentration were: Arthemisia verlotorum Lamotte, Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth, Cassia rugosa G. Don, Eclipta alba Hassk, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, Euphorbia splendens Bojer, Joannesia princeps Vell, Leonorus sibiricus L., Macrosiphonia guaranitica Muell, Nerium oleander L., Palicourea nicotianaefolia Cham. and Schlech., Panicum maximum M., Rumex crispus L., Ruta graveolens L. and Stryphnodendron barbatiman M.

  13. Adaptability of some legume trees on quartz tailings of a former tin mining area in Bangka Island, Indonesia

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    B H Narendra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tin mining activities in Bangka Island, besides their important role in contributing to state revenues, also caused damage to the environment, among others in the form of quartz tailings overlay. To rehabilitate this land, in addition to the necessary efforts to improve soil conditions, success is also determined by the selection of appropriate plant species. This study was aimed to determine the adaptability of some legume trees grown on the quartz tailings in land rehabilitation trials in the post tin mining areas of Bangka Island. The legume trees tested were Calliandra calothyrsus Meisn., Caesalpinia sappan L., Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Jacq. Griseb., Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Walp., Delonix regia ( Hook. Raf., and Cassia siamea Lamk. Treatments of growing media applied  in  the field were medium I (a mixture of 20% organic material, 20% top soil, 1% NPK fertilizer, 5% calcium, and 54% quartz tailings, media II (a mixture of 25%organic material, 25%top soil, 2% NPK fertilizer, 6% calcium, 42% quartz tailings, and media III (a mixture of 30% organic material, 30% top soil, 3% NPK fertilizer, 7% calcium, and 30% quartz tailings. The observation was done by measuring the height and diameter of the stem of the plants, as well as the viability of one year after planting. Analysis of the results of measurements of stem height and diameter showed their diversity. Enterolobium cyclocarpum had the largest dimensions, while the lowest was Caesalpinia sappan. At the age of one year in the field, Gliricida sepium and Enterolobium cyclocarpum showed the average ability of the high life of up to 100%, whereas Calliandra calothyrsus was totally death. In general, the types of legumes selected in this trial showed good adaptability, except for of Calliandra calothyrsus

  14. Nutritional reserves of Vochysiaceae seeds: chemical diversity and potential economic uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayworm, Marco A S; Buckeridge, Marcos S; Marquez, Ursula M L; Salatino, Antonio

    2011-06-01

    Contents of proteins, carbohydrates and oil of seeds of 57 individuals of Vochysiaceae, involving one species of Callisthene, six of Qualea, one of Salvertia and eight of Vochysia were determined. The main nutritional reserves of Vochysiaceae seeds are proteins (20% in average) and oils (21. 6%). Mean of carbohydrate contents was 5. 8%. Callisthene showed the lowest protein content (16. 9%), while Q. cordata was the species with the highest content (30% in average). The contents of ethanol soluble carbohydrates were much higher than those of water soluble carbohydrates. Oil contents lay above 20% for most species (30. 4% in V. pygmaea and V. pyramidalis seeds). The predominant fatty acids are lauric (Q. grandiflora), oleic (Qualea and Salvertia) or acids with longer carbon chains (Salvertia and a group of Vochysia species). The distribution of Vochysiaceae fatty acids suggests for seeds of some species an exploitation as food sources (predominance of oleic acid), for other species an alternative to cocoa butter (high contents or predominance of stearic acid) or the production of lubricants, surfactants, detergents, cosmetics and plastic (predominance of acids with C(20) or C(22) chains) or biodiesel (predominance of monounsaturated acids). The possibility of exploitation of Vochysiaceae products in a cultivation regimen and in extractive reserves is discussed.

  15. The Distribution, Incidence, Natural Reservoir Hosts and Insect Vectors of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RYMV, Genus Sobemovirus in Northern Nigeria

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    Abo, ME.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Field visits and surveys were carried out in Niger, Kano, Bauchi and Gombe states of northern Nigeria at tillering and panicle initiation stages of rice in the years 2000 and 2001 to determine the distribution, host plants and occurrence of insect vectors of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RYMV. Farmers' cultural practices and field situations were also assessed. Visual inspection based on the Standard Evaluation Scale (SES and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA methods were used in detecting RYMV infection. RYMV presence was established in all the four states surveyed. The virus was widely distributed in Kano state. The insect vectors of RYMV, such as Trichispa sericea Guerin, Chaetocnema pulla Chapius, Chnootriba similis Thunberg and Conocephalus longipennis de Haan, were found in the 4 states. Outbreaks of T. sericea occurred in many farmers' fields in Kano state. RYMV was detected more frequently on Oryza sativa L. than on O. longistaminata Chev. & Roehr and Echinochloa pyramidalis Hitche and Chase.Virus infection was not established in any other grass species, sedges and broadleaf plants tested. It is evident therefore, that RYMV has a narrow host range and is found more frequently in the Oryzeae.

  16. Eutrophication increases methane emission to the atmosphere in tropical lagoons: insights from two Ivory Coast sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    José-mathieu Koné, Yéfanlan; Vieira Borges, Alberto

    2017-04-01

    Eutrophication increases methane emission to the atmosphere in tropical lagoons: insights from two Ivory Coast sites. Y J M Koné (1) & A.V. Borges (2) (1) Centre de recherches océanologiques (CRO) d'Abidjan, (Ivory Coast) (2) University of Liège, Chemical Oceanography Unit, Liège, Belgium (Belgium) Eutrophication is a worldwide environmental problem and a definitive solution is far from being achieved, despite the large number of studies documenting its causes. In small aquatic ecosystems, excessive growth of macrophytes is a well known undesirable consequence of eutrophication. When these plants die and sink to the bottom the decomposing biomass depletes oxygen content in the water column thus leading to anoxia promoting methane (CH4) production. Here, we reported the CH4 data obtained during six campaigns covering the annual cycle in two small lagoons of Ivory Coast (Ono, Kodjoboué) that are contrasted in the degree of eutrophication and the corresponding coverage of macrophytes (e.g. Echinochloa pyramidalis, Eichhornia crassipes, Hydrilla verticillata). Our data showed a high spatio-temporal variability of CH4 within the lagoons and between the two systems, with CH4 concentrations in surface waters ranging between 80 to 74,604 nmol L-1. The highest CH4 concentration values were observed in the eutrophic Ono lagoon that is covered by 80% of macrophytes, suggesting that lagoons dominated by macrophytes are significant sources of CH4 toward the atmosphere.

  17. Fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (Glomales, Zygomycota na Ilha dos Eucaliptos, Represa do Guarapiranga, São Paulo, SP Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomales, Zygomycota from "Ilha dos Eucaliptos", Guarapiranga Reservoir, São Paulo, SP, Brazil

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    Simone de Paula Gomes

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se conhecer a micota de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA, Glomales, Zygomycota, coletou-se amostras de solo rizosférico de plantas instaladas em três áreas (plantio de eucaliptos, mata e transição entre ambas em três épocas (março/1996, época chuvosa e final de verão; junho/1996, época de inverno; janeiro/1997, início das chuvas e do verão na Ilha dos Eucaliptos (cerca de 323.500m², na Represa do Guarapiranga, São Paulo, SP. O solo foi processado para a separação dos esporos de FMA segundo a técnica do peneiramento e decantação em via úmida, seguindo-se centrifugação em solução de sacarose 50% (V:V. Os esporos isolados foram preparados em lâminas permanentes com resina PVL. Foram constatados 21 táxons de FMA: Acaulospora excávala Ingleby, Walker & Mason, Acaulospora foveata Trappe & Janos, Acaulospora longula Spain & Schenck, Acaulospora mellea Spain & Schenck, Acaulospora morrowiae Spain & Schenck, Acaulospora spinosa Walker & Trappe, Acaulospora sp. 1, Acaulospora sp. 2, Acaulospora sp. 3, Acaulospora sp. 4, Entrophospora colombiana Spain & Schenck, Gigaspora gigantea Nicol. & Gerd., Gigaspora ramisporopfwra Spain, Sieverding & Schenck, Glomus aggregatum (Schenck & Smith Koske, Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerd., Glomus geosporum (Nicol. & Gerd. Walker, Glomus invennayum Hall, Glomus macrocarpum Tul. & Tui., Glomus multisubstensum Mukerjii, Bhattacharjee & Tewari, Scutellospora aff. biornata Spain, Sieverding & Toro e Scutellospora erythropa Koske & Walker. A aplicação do índice de similaridade de Sõrensen entre populações de FMA nas diferentes áreas e as épocas de coletas mostrou valores de 64 a 90%, sugerindo não haver seleção dos FMA mediada por esses fatores.With the aim of verifying the occurence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi AMF, Glomales, Zygomycota, rhizosphere soil samples were collected in three areas (eucaliptus reforestation, forest and intersection and on three

  18. [CLINICAL CASES-TREATED WITH TECHNOLOGY LIPID COLLOIDAL (TLC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa Caballero, Dolores; Torres Subires, Antònia; Álvarez Rodríguez, Lorenzo Ramón; Garrigós Sancristóbal, Xènia; Pol Reyes, Maria Antònia; Espejo Arenas, Elena; Viturtia González, Montserrat; Delgado Ballesteros, Sara; Sans Masip, Cristina; Pascual-Malo, Isabel; Zaguirre Medina, Meritxell; Cuenda Macías, Maribel

    2016-04-01

    This study presents clinical cases collecting etiologies that are more frequent in the field of complex wounds. All require a specific approach, as well as the interdisciplinary participation of different members of the team. But in general, established local cure plans may be quite similar. Applies them technology lipid colloidal (TLC) which consists of the combination of particles of hydrocolloid (carboxymethylcellulose) with lipid components. Products with a technology designed for every moment of healing. Show our experience in the use of products with TLC in patients with ulcers of different etiologies. The following products depending on the case have been used to treat: UrgoTul Absorb Border, Urgoclean (rope or plate), UrgoStart, UrgoK2 and UrgoK2 LITE. These products were applied in patients presenting four different etiologies of ulcer: hypertensive, traumatic, venous and ischemic ulcer. The use of Urgoclean rope favored cleaning the bed ulceral and applied Urgoclean plate with reinforced alginate to control the abundant exudates, with coverage of UrgoTul ABsorb Border. Once clean beds pass UrgoStart and at all times UrgoK2 bandage, cases that required compressive therapy. Intolerance to that kind of compression applied to patients presenting bandage UrgoK2 LITE (which tolerated without problem) which significantly reduced edema, favoring the control of exudate. Patients with ulcer of long evolution, at the start were reluctant to the application of new technologies, but after the first cures and sensing a good evolution, we get their confidence and commitment to the resolution. Are displayed clinical cases of different etiologic and personal contexts that an integral and interdisciplinary approach together with the application of products with TLC, managed to solve the problem. The materials used have been satisfactory in all cases, with a direct involvement in the resolution of lesions which carries a long unresolved, and in any of them, even with a

  19. Estudos florísticos no município de Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas. Brasil: I. famílias Annonaceae e Gnetaceae Floristic studies in township of Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas. Brazil: I. families Annonaceae and Gnetaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Coelho da Silva

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O Município de Presidente Figueiredo, no Estado do Amazonas, foi visitado durante três anos consecutivos, de 1996 a 1999, com o objetivo de se obter amostras botânicas da área, para estudos no Subprojeto "Elaboração de Revisões e Monografias Taxonômicas" com a finalidade de se elaborar uma Flórula para o Município. As coleções feitas neste período encontram-se depositadas no acervo do Herbário do INPA e as informações gerais sobre os taxa aqui estudados foram complementadas com as obtidas das coleções feitas anteriormente por outros pesquisadores. Para a família Annonaceae Juss. (Magnoliopsida foram identificadas 39 espécies distribuídas em 15 gêneros. Destes, Duguetia A. St. Hill., Guatteria Ruiz & Pavon, Annona L., Unonopsis R.E.Fries e Xylopia L.destacaram-se pela diversidade em espécies, sendo os dois primeiros representados por oito e seis espécies, respectivamente, e os três últimos, com quatro espécies. A família Gnetaceae Lindl. (Gimnospermae está representada no Município apenas pelo gênero Gnetum L., com a espécie G. leyboldii Tul.The Township of Presidente Figueiredo, in the State of Amazonas, was visited for three consecutive years, from 1996 to 1999, with the aim of acquiring botanical samples from the area, in order to carry out studies in the "Taxonomic Monographies and Revisions Preparation" SubProject, for the purpose of preparing a survey of the flora. Collections pertaining to the present work are deposited at INPA's herbarium and, general information on the taxa studied here were complemented with those obtained from earlier collections conducted by other researchers. Thirty nine (39 species distributed into 15 genera were identified for the family Annonaceae Juss. (Magnoliopsida. Of these, Duguetia A. St. Hill., Guatteria Ruiz & Pavon, Annona L., Unonopsis R.E.Fries and Xylopia L. stood out on account of their species diversity, the former two were represented by eight and six species

  20. Establishment of real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay for transcriptional analysis of duck enteritis virus UL55 gene

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    Zhang Shunchuan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay (qRT-PCR has become the benchmark for detection and quantification of target gene expression level and been utilized increasingly in detection of viral load and therapy monitoring. The dynamic transcription variation of duck enteritis virus UL55 gene during the life cycle of duck enteritis virus in infected cells has not been reported yet. Results The newly identified duck enteritis virus UL55 gene was amplified and cloned into pMD18-T vector after digestion to generate a recombinant plasmid pMD18-T/UL55 for the establishment of qRT-PCR as standard DNA. The results of agarose gel electrophoresis and melting curve analysis demonstrated the primers we designed for qRT-PCR were specific and available. We used β-actin as a reference gene for normalization and established two standard curves based on pMD18-T/UL55 and pMD18-T/β-actin successfully. Based on that, the transcriptional analysis of DEV UL55 gene was performed, and the result suggested the expression of UL55 mRNA was at a low level from 0 to 8 h post-infection(p.i., then accumulated quickly since 12 h p.i. and peaked at 36 h p.i., it can be detected till 60 h p.i.. Nucleic acid inhibition test was carried out for analyzing a temporal regulation condition of DEV UL55 gene, result revealed that it was sensitive to ganciclovir. Synthesis procedures of DEV UL55 gene can be inhibited by ganciclovir. Conclusions The method we established in this paper can provide quantitative values reflecting the amounts of measured mRNA in samples. It's available for detection and quantification, also can be used in DEV diagnosis. The DEV UL55 gene was produced most abundantly during the late phase of replication in DEV-infected cells and the transcription of it depended on the synthesized DNA. DEV UL55 gene is a γ2 gene which occurs last and have a strict requirement for viral DNA synthesis.

  1. Geodynamical evolution of Central Andes at 24°S as inferred by magma composition along the Calama-Olacapato-El Toro transversal volcanic belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteini, M.; Mazzuoli, R.; Omarini, R.; Cas, R.; Maas, R.

    2002-11-01

    Miocene to Recent volcanism on the Puna plateau (Central Andes) developed in three geological settings: (a) volcanic arc in the Western Cordillera (Miocene-Recent); (b) trans-arc along the main NW-SE transverse fault systems (Miocene); and (c) back-arc, mainly monogenic volcanic centres (Pliocene-Quaternary). We have studied the evolution of the arc-trans-arc volcanism along one of the most extensive transverse structures of Central Andes, the Calama-Olacapato-El Toro, at 24°S. Compositional variations from arc to trans-arc volcanism provide insights into petrogenesis and magma source regions. Puntas Negras and Rincon volcanic centres are arc-type and have typical calc-alkaline geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic characteristics. East of the arc, lavas of the Tul-Tul, Del Medio and Pocitos complexes (TUMEPO) are heavy rare earth element-depleted and could be derived from 20-30% of partial melting of a lower crustal garnet-bearing metabasite. These liquids could be variably mixed with arc magmas at the base of the crust (MASH). This suggests important contributions from lower crustal sources to TUMEPO centres. Products at the Quevar and Aguas Calientes volcanic complexes to the east of TUMEPO show a prominent upper crustal signature (high 86Sr/ 87Sr, low 143Nd/ 144Nd) and could represent mixtures of 20-30% TUMEPO-type liquids with up to 70-80% of upper crustal melts. We propose a geodynamic model to explain geochemical variations for the arc-trans-arc transverse volcanism from the Upper Miocene to Recent. In our model, arc volcanism is linked to dehydration of the subducting Nazca plate, which produces typical calc-alkaline compositions. During the Upper Miocene (10-5 Ma), lithospheric evolution in the Puna plateau was dominated by thickening of ductile lower crust and thinning of the lithosphere. Lower crustal melting was promoted by concomitant asthenospheric upwelling and water release from the amphibolite-eclogite transformation, yielding TUMEPO magmas with lower

  2. Dynamics of Metabolite Induction in Fungal Co-cultures by Metabolomics at Both Volatile and Non-volatile Levels

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    Antonio Azzollini

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Fungal co-cultivation has emerged as a promising way for activating cryptic biosynthetic pathways and discovering novel antimicrobial metabolites. For the success of such studies, a key element remains the development of standardized co-cultivation methods compatible with high-throughput analytical procedures. To efficiently highlight induction processes, it is crucial to acquire a holistic view of intermicrobial communication at the molecular level. To tackle this issue, a strategy was developed based on the miniaturization of fungal cultures that allows for a concomitant survey of induction phenomena in volatile and non-volatile metabolomes. Fungi were directly grown in vials, and each sample was profiled by head space solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS, while the corresponding solid culture medium was analyzed by liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS after solvent extraction. This strategy was implemented for the screening of volatile and non-volatile metabolite inductions in an ecologically relevant fungal co-culture of Eutypa lata (Pers. Tul. & C. Tul. (Diatrypaceae and Botryosphaeria obtusa (Schwein. Shoemaker (Botryosphaeriaceae, two wood-decaying fungi interacting in the context of esca disease of grapevine. For a comprehensive evaluation of the results, a multivariate data analysis combining Analysis of Variance and Partial Least Squares approaches, namely AMOPLS, was used to explore the complex LC-HRMS and GC-MS datasets and highlight dynamically induced compounds. A time-series study was carried out over 9 days, showing characteristic metabolite induction patterns in both volatile and non-volatile dimensions. Relevant links between the dynamics of expression of specific metabolite production were observed. In addition, the antifungal activity of 2-nonanone, a metabolite incrementally produced over time in the volatile fraction, was assessed against Eutypa lata and

  3. Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Brazilian Legal Amazon Plants against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Clarice Noleto Dias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae is the major vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. The lack of effective therapies and vaccines for these diseases highlights the need for alternative strategies to control the spread of virus. Therefore, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of essential oils from common plant species obtained from the Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil, against third instar A. aegypti larvae. The chemical composition of these oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The essential oils of Eugenia piauhiensis Vellaff., Myrcia erythroxylon O. Berg, Psidium myrsinites DC., and Siparuna camporum (Tul. A. DC. were observed to be mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer was composed of oxygenated monoterpenes. Four of the five tested oils were effective against the A. aegypti larvae, with the lethal concentration (LC50 ranging from 230 to 292 mg/L after 24 h of exposure. Overall, this work demonstrated the possibility of developing larvicidal products against A. aegypti by using essential oils from the flora of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. This in turn demonstrates the potential of using natural resources for the control of disease vectors.

  4. Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Brazilian Legal Amazon Plants against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Clarice Noleto; Alves, Luciana Patrícia Lima; Rodrigues, Klinger Antonio da Franca; Brito, Maria Cristiane Aranha; Rosa, Carliane Dos Santos; do Amaral, Flavia Maria Mendonça; Monteiro, Odair Dos Santos; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Maia, José Guilherme Soares; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is the major vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. The lack of effective therapies and vaccines for these diseases highlights the need for alternative strategies to control the spread of virus. Therefore, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of essential oils from common plant species obtained from the Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil, against third instar A. aegypti larvae. The chemical composition of these oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The essential oils of Eugenia piauhiensis Vellaff., Myrcia erythroxylon O. Berg, Psidium myrsinites DC., and Siparuna camporum (Tul.) A. DC. were observed to be mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer was composed of oxygenated monoterpenes. Four of the five tested oils were effective against the A. aegypti larvae, with the lethal concentration (LC50) ranging from 230 to 292 mg/L after 24 h of exposure. Overall, this work demonstrated the possibility of developing larvicidal products against A. aegypti by using essential oils from the flora of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. This in turn demonstrates the potential of using natural resources for the control of disease vectors.

  5. Isolation, characterization, and insecticidal activity of an endophyte of drunken horse grass, Achnatherum inebrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, YingWu; Zhang, Xuebing; Lou, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Endophytic microorganisms reside within plant tissues and have often been found to promote plant growth. In this study, endophytic microorganisms were isolated from the roots, stems, leaves, and seeds of healthy drunken horse grass, Achnatherum inebrians (Hance) Keng (Poales: Poaceae), through the use of a grinding separation method and identified by a dual approach of morphological and physiological observation and 16S rRNA gene-based (for bacteria) and internal transcribed sequence-based (for fungi) molecular identification. The endophytes were then inoculated into liquid media for fermentation, and their crude extracts were employed for insecticidal activity tests using slide disc immersion and nebulization methods. A total of 89 bacteria species, which were classified into eight genera, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Actinomyces, Corynebacterium, Acinetobacter, Sphingomonas, Paenibacillus, and Phyllobacterium, and two fungi, Claviceps and Chaetomium, were isolated. Of these species, isolates Streptomyces albus (Rossi-Doria) Waksman and Henrici (Actinomycetales: Streptomycetaceae) (GA) and Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) (PF-2) were shown to produce mortality rates of more than 90% in the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), after first and second screenings. The isolates PF-2 and GA associated with A. inebrians had significant insecticidal activities towards A. gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and may provide a new biological resource for exploring a new microbial insecticide.

  6. Development and validation of a HPLC method for the quantification of three flavonoids in a crude extract of Dimorphandra gardneriana

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    Leonardo P. Landim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A method for separation and quantification of three flavonoids by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was developed and validated. Flavonoids present in a crude methanolic extract of the inner bark of Dimorphandra gardneriana Tul., Fabaceae, were analyzed. Rutin, isoquercitrin and quercetin were used as calibration standards. The analysis was performed using a Thermo Scientific Hypersil C18 column (250 x 4.0 mm i.d., 5 μm particle size, as stationary phase, with a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min and detection at a wavelength of 356 nm. The proposed method was validated by resolution RE No. 899/2003 of the National Health Surveillance Agency. In this study, an excellent linearity was obtained with r higher than 0.99. Besides, the chromatographic peaks showed good resolution. With other validation data, including precision, specificity, accuracy and robustness, this method demonstrated good reliability and sensitivity, and can be conveniently used for the quantification of rutin, isoquercitrin and quercetin in crude methanolic extract of D. gardneriana pods. Furthermore, there are the advantages of easy sample preparation and short time between each injection.

  7. A key to American genus Merobruchus Bridwell (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) with descriptions of species and two new host plant records for the subfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfio, Daiara; Ribeiro-Costa, Cibele Stramare

    2016-02-09

    Merobruchus Bridwell is placed in the group Merobruchus of Acanthoscelidina (Bruchini) being distinguished from all bruchines mainly by the apical projections in the last abdominal ventrite of females and some males. All 25 species of Merobruchus are distributed in the New World, mainly in the Neotropical Region, feeding on seeds of Mimosoideae (Acacieae, Ingeae and Mimoseae). As well as some other bruchine genera, Merobruchus shows considerable morphological variation both in external and in internal (male genitalia) characters. Moreover, some species are very similar to each other in their colour and distribution pattern of pubescence on the dorsal surface, sometimes making species recognition difficult. Thus, the main objective of this paper is to provide a key including coloured illustrations for Merobruchus species to facilitate the process of identification and to avoid misunderstandings. Images of dorsal habitus, male and female pygidium and male genitalia are provided for all species. In addition, M. machadoi sp. nov. (Holotype male deposited in DZUP: Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul State) is described; M. bicoloripes (Pic) and M. pickeli (Pic) are redescribed; and a new synonymy is proposed: Pseudopachymerus pickeli Pic, 1927 = Pseudopachymerus pickeli var. subnotatus Pic, 1927 syn. nov. Two new host plants are recorded for Bruchinae: Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth.) Brenan (Mimosoideae) and Pterogyne nitens Tul. (Caesalpinioideae).

  8. Total phenolics and antioxidant activity of five medicinal plant; Fenois totais e atividade antioxidante de cinco plantas medicinais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Cleyton Marcos de M.; Silva, Hilris Rocha e; Vieira-Junior, Gerardo Magela; Ayres, Mariane Cruz C.; Costa, Charllyton Luis S. da; Araajo, Delton Servulo; Cavalcante, Luis Carlos D.; Barros, Elcio Daniel S.; Araujo, Paulo Breitner de M.; Brandao, Marcela S.; Chaves, Mariana H. [Universidade Federal do Piaui, Teresina, PI (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: mariana@ufpi.br

    2007-03-15

    This paper describes total phenolics content and antioxidant activity in the ethanolic extract of leaves, bark and roots of five medicinal plants: Terminalia brasiliensis Camb., Terminalia fagifolia Mart. and Zucc., Copernicia cerifera (Miller) H.E. Moore, Cenostigma macrophyllum Tul. var. acuminata Teles Freire and Qualea grandiflora Mart. The total phenolics content of the plant extracts, determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, varied from 250.0 {+-}8,2 to 763,63 {+-}13.03 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g dry EtOH extract. The antioxidant activity of extracts was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay system. Extract of bark from T. brasiliensis, the most active, with an EC{sub 50} value of 27.59 {+-} 0.82 {mu}g/mL, was comparable to rutin (EC{sub 50} = 27.80 {+-} 1.38) and gallic acid (EC{sub 50} = 24.27 {+-} 0.31), used as positive controls. The relationship between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity was positive and significant for T. brasiliensis, C. macrophyllum and C. cerifera. (author)

  9. Essential oil from the leaves of Xylopia langsdorfiana (Annonaceae) as a possible spasmolytic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Ana Carolina de C; Ferreira, Tamyris F; Martins, Italo Rossi R; Macêdo, Cibério L; Monteiro, Fabio de S; Costa, Vicente Carlos O; Tavares, Josean F; Silva, Marcelo S; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar J; Buri, Marcus V; Rigoni, Vera L S; Nouailhetas, Viviane L A; Da Silva, Bagnólia A

    2015-01-01

    Xylopia langsdorfiana A. St.-Hil. &Tul. (Annonaceae) is popularly known in the northeast of Brazil as 'pimenteira da terra', and an essential oil (XL-OE) was extracted from its leaves. Since Xylopia species are cited in folk medicine and diterpenes from X. langsdorfiana have spasmolytic activity, this study aimed to investigate a possible spasmolytic action of XL-OE on smooth muscle models. XL-OE (243 and 729 μg/mL) showed low pharmacologic efficacy on guinea pig trachea and rat aorta and uterus. However, in guinea pig ileum, XL-OE (27-729 μg/mL) inhibited carbachol or histamine-induced phasic contractions (1 μM) in a significant and concentration-dependent manner. In addition, XL-OE (81 μg/mL) reduced fluorescence intensity in ileal myocytes stimulated by histamine, indicating a decrease in cytosolic calcium concentration, which could explain the spasmolytic activity. Thus, XL-OE proved to be a promising natural product to be used in gastrointestinal diseases acting by modulating the cytosolic calcium concentration.

  10. Starvation-Dependent Regulation of Golgi Quality Control Links the TOR Signaling and Vacuolar Protein Sorting Pathways

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    Niv Dobzinski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Upon amino acid (AA starvation and TOR inactivation, plasma-membrane-localized permeases rapidly undergo ubiquitination and internalization via the vacuolar protein sorting/multivesicular body (VPS-MVB pathway and are degraded in the yeast vacuole. We now show that specific Golgi proteins are also directed to the vacuole under these conditions as part of a Golgi quality-control (GQC process. The degradation of GQC substrates is dependent upon ubiquitination by the defective-for-SREBP-cleavage (DSC complex, which was identified via genetic screening and includes the Tul1 E3 ligase. Using a model GQC substrate, GFP-tagged Yif1, we show that vacuolar targeting necessitates upregulation of the VPS pathway via proteasome-mediated degradation of the initial endosomal sorting complex required for transport, ESCRT-0, but not downstream ESCRT components. Thus, early cellular responses to starvation include the targeting of specific Golgi proteins for degradation, a phenomenon reminiscent of the inactivation of BTN1, the yeast Batten disease gene ortholog.

  11. Activity of Fabaceae species extracts against fungi and Leishmania: vatacarpan as a novel potent anti-Candida agent

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    Dandara Braga Santana

    Full Text Available AbstractLeishmaniasis and fungal infection treatment efficacy is limited by toxicity and ever increasing resistance to available drugs, requiring development of alternative compounds. The richness of Cerrado plant antimicrobial secondary metabolites justifies screening of Fabaceae species extracts: Enterolobium ellipticum Benth., Sclerolobium aureum (Tul. Baill. and Vatairea macrocarpa(Benth. Ducke, against Leishmania(Leishmania amazonensis, yeasts and dermatophytes. Among the 26 extracts tested, more than 50% of the total demonstrated significant antifungal activity in comparison to the drug controls (minimal inhibitory concentration 0.12 to ≤31.25 µg/ml. Six extracts capable of complete parasitic growth inhibition had the inhibitory concentration index for 50% values from 9.23 to 78.65 µg/ml. The results led to the selection of the V. macrocarpa ethyl acetate root bark extract for chemical fractionation. This plant, traditionally referred to as angelim-do-cerrado or maleiteira, is used to treat superficial mycoses in Amazonia. A previously unreported pterocarpan vatacarpan together with the known compound musizin was isolated. Vatacarpan demonstrated a minimal inhibitory concentration value of 0.98 µg/ml against Candida albicans ATCC 10231, and thus comparable or superior to fluconazole and amphotericin B. The results add to literature's information the ability of pterocarpans to act as antimicrobial agents.

  12. Quantificação e Avaliação das Principais Espécies Florestais Licenciadas no Estado do Acre de 2005 a 2012

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    Flávia Alessandra Pinheiro da Rocha Cordeiro e Silva

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar, identificar e quantificar os 15 principais gêneros e espécies florestais exploradas legalmente no estado do Acre, na Amazônia brasileira, bem como analisar o número de autorizações emitidas para exploração de florestas manejadas, o volume de madeira e a área de manejo licenciada pelo Instituto de Meio Ambiente do Acre de janeiro de 2005 a agosto de 2012. Os dados coletados demonstraram que a área e o volume de madeira licenciados apresentaram um crescimento no período analisado, atingindo o ápice em 2010 e 2011, respectivamente. Os 15 principais gêneros e espécies licenciados foram: cumaru-ferro (Dipteryx spp., garapeira (Apuleia spp., sumaúma (Ceiba spp., açacu (Hura crepitans L., matamatá (Eschweilera spp., jatobá (Hymenaea spp., tauari (Couratari spp., manitê (Brosimun spp., caucho (Castilla ulei Warb., cedro (Cedrela spp., guariúba (Clarisia racemosa Ruiz e Pav., faveira (Parkia spp., copaíba (Copaifera spp., guaribeiro (Phyllocarpus riedelii Tul. e abiurana (Pouteria spp..

  13. Antiproliferative effect of Pterogyne nitens on melanoma cells

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    V. S. Bolzani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    As part of our program of bioprospecting for novel antitumor drug prototypes, twenty extracts and fractions obtained from Pterogyne nitens Tul. (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae were screened for antiproliferative activity against B16F10 murine melanoma cells, by the MTT colorimetric assay. The strongest activity was found in EtOAc fractions from the flowers (IC50 = 0.35 µg/mL, fruits (IC50 = 0.34 µg/mL, leaves (IC50 = 0.33 µg/mL and stems (IC50 = 0.29 µg/mL. Analysis by TLC and HPLC-DAD showed the presence of guanidine alkaloids, flavones and flavonols in the bioactive samples. Additionally, a phytochemical study of the EtOAc fraction of the stems afforded quercetin (1 and isoquercitrin (2, two flavonols with antiproliferative activity previously described in the literature. On the basis of these results, it can be concluded that P. nitens inhibits the growth of melanoma cells in vitro. Further investigations will be needed to assess the usefulness of the samples under study for the treatment of neoplasms and to characterize other bioactive compounds. Keywords: antiproliferative; Pterogyne nitens; Caesalpinioideae; melanoma; flavonoids; Fabaceae.

  14. Changes in circulating lymphocyte subpopulations in pigs receiving therapeutic doses of ceftiofur and tulathromycin

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    Czyżewska-Dors Ewelina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of administration of therapeutic doses of ceftiofur and tulathromycin on the circulating lymphocyte subpopulations in healthy pigs. Material and Methods: The study was conducted on thirty healthy 7- to 10-week-old pigs, assigned to three groups: the TUL group, injected with tulathromycin (n = 10; the CEF group, injected with ceftiofur (n = 10; and the C group, the control with no antibiotic administration (n = 10. Blood samples were collected before, during, and after treatment with antimicrobials. Lymphocyte subpopulations circulating in the blood were determined by immunostaining and flow cytometry analyses. Results: Following administration of a therapeutic dose of tulathromycin, there were no changes in the lymphocyte subpopulations circulating in blood. In contrast, administration of ceftiofur at the recommended dose decreased the absolute number of CD3+, CD21+, CD4+CD8-, CD4-CD8+, and double positive CD4CD8 cells. Conclusion: Results from the study indicate that ceftiofur possesses the ability to modulate the immune system in healthy pigs by decreasing lymphocyte subpopulations circulating in blood.

  15. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase from Trypanosoma cruzi. Purification and physicochemical and kinetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cymeryng, C; Cazzulo, J J; Cannata, J J

    1995-07-01

    Phospho enolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) has been purified to homogeneity from epimastigotes of the Tul 0 strain of Trypanosoma cruzi. The physicochemical parameters determined allowed the calculation of an average molecular mass of 120 kDa; the subunit molecular mass, about 61 kDa, is in good agreement with the value of 58.6 kDa recently determined from the sequence by Sommer et al. (FEBS Lett. 359 (1994) 125-129). The PEPCK from T. cruzi presented, in addition to its molecular mass, typical properties of other ATP-linked PEPCKs, namely strict specificity for ADP in the carboxylation reaction and lower specificity in the decarboxylation and exchange reactions, and synergistic activation by CdCl2 or MgCl2 when added in addition to MnCl2. The enzyme presented hysteretic behaviour, shown by a lag period in the carboxylation reaction, which was affected by dilution and preincubation. The decarboxylation reaction catalyzed by the T. cruzi PEPCK was not inhibited by excess of ATP-Mn. The apparent Km values for the carboxylation reaction, including the low value for PEP (0.035 mM) are compatible with an important role of PEPCK, as suggested by previous NMR experiments, on the CO2 fixation in vivo which leads to succinate excretion during aerobic fermentation of glucose.

  16. Exploitation of complement regulatory proteins by Borrelia and Francisella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madar, Marian; Bencurova, Elena; Mlynarcik, Patrik; Almeida, André M; Soares, Renata; Bhide, Katarina; Pulzova, Lucia; Kovac, Andrej; Coelho, Ana V; Bhide, Mangesh

    2015-06-01

    Pathogens have developed sophisticated mechanisms of complement evasion such as binding to the host complement regulatory proteins (CRPs) on their surface or expression of CRP mimicking molecules. The ability of pathogens to evade the complement system has been correlated with pathogenesis and host selectivity. Hitherto, little work has been undertaken to determine whether Borrelia and Francisella exploit various CRPs to block complement attack. Seventeen Borrelia (twelve species) and six Francisella (three subspecies) strains were used to assess their ability to bind human, sheep and cattle CRPs or mimic membrane associated complement regulators. A series of experiments including affinity ligand binding experiments, pull-down assays and mass spectrometry based protein identification, revealed an array of CRP binding proteins of Borrelia and Francisella. Unlike Francisella, Borrelia strains were able to bind multiple human CRPs. Three strains of Borrelia (SKT-4, SKT-2 and HO14) showed the presence of a human CD46-homologous motif, indicating their ability to possess putative human CD46 mimicking molecules. Similarly, five strains of Borrelia and two strains of Francisella may have surface proteins with human CD59-homologous motifs. Among ovine and bovine CRPs, the only CRP bound by Francisella (LVS, Tul4 strain) was vitronectin, while ovine C4BP, ovine factor H and bovine factor H were bound to Borrelia strains SKT-2, DN127 and Co53. This study presents an array of proteins of Borrelia and Francisella that bind CRPs or may mimic membrane-CRPs, thus enabling multiphasic complement evasion strategies of these pathogens.

  17. Mapping of heavy metal pollution in river water at daily time-scale using spatio-temporal fusion of MODIS-aqua and Landsat satellite imageries.

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    Swain, Ratnakar; Sahoo, Bhabagrahi

    2017-05-01

    For river water quality monitoring at 30m × 1-day spatio-temporal scales, a spatial and temporal adaptive reflectance fusion model (STARFM) is developed for estimating turbidity (Tu), total suspended solid (TSS), and six heavy metals (HV) of iron, zinc, copper, chromium, lead and cadmium, by blending the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Landsat (Ls) spectral bands. A combination of regression analysis and genetic algorithm (GA) techniques are applied to develop spectral relationships between Tu-Ls, TSS-Tu, and each HV-TSS. The STARFM algorithm and all the developed relationship models are evaluated satisfactorily by various performance evaluation measures to develop heavy metal pollution index-based vulnerability maps at 1-km resolution in the Brahmani River in eastern India. The Monte-Carlo simulation based analysis of the developed formulations reveals that the uncertainty in estimating Zn and Cd is the minimum (1.04%) and the maximum (5.05%), respectively. Hence, the remote sensing based approach developed herein can effectively be used in many world rivers for real-time monitoring of heavy metal pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Isolation, Characterization, and Insecticidal Activity of an Endophyte of Drunken Horse Grass, Achnatherum inebrians

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    Shi, YingWu; Zhang, Xuebing; Lou, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Endophytic microorganisms reside within plant tissues and have often been found to promote plant growth. In this study, endophytic microorganisms were isolated from the roots, stems, leaves, and seeds of healthy drunken horse grass, Achnatherum inebrians (Hance) Keng (Poales: Poaceae), through the use of a grinding separation method and identified by a dual approach of morphological and physiological observation and 16S rRNA gene-based (for bacteria) and internal transcribed sequence-based (for fungi) molecular identification. The endophytes were then inoculated into liquid media for fermentation, and their crude extracts were employed for insecticidal activity tests using slide disc immersion and nebulization methods. A total of 89 bacteria species, which were classified into eight genera, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Actinomyces, Corynebacterium, Acinetobacter, Sphingomonas, Paenibacillus, and Phyllobacterium, and two fungi, Claviceps and Chaetomium, were isolated. Of these species, isolates Streptomyces albus (Rossi-Doria) Waksman and Henrici (Actinomycetales: Streptomycetaceae) (GA) and Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) (PF-2) were shown to produce mortality rates of more than 90% in the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), after first and second screenings. The isolates PF-2 and GA associated with A. inebrians had significant insecticidal activities towards A. gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and may provide a new biological resource for exploring a new microbial insecticide. PMID:24784492

  19. An Effect of Spin Distributions in the Pre-Equilibrium Process on Cross-Section Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Toshihiko; Chadwick, Mark B.

    2004-10-01

    An interpretation of surrogate nuclear reaction measurements requires a modeling of reaction process. It is often assumed that the dominant process is a compound reaction, and the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model is used to calculate decay of intermediate compound state. When the incident energy is high, a pre-equilibrium particle emission occurs before the composite system equilibrates, and this changes the spin distribution of compound nucleus slightly. In the classical framework such as the exciton model it is impossible to calculate the spin distribution of pre-equilibrium process, however, quantum mechanical approaches --- FKK, TUL, NWY --- can give it. We calculate the quantum mechanical pre-equilibrium theory to estimate the spin-distribution of the doorway state, and investigate how this distribution is important for the surrogate reaction technique. The calculated spin-distribution of the pre-equilibrium process is combined with the GNASH compound reaction calculation, and compare with experimental data of γ-ray production cross section using GEANIE at LANSCE for Zr isotopes.

  20. Trypanosoma cruzi: attenuation of virulence and protective immunogenicity after monoallelic disruption of the cub gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrio, Alejandra B; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Basombrío, Miguel A

    2007-12-01

    Calmodulin-ubiquitin (cub) is a single-copy gene of Trypanosoma cruzi, which encodes a 208 aminoacid polypeptide of unknown function, containing putative calcium-binding domains. After targeted deletion, a clone (TulCub8) was derived where one of the two alleles was disrupted. This clone displayed a sharp and stable loss of virulence for mice. Parasitemias after inoculation of 10(6) trypomastigotes of the mutant, as compared to wild-type parasites were 68-fold lower (p=0.018) in adult Swiss mice and 27-fold lower (p=0.002) in newborn Balb/c mice. Epimastigote inocula of the mutant were strongly protective against infection by wild-type parasites. Virulence was not restored by serial passage in mice, showing that the attenuated phenotype is stable and gene-conversion from the intact cub allele does not occur at an appreciable rate. Retransfection of the missing cub allele restored virulence. Complementation experiments showed that the intact cub gene is necessary for full expression of virulence.

  1. Occurrence of Francisella spp. in Dermacentor reticulatus and Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Zając, Violetta; Sawczyn, Anna; Cisak, Ewa; Sroka, Jacek; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2015-04-01

    A total of 530 questing Dermacentor reticulatus ticks and 861 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected from Lublin province (eastern Poland) and examined for the presence of Francisella by PCR for 16S rRNA (rrs) and tul4 genes. Only one female D. reticulatus tick out of 530 examined (0.2%) was infected with Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica, as determined by PCR of the rrs gene. None of 861 I. ricinus ticks were infected with F. tularensis. In contrast, the presence of Francisella-like endosymbionts (FLEs) was detected in more than half of the D. reticulatus ticks (50.4%) and 0.8% of the I. ricinus ticks. The nucleotide sequences of the FLEs detected in D. reticulatus exhibited 100% homology with the nucleotide sequence of the FLE strain FDrH detected in Hungary in D. reticulatus. In conclusion, our results suggest a low contribution of D. reticulatus and I. ricinus ticks to the circulation of F. tularensis in eastern Poland. This finding, however, needs to be confirmed by further studies in other areas. Our study confirmed the common infection of D. reticulatus with Francisella-like endosymbionts (FLEs) of unknown pathogenic potential and revealed, for the first time, a low grade of infection of I. ricinus with FLEs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Coexistence of emerging bacterial pathogens in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Serbia*

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    Tomanović S.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The list of tick-borne pathogens is long, varied and includes viruses, bacteria, protozoa and nematodes. As all of these agents can exist in ticks, their co-infections have been previously reported. We studied co-infections of emerging bacterial pathogens (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Francisella tularensis in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Serbia. Using PCR technique, we detected species-specific sequences, rrf-rrl rDNA intergenic spacer for B. burgdorferi s.l., p44/msp2 paralogs for A. phagocytophilum, and the 17 kDa lipoprotein gene, TUL4, for F. tularensis, respectively, in total DNA extracted from the ticks. Common infections with more than one pathogen were detected in 42 (28.8 % of 146 infected I. ricinus ticks. Co-infections with two pathogens were present in 39 (26.7 % of infected ticks. Simultaneous presence of A. phagocytophilum and different genospecies of B. burgdorferi s.l. complex was recorded in 16 ticks, co-infection with different B. burgdorferi s. l. genospecies was found in 15 ticks and eight ticks harbored mixed infections with F. tularensis and B. burgdorferi s.l. genospecies. Less common were triple pathogen species infections, detected in three ticks, one infected with A. phagocytophilum / B. burgdorferi s.s. / B. lusitaniae and two infected with F. tularensis / B. burgdorferi s.s. / B. lusitaniae. No mixed infections of A. phagocytophilum and F. tularensis were detected.

  3. Anatomia do lenho de cinco espécies comercializadas como 'Sucupira'

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    Warley Felício Soares

    Full Text Available A análise comparativa da anatomia do lenho das espécies Bowdichia nitida Spruce ex Benth, Diplotropis brasiliensis (Tul. Benth., Diplotropis martiusii Benth., Diplotropis purpurea (Rich. Amshoff e Diplotropis racemosa (Hoehne Amshoff é descrita no presente trabalho, visando a determinar as principais características anatômicas necessárias à distinção dessas espécies. Qualitativamente, as características anatômicas mais importantes para a diferenciação do lenho dessas espécies foram: camadas de crescimento, estratificação dos raios, arranjo dos vasos e fileira marginal dos raios. Quantitativamente, a análise estatística mostrou que os parâmetros anatômicos mais importantes no agrupamento das espécies foram: diâmetro dos elementos de vasos, largura dos raios em micrometros, comprimento, espessura da parede e largura das fibras. Verificou-se que a anatomia do lenho pode ser utilizada como importante subsídio na identificação das espécies estudadas.

  4. Nutritional reserves of Vochysiaceae seeds: chemical diversity and potential economic uses

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    Marco A. S Mayworm

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Contents of proteins, carbohydrates and oil of seeds of 57 individuals of Vochysiaceae, involving one species of Callisthene, six of Qualea, one of Salvertia and eight of Vochysia were determined. The main nutritional reserves of Vochysiaceae seeds are proteins (20% in average and oils (21. 6%. Mean of carbohydrate contents was 5. 8%. Callisthene showed the lowest protein content (16. 9%, while Q. cordata was the species with the highest content (30% in average. The contents of ethanol soluble carbohydrates were much higher than those of water soluble carbohydrates. Oil contents lay above 20% for most species (30. 4% in V. pygmaea and V. pyramidalis seeds. The predominant fatty acids are lauric (Q. grandiflora, oleic (Qualea and Salvertia or acids with longer carbon chains (Salvertia and a group of Vochysia species. The distribution of Vochysiaceae fatty acids suggests for seeds of some species an exploitation as food sources (predominance of oleic acid, for other species an alternative to cocoa butter (high contents or predominance of stearic acid or the production of lubricants, surfactants, detergents, cosmetics and plastic (predominance of acids with C20 or C22 chains or biodiesel (predominance of monounsaturated acids. The possibility of exploitation of Vochysiaceae products in a cultivation regimen and in extractive reserves is discussed.Teores de proteínas, carboidratos solúveis e óleos de sementes de 57 indivíduos de Vochysiaceae, compreendendo uma espécie de Callisthene, seis de Qualea, uma de Salvertia e oito de Vochysia foram determinados. As principais reservas de sementes de Vochysiaceae são proteínas (20% em média e óleos (21, 6%. A média dos teores de carboidratos foi de 5, 8%. Callisthene apresentou o mais baixo teor de proteínas (16, 9%, enquanto Q. cordata foi a espécie com o mais elevado teor (30% em média. Teores de carboidratos solúveis em etanol foram muito superiores aos solúveis em água. Os teores de

  5. Variações sazonais de aspectos fisiológicos de espécies da Caatinga Seazonal variations of physiological aspects of Caatinga species

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    Dilma M. de B. M. Trovão

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available No intuito de compreender as estratégias de sobrevivência utilizadas pelas espécies da Caatinga para se adaptarem às condições oferecidas pelo clima da região, avaliaram-se o potencial hídrico e a eficiencia quântica da fotossíntese obtida pela fluorescência das espécies: Myracrodruon urundeuva, Schinopsis brasiliensis, Amburana cearensis,Capparys cynophallophora, Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil, Pseudobombax sp, Commiphora leptophloeos, Ziziphus joazeiro Bumelia sartorum, Caesalpinia ferrea, Maytenus rigida, considerando-se dois períodos de observação: estiagem (1 e chuvoso (2, para se verificar os possíveis identificadores de estresse. Com relação ao potencial hídrico verificaram-se diferenças estatísticas entre as duas estações, porém o fato que chamou a atenção reside nos altos níveis do potencial hídrico, mesmo no período de estiagem que, caracteristicamente, provocaria o estresse hídrico em função da ausência de água no solo. Os dados de fluorescência revelaram ótimos estados nos aparatos fotossintéticos, não indicando condição de estresse. Concluiu-se que as estratégias de sobrevivência dessas espécies são altamente eficientes e resultam de uma alta complexidade evolutiva.With the purpose of understanding the survival strategies used by Caatinga species to face the weather conditions, the water potential and quantical photosynthetic efficiency of some species were studied. The data were obtained through the fluorescence of 11 species: Myracrodruon urundeuva, Schinopsis brasiliensis, Amburana cearensis, Capparys cynophallophora, Anadenanthera colubrine var. cebil, Pseudobombax sp., Commiphora leptophloeos, Ziziphus joazeiro, Bumelia sartorum, Caesalpinia ferrea, Maytenus rigidat. Two observation conditions of weather, the dry period and the wet one were studied, in which possible stress characteristics were verified. The study of the water potential presented statistical differences between

  6. Reserve carbohydrates and lipids from the seeds of four tropical tree species with different sensitivity to desiccation

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    Juliana Iura de Oliveira Mello

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of water content for the conservation and storage of seeds, and the involvement of soluble carbohydrates and lipids for embryo development, a comparative study was carried out among the seeds of Inga vera (ingá, Eugenia uniflora (pitanga, both classified as recalcitrant, and Caesalpinia echinata (brazilwood and Erythrina speciosa (mulungu, considered as orthodox seeds. Low concentrations of cyclitols (0.3-0.5%, raffinose family oligosaccharides (ca. 0.05% and unsaturated fatty acids (0-19% were found in the seeds of ingá and pitanga, while larger amounts of cyclitols (2-3% and raffinose (4.6-13% were found in brazilwood and mulungu, respectively. These results, in addition to higher proportions of unsaturated fatty acids (53-71% in orthodox seeds, suggested that sugars and lipids played important role in water movement, protecting the embryo cell membranes against injuries during dehydration.Os compostos de reserva das sementes, além de suprirem energia para o desenvolvimento embrionário, desempenham importantes funções relacionadas à proteção celular contra secagem e congelamento. Considerando a importância do teor de água para a conservação e para o armazenamento de sementes de espécies arbóreas e o envolvimento dos carboidratos solúveis e de lipídios nesses processos, foi realizada uma análise comparativa desses compostos em sementes de Inga vera (ingá e Eugenia uniflora (pitanga, consideradas recalcitrantes, e em Caesalpinia echinata (pau-brasil e Erythrina speciosa (mulungu, com comportamento ortodoxo. Baixas concentrações de ciclitóis (0,3-0,5%, de oligossacarídeos da série da rafinose (0,05% e de ácidos graxos insaturados (0-19% foram encontradas em sementes de ingá e pitanga, enquanto maiores quantidades de ciclitóis (2-3% e de rafinose (4,6-13% foram encontradas nas sementes de pau-brasil e mulungu, respectivamente. Estes resultados, juntamente com as altas proporções de

  7. La Lista de nombres vulgares y botánicos de árboles y arbustos propicios para repoblar los bosques de la República de Fernando Altamirano y José Ramírez a más de 110 años de su publicación The List of common and botanical names of trees and shrubs suitable for restoration of the woods of the Republic by Fernando Altamirano and José Ramírez, more than 110 years after its publication

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    Ma. Hilda Flores Olvera

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Dado el valor histórico y práctico de la lista de árboles y arbustos para repoblar los bosques de la República Mexicana que Altamirano y Ramírez publicaron hace 111 años y de la inaccesibilidad para consultarla, se elaboró una lista con los nombres científicos corregidos y/o los sinónimos actualizados, en su caso, para facilitar la consulta. Se proponen las posibles especies a las que Altamirano y Ramírez se refirieron, y para las que sólo indicaron nombre vulgar y género. Se anota si las especies son nativas o introducidas, su uso en el presente y los métodos de propagación. Se analiza y discute la lista a la luz de los enfoques actuales de restauración. El documento original consta de 281 nombres vulgares que representan 259 especies de 72 familias; 231 especies son angiospermas y 28 gimnospermas. La mayoría de los géneros tienen una sola especie y tan solo nueve, más de cuatro: Pinus con 19, Quercus con 11, Cordia y Tabebuia con cinco, Annona, Bursera, Caesalpinia, Juniperus y Yucca con cuatro. Se reproduce la carátula y la última página de la edición de l894.Because of the importance of the list of plant species for repopulating the forests of the Mexican Republic, first published by Altamirano and Ramírez 111 years ago, and the difficulty to access it, a list is presented considering current trends in ecological restoration, and corrected scientific names were added to facilitate its use. To improve the utility of the list some information such like if the species are native or introduced, their uses and propagation methods is provided. The authors provide 281 common names that represent 259 species of 72 families of which 231 species are angiosperms and 28 gymnosperms. Most of the genera are represented by one species and only nine genera are represented by four or more species: Pinus (19 species, Quercus (11 species, Cordia and Tabebuia (5 species each and Annona, Bursera, Caesalpinia, Juniperus and Yucca (4 species

  8. Heterologous expression of the Hsp24 from Trichoderma asperellum improves antifungal ability of Populus transformant Pdpap-Hsp24 s to Cytospora chrysosperma and Alternaria alternate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, S D; Wang, Z Y; Fan, H J; Zhang, R S; Yu, Z Y; Wang, J J; Liu, Z H

    2016-09-01

    The tolerance of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses could be improved by transforming with fungal resistance-related genes. In this study, the cDNA sequence (GenBank Acc. No. KP337939) of the resistance-related gene Hsp24 encoding the 24 kD heat shock protein was obtained from the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma asperellum ACCC30536. The promoter region of Hsp24 contained many cis-regulators related to stresses response, such as "GCN4" and "GCR1" etc. Hsp24 transcription in T. asperellum was up-regulated under six different environmental stresses, compared with the control. Furthermore, following heterologous transformation into Populus davidiana × P. alba var. Pyramidalis (Pdpap), Hsp24 was successfully transcribed in transformant Pdpap-Hsp24s. Pathogen-related genes (PRs) in four Pdpap-Hsp24s were up-regulated compared with those in the control Pdpap (Pdpap-Con). After co-culture of Pdpap-Hsp24s with the weak parasite Cytospora chrysosperma, the transcription of genes related to hormone signal pathway (JA and SA) were up-regulated in Pdpap-Hsp24s, and ethidium bromide (EtBr) and Nitro-blue tetrazolium (NBT) staining assays indicated that the cell membrane permeability and the active oxygen content of Pdpap-Hsp24s leaves were lower than that of the control Pdpap-Con. And when the Pdpap-Hsp24s were under the Alternaria alternate stress, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) got higher in Pdpap-Hsp24s than that in Pdpap-Con, and the disease spots in Pdpap-Con leaves were obviously larger than those in Pdpap-Hsp24s leaves. In summary, Hsp24 of T. asperellum ACCC30536 is an important defense response gene, and its heterologous expression improved the resistance of transformant Pdpap-Hsp24s to C. chrysosperma and A. alternate.

  9. Use of Moringa oleifera seed extracts to polish effluents from natural systems treating faecal sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngandjui Tchangoue, Yvan Anderson; Djumyom Wafo, Guy Valerie; Wanda, Christian; Kengne, Ebenezer Soh; Kengne, Ives Magloire; Fogue, Siméon Kouam

    2018-02-05

    The removal of pathogens in irrigation water is of great importance, especially in developing countries. Indeed, wastewater generally reused for agriculture in countries such as Cameroon is associated with health and environmental concerns. Recent studies have shown a strong disinfectant action of the natural coagulant from the seeds of Moringa oleifera. These findings have raised the question whether or not Moringa oleifera seed extracts, a natural coagulant, be used to polish effluents from natural systems treating faecal sludge. This paper deals with trials carried out to investigate the effect of these extracts in reducing faecal indicators from faecal sludge leachate initially treated by a two stage vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) planted with Echinochloa pyramidalis. The measurement of bacteriological and some physicochemical parameters, after three different settling times and concentrations, were used to determine the optimum conditions and assess treatment efficacy. Settling time of 3 h at a concentration of Moringa oleifera seed extracts between 267 mg/L and 333 mg/L permitted to reduce Escherichia coli and faecal coliforms from 4.85 to 3.92 ulog (86,74%) and from 5.75 to 4.87 ulog (86,39%) respectively with 1 ulog equal to 90%. For the same settling time and at a concentration of 333 mg/L, faecal streptococci were removed from 6.40 to 5.67 ulog (81,33%). This level of removal suggests that coagulant from seeds of Moringa oleifera cannot be used alone for disinfection of heavily loaded effluent. Further investigations are therefore still needed to fulfil the Cameroon and WHO guidelines for safe reuse in agriculture.

  10. Grass Pollen Affects Survival and Development of Larval Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmare, Yelfwagash; Hopkins, Richard J; Tekie, Habte; Hill, Sharon R; Ignell, Rickard

    2017-09-01

    Nutrients in breeding sites are critical for the survival and development of malaria mosquitoes, having a direct impact on vectorial capacity. Yet, there is a limited understanding about the natural larval diet and its impact on the individual fitness of mosquitoes. Recent studies have shown that gravid Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) are attracted by and oviposit in grass-associated habitats. The pollen provided by these grasses is a potential source of nutrients for the larvae. Here, we assess the effect of Typha latifolia L. (Poales: Typhaceae), Echinochloa pyramidalis Lamarck, Pennisetum setaceum Forsskål, and Zea mays L. pollen on larval survival and rate of development in An. arabiensis under laboratory conditions. In addition, we characterize the carbon to nitrogen ratio and the size of pollen grains as a measure of diet quality. Carbon-rich pollen with a small grain size (T. latifolia and P. setaceum; 9.7 ± 0.3 × 103 and 5.5 ± 0.2 × 104 µm3, respectively) resulted in enhanced rates of development of An. arabiensis. In contrast, the larva fed on the nitrogen-rich control diet (TetraMin) was slower to develop, but demonstrated the highest larval survival. Larvae fed on carbon-rich and large-grained Z. mays pollen (4.1 ± 0.2 × 105 µm3) survived at similar levels as those fed on the control diet and also took a longer time to develop compared with larvae fed on the other pollens. While males and females did not appear to develop differently on the different pollen diets, males consistently emerged faster than their female counterparts. These results are discussed in relation to integrated vector management. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  11. Reproduction et régime alimentaire de Distichodus antonii Schilthuis 1891 (Distichodontidae dans la zone de confluence du fleuve Congo et des rivières Lindi et Tshopo à Kisangani (R.D. Congo

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    Osombause Sango, J.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproduction and Feeding of Distichodus antonii Schilthuis 1891 (Distichopdontidae in the Confluence Area of the Congo River and Rivers Lindi and Tshopo in Kisangani (R.D. Congo. The study of the reproduction and the feeding of D. antonii in the confluence area of the Congo river and rivers Lindi & Tshopo in Kisangani (R. D. Congo was carried out across 105 fish. The species D. antonii has a phytophagous regime and does not seem to have a preference for a given species of semi-aquatic macrophyte. This diet shows the variation related to the seasonal periods and to the sex of the individuals. The species of plant ingested are: Bambusa vulgaris (Poaceae, Pseudospondias microcarpa (Anacardiaceae, Manihot esculenta (Euphorbiaceae, Commelina diffusa (Commelinaceae, Echinochloa pyramidalis (Poaceae, Vigna unguiculata (Fabaceae, Elaeis guineensis (Arecaceae, Musa paradisiaca (Musaceae et Eicchornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae but the organs consumed of these plants remain the leaves, stems, fruits, roots, and seeds. The evolution of the gonadosomatic ratio presents two peaks in april and september. The estimated absolute fertility varies from 94,000 to 344,500 oocytes for an average of 196,878±72,122 oocytes and the relative fertility varies from 11,750 to 73,600 oocytes kg-1 for an average of 38,224± 15,893 oocytes kg-1. The diameter of the oocytes varies from 0, 95 to 1, 42 mm with an average of 1, 16±1,13 mm. The absolute fertility is correlated to the total length according to F= 4,28 Lt5, 35.

  12. Estrutura da Vegetação em Dois Fragmentos de Caatinga Antropizada na Paraíba

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    Francisco Geovanio da Silva Sabino

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar as diferenças florísticas e estruturais entre dois fragmentos contíguos de caatinga sujeitos a intervenções antrópicas na Paraíba. Foram alocadas 25 parcelas de 20 m × 20 m, em duas áreas (A e B e medidos todos os indivíduos com circunferência ao nível do solo ≥ 10 cm e com altura ≥ 1 m. A área A apresentou 2.226 indivíduos, 21 espécies, 21 gêneros e 11 famílias. A área B, 1.930 indivíduos, 17 espécies, 16 gêneros e 9 famílias. Os índices de Shannon-Wienner e a equabilidade de Pielou foram 1,92 nats/ind. e 0,63 (área A e 1,76 nats/ind. e 0,62 (área B. A similaridade de Sørensen entre as áreas foi de 79%. Famílias mais ricas em espécies: Fabaceae e Euphorbiaceae. Espécies mais abundantes: Poincianella pyramidalis, Mimosa tenuiflora, Aspidosperma pyrifolium, Croton blanchetianus e Combretum leprosum. Houve diferenças nos parâmetros estudados obtidos, o que explica processos de regeneração distintos.

  13. Efeitos da desertificação na composição de espécies do bioma Caatinga, Paraíba/Brasil

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    Bartolomeu Israel Souza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A desertificação é reconhecida como uma das principais ameaças a zonas de clima seco em todo mundo. No Brasil, esse fenômeno tem atingido especialmente o bioma Caatinga, para o qual ainda existe pouca informação acerca de suas consequências na composição florística. O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar este efeito em sítios inseridos em três municípios da Paraíba (Nordeste, Brasil. Sítios de amostragem foram previamente selecionados por imagens de satélite usando a técnica IVDN, seguido de um levantamento vegetacional in locu (método transecto abrangendo ambientes não-desertificados e desertificados. Análises univariadas (teste U e multivariadas (nMDS foram usadas a verificar diferenças nas variáveis vegetacionais e demonstrar padrões de dissimilaridades entre os ambientes contrastantes, respectivamente. A riqueza e diversidade de plantas diferiram significativamente entre os ambientes. O nMDS identificou três grupos de plantas: i espécies associadas a áreas não-desertificadas (Anadenanthera columbrina, Bauhinia cheilantha e Tabebuia impetiginosa, ii espécies relacionadas a áreas desertificadas (Aspidosperma pyrifolium, Jatropha molissima, Mimosa tenuiflora e Pilosocereus gounellei e iii espécies presentes nos dois tipos de ambientes (Croton sonderianus, Piptadenia stipulacea e Poincianella pyramidalis. Os resultados apontaram que a desertificação desencadeou mudanças severas na composição florística da Caatinga, indicando também que as intervenções humanas foram determinantes no estabelecimento dos diferentes ambientes.

  14. Genetic diversity of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L. Karst.] in Romanian Carpathians

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    Raul Gheorghe Radu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of Romanian most important coniferous tree species, the Norway spruce, was estimated by means of allozyme markers. A total of 695 adult trees sampled from eleven populations grouped in six mountainous areas in the Romanian Carpathians were analyzed. In three metapopulations (Maramureş, Postăvar and Parâng, to evaluate the influence of altitudinal gradient on genetic diversity, samples were collected from populations located at high and low altitude. At other location (ApuseniMountains we compared the narrow-crown biotype (Picea abies var. columnaris and the pyramidal crown biotype (Picea abies var. pyramidalis and explored the genetic structure of peat bog ecotype. By analyzing 7 enzyme systems and 12 enzyme coding loci, a total of 38 allelic variants have been detected. The mean value of polymorphic loci for the six sites was 86.1%, ranging between 83.3% and 91.7% and the mean expected heterozygosity was 0.115, resulting in a moderate level of genetic diversity. The highest genetic diversity (He = 0.134 was found in the narrow-crown spruce population. Apuseni metapopulation showed the highest genetic diversity (He = 0.125, being the most valuable for conservation of genetic resources. The small value of fixation index (FST = 0.009 indicates a low genetic differentiation between the six sites and AMOVA test revealed a very high level of genetic diversity within population (99%. Comparative analysis of genetic parameters showed small differences between high and low altitude populations at each site, probably due to the neutral character of the markers analyzed and the effect of gene flow between gradiental populations.

  15. SURVEY, IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION OF INSECT INJURIES IN ORNAMENTAL TREES IN THE URBAN AREA OF GOIÂNIA, GOIÁS STATE, BRASIL LEVANTAMENTO, IDENTIFICAÇÃO E AVALIAÇÃO DOS DANOS DE INSETOS EM ÁRVORES ORNAMENTAIS NA ÁREA URBANA DE GOIÂNIA (GO

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    Antônio Henrique Garcia

    2007-09-01

    >P. aquatica; B. variegata; Caesalpinia sp; pest; ornamentals.

    Das 1.800 árvores ornamentais amostradas na área urbana de Goiânia, Paquira aquatica representou 62,7%, Caesalpinia sp. 15,3%, Bauhinia variegata 10%, Spathodea campanulata 6%, Terminalia catappa 3,2%, Acacia sp. 1,2%, Ponciana sp. 1,0% e outras espécies, 0,6%. As espécies de insetos mais observadas entre as árvores de P. aquatica amostradas foram Psylla floccosa (92,3%, Steirastoma breve 76,7%, Palindia detracta (63,4%, Phelypera shuppeli 43,4% e Euchroma gigantea (23,7%. As que causam maiores danos à planta são S. breve, que provoca o secamento dos troncos e galhos, e E. gigantea, cujas larvas destroem todo o sistema radicular provocando a queda da planta. Orthezia praelonga foi observada em 84,61% das árvores de B. variegata amostradas; entre 30 árvores 20% morreram após três anos e 40% no final do quarto ano; entre 50 mudas 36% secaram após um ano e 58% trinta meses após. O. praelonga foi observada em 94,6% de S. campanulata; em 32 árvores 8% secaram em um ano, 18% no segundo e o restante secou no final do terceiro ano. Icerya purchasi foi observada em 84,7% de Caesalpinia sp. amostradas; entre 48 árvores 5% secaram após seis meses, 16% dois anos após e 30% delas secaram no final do quarto ano; em 50 mudas dessa espécie, detectaram-se ataques bem intensos, 78% secaram em apenas quinze dias. Quesada gigas e Dorisiana sp. foram observadas em Acacia sp. Em Ponciana sp. foi observada a presença de algumas espécies de Scolytidae,

  16. Study of rheology and friction factor of natural food hydrocolloid gels

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    Vojtěch Kumbár

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences in the rheology and friction factor of natural food hydrocolloid gels were studied in this paper. The practical importance of the knowledge of the rheological parameters is quite evident. The experimental data were carried out using a concentric cylinder rotary viscometer. It was prepared 1% hydrocolloid solutions (hydrogels. Hydrogels of the natural gums extracted from the seeds of the plants and plant tubers have been used - carob gum (from the seeds of Ceratonia siliqua, guar gum (from the seeds of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba and tara gum (from the seeds of Caesalpinia spinosa. Rheological behaviour has non-Newtonian pseudoplastic character and the flow curves were fitted using the Otswald - de Waele (power law model and Herschel - Bulkley model. The hydrogels exhibit shear thinning behaviour. The meaning of the rheological parameters on the friction factors during flow of hydrocolloid gels in the tube has been shown. Information on time dependent behaviour of tested liquids has been also obtained. Time dependent curves were fitted by the Gaussian model. Preliminary results obtained for a constant shear rate showed the thixotropic and time-dependent behaviour of the hydrogels. These parameters can be especially used in much software dealing with a numerical simulation of the flow problems.

  17. A survey of folk remedies for gastrointestinal tract diseases from Thailand's three southern border provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neamsuvan, Oratai; Tuwaemaengae, Tuwaeyah; Bensulong, Fatin; Asae, Asma; Mosamae, Kholeel

    2012-10-31

    Gastrointestinal tract diseases commonly occur in Thailand. However, surveying for finding out traditional drugs has never been done. To quantify and categorize the folk medicinal remedies that are used for healing the gastrointestinal tract by the traditional healers living in Thailand's three southern border provinces. The Pattani, Yala and Narathiwat provinces were selected. Semi-structured interviews of nine healers were conducted to collect information that included the remedy names, herbal ingredients, plant parts used, preparation, properties and treatment methods. The data were then further analyzed. The results revealed that 39 multi-species remedies and 36 single-species remedies were used to treat gastrointestinal disorders. A total of 103 plant species and 5 other materia medica were used as therapeutics. Most of the plants used were of the Zingiberaceae, Fabaceae and Euphorbiaceae families. Furthermore, it was found that although most of the healers used different remedies for a particular disease, some of the ingredients might have been similar. For example, Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb. was an ingredient used for parasitic disease remedies, and Senna alata (L.) Roxb. was used for constipation remedies. A review of the literature revealed 57 plant species and 2 other materia medica that have already been tested for their biological activities, whereas 46 plant species and 3 materia medica have never been tested. Consequently, research should be performed to confirm the pharmacological properties of folk remedies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Potent Antiproliferative Effect on Liver Cancer of Medicinal Plants Selected from the Thai/Lanna Medicinal Plant Recipe Database “MANOSROI III”

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    Aranya Manosroi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipes have been used for the treatment of several diseases including liver cancer. In this study, methanolic extracts (MEs of 23 plants were tested for antiproliferative activity on human hepatoma cell line (Hep G2 by the sulforhodamine B (SRB assay. Nine MEs with potent antiproliferative activity (IC50 < 100 µg/mL were obtained and further semipurified by liquid/liquid partition extraction. The semipurified fractions were tested for the antiproliferative and antioxidative activities. ME of Stemona collinsae and the semipurified extract and methanol-water fraction (MF of Gloriosa superba gave the highest antiproliferative activity on HepG2 which were 4.79- and 50.07-fold cisplatin, respectively. The semipurified fractions showed an increased antiproliferative activity. MF of Caesalpinia sappan and HF of Senna alata showed the highest free radical scavenging and metal chelating activities, respectively. The compound in n-hexane fraction (HF of Ventilago denticulata which showed an increase in antiproliferative activity comparing to its ME was isolated and identified as emodin. This study has demonstrated the potential of the ME from S. collinsae, MF from G. superba, and emodin isolated from V. denticulata, for further development as an antiliver cancer agent.

  19. Microbial activity, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and inoculation of woody plants in lead contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattai, Graziella S.; Pereira, Sônia V.; Costa, Cynthia M. C.; Lima, Cláudia E. P.; Maia, Leonor C.

    2011-01-01

    The goals of this study were to evaluate the microbial activity, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and inoculation of woody plants (Caesalpinia ferrea, Mimosa tenuiflora and Erythrina velutina) in lead contaminated soil from the semi-arid region of northeastern of Brazil (Belo Jardim, Pernambuco). Dilutions were prepared by adding lead contaminated soil (270 mg Kg-1) to uncontaminated soil (37 mg Pb Kg soil-1) in the proportions of 7.5%, 15%, and 30% (v:v). The increase of lead contamination in the soil negatively influenced the amount of carbon in the microbial biomass of the samples from both the dry and rainy seasons and the metabolic quotient only differed between the collection seasons in the 30% contaminated soil. The average value of the acid phosphatase activity in the dry season was 2.3 times higher than observed during the rainy season. There was no significant difference in the number of glomerospores observed between soils and periods studied. The most probable number of infective propagules was reduced for both seasons due to the excess lead in soil. The mycorrhizal colonization rate was reduced for the three plant species assayed. The inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi benefited the growth of Erythrina velutina in lead contaminated soil. PMID:24031701

  20. Antiviral and Antioxidant Activities of Sulfated Galactomannans from Plants of Caatinga Biome

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    Márcia Maria Mendes Marques

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue represents a serious social and economic public health problem; then trying to contribute to improve its control, the objective of this research was to develop phytoterapics for dengue treatment using natural resources from Caatinga biome. Galactomannans isolated from Adenanthera pavonina L., Caesalpinia ferrea Mart., and Dimorphandra gardneriana Tull were chemically sulfated in order to evaluate the antioxidant, and antiviral activities and the role in the inhibition of virus DENV-2 in Vero cells. A positive correlation between the degree of sulfation, antioxidant and antiviral activities was observed. The sulfated galactomannans showed binding to the virus surface, indicating that they interact with DENV-2. The sulfated galactomannans from C. ferrea showed 96% inhibition of replication of DENV-2 followed by D. gardneriana (94% and A. pavonina (77% at 25 µg/mL and all sulfated galactomannans also showed antioxidant activity. This work is the first report of the antioxidant and antiviral effects of sulfated galactomannans against DENV-2. The results are very promising and suggest that these sulfated galactomannans from plants of Caatinga biome act in the early step of viral infection. Thus, sulfated galactomannans may act as an entry inhibitor of DENV-2.

  1. Effect of plants used in Mexico to treat gastrointestinal disorders on charcoal-gum acacia-induced hyperperistalsis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada, Fernando; Arista, Ramón; Pérez, Halley

    2010-03-02

    A total of 28 plant extracts, belonging to 26 different plant species are commonly used in Traditional Mexican Medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea. To evaluate the effect of medicinal plant extracts on induced hyperperistalsis in rats. Charcoal meal test was used in this study. Extracts were tested at a dose of 300mg/kg. From all the plant extracts tested, only Geranium mexicanum (roots) showed 100% of inhibition. The extracts of Artemisia absinthium, Matricaria recutita, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Lygodium venustum, Chenopodium ambrosoides (green variety), Aloysia triphylla, Artemisia ludoviciana, Chiranthodendron pentadactylon, and Cocos nucifera showed moderate inhibitory activity with values ranging from 30 to 57%. Their activities were greater than that of or equal to loperamide (34% of inhibition at doses of 10mg/kg) drug used as control. The remaining plants exhibited marginal or null inhibitory effect on hyperpropulsive movement of the small intestine. The results obtained in this study give some scientific support to the popular use of 23 of the plants tested for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea in Mexican traditional medicine. However, roots of Geranium mexicanum should be used in herbal medicine with care to avoid toxicity. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Anticancer activity of five forest crops used in African folklore: antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erharuyi, Osayemwenre; Engel-Lutz, Nadja; Ahomafor, Joy; Imieje, Vincent; Falodun, Abiodun; Nebe, Babara; Langer, Peter

    2014-02-26

    Acalypha wilkesiana, Caesalpinia bonduc, Jatropha multifida, Momordica charantia and Picralima nitida used in African folklore for treating cancer were investigated. All extracts except J. multifida resulted in no significant alteration in cell cycle distribution and apoptosis in MCF-7 and BT-20. The J. multifilda (JMR-Ch) caused cell cycle arrest at G1 checkpoint and apoptosis in MCF-7. Slight changes in the integrin expression of MCF-7 after treatment with 1 and 10 μg/mL of JMR-Ch were observed. Fluorescence-activated confocal microscopy shows changes in cell morphology and β1 integrin localisation within MCF-7 cells after exposure to 10 and 25 μg/mL of JMR-Ch. JMR-Ch (1 μg/mL) treatment resulted in time-dependent decrease in cell acidification and respiration in MCF-7 cells and a time-dependent decrease in BT-20 cell respiration, while in MCF-10A, there was an enhancement of acidification. These results revealed the probable application of JMR-Ch in cancer therapy.

  3. Pengaruh penggunaan bahan pewarna alam dari ekstrak kayu terhadap sifat fisis kulit ikan kakap merah

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    Emiliana Kasmudjiastuti

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this research is to identify the effect of some natural dye of wood extract to the physical properties (tensile strength, elongation and rub fastness resistance of kakap (Lutjanidae fish skin leather. Fifteen pieces of dry preserved kakap fish skin were used in this research, and tanned using syntan and alum. The dyeing process was done using natural dyes of wood extract of Caesalpinia sappan L, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Swietenia mahagoni JACQ, Maclura cochinensis, and Ceriops tagal. The result of research indicated that the kind of applied natural dyes were not affect the physical properties of Kakap fish skins. The fish skins dyed using the such natural dyes was able be utilised as material in leather goods manufacturing. One of the five types of natural dye used in this research, Swietenia mahagoni JACQ wood extract produced the best dyed leather having good tensile strength, elongation/flexibility and the colour fastness. The tensile strength was 213,15 kg/cm2, flexibility 56% and colour fastness with wet white cloth 3/4 (grey scale value and with dry white cloth 4/5 (grey scale value, respectively

  4. Rainfall interception by two arboreal species in urban green area

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    Luzia Ferreira da Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall interception by the two most usual species in forest urban spaces was analysed by measuring of interception (I or interception losses, through fall (Th, stem flow (St and gross precipitation (Pg. The chosen species were Caesalpinia pluviosa DC. (Fabaceae: Caesalpinoideae or sibipiruna, and Tipuana tipu O. Kuntze (Fabaceae: Faboideae or tipuana. The individuals analysed were more than 50 years old, with three separate individuals and three individuals in each studied group of species at the campus of ”Luiz de Queiroz” College of Agriculture (University of Sao Paulo, Piracicaba. The experiments were carried out from January to February 2007. Water was collected using seven-litre pails, in the edges and in the centre of the canopies. A high correlation of Th with Pg was observed on the centre of the crow of tipuana and by the edges of sibipiruna. St and I had low correlation with Pg for both species. The average of rain interception was greater in the edges of the crow of sibipiruna individuals, 60.6%, and in the centre of tipuana crow, 59.40%. Thus, both species intercepted up to 60% of the water rainfall, which indicates a great potential of both species for arborisation in urban environments.

  5. Evaluation of natural products on inhibition of inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2) and nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in cultured mouse macrophage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chae Hee; Hur, Sun Kyung; Oh, O-Jin; Kim, Sun Sook; Nam, Kyung Ae; Lee, Sang Kook

    2002-11-01

    The inhibitors of prostaglandin biosynthesis and nitric oxide production have been considered as potential anti-inflammatory and cancer chemopreventive agents. In this study, we evaluated approximately 170 methanol extracts of natural products including Korean herbal medicines for the inhibition of prostaglandin E(2) production (for COX-2 inhibitors) and nitric oxide formation (for iNOS inhibitors) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse macrophages RAW264.7 cells. As a result, several extracts such as Aristolochia debilis, Cinnamomum cassia, Cinnamomum loureirii, Curcuma zedoaria, Eugenia caryophyllata, Pterocarpus santalius, Rehmania glutinosa and Tribulus terrestris showed potent inhibition of COX-2 activity (>80% inhibition at the test concentration of 10 micro g/ml). In addition, the extracts of A. debilis, Caesalpinia sappan, Curcuma longa, C. zedoaria, Daphne genkwa and Morus alba were also considered as potential inhibitors of iNOS activity (>70% inhibition at the test concentration of 10 micro g/ml). These active extracts mediating COX-2 and iNOS inhibitory activities are warranted for further elucidation of active principles for development of new cancer chemopreventive and/or anti-inflammatory agents.

  6. Balur and Improving Quality of Life

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    Gatra Ervi Jayanti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Balur treatment aimed to leach free radicals overwhelmingly produced in unhealthy body with rubbed over the human body. In Balur used some amino acid, bawang sabrang (Eleutherine palmifolia (L. Merr, kopi balur (Mixed Coffea arabica L. with Acetosal, coconut Water (Cocos nucifera L., secang (Caesalpinia sappan L. and “Divine” smoke from cloves (Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merr. & L. M. Perry and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. This is an observation research of balur application in volunteers during four years at Rumah Sehat, Malang, Indonesia. The result suggested that balur can improve quality of life in male volunteers i.e. 61.54% cancer (39 volunteers; 80% tumor (20 volunteers; 86.36% diabetes mellitus (22 volunteers; 93.33% heart (15 volunteers; 92.86% autism (28 volunteers; 72.73% hepatitis (11 volunteers; 100% neuron disease (2 volunteers; 93.62% various of disease (94 volunteers. in female volunteers: 72.31% cancer (65 volunteers; 88.57% tumor (35 volunteers;75% diabetes mellitus (16 volunteers; 100% hemorrhoid (3 volunteers; 100% stroke (3 volunteers; 40% cardiomegaly (5 volunteers; 66.67% autism (3 volunteers; 88% various of disease (50 volunteers and 100% healthy (3 volunteers.

  7. CRESCIMENTO INICIAL DE ESPÉCIES FLORESTAIS NA RECOMPOSIÇÃO DA MATA CILIAR EM TALUDES SUBMETIDOS À TÉCNICA DA BIOENGENHARIA DE SOLOS

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    Francisco Sandro Rodrigues Holanda

    2010-01-01

    development of forest species at riverbank under soil bioengineering technique in São Francisco River. The soil bioengineering technique was composed of longitudinal slope covered with the biotextile (Fibrax 400 BF and sediment retainers (Bemalonga® D40, to reduce the impact of wave water at the slope botton, avoiding the bank undercutting, due to daily variations of water level. Before the biotextile installation the specie, Brachiaria decumbens was sown to promote rapid cover vegetation. Six forest native species such as aroeira vermelha (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi., pau pombo (Tapirira guianensis Aubl. mulungu (Erythrina velutina Willd. tamboril (Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vellozo Morong, canafístula (Cassia grandis Lf and pau-ferro (Caesalpinia leiostachya (Bentham Ducke were planted. The species developments were analyzed through the Relative Growth Rate (RGR of the shoot height and crown diameter. After 6 (six months, by the end of evaluations, the bigger number of live individuals was identified in the soil bioengineering treatment. The high density and strong growth of Brachiaria decumbens in the area with biotextile, have contributed to the lower initial tree seedlings development.

  8. Multifunctional T Lymphocytes Generated After Therapy With an Antitumor Gallotanin-Rich Normalized Fraction Are Related to Primary Tumor Size Reduction in a Breast Cancer Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urueña, Claudia; Gomez, Alejandra; Sandoval, Tito; Hernandez, John; Li, Shaoping; Barreto, Alfonso; Fiorentino, Susana

    2015-09-01

    Natural compounds are promising sources for anticancer therapies because of their multifunctional activity and low toxicity. Although the host immune response (IR) is clearly implicated in tumor control, the relationship between natural therapies and IR has not yet been elucidated. The present work evaluates IR induction after treatment with a gallotannin-rich fraction from Caesalpinia spinosa (P2Et). Breast tumor 4T1 cells were used to evaluate antitumor properties and IR activation. Apoptosis and expression of immunogenic cell death (ICD) markers were assessed in vitro, whereas IR and postvaccination tumor evolution were assessed in vivo. P2Et fraction induced apoptotic cell death, displaying phosphatidylserine externalization and DNA fragmentation. ICD markers such as calreticulin, high-mobility group box 1 translocation from nuclei to cytoplasm, and ATP secretion were observed. Primary tumor control was improved by vaccination with P2Et-pretreated 4T1 cells (t-P2Et), yielding long-lasting ex vivo multifunctional CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes (interleukin [IL]-2(+), tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α(+), interferon [IFN]-γ(+)) that secrete IL-2, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-5, and IFN-γ after specific 4T1 cell stimulation. The present study constitutes the first demonstration of a long-lasting antitumor IR induction and primary tumor reduction induced by a complex natural fraction. These data reveal the potential use of this fraction as an adjuvant in breast cancer treatment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Monitoring of the environmental pollution by trace element analysis in tree-rings using synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirito de Vives, Ana Elisa [School of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Urban Design Methodist University of Piracicaba, Rodovia Santa Barbara D' Oeste/Iracemapolis, km 01, 13450-000 Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Moreira, Silvana [State University of Campinas - UNICAMP/FEC (Brazil); Brienza, Sandra Maria Boscolo [School of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Urban Design Methodist University of Piracicaba, Rodovia Santa Barbara D' Oeste/Iracemapolis, km 01, 13450-000 Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil); Silva Medeiros, Jean Gabriel [University of Sao Paulo - USP/ ESALQ (Brazil); Tomazello Filho, Mario Tomazello [University of Sao Paulo - USP/ ESALQ (Brazil); Araujo Domingues Zucchi, Orgheda Luiza [University of Sao Paulo - USP/FCFRP (Brazil); Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do [University of Sao Paulo - USP/CENA (Brazil)

    2006-11-15

    This paper aims to study the environmental pollution in the tree development, in order to evaluate its use as bioindicator in urban and country sides. The sample collection was carried out in Piracicaba city, Sao Paulo State, which presents high level of environmental contamination in water, soil and air, due to industrial activities, vehicles combustion, sugar-cane leaves burning in the harvesting, etc. The species Caesalpinia peltophoroides ('Sibipiruna') was selected because it is widely used in urban forestation. Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence technique (SR-TXRF) was employed to identify and quantify the elements and metals of nutritional and toxicological importance in the wood samples. The analysis was performed in the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory, using a white beam for excitation and a Si(Li) detector for X-ray detection. In several samples, P, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Sr, Ba and Pb were quantified. The K/Ca, K/P and Pb/Ca ratios were found to decrease towards the bark.

  10. In Silico Screening Hepatitis B Virus DNA Polymerase Inhibitors from Medicinal Plants

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    Mokhtar Nosrati

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Hepatitis B virus infection (HBV is a significant global health problem and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Therefore, currently, introducing novel anti Hepatitis B drugs is taken into consideration. This study was planned to in silico screening novel Hepatitis B virus DNA polymerase inhibitors from two medicinal plants Terminalis chebula and Caesalpinia sappan. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive-analytic study. In the study, three-dimensional structure of the Hepatitis B virus DNA polymerase was predicted using homology modeling method. A set of phytochemicals from mentioned plants were retrieved from Pubchem database in SDF format. In silico screening was carried out using molecular docking between mentioned phytochemicals and modeled polymerase by iGemdock 2.1 software. Results: Results of the study confirmed that all evaluated ligands have appropriate interactions to the polymerase with least toxicity and without genotoxicity potential. Results also showed that most interactions occur in reverse transcriptase domain which located in 354-694 area in the amino acid sequence of tested polymerase. Analysis of energy and amino acids involved in ligand-polymerase interaction revealed that Terchebin, Chebulinic Acid and Terflavin A have more effective interaction with the polymerase in compared to other ligands. Conclusion: Based on the results it can be concluded that evaluated compounds could be good candidates for in vitro and in vivo research in order to develop novel anti- Hepatitis B drugs.

  11. EFFECT OF SAPPAN WOOD (Caesalpinnia sappan L EXTRACT ON BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL IN WHITE RATS

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    Saefudin Saefudin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sappan wood or kayu secang (Caesalpinia sappan L. was reported of having medicinal properties, such as natural antioxidant, relieve vomiting of blood, and mix of ingredients for malaria drugs. The research was conducted to study the influence of ethanol extract from sappan wood on blood glucose level of white rats. The study of the blood glucose level in rats was carried out by using glucose tolerance method. It was measured by Refloluxs (Accutrend GC with Chloropropamide 50 mg/200 g BW (Body weight as positive control. The ethanol extracts were used in various concentrations 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/200 g BW per-oral and was observed every hour, beginning one hour before to 7 hours after the extract being administered. The results showed that treatment of ethanol extract of sappan wood by administer doses gave remarkable effect on the blood glucose level in white rat. It reduced the glucose level in the blood compared to the negative and positive control. Treatment of dose 30 mg/200 g BW gave similar effect to positive controls, while a dose of 50 mg/200 g BW gave lower blood glucose level (93 mg/dl than the positive controls.

  12. Brazilin plays an anti-inflammatory role with regulating Toll-like receptor 2 and TLR 2 downstream pathways in Staphylococcus aureus-induced mastitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xue-jiao; Wang, Tian-cheng; Zhang, Ze-cai; Cao, Yong-guo; Zhang, Nai-sheng; Guo, Meng-yao

    2015-07-01

    Mastitis, which commonly occurs during the postpartum period, is caused by the infection of the mammary glands. The most common infectious bacterial pathogen of mastitis is Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in both human and animals. Brazilin, a compound isolated from the traditional herbal medicine Caesalpinia sappan L., has been shown to exhibit multiple biological properties. The present study was performed to determine the effect of brazilin on the inflammatory response in the mouse model of S. aureus mastitis and to confirm the mechanism of action involved. Brazilin treatment was applied in both a mouse model and cells. After brazilin treatment of cells, Western blotting and qPCR were performed to detect the protein levels and mRNA levels, respectively. Brazilin treatment significantly attenuated inflammatory cell infiltration and inhibited the expressions of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner. Administration of brazilin in mice suppressed S. aureus-induced inflammatory injury and the production of proinflammatory mediators. This suppression was achieved by reducing the increased expression of TLR2 and regulating the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways in the mammary gland tissues and cells with S. aureus-induced mastitis. These results suggest that brazilin appears to be an effective drug for the treatment of mastitis and may be applied as a clinical therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Nitrogenous compounds, phenolic compounds and morphological aspects of leaves: comparison of deciduous and semideciduous arboreal legumes Compostos nitrogenados, fenólicos e aspecto morfológico em folhas: comparação entre leguminosas arbóreas semidecíduas e decíduas

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    Ana Lúcia da Silva Lima

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In general, perennial species contain higher concentrations of certain secondary compounds, such as phenolics, lower levels of nitrogenous compounds, and greater specific leaf mass (SLM than deciduous species. The aim of this study was to verify whether the comparative data reported in the literature regarding deciduous and evergreen species, also applies to four selected species of a semideciduous tropical forest (a remnant of the Atlantic Forest. The four species chosen for this study, each with apparently different leaf life spans, were two semideciduous (Hymenaea courbaril L. var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee et Lang., and Lonchocarpus guilleminianus (Tul. Malme, and two deciduous (Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong., and Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub.. Plants were grown in a greenhouse in plastic pots containing soil taken from their natural habitat. Mature leaves were harvested for determination of the SLM and contents of phenolic compounds, tannins, nitrate, protein, free amino acids, chlorophyll, and nitrogen. Data registered are in agreement with those of the literature. Leaves with the longest life span had the highest content of phenolics and the lowest levels of tannins, nitrate, protein, amino acids, chlorophyll and nitrogen, as well as presenting the greatest SLM.Em geral as espécies perenifólias possuem maior concentração de alguns compostos secundários, como por exemplo fenóis, menor concentração de compostos nitrogenados e maior massa foliar específica (MFE, quando comparadas a espécies decíduas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se as observações encontradas na literatura, comparando espécies perenifólias e decíduas aplicam-se também a quatro espécies de uma mata semidecídua, remanescente da Mata Atlântica. Das quatro espécies usadas neste estudo, que aparentemente apresentavam longevidades foliares diferentes, duas eram semidecíduas (Hymenaea courbaril L. var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee et Lang. e

  14. N availability and mechanisms of N conservation in deciduous and semideciduous tropical forest legume trees Disponibilidade de N e mecanismos de conservação de N em leguminosas arbóreas decíduas e semidecíduas de floresta tropical

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    Ana Lúcia da Silva Lima

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Prior to abscission, nutrients are redeployed from leaves and redistributed to other parts of the plant. Data comparing nutrient resorption to soil fertility and leaf life span remains controversial in the literature. We compared nitrogen (N conservation mechanisms among four legume trees with different leaf life spans (Hymenaea courbaril L. var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee et Lang., Lonchocarpus guilleminianus (Tul. Malme, Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong and Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub., from a semideciduous tropical forest, remnant of the Atlantic Forest. We hypothesized that these mechanisms differ among the four species and are affected by their leaf life span and by the availability of N, both as a mineral in the soil and, in the case of L. guilleminianus and E. contortisiliquum, from symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF, as these species form associations with rhizobia. The plants were grown in a greenhouse using pots filled with forest soil, enriched (50 or 100 mg of NH4NO3 plant-1week-1 or not with nitrogen. H. courbaril, a semideciduous tree, without SNF, and with the highest leaf life span, presented the greatest N-resorption efficiency (NRE, N-resorption proficiency (NRP and N-use efficiency (NUE. Increase in soil N and the presence of symbiotic N fixation led to a decrease in NRE, NRP and NUE.Antes da abscisão, os nutrientes são removidos das folhas e redistribuídos para outras partes da planta. Quando se relaciona o reaproveitamento de nutrientes à fertilidade do solo, ou à longevidade foliar, os dados da literatura são controversos. Foram comparados mecanismos de conservação de nitrogênio (N em quatro leguminosas arbóreas (Hymenaea courbaril L. var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee et Lang., Lonchocarpus guilleminianus (Tul. Malme, Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong e Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub., com longevidades foliares diferentes, de uma Floresta Semidecídua, remanescente da mata Atlântica. O objetivo do

  15. Evaluación de Insecticidas para el Manejo de Monalonion velezangeli, Carvalho & Costa (Hemiptera: Miridae en Aguacate Evaluation of Insecticides for Monalonion velezangeli, Carvalho & Costa (Hemiptera: Miridae management in Avocado

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    Jimena Montilla Pérez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. La chinche monalonion, coclicllo o chupanga(Monalonion velezangeli causa daños en brotes terminalesde aguacate, afectando el desarrollo del árbol; en frutos causa secamiento y, por lo tanto, rechazo en la comercialización. Aún no existen estrategias para el manejo de la plaga y los productores utilizan insecticidas sin previa evaluación de su efectividad. Se evaluaron insecticidas con un nuevo modo de acción sobre M. velezangeli bajo condiciones controladas. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completos al azar, con once tratamientos y cuatrorepeticiones. Los tratamientos fueron los insecticidas deltametrina, λ-cihalotrina, imidacloprid, thiametoxam, spinosad, spiromesifen, diflubenzurón, diafentiurón, una mezcla de thiametoxam + λ-cihalotrina; y además, un testigo relativo (agua y un testigo absoluto (sin aplicación. La unidad experimental consistió de un arbusto de guayaba común con diez insectos confinados en una jaula de tela tul. Los tratamientos se aplicaron una vez con los insectos confinados en la jaula. Se identificó que deltametrina,λ-cihalotrina, thiametoxam, imidacloprid y la mezcla dethiametoxam más λ-cihalotrina causan mortalidad entre 85 y100% sobre M. velezangeli, 24 horas después de ser aplicados y 3 días después la mortalidad alcanza el 100%. Estos productos pueden ser incluidos en un programa de manejo integrado para M. velezangeli. El diafentiurón causa mortalidades entre 51-81%. No se evidenció efecto de diafentiurón, diflubenzurón y spiromesifen sobre la progenie de adultos expuestos, pero ninfas tratadas quealcanzaron el estado adulto, dieron origen a un menor número de ninfas; sin embargo, este efecto debe dilucidarse mejor. / Abstract. The bug monalonion, coclicllo o chupanga (Monalonion velezangeli generates damage in avocado end buds, affecting the tree development. When the attack is located on the fruit it causes its drying and therefore its rejection. There are no

  16. Estudo etnobotânico na comunidade de Conceição-Açu (alto da bacia do rio Aricá Açu, MT, Brasil Ethnobotany study in community of Conceição-Açu (on the upper basin of the River Aricá Açu, MT, Brazil

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    Maria Corette Pasa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo realizar o levantamento etnobotânico de plantas classificadas em diferentes categorias de uso na comunidade de Conceição-Açu, no município de Cuiabá, MT, Brasil e estimar o valor de uso das espécies botânicas em matas de galeria. Entrevistas estruturadas e semi-estruturadas, o uso do questionário foram aplicados em 59 residentes adultos de ambos os sexos. Identificou-se as unidades de paisagem: quintais, roças e matas de galeria e o número total de espécies utilizadas foi de 180. A maioria das plantas foi coletada durante a entrevista e depositadas no Herbário da UFMT. Nos quintais das residências identificou-se 86 espécies, pertencentes a 43 famílias, a maioria cultivada e utilizada como alimento (48,1% e como remédio (44,5%. Nas roças os principais cultivos são: Manihot esculenta L. (100%, Carica papaya L. (76,2%, Musa paradisiaca L. (71,4%, Saccharum officinarum L. (57,1%. Na mata de galeria destacou-se a categoria medicinal (65%, com as espécies: Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. (2,5, Aspidosperma polyneuron Muell. Arg. (2,5, Hymenaea stignocarpa Mart. (2,33, Diptychandra aurantiaca Tul. (2,0, Cariniana rubra Gardner ex. Miers (20 e as famílias botânicas Mimosaceae, Bignoniaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Fabaceae e Sapindaceae. Os resultados demonstram que a população possui vasto conhecimento das plantas e de suas propriedades de cura.This paper aims at doing the ethnobotany survey of plants classified in different categories of use in the community of Conceição-Açu, in the city of Cuiabá, MT, Brazil and estimate the value of use of the species botanic in the gallery forest. Structured and non-structured interviews and the questionnaire were used in 59 adult dwellers of both sexes. Were identified the landscape units: backyards, husbandry and gallery forest and the total number of used species is the 180. The majority of the plants was collected during the interview and is kept in the

  17. Composição e estrutura da vegetação de caatinga no sul do Piauí, Brasil

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    Mailson Pereira de Souza

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Visando contribuir para o conhecimento mais profundo a respeito da vegetação do sul do Piauí, e em especial às áreas de tensão ecológica, o presente trabalho objetivou inventariar, avaliando qualitativamente, o componente lenhoso de um trecho de Caatinga, no município de Bom Jesus, Piauí, Brasil. Para realização do levantamento foram alocadas 10 parcelas de 50x20 m (1000 m², totalizando 1 ha de área amostrada, dispostas de forma contíguas para minimizar os possíveis efeitos de borda da área. Foram amostrados os indivíduos lenhosos vivos com diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP ≥ 5 cm, independente da altura. No levantamento foram encontradas 11 famílias, 25 gêneros e 27 espécies. Destas, as que se destacaram com os maiores valores de IVI foram: Cenostigma macrophyllum Tul., Combretum duarteanum Cambess., Erythroxylum laetevirens O.E.Schulz, Campomanesia pubescens (Mart. ex DC. O. Berg., e Licania rigida Benth. O índice de diversidade de Shannon-Wiener (H’ foi de 2,7 nats.ind-1. Para todos os efeitos de comparações, observou-se que a área estudada encontra-se em bom estado de conservação, não se constatando evidências diretas de exploração, tão pouco resquícios de incêndios florestais, apesar da proximidade da área de estudo com a zona urbana da cidade de Bom Jesus do Piauí. O fragmento é um ecótono vegetacional, com predomínio de espécies típicas da Caatinga.Composition and structure  caatinga vegetation in south Piauí, BrazilAbstract: To contribute to the deeper knowledge of the southern Piaui vegetation, especially the areas of ecological tension, this study aimed to inventory and qualitatively assess the woody component of a Caatinga stretch in the municipality of Bom Jesus / PI,  Brazil. To perform the survey plots were allocated 10 50x20 m (1000 m² totaling 1 ha of sampled area, arranged contiguous way to minimize the possible edge effects area. They sampled the living woody individuals with

  18. Avaliação de defeitos no processo de fabricação de lamelas para pisos de madeira engenheirados com uso de ferramentas de controle de qualidade Evaluation of the production process of lamella for engineered wood floor using quality control instruments

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    Jaqueline Coletti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Os defeitos das lamelas são responsáveis em grande parte pelo retrabalho, perdas e diminuição da qualidade do piso acabado. Esses defeitos geram aumento de custos de produção sendo um fator muito importante para o processo de fabricação de pisos de madeira. Este trabalho tem por objetivos classificar e quantificar os defeitos ocorrentes na produção de lamelas, buscar causas, propor soluções e melhorias através da aplicação de ferramentas de qualidade como: “Brainstorming", “ Diagrama de Pareto", “Diagrama de Ishikawa" e 5W2H . Foram amostrados 1598,47 m² de lamelas das seguintes espécies: Muiracatiara (Astronium lecointei Ducke, amendoim (Pterogyne nitens Tul, cabreúva (Myroxylon Balsamum Harms e timborana (Pseudopiptadenia suaveolens Miq com as seguintes dimensões: espessuras (2,5mm e 3,5mm, larguras (76,2mm, 82,5mm e 127mm, comprimentos (450mm a 1.200mm. O defeito mais freqüente encontrado na produção de lamelas foi a marca de serra (31%, seguido de corte da madeira feito pelo fornecedor (23% e falta de instrução de trabalho (15%. As principais causas dos defeitos de marca de serra são devidas aos problemas de manutenção de serras da empresa fornecedora de madeira.Lamella defects are responsible in large part for rework losses and decrease in the quality of the finished floor. These defects increase costs, a very important factor in the process wood floor production. This work aimed to quantify and classify the common defects occurring in the lamella production, find out causes and propose solutions and improvements using the tools “Brainstorming", “Pareto Diagram", “Ishibawa Diagram", and 5W2H. 1598,47 square meters of lamella of the species Muiracatiara (Astronium lecointei Ducke, Amendoim (Pterogyne nitens Tul, Cabreúva (Myroxylon Balsamum Harms and Timborana (Pseudopiptadenia suaveolens Miq were sampled with the following dimensions: thickness (2.5mm and 3.5mm, width (76,2mm, 82,5mm and 127mm, lenght

  19. Traceability of marketable Japanese shoro in New Zealand: using multiplex PCR to exploit phylogeographic variation among taxa in the Rhizopogon subgenus Roseoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visnovsky, Sandra B; Guerin-Laguette, Alexis; Wang, Yun; Pitman, Andrew R

    2010-01-01

    Rhizopogon roseolus Corda (synonym Rhizopogon rubescens Tul.), an economically important edible mushroom associated with the Pinaceae (mostly Pinus sp.), has a global distribution resulting from the introduction of exotic trees into the Southern Hemisphere for plantation forestry. However, the marketability of R. roseolus varies with the place of origin. R. roseolus strains cultivated in New Zealand from local carpophores for the Japanese market are morphologically and biologically distinct from those produced in Japan and are consequently considered less valuable. In this study, the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rRNA (internal transcribed spacer [ITS]) region was used to examine the phylogenetic relationships of R. roseolus and other closely related fungi belonging to Rhizopogon subgenus Roseoli to determine the genetic basis for phenotypic differences among R. roseolus isolates from different geographic regions. Phylogenetic comparison revealed phylogeographic variation within Rhizopogon subgenus Roseoli. Collections from the United States and Europe grouped into four distinct clades. Rhizopogon roseolus isolates found in New Zealand were closely related to those from the United States, likely due to introduction of Pinus radiata from its native California in the United States. In contrast, Japanese R. roseolus isolates clustered closely with European collections. Phylogenetic differences between Japanese and New Zealand R. roseolus isolates may explain the morphological and biological properties attributed to these geographical variants. The ITS region was subsequently used to design a multiplex PCR for the simultaneous identification of Japanese and New Zealand R. roseolus isolates to track the establishment of ectomycorrhiza on P. radiata seedlings inoculated with commercially valuable R. roseolus. This diagnostic demonstrated the first fruiting of Japanese shoro cultivated on P. radiata in the Southern Hemisphere.

  20. Plant extractivism in light of game theory: a case study in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rafael Rv; Gomes, Laura Jane; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2015-02-23

    Game theory enables the predictive study of the behavior of agents that recognize the mutual interdependence of their decisions and act rationally and strategically to maximize their own gains. In this paper, the extractivism of pequi (Caryocar coriaceum Wittm.) and fava d'anta (Dimorphandra gardneriana Tul.) in an area of common use of the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil is described as a model to illustrate a practical application of game theory in the interpretation of the phenomena analyzed in ethnobiological research. Field research was conducted in the Araripe-Apodi National Forest. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 55 informants recognized as knowledgeable and experienced in the extractivism of pequi and fava d'anta in the region. In the interviews, information that could contribute to the identification and understanding of the focal points of extractivism in the region was surveyed. Data were analyzed under an analytical/descriptive approach using the "content analysis" technique. There was a logic of competitive entrepreneurship around the commercial extractivism of pequi and fava d'anta in the region. Among the extractivists of pequi, one of the main collection rules refers to the prohibition of removing immature fruits by using sticks or shaking the branches. In the extractivism of fava d'anta, no specific rules have been established by collectors, but there is a predominant behavior of withdrawing all available fruits (pods) on a tree in a single visit. In an analysis guided by game theory, the collection decisions adopted by extractivists to maximize gain from the activity can be considered justifiable from the standpoint of economic rationality. The "game of extractivism" of pequi and fava d'anta operates under conditions similar to the "tragedy of the commons." In this game, the non-cooperative solution is converted to the Nash equilibrium. The approach used in this study contributed to the identification of strategies and

  1. SL1 RNA gene recovery from Enterobius vermicularis ancient DNA in pre-Columbian human coprolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez, Alena Mayo; Reinhard, Karl; Carvalho Gonçalves, Marcelo Luiz; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Araújo, Adauto; Paulo Vicente, Ana Carolina

    2006-11-01

    Enterobius vermicularis, pinworm, is one of the most common helminths worldwide, infecting nearly a billion people at all socio-economic levels. In prehistoric populations the paleoparasitological findings show a pinworm homogeneous distribution among hunter-gatherers in North America, intensified with the advent of agriculture. This same increase also occurred in the transition from nomad hunter-gatherers to sedentary farmers in South America, although E. vermicularis infection encompasses only the ancient Andean peoples, with no record among the pre-Colombian populations in the South American lowlands. However, the outline of pinworm paleoepidemiology has been supported by microscopic finding of eggs recovered from coprolites. Since molecular techniques are precise and sensitive in detecting pathogen ancient DNA (aDNA), and also could provide insights into the parasite evolutionary history, in this work we have performed a molecular paleoparasitological study of E. vermicularis. aDNA was recovered and pinworm 5S rRNA spacer sequences were determined from pre-Columbian coprolites (4110 BC-AD 900) from four different North and South American archaeological sites. The sequence analysis confirmed E. vermicularis identity and revealed a similarity among ancient and modern sequences. Moreover, polymorphisms were identified at the relative positions 160, 173 and 180, in independent coprolite samples from Tulán, San Pedro de Atacama, Chile (1080-950 BC). We also verified the presence of peculiarities (Splicing leader (SL1) RNA sequence, spliced donor site, the Sm antigen biding site, and RNA secondary structure) which characterise the SL1 RNA gene. The analysis shows that the SL1 RNA gene of contemporary pinworms was present in pre-Columbian E. vermicularis by 6110 years ago. We were successful in detecting E. vermicularis aDNA even in coprolites without direct microscopic evidence of the eggs, improving the diagnosis of helminth infections in the past and further

  2. Contribución al estudio de la epidemiología de la enfermedad de Chagas en tres localidades de la zona sur del Perú

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    Hilda Solís

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Investigar en humanos la presencia de anticuerpos IgG anti-Trypanosoma cruzi y los hábitos alimenticios de triatominos de las viviendas de 3 localidades de la provincia de Nasca, Perú. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio de anticuerpos IgG anti-T. cruzi por medio de los métodos RIFI y ELISA en muestras de sangre de 867 habitantes (excluidos los menores de un año, en las localidades de Tulín, Vista Alegre y Changuillo, para evaluar el problema de la enfermedad de Chagas. Además se investigó las condiciones de 494 casas, se capturó 581 ejemplares de Triatoma infestans (411 ninfas y 170 adultos y se examinó su contenido intestinal, para la identificación de sus hábitos alimenticios y búsqueda de T. cruzi. RESULTADOS: Se identificó anticuerpos IgG anti-T. cruzi en muestras de 128 personas (14,8%, 89 (15,9% de sexo femenino y 39 (12,6% de sexo masculino. La reacción de precipitina en tubo capilar (8 antígenos identificó en 401 insectos (69,0% sus fuentes de alimento, siendo las principales: aves 252 ( 43,4%, roedores 36 (6,2%, humano 23 (3,9% y perro (1,6%. Una hembra de T. infestans se encontró infectada por T. cruzi. CONCLUSIONES: La prevalencia en humanos fue de 14,8%. En relación a los hábitos alimenticios, la ingesta de sangre humana se encontró en3,9% de los triatominos, lo cual indica factor de riesgo para contraer la enfermedad de Chagas.

  3. Development of a Multivalent Subunit Vaccine against Tularemia Using Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV Based Delivery System.

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    Sukalyani Banik

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is a facultative intracellular pathogen, and is the causative agent of a fatal human disease known as tularemia. F. tularensis is classified as a Category A Biothreat agent by the CDC based on its use in bioweapon programs by several countries in the past and its potential to be used as an agent of bioterrorism. No licensed vaccine is currently available for prevention of tularemia. In this study, we used a novel approach for development of a multivalent subunit vaccine against tularemia by using an efficient tobacco mosaic virus (TMV based delivery platform. The multivalent subunit vaccine was formulated to contain a combination of F. tularensis protective antigens: OmpA-like protein (OmpA, chaperone protein DnaK and lipoprotein Tul4 from the highly virulent F. tularensis SchuS4 strain. Two different vaccine formulations and immunization schedules were used. The immunized mice were challenged with lethal (10xLD100 doses of F. tularensis LVS on day 28 of the primary immunization and observed daily for morbidity and mortality. Results from this study demonstrate that TMV can be used as a carrier for effective delivery of multiple F. tularensis antigens. TMV-conjugate vaccine formulations are safe and multiple doses can be administered without causing any adverse reactions in immunized mice. Immunization with TMV-conjugated F. tularensis proteins induced a strong humoral immune response and protected mice against respiratory challenges with very high doses of F. tularensis LVS. This study provides a proof-of-concept that TMV can serve as a suitable platform for simultaneous delivery of multiple protective antigens of F. tularensis. Refinement of vaccine formulations coupled with TMV-targeting strategies developed in this study will provide a platform for development of an effective tularemia subunit vaccine as well as a vaccination approach that may broadly be applicable to many other bacterial pathogens.

  4. Bradyrhizobium centrolobii and Bradyrhizobium macuxiense sp. nov. isolated from Centrolobium paraense grown in soil of Amazonia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Daniele C; Passos, Samuel R; Simões-Araujo, Jean L; Baraúna, Alexandre C; da Silva, Krisle; Parma, Marcia M; Melo, Itamar S; De Meyer, Sofie E; O'Hara, Graham; Zilli, Jerri E

    2017-07-01

    Thirteen Gram-negative, aerobic, motile with polar flagella, rod-shaped bacteria were isolated from root nodules of Centrolobium paraense Tul. grown in soils from the Amazon region of Brazil. Growth of strains was observed at temperature range 20-36 °C (optimal 28 °C), pH ranges 5-11 (optimal 6.0-7.0), and 0.1-0.5%NaCl (optimal 0.1-0.3%). Analysis of 16S rRNA gene placed the strains into two groups within Bradyrhizobium. Closest neighbouring species (98.8%) for group I was B. neotropicale while for group II were 12 species with more than 99% of similarity. Multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) with dnaK, glnII, recA, and rpoB confirmed B. neotropicale BR 10247 T as the closest type strain for the group I and B. elkanii USDA 76 T and B. pachyrhizi PAC 48 T for group II. Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI) differentiated group I from the B. neotropicale BR 10247 T (79.6%) and group II from B. elkanii USDA 76 T and B. pachyrhizi PAC 48 T (88.1% and 87.9%, respectively). Fatty acid profiles [majority C 16:0 and Summed feature 8 (18:1ω6c/18:1ω7c) for both groups], DNA G + C content, and carbon compound utilization supported the placement of the novel strains in the genus Bradyrhizobium. Gene nodC and nifH of the new strains have in general low similarity with other Bradyrhizobium species. Both groups nodulated plants from the tribes Crotalarieae, Dalbergiae, Genisteae, and Phaseoleae. Based on the presented data, two novel species which the names Bradyrhizobium centrolobii and Bradyrhizobium macuxiense are proposed, with BR 10245 T (=HAMBI 3597 T ) and BR 10303 T (=HAMBI 3602 T ) as the respective-type strains.

  5. Percepción y conocimiento ambiental en la costa de Quintana Roo: una caracterización a través de encuestas

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    Lilia Susana Padilla y Sotelo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tiene por objeto indagar acerca de la percepción ambiental y el nivel de conocimientos sobre aspectos ambientales en cuatro localidades representativas de la costa de Quintana Roo: Cancún, Playa del Carmen, Tulúm y Chetumal; en ese sentido, se estudia la relación existente entre algunos elementos microsociales en el espacio económico del turismo, respecto al estado del medio ambiente en la costa de Quintana Roo, como factores subjetivos influyentes en características objetivas del espacio geográfico. La investigación se desarrolló en dos pasos fundamentales, primero la realización y el procesamiento de entrevistas entre los pobladores, mediante las cuales se detectó la existencia de percepciones diferentes según los patrones de interacción social de grupos de individuos, dados por el carácter de su actividad práctica socioproductiva, o de los servicios que realizan, e incluso por su nivel educacional. Esta situación se reproduce en el ámbito geográfico en cuanto a localidades, revelado en un segundo momento de la investigación, lo cual se relaciona con la diferente dinámica del desarrollo económico y social de cada una de las localidades en cuestión. El trabajo resulta, en primera instancia, un análisis que facilita el acercamiento a las necesidades de la educación ambiental como proceso educativo, que oriente la participación popular en la solución de problemas ambientales inherentes a la emergencia del desarrollo del turismo en la costa de Quintana Roo y a factores concomitantes.

  6. Standardized Solution for Management Controller for MTCA.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, D.; Fenner, M.; Ludwig, F.; Mavrič, U.; Mielczarek, A.; Napieralski, A.; Perek, P.; Schlarb, H.

    2015-06-01

    The Micro Telecommunications Computing Architecture (MTCA) standard is a modern platform that is gaining popularity in the area of High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments. The standard provides extensive management, monitoring and diagnostics functionalities. The hardware control and monitoring is based on the Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI), that was initially developed for supervision of complex computers operation. The original IPMI specification was extended to support functions required by the MTCA specification. The Module Management Controller (MMC) is required on each Advanced Mezzanine Card (AMC) installed in MTCA chassis. The Rear Transition Modules (RTMs) have to be equipped with RTM Management Controllers (RMCs) which is required by the MTCA.4 subsidiary specification. The commercially available implementations of MMC and RMC are expensive and do not provide the complete functionality that is required by specific HEP applications. Therefore, many research centers and commercial companies work on their own implementation of AMC and RTM controllers. The available implementations suffer because of lack of common approach and interoperability problems. Since both Lodz University of Technology (TUL) and Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) have long-term experience in developing ATCA and MTCA hardware, the authors decided to develop a unified solution of management controller fully compliant with AMC and MTCA.4 standards. The MMC v1.00 solution is dedicated for management of AMC and RTM modules. The MMC v1.00 is based on Atmel ATxmega MCUs and can be fully customized by the user or used as a drop-in-module without any modifications. The paper discusses the functionality of the MMC v1.00 solution. The implementation was verified with developed evaluation kits for AMC and RTM cards.

  7. Valoración nutricional y emisión de gases de algunos recursos forrajeros del trópico de altura

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    Edmundo Apráez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la producción de gases (metano, AGVs en algunos forrajes herbáceos, arbóreos y arbustivos de la región lechera del municipio de Pasto, en altitudes comprendidas entre 2600 a 3200 m.s.n.m. Para ello, se tomaron veinte muestras de praderas, entre monocultivo y mezcla, y de otras plantas que utilizan como alimento del ganado, entre los que se destacan: Holcus lanatus L., Dactylis glomerata L., Trifolium pratense L., Trifolium repens L., Pennisetum clandestinum, Lolium sp, Taraxacum officinale, Rumex crispus L., Phalaris sp, Plantago major L., Avena sativa L. y Smallanthus pyramidalis. Estas plantas fueron incubadas con heces bovinas frescas, los gases generados por esta fermentación se cuantificó utilizando un transductor de presión conectado a un lector digital. Las mediciones se realizaron a las 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 y 72 horas del proceso. La validación estadística se realizó mediante un modelo de medidas repetidas las medias fueron ajustadas y comparadas según la prueba de Tukey - Kramer. La pradera en mezcla de H. lanatus, Lolium sp., P. clandestinum, y T. repens presentó la mayor producción de gas metano con 560 ml/ Kg MS, y el ensilaje de A. sativa, la menor con 30 ml/Kg MS. La mayor degradabilidad de materia seca (DMO se observó en A. sativa con 62,84%, y la menor en la mezcla de Lolium sp., T. repens con 29,79%. La mayor DMO se dio en la mezcla de P. clandestinum, H. lanatus y T. repens, con 91,34%, y en P. major con 82,50%. Los valores más altos de ácido propiónico se observaron en P. major, en Lolium sp., y en la mezcla de H. lanatus, Lolium sp., P. clandestinum, y T. repens con 920, 860, 860 ml/L respectivamente.

  8. Antiproliferative Activity, Antioxidant Capacity and Tannin Content in Plants of Semi-Arid Northeastern Brazil  

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    Silene Carneiro do Nascimento

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate antiproliferative activity, antioxidant capacity and tannin content in plants from semi-arid northeastern Brazil (Caatinga. For this study, we selected 14 species and we assayed the methanol extracts for antiproliferative activity against the HEp-2 (laryngeal cancer and NCI-H292 (lung cancer cell lines using the (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazole (MTT method. In addition, the antioxidant activity was evaluated with the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay, and the tannin content was determined by the radial diffusion method. Plants with better antioxidant activity (expressed in a dose able to decrease the initial DPPH concentration by 50%, or IC50 and with higher levels of tannins were: Poincianella pyramidalis (42.95 ± 1.77 µg/mL IC50 and 8.17 ± 0.64 tannin content, Jatropha mollissima (54.09 ± 4.36µg/mL IC50 and 2.35 ± 0.08 tannin content and Anadenanthera colubrina (73.24 ± 1.47 µg/mL IC50 and 4.41 ± 0.47 tannin content. Plants with enhanced antiproliferative activity (% living cells were Annona muricata (24.94 ± 0.74 in NCI-H292, Lantana camara (25.8 ± 0.19 in NCI-H292, Handroanthus impetiginosus (41.8 ± 0.47 in NCI-H292 and Mentzelia aspera (45.61 ± 1.94 in HEp-2. For species with better antioxidant and antiproliferative activities, we suggest future in vitro and in vivo comparative studies with other pharmacological models, and to start a process of purification and identification of the possible molecule(s responsible for the observed pharmacological activity. We believe that the flora of Brazilian semi-arid areas can be a valuable source of plants rich in tannins, cytotoxic compounds and antioxidant agents.

  9. Estrutura e distribuição espacial da vegetação da Caatinga na Estação Ecológica do Seridó, RN

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    José Augusto da Silva Santana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve a estrutura e o padrão de distribuição espacial das espécies do estrato arbóreo-arbustivo na Caatinga da Estação Ecológica do Seridó, no Município de Serra Negra do Norte, RN. Foram amostrados os indivíduos com diâmetro ao nível do solo ≥ 3 cm e altura total ≥ 1 m, presentes em 30 parcelas de 200 m2. O padrão de distribuição espacial foi determinado pelo índice de Payandeh. Registraram-se 2.448 indivíduos, distribuídos em 22 espécies, 20 gêneros e 12 famílias. A densidade foi de 4.080 indivíduos ha-1 e área basal de 17,50 m2 ha-1, enquanto a altura e o diâmetro médios atingiram 2,45 m e 6,80 cm, respectivamente. As famílias com maior número de espécies foram Fabaceae e Euphorbiaceae, com destaque em número de indivíduos para Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae e Apocynaceae. Poincianella pyramidalis, Aspidosperma pyrifolium e Croton blanchetianus foram as espécies mais importantes, respondendo juntas pelo maior número de indivíduos, área basal e valor de importância. A área estudada apresenta pouca evidência de perturbação antrópica, com estrutura semelhante a outras áreas protegidas na Caatinga do Seridó e com maior proporção de espécies com distribuição agregada ou com tendência à agregação, revelando que as maiores populações formam pequenos agrupamentos.

  10. Madeiras utilizadas na fabricação de arcos para instrumentos de corda: aspectos anatômicos Anatomical features of woods used in the manufacture of bows for stringed instruments

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    Veronica Angyalossy

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A madeira de pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. é mundialmente empregada na confecção de arcos para instrumentos de corda, uma vez que apresenta características únicas de ressonância, densidade, durabilidade, beleza, entre outras qualidades, que a tornam ideal para tal uso. Diferentes amostras de pau-brasil, contudo, fornecem arcos com qualidades distintas. No comércio nacional outras madeiras estão sendo empregadas na produção de arcos. Realizou-se, neste estudo, uma análise qualitativa e quantitativa de diferentes amostras de pau-brasil com o objetivo de apontar diferenças na estrutura da madeira que possam contribuir para o entendimento das causas da variação na qualidade do arco, além da análise de outras espécies objetivando determinar, do ponto de vista estrutural, semelhanças ou diferenças com o pau-brasil. Conclui-se que variações no diâmetro dos vasos, distribuição e quantidade de parênquima axial e orientação dos elementos axiais e radiais são parâmetros que devem ser considerados quando se busca determinar as causas das diferenças na qualidade dos arcos de pau-brasil. Constatou-se que arcos de boa qualidade apresentam grã linheira e textura fina. Esta última característica decorre da menor proporção de vasos cujo diâmetro é reduzido, raios homogêneos e fibras com paredes espessas e/ou muito espessas. Assim, a relação entre a estrutura e a qualidade do arco está diretamente relacionada com as dimensões, a distribuição e a proporção das células do lenho.Pernambuco wood (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. has special characteristics like resonance, density, durability, and beauty; for this reason, it is considered the best material for stringed instruments bows. Besides pernambuco wood has been used around the world, some samples, and consequently some bows, are better than others. In Brazil, others woody species have been used in the manufacture of bows. In this paper some wood samples of

  11. Florística e fitogeografia da vegetação arbustiva subcaducifólia da Chapada de São José, Buíque, PE, Brasil Floristics and phytogeography of semideciduous vegetation on the São José plateau, Buíque, Pernambuco State, Brazil

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    Ana Paula de Souza Gomes

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado o levantamento da flora angiospérmica de um trecho de vegetação arbustiva subcaducifólia na Chapada de São José, Buíque, Pernambuco, com a finalidade de ampliar o conhecimento sobre a flora daquela chapada, bem como compreender suas relações florísticas com outros conjuntos vegetacionais do Nordeste, especialmente no semi-árido. A flora angiospérmica foi composta por 192 táxons, distribuídos em 130 gêneros e 60 famílias. Euphorbiaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Myrtaceae, Mimosaceae, Fabaceae e Cactaceae foram as mais representativas em número de espécies. A análise de agrupamento revelou que o tipo de substrato exerce uma forte influência na repartição espacial das espécies dentro do semi-árido e confirmou a existência de um conjunto de espécies indicadoras das áreas sedimentares, formado por Caesalpinia microphylla Mart. (Caesalpiniaceae, Bocoa mollis (Benth. R.S. Cowan (Fabaceae, Byrsonima gardneriana A. Juss. (Malpighiaceae e Zanthoxylum stelligerum Turic. (Rutaceae. A flora da área de estudo é relacionada com a da caatinga do cristalino, caatinga de áreas sedimentares e carrasco. Todavia, o alto número de espécies de Myrtaceae, raras na caatinga, o carácter subcaducifólio da vegetação e a presença de Cactaceae e Bromeliaceae, típicas da caatinga, sugerem que a área de estudo representa o final de um gradiente que se inicia em áreas sedimentares situadas em menores altitudes.A floristic survey was carried out in a semideciduous vegetation on São José plateau with the objective of amplifying the knowledge of its angiospermic flora and establishing its relationship with other vegetations types in the semi-arid region of Northeast Brazil. The flora was composed by 192 taxa belonging to 130 genera and 60 families. Euphorbiaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Myrtaceae, Mimosaceae Fabaceae and Cactaceae were the families with the highest numbers of species. A cluster analysis indicated influence of the soil type

  12. Prospeção de inibidores de serinoproteinases em folhas de leguminosas arbóreas da floresta Amazônica Prospecting serine proteinase inhibitors in leaves from leguminous trees of the Amazon forest

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    Larissa Ramos Chevreuil

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Os inibidores de proteinases são proteínas extensivamente investigadas nos tecidos de estocagem, mas pouco prospectadas em outros tecidos vegetais. O objetivo deste estudo foi detectar a presença de inibidores de serinoproteinases em extratos foliares de quinze espécies de leguminosas arbóreas da Amazônia. As espécies estudadas foram: Caesalpinia echinata, C. ferrea, Cedrelinga cateniformis, Copaifera multijuga, Dinizia excelsa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, E. maximum, E. schomburgkii, Leucaena leucocephala, Ormosia paraensis, Parkia multijuga, P. pendula, P. platycephala, Swartzia corrugata e S. polyphylla. Folhas foram coletadas, secas a 30ºC durante 48 h, trituradas e submetidas à extração com NaCl (0,15 M, 10% p/v resultando no extrato total. Ensaios foram executados para determinar a concentração de proteínas e detectar a atividade inibitória contra a tripsina e quimotripsina bovina. Os teores de proteínas bruta e solúvel nos extratos foliares variaram de 7,9 a 31,2% e 1,3 a 14,8%, respectivamente. A atividade inibitória sobre a tripsina e quimotripsina foi observada em todos os extratos foliares. Contudo, nos extratos de E. maximum, L. leucocephala, P. pendula, S. corrugata e S. polyphylla a inibição foi maior sobre a tripsina, enquanto o extrato de P. multijuga foi mais efetivo contra a quimotripsina. Nós concluímos que nos extratos foliares de leguminosas arbóreas têm inibidores de serinoproteinases e exibem potencial aplicações biotecnológicas.The proteinase inhibitors are proteins extensively investigated in tissue storage, but few prospected in other plant tissues. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of serine proteinase inhibitors in leaf extracts from fifteen species of leguminous trees of the Amazon forest. The species studied were Caesalpinia echinata, C. ferrea, Cedrelinga cateniformis, Copaifera multijuga, Dinizia excelsa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, E. maximum, E. schomburgkii

  13. Composição florística do componente arbóreo de um trecho de Floresta Atlântica na Área de Proteção Ambiental da Serra da Capoeira Grande, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil Floristic survey of the tree layer in an area of Atlantic Rainforest in Serra da Capoeira Grande Environmental Protection Area, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

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    Gustavo Luna Peixoto

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A Área de Proteção Ambiental (APA da Serra da Capoeira Grande (22º59'03"S e 43º38'59"W tem área total de 80ha e é um dos últimos remanescentes florestais com pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. no município do Rio de Janeiro. Além disso, ocorrem na área outras três espécies ameaçadas de extinção: Cariniana ianeirensis R. Knuth, Acosmium lentiscifolium Spreng. e Machaerium incorruptible (Vell. Fr. All. ex Benth. O levantamento fitossociológico foi realizado por meio do método dos quadrantes, tendo sido alocados 200 pontos e tendo-se como critério de inclusão 15cm de circunferência do tronco a 1,30m de altura do solo. A composição florística é o resultado desta amostragem acrescida de coletas feitas durante caminhadas no fragmento, totalizando 29 famílias, 58 gêneros e 69 espécies. As famílias que apresentaram maior número de espécies foram: Leguminosae (13, Myrtaceae (6, Euphorbiaceae (5, Bignoniaceae, Bombacaceae, Celastraceae, Flacourtiaceae, Moraceae, Rubiaceae e Solanaceae (3. Analisando a similaridade florística entre a APA da Serra da Capoeira Grande e outras 18 áreas florestais do Rio de Janeiro, observou-se maior identidade florística entre a área estudada e florestas de baixada localizadas próximas ao mar. Todas as florestas reuniram-se com um baixo nível de similaridade, refletindo a diversidade florística das florestas do Rio de Janeiro.The 80-hectare site (22º59'03"S and 43º38'59"W, is one of the last forest remnants in Rio de Janeiro municipality, where brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. occurs naturally. Furthermore, three other endangered species occur in this area: Cariniana ianeirensis R. Knuth, Acosmium lentiscifolium Spreng., and Machaerium incorruptible (Vell. Fr. All. ex Benth. Trees were sampled according to the point-centered-quarter method. The inclusion criteria was PBH >15cm; a total of 200 points were surveyed. The floristic composition was comprised of the sampled

  14. Purificação e caracterização de alfa-galactosidases de sementes de Platymiscium pubescens Micheli Purification and characterization of alpha-galactosidases from Platymiscium pubescens Micheli seeds

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    Giordani de Oliveira

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou foi determinar a composição bioquímica de sementes de espécies florestais e caracterizar a enzima alfa-galactosidase de sementes germinadas de Platymiscium pubescens. Os maiores teores de lipídios foram determinados em sementes de Chorisia speciosa, Caesalpinia peltophoroides, Tabebuia serratifolia e Tabebuia velanedae, enquanto sementes de Enterolobium contortisiliquum, Schizolobium parahyba e Cassia grandis apresentaram os maiores teores protéicos. A alfa-galactosidase catalisa a hidrólise dos oligossacarídeos de rafinose, em sementes de leguminosas, durante a germinação. A maior atividade da alfa-galactosidase foi detectada em sementes de Platymiscium pubescens após 72 h de embebição. Duas formas de alfa-galactosidases, C1 e C2, foram purificadas de sementes germinadas de P. pubescens, usando-se fracionamento com sulfato de amônio e cromatografias de filtração em gel e de afinidade. Essas enzimas apresentaram atividade máxima em pH 5,5 e a 50-55 ºC. Os valores de Km ap das formas C1 e C2, para o substrato ro-nitrofenil-alfa-D-galactopiranosídeo, foram de 0,54 mM e 0,78 mM, e para a rafinose, de 4,64 mM e 5,09 mM, respectivamente. Essas enzimas exibiram estabilidade térmica moderada, mantendo 70% da atividade original após 3 h de incubação a 45 ºC. A atividade enzimática da C1 e C2 foi totalmente perdida na presença de CuSO4 e dodecil sulfato de sódio (SDS. Tais enzimas também hidrolisaram melibiose, rafinose e estaquiose, indicando potencial para aplicações biotecnológicas.The objective of this work was to determine seed biochemical composition of forest species and to characterize alpha-galactosidase enzyme of germinated seeds of Platymiscium pubescens. The highest lipid levels were found in seeds of Chorisia speciosa, Caesalpinia peltophoroides, Tabebuia serratifolia and Tabebuia velanedae, whereas seeds of Enterolobium contortisiliquum, Schizolobium parahyba and Cassia grandis showed

  15. Railway side mapping of alien plant distributions in Mpumalanga, South Africa

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    Ndifelani Mararakanye

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alien plant invasions are among the major threats to natural and semi-natural ecosystems in South Africa on approximately 18 million hectares of land. Much of the available data are not suitable for planning of local scale management because it is presented at a quarter degree grid square scale, which makes accurate location and estimates of invaded areas difficult.Objectives: The aim was to identify the dominant alien plant species and quantify their areal extent along a 479 km railway corridor in the Mpumalanga province.Method: The extent of the invaded area was obtained by manual digitising of alien plant distribution and density from Satellite Pour l’Observation de la Terre 5 imagery and by further applying an Iterative Self-Organising Data Analysis technique of the unsupervised classification method. Species’ occurrences were located and identified in the field using a Global Positioning System.Results: The most dominant invaders in terms of the number of individual polygons and the infested area were Eucalyptus spp., Acacia spp., Populus alba L., Pinus patula Schltdl & Cham., Salix babylonica L. and Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth Alston. These species have also been previously classified as major invaders, although the Conservation of Agricultural Resources Act regulations permit their planting provided spreading to adjacent areas is avoided except for C. decapetala, which must be cleared under all circumstances.Conclusion: Knowledge of the species’ occurrence and their extent will assist landowners and relevant authorities to control the spread of alien plants, which impact rail safety, agricultural production, water availability and biodiversity.

  16. Scent glands in legume flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, C R; Souza, C D; Barros, T C; Teixeira, S P

    2014-01-01

    Scent glands, or osmophores, are predominantly floral secretory structures that secrete volatile substances during anthesis, and therefore act in interactions with pollinators. The Leguminosae family, despite being the third largest angiosperm family, with a wide geographical distribution and diversity of habits, morphology and pollinators, has been ignored with respect to these glands. Thus, we localised and characterised the sites of fragrance production and release in flowers of legumes, in which scent plays an important role in pollination, and also tested whether there are relationships between the structure of the scent gland and the pollinator habit: diurnal or nocturnal. Flowers in pre-anthesis and anthesis of 12 legume species were collected and analysed using immersion in neutral red, olfactory tests and anatomical studies (light and scanning electron microscopy). The main production site of floral scent is the perianth, especially the petals. The scent glands are distributed in a restricted way in Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Anadenanthera peregrina, Inga edulis and Parkia pendula, constituting mesophilic osmophores, and in a diffuse way in Bauhinia rufa, Hymenaea courbaril, Erythrostemon gilliesii, Poincianella pluviosa, Pterodon pubescens, Platycyamus regnellii, Mucuna urens and Tipuana tipu. The glands are comprised of cells of the epidermis and mesophyll that secrete mainly terpenes, nitrogen compounds and phenols. Relationships between the presence of osmophores and type of anthesis (diurnal and nocturnal) and the pollinator were not found. Our data on scent glands in Leguminosae are original and detail the type of diffuse release, which has been very poorly studied. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  17. Rede de distribuição de energia elétrica e arborização viária: o caso da Cidade de Maringá, Estado do Paraná - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v33i4.8405

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    Bruno Luiz Domingos De Angelis

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo analisar a interação entre a arborização de acompanhamento viário e a rede de distribuição de energia elétrica de alta tensão e, ao mesmo tempo, avaliar as espécies arbóreas utilizadas na cidade de Maringá, Estado do Paraná, em uma área específica - Zona 7. Essa área foi escolhida tendo em vista as particularidades locais, como a utilização de árvores de grande porte e os diferentes tipos de rede de energia (convencional e compacta para alta tensão e convencional e isolada para baixa tensão. Constatou-se que as espécies arbóreas de grande porte são predominantes, como Caesalpinia peltophoroides e Tipuana tipu, que representam, respectivamente, 32,92 e 30,79% da arborização total. Como resultado final tem-se a minimização dos impactos causados pela arborização sobre a rede de energia elétrica, visto que os indicadores da qualidade do fornecimento de energia elétrica melhoraram em até 80%. Os custos de manutenção da rede diminuíram sensivelmente, e a qualidade da arborização, sobretudo pela redução nas podas, apresentou melhoras consideráveis, comprovando a eficácia da rede compacta protegida quando comparada às demais.

  18. Natural antimicrobials and oral microorganisms: A systematic review on herbal interventions for the eradication of multispecies oral biofilms.

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    Lamprini eKarygianni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral diseases such as caries and periodontitis are mainly caused by microbial biofilms. Antibiotic therapy has reached its limits with regard to antimicrobial resistance, and new therapeutic measures utilizing natural phytochemicals are currently a focus of research. Hence, this systematic review provides a critical presentation of the antimicrobial effects of various medicinal herbs against in vitro, ex vivo and in situ formed multispecies oral biofilms. Searches were performed in three English databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CAMbase and the electronic archives of five German journals from the times of their establishment until October 10th, 2014, with the search terms (plant extracts OR herbal extracts OR plant OR herb AND (oral biofilm OR dental biofilm OR dental plaque OR oral disease OR dental disease. The pooled data were assessed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Initially, 1,848 articles were identified, out of which 585 full-text articles were screened, 149 articles were reevaluated for eligibility and finally, 14 articles met all inclusion criteria. The data of 14 reports disclosed enhanced antiadhesive and antibiofilm activity by the plant extracts obtained from Vitis vinifera, Pinus spp., Coffea canephora, Camellia sinensis, Vaccinium macrocarpon, Galla chinensis, Caesalpinia ferrea Martius, Psidium cattleianum, representative Brazilian plants and manuka honey. Overall, a positive correlation was revealed between herb-based therapies and elimination rates of all types of multispecies oral biofilms. In that context, integrating or even replacing conventional dental therapy protocols with herbal-inspired treatments can allow effective antimicrobial control of oral biofilms and thus, dental diseases.

  19. Enhanced Cutaneous Wound Healing In Vivo by Standardized Crude Extract of Poincianella pluviosa.

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    Fernanda Giacomini Bueno

    Full Text Available Wound healing is a complex process that involves several biological events, and a delay in this process may cause economic and social problems for the patient. The search continues for new alternative treatments to aid healing, including the use of herbal medicines. Members of the genus Caesalpinia are used in traditional medicine to treat wounds. The related species Poincianella pluviosa (DC. L.P. Queiroz increases the cell viability of keratinocytes and fibroblasts and stimulates the proliferation of keratinocytes in vitro. The crude extract (CE from bark of P. pluviosa was evaluated in the wound-healing process in vivo, to validate the traditional use and the in vitro activity. Standardized CE was incorporated into a gel and applied on cutaneous wounds (TCEG and compared with the formulation without CE (Control for 4, 7, 10, or 14 days of treatment. The effects of the CE on wound re-epithelialization; cell proliferation; permeation, using photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS; and proteins, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD-2 and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2 were evaluated. The TCEG stimulated the migration of keratinocytes at day 4 and proliferation on the following days, with a high concentration of cells in metaphase at 7 days. Type I collagen formed more rapidly in the TCEG. PAS showed that the CE had permeated through the skin. TCEG stimulated VEGF at day 4 and SOD-2 and COX-2 at day 7. The results suggest that the CE promoted the regulation of proteins and helped to accelerate the processes involved in healing, promoting early angiogenesis. This led to an increase in the re-epithelialized surface, with significant mitotic activity. Maturation of collagen fibers was also enhanced, which may affect the resistance of the extracellular matrix. PAS indicated a correlation between the rate of diffusion and biological events during the healing process. The CE from P. pluviosa appears promising as an aid in

  20. Evaluation of the stability and antimicrobial activity of an ethanolic extract of Libidibia ferrea

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    de Oliveira Marreiro R

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Raquel de Oliveira Marreiro,1 Maria Fulgência Costa Lima Bandeira,1 Tatiane Pereira de Souza,2 Mailza Costa de Almeida,1 Katiana Bendaham,1 Gisely Naura Venâncio,1 Isis Costa Rodrigues,2 Cristiane Nagai Coelho,1 Patrícia Sâmea Lêdo Lima Milério,1 Glauber Palma de Oliveira,1 Nikeila Chacon de Oliveira Conde11School of Dentistry, Federal University of Amazonas, Manaus, Amazonas; 2School of Pharmacy, Federal University of Amazonas, Manaus, Amazonas, BrazilAbstract: Biofilm is a dense, whitish, noncalcified aggregate of bacteria, with desquamated epithelial cells and food debris creating conditions for an imbalance of resident oral microflora and favoring the destruction of hard and soft tissues by development of caries and gingivitis. The aim of this study was to obtain and characterize an extract of Libidibia ferrea, ex Caesalpinia ferrea L. and to evaluate its feasibility for formulation as a mouthwash, according to current legislation. For this purpose, pH, sedimentation, density, and stability were evaluated, along with microbiological testing of the extract. The microbiological test was used to verify the presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, fungi, yeasts, coliforms, and minimum inhibitory concentrations of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus oralis strains. Characterization, microbiological evaluation, and minimum inhibitory concentration results were tabulated and described using descriptive statistics. The L. ferrea extract showed stable characteristics, product quality, and antibacterial activity against the microorganisms tested irrespective of experimental time intervals. According to these results, it can be concluded that formulation of a mouthwash containing L. ferrea extract to control biofilm is feasible, but further studies are needed.Keywords: biofilm, extract, quality control

  1. Forest restoration in a fog oasis: evidence indicates need for cultural awareness in constructing the reference.

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    Luís Balaguer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the Peruvian Coastal Desert, an archipelago of fog oases, locally called lomas, are centers of biodiversity and of past human activity. Fog interception by a tree canopy, dominated by the legume tree tara (Caesalpinia spinosa, enables the occurrence in the Atiquipa lomas (southern Peru of an environmental island with a diverse flora and high productivity. Although this forest provides essential services to the local population, it has suffered 90% anthropogenic reduction in area. Restoration efforts are now getting under way, including discussion as to the most appropriate reference ecosystem to use. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Genetic diversity of tara was studied in the Atiquipa population and over a wide geographical and ecological range. Neither exclusive plastid haplotypes to loma formations nor clear geographical structuring of the genetic diversity was found. Photosynthetic performance and growth of seedlings naturally recruited in remnant patches of loma forest were compared with those of seedlings recruited or planted in the adjacent deforested area. Despite the greater water and nitrogen availability under tree canopy, growth of forest seedlings did not differ from that of those recruited into the deforested area, and was lower than that of planted seedlings. Tara seedlings exhibited tight stomatal control of photosynthesis, and a structural photoprotection by leaflet closure. These drought-avoiding mechanisms did not optimize seedling performance under the conditions produced by forest interception of fog moisture. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Both weak geographic partitioning of genetic variation and lack of physiological specialization of seedlings to the forest water regime strongly suggest that tara was introduced to lomas by humans. Therefore, the most diverse fragment of lomas is the result of landscape management and resource use by pre-Columbian cultures. We argue that an appropriate reference ecosystem for

  2. Forest restoration in a fog oasis: evidence indicates need for cultural awareness in constructing the reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguer, Luís; Arroyo-García, Rosa; Jiménez, Percy; Jiménez, María Dolores; Villegas, Luís; Cordero, Irene; Rubio de Casas, Rafael; Fernández-Delgado, Raúl; Ron, María Eugenia; Manrique, Esteban; Vargas, Pablo; Cano, Emilio; Pueyo, José J; Aronson, James

    2011-01-01

    In the Peruvian Coastal Desert, an archipelago of fog oases, locally called lomas, are centers of biodiversity and of past human activity. Fog interception by a tree canopy, dominated by the legume tree tara (Caesalpinia spinosa), enables the occurrence in the Atiquipa lomas (southern Peru) of an environmental island with a diverse flora and high productivity. Although this forest provides essential services to the local population, it has suffered 90% anthropogenic reduction in area. Restoration efforts are now getting under way, including discussion as to the most appropriate reference ecosystem to use. Genetic diversity of tara was studied in the Atiquipa population and over a wide geographical and ecological range. Neither exclusive plastid haplotypes to loma formations nor clear geographical structuring of the genetic diversity was found. Photosynthetic performance and growth of seedlings naturally recruited in remnant patches of loma forest were compared with those of seedlings recruited or planted in the adjacent deforested area. Despite the greater water and nitrogen availability under tree canopy, growth of forest seedlings did not differ from that of those recruited into the deforested area, and was lower than that of planted seedlings. Tara seedlings exhibited tight stomatal control of photosynthesis, and a structural photoprotection by leaflet closure. These drought-avoiding mechanisms did not optimize seedling performance under the conditions produced by forest interception of fog moisture. Both weak geographic partitioning of genetic variation and lack of physiological specialization of seedlings to the forest water regime strongly suggest that tara was introduced to lomas by humans. Therefore, the most diverse fragment of lomas is the result of landscape management and resource use by pre-Columbian cultures. We argue that an appropriate reference ecosystem for ecological restoration of lomas should include sustainable agroforestry practices that

  3. Análisis cualitativo y cuantitativo de árboles urbanos de un barrio de Bauru, São Paulo, Brasil

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    Renan Borgiani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available El rápido crecimiento de las ciudades ha dado lugar a varios problemas ambientales. Buscando minimizar estos problemas, la arborización en el medio urbano pasó a ser indispensable y se considera un parámetro de calidad de vida de la población. En este contexto, el presente estudio tuvo como objetivo diagnosticar la situación de la arborización urbana en el barrio Jardín Brasil en Bauru, São Paulo, Brasil, a través de un levantamiento cualitativo y cuantitativo de las especies arbóreas presentes. Fue posible registrar 23 familias y 41 especies en un total de 510 individuos de los cuales 11 estaban muertos. El barrio tiene una diversidad relativamente baja y la mayoría de las especies encontradas son exóticas (60,98%. Las especies más comunes son: Licania tomentosa (31,87%, Caesalpinia peltophoroides (11,16%, Lagerstroemia indica (9,56%, Murraya paniculata (6,57% y Terminalia catappa (5,98%. Gran parte de los problemas encontrados son el resultado de no planificar la silvicultura urbana, lo que termina generando conflicto con el cableado eléctrico y la construcción. Entre tanto, fueron pocos los casos de conflictos con el alumbrado público y las señales de tránsito. Se destacó también el gran número de individuos arbóreos atacados por termitas y hormigas (59,34%. Investigaciones como ésta son útiles para la toma de decisiones y la planificación de los árboles urbanos de una ciudad.

  4. Natural Antimicrobials and Oral Microorganisms: A Systematic Review on Herbal Interventions for the Eradication of Multispecies Oral Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karygianni, Lamprini; Al-Ahmad, Ali; Argyropoulou, Aikaterini; Hellwig, Elmar; Anderson, Annette C.; Skaltsounis, Alexios L.

    2016-01-01

    Oral diseases such as caries and periodontitis are mainly caused by microbial biofilms. Antibiotic therapy has reached its limits with regard to antimicrobial resistance, and new therapeutic measures utilizing natural phytochemicals are currently a focus of research. Hence, this systematic review provides a critical presentation of the antimicrobial effects of various medicinal herbs against in vitro, ex vivo, and in situ formed multispecies oral biofilms. Searches were performed in three English databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CAMbase) and the electronic archives of five German journals from the times of their establishment until October 10th, 2014, with the search terms “(plant extracts OR herbal extracts OR plant OR herb) AND (oral biofilm OR dental biofilm OR dental plaque OR oral disease OR dental disease).” The pooled data were assessed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines (PRISMA). Initially, 1848 articles were identified, out of which 585 full-text articles were screened, 149 articles were reevaluated for eligibility and finally, 14 articles met all inclusion criteria. The data of 14 reports disclosed enhanced antiadhesive and antibiofilm activity by the plant extracts obtained from Vitis vinifera, Pinus spp., Coffea canephora, Camellia sinensis, Vaccinium macrocarpon, Galla chinensis, Caesalpinia ferrea Martius, Psidium cattleianum, representative Brazilian plants and manuka honey. Overall, a positive correlation was revealed between herb-based therapies and elimination rates of all types of multispecies oral biofilms. In that context, integrating or even replacing conventional dental therapy protocols with herbal-inspired treatments can allow effective antimicrobial control of oral biofilms and thus, dental diseases. PMID:26834707

  5. Preserving Traditional Botanical Knowledge: The Importance of Phytogeographic and Ethnobotanical Inventory of Peruvian Dye Plants

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    José Mostacero León

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Peru is a megadiverse country with native species of all kinds, including dye plants, which have been used for hundreds of years by the local population. Despite the fact that many of these natural dyes are of a superior quality compared to synthetic ones and do not have the harmful effects that the latter may cause to human health, due to the lack of documentation and dissemination, ethnobotanical knowledge is unfortunately being lost with the passing of generations. In order to preserve and spread such valuable knowledge, this study conducted a comprehensive taxonomic, phytogeographic, and ethnobotanical inventory of dye plants based on periodical botanical explorations in selected locations of Northern Peru during the span of two decades. A critical review of the specialized bibliography was then carried out and the findings were verified with the personal knowledge and experience of both the researchers and the local and regional people. The results of the inventory record 32 species of dye plants from Northern Peru distributed in 22 families, of which the following stand out due to the number of species: Fabaceae (5, Anacardiaceae (2, Annonaceae (2, Asteraceae (2, Berberidaceae (2, Rosaceae (2, and Solanaceae (2. Of the 32 dye species identified, four are considered endemic from Peru: Berberis buceronis J.F. Macbr., Caesalpinia paipai Ruiz & Pav., Coreopsis senaria S.F. Blake & Sherf., and Lomatia hirsuta (Lam. Diels. The study also found that species such as Bixa orellana L., Indigofera suffruticosa Mill., Sambucus peruviana, and the lichen Usnea baileyi (Stirton Zahlbr have not been commercially exploited in Peru despite the fact that they already constitute a great economic source for several countries.

  6. Quality of life in patients with leg ulcers: results from CHALLENGE, a double-blind randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaume, S; Dompmartin, A; Lok, C; Lazareth, I; Sigal, M; Truchetet, F; Sauvadet, A; Bohbot, S

    2017-07-02

    We recently showed the superiority of a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) modulating dressing (foam impregnated with NOSF, nano-oligosaccharide factor) compared with a lipidocolloid matrix (TLC) control dressing in median wound area reduction (WAR). Here we report the results from the same study assessing the performance and safety of TLC-NOSF in the local management of venous leg ulcers (VLUs) or mixed leg ulcers and determining its impact on the patient's health-related quality of life (HRQoL). A superiority randomised double-blind controlled trial was conducted on patients presenting with a non-infected leg ulcer (VLUs or mixed leg ulcers) of predominantly venous origin (ABPI >0.8), with a surface area ranging from 5 to 50cm(2) and a duration of 6 to 36 months. Patients were randomly allocated to either the TLC-NOSF matrix foam (UrgoStart) dressing group or to the neutral TLC foam dressing group (UrgoTul Absorb). All received appropriate compression therapy and the wounds were assessed blindly (clinical examination, wound area tracing and photographic record) every 2 weeks for a period of 8 weeks, or until complete closure. A secondary endpoint, described here, was the patient's HRQoL, documented by the patient, through the EuroQol 5D tool (EQ-5D) questionnaire and visual analogue scale (VAS). In total, 187 patients were randomised to either the TLC-NOSF group (n=94) or the control dressing group (n=93). The two groups were well balanced at baseline with regard to wound and patient characteristics. In the HRQoL questionnaire (EQ-5D), the pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression dimensions were significantly improved in the TLC-NOSF group versus the control one (pain/discomfort: 1.53±0.53 versus 1.74±0.65; p=0.022, and anxiety/depression: 1.35±0.53 versus 1.54±0.60, p=0.037). The VAS score was better in the test group compared with the control group (72.1±17.5 versus 67.3±18.7, respectively), without reaching significance (p=0.072). Acceptability and tolerance

  7. DECOMPOSIÇÃO DA SERAPILHEIRA FOLIAR DE FLORESTA NATIVA E PLANTIOS DE Pterogyne nitens E Eucalyptus urophylla NO SUDOESTE DA BAHIA

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    Heloísa Cintra Alves Pinto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The decomposition process regulates the accumulation of litter and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems, being central to its maintenance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of leaf litter decomposition in three forest ecosystems (semideciduous forest Montana and homogeneous stands of Pterogyne nitens Tul. and Eucalyptus urophylla ST Blake, located in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil. To evaluate the decomposition, newly fallen leaves on the ground of trees and shrubs in each of the studied toppings were collected. The sheets were dried at 65 °C, and thereafter, 10 g portions were weighed and placed in litter bags, which were randomly distributed on the surface of the forest floor in each of the areas studied. Five litter bags at random were collected after 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days of installation. After collection, the material contained in each litter bag was subjected to drying in an oven at 65 °C and weighed. Based on the obtained masses were estimated the percentage of the remaining mass, the rate of decomposition ( k and half-life time of the litter ( t 1 /2 . For chemical characterization three subsamples were separated from the dried leaf litter, which were ground and analyzed by determination of the total nitrogen, carbon, polyphenols, lignin and cellulose. The decomposition was related to environmental variables (precipitation, temperature and humidity and the microenvironment (temperature and soil moisture.The total accumulated litter varied significantly between the settlements studied, the highest value was observed in the area of Eucalyptus urophylla (12,7 Mg ha -1 , followed by native forest (6,9 Mg ha -1 and Pterogyne nitens (1,1 Mg ha -1 . At the end of the six months of the experiment, Eucalyptus urophylla showed the greatest remaining mass (73,6%, followed by native forest (67,8% and Pterogyne nitens (46,3%. The decomposition constant ( k was higher in litter of Pterogyne nitens (0,0054 g

  8. Matrix effect and optimization of LC-MSn determination of trachylobane-360 in mice blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita, João Carlos Lima Rodrigues; Gomes, Isis Fernandes; Dos Santos, Socrates Golzio; Tavares, Josean Fechine; da Silva, Marcelo Sobral; Diniz, Margareth de Fátima Formiga Melo; Sobral, Marianna Vieira

    2014-11-01

    Xylopia langsdorffiana A. St.-Hil. & Tul. (Annonaceae) is popularly known as "pimenteira-da-terra". Various constituents have been isolated from this species, including diterpenes, such as 8(17), 12E, 14-labdatrien-18-oic acid, ent-atisan-7α, 16α-diol (xylodiol), ent-7α-hydroxytrachyloban-18-oic acid (trachylobane-318) and ent-7α-acetoxytrachyloban-18-oic acid, a crystalline solid with a molecular weight of 360 and molecular formula of C22H32O4 (trachylobane-360). When administered intraperitoneally to mice, trachylobane-360 (T-360) significantly inhibits growth of the solid tumor sarcoma 180 transplanted in mice, without causing alterations in biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters that are frequently associated with the clinical use of antineoplastic. Furthermore, this diterpene blocks voltage-dependent calcium channels (Cav), showing spasmolytic activity. The present study shows that variables such as extraction solvent (methanol, acetonitrile and chloroform), centrifugation force (1000, 7000 and 14,000×g), and centrifugation time (5, 15 and 25min), are important in the liquid-liquid extraction of T-360 from male Swiss mice blood in HPLC-MSn studies. The study confirms matrix influence on recovery and detection of T-360. The recovery for T-360 was 37.02% using chloroform as better extractor solvent, while centrifuged at 14,000×g for 15min demonstrated the importance of the parameters chosen for the extraction/recovery process of analyte. The effect of mice blood matrix for T-360 was -51.23%. This method was optimized by repeating the extraction procedure and acidification of samples. These conditions were essential in increasing recovery (49.47%) by decreasing the matrix effect (-37.60%). The efficiency of the process, after optimization with two extractions and acidification, increased by 14.19% when compared to the initial method, from 18.05% to 32.24%. According to Marchi et al. (2010), the matrix effect does not necessarily need to

  9. FOTOLIZA DIRECTĂ A CISTEINEI ŞI TIOUREEI ÎN SOLUŢII APOASE

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    Angela Serghei Lis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A fost studiată fotoliza directă în soluţii apoase a tioureei (TU şi cisteinei pe sisteme model cu scopul de a estima rolul lor în procesele ce decurg în apele naturale. S-a constatat că atât tioureea, cât şi cisteina se supun fotolizei directe la iradiere cu diferite surse de lumină artificială. Din rezultatele obţinute se poate afirma că viteza de oxidare a acestor tioli depinde direct proporţional de concentraţia iniţială a tiolului în sistem, precum şi de spectrul de emisie al lămpii. Au fost determinate randamentele cuantice ale tioureei şi cisteinei cu ajutorul actinometrului chimic ferioxala­tul de potasiu (K3[Fe(C2O43] · 3H2O. S-a constatat că randamentul cuantic al TU este cu mult mai mare ca unitatea, ceea ce denotă că în procesul de distrugere a tioureei doar la etapa iniţială are loc reacţia fotochimică, care este urmată de reacţii chimice, posibil radicalice. Deci, TU poate fi iniţiator al reacţiilor de autopurificare chimică în apele naturale.DIRECT PHOTOLYSIS OF THE CYSTEINE AND THIOUREA IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONSIt was studied direct photolysis in aqueous solutions of the thiourea and cysteine on the model system in order to estimate their role in the processes arising in the natural waters. It has been found that both of them, thiourea and cysteine, have been subjected to direct photolysis at irradiation with different artificial light sources. From the results obtained it was found that oxidation rate of these thiols depends directly proportional to the initial concentration of thiol in the system and the emission spectrum of the lamp. There were determined quantum yields of thiourea and cysteine using chemical actinometer K3[Fe(C2O43] · 3H2O. It was found that the quantum yield of thiourea is much greater than unity, which shows that on the destruction of thiourea only at the initial stage occurs photochemical reaction, which is followed by chemical reactions, possibly radical reactions, so

  10. Çeviri: Tarihimizi Öğrenmeli ve Öğretmeliyiz - Mehmed ZEKİ

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    Uğur Akbulut

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Tarih vekayi-i güzeştenin bir mirât-ı meclâsıdır. Orada ebnâ-yı âdemin hüsn-i idare yüzünden mazhar olduğu saadet, sû-i idare cihetinden uğradığı felaket pek ayân bir surette görülür. Bunun içindir ki hemen herkeste tarih okumak merakı günden güne tezâyüd ediyor. Ancak müstebidd idareler geçmiş zamanlara ve o zamanların ahvâl ve hadisâtına taht-ı kahırlarında bulundurdukları halkın vukuf hâsıl etmelerini arzu itmedikleri için okunmasını, okutmasını istemedikleri ulûmun birisi de tarihtir. İşte bu sebeple bizde tarih okunmuyor, okutulmuyordu. Vakta ki şems-i münîr-i hürriyet mülkün afâk-ı garbîsinden sâha-pervez-i tulû oldu, herkeste tarih okumak ve yazmak hevesi de uyandı. Gazeteler, mecmûalar muttasıl tarihimizden, onun sahâif-i müşâşâsından bahsediyor, vakit vakit kitaplar da neşr olunuyordu. Fakat itiraf zaruretinde bulunuyoruz, bu sa‘ylar hakkıyla müsmir olamadı ve yazılan makalelerden, bastırılan kitaplardan pek azı felsefe-i tarihin ruh ve manasına muvafık düştü. Sonra harplerin birbirini takip etmesi gibi gavâil în ü ân her şeyde olduğu vechle bu sahada da sükûtı istilzâm etti, maa-hazâ şâyân-ı şükrandır ki son zamanlarda yine böyle bir merak uyandı.

  11. Medium doses of daily vitamin D decrease falls and higher doses of daily vitamin D3 increase falls: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lynette M; Gallagher, J Christopher; Suiter, Corinna

    2017-10-01

    Falls are a serious health problem in the aging population. Because low levels of vitamin D have been associated with increased fall rates, many trials have been performed with vitamin D; two meta-analyses showed either a small effect or no effect of vitamin D on falls. We conducted a study of the effect of vitamin D on serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and data on falls was collected as a secondary outcome. In a 12-month double blind randomized placebo trial, elderly women, mean age 66 years, were randomized to one of seven daily oral doses of vitamin D or placebo. The main inclusion criterion for study was a baseline serum 25OHDvitamin D on falls followed a U-shaped curve whether analyzed by dose or serum 25OHD levels. There was no decrease in falls on low vitamin D doses 400, 800 IU, a significant decrease on medium doses 1600, 2400,3200 IU (p=0.020) and no decrease on high doses 4000, 4800 IU compared to placebo (p=0.55). When compared to 12-month serum 25OHD quintiles, the faller rate was 60% in the lowest quintile <25ng/ml (<50nmol/L), 21% in the low middle quintile 32-38ng/ml (80-95nmo/L), 72% in the high middle quintile 38-46ng/ml (95-115nmo/L) and 45% in the highest quintile 46-66ng/ml (115-165nmol/L). In the subgroup with a fall history, fall rates were 68% on low dose, 27% on medium doses and 100% on higher doses. Fall rates on high doses were increased compared to medium doses (Odds Ratio 5.6.95% CI: 2.1-14.8). In summary, the maximum decrease in falls corresponds to a 12- month serum 25OHD of 32-38ng/ml (80-95nmol/L) and faller rates increase as serum 25OHD exceed 40-45ng/ml (100-112.5nmol/L). The Tolerable upper limit (TUL) recently increased in 2010 from 2000 to 4000 IU/day may need to be reduced in elderly women especially in those with a fall history. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bradyrhizobium neotropicale sp. nov., isolated from effective nodules of Centrolobium paraense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilli, Jerri E; Baraúna, Alexandre C; da Silva, Krisle; De Meyer, Sofie E; Farias, Eliane N C; Kaminski, Paulo E; da Costa, Ismaele B; Ardley, Julie K; Willems, Anne; Camacho, Natália N; Dourado, Fernanda dos S; O'Hara, Graham

    2014-12-01

    Root nodule bacteria were isolated from Centrolobium paraense Tul. grown in soils from the Amazon region, State of Roraima (Brazil). 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of seven strains (BR 10247(T), BR 10296, BR 10297, BR 10298, BR 10299, BR 10300 and BR 10301) placed them in the genus Bradyrhizobium with the closest neighbours being the type strains of Bradyrhizobium paxllaeri (98.8 % similarity), Bradyrhizobium icense (98.8 %), Bradyrhizobium lablabi (98.7 %), Bradyrhizobium jicamae (98.6 %), Bradyrhizobium elkanii (98.6 %), Bradyrhizobium pachyrhizi (98.6 %) and Bradyrhizobium retamae (98.3 %). This high similarity, however, was not confirmed by the intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) 16S-23S rRNA region sequence analysis nor by multi-locus sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analyses of five housekeeping genes (dnaK, glnII, gyrB, recA and rpoB) revealed Bradyrhizobium iriomotense EK05(T) ( = LMG 24129(T)) to be the most closely related type strain (95.7 % sequence similarity or less). Chemotaxonomic data, including fatty acid profiles [major components being C16 : 0 and summed feature 8 (18 : 1ω6c/18 : 1ω7c)], DNA G+C content, slow growth rate and carbon compound utilization patterns, supported the placement of the novel strains in the genus Bradyrhizobium. Results of DNA-DNA relatedness studies and physiological data (especially carbon source utilization) differentiated the strains from the closest recognized species of the genus Bradyrhizobium. Symbiosis-related genes for nodulation (nodC) and nitrogen fixation (nifH) placed the novel species in a new branch within the genus Bradyrhizobium. Based on the current data, these seven strains represent a novel species for which the name Bradyrhizobium neotropicale sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BR 10247(T) ( = HAMBI 3599(T)). © 2014 IUMS.

  13. Tratamiento de lesiones cutáneas con un copolímero modificado: estudio clínico observacional

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    Justo Rueda López

    Full Text Available Resumen: Objetivo: Evaluar la efectividad en términos de cicatrización de un copolímero acrílico con un grupo amino modificado para el tratamiento de heridas cutáneas de diferente etiología en el ámbito de la atención primaria de salud. Metodología: Se llevó a cabo un estudio prospectivo observacional, abierto, de medidas repetidas en una cohorte de pacientes que presentaban heridas cutáneas de diferente etiología. Se realizó un seguimiento de 4 semanas o hasta la cicatrización. Se estableció un procedimiento de curas cada 3 días, y contempló: limpieza, aplicación del producto de evaluación, cobertura con un tul graso, aplicación de gasa hidrófila y fijación con adhesivo de tejido no tejido. Resultados: Se incluyeron 16 lesiones y hubo tres pérdidas, por lo que se obtuvo una muestra final de 13 lesiones (5 lesiones por quemaduras de grado II, 3 lesiones traumáticas y 5 lesiones de evolución crónica. El 35,7% eran mujeres y la edad media de los pacientes era de 64,71 ± 19,37 (DE años. De las 13 lesiones, 11 cicatrizaron en menos de 4 semanas, con una tasa de cicatrización del 99,4%, y 2 lesiones cicatrizaron a los 32 días. El tiempo medio hasta la cicatrización fue de 16 ± 22,03 (DE días. Conclusiones: A pesar de disponer de una muestra muy reducida y lesiones heterogéneas por la etiología, los resultados han mostrado una elevada tasa de cicatrización y un buen comportamiento en el manejo del dolor.

  14. Biosorción de Fe, Al y Mn de drenajes ácidos de mina de carbón empleando algas marinas sargassum sp. en procesos continuos

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    Andrea Díaz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Los drenajes ácidos de mina (DAM son lixiviados resultantes de la explotación minera de carbón, presentan bajos pH y altas concentraciones de metales pesados que los convierten en fuertes contaminantes. Con el fin de disminuir su concentración, se diseñó un sistema de biosorción en continuo para remover los metales pesados de los drenajes empleando un material biosorbente económico, como las algas. Se estudió el efecto que tiene pretratar el alga sargassum sp. antes del proceso de biosorción, con soluciones 0,1 N de NaOH, Ca(OH2, NaCl, CaCl2, Na2SO4 y H2SO4; se obtuvieron porcentajes de remoción superiores al 80% a excepción del pretratamiento con H2SO4, el cual anuló la capacidad de sorción del alga. Se analizó la influencia de empaquetar el alga en dos materiales (malla plástica y tul poliéster con una configuración de prisma rectangular; pero se encontró que el material de empaquetamiento no afecta el proceso de biosorción de metales. Se estudió el proceso de biosorción en continuo en dos unidades de operación: una columna de lecho fijo con flujo ascendente y un tanque horizontal seccionado tipo canaleta con bafles, los cuales trataron adecuadamente 3,5 y 4,7 l de DAM respectivamente, empleando en cada uno de ellos 100 g de alga. Para solucionar el problema del alga residual, se optó por estudiar su calcinación como alternativa para su manejo. La ceniza obtenida a 700 ºC mantiene los metales removidos del DAM, además permanece estable al ataque de soluciones de diferente pH.

  15. Escala diagramática para avaliação da severidade da mancha-de-micosferela em morangueiro Diagramatic scale to evaluate the mycosphaerella blight severity in strawberry

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    Sergio Miguel Mazaro

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Uma escala diagramática com cinco níveis: 0,11; 0,51; 2,4; 10,2 e 34,9% foi desenvolvida e validada para quantificar a severidade da mancha-de-micosferela do morangueiro, causado por Mycosphaerella fragariae (Tul. Lin. A escala considerou os limites de severidade mínima e máxima da doença observados no campo e os níveis intermediários seguiram incrementos logarítmicos, obedecendo-se à "Lei do estímulo de Weber-Fechner". Inicialmente, a estimativa da severidade foi feita sem auxílio da escala em 30 folíolos com diferentes níveis de severidade, por sete indivíduos, sem experiência na avaliação da mancha-de-micosferela do morangueiro . Em seguida, os mesmos avaliadores utilizaram a escala diagramática proposta. As avaliações com a escala diagramática foram mais precisas e acuradas nas estimativas de todos os avaliadores, não ocorrendo erro sistemático na superestimativa ou subestimativa da doença entre estes. A escala diagramática proposta foi considerada adequada para estimar a severidade de mancha-de-micosferela em morangueiro.A diagramatic scale with five levels of disease severity: 0.11; 0.51; 2.4; 10.2 and 34.9% was developed and validated to assess mycosphaerella blight in strawberry, caused by Mycosphaerella fragariae. The scale was developed considering the maximum and minimum limits of disease severity observed in the field and the intermediate values followed logarithmic increments according to the "Stimulus Law by Weber-Fechner". Initially the estimates of severity were performed without the use of the scale in 30 leaves with different levels of severity. Validation was carried out by seven appraisers, without previous pratice in assessing mycosphaerella blight in strawberry. Then, the appraisers estimated the severity of the same leaves previously assessed using the proposed diagrammatic scale. Assessments with the diagrammatic scale were of great precision for all raters and did not constitute systematic

  16. THE RECTUS ABDOMINIS MUSCLE IN MALES AND FEMALES OF KERALA- A CADAVERIC STUDY

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    Vijayamma Kunnath Narayanan

    2017-06-01

    postgraduates. The cadavers were obtained after ethical clearance and were embalmed prior to the study. The rectus sheath was cut by a midline incision to expose the muscle. Measurements were taken, intersections noted and photographed. RESULTS Majority of the cadavers studied (88% had four tendinous intersections that were adherent to the anterior wall of the rectus sheath, but loosely attached to its posterior wall. This was against the description of three intersections seen in most of the anatomy books. The tendinous intersections above the level of umbilicus were complete in all the cadavers studied. There was also a marginal left-sided preponderance in the length of the rectus abdominis in both male and female cadavers. The pyramidalis muscle was seen to be absent in 25% of the cadavers. None of the foetal cadavers showed tendinous intersections. CONCLUSION The tendinous intersections help to increase the power of the muscle by dividing it into columns partially or completely. The presence of four tendinous intersections in most of the cadavers studied was a surprising finding. The absence of tendinous intersections in the foetal specimens could imply that they fully develop after birth, probably after the child becomes ambulant.

  17. Inventário arbóreo-urbano do município de Salto de Pirapora, SP

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    Daniele Porto Benatti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo realizar o inventário arbóreo-urbano em 24 bairros do Município de Salto de Pirapora, SP, por meio da avaliação quali-quantitativa. Para tanto, foram obtidas informações relacionadas à: espécie arbórea, situação da copa e do tronco, orientação do tronco, fitossanidade, interceptação das raízes no passeio, necessidade de tratos silviculturais, altura total e altura da primeira bifurcação, assim como características do espaço viário. Foram registrados 868 indivíduos, dos quais 679 foram catalogados em 71 espécies arbóreas. A espécie de maior frequência foi Caesalpinia pluviosa, representando 13,6% do total, seguida de Ficus benjamin (10,4%, Lagerstroemia indica (5,0% e Terminalia catappa (4,8%. Quanto à condição do tronco, 68,8% dos indivíduos arbóreos não apresentaram problemas; 85,7% das árvores observadas possuíam orientação simpodial adequada; poucas árvores apresentavam danos relacionados à fitossanidade que poderiam interferir em sua integridade e, ou, longevidade; 69,6% não interferiam, de forma direta, na calçada; 32,8% das árvores necessitavam de podas por estarem acima da fiação elétrica; 0,5% necessitava de substituição; e 5,7% precisavam ser removidas. Com relação à altura total das árvores, 63,0% apresentavam crescimento menor que 5 m; e 65,3% com altura da primeira bifurcação do tronco inferior a 1,80 m. O Bairro Primavera destacou-se pelo maior número de árvores em sua urbanização. Em contrapartida, o Jardim Amélia apresentou apenas um indivíduo. Dessa forma, observou-se que cada bairro possuía sua particularidade, e ações de manutenção e enriquecimento, tanto relacionadas ao número de espécies quanto à quantidade de indivíduos, deveriam ser consideradas no planejamento urbano-arbóreo daquele município.

  18. SIFAT ORGANOLEPTIK DAN KANDUNGAN TOTAL FENOL MINUMAN REMPAH TRADISONAL (MINUMAN SECANG

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    Dwi Eva Nirmagustina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Secang drink is an Indonesian traditional drink, especially from Yogyakarta and Central Jawa, that is made from secang wood (Caesalpinia sappan L which gives red color like wine.  Except secang wood in secang drink, there are also other spices, such as ginger, clove, lemongras, cinnamon bark, cardamon, and nutmeg.  The active component of spices mostly from phenolic compound, including brazilin dan brazilein (secang wood, zingiberen, gingerol, dan shogaol (ginger, eugenol (clove, geraniol, citronellal, citronellol, lemonene (lemongrass, sineol dan sinamaldehida (cinnamon bark, cineol dan pinen (kapulaga, myristicin dan safrol (nutmeg.  This research objectives were to investigate the effect of various types of phenols in the spices of the organoleptic properties and phenol total content of secang drink. The treatments were the formulation of secang drink, secang wood (F1, secang wood and red ginger (F2, secang wood, red ginger, lemongrass (F3, secang wood, red ginger, lemongrass, clove (F4, secang wood, red ginger, lemongress, clove, cinnamon bark (F5, secang wood, red ginger, lemongrass, clove, cinnamon bark, cardamon (F6, secang wood, red ginger, lemongrass, clove, cinnamon bark, cardamon, nutmeg (F7.  The formulation of secang drink were 1 liter water, 5 stalk secang wood (1 cm, 100 gram red ginger, 2 clove, 2 lemongrass, 2 stalk cinnamon bark (1 cm, 2 cardamon, 1/3 nutmeg, 100 gram sugar, 1 tablespoon.  Based on the average value of the panelist's favorite degree on color, aroma, flavor, and overall appearance of the most high secang drinks in a row is the formulation 1 (3,4, formulation 2 (3.0, formulation 2 (2.8 , and the formulation of 2, 4, 5, and 6 (2.8. There were differences between the treatment of color and aroma, but nots between the treatment of taste and overall appearance.  The formulation 1 of secang drinks contained the lowest total phenol (117.989 mg/L and the  formulation 7 of secang drinks contained the highest total

  19. EQUATIONS FOR LEAF AREA ESTIMATION IN SOME SPECIES ADAPTED TO THE BRAZILIAN SEMI-ARID

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    Paulo Sérgio Lima e Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar equações do tipo y = a + bx, onde y = área foliar e x = comprimento da folha (C x largura da folha (L, que permitam a estimação da area foliar, a partir de C e L, em nove espécies adaptadas à região Semi-Árida brasileira. Cem folhas foram coletadas do terço mediano da copa de diversas árvores de espécies de folhas simples (Auxemma oncocalyx, Ao; Bauhinia forticata, Bf; Combretum leprosum, Cl e de espécies com folhas compostas: Azadirachta indica (Ai, Caesalpinia bracteosa (Cb, Leucaena leucocephala (Ll, Mimosa caesalpiniifolia (Mc, Schinus terebenthifolius (St, and Tamarindus indica (Ti. Nas espécies com folhas compostas, C, L e A foram medidos em folhas intactas (sem folíolos destacados e nos folíolos destacados. O coeficiente linear foi significativo em Ao e Bf, e não significativo, com folhas intactas em Ai, Cb, St, e Ti. Todos os coeficientes angulares foram diferentes de zero, mas somente em Mc esses coeficientes não diferiram entre si, quando as equações foram ajustadas a partir de folhas intactas e a partir de folíolos destacados. O coeficiente de determinação nas espécies de folhas simples variou de 0,85 to 0,97, enquanto em folhas compostas a variação correspondente foi de 0,28 a 0,93, indicando que a variação na área foliar explicada pela regressão é maior em espécies de folhas simples. Na maioria das espécies de folhas compostas o coeficiente de determinação foi maior quando a estimação foi feita a partir de folhas intactas, exceto em ST.

  20. Crescimento inicial de espécies florestais na recomposição da mata ciliar em taludes submetidos à técnica da bioengenharia de solos.

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    Francisco Sandro Rodrigues Holanda

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A Bacia Hidrográfica do rio São Francisco, vem sendo submetida a fortes impactos ambientais por meio de alterações do regime hidrológico e sedimentológico, além de avançada destruição da sua mata ciliar. A vegetação ciliar possui importante função na proteção das margens dos rios promovida pela cobertura vegetal e seu sistema radicular, melhorando a agregação de um solo pouco coeso, diminuindo o arraste de partículas e, consequentemente resultando em menor taxa de erosão e assoreamento do curso d'água. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o crescimento inicial de espécies florestais em talude marginal submetido à técnica de bioengenharia de solos no rio São Francisco. A bioengenharia de solos foi composta pela cobertura longitudinal do talude com o biotêxtil (Tela Fibrax® 400BF, e em razão das variações diárias de cota do rio foram também utilizados retentores de sedimentos (Bemalonga® D40 para redução ao impacto da água na base do talude, evitando o solapamento promovido pelo fluxo e refluxo das ondas. Antes da fixação do biotêxtil, foram semeadas a lanço sementes da espécie Brachiaria decumbens para promoção de uma rápida cobertura vegetal. Em seguida foram plantadas mudas de seis espécies florestais nativas da região: aroeira vermelha (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi., pau-pombo (Tapirira guianensis Aubl., mulungu (Erythrina velutina Willd., tamboril (Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vellozo Morong, canafístula (Cassia grandis L.f. e pau-ferro (Caesalpinia leiostachya (Bentham Ducke. O desenvolvimento das mudas foi analisado por meio da Taxa de Crescimento Relativo de Altura da parte aérea e Diâmetro do colo. Após 360 dias, ao final das avaliações, observou-se que o maior número de indivíduos vivos foi identificado no tratamento com bioengenharia de solos. A grande densidade e agressivo crescimento da espécie Brachiaria decumbens na área com biotêxtil, trouxe danos para o

  1. Análise quali - quantitativa da vegetação e dos elementos arquitetônicos da Praça Dom Assis, Jaboticabal, São Paulo

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    Gisele Sales Batista

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available As praças são espaços públicos urbanos livres de edificações e que propiciam convivência e recreação para seus usuários, além de contribuírem para o embelezamento das cidades, desempenhando uma função importante no contexto urbanístico ambiental. Tendo em vista a importância das praças e as conseqüências do crescimento urbano, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a situação atual e usos da Praça Dom Assis de Jaboticabal, mediante análise quali-quantitativa da vegetação e dos elementos arquitetônicos e uma pesquisa de opinião pública com a população. Foi realizado um levantamento da vegetação local (árvores, arbustos, palmeiras e herbáceas ornamentais e uma pesquisa de opinião foi aplicada na praça, em dias da semana e horários diferentes, por meio de 100 questionários com perguntas diretas aos entrevistados. A praça possui rica vegetação, com 36 espécies divididas em 18 famílias botânicas num total de 84 indivíduos, destacando-se entre as arbóreas, as sibipirunas (Caesalpinia peltophoroides, cássia-imperial (Cassia fistula e algumas espécies de palmeiras. Pôde-se identificar que se trata de um local muito freqüentado por pessoas de diversas faixas etárias, prevalecendo idosos. Conclui-se que atualmente a praça tende mais a um bosque no meio urbano, proporcionando conforto térmico em um clima de verão tão severo como o de Jaboticabal. Palavras-chave: Arborização urbana, espaços públicos, paisagismo.

  2. In vitro anti-proliferative activity on colon cancer cell line (HT-29) of Thai medicinal plants selected from Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipe database "MANOSROI III".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosroi, Aranya; Akazawa, Hiroyuki; Akihisa, Toshihiro; Jantrawut, Pensak; Kitdamrongtham, Worapong; Manosroi, Worapaka; Manosroi, Jiradej

    2015-02-23

    Thai/Lanna region has its own folklore wisdoms including the traditional medicinal plant recipes. Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipe database "MANOSROI III" has been developed by Prof. Dr. Jiradej Manosroi. It consists of over 200,000 recipes for all diseases including cancer. To investigate the anti-proliferative and apoptotic activities on human colon cancer cell line (HT-29) as well as the cancer cell selectivity of the methanolic extracts (MEs) and fractions of the 23 selected plants from the "MANOSROI III" database. The 23 selected plants were extracted with methanol under reflux and evaluated for their anti-proliferative activity by sulforhodamine B assay. The 5 plants (Gloriosa superba, Caesalpinia sappan, Fibraurea tinctoria, Ventilago denticulata and Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) with potent anti-proliferative activity were fractionated by liquid-liquid partition to give 4 fractions including each hexane (HF), methanol-water (MF), n-butanol (BF) and water (WF) fractions. They were tested for anti-proliferative activity and cancer cell selectivity. The ME and fractions of G. superba which showed potent anti-proliferative activity were further examined for morphological changes and apoptotic activities by acridine orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EB) staining. The ME of G. superba root showed active with the highest anti-proliferative activity at 9.17 and 1.58 folds of cisplatin and doxorubicin, respectively. After liquid-liquid partition, HF of V. denticulata, MFs of F. tinctoria, V. denticulata and BF of P. tetragonolobus showed higher anti-proliferative activities than their MEs. The MF of G. superba indicated the highest anti-proliferative activity at 7.73 and 1.34 folds of cisplatin and doxorubicin, respectively, but only 0.86 fold of its ME. The ME and HF, MF and BF of G. superba and MF of F. tinctoria demonstrated high cancer cell selectivity. At 50 µg/ml, ME, HF, MF and BF of G. superba demonstrated higher apoptotic activities than the two standard drugs

  3. Use of fog water to the initial establishment of tree species under conditions of barren Lomas in the Quebrada Topará, Chincha-Perú

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, A.; Cabrera, R.; Bederski, K.; Orellana, A.

    2010-07-01

    The Quebrada Topara is located in the Peruvian coastal desert (13012'L.S, 76009'L.W.) and is influenced by the fog during the winter months, these conditions of high humidity allows its use to achieve the establishment of a permanent vegetation cover Huaquina hill, which is representative at the place of study. Uncounted fog water can be captured and used for irrigation of plants. Also due to the absence of any tree species coverage in this region is not known which or which could have a better performance under these environmental conditions, We used to native species Caesalpinia spinosa "tara" and Schinus molle "molle" also introduced species Casuarina equisetifolia "Casuarina", as these could have a better adaptation. Soil analysis determined a high salinity and nitrogen poverty, preventing water infiltration into the soil and is not used by the plant so that the saline soil difficult to establish plants. This research can be considered an exploratory phase, the objectives were: to determine the potential for fog water harvesting to capture in the study area, to assess for 20 months the initial performance of the species tara, molle and casuarina, and profit incorporation in the final sowing of organic matter and soil amendments to facilitate a better development of plants. 3 standard fog collector (SFC) proposed by Schemenauer and Cereceda (1993) were installed and we evaluated the capture water during 31 months, from June 2007 to December 2009, finding much water collected in the winter months, the average annual in the 3 SFC was similar (1.1, 1.2 and 1.1 L m -2 day-1) which allows us to plan according to necessary the best way to harness and store water to supply the plants. It was found that native species, tara and molle were more adaptable to extreme conditions of the place that introduced casuarina species. The tara does grow faster in height and stem diameter, also achieves a good coverage to intercept fog water itself making it more viable and capable

  4. A Novel Pharmacological Method to Study the Chinese Medicinal Formula Hua-Zheng-Hui-Sheng-Dan

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    Rui Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Hua-Zheng-Hui-Sheng-Dan (HZHSD was used as an experimental model to explore research methods of large formulae in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM using current molecular biology approaches. Materials and Methods. The trypan blue exclusion assay was used to determine cell viability and cell numbers. Flow cytometry was used to assess cell cycle distribution and apoptosis. The concentration of cyclin D1 was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The median effect principle was used in drug combination studies. An orthogonal experimental design was used to estimate the effects of each herb at different concentrations. The HeLa xenograft mouse model was used to compare the antitumor activity of drugs in vivo. Results. Among the 35 herbs that comprise HZHSD, Radix Rehmanniae Preparata (RRP, Caesalpinia sappan (CS, Evodia rutaecarpa (ER, Folium Artemisiae Argyi (FAA, Leonurus japonicus Houtt (LJH, Tumeric (Tu, Radix Paeoniae Alba (RPA, and Trogopterus Dung (TD effectively inhibited the proliferation of HeLa and SKOV3 cells. Only RRR had an effect on HeLa and SKOV3 cell viability. According to the median effect principle, Angelica sinensis (Oliv. (AS, Tabanus (Ta, and Pollen Typhae (PT, which were proven to have a significant synergistic inhibitory effect on the proliferation of HeLa cells, were added to the original eight positive herbs. The combination of RPA and AS had a synergistic effect on inducing cell cycle S phase arrest and decreasing intracellular cyclin D1 in HeLa cells. By orthogonal experimental design, LJH and Tu were considered unnecessary herbs. The small formula (SHZHSD consisted of RPA, AS, RRR, Ta., TD, PT, ER, CS, and FAA and was able to inhibit cell proliferation and induce cell apoptosis. The antitumor effects of HZHSD and SHZHSD were also compared in vivo. Conclusions. Through molecular biology approaches both in vitro and in vivo, research into single drugs, and analysis using the median effect principle

  5. Caracterização das espécies utilizadas na arborização urbana em Silveira Martins, RS

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    Fernanda Alice Antonello Londero Backes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido na região da Quarta Colônia, município de Silveira Martins (RS. O objetivo foi fazer um inventário quali-quantitativo das espécies arbóreas, arbustivas e de palmeiras utilizadas na arborização urbana do município. Para isso, foram contabilizados a frequência de ocorrência das espécies, sua origem, estado geral das plantas, aspecto da copa, condição fitossanitária, além da observação da ocorrência de danos à fiação e às calçadas. Foram encontrados 1.126 indivíduos, distribuídos em 75 espécies, sendo as famílias predominantes Bignoniaceae e Fabaceae, e Handroanthus heptaphyllus (Vell. Mattos a espécie arbórea mais frequente. Quanto aos danos ao patrimônio público, observou-se que 96% dos indivíduos que compõem a arborização urbana não causaram prejuízos às calçadas e à fiação aérea. Concluiu-se que a arborização de Silveira Martins (RS se caracteriza por apresentar a maioria de indivíduos nativos do Brasil (58%, destacando-se as espécies Handroanthus heptaphyllus (Vell. Mattos, Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth., Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham. Glassman e Handroanthus chrysotrichus (Mart. ex A.DC. Mattos. Conclui-se que há a necessidade de uma revitalização da vegetação arbórea, arbustiva e de palmeiras, considerando que em Silveira Martins não existe planejamento da distribuição dos indivíduos vegetais no contexto urbano do município.

  6. Composição florísitica e fitossociologia de uma área de caatinga em Contendas do Sincorá, Bahia, microrregião homogênea da Chapada Diamantina Floristic and fitosociological survey of a caatinga area at "Contendas do Sincorá", Bahia State, a homogeneous microregion of the Chapada Diamantina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Fernandes Lima

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se levantar a cobertura vegetal de 11.034ha da Fazenda Extrema-Lapinha, 295 a 380m de altitude (13º46' a 14ºS e 41º3' a 41º10'W, Contendas do Sincorá, BA, na Chapada Diamantina. O clima é do tipo BSwh', estépico, semi-árido quente, com precipitação anual de 500-700mm, período chuvoso de novembro a janeiro, temperatura média de 23ºC e umidade relativa de 60-80%. Predominam os solos Podzólicos Vermelho-Amarelo Equivalente Eutrófico e solos Litólicos Eutróficos, em relevo levemente ondulado. Foram distribuídas aleatoriamente 100 parcelas de 20x5m, sendo inventariadas as plantas com DAP > a 5cm. Foram encontrados 2.897 indivíduos abrangendo 71 espécies, 51 gêneros e 23 famílias botânicas, não sendo identificados 3,59% dos mesmos. As famílias Euphorbiaceae (15,67%, Mimosaceae (13,80%, Bignoniaceae (12,35%, Caesalpiniaceae (7,14%, Boraginaceae (6,63%, Polygonaceae (6,63%, Anacardiaceae (6,04%, Burseraceae (4,93%, Apocynaceae (4,59% e Combretaceae (4,28% correspondem a 82,09% dos indivíduos inventariados. Para as classes de diâmetro inventariadas, as Cactaceae corresponderam a 0,48%, sugerindo ser esta vegetação de caatinga de caráter xerófilo pouco acentuado. As 10 espécies mais importantes, determinadas pelo índice de valor de importância, foram Commiphora leptophloeos (22,28, Croton zehntneri (19,39, Mimosa sp. (17,24, Tabebuia spongiosa (16,99, Myracrodruon urundeuva (15,38, Anadenanthera tnacrocarpa (14,25, Coccoloba termiflora (11,73, Caesalpinia sp. (11,17, Cordia sp. (10,79 e Tabebuia sp. (10,20.The aim of this work was to conduct a floristic and phytosociological survey on 11,034 hectares of the Extrema Lapinha Farm (13º46' to 14º S and 41º03' to 41º10' W, altitude from 295 to 380m, in the town of "Contendas do Sincorá", in Chapada Diamantina, Bahia State. The climate is of the BSwh' type, hot semi-arid, with an annual rainfall of 500-700mm, the rainy season being from November to January, with

  7. Weed community and growth under the canopy of trees adapted to the brazilian semi-arid region Comunidade e crescimento de plantas daninhas sob a copa de árvores adaptadas ao semi-árido brasileiro

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    P.S.L. Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to evaluate the floristic composition and dry biomass of weeds under the canopy of seven perennial species adapted to the Semi-Arid region of Brazil, and correlate these characteristics with growth traits of the perennial species. The following perennial species were evaluated in two experiments (E1 and E2: mesquite (Prosopis juliflora, jucá (Caesalpinia ferrea, white popinac (Leucaena leucocephala, mofumbo (Combretum leprosum, neem (Azadirachata indica, sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia and tamarind (Tamarindus indica. In E1, the seven species were evaluated in a random block design with four replicates and nine plants per plot. In E2, evaluation comprised four species (mesquite, jucá, white popinac, and tamarind in a random block design with eight replicates and nine plants per plot. A circle with an area of 1.77 m² was established around the trunk of each plant, two years after they were transplanted to the permanent location. The weeds collected within this circle were cut even with the ground, classified and weighed. At this time, plant height, and crown and stem diameters were evaluated in all trees of each plot. In E1 there were no differences between tree species as to weed frequency under their canopies; however, weed growth was smaller under the canopy of sabiá trees. Mesquite and sabiá had the greatest plant height and crown diameter means, but only sabiá had the greatest stem diameter. In E2, the perennial species were not different with regard to weed frequency and growth under their canopies, but mesquite had the greatest growth, as measured by plant height (with significant results for jucá as well and crown and stem diameter.Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar a composição florística e a biomassa de plantas daninhas sob a copa de sete espécies perenes adaptadas à região semi-árida do Brasil, e correlacionar essas características com características do crescimento das esp

  8. STUDY OF THE ARBORIZATION AND GREEN AREAS OF THE CAMPUS II OF THE FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF GOIÁS, BRAZIL ESTUDO DA ARBORIZAÇÃO E DAS ÁREAS VERDES DO CAMPUS II DA UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE GOIÁS

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    Márcia Yuriko Hashimoto

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Continuing the study of the green areas of the Campus II of the Federal University of Goiás it was developed a research in order to check the situation of the arborization at Campus. The sites of the present study consisted of spaces among buildings, streets, places, parking places and a little wood. A scale of 1:5000 was used to localize them in an aerophotogramatic plant The plants were located and identified. The native species are remainders of the semideciduous forest occurring in the locality, e. g. Apuleia molaris Spruce (garapa, Anadenanthera peregrina L. (angico, Cedrela fissilis Vel. (cedro and Tabebuia serratifolia (Vahl. Nichols. (ipê amarelo and many other species. Spathodea campanulata Beauv. (espatódea, Delonix regia Rafin (flamboyant, Pachira aquatica Aublet. (munguba, Caesalpinia echinata Lan. (pau-brasil and Syagrus oleracea (Mat. Becc. (guariroba are some of the exotic species from other states and from the flora of Goiás. The totality of 1,389 individuals were distributed among 43 families and 84 genres. The study showed that some species have not been planted in adequate localities because of the high tonnage, root system and falling of the leaves. This investigation will permit an amplification, improvement of the arborization and recomposition of the green areas of Campus II. It will also contribute to future landscaping projects.

    Em continuidade ao estudo das áreas verdes do Campus II da UFG, desenvolveu-se um trabalho para verificar a situação da arborização localizada no referido Campus. O local para o estudo da vegetação consistiu nos espaços entre prédios, sistema viário, praças, estacionamentos e mini-bosque e para a localização dos mesmos usou-se uma planta aerofotogram

  9. Plantas medicinais utilizadas em comunidades rurais de Oeiras, semiárido piauiense Medicinal plants used in rural communities from Oeiras Municipality, in the semi-arid region of Piauí State (PI, Brazil

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    F.C.S. Oliveira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi realizado no período de fevereiro de 2007 a maio de 2008, em vinte e uma comunidades rurais do município de Oeiras (07º00'54''S e 42º08'06''W, localizadas em área de transição vegetacional Caatinga/Cerrado, onde predomina a Caatinga. Objetivou-se conhecer as plantas tradicionalmente utilizadas pela população com fins terapêuticos. As coletas botânicas seguiram metodologia usual e os exemplares identificados foram incorporados ao acervo do Herbário Graziela Barroso (TEPB. Como procedimento metodológico realizou-se entrevistas semi-estruturadas com formulários padronizados a 20 moradores indicados por líderes comunitários locais como pessoas de reconhecido saber, que acompanharam as coletas. As espécies citadas foram agrupadas em de17 categorias de acordo com a Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS. Os dados quantitativos foram obtidos através do cálculo da Importância Relativa (IR para cada espécie e do Fator de Consenso dos Informantes (FCI. Assim, identificou-se 167 etnoespécies, distribuídas em 59 famílias botânicas e 143 gêneros, sendo 65,86% nativas. As famílias com maior representatividade em número de espécies foram a Leguminosae (28 e a Euphorbiaceae (18. Os gêneros mais representativos foram Croton L. (9, Senna Mill. (5, Jatropha L. e Solanum L. (4. Caesalpinia ferrea Mart., Ximenia americana L., Myracrodruon urundeuva Allem. e Lippia alba L., obtiveram os maiores valores de IR de 1,79; 1,86; 1,21; 1,14; respectivamente. Salienta-se a elevada frequência de usos terapêuticos destas espécies, concentradas no tratamento dos transtornos do sistema respiratório (56 espécies e das doenças infecciosas intestinais, hepáticas e helmintíases (65, sendo gripe e diarréia as doenças mais citadas. A folha é a parte do vegetal mais utilizada na medicina caseira local (31,5% dos casos e as formas de preparo mais utilizadas são a decocção (32,2% dos casos seguida por infusão (23,8%. Estes dados

  10. Florística e classificação da regeneração natural em Floresta Ombrófila Mista na Floresta Nacional de São Francisco de Paula, RS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor da Silva Narvaes

    2009-10-01

    ádicos; e G-3, na posição topográfica da encosta superior/platô, que, por conseguinte, não sofre influência da elevação da umidade. As espécies indicadoras dos grupos foram: Sebastiania brasiliensis Spreng. (G-1; Matayba elaeagnoides Radek., Myrceugenia myrcioides Cambess O. Berg, Myrceugenia oxysepala (Burret D. Legrand et Kausel e Cinnamomum glaziovii (Mez Kosterm. (G-2; e Zanthoxylum petiolare A. St.-Hil  & Tul. (G-3.

  11. "Kes kaunis on, peab andma vastse võsu..." : [sonetid] / William Shakespeare ; tlk. Harald Rajamets, Ants Oras

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Shakespeare, William, 1564-1616

    2006-01-01

    Sisu: "Kes kaunis on, peab andma vastse võsu..." ; "Sa peeglist näed: need palgejooned nüüd..." ; "Seesama aeg, mis kunstipeenelt voolib..." ; "Miks muusika teeb nukraks sind, kes ise..." ; "Ei, armastust ei tunne sinu rind..." ; "Nii ruttu, kui sa hääbud, uueks sirgud..." ; "Kui kuulen, kuidas aega mõõdab kell..." ; "Kuid miks sa ise tõhusamal moel..." ; "Kas suvepäeva sarnaseks sind kiita?..." ; "Aeg, õgard, küüned lõvil tömbiks kääna... ; "Ei veena peegel mind, et olen vana..." ; "Just nagu näitleja, kel kinni keel..." ; "Mu silm kui taidur võttis pilti teha..." ; "Mu armu isand, kelle truu vasall..." ; "Ma reisist väsinuna heidan sängi..." ; "Kui õnnest hüljatuna nutan sala..." ; "Kui vaikse leebe mõtte kohtu ette..." ; "Ma olen näinud küll, kuis tõusev päike..." ; "Ma tunnistan, et meid on siiski kaks..." ; "Nii nagu isa, vanadusest nõrka..." ; "Kui sulen laud, mu silmad hästi näevad..." ; "Nii ränk on reisida mul tüütul teel..." ; "Mis on su olemus, mis tuum su, miks..." ; "Ei kuningate uhked marmorsambad..." ; "Arm, uuenda end, nii et öelda sust..." ; "Kui uut ei olegi, vaid kõik on sama..." ; "Nii nagu lained ulgumerelt randa..." ; "Neiks päeviks, kui kord aeg mu armsal palge..." ; "Et näen, kuis aja käsi kõike lõhub..." ; "Kui pronksi, kivi, maad ja merd võib neelda..." ; "Mu tusk on ränk, nüüd surma kutsuks küll..." ; "Kui suren, ära leina mind sa kaua..." ; "Sa minus seda aastaaega näed..." ; "Mul sinust kirjutades arg on meel..." ; "Oo hüvasti! Liig kallis mul su hind..." ; "Siis vihka mind, kui pead, ja kohe praegu..." ; "Mõnd uhkeks teeb ta kunst, mõnd sünnipära..." ; "Sust eemal olin kevadel, mu arm..." ; "Kui möödaläinud aja kroonikais..." ; "Mis on veel ajul paberile kanda..." ; "Jah, tõsi, olen käinus siin ja seal..." ; "Ma uskuda ei saa, et murda suudab..." ; "On parem olla halb kui halvaks peetud..." ; "Ei, aeg, sa ära hoople, et mind muudad..." ; "Mu muusika, kui muusikat sa teed

  12. Pyroclasts Key to Age and Use of Meter-Size Granite Basins, Sierra Nevada, CA (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. G.; Gorden, M. A.; Sisson, T. W.

    2010-12-01

    More than 1000 meter-size granite basins at more than 220 sites occur in a 240-km-long belt from Lake Isabella north to the San Joaquin River on the west slope of the southern Sierra Nevada. The circular basins are carved in granitic outcrops at an average elevation of 1950 m. They range in volume from 40 to 1400 liters, median 130 liters. The basins display features compatible with a man-made origin, but required enormous, sustained labor to excavate. Until now their apparent purpose was believed to be some aspect of food preparation (Moore, Gorden, Robinson, Moring, 2008). About 120 km north of this belt a separate cluster of more than 350 similar granite basins occurs near a rare salt spring. They were clearly made by Indians to contain saline water to produce salt by evaporation (Moore and Diggles, 2009). An early study identified rhyolitic volcanic ash in the bottom of many basins in Sequoia National Park at both Giant Forest and at Redwood Meadow 13 km ESE (Stewart, 1929). That ash is unavailable, having been removed in recent time. Subsequent study of meadowland soils identified two ash layers in the region from explosive eruptions in the Mono Lake area: Tephra 1 and Tephra 2 (Wood, 1977). Later work indicates that Tephra 1 was erupted from the Glass Creek vent of the Inyo Craters (Miller, 1985) and that its refined age by tree-ring techniques is AD 1350 (Millar, King, Westfall, Alden, Delany, 2006). A fossil forest killed by Tephra 1 differs from modern forests in that it grew in the warmer climate of the Medieval Warm Period (MWP)--a period when drought conditions prevailed at lower elevations (Stine, 1994; Millar et al, 2006). In July 2010 ash was discovered near the bottom of a pristine granite basin (TUL-496) in a remote area of Giant Sequoia National Monument 14.5 km NW of Giant Forest. High-beam-current electron microprobe analyses of pumice glasses give Zr 145-420 ppm, homogeneous within lapilli, and correlated with MgO and CaO concentrations. The

  13. Fungal Planet description sheets: 469-557.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J; Burgess, T I; Hardy, G E St J; Crane, C; Barrett, S; Cano-Lira, J F; Le Roux, J J; Thangavel, R; Guarro, J; Stchigel, A M; Martín, M P; Alfredo, D S; Barber, P A; Barreto, R W; Baseia, I G; Cano-Canals, J; Cheewangkoon, R; Ferreira, R J; Gené, J; Lechat, C; Moreno, G; Roets, F; Shivas, R G; Sousa, J O; Tan, Y P; Wiederhold, N P; Abell, S E; Accioly, T; Albizu, J L; Alves, J L; Antoniolli, Z I; Aplin, N; Araújo, J; Arzanlou, M; Bezerra, J D P; Bouchara, J-P; Carlavilla, J R; Castillo, A; Castroagudín, V L; Ceresini, P C; Claridge, G F; Coelho, G; Coimbra, V R M; Costa, L A; da Cunha, K C; da Silva, S S; Daniel, R; de Beer, Z W; Dueñas, M; Edwards, J; Enwistle, P; Fiuza, P O; Fournier, J; García, D; Gibertoni, T B; Giraud, S; Guevara-Suarez, M; Gusmão, L F P; Haituk, S; Heykoop, M; Hirooka, Y; Hofmann, T A; Houbraken, J; Hughes, D P; Kautmanová, I; Koppel, O; Koukol, O; Larsson, E; Latha, K P D; Lee, D H; Lisboa, D O; Lisboa, W S; López-Villalba, Á; Maciel, J L N; Manimohan, P; Manjón, J L; Marincowitz, S; Marney, T S; Meijer, M; Miller, A N; Olariaga, I; Paiva, L M; Piepenbring, M; Poveda-Molero, J C; Raj, K N A; Raja, H A; Rougeron, A; Salcedo, I; Samadi, R; Santos, T A B; Scarlett, K; Seifert, K A; Shuttleworth, L A; Silva, G A; Silva, M; Siqueira, J P Z; Souza-Motta, C M; Stephenson, S L; Sutton, D A; Tamakeaw, N; Telleria, M T; Valenzuela-Lopez, N; Viljoen, A; Visagie, C M; Vizzini, A; Wartchow, F; Wingfield, B D; Yurchenko, E; Zamora, J C; Groenewald, J Z

    2016-12-01

    Novel species of fungi described in this study include those from various countries as follows: Australia : Apiognomonia lasiopetali on Lasiopetalum sp., Blastacervulus eucalyptorum on Eucalyptus adesmophloia , Bullanockia australis (incl. Bullanockia gen. nov.) on Kingia australis , Caliciopsis eucalypti on Eucalyptus marginata , Celerioriella petrophiles on Petrophile teretifolia , Coleophoma xanthosiae on Xanthosia rotundifolia , Coniothyrium hakeae on Hakea sp., Diatrypella banksiae on Banksia formosa , Disculoides corymbiae on Corymbia calophylla , Elsinoë eelemani on Melaleuca alternifolia , Elsinoë eucalyptigena on Eucalyptus kingsmillii , Elsinoë preissianae on Eucalyptus preissiana , Eucasphaeria rustici on Eucalyptus creta , Hyweljonesia queenslandica (incl. Hyweljonesia gen. nov.) on the cocoon of an unidentified microlepidoptera, Mycodiella eucalypti (incl. Mycodiella gen. nov.) on Eucalyptus diversicolor , Myrtapenidiella sporadicae on Eucalyptus sporadica , Neocrinula xanthorrhoeae (incl. Neocrinula gen. nov.) on Xanthorrhoea sp., Ophiocordyceps nooreniae on dead ant, Phaeosphaeriopsis agavacearum on Agave sp., Phlogicylindrium mokarei on Eucalyptus sp., Phyllosticta acaciigena on Acacia suaveolens , Pleurophoma acaciae on Acacia glaucoptera , Pyrenochaeta hakeae on Hakea sp., Readeriella lehmannii on Eucalyptus lehmannii , Saccharata banksiae on Banksia grandis , Saccharata daviesiae on Daviesia pachyphylla , Saccharata eucalyptorum on Eucalyptus bigalerita , Saccharata hakeae on Hakea baxteri , Saccharata hakeicola on Hakea victoria , Saccharata lambertiae on Lambertia ericifolia , Saccharata petrophiles on Petrophile sp., Saccharata petrophilicola on Petrophile fastigiata , Sphaerellopsis hakeae on Hakea sp., and Teichospora kingiae on Kingia australis. Brazil : Adautomilanezia caesalpiniae (incl . Adautomilanezia gen. nov.) on Caesalpina echinata , Arthrophiala arthrospora (incl. Arthrophiala gen. nov.) on Sagittaria montevidensis , Diaporthe

  14. Registro de novos hospedeiros de Megaplatypus mutatus (Chapuis (Coleoptera, Platypodidae no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil (Nota Científica. A register of new hosts of Megaplatypus mutatus (Chapuis (Coleoptera, Platypodidae in the State of São Paulo (Scientific Note.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Borges CONFORTI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Megaplatypus mutatus (Chapuis éespécie nativa da América do Sul e é pragaprimária de espécies arbóreas exóticas e nativas.No município de Campinas, Estado de São Paulo,durante pesquisa realizada nos anos de 2004,2005 e 2006, visando descobrir a causa damortalidade de árvores que compõem o dossel defragmentos de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual noBosque dos Jequitibás e na Mata Santa Genebra,foi coletado material associado a várias espéciesarbóreas ainda não registradas na literatura.Schizolobium parahyba (Vel l . S. F. Bl ake,Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong,Livistona chinensis (Jacq. R. Br., Caesalpiniapluviosa (Benth. DC., Pittosporum undulatumVent., Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook Raf.,Mangifera indica L., Croton floribundus Spreng.,Croton piptocalyx Müll. Arg., Cariniana legalis(Mart. Kuntze, Luetzelburgia guaissaraToledo, Piptadenia gonoacantha (Mart. J. F.Macbr., Ficus benjamina L., Platypodium elegansVogel, Cariniana estrellensis (Raddi Kuntze,Machaerium stipitatum (DC. Vogel, Centrolobiumtomentosum Guillemin ex Benth., Pachira aquaticaAubl., Inga cf. vera Willd. ssp. affinis (DC. T.D.Penn., são registradas pela primeira vez comohospedeiros de M. mutatus no stado de São Paulo,Brasil. Plantas hospedeiras referidas em bibliografiatambém são relacionadas.Megaplatypus mutatus (Chapuis isnative from South America and it is a primary pestof native and exotic trees. In the county ofCampinas, state of São Paulo, during researchcarried out in the years of 2004, 2005 and 2006aiming at to discover the cause of the mortality oftrees that compose the canopy of fragments ofSemideciduous Forest in the Bosque dos Jequitibásand Mata Santa Genebra, was collected materialassociated with some species still not recorded inthe literature. Schizolobium parahyba (Vel l . S.F. Bl ake, Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell.Morong, Livistona chinensis (Jacq. R. Br.,Caesalpinia pluviosa (Benth. DC., Pittosporumundulatum Vent., Delonix

  15. A revision of the Axylus group of Agraeciini (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Conocephalinae) and of some other species formerly included in Nicsara or Anthracites Revision of the Indo-Australian Conocephalinae, Part 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrisch, Sigfrid

    2015-11-23

    . and E. ornata (Brunner, 1898) comb. nov. (from Axylus); Heminicsara excisa (Karny, 1926) comb. nov., H. insulana (Willemse, 1966) comb. nov., H. schlaginhaufeni (Karny, 1912) comb. nov., and H. viridipes (Karny, 1912) comb. nov. (from Nicsara); Heminicsara castaneipictus (Willemse, 1966) comb. nov., H. insularis (Willemse, 1942) comb. nov., and H. palauensis (Vickery & Kevan, 1999) comb. nov. (from Spinisternum); Heminicsara decipiens (Karny, 1926) comb. nov. and H. griffinii (Karny, 1911) comb. nov. (from Gonatacanthus); Heminicsara novaeguineae (Willemse, 1966) comb. nov. (from Eucoptaspis); Sulasara aethiops (Karny, 1931) comb. nov., S. karnyi (Willemse, 1932) comb. nov., and Sulasara sarasini (Karny, 1931) comb. nov. (from Nicsara); Papuacites nigrifrons (Karny, 1912) comb. nov. and P. nakanaiensis (Naskrecki & Rentz, 2010) comb. nov. (from Anthracites); Paramacroxiphus multispinosa (Bolivar, 1898) comb. nov. (from Nicsara); Palaeoagraecia globiceratus Vickery & Kevan, 1999 comb. nov. (from Macroxiphus). Odontocoryphus pullus Karny, 1907 becomes a new synonym of Macroxiphus sumatranus sumatranus (Haan, 1842). 87 species are described as new: nine species in Axylus: A. brachypterus sp. nov., A. dulang sp. nov., A. furcatus sp. nov., A. mengkoka sp. nov., A. montanus sp. nov., A. negros sp. nov. , A. superior sp. nov., A. totop sp. nov. , A. unicolor sp. nov.; six species in Anthracites: A. bilineatus sp. nov., A. flagellatus sp. nov., A. pyramidalis sp. nov., A. romblon sp. nov., A. sinuatus sp. nov., A. unispinus sp. nov.; four species in Euanthracites: E. bispinus sp. nov., E. eboreus sp. nov., E. ile sp. nov., E. uru sp. nov.; six species in Eucoptaspis: E. adonara sp. nov., E. hexamaculatus sp. nov., E. remotus sp. nov., E. stylatus sp. nov., E. trapezoides sp. nov., E. wawo sp. nov.; eight species in Eulobaspis: E. bacan C.Willemse & Ingrisch sp. nov., E. baduri sp. nov., E. buruensis sp. nov., E. ceramica C.Willemse & Ingrisch sp. nov., E. morotai sp. nov., E

  16. Soil fertility and {sup 137} Cs redistribution as related to land use, landscape and texture in a watershed of Paraiba State; Fertilidade do solo e redistribuicao de {sup 137} Cs em funcao da cobertura vegetal, relevo, e classes texturais, em uma microbacia hidrografica do Estado da Paraiba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Antonio Clementino dos

    2004-03-15

    Intensive land use and growing deforestation of the natural vegetation in Northeastern Brazil have contributed to the degradation of resources, particularly the decrease of soil fertility. As a result, biodiversity and ecosystem capacity to restore its resources after disturbances have been diminished. The decrease in soil fertility is more substantial in areas dominated by an undulating topography. In these areas, erosion is intensified when crops or pasture replaces natural vegetation. Even though degradation processes are reflected in environmental, social, and economical changes, there is a lack of information regarding the interrelationship between these changes and soil fertility and erosion. Thus, the 'Vaca Brava' watershed (14,04 km{sup 2}), located in the 'Agreste' region of Paraiba State, was selected to study the interrelationships between land use, landscape, particle size distribution, soil fertility and erosion using {sup 137} Cs redistribution. Small farms, where subsistence agriculture is intensive, are common in this watershed, as well as areas for environmental protection. A georreferenced survey of the watershed topography was initially carried out. Based on the survey data, the watershed was digitalized using a scale of 1:5000, and a 3-D map was created. Each landform element had its area determined on a area (absolute value) and percentage (relative value) basis. Shoulder, backslope and footslope positions represented 83% of the cultivated area in the watershed. A data base of 360 georreferenced soil samples (0-20 cm), collected using a stratified sampling scheme, was further created. Sites were stratified based on their landscape position (summit, shoulder, backslope, footslope, and toeslope) in factorial combination with land use (annual crops, pasture, Pennisetum purpureum, Mimosa caesalpiniae folia, bush fallow, and native forest). Physical analyses of the soil samples included particle size distribution and bulk density