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Sample records for caesalpinia pyramidalis tul

  1. Congenital malformations and other reproductive losses in goats due to poisoning by Poincianella pyramidalis (Tul.) L.P. Queiroz (=Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul.).

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    Santos Dos Reis, Suélen Dias; de Oliveira, Ricardo Santana; Correia Marcelino, Sóstenes Apolo; Silva Almeida E Macêdo, Juliana Targino; Riet-Correa, Franklin; da Anunciação Pimentel, Luciano; Ocampos Pedroso, Pedro Miguel

    2016-08-01

    In the semiarid region of Brazil, in areas with vegetation composed mainly of Poincianella pyramidalis, several cases of congenital malformation and reproductive losses were observed in goats and sheep from 2012 to 2014. To determine the teratogenic effect of P. pyramidalis, two groups of eight goats each were used. Goats from Group 1 received fresh P. pyramidalis, harvested daily, as the only roughage during the whole breeding and pregnancy period. Goats in Group 2 (control) received Cynodon dactylon (tifton) hay free choice. Ultrasound examination for pregnancy diagnosis was performed every 28 days. Four goats from Group 1 were pregnant on day 28 but not on day 56, suggesting embryonic death or abortion. Another goat from Group 1 died at day 70 of pregnancy, and the fetuses exhibited micrognathia. The other three goats bore six kids, three of which showed bone malformations in the limbs, spine, ribs, sternum, and head, including arthrogryposis, scoliosis and micrognathia. One kid also showed hypoplasia of the left pulmonary lobes. In the control group, all goats bore a total of 13 kids and none of them exhibited malformations. These results demonstrated that P. pyramidalis causes congenital malformations and other reproductive losses in goats.

  2. Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content of Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. and Sapium glandulosum (L. Morong from Northeastern Brazil

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    Carlos Henrique Tabosa Pereira da Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to quantify the phenolic content and evaluate the antioxidant potential of extracts from the bark and leaves of C. pyramidalis and S. glandulosum. The total phenolic content (TPC and total tannin content (TTC were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the total flavonoids content (TFC was measured via complexation with aluminum chloride. The antioxidant activity was evaluated with DPPH (2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and FIC (ferrous ion chelating assays. The TPC ranged between 135.55 ± 9.85 and 459.79 ± 11.65 tannic acid equivalents (TAE in mg/g material (mg TAE/g. The leaves of both species contained high levels of tannins and flavonoids. The crude ethanol extracts (CEE from the bark of C. pyramidalis showed high antioxidant activity when compared to ascorbic acid and rutin, whereas the CEE from the leaves was more efficient in chelating ferrous ions. C. pyramidalis had very high phenolic content and anti-radical activity, which indicates a need for further studies aimed at the purification and identification of compounds responsible for the antioxidant activity.

  3. Anatomia e densidade básica da madeira de Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. (Fabaceae), espécie endêmica da caatinga do Nordeste do Brasil

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    Silva,Lazaro Benedito da; Santos,Francisco de Assis Ribeiro dos; Gasson, Peter; Cutler, David

    2009-01-01

    Este trabalho objetivou estudar a anatomia e a densidade básica da madeira de Caesalpinia pyramidalis utilizada pelas comunidades locais, ocorrente na caatinga de Pernambuco, nos municípios de Serra Talhada e Sertânia, assim como comparar a percentagem dos elementos do lenho no tronco e nos galhos, na própria árvore, a fim de estabelecer o potencial total do lenho para produção de energia. As amostras do lenho do tronco (DAP) e de ramos de seis árvores da espécie foram coletadas nos dois muni...

  4. Anatomia e densidade básica da madeira de Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. (Fabaceae), espécie endêmica da caatinga do Nordeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Lazaro Benedito da; Santos,Francisco de Assis Ribeiro dos; Gasson, Peter; Cutler, David

    2009-01-01

    p.436-445 Este trabalho objetivou estudar a anatomia e a densidade básica da madeira de Caesalpinia pyramidalis utilizada pelas comunidades locais, ocorrente na caatinga de Pernambuco, nos municípios de Serra Talhada e Sertânia, assim como comparar a percentagem dos elementos do lenho no tronco e nos galhos, na própria árvore, a fim de estabelecer o potencial total do lenho para produção de energia. As amostras do lenho do tronco (DAP) e de ramos de seis árvores da espécie foram coletadas ...

  5. Biflavonoids and other phenolics from Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Fabaceae)

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    Bahia, Marcus V.; Santos, Jamile B. dos; David, Jorge M. [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; David, Juceni P. [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia

    2005-11-15

    The chloroform extract of the leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Caesalpinioidea, Fabaceae) yielded the new biflavonoid named caesalflavone, as well as podocarpusflavone A, agathisflavone, apigenin and kaempferol. The chloroform extract of the trunk wood gave 4,4'-dihydroxy-2'-methoxychalcone, (-)-syringaresinol, and methyl gallate. Biflavonoids were not found in trunk wood. Until now, C. pyramidalis is the first species in the genus to present biflavonoids. The structural elucidation of the isolated compounds and their derivatives were based on MS, IR, UV, 1D and 2D NMR spectral analyses. (au)

  6. Occurrence of biflavones in leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis specimens

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    Marcus V. Bahia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The chloroform partition of methanol extract of leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis was submitted to different chromatographic procedures which afforded besides agathisflavone and taxifolin, the minor biflavones loniflavone, amentoflavone, 5'- hydroxyamentoflavone and podocarpusflavone A. The structures of the compounds were established on the basis of NMR and MS data analysis. Besides, the content of biflavones of different specimens of C. pyramidalis, which are collected in different habitats of the Brazilian semi-arid region, was determinated by LC-APCI-MS analysis. These analysis demonstrated that only the specimens harvested in Bahia state showed collectively the presence of agathisflavone, amentoflavone, sequoiaflavone and podocarpusflavone A.

  7. Evaluation of the toxicity of the methanolic extract of Caesalpinia Pyramidalis, subjected to gamma radiation, compared to saline artemias; Avaliacao da toxicidade do extrato metanolico de Caesalpinia Pyramidalis, submetido a radiacao gama, frente a artemias salinas

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    Pessoa, Juanna G.; Santos, Mariana L.O.; Costa, Michelle C.A.; Siqueira, Williams N.; Silva, Luanna R.S.; Cabral, Daniela L.V.; Amancio, Francisco F.; Melo, Ana M.M.A., E-mail: marianasantos_ufpe@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the possible effect of irradiation of 60 Co in methanol extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (catingueira) with function of reducing the toxicity of the extract at concentrations of 1000, 500, 250 and 125 ppm irradiating them with doses of 5 kGy 7 kGy and 10 kGy, using lethality tests with saline Artemias.

  8. Antimicrobial activity and bioautographic study of antistaphylococcal components from Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tull.

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    Antonio Marcos Saraiva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of dry methanol and ethyl acetate extracts for the leaves, bark of the stem, peel of the root, flower, fruit and seed of Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tull. (catingueira was performed against seventeen isolates of Staphylococcus aureus MRSA multiresistant strains, which included two isolates of S. aureus MSSA and two ATCC strains. The antimicrobial activity was tested by the agar diffusion method and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC was determined. The dry methanol extract of the root showed good antimicrobial activity with a MIC of less than 0.5 mg.mL-1. The dry ethyl acetate extracts exhibited lower antimicrobial activity, which might be explained by solubility problems and less diffusion in the agar medium. Results of the bioautographies also confirmed inhibition halos corresponding to the active substances present in the leaves, as well as in the flower of C. pyramidalis. The phytochemical study of the leaves, bark of the stem, peel of the root, flower and fruit of extracts from C. pyramidalis confirmed the presence of a number of known antimicrobial agents including ursolic acid, quercetin, catechin, ellagic acid, sitosterol, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins and gallic acid.A determinação da atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos metanólicos e em acetato de etila da folha, casca do caule, casca da raiz, flor, fruto e semente de Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tull. foi realizada frente a dezessete isolados de Staphylococcus aureus MRSA multirresistentes, dois isolados de S. aureus MSSA e duas cepas padrão, pelas técnicas de poço/difusão em ágar e determinação das CMI pelo método de diluição em agar/multiinoculador de Stears. O extrato metanólico de casca da raiz indicou uma boa atividade, com CMI inferior a 0.5 mg.mL-1. Os extratos secos por extração em acetato de etila apresentaram menor atividade que se poderia explicar por problemas de solubilidade e menor difusão no meio de cultura em ágar. Resultados

  9. Evaluation of the Interaction between the Poincianella pyramidalis (Tul. LP Queiroz Extract and Antimicrobials Using Biological and Analytical Models.

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    Thiago P Chaves

    Full Text Available Poincianella pyramidalis (Tul. LP Queiroz (Fabaceae is an endemic tree of northeastern Brazil, occurring mainly in the Caatinga. Its medicinal use is widespread and is an important therapeutic option against diarrhea, dysentery, and respiratory and urinary infections, among other diseases. In this study we determined the chemical marker and evaluated the interaction between P. pyramidalis extract and a commercial antimicrobial through the use of biological and analytical models. To obtain the extract, an ethanol-water mixture (50:50 v/v was used as solvent. It was nebulized in a spray dryer using colloidal silicon dioxide as a drying adjuvant. The extract (ENPp was subjected to HPLC analysis to verify the presence of certain secondary metabolites. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of the extract against Gram-negative bacteria was determined by broth microdilution and the MIC of synthetic antimicrobial drugs in the presence and absence of the extract. The antioxidant activity of ENPp was evaluated by the DPPH method. The compatibility between the antimicrobial and the extract was evaluated by thermal analysis (TG/DTA. The acute toxicity of the extract was evaluated in vivo in rodents. The results indicate significant additive action of the extract on synthetic antibiotics, considerable antioxidant activity and absence of toxicity. This extract shows high potential for the development of formulations for antimicrobial therapy when used with a vegetable-active ingredient.

  10. Qualidade fisiológica de sementes de diferentes árvores matrizes de Poincianella pyramidalis (Tul. L. P. Queiroz

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    Cosmo Rufino de Lima

    Full Text Available A catingueira [Poincianella pyramidalis (Tul. L. P. Queiroz] é uma espécie arbórea endêmica do bioma Caatinga, bastante explorada devido ao seu potencial madeireiro, forrageiro e farmacológico. Face à relevância de sua importância, este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar a qualidade fisiológica das sementes entre matrizes de P. pyramidalis por meio de testes fisiológicos para fins de restauração ambiental. O estudo de campo foi conduzido na Fazenda Açude, município de Soledade-PB, onde foram selecionados 28 matrizes de catingueira, sendo as análises, realizadas no Laboratório de Análise de Sementes do Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal da Paraíba. Foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: teor de água, peso de mil sementes, número de sementes por quilograma, germinação, vigor {primeira contagem e índice de velocidade de germinação, comprimento e massa seca de plântulas, emergência, índice de velocidade e primeira contagem de emergência, envelhecimento acelerado (procedimento tradicional e solução saturada de NaCl}. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com os dados submetidos à análise de variância e a comparação entre as médias realizadas pelo teste de Scott-Knott a 5% de probabilidade. Com base nos resultados, a qualidade fisiológica das sementes de Poincianella pyramidalis varia mesmo quando oriundas de matrizes de uma única área de coleta; o teste de envelhecimento acelerado, utilizado no método tradicional, no período de 24 horas e à temperatura de 41 ºC mostra ser o teste de vigor mais eficiente na avaliação do potencial fisiológico das sementes de P. pyramidalis.

  11. Superação da dormência em sementes de Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul Overcoming dormancy of Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul

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    Edna Ursulino Alves

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Espécies florestais com sementes duras freqüentemente apresentam consideráveis problemas para os viveiristas, porque seus tegumentos duros e impermeáveis à água dificultam e retardam a germinação. Por isso, desenvolveu-se este experimento em casa de vegetação no Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal da Paraíba, com o objetivo de determinar metodologias para superar a dormência de sementes de catingueira. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro repetições de 25 sementes. As sementes foram submetidas a 12 tratamentos: testemunha - sementes intactas (T1, escarificação mecânica feita manualmente com lixa nº. 80 (T2, desponte - pequeno corte na região oposta à micrópila (T3, imersão no ácido sulfúrico concentrado por 6, 8 e 10 min (T4, T5 e T6, respectivamente, imersão em água nas temperaturas de 60, 70 e 80 ºC por 1 min (T7, T8 e T9, respectivamente e imersão em água fria por 24, 48 e 72 h (T10, T11 e T12, respectivamente. As sementes foram semeadas em bandejas plásticas com areia umedecida esterilizada. Através de avaliações diárias durante 21 dias, verificaram-se as características de porcentagem de emergência, primeira contagem de emergência, índice de velocidade de emergência, comprimento e massa seca das plântulas. Os resultados evidenciaram que os tratamentos pré-germinativos promoveram a germinação das sementes de catingueira, e a escarificação manual com lixa, imersão em ácido sulfúrico concentrado por 8 e 10 min e imersão em água a 80 ºC por 1 min revelaram ser os métodos mais efetivos.Forest species with hard seeds often cause important problems for nursery managers because their hard and water impermeable seed coats hinder and delay germination. For this reason, an experiment was carried out to determine methodologies for overcoming dormancy of catingueira seeds, under greenhouse conditions, in the Center for Agricultural Sciences, of the Federal University of Paraíba. The experiment was arranged in a complete randomized design, with four replicates of 25 seeds/treatment. Seeds were subjected to 12 treatments: control - intact seeds (T1, mechanical scarification using fine sandpaper nº. 80 (T2, coating cutting in the opposite side of micropylar region (T3, immersion in sulfuric acid (98% for 6, 8 and 10 minutes (T4, T5 and T6, respectively, immersion in water at 60, 70 and 80ºC for one minute (T7, T8 and T9, respectively, immersion in water at room temperature for 24, 48 and 72 hours (T10, T11 and T12, respectively. The seeds were sown in plastic trays with sterilized humidified sand. Daily evaluations were carried out during 21 days observing characteristics of emergence percentage, emergence first count, emergence velocity index, height and dry matter weight of seedlings. The results demonstrated that germinative pre-treatments increased seed germination of catingueira seeds, and higher values were observed with manual scarification with sandpaper, immersion in concentrated sulfuric acid during eight and ten minutes and immersion in water at 80ºC for one minute were the most effective methods.

  12. Biological Effect of Leaf Aqueous Extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis in Goats Naturally Infected with Gastrointestinal Nematodes

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    Roberto Robson Borges-dos-Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-eight goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes were randomly divided into four groups (n=12: negative control (G1 (untreated, positive control (G2 (treated with doramectin, 1 mL/50 Kg b.w., and G3 and G4 treated with 2.5 and 5 mg/Kg b.w. of a leaf aqueous extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (CP. Fecal and blood samples were regularly collected for the evaluation of fecal egg count (FEC, hematological and immunological parameters to assess the anthelmintic activity. In treated animals with CP, there was noted a significant reduction of 54.6 and 71.2% in the mean FEC (P<0.05. An increase in IgA levels was observed in G3 and G4 (P<0.05, during the experimental period, suggesting that it was stimulated by the extract administration. In conclusion, the results showed that CP provoked a protective response in infected animals treated with them. This response could be partly explained by the CP chemical composition.

  13. Efeito da temperatura e do substrato na germinação de sementes de Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinoideae Effect of temperature and substrate on seed germination of Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinoideae

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    Juliana Domingues Lima

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. é uma leguminosa arbórea tropical que ocorre na região amazônica, sendo muito utilizada como planta medicinal e na arborização e paisagismo urbanos. Para viabilizar a produção de mudas, determinaram-se a melhor temperatura e o melhor substrato para a germinação das sementes. Sementes recém-colhidas apresentaram teor médio de água de 7,46%, porcentagem de germinação de 3,33% e baixo ganho de água durante a embebição, mostrando dormência tegumentar. A escarificação mecânica com lixa nº 40 foi um método eficiente para superação da dormência, comprovado pela alta porcentagem de germinação e embebição de água em sementes escarificadas. A porcentagem de germinação dessas sementes foi influenciada pela temperatura, mas não pelo substrato. Com base no tempo médio de germinação, recomenda-se a temperatura de 30 ºC e areia como substrato para germinação mais rápida de sementes escarificadas.Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. is a tropical legume tree occurring in the Amazon region, commonly used as medicine plant and in urban landscaping. To make seedling production feasible the best temperature and substrate for seed germination were determined. Recently harvested seeds present 7.46% mean moisture content, 3.33% germination percentage and lower moisture gain during soaking, showing tegument dormancy. Mechanical scarification with 40 grit sandpaper was proven an efficient method to overcome the dormancy, resulting in higher germination percentage and water imbibition in scarified seeds. The germination percentage of scarified seeds was influenced by temperature, but not by substrate. Based on the mean germination time, it is recommended the temperature of 30ºC and sand like substrate for faster germination of scarified seeds.

  14. BIOMETRIA DE FRUTOS E SEMENTES E SUPERAÇÃO DE DORMÊNCIA DE JUCÁ (Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul (LEGUMINOSAE - CAESALPINOIDEAE

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    Francisco Augusto Alves Câmara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to study the characteristics biometrics of the fruit and the effect of the physical and chemical scarification in the germination of seeds of Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. Ripe fruits were collected in August of 2007 of existent trees in the campus of the Rural Federal University of the Semi-arid, Mossoró- RN. The evaluations were carried at the Laboratory of Analysis of Seeds of the Department of Vegetable Sciences of UFERSA. The germination test was constituted of witness and 4 treatments (types of common vinegar: vinegar of alcohol, vinegar of red wine and vinegar of white wine and hot water to 65ºC, with 4 repetitions of 50 seeds. The sowing was in containers plastic with dimensions of 32.5 x 24 x 4 cm (length, width and depth. The used substrates were sand washed sterilized previously and being irrigated with water distilled. The appraised characteristics were: mass of the fresh matter and matter dries of the seedling, germination percentage and index of emergency velocity. The immersion of the seeds in vinegar of white wine favors the germination, the index of germination velocity and the accumulation of fresh and dry matter of the juca seedlings.

  15. Desempenho germinativo da invasora Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit. e comparação com Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. e Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L. Sw. (Fabaceae Germination performance of the invader Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit. compared to Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. and C. pulcherrima (L. Sw. (Fabaceae

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    Nilson Gonçalves da Fonseca

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O sucesso das plantas na colonização de novas áreas está fortemente relacionado ao comportamento germinativo das sementes nas condições ambientais locais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o desempenho germinativo da exótica invasora Leucaena leucocephala ao das leguminosas (Caesalpinia ferrea, nativa e C. pulcherrima, exótica não consideradas invasoras. Sementes não escarificadas foram expostas às temperaturas de 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 e 40 °C, sob um fotoperíodo de 12 horas, durante 100 dias. Tanto a porcentagem final quanto a velocidade de germinação apresentaram diferenças significativas entre as três espécies. C. ferrea teve baixo desempenho, com temperatura ótima para a germinação a 25°C, porcentagem de germinação de 59% e IVG de 0,68 sementes d-1. Já C. pulcherrima, apresentou altas porcentagens de germinação em todas as temperaturas testadas, com faixa ótima entre 20-40 °C. As sementes de L. leucocephala apresentaram as menores porcentagens de germinação e temperatura ótima de 35 °C. O desempenho germinativo desta exótica não se sobressai ao das demais espécies estudadas e fatores como a pressão de propágulos, escarificação natural e bom desempenho em outras fases da vida devem contribuir para seu perfil de invasora.Success in establishing and colonizing new areas is directly related to germination behaviour of seeds under local environmental conditions. This work aimed to compare germination performance of the exotic invader Leucaena leucocephala to two legumes (Caesalpinia ferrea, native, and C. pulcherrima, exotic which are not considered invasive. Non-scarified seeds were exposed to constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40ºC, within a photoperiod of 12 hours, for 100 days. Both final germination percentage and germination speed showed significant differences among the three species. C. ferrea had low germination percentage, with optimal germination temperature at 25ºC, reaching

  16. Avaliação da atividade cicatrizante do jucá (Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. var. ferrea em lesões cutâneas de caprinos Evaluation of the Brazilian ironwood (Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. var. ferrea healing activity on cutaneous lesions of goats

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    A.F. Oliveira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi demonstrar os efeitos do tratamento tópico do jucá (Caesalpinia ferrea em feridas cutâneas. Quinze caprinos machos sem raça definida foram divididos em 3 grupos de acordo com o pós-cirúrgico (7º, 14º e 21º dias. As feridas experimentais foram tratadas com a pomada composta pela casca da Caesalpinia ferrea em pó misturada com a vaselina estéril e as do grupo controle apenas com a vaselina esterilizada. A aplicação diária da pomada e da vaselina estéril foi realizada sobre ferida circular padronizada de 16 cm² de área na região torácica de cada animal. As avaliações das feridas foram feitas do ponto de vista clínico, bacteriológico, morfométrico e histopatológico nos períodos pré-determinados (7º, 14º e 21º dias. Morfometricamente, as feridas do controle apresentaram áreas cirúrgicas menores e grau de contração maior que as do grupo tratado, entretanto, histologicamente, houve completa epitelização das feridas tratadas no 21º dia, enquanto que as feridas do grupo controle necessitavam de mais tempo para resolução do processo cicatricial. No exame microbiológico realizado no momento da produção da ferida, não se observou crescimento bacteriano e no momento das biópsias, identificou-se a presença de bactérias da família Enterobacteriaceae e Staphylococcus aureus, sendo que a partir do 14º dia observou-se Staphylococcus aureus apenas no grupo controle. A utilização tópica da pomada de Caesalpinia ferrea apresentou eficiência significativa no auxílio da reparação cicatricial de feridas cutâneas de caprinos.The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effects of the topical treatment with Brazilian ironwood (Caesalpinia ferrea on cutaneous wounds. Fifteen male mongrel goats were divided into 3 groups according to the postoperative period ((7th, 14th and 21st days. The experimental wounds were treated with an ointment composed of Brazilian wood powder bark mixed with

  17. Phytochemical Investigations of Caesalpinia digyna Root

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    R. Srinivasan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical examination of petroleum ether extract of Caesalpinia digyna root resulted in the isolation of four compounds namely, friedelin, hexacosanoic acid, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol. These compounds have been characterized on basis of physical and spectral data. All the four compounds are being reported for the first time from this plant

  18. Chemical constituents of the wood from Zanthoxylum quinduense Tul. (Rutaceae)

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    Patino Ladino, Oscar Javier; Cuca Suarez, Luis Enrique, E-mail: ojpatinol@unal.edu.c [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia). Facultad de Ciencias. Dept. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the wood from Zanthoxylum quinduense Tul. allowed the isolation and identification of norchelerythrine, decarine, 6-acetonyldihydrochelerythrine, syringaresinol, evofilin C, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, vanillic acid, a mixture of b-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol and a mixture of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and their esters derivatives. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques and comparison with literature data and the mixture of sterols and fatty acids were identified by GC/MS. The antifungal activity of the ethanolic extract, fractions and pure compounds against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici was determined by bioautography. Evofilin C and nochelerytrine were the only substances that present antifungal activity. (author)

  19. Chemical constituents of the wood from Zanthoxylum quinduense Tul. (Rutaceae

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    Oscar Javier Patiño Ladino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the wood from Zanthoxylum quinduense Tul. allowed the isolation and identification of norchelerythrine, decarine, 6-acetonyldihydrochelerythrine, syringaresinol, evofilin C, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, vanillic acid, a mixture of β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol and a mixture of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and their esters derivatives. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques and comparison with literature data and the mixture of sterols and fatty acids were identified by GC/MS. The antifungal activity of the ethanolic extract, fractions and pure compounds against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici was determined by bioautography. Evofilin C and nochelerytrine were the only substances that present antifungal activity.

  20. Textile wastewater biocoagulation by Caesalpinia spinosa extracts

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    Andrés Revelo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2014/12/06 - Accepted: 2015/03/24The textile industry in Ecuador is still a matter of concern because of the inappropriate disposal of their effluents into the local water supply. The present research was carried out in Pelileo (Tungurahua-Ecuador where textile wastewaters are discharged into waterways. An environmentally friendly solution to treat highly contaminated organic textile wastewaters is herein evaluated: a remediation process of biocoagulation was performed using extracts from the Caesalpinia spinosa plant also known as guarango or tara. It was determined that using C. spinosa extracts to treat wastewater has the same statistical effect as when applying a chemical coagulant (polyaluminum chloride 15%. Activated zeolite adsorbed color residuals from treated water to obtain turbidity removal more than 90%. A mathematical model showed that turbidity removal between 50-90% can be obtained by applying 25-45 g/L of guarango extracts and zeolite per 700 mL of textile wastewater. The natural coagulation using C. spinosa extracts produced 85% less sludge than polyaluminum chloride, and removed high organic matter content in the wastewater (1050 mg/L by 52%.

  1. A New Diterpenoid from the Seeds of Caesalpinia sappan Linn

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    Yong-Jiang Xu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A new cassane-type d iterpene, named Phangininoxy A (1 and one known Phanginin A (2 were isolated from the exact of seeds of Caesalpinia sappan Linn. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, mainly 1D and 2D NMR.

  2. Antimalarial diterpene alkaloids from the seeds of Caesalpinia minax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guoxu; Sun, Zhaocui; Sun, Zhonghao; Yuan, Jingquan; Wei, Hua; Yang, Junshan; Wu, Haifeng; Xu, Xudong

    2014-06-01

    Two new diterpene alkaloids, caesalminines A (1) and B (2), possessing a tetracyclic cassane-type furanoditerpenoid skeleton with γ-lactam ring, were isolated from the seeds of Caesalpinia minax. Their structures were determined by different spectroscopic methods and ECD calculation. The plausible biosynthetic pathway of caesalminines A and B was proposed. The anti-malarial activity of compounds 1 and 2 is presented with IC50 values of 0.42 and 0.79 μM, respectively.

  3. Cassane diterpenes from the seed kernels of Caesalpinia sappan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hai Xuan; Nguyen, Nhan Trung; Dang, Phu Hoang; Thi Ho, Phuoc; Nguyen, Mai Thanh Thi; Van Can, Mao; Dibwe, Dya Fita; Ueda, Jun-Ya; Awale, Suresh

    2016-02-01

    Eight structurally diverse cassane diterpenes named tomocins A-H were isolated from the seed kernels of Vietnamese Caesalpinia sappan Linn. Their structures were determined by extensive NMR and CD spectroscopic analysis. Among the isolated compounds, tomocin A, phanginin A, F, and H exhibited mild preferential cytotoxicity against PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells under nutrition-deprived condition without causing toxicity in normal nutrient-rich conditions.

  4. The effect of intravenous aminophylline on stone free status after transureteral lithotripsy (TUL: a randomized double blind clinical trial study

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    A barzegarnezhad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The third common urinary tract disease was renal stone, after the UTI and pathologic states of kidney. TUL is most useful and effective for removing the stones of inferior ureter. In other hand aminophylline can decrease urinary tract spasm. Then, combination of TUL and aminophylline help us to reduce the complication of TUL. Methods and materials: We have study on 87 case of renal colic who referred to Imam Khomeini hospital of sari and Tooba clinic. This study was a double blind systematic randomized clinical trial that patients were divided to two group as 1 and 2: group one includes patients who received aminophylline and group 2 were selected as our control samples. Our sample size was calculated by statistic analysis according to recent studies. Result: The average of TUL time was 5.12± 1.77 min in group 1 and 6.59± 3.47 min in group 2(p0.05. ESWL was used in one patient of group 1 because of remaining of stone, but 7 patients of group 2 did not response to Transureter lithotripsy, then they needed ESWL. Complication were not seen in patient who received Aminophylline and mean arterial pressure and heart rate was equal in two group. Conclusion: The difference of TUL Time between two groups was meaningful. As you know, aminophylline has an antispasmotic effect on urinary tract and tract with smooth muscle, and according to our finding, usage of aminophylline can reduce the complication of TUL and increase success rate of Lithotripsy in this patient. In other hand, it complications was few.

  5. Pollination Ecology of Caesalpinia crista (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIShi-Jint; ZHANGDian-Xiang; LILin; CHENZhong-Yi

    2004-01-01

    The flowering phenology, pollination ecology and breeding system of Caesa/pinia crista L.were studied in Dinghushan Nature Reserve, Guangdong, China. The species started blooming in Februaryor March, then last till late April. It took about one week from first flower appearance to its full blooming,which lasted for 2-4 d. The pollen-ovule ratio was 18 000~500. The breeding system was self-incompatible,and protogynous xenogamy. Hymenoptera constituted the major group of pollinators. The pollination typeis ambophily, the species could be pollinated by wind if the pollinators were unavailable: this is the firstrecord of ambophily in the genus Caesalpinia. The floral structure adaptation to the pollinating behavior ofcarpenter bees was described. The influences of artificial treatments in pollination biological studies onthe flowering and fruiting of the plants were also discussed.

  6. Two new diterpenes from the seeds of Caesalpinia minax Hance.

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    Lian, Lian; Li, Xiao-Bin; Yuan, Jiu-Zhi; Cheng, Li; Wu, Zhao-Hua; Gao, Hui-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Molecules with diterpene skeletons often possess valuable medicinal properties. Two new diterpenes 1α,6α,7β-triacetoxy-5α-hydroxy-14β-ethyl-O-vouacapane (1) and 2α-acetoxy-14,15-cyclopimara-7β,16-diol (2) were isolated from the seeds of Caesalpinia minax Hance. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses, including HR-ESI-MS, UV, IR, 1D, and 2D NMR (HSQC, HMBC, NOESY) methods. The stereochemical structure of 1 was confirmed via the circular dichroism spectrum and calculated ECD experiment. The inhibitory activity of nitric oxide production of RAW264.7 macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharide of compounds 1 and 2 was evaluated, and compound 1 was found to show significant inhibitory effect.

  7. A REVIEW ON PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF CAESALPINIA PULCHERRIMA

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    Nainwal Pankaj

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicine has become a popular form of healthcare. Even though several differences exist between herbal and conventional pharmacological treatments, herbal medicine can be tested for efficacy using conventional trial methodology. Several specific herbal extracts have been demonstrated to be efficacious for specific conditions. Even though the public is often misled to believe that all natural treatments are inherently safe, herbal medicines do carry risks. Ultimately, we need to know which herbal remedies do more harm than good for which condition. Because of the current popularity of herbal medicine, research in this area should be intensified Caesalpinia pulcherrima, a plant widely used in the traditional medicinal systems of India has been reported to possess antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer and immunosuppressive activities. This review highlights some of the phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of the plant which has been searched during their detailed study.

  8. Effects of ethylene and (Z)-hexen-3-al on production of volatiles in Populus simonii × P. pyramidalis 'Opera 8277'cuttings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haibo GAO; Yingbai SHEN; Zenghui HU

    2009-01-01

    We studied the effects of ethylene, (Z)-hexen-3-al, combinations of ethylene and (Z)-hexen-3-al, methyl jasmonate on the release of terpenoids and green leaf volatiles (GLVs) of Populus simoniixP, pyramidalis 'Opera 8277' by fumigation. The results show that exposure to ethylene alone did not induce volatiles.However, it was induced by exposure to combinations of (Z)-hexen-3-al and ethylene, a large amount ofhexenal and hexen-3-ol as compared to sole (Z)-hexen-3-al exposure,which indicated that the release of wounding signals of P.simonii zP. pyramidalis 'Opera 8277' could be synergized by ethylene and (Z)-hexen-3-al.

  9. COMPOSIÇÃO QUÍMICA DAS CASCAS DAS RAÍZES E FLORES DEPoincianella pyramidalis (Fabaceae

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    José Cândido S. de Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of the MeOH extract of root barks of P. pyramidallis (Tul. L. P. Queiroz resulted in the isolation of 3,3'-dimethylellagic acid and 3,3'-dimethylellagic acid-4'-O-β-D-xyloside. Lupeol, β-sitosterol/stigmasterol and the mixture of fatty acid methyl ester derivatives were also obtained. Chromatographic procedures of the MeOH extract of the flowers of this species led to obtain an unusual mixture of fatty alcohols, β-sitosterol/stigmasterol, α-amyrin, β-amyrin and methyl gallate. The structures of the isolates were established by spectral data analysis. This is the first occurrence of 3,3'-dimethylellagic acid, 3,3'-dimethylellagic acid-4'- O-β-D-xyloside and free fatty alcohols in the Fabaceae family.

  10. Comparison of tanning with flour Caesalpinia Spinosa, with mineral tanning with skins chrome sulphate chervines

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    Hidalgo Almeida, Luis Eduardo; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

    2016-01-01

    In the lab of tannery skins of the FCP, the ESPOCH was the comparison of tanning with extract of plant polyphenols in Caesalpinia Spinosa, with a mineral tanning of sulfate of chromium for goat skins, i.e. 2 treatments with 7 repetitions each one, and in two consecutive runs a total of 28 experimental units were modeled under a completely randomized design in bivariate array. The results indicate that the most suitable tanning was to use plant polyphenols Caesalpinia Spinosa, (tara), since it...

  11. Insecticidal activity of Laurelia sempervirens (Ruiz & Pav. Tul. essential oil against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky

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    Cristian Torres

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky is a worldwide key pest of stored products. Usually contact insecticides or fumigants are used against it, but problems as toxic residues, human intoxications, and resistance have triggered the search for alternative control methods as the use of essential oils. The objective of this research was to assess under laboratory conditions, the insecticidal properties of Laurelia sempervirens (Ruiz & Pav. Tul. essential oil against S. zeamais. In contact toxicity bioassay assessed treatments were 0 (control, 1.25, 2.5, 5.0, 10, 20, and 40 mL essential oil kg-1 grain and 0 (control, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, and 175 μL essential oil L-1 air in fumigant toxicity tests. The highest toxicity by contact activity was reached by concentrations higher than 10 mL essential oil kg-1 grain (100% mortality. The same treatments totally inhibit F1. The dose of 175 μL essential oil L-1 air showed a significant toxicity by fumigant activity causing 72.5% of dead insects. The other treatments did not surpass 5% mortality. In offspring effect (F1 bioassay, all treatments had an insect emergence significantly lower than the control but concentrations equal or higher than 10 mL essential oil kg-1 grain prevented the emergence of F1 during the 7 wk of bioassay. The residual effect of contact toxicity remained by 15 d. The treatments based on essential oil lead to a weight grain loss lower than control and germination was not affected. All assessed treatments showed repellent effect. The essential oil of L. sempervirens has promissory perspectives to maize weevil control.

  12. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential of Caesalpinia ferrea

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    Sandrine Maria A. Lima

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. belongs to the family Fabaceae. Known as pau-ferro and jucá, it is used in folk medicine to treat diabetes, as antipyretic and antirheumatic. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of the ethanol extract of the fruits of C. ferrea (EECf. In the evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity, EECf (50 mg/kg produced significantly inhibition of ear edema by 66.6% compared to control. Indomethacin (10 mg/kg showed inhibition of 83.9% compared to control. EECf (50 mg/kg inhibited of vascular permeability induced by acetic acid and was also able to reduce of cell migration to the peritoneal cavity induced by thioglycolate. In the writhing test induced by acid acetic, EECf (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg significantly reduced the number of contortions by 24.9, 46.9 and 74.2%, respectively. In the formalin test, EECf presented effects only in the second phase. The results provided experimental evidence for the effectiveness of the traditional use of C. ferrea in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain.

  13. A New Cassane-type Diterpene from the Seed of Caesalpinia sappan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hai Xuan; Nguyen, Nhan Trung; Dang, Phu Hoang; Thi, Phuoc Ho; Nguyen, Mai Thanh Thi; Can, Mao Van; Dibwe, Dya Fita; Ueda, Jun-Ya; Matsumoto, Kinzo; Awale, Suresh

    2016-06-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the CH2Cl2 extract of the Vietnamese medicinal plant Caesalpinia sappan Linn resulted in the isolation of a new cassane-type diterpene named tomocin I (1). Its chemical structure was determined by NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analysis.

  14. Filogeografía del complejo Caesalpinia hintonii: (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae: Poincianella Phylogeography of the Caesalpinia hintonii complex (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae: Poincianella

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    Solange Sotuyo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesar del crecido número de estudios que se ha realizado para explorar la estructura genética y filogeográfica en especies mexicanas, hay carencia de estudios para especies de selva baja, zonas con alto grado de endemismo. Para un mejor entendimiento de dichas áreas se realizó un estudio filogeográfico y el fechamiento de las especies del complejo Caesalpinia hintonii distribuido en la depresión del río Balsas y el valle de Tehuacán-Cuicatlán. Se determinó la estructura filogeográfica del complejo analizando las secuencias de 4 regiones de plastidio (intrón trnL, espaciador trnL-F, espaciador psbA-trnH y espaciador accD-psaI en todas las poblaciones disponibles. Se estimó la fecha del origen del complejo mediante un método no paramétrico (NPRS. Las diversidades haplotídicas (0.64-1 y las diferencias nucleotídicas (3.8-11.52 en todas las especies fueron altas respecto a valores registrados para otras plantas. Las poblaciones de C. oyamae, morfológicamente indistintas están genéticamente estructuradas y presentan 3 haplogrupos donde el flujo génico entre ellos es bajo y se consideraron entidades crípticas. Las poblaciones de C. hintonii son un grupo genéticamente homogéneo a pesar de ser morfológicamente distintas. Las poblaciones de C. macvaughii forman 2 linajes divergentes entre los que existe flujo génico (Nm=1.41. Los eventos de divergencia en 2 grandes linajes al este y oeste del río Balsas pueden explicarse por eventos geológicos. Los resultados indican que el complejo se encuentra bajo divergencia y en algunos casos radiación morfostática.Although many phylogeographic studies have been conducted to analyze the genetic and phylogeographic structure of Mexican species, such studies are nearly absent for plants of dry seasonal forest, precincts with high level of endemism. To better understand this areas, we undertook a phylogeographic study and dating were carried out on the Caesalpinia hintonii complex

  15. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties

    OpenAIRE

    María Gabriela Gallego; Michael H. Gordon; Francisco Segovia; María Pilar Almajano Pablos

    2016-01-01

    The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD) and Caesalpinia spinosa “Tara” (CS) were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts...

  16. Potencial energético de tres espécies florestais da regiao semi-árida do Nordeste do Brasil

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    Miranda, Ghislaine

    2013-01-01

    A caatinga, vegetação característica da região semi-árida do Nordeste do Brasil, possui potencial de utilização restrito devido seu porte arbóreo-arbustivo. Buscando ampliar a abrangência das aplicações tecnológicas desta vegetação, procurou-se estudar a viabilidade da transformação em carvão vegetal de três espécies que ocorrem nesta região: a exótica leucena (Leucaena leucocephala Lam) e as nativas catingueira (Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul) e pereiro (Aspidosperma pyrifolium Mart). As tr...

  17. Etnoconhecimentos de Espécies Forrageiras no Semi-árido da Paraíba, Brasil

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    Patrícia Carneiro Souto

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Caatinga, bioma with restricted occurrence to Brazil, is characterized by a xerophilous vegetation, with herb, shrub and tree components and high species diversity. The objective of this work was to study with participative forage species of the caatinga and establish a order of importance of the species as forage value at different altidudes. The collection of data was done through the use of questionnaires with rural workers of two ecoregion in Santa Luzia, Paraíba State: Borborema plateau and “sertaneja” Depression setentrional. The altitude affected the crude protein content of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd Poiret (jurema preta, Cnidoscollus phyllacanthus Muel. Arg. Pax et. K. Hoffm. (faveleira, Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. (catingueira, Capparis flexuosa L. (feijão bravo and Bauhinia cheilantha Bong. (mororó forage, was higher than the minimum demanded by ruminants in the dormant period.

  18. Performances des filtres plantes de Echinochloa pyramidalis dans l'épuration des eaux usées de distillerie en Afrique subsaharienne

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    Fonkou, T.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Performances of Vegetated Beds with Echinochloa pyramidalis in the Purification of Wastewater from Distillery in Sub-Saharan Africa. Trials were made in a yard scale subsurface flow wetland system for the treatment of wastewater from a distillery in Cameroon producing 432 m3.d-1 of effluent. The system comprises a neutralizing element, a pre-decantation basin, a digester and two horizontal subsurface flow wetlands. The system was submitted to experimental HLR of 4.10-2 m.day-1, 3.10-2 m.day-1 and 2.10-2 m.day-1. The performance of the system submitted to the HLR of 2.10-2 m.day-1 was then evaluated through monthly measurements of several physicochemical parameters. Results showed that a horizontal subsurface flow bed system can be used to reduce the pollution load of the effluent to be compatible with the self-purification capacities of the nearby river where it is discharged. The plant E. pyramidalis effectively contributed to the nutrient removal, since percentage reductions of 80%, 90% 79%, 60%, 90%, 79% and 50% were obtained respectively for the water conductivity, colour, Suspended solids, BOD5 , total nitrogen and total phosphorus. These percentages are higher than those recorded in the control bed.

  19. Performance of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract as photo sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, S.; Vivek, P.; Saravana Kumar, G.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2015-02-01

    A natural dye extracted from Caesalpinia sappan heartwood was used as photo sensitizer for the first time to fabricate titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles based dye sensitized solar cells. Brazilin and brazilein are the major pigments present in the natural dye and their optimized molecular structure were calculated using Density functional theory (DFT) at 6-31G (d) level. The HOMO-LUMO were performed to reveal the energy gap using optimized structure. Pure TiO2 nanoparticles in anatase phase were synthesized by sol-gel technique. The pure and natural dye sensitized TiO2 nanoparticles were subjected to structural, optical, spectral and morphological studies. Low cost and environment friendly dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated using natural dye sensitized TiO2 based photo anode. The solar light to electron conversion efficiency of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract sensitized dye sensitized solar cell is 1.1%.

  20. TARA (Caesalpinia spinosa): the sustainable source of tannins for innovative tanning processes

    OpenAIRE

    Castell Escuer, Joan Carles

    2012-01-01

    This thesis considers the fruit of the tara tree (Caesalpinia spinosa) as a sustainable source for tanning agents and proposes alternatives to the commercial mineral salts and vegetable extracts to comply with an increasing demand that concerns lower carbon footprint and health safety. Taxonomy of the tree is described and the substances contained in the fruit are chemically characterized in order to justify that tara farm forestry is economically viable and to secure a potential worth. The v...

  1. Cytogenetic characterization of Caesalpinia spinosafrom Tarma and Palca (Junín

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    Alberto López

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Somatic chromosomes of Caesalpinia spinosa (Feuillée ex Molina Kuntze, “Tara”, wild populations of Huinco and Palca (Junín regions were studied. The specie were diploid (2n=24. Chromosomes were small. The karyotypes showed the same chromosome number, they found differences in morphological parameters of the same, with the karyotype formula for the town of Huinco: 6m + 6 sm and the town of Palca: 5m + 7 sm.

  2. Efeitos da luz, temperatura e estresse de água na germinação de sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (Caesalpinoideae Effects of light, temperature and water stress on seed germination in Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. Caesalpinoideae

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    Fernanda Gollo A. Ferraz-Grande

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available As sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides absorvem água rapidamente e após 9 horas acumulam o conteúdo de 56% de água e perdem mais lentamente, necessitando de cerca de 20 horas para perder completamente a água absorvida. As sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides germinam na faixa de temperaturas de 15 a 25 °C, e não possuem fotossensibilidade independentemente dos tratamentos luminosos e das temperaturas testadas. Verificou-se que com a diminuição do potencial de água, ocorre nas sementes uma redução na germinabilidade e na velocidade de germinação sob luz branca. Sob condições de estresse de água, observa-se fotossensibilidade, em sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides, sendo a germinação inibida pela luz branca mediada pelo pigmento fitocromo.Seeds of Caesalpinia peltophoroides absorb water and reach rapidly 56% of their water content after 9 hours. They lose water slowly, requiring 20 hours to completely lose imbibed water. Seeds of Caesalpinia peltophoroides germinated in the temperature range 15 to 25ºC. They did not show light sensitivity under different light types. We observed that low water potential reduced the germinability and germination rate. Under water stress those seeds were inhibited by white light mediated by phytochrome.

  3. Gastroprotective Effect of Xylopia langsdorffiana A. St.-Hil. & Tul. (Annonaceae: Involvement of Endogenous Sulfhydryls Compounds and Nitric Oxide

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    Camila de Albuquerque Montenegro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Xylopia langsdorffiana A. St.-Hil. & Tul., belonging to the Annonaceae family, popularly known as "pimenteira-da-terra" was selected for study on the basis of chemotaxonomic criteria because various chemical compounds (among these the diterpenes with pharmacological activities have been isolated. We investigated the acute toxicity of the ethanolic extract (EtOHE and hexane phase (HexPh obtained from the leaves of X. langsdorffiana (XL and its ability to prevent gastric mucosa ulceration in animal models. The results suggest that XL-EtOHE has low toxicity to mice treated with a single dose of 2000 mg/kg (p.o. and the inhibition the formation of gastric lesions induced by ethanol, restraint-hypothermic stress and NSAIDs. In the pylorus ligature model, XL-EtOHE (500 mg/kg and XL-HexPh (250 mg/kg showed gastric protection with both oral (p.o. and intraduodenal (i.d. administration, yet without altering the gastric juice parameters (pH, [H +], and volume. XL-HexPh (250 mg/kg did not increase mucus production, and both EtOHE and HexPh induced gastroprotection with a certain dependency on sulfhydryls groups and nitric oxide.

  4. A new steroidal compound (β-sitosterol-3-O-butyl isolated from Caesalpinia gilliesii flowers

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    Samir Mohamed Osman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of total extracts from leaves, flowers and pods of Caesalpinia gilliesii (Fabaceae, Caesalpinoideae. In addition, a detailed phytochemical investigation of flower extracts was carried out to isolate and elucidate the structures of the bioactive compounds. Flower extract was the most cytotoxic against MCF7 and HepG2 cancer cells with IC50 values of 10 and 15.6 µg/mL, respectively. A new β-sitosterol-3-O-butyl was isolated from dichloromethane fraction of flowers together with another known sterol (daucosterol, and two flavonoids (isorhamnetin and isorhamnetin 3-O-rhamnoside. β-sitosterol-3-O-butyl was the most active compound against both HepG2 and MCF7 cells with IC50 values of 13.1 and 14.4 µg/mL, respectively. Isorhamnetin possesses a moderate antioxidant activity with an IC50 value 370 µg/mL as determined by DPPH radical scavenging assay.Industrial relevance. β-sitosterol-3-O-butyl and the other phytosterols are responsible for the cytotoxicity of the extracts which would correlate with the known abortifacient, antimalarial and anthelmintic properties, which can provide a cheap alternative drug.Keywords. Cytotoxicity, antioxidant; Caesalpinia gilliesii; β-sitosterol-3-O-butyl; daucosterol; isorhamnetin-3-O-rhamnoside

  5. Substrate in the emergence and initial growth of seedlings of Caesalpinia pulcherrima

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    Magnólia Martins Alves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Caesalpinia pulcherrima is an exotic species belongs to the Fabaceae family commonly known as flamboyant-mirim, and widely used for urban forestry. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different substrates on the emergence and early seedlings growth of C. pulcherrima . The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse belonging to the Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal da Paraíba. The experimental design was completely randomized and treatments had 14 substrates: sand, vegetable soil, vermiculite, wood dust, carbonized rice straw, vegetable soil + sand 1:1, sand + wood dust 1:1, sand + carbonized rice straw 1:1, earth + wood dust 1:1, vegetable soil + carbonized rice straw 1:1, vermiculite + sand 1:1, vermiculite + wood dust 1:1, vermiculite + earth 1:1 and vermiculite + carbonized rice straw 1:1. Evaluation of the effect of the treatments was through the following determinations: percentage of emergency, first count, index of germination speed, length and dry weight of roots and shoots. The vermiculite, vegetable soil + sand 1:1, vermiculite + sand 1:1, vermiculite + saw dust 1:1, are suitable for emergence and early growth of seedlings of Caesalpinia pulcherrima . Substrates saw dust and carbonized rice straw were responsible for the worst performers on emergence and seedling development.

  6. IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES EVALUATION OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CAESALPINIA PULCHERRIMA FLOWERS

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    Fahad Hussain

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The current study was conducted to prove ethno medicinal value of the plant, investigating anti-microbial, antioxidant, and total phenolic content of crude methanolic extract of flowers of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. The methanolic extract revealed narrow spectrum antimicrobial activity at the concentration of 400 µg/ disc. The results obtained were compared with standard ciprofloxacin of 5µg/ disc. The extract exhibited moderate amount of total phenolic compound (44.0 ± 0.08 mg/g of gallic acid equivalent. In DPPH free radical scavenging test, IC50 value of the crude extract was found fairly significant (41.59 ± 0.05 μg/ml while compared to that of the reference standards butylated hydroxyl toluene (21.90 ± 0.05 μg/ml. Since, the plant, Caesalpinia pulcherrima got cabalistic antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities, other phytochemical and pharmacological studies can be carried out to justify its traditional uses, as the plant is available and being used traditionally in the rural areas of Bangladesh.

  7. Effect of Leaves of Caesalpinia decapetala on Oxidative Stability of Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, María Gabriela; Skowyra, Monika; Gordon, Michael H.; Azman, Nurul Aini Mohd; Almajano, María Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth) Alston (Fabaceae) (CD) is used in folk medicine to prevent colds and treat bronchitis. This plant has antitumor and antioxidant activity. The antioxidant effects of an extract from Caesalpinia decapetala (Fabaceae) were assessed by storage of model food oil-in-water emulsions with analysis of primary and secondary oxidation products. The antioxidant capacity of the plant extract was evaluated by the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays and by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Lyophilized extracts of CD were added at concentrations of 0.002%, 0.02% and 0.2% into oil-in-water emulsions, which were stored for 30 days at 33 ± 1 °C, and then, oxidative stability was evaluated. The CD extract had high antioxidant activity (700 ± 70 µmol Trolox/g dry plant for the ORAC assay), mainly due to its phenolic components: gallic acid, quercetin, catechin, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and p-coumaric acid. At a concentration of 0.2%, the extract significantly reduced the oxidative deterioration of oil-in-water emulsions. The results of the present study show the possibility of utilizing CD as a promising source of natural antioxidants for retarding lipid oxidation in the food and cosmetic industries. PMID:28273843

  8. Multiple Suppressive Effects of a Protein from Caesalpinia minax on Murine Melanoma Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余旭亚; 谢莉萍; 张勇; 王洪钟; 李重华; 陈朝银; 张荣庆

    2002-01-01

    Caesalpinia minax has a long history of use as a Chinese traditional herb medicine in Yunnan Province, China, for the treatment of skin-related diseases. A potent melanoma inhibitor, purified from the seeds of C. minax and termed Caesalpinia minax protein (CMP), is a protein with a relative molecular mass of 19.8×103. Experiments were conducted to assay the inhibitive effects of CMP on the proliferation, migration, and adhesion of murine melanoma cell line K1735M2. The results showed that cell proliferation was suppressed by about 60% with treatment of 22 μg/mL CMP. Furthermore, the migration of K1735M2 cells was inhibited by 30% in the presence of 22 μg/mL CMP. The results also demonstrated that the inhibitive effect of CMP on the migration was dose-dependent. Although low-doses of CMP had no obvious inhibitive effect on the adhesion of K1735M2, 22 μg/mL CMP inhibited the adhesion of K1735M2 by 50%. These results suggest that CMP might be a potential medicine for melanoma therapy.

  9. 苏木复方抑菌效果研究%Study on Antimicrobial Effects of Caesalpinia sappan Compound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇; 林国卫; 王艾平; 周丽明; 乐贞; 邱昌将

    2012-01-01

    Antimicrobial effects of Caesalpinia sappan L. compound were investigated and it can provide references for producing high effective bacteriostasis. Inhibition zone diameters and MIC of extracts from Caesalpinia sappan L. compound and Caesalpinia sappan L., Eriobotrya japonica leaf, Sanguisorba officinalis L., Caulis spatholobi inhibiting S. aureus, B. thuringiensis, B. subtilis and E. coli were determined by filter paper disc method and tube double dilution method. The antimicrobial actions were evaluated and compared. The results showed that Caesalpinia sappan L. compound and four kinds of Chinese herbal medicine had different antimicrobial actions to four kinds of bacteria in different degree. The antimicrobial effects of Caesalpinia sappan L. compound were higher than four kinds of Chinese herbal medicine generally.%研究苏木复方的抑菌效果为生产高效抑菌剂提供参考.采用滤纸片法和试管二倍稀释法测定苏木复方提取液与单味中草药苏木、枇杷叶、地榆、鸡血藤提取液对金黄色葡萄球菌(Staphyloccocus aureus)、苏云金芽孢杆菌(Bacillus thuringiensis)、枯草芽孢杆菌(B.subtilis)、大肠杆菌(Escherichia coli)的抑菌圈直径和最小抑菌浓度,比较其抑菌能力.结果表明,苏木复方提取液和4种单味中草药提取液对4种微生物有不同程度的抑制作用,苏木复方提取液的抑菌效果整体强于4种单味中草药提取液.

  10. Anti-inflammatory activity of an ethanolic Caesalpinia sappan extract in human chondrocytes and macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shengqian Q; Otero, Miguel; Unger, Frank M; Goldring, Mary B; Phrutivorapongkul, Ampai; Chiari, Catharina; Kolb, Alexander; Viernstein, Helmut; Toegel, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study Caesalpinia sappan is a common remedy in Traditional Chinese Medicine and possesses diverse biological activities including anti-inflammatory properties. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease with an inflammatory component that drives the degradation of cartilage extracellular matrix. In order to provide a scientific basis for the applicability of Caesalpinia sappan in arthritic diseases, the present study aimed to assess the effects of an ethanolic Caesalpinia sappan extract (CSE) on human chondrocytes and macrophages. Materials and Methods Primary human chondrocytes were isolated from cartilage specimens of OA patients. Primary cells, SW1353 chondrocytes and THP-1 macrophages were serum-starved and pretreated with different concentrations of CSE prior to stimulation with 10 ng/ml of interleukin-1beta (IL-1ß) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Following viability tests, nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were evaluated by Griess assay and ELISA, respectively. Using validated real-time PCR assays, mRNA levels of IL-1ß, TNF-α, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were quantified. SW1353 cells were cotransfected with a COX-2 luciferase reporter plasmid and nuclear factor-kappa-B (NF-κB) p50 and p65 expression vectors in the presence or absence of CSE. Results CSE dose-dependently inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1ß and TNF-α in IL-1ß-stimulated chondrocytes and LPS-stimulated THP-1 macrophages. CSE further suppressed the synthesis of NO in primary OA chondrocytes by blocking iNOS mRNA expression. The inhibition of COX-2 transcription was found to be related with the CSE inhibition of the p65/p50-driven transactivation of the COX-2 promoter. Conclusions The present report is first to demonstrate the anti-inflammatory activity of CSE in an in vitro cell model of joint inflammation. CSE can effectively abrogate the IL-1ß-induced over-expression of

  11. Repellent Action of Carapa guianensis and Caesalpinia ferrea for flies species of Calliphoridae family

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    Ciciane Pereira Marten Fernandes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Myiases occur by the infestation of fly larvae in tissues of live vertebrate animals, resulting in economic loss. Phytotherapy is considered an important alternative in the control of insects, which may reduce the economic impacts . Carapa guianensis is a plant that has been studied as a repellent against mosquitoes and Caesalpinia ferrea is reported in tropical climates, and there are few studies about its repellent action. The present study was designed to evaluate the repellent action of s C. guianensis and C. ferrea plants on flies species of the Calliphoridae family. W.O.T. traps containing deteriorated bovine liver and herbs cream of at concentrations of 20 and 50% were used to catch the flies. It was reported that the creams containing C. ferrea at concentrations of 20 and 50% and C. guianensis at the concentration of 50% have repellent effect against species of Calliphoridae family.

  12. Six new cassane diterpenes from the twigs and leaves of Tara (Caesalpinia spinosa Kuntze).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dongyang; Li, Yuanping; Tang, Hongbo; Ma, Ruijing; Li, Xiaonian; Wang, Liqin

    2015-09-01

    Six new cassane diterpenes, isoneocaesalpin H (1), caespinosin A (2), caespinosin B (3), a cassane diterpene with unique 6/6/7 carbon rings, and caespinosins C-E (4-6) were isolated from the twigs and leaves of Tara (Caesalpinia spinosa Kuntze). The absolute configuration of isoneocaesalpin H (1) was determined by single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analysis. Compound 3 represents a class of rare natural cassane diterpene bearing unique 6/6/7 carbon rings. Their structures were identified by 1D and 2D NMR spectral data. Cassane diterpenes were firstly reported from Tara. Compounds 1-5 were evaluated for their cytotoxicity on HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7 and SW-480 human cancer cell lines, but they were inactive.

  13. Antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic potential of Caesalpinia decapetala in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits

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    Liaqat Hussain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic, kidney and hepatoprotective potential of Caesalpinia decapetala were evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. The plant extract showed concentration dependant significant (p<0.001 therapeutic potential in diabetic rabbits revealing improvement in lipid profile and liver and kidney functions. 300 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg oral extract were able to reduce average blood glucose levels from 250.6 mg/dL to 204.2 mg/dL and 188.2 mg/dL respectively during 14 days period, in comparison to 183.8 mg/dL of glibenclamide. There was no significant synergistic effect found, upon co-administration of both drug and extract representing the competitive binding to sulphonyl urea (SUR1, revealing possible mechanism of action for compounds in extract. Extract was found to be nephroprotective, hepatoprotective and improved lipid profile of alloxan-treated rabbits.

  14. Screening of Caesalpinia pulcherrima Linn Flowers for Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activities

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    S S Patel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The flowers of Caesalpinia pulcherrima were extracted with methanol to determine their analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Intraperitoneal administration of methanolic extract (75, 150 and 225 mg/kg produced significant analgesic activity in acetic acid-induced writhing, tail immersion test and hot plate tests and anti-inflammatory effect against carrageenan-induced paw edema in experimental animals. Industrial relevance: The herbal medicines are getting more importance in the treatment of inflammation because of the side effect of the current therapy used to treat those inflammation using synthetic drugs. Herbal medicines have less side effects and less costly when compared to the synthetic drugs. The present study will help the industry to produce herbal drug with less side effect, less costly affordable and more effective in the treatment of pain and inflammation. Finally the phytochemical screening or elucidation of the bioactive compounds from the plant would be effective drug against pain and inflammation.

  15. Antidiabetic activity of alcoholic root extract of Caesalpinia digyna in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R Kumar; DK Patel; SK Prasad; K Sairam; S Hemalatha

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present investigation deals with evaluation of antidiabetic (Type 2) activity of standardized alcoholic root extracts of Caesalpinia digyna in STZ-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats. Methods: Alcoholic root extract of Caesalpinia digyna (ACD), obtained from Soxhlet extractor was standardized by HPLC. Type 2 diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide (110 mg/kg) followed by streptozotocin (65 mg/kg). Diabetic rats ware administered ACD at doses of 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg (p.o.) and different parameters such as normoglycemic and oral glucose tolerance test were evaluated. The study also included estimations of blood plasma glucose, lipid profile, liver glycogen, body weight and anti-oxidant status in normal and diabetic rats. Results: Normoglycemic rats did not reduce the blood glucose level, whereas oral glucose tolerance test showed better tolerance of glucose in treated rats. The alcoholic extract showed a dose dependent reduction in fasting blood glucose level i.e. more pronounced at 750 mg/kg (P<0.05). ACD showed significant reduction in plasma lipid like triglycerides, total cholesterol and improvement in high density lipo-protein cholesterol (HDL-C) in treated groups. The decrease in lipid peroxides and increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in liver clearly showed the antioxidant potential while rat hemi-diaphragm glucose uptake study revealed increases in peripheral glucose uptake of treated rats. Conclusions: Results showed that standardized alcoholic extract of C. digyna possessed significant antidiabetic activity which may be attributed to increase in glycogen storage, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activity thus, rationalizing its traditional use.

  16. Storage sites in seeds of Caesalpinia echinata and C. ferrea (Leguminosae with considerations on nutrients flow

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    Simone de Pádua Teixeira

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of Caesalpinia echinata and C. ferrea behaved as typical endospermic seeds, despite their different morphological classification (exendospermic seeds were described for C. echinata and endospermic seeds for C. ferrea. Then, the aim of this work was to compare, under ultrastructural and histochemical terms, the nature of the storage substances and their accumulation sites, as well as the nutrient flow in seeds of these species. Cotyledons in C. echinata accumulate carbohydrates, lipids and proteins, which are mobilized from the outer to the inner parts as revealed by the position of plasmodesmata. Endosperm in C. ferrea accumulates carbohydrates and in C. echinata accumulates substances during the initial embryogenic phases. Such tissue develops a chalazal haustorium that is responsible for the transport of substances into the endosperm itself and from it into the embryo, confirmed by the presence of transference cells.As sementes de Caesalpinia echinata e C. ferrea comportam-se como endospérmicas, apesar de descritas na literatura como exendospérmicas e endospérmicas, respectivamente. Desta forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar, em termos ultra-estrutural e histoquímico, a natureza das substâncias de reserva e seus tecidos acumuladores, bem como o fluxo de nutrientes nas sementes destas espécies. Os cotilédones em C. echinata acumulam carboidratos, lipídios e proteínas, mobilizados da periferia para o centro, como visto pelo posicionamento dos plasmodesmas. O endosperma em C. ferrea acumula carboidratos e lipídios, e em C. echinata, acumula substâncias nos estádios iniciais da embriogênese. Este tecido desenvolve um haustório calazal agressivo, que transporta substâncias para o endosperma propriamente dito e deste para o embrião, fato confirmado pela presença de células de transferência no endosperma.

  17. A New Octadecenoic Acid Derivative from Caesalpinia gilliesii Flowers with Potent Hepatoprotective Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Samir M.; El-Haddad, Alaadin E.; El-Raey, Mohamed A.; Abd El-Khalik, Soad M.; Koheil, Mahmoud A.; Wink, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background: Caesalpinia gilliesii Hook is an ornamental shrub with showy yellow flowers. It was used in folk medicine due to its contents of different classes of secondary metabolites. In our previous study, dichloromethane extract of C. gilliesii flowers showed a good antioxidant activity. Aim of the Study: Isolation and identification of bioactive hepatoprotective compounds from C. gilliesii flowers dichloromethane fraction. Materials and Methods: The hepatoprotective activity of dichloromethane fraction and isolated compounds were studied in CCl4-intoxicated rat liver slices by measuring liver injury markers (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and glutathione [GSH]). All compounds were structurally elucidated on the basis of electron ionization-mass spectrometry, one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance. Results: A new 12,13,16-trihydroxy-14(Z)-octadecenoic acid was identified in addition to the known β-sitosterol-3-O-butyl, daucosterol, isorhamnetin, isorhamnetin-3-O-rhamnoside, luteolin-7,4’-dimethyl ether, genistein-5-methyl ether, luteolin-7-O-rhamnoside, isovanillic acid, and p-methoxybenzoic acid. Dichloromethane fraction and isorhamnetin were able to significantly protect the liver against intoxication. Moreover, the dichloromethane fraction and the isolated phytosterols induced GSH above the normal level. Conclusion: The hepatoprotective activity of C. gilliesii may be attributed to its high content of phytosterols and phenolic compounds. SUMMARY Bioactive Hepatoprotective phytosterols and phenolics from chloroform extract of Caesalpinia gilliesii Abbreviations used: ALT: Alanine Aminotransferase; AST: Aspartate aminotransferase; GSH: Glutathione; SC50: Scavenging Capacity 50 (SC 50); COSY: Correlation spectroscopy; NMR: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance; CC: Column chromatography; EI-MS: Electron-impact mass spectrometry; HSQC: Heteronuclear single-quantum correlation. PMID:27563221

  18. Inhibitory Effects of Gallic Acid Isolated from Caesalpinia mimosoides Lamk on Cholangiocarcinoma Cell Lines and Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanata, Narintorn; Klaynongsruang, Sompong; Daduang, Sakda; Tavichakorntrakool, Ratree; Limpaiboon, Temduang; Lekphrom, Ratsami; Boonsiri, Patcharee; Daduang, Jureerut

    2016-01-01

    Gallic acid was isolated from Caesalpinia mimosoides Lamk and the structure s identified based on spectroscopic analysis and comparison with authentic compound. In this study we compared the ability of natural gallic acid (nGA) and commercial gallic acid (cGA) to inhibit the proliferation of cholangiocarcinoma cell lines (M213, M214) and foodborne pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella spp. and Plesiomonas shigelloides). Both nGA and cGA had the same inhibitory effects on cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis of cholangiocarcinoma cell lines. In addition, nGA inhibited growth of foodborne pathogenic bacteria in the same manner as cGA. Our results suggest that nGA from Caesalpinia mimosoides Lamk is a potential anticancer and antibacterial compound. However, in vivo studies are needed to elucidate the specific mechanisms involved.

  19. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, María Gabriela; Gordon, Michael H; Segovia, Francisco; Almajano Pablos, María Pilar

    2016-03-31

    The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD) and Caesalpinia spinosa "Tara" (CS) were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts at a high concentration had lower tensile strength with higher elongation at break points, compared to the control film (p Films exhibited antioxidant activity in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and Trolox equivalence antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays when added at 0.2%. The application of gelatine film containing CD and CS was found to be effective in delaying lipid oxidation and deterioration of beef patty quality during storage. Therefore, the films prepared in this study offered an alternative edible coating for the preservation of fresh food.

  20. In vitro antioxidant activity, phytochemical screening, cytotoxicity and total phenolic content in extracts of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (Caesalpiniaceae) pods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbhare, M R; Sivakumar, T; Udavant, P B; Dhake, A S; Surana, A R

    2012-04-01

    Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. Swartz (Caesalpiniaceae) is an ornamental plant also used as a common medicinal plant in India, Taiwan and South-East Asian countries. Majority of the diseases/disorders are mainly linked to oxidative stress due to free radicals. The aims of this study were to screen for phytochemical constituents, evaluate cytotoxicity, in vitro antioxidant activity and estimation of total phenolic content of extracts of pods of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, steroids and alkaloids. Brine Shrimp Lethality (BSL) bioassay was used to investigate the cytotoxic effects. The LC50(microg mL(-1)) values obtained for extracts as 750 microg mL(-1) for petroleum ether extract, 800 microg mL(-1) for chloroform extract and 900 microg mL(-1) for methanol extract. The total phenolic content of the methanolic extract was 38.04% w/w, equivalent to gallic acid. Petroleum ether, chloroform and methanolic extracts of Caesalpinia pulcherrima and standard ascorbic acid were found to be scavenger of DPPH radical with an IC50 of 124.75, 112.08, 54.34 and 13.86 microg mL(-1), respectively. Methanolic extract was good scavenger of DPPH radical. Petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate soluble fraction of methanolic extracts of pods of Caesalpinia pulcherrima and ascorbic acid were found to be scavenger of nitric oxide radical with an IC50 of 93.32, 65.12, 54.83 and 12.59 microg mL(-1), respectively. Ethyl acetate soluble fraction was found to be good scavenger of nitric oxide radical. Our conclusion provides support that the crude extracts of C. pulcherrima is a probable source of natural antioxidants and this justified its uses in folkloric medicines.

  1. Maturação de frutos de Caesalpinia echinata Lam., pau-brasil Maturation of fruits of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brasil wood

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    Francismar Francisco Alves Aguiar

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se parâmetros indicativos da maturação de frutos de árvores de Caesalpinia echinata, visando determinar a melhor época de colheita para propagação. Foram utilizadas 10 plantas-matriz cultivadas em Mogi-Guaçu, SP, nas quais foram etiquetadas 250 inflorescências no pico da floração para acompanhamento da maturação. As coletas de frutos tiveram início a partir da 5ª semana após a antese, prolongando-se até a 9ª, com intervalos de sete dias. Em cada coleta, analisaram-se os parâmetros: comprimento, largura e teor de água dos frutos; teor de água das sementes (após três dias de exposição ao sol para deiscência do fruto e extração da semente; porcentagem de germinação e peso de matéria seca de frutos, sementes e plântulas. Observou-se, ainda, a coloração dos frutos como parâmetro visual de maturação das sementes. O experimento foi repetido por três anos. Os testes de germinação foram realizados em caixas Gerbox contendo vermiculita umedecida com água destilada. As sementes foram colocadas para germinar em câmara regulada para 30 ºC e fotoperíodo de 12 horas O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições de 25 sementes por parcela, nos anos de 1991, 1992 e 1993. As leituras de germinação foram realizadas nos 4º e 8º dias após a semeadura. Pelos resultados, conclui-se que o momento ideal para coleta dos frutos de C. echinata é no estádio de pré-dispersão (entre a 8º e 9º após a antese visualizado através da coloração, quando estes mudam de verde para castanho.Several indicative parameters regarding fruit maturity of Caesalpinia echinata were studied in order to establish the ideal harvest time. Ten matrix plants were cultivated in Moji-Guaçu, SP (22°11' to 1022°18' S and 47°13' to 47°20' WG, altitude between 600m and 730m. The climate of the region is classified as Cwa. Two hundred and fifty blossoms were tagged during the the peak

  2. Potencial de rizobactérias no crescimento de mudas de sibipiruna (caesalpinia peltophoroides BENTH Epotential of rhizobacterias for the growth of seedlings of sibipiruna (Caesalpinia peltophoroides BENTH

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    Jeane de Fátima Cunha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o potencial de isolados de rizobactérias na germinação de sementes e no crescimento de mudas de sibipiruna (Caesalpinia peltophoroides. Testaram-se os isolados pré-selecionados para eucalipto, Ca, FL2, MF2, MF4, RC3, R1, 3918, S1, S2 e CIIB. Para tanto, amostras de substrato à base de vermiculita e casca de arroz carbonizada (1:1 foram tratados com 5 mL de uma suspensão de cada isolado (OD540= 0,2 A/ tubete de 55 cc de capacidade, correspondendo a cerca de 10 ufc/mL. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado (DIC com cinco repetições por tratamento, com 20 sementes cada. Aos 40 dias, avaliaram-se a porcentagem de germinação e a massa seca de raízes e da parte aérea. Verificou-se aumento significativo em matéria seca de raiz e da parte aérea para todos os isolados de rizobactérias testados, em relação à testemunha. Todos os isolados proporcionaram aumento significativo na germinação, à exceção do 3918 e CIIB que não diferiram da testemunha. Entre os isolados testados, quatro destacaram-se como os mais promissores (FL2, MF4, MF2 e CIIB. Os resultados obtidos mostram ganhos significativos na produção de mudas, sem nenhum ajuste no manejo ou na estrutura do viveiro. Além desse ganho direto, pode-se ter um melhor aproveitamento da estrutura física dos viveiros, ao se diminuir o tempo de formação das mudas, reduzindo-se o custo de produção.The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of growth-promoting rhizobacteria for seed germination and biomass of the root system and aerial part of seedlings of sibipiruna ( Caesalpinia Peltophoroides: . Isolates pre-selected for eucalyptus were used, Ca, FL2, MF2, MF4, RC3, R1, 3918, S1, S2 and CIIB. Thus, samples of vermiculite-based substrate and carbonized rice hull (1:1 were treated with 5 mL of a suspension of each isolate (OD540= 0.2 A/ tubette of 55 cc capacity corresponding to around 10 ufc/mL. The experimental

  3. Using the pER8:GUS reporter system to screen for phytoestrogens from Caesalpinia sappan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wan-Chun; Wang, Hui-Chun; Chen, Guan-Yu; Yang, Juan-Cheng; Korinek, Michal; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Ken-Ichiro; Wu, Chih-Chung; Wu, Yang-Chang; Chang, Fang-Rong

    2011-08-26

    Arabidopsis thaliana pER8:GUS, a low-cost, highly efficient, and convenient transgenic plant system, was used to assay the estrogen-like activity of 30 traditional Chinese medicines. The MeOH extract of Caesalpinia sappan exhibited significant bioactivity in this assay, and subsequent bioactivity-guided fractionation of the extract led to the isolation of one new compound, (S)-3,7-dihydroxychroman-4-one (1), and 10 known compounds. Both the plant pER8:GUS and in vitro estrogen response element reporter assays were used to evaluate the estrogenic activity of the isolated compounds, and these two systems produced comparable results. Compounds 6, 8, and 11 showed significant estrogenic activity comparable to genistein. These active compounds were determined to be nontoxic new sources of phytoestrogens. In addition, compounds 2 and 3 inhibited ERE transcription induced by 17β-estradiol. A docking model revealed that compounds 6, 8, and 11 showed high affinity to the estrogen receptor. The pER8:GUS reporter system was demonstrated to be a useful and effective technique in phytoestrogen discovery.

  4. PASS-Predicted Hepatoprotective Activity of Caesalpinia sappan in Thioacetamide-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Rats

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    Farkaad A. Kadir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The antifibrotic effects of traditional medicinal herb Caesalpinia sappan (CS extract on liver fibrosis induced by thioacetamide (TAA and the expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1, α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA in rats were studied. A computer-aided prediction of antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities was primarily performed with the Prediction Activity Spectra of the Substance (PASS Program. Liver fibrosis was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by TAA administration (0.03% w/v in drinking water for a period of 12 weeks. Rats were divided into seven groups: control, TAA, Silymarin (SY, and CS 300 mg/kg body weight and 100 mg/kg groups. The effect of CS on liver fibrogenesis was determined by Masson’s trichrome staining, immunohistochemical analysis, and western blotting. In vivo determination of hepatic antioxidant activities, cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1, and matrix metalloproteinases (MPPS was employed. CS treatment had significantly increased hepatic antioxidant enzymes activity in the TAA-treated rats. Liver fibrosis was greatly alleviated in rats when treated with CS extract. CS treatment was noted to normalize the expression of TGF-β1, αSMA, PCNA, MMPs, and TIMP1 proteins. PASS-predicted plant activity could efficiently guide in selecting a promising pharmaceutical lead with high accuracy and required antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties.

  5. Evaluation of Caesalpinia pulcherrima endospermic gum as affinity matrices for galactose-binding lectins interaction

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    Renata Chastinet Braga

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are proteins or glycoproteins able to bind, specifically and reversibly carbohydrates and glycoconjugates. Considering this ability, the utilization of Caesalpinia pulcherrima seeds polysaccharides as an affinity matrix was tested. The endospermic gum were solubilized in distinct concentrations of NaOH and treated with different amounts of epichlorohydrin (ECH forming affinity gels with variable capacity for interaction with galactose- binding lectins. The gel with an ECH/gum ration of 6.0mmol/g was selected as the best affinity matrix. The matrix presented different efficiencies in terms of isolating galactose-binding lectins. C. pulcherrima endospermic galactomannans were purified by ethanol precipitation and the purified galactomannan was crosslinked with the best formulation of gel. The Artocarpus incisa, Ricinus communis and Abrus precatorius lectins showed interactions of 11.5, 17.7 and 47.2mg of retained protein in 1g of gel, respectively; the Artocarpus integrifolia lectin showed the highest affinities (79.7mg/g. The heamaglutination assays confirmed the activity and SDS-PAGE electrophoresis confirmed the isolation of the lectins in a single-step procedure.

  6. Hypoglycemic and antioxidant activities of Caesalpinia ferrea Martius leaf extract in streptozotocininduced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sherien; Kamal; Hassan; Nermin; Mohammed; El-Sammad; Amria; Mamdouh; Mousa; Maha; Hashim; Mohammed; Abd; el; Razik; Hussein; Farrag; Amani; Nassir; Eldin; Hashim; Victoria; Werner; Ulrike; Lindequist; Mahmoud; Abd; El-Moein; Nawwar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antidiabetic and antioxidant ef ects of aqueous ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia ferrea(C. ferrea) leaf in normal and streptozotocin(STZ) induced diabetic rats.Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats divided into 6 groups of 6 rats each were assigned into diabetic and non-diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced in rats by single intraperitoneal administration of STZ(65 mg/kg body weight). C. ferrea extract at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight was orally administered to both diabetic and non-diabetic animals for a period of 30 days. After completion of experimental duration serum, liver and pancreas were used for evaluating biochemical and histopathological changes.Results: Oral administration of C. ferrea leaf extract significantly reduced elevated serum glucose, α-amylase, liver function levels and signii cantly increased serum insulin, total protein and body weight as well as improved lipid proi le due to diabetes. Furthermore, the treatment resulted in a marked increase in glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione, and diminished levels of lipid peroxidation in liver and pancreas of diabetic rats. Histopathological studies demonstrated the reduction in the pancreas and liver damage and coni rmed the biochemical i ndings.Conclusions: From the present study, it can be concluded that the C. ferrea leaf extract ef ectively improved hyperglycaemia while inhibiting the progression of oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Hence, it can be used in the management of diabetes mellitus.

  7. Bioefficacy of Caesalpinia bonducella extracts against tobacco cutworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hub.) (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae)

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    Backiyaraj Muthusamy; Elumalai Arumugam; Kasinathan Dhamodaran; Mathivanan Thangarasu; Krishnappa Kaliyamoorthy; Elumalai Kuppusamy

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities of benzene, dichloromethane, diethylether, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Indian medicinal plant, Caesalpinia bonducella (C. bonducella) at different concentrations against Lepidopteran agricultural field pest Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Methods: Antifeedant activities of the selected plant extract were studied using leaf disc no-choice method and oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities were also assessed by adapting the standard protocols. Results: The antifeedant activity of C. bonducella showed significant antifeedant activity in methanol extract. Oviposition deterrency is higher in methanol extract than the other solvent extracts. Similarly, maximum egg mortality was observed in methanol leaf extract of C. bonducella Lethal concentration, LC50 value of benzene, diethylether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol extract of C. bonducella were 470.02, 469.00, 465.47, 460.52 and 443.87 mg/L respectively. The Chi-square values are significant at P< 0.05 level. Among five solventextracts, the methanol extract was responsible for strong lethal activity observed against selected pest species. Conclusions: Results of this study show that the selected Indian medicinal plant C. bonducella could be a potent source of natural antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal agent against the field pest Helicoverpa armigera.

  8. Bioefficacy of Caesalpinia bonducella extracts against tobacco cutworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hub. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    Backiyaraj Muthusamy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities of benzene, dichloromethane, diethylether, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Indian medicinal plant, Caesalpinia bonducella (C. bonducella at different concentrations against Lepidopteran agricultural field pest Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. Methods: Antifeedant activities of the selected plant extract were studied using leaf disc nochoice method and oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities were also assessed by adapting the standard protocols. Results: The antifeedant activity of C. bonducella showed significant antifeedant activity in methanol extract. Oviposition deterrency is higher in methanol extract than the other solvent extracts. Similarly, maximum egg mortality was observed in methanol leaf extract of C. bonducella Lethal concentration, LC50 value of benzene, diethylether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol extract of C. bonducella were 470.02, 469.00, 465.47, 460.52 and 443.87 mg/L respectively. The Chi-square values are significant at P< 0.05 level. Among five solvent extracts, the methanol extract was responsible for strong lethal activity observed against selected pest species. Conclusions: Results of this study show that the selected Indian medicinal plant C. bonducella could be a potent source of natural antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal agent against the field pest Helicoverpa armigera.

  9. Antifertility potential of the ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia pulcherrima Linn. leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunil Kumar; Jitender Singh; Anupama Baghotia; Vineet Mehta; Vikas Thakur; Manjusha Choudhary; Surender Verma; Dinesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the antifertility activity of ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia pulcherrima Linn (C. pulcherrima) leaves in albino female mice. Methods: Acute toxicity study of the extract was carried out in adult albino mice. The antifertility activity of the extract at dose levels (200 and 400 mg/kg, orally) was evaluated in two experimental animal models i.e. antiimplantation and esterogenic/antiestrogenic activity in female mice by observing no. of implants, estrus cycle, vaginal cornification, uertus weight and cholesterol content. Results: The extract was found to be safe up to a dose of 4 000 mg/kg body weight when administered orally. A good antiimplantation (66.66 %) activity in female mice was observed at the tested dose levels (200 and 400 mg/kg, orally). The extract further showed more significant (P<0.05) increase in uterine weight and cholesterol content in immature mice. Simultaneous administration of extract alongwith ethinyl estradiol showed significant estrogenic activity. Conclusion: The results suggest that ethanolic extract of C. pulcherrima leaves possess significant antifertility activity, therefore, justifying the traditional use of this plant in fertility regulation.

  10. Enhanced in vitro dissolution of Iloperidone using Caesalpinia Pulcherrima mucoadhesive microspheres

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    Pradum Pundlikrao Ige

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to improve the solubility and dissolution rate of Iloperidone. Microspheres containing Iloperidone were prepared by spray drying using mucilage extracted from seeds of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. The novelty of this work is that, the extraction of mucilage and its usage for preparation of drug loaded microspheres. The prepared microspheres were characterized by SEM, DSC, XRPD, FTIR, 1H-NMR, particle size, drug content, entrapment efficiency, in vitro dissolution and ex vivo mucoadhesion. Based on particle size, drug content, ex vivo mucoadhesive strength and in vitro drug release, the best formulation was optimized. Percent entrapment efficiency and mean particle size for optimized formulation was found to be 73.49 and 3.27 ± 1.23 μm, respectively. More precisely, mucilage of C. pulcherrima could be significant carrier of (drug and polymer ratio 1:5 microspheres for the development of oral drug delivery.

  11. Phytochemical investigation and antimicrobial activity of Caesalpinia bonduc (linn Roxb seeds

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    V. Subramani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate phytochemical properties, antimicrobial activity and trace metal concentrations of Caesalpinia bonducella. The phytochemical screening of the extracts of leaves of C. bonducella revealed the presence of bioactive compounds such as Steroid, Triterpenoids, Reducing Sugar(A, Reducing Sugar(B, Sugars, Flavonoids, Saponin, Amino acids with absence of Alkaloids, Phenolic Compounds, Catachins, Tannins, Anthroquinones.  The ethanol solvent was used for extraction and was used to screen the antimicrobial activity of C. bonducella leaves against certain pathogens by disc diffusion method. In the antimicrobial study, in bacteria, the test sample was most effective against Escherichia coli NCIM 2931 (B2 while smaller effect was noticed from Staphylococcus aureus NCIM 5021 (B3. In fungi, this was effective against Epidermophyton floccosum var. nigricans MTCC 613 (F2 whereas smaller effect was observed in Candida glabrata MTCC 3984 (F1. All the microbial strains depict higher sensitivity to the higher concentration (1.2 mg / disc for the test sample when compared to the positive control except bacterial strains such as Bacillus subtilis NCIM 2920 (B1 and Staphylococcus aureus NCIM 5021 (B3.  The result was supported the view that C. bonducella is a potent antimicrobial agent compared with the conventional antibiotic. The concentrations of trace metals in plants were not cross the standard level. Hence, it is signified that Aloe vera plant extract is safe to be used as an antimicrobial agent.

  12. Caesalpinia echinata Lam. - BRAZILWOOD: THERMAL BEHAVIOR, STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS, AND RESISTANCE TO BIODETERIORATION IN STATIC SYSTEMS

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    Ana Paula Pinto Pinheiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Wood is the best-known biological material used as a raw material since the dawn of mankind until present days. As a natural and renewable composite, its lifetime is limited by the degradation of its basic elements. This degradation can be caused by chemical reactions or by biological agents capable of accelerating the process of deterioration. In this work, the wear, thermal, and micro-structural characteristics, as also the bio-degradation behavior in static systems, of the wood species Brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata were studied under laboratory conditions in order to use these woods in design. The results show that Brazilwood has a good visual performance after abrasion test, since it has not shown any representative roughness increase. In addition, Brazilwood has high level of crystallinity of, approximately, 68% and was almost insensitive to fungi attack, forming only 5.3 x 103 CFU/mL. Besides, its texture did not change due to exposure to water or sweat.

  13. TRATAMENTOS PRÉ-GERMINATIVOS EM SEMENTES DE Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L. Sw. - LEGUMINOSAE

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    LUCICLÉIA MENDES DE OLIVEIRA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L. Sw. is an exotic species of Leguminoseae commonly known as flamboyant-mirim, and largely used for unban arborization. The objective of this study was to evaluate methods for overcome dormancy of seeds of flamboyant mirim. The work was developed at the Laboratory of Seed Analysis and green house of Centro de Ciências Agrárias at Universidade Federal da Paraíba, campus II, Areia, PB. The experimental procedure used was completely randomized with 14 treatments (control (intact seeds (T1; scarification with sandpaper opposite number 80 in the region to hilum soaking in water for 0; 12; 24; 36 and 48 h (T2, T3, T4, T5 e T6 at 30 ºC; immersion in hot water at temperatures 70 and 80 °C (T7 and T8; sulfuric acid scarification by immersion 5; 10; 15; 20; 25 and 30 minutes(T9, T10, T11, T12, T13 e T14 and four repetitions. The variable obtained were percentage emergency, first count emergency and emergency speed index (IVE. Daily count of the seedlings was carried out during 25 days. The seeds immerged in sulfuric acid for 30 minutes presented smaller of seedlings emergency. The mechanical scarification of the seed tegument followed by immersion in water for 12 and 24 h are the most effective method for to overcome dormancy of seeds of flamboyant.

  14. Influência da temperatura de armazenamento na qualidade das sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (sibipiruna

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    Pontes Claudia Aparecida

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da temperatura de armazenamento na porcentagem de germinação e no vigor das sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (sibipiruna, por meio de testes fisiológicos. O teor de água aumentou nas sementes armazenadas a 5 degreesC e reduziu naquelas a 20 degreesC. A porcentagem de germinação das sementes mantidas a 5 e 20 degreesC apresentou redução aos 220 e 120 dias, respectivamente. O índice de velocidade de germinação decresceu de maneira similar. A condutividade elétrica não foi alterada nas sementes armazenadas a 5 degreesC e aumentou nas que permaneceram a 20 degreesC. O envelhecimento acelerado nos períodos de 24, 48 e 72 horas detectou redução significativa na qualidade das sementes em ambos os ambientes de armazenamento. A redução da porcentagem de germinação e do vigor foi maior nas sementes armazenadas a 20 degreesC.

  15. Caesalpinia decapetala Extracts as Inhibitors of Lipid Oxidation in Beef Patties

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    Maria G. Gallego

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the effects of Caesalpinia decapetala (CD extracts on lipid oxidation in ground beef patties. Plant extracts and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT were individually added to patties at both 0.1% and 0.5% (w/w concentrations. We assessed the antioxidant efficacy of CD by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay and evaluated their potential as natural antioxidants for meat preservation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS values, hexanal content, fatty acid composition and color parameters. These were tested periodically during 11 days of refrigerated storage. TBARS levels were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05 in the samples containing plant extracts or BHT than in the non-treated control. In addition, the beef patties formulated with the selected plant extracts showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05 better color stability than those without antioxidants. These results indicate that edible plant extracts are promising sources of natural antioxidants and can potentially be used as functional preservatives in meat products.

  16. Constituintes químicos voláteis das flores e folhas do pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata, Lam.

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    Rezende Claudia M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The volatile constituents obtained from a static cryogenic headspace of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Leguminosae showed E-beta-ocimene as the major compound (57.2%, beside other monoterpenes, C6 derivatives like n-hexanal and (E-2-hexenal and nitrogen compounds such as indole and methyl anthranilate. From the essential oil of the leaves obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus, (E-3-hexen-1-ol was identified as the major constituent while phenolic compounds were the most representative class of secondary metabolites.

  17. EVALUATION OF ANTI- TUSSIVE ACTIVITY OF LEAVES OF CAESALPINIA BONDUCELLA F. IN EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED COUGH IN MICE

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    Sanjay Jain*, Rakesh Barik, Nidhi Yadav and Shivpal Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cough is a natural reflex expulsive defense mechanism of the body, for clearing excess secretions, mucous, inhaled irritants, toxins or foreign substance in the respiratory tract. It is the most common symptom of respiratory disease. When cough becomes serious, opioids are effective, but they have side effects like sedation, constipation, some addiction liability and also compromise the respiratory function. Therefore, there is a need to have effective anti-tussive agent which do not have respiratory suppressant activity. The present study was carried out to evaluate anti-tussive activity of leaves of Caesalpinia bonducella in ammonium hydroxide induced cough model in mice.

  18. In vitro and in vivo assessment of the anti-malarial activity of Caesalpinia pluviosa

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    Eberlin Marcos N

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To overcome the problem of increasing drug resistance, traditional medicines are an important source for potential new anti-malarials. Caesalpinia pluviosa, commonly named "sibipiruna", originates from Brazil and possess multiple therapeutic properties, including anti-malarial activity. Methods Crude extract (CE was obtained from stem bark by purification using different solvents, resulting in seven fractions. An MTT assay was performed to evaluate cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells. The CE and its fractions were tested in vitro against chloroquine-sensitive (3D7 and -resistant (S20 strains of Plasmodium falciparum and in vivo in Plasmodium chabaudi-infected mice. In vitro interaction with artesunate and the active C. pluviosa fractions was assessed, and mass spectrometry analyses were conducted. Results At non-toxic concentrations, the 100% ethanolic (F4 and 50% methanolic (F5 fractions possessed significant anti-malarial activity against both 3D7 and S20 strains. Drug interaction assays with artesunate showed a synergistic interaction with the F4. Four days of treatment with this fraction significantly inhibited parasitaemia in mice in a dose-dependent manner. Mass spectrometry analyses revealed the presence of an ion corresponding to m/z 303.0450, suggesting the presence of quercetin. However, a second set of analyses, with a quercetin standard, showed distinct ions of m/z 137 and 153. Conclusions The findings show that the F4 fraction of C. pluviosa exhibits anti-malarial activity in vitro at non-toxic concentrations, which was potentiated in the presence of artesunate. Moreover, this anti-malarial activity was also sustained in vivo after treatment of infected mice. Finally, mass spectrometry analyses suggest that a new compound, most likely an isomer of quercetin, is responsible for the anti-malarial activity of the F4.

  19. Brazilin from Caesalpinia sappan heartwood and its pharmacological activities:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nilesh P Nirmal; Mithun S Rajput; Rangabhatla GSV Prasad; Mehraj Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Caesalpinia sappan L. (CS) is a plant of Leguminosae family, commonly known as Brazil or Sappan wood. CS is distributed in Southeast Asia and its dried heartwood has been used as traditional ingredient of food or beverages and has a wide variety of medicinal properties. Higher extraction yield of CS wood was achieved with 95% ethanol for 2 h. Chemical constituent’s investigation of sappan wood resulted in the isolation of various structural types of phenolic components including one xanthone, one coumarin, three chalcones, two flavones three homoisoflavonoids and brazilin. Brazilin [(6a S-cis)-7, 11b-dihydrobenz[b]indeno[1,2-d] pyran-3,6a,9,10(6H)-tetrol], a major and active compound found in CS heartwood. Most of the folkloric uses of brazilin were validated by the scientific studies such as antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-photoaging, hypoglycemic, vasorelaxant, hepatoprotective and anti-acne activity. CS heartwood extract is safe and did not produce any acute or subacute toxicity in both male and female rats. Brazilin is the safe natural compound having potential to develop as a medicinal compound with application in food, beverage, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries to screen its clinical use in modern medicine. The information gained could provide the important and potential approach for pharmaceutical researcher to implicate the knowledge of brazilin in the formulation of new drug and to reveal therapeutic and gaps requiring future research opportunities. More studies are needed to evaluate the potential application of brazilin as preservative and coloring agent in food processing industries.

  20. Carbon Sequestration of Caesalpinia platyloba S. Watt (Leguminosae) (Lott 1985) in the Tropical Deciduous Forest

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    Diaz-Gustavo, Norma; Martínez-Salvador, Martín; García-Hernández, José Luís; Norzagaray-Campos, Mariano; Luna-González, Antonio; González-Ocampo, Héctor Abelardo

    2015-01-01

    Caesalpinia platyloba was evaluated as an alternative for the retention of atmospheric carbon and as a feasible and viable economic activity in terms of income for tropical deciduous forest (TDF) peasants in the carbon markets. A total of 110 trees of C. platyloba from plantations and a TDF in the Northwest of Mexico were sampled. Growth (increase in height, diameter, and volume curves) was adjusted to assess their growth. Growth of individuals (height, diameter at breast height [DBH], age, and tree crown cover) was recorded. The Schumacher model (H = β0eβ1•E-1), by means of the guided curve method, was used to adjust growth models. Information analysis was made through the non-linear procedure with the multivariate secant or false position (DUD) method using the SAS software. Growth and increase models revealed acceptable adjustments (pseudo R2>0.8). C. platyloba reaches >8m of height with 12cm in diameter and 550cm3 of volume, presenting the highest increase at 11 years considered as basal age. Highest significant density of wood was in good quality sites (0.80g•cm-3), with a carbon content (average of 99.15tC•ha-1) at the highest density of 2500 trees•ha-1 (without thinning). Average incomes of US$483.33tC•ha-1 are expected. The profitability values (NPW = US$81,646.65, IRR = 472%, and B/C = 0.82) for C. platyloba make its cultivation a viable and profitable activity, considering a management scheme of the income derived from wood selling and from carbon credits. PMID:25992905

  1. Carbon Sequestration of Caesalpinia platyloba S. Watt (Leguminosae) (Lott 1985) in the Tropical Deciduous Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Gustavo, Norma; Martínez-Salvador, Martín; García-Hernández, José Luís; Norzagaray-Campos, Mariano; Luna-González, Antonio; González-Ocampo, Héctor Abelardo

    2015-01-01

    Caesalpinia platyloba was evaluated as an alternative for the retention of atmospheric carbon and as a feasible and viable economic activity in terms of income for tropical deciduous forest (TDF) peasants in the carbon markets. A total of 110 trees of C. platyloba from plantations and a TDF in the Northwest of Mexico were sampled. Growth (increase in height, diameter, and volume curves) was adjusted to assess their growth. Growth of individuals (height, diameter at breast height [DBH], age, and tree crown cover) was recorded. The Schumacher model (H = β(0)e(β1 • E-1)), by means of the guided curve method, was used to adjust growth models. Information analysis was made through the non-linear procedure with the multivariate secant or false position (DUD) method using the SAS software. Growth and increase models revealed acceptable adjustments (pseudo R(2)>0.8). C. platyloba reaches >8m of height with 12 cm in diameter and 550 cm(3) of volume, presenting the highest increase at 11 years considered as basal age. Highest significant density of wood was in good quality sites (0.80 g • cm(-3)), with a carbon content (average of 99.15tC • ha(-1)) at the highest density of 2500 trees • ha(-1) (without thinning). Average incomes of US$483.33tC • ha(-1) are expected. The profitability values (NPW = US$81,646.65, IRR = 472%, and B/C = 0.82) for C. platyloba make its cultivation a viable and profitable activity, considering a management scheme of the income derived from wood selling and from carbon credits.

  2. Antiplasmodial, cytotoxic activities and characterization of a new naturally occurring quinone methide pentacyclic triterpenoid derivative isolated from Salacia leptoclada Tul. (Celastraceae) originated from Madagascar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fatiany Pierre Ruphin; Robijaona Baholy; Randrianarivo Emmanuel; Raharisololalao Amelie; Marie-Therese Martin; Ngbolua Koto-te-Nyiwa

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To validate scientifically the traditional use of Salacia leptoclada Tul. (Celastraceae) (S. leptoclada) and to isolate and elucidate the structure of the biologically active compound. Methods:Bioassay-guided fractionation of the acetonic extract of the stem barks of S. leptoclada was carried out by a combination of chromatography technique and biological experiments in viro using Plasmodium falciparum and P388 leukemia cell lines as models. The structure of the biologically active pure compound was elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Results:Biological screening of S. leptoclada extracts resulted in the isolation of a pentacyclic triterpenic quinone methide. The pure compound exhibited both in vitro a cytotoxic effect on murine P388 leukemia cells with IC50 value of (0.041±0.020) µg/mL and an antiplasmodial activity against the chloroquine-resistant strain FC29 of Plasmodium falciparum with an IC50 value of (0.052±0.030) µg/mL. Despite this interesting anti-malarial property of the lead compound, the therapeutic index was weak (0.788). In the best of our knowledge, the quinone methide pentacyclic triterpenoid derivative compound is reported for the first time in S. leptoclada. Conclusions:The results suggest that furthers studies involving antineoplastic activity is needed for the development of this lead compound as anticancer drug.

  3. Bioactivity of Peumus boldus Molina, Laurelia sempervirens (Ruiz & Pav. Tul. and Laureliopsis philippiana (Looser Schodde (Monimiacea essential oils against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky

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    Carmen Herrera-Rodríguez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky is one of most important pest of stored seeds worldwide, but its current control method is based on the use of synthetic insecticides, usually leading to undesirable problems such as insecticide residues on treated food, human intoxications, and insect resistance development. Therefore the search of friendly alternative methods is required. The aim of this study was to assess, under laboratory conditions, the insecticidal properties of Peumus boldus Molina, Laurelia sempervirens (Ruiz & Pav. Tul., and Laureliopsis philippiana (Looser Schodde essential oils against S. zeamais. The phytochemical analysis of the three essential oils showed 1,8-cineole, safrole and methyleugenol as the common components; all of them documented with insecticidal activity from essential oils from other plant species. The highest toxicity (100% mortality of these three oils acting as a contact insecticide was observed at 24 h exposure at 4% concentration. The estimated LC50 values for P. boldus, L. sempervirens, and L. philippiana were 0.37, 1.02, and 0.28 μL g-1, respectively. Peumus boldus exhibited the highest fumigant activity with 100% adult mortality at 30 μL oil L-1 air. At ≥ 0.5% (v/w concentration, all essential oils showed repellent activity. These three essential oils showed a promissory insecticidal activity against the maize weevil.

  4. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties

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    María Gabriela Gallego

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD and Caesalpinia spinosa “Tara” (CS were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts at a high concentration had lower tensile strength with higher elongation at break points, compared to the control film (p < 0.05. Films exhibited antioxidant activity in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC and Trolox equivalence antioxidant capacity (TEAC assays when added at 0.2%. The application of gelatine film containing CD and CS was found to be effective in delaying lipid oxidation and deterioration of beef patty quality during storage. Therefore, the films prepared in this study offered an alternative edible coating for the preservation of fresh food.

  5. Effect of Caesalpinia sappan L. extract on physico-chemical properties of emulsion-type pork sausage during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Ha, So-Ra; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of extract from heart wood of Caesalpinia sappan on the physico-chemical properties and to find the appropriate addition level in the emulsion-type pork sausage during cold storage. The pH of treatments with C. sappan extract was significantly lower than control and T1 during cold storage periods (Psausages containing C. sappan extract were decreased compared to control. Inclusion of the C. sappan extract in sausages resulted in lower lightness and higher yellowness, chroma and hue values. However, the antioxidant, antimicrobial activity, and volatile basic nitrogen in the emulsion-type pork sausages with C. sappan extract showed increased quality characteristics during cold storage. In conclusion, the proper addition level of C. sappan extract was 0.1% on the processing of emulsion-type pork sausage.

  6. Fungistatic Activity Of Essential Oils Extracted from Peumus boldus Mol., Laureliopsis philippiana (Looser Schodde and Laurelia sempervirens (Ruiz & Pav. Tul. (Chilean Monimiaceae Actividad Fungistática de Extractos de Aceites Asenciales de Peumus boldus Mol., Laureliopsis philippiana (Looser Schodde y Laurelia sempervirens (Ruiz & Pav. Tul. (Monimiaceae chilenas

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    Magalis Bittner

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Components of essential oils from the Chilean Monimiaceae, boldo (Peumus boldus Mol., tepa (Laureliopsis philippiana (Looser Schodde, and laurel (Laurelia sempervirens (Ruiz & Pav. Tul. were determined using Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry (GCMS and fungistatic activity of the essential oils was tested against Rhizoctonia solani Kühn (Donk, Pythium irregulare Buisman, Ceratocystis pilifera (Fr. C. Moreau, Phragmidium violaceum (Schultz G. Winter, and Fusarium oxysporum Schltdl. The essential oils of the Monimiaceae species shared some common components; all three had the 3-carene, α-phellandrene, and α-pinene terpenes. L. philippiana and L. sempervirens also had safrole.The main components were ascaridol in P. boldus oil, 3-carene in L. philippiana, and safrole in L. sempervirens. The essential oil from L. sempervirens showed the highest fungistatic activity with significant differences in dose as well as exposure. P. violaceum was the most sensitive strain and P. irregulare the most resistant of all the essential oils (P. boldus extract affected growth by only 19%. Therefore, essential oils from these three plants could be used to control the fungal strains studied.Se determinaron los compuestos de aceites esenciales de Monimiaceae chilenas, boldo (Peumus boldus Mol., tepa (Laureliopsis philippiana (Looser Schodde, y laurel (Laurelia sempervirens (Ruiz & Pav. Tul. a través de cromatografía de gas con espectrometría de masas (CG-EM y se midió la actividad fungistática de los aceites sobre los hongos Rhizoctonia solani Kühn (Donk, Pythium irregulare Buisman, Ceratocystis pilifera (Fr. C. Moreau, Phragmidium violaceum (Schultz Winter y Fusarium oxysporum Schltdl. Los aceites esenciales de las especies de Monimiaceae tienen algunos compuestos en común; en las especies estudiadas se encontró que todos tenían los terpenos 3-careno, α-felandreno, y α-pineno. L. philippiana y L. sempervirens además tienen safrol. En cambio

  7. Determination of Total Diterpenes of Caesalpinia minax%苦石莲中总二萜的含量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩瑞亭; 万国盛; 孙博航; 霍晓灵; 高慧媛

    2013-01-01

    目的:建立苦石莲中总二萜的含量测定方法,优化总二萜的提取工艺,并进行含量测定.方法:采用可见分光光度法,以5%香草醛/冰乙酸-高氯酸为显色剂,化合物caesalpinins K为对照品,在530 nm处测定其吸光度值,利用回归方程计算苦石莲中总二萜含量.结果:Caesalpinins K对照品溶液质量浓度在2.0~6.1 mg·L-1,线性关系良好,r =0.999 5(n=5),平均回收率为101.8% (RSD 2.3%).结论:该方法简便、准确、重复性好,可以为苦石莲的质量控制提供依据.%Objective: To establish quantitative methods of total diterpene in Caesalpinia minax and optimization of extraction process. Method; The content of total diterpene was determined at 530 nm by vis-spectrophotometry using caesalpinins K as standard and using the color reaction with 5% vanillina-glacial acetic acid and perchloric acid. Result; Linear relationship of caesalpinins K reference solution was good in the range of 2. 0-6.1 mg·L-1 (r = 0. 999 5) , the average recovery was 101. 8% ( RSD 2. 3% ). Conclusion: The present methods are simple, accurate with good reproducibility, and could be used to control the quality of Caesalpinia minax.

  8. 云实化学成分研究进展%Advances on Chemical Constituents and Bioactivities of Caesalpinia decapetala(Roth) Alston

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏小华

    2012-01-01

    Caesalpinia decapetala(Roth) Alston was perennial climbing shrub of the Leguminosea and was the traditional Chinese medicine widely used in folk medicine for a long time,which distributed abroad and had extensive use in folk medicine,treated for chronic bronchitis and cured the cold.The biological studies revealed that some compounds showed significant antimalarial activity for falciparum malaria(Plasmodium falciparum).Recent progress on the chemical compents of Caesalpinia decapetala(Roth) Alston was reviewed.%中药云实(Caesalpinia decapetala(Roth)Alston)是豆科(Leguminosae)多年生攀援灌木。云实分布广泛,在我国大部分地区均有分布,而且在我国传统中药中亦广泛应用,是治疗老年慢性支气管炎、预防和医治流行性感冒的良药。药理研究表明,云实不但具有良好的抗疟疾活性,还具有抗病毒等生物活性。本文综述了云实化学成分的研究概况。

  9. Investigação da presença de efedrinas em Ephedra tweediana Fisch & C.A. Meyer e em E. triandra Tul. (Ephedraceae coletadas em Porto Alegre/RS Investigation of the presence of ephedrines in Ephedra tweediana Fisch & C.A. Meyer and E. triandra Tul. (Ephedraceae collected in Porto Alegre/RS

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    Bruna de S. Boff

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Amostras de Ephedra tweediana Fisch & C.A. Meyer, coletadas de populações nativas da Reserva Biológica do Lami José Lutzenberger (Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, e amostras de Ephedra triandra Tul., obtidas de plantas cultivadas em Porto Alegre/RS, foram extraídas com acetona, derivatizadas com ciclohexanona e analisadas por CG/EM. Para verificação da eficiência da metodologia, além das amostras de Ephedra tweediana e E. triandra, foram analisadas cinco amostras comerciais de Ephedra, de procedências distintas, cedidas por farmácias de manipulação locais. Os resultados encontrados indicam a ausência de efedrinas em Ephedra tweediana e E. triandra e presença de efedrina e/ou pseudoefedrina nas amostras comerciais.Samples of Ephedra tweediana, collected from native populations occurring in the Reserva Biológica do Lami José Lutzenberger (Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil, and from cultivated plants of Ephedra triandra were submitted to extraction with acetone, derivatized with cyclohexanone and analyzed by GC/MS. In order to verify the efficiency of the methodology, besides Ephedra tweediana and E. triandra, samples of five commercial Ephedra extracts were analyzed, from distinct origins, get up from local drugstores. The results showed the absence of ephedrines in Ephedra tweediana and E. triandra, and the presence of ephedrine and/or pseudoephedrine in commercial samples.

  10. Caracteres das sementes, plântulas e plantas jovens de Ormosia arborea (Vell. Harms E Ormosia fastigiata Tul. (Leg-papilionoideae

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    Cristina Gurski

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ormosia arborea (Vell. Harms e Ormosia fastigiata Tul. são espécies similares em muitos caracteres morfológicos, o que resulta em dificuldade na sua identificação, tanto em campo quanto em material herborizado. Neste estudo foram descritas as características morfológicas das sementes e morfoanatômicas das plântulas e plantas jovens de O. arborea e O. fastigiata, coletadas em restinga e em mata ciliar, respectivamente. Sementes e plântulas foram processadas segundo técnicas usuais. As sementes de O. arborea são mais pesadas e têm germinação hipógea criptocotiledonar. O caule contém tricomas tectores esparsos e grande quantidade de lenticelas e, na raiz, nodulações. A folha apresenta parênquima paliçádico de células mais curtas, com base mais larga e presença de pigmentos vacuolares, espaços intercelulares conspícuos no parênquima esponjoso, tricomas tectores restritos à nervura principal e células epidérmicas da face adaxial maiores que as da face abaxial. A germinação de O. fastigiata é fanerocotiledonar, e a plântula possui muitos tricomas ao longo do caule e lenticelas restritas à região basal deste. As folhas apresentam tricomas tectores em todas as nervuras, com parênquima paliçádico de células tipicamente alongadas e parênquima esponjoso com espaços intercelulares reduzidos. Tais características são consistentes para separar as plântulas e sementes dessas espécies, que têm a mesma denominação popular e contribuem com informações úteis para o meio produtivo.

  11. Temperatura, luz e substrato para germinação de sementes de Pau-Brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam., Leguminosae - Caesalpinioideae Temperature, light and substrate for germination of seeds of Brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata Lam., Leguminosae - Caesalpinioideae

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    Juliana Iura de Oliveira Mello

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Programas de preservação de Caesalpinia echinata, espécie considerada em risco de extinção, incluem a conservação ex situ, que poderia ser ainda mais intensificada pelo armazenamento, no longo prazo, de suas sementes. Embora já se tenha desenvolvido tecnologia suficiente para preservar a germinabilidade dessas sementes por até dois anos, ainda são insuficientes as informações acerca das condições adequadas para a germinação, mormente as referentes a temperatura, luz e substrato. Este trabalho visou avaliar os efeitos de temperaturas constantes de 10 a 45 °C em presença ou ausência de luz e o tipo (papel, areia e vermiculita e umidade do substrato sobre a germinação das sementes de pau-brasil. Concluiu-se que a semeadura deve ser realizada em rolo de papel, umedecido na relação 1:2,5 a 1:3,0 (substrato:água, em massa, e na temperatura de 25 °C, sem necessidade de luz.Preservation of the Brazilian endangered tree Caesalpinia echinata Lam. include the ex situ conservation that could be enhanced by the long term storage of its seeds. In despite of having enough technology to preserve brazilwood seed viability for at least two years, there is scarce information on the optimal conditions for germination, mainly concerning temperature, light and substrate. This research aimed to study the effects of the constant temperatures (10 to 45°C, the presence or absence of light and the moisture content of three substrates (paper, sand and vermiculite on the germination of C. echinata seeds. The results suggested that these seeds should be sowed on paper roll moistened at the ratio 1:2.5 or 1:3.0 (substrate:water, w/w at 25°C, no need for light.

  12. Atividades biológicas e enzimáticas do extrato aquoso de sementes de Caesalpinia ferrea Mart., Leguminosae Biological and enzymatic activities of aqueous extract of seeds from Caesalpinia ferrea Mart., Leguminosae

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    Mariana G. Cavalheiro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. (jucá ou pau-ferro é uma espécie da família Leguminosae cuja ocorrência estende-se da região Nordeste ao Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Trata-se de uma espécie bastante utilizada na medicina popular pelas suas inúmeras propriedades terapêuticas tais como antiinflamatória, analgésica, antimicrobiana e antitérmica as quais indicam a presença de compostos de interesse farmacológico. Contudo, muitos estudos em plantas também investigam a presença de compostos de interesse industrial. Com base nas propriedades terapêuticas e atividades já descritas para essa espécie, esse trabalho objetivou pesquisar atividades biológicas no extrato de sementes de C. ferrea na busca por compostos de interesse industrial e farmacológico. Os resultados indicaram a presença das atividades celulásica, amilásica, anticoagulante e larvicida contra A. aegypti no extrato aquoso das sementes de C. ferrea, entretanto, não foram observadas as atividades tóxica aguda, hemolítica, heparinásica, antibacteriana e antifúngica.Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. is a species belonging to Leguminosae family commonly known in Brazil as "jucá" or "pau-ferro". It occurs in Brazil from the Northeast Region to the State of Rio de Janeiro and it is widely utilized in folk medicine due to its several therapeutic properties such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial and antithermic, which indicate the presence of compounds of pharmacological interest. Besides, many studies with plants look for the presence of compounds with industrial applications. Based upon the therapeutic and bioactive properties described for this species so far, this work aimed to investigate several biological activities in the water extract of C. ferrea seeds. The results indicated the presence of the following activities: cellulase, amylase, anticoagulant and larvicide against A. aegypti in the water extract of C. ferrea seeds. Nevertheless, the extract did not show the

  13. Pollination Ecology of Caesalpinia crista (Leguminosae:Caesalpinioideae)%华南云实传粉生态学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世晋; 张奠湘; 李琳; 陈忠毅

    2004-01-01

    The flowering phenology, pollination ecology and breeding system of Caesalpinia crista L.were studied in Dinghushan Nature Reserve, Guangdong, China. The species started blooming in February or March, then last till late April. It took about one week from first flower appearance to its full blooming,which lasted for 2-4 d. The pollen-ovule ratio was 18 000+500. The breeding system was self-incompatible,and protogynous xenogamy. Hymenoptera constituted the major group of pollinators. The pollination type is ambophily, the species could be pollinated by wind if the pollinators were unavailable: this is the first record of ambophily in the genus Caesalpinia. The floral structure adaptation to the pollinating behavior of carpenter bees was described. The influences of artificial treatments in pollination biological studies on the flowering and fruiting of the plants were also discussed.%在广东鼎湖山,华南云实(Laesalpinia crista L.)始花期从2月或3月开始,开花后约1周达到盛花期,盛花期持续2~4 d,花期可持续到4月底.华南云实基本繁育系统为雌蕊先熟、自交不亲和的异花受精.华南云实传粉方式为风虫媒.其主要传粉者为膜翅目昆虫,该种是云实属植物中首次报道的可行风媒传粉的种类.描述并探讨了华南云实花的结构与其主要传粉者木蜂之间的互动适应,并讨论了传粉生物学实验中的一些处理方法对华南云实开花过程的影响.

  14. Fabrication and evaluation of oral tablets using natural mucoadhesive agent from seeds of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L. SW

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    Jeevanandham S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral mucoadhesive sustained drug delivery systems of salbutamol sulfate were formulated using an isolated natural agent from the seeds of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. The isolated material was evaluated for various parameters, such as, melting point, viscosity, pH, elemental analysis, swelling index, phytochemical constituents, and solubility studies. The mucoadhesive characters of the isolated substance were identified by a comparative study with hydroxyl propyl cellulose and sodium alginate, by various in vitro methods, such as, Shear stress measurement, Wilhelmy′s method, Falling sphere method, and Detachment force measurement. Formulation and evaluation of mucoadhesive oral tablets of salbutamol sulfate (100 mg, using isolated natural materials in different proportions, and in vitro release studies, were carried out for three different formulations according to the U.S.P apparatus two (paddle method. Each 100 mg tablet was taken in 900 ml of acid buffer 1.2 and maintained at 37˚C. After two hours the filtrate was collected and replaced in buffer 7.4. In vitro releases of three different formulations for nine hours were studied, which showed the sustained action of drug release with increasing the concentration of the isolated natural mucoadhesive agent in the formulations.

  15. Cytotoxic and Pro-Apoptotic Effects of Cassane Diterpenoids from the Seeds of Caesalpinia sappan in Cancer Cells

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    Han Bao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemical study on the seeds of Caesalpinia sappan led to the isolation of five new cassane diterpenoids, phanginins R‒T (1–3 and caesalsappanins M and N (4 and 5, together with seven known compounds 6–12. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR and HRESIMS analyses. The absolute configurations of compounds 1 and 4 were determined by the corresponding CD spectra. All the isolated compounds were tested for their cytotoxicity against ovarian cancer A2780 and HEY, gastric cancer AGS, and non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells. Compound 1 displayed significant toxicity against the four cell lines with the IC50 values of 9.9 ± 1.6 µM, 12.2 ± 6.5 µM, 5.3 ± 1.9 µM, and 12.3 ± 3.1 µM, respectively. Compound 1 induced G1 phase cell cycle arrest in A2780 cells. Furthermore, compound 1 dose-dependently induced A2780 cells apoptosis as evidenced by Hoechst 33342 staining, Annexin V positive cells, the up-regulated cleaved-PARP and the enhanced Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. What’s more, compound 1 also promoted the expression of the tumor suppressor p53 protein. These findings indicate that cassane diterpenoids might have potential as anti-cancer agents, and further in vivo animal studies and structural modification investigation are needed.

  16. Herança e ligação em locos isoenzimáticos de Caesalpinia echinata L. (pau-brasil. Inheritance and linkage in isozyme loci of Caesalpinia echinata L. (pau-brasil.

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    João del GIUDICE-NETO

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta o estudo davariação isoenzimática em Caesalpinia echinata L.(pau-brasil. Onze sistemas enzimáticos (ACP,DIA, EST, G6PDH, GOT, LAP, MDH, PGI, PRX,SKDH e 6PGDH codificando dezoito locos (Acp-1,Est-3, Dia-1, G6pdh-1, Got-1, Lap-1, Mdh-1,Mdh-2, Mdh-3, Pgi-1, Pgi-2, Prx-1, Prx-2, Prx-3,Prx-4, Skdh-1, 6pgdh-1 e 6pgdh-2 foraminvestigados. Entre esses locos, Pgi-1 e Got-1foram detectados como monomórficos. Três locos(Mdh-2, G6pdh-1 e 6pgdh-1 não tiveram suaherança analisada devido à ausência de progênies deárvores heterozigotas na amostra. A herançamendeliana simples foi confirmada para dez locos(Acp-1, Dia-1, Est-3, Lap-1, Mdh-1, Mdh-3, Prx-1,Prx-3, Skdh-1 e 6pgdh-2. Três locos (Pgi-2, Prx-2e Prx-4 apresentaram desvios altamentesignificativos (P < 0,01 para a hipótese desegregação regular 1:1. As relações dedesequilíbrios de ligações foram avaliadas em 120pares de locos isoenzimáticos. Seis pares de locosapresentaram ligação: Mdh-3:Dia-1, Mdh-3:Prx-3,6pgdh-1:Pgi-2, 6pgdh-1:Prx-1, 6pgdh-2:Prx-3 ePgi-2:Prx-4.This article presents a study of isozymevariation in Caesalpinia echinata L. (brazilwood.Eleven isozyme systems (ACP, DIA, EST,G6PDH, GOT, LAP, MDH, PGI, PRX, SKDH and6PGDH codifying eighteen loci (Acp-1, Est-3,Dia-1, G6pdh-1, Got-1, Lap-1, Mdh-1, Mdh-2,Mdh-3, Pgi-1, Pgi-2, Prx-1, Prx-2, Prx-3, Prx-4,Skdh-1, 6pgdh-1 and 6pgdh-2 were investigated.Among these loci, Pgi-1 and Got-1 weremonomorphic. Three loci (Mdh-2, G6pdh-1 and6pgdh-1 were not evaluated for inheritance duethe lack of families from heterozygous mothertrees in the sampling. Mendelian inheritance wasconfirmed for ten allozyme loci (Acp-1, Dia-1,Est-3, Lap-1, Mdh-1, Mdh-3, Prx-1, Prx-3, Skdh-1,and 6pgdh-2. Three loci (Pgi-2, Prx-2 and Prx-4showed significant deviations (P < 0.01 from expectedsegregation 1:1 hypothesis. Linkage relationshipswere examined for 120 pairs of allozyme loci.Six pairs of loci showed linked: Mdh-3:Dia-1,Mdh-3:Prx-3, 6

  17. 用肉荚云实代替进口塔拉工业化生产没食子酸的研究%Study on Industrial Production of Gallic Acid by Caesalpinia digyna Instead of Imported Tara

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代欣; 叶世芸; 何顺志; 孙庆文

    2011-01-01

    目的 首次用国产肉荚云实作为工业化生产没食子酸的原料.方法 用与进口塔拉生产没食子酸的相同生产工艺的单耗与得率进行比较.结果 肉荚云实作为原料工业化生产没食子酸的单耗相当于或低于塔拉,其单宁酸含量、纯度及水解没食子酸的产率均优于进口塔拉.结论 国产肉荚云实可以代替进口塔拉作为工业化生产没食子酸的原料.%Objective With Caesalpinia digyna as the raw material of industrial production of gallic acid for the first time. Methods Compare the unit consumption and yield in the same production process of gallic acid between Caesalpinia digyna and imported Tara. Results The unit consumption of production with Caesalpinia digyna as raw material was less than that of Tara, and the purity and yield of gallic acid was better.Conclusion Caesalpinia digyna could be used to produce gallic acid instead of imported Tara.

  18. Pollination ecology of the Gray Nicker Caesalpinia crista (Caesalpiniaceae a mangrove associate at Coringa Mangrove Forest, Andhra Pradesh, India

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    P.S. Raju

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia crista L., commanly known as Gray Nicker, is an oligohaline mangrove associate confined to landward marginal areas of the Coringa Mangrove Forest, Andhra Pradesh, India. The flowering occurs during the wet season from June to November. The flowers are hermaphroditic, self-compatible and exhibit a mixed breeding system. The floral characteristics that constitute melittophilous pollination syndrome include diurnal anthesis, slight fragrance, zygomorphy, yellow petals, with a flag petal displaying a conspicuous nectar guide, and the presence of nectar with a high sugar concentration. Extra-floral nectar along the rachis is an additional attractant and is easily perceivable by bees. The plant is pollinated almost exclusively by bees, especially carpenter bees. The floral characteristics such as free petals, fully exposed stamens with dry and powdery pollen grains and hairy stigma facilitate anemophily which is effective due to high winds during the rainy season. The prolific growth and near synchronous flowering at population level contribute to pollen availability in huge quantities and enable anemophily as an effective mode of pollination. The functionality of melittophily and anemophily together constitutes ambophily. Hand-pollination experiments indicated that the plant is principally out-crossing. The natural fruit set does not exceed 10%; this lowest percentage could be partly due to flower-feeding by the beetle, Mylabris phalerata. The fruits are indehiscent, 1-seeded, which are buoyant and are not dispersed far away from the parental sites. The viable seeds produce new plants in the vicinity of parental plants during the rainy season. This plant builds up its population as small patches or in pure stands and hence is important in building landward mangrove cover.

  19. Neurite Outgrowth and Neuroprotective Effects of Quercetin from Caesalpinia mimosoides Lamk. on Cultured P19-Derived Neurons

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    Napat Tangsaengvit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Quercetin has been isolated for the first time from ethyl acetate extract of Caesalpinia mimosoides Lamk. C. mimosoides Lamk. (Fabaceae or Cha rueat (Thai name is an indigenous plant found in mixed deciduous forest in northern and north-eastern parts of Thailand. Thai rural people consume its young shoots and leaves as a fresh vegetable, as well as it is used for medicinal purposes.The antioxidant capacity in terms of radical scavenging activity of quercetin was determined as IC50 of 3.18 ± 0.07 µg/mL, which was higher than that of Trolox and ascorbic acid (12.54 ± 0.89 and 10.52 ± 0.48 µg/mL, resp.. The suppressive effect of quercetin on both purified and cellular acetylcholinesterase (AChE enzymes was investigated as IC50 56.84 ± 2.64 and 36.60 ± 2.78 µg/mL, respectively. In order to further investigate the protective ability of quercetin on neuronal cells, P19-derived neurons were used as a neuronal model in this study. As a result, quercetin at a very low dose of 1 nM enhanced survival and induced neurite outgrowth of P19-derived neurons. Furthermore, this flavonoid also possessed significant protection against oxidative stress induced by serum deprivation. Altogether, these findings suggest that quercetin is a multifunctional compound and promising valuable drugs candidate for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease.

  20. Bioactive endophytic fungi isolated from Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brazilwood and identification of beauvericin as a trypanocidal metabolite from Fusarium sp.

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    Fernanda Fraga Campos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to identify new sources of bioactive secondary metabolites, we isolated 82 endophytic fungi from stems and barks of the native Brazilian tree Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Fabaceae. We tested their ethyl acetate extracts in several in vitro assays. The organic extracts from three isolates showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli [minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC 32-64 μg/mL]. One isolate inhibited the growth of Salmonella typhimurium (MIC 64 μg/mL and two isolates inhibited the growth of Klebsiella oxytoca (MIC 64 μg/mL, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis (MIC 64-128 μg/mL. Fourteen extracts at a concentration of 20 μg/mL showed antitumour activities against human breast cancer and human renal cancer cells, while two isolates showed anti-tumour activities against human melanoma cancer cells. Six extracts were able to reduce the proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, indicating some degree of selective toxicity. Four isolates were able to inhibit Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis and one isolate inhibited Trypanosoma cruzi by at least 40% at 20 μg/mL. The trypanocidal extract obtained from Fusarium sp. [KF611679] culture was subjected to bioguided fractionation, which revealed beauvericin as the compound responsible for the observed toxicity of Fusarium sp. to T. cruzi. This depsipeptide showed a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 1.9 μg/mL (2.43 μM in a T. cruzi cellular culture assay.

  1. Avaliação do uso da casca do fruto e das folhas de Caesalpinia ferrea Martius como suplemento nutricional de Fe, Mn e Zn Evaluation of the use of the fruit peel and leaves of Caesalpinia ferrea Martius as a nutritional supplement of Fe, Mn and Zn

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    Clelivaldo Santos da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As plantas medicinais podem ser usadas como fontes alternativas de nutrientes minerais na dieta alimentar. Elementos como ferro, manganês e zinco apresentam biodisponibilidade variável em função de suas formas químicas (espécies presentes em um alimento. Este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar o teor e a biodisponibilidade de ferro, manganês e zinco em extratos da casca do fruto e das folhas de Caesalpinia ferrea Martius por Espectrometria de Absorção Atômica com Chama (FAAS. Os agentes extratores testados foram as soluções de NaOH 0,05 mol. L-1, tampão Tris-HCl 0,05 mol.L-1 (pH= 8, tampão Tris-HCl 0,05 mol.L-1 (pH = 8 em dodecil sulfato de sódio (SDS 1% (m/v, HCl 0,05 mol.L-1 e água quente (60 ºC. A casca do fruto e as folhas de Caesalpinia ferrea Martius apresentaram níveis altos de ferro e manganês quando comparados aos de outras plantas medicinais. Os elementos estudados mostraram predominante associação com compostos de alta e baixa massa molecular, espécies solúveis e insolúveis em água. Dentre os elementos analisados, o ferro apresentou melhor biodisponibilidade na casca do fruto e nas folhas. Manganês e zinco se mostraram mais biodisponível nas folhas. A casca do fruto e as folhas de Caesalpinia ferrea Martius podem ser uma fonte alternativa de ferro, manganês e zinco na dieta alimentar.Medicinal plants can be used as alternative sources of mineral nutrients in the alimentary diet. Elements such as iron, manganese, and zinc present variable bioavailability due to their chemical form (species present in foods. This work has the objective of evaluating the concentration and bioavailability of iron, manganese, and zinc in extracts of the peel and leaves of Caesalpinia ferrea Martius by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS. The extraction agents tested were 0.05 mol.L-1 NaOH, 0.05 mol.L-1 Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.0, 0.05 mol.L-1 Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.0 containing 1% (m/v sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS, 0.05 mol.L-1

  2. Study on Chemical Constituents of Caesalpinia minax%苦石莲的化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭建军; 周英; 王华林; 宋玮娟

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究苦石莲的化学成分.方法:利用硅胶柱色谱、重结晶等技术对苦石莲进行分离、纯化,通过波谱数据对化合物进行结构解析.结果:从苦石莲中分离纯化得到16个化合物,分别鉴定为caffeine(1)、β-谷甾醇(2)、十八烷酸(3)、熊果酸(4)、齐墩果酸(5)、β-胡萝卜苷(6)、3,5,7-三羟基-4'-甲氧基二氢黄酮醇(7)、neocaesalpin L(8)、neocaesalpin L1 (9)、neocaesalpin K(10)、minaxin C(11)、阿魏酸(12)、咖啡酸(13)、没食子酸(14)、12c-ethoxyl-1α,6α,7β-triacetoxy-5α,14β-dihydroxy-cass-13(15)-en-16,12-olide(15)、stigmasta-5,22 (E)-dien-3-beta-ol(16).结论:化合物5,6,7,12,13,16均首次从该植物中分离得到,化合物7首次从豆科植物中分离得到.%Objective; To study the liver protecting chemical constituents of Caesalpinia minax. Method; The compounds were isolated and purified by silica gel columns, and recrystallization, and the structures of these compounds were identified by MS and NMR. Result; A total of 16 kinds of compounds were obtained. They were identified as caffeine (1) , β-sitosterol (2 ) , octadecanoic acid (3 ) , ursolic acid ( 4 ) , oleanolic acid ( 5 ) , β-daucosterol ( 6 ) , 3, 5, 7-3-hydroxy-4'-methoxy dihydroflavonol ( 7 ) , neocaesalpin L ( 8 ) , neocaesalpin L1 (9), neocaesalpin K (10), minaxin C (11), ferulic acid (12), caffeic acid (13), gallic acid (14), 12α-ethoxyl-lα, 6α, 7β-triacetoxy-5α, 14β3-dihydroxy-cass-13 (15) -en-16, 12-olide (15) and stigmasta-5, 22 (E) -dien-3-beta-ol (16). Conclusions; Compound 5, 6, 7, 12, 13, 16 were isolated from C. minax for the first time, and compound 7 was first obtained from the Leguminosae.

  3. Effect of Temperature, Light and Water Stress on Caesalpinia spinose Kuntze Seed Germination%温度、光照和水分胁迫对塔拉(Caesalpinia spinose Kuntze)种子萌发特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包松莲; 李志国; 张建云; 郑书星

    2012-01-01

    The effects of seed germination of Caesalpinia spinose Kuntze was studied by control experiments which were different temperature gradients, light and PEG-6000 simulations of water stress. The results showed that: (i) the suitable temperature range for seed germination was 15 -30℃. Germination rate was above 90% . Average rate of germination was less than 7 days. Average rate of germination took 2. 77d at optimum temperature 25℃ , and Tara seed finished germination in 5 days and the germination rate was over 99 %. In low temperature conditions, Tara seed germination was very difficult. The germination rates was only 32. 5 % within one month at 5℃ , but the germination rate could be 90. 83 % after transferred to thermostat at 25℃ after 5 days. High temperature above 30℃ also was not suitable for seed germination. The germination rate was lower, embryo root was yellowed, and it was difficult for normal growth; (ii) the effect of light on Tara seed was not obvious. The light 12 hours every day or shading condition had better effect; (iii) Tara seed germination rate and average germination rate in PEG-6000 concentration 15% following water stress had no significant changes. The germination rate could be above 87. 5% . When strengthening water stress, the germination rate sharply fell. When PEG-6000 percent was 20% , the germination rate was 70 %. When PEG-6000 percent was 25 9% , the germination rate was only 16 % . The seeds did not germinate in PEG-6000 30%. Tara seeds could tolerate a certain level of water stress. The water potential at 25% PEG-6000 could be the critical value for Tara seeds germination.0 pe%采用控制实验研究了不同温度梯度、光照和采用PEG-6000模拟水分胁迫对塔拉(Caesalpinia spinose Kuntze)种子萌发的影响.结果表明:①15~30℃为塔拉种子萌发的适宜温度范围,萌发率在90%以上,平均发芽速率在7d以内,但最适宜的发芽温度为25℃,平均发芽速率仅需2.77 d,5d内

  4. Woods with physical, mechanical and acoustic properties similar to those of Caesalpinia echinata have high potential as alternative woods for bow makers

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    Eduardo Luiz Longui

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For nearly two hundred years, Caesalpinia echinata wood has been the standard for modern bows. However, the threat of extinction and the enforcement of trade bans have required bow makers to seek alternative woods. The hypothesis tested was that woods with physical, mechanical and acoustic properties similar to those of C. echinata would have high potential as alternative woods for bows. Accordingly, were investigated Handroanthus spp., Mezilaurus itauba, Hymenaea spp., Dipteryx spp., Diplotropis spp. and Astronium lecointei. Handroanthus and Diplotropis have the greatest number of similarities with C. echinata, but only Handroanthus spp. showed significant results in actual bow manufacture, suggesting the importance of such key properties as specific gravity, speed of sound propagation and modulus of elasticity. In practice, Handroanthus and Dipteryx produced bows of quality similar to that of C. echinata.

  5. Antimicrobial activity of α-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl-ω-(2-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl polymethylene from caesalpinia bonducella (L. flem

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    Sagar Kavitha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The compound, α-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl-w-(2-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-en-1-ylpolymethylene, isolated from ethyl acetate leaf extract of Caesalpinia bonducella (L. Flem. was evaluated for antimicrobial activity against clinical isolates, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella sp., Staphylococcus citrus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Rhodotorula sp. using agar diffusion method. The compound exerted inhibitory zone at all concentrations and revealed the concentration-dependent activity against all tested bacterial and yeast strains comparable to standards streptomycin sulphate and gentamycin for bacteria and fluconazole and griseofulvin for Candida albicans and Rhodotorula sp. The inhibition zones were wider and clear for C. albicans and Rhodotorula sp. (IZ >20 mm and for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. vulgaris and E. coli zones were greater than standards tested, whereas, zones for Klebsiella sp. and S. aureus were similar to standards.

  6. A novel diterpene from Caesalpinia minax%喙荚云实中一个新二萜类化合物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴兆华

    2008-01-01

    目的 研究喙荚云实Caesalpinia minax的化学成分.方法 采用多种色谱方法分离纯化,依据理化性质、波谱数据分析进行结构鉴定.结果 从喙荚云实的95%乙醇溶液回流提取物中分离鉴定了一个呋喃二萜类化合物minaxin A,并利用MTT法研究这个化合物对人肝癌细胞HepG2的生长抑制作用.结论 该化合物为新化合物,药理活性实验结果表明minaxin A对人肝癌细胞HepG2具有一定的生长抑制作用.

  7. EFECTO INHIBIDOR DEL EXTRACTO ETANÓLICO DE CAESALPINIA SPINOSA (TAYA) EN COMPARACIÓN A HIDRÓXIDO DE CALCIO, PARAMONOCLOROFENOL ALCANFORADO Y CLORHEXIDINA EN GEL AL 2%, SOBRE CEPAS DE ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS. ESTUDIO IN VITRO

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to compare the inhibitory effect in vitro of the etanolic extract Caesalpinia spinosa (taya) to calcium hidroxide, camphorated paramonochlorophenol, and 2% chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis. The susceptibility test was made, using the method of dissemination in discs. The strains os e. faecalis were sown in plates containing culture médium Mueller Hinton, and placed discs with differents concentrations of etanolic extract, calcium hidroxide...

  8. O Ácido (817,12E,14-labdatrieno-18-óico (labdano302, diterpeno tipo labdano isolado de Xylopia langsdorffiana St. Hil. & Tul. (Annonaceae relaxa a traquéia isolada de cobaia The (817,12E,14-labdatrien-18-oic acid (labdane302, labdane-type diterpene isolated from Xylopia langsdorffiana St. Hil. & Tul. (Annonaceae relaxes the guinea-pig trachea

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    Luciano A. A. Ribeiro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A espécie Xylopia langsdorffiana St. Hil.. & Tul. é popularmente conhecida como "pimenteira-da-terra" no Sudeste do Brasil. A partir do fracionamento do extrato etanólico, obtido das cascas do caule desta espécie, foi isolado um diterpeno tipo labdano, identificado como sendo o ácido 8(17,12E,14-labdatrieno-18-óico, e que neste trabalho é codificado como labdano302. O labdano302 relaxou o tônus basal dos anéis de traquéia isolada de cobaia com um valor de CE50 de 6,7 ± 0,5 x 10-8 M. O diterpeno labdano302 relaxou de maneira dependente de concentração os anéis pré-contraídos com carbacol (10-6 M, tanto na presença (CE50 = 1,4 ± 0,7 x 10-5 M como na ausência de epitélio funcional (CE50 = 1,5 ± 0,3 x 10-5 M, bem como anéis pré-contraídos com 18 ou 60 mM de KCl, apresentando valores de CE50 de 2,3 ± 0,4 x 10(7 M e 1,8 ± 0,8 x 10-5 M, respectivamente. Este efeito relaxante, sobre as contrações induzidas por 18 mM de KCl, tanto foi significantemente mais potente quanto mais eficaz quando comparado ao efeito sobre as contrações induzidas por 60 mM de KCl. Assim, labdano302 mostra um efeito relaxante em traquéia isolada de cobaia, tanto em seu tônus basal como sob estímulo contrátil, aparentemente sem a participação dos fatores relaxantes derivados do epitélio, contudo com possível participação dos canais de K+.Xylopia langsdorfiana St. Hil. & Tul. is popularly known as "pimenteira-da-terra" in Southeast of Brazil. The fractionation of the ethanol extract obtained from the stem-bark of this species yielded a labdane-type diterpene identified as 8(17,12E,14-labdatrien-18-oic acid, referred here as labdane302. In this study, we investigated the effect of labdane302 in guinea-pig trachea. labdane302 relaxed the basal tonus of trachea rings with EC50 value of 6.7 ± 0.5 x 10-8 M. The diterpene labdane302 relaxed the pre-contracted rings by carbachol 10-6 M both in the presence (EC50 = 1.4 ± 0.7 x 10-5 M and absence

  9. Avaliação da incorporação de galactomanana de Caesalpinia pulcherrima em sorvetes e comparação com estabilizantes comerciais

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    Antonia Ariana Camelo Passos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Com o mercado cada vez mais competitivo e consumidores mais exigentes é de suma importância buscar alternativas mais eficientes e diversificadas para a melhoria da qualidade de sorvetes. Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver sorvetes sabor goiaba utilizando galactomanana de Caesalpinia pulcherrima em substituição a estabilizantes, avaliar suas propriedades e comparar com dois estabilizantes comumente utilizados (goma xantana e super liga neutra. Para caracterizar os sorvetes foram feitas análises de overrun, resistência ao derretimento, umidade, cinzas, proteínas, lipídios, carboidratos, sólidos totais e pH. A qualidade microbiológica foi investigada pelas análises de coliformes a 45 °C/g, Estafilococos coagulase positiva/g e Salmonella sp/25 g. Sensorialmente, foram avaliados a intenção de compra e os atributos sensoriais de cor, aroma, textura, sabor e impressão global. Foram realizadas três formulações de sorvetes, modificando o estabilizante empregado: super liga neutra (T1, galactomanana de C. pulcherrima (T2 e goma xantana (T3. A taxa de derretimento mostrou-se similar até 35 minutos para as três formulações, mostrando-se comportamentos lineares. As amostras de sorvetes apresentaram um bom valor de overrun. Nenhuma das variáveis físico-químicas apresentou diferença estatística entre si. Sensorialmente, a formulação T2 apresentou desempenho semelhante a T1 e T3. No entanto, o sorvete da formulação T3 apresentou no atributo textura uma nota melhor que o estabilizante super liga neutra (T1. Todas as formulações apresentaram altos índices de intenção de compra por parte dos provadores. Todos os sorvetes produzidos apresentaram-se de acordo com a legislação vigente demonstrando que a galactomanana de Caesalpinia pulcherrima pode ser utilizada como substituto aos estabilizantes convencionais.

  10. Efeito inibitório do extrato hexânico dos folíolos de Caesalpinia spinosa em Fusarium solani e Phoma tarda - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i2.1329 Inhibitory effect of Caesalpinia spinosa leaflets crude extract on Fusarium solani and Phoma tarda - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i2.1329

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    Júlio César Miranda

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Extrato hexânico foi obtido dos folíolos do falso pau-brasil (Caesalpinia spinosa e incorporado em BDA (batata-dextrose-ágar, obtendo-se as concentrações de 2204 mg L-1, 4460 mg L-1, 6370 mg L-1, 7644 mg L-1 e 16179 mg L-1. Foi avaliado o crescimento micelial de Fusarium solani e Phoma tarda. Os resultados mostraram o efeito inibitório do extrato em porcentagens variáveis de 3,95% a 32,20% para P. tarda e de 7,29% a 33,83% para F. solani, conforme as doses crescentes do extrato, cuja fungitoxidade evidencia seu potencial alternativo aos métodos físicos e químicos de controle da fusariose em vários cultivos e mancha de Phoma no cafeeiroIn order to evaluate the plant extract effect on the in vitro growth of Fusarium solani and Phoma tarda, hexane crude extract from spiny holdback (Caesalpinia spinosa leaflets was obtained and incorporated into potato-dextrose-agar (PDA at 2204 mg L-1, 4460 mg L-1, 6370 mg L-1, 7644 mg L-1 and 16179 mg L-1 concentrations. The hexane crude extract inhibited mycelial growth at the range of 3,95% to 32,20% of P. tarda and 7,29% to 33,83% of F. solani, according to the extract concentration. It was demonstrated that the extract has antifungal activity and might be an alternative to physical or chemical control methods of fusariosis disease in several cultivations and of Phoma spot on coffee plant leaf

  11. Brazilein from Caesalpinia sappan L. Antioxidant Inhibits Adipocyte Differentiation and Induces Apoptosis through Caspase-3 Activity and Anthelmintic Activities against Hymenolepis nana and Anisakis simplex

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    Chia-Hua Liang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazilein, a natural, biologically active compound from Caesalpinia sappan L., has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and to inhibit the growth of several cancer cells. This study verifies the antioxidant and antitumor characteristics of brazilein in skin cancer cells and is the first time to elucidate the inhibition mechanism of adipocyte differentiation, cestocidal activities against Hymenolepis nana, and reduction of spontaneous movement in Anisakis simplex. Brazilein exhibits an antioxidant capacity as well as the ability to scavenge DPPH• and ABTS•+ free radicals and to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Brazilein inhibited intracellular lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells and suppressed the induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ, the master regulator of adipogenesis, suggesting that brazilein presents the antiobesity effects. The toxic effects of brazilein were evaluated in terms of cell viability, induction of apoptosis, and the activity of caspase-3 in BCC cells. The inhibition of the growth of skin cancer cells (A431, BCC, and SCC25 by brazilein is greater than that of human skin malignant melanoma (A375 cells, mouse leukemic monocyte macrophage (RAW 264.7 cells, and noncancerous cells (HaCaT and BNLCL2 cells. The anthelmintic activities of brazilein against Hymenolepis nana are better than those of Anisakis simplex.

  12. Brazilein from Caesalpinia sappan L. Antioxidant Inhibits Adipocyte Differentiation and Induces Apoptosis through Caspase-3 Activity and Anthelmintic Activities against Hymenolepis nana and Anisakis simplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chia-Hua; Chan, Leong-Perng; Chou, Tzung-Han; Chiang, Feng-Yu; Yen, Chuan-Min; Chen, Pin-Ju; Ding, Hsiou-Yu; Lin, Rong-Jyh

    2013-01-01

    Brazilein, a natural, biologically active compound from Caesalpinia sappan L., has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and to inhibit the growth of several cancer cells. This study verifies the antioxidant and antitumor characteristics of brazilein in skin cancer cells and is the first time to elucidate the inhibition mechanism of adipocyte differentiation, cestocidal activities against Hymenolepis nana, and reduction of spontaneous movement in Anisakis simplex. Brazilein exhibits an antioxidant capacity as well as the ability to scavenge DPPH(•) and ABTS(•+) free radicals and to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Brazilein inhibited intracellular lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells and suppressed the induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR γ ), the master regulator of adipogenesis, suggesting that brazilein presents the antiobesity effects. The toxic effects of brazilein were evaluated in terms of cell viability, induction of apoptosis, and the activity of caspase-3 in BCC cells. The inhibition of the growth of skin cancer cells (A431, BCC, and SCC25) by brazilein is greater than that of human skin malignant melanoma (A375) cells, mouse leukemic monocyte macrophage (RAW 264.7 cells), and noncancerous cells (HaCaT and BNLCL2 cells). The anthelmintic activities of brazilein against Hymenolepis nana are better than those of Anisakis simplex.

  13. Characterization and Quantification of the Compounds of the Ethanolic Extract from Caesalpinia ferrea Stem Bark and Evaluation of Their Mutagenic Activity

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    Carlos César Wyrepkowski

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia ferrea Martius has traditionally been used in Brazil for many medicinal purposes, such as the treatment of bronchitis, diabetes and wounds. Despite its use as a medicinal plant, there is still no data regarding the genotoxic effect of the stem bark. This present work aims to assess the qualitative and quantitative profiles of the ethanolic extract from the stem bark of C. ferrea and to evaluate its mutagenic activity, using a Salmonella/microsome assay for this species. As a result, a total of twenty compounds were identified by Flow Injection Analysis Electrospray Ionization Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry (FIA-ESI-IT-MS/MSn in the ethanolic extract from the stem bark of C. ferrea. Hydrolyzable tannins predominated, principally gallic acid derivatives. The HPLC-DAD method was developed for rapid quantification of six gallic acid compounds and ellagic acid derivatives. C. ferrea is widely used in Brazil, and the absence of any mutagenic effect in the Salmonella/microsome assay is important for pharmacological purposes and the safe use of this plant.

  14. Caracterização físico-química e biológica do caule de Caesalpinia ferrea Mart.

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    A. P. Z. Frasson

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Visando estabelecer parâmetros para o controle da qualidade do caule de Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. (Caesalpiniaceae, foram realizados testes preconizados pela Farmacopéia Brasileira IV e pela Organização Mundial da Saúde para a avaliação da pureza, através das determinações de materiais estranhos, cinzas totais, cinzas insolúveis em ácido, umidade, ensaios-limites de cloretos e sulfatos, além da pesquisa de contaminantes microbianos no material pulverizado. Para a caracterização dos constituintes, eventualmente presentes na droga vegetal, foram realizadas as determinações de taninos, dos índices de espuma, intumescimento e amargor e o teste de hemólise; também foi realizada a caracterização do extrato etanólico bruto e suas frações por cromatografia em camada delgada.

  15. Fungos associados com sementes de flamboyant-mirim (Caesalpinia pulcherrima: incidência, efeito na germinação, transmissão e controle

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    José George Ferreira Medeiros

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Most pathogens that cause diseases in crops can be transported and transmitted by seeds, with great economic significance. The objective of this work was to assess the incidence of pathogens and their effect in the germination and vigor of Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. seeds. The seed sanity experiment was completely randomized with five treatments, and ten repetitions. The seeds were immersed in extracts of Allamanda cathartica, Momordica charantia and Foenicullum. vulgare for five minutes, and the control was immersed in sterile water. For the germination test, 200 seeds were used, distributed in four replicates of 50 seeds per treatment. The vigor tests consisted of the first count and germination speed index. The evaluation of fungi transmission were performed during the germination test, by counting the symptoms in the primary root, hypocotyl and epicotyl. The treatments reduced the incidence of Cladosporium sp., Aspergillus sp. Rhizopus sp., Penicillium sp. Nigrospora sp and Pestalotiasp..It was also found the fungus Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. associated with the lesions in the seed integument. The treatments provided a higher percentage of germination of seedlings. Higher percentages of germination were observed when oil extracts of Allamanda cathartica, Momordica charantia and Foenicullum vulgare were used.

  16. Using a Caesalpinia echinata Lam. protease inhibitor as a tool for studying the roles of neutrophil elastase, cathepsin G and proteinase 3 in pulmonary edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Silva, Ilana; Neuhof, Christiane; Gozzo, Andrezza Justino; Nunes, Viviane Abreu; Hirata, Izaura Yoshico; Sampaio, Misako Uemura; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia; Neuhof, Heinz; Araújo, Mariana da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by neutrophil infiltration and the release of proteases, mainly elastase (NE), cathepsin G (Cat G) and proteinase 3 (PR3), which can be controlled by specific endogenous inhibitors. However, inhibitors of these proteases have been isolated from different sources, including plants. For this study, CeEI, or Caesalpinia echinata elastase inhibitor, was purified from C. echinata (Brazil-wood) seeds after acetone fractionation, followed by ion exchange and reversed phase chromatographic steps. Characterization with SDS-PAGE, stability assays, amino acid sequencing and alignment with other protein sequences confirmed that CeEI is a member of the soybean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor family. Like other members of this family, CeEI is a 20 kDa monomeric protein; it is stable within a large pH and temperature range, with four cysteine residues forming two disulfide bridges, conserved amino acid residues and leucine-isoleucine residues in the reactive site. CeEI was able to inhibit NE and Cat G at a nanomolar range (with K(i)s of 1.9 and 3.6 nM, respectively) and inhibited PR3 within a micromolar range (K(i) 3.7 μM), leading to hydrolysis of specific synthetic substrates. In a lung edema model, CeEI reduced the lung weight and pulmonary artery pressure until 180 min after the injection of zymosan-activated polymorphonuclear neutrophils. In experiments performed in the presence of a Cat G and PR3, but not an NE inhibitor, lung edema was reduced only until 150 min and pulmonary artery pressure was similar to that of the control. These results confirm that NE action is crucial to edema establishment and progression. Additionally, CeEI appears to be a useful tool for studying the physiology of pulmonary edema and provides a template for molecular engineering and drug design for ALI therapy.

  17. Effects of ovule and seed abortion on brood size and fruit costs in the leguminous shrub Caesalpinia gilliesii (Wall. ex Hook. D. Dietr

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    Ana Calviño

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For several plant species, brood size results from the abortion of ovules and seeds. However, these processes have rarely been studied together in wild plants. In some of the leguminous species studied, seed abortion has been found to depend on pollen quality and on the position of the ovule or fruit. The direct consequence for the mother plant is that fruit costs increase as the seed:ovule ratio decreases. However, because ovule abortion occurs earlier than does seed abortion, the former can reduce the biomass invested per seed (i.e., fruit costs more efficiently than does the latter. Here, the frequencies of aborted ovules and seeds were analyzed in relation to the type of pollination treatment (open pollination vs. hand cross-pollination and ovule/fruit position within pods of the leguminous shrub Caesalpinia gilliesii. The influence of ovule and seed abortion on fruit costs was analyzed by comparing the pericarp mass per seed between fruits with different frequencies of aborted ovules and seeds. The rate of ovule abortion was similar between hand cross-pollinated and open-pollinated fruits but was higher than that of seed abortion in one- and two-seeded fruits, as well as in those at stylar positions and in distal fruits. Hand cross-pollination reduced seed abortion but did not increase the seed:ovule ratio. In addition, fruits that aborted ovules were found to be less costly than were those that aborted seeds. From the mother plant perspective, these results indicate that ovule abortion is a more efficient mechanism of reducing fruit costs than is seed abortion, because fertilization opportunities decrease with position, and show that brood size is significantly influenced by the fate of the ovule at the pre-zygotic stage.

  18. Mobilização de reservas durante a germinação das sementes e crescimento das plântulas de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae Mobilization of the reserves during germination of seeds and growth of seedlings of Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae

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    Viviana Borges Corte

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a mobilização de reservas de sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. durante a germinação e crescimento inicial das plântulas. As variações nas reservas de carbiodratos, lipídios e proteínas foram analisadas desde o período pré-germinativo (0 a 5 dias após a semeadura - DAS até a total senescência e abscisão dos cotilédones, aos 35 DAS, por meio de testes bioquímicos nos cotilédones das sementes. Os resultados indicaram que os lipídios constituem o principal composto de reserva nos cotilédones, contribuindo com cerca de 50% de massa seca. Carboidratos solúveis representaram 32%, as proteínas solúveis 7,7% e o amido 6,8% de massa seca dos cotilédones. Os lipídios sofreram marcante decréscimo entre 5 e 10 dias após a semeadura, período em que se observou elevada taxa de crescimento das plântulas. Carboidratos e proteínas solúveis exibiram tendência gradativa de queda, enquanto no amido, isso quase não foi detectado. A redução do peso de massa seca dos cotilédones foi bem correlacionada com o aumento da biomassa da plântula.This work aimed at studying the mobilization seed reserves during germination and initial growth of seedlings of Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. The variations in carbohydrate, lipid and protein reserves were analyzed from the pre-sprouting period (0 to 5 days after sowing -DAS to the total senescence and abscission of seeds. The results showed that lipids constitute the main reserve compound in the cotyledon, contributing with almost 50 % of its dry mass weight. Soluble carbohydrates represent 32 %, the soluble proteins 7.7 % and starch 6.8 % of the dry mass weight of cotyledons. Lipids showed a marked decrease between 5 and 10 days after sowing, period of a high seedling growth rate. Carbohydrates and soluble proteins showed a gradual tendency to decrease, while starch was almost non-detectable. The reduction in cotyledon dry mass of weight

  19. Morfologia foliar de indivíduos jovens e adultos de Caesalpinia echinata Lam. numa floresta semidecídua do Sul da Bahia Leaf morphology of saplings and adult individuals of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. in a semidecidual forest of Southern Bahia, Brazil

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    Maria Cristina Sanches

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Caesalpiniaceae é uma espécie arbórea que ocorre naturalmente no interior da floresta e atinge os estratos superiores do dossel por meio de pequenas clareiras. Objetivou-se, neste estudo, comparar alguns aspectos da morfologia foliar entre indivíduos adultos, cujas folhas se encontravam em pleno sol e jovens no sub-bosque. O estudo foi realizado numa floresta semidecídua, localizada no Município de Jussari, Bahia. Inicialmente, foram localizados e marcados oito indivíduos adultos e oito jovens para cada adulto. Foram coletadas e analisadas oito folhas para cada adulto e três para cada jovem, em duas épocas (setembro/novembro de 2004 e abril de 2005. Em geral, as áreas das folhas, das ráquis e dos folíolos, o comprimento das ráquis, a largura das folhas, o número de pinas e a massa seca das folhas foram significativamente superiores nos indivíduos jovens, ao passo que as massas específicas das folhas e dos folíolos foram significativamente superiores nos indivíduos adultos. Tanto nos adultos quanto nos jovens, nas duas épocas de coleta foram verificadas relações altamente significativas entre a massa seca e a área das folhas. Os resultados indicaram que folhas de C. echinata apresentam características que maximizam a absorção de luz onde este recurso é limitante e, ao mesmo tempo, direcionam maior alocação de carbono para os tecidos de suporte. Tais resultados estão de acordo com o observado no estádio sucessional da espécie analisada e com a sua estratégia de ocupação dos espaços gerados pela formação de pequenas clareiras, em ambiente de mata semidecídua.Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Caesalpiniaceae is a tree species that naturally regenerates in the forest understory and reaches the upper canopy through small gaps. We conducted a study with the objective of comparing some aspects of leaf morphology of adult individuals, in which the leaves were exposed to full sunlight, and saplings

  20. Meios de cultura, reguladores de crescimento e fontes de nitrogênio na regulação da calogênese do pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. Culture media, growth regulators and nitrogen sources in callus formation regulation of Brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata Lam.

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    Elias Terra Werner

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A regulação da calogênese é o primeiro passo para a embriogênese somática indireta in vitro. Nesse sentido, foram investigados os efeitos de diferentes meios de cultura, reguladores de crescimento e fontes nitrogenadas no desenvolvimento de calos em tecidos foliares de Caesalpinia echinata (pau-brasil. Explantes foliares foram cultivados em meios de cultura MS, B5, White e WPM. Testou-se, também, o efeito dos compostos nitrogenados (NH4NO3, KNO3 e glutamina e a interação entre auxinas (2,4-D, AIA e AIB e citocininas (BAP e KIN na desdiferenciação celular indicado pela formação de calos. Os meios MS, B5 e White não foram significantemente diferentes e proporcionaram melhores resultados. Em meio MS contendo as fontes nitrogenadas 2,4 g L-1 NH4NO3 e 1,35 g L-1 glutamina + 4,11 g L-1 de KNO3 na presença de 1,0 mg L-1 2,4-D e 5,0 mg L-1 BAP ocorreu maior proliferação celular indicada pela massa fresca dos calos. As combinações dos reguladores 0,5 mg L-1 2,4-D + 5 mg L-1 BAP e 0,5 mg L-1 AIB + 5,0 mg L-1 BAP suplementado com 2,4 g L-1 NH4NO3 em meio MS estimularam o crescimento dos calos. De maneira geral, os calos apresentaram aspectos friáveis, não embriogênicos, com acúmulo de fenóis e presença de áreas meristemáticas (meristemóides.The regulation of callus formation is the first step to indirect somatic embryogenesis in vitro. Therefore, we investigated hormonal and nutrient factors on development of callus in leaf tissues of Caesalpinia echinata (Brazilwood. Explants were cultivated in culture media MS, B5, WPM, and White. The effect of nitrogen sources (NH4NO3, KNO3 and glutamine and the interaction between auxins (2,4-D, IAA and IBA and cytokinins (BAP and KIN were also evaluated. Media MS, B5 and White were not significantly different and provided better results. MS medium containing 2.4 g L-1 NH4NO3, 1.35 g L-1 glutamine, and 4.11 g L-1 of KNO3 in the presence of 1 mg.L-1 2,4-D and 5 mg.L-1 BAP increased cellular

  1. Caracterização de alfagalactosidase e sua relação com a germinação das sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides (Leguminosae Caesalpinioideae Alphagalactosidase characterization and its relationship with seed germination of Caesalpinia peltophoroides (Legumonosae Caesalpinioideae

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    Eduardo Euclydes de Lima e Borges

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides (Leguminosae Caesalpinioideae - sibipiruna - foram colocadas para embebição por 144 h, sendo retiradas amostras para análise de proteína, quantificações da atividade de alfagalactosidase e de açúcares presentes na micrópila. A germinação iniciou-se com 96 h de embebição, sem que fossem detectadas modificações na parede celular da micrópila. Nesta, observou-se maior proporção de arabinose, que mostrou tendência de aumento com o decorrer da embebição. A atividade específica da alfagalactosidase foi detectada em sementes secas, tanto no eixo embrionário quanto nos cotilédones, aumentando no primeiro a partir de 24 h de embebição. O aumento da atividade nos cotilédones foi mais lento, sendo mais acentuado a partir de 120 h de embebição. O teor de proteína decresceu continuamente no eixo embrionário a partir de 24 horas de embebição, enquanto se manteve estável nos cotilédones. A atividade da alfagalactosidase foi máxima nas temperaturas de 55 e 50 ºC para o eixo embrionário e para os cotilédones, respectivamente. O pH que mais estimulou a atividade da enzima foi na faixa de 5,5 a 6,0 para o eixo embrionário e na de 4,5 a 5,0 para os cotilédones. As alfagalactosidase do eixo embrionário e dos cotilédones foram inibidas por SDS, CuSO4, galactose e melibiose. Não houve efeito estimulante sobre a atividade da alfagalactosidase do eixo embrionário por nenhum dos efetores, enquanto o mercaptoetanol estimulou a atividade da enzima dos cotilédones. Os K M para o substrato ro-NPGal para a alfagalactosidase do eixo embrionário e dos cotilédones foram de 1,74 e 2,64 mM, respectivamente.Caesalpinia peltophoroides (Leguminosae Caesalpinioideae seeds were soaked in water for 144 hours. Samples were taken for protein analysis, quantification of alphagalactosidase activity and micropyle sugar composition. Germination began after 96 hours of imbibition, with no modifications in

  2. Histochemical aspects of reserves mobilization of Caesalpinia peltophoroides (Leguminosae seeds during germination and seedlings early growth Estudo Histoquímico da mobilização de reservas de sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides (Leguminosae durante a germinação e crescimento inicial

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    Viviana Borges Corte

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate reserve mobilization in Caesalpinia peltophoroides seeds during germination and initial seedling growth. The variation in these compounds was analyzed from the pre-germination period (0 to 5 days after sowing - DAS to the total cotyledon senescence and abscission at 35 DAS. For this histochemical tests were made on cotyledons fixed in FAA50 or included in glycol-metacrylate. To follow the mobilization of the main reserve compounds, sudan III was used to detect total lipids, xylidine Ponceau to detect total proteins, lugol to detect starch and polarized light to visualize the crystals. The lipids, present in a great quantity in the cotyledon, gradually decreased in the period studied. A greater quantity of starch was observed on the 10th DAS than in the previous periods and it was totally consumed by 30 DAS. The distribution pattern and the morphology of the protein material were very modified by 10 DAS, a period during which it was intensely consumed, remaining only parietally fragments distributed, that practically disappeared at 25 DAS. The calcium oxalate druses were not consumed during the period studied, there was only crystal agglutination.Este trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo da mobilização de reservas de sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. durante a germinação e crescimento inicial das plântulas. As variações nesses compostos foram analisadas desde o período pré-germinativo (0 a 5 dias após a semeadura - DAS até a total senescência e abscisão dos cotilédones, aos 35 DAS. Para isso, foram realizados testes histoquímicos em cotilédones fixados em FAA50 ou incluídos em glicol-metacrilato. Para acompanhamento da mobilização dos principais compostos de reserva, foi usado o sudan III para detecção de lipídios totais, xylidine Ponceau para proteínas totais, Lugol para amido e luz polarizada para visualização dos cristais. Os lipídios, presentes em maior

  3. Purificação parcial de inibidores de tripsina de sementes de Caesalpinia ferrea e Swartzia polyphylla e o efeito dos extratos protéicos sobre fungos fitopatogênicos

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    Adriana Bariani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sementes de leguminosas apresentam alta concentração de inibidores de tripsina; estas proteínas estão envolvidas no metabolismo celular e também em mecanismos de defesa vegetal. A fim de confirmar ou não, a possível ação fungicida destas proteínas a partir de extratos de sementes de leguminosas arbóreas, o objetivo deste estudo foi detectar inibidores de tripsina em sementes de Caesalpinia ferrea (CfTI e Swartzia polyphylla (SpTI e testar os extratos contra os fungos fitopatogênicos Colletotrichum guaranicola, Corynespora cassiicola, Fusarium oxysporum e Sclerotium rolfsii, avaliando o crescimento micelial e a esporulação. Para tanto, amostras do material biológico vegetal, sementes finamente pulverizadas, foram submetidas à extração em NaCl 150 mM. Os extratos protéicos foram parcialmente purificados em coluna Sephadex G-100, submetidos à detecção dos inibidores e SDS-PAGE (12,5% e, utilizados nos bioensaios contra os fungos. O perfil eletroforético revelou uma única banda em CfTI e oito bandas em SpTI. Os extratos de C. ferrea e S. polyphylla exibiram efeito na diminuição da esporulação dos fungos testados, mas S. rolfsii foi inibido apenas por C. ferrea. Quanto ao crescimento micelial, os dois extratos tiveram efeito sobre F. oxysporum e S. rolfsii, ao passo que C. guaranicola foi inibido apenas por S. polyphylla, e C. cassiicola por C. ferrea. Concluiu-se que sementes de C. ferrea e S. polyphylla apresentam inibidores de tripsina. Além disso, os resultados sugerem que estas espécies de leguminosas arbóreas são promissoras no que concerne à prospecção de fungicidas naturais, uma vez que os extratos diminuíram o crescimento micelial e a esporulação de C. guaranicola, C. cassiicola, F. oxysporum e S. rolfsii.

  4. Direct Seeding Afforestation of Leucaena leucocephala, Caesalpinia sappan and Dodonaea viscose in Rocky Desertification Areas%石漠化地区银合欢、苏木、车桑子直播造林试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯远瑞; 申文辉; 黄宏珊; 黄春妮; 庞世龙; 何琴飞

    2015-01-01

    对银合欢、苏木、车桑子3个树种进行直播造林试验研究,结果表明,不同树种的树高、胸径、单株材积和造林保存率差异显著。其中银合欢生长量最大,树高年平均生长量达1.2 m以上,年平均胸径大于0.9 cm,保存率高达100%。不同树种林下枯落物总蓄积量及有效拦蓄量也差异较大,其中银合欢林下枯落物总蓄积量最多,为5.07 t/hm2,车桑子的有效拦蓄量最大,为4.39 t/hm2,银合欢与车桑子的有效拦蓄量相近,为4.34 t/hm2。综合认为银合欢在石漠化地区直播造林效果较好,可推广应用。%Direct seeding afforestation experiments were conducted in karst desertification areas with three tree spe-cies, namely Leucaena leucocephala, Caesalpinia sappan and Dodonaea viscose.The result showed that there were significant differences among the species in tree height , diameter at breast height ( DBH) , individual volume and survival ratio .L.leucocephala had the highest growth , with average annual height increment >1.2 m, average annual DBH increment >0.9 cm, and survival ratio up to 100%.There were great variations among the species in understory litter volumes and effective retaining contents ( ERC ) . L.leucocephala had the most litter volume (5.07 t/hm2), D.viscose had the highest ERC (4.39 t/hm2), while L.leucocephala had a slightly lower ERC (4.34 t/hm2 ) .Comprehensive evaluation showed that direct seeding of L.leucocephala had better impacts on the rocky desertification area .

  5. LEVANTAMENTO FITOSSOCIOLÓGICO DE REMANESCENTES FLORESTAIS NO MUNICÍPIO DE MOSSORÓ - RN

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    POLLYANA MONA SOARES DIAS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The municipal district of Mossoró - RN is inserted into the Caatinga biome and like other coun- ties its vegetation is notably mischaracterized. Thus a phytosociological study of forest remnants was conduct- ed in Mossoró, seeking knowledge of forest wealth for possible conservation. Bibliographic and cartographic materials were consulted, as well as maps were used for better spatial visualization of forest remnants. Areas where there are forest remnants were highlighted and four sites were chosen to characterize the vegetation. At these sites, the phytosociological study was conducted by installing plots of 20 x 20 m, within which were esti- mated height and diameter at breast height (DBH of all living individuals of the shrub and herbs layers. The phytosociological parameters considered were: Margal ef and Menhinick Diversity Index, Frequency, Density, Dominance and Coverage and Importance Percentage Index. It was found that Poincianella pyramidalis (Tul. and Croton sonderianus Mull. Arg. have excelled in number of individuals, frequency and density. Poincianel- la pyramidalis (Tul. was the one that stood out in most of the analyzed parameters. Species that stand out in an area are found at low frequency in the other. This variation can be probably explained by several factors, one of them may be the anthropic level among the studied areas. Diversity indices indicated that Point 4 showed the greatest diversity and the lowest point 3. However, the Caatinga vegetation of the areas analyzed has low diver- sity, probably by the effects of human disturbance, but with proper planning and managements could avoid its complete disappearance.

  6. Anti-bacterial activity of some Brazilian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Maria Raquel Ferreira; de Souza Luna, Josiane; dos Santos, Aldenir Feitosa; de Andrade, Maria Cristina Caño; Sant'Ana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart; Genet, Jean-Pierre; Marquez, Béatrice; Neuville, Luc; Moreau, Nicole

    2006-04-21

    Extracts from various organs of 25 plants of Brazilian traditional medicine were assayed with respect to their anti-bacterial activities against Escherichia coli, a susceptible strain of Staphylococcus aureus and two resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus harbouring the efflux pumps NorA and MsrA. Amongst the 49 extracts studied, 14 presented anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, including the ethanolic extracts from the rhizome of Jatropha elliptica, from the stem barks of Schinus terebinthifolius and Erythrina mulungu, from the stems and leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis and Serjania lethalis, and from the stem bark and leaves of Lafoensia pacari. The classes of compounds present in the active extracts were determined as a preliminary step towards their bioactivity-guided separation. No extracts were active against Escherichia coli.

  7. The rheological properties of tara gum (Caesalpinia spinosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanbei; Ding, Wei; Jia, Lirong; He, Qiang

    2015-02-01

    The rheological properties of tara gum, as affected by concentration, temperature, pH and the presence of salts and sucrose, were investigated by using steady and dynamic shear measurements and atomic force microscope observation. Tara gum exhibited non-Newtonian, pseudoplastic behaviour without thixotropy at tested concentrations (0.2-1.0%, w/v). Salts (CaCl2 and NaCl) led to a viscosity reduction, which was more sensitive to Ca(2+) than to Na(+). The gum had stable viscosity over a wide pH range (pH 3-11), and the influence of sucrose was concentration dependent. Increasing temperature from 20°C to 80°C decreased the gum viscosity. Frequency sweeps indicated that tara gum (1.0% w/v) behaved as a liquid at low frequency, and acted more like a gel at high frequency. With the decrease of concentration, tara gum may show a viscous property rather than an elastic one. These results are potentially useful for the application of tara gum in food processing.

  8. ENRAIZAMENTO DE ESTACAS DE CAESALPINIA ECHINATA LAM. EM HIDROPONIA

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    Sérgio Valiengo Valeri

    2012-01-01

    ethanol solution containing 0, 1000, 3000 and 5000 mg L-1 of IBA during 5 seconds. The cuttings were maintained in the hydroponic system for 90 days and, for additional 90 days in plastic bags containing substrate (Plantmax® under intermittent mist. After 90 and 180 days of rooting, the percentage of cuttings that survived, the rooting percentage and the number and length of adventious root were evaluated. Cuttings should be treated with IBA at 100 mg L-1 for 14 hours and placed to root in a hydroponic system.

  9. Species choice, provenance and species trials among native Brazilian species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drumond, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    Six papers from the conference are presented. Drumond, M.A., Potential of species native to the semi-arid tropics, 766-781, (Refs. 18), reports on Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Mimosa species, Schinopsis brasiliensis, Spondias tuberosa, Ziziphus joazeiro, Cnidoscolus phyllacanthus, Bursera leptophleos (leptophloeos), Tabebuia impetiginosa, Astronium urundeuva, and Mimosa caesalpinia. Monteiro, R.F.R., Speltz, R.M., Gurgel, J.T. do A.; Silvicultural performance of 24 provenances of Araucaria angustifolia in Parana, 814-824, (Refs. 8). Pires, C.L. da S., Kalil Filho, A.N., Rosa, P.R.F. da, Parente, P.R., Zanatto, A.C.S.; Provenance trials of Cordia alliodora in the State of Sao Paulo, 988-995, (Refs. 9). Nogueira, J.C.B., Siqueira, A.C.M.F., Garrido, M.A.O., Gurgel Garrido, L.M. do A., Rosa, P.R.F., Moraes, J.L. de, Zandarin, M.A., Gurgel Filho, O.A., Trials of some native species in various regions of the State of Sao Paulo, 1051-1063, (Refs. 9) describes Centrolobium tomentosum, Peltophorum dubium, Tabebuia vellosoi, Cariniana legalis, and Balfourodendron riedelianum. Batista, M.P., Borges, J.F., Franco, M.A.B.; Early growth of a native species in comparison with exotics in northeastern Para, Brazil, 1105-1110, (Refs. 3). Jacaranda copaia is compared with Gmelina arborea, Pinus caribaea various hondurensis, Eucalyptus deglupta, and E. urophylla. Lima, P.C.F., Souza, S.M. de, Drumond, M.A.; Trials of native forest species at Petrolina, Pernambuco, 1139-1148, (Refs. 8), deals with Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Piptadenia obliqua, Pithecellobium foliolosum, Astronium urundeuva, Schinopsis brasiliensis, Cassia excelsa, Caesalpinia pyramidalis, Parkia platycephala, Pseudobombax simplicifolium, Tabebuia impetiginosa, Caesalpinia ferrea, and Aspidosperma pyrifolium. 18 references.

  10. FT-Raman spectroscopic study of skin wound healing in diabetic rats treated with Cenostigma macrophyllum Tul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Nayana Pinheiro Machado de Freitas; Martins, Marcelino, E-mail: nayanamachado@oi.com.br [Faculdade Diferencial Integral (FACID), Teresina, PI (Brazil); Costa, Charlytton Luis Sena da; Maia Filho, Antonio Luis [Universidade Estadual do Piaui (UESPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil); Raniero, Leandro; Martin, Airton Abrahao; Arisawa, Emilia Angela Loschiavo [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento

    2014-07-01

    Introduction: patients with diabetes mellitus exhibit a delay in the lesion repair process. The active components of Cenostigma macrophyllum may represent a viable alternative to facilitate the recovery of these lesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of emulsion oil-water Cenostigma macrophyllum in the repair process of lesions in rats with induced diabetes. Methods: 63 male rats (Wistar, 200-250 g body weight, 30-40 days old) were distributed into the following groups: control (C), diabetic (D) and diabetic treated with Cenostigma macrophyllum (P), subdivided based on the experimental times, days 7, 14 and 28, with 21 animals per main group. Diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced by administration of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg via penile vein and 12-h fasting) and confirmed at day 21 (glycemic index > 240 mg/dL). In the animals of group P, 0.5 ml of the oil-water emulsion obtained from the plant seed was used. The samples were removed and hemisectioned, and one portion was used for the quantitative histological analysis of collagen using Masson's trichrome staining, while another portion was analyzed by FT-Raman spectroscopy. Results: A higher percentage area of the volume of collagen fibers was observed for the experimental time Day 14 in group P compared with group D (p < 0.001). Regarding the ratio of areas of the amides I (1700-1600 cm{sup -1}) and III (1245-1345 cm{sup -1}), the groups D and P show the opposite behavior. Conclusion: Cenostigma macrophyllum accelerated the repair process in skin of diabetic ratsfor14 days. (author)

  11. LEVANTAMENTO FITOSSOCIOLÓGICO EM ÁREA DE CAATINGA NO MONUMENTO NATURAL GROTA DO ANGICO, SERGIPE, BRASIL

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    RAPHAEL CAVALCANTI FERRAZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Caatinga is a vegetation that occurs exclusively in Brazil, typically in the Northeastern region and studies on the floristic composition and phytosociological are prerequisites for understanding the behavior, distribution and structure of the vegetation. Therefore, this study aimed to conduct a phytosociological survey of an area approximately 191 hectares of Caatinga, located within of the Unity Conservation area Grota do Angico Natural Monument, Sergipe state, Brazil. To conduct this study, we used the method of fixed area and the process of systematic sampling, where all individuals included in the 30 plots that showed CAP (circumference at breast height greater than 6 cm were measured. In total of the survey, we identified 24 species in 20 genres and 12 families. The families with the higher number of species were Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae e Anacardicaceae. Poincianella pyramidalis (Tul. L. P. Queiroz, Jatropha mollissima (Pohl. Baill., Bauhinia cheilantha, Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell. Brenan. and Mimosa tenuiflora were the most representative species for the phytosociological indices (density, cover, frequency and important value index. The basal area at the study site was 6,95 m2 ha-1 and the volume 28,42 m3 ha-1.

  12. FLORÍSTICA E FITOSSOCIOLOGIA DE QUATRO REMANESCENTES VEGETACIONAIS EM ÁREAS DE SERRA NO CARIRI PARAIBANO

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    PEDRO THIAGO BARBOSA DE OLIVEIRA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It was studied vegetal remainders into four mountain areas: Serra de Bodopitá (Area1, Serra de Bodocongó (Area 2, Serra do Monte (Area 3 and Serra do Canoió (Area 4 located in paraiban Cariri. The study aimed at determines the phytossociolical parameters and for this was used the program Mata Nativa 2. It was also calculated the indexes of Shannon, Pielou equability, diversity of species and families. From the 2972 sampled individuals, 633 belonged to Area 1, 602 to Area 2, 908 to Area 3 and 829 to Area 4. All of them were distributed in 54 species belonged to 25 botanic families. It was observed that the families Fabaceae and Euphorbiaceae had the largest number of species and individuals and after them Cactaceae, Anacardiaceae and Apocynaceae. The Shannon indexes values in Areas 1, 2, 3 and 4 were respectively 2.65; 2.93; 2.35 e 2.59 nats.esp.-1 . The founded densities were 3165 individuals.ha-1 in Area 1, 3010 individuals.ha-1 in Area 2, 4540 individuals.ha-1 in Area 3 and 4145 individuals.ha-1 in Area 4. The four areas had the same species with the most importance values being them: Caesalpinia pyramidalis, Aspidosperma pyrifolium, Bauhinia cheilantha, Piptadenia stipulacea.

  13. Antioxidant potential of hydrolyzed polyphenolic extracts from tara (Caesalpinia spinosa) pods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chambi, F.; Chirinos, R.; Pedreschi Plasencia, R.P.; et al.,

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant potential of tara pod extracts rich in gallotannins submitted to chemical hydrolysis was evaluated. The increase in the release of gallic acid from the tara pod extracts during the hydrolysis process reached a maximum ratio of free gallic acid/total phenolics of 94.1% at 20 h, at thi

  14. Kinetics of solute leachate from imbibing Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brazilwood seeds

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    Nestor Martini Neto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The electrical conductivity of leachates from imbibing seeds has been used as a vigor test for several species. The adaptation of this methodology to different species requires knowledge on the leaching kinetics of electrolytes. For Brazilwood seeds, the classic method was not satisfactory and rapid tests are essential because they have low storage capacity at room temperature. Leaching kinetics during seed imbibition is a function of physiological quality, presence or absence of seed coat, imbibing temperature and the initial moisture content of seed. In this study, the electrolyte leaching rate of six different categories of seeds, from two regions, was evaluated in seeds with and without seed coat and incubated with different moisture contents and at different temperatures. The results showed that the electrolyte leaching rate in Brazilwood seeds is independent of the physiological quality, the presence or absence of seed coat and imbibition temperature, but these factors changed the total amount of electrolytes leached. The leaching rate increased in the first few minutes of imbibition, suggesting that the adjustment of the methodology must consider the reduction in imbibition time, reduction in temperature, use of a controlled and slower pre-imbibition, and replacement of the imbibition solution after the first few minutes.

  15. Protease Inhibitors Extracted from Caesalpinia echinata Lam. Affect Kinin Release during Lung Inflammation

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    Ilana Cruz-Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is an essential process in many pulmonary diseases in which kinins are generated by protease action on kininogen, a phenomenon that is blocked by protease inhibitors. We evaluated kinin release in an in vivo lung inflammation model in rats, in the presence or absence of CeKI (C. echinata kallikrein inhibitor, a plasma kallikrein, cathepsin G, and proteinase-3 inhibitor, and rCeEI (recombinant C. echinata elastase inhibitor, which inhibits these proteases and also neutrophil elastase. Wistar rats were intravenously treated with buffer (negative control or inhibitors and, subsequently, lipopolysaccharide was injected into their lungs. Blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, and lung tissue were collected. In plasma, kinin release was higher in the LPS-treated animals in comparison to CeKI or rCeEI groups. rCeEI-treated animals presented less kinin than CeKI-treated group. Our data suggest that kinins play a pivotal role in lung inflammation and may be generated by different enzymes; however, neutrophil elastase seems to be the most important in the lung tissue context. These results open perspectives for a better understanding of biological process where neutrophil enzymes participate and indicate these plant inhibitors and their recombinant correlates for therapeutic trials involving pulmonary diseases.

  16. The representation of Caesalpinia echinata (Brazilwood in Sixteenth-and-Seventeenth-Century Maps

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    Yuri T. Rocha

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazilwood was the first product found in Terra de Santa Cruz, and the first explored by Portuguese colonization of Brazil. This study aims at the Occidental Cartography and the historical files represented by Portugal's interest on mapping the marketed product found in Brazil. There presentation of Brazilwood in maps was possible due to scientific advancements, new land discoveries, and technological improvement during the 15th century, which all have taken cartography to a whole new period, stressing Portuguese hegemony in Asia and in the New World. The goal of this research was to identify and analyze maps from 16th and 17th centuries that represented the geographical distribution of Brazilwood, and its trade. Brazilwood was represented in many maps by illumination and detailed by different cartographers. The maps and other evidence for this research were found in historical files held in both Brazil and Portugal.O pau-brasil foi o primeiro produto encontrado na Terra de Santa Cruz e o primeiro a ser explorado pela colonização portuguesa no Brasil. Este estudo enfocou a Cartografia Ocidental e os arquivos históricos que representassem o interesse de Portugal em mapear esse produto comercial encontrado no Brasil. A representação do pau-brasil nos mapas foi possível devido aos avanços científicos, aos descobrimentos de novas terras e aos avanços tecnológicos alcançados durante o século XV, os quais deram à cartografia um papel de destaque no novo período, enfatizando a hegemonia Portuguesa na Ásia e no Novo Mundo. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi identificar e analisar os mapas dos séculos XVI e XVII que representassem a distribuição geográfica do pau-brasil e seu comércio. O pau-brasil foi representado em muitos mapas por iluminuras e detalhes feitos por diferentes cartógrafos. Os mapas e outras fontes presentes nesta pesquisa foram encontrados nos arquivos históricos sediados em ambos os países, Brasil e Portugal.

  17. PEMUNGUTAN BRAZILIN DARI KAYU SECANG (Caesalpinia sappan L DENGAN METODE MASERASI DAN APLIKASINYA UNTUK PEWARNAAN KAIN

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    Dewi Selvia Fardhyanti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pembuatan zat warna alami dilakukan dengan metode maserasi dengan menggunakan pelarut etanol dan aquades, variasi volume pelarut yang digunakan 75, 150, dan 250 ml. Variasi waktu perendaman 6, 12, 24, dan 48 jam. Serbuk zat warna alami Brazilin dianalisis dengan FTIR dan diaplikasikan pada kain. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan semakin lama waktu ekstraksi dan volume pelarut yang digunakan, maka rendemen yang dihasilkan semakin banyak. Rendemen serbuk brazilin maksimal sebesar 6,316% pada waktu ekstraksi 48 jam menggunakan volume pelarut etanol 250 ml. Gugus fungsi brazilin memiliki ikatan tertentu diantaranya C-H, O-H, C-O, C=O, C=C alkena. Adanya gugus fungsi –OH menunjukkan adanya senyawa brazilin. Serbuk brazilin diaplikasikan pada kain dengan teknik celup, zat pengikat seperti tawas, kapur, dan tunjung mempengaruhi kenampakan warna yang dihasilkan pada kain.Kata kunci : zat warna, ekstraksi, maserasi, brazilin, teknik celup. A production of natural dyes can be done by maceration method with using ethanol solvent and distilled water (aquadest, variations of solvent volumes which used were 75, 150, and 250 ml. Soaking times variations were 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours. Brazilin natural dye powder was analyzed by FTIR and applied to industry. The research results showed the longer of the extraction time and the volume of the used solvents, resulted in the higher yield. Yield of Brazilin powder maximum was 6.316% on the extraction time during 48 hours with using ethanol solvent of 250 ml. Functional groups of Brazilin have specific bond among CH, OH, CO, C = O, C = C alkenes. The existence of the functional groups -OH indicates the brazilin compound. Brazilin powder was applied to industry with dye techniques, binding agents such as alum, lime, and lotus (tunjung which affected the appearance of the fabric color.Keyword : natural dyes, extraction, maceration, brazilin, dye technique.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of natural red dye from Caesalpinia sappan linn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyanto, Subur; Suyitno, Rachmanto, Rendy Adhi; Hidayat, Lullus Lambang Govinda; Wibowo, Atmanto Heru; Hadi, Syamsul

    2016-03-01

    The study reports the synthesis and characterization of natural red dye. The dyes were extracted from woods of Caesalpiniasappanlinn at varied temperatures of 70, 80, 90, and 100°C for three hours. The dry wood chips and water at a ratio of 6:1 were immersed in the reactor of 150 liters. The absorbance spectra of the natural red dyes were measured by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. Meanwhile, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to investigate the functional groups of the natural red dyes. In addition, the basic production cost was calculated and the fastness property towards cotton fabrics was investigated according to the Indonesia national standard of 105-C06:2010, 105-B01:2010, and 0288-2008. The results showed that the functional groups found the extracted red dyes indicated the complex bond of brazilein with peak absorbance at a wavelength of 538-540 nm. The extraction temperature also changed the functional group of brazilein. From the color, the absorbance peak, the functional groups, and the main production cost, the best parameter to synthesize the natural red dyes from Caesalpiniasappanlinn was at a temperature of 80°C for two hours. Moreover, the natural red dyes has the fastness to wash resistance, light resistance, and scrub resistance by 4-5, 4, and 3-4, respectively. However, further studies for synthesis the natural red dyes by using a continuous reactor are required to identify the naturally complex compounds in brazilein for improving the fastness properties and for reducing the cost.

  19. Hypoglycemic and antioxidant activities of Caesalpinia ferrea Martius leaf extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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    Sherien Kamal Hassan

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: From the present study, it can be concluded that the C. ferrea leaf extract effectively improved hyperglycaemia while inhibiting the progression of oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Hence, it can be used in the management of diabetes mellitus.

  20. Selected environmental aspects of the introduction into the polish market of exotic wood species on the example of caviuna (Machaerium scleroxylon Tul.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Andrzej; Krauss, Hanna; Waliszewska, Bogusława; Piątek, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    The chemical and elemental composition of caviuna wood was determined. The elemental composition of the examined wood was similar to the elemental composition of the deciduous tree species of the temperate zone except that it did not contain sulphur. The examined wood was found to comprise a very high content of extractive substances which could contain toxic substances, as well as a considerably higher proportion than in other palisander species mineral compounds determining tool dulling. Numerous cases of diseases were recorded among people who came into contact with the examined wood. An elevated level of eosinophils was found in these people. It was confirmed that Caviuna wood, following its introduction into the trade turnover of exotic wood species, posed many threats in the working environment.

  1. Assessment of the healing activity of jucá pods [Libidibia ferrea (Mart. ex Tul. L. P. Queiroz] in cutaneous lesions of rats

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    Frascisca Gomes Carvalho

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the healing activity of the powdered pod of L. ferrea in cutaneous wound healing in preclinical test in rats. Eighteen rats were divided into two groups: the positive control group (PCG treated with Kollagenase® and the experimental group (EG treated with an ointment prepared with the powder of Libidibia ferrea. The lesions were clinically evaluated on 0 - 21st days, when histopathological analysis was also performed. In this study, the clinical analysis showed that although the rate of contraction of the lesions in EG was lower than in PCG, there was significant reduction in the wound of the group treated with ointment obtained from the powder of L. ferrea. Furthermore, the morphometric data showed that from the 3rd to 21st day after operation, the EG presented significant reduction in the rate of contraction of the skin lesions. Histological analysis revealed that the clinical and histological parameters of EG were similar to PCG. Although the biological activity of the powder remains unclarified, our results clearly showed the wound healing with the use of the powder of the pod of Libidibia ferrea in skin lesions. These finds provide subsidies for a similar research.

  2. SUPERAÇÃO DA DORMÊNCIA E INFLUÊNCIA DO CONDICIONAMENTO OSMÓTICO EM SEMENTES DE Pterogyne nitens TUL. (FABACEAE

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    KELLY PELLIZZARO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to evaluate the influence of priming and efficiency of two methods of scarification on dormancy break of brave peanut seeds. After scarification with sulfuric acid and sandpaper, seeds were placed in mannitol solutions at concentrations 0.0 (control, -0.25, -0.50, -0.75 and -1.00 MPa for six days at 10 °C. Water content and germination percentage were determined. It was observed that, at 0.0 MPa, the seeds were scarified with H2SO4 had higher water content than the scarified with sandpaper, this may be related to uniform wear in the seed coat caused by H2SO4. For the water content, due the concentrations of mannitol, there was a significant linear response, only for the chemical scarification. However, it was observed null for both. The maximum responses of germination were 79.36% (chemical scarification and 95.56% (scarification with a maximum point of -0.41 MPa either. The scarification with sandpaper was most effective, however, at concentrations above -0.41 MPa, it was observed reduction in germination percentage.

  3. SUPERAÇÃO DA DORMÊNCIA E INFLUÊNCIA DO CONDICIONAMENTO OSMÓTICO EM SEMENTES DE Pterogyne nitens TUL. (FABACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    KELLY PELLIZZARO; VALQUÍRIA APARECIDA MENDES DE JESUS; Braccini,Alessandro de Lucca e; CARLOS ALBERTO SCAPIM; JOSELAINE VIGANÓ

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the influence of priming and efficiency of two methods of scarification on dormancy break of brave peanut seeds. After scarification with sulfuric acid and sandpaper, seeds were placed in mannitol solutions at concentrations 0.0 (control), -0.25, -0.50, -0.75 and -1.00 MPa for six days at 10 °C. Water content and germination percentage were determined. It was observed that, at 0.0 MPa, the seeds were scarified with H2SO4 had higher water content than the ...

  4. Atividade alelopática de extratos de diferentes orgãos de Caesalpinia ferrea na germinação de alface Allelopathic activity of extracts from different organs of Caesalpinia ferrea on lettuce germination

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    Andreya Kaliana de Oliveira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A alelopatia pode afetar muitos aspectos da ecologia das plantas, incluindo a ocorrência, crescimento, sucessão de plantas, estrutura das comunidades, dominância, diversidade e produtividade. Neste trabalho, o objetivo foi avaliar o potencial alelopático de diversos órgãos de jucá (Caesalpinea ferrea sobre a germinação de sementes e desenvolvimento de plântulas de alface (Lactuca sativa. Foi usado o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado no esquema fatorial 2x5, com dois métodos de extração (25 e 100°C e cinco concentrações do extrato bruto (0, 25, 50, 75 e 100% para cada órgão avaliado: folhas, cascas e vagens maduras de C. ferrea, em quatro repetições de 25 sementes da alface 'Mônica SF FI'. As características avaliadas foram porcentagem de germinação (PG, índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG, porcentagem de plântulas normais (PN e anormais (PA, comprimentos da parte aérea (CPA e da raiz (CR de plântulas de alface. Os extratos de folhas e de vagens de C. ferrea obtidos a quente (100°C reduziram a porcentagem de germinação de L. sativa em relação à testemunha (0%. Nas maiores concentrações dos extratos de todos os órgãos, houve alta PA (atrofiamento da raiz, queima e escurecimento da radícula, encurvamento do caulículo, geotropismo negativo e menor CPA e CR, comparado à testemunha. Os extratos dos diferentes órgãos de C. ferrea apresentam atividade alelopática inibindo o desenvolvimento de plântulas de alface.Allelopathy can affect many aspects of plant ecology, including the occurrence, growth, plant succession, community structure, dominance, diversity and productivity of plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic potential of various organs of jucá (Caesalpinea ferrea on seed germination and seedling development of lettuce (Lactuca sativa. It was used in a completely randomized 2x5 factorial arrangement, with two extraction methods (25 and 100°C and concentrations of crude extract (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% for each organ evaluated: leaves, stem bark and mature pods of C. ferrea in four replications of 25 seeds of lettuce 'Monica SF FI'. The characteristics evaluated were germination percentage (PG, germination speed index (IVG, percentage of normal seedlings (PN and abnormal (PA, shoot length (CPA and root length (CR of lettuce seedlings. The extracts of leaves and pods of C. ferrea obtained the hot (100°C reduced the germination percentage of L. sativa compared to control (0%. At higher concentrations of the extracts of all organs were high PA (atrophy of the root, burning and darkening of the radicle, the bending caulículo, negative geotropism and lower CPA and CR compared to control. The extracts of different organs of C. ferrea show allelopathic activity affecting the development of lettuce seedlings.

  5. VISÃO DE COMUNIDADES RURAIS EM JUAZEIRINHO/PB REFERENTE À EXTINÇÃO DA BIODIVERSIDADE DA CAATINGA

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    Lânia Isis Ferreira Alves

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The current model of economic development is based on a predatory and exculpatory vision, which discloses a way of being inhuman. Implying in changes of perception, thoughts and values, it has seen, that the form as the nature is explored in accordance with varies the ambient perception of the community or group. This work objectified to analyze the perception of Juazeirinho/PB agricultural communities referring the extinction of biodiversity of caatinga, aiming at to delineate sensitization strategies that make possible the valuation of this biome. The work portrays a carried through participant research with the communities Escurinha and Mendonça. For the collection of data direct comment was used, with visits to the communities, dynamics, half-structuralized interview and accomplishment of meeting. According to community some vegetal and animal species are disappearing. Between the animals they are cited: corduniz (Nothura sp, gato do mato (Felisa tigrina, gato maracajá (Felis wildi, mocó (Kerodon rupestris, preá (Gálea sprixii, Tejo (Família Teiidae, tatu peba (Euphractus sexcinctus, tatu verdadeiro (Dasypus novmcinctus e o guaxinim (Procyon camcrivorus.Between vegetables they had been cited: Aveloz (Euphorbia gimnoclada, Imbuzeiro (Spondias tuberosa, Aroeira (Myracroduom unrudeuva, Caatingueira (Caesalpinia pyramidali, Baraúna (Schnopsis brasiliensis, Quixabeira (Bumelia sertorum, Mufumbo (Combretum leprosum. We can verify that it is necessary to promote changes in the ambient perception of the studied communities, thus allowing, to awake for problematic ambient, to point and to search solutions, that take the valuation of local biodiversity.

  6. VISÃO DE COMUNIDADES RURAIS EM JUAZEIRINHO/PB REFERENTE À EXTINÇÃO DA BIODIVERSIDADE DA CAATINGA

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    Lânia Isis Ferreira Alves

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The current model of economic development is based on a predatory and exculpatory vision, which discloses a way of being inhuman. Implying in changes of perception, thoughts and values, it has seen, that the form as the nature is explored in accordance with varies the ambient perception of the community or group. This work objectified to analyze the perception of Juazeirinho/PB agricultural communities referring the extinction of biodiversity of caatinga, aiming at to delineate sensitization strategies that make possible the valuation of this biome. The work portrays a carried through participant research with the communities Escurinha and Mendonça. For the collection of data direct comment was used, with visits to the communities, dynamics, half-structuralized interview and accomplishment of meeting. According to community some vegetal and animal species are disappearing. Between the animals they are cited: corduniz (Nothura sp, gato do mato (Felisa tigrina, gato maracajá (Felis wildi, mocó (Kerodon rupestris, preá (Gálea sprixii, Tejo (Família Teiidae, tatu peba (Euphractus sexcinctus, tatu verdadeiro (Dasypus novmcinctus e o guaxinim (Procyon camcrivorus.Between vegetables they had been cited: Aveloz (Euphorbia gimnoclada, Imbuzeiro (Spondias tuberosa, Aroeira (Myracroduom unrudeuva, Caatingueira (Caesalpinia pyramidali, Baraúna (Schnopsis brasiliensis, Quixabeira (Bumelia sertorum, Mufumbo (Combretum leprosum. We can verify that it is necessary to promote changes in the ambient perception of the studied communities, thus allowing, to awake for problematic ambient, to point and to search solutions, that take the valuation of local biodiversity.

  7. AVALIAÇÃO DE PLANTAS MEDICINAIS NO COMBATE A MASTITE BOVINA

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    Samoel Alexandre Fonseca Dantas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mastite é a inflamação da glândula mamária da vaca, sendo infecto-contagiosa que mais se propaga nos rebanhos e geralmente causando grandes prejuízos a indústria de laticínios, pode ser provocada por cerca de 130 agentes envolvidos, dentre eles, bactérias, vírus, algas e fungos. As bactérias são os agentes de maior importância como causa da doença. Por esta razão o IFRN aprovou o projeto para avaliação de qual o melhor tratamento com plantas medicinais nativas a ser utilizada na cura da mastite. O enfoque do resultado do projeto estaria direcionado para o diagnóstico e cura da doença na criação de rebanhos leiteiros de pequenos produtores do Vale do Assu. Para a realização desse diagnóstico e investigação sobre planta medicinal a ser utilizado nas vacas acometidas pela mastite, serão realizados exames de antibiograma para investigar a susceptibilidade da bactéria a determinadas plantas. Nos resultados preliminares, realizados em laboratório, foi identificado que a casca do caule do cajueiro roxo (Anacardium occidentale L tem ação antibiótica e a flor da catingueira (Caesalpinia pyramidalis inibe a proliferação das bactérias existentes no leite de vacas infectadas com mastite sub-clínica. Desta maneira, sugere-se a possibilidade do uso deste vegetal no combate e cura a esta doença. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Mastite, Antibiograma, Plantas medicinais.

  8. Evaluation of seed extracts from plants found in the Caatinga biome for the control of Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Patrícia Batista Barra Medeiros; de Oliveira, Julliete Medeiros; Chagas, Juliana Macêdo; Rabelo, Luciana Maria Araujo; de Medeiros, Guilherme Fulgêncio; Giodani, Raquel Brant; da Silva, Elizeu Antunes; Uchôa, Adriana Ferreira; de Fátima de Freire Melo Ximenes, Maria

    2014-10-01

    Dengue fever, currently the most important arbovirus, is transmitted by the bite of the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Given the absence of a prophylactic vaccine, the disease can only be controlled by combating the vector insect. However, increasing reports of resistance and environmental damage caused by insecticides have led to the urgent search for new safer alternatives. In this regard, plants stand out as a source of easy-to-obtain biodegradable insecticide molecules. Twenty (20) plant seed extracts from the Caatinga, an exclusively Brazilian biome, were prepared. Sodium phosphate (50 mM, pH 8.0) was used as extractor. The extracts were used in bioassays and submitted to partial characterisation. A Probit analysis of insecticides was carried out, and intergroup differences were verified by the Student's t test and ANOVA. All the extracts exhibited larvicidal and ovipositional deterrence activity. The extracts of Amburana cearenses, Piptadenia viridiflora, Erythrina velutina, Myracrodruon urundeuva and Schinopsis brasiliensis were also pupicides, while the extracts of P. viridiflora, E. velutina, A. cearenses, Anadenanthera colubrina, Diocleia grandiflora, Bauhinia cheilantha, Senna spectabilis, Caesalpinia pyramidalis, Mimosa regnelli and Genipa americana displayed adulticidal activity. Egg laying was compromised when females were fed extracts of Ricinus communis, Croton sonderianus and S. brasiliensis. At least two proteins with insecticidal activity were found in all the extracts. Phenol compounds were identified in all the extracts and flavonoids, triterpenes or alkaloids in 14 of them. The results show the potential of plant seed extracts from the Caatinga as a source of active molecules against A. aegypti mosquitos.

  9. Relações solo-vegetação em áreas sob processo de desertificação no município de Jataúba, PE Soils and vegetation relations in areas under desertification in Jataúba County, Pernambuco State, Brazil

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    Izabel Cristina de Luna Galindo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A degradação das terras na região semi-árida resulta de processos naturais, que podem ser induzidos ou catalisados pelo homem por meio do uso inadequado dos recursos naturais, produzindo a deterioração da cobertura vegetal, do solo e dos recursos hídricos. Visando relacionar os processos de degradação da vegetação e dos solos na zona do agreste de Pernambuco, foram caracterizados os solos e o recobrimento vegetal em doze parcelas representativas de ambientes conservados, moderadamente degradados e degradados, no município de Jataúba. Para caracterizar a vegetação, os indivíduos foram classificados em três estratos verticais ou classes de altura: 3- indivíduos com altura superior a 3,0 m (lenhosas altas, amostrados em toda a área da parcela (200 m²; 2- indivíduos com altura variando de 0,51 a 3,0 m, amostrados em subárea de 100 m² (lenhosas baixas; 1- indivíduos com altura igual ou inferior a 0,5 m, amostrados em 18 miniparcelas de 25 x 50 cm (estrato da regeneração. Os solos de cada parcela foram caracterizados morfologicamente e as amostras coletadas por horizonte para realização das análises físicas, químicas e mineralógicas. A vegetação no segundo estrato vertical apresentou significativa diminuição da densidade absoluta de acordo com a intensidade de degradação dos solos. As espécies com maiores densidades relativas foram: Neoglaziovia variegata (caroá e Cordia leucocephala (moleque duro, no ambiente conservado; Bromelia laciniosa (macambira, Aspidosperma pyryfolium (pereiro e Caesalpinia pyramidalis (catingueira, no ambiente moderadamente degradado, e C. pyramidalis e Sida galheirensis (malva branca, no ambiente degradado. As características dos Planossolos mais bem relacionadas com a vegetação preservada foram: os maiores conteúdos de cascalho nos horizontes superficiais, a maior espessura dos horizontes A + E e os teores mais elevados de CO. A ocorrência de encrostamento superficial e erosão e

  10. Quebra da dormência de sementes de quatro leguminosas arbóreas Breaking the hard seed coat dormancy of four legume tree seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do P. Socorro C. Bona do Nascimento

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Nas sementes de leguminosas é comum a ocorrência de dormência devido à dureza do tegumento. Sementes de bordão-de-velho (Samanea saman (Jacq. Merr., angico-de-bezerro (Piptadenia moniliformis Benth., pau-ferro (Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex. Tul. e sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. foram submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: escarificação com lixa, água a 80ºC por 1,0; 2,5 e 5,0min; água à temperatura ambiente (12; 24 e 48h; ácido sulfúrico concentrado (1; 5 e 10min e álcool etílico (5; 10 e 25min, visando a quebra da dormência. De sabiá foram testados os artículos e as sementes nuas. Usou-se o delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro repetições (50 sementes/repetição. Os tratamentos com ácido sulfúrico resultaram em maiores percentuais de germinação para bordão-de-velho (98,5-99,0% e para pau-ferro (76,5-89,0%. Para angico-de-bezerro, destacaram-se água a 80ºC durante 1,0 ou 2,5min, e ácido durante 10min (82,5; 74,0 e 87,0% de germinação, respectivamente. Maiores percentagens de germinação foram obtidas nas sementes nuas de sabiá do que nos artículos, destacando-se, com germinação de 73,0 a 93,5%, os tratamentos com água a 80ºC, com ácido 5 e 10min, e com álcool etílico por 5min. Considerando-se o custo e os riscos na utilização do ácido sulfúrico, é preferível, para quebrar a dormência das sementes estudadas, a utilização dos tratamentos com água a 80ºC, ainda que seja necessário aumento na densidade de semeadura.In legume seeds dormancy imposed by the hard seed coat is common. Seeds of four legumes, Samanea saman (Jacq. Merr., Piptadenia moniliformis Benth., Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex. Tul., and Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. were scarified with sand paper; hot water (80ºC for 1, 2.5 and 5.0 min; water at room temperature for 12, 24 and 48h; concentrated sulphuric acid for 1, 5 and 10 min; and in ethilic alcohol for 5, 10 and 25 min, to break seed coat dormancy. In M

  11. Cost-Effectiveness of Treating Upper Limb Spasticity Due to Stroke with Botulinum Toxin Type A: Results from the Botulinum Toxin for the Upper Limb after Stroke (BoTULS Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Steen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Stroke imposes significant burdens on health services and society, and as such there is a growing need to assess the cost-effectiveness of stroke treatment to ensure maximum benefit is derived from limited resources. This study compared the cost-effectiveness of treating post-stroke upper limb spasticity with botulinum toxin type A plus an upper limb therapy programme against the therapy programme alone. Data on resource use and health outcomes were prospectively collected for 333 patients with post-stroke upper limb spasticity taking part in a randomized trial and combined to estimate the incremental cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY gained of botulinum toxin type A plus therapy relative to therapy alone. The base case incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER of botulinum toxin type A plus therapy was £93,500 per QALY gained. The probability of botulinum toxin type A plus therapy being cost-effective at the England and Wales cost-effectiveness threshold value of £20,000 per QALY was 0.36. The point estimates of the ICER remained above £20,000 per QALY for a range of sensitivity analyses, and the probability of botulinum toxin type A plus therapy being cost-effective at the threshold value did not exceed 0.39, regardless of the assumptions made.

  12. Study design and methods of the BoTULS trial: a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the clinical effect and cost effectiveness of treating upper limb spasticity due to stroke with botulinum toxin type A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Laura

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following a stroke, 55–75% of patients experience upper limb problems in the longer term. Upper limb spasticity may cause pain, deformity and reduced function, affecting mood and independence. Botulinum toxin is used increasingly to treat focal spasticity, but its impact on upper limb function after stroke is unclear. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical and cost effectiveness of botulinum toxin type A plus an upper limb therapy programme in the treatment of post stroke upper limb spasticity. Methods Trial design : A multi-centre open label parallel group randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation. Participants : Adults with upper limb spasticity at the shoulder, elbow, wrist or hand and reduced upper limb function due to stroke more than 1 month previously. Interventions : Botulinum toxin type A plus upper limb therapy (intervention group or upper limb therapy alone (control group. Outcomes : Outcome assessments are undertaken at 1, 3 and 12 months. The primary outcome is upper limb function one month after study entry measured by the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT. Secondary outcomes include: spasticity (Modified Ashworth Scale; grip strength; dexterity (Nine Hole Peg Test; disability (Barthel Activities of Daily Living Index; quality of life (Stroke Impact Scale, Euroqol EQ-5D and attainment of patient-selected goals (Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. Health and social services resource use, adverse events, use of other antispasticity treatments and patient views on the treatment will be compared. Participants are clinically reassessed at 3, 6 and 9 months to determine the need for repeat botulinum toxin type A and/or therapy. Randomisation : A web based central independent randomisation service. Blinding : Outcome assessments are undertaken by an assessor who is blinded to the randomisation group. Sample size : 332 participants provide 80% power to detect a 15% difference in treatment successes between intervention and control groups. Treatment success is defined as improvement of 3 points for those with a baseline ARAT of 0–3 and 6 points for those with ARAT of 4–56. Trial registration ISRCTN78533119 EudraCT 2004-002427-40 CTA 17136/0230/001 Funding National Institute for Health Research, Health Technology Assessment Programme. Ipsen Ltd provide botulinum toxin type A (Dysport®.

  13. Influência do pastejo e da precipitação sobre a fenologia de quatro espécies em área de caatinga

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    Henrique Nunes Parente

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este experimento avaliar o efeito do pastejo caprino sobre a fenologia do marmeleiro (Croton sonderianus Müll. Arg., catingueira (Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tull., malva (Malva sylvestris L. e pereiro (Aspidosperma pyrifolium Mart. em área de caatinga no Cariri paraibano. O experimento foi conduzido na fazenda experimental Bacia-Escola pertencente à UFPB, São João do Cariri, PB, no ano de 2008. Foram monitoradas cinco plantas por piquete, com leituras semanais, num total de 28 no período de 05/03/2008 a 19/10/2008, observando-se as seguintes variáveis: número total de folhas, folhas verdes, folhas amarelas, folhas secas, frutos e flores.Os tratamentos consistiram em três taxas de lotação e foram distribuídos em três piquetes: T1 (3,1 an/ha, T2 (1,5 an/ha e T3 (0 an/ha. Para análise dos dados, agruparam-se as leituras por datas nas respectivas semanas. Foi verificado efeito do pastejo sobre os parâmetros fenológicos observados, notadamente no tratamento com maior taxa de lotação, para as espécies do marmeleiro e da malva, ocasionando redução antecipada do total de folhas, flores e frutos, promovendo alteração na fenologia dessas espécies. Observou-se menor efeito do pastejo sobre a fenologia do pereiro, e não foi verificado efeito sobre a catingueira. Notou-se que os pulsos de precipitação foram suficientes para desencadear os eventos fenológicos nas espécies. A precipitação interferiu no comportamento fenológico das espécies, desencadeando o período de brotamento logo após os primeiros eventos de chuvas, bem como a floração e frutificação, acontecendo em meados do período chuvoso. A queda de folhas ocorre logo após o término do período chuvoso na catingueira, marmeleiro e malva, sendo mais persistente no pereiro.

  14. Capacidad antioxidante de poblaciones silvestres de “tara” (Caesalpinia spinosa de las localidades de Picoy y Santa Fe (Provincia de Tarma, departamento de Junín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto López S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El Perú es el principal abastecedor de “tara”, gracias a que nuestro país posee una gran variedad de climas y tipos de suelos, haciendo posible la obtención de este cultivo durante la mayor parte del año. El departamento de Junín cuenta con poblaciones naturales de “tara” que aun no han sido caracterizadas bioquímica ni genéticamente, que podrían aprovecharse en beneficio de las comunidades locales. En este trabajo se reporta la capacidad antioxidante de “tara” provenientes de las localidades de Picoy y Santa Fe, ambas ubicadas en Tarma, Junín. Se utilizó la técnica del DPPH y del ABTS para valorar la capacidad antioxidante; para la determinación de fenoles y flavonoides se utilizó el reactivo de Folin-Ciocalteau según la técnica de Singleton. La muestra de Picoy reportó mayor cantidad de fenoles siendo de 563.70 mg/g de extracto seco, mientras que la cantidad de flavonoides fue de 0.664 mg/g. La capacidad antioxidante mostro una mejor respuesta en la muestra de Picoy, reportándose mediante el DPPH un IC50 1.244 mg/ml y con el ABTS un 35.3% de inhibición. Estos datos podrían aprovecharse para incrementar el valor agregado y mejorar la oferta de este recurso en dicha localidad debido a sus mejores características antioxidantes.

  15. 喙荚云实种子中的新二萜%New diterpene from the seeds of Caesalpinia minax Hance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴兆华; 王立波; 高慧媛; 孙博航; 黄健; 吴立军

    2008-01-01

    目的 研究喙荚云实的化学成分.方法 采用多种色谱方法分离纯化,依据理化性质、波谱数据分析进行结构鉴定.结果 从喙荚云实的体积分数为95%的乙醇回流提取物中分离鉴定了1个二萜类化合物.结论 此二萜类化合物为新化合物.

  16. Allelopathy by extracts of Caatinga species on melon seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreya Kalyana de Oliveira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The melon crop is of great socioeconomic importance in Brazil and some species from the Caatinga biome show allelopathic effects on other species. The aim of this study was to assess leaf and seed extracts of cumaru (Amburana cearensis (Allemao A.C. Sm., the jujube tree (Zizyphus joazeiro Mart., Jucá (Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. Ex. Tul. Var. Ferrea and mulungu (Erythrina velutina Willd. on the emergence of melon seeds (Cucumis melo L.. Leaves and seeds were used to produce extracts for each species at concentrations of a 1%, b 0.5% c 0.25%, d 0.125% and e 0% (control. The experiment was conducted with each extract type and its respective concentrations in a completely randomized design, with four replicates, each of 20 seeds. The percentage emergence and rate index, percentage of abnormal seedlings, seedling dry matter and seedling shoot and root length were assessed. Seed extracts of A. cearensis prevented melon germination, whereas the other extracts had no effect on this variable. Leaf extracts of A. cearensis and leaf and seed extracts of Z. joazeiro, C. ferrea and E. velutina resulted in abnormal melon seedlings. The percentage of abnormal melon seedlings exceeded 30% when treated with C. ferrea seed extract at the highest concentration. Most extracts did not affect seedling dry matter, but E. velutina leaf and seed extract increased the dry matter accumulation of melon seedlings and Z. joazeiro seed extract decreased dry matter accumulation at a concentration of 0.25%. The highest concentrations of mulungu and jucá leaf extracts promoted the shoot growth of melon seedlings. The extract from E. velutina seeds negatively affected root length compared to the control, similar to the effect of C. ferrea and E. velutina leaf extracts at the highest concentrations. Extracts of different organs of Caatinga plants can affect the emergence and characteristics related to seedling growth, depending on the concentration. Most extracts did not affect

  17. Is Antibiotic Prophylaxis Necessary in Patients Undergoing Ureterolithotripsy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Pasha Meysamie

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Transurethral Ureterolithotripsy (TUL is a frequently used procedure in urology departments. Many urologists perform TUL without antibiotic prophylaxis; however the use of chemoprophylaxis before TUL remains a controversial issue in urology. Thisstudy was carried out to assess the safety of omitting antibiotic prophylaxis prior to TUL. In a prospective randomized clinical trial from January 2005 to December 2007, 114 patients with ureteral stones were enrolled; Fifty seven had preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis administered before TUL and fifty seven patients underwent TUL without antibiotic prophylaxis. The rate of postoperative infectious complications (fever, positive blood culture, significant bactriuria, the length of hospital stay and overall stone free rate were compared between the two groups. There was no statistically significant difference between two groups in the operation time, length of hospital stay, postoperative bacteriuria, positive urine culture, postoperative fever and overall success rate of TUL. It appears that the incidence of infectious complications does not increase in patients undergoing TUL without antibiotic prophylaxis if they have negative pre-operative urine culture and antiseptic technique have been performed thorough the procedure.

  18. The Growth and Species-by-site Interaction of 18 Central American Multipurpose Tree Species Grown at 15 Tropical Sites World-wide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    From a world-wide plant introduction trial series utilising 25 central American species planted at over 100 sites in nearly 60 countries, eighteen species planted at 15 sites in the tropics were chosen for further study of the factors determining site productivity and site by species interactions. The species were Acacia pennatula, Acacia farnesiana, Albizia guachapele, Ateleia herbert-smithii, Caesalpinia coriaria, Caesalpinia eriostachys, Caesalpinia velutina, Enterolobium cyclocarpum, Gliricidia sepi...

  19. Plaat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Laseringi kauplustes müügilolevatest heliplaatidest: Khillem "Vill", Annie Lennox "Songs Of Mass Destruction", M.I.A. "Kala", Ian Brown "The World Is Yours", Pedigree "Ghosts And Corpses", Mari Kalkun "Üü Tulõk"

  20. Atrial Septal Defect (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... septal defect (pronounced: AY-tree-ul SEP-tul DEE-fekt), or ASD for short, is sometimes referred ... can be treated with cardiac catheterization (pronounced: CAR-dee-ack cath-uh-turr-ih-ZAY-shun), in ...

  1. Les Oniscoides halophiles de Madagascar (Isopoda, Oniscoidea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roman, Marie-Louise

    1977-01-01

    A new genus Vandeloscia and four new species: Vandeloscia orientalis, Anomaloniscus vandeli Tylos ochri , Olibrinus roseus, are described. They originate from various beaches and from the coral-reef in the south-west of Madagascar (Tuléar).

  2. Calliandra haematocephala Hassk.、 Caesalpinia pulcherrima (Linn.)Sw.、 Cassia fistula Linn.、Tamarindus indica Linn%朱缨花、金凤花、腊肠树、酸豆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈定如

    2007-01-01

    半落叶灌木,高1~2m。分枝多而柔韧,皮褐色,具明显皮孔。株冠半球形。叶互生或近对生,二回偶数羽状复叶,羽片1对,总叶柄长3-6cm,被柔毛,基部膨大;每羽片有小叶5~9对,小叶斜披针形,长1~6cm,宽0.5~1、5cm。顶端钝,基部不对称,全缘,下侧稍弯,每羽片基部内侧的小叶较小:基生3脉,长短不一,主脉偏上侧;近无柄;嫩叶淡紫色至紫红色。

  3. NUTRITIVE EVALUATION OF TWO FLOOD GRASSES IN WHITE NILE – SUDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. MAHALA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Flood grasses (Echinochloa stagnina and Echinochloa pyramidalis were evaluated as animal feed in term of chemical composition and in vitro digestibility. Crude protein (CP content was significantly (P 0.05 higher in Echinochloa pyramidalis than in Echinochloa stagnina (0.3% and Calcium (Ca, Phosphorus (P, Potassium (K and Magnesium (Mg were (0.30% and 0.40, (0.60% and 0.60%, (1.60% and 1.70% and (0.20% and 0.40% in Echinochloa stagnina and Echinochloa pyramidalis respectively. In vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD of Echinochloa stagnina (63% was significantly (P > 0.05 higher than in Echinochloa pyramidalis (56% as well as the values of Digestible acid-detergent fibre (DADF (69.8%: 54%, Digestible neutral-detergent fibre (DNDF (71%: 58.5%, and Digestible crude fibre (DCF (38.3%: 33%. From obtained results it can be concluded that the two species of Echinochloa contribute most of livestock nutrients requirement. Further research required to improve their nutritional value, digestibility and feed intake.

  4. [Percutaneous Nephrolithotripsy for Renal Transplant Lithiasis: A Case Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oida, Takeshi; Kanemitsu, Toshiyuki; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Fujimoto, Nobumasa; Koide, Takuo

    2016-02-01

    A 54-year-old man was introduced to our hospital for follow-up examinations after renal transplantation. At the initial visit, a 25 mm renal transplant stone was noted, which had enlarged to 32 mm at an examination 1 year later. We first attempted transurethral lithotripsy (TUL), but failed due to ureteral stricture. However, we could completely remove the stone in 2 sessions of percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PNL). The incidence of urinary lithiasis after renal transplantation ranges from 0.17-1.8%, for which PNL and TUL are frequently used. Although considered to be accompanied with risks of bleeding, bowel injury, and renal dysfunction, PNL is effective for urinary lithiasis after renal transplantation. TUL is less invasive, but access may be difficult when the ureter has an unusual course or ureteral stricture exists, as in our patient.

  5. Os gêneros Zanthoxylum L. e Esenbeckia Kunth (Rutaceae) no Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil The genera Zanthoxylum L. and Esenbeckia Kunth (Rutaceae) in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Maria de Fátima Figueiredo Melo; Carmen Sílvia Zickel

    2004-01-01

    Este trabalho consiste no levantamento das espécies dos gêneros Zanthoxylum e Esenbeckia ocorrentes em Pernambuco. Foi baseado nos caracteres morfológicos das espécies obtidas em campo e nos materiais de 16 herbários brasileiros. Foram registradas nove espécies de Zanthoxylum: Z. caribaeum Lam., Z. fagara (L.) Sarg., Z. gardneri Engl., Z. hamadryadicum Pirani, Z. monogynum A. St.-Hil., Z. petiolare A. St.-Hil & Tul., Z. rhoifolium Lam., Z. stelligerum Turcz. e Z. syncarpum Tul. Para Esenbecki...

  6. Os gêneros Zanthoxylum L. e Esenbeckia Kunth (Rutaceae) no Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Melo,Maria de Fátima Figueiredo; Zickel,Carmen Sílvia

    2004-01-01

    Este trabalho consiste no levantamento das espécies dos gêneros Zanthoxylum e Esenbeckia ocorrentes em Pernambuco. Foi baseado nos caracteres morfológicos das espécies obtidas em campo e nos materiais de 16 herbários brasileiros. Foram registradas nove espécies de Zanthoxylum: Z. caribaeum Lam., Z. fagara (L.) Sarg., Z. gardneri Engl., Z. hamadryadicum Pirani, Z. monogynum A. St.-Hil., Z. petiolare A. St.-Hil & Tul., Z. rhoifolium Lam., Z. stelligerum Turcz. e Z. syncarpum Tul. Para Esenb...

  7. Comparative efficacy of tulathromycin versus a combination of florfenicol-oxytetracycline in the treatment of undifferentiated respiratory disease in large numbers of sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Champour

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of tulathromycin (TUL with a combination of florfenicol (FFC and long-acting oxytetracycline (LAOTC in the treatment of naturally occurring undifferentiated respiratory diseases in large numbers of sheep. In this study, seven natural outbreaks of sheep pneumonia in Garmsar, Iran were considered. From these outbreaks, 400 sheep exhibiting the signs of respiratory diseases were selected, and the sheep were randomly divided into two equal groups. The first group was treated with a single injection of TUL (dosed at 2.5 mg/kg body weight, and the second group was treated with concurrent injections of FFC (dosed at 40 mg/kg bwt and LAOTC (dosed at 20 mg/kg bwt. In the first group, 186 (93% sheep were found to be cured 5 days after the injection, and 14 (7% sheep needed further treatment, of which 6 (3% were cured, and 8 (4% died. In the second group, 172 (86% sheep were cured after the injections, but 28 (14% sheep needed further treatment, of which 10 (5% were cured, and 18 (9% died. This study revealed that TUL was more efficacious as compared to the combined treatment using FFC and LAOTC. As the first report, this field trial describes the successful treatment of undifferentiated respiratory diseases in large numbers of sheep. Thus, TUL can be used for the treatment of undifferentiated respiratory diseases in sheep. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 279-284

  8. New species in the genus Francisella (Gammaproteobacteria; Francisellaceae); Francisella piscicida sp. nov. isolated from cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottem, Karl F; Nylund, Are; Karlsbakk, Egil;

    2007-01-01

    A, lipoprotein TUL4 (LpnA), malate dehydrogenase and hypothetical lipoprotein (LpnB) sequences. A comparison between GM2212 and the type strain of Francisella philomiragia were performed by DNA-DNA hybridization and fatty acid analysis. The DNA-DNA hybridization showed a 70% similarity. The fatty acid analysis...

  9. Characterization of Francisella sp., GM2212, the first Francisella isolate from marine fish, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottem, Karl F; Nylund, Are; Karlsbakk, Egil;

    2007-01-01

    A Francisella sp., isolate GM2212(T), previously isolated from diseased farmed Atlantic cod Gadus morhua in Norway is characterized. The complete 16S rDNA, 16S-23S intergenic spacer, 23S rDNA, 23S-5S intergenic spacer, 5S rDNA, FopA, lipoprotein TUL4 (LpnA), malate dehydrogenase and a hypothetical...

  10. Une nouvelle espèce de Tanaidacea de Madagascar: Acanthapseudes elegans n. g., n. sp. (Crustacea, Tanaidacea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roman, Marie-Louise

    1976-01-01

    Acanthapseudes elegans n. g., n. sp. is described after a single specimen collected on the outer slope of the coral reef in the vicinity of Tuléar (S.W. of Madagascar): it resembles the Acanthaspidiidae (Isopoda, Asellota) in general aspect and dwells among Hydrozoa and Alcyonaria.

  11. Pop / Tõnis Kahu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kahu, Tõnis, 1962-

    2007-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Swizz Beazz "One Man Band Man", Mari Kalkun "Üü tulõk", KT Tunstall "Drastic Fantastic", Foo Fighters "Echoes, Silence, Patience & Grace", Athlete "Beyond The Neighbourhood", David Toop "Sound Body", David Sylvian "When Loud Weather Buffeted Naoshima", Taraf De Haidouks "Mashkarada"

  12. Tularemia: Current Diagnosis and Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    PCR-enzyme immunoassay : tul4  CFU for both assays Successful detection of F. tularensis in mouse tissue and ticks [90] Junhui et al. Three primers...Akalin H, Oral HB . Tularemia in Bursa, Turkey: 205 cases in 10 years. Eur. J. Epidemiol. 16, 271–276 (2000). 85 Feldman KA, Enscore RE, Lathrop

  13. Folic acid supplementation before and during pregnancy in the Newborn Epigenetics STudy (NEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtzberg Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Folic acid (FA added to foods during fortification is 70-85% bioavailable compared to 50% of folate occurring naturally in foods. Thus, if FA supplements also are taken during pregnancy, both mother and fetus can be exposed to FA exceeding the Institute of Medicine's recommended tolerable upper limit (TUL of 1,000 micrograms per day (μg/d for adult pregnant women. The primary objective is to estimate the proportion of women taking folic acid (FA doses exceeding the TUL before and during pregnancy, and to identify correlates of high FA use. Methods During 2005-2008, pre-pregnancy and pregnancy-related data on dietary supplementation were obtained by interviewing 539 pregnant women enrolled at two obstetrics-care facilities in Durham County, North Carolina. Results Before pregnancy, 51% of women reported FA supplementation and 66% reported this supplementation during pregnancy. Before pregnancy, 11.9% (95% CI = 9.2%-14.6% of women reported supplementation with FA doses above the TUL of 1,000 μg/day, and a similar proportion reported this intake prenatally. Before pregnancy, Caucasian women were more likely to take FA doses above the TUL (OR = 2.99; 95% = 1.28-7.00, compared to African American women, while women with chronic conditions were less likely to take FA doses above the TUL (OR = 0.48; 95%CI = 0.21-0.97. Compared to African American women, Caucasian women were also more likely to report FA intake in doses exceeding the TUL during pregnancy (OR = 5.09; 95%CI = 2.07-12.49. Conclusions Fifty-one percent of women reported some FA intake before and 66% during pregnancy, respectively, and more than one in ten women took FA supplements in doses that exceeded the TUL. Caucasian women were more likely to report high FA intake. A study is ongoing to identify possible genetic and non-genotoxic effects of these high doses.

  14. Heavy metal accumulation by poplar in calcareous soil with various degrees of multi-metal contamination: implications for phytoextraction and phytostabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yahu; Nan, Zhongren; Su, Jieqiong; Wang, Ning

    2013-10-01

    The object of this study was to assess the capacity of Populus alba L. var. pyramidalis Bunge for phytoremediation of heavy metals on calcareous soils contaminated with multiple metals. In a pot culture experiment, a multi-metal-contaminated calcareous soil was mixed at different ratios with an uncontaminated, but otherwise similar soil, to establish a gradient of soil metal contamination levels. In a field experiment, poplars with different stand ages (3, 5, and 7 years) were sampled randomly in a wastewater-irrigated field. The concentrations of cadmium (Cd), Cu, lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in the poplar tissues and soil were determined. The accumulation of Cd and Zn was greatest in the leaves of P. pyramidalis, while Cu and Pb mainly accumulated in the roots. In the pot experiment, the highest tissue concentrations of Cd (40.76 mg kg(-1)), Cu (8.21 mg kg(-1)), Pb (41.62 mg kg(-1)), and Zn (696 mg kg(-1)) were all noted in the multi-metal-contaminated soil. Although extremely high levels of Cd and Zn accumulated in the leaves, phytoextraction using P. pyramidalis may take at least 24 and 16 years for Cd and Zn, respectively. The foliar concentrations of Cu and Pb were always within the normal ranges and were never higher than 8 and 5 mg kg(-1), respectively. The field experiment also revealed that the concentrations of all four metals in the bark were significantly higher than that in the wood. In addition, the tissue metal concentrations, together with the NH4NO3-extractable concentrations of metals in the root zone, decreased as the stand age increased. P. pyramidalis is suitable for phytostabilization of calcareous soils contaminated with multiple metals, but collection of the litter fall would be necessary due to the relatively high foliar concentrations of Cd and Zn.

  15. Morphology of pollen of some representatives of the genus Billbergia thunb. (Bromeliaceae Juss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Kolomiyets

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of pollen grains of four Billbergia species (B. pyramidalis, B. saundersii, B. vittata, B. zebrina has been studied using the light (LM and scanning electron (SEM microscopes. The detailed morphological characteristic of pollen grains has been given. It is noted that the pollen grains of Billbergia representatives are of large size, ellipsoid, bilaterally symmetric, monocolpate and have small reticulate sculpture of exine.

  16. URBAN TREE SURVEY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF BRASILIA CAMPUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Luis Kurihara

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A census of all the trees on 111 ha was conducted at the University of Brasilia campus. A total of 5,011 trees with DBHover 5 cm were identified and their DBH, diameter at 30 cm on ground level, diameter under the bifurcation point, height up to the firstbifurcation and the total height of the tree were measured. Phenological observation was also carried out. A great diversity of treeswas found composed of 49 botanical families and 154 species. The main species are Acrocomia aculeata, Syagrus oleracea, Ingamarginata, Pterogyne nitens, Caesalpinia ferrea, Caesalpinia pluviosa, Peltophorum dubium, Pachira aquatica, Syzygium cuminiand Tabebuia impetiginosa.

  17. Caesalpiniaceae (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Ding; Larsen, K.; Larsen, S.S.

    1996-01-01

    In Malesia the family contains 25 indigenous genera and 8 genera with only introduced species, as follows (in brackets the number of native and/or introduced species in Malesia): Acrocarpus (1), Afzelia (2), Amherstia (1), Bauhinia (69), Brownea (4), Caesalpinia (22), Cassia (4), Chamaecrista (5), C

  18. Environ: E00125 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00125 Sappan wood (JP16) Crude drug Calcium oxalate [CPD:C17478], Brazilin [CPD:C0...9920], alpha-Phellandrene [CPD:C09875], Ocimene [CPD:C09873] Caesalpinia sappan [TAX:483143] Same as: D06754 Fabaceae (pea family) Sappan wood Major component: Brazilin [CPD:C09920] ...

  19. A new cassane diterpenoid lactone from the seed of Caesalptma minax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Cheng; Li Yan Ma; Jian Hua Miao; Xu Dong Xu; Jing Quan Yuan; Jun Shan Yang

    2009-01-01

    A new cassane diterpenoid lactone was isolated from the seed of Caesalpinia minax.On the basis of spectral evidences,its structure was established as 12α-methoxyl,5α,14β-dihydroxy-1α,6α,7β-triacetoxycass-13(15)-en-16,12-olide.

  20. Rhizopogon (Rhizopogonaceae: hypogeous fungi in exotic plantations from the State of São Paulo, Brazil Rhizopogon (Rhizopogonaceae: fungos hipógeos em plantações exóticas no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuri Goulart Baseia

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey on the genus Rhizopogon, associated with roots of exotic trees in State of São Paulo (Brazil, was undertaken from January /1999 to September/2000. Three species were identified: R. luteolus Fr., R. roseolus Corda sensu A. H. Smith and R. rubescens Tul. This is the first report of R. luteolus and R. roseolus from Brazil.Um estudo sobre o gênero Rhizopogon, associado com raízes de árvores exóticas no Estado de São Paulo (Brasil, foi realizado de Janeiro/1999 até Setembro/2000. Três espécies foram identificadas: R. luteolus Fr., R. roseolus Corda sensu A. H. Smith e R. rubescens Tul. Este é o primeiro registro de R.. luteolus e R.. roseolus para o Brasil.

  1. Virtualization Shares: Feasibility and Implementation in the USNA Computer Science Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    f’imaty t=. cL tIli. P"P"’. I. ",,,, n • ",lnlv. ly pow<"l1Lll """ . lIow. 9""’t "I"’ ra ting ’Y",mo to tul ",itl,in tIl< uhti ൗ "I"’ratlng ’)"’I

  2. Measuring of beat up force on weaving machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bílek Martin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The textile material (warp is stressed cyclically at a relative high frequency during the weaving process. Therefore, the special measuring device for analysis of beat up force in the textile material during the weaving process, has been devised in the Weaving Laboratory of the TUL. This paper includes a description of this measuring device. The experimental part includes measurements results for various materials (PES and VS and various warp thread densities of the produced fabric.

  3. Os gêneros Zanthoxylum L. e Esenbeckia Kunth (Rutaceae no Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil The genera Zanthoxylum L. and Esenbeckia Kunth (Rutaceae in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Figueiredo Melo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho consiste no levantamento das espécies dos gêneros Zanthoxylum e Esenbeckia ocorrentes em Pernambuco. Foi baseado nos caracteres morfológicos das espécies obtidas em campo e nos materiais de 16 herbários brasileiros. Foram registradas nove espécies de Zanthoxylum: Z. caribaeum Lam., Z. fagara (L. Sarg., Z. gardneri Engl., Z. hamadryadicum Pirani, Z. monogynum A. St.-Hil., Z. petiolare A. St.-Hil & Tul., Z. rhoifolium Lam., Z. stelligerum Turcz. e Z. syncarpum Tul. Para Esenbeckia foram verificadas cinco espécies: E. almawillia Kaastra, E. febrifuga (A. St.-Hil. Juss. ex Mart., E. garandiflora Mart., E. leiocarpa Engl. e E. pilocarpoides Kunth. Para reconhecimento das espécies são apresentadas chaves de identificação, descrições, ilustrações, distribuição geográfica, comentários e nomes vulgares.This work is a survey of the species of Zanthoxylum and Esenbeckia occuring in the State of Pernambuco. It was based on morphological characters of the species obtained during field trips and of specimens from 16 Brazilian herbaria. Nine species were recorded for Zanthoxylum: Z. caribaeum Lam., Z. fagara (L. Sarg., Z. gardneri Engl., Z. hamadryadicum Pirani, Z. monogynum A. St.-Hil., Z. petiolare A. St.-Hil & Tul., Z. rhoifolium Lam., Z. stelligerum Turcz., and Z. syncarpum Tul. Esenbeckia comprised five species: E. almawillia Kaastra, E. febrifuga (A. St.Hil. Juss. ex Mart., E. grandiflora Mart., E. leiocarpa Engl., and E. pilocarpoides Kunth. Identication keys, descriptions, ilustrations, geographic distribution, common names, and comments on the species are presented.

  4. Percutaneous Nephrolithotripsy for Renal Transplant Lithiasis : A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    種田, 建史; 金光, 俊行; 林, 哲也; 藤本, 宜正; 小出, 卓生

    2016-01-01

    A 54-year-old man was introduced to our hospital for follow-up examinations after renal transplantation. At the initial visit, a 25 mm renal transplant stone was noted, which had enlarged to 32 mm at an examination 1 year later. We first attempted transurethral lithotripsy (TUL), but failed due to ureteral stricture. However, we could completely remove the stone in 2 sessions of percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PNL). The incidence of urinary lithiasis after renal transplantation ranges from 0....

  5. Linkage mapping of the Mediterranean cypress, Cupressus sempervirens, based on molecular and morphological markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manescu, C; Hamamouch, N; Maios, C; Harfouche, A; Doulis, A G; Aravanopoulos, F A

    2011-08-30

    Gene mapping for a Cupressus species is presented for the first time. Two linkage maps for the Mediterranean cypress (Cupressus sempervirens) varieties, C. sempervirens var. horizontalis and C. sempervirens var. pyramidalis, were constructed following the pseudo-testcross mapping strategy and employing RAPD, SCAR and morphological markers. A total of 427 loci (425 RAPDs, two SCARs) representing parents and F(1) progeny were screened for polymorphism with 32 random decamer and two SCAR primers. A morphological marker defined as "crown form" was also included. Of 274 polymorphic loci, the 188 that presented Mendelian inheritance formed the mapping dataset. Of these loci, 30% were mapped into seven linkage groups for the horizontalis (maternal) and four linkage groups for the pyramidalis (paternal) map. The putative "crown form" locus was included in a linkage group of both maps. The horizontalis and the pyramidalis maps covered 160.1 and 144.5 cM, respectively, while genome length was estimated to be 1696 cM for the former variety and 1373 cM for the latter. The four RAPD markers most tightly linked to crown form were cloned and converted to SCARs. Each of the cloned RAPD markers yielded two to three different sequences behaving as co-migrating fragments. Two SCAR markers, SC-D05(432) and SC-D09(667), produced amplified bands of the expected sizes and maintained linkage with the appropriate phenotype, but to a lesser extent compared to their original RAPD counterparts. These linkage maps represent a first step towards the localization of QTLs and genes controlling crown form and other polygenic traits in cypress.

  6. Study on the Family Littorinidae on the Rocky Intertidal Zone of Chongwu,Huian,Fujian%福建崇武潮间带滨螺科的生态研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢进金

    2000-01-01

    研究福建崇武岩相潮间带三种滨螺的生态:粒结节滨螺(Nodilittorina exigua)、塔结节滨螺(N.pyramidalis)、粗糙滨螺(Littorina scabra).粒结节滨螺为优势种,三种滨螺的分布均达于中潮区的下限,具有明显的垂直分布.随季节变化,栖息密度也出现变化.

  7. CERN is awarded environmental label

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Ophrys apifera, or bee orchid: the most widespread variety at our site. Anacamptis pyramidalis or pyramidal orchid: another common variety, with close to 2500 plants counted in 2005. This year, a Himantoglossum robertianum or giant orchid was spotted for the first time, an extremely rare specimen to find in our region. The monkey orchid, Orchis simia, gets its name from the bizarre shape of its labellum (this is actually the third petal, hanging down from the flower), which may remind you of a monkey. Himantoglossum hircinum, the lizard orchid, occurs periodically on the site. It has a rather strong odour, which is why in French it is called orchis bouc (goat orchid).

  8. Efficacy of Some Botanical Extracts against Trogoderma granarium in Wheat Grains with Toxicity Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to find alternative control methods for stored products insects, extracts of seven plant species (Cassia senna, Caesalpinia gilliesii, Thespesia populnea var. acutiloba, Chrysanthemum frutescens, Euonymus japonicus, Bauhinia purpurea, and Cassia fistula) were evaluated under laboratory conditions for their ability to protect wheat (Triticum spp.) grains against Trogoderma granarium insect. Moreover, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was carried to identify t...

  9. Oil-bearing plants of Zaire. III. Botanical families providing oils of relatively high unsaturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngiefu, C.K.; Paquot, C.; Vieux, A.

    1977-01-01

    Data are tabulated on the seed oil composition of 16 species of Leguminosae (including Albizia lebbeck, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, and Delonix regia), 6 species of Euphorbiaceae (including Aleurites moluccana, Hevea brasiliensis and Jatropha curcas) and 1 species (Kigelia africana) of Bignoniaceae. The most interesting for food and industrial purposes appear to be Afzelia bella, Adenanthera pavonina and Pentaclethra macrophylla, in addition to A. moluccana and H. brasiliensis.

  10. Suitability of novel galactomannans as edible coatings for tropical fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Cerqueira, M. A.; Lima, A. M. P.; Teixeira, J. A.; Moreira, R. A.; Vicente, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to determine the optimal composition of edible coatings in view of their application to extend the shelf life of several tropical fruits. Coatings constituted by galactomannans from different sources (Caesalpinia pulcherrima and Adenanthera pavonina) and glycerol were characterized as coatings for five tropical fruits: acerola (Malpighia emarginata), cajá (Spondias lutea), mango (Mangifera indica), pitanga (Eugenia uniflora) and seriguela (Spondias purpurea...

  11. Tratamentos pré-germinativos em sementes de duas espécies do gênero Poincianella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elane Grazielle Borba de Sousa Ferreira

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se nesse trabalho avaliar o efeito de diferentes tratamentos pré- germinativos em sementes de Poincianella bracteosa e Poincianella pyramidalis. Foram testados os seguintes tratamentos: embebição em água por 24 horas; embebição em água a 80 ºC até atingir a temperatura ambiente; escarificação com lixa; escarificação com lixa seguida da embebição em água por 24 horas; escarificação química com ácido sulfúrico concentrado por 30 segundos, 1; 5 e 10 minutos e a testemunha. A avaliação do efeito dos tratamentos foi feita pelas variáveis: germinação, primeira contagem e índice de velocidade de germinação, comprimento da raiz principal e da parte aérea e a determinação da massa seca da raiz e da parte aérea das plântulas. Concluiu-se que as sementes de P. bracteosa e P. pyramidalis não apresentam dormência tegumentar.

  12. Immatures of Acanthocinini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia A. Casari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Immatures of Acanthocinini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae. Larva and pupa of Eutrypanus dorsalis (Germar, 1928, collected in trunks of Pinus elliottii Engelm., and Paratenthras martinsi Monné, 1998, collected in spathes of Scheelea phalerata (Mart. ex Spreng. Burret, are described and illustrated. Larva and pupa of Lophopoeum timbouvae Lameere, 1884, collected in Hymenaea corbaril L., Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong and Pterogyne nitens Tul., are redescribed and illustrated. A table with all described immatures of Lamiinae, and a comparison among the immatures of Acanthocinini are presented. Biological notes and new records are also included.

  13. Aplicación de estrategias de seguridad y salud ocupacional basado en el modelo OHSAS 18001 en la Fábrica de Muebles Colineal

    OpenAIRE

    Macancela Encalada, Diana Magali

    2007-01-01

    El presente trabajo se basa en el estudio y posterior aplicación de las Normas OHSAS 18001 en la fábrica de muebles COLINEAL. El primer capítulo contiene una breve descripción de la Norma de Seguridad y Salud Ocupacional OHSAS 18001. Posteriormente se da a conocer la información General de la Empresa, la descripción del Proceso Productivo, la política de Seguridad y Salud Ocupacional, pero sobre todo la evaluación y control de riesgos que es la base para la realización del presente El capítul...

  14. Ultra-wideband phased array antennas for low frequency radio astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Lera Acedo, Eloy de

    2011-01-01

    Esta tesis se centra en el desarrollo de antenas diferenciales de banda ultra ancha para arrays de apertura, como los que han sido propuestos por el consorcio internacional para cubrir las bandas bajas de frecuencia del telescopio (SKA-AAlo (0.07-0.45 GHz) y SKA-AAhi (0.3-1 GHz)). La tesis comienza con una introducción al campo de la radioastronomía y una presentación del estado del arte de la teoría y las tecnologías de arrays de antenas de banda ultra ancha para radioastronomía. Los capítul...

  15. Modelización 3D y visualización mediante Realidad Aumentada del Monasterio de Santa María de la Valldigna (Valencia)

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Aransay, Diana

    2017-01-01

    [ES] En la realización del presente proyecto, se pretende explicar la obtención del modelo tridimensional del Monasterio de Santa María de la Valldigna mediante el vuelo fotogramétrico de un dron, y su visualización en Realidad Aumentada a través de un dispositivo móvil. El trabajo se ha estructurado en varios capítulos, en dos de ellos se desarrolla un marco teórico para poder conocer las principales características que ofrecen los drones y la Realidad Aumentada, y en el resto de capítul...

  16. Clinical Investigation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-30

    C) .... 251 81/701 A Non-invasive Measurement of Carbon Dioxide during Lapro- scopic Tubal Ligation .(C) .................................. 253 81/702...8217’s syndrome . Patient popu’atior ro h) ! tu,,l ;i. o,’ healthv, post -menopausal women on no medication. A pot-me., rmar wi 1 " be defined as any woman...Title: A Non-Tnvasive ieasurement of Carbon Dioxide During Laproscopic Tubal Ligation (5) Start Date: (6) Est Compl Date: nnmD Itj (7) Principal

  17. Morfologia de semillas y plántulas de arboles de los bosques humedos tropicales del suroriente de antioquia, colombia (ii parte.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díez G. M. Claudia

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describen las características morfológicas de las semillas y las plántulas de nazareno (Peltogyne paniculata, peinemono (Apeiba membranacea Spruce ex Benth, sapán (Clathotropis brachypetala (Tul. Kleinh., sota amarilla (Virola sebífera y sota negra (Virola flexuosa A.C. Sm.. También se incluyen algunas observaciones y revisión de literatura sobre otros aspectos de la biología reproductiva de estas especies, el hábitat, la descripción taxonómica y los usos.

  18. Turvallisuusjohtamisjärjestelmä Maanpuolustuskorkeakoulussa

    OpenAIRE

    Stenberg, Ilkka

    2014-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli laatia selkeä kuvaus Maanpuolustuskorkeakoulun turvallisuusjohtamisjärjestelmästä. Työn aiheen valintaan vaikutti se, että Maanpuolustuskorkeakoulu on viimeisen kolmen vuoden aikana uudelleenorganisoinut turvallisuuden johtamisen ja hallinnan. Turvallisuuden johtamiseen liittyvä tieto on korkeakoululla pääosin dokumentoitu, mutta tieto on hajautunut useisiin eri asiakirjoihin, minkä vuoksi kokonaisuuden hahmottaminen on haasteellista. Opinnäytetyö tukee tul...

  19. Studies on the virulence and attenuation of Trypanosoma cruzi using immunodeficient animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basombrío Miguel Ángel

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue invasion and pathology by Trypanosoma cruzi result from an interaction between parasite virulence and host immunity. Successive in vivo generations of the parasite select populations with increasing ability to invade the host. Conversely, prolonged in vitro selection of the parasite produces attenuated sublines with low infectivity for mammals. One such subline (TCC clone has been extensively used in our laboratory as experimental vaccine and tested in comparative experiments with its virulent ancestor (TUL. The experiments here reviewed aimed at the use of immunodeficient mice for testing the infectivity of TCC parasites. It has not been possible to obtain virulent, revertant sublines by prolonged passaged in such mice.

  20. Recovery of Francisella tularensis from soil samples by filtration and detection by real-time PCR and cELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellek, Ricela; Jimenez, Oscar; Aizpurua, Carmen; Fernandez-Frutos, Begoña; De Leon, Patricia; Camacho, Maite; Fernandez-Moreira, Daniel; Ybarra, Carmen; Carlos Cabria, Juan

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a specific and highly sensitive method able to detect very low concentrations of Francisella tularensis in soil samples by real-time PCR (qPCR) with SYBR Green I. tul4 gene, which encodes the 17-kDa protein (TUL4) in F. tularensis strains, was amplified using a LightCycler (LC) device. We achieved a detection limit of 0.69 fg of genomic DNA from F. tularensis subp. holarctica live vaccine strain (LVS), corresponding to a value less than 3.4 genome equivalents per reaction. The qPCR was shown to be specific, highly sensitive and reproducible. In addition, we evaluated 2 new methods for recovering bacteria from soil based on 1-step filtration using glass fiber filters and PVDF filters. These filtration methods enabled us to recover F. tularensis efficiently from soil samples. As few as 50 CFU per 0.5 g of soil were detected by qPCR. Capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) allowed us to detect and quantify the amount of bacteria recovered from soil by an immunological method. Although qPCR was more sensitive than cELISA, we did not observe substantial differences in the amount of bacteria quantified by both methods.

  1. Rare wild Orchids at CERN Meyrin

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    There are several "Floral Nature Reserve - Late Mowing" zones at CERN Meyrin. The blossoms of a rare and a not so rare type of wild orchid are currently in flower. The rare one is the bee orchid (Ophrys Apifera) which is a protected perennial. They are very unusual and in some years can appear in great numbers and then sometimes only reappear after a decade. They live in a symbiotic relationship with a soil-dwelling fungus. Its name stems from the fact that its brown, furry lip resembles and smells like a female bee, a mimicry used to attract drones to aid in pollination. The much more distributed species is the pyramidal orchid (Anacamptis Pyramidalis), which due to its size and its bright pink colour is already visible when you pass by in your car.

  2. Rare wild Orchids at CERN Meyrin

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    There are several "Floral Nature Reserve - Late Mowing" zones at CERN Meyrin. The blossoms of a rare and a not so rare type of wild orchid are currently in flower. The rare one is the bee orchid (Ophrys Apifera) which is a protected perennial. They are very unusual and in some years can appear in great numbers and then sometimes only reappear after a decade. They live in a symbiotic relationship with a soil-dwelling fungus. Its name stems from the fact that its brown, furry lip resembles and smells like a female bee, a mimicry used to attract drones to aid in pollination. The much more distributed species is the pyramidal orchid (Anacamptis Pyramidalis), which due to its size and its bright pink colour is already visible when you pass by in your car. Photos were taken on the late mowing zone adjacent to route Einstein opposite building 57 on 4 June 2005.

  3. 广西防城港玉石滩滨螺的分布和数量初步调查%A preliminary investigation on distribution and quantity of Littorinidae at Yushitan, Fangchenggang, Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庆宁; 林岳光; 张宝; 黄莉梨; 麦桂欢

    2007-01-01

    报道了广西防城港港口区旅游海区玉石滩硬相潮间带的4种滨螺,包括粗糙滨螺Littorina scabra、波纹滨螺Littorina undulate、塔结节滨螺Nodilittorina pyramidalis pyramidalis和粒结节滨螺Nodilittorina millegrana,并对其中3种的数量、分布、周年变化、个体大小等方面进行研究.其中塔结节滨螺为潮上带的优势种,而粗糙滨螺为高潮带的优势种;分布于高潮带的滨螺个体明显较潮上带的大.

  4. LEVANTAMENTO FLORÍSTICO DO ESTRATO ARBUSTIVO-ARBÓREO EM ÁREAS CONTÍGUAS DE CAATINGA NO CARIRI PARAIBANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KALLIANNA DANTAS ARAUJO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to make a floristic survey of the shrubby-arboreous stratum in three contiguous areas of Caatinga in the Cariri of Paraiba. The survey was accomplished in the "Estação Experimental Bacia Escola/UFPB", municipality of São João do Cariri, PB Brazilian Northeast. The experiment consisted of three areas of 3.2 ha, where three parallel transects had been established, in a distance of 20 m from each other, and there were marked ten parcels with equidistant systematic distribution (10 m x 10 m, having been sampled 30 parcels from each area. The floristic survey was carried through by the method of parcels. There was fulfilled a grouping analysis using the index of similarity of Jaccard. The number of parcels showed was enough to reflect the plantdiversity of the studied places; the families with highest number of species in the arboreous-shrubby stratum were Cactaceae and Euphorbiaceae; the species that had been common in the three areas, , were: Aspidosperma pyrifolium, Croton blanchetianus, Poincianella pyramidalis, Jatropha mollisssima, Malva sp., Pilosocereus gounellei, Spondias tuberosa and Opuntia palmadora. The arboreous habitat presented seven species, being higher to the shrubby component that was presented with five species. The more conspicuous arboreous elements had been: Poincianella pyramidalis (Caesalpiniaceae and Aspidosperma pyrifolium (Apocynaceae. The most important shrubs were: Croton blanchetianus and Jatropha mollisssima (Euphorbiaceae. The analysis made by the index of floristic similarity indicated that the similarity was considered high by the three area, because they presented a Jaccard index higher than 0.25.

  5. 榆林市榆阳区杨树地径、胸径、树高、材积相关性研究%Relativity of Ground Diameter,DBH,Tree Height & Volume of Poplar in Yuyang District of Yulin City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申世永; 张彩霞; 吕妮; 艾宇

    2012-01-01

    通过对60株榆林市榆阳区内生长的合作杨(Populus simonii×P.pyramidalis cv.‘Opera8177)’生长情况的调查,结果表明:随着树木生长加粗,胸径、地径基本同步增粗,胸径/地径比值变化很小,数值是0.84倍左右,其范围在0.82~0.86;树高的生长量随树木的生长加粗呈现放缓的规律,随着树木生长加粗,树高/地径比值逐渐变小,地径8 cm时,树高/地径比值是58.92倍,地径48 cm时,树高/地径比值是33.38倍。%Growth of 60 trees of Populus simonii×P.pyramidalis cv.'Opera8177' was investigated in Yuyang district of Yulin city.Result shows that DBH,ground diameter synchronous thicken with the growth of the trees;the ratio between DBH ground diameter changes very little;the value whose range is between 0.82-0.86 is 0.84 times.Growth of tree height appears slow law with the growth of trees;the ratio between tree height ground diameter gradually become smaller with the growth of the trees;the ratio between tree height ground diameter are 58.92 33.38 times while the ground diameter are 8 48 cm,respectively.

  6. Mosquito larvicidal, ovicidal, and repellent properties of botanical extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, M; Mathivanan, T; Elumalai, K; Krishnappa, K; Anandan, A

    2011-08-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases have an economic impact, including loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates; however, no part of the world is free from vector-borne diseases. In mosquito control programs, botanical origin may have the potential to be used successfully as eggs, larvae, and adult. The larvicidal, ovicidal, and repellent activities of crude benzene and ethyl acetate extracts of leaf of Ervatamia coronaria and Caesalpinia pulcherrima were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in benzene extract of E. coronaria against the larvae of Anopheles Stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus with the LC(50) and LC(90) values were 79.08, 89.59, and 96.15 ppm and 150.47, 166.04, and 174.10 ppm, respectively. Mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed 48 h posttreatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. The leaf extract of E. coronaria was found to be most effective than Caesalpinia pulcherrima against eggs/egg rafts of three vector mosquitoes. For E. coronaria, the benzene extract exerted 300, 250, and 200 ppm against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus, respectively. The results of the repellent activity of benzene and ethyl acetate extract of E. coronaria and Caesalpinia pulcherrima plants at three different concentrations of 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/cm(2) were applied on skin of fore arm in man and exposed against adult female mosquitoes. In this observation, these two plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction to the test person, and also, the

  7. Purpose of Introduction as a Predictor of Invasiveness among Introduced Shrubs in Rwanda

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    Jean Leonard Seburanga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduced shrub flora in Rwanda was analyzed and the risk of invasion was assessed based on the species’ purposes of introduction. The results showed that more than half of invasive alien shrubs in Rwanda were introduced as ornamentals. They include Agave americana L., Bryophyllum proliferum Bowie ex Hook., Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth Alston, Lantana camara L., and Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsley A. Gray. However, these represented only 3.16% of the total number of introduced ornamental shrubs. At the time when the study was conducted, no introduced food crop had become invasive. Species introduced for purposes other than food or culinary use showed higher likelihood of becoming invasive.

  8. Preferência de saúva limão, Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908 (Hymenoptera, formicidae a diferentes espécies florestais, em condições de laboratório.

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    Otávio Peres Filho

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a preferência de saúva limão, Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908, para 41 espécies florestais nativas e exóticas, em condições de laboratório. As espécies mais transportadas foram gmelina (Gmelina arborea, leucena (Leucaena leucocephala, pau-ferro (Caesalpinia ferrea, albizia (Albizia lebbeck e orelha-de-negro (Enterolobium contortisiliquum e as menos transportadas foram eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis, jequitibá (Cariniana strellensis e mutamba (Guazuma tomentosa.

  9. Characterization of reaction products of iron and iron salts and aqueous plant extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaen, J.A. [Universidad de Panama, Centro de Investigaciones con Tecnicas Nucleares/Depto. de Quimica (Panama); Garcia de Saldana, E.; Hernandez, C. [Universidad de Panama, Maestria en Ciencias Quimicas (Panama)

    1999-11-15

    The complexes formed in aqueous solution as a result of a reaction of iron and iron salts (Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}) and some plant extracts were analyzed using Moessbauer spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared. The extracts were obtained from Opuntia elatior mill., Acanthocereus pentagonus (L.) Britton, Mimosa tenuiflora, Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd., Bumbacopsis quinata (Jacq.) Dugand and Acacia mangium Willd., plants growing wildly in different zones of the Isthmus of Panama. Results suggest the formation of mono- and bis-type complexes, and in some cases, the occurrence of a redox reaction. The feasibility of application of the studied extracts as atmospheric corrosion inhibitors is discussed.

  10. Characterization of reaction products of iron and iron salts and aqueous plant extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaén, J. A.; García de Saldaña, E.; Hernández, C.

    1999-11-01

    The complexes formed in aqueous solution as a result of a reaction of iron and iron salts (Fe2+ and Fe3+) and some plant extracts were analyzed using Mössbauer spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared. The extracts were obtained from Opuntia elatior mill., Acanthocereus pentagonus (L.) Britton, Mimosa tenuiflora, Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd., Bumbacopsis quinata (Jacq.) Dugand and Acacia mangium Willd., plants growing wildly in different zones of the Isthmus of Panama. Results suggest the formation of mono- and bis-type complexes, and in some cases, the occurrence of a redox reaction. The feasibility of application of the studied extracts as atmospheric corrosion inhibitors is discussed.

  11. Galactomannan: a versatile biodegradable seed polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Vipul D; Jani, Girish K; Moradiya, Naresh G; Randeria, Narayan P; Nagar, Bhanu J; Naikwadi, Nikhil N; Variya, Bhavesh C

    2013-09-01

    Polysaccharides have been finding, in the last decades, very interesting and useful applications in the biomedical and, specifically, in the biopharmaceutical field. Galactomannans are a group of storage polysaccharides from various plant seeds that reserve energy for germination in the endosperm. There are four major sources of seed galactomannans: locust bean (Ceratonia siliqua), guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba), tara (Caesalpinia spinosa Kuntze), and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). Through keen references of reported literature on galactomannans, in this review, we have described occurrence of various galactomannans, its physicochemical properties, characterization, applications, and overview of some major galactomannans.

  12. Comparative study on Anthelmintic property of Medicinal Plants

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    Asha Devi. S

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For the present study Acacia catechu, Euphorbia heterophylla, Corallocarpus epigaeus and Caesalpinia bonducella plant parts were chosen to evaluate the comparative analysis on anthelmintic activity. Different concentrations (20, 40, 60, 80, 100mg/ml of methanolic extracts of these plant parts were used. The evaluation parameters involved the determination of time of paralysis and time of death of the worms. Piperazine citrate was used as standard drug at 10 mg/ml concentration and saline as control. The results obtained showed that Corallocarpus epigaeus showed the highest anthelmintic activity with death time of 9 minutes at 100 mg/ml concentration.

  13. Crecimiento, arquitectura y anatomía de especies forestales en una selva baja caducifolia del sur de Yucatán

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Caesalpinia gaumeri Greenm y Gymnopodium floribundum Rolfe, son especies forestales importantes para los Mayas de Yucatán, que se utilizan en las construcciones rurales y para la producción apícola respectivamente. El propósito de este trabajo es conocer el crecimiento en diámetro, arquitectura, morfometría y anatomía de C. gaumeri y la arquitectura y morfometría de G. floribundum. En C. gaumeri la tasa anual de crecimiento aumentó de las categorías menores a las mayor...

  14. Can environmental variation affect seedling survival of plants in northeastern Mexico?

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    García Jaime F.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of global warming increase the frequency and intensity of many climate events such as rainfall. We evaluated the effects of environmental conditions on early stage seedling survival of the native thorn scrub species Caesalpinia mexicana A. Gray, Celtis pallida Torr., Cordia boissieri A. DC., and Ebenopsis ebano (Berland. Barneby and J.W. Grimes, during the summer of 2009 and 2010. The experimental design had two factors, two levels of rainfall and three microhabitats of thorn scrub: (i open interspace, (ii thorn scrub edge and (iii under the canopy of dense thorn scrub. In dense thorn scrub, seedling survival was higher for Caesalpinia mexicana and Celtis pallida, and for Cordia boissieri and Ebenopsis ebano seedling survival was higher in dense thorn scrub and thorn scrub edge. The effect of rainfall on seedling survival depended on the year. Rainfall in 2010 and dense thorn scrub increased seedling survival of native species. For survival, the limiting factors of microhabitats appear to change across the years. Besides rainfall events, biological aspects like competition and mycorrhiza effects would need to be considered in models of plant establishment.

  15. EFFECTS OF EXTRACTIVES AND DENSITY ON NATURAL RESISTANCE OF WOODS TO TERMITE Nasutitermes corniger

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    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the natural resistance of wood to wood-destroying organisms is of fundamental importance in the choice of species to be used in buildings and furniture industry. Thus, the effects of extractives and wood density on biological resistance of Acacia mangium, Casuarina equisetifolia, Corymbia torelliana, Eucalyptus cloeziana, Tectona grandis and Caesalpinia echinata woods to the xylophagous termite Nasutitermes corniger was evaluated under laboratory conditions. Test samples, with dimensions of 2.00 x 2.54 x 0.64 cm (radial x tangential x longitudinal in four positions in pith-bark direction (internal heart, intermediate heart, outer heart and sapwood were taken. The woods were exposed to termite action for 28 days in no-choice feeding test. The samples not selected for the termite test were turned into sawdust and the extractive contents were obtained using the shavings that passed through the sieve of 40 and were retained in the sieve of 60 mesh. The wood natural resistance, within the pith-bark positions, for the studied species, is not correlated with the density and extractive content. However, among the woods, those with higher density and extractive content are more resistant. The woods with greater biological resistance to the termite Nasutitermes corniger (smaller mass loss, waste and survival time of insects are Corymbia torelliana and Caesalpinia echinata and of less resistance is Casuarina equisetifolia.

  16. The introduced tree Prosopis juliflora is a serious threat to native species of the Brazilian Caatinga vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Nascimento, Clóvis Eduardo; Tabarelli, Marcelo; da Silva, Carlos Alberto Domingues; Leal, Inara Roberta; de Souza Tavares, Wagner; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2014-05-15

    Despite its economic importance in the rural context, the Prosopis juliflora tree species has already invaded millions of hectares globally (particularly rangelands), threatening native biodiversity and rural sustainability. Here we examine seedling growth (leaf area, stem diameter, plant height) and seedling mortality across five native plant species of the Caatinga vegetation in response to competition with P. juliflora. Two sowing treatments with 10 replications were adopted within a factorial 2 × 5 randomized block design. Treatments consisted of P. juliflora seeds sowed with seeds of Caesalpinia ferrea, Caesalpinia microphylla, Erythrina velutina, Mimosa bimucronata and Mimosa tenuiflora (one single native species per treatment), while seeds of native species sowed without P. juliflora were adopted as controls. Overall, our results suggest that P. juliflora can reduce seedling growth by half and cause increased seedling mortality among woody plant species. Moreover, native species exhibit different levels of susceptibility to competition with P. juliflora, particularly in terms of plant growth. Such a superior competitive ability apparently permits P. juliflora to establish monospecific stands of adult trees, locally displacing native species or limiting their recruitment. The use of less sensitive species, such as C. ferrea and M. tenuiflora, to restore native vegetation before intensive colonization by P. juliflora should be investigated as an effective approach for avoiding its continuous spread across the Caatinga region.

  17. Phylogenetic and Systematic Value of Leaf Epidermal Characteristics in Some Members of Nigerian Fabaceae

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    Gbenga Olorunshola Alege

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken at the Botanical Garden of Biological Sciences Department, Kogi State University, Anyigba with the aim of assessing the systematic and phylogenetic relevance of leaf epidermal attributes in the 10 selected species of Fabaceae. Stomata, trichomes and epidermal cell attributes were taken from adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces. Results obtained in this study revealed that all the 10 plant species considered possess hypo-amphistomatic leaf condition, paracytic stomata type, polygon and irregular shape epidermal cells(on the abaxial surface which points to their common ancestry. All the analyzed leaf epidermal traits considered on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces showed significant variations among the 10 studied plant species which indicates that genetic diversity exists among members of Fabaceae for their delimitation. It was also observed that all the plants with tree habit considered in this study (i.e Delonix regia, Parkia biglobosa, Senna siamea, Daniella oliveri and Caesalpinia pulcherrima lack stomata on the adaxial surfaces which strongly suggest that absence of stomata on the adaxial surface may be peculiar to Legumes with such habit. Cluster analysis revealed 2 major clusters and 2 sub-clusters with the first cluster comprising only Senna siamea and Caesalpinia pulcherrima which confirms their close phylogenetic relationship. Variations in trichomes, stomata and epidermal attributes were obvious and could be used to resolve systematic and phylogenetic problems in this family.

  18. GROWTH AND NUTRITIONAL ANALYSIS OF TREE SPECIES IN CONTAMINATED SUBSTRATE BY LEACHABLE HERBICIDES

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    Rebecca de Araújo Fiore

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ecosystems contamination by residues of pesticides requires special attention to the herbicides subject to leaching. The objective was to select tree species to rhizodegradation contaminated by residues of 2,4-D and atrazine and to recompose riparian areas to agricultural fields, then reducing the risk of contamination of water courses. A total of 36 treatments consisted of the combinations of forest species were evaluated [Inga marginata (Inga, Schizolobium parahyba (guapuruvu, Handroanthus serratifolius (ipê amarelo, Jacaranda puberula (carobinha, Cedrela fissilis (cedro, Calophyllum brasiliensis (landin, Psidium mirsinoides (goiabinha, Tibouchina glandulosa (quaresmeira, Caesalpinia férrea (pau-ferro, Caesalpinia pluviosa (sibipiruna, Terminalia argêntea (capitão and Schinopsis brasiliensis (braúna] and three solutions simulating leachate compound (atrazine, 2,4-D and water - control, with four replicates each. The characteristics measured were plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area and dry biomass, and foliar nutrition. Forest species survived the herbicide application, and most showed an increase in macronutrients even under an herbicide application, and the Inga had the highest tolerance regarding growth analysis. It is recommended to use species that are more tolerant to Atrazine and 2,4-D in field experiments to confirm previous results of this simulation.

  19. A search for natural bioactive compounds in Bolivia through a multidisciplinary approach. Part IV. Is a new haem polymerisation inhibition test pertinent for the detection of antimalarial natural products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baelmans, R; Deharo, E; Bourdy, G; Muñoz, V; Quenevo, C; Sauvain, M; Ginsburg, H

    2000-11-01

    The search for new antimalarial agents in plant crude extracts using traditional screening tests is time-consuming and expensive. New in vitro alternative techniques, based on specific metabolic or enzymatic process, have recently been developed to circumvent testing of antimalarial activity in parasite culture. The haem polymerisation inhibition test (HPIA) was proposed as a possible routine in vitro assay for the detection of antimalarial activity in natural products. A total of 178 plant extracts from the Pharmacopeia of the Bolivian ethnia Tacana, were screened for their ability to inhibit the polymerisation of haematin. Five extracts from Aloysia virgata (Ruíz & Pavón) A.L. Jussieu (Verbenaceae), Bixa orellana L. (Bixaceae), Caesalpinia pluviosa D.C. (Caesalpiniaceae), Mascagnia stannea (Griseb) Nied. (Malpighiaceae) and Trichilia pleenea (Adr. Jussieu) (Meliaceae) demonstrated more than 70% inhibition of haematin polymerisation at 2.5 mg/ml. The extracts were also tested for antimalarial activity in culture against F32 strain (chloroquine-sensitive) and D2 strain (chloroquine-resistant) of Plasmodium falciparum and in vivo against P. berghei. The extract from Caesalpinia pluviosa was the only one that showed activity in HPIA and in the classical test in culture. The accuracy and pertinence of HPIA, applied to natural products is discussed.

  20. Produção e distribuição de biomassa de espécies arbóreas no semi-árido brasileiro Production and distribution of biomass of tree species in the Brazilian semi-arid area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antônio Drumond

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a produção e distribuição de biomassa de algumas espécies arbóreas de múltiplo uso em condições de sequeiro do submédio do São Francisco, instalou-se um experimento no Campo Experimental da Caatinga da Embrapa Semi-Árido, Município de Petrolina, PE. Foram realizadas medições de altura e diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP de 16 árvores centrais, em três parcelas de cada espécie: Leucaena diversifolia, Caesalpinia velutina, Caesalpinia coriaria, Mimosa tenuiflora e Ateleia herbert-smithii. A biomassa foi estimada com base na árvore de altura média de cada parcela, avaliando-se, separadamente, cada componente (folhas, galhos, cascas e lenho. A biomassa nos diferentes componentes arbóreos das espécies foi distribuída na seguinte ordem: folhaThe objective of the study was to quantify the production and biomass distribution of some potential arboreal species of multiple uses, under dry land conditions, in the Brazilian Semi-arid. The study was developed in the Experimental Station of Caatinga, of Embrapa Semi-Árido, Petrolina-PE, Brazil. Plant height and diameter at breast height (DBH of 16 central trees of each plot, from three replicates, were measured. The following species were studied: Leucaena diversifolia, Caesalpinia velutina, Caesalpinia coriaria, Mimosa tenuiflora and Ateleia herbert-smithii. Biomass was estimated based on the medium height tree in each plot, evaluating each component separately: leaf, bark, branch, root and log, except for A. herbert-smithii that produced more leaf than bark. Total biomass production was superior for C. velutina (51.6 kg ha-1, followed by L. diversifolia (36.6 kg ha-1, A. herbert-smithii (26.4 kg ha-1, Caesalpinia coriaria (23.0 kg ha-1 and Mimosa tenuiflora (21.6 kg ha-1 However, leaf dry matter, the main potential component of forage species, was higher for C. velutina y A. herbert-smithii (2.8 kg ha-1 and C. coriaria (2.2 kg ha-1, L. diversifolia (2.0 kg

  1. CRM-järjestelmän hyödyt ja haitat: Case ICT-alan yritys

    OpenAIRE

    Äikäs, Kasperi

    2014-01-01

    Tämän tutkimuksellisen opinnäytetyön aiheena on tutkia CRM-järjestelmän hyötyjä ja haittoja ICT- alan pienyrityksessä. Työn tarkoituksena on perehtyä suomalaisen ICT-alan yrityksen käyttämään CRM- eli asiakkuudenhallintajärjestelmään, ja erityisesti tutkia CRM-järjestelmän hyötyjä ja haittoja yrityksen liiketoiminnan toteuttamisen työkaluna. Lisäksi opinnäytetyössä tehdään katselmus kohdeyrityksen CRM-järjestelmään. CRM on liiketoiminnan asiakkuudenhal-linnan tietojärjestelmä. CRM nimitys tul...

  2. Fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em rizosferas de três espécies de fitobiontes instaladas em área de mata ciliar revegetada Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in rhizospheres of three phytobionts established in a revegetated riparian area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilaine Carrenho

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o comportamento das espécies de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA estabelecidas em áreas revegetadas de mata ciliar, foram coletadas amostras de solo rizosférico de Croton urucurana Baill., Inga striata Willd. e Genipa americana L. Estas plantas são indígenas em matas ciliares, sendo a primeira considerada pioneira, a segunda, secundária inicial e a terceira, espécie clímax. Vinte e duas espécies de FMA foram identificadas. O maior número de espécies foi observado em rizosferas de C. urucurana e I. striata (15 espécies, enquanto o maior número de esporos foi observado em rizosferas de G. americana (511 esporos/100g solo. Glomus apresentou o maior número de espécies (10, seguindo-se de Acaulospora (6, Scutellospora (4, Gigaspora e Entrophospora (cada com uma espécie. Quanto à freqüência das espécies, G. macrocarpum Tul. & Tul. ocorreu em maior número de amostras em Croton; G. claroideum Schenck & Smith, G. etunicatum Becker & Gerd., G. macrocarpum e G. occultum Walker predominaram em Genipa, e E. kentinensis Wu & Liu, G. etunicatum e G. macrocarpum, em Inga. Concluiu-se que o número de esporos de FMA tende a aumentar com o estádio sucessional, enquanto os índices diversidade, riqueza e equabilidade de espécies de Glomales tendem a diminuir nas comunidades estabelecidas nas rizosferas da espécie clímax.To evaluate the specific composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF established in recomposed areas of gallery forest, samples of rhizospheric soil were collected from Croton urucurana Baill., Inga striata Willd. and Genipa americana L. These plants are indigenous in gallery forests, being the first considered as pioneer, the second as early secondary and G. americana as climax, according to the successional stages. Twenty-two species of AMF were identified. The highest richness was observed in rhizospheres of C. urucurana and I. striata (15 species, while the highest number of spores

  3. HEMODYNAMIC STATUS IN AIRWAY MANAGEMENT DURING GENERAL ANESTHESIA: COMPARISON OF THREE METHODS

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    K MONTAZERI

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The laryngeal mask airway (LMA was recently introduced in general anesthesia as an alternative to the face mask or tracheal intubation for airway maintenance. Methods. The effects of LMA insertion, face mask or tracheal intubation on homodynamic status were studied in 195 normotensive patients who underwent elective transurethral lithotripsy (TUL. The patients were monitored with blood pressure measurement and pulse oximetry. Anesthesia was induced with sodium thiopental, succynilcholine and fentanyl and maintained with halothane, nitrous oxide and oxygen. Findings. The heart rate (HR and mean arterial pressure increased after LMA insertion. face mask or tracheal intubation, compared with baseline (P<0.05. The hemodynamic changes were significantly greater after tracheal intubation and face mask than after LMA insertion (P<0.05. Conclusion. We conclude that insertion of LMA is associated with less hemodynamic disturbances than face mask or tracheal intubation in normotensive patients undergoing elective operations.

  4. Respostas de Acacia mangium Willd e Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel a fungos micorrízicos arbusculares nativos provenientes de áreas degradadas pela mineração de bauxita na Amazônia Responses of Acacia mangium Willd and Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel to native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from remaining areas of bauxite mining in Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ney Freitas Marinho

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A resposta de Acacia mangium Willd (mangium e Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel (tachi à inoculação de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA, oriundos de áreas em recuperação após a extração de bauxita, foi avaliada em experimento com delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com 14 tratamentos (duas espécies leguminosas e sete tipos de solo e três repetições. Avaliou-se o número de esporos no solo, a colonização micorrízica, a matéria seca total, o P acumulado, a dependência micorrízica das mudas, e a abundância e a freqüência de espécies. O número de propágulos infectivos (NPI foi estudado em delineamento em blocos casualizados, com oito diluições de solo inóculo, cinco repetições e uma planta isca (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. Utilizou-se substrato da mistura de um Planossolo mais areia lavada e fosfato de rocha araxá (0,60 g/kg. O número de esporos aumentou em função do tempo de cobertura das leguminosas. A colonização micorrízica foi mais intensa no tachi. Os valores de matéria seca dessa espécie foram inferiores aos de mangium, que por sua vez extraiu em torno de seis vezes mais P do substrato. Em geral, mangium, ao contrário do tachi, foi facultativa à presença dos FMA, sugerindo sua utilização na recuperação de áreas degradadas sem inoculação prévia. Dentre as 39 espécies de FMA identificadas, Glomus macrocarpum Tul. & Tul. apresentou maior índice de abundância e freqüência (IAF e maior NPI, destacando-se entre as espécies pioneiras, ao passo que outras apareceram apenas em estádios sucessionais mais avançados das áreas em recuperação.The responses of Acacia mangium Willd (mangium and Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel (tachi to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF inoculation collected from areas under reclamation after bauxite mining, was evaluated in an completely randomized design distributed in 14 treatments (two legume, species and seven soil types, with three replicates. Evaluated

  5. Retórica y poética en la gramática del siglo XV

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    La enseñanza de la gramática en el siglo XV centra su atención en la búsqueda de los medios que permitan el acceso a una lengua que ya no se habla, la lengua latina, de la forma más directa, práctica, breve y eficaz. Fruto de esta preocupación son los compendios gramaticales que muchos maestros de gramática, con una clara intención pedagógica, preparan aunando temas no sólo gramaticales sino que también extraídos de la teoría retórica. Siguiendo, pues, los diferentes capítul...

  6. First report of Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green, 1908) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) and the associated parasitoid Anagyrus kamali Moursi, 1948 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Penteado-Dias, A M; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

    2013-05-01

    The pink hibiscus mealybug (PHM), Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and the associated hymenopterous parasitoid, Anagyrus kamali Moursi, 1948 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of the PHM were collected on nine hosts plants, Annona muricata L. (Anonnaceae), Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabaceae), Centrolobium paraensis Tul. (Fabaceae), Inga edulis Mart. (Fabaceae), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvaceae), Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae), Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae) and Solanum lycopersicum L. (Solanaceae), in four municipalities in the north-northeast of the state of Roraima. The plants C. paraensis, I. edulis and C. sinensis are recorded for the first time as a hosts for PHM. Characteristic injuries observed on the host plants infested by PHM and suggestions for its management are presented.

  7. Numerical simulation methodologies for design and development of Diffuser-Augmented Wind Turbines – analysis and comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Lipian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Different numerical computation methods used to develop a methodology for fast, efficient, reliable design and comparison of Diffuser-Augmented Wind Turbine (DAWT geometries are presented. The demand for such methods is evident, following the multitude of geometrical parameters that influence the flow character through ducted turbines. The results of the Actuator Disk Model (ADM simulations will be confronted with a simulation method of higher order of accuracy, i.e. the 3D Fully-resolved Rotor Model (FRM in the rotor design point. Both will be checked for consistency with the experimental results measured in the wind tunnel at the Institute of Turbo-machinery (IMP, Lodz University of Technology (TUL. An attempt to find an efficient method (with a compromise between accuracy and design time for the flow analysis pertinent to the DAWT is a novel approach presented in this paper.

  8. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13235-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1 1e-32 AY305523_1( AY305523 |pid:none) Thereuonema sp. JCR-2003 elongatio... 141 1e-32 AY310246_1( AY310246...actor 2; Short=EF-2;... 137 3e-31 AY305491_1( AY305491 |pid:none) Argulus sp. JCR-2003 elongation fa... 137 ...ongation f... 135 1e-30 AY305519_1( AY305519 |pid:none) Paralamyctes sp. JCR-2003 elongati... 135 1e-30 AY31...29 BT059038_1( BT059038 |pid:none) Salmo salar clone ssal-rgf-521-328... 131 1e-29 AY305533_1( AY305533 |pid:none) Thulinia sp. JCR... |pid:none) Colossendeis sp. JCR-2003 elongati... 127 3e-28 AF240829_1( AF240829 |pid:none) Speleonectes tul

  9. Lives of the bigamists. Marriage, family and community in colonial México [Reseña

    OpenAIRE

    Boyer, Richard; Ortega Noriega, Sergio

    1997-01-01

    Para quienes conocemos los trabajos de Richard Boyer no resulta extraño que este, su libro más reciente, lleve por título, Lives 01 the Bigamists, porque el estudio del delito de bigamia en la Nueva España es uno de sus interéses académicos. Sin embargo, no fue sino hasta cuando llevaba avanzada la lectura, cuando caí en cuenta de que había entendido mal es sentido del título, y que debía dar más importancia a la palabra Lives que a Bigamists. O en otras palabras, que si el orden del títul...

  10. The Costa Rican Jurassic to Miocene oceanic complexes: Origin, tectonics and relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denyer, Percy; Gazel, Esteban

    2009-12-01

    The occurrences of oceanic assemblages on the Pacific shore of Costa Rica are part of an intricate group of complexes with different tectonic origins. Although they are dismembered and disrupted, they are the only available inland source of information to decipher the evolution of this active margin. Six main regions are described in this paper: (1) Santa Elena Peninsula, constituted by a supra-subduction zone (Santa Elena Nappe), that is overthrusting an igneous-sedimentary Aptian-Cenomanian sequence (Santa Rosa Accretionary Complex), which includes OIB (Ocean Island Basalts) portions, (2) the Nicoya Complex, which is a Jurassic-Cretaceous chert sediment pile disrupted and detached from its original basement by multiple magmatic events that occurred during the formation of the CLIP (Caribbean Large Igneous Province), (3) the Tortugal area formed by the Tortugal Suite with OIB signature and surrounded by Nicoya Complex outcrops, (4) the Herradura Block composed of the Tulín Formation to Maastrichtian to Lower Eocene OIB accreted oceanic island and the Nicoya Complex as basement, (5) Quepos Block correlated with the Tulín Formation, (6) the Osa-Burica Block composed of the Golfito and Burica Terranes (geochemically and chronologically correlated to the Nicoya Complex), Rincón Block (Early Paleocene to Early Eocene accreted seamounts), and the Miocene Osa-Caño Accretionary Complex. The Santa Rosa Accretionary Complex together with the Tortugal Suite have OIB signatures and possibly without Galapagos hotspot geochemical affinity. These coincidences would be explained by the hypothetical existence of an "autochthonous" Cretaceous basement formed by these two regions together with the rest of the Caribbean. Costa Rican basement is constituted by several CLIP portions and seamounts accreted from the end of Cretaceous in the northwest to the Miocene in the southeast, forming the diverse oceanic occurrences of the Pacific, which are mainly connected to the Galapagos

  11. The geochemical variations of the upper cenozoic volcanism along the Calama Olacapato El Toro transversal fault system in central Andes (˜24°S): petrogenetic and geodynamic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteini, M.; Mazzuoli, R.; Omarini, R.; Cas, R.; Maas, R.

    2002-02-01

    In this paper, we present new geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic data for several Upper Miocene volcanic centres aligned along one of the most extensive transcurrent lineament in the Central Andes, the Calama-Olacapato-El Toro (COT). The transversal volcanic belt along COT is constituted by large composite volcanoes and a caldera structure; they are, from NW to SE, Puntas Negras, Rincon, Tul Tul, Del Medio and Pocitos (TUMEPO), Quevar Aguas Calientes and Tastil. In order to compare chemical data from the different centres along the COT transect, differentiation effects were minimised by using data extrapolated at 60% SiO2 with least-square regression method. In the western sector of the COT, the volcanic products of Puntas Negras and Rincon show relatively high K2O and 87Sr/86Sr and low Rb/Cs, Ta/Th, La/Yb, 143Nd/144Nd. To the east, the TUMEPO products have high Sr and 143Nd/144Nd, La/Yb and Ba/Rb and low Y, 87Sr/86Sr. In the easternmost COT sector, Quevar, Aguas Calientes and Tastil volcanic complexes exhibit low La/Yb, high87Sr/Sr86 and low 143Nd/144Nd. On the basis of these data, we propose a petrogenetic and geodynamical model for Central Andes at 24°S. In correspondence of Miocene-Quaternary volcanic arc (Puntas Negras and Rincon), the magmas inherited a calcalkaline signature partly modified by upper crustal and/or sediment assimilation. In the central eastern sector, melting, assimilation, storage and homogenisation (MASH) processes occurred at the base of a thickened crust. In this COT sector, TUMEPO products show an evident lower crust signature and could be considered representative for MASH derived magmas. In the easternmost sector, Quevar, Aguas Calientes and Tastil products could represent magmas generated by partial melting of underthrusted Brasilian shield and mixed with magmas derived by MASH processes.

  12. Discovery and tracking source of the new subgroup of Chinese Francisella tularensis type B%中国土拉弗朗西斯菌B型亚种新亚型的发现与溯源分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳华; 乔富宇; 曹菊; 彭遥; 夏连续

    2015-01-01

    目的 对于北京市1例疑似土拉热病例,进行实验室诊断和溯源分析.方法 2012年7月19日北京市报告1例疑似土拉热病例.从病例血液样本中提取基因组DNA后,采用土拉弗朗西斯菌(土拉菌)3种特异基因(fopA,tul4和16S rRNA)和两种基因分型引物(C1C4和RD1),进行PCR检测并对扩增子测序.另外两个实验室分别平行进行了fopA的PCR扩增和测序.同时采用4个靶位点(fopA、ISFtul2、23kDa和tul4)进行荧光定量PCR检测,并采用11个规范的SNP和4个插入/缺失进行系统进化分析.结果 3种特异基因均得到阳性扩增,测序后得到的片段大小分别为409、407和1 053 bp,经序列比对,显示病例感染的是土拉菌.两种基因分型引物扩增后分别得到了151和924 bp的序列,根据片段长度可判定病例感染的土拉菌为B型亚种.另外两个实验室对于opA的PCR扩增和测序,均得到了阳性结果.4个靶位点的荧光定量PCR检测也均得到了阳性结果,fopA、ISFtul2、23kDa和tul4位点的Ct值分别为30、25、28和30.系统进化分析显示,本研究中土拉菌和俄罗斯来源的土拉菌聚在一个分支上,为B3亚型.结论 该病例确定为土拉热病例,本研究在中国发现了土拉菌B型亚种的一个新亚型.%Objective To perform laboratory diagnosis and tracking source of a suspected tularemia patient in Beijing.Methods A suspected tularemia patient was reported in Beijing city on July 19, 2012.Genomic DNA was extracted from the blood sample of the patient, then general PCR and sequencing of amplicons were conducted using 3 specific genes (fopA, tul4 and 16S rRNA)Francisella tutarensis(F.tularensis), and 2 genotyping primers (C1C4 and RD1).Two other laboratories repeated the PCR and sequencing of the fopA in parallel.At the same time, real-time PCR fluorescent ration was performed using 4 targets (fopA, ISFtul2, 23kDa, and tul4), and phylogenetic analysis was carried out using 11 canonical single

  13. Discovery of the Middle-Late Triassic elasmobranch ichthyoliths from the Guanling area, Guizhou, SW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟裕生

    2003-01-01

    Abundant Middle-Late Triassic (Ladinian-Carnian) elasmobranch ichthyoliths (microscopic shark dermaldenticles and teeth) from the Zhuganpo and Xiaowa Formations in the Guanling area, Guizhou Province, south-western China, are described and illustrated. The fauna includes a single tooth possibly belonging to Hybodontidaeand 7 paragenera and paraspecies of dermal denticles, i.e.: Lobaticorona cf. floriditurris, Sacrisubcorona cf. circaba-sis, Glabrisubcorona cf. arduidevexa, Parvicorona dacrysulca n. gen. n. sp. s. f., Annulicorona pyramidalis n. gen.n. sp. s. f., and new (?) paragenera A and B. This is the first time that shark dermal denticles are reported fromthe Metapolygnathus polygnathiformis M. nodosus conodont zones. The application of microfossils of chondrichthyesin the strafgraphic division of the Triassic and the intercontinental correlation of Triassic chondrichthyes in south-western China and those in equivalent strata in North America are also discussed.%应用Johns等(1997)的形态分类系统,对首次报道出现于贵州关岭地区中上三叠统的软骨鱼类的微体化石进行了初步研究,描述了其中的1个牙齿化石(可能属于弓鲛鲨科的)和7个鳞片类化石的形态属种,其中包括两个鳞片类化石的新属种,即Lobaticorona cf. floriditurris,Sacrisubcorona cf. circabasis,Glabrisubcorona cf. arduidevexa,Parvi-corona dacrysulca n.gen.et n.sp s f,Annulicorona pyramidalis n.gen.et.n.sp s f,new(?)paragenera A和new(?)paragenera B.还初步探讨了软骨鱼类微体化石在三叠纪地层划分中的应用,以及中国西南部三叠纪软骨鱼类与北荚相当地层中软骨鱼类的洲际对比.

  14. Diverse patterns of cell wall mannan/galactomannan occurrence in seeds of the Leguminosae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, João Francisco; Mazzaro, Irineu; de Almeida Silva, Lia Magalhães; de Azevedo Moreira, Renato; Ferreira, Marília Locatelli Correa; Reicher, Fany; Petkowicz, Carmen Lúcia de Oliveira

    2013-01-30

    Endosperms from seeds of different subfamilies of Leguminosae were submitted to sequential aqueous and alkaline aqueous extractions. The extractions from species belonging to the Mimosoideae and Faboideae subfamilies yielded galactomannans with constant Man:Gal ratios, whereas the extractions from Caesalpinioideae seeds gave rise to galactomannans with increasing values of the Man:Gal ratio. The presence of a family of galactomannans within the same species may be a trait found only in Caesalpinioideae subfamily. The final insoluble residues that were obtained after the removal of galactomannans from the Caesalpinioideae and Faboideae subfamilies are composed of pure mannans and do not contain cellulose, while those from the Mimosoideae subfamily are composed of cellulose. A mannan was isolated from the unripe endosperm of Caesalpinia pulcherrima, suggesting no developmental relationship between galactomannan and mannan. These results are consistent with the presence of a distinctive cell wall pattern in the endosperms of Leguminosae species.

  15. Monitoring environmental pollution of trace elements in tree-rings by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: Silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Brienza, Sandra Maria B. [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil) Faculdade de Ciencias Matematicas, da Natureza e de Tecnologia da Informacao]. E-mail: sbrienza@unimep.br; Medeiros, Jean Gabriel S.; Tomazello Filho, Mario [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz]. E-mail: jeangm@esalq.usp.br; mtomazel@esalq.usp.br; Zucchi, Orgheda L.A.D. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: virgilio@cena.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    This paper aims to study the environmental pollution in the tree development, as a manner to evaluate its use as bioindicator in urban and country sides. The sample collecting was carry out in Piracicaba city, Sao Paulo State, that presents high level of environmental contamination of the water, soil and air, due industrial activities, vehicles combustion, sugar-cane leaves burning in the harvesting, etc. It was selected the Caesalpinia peltophoroides ('Sibipiruna') specie because its very used in urban arborization. It was employed the analytical technique named total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) to identify and quantify the elements and metals of nutritional and toxicological importance in the wood samples. The analysis was done in the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory, using a white beam for excitation and a Si(Li) detector for characteristic X-ray detection. It was quantified the P, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Sr, Ba e Pb elements. (author)

  16. Current status of Indian medicinal plants with antidiabetic potential:a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raju Patil; Ravindra Patil; Bharati Ahirwar; Dheeraj Ahirwar

    2011-01-01

    In India, indigenous remedies have been used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus since the time of Charaka and Sushruta. Plants have always been an exemplary source of drugs and many of the currently available drugs have been derived directly or indirectly from them. The ethnobotanical information reports that about 800 plants may possess anti-diabetic potential. Out of several Indian medicinal plants 33 plants were reviewed. The most effective antidiabetic Indian medicinal plants are Acacia arabica, Aegle marmelose, Agrimonia eupatoria, Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Aloe vera, Azadirachta indica, Benincasa hispida, Beta vulgaris, Caesalpinia bonducella, Citrullus colocynthis, Coccinia indica, Eucalyptus globules, Ficus bengalenesis, Gymnema sylvestre, Hibiscus rosasinesis, Ipomoea batatas, Jatropha curcus, Mangifera indica, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Mucuna pruriens, Ocimum sanctum, Pterocarpus marsupium, Punica granatum, Syzigium cumini, Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum graecum. A wide array of plant derived active principles representing numerous chemical compounds has demonstrated activity consistent with their possible use in the treatment of diabetes.

  17. Antibacterial properties of some plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanís, A D; Calzada, F; Cervantes, J A; Torres, J; Ceballos, G M

    2005-08-22

    Antibacterial properties of aqueous and methanolic extracts of 26 medicinal plants used in Mexico to treat gastrointestinal disorders were tested against eight different species of enteropathogens: two Escherichia coli species; two Shigella sonnei species; two Shigella flexneri species; and two Salmonella sp. species. The results showed that all crude extracts exhibited antibacterial activity, at least against one of the microorganisms tested, at concentrations of 8 mg/mL or lower. The extracts from Caesalpinia pulcherria, Chiranthodendron pentadactylon, Cocos nucifera, Geranium mexicanum (aerial parts and roots), Hippocratea excelsa, and Punica granatum possessed strong antibacterial activity against most of the pathogens tested. In general, methanolic extracts were more active than aqueous extracts. Their activity was higher than chloramphenicol but did not exceed that of trimethoprim. Shigella sonnei species showed the highest susceptibility to both extracts. This is the first evaluation of these plants against bacterial pathogen isolates, which cause diarrhea and dysentery in Mexican population.

  18. Relationship between galactomannan structure and physicochemical properties of films produced thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, V R F; Souza, B W S; Teixeira, J A; Vicente, A A; Cerqueira, M A

    2015-12-01

    In this work five sources of galactomannans, Adenanthera pavonina, Cyamopsis tetragonolobus, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Ceratonia siliqua and Sophora japonica, presenting mannose/galactose ratios of 1.3, 1.7, 2.9, 3.4 and 5.6, respectively, were used to produce galactomannan-based films. These films were characterized in terms of: water vapour, oxygen and carbon dioxide permeabilities (WVP, O 2 P and CO 2 P); moisture content, water solubility, contact angle, elongation-at-break (EB), tensile strength (TS) and glass transition temperature (T g ). Results showed that films properties vary according to the galactomannan source (different galactose distribution) and their mannose/galactose ratio. Water affinity of mannan and galactose chains and the intermolecular interactions of mannose backbone should also be considered being factors that affect films' properties. This work has shown that knowing mannose/galactose ratio of galactomannans is possible to foresee galactomannan-based edible films properties.

  19. In vitro evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against Pestalotiopsis mangiferae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, M K

    1996-01-01

    A serious leaf-spot disease of Mangifera indica was noted during the last 10 years in Satpura plateau of India. On the basis of characteristic symptoms and cultural characters, the pathogen was identified as Pestalotiopsis mangiferae which is hitherto not reported from Satpura plateau of India. Screening of 17-medicinal plants against the test pathogen revealed 14 antimycotic whereas 3-plants, viz., Argemone mexicana, Caesalpinia bonducella, and Casia fistula acclerated the growth of the pathogen. The maximum activity was shown by Eucalyptus globulus (88%) and Catharanthus roseus (88%) followed by Ocimum sanctum (85.50%), Azadirachta indica (84.66%), Ricinus communis (75%) and Lawsonia inermis (74.33%) while the minimum activity was exhibited by Jatropha curcas (10%).

  20. Evaluación de la calidad del aceite de once semillas de leguminosas del desierto sonorense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortega-Nieblas, M.

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to generate information that lead to an efficient and diversifícate use of the natural resources that the Sonoran Desert offers, as it is the great variety of Leguminosae or Fabaceae plants, oils from seeds or Prosopis chilensis, Prosopis velutina (mezquite, Cercidium floridium (palo azul, Cercidium praecox (palo de brea, Acacia constricta (vinorama, Acacia cymbyspina (chirahui, Acacia occidentalis (tesota, Acacia mcmurphy (tepehuaje, Desmanthus palmeri (mezquitillo, Caesalpinia caladenia (palo dorado, and Caesalpinia pumila (palo piojo were analyzed. The oils were extracted from each seed with hexane, and their physicochemical characteristics were evaluated. The oil content varied from 9 to 16% in the different seeds. Their indexes of acidity, peroxides and free fatty acid content were low and within the accepted values. Fatty acids separated by gas chromatography predominating indicate the oleic and linoleic. All analyzed crude oils were of good quality, comparable to commercial and oils of wild legume seeds from the same region.

    A fin de generar información que conduzca a un uso eficiente y diversificado de los recursos naturales que ofrece el Desierto Sonorense, como es la gran variedad de plantas de la familia Leguminosae ó Fabaceae, se analizaron los aceites de las semillas: Prosopis chilensis, Prosopis velutina (mezquite, (palo azul, Cercidium praecox (palo de brea, Acacia constricta (vinorama, Acacia cymbyspina (chirahui, Acacia occidentalis (tésota, Acacia mcmurphy (tepeguaje, Desmanthus palmeri (mezquitillo, Caesalpinia caladenia (palo dorado, y Caesalpinia pumila (palo piojo. Los aceites de cada semilla fueron extraídos con hexano, se evaluaron las características fisico-químicas de calidad y la cuantificación de ácidos grasos por cromatografía de gases. El contenido de

  1. A UPLC/MS/MS method for determination of protosappanin B in rat plasma and its application of a pharmacokinetic and bioavailability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Ying; Zhou, Xian-Zhen; Wu, Li-Lan; Wu, Yun-Shan; Wang, Shu-Mei; Liu, Bo; Guo, De-An

    2016-12-14

    Caesalpinia sappan L. is a traditional medicinal plant which is used for promoting blood circulation and cerebral apoplexy therapy in China. Previous reports showed that the extracts of Caesalpinia sappan L. could exert vasorelaxant activity and anti-inflammation activity. Protosappanin B is a major constituent of C. sappan L., and showed several important bioactivities. The separation was achieved by an Acquity UPLC BEH Symmetry Shield RP18 column (1.7 μm, 2.1 × 100 mm) column with the gradient mobile phase consisting of 5 mm ammonium acetate aqueous solution and acetonitrile. Detection was carried out by using negative-ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry via multiple reaction monitoring. Plasma samples were preprocessed by an extraction with ethyl acetate, and apigenin was used as internal standard. The current UPLC-MS/MS assay was validated for linearity, accuracy, intraday and interday precisions, stability, matrix effects and extraction recovery. After oral and intravenous administration, the main pharmacokinetic parameters were as follows: peak concentrations, 83.5 ± 46.2 and 1329.6 ± 343.6 ng/mL; areas under the concentration-time curve, 161.9 ± 69.7 and 264.9 ± 56.3 μg h/L; and half-lives, 3.4 ± 0.9 and 0.3 ± 0.1 h, respectively. The absolute bioavailability in rats of protosappanin B was 12.2%. The method has been successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic and bioavailability study of protosappanin B in rats.

  2. Influence of several plant extracts on the oviposition behaviour of Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz (Diptera: Culicidae in the laboratory Influência de diversos extratos vegetais sobre o comportamento de oviposição de Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz (Diptera: Culicidae em laboratório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotraut A. G. B. Consoli

    1989-03-01

    Full Text Available Whole, ethanolic, hexanic, lyophilized extracts of several plants and anacardic acid tested in respect of their influence on the oviposition behavior of Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz at 100, 10 and 1 ppm concentrations. Extracts of Allium stivum, Jatropha curcas, Mikania schenkii, Poinciana regia and Spatodea campanulata had a repulsive effect (α=0.05 on females at 100 ppm, those of Anacardium occidentale, Bidens segetum and Caesalpinia peltophoroides were also repelent at 10 ppm. Extracts of Coriandrum sativum (100, 10 and 1 ppm, Chara Zeylanica (10 ppm, Cupressus sempervirens (10 ppm, Foeniculum vulgare (10 ppm and Spatodea campanulata (1 ppm were attractive to the females; 13 (52.0% of the extracts tested, did not influence the oviposition behavior.Extratos brutos, etanólicos, hexânicos, liofilizados de diversos vegetais e ácido anacárdico foram testados quanto a sua influência sobre o comportamento de oviposição das fêmeas de Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz, nas concentrações de 100, 10 e 1 ppm. Os estratos de Allium sativum, jatropha curcas. MiKania schenkii, Poinciana regia s Spatodea campanulata mostraram-se repelentes (α = 0,05 para as fêmeas na concentração de 100 ppm e os de Anacardium occidentale, Bidens segetum e Caesalpinia peltophoroides também na de 10 ppm. Os extratos Coriandrum stivum (100, 10 e 1 ppm, chara zeylanica (10 ppm, Cupressus sempervirens (10 ppm, Foeniculum vulgare (10 ppm e Spatodea campanulata (1 ppm atrairam a oviposição das fêmeas; 13 (52,0% dos extratos testados foram indiferentes as fêmeas nas concentrações utilizadas.

  3. Ensaios preliminares em laboratório para verificar a ação moluscicida de algumas espécies da flora brasileira Preliminary laboratory tests of the molluscicide activity of some species of Brazilian flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelymar Martineli Mendes

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se em laboratório a atividade moluscicida de 68 extratos de 23 plantas brasileiras. As soluções em água desclorada dos extratos hexânicos e etanólico, nas concentrações de 1, 10 e 100 ppm, foram testadas sobre caramujos adultos e desovas de Biomphalaria glabrata, criados em laboratório. As plantas que demonstraram ação moluscicida na concentração de 100 ppm foram: Arthemisia verlotorum Lamotte, Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth, Cassia rugosa G.Don., Eclipta alba Hassk, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, Euphorbia splendens Bojer, Joannesia princeps Vell, Leonorus sibiricus L.,Macrosiphonia guaranitica Muell,Nerium oleander L., Palicourea nicotianaefolia Cham, e Schlech., Panicum maximum M., Rumex crispus L., Ruta graveolens L., e Stryphnodendron barbatiman M.The molluscicide activity of sixty-eight extracts from twenty-three Brazilian plants was studied in the laboratory. The solutions, in dechlorinated water, of hexanic and ethylic extracts at 1, 10 and 100 ppm concentrations, were tested on adult snails and egg masses of Biomphalaria glabrata, reared in the laboratory. The plants with molluscicide activity on adult snails and/or egg masses at 100 ppm concentration were: Arthemisia verlotorum Lamotte, Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth, Cassia rugosa G. Don, Eclipta alba Hassk, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, Euphorbia splendens Bojer, Joannesia princeps Vell, Leonorus sibiricus L., Macrosiphonia guaranitica Muell, Nerium oleander L., Palicourea nicotianaefolia Cham. and Schlech., Panicum maximum M., Rumex crispus L., Ruta graveolens L. and Stryphnodendron barbatiman M.

  4. Adaptability of some legume trees on quartz tailings of a former tin mining area in Bangka Island, Indonesia

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    B H Narendra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tin mining activities in Bangka Island, besides their important role in contributing to state revenues, also caused damage to the environment, among others in the form of quartz tailings overlay. To rehabilitate this land, in addition to the necessary efforts to improve soil conditions, success is also determined by the selection of appropriate plant species. This study was aimed to determine the adaptability of some legume trees grown on the quartz tailings in land rehabilitation trials in the post tin mining areas of Bangka Island. The legume trees tested were Calliandra calothyrsus Meisn., Caesalpinia sappan L., Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Jacq. Griseb., Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Walp., Delonix regia ( Hook. Raf., and Cassia siamea Lamk. Treatments of growing media applied  in  the field were medium I (a mixture of 20% organic material, 20% top soil, 1% NPK fertilizer, 5% calcium, and 54% quartz tailings, media II (a mixture of 25%organic material, 25%top soil, 2% NPK fertilizer, 6% calcium, 42% quartz tailings, and media III (a mixture of 30% organic material, 30% top soil, 3% NPK fertilizer, 7% calcium, and 30% quartz tailings. The observation was done by measuring the height and diameter of the stem of the plants, as well as the viability of one year after planting. Analysis of the results of measurements of stem height and diameter showed their diversity. Enterolobium cyclocarpum had the largest dimensions, while the lowest was Caesalpinia sappan. At the age of one year in the field, Gliricida sepium and Enterolobium cyclocarpum showed the average ability of the high life of up to 100%, whereas Calliandra calothyrsus was totally death. In general, the types of legumes selected in this trial showed good adaptability, except for of Calliandra calothyrsus

  5. Effects of Erosion from Mounds of Different Termite Genera on Distinct Functional Grassland Types in an African Savannah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, Cleo M; Cromsigt, Joris P G M; Mpanza, Nokukhanya; Olff, Han

    A key aspect of savannah vegetation heterogeneity is mosaics formed by two functional grassland types, bunch grasslands, and grazing lawns. We investigated the role of termites, important ecosystem engineers, in creating high-nutrient patches in the form of grazing lawns. Some of the ways termites can contribute to grazing lawn development is through erosion of soil from aboveground mounds to the surrounding soil surface. This may alter the nutrient status of the surrounding soils. We hypothesize that the importance of this erosion varies with termite genera, depending on feeding strategy and mound type. To test this, we simulated erosion by applying mound soil from three termite genera (Macrotermes, Odontotermes, and Trinervitermes) in both a field experiment and a greenhouse experiment. In the greenhouse experiment, we found soils with the highest macro nutrient levels (formed by Trinervitermes) promoted the quality and biomass of both a lawn (Digitaria longiflora) and a bunch (Sporobolus pyramidalis) grass species. In the field we found that soils with the highest micro nutrient levels (formed by Macrotermes) showed the largest increase in cover of grazing lawn species. By linking the different nutrient availability of the mounds to the development of different grassland states, we conclude that the presence of termite mounds influences grassland mosaics, but that the type of mound plays a crucial role in determining the nature of the effects.

  6. Bioactivity Evaluation of Plant Extracts Used in Indigenous Medicine against the Snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, and the Larvae of Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Edilson Alves; de Carvalho, Cenira M.; Costa, Ana L. S.; Conceição, Adilva S.; Moura, Flávia de B. Prado; Santana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined the molluscicidal and larvicidal activity of eight plants that are used in the traditional medicine of the Pankararé indigenous people in the Raso da Catarina region, Bahia state, Brazil. The tested plants were chosen based on the results of previous studies. Only those plants that were used either as insect repellents or to treat intestinal parasitic infections were included in the study. Crude extracts (CEs) of these plants were tested for their larvicidal activity (against Aedes aegypti larvae in the fourth instar) and molluscicidal activity (against the snail Biomphalaria glabrata). The plant species Scoparia dulcis and Helicteres velutina exhibited the best larvicidal activities (LC50 83.426 mg/L and LC50 138.896 mg/L, resp.), and Poincianella pyramidalis, Chenopodium ambrosoides, and Mimosa tenuiflora presented the best molluscicidal activities (LC50 0.94 mg/L, LC50 13.51 mg/L, and LC50 20.22 mg/L, resp.). As we used crude extracts as the tested materials, further study is warranted to isolate and purify the most active compounds. PMID:22194773

  7. Effects of mechanical damage and herbivore wounding on H2O2 metabolism and antioxidant enzyme activities in hybrid poplar leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Yu; SHEN Ying-bai; ZHANG Zhi-xiang

    2009-01-01

    The changes of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) metabolism and antioxidant enzyme activities in a hybrid poplar (Populus simonii ×P. pyramidalis ‘Opera 8277') in response to mechanical damage (MD) and herbivore wounding (HW) were investigated to determine whether H2O2 could function as the secondary messenger in the signaling of systemic resistance. Results show that H2O2 was generated in wounded leaves through MD and HW treatments and systemically in unwounded leaves around the wounded leaves. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were also enhanced. However, the H2O2 accumulation and antioxidant enzyme activities were inhibited in MD leaves through the pretreatment with DPI (which is a specific inhibitor of NADPH oxidase). The results of this study suggest that H2O2 could be systemically induced by MD and HW treatments, and H2O2 metabolism was closely related to the change in SOD, APX and CAT activities. A high level of antioxidant enzymes could decrease membrane lipid peroxidation levels and effectively induce plant defense responses.

  8. Bioactivity Evaluation of Plant Extracts Used in Indigenous Medicine against the Snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, and the Larvae of Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilson Alves dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation examined the molluscicidal and larvicidal activity of eight plants that are used in the traditional medicine of the Pankararé indigenous people in the Raso da Catarina region, Bahia state, Brazil. The tested plants were chosen based on the results of previous studies. Only those plants that were used either as insect repellents or to treat intestinal parasitic infections were included in the study. Crude extracts (CEs of these plants were tested for their larvicidal activity (against Aedes aegypti larvae in the fourth instar and molluscicidal activity (against the snail Biomphalaria glabrata. The plant species Scoparia dulcis and Helicteres velutina exhibited the best larvicidal activities (LC50 83.426 mg/L and LC50 138.896 mg/L, resp., and Poincianella pyramidalis, Chenopodium ambrosoides, and Mimosa tenuiflora presented the best molluscicidal activities (LC50 0.94 mg/L, LC50 13.51 mg/L, and LC50 20.22 mg/L, resp.. As we used crude extracts as the tested materials, further study is warranted to isolate and purify the most active compounds.

  9. Cellulase in Anoplophora glabripennis adults emerging from different host tree species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-juan; YAN Xiong-fei; LUO You-qing; TIAN Gui-fang; SUN Hong

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate different kinds of cellulase in insect pests, we selected male and female adults of Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) emerging from four different host species (Populus alba vat. pyramidalis, P. nigra vat. thevestina (Dode)Bean., P. simonii × P. pyramidliscr cv. Opera 8277 Hsu. and Salix matsudana f. lobato-glandulosa) as our research material. The enzyme activitives of three kinds of cellulase in the intestines of the adult insects were measured. The Cx-cellulase isozymes were detected with a CMC-incorporated polyacrylamide gel. The results show that: there are no statistically significant differences between the enzyme activities of males and females emerging from the different host species. The order of magnitude in activity is:Cx-cellulase >β-glycosidase > C1-cellulase. When the adults emerge from the same host species, there are no statistically significant differences between male and female enzyme activities ofβ-glycosidase and C1-cellulase, but the enzyme activity of Cx-cellulase of males is clearly higher than that of females. The patterns and migration of Cx-cellulase isozymes of males and females emerging from different hosts trees are clearly not different, and neither are they different when emerging from the same hosts.

  10. Nutritional reserves of Vochysiaceae seeds: chemical diversity and potential economic uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayworm, Marco A S; Buckeridge, Marcos S; Marquez, Ursula M L; Salatino, Antonio

    2011-06-01

    Contents of proteins, carbohydrates and oil of seeds of 57 individuals of Vochysiaceae, involving one species of Callisthene, six of Qualea, one of Salvertia and eight of Vochysia were determined. The main nutritional reserves of Vochysiaceae seeds are proteins (20% in average) and oils (21. 6%). Mean of carbohydrate contents was 5. 8%. Callisthene showed the lowest protein content (16. 9%), while Q. cordata was the species with the highest content (30% in average). The contents of ethanol soluble carbohydrates were much higher than those of water soluble carbohydrates. Oil contents lay above 20% for most species (30. 4% in V. pygmaea and V. pyramidalis seeds). The predominant fatty acids are lauric (Q. grandiflora), oleic (Qualea and Salvertia) or acids with longer carbon chains (Salvertia and a group of Vochysia species). The distribution of Vochysiaceae fatty acids suggests for seeds of some species an exploitation as food sources (predominance of oleic acid), for other species an alternative to cocoa butter (high contents or predominance of stearic acid) or the production of lubricants, surfactants, detergents, cosmetics and plastic (predominance of acids with C(20) or C(22) chains) or biodiesel (predominance of monounsaturated acids). The possibility of exploitation of Vochysiaceae products in a cultivation regimen and in extractive reserves is discussed.

  11. How to reduce air pollution by Cupressus pollen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisel, Y; Epstein, V

    2000-03-01

    Cypress trees are among the most famous trees of the Mediterranean region. The origin of Cupressus sempervirens is apparently in the East Mediterranean. A nice description of the site of origin of Cupressus was provided by the Roman philosopher Plinius: "cypress trees sprout spontaneously on Mt. Ida on the island of Crete, whenever the soil there is disturbed". The aesthetic shape of the trees, the quality of their timber and their adaptation to harsh environmental conditions has attracted people. Certain varieties of the tree (e.g., var. Pyramidalis) were spread rapidly all over the Mediterranean and since the 16th century were introduced into the Western Hemisphere and other parts of the world. During historical times, Cupressus sempervirens was so widely used in the East Mediterranean countries that it reached the brink of extinction. Nowadays it is planted on a large scale as an ornamental plant as a windbreak and as a forest tree. Such plantations have various impacts on their environment, many positive ones, some negative ones, and some disastrous ones. This last aspect is where cypresses come in.

  12. Estudos florísticos no município de Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas. Brasil: I. famílias Annonaceae e Gnetaceae Floristic studies in township of Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas. Brazil: I. families Annonaceae and Gnetaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Coelho da Silva

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O Município de Presidente Figueiredo, no Estado do Amazonas, foi visitado durante três anos consecutivos, de 1996 a 1999, com o objetivo de se obter amostras botânicas da área, para estudos no Subprojeto "Elaboração de Revisões e Monografias Taxonômicas" com a finalidade de se elaborar uma Flórula para o Município. As coleções feitas neste período encontram-se depositadas no acervo do Herbário do INPA e as informações gerais sobre os taxa aqui estudados foram complementadas com as obtidas das coleções feitas anteriormente por outros pesquisadores. Para a família Annonaceae Juss. (Magnoliopsida foram identificadas 39 espécies distribuídas em 15 gêneros. Destes, Duguetia A. St. Hill., Guatteria Ruiz & Pavon, Annona L., Unonopsis R.E.Fries e Xylopia L.destacaram-se pela diversidade em espécies, sendo os dois primeiros representados por oito e seis espécies, respectivamente, e os três últimos, com quatro espécies. A família Gnetaceae Lindl. (Gimnospermae está representada no Município apenas pelo gênero Gnetum L., com a espécie G. leyboldii Tul.The Township of Presidente Figueiredo, in the State of Amazonas, was visited for three consecutive years, from 1996 to 1999, with the aim of acquiring botanical samples from the area, in order to carry out studies in the "Taxonomic Monographies and Revisions Preparation" SubProject, for the purpose of preparing a survey of the flora. Collections pertaining to the present work are deposited at INPA's herbarium and, general information on the taxa studied here were complemented with those obtained from earlier collections conducted by other researchers. Thirty nine (39 species distributed into 15 genera were identified for the family Annonaceae Juss. (Magnoliopsida. Of these, Duguetia A. St. Hill., Guatteria Ruiz & Pavon, Annona L., Unonopsis R.E.Fries and Xylopia L. stood out on account of their species diversity, the former two were represented by eight and six species

  13. Identifying sources of groundwater nitrate contamination in a large alluvial groundwater basin with highly diversified intensive agricultural production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, K. M.; King, A. M.; Harter, T.

    2013-08-01

    Groundwater quality is a concern in alluvial aquifers underlying agricultural areas worldwide. Nitrate from land applied fertilizers or from animal waste can leach to groundwater and contaminate drinking water resources. The San Joaquin Valley, California, is an example of an agricultural landscape with a large diversity of field, vegetable, tree, nut, and citrus crops, but also confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs, here mostly dairies) that generate, store, and land apply large amounts of liquid manure. As in other such regions around the world, the rural population in the San Joaquin Valley relies almost exclusively on shallow domestic wells (≤ 150 m deep), of which many have been affected by nitrate. Variability in crops, soil type, and depth to groundwater contribute to large variability in nitrate occurrence across the underlying aquifer system. The role of these factors in controlling groundwater nitrate contamination levels is examined. Two hundred domestic wells were sampled in two sub-regions of the San Joaquin Valley, Stanislaus and Merced (Stan/Mer) and Tulare and Kings (Tul/Kings) Counties. Forty six percent of well water samples in Tul/Kings and 42% of well water samples in Stan/Mer exceeded the MCL for nitrate (10 mg/L NO3-N). For statistical analysis of nitrate contamination, 78 crop and landuse types were considered by grouping them into ten categories (CAFO, citrus, deciduous fruits and nuts, field crops, forage, native, pasture, truck crops, urban, and vineyards). Vadose zone thickness, soil type, well construction information, well proximity to dairies, and dominant landuse near the well were considered. In the Stan/Mer area, elevated nitrate levels in domestic wells most strongly correlate with the combination of very shallow (≤ 21 m) water table and the presence of either CAFO derived animal waste applications or deciduous fruit and nut crops (synthetic fertilizer applications). In Tulare County, statistical data indicate that elevated

  14. Geodynamical evolution of Central Andes at 24°S as inferred by magma composition along the Calama-Olacapato-El Toro transversal volcanic belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteini, M.; Mazzuoli, R.; Omarini, R.; Cas, R.; Maas, R.

    2002-11-01

    Miocene to Recent volcanism on the Puna plateau (Central Andes) developed in three geological settings: (a) volcanic arc in the Western Cordillera (Miocene-Recent); (b) trans-arc along the main NW-SE transverse fault systems (Miocene); and (c) back-arc, mainly monogenic volcanic centres (Pliocene-Quaternary). We have studied the evolution of the arc-trans-arc volcanism along one of the most extensive transverse structures of Central Andes, the Calama-Olacapato-El Toro, at 24°S. Compositional variations from arc to trans-arc volcanism provide insights into petrogenesis and magma source regions. Puntas Negras and Rincon volcanic centres are arc-type and have typical calc-alkaline geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic characteristics. East of the arc, lavas of the Tul-Tul, Del Medio and Pocitos complexes (TUMEPO) are heavy rare earth element-depleted and could be derived from 20-30% of partial melting of a lower crustal garnet-bearing metabasite. These liquids could be variably mixed with arc magmas at the base of the crust (MASH). This suggests important contributions from lower crustal sources to TUMEPO centres. Products at the Quevar and Aguas Calientes volcanic complexes to the east of TUMEPO show a prominent upper crustal signature (high 86Sr/ 87Sr, low 143Nd/ 144Nd) and could represent mixtures of 20-30% TUMEPO-type liquids with up to 70-80% of upper crustal melts. We propose a geodynamic model to explain geochemical variations for the arc-trans-arc transverse volcanism from the Upper Miocene to Recent. In our model, arc volcanism is linked to dehydration of the subducting Nazca plate, which produces typical calc-alkaline compositions. During the Upper Miocene (10-5 Ma), lithospheric evolution in the Puna plateau was dominated by thickening of ductile lower crust and thinning of the lithosphere. Lower crustal melting was promoted by concomitant asthenospheric upwelling and water release from the amphibolite-eclogite transformation, yielding TUMEPO magmas with lower

  15. Detection of Tilletia controversa Kuhn by Real Time Quantitative PCR%实时荧光定量PCR鉴定小麦矮腥黑穗菌技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    年四季; 袁青; 殷幼平; 蔡俊; 王中康

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] To detection of Tilletia controversa Kühn (TCK) sensitively and accurately,real-time PCR systems were developed.[Method]The species-specific primer pair CQUTCK_4/CQUTCK_5 and probe CQUP_1 were designed based on a selected specific fragment (Ⅰ322 bp) specific for TCK,and the SYBR Green Ⅰ and TaqMan quantitative PCR detection systems were established with optimized reaction conditions.[Result]The detection limit of the two systems were 0.1fg,equal to 2.31×10~4 copies,which was 10~2-10~3 fold higher than conventional PCR.By the constructed detection systems,the TCK and Tilletia caries (DC)Tul (TCT) could be distinguished.The teliospore and mycelium of TCK in the infected wheat plant tissue also could be identified accurately and rapidly.[Conclusion]The earlier diagnosis approaches of wheat durwf bunt pathogen were set up using the twe real-time PCR systems.%[目的]建立荧光定量PCR体系以准确灵敏的鉴定小麦黑穗菌(Tilletia controversa Kühn,TCK)[方法]根据筛选的TCK独有差异基因片段(1322 bp)设计特异性引物对CQUTCK4/CQUTCK5和TaqMan探针CQUP1,建立SYBR Green Ⅰ荧光染料法和TaqMan水解探针法定量PCR检测体系,并对体系进行优化.[结果]建立的两套定量PCR检测体系的检测下限相当,可达到0.1fg,对应的拷贝数为2.31×10~4个,检测灵敏度比常规PCR高2~3个数量级,均可成功鉴别出TCK与小麦网腥黑穗病菌(Tilletia caries(DC)Tul,TCT),并可快速准确检测小麦矮腥黑穗菌冬孢子和检测罹病小麦植株体内的侵染菌丝体.[结论]建立的2种定量PCR检测技术可运用于小麦矮腥黑穗病的早期诊断.

  16. Exploitation of complement regulatory proteins by Borrelia and Francisella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madar, Marian; Bencurova, Elena; Mlynarcik, Patrik; Almeida, André M; Soares, Renata; Bhide, Katarina; Pulzova, Lucia; Kovac, Andrej; Coelho, Ana V; Bhide, Mangesh

    2015-06-01

    Pathogens have developed sophisticated mechanisms of complement evasion such as binding to the host complement regulatory proteins (CRPs) on their surface or expression of CRP mimicking molecules. The ability of pathogens to evade the complement system has been correlated with pathogenesis and host selectivity. Hitherto, little work has been undertaken to determine whether Borrelia and Francisella exploit various CRPs to block complement attack. Seventeen Borrelia (twelve species) and six Francisella (three subspecies) strains were used to assess their ability to bind human, sheep and cattle CRPs or mimic membrane associated complement regulators. A series of experiments including affinity ligand binding experiments, pull-down assays and mass spectrometry based protein identification, revealed an array of CRP binding proteins of Borrelia and Francisella. Unlike Francisella, Borrelia strains were able to bind multiple human CRPs. Three strains of Borrelia (SKT-4, SKT-2 and HO14) showed the presence of a human CD46-homologous motif, indicating their ability to possess putative human CD46 mimicking molecules. Similarly, five strains of Borrelia and two strains of Francisella may have surface proteins with human CD59-homologous motifs. Among ovine and bovine CRPs, the only CRP bound by Francisella (LVS, Tul4 strain) was vitronectin, while ovine C4BP, ovine factor H and bovine factor H were bound to Borrelia strains SKT-2, DN127 and Co53. This study presents an array of proteins of Borrelia and Francisella that bind CRPs or may mimic membrane-CRPs, thus enabling multiphasic complement evasion strategies of these pathogens.

  17. Comparison of tulathromycin and tilmicosin on the prevalence and severity of bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle in association with feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and economic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, T C; Ives, S E; Harper, L B; Renter, D G; Lawrence, T E

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to 1) quantify effects of metaphylactic treatment for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and lung lesion prevalence and severity; 2) evaluate the association of lung lesion prevalence and severity with carcass characteristics; and 3) evaluate effects of therapeutic treatment on carcass characteristics and lung lesion prevalence and severity. The study was conducted at a commercial feedlot in the Texas Panhandle in which steers (n = 2,336) initially weighing 312.1 ± 9.6 kg were sourced from auction markets and allocated in a randomized complete block design to 1 of 3 treatments (no metaphylactic [no antimicrobial drug {ND}] treatment, tilmicosin at 10 mg/kg BW [TIL], and tulathromycin at 2.5 mg/kg BW [TUL]). Lungs of all steers were evaluated during harvest to assess presence and severity of pneumonic lesions in the anteroventral lobes and the presence and severity of pleural adherences. Compared to the ND treatment, steers treated via metaphylactic therapy had greater (P cattle, cumulatively resulting in greater financial returns. Lung lesions were present in 64.3% of lungs and were distributed similarly between metaphylactic treatments (63.9%) and ND (65.1%) cattle. Steers with advanced lung lesions present at harvest were associated with reduced (P cattle improved financial returns primarily driven by reductions in cost of death loss and railers.

  18. Seed viability of Dimorphandra gardneriana subject to water stress in different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Matias Ursulino

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The forest species Dimorphandra gardneriana Tul. is widely used for various pharmacological products, yet few basic studies have been undertaken to understand their ecological and physiological attributes under stress conditions. The goal of this research was to evaluate the seed germination and vigor when subjected to different osmotic potentials and temperatures. Water restriction was simulated with polyethylene glycol 6000 solution (PEG 6000 with osmotic potentials of 0; -0,2; -0,4; -0,6; -0,8, and -1,0MPa at temperatures of 20, 25, 30, and 35°C. The effect of the treatment was determined by the germination and vigor (germination speed index, length and phytomass of dry shoot and roots of the seeds, in an entirely random design with four repetitions. From-0, 4MPa it occurs a drastic reduction in germination and vigor of seeds although these factors were less affected at temperature of 25°C up to -0, 2MPa.

  19. Up/down-regulation of miR-21 changes biological function of colon can-cer cells and sensitivity to cetuximab%上/下调 miR-21对结肠癌细胞的生物学作用及对西妥昔单抗药物敏感性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩波; 李东风; 谢子钧; 段伊帆; 李子俊

    2014-01-01

    AIM:To explore the effects of miR-21 on biological behavior of colon cancer cells and their sensi-tivity to epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody cetuximab .METHODS:Lentiviral vectors were constructed to generate up-and down-regulations of miR-21 lentiviruses (LV-miR-21 and LV-anti-miR-21, respectively), and the cor-responding negative control viruses (LV-miR-21 NC and LV-anti-miR-21 NC, respectively) were also constructed.The vi-ruses were used to infect human colon cancer RKO cells .The changes of the miR-21 expression level , the cell prolifera-tion, the colony-forming ability, the cell apoptosis and the sensitivity of the cells to cetuximab were detected by real -time PCR, MTT assay, soft agar colony assay , flow cytometry and CCK-8 assay.RESULTS: The lentivirus titers of LV-miR-21, LV-miR-2 NC, LV-anti-miR-21 and LV-anti-miR-21 NC were 3.0 ×1012 TU/L, 6.0 ×1011 TU/L, 2.0 ×1012 TU/L and 8.0 ×1011 TU/L, respectively.The infection efficiency was over 80% by the observation of green fluorescence .The miR-21 expression level , the cell proliferation , and the colony-forming ability in LV-miR-21 group were significantly higher than those in LV-anti-miR-21 group.The early apoptotic rate and the inhibitory rate of cetuximab for the cells in LV-anti-miR-21 group were higher than those in LV-miR-21 group.CONCLUSION: miR-21 promotes the proliferation of colon cancer cells.Down-regulation of miR-21 enhances the sensitivity of the colon cancer cells to the targeted therapy drug cetuximab.%目的:探讨miR-21在结肠癌细胞中的生物学功能及对EGFR单抗西妥昔敏感性的影响。方法:通过慢病毒载体的构建及包装生成上调/下调miR-21的慢病毒LV-miR-21和LV-anti-miR-21并感染人结肠癌RKO细胞,采用qRT-PCR、MTT、非锚定依赖性细胞生长、流式细胞术、CCK-8等技术检测上调/下调miR-21后细胞的miR-21表达水平、细胞增殖、克隆形成能力、细胞凋亡能力及对西妥昔单抗

  20. Antiproliferative effect of Pterogyne nitens on melanoma cells

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    V. S. Bolzani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    As part of our program of bioprospecting for novel antitumor drug prototypes, twenty extracts and fractions obtained from Pterogyne nitens Tul. (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae were screened for antiproliferative activity against B16F10 murine melanoma cells, by the MTT colorimetric assay. The strongest activity was found in EtOAc fractions from the flowers (IC50 = 0.35 µg/mL, fruits (IC50 = 0.34 µg/mL, leaves (IC50 = 0.33 µg/mL and stems (IC50 = 0.29 µg/mL. Analysis by TLC and HPLC-DAD showed the presence of guanidine alkaloids, flavones and flavonols in the bioactive samples. Additionally, a phytochemical study of the EtOAc fraction of the stems afforded quercetin (1 and isoquercitrin (2, two flavonols with antiproliferative activity previously described in the literature. On the basis of these results, it can be concluded that P. nitens inhibits the growth of melanoma cells in vitro. Further investigations will be needed to assess the usefulness of the samples under study for the treatment of neoplasms and to characterize other bioactive compounds. Keywords: antiproliferative; Pterogyne nitens; Caesalpinioideae; melanoma; flavonoids; Fabaceae.

  1. Development and validation of a HPLC method for the quantification of three flavonoids in a crude extract of Dimorphandra gardneriana

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    Leonardo P. Landim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for separation and quantification of three flavonoids by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was developed and validated. Flavonoids present in a crude methanolic extract of the inner bark of Dimorphandra gardneriana Tul., Fabaceae, were analyzed. Rutin, isoquercitrin and quercetin were used as calibration standards. The analysis was performed using a Thermo Scientific Hypersil C18 column (250 x 4.0 mm i.d., 5 μm particle size, as stationary phase, with a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min and detection at a wavelength of 356 nm. The proposed method was validated by resolution RE No. 899/2003 of the National Health Surveillance Agency. In this study, an excellent linearity was obtained with r higher than 0.99. Besides, the chromatographic peaks showed good resolution. With other validation data, including precision, specificity, accuracy and robustness, this method demonstrated good reliability and sensitivity, and can be conveniently used for the quantification of rutin, isoquercitrin and quercetin in crude methanolic extract of D. gardneriana pods. Furthermore, there are the advantages of easy sample preparation and short time between each injection.

  2. What are the socioeconomic implications of the value chain of biodiversity products? A case study in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rafael Ricardo Vasconcelos; Gomes, Laura Jane; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2017-02-01

    The trade in biodiversity products has gained increasing importance in conservation and livelihood strategies. The aim of this study is to describe and analyze the socioeconomic aspects and dynamics of the production and commercialization of two important products of Brazilian biodiversity from the fruits of Caryocar coriaceum Wittm. and Dimorphandra gardneriana Tul. Interviews were conducted with who were involved in the various stages of value chains. Data were analyzed under an analytical/descriptive approach. It was found that the two value chains under study, although they share the same production environment and workforce, are different models of the commercial appropriation of the forest environment: one is related to local traditions, whereas the other seeks to meet an industry-related demand originating from a multinational pharmaceutical company. Harvesters become highly dependent on the trends imposed by these markets. Thus, it is clear that promoting these products as a conservation strategy requires an understanding of how their value chains arise, are established, and operate.

  3. Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Brazilian Legal Amazon Plants against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Clarice Noleto; Alves, Luciana Patrícia Lima; Rodrigues, Klinger Antonio da Franca; Brito, Maria Cristiane Aranha; Rosa, Carliane dos Santos; do Amaral, Flavia Maria Mendonça; Monteiro, Odair dos Santos; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Maia, José Guilherme Soares; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is the major vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. The lack of effective therapies and vaccines for these diseases highlights the need for alternative strategies to control the spread of virus. Therefore, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of essential oils from common plant species obtained from the Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil, against third instar A. aegypti larvae. The chemical composition of these oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The essential oils of Eugenia piauhiensis Vellaff., Myrcia erythroxylon O. Berg, Psidium myrsinites DC., and Siparuna camporum (Tul.) A. DC. were observed to be mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer was composed of oxygenated monoterpenes. Four of the five tested oils were effective against the A. aegypti larvae, with the lethal concentration (LC50) ranging from 230 to 292 mg/L after 24 h of exposure. Overall, this work demonstrated the possibility of developing larvicidal products against A. aegypti by using essential oils from the flora of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. This in turn demonstrates the potential of using natural resources for the control of disease vectors. PMID:25949264

  4. Essential oil from the leaves of Xylopia langsdorfiana (Annonaceae) as a possible spasmolytic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Ana Carolina de C; Ferreira, Tamyris F; Martins, Italo Rossi R; Macêdo, Cibério L; Monteiro, Fabio de S; Costa, Vicente Carlos O; Tavares, Josean F; Silva, Marcelo S; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar J; Buri, Marcus V; Rigoni, Vera L S; Nouailhetas, Viviane L A; Da Silva, Bagnólia A

    2015-01-01

    Xylopia langsdorfiana A. St.-Hil. &Tul. (Annonaceae) is popularly known in the northeast of Brazil as 'pimenteira da terra', and an essential oil (XL-OE) was extracted from its leaves. Since Xylopia species are cited in folk medicine and diterpenes from X. langsdorfiana have spasmolytic activity, this study aimed to investigate a possible spasmolytic action of XL-OE on smooth muscle models. XL-OE (243 and 729 μg/mL) showed low pharmacologic efficacy on guinea pig trachea and rat aorta and uterus. However, in guinea pig ileum, XL-OE (27-729 μg/mL) inhibited carbachol or histamine-induced phasic contractions (1 μM) in a significant and concentration-dependent manner. In addition, XL-OE (81 μg/mL) reduced fluorescence intensity in ileal myocytes stimulated by histamine, indicating a decrease in cytosolic calcium concentration, which could explain the spasmolytic activity. Thus, XL-OE proved to be a promising natural product to be used in gastrointestinal diseases acting by modulating the cytosolic calcium concentration.

  5. Coexistence of emerging bacterial pathogens in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Serbia*

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    Tomanović S.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The list of tick-borne pathogens is long, varied and includes viruses, bacteria, protozoa and nematodes. As all of these agents can exist in ticks, their co-infections have been previously reported. We studied co-infections of emerging bacterial pathogens (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Francisella tularensis in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Serbia. Using PCR technique, we detected species-specific sequences, rrf-rrl rDNA intergenic spacer for B. burgdorferi s.l., p44/msp2 paralogs for A. phagocytophilum, and the 17 kDa lipoprotein gene, TUL4, for F. tularensis, respectively, in total DNA extracted from the ticks. Common infections with more than one pathogen were detected in 42 (28.8 % of 146 infected I. ricinus ticks. Co-infections with two pathogens were present in 39 (26.7 % of infected ticks. Simultaneous presence of A. phagocytophilum and different genospecies of B. burgdorferi s.l. complex was recorded in 16 ticks, co-infection with different B. burgdorferi s. l. genospecies was found in 15 ticks and eight ticks harbored mixed infections with F. tularensis and B. burgdorferi s.l. genospecies. Less common were triple pathogen species infections, detected in three ticks, one infected with A. phagocytophilum / B. burgdorferi s.s. / B. lusitaniae and two infected with F. tularensis / B. burgdorferi s.s. / B. lusitaniae. No mixed infections of A. phagocytophilum and F. tularensis were detected.

  6. Starvation-Dependent Regulation of Golgi Quality Control Links the TOR Signaling and Vacuolar Protein Sorting Pathways

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    Niv Dobzinski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Upon amino acid (AA starvation and TOR inactivation, plasma-membrane-localized permeases rapidly undergo ubiquitination and internalization via the vacuolar protein sorting/multivesicular body (VPS-MVB pathway and are degraded in the yeast vacuole. We now show that specific Golgi proteins are also directed to the vacuole under these conditions as part of a Golgi quality-control (GQC process. The degradation of GQC substrates is dependent upon ubiquitination by the defective-for-SREBP-cleavage (DSC complex, which was identified via genetic screening and includes the Tul1 E3 ligase. Using a model GQC substrate, GFP-tagged Yif1, we show that vacuolar targeting necessitates upregulation of the VPS pathway via proteasome-mediated degradation of the initial endosomal sorting complex required for transport, ESCRT-0, but not downstream ESCRT components. Thus, early cellular responses to starvation include the targeting of specific Golgi proteins for degradation, a phenomenon reminiscent of the inactivation of BTN1, the yeast Batten disease gene ortholog.

  7. Defeating terrorism, piracy and armed robbery against ships in a collective maritime security system

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    Hakan Selim Canca

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With increasing global economic development, maritime security constitutes more important role throughout the world. The efforts of the international community including shipmasters, shipowners, international specialized agencies, intergovernmental organizations and States concentrate on ensuring the safety and security of ships, repressing acts of maritime violence, imposing obligations upon States, and developing regional agreements between States. As the oceans are used by all and controlled by no one[1], these efforts are very important for global trade and security. Taking into account the security concerns of littoral states, the shipping industry and passengers in general, these efforts continue to try to repress the serious crimes of terrorism, piracy and armed robbery at sea while staying in the lines of the freedoms of the seas that are being protected by state practice and customary international law. In this study, the consequent codification related to the acts of terrorism, piracy and armed robbery against ships and the problems related to the measures aiming to defeat these crimes were examined and recommendations to prevent these crimes were given.[1] Gabel, Jr., George D. (2007, "Smoother Seas Ahead: The Draft Guidelines as an International Solution to Modern-Day Piracy", 21st Biennial Admiralty Law Institute Symposium, 81 Tul.L.Rev.1433, p.1.

  8. A key to American genus Merobruchus Bridwell (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) with descriptions of species and two new host plant records for the subfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfio, Daiara; Ribeiro-Costa, Cibele Stramare

    2016-02-09

    Merobruchus Bridwell is placed in the group Merobruchus of Acanthoscelidina (Bruchini) being distinguished from all bruchines mainly by the apical projections in the last abdominal ventrite of females and some males. All 25 species of Merobruchus are distributed in the New World, mainly in the Neotropical Region, feeding on seeds of Mimosoideae (Acacieae, Ingeae and Mimoseae). As well as some other bruchine genera, Merobruchus shows considerable morphological variation both in external and in internal (male genitalia) characters. Moreover, some species are very similar to each other in their colour and distribution pattern of pubescence on the dorsal surface, sometimes making species recognition difficult. Thus, the main objective of this paper is to provide a key including coloured illustrations for Merobruchus species to facilitate the process of identification and to avoid misunderstandings. Images of dorsal habitus, male and female pygidium and male genitalia are provided for all species. In addition, M. machadoi sp. nov. (Holotype male deposited in DZUP: Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul State) is described; M. bicoloripes (Pic) and M. pickeli (Pic) are redescribed; and a new synonymy is proposed: Pseudopachymerus pickeli Pic, 1927 = Pseudopachymerus pickeli var. subnotatus Pic, 1927 syn. nov. Two new host plants are recorded for Bruchinae: Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth.) Brenan (Mimosoideae) and Pterogyne nitens Tul. (Caesalpinioideae).

  9. Changes in circulating lymphocyte subpopulations in pigs receiving therapeutic doses of ceftiofur and tulathromycin

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    Czyżewska-Dors Ewelina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of administration of therapeutic doses of ceftiofur and tulathromycin on the circulating lymphocyte subpopulations in healthy pigs. Material and Methods: The study was conducted on thirty healthy 7- to 10-week-old pigs, assigned to three groups: the TUL group, injected with tulathromycin (n = 10; the CEF group, injected with ceftiofur (n = 10; and the C group, the control with no antibiotic administration (n = 10. Blood samples were collected before, during, and after treatment with antimicrobials. Lymphocyte subpopulations circulating in the blood were determined by immunostaining and flow cytometry analyses. Results: Following administration of a therapeutic dose of tulathromycin, there were no changes in the lymphocyte subpopulations circulating in blood. In contrast, administration of ceftiofur at the recommended dose decreased the absolute number of CD3+, CD21+, CD4+CD8-, CD4-CD8+, and double positive CD4CD8 cells. Conclusion: Results from the study indicate that ceftiofur possesses the ability to modulate the immune system in healthy pigs by decreasing lymphocyte subpopulations circulating in blood.

  10. Total phenolics and antioxidant activity of five medicinal plant; Fenois totais e atividade antioxidante de cinco plantas medicinais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Cleyton Marcos de M.; Silva, Hilris Rocha e; Vieira-Junior, Gerardo Magela; Ayres, Mariane Cruz C.; Costa, Charllyton Luis S. da; Araajo, Delton Servulo; Cavalcante, Luis Carlos D.; Barros, Elcio Daniel S.; Araujo, Paulo Breitner de M.; Brandao, Marcela S.; Chaves, Mariana H. [Universidade Federal do Piaui, Teresina, PI (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: mariana@ufpi.br

    2007-03-15

    This paper describes total phenolics content and antioxidant activity in the ethanolic extract of leaves, bark and roots of five medicinal plants: Terminalia brasiliensis Camb., Terminalia fagifolia Mart. and Zucc., Copernicia cerifera (Miller) H.E. Moore, Cenostigma macrophyllum Tul. var. acuminata Teles Freire and Qualea grandiflora Mart. The total phenolics content of the plant extracts, determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, varied from 250.0 {+-}8,2 to 763,63 {+-}13.03 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g dry EtOH extract. The antioxidant activity of extracts was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay system. Extract of bark from T. brasiliensis, the most active, with an EC{sub 50} value of 27.59 {+-} 0.82 {mu}g/mL, was comparable to rutin (EC{sub 50} = 27.80 {+-} 1.38) and gallic acid (EC{sub 50} = 24.27 {+-} 0.31), used as positive controls. The relationship between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity was positive and significant for T. brasiliensis, C. macrophyllum and C. cerifera. (author)

  11. Nutritional reserves of Vochysiaceae seeds: chemical diversity and potential economic uses

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    Marco A. S Mayworm

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Contents of proteins, carbohydrates and oil of seeds of 57 individuals of Vochysiaceae, involving one species of Callisthene, six of Qualea, one of Salvertia and eight of Vochysia were determined. The main nutritional reserves of Vochysiaceae seeds are proteins (20% in average and oils (21. 6%. Mean of carbohydrate contents was 5. 8%. Callisthene showed the lowest protein content (16. 9%, while Q. cordata was the species with the highest content (30% in average. The contents of ethanol soluble carbohydrates were much higher than those of water soluble carbohydrates. Oil contents lay above 20% for most species (30. 4% in V. pygmaea and V. pyramidalis seeds. The predominant fatty acids are lauric (Q. grandiflora, oleic (Qualea and Salvertia or acids with longer carbon chains (Salvertia and a group of Vochysia species. The distribution of Vochysiaceae fatty acids suggests for seeds of some species an exploitation as food sources (predominance of oleic acid, for other species an alternative to cocoa butter (high contents or predominance of stearic acid or the production of lubricants, surfactants, detergents, cosmetics and plastic (predominance of acids with C20 or C22 chains or biodiesel (predominance of monounsaturated acids. The possibility of exploitation of Vochysiaceae products in a cultivation regimen and in extractive reserves is discussed.Teores de proteínas, carboidratos solúveis e óleos de sementes de 57 indivíduos de Vochysiaceae, compreendendo uma espécie de Callisthene, seis de Qualea, uma de Salvertia e oito de Vochysia foram determinados. As principais reservas de sementes de Vochysiaceae são proteínas (20% em média e óleos (21, 6%. A média dos teores de carboidratos foi de 5, 8%. Callisthene apresentou o mais baixo teor de proteínas (16, 9%, enquanto Q. cordata foi a espécie com o mais elevado teor (30% em média. Teores de carboidratos solúveis em etanol foram muito superiores aos solúveis em água. Os teores de

  12. Uso e diversidade de plantas medicinais em uma comunidade quilombola no Raso da Catarina, Bahia The use and diversity of medicinal plants in a quilombola community in Raso da Catarina, Bahia

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    Thiago Bezerra Gomes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A contribuição dos povos afrodescendentes é de extrema importância para a formação da cultura brasileira. Esses povos são em parte representados pelas comunidades remanescentes de quilombos, que mantém costumes e conhecimentos sobre utilização e manejo dos recursos vegetais. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivos inventariar as plantas medicinais utilizadas bem como medir a saliência cultural das mesmas, na comunidade Casinhas, município de Jeremoabo, estado da Bahia, localizada numa região de Caatinga. Para coleta dos dados foram realizadas entrevistas semi-estruturadas com sete pessoas reconhecidas pela comunidade como os maiores detentores do conhecimento sobre plantas. Os resultados indicam que 87 espécies são utilizadas na medicina tradicional local, merecendo destaque Poincianella pyramidalis (catingueira, que apresentou maior freqüência de citação e maior valor de saliência. O sistema digestório teve o maior número de indicações de plantas relacionadas às suas afecções (21 espécies; as folhas (36% e as cascas (30% foram as partes mais citadas nas indicações terapêuticas; o chá foi a forma de uso mais indicada (49%. A comunidade estudada depende diretamente dos recursos vegetais para suas práticas de cura. Os resultados dessa pesquisa podem servir como base para bioprospecção bem como subsídio para seleção de espécies da caatinga prioritárias para estudos posteriores de ecologia de populações, visando o seu uso e manejo sustentável.Contributions from Afro-descendant peoples have been hugely important in the formation of Brazilian culture. These peoples are partly represented by remnant quilombo communities, which maintain their habits and knowledge about the use and management of plant resources. This research aimed to inventory the medicinal plants used, and to measure the cultural salience of these plants in the Casinhas community of the Jeremoabo municipality, in the state of Bahia (which is

  13. 阿克苏市5种常见绿化树种滞尘规律%Patterns of dust retention by five common tree species for urban greening in Aksu City, Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿丽亚·拜都热拉; 玉米提·哈力克; 塔依尔江·艾山; 艾克热木·吾布力; 喀哈尔·扎依木; 金华

    2014-01-01

    绿化树种在截留沙尘、降低大气颗粒污染物浓度、改善城市生态环境等方面发挥着不可替代的作用。该文选取新疆南部典型绿洲城市--阿克苏市不同功能区的绿化树种,用多重比较法对比分析了二球悬铃木(Platanus × acerifolia)、新疆杨(Populus alba var. pyramidalis)、圆冠榆(Ulmus densa)、天山梣(Fraxinus sogdiana)和垂柳(Salix babylonica)5个树种叶片平均滞尘量随时间变化及不同高度叶片的滞尘能力,探讨了阿克苏市主要绿化树种的滞尘规律,得出以下结论:不同绿化树种单位叶面积滞尘量差异显著,差距在1.15-2.17倍之间,绿化树种滞尘量随着时间延长而增加;同一树种在城市不同功能区的滞尘能力不同:工业区>交通枢纽区>居民区>清洁区;不同高度的叶片,其滞尘量在工业区和交通枢纽区差异显著:高度1m的叶片滞尘量>高度2m的叶片滞尘量>高度4m的叶片滞尘量。%Aims Air pollution poses a long-term threat to human health and life quality of urban residents. In particular, dust pollution in oasis cities of arid regions has been associated with reduced life expectancy. Trees (especially their leaves) in cities can absorb airborne particulate matter and reduce the impacts of air pollution on people and urban environment. This study examined dust retention capacity of the leaves of Platanus × acerifolia, Populus alba var. pyramidalis, Ulmus densa, Fraxinus sogdiana, and Salix babylonica in different functional areas in Aksu City, Northwest China. Our objectives were to determine that how much dust can be removed on unit leaf area basis by each of the tree species and that how the patterns of dust removal may vary with time, among different sites, and the height where leaves are positioned. Methods Dust samples were washed off the leaf surfaces and weighed by electronic scales with an accuracy of 1μg (PTX-FA-210, Polestar, Hartford, USA). Individual

  14. Effects of different water regimes on the anatomical characteristics of roots of grasses promising for revegetation of areas surrounding hydroelectric reservoir Efeitos de diferentes regimes hídricos sobre as características anatômicas de raízes de gramíneas promissoras para revegetação de áreas marginais a reservatórios hidrelétricos

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    Silvana da Silva

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different water regimes on some aspects of root anatomy of three grasses: Echinochloa pyramidalis (canarana, Setaria anceps (setária and Paspalum paniculatum (paspalo. The plants were cultivated in a greenhouse and submitted to three water regimes: daily watering; suspension of watering and suspension of watering followed by submersion of the root system. Segments of the middle part of the roots were taken and submitted to classical techniques in botany for slide making and tissue analysis. Anatomical differences were observed among the three grasses submitted to water regimes regarding the number of cell layers in the external cortex and thickening of lignin and suberin. The submerged roots of the three species presented an increasing tendency in the proportion of the area of the cortex destined for the aerenchyma besides thickening of the endodermis and the cells of the medullar parenchyma. The aerenchyma presence in the three water regimes suggested it is a characteristic of these species. The adaptations developed by these species contributed to the understanding of their occurrence in areas that are subject to drought periods and successive floods.Conduziu-se o presente trabalho objetivavando-se avaliar o efeito de diferentes regimes hídricos sobre alguns aspectos da anatomia da raiz das seguintes gramíneas: Echinochloa pyramidalis (canarana, Setaria anceps (setária e Paspalum paniculatum (paspalo. As plantas foram cultivadas em casa-de-vegetação e submetidas a três regimes hídricos: regas diárias; suspensão da rega e suspensão da rega seguida de submersão do sistema radicular. Foram retirados segmentos da parte mediana das raízes, os quais foram submetidos a técnicas clássicas em botânica para confecção de lâminas e análise de tecidos. Foram observadas diferenças anatômicas nas três espécies de gramíneas submetidas aos três regimes hídricos com rela

  15. Genetic diversity of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L. Karst.] in Romanian Carpathians

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    Raul Gheorghe Radu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of Romanian most important coniferous tree species, the Norway spruce, was estimated by means of allozyme markers. A total of 695 adult trees sampled from eleven populations grouped in six mountainous areas in the Romanian Carpathians were analyzed. In three metapopulations (Maramureş, Postăvar and Parâng, to evaluate the influence of altitudinal gradient on genetic diversity, samples were collected from populations located at high and low altitude. At other location (ApuseniMountains we compared the narrow-crown biotype (Picea abies var. columnaris and the pyramidal crown biotype (Picea abies var. pyramidalis and explored the genetic structure of peat bog ecotype. By analyzing 7 enzyme systems and 12 enzyme coding loci, a total of 38 allelic variants have been detected. The mean value of polymorphic loci for the six sites was 86.1%, ranging between 83.3% and 91.7% and the mean expected heterozygosity was 0.115, resulting in a moderate level of genetic diversity. The highest genetic diversity (He = 0.134 was found in the narrow-crown spruce population. Apuseni metapopulation showed the highest genetic diversity (He = 0.125, being the most valuable for conservation of genetic resources. The small value of fixation index (FST = 0.009 indicates a low genetic differentiation between the six sites and AMOVA test revealed a very high level of genetic diversity within population (99%. Comparative analysis of genetic parameters showed small differences between high and low altitude populations at each site, probably due to the neutral character of the markers analyzed and the effect of gene flow between gradiental populations.

  16. Estrutura da Vegetação em Dois Fragmentos de Caatinga Antropizada na Paraíba

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    Francisco Geovanio da Silva Sabino

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar as diferenças florísticas e estruturais entre dois fragmentos contíguos de caatinga sujeitos a intervenções antrópicas na Paraíba. Foram alocadas 25 parcelas de 20 m × 20 m, em duas áreas (A e B e medidos todos os indivíduos com circunferência ao nível do solo ≥ 10 cm e com altura ≥ 1 m. A área A apresentou 2.226 indivíduos, 21 espécies, 21 gêneros e 11 famílias. A área B, 1.930 indivíduos, 17 espécies, 16 gêneros e 9 famílias. Os índices de Shannon-Wienner e a equabilidade de Pielou foram 1,92 nats/ind. e 0,63 (área A e 1,76 nats/ind. e 0,62 (área B. A similaridade de Sørensen entre as áreas foi de 79%. Famílias mais ricas em espécies: Fabaceae e Euphorbiaceae. Espécies mais abundantes: Poincianella pyramidalis, Mimosa tenuiflora, Aspidosperma pyrifolium, Croton blanchetianus e Combretum leprosum. Houve diferenças nos parâmetros estudados obtidos, o que explica processos de regeneração distintos.

  17. Reproduction et régime alimentaire de Distichodus antonii Schilthuis 1891 (Distichodontidae dans la zone de confluence du fleuve Congo et des rivières Lindi et Tshopo à Kisangani (R.D. Congo

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    Osombause Sango, J.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproduction and Feeding of Distichodus antonii Schilthuis 1891 (Distichopdontidae in the Confluence Area of the Congo River and Rivers Lindi and Tshopo in Kisangani (R.D. Congo. The study of the reproduction and the feeding of D. antonii in the confluence area of the Congo river and rivers Lindi & Tshopo in Kisangani (R. D. Congo was carried out across 105 fish. The species D. antonii has a phytophagous regime and does not seem to have a preference for a given species of semi-aquatic macrophyte. This diet shows the variation related to the seasonal periods and to the sex of the individuals. The species of plant ingested are: Bambusa vulgaris (Poaceae, Pseudospondias microcarpa (Anacardiaceae, Manihot esculenta (Euphorbiaceae, Commelina diffusa (Commelinaceae, Echinochloa pyramidalis (Poaceae, Vigna unguiculata (Fabaceae, Elaeis guineensis (Arecaceae, Musa paradisiaca (Musaceae et Eicchornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae but the organs consumed of these plants remain the leaves, stems, fruits, roots, and seeds. The evolution of the gonadosomatic ratio presents two peaks in april and september. The estimated absolute fertility varies from 94,000 to 344,500 oocytes for an average of 196,878±72,122 oocytes and the relative fertility varies from 11,750 to 73,600 oocytes kg-1 for an average of 38,224± 15,893 oocytes kg-1. The diameter of the oocytes varies from 0, 95 to 1, 42 mm with an average of 1, 16±1,13 mm. The absolute fertility is correlated to the total length according to F= 4,28 Lt5, 35.

  18. Reserve carbohydrates and lipids from the seeds of four tropical tree species with different sensitivity to desiccation

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    Juliana Iura de Oliveira Mello

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of water content for the conservation and storage of seeds, and the involvement of soluble carbohydrates and lipids for embryo development, a comparative study was carried out among the seeds of Inga vera (ingá, Eugenia uniflora (pitanga, both classified as recalcitrant, and Caesalpinia echinata (brazilwood and Erythrina speciosa (mulungu, considered as orthodox seeds. Low concentrations of cyclitols (0.3-0.5%, raffinose family oligosaccharides (ca. 0.05% and unsaturated fatty acids (0-19% were found in the seeds of ingá and pitanga, while larger amounts of cyclitols (2-3% and raffinose (4.6-13% were found in brazilwood and mulungu, respectively. These results, in addition to higher proportions of unsaturated fatty acids (53-71% in orthodox seeds, suggested that sugars and lipids played important role in water movement, protecting the embryo cell membranes against injuries during dehydration.Os compostos de reserva das sementes, além de suprirem energia para o desenvolvimento embrionário, desempenham importantes funções relacionadas à proteção celular contra secagem e congelamento. Considerando a importância do teor de água para a conservação e para o armazenamento de sementes de espécies arbóreas e o envolvimento dos carboidratos solúveis e de lipídios nesses processos, foi realizada uma análise comparativa desses compostos em sementes de Inga vera (ingá e Eugenia uniflora (pitanga, consideradas recalcitrantes, e em Caesalpinia echinata (pau-brasil e Erythrina speciosa (mulungu, com comportamento ortodoxo. Baixas concentrações de ciclitóis (0,3-0,5%, de oligossacarídeos da série da rafinose (0,05% e de ácidos graxos insaturados (0-19% foram encontradas em sementes de ingá e pitanga, enquanto maiores quantidades de ciclitóis (2-3% e de rafinose (4,6-13% foram encontradas nas sementes de pau-brasil e mulungu, respectivamente. Estes resultados, juntamente com as altas proporções de

  19. La Lista de nombres vulgares y botánicos de árboles y arbustos propicios para repoblar los bosques de la República de Fernando Altamirano y José Ramírez a más de 110 años de su publicación The List of common and botanical names of trees and shrubs suitable for restoration of the woods of the Republic by Fernando Altamirano and José Ramírez, more than 110 years after its publication

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    Ma. Hilda Flores Olvera

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Dado el valor histórico y práctico de la lista de árboles y arbustos para repoblar los bosques de la República Mexicana que Altamirano y Ramírez publicaron hace 111 años y de la inaccesibilidad para consultarla, se elaboró una lista con los nombres científicos corregidos y/o los sinónimos actualizados, en su caso, para facilitar la consulta. Se proponen las posibles especies a las que Altamirano y Ramírez se refirieron, y para las que sólo indicaron nombre vulgar y género. Se anota si las especies son nativas o introducidas, su uso en el presente y los métodos de propagación. Se analiza y discute la lista a la luz de los enfoques actuales de restauración. El documento original consta de 281 nombres vulgares que representan 259 especies de 72 familias; 231 especies son angiospermas y 28 gimnospermas. La mayoría de los géneros tienen una sola especie y tan solo nueve, más de cuatro: Pinus con 19, Quercus con 11, Cordia y Tabebuia con cinco, Annona, Bursera, Caesalpinia, Juniperus y Yucca con cuatro. Se reproduce la carátula y la última página de la edición de l894.Because of the importance of the list of plant species for repopulating the forests of the Mexican Republic, first published by Altamirano and Ramírez 111 years ago, and the difficulty to access it, a list is presented considering current trends in ecological restoration, and corrected scientific names were added to facilitate its use. To improve the utility of the list some information such like if the species are native or introduced, their uses and propagation methods is provided. The authors provide 281 common names that represent 259 species of 72 families of which 231 species are angiosperms and 28 gymnosperms. Most of the genera are represented by one species and only nine genera are represented by four or more species: Pinus (19 species, Quercus (11 species, Cordia and Tabebuia (5 species each and Annona, Bursera, Caesalpinia, Juniperus and Yucca (4 species

  20. 檀香与不同豆科植物寄生关系的研究%Studies on Parasitic Relationship between Santalum album L. and Leguminous Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈荣; 张新华; 马国华

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand the parasitic relationship between Santalum album L. and leguminous plants, eleven leguminous species were planted with S. album. The leaf photosynthetic characters, height and base diameter of S. album and its haustoria number and size were studied. The results showed that number and size of haustoria, height and base diameter of S. album had signiifcant differences among different hosts. The excellent hosts for S. album were Calliandra haematocephala, Caesalpinia sappan, Acacia confusa and Erythrina corallodendron, and Acacia mangium, Dalbergia odorifera and Cassia surattensis were just general hosts, while Delonix regia, Ormosia pinnata, Leucaena leucocephala and Bauhinia blakeana were unsuitable hosts. Meanwhile, the height and diameter, leaf photosynthesis characters of S. album had close relation with number of haustoria parasitized on roots of leguminous plants. So, the plantation of S. album should choose appropriate host plant.%为了解檀香(Santalum album L.)与不同豆科植物的寄生关系,选取11种具有重要经济价值的豆科植物和檀香一起种植,对檀香叶片的光合特征和株高、地径以及寄主植物根系的吸器大小进行了测定。结果表明,檀香的吸器大小、数量在不同寄主之间存在很大差异,不同寄主对檀香的株高、地径也有显著差异。檀香的优良寄主有美洲合欢(Calliandra haematocephala)、苏木(Caesalpinia sappan)、台湾相思(Acacia confusa)、龙牙花(Erythrina corallodendron);一般的寄主植物有马占相思(Acacia mangium)、降香黄檀(Dalbergia odorifera)、黄槐(Cassia surattensis);不适宜的寄主植物有凤凰木(Delonix regia)、海南红豆(Ormosia pinnata)、银合欢(Leucaena leucocephala)、洋紫荆(Bauhinia blakeana)。同时,檀香的株高、地径及光合特征和吸器数量密切相关。因此,檀香种植时应选择适宜的优良寄主植物。

  1. Variações sazonais de aspectos fisiológicos de espécies da Caatinga Seazonal variations of physiological aspects of Caatinga species

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    Dilma M. de B. M. Trovão

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available No intuito de compreender as estratégias de sobrevivência utilizadas pelas espécies da Caatinga para se adaptarem às condições oferecidas pelo clima da região, avaliaram-se o potencial hídrico e a eficiencia quântica da fotossíntese obtida pela fluorescência das espécies: Myracrodruon urundeuva, Schinopsis brasiliensis, Amburana cearensis,Capparys cynophallophora, Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil, Pseudobombax sp, Commiphora leptophloeos, Ziziphus joazeiro Bumelia sartorum, Caesalpinia ferrea, Maytenus rigida, considerando-se dois períodos de observação: estiagem (1 e chuvoso (2, para se verificar os possíveis identificadores de estresse. Com relação ao potencial hídrico verificaram-se diferenças estatísticas entre as duas estações, porém o fato que chamou a atenção reside nos altos níveis do potencial hídrico, mesmo no período de estiagem que, caracteristicamente, provocaria o estresse hídrico em função da ausência de água no solo. Os dados de fluorescência revelaram ótimos estados nos aparatos fotossintéticos, não indicando condição de estresse. Concluiu-se que as estratégias de sobrevivência dessas espécies são altamente eficientes e resultam de uma alta complexidade evolutiva.With the purpose of understanding the survival strategies used by Caatinga species to face the weather conditions, the water potential and quantical photosynthetic efficiency of some species were studied. The data were obtained through the fluorescence of 11 species: Myracrodruon urundeuva, Schinopsis brasiliensis, Amburana cearensis, Capparys cynophallophora, Anadenanthera colubrine var. cebil, Pseudobombax sp., Commiphora leptophloeos, Ziziphus joazeiro, Bumelia sartorum, Caesalpinia ferrea, Maytenus rigidat. Two observation conditions of weather, the dry period and the wet one were studied, in which possible stress characteristics were verified. The study of the water potential presented statistical differences between

  2. Efficacy of some botanical extracts against Trogoderma granarium in wheat grains with toxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbalah, Aly S

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to find alternative control methods for stored products insects, extracts of seven plant species (Cassia senna, Caesalpinia gilliesii, Thespesia populnea var. acutiloba, Chrysanthemum frutescens, Euonymus japonicus, Bauhinia purpurea, and Cassia fistula) were evaluated under laboratory conditions for their ability to protect wheat (Triticum spp.) grains against Trogoderma granarium insect. Moreover, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was carried to identify the chemical components of the most effective plant extract against T. granarium. Furthermore, the safety of the most effective plant extract was evaluated with respect to biochemical and histological changes in treated rats relative to control. The results revealed that, the tested botanical extracts showed high efficiency against T. granarium with respect to mortality and progeny of the adults. C. senna was the most effective botanical extract against T. granarium. The GC-MS analysis of the most effective plant extract showed the presence of different bioactive compounds that is known by its insecticidal activity. The most effective plant extract showed no toxicity on treated rats relative to control with respect to biochemical and histological changes. The results suggest the ability of using these plant extracts for wheat grains protection as a safe alternative to insecticides.

  3. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of 81 Chinese Herb Extracts and Their Correlation with the Characteristics of Traditional Chinese Medicine

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    Chang-Liang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inducible nitrogen oxide synthase (iNOS is the primary contributor of the overproduction of nitric oxide and its inhibitors have been actively sought as effective anti-inflammatory agents. In this study, we prepared 70% ethanol extracts from 81 Chinese herbs. These extracts were subsequently evaluated for their effect on nitrogen oxide (NO production and cell growth in LPS/IFNγ-costimulated and unstimulated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells by Griess reaction and MTT assay. Extracts of Daphne genkwa Sieb.et Zucc, Caesalpinia sappan L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Forsythia suspensa (Thunb. Vahl, Zingiber officinale Rosc, Inula japonica Thunb., and Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort markedly inhibited NO production (inhibition > 90% at 100 μg/mL. Among active extracts (inhibition > 50% at 100 μg/mL, Rubia cordifolia L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Nigella glandulifera Freyn et Sint, Pueraria lobata (Willd. Ohwi, and Scutellaria barbata D. Don displayed no cytotoxicity to unstimulated RAW246.7 cells while increasing the growth of LPS/IFNγ-costimulated cells. By analyzing the correlation between their activities and their Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM characteristics, herbs with pungent flavor displayed potent anti-inflammatory capability. Our study provides a series of potential anti-inflammatory herbs and suggests that herbs with pungent flavor are candidates of effective anti-inflammatory agents.

  4. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of medicinal plants used in Northern Peru as antibacterial remedies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malca-García, G.; Glenn, A.; Sharon, D.; Chait, G.; Díaz, D.; Pourmand, K.; Jonat, B.; Somogy, S.; Guardado, G.; Aguirre, C.; Chan, R.; Meyer, K.; Kuhlman, A.; Townesmith, A.; Effio-Carbajal, J.; Frías-Fernandez, F.; Benito, M.

    2010-01-01

    Aim The plant species reported here are traditionally used in Northern Peru to treat bacterial infections, often addressed by the local healers as “inflammation”. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of their antibacterial properties against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Materials and methods The antimicrobial activity of ethanolic and water extracts of 141 plant species was determined using a deep-well broth microdilution method on commercially available bacterial strains. Results The ethanolic extracts of 51 species inhibited Escherichia coli, and 114 ethanolic extracts inhibited Staphylococcus aureus. In contrast, only 30 aqueous extracts showed activity against E. coli and 38 extracts against S. aureus. The MIC concentrations were mostly very high and ranged from 0.008 to 256mg/ml, with only 36 species showing inhibitory concentrations of <4mg/ml. The ethanolic extracts exhibited stronger activity and a much broader spectrum of action than the aqueous extracts. Hypericum laricifolium, Hura crepitans, Caesalpinia paipai, Cassia fistula, Hyptis sidifolia, Salvia sp., Banisteriopsis caapi, Miconia salicifolia and Polygonum hydropiperoides showed the lowest MIC values and would be interesting candidates for future research. Conclusions The presence of antibacterial activity could be confirmed in most species used in traditional medicine in Peru which were assayed in this study. However, the MIC for the species employed showed a very large range, and were mostly very high. Nevertheless, traditional knowledge might provide some leads to elucidate potential candidates for future development of new antibiotic agents. PMID:20678568

  5. Brazilin plays an anti-inflammatory role with regulating Toll-like receptor 2 and TLR 2 downstream pathways in Staphylococcus aureus-induced mastitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xue-jiao; Wang, Tian-cheng; Zhang, Ze-cai; Cao, Yong-guo; Zhang, Nai-sheng; Guo, Meng-yao

    2015-07-01

    Mastitis, which commonly occurs during the postpartum period, is caused by the infection of the mammary glands. The most common infectious bacterial pathogen of mastitis is Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in both human and animals. Brazilin, a compound isolated from the traditional herbal medicine Caesalpinia sappan L., has been shown to exhibit multiple biological properties. The present study was performed to determine the effect of brazilin on the inflammatory response in the mouse model of S. aureus mastitis and to confirm the mechanism of action involved. Brazilin treatment was applied in both a mouse model and cells. After brazilin treatment of cells, Western blotting and qPCR were performed to detect the protein levels and mRNA levels, respectively. Brazilin treatment significantly attenuated inflammatory cell infiltration and inhibited the expressions of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner. Administration of brazilin in mice suppressed S. aureus-induced inflammatory injury and the production of proinflammatory mediators. This suppression was achieved by reducing the increased expression of TLR2 and regulating the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways in the mammary gland tissues and cells with S. aureus-induced mastitis. These results suggest that brazilin appears to be an effective drug for the treatment of mastitis and may be applied as a clinical therapy.

  6. Ovicidal and repellent activities of botanical extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Govindarajan M; Mathivanan T; Elumalai K; Krishnappa K; Anandan A

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the ovicidal and repellent activities of methanol leaf extract ofErvatamia coronaria (E. coronaria) and Caesalpinia pulcherrima (C. pulcherrima) against Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus), Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) and Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi). Methods: The ovicidal activity was determined against three mosquito species at various concentrations ranging from 50-450 ppm under the laboratory conditions. The hatch rates were assessed 48 h after treatment. The repellent efficacy was determined against three mosquito species at three concentrations viz., 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/cm2 under the laboratory conditions.Results:The crude extract of E. coronaria exerted zero hatchability (100% mortality) at 250, 200 and 150 ppm for Cx. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi, respectively. The crude extract of C. pulcherrima exerted zero hatchability (100% mortality) at 375, 300 and 225 ppm for Cx. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti and An. Stephensi, respectively. The methanol extract of E. coronaria found to be more repellenct than C. pulcherrima extract. A higher concentration of 5.0 mg/cm2 provided 100% protection up to 150, 180 and 210 min against Cx. quinquefasciatus, Ae.aegypti and An. stephensi, respectively. The results clearly showed that repellent activity was dose dependent. Conclusions: From the results it can be concluded the crude extracts of E. coronaria and C. pulcherrima are an excellent potential for controlling Cx. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi mosquitoes.

  7. SURVEY, IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION OF INSECT INJURIES IN ORNAMENTAL TREES IN THE URBAN AREA OF GOIÂNIA, GOIÁS STATE, BRASIL LEVANTAMENTO, IDENTIFICAÇÃO E AVALIAÇÃO DOS DANOS DE INSETOS EM ÁRVORES ORNAMENTAIS NA ÁREA URBANA DE GOIÂNIA (GO

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    Antônio Henrique Garcia

    2007-09-01

    >P. aquatica; B. variegata; Caesalpinia sp; pest; ornamentals.

    Das 1.800 árvores ornamentais amostradas na área urbana de Goiânia, Paquira aquatica representou 62,7%, Caesalpinia sp. 15,3%, Bauhinia variegata 10%, Spathodea campanulata 6%, Terminalia catappa 3,2%, Acacia sp. 1,2%, Ponciana sp. 1,0% e outras espécies, 0,6%. As espécies de insetos mais observadas entre as árvores de P. aquatica amostradas foram Psylla floccosa (92,3%, Steirastoma breve 76,7%, Palindia detracta (63,4%, Phelypera shuppeli 43,4% e Euchroma gigantea (23,7%. As que causam maiores danos à planta são S. breve, que provoca o secamento dos troncos e galhos, e E. gigantea, cujas larvas destroem todo o sistema radicular provocando a queda da planta. Orthezia praelonga foi observada em 84,61% das árvores de B. variegata amostradas; entre 30 árvores 20% morreram após três anos e 40% no final do quarto ano; entre 50 mudas 36% secaram após um ano e 58% trinta meses após. O. praelonga foi observada em 94,6% de S. campanulata; em 32 árvores 8% secaram em um ano, 18% no segundo e o restante secou no final do terceiro ano. Icerya purchasi foi observada em 84,7% de Caesalpinia sp. amostradas; entre 48 árvores 5% secaram após seis meses, 16% dois anos após e 30% delas secaram no final do quarto ano; em 50 mudas dessa espécie, detectaram-se ataques bem intensos, 78% secaram em apenas quinze dias. Quesada gigas e Dorisiana sp. foram observadas em Acacia sp. Em Ponciana sp. foi observada a presença de algumas espécies de Scolytidae,

  8. ESTRUTURA E FLORÍSTICA DE UM REMANESCENTE FLORESTAL NA FAZENDA RIBEIRÃO, MUNICÍPIO DE JUVENÍLIA, MG, BRASIL

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    Rubens Manoel dos Santos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The area of the extreme North of Minas, due to your character ecotone, involves a large number of physiognomies and floristic complexes, but presumably unknown. Thus, the aim of this research was to determine the structure and the floristic composition of an area of arboreal caatinga in Juvenília, Minas Gerais. Hopes to contribute with information that allow, in the future, that is arrived to a classification it aims at and coherent of this vegetation. A sample of 10 (20x20m plots was allocated (400m2, distributed on a parallel transect to the largest axis of the fragment, and to each 20 meters in this transect two plots were allocated, distanced 10 meters to each other, totaling 0.4ha. All the individuals were registered with CBH (circumference at breast height > 10cm. In the structure, 36 species with diversity of H' = 2.4 and eqüability of J' = 0.67 were sampled, values middlemen if compared with results of other works developed at Brazilian deciduous seasonal forests. Acacia martii, Caesalpinia pluviosa, Eugenia uniflora and Tabebuia impetiginosa presented the largest values in all the structural parameters analyzed. This links with the high abundance of those species. The community's diameter distributions tended to the normality with smaller amount of individuals in the classes smaller and larger diametric.

  9. A study on temporal variation of elemental composition in tree barks used as air pollution indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Eliane C.; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail: eliane_csantos@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The study of air pollution using biological matrices has shown that tree barks may be used as biomonitor due to accumulation of aerosol particles on its porous surface. The bark elemental composition can provide information on pollution sources as well as characterize the aerial pollutants from a wide geographical region. The aim of this study was to investigate the variation in elemental composition in barks with time of exposure. Tree barks from Tipuana (Tipuana tipu) and Sibipiruna (Caesalpinia peltophoroides) species were collected in February 2013 and July 2014 in the city of São Paulo. For analysis, the barks were cleaned, grated, ground and analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Aliquots of samples and synthetic standards of elements were irradiated with thermal neutron flux at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor and after a suitable decay time, the induced gamma activities were analyzed by gamma spectrometry. The elements As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Rb, Sb, Sc and Zn were determined and the results indicated variability in the concentrations depending on the element, sampling period and also on tree species, indicating that there are not very well defined temporal trends. The quality control of the analytical results evaluated by analyzing INCT Virginia Tobacco Leaves certified reference material (CRM) presented values of |z-score| < 2, indicating that the procedure of NAA applied is suitable for the analyses. (author)

  10. Brazilin Limits Inflammatory Responses through Induction of Prosurvival Autophagy in Rheumatoid Fibroblast-Like Synoviocytes.

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    Hyunji Lee

    Full Text Available Brazilin is an active compound of Caesalpinia sappan L. (Leguminosae, which possesses pro-apoptotic and anti-inflammation potentials depending on the specific cell type. However, it is largely unknown whether autophagy is implicated in the mechanism underlying its chemotherapeutic and anti-inflammatory effects in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Here, we show that treatment of RA fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS with brazilin results in enhanced level of autophagic flux, evidenced by accumulation of autophagosome and increased level of lipidated LC3 (LC3-II, which is mainly mediated by enhanced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Interestingly, long-term exposure of brazilin was able to restore cell survival against the cytotoxity, exclusively in RA FLS, but not in normal fibroblast. Importantly, such a restoration from brazilin-induced cytotoxity in RA FLS was completely abrogated after co-treatment with autophagy inhibitors including NH4Cl or chloroquine. Furthermore, we found that the pretreatment of RA FLS with brazilin reduced LPS- or TNF-induced NF-κB activation and the secretion of inflammatory cytokines in parallel with the enhanced autophagic flux. Such anti-NF-κB potentials of brazilin were drastically masked in RA FLS when autophagy was suppressed. These results suggest that brazilin is capable of activating autophagy exclusively in RA FLS, and such inducible autophagy promotes cell survival and limits inflammatory response.

  11. EFFECT OF SAPPAN WOOD (Caesalpinnia sappan L EXTRACT ON BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL IN WHITE RATS

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    Saefudin Saefudin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sappan wood or kayu secang (Caesalpinia sappan L. was reported of having medicinal properties, such as natural antioxidant, relieve vomiting of blood, and mix of ingredients for malaria drugs. The research was conducted to study the influence of ethanol extract from sappan wood on blood glucose level of white rats. The study of the blood glucose level in rats was carried out by using glucose tolerance method. It was measured by Refloluxs (Accutrend GC with Chloropropamide 50 mg/200 g BW (Body weight as positive control. The ethanol extracts were used in various concentrations 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/200 g BW per-oral and was observed every hour, beginning one hour before to 7 hours after the extract being administered. The results showed that treatment of ethanol extract of sappan wood by administer doses gave remarkable effect on the blood glucose level in white rat. It reduced the glucose level in the blood compared to the negative and positive control. Treatment of dose 30 mg/200 g BW gave similar effect to positive controls, while a dose of 50 mg/200 g BW gave lower blood glucose level (93 mg/dl than the positive controls.

  12. Antiviral and Antioxidant Activities of Sulfated Galactomannans from Plants of Caatinga Biome

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    Márcia Maria Mendes Marques

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue represents a serious social and economic public health problem; then trying to contribute to improve its control, the objective of this research was to develop phytoterapics for dengue treatment using natural resources from Caatinga biome. Galactomannans isolated from Adenanthera pavonina L., Caesalpinia ferrea Mart., and Dimorphandra gardneriana Tull were chemically sulfated in order to evaluate the antioxidant, and antiviral activities and the role in the inhibition of virus DENV-2 in Vero cells. A positive correlation between the degree of sulfation, antioxidant and antiviral activities was observed. The sulfated galactomannans showed binding to the virus surface, indicating that they interact with DENV-2. The sulfated galactomannans from C. ferrea showed 96% inhibition of replication of DENV-2 followed by D. gardneriana (94% and A. pavonina (77% at 25 µg/mL and all sulfated galactomannans also showed antioxidant activity. This work is the first report of the antioxidant and antiviral effects of sulfated galactomannans against DENV-2. The results are very promising and suggest that these sulfated galactomannans from plants of Caatinga biome act in the early step of viral infection. Thus, sulfated galactomannans may act as an entry inhibitor of DENV-2.

  13. Anti-inflammatory effects of 81 chinese herb extracts and their correlation with the characteristics of traditional chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang-Liang; Zhang, Dan-Dan

    2014-01-01

    Inducible nitrogen oxide synthase (iNOS) is the primary contributor of the overproduction of nitric oxide and its inhibitors have been actively sought as effective anti-inflammatory agents. In this study, we prepared 70% ethanol extracts from 81 Chinese herbs. These extracts were subsequently evaluated for their effect on nitrogen oxide (NO) production and cell growth in LPS/IFNγ-costimulated and unstimulated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells by Griess reaction and MTT assay. Extracts of Daphne genkwa Sieb.et Zucc, Caesalpinia sappan L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl, Zingiber officinale Rosc, Inula japonica Thunb., and Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort markedly inhibited NO production (inhibition > 90% at 100 μg/mL). Among active extracts (inhibition > 50% at 100 μg/mL), Rubia cordifolia L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Nigella glandulifera Freyn et Sint, Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi, and Scutellaria barbata D. Don displayed no cytotoxicity to unstimulated RAW246.7 cells while increasing the growth of LPS/IFNγ-costimulated cells. By analyzing the correlation between their activities and their Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) characteristics, herbs with pungent flavor displayed potent anti-inflammatory capability. Our study provides a series of potential anti-inflammatory herbs and suggests that herbs with pungent flavor are candidates of effective anti-inflammatory agents.

  14. Microbial activity, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and inoculation of woody plants in lead contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattai, Graziella S.; Pereira, Sônia V.; Costa, Cynthia M. C.; Lima, Cláudia E. P.; Maia, Leonor C.

    2011-01-01

    The goals of this study were to evaluate the microbial activity, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and inoculation of woody plants (Caesalpinia ferrea, Mimosa tenuiflora and Erythrina velutina) in lead contaminated soil from the semi-arid region of northeastern of Brazil (Belo Jardim, Pernambuco). Dilutions were prepared by adding lead contaminated soil (270 mg Kg-1) to uncontaminated soil (37 mg Pb Kg soil-1) in the proportions of 7.5%, 15%, and 30% (v:v). The increase of lead contamination in the soil negatively influenced the amount of carbon in the microbial biomass of the samples from both the dry and rainy seasons and the metabolic quotient only differed between the collection seasons in the 30% contaminated soil. The average value of the acid phosphatase activity in the dry season was 2.3 times higher than observed during the rainy season. There was no significant difference in the number of glomerospores observed between soils and periods studied. The most probable number of infective propagules was reduced for both seasons due to the excess lead in soil. The mycorrhizal colonization rate was reduced for the three plant species assayed. The inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi benefited the growth of Erythrina velutina in lead contaminated soil. PMID:24031701

  15. Enzymatic and chemical oxidation of polygalactomannans from the seeds of a few species of leguminous plants and characterization of the oxidized products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlini, Luca; Boccia, Antonella Caterina; Mendichi, Raniero; Galante, Yves M

    2015-03-20

    Plant polysaccharides are used in a growing number of applications, in their native or in chemically and/or biochemically modified forms. In the present work, we compare TEMPO-mediated oxidation with laccase of polygalactomannans (PGM) from different species of plant leguminous to chemical oxidation with NaClO/NaBr/TEMPO. We have investigated the gums from: locust bean (Ceratonia siliqua), tara (Caesalpinia spinosa), guar (Cyamopsis tetragonolobus), sesbania (Sesbania bispinosa) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum). Upon laccase/TEMPO oxidation, PGM viscosity and concentration of reducing groups increased up to five-fold and structured, elastic, stable gels were formed, which could be degraded by hydrolysis with β-mannanase. Conversely, chemical oxidation with NaClO/NaBr/TEMPO caused a rapid, intermediate transition of the gum solutions to compact gels, that immediately reverted to liquid, with a lower viscosity than at the start and an increased concentration of reducing groups, similar to the reaction with laccase. We interpret the above as due to, in the case of laccase, oxidation of primary hydroxyl groups to aldehydes, able to form stable hemiacetalic bonds with free hydroxyl groups. While upon chemical oxidation, primary OH's are only transiently oxidized to aldehydes, followed by rapid oxidation of all carbonyl groups to carboxylates. In either cases, TEMPO appeared to cause a limited splitting of glycosidic bonds of PGM. Native and oxidized PGM were further characterized by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and by rheology.

  16. Immune-system-dependent anti-tumor activity of a plant-derived polyphenol rich fraction in a melanoma mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Cadena, A; Urueña, C; Prieto, K; Martinez-Usatorre, A; Donda, A; Barreto, A; Romero, P; Fiorentino, S

    2016-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that part of the anti-tumor effects of several chemotherapeutic agents require an intact immune system. This is in part due to the induction of immunogenic cell death. We have identified a gallotannin-rich fraction, obtained from Caesalpinia spinosa (P2Et) as an anti-tumor agent in both breast carcinoma and melanoma. Here, we report that P2Et treatment results in activation of caspase 3 and 9, mobilization of cytochrome c and externalization of annexin V in tumor cells, thus suggesting the induction of apoptosis. This was preceded by the onset of autophagy and the expression of immunogenic cell death markers. We further demonstrate that P2Et-treated tumor cells are highly immunogenic in vaccinated mice and induce immune system activation, clearly shown by the generation of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) producing tyrosine-related protein 2 antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. Moreover, the tumor protective effects of P2Et treatment were abolished in immunodeficient mice, and partially lost after CD4 and CD8 depletion, indicating that P2Et's anti-tumor activity is highly dependent on immune system and at least in part of T cells. Altogether, these results support the hypothesis that the gallotannin-rich fraction P2Et's anti-tumor effects are mediated to a great extent by the endogenous immune response following to the exposure to immunogenic dying tumor cells. PMID:27253407

  17. Rainfall interception by two arboreal species in urban green area

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    Luzia Ferreira da Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall interception by the two most usual species in forest urban spaces was analysed by measuring of interception (I or interception losses, through fall (Th, stem flow (St and gross precipitation (Pg. The chosen species were Caesalpinia pluviosa DC. (Fabaceae: Caesalpinoideae or sibipiruna, and Tipuana tipu O. Kuntze (Fabaceae: Faboideae or tipuana. The individuals analysed were more than 50 years old, with three separate individuals and three individuals in each studied group of species at the campus of ”Luiz de Queiroz” College of Agriculture (University of Sao Paulo, Piracicaba. The experiments were carried out from January to February 2007. Water was collected using seven-litre pails, in the edges and in the centre of the canopies. A high correlation of Th with Pg was observed on the centre of the crow of tipuana and by the edges of sibipiruna. St and I had low correlation with Pg for both species. The average of rain interception was greater in the edges of the crow of sibipiruna individuals, 60.6%, and in the centre of tipuana crow, 59.40%. Thus, both species intercepted up to 60% of the water rainfall, which indicates a great potential of both species for arborisation in urban environments.

  18. Scent glands in legume flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, C R; Souza, C D; Barros, T C; Teixeira, S P

    2014-01-01

    Scent glands, or osmophores, are predominantly floral secretory structures that secrete volatile substances during anthesis, and therefore act in interactions with pollinators. The Leguminosae family, despite being the third largest angiosperm family, with a wide geographical distribution and diversity of habits, morphology and pollinators, has been ignored with respect to these glands. Thus, we localised and characterised the sites of fragrance production and release in flowers of legumes, in which scent plays an important role in pollination, and also tested whether there are relationships between the structure of the scent gland and the pollinator habit: diurnal or nocturnal. Flowers in pre-anthesis and anthesis of 12 legume species were collected and analysed using immersion in neutral red, olfactory tests and anatomical studies (light and scanning electron microscopy). The main production site of floral scent is the perianth, especially the petals. The scent glands are distributed in a restricted way in Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Anadenanthera peregrina, Inga edulis and Parkia pendula, constituting mesophilic osmophores, and in a diffuse way in Bauhinia rufa, Hymenaea courbaril, Erythrostemon gilliesii, Poincianella pluviosa, Pterodon pubescens, Platycyamus regnellii, Mucuna urens and Tipuana tipu. The glands are comprised of cells of the epidermis and mesophyll that secrete mainly terpenes, nitrogen compounds and phenols. Relationships between the presence of osmophores and type of anthesis (diurnal and nocturnal) and the pollinator were not found. Our data on scent glands in Leguminosae are original and detail the type of diffuse release, which has been very poorly studied.

  19. Pengaruh penggunaan bahan pewarna alam dari ekstrak kayu terhadap sifat fisis kulit ikan kakap merah

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    Emiliana Kasmudjiastuti

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this research is to identify the effect of some natural dye of wood extract to the physical properties (tensile strength, elongation and rub fastness resistance of kakap (Lutjanidae fish skin leather. Fifteen pieces of dry preserved kakap fish skin were used in this research, and tanned using syntan and alum. The dyeing process was done using natural dyes of wood extract of Caesalpinia sappan L, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Swietenia mahagoni JACQ, Maclura cochinensis, and Ceriops tagal. The result of research indicated that the kind of applied natural dyes were not affect the physical properties of Kakap fish skins. The fish skins dyed using the such natural dyes was able be utilised as material in leather goods manufacturing. One of the five types of natural dye used in this research, Swietenia mahagoni JACQ wood extract produced the best dyed leather having good tensile strength, elongation/flexibility and the colour fastness. The tensile strength was 213,15 kg/cm2, flexibility 56% and colour fastness with wet white cloth 3/4 (grey scale value and with dry white cloth 4/5 (grey scale value, respectively

  20. Efficacy of Some Botanical Extracts against Trogoderma granarium in Wheat Grains with Toxicity Evaluation

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    Aly S. Derbalah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to find alternative control methods for stored products insects, extracts of seven plant species (Cassia senna, Caesalpinia gilliesii, Thespesia populnea var. acutiloba, Chrysanthemum frutescens, Euonymus japonicus, Bauhinia purpurea, and Cassia fistula were evaluated under laboratory conditions for their ability to protect wheat (Triticum spp. grains against Trogoderma granarium insect. Moreover, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis was carried to identify the chemical components of the most effective plant extract against T. granarium. Furthermore, the safety of the most effective plant extract was evaluated with respect to biochemical and histological changes in treated rats relative to control. The results revealed that, the tested botanical extracts showed high efficiency against T. granarium with respect to mortality and progeny of the adults. C. senna was the most effective botanical extract against T. granarium. The GC-MS analysis of the most effective plant extract showed the presence of different bioactive compounds that is known by its insecticidal activity. The most effective plant extract showed no toxicity on treated rats relative to control with respect to biochemical and histological changes. The results suggest the ability of using these plant extracts for wheat grains protection as a safe alternative to insecticides.

  1. Microbial activity, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and inoculation of woody plants in lead contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziella S Gattai

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The goals of this study were to evaluate the microbial activity, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and inoculation of woody plants (Caesalpinia ferrea, Mimosa tenuiflora and Erythrina velutina in lead contaminated soil from the semi-arid region of northeastern of Brazil (Belo Jardim, Pernambuco. Dilutions were prepared by adding lead contaminated soil (270 mg Kg-1 to uncontaminated soil (37 mg Pb Kg soil-1 in the proportions of 7.5%, 15%, and 30% (v:v. The increase of lead contamination in the soil negatively influenced the amount of carbon in the microbial biomass of the samples from both the dry and rainy seasons and the metabolic quotient only differed between the collection seasons in the 30% contaminated soil. The average value of the acid phosphatase activity in the dry season was 2.3 times higher than observed during the rainy season. There was no significant difference in the number of glomerospores observed between soils and periods studied. The most probable number of infective propagules was reduced for both seasons due to the excess lead in soil. The mycorrhizal colonization rate was reduced for the three plant species assayed. The inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi benefited the growth of Erythrina velutina in lead contaminated soil.

  2. 卡萨烷型二萜的研究进展%Research Progress of Cassane Diterpene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐洪波; 杨凤仙; 李元平; 王利勤

    2015-01-01

    卡萨烷型二萜主要分布在云实属植物中,本文对云实属以外的 Erythrophleum、Acacia、Myrospermum、Oryza、Chamaecrista、Swartzia、Osteospermum、Laxiflorus、Plathymenia、Bowdichia、Cordyla、Bobgunnia等属植物和Paraconiothyrium属真菌中的卡萨烷型二萜成分和生物活性研究现状进行综述.目前文献报道云实属植物以外资源中共有卡萨烷型二萜成分91个,它们的结构类型较多,有含氮(形成酰胺或胺)的卡萨烷二萜、卡萨烷型三环二萜、卡萨烷型呋喃二萜、具有内酯环的卡萨烷二萜、降卡萨烷二萜及二聚体等,活性也呈现多样性,如细胞毒性、抗菌、抗增殖等生物活性.%Cassane-type diterpenes are mainly distributed in Caesalpinia Plants. The cassane-type diterpenes from the plants of Erythrophleum, Acacia, Myrospermum, Oryza, Chamaecrista, Swartzia, Osteospermum, Laxiflorus, Plathymenia, Bowdichia, Cordyla and Bobgunnia genus, and the fungi of Paraconiothyrium genus were reviewed. These cassane diterpene showed cytotoxic, anti-bacterial, anti-proliferative and other biological activities.

  3. Anticancer activity of five forest crops used in African folklore: antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erharuyi, Osayemwenre; Engel-Lutz, Nadja; Ahomafor, Joy; Imieje, Vincent; Falodun, Abiodun; Nebe, Babara; Langer, Peter

    2014-02-26

    Acalypha wilkesiana, Caesalpinia bonduc, Jatropha multifida, Momordica charantia and Picralima nitida used in African folklore for treating cancer were investigated. All extracts except J. multifida resulted in no significant alteration in cell cycle distribution and apoptosis in MCF-7 and BT-20. The J. multifilda (JMR-Ch) caused cell cycle arrest at G1 checkpoint and apoptosis in MCF-7. Slight changes in the integrin expression of MCF-7 after treatment with 1 and 10 μg/mL of JMR-Ch were observed. Fluorescence-activated confocal microscopy shows changes in cell morphology and β1 integrin localisation within MCF-7 cells after exposure to 10 and 25 μg/mL of JMR-Ch. JMR-Ch (1 μg/mL) treatment resulted in time-dependent decrease in cell acidification and respiration in MCF-7 cells and a time-dependent decrease in BT-20 cell respiration, while in MCF-10A, there was an enhancement of acidification. These results revealed the probable application of JMR-Ch in cancer therapy.

  4. Peperitas en Costa Rica Costa Rican peperites

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    Daniel Soto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo describe petrográfica y genéticamente, una serie de hallazgos de peperitas como ejemplos de coexistencia espacial y temporal del magmatismo con la sedimentación en Costa Rica. Los casos se presentan en complejos ígneos básicos (ofiolitas variando desde mezclas incompletas (megabloques de radiolaritas con diabasas en el Complejo de Nicoya hasta mezclas completas en varios grados de calizas pelágicas del Maastrictiano-Paleoceno (Formación Golfito o del Paleoceno con basaltos (Subcomplejo Quepos o Formación Tulín para dar peperitas brechoides y bulbosas. Dentro del arco Oligo-Mioceno, se tienen ejemplos a lo largo de la cordillera de Talamanca y sus estribaciones, así como en las llanuras de Sarapiquí, representados por peperitas brechoides, fluidales y bulbosas en cuerpos de lava latiandesíticos (Formación Pacacua o chimeneas peperíticas brechoides en ignimbritas (Miembro Mata de Limón, o posibles peperitas brechoides en los depósitos de flujos de lava del prospecto minero de Crucitas (Formación Cureña, o simples posibles peperitas brechoides en flujos de lava andesíticas (Formación Pacacua en Talamanca, o como brechas hidroclásticas con fragmentos de composición dacítica de Carbonal en Guanacaste, justamente entre las playas Cabuyal y Naranjo. Todas ellas serían los equivalentes proximales del vulcanismo explosivo, efusivo y subvolcánico (domos endógenos y criptodomos y su concomitancia con la sedimentación fluvial. En el Cuaternario, un ejemplo se da en la base de la Formación Tiribí al contacto con el lacustre de Palmares. Se incluyen en el presente trabajo, además, casos posibles o potenciales. Se espera que la descripción e interpretación de este tipo de rocas ayude a su identificación en otras regiones de Costa Rica y Centroamérica en general, así como una fuente potencial para la prospección de metales valiosos.This paper describes petrographically and genetically, a number of

  5. Avaliação de defeitos no processo de fabricação de lamelas para pisos de madeira engenheirados com uso de ferramentas de controle de qualidade Evaluation of the production process of lamella for engineered wood floor using quality control instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Coletti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Os defeitos das lamelas são responsáveis em grande parte pelo retrabalho, perdas e diminuição da qualidade do piso acabado. Esses defeitos geram aumento de custos de produção sendo um fator muito importante para o processo de fabricação de pisos de madeira. Este trabalho tem por objetivos classificar e quantificar os defeitos ocorrentes na produção de lamelas, buscar causas, propor soluções e melhorias através da aplicação de ferramentas de qualidade como: “Brainstorming", “ Diagrama de Pareto", “Diagrama de Ishikawa" e 5W2H . Foram amostrados 1598,47 m² de lamelas das seguintes espécies: Muiracatiara (Astronium lecointei Ducke, amendoim (Pterogyne nitens Tul, cabreúva (Myroxylon Balsamum Harms e timborana (Pseudopiptadenia suaveolens Miq com as seguintes dimensões: espessuras (2,5mm e 3,5mm, larguras (76,2mm, 82,5mm e 127mm, comprimentos (450mm a 1.200mm. O defeito mais freqüente encontrado na produção de lamelas foi a marca de serra (31%, seguido de corte da madeira feito pelo fornecedor (23% e falta de instrução de trabalho (15%. As principais causas dos defeitos de marca de serra são devidas aos problemas de manutenção de serras da empresa fornecedora de madeira.Lamella defects are responsible in large part for rework losses and decrease in the quality of the finished floor. These defects increase costs, a very important factor in the process wood floor production. This work aimed to quantify and classify the common defects occurring in the lamella production, find out causes and propose solutions and improvements using the tools “Brainstorming", “Pareto Diagram", “Ishibawa Diagram", and 5W2H. 1598,47 square meters of lamella of the species Muiracatiara (Astronium lecointei Ducke, Amendoim (Pterogyne nitens Tul, Cabreúva (Myroxylon Balsamum Harms and Timborana (Pseudopiptadenia suaveolens Miq were sampled with the following dimensions: thickness (2.5mm and 3.5mm, width (76,2mm, 82,5mm and 127mm, lenght

  6. Nitrogenous compounds, phenolic compounds and morphological aspects of leaves: comparison of deciduous and semideciduous arboreal legumes Compostos nitrogenados, fenólicos e aspecto morfológico em folhas: comparação entre leguminosas arbóreas semidecíduas e decíduas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia da Silva Lima

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In general, perennial species contain higher concentrations of certain secondary compounds, such as phenolics, lower levels of nitrogenous compounds, and greater specific leaf mass (SLM than deciduous species. The aim of this study was to verify whether the comparative data reported in the literature regarding deciduous and evergreen species, also applies to four selected species of a semideciduous tropical forest (a remnant of the Atlantic Forest. The four species chosen for this study, each with apparently different leaf life spans, were two semideciduous (Hymenaea courbaril L. var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee et Lang., and Lonchocarpus guilleminianus (Tul. Malme, and two deciduous (Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong., and Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub.. Plants were grown in a greenhouse in plastic pots containing soil taken from their natural habitat. Mature leaves were harvested for determination of the SLM and contents of phenolic compounds, tannins, nitrate, protein, free amino acids, chlorophyll, and nitrogen. Data registered are in agreement with those of the literature. Leaves with the longest life span had the highest content of phenolics and the lowest levels of tannins, nitrate, protein, amino acids, chlorophyll and nitrogen, as well as presenting the greatest SLM.Em geral as espécies perenifólias possuem maior concentração de alguns compostos secundários, como por exemplo fenóis, menor concentração de compostos nitrogenados e maior massa foliar específica (MFE, quando comparadas a espécies decíduas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se as observações encontradas na literatura, comparando espécies perenifólias e decíduas aplicam-se também a quatro espécies de uma mata semidecídua, remanescente da Mata Atlântica. Das quatro espécies usadas neste estudo, que aparentemente apresentavam longevidades foliares diferentes, duas eram semidecíduas (Hymenaea courbaril L. var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee et Lang. e

  7. Evaluación de Insecticidas para el Manejo de Monalonion velezangeli, Carvalho & Costa (Hemiptera: Miridae en Aguacate Evaluation of Insecticides for Monalonion velezangeli, Carvalho & Costa (Hemiptera: Miridae management in Avocado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena Montilla Pérez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. La chinche monalonion, coclicllo o chupanga(Monalonion velezangeli causa daños en brotes terminalesde aguacate, afectando el desarrollo del árbol; en frutos causa secamiento y, por lo tanto, rechazo en la comercialización. Aún no existen estrategias para el manejo de la plaga y los productores utilizan insecticidas sin previa evaluación de su efectividad. Se evaluaron insecticidas con un nuevo modo de acción sobre M. velezangeli bajo condiciones controladas. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completos al azar, con once tratamientos y cuatrorepeticiones. Los tratamientos fueron los insecticidas deltametrina, λ-cihalotrina, imidacloprid, thiametoxam, spinosad, spiromesifen, diflubenzurón, diafentiurón, una mezcla de thiametoxam + λ-cihalotrina; y además, un testigo relativo (agua y un testigo absoluto (sin aplicación. La unidad experimental consistió de un arbusto de guayaba común con diez insectos confinados en una jaula de tela tul. Los tratamientos se aplicaron una vez con los insectos confinados en la jaula. Se identificó que deltametrina,λ-cihalotrina, thiametoxam, imidacloprid y la mezcla dethiametoxam más λ-cihalotrina causan mortalidad entre 85 y100% sobre M. velezangeli, 24 horas después de ser aplicados y 3 días después la mortalidad alcanza el 100%. Estos productos pueden ser incluidos en un programa de manejo integrado para M. velezangeli. El diafentiurón causa mortalidades entre 51-81%. No se evidenció efecto de diafentiurón, diflubenzurón y spiromesifen sobre la progenie de adultos expuestos, pero ninfas tratadas quealcanzaron el estado adulto, dieron origen a un menor número de ninfas; sin embargo, este efecto debe dilucidarse mejor. / Abstract. The bug monalonion, coclicllo o chupanga (Monalonion velezangeli generates damage in avocado end buds, affecting the tree development. When the attack is located on the fruit it causes its drying and therefore its rejection. There are no

  8. Estudo etnobotânico na comunidade de Conceição-Açu (alto da bacia do rio Aricá Açu, MT, Brasil Ethnobotany study in community of Conceição-Açu (on the upper basin of the River Aricá Açu, MT, Brazil

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    Maria Corette Pasa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo realizar o levantamento etnobotânico de plantas classificadas em diferentes categorias de uso na comunidade de Conceição-Açu, no município de Cuiabá, MT, Brasil e estimar o valor de uso das espécies botânicas em matas de galeria. Entrevistas estruturadas e semi-estruturadas, o uso do questionário foram aplicados em 59 residentes adultos de ambos os sexos. Identificou-se as unidades de paisagem: quintais, roças e matas de galeria e o número total de espécies utilizadas foi de 180. A maioria das plantas foi coletada durante a entrevista e depositadas no Herbário da UFMT. Nos quintais das residências identificou-se 86 espécies, pertencentes a 43 famílias, a maioria cultivada e utilizada como alimento (48,1% e como remédio (44,5%. Nas roças os principais cultivos são: Manihot esculenta L. (100%, Carica papaya L. (76,2%, Musa paradisiaca L. (71,4%, Saccharum officinarum L. (57,1%. Na mata de galeria destacou-se a categoria medicinal (65%, com as espécies: Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. (2,5, Aspidosperma polyneuron Muell. Arg. (2,5, Hymenaea stignocarpa Mart. (2,33, Diptychandra aurantiaca Tul. (2,0, Cariniana rubra Gardner ex. Miers (20 e as famílias botânicas Mimosaceae, Bignoniaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Fabaceae e Sapindaceae. Os resultados demonstram que a população possui vasto conhecimento das plantas e de suas propriedades de cura.This paper aims at doing the ethnobotany survey of plants classified in different categories of use in the community of Conceição-Açu, in the city of Cuiabá, MT, Brazil and estimate the value of use of the species botanic in the gallery forest. Structured and non-structured interviews and the questionnaire were used in 59 adult dwellers of both sexes. Were identified the landscape units: backyards, husbandry and gallery forest and the total number of used species is the 180. The majority of the plants was collected during the interview and is kept in the

  9. Identification of catechin as one of the flavonoids from Combretum albiflorum bark extract that reduces the production of quorum-sensing-controlled virulence factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeputte, Olivier M; Kiendrebeogo, Martin; Rajaonson, Sanda; Diallo, Billo; Mol, Adeline; El Jaziri, Mondher; Baucher, Marie

    2010-01-01

    Quorum-sensing (QS) regulates the production of key virulence factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other important pathogenic bacteria. In this report, extracts of leaves and bark of Combretum albiflorum (Tul.) Jongkind (Combretaceae) were found to quench the production of QS-dependent factors in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Chromatographic fractionation of the crude active extract generated several active fractions containing flavonoids, as shown by their typical spectral features. Purification and structural characterization of one of the active compounds led to the identification of the flavan-3-ol catechin [(2R,3S)-2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,4-dihydro-1(2H)-benzopyran-3,5,7-triol]. The identity of catechin as one of the active molecules was confirmed by comparing the high-pressure liquid chromatography profiles and the mass spectrometry spectra obtained for a catechin standard and for the active C. albiflorum fraction. Moreover, standard catechin had a significant negative effect on pyocyanin and elastase productions and biofilm formation, as well as on the expression of the QS-regulated genes lasB and rhlA and of the key QS regulatory genes lasI, lasR, rhlI, and rhlR. The use of RhlR- and LasR-based biosensors indicated that catechin might interfere with the perception of the QS signal N-butanoyl-l-homoserine lactone by RhlR, thereby leading to a reduction of the production of QS factors. Hence, catechin, along with other flavonoids produced by higher plants, might constitute a first line of defense against pathogenic attacks by affecting QS mechanisms and thereby virulence factor production.

  10. Palladium, Platinum and Gold Concentrations in Fengshan Porphyry Cu-Mo Deposit, Hubei Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Minfang; DENG Xiaodong; BI Shijian; LI Zhanke

    2009-01-01

    The Fengshan porphyry-skarn copper-molybdenum (Cu-Mo) deposit is located in the south-eastern Hubei Province in east China. Cu-Mo mineralization is hosted in the Fengshan granodiorite porphyry stock that intruded the Triassic Daye Formation carbonate rocks in the early Cretaceous (~140 Ma), as well as the contact zone between granodiorite porphyry stock and carbonate rocks, forming the porphyry-type and skarn-type association. The Fengshan granodiorite stock and the immediate country rocks are strongly fractured and intensely altered by hydrothermal fluids. In addition to intense skarn alteration, the prominent alteration types are potassic, phyllic, and propylitic, whereas argillation is less common. Mineralization occurs as veins, stock works, and disseminations, and the main ore minerals are chalcopyrite, pyrite, molybdenite, bornite, and magnetite. The contents of palladium, platinum and gold (Pd, Pt and Au) are determined in nine samples from fresh and mineralized granodiorite and different types of altered rocks. The results show that the Pd content is systematically higher than Pt, which is typical for porphyry ore deposits worldwide. The Pt content ranges from 0.037 tul.765 ppb, and the Pd content ranges between 0.165and 17.979 ppb. Pd and Pt are more concentrated in porphyry mineralization than skarn mineralization, and have negative correlations with Au. The reconnaissance study presented here confirms the existence of Pd and Pt in the Fengshan porphyry-skarn Cu-Mo deposit. When compared with intracontinent and island arc geotectonic settings, the Pd, Pt, and Au contents in the Fengshan porphyry Cu-Mo deposit in the intracontinent is lower than the continental margin types and island are types. A combination of available data indicates that Pd and Pt were derived from oxidized alkaline magmas generated by the partial melting of an enriched mantle source.

  11. Treatment of upper urinary tract stones with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL Sonolith vision

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    Nakamura Kogenta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to retrospectively assess the results of treatment of upper urinary tract stones with the Sonolith vision manufactured by EDAP, and purchased in 2004. Methods The subjects were 226 Japanese patients who underwent extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL alone as an initial treatment and could be followed up for at least 3 months, selected from 277 candidate patients who underwent this therapy between 2004 and 2006. Treatment effect was evaluated by kidney, ureter, and bladder X-ray or renal ultrasonography at 1 and 3 months after treatment. A stone-free status or status of stone fragmentation to 4 mm or smaller was considered to indicate effective treatment. Results At 3 months after treatment, the stone-free rate was 69.4% and the efficacy rate was 77.4% for renal stones, while these rates were 91.5 and 93.3%, respectively for ureteral stones. Assessment of treatment effect classified by the location of stones revealed a stone-free rate of 94.6% and an efficacy rate of 94.6% for lower ureteral stones (4.0 mm or smaller, 1 subject; 4.1-10.0 mm, 31 subjects; 10.1-20.0 mm, 5 subjects: number of treatment sessions, 1 or 2 sessions [mean: 1.03 sessions]. Complications of this therapy included renal subcapsular hematoma and pyelonephritis in 1 case each. Conclusions ESWL with the Sonolith vision manufactured by EDAP produced a treatment effect equivalent to those achieved with other models of ESWL equipment. ESWL seems to be an effective first-line treatment also in patients who have lower ureteral stones 10 mm or larger but do not wish to undergo TUL, if measures such as suitable positioning of the patient during treatment are taken.

  12. BIOSORCIÓN DE Cd, Pb y Zn POR BIOMASA PRETRATADA DE ALGAS ROJAS, CÁSCARA DE NARANJA Y TUNA

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    Lissette Vizcaíno Mendoza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Debido a su movilidad en los ecosistemas y a su toxicidad para las formas superiores de vida,los metales pesados Cd, Pb y Zn son priorizados como unos de los contaminantes inorgánicosmás importantes debido al alto riesgo que representan para el medio ambiente. Con el objeto dedisminuir su concentración se diseñó un sistema para evaluar su remoción empleando biomasade algas rojas, cáscaras de naranja (Citrus sp. y tuna guajira (Opuntia sp.. Se estudió la influenciadel pretratamiento y el empaquetamiento mediante ensayos tipo batch, en los que se emplearonsoluciones de sodio y calcio. Se obtuvo como resultado una mayor capacidad de sorción de lasalgas modificadas con NaOH 0.1 N y de la naranja y la tuna con modificación sucesiva con NaOH yCaCl20.2 M, y una afección poco significativa (≤1% del proceso de sorción al empacar la biomasael placas planas de tul poliéster. La eficiencia de remoción se determinó mediante un reactor deflujo continuo de columna fija con un volumen líquido de 400 mL, 75 g de biomasa y tiemposde retención promedio de 1 y 2 h. Los resultados mostraron una eficiencia similar de las tresbiomasas para remover Cd y Pb, con promedios superiores al 95%, mientras que el Zn se removiócon mejor eficiencia (62% al emplear tuna modificada como sorbente. Finalmente, el materialse calcinó a 700 °C con lo que se obtuvo una ceniza estable frente a soluciones ácidas, lo cualgarantiza la captura de los metales removidos.

  13. Percepción y conocimiento ambiental en la costa de Quintana Roo: una caracterización a través de encuestas

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    Lilia Susana Padilla y Sotelo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tiene por objeto indagar acerca de la percepción ambiental y el nivel de conocimientos sobre aspectos ambientales en cuatro localidades representativas de la costa de Quintana Roo: Cancún, Playa del Carmen, Tulúm y Chetumal; en ese sentido, se estudia la relación existente entre algunos elementos microsociales en el espacio económico del turismo, respecto al estado del medio ambiente en la costa de Quintana Roo, como factores subjetivos influyentes en características objetivas del espacio geográfico. La investigación se desarrolló en dos pasos fundamentales, primero la realización y el procesamiento de entrevistas entre los pobladores, mediante las cuales se detectó la existencia de percepciones diferentes según los patrones de interacción social de grupos de individuos, dados por el carácter de su actividad práctica socioproductiva, o de los servicios que realizan, e incluso por su nivel educacional. Esta situación se reproduce en el ámbito geográfico en cuanto a localidades, revelado en un segundo momento de la investigación, lo cual se relaciona con la diferente dinámica del desarrollo económico y social de cada una de las localidades en cuestión. El trabajo resulta, en primera instancia, un análisis que facilita el acercamiento a las necesidades de la educación ambiental como proceso educativo, que oriente la participación popular en la solución de problemas ambientales inherentes a la emergencia del desarrollo del turismo en la costa de Quintana Roo y a factores concomitantes.

  14. Development of a Multivalent Subunit Vaccine against Tularemia Using Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV Based Delivery System.

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    Sukalyani Banik

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is a facultative intracellular pathogen, and is the causative agent of a fatal human disease known as tularemia. F. tularensis is classified as a Category A Biothreat agent by the CDC based on its use in bioweapon programs by several countries in the past and its potential to be used as an agent of bioterrorism. No licensed vaccine is currently available for prevention of tularemia. In this study, we used a novel approach for development of a multivalent subunit vaccine against tularemia by using an efficient tobacco mosaic virus (TMV based delivery platform. The multivalent subunit vaccine was formulated to contain a combination of F. tularensis protective antigens: OmpA-like protein (OmpA, chaperone protein DnaK and lipoprotein Tul4 from the highly virulent F. tularensis SchuS4 strain. Two different vaccine formulations and immunization schedules were used. The immunized mice were challenged with lethal (10xLD100 doses of F. tularensis LVS on day 28 of the primary immunization and observed daily for morbidity and mortality. Results from this study demonstrate that TMV can be used as a carrier for effective delivery of multiple F. tularensis antigens. TMV-conjugate vaccine formulations are safe and multiple doses can be administered without causing any adverse reactions in immunized mice. Immunization with TMV-conjugated F. tularensis proteins induced a strong humoral immune response and protected mice against respiratory challenges with very high doses of F. tularensis LVS. This study provides a proof-of-concept that TMV can serve as a suitable platform for simultaneous delivery of multiple protective antigens of F. tularensis. Refinement of vaccine formulations coupled with TMV-targeting strategies developed in this study will provide a platform for development of an effective tularemia subunit vaccine as well as a vaccination approach that may broadly be applicable to many other bacterial pathogens.

  15. Development of a Multivalent Subunit Vaccine against Tularemia Using Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) Based Delivery System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banik, Sukalyani; Mansour, Ahd Ahmed; Suresh, Ragavan Varadharajan; Wykoff-Clary, Sherri; Malik, Meenakshi; McCormick, Alison A; Bakshi, Chandra Shekhar

    2015-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is a facultative intracellular pathogen, and is the causative agent of a fatal human disease known as tularemia. F. tularensis is classified as a Category A Biothreat agent by the CDC based on its use in bioweapon programs by several countries in the past and its potential to be used as an agent of bioterrorism. No licensed vaccine is currently available for prevention of tularemia. In this study, we used a novel approach for development of a multivalent subunit vaccine against tularemia by using an efficient tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) based delivery platform. The multivalent subunit vaccine was formulated to contain a combination of F. tularensis protective antigens: OmpA-like protein (OmpA), chaperone protein DnaK and lipoprotein Tul4 from the highly virulent F. tularensis SchuS4 strain. Two different vaccine formulations and immunization schedules were used. The immunized mice were challenged with lethal (10xLD100) doses of F. tularensis LVS on day 28 of the primary immunization and observed daily for morbidity and mortality. Results from this study demonstrate that TMV can be used as a carrier for effective delivery of multiple F. tularensis antigens. TMV-conjugate vaccine formulations are safe and multiple doses can be administered without causing any adverse reactions in immunized mice. Immunization with TMV-conjugated F. tularensis proteins induced a strong humoral immune response and protected mice against respiratory challenges with very high doses of F. tularensis LVS. This study provides a proof-of-concept that TMV can serve as a suitable platform for simultaneous delivery of multiple protective antigens of F. tularensis. Refinement of vaccine formulations coupled with TMV-targeting strategies developed in this study will provide a platform for development of an effective tularemia subunit vaccine as well as a vaccination approach that may broadly be applicable to many other bacterial pathogens.

  16. Study on the fumigation with methyl isothiocyanate against common bunt (Tilletia caries) of wheat%异硫氰酸甲酯对小麦网腥黑穗病菌杀灭效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲海霞; 刘涛; 王跃进; 黄云; 张凡华; 雷思勤

    2010-01-01

    在20℃和60%温湿度条件下,分别测定了氧硫化碳、异硫氰酸甲酯(Methyl isothiocyanate,MITC)等7种新型熏蒸剂对小麦网腥黑穗病菌(Tilletia caries(DC.)Tul.,TCT)的熏蒸效果.结果表明,除MITC外,其他6种熏蒸剂均不能完全杀灭TCT病菌;MITC熏蒸120 h可有效杀灭TCT病菌,其LD90、LD95、LD99、LD99.9963分别为15.438、17.046、20.530、32.414 g/m3.但是,由于小麦对MITC的高吸附性导致熏蒸剂空间浓度过低,使得有载物熏蒸试验中投药50、100 g/m3 MITC均未能有效杀灭小麦中的TCT病菌.残留检测结果表明,散气16 d后小麦中MITC残留量分别降至0.29、1.07 ms/ks,残留较高.结论:MITC对TCT有很好的杀灭效果,但由于小麦对MITC的吸附性很强,需进一步研究熏蒸方式,方可实际应用.

  17. 佛肚竹枯萎病的研究%A STUDY ON THE WILT DISEASE OF BAMBUSA VENTRICOSA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋漳; 林毓银

    2001-01-01

    The wilt disease of Bambusa ventricosa was a serious disease occured in Nanping city, Fujian Province. Thesymptoms of the disease, identification, inoculation, biological characteristics of the causal organism and bionomics of thewilt disease were studied. The species was identified as Nectria ditissirna Tul. at sexual phase, and as Fusarium semitec tum Berk. &Rav. at anamorphic state. The causal organism of wilt disease grew vigorously on the PSA and PSA + 10%decoction of culm media, and formed white coloured colonies. After incubation of 7 days at 28℃ , a great amount of macro-conidia was produced, no stroma and perithecia were formed after 30 days. The stroma and ascospore were only producedunder natural condition. The preference temperature for mycelia growth was between 25 ~ 28 ℃ , and the optimum pH val-ues was at 6 ~ 7. The optimum temperature for conidia and ascospores germination was between 25 ~ 28℃, and the opti-mum pH values was at 6 ~ 7. The high relative humidity ( RH 96.1% ~ 100% ) was necessary for the germination ofconidia and ascospores. The results of experiments showed that the pathogen of the wilt disease overwintered on the soil,and disseminated by winds and rains to infect the wounded stem base of Bambusa ventricosa. The primary infection occurredfrom the last ten days of February or the first days of March. The peak infection occurred from the first ten days of Marchto the second ten days of April during early summer rains. The infection ceased from the second ten days or the last tendays of May. The freeze injury was possibly important factor to induce infection of the wilt disease.

  18. Estrutura e distribuição espacial da vegetação da Caatinga na Estação Ecológica do Seridó, RN

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    José Augusto da Silva Santana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve a estrutura e o padrão de distribuição espacial das espécies do estrato arbóreo-arbustivo na Caatinga da Estação Ecológica do Seridó, no Município de Serra Negra do Norte, RN. Foram amostrados os indivíduos com diâmetro ao nível do solo ≥ 3 cm e altura total ≥ 1 m, presentes em 30 parcelas de 200 m2. O padrão de distribuição espacial foi determinado pelo índice de Payandeh. Registraram-se 2.448 indivíduos, distribuídos em 22 espécies, 20 gêneros e 12 famílias. A densidade foi de 4.080 indivíduos ha-1 e área basal de 17,50 m2 ha-1, enquanto a altura e o diâmetro médios atingiram 2,45 m e 6,80 cm, respectivamente. As famílias com maior número de espécies foram Fabaceae e Euphorbiaceae, com destaque em número de indivíduos para Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae e Apocynaceae. Poincianella pyramidalis, Aspidosperma pyrifolium e Croton blanchetianus foram as espécies mais importantes, respondendo juntas pelo maior número de indivíduos, área basal e valor de importância. A área estudada apresenta pouca evidência de perturbação antrópica, com estrutura semelhante a outras áreas protegidas na Caatinga do Seridó e com maior proporção de espécies com distribuição agregada ou com tendência à agregação, revelando que as maiores populações formam pequenos agrupamentos.

  19. 塔克拉玛干沙漠南缘三种防护林植物根系构型及其生态适应策略%Root architecture and ecological adaptation strategies in three shelterbelt plant species in the southern Taklimakan Desert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭京衡; 曾凡江; 李尝君; 张波

    2014-01-01

    采用全根挖掘法挖取塔克拉玛干沙漠南缘3种主要防护林植物种——多枝柽柳(Tamarix ramosissima)、梭梭(Haloxylon ammodendron)和新疆杨(Populus alba var.pyramidalis)成年植株根系,测定并分析了根系构型及其拓扑结构.结果表明:1)多枝柽柳和梭梭的根系趋向于鱼尾状分支结构,新疆杨根系为叉状分支结构,根系分支结构的差异使其资源获取能力和对环境的适应能力有所差异;2)三种植物最小的根系平均连接长度为33.67 cm,多枝柽柳和梭梭的根系连接长度大于新疆杨,增加连接长度对植物在资源贫瘠的沙质土壤环境的生存有利;3)新疆杨的根系分支率显著高于多枝柽柳和梭梭,但其对干旱的适应性不如多枝柽柳和梭梭.4)三种植物根系分支均遵循Leonardo da Vinci法则,且不受根系直径的约束.三种防护林植物在水、养资源获取与土壤空间拓展方面具有差异性,表明在相似的极端干旱环境中3种植物采取了不同的生态适应策略.

  20. [Application of wastewater land treatment technique to the construction of ecological engineering in sand land].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei-jun; Wang, Zhi-jiang; Sun, Tie-heng; Tai, Pei-dong; Chang, Shi-jun; Xiong, Xian-zhe; Li, Ying-mei

    2005-05-01

    In this paper studies on the feasibility of harmlessness and resource of wastewater, which was discharged from a thermal power plant, by using slow rate filtration of land treatment technique for the fast recovery of vegetation in the Kubuqi sand land were carried out. The selected arbor, shrub and herbage in the land treatment system were poplar (Populus alba Var. Pyramidalis bunge), seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) and sweet clover (Melilotus suaveolens) respectively. Three levels of wastewater hydraulic loading were designed in the field pilot experiment. They were high plot with 3000 mm/a irrigation (H), medium plot with 1500 mm/a irrigation (M) and low plot (L) with small volume of irrigation only used in the period of transplant seedlings. The performance indicate that the purification function of power plant wastewater by pre-treatment through combination of precipitation pool with storage ponds is effective and therefore the effluent after pretreatment can be used to irrigation vegetation. The experiment results show that the volume of tree crown for poplar in H plot and M plot was up to 1.07 and 2.21 times comparing with L plot respectively. The annual yield (dry weight) of sweet clover in H plot and M plot was up to 2.33 and 3.0 times comparing with L plot respectively. The height of seabuckthorn in H zone and M plot was up to 1.08 and 1.32 times comparing with L plot respectively. There is direct proportion between growth status of vegetation and hydraulic loading of irrigation. The contents of heavy metals for sweet clover (Cd 0.021 mg/kg, Pb<0.001 mg/kg, Cr <0.01 mg/kg, As 0.043 mg/kg) are much lower than the food standards of grain and vegetables, therefore the sweet clover for raising livestock is safe. Wastewater in this area is valuable source. Its reasonable utilization can contribute important benefits in economy and ecology in the ecological construction and developing effective agriculture and animal husbandry.

  1. Florística e fitossociologia de espécies arbóreas e arbustivas em uma área de Caatinga em Arcoverde, PE, Brasil

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    Mozart Duarte Barbosa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Os estudos de florística e fitossociologia contribuem significativamente para o conhecimento das formações florestais, visto que evidenciam a riqueza e heterogeneidade dos ambientes avaliados. O trabalho foi realizado em um fragmento de Caatinga hipoxerófila no Município de Arcoverde, PE, e teve como objetivo verificar a composição florística e parâmetros fitossociológicos das espécies arbóreas e arbustivas que compõem o fragmento. O estudo foi realizado em 40 parcelas de 10 x 25 m, sendo o nível de inclusão a circunferência a 1,3 m do solo com CAP > 10 cm. Foram estimados a densidade absoluta e relativa, a frequência absoluta e relativa, a dominância absoluta e relativa e o valor de importância; a diversidade específica foi dada pelo índice de diversidade de Shannon - Weaver (H' e equabilidade de Pielou, sendo determinada a distribuição hipsométrica em intervalos de 1 m e distribuição diamétrica em intervalos com amplitude de 3 cm. No levantamento florístico das adultas, foram encontrados 1.491 indivíduos vivos, distribuídos em 36 espécies arbóreo-arbustivas, 19 famílias e 31 gêneros. As famílias que mais se destacaram foram Mimosaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Anacardiaceae, Caesalpiniaceae e Rhamnaceae. O índice de diversidade de Shannon-Weaver foi de 2,05 nats/ind. e a equabilidade de Pielou, de 0,57. Nos sete parâmetros fitossociólogicos avaliados, as espécies que mais se destacaram foram Mimosa ophthalmocentra, Poincianella pyramidalis, Senegalia bahiensis, Senegalia paniculata, Croton blanchetianus e Mimosa tenuiflora, indicando ser essas espécies as mais bem adaptadas ao ambiente avaliado, tanto nas condições edafoclimáticas quanto na competição com as demais espécies presentes no fragmento de Caatinga em Arcoverde, PE.

  2. Composição florística do componente arbóreo de um trecho de Floresta Atlântica na Área de Proteção Ambiental da Serra da Capoeira Grande, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil Floristic survey of the tree layer in an area of Atlantic Rainforest in Serra da Capoeira Grande Environmental Protection Area, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

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    Gustavo Luna Peixoto

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A Área de Proteção Ambiental (APA da Serra da Capoeira Grande (22º59'03"S e 43º38'59"W tem área total de 80ha e é um dos últimos remanescentes florestais com pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. no município do Rio de Janeiro. Além disso, ocorrem na área outras três espécies ameaçadas de extinção: Cariniana ianeirensis R. Knuth, Acosmium lentiscifolium Spreng. e Machaerium incorruptible (Vell. Fr. All. ex Benth. O levantamento fitossociológico foi realizado por meio do método dos quadrantes, tendo sido alocados 200 pontos e tendo-se como critério de inclusão 15cm de circunferência do tronco a 1,30m de altura do solo. A composição florística é o resultado desta amostragem acrescida de coletas feitas durante caminhadas no fragmento, totalizando 29 famílias, 58 gêneros e 69 espécies. As famílias que apresentaram maior número de espécies foram: Leguminosae (13, Myrtaceae (6, Euphorbiaceae (5, Bignoniaceae, Bombacaceae, Celastraceae, Flacourtiaceae, Moraceae, Rubiaceae e Solanaceae (3. Analisando a similaridade florística entre a APA da Serra da Capoeira Grande e outras 18 áreas florestais do Rio de Janeiro, observou-se maior identidade florística entre a área estudada e florestas de baixada localizadas próximas ao mar. Todas as florestas reuniram-se com um baixo nível de similaridade, refletindo a diversidade florística das florestas do Rio de Janeiro.The 80-hectare site (22º59'03"S and 43º38'59"W, is one of the last forest remnants in Rio de Janeiro municipality, where brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. occurs naturally. Furthermore, three other endangered species occur in this area: Cariniana ianeirensis R. Knuth, Acosmium lentiscifolium Spreng., and Machaerium incorruptible (Vell. Fr. All. ex Benth. Trees were sampled according to the point-centered-quarter method. The inclusion criteria was PBH >15cm; a total of 200 points were surveyed. The floristic composition was comprised of the sampled

  3. Florística e fitogeografia da vegetação arbustiva subcaducifólia da Chapada de São José, Buíque, PE, Brasil Floristics and phytogeography of semideciduous vegetation on the São José plateau, Buíque, Pernambuco State, Brazil

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    Ana Paula de Souza Gomes

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado o levantamento da flora angiospérmica de um trecho de vegetação arbustiva subcaducifólia na Chapada de São José, Buíque, Pernambuco, com a finalidade de ampliar o conhecimento sobre a flora daquela chapada, bem como compreender suas relações florísticas com outros conjuntos vegetacionais do Nordeste, especialmente no semi-árido. A flora angiospérmica foi composta por 192 táxons, distribuídos em 130 gêneros e 60 famílias. Euphorbiaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Myrtaceae, Mimosaceae, Fabaceae e Cactaceae foram as mais representativas em número de espécies. A análise de agrupamento revelou que o tipo de substrato exerce uma forte influência na repartição espacial das espécies dentro do semi-árido e confirmou a existência de um conjunto de espécies indicadoras das áreas sedimentares, formado por Caesalpinia microphylla Mart. (Caesalpiniaceae, Bocoa mollis (Benth. R.S. Cowan (Fabaceae, Byrsonima gardneriana A. Juss. (Malpighiaceae e Zanthoxylum stelligerum Turic. (Rutaceae. A flora da área de estudo é relacionada com a da caatinga do cristalino, caatinga de áreas sedimentares e carrasco. Todavia, o alto número de espécies de Myrtaceae, raras na caatinga, o carácter subcaducifólio da vegetação e a presença de Cactaceae e Bromeliaceae, típicas da caatinga, sugerem que a área de estudo representa o final de um gradiente que se inicia em áreas sedimentares situadas em menores altitudes.A floristic survey was carried out in a semideciduous vegetation on São José plateau with the objective of amplifying the knowledge of its angiospermic flora and establishing its relationship with other vegetations types in the semi-arid region of Northeast Brazil. The flora was composed by 192 taxa belonging to 130 genera and 60 families. Euphorbiaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Myrtaceae, Mimosaceae Fabaceae and Cactaceae were the families with the highest numbers of species. A cluster analysis indicated influence of the soil type

  4. Prospeção de inibidores de serinoproteinases em folhas de leguminosas arbóreas da floresta Amazônica Prospecting serine proteinase inhibitors in leaves from leguminous trees of the Amazon forest

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    Larissa Ramos Chevreuil

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Os inibidores de proteinases são proteínas extensivamente investigadas nos tecidos de estocagem, mas pouco prospectadas em outros tecidos vegetais. O objetivo deste estudo foi detectar a presença de inibidores de serinoproteinases em extratos foliares de quinze espécies de leguminosas arbóreas da Amazônia. As espécies estudadas foram: Caesalpinia echinata, C. ferrea, Cedrelinga cateniformis, Copaifera multijuga, Dinizia excelsa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, E. maximum, E. schomburgkii, Leucaena leucocephala, Ormosia paraensis, Parkia multijuga, P. pendula, P. platycephala, Swartzia corrugata e S. polyphylla. Folhas foram coletadas, secas a 30ºC durante 48 h, trituradas e submetidas à extração com NaCl (0,15 M, 10% p/v resultando no extrato total. Ensaios foram executados para determinar a concentração de proteínas e detectar a atividade inibitória contra a tripsina e quimotripsina bovina. Os teores de proteínas bruta e solúvel nos extratos foliares variaram de 7,9 a 31,2% e 1,3 a 14,8%, respectivamente. A atividade inibitória sobre a tripsina e quimotripsina foi observada em todos os extratos foliares. Contudo, nos extratos de E. maximum, L. leucocephala, P. pendula, S. corrugata e S. polyphylla a inibição foi maior sobre a tripsina, enquanto o extrato de P. multijuga foi mais efetivo contra a quimotripsina. Nós concluímos que nos extratos foliares de leguminosas arbóreas têm inibidores de serinoproteinases e exibem potencial aplicações biotecnológicas.The proteinase inhibitors are proteins extensively investigated in tissue storage, but few prospected in other plant tissues. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of serine proteinase inhibitors in leaf extracts from fifteen species of leguminous trees of the Amazon forest. The species studied were Caesalpinia echinata, C. ferrea, Cedrelinga cateniformis, Copaifera multijuga, Dinizia excelsa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, E. maximum, E. schomburgkii

  5. Madeiras utilizadas na fabricação de arcos para instrumentos de corda: aspectos anatômicos Anatomical features of woods used in the manufacture of bows for stringed instruments

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    Veronica Angyalossy

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A madeira de pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. é mundialmente empregada na confecção de arcos para instrumentos de corda, uma vez que apresenta características únicas de ressonância, densidade, durabilidade, beleza, entre outras qualidades, que a tornam ideal para tal uso. Diferentes amostras de pau-brasil, contudo, fornecem arcos com qualidades distintas. No comércio nacional outras madeiras estão sendo empregadas na produção de arcos. Realizou-se, neste estudo, uma análise qualitativa e quantitativa de diferentes amostras de pau-brasil com o objetivo de apontar diferenças na estrutura da madeira que possam contribuir para o entendimento das causas da variação na qualidade do arco, além da análise de outras espécies objetivando determinar, do ponto de vista estrutural, semelhanças ou diferenças com o pau-brasil. Conclui-se que variações no diâmetro dos vasos, distribuição e quantidade de parênquima axial e orientação dos elementos axiais e radiais são parâmetros que devem ser considerados quando se busca determinar as causas das diferenças na qualidade dos arcos de pau-brasil. Constatou-se que arcos de boa qualidade apresentam grã linheira e textura fina. Esta última característica decorre da menor proporção de vasos cujo diâmetro é reduzido, raios homogêneos e fibras com paredes espessas e/ou muito espessas. Assim, a relação entre a estrutura e a qualidade do arco está diretamente relacionada com as dimensões, a distribuição e a proporção das células do lenho.Pernambuco wood (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. has special characteristics like resonance, density, durability, and beauty; for this reason, it is considered the best material for stringed instruments bows. Besides pernambuco wood has been used around the world, some samples, and consequently some bows, are better than others. In Brazil, others woody species have been used in the manufacture of bows. In this paper some wood samples of

  6. Optimal selection of tree species for forestation in lava areas of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region%广西岩溶地区优良造林树种选择研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱积余; 侯远瑞; 刘秀

    2011-01-01

    在充分遵循树种优化选择原则和树种比较试验的基础上,根据17个参试树种的生长情况、适应性和生物生态学特性,以及用材林、经济林和水土保持林3个林种的功能需求特征,采用层次分析法进行比较分析,最终筛选出适合广西岩溶地区的优良造林树种任豆、顶果木、柚木、肥牛树、银合欢、苏木和山黄皮,为该地区生态系统的恢复与重建提供科学、可靠的理论依据.%On the basis of surveys by generations of forestry scientists, following the principles of optimizing selection and comparing the in-situ trial results, 17 trees belonging respectively to the categories of protection, timber, and nontimber forest trees were used as trial subjects. Observation and measurement were conducted for five consecutive years to record the survival, growth and development statistics so as to determine the adaptability of these trees. By analytic hierarchy process, seven trees of them that best meet the requirements were chosen for future planting, they are Zenia insignis , Acrocarpus fraxini folius , Tectona grandis , Cephalorna ppa sinensis , Leucaena leucocephala ,Caesalpinia sappan, and Clausena anisurn-olens.

  7. Natural Antimicrobials and Oral Microorganisms: A Systematic Review on Herbal Interventions for the Eradication of Multispecies Oral Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karygianni, Lamprini; Al-Ahmad, Ali; Argyropoulou, Aikaterini; Hellwig, Elmar; Anderson, Annette C; Skaltsounis, Alexios L

    2015-01-01

    Oral diseases such as caries and periodontitis are mainly caused by microbial biofilms. Antibiotic therapy has reached its limits with regard to antimicrobial resistance, and new therapeutic measures utilizing natural phytochemicals are currently a focus of research. Hence, this systematic review provides a critical presentation of the antimicrobial effects of various medicinal herbs against in vitro, ex vivo, and in situ formed multispecies oral biofilms. Searches were performed in three English databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CAMbase) and the electronic archives of five German journals from the times of their establishment until October 10th, 2014, with the search terms "(plant extracts OR herbal extracts OR plant OR herb) AND (oral biofilm OR dental biofilm OR dental plaque OR oral disease OR dental disease)." The pooled data were assessed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines (PRISMA). Initially, 1848 articles were identified, out of which 585 full-text articles were screened, 149 articles were reevaluated for eligibility and finally, 14 articles met all inclusion criteria. The data of 14 reports disclosed enhanced antiadhesive and antibiofilm activity by the plant extracts obtained from Vitis vinifera, Pinus spp., Coffea canephora, Camellia sinensis, Vaccinium macrocarpon, Galla chinensis, Caesalpinia ferrea Martius, Psidium cattleianum, representative Brazilian plants and manuka honey. Overall, a positive correlation was revealed between herb-based therapies and elimination rates of all types of multispecies oral biofilms. In that context, integrating or even replacing conventional dental therapy protocols with herbal-inspired treatments can allow effective antimicrobial control of oral biofilms and thus, dental diseases.

  8. HPLC-DAD-MS analysis of dyes identified in textiles from Mount Athos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantzouris, Dimitrios; Karapanagiotis, Ioannis; Valianou, Lemonia; Panayiotou, Costas

    2011-03-01

    Organic colorants contained in 30 textiles (16th to early 20th century) from the monastery of Simonos Petra (Mount Athos) have been investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with diode-array detection and mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS). The components of natural dyes identified in samples treated by the standard HCl dyestuff extraction method were: alizarin, apigenin, butein, carminic acid, chrysoeriol, dcII, dcIV, dcVII, ellagic acid, emodin, fisetin, flavokermesic acid, fustin, genistein, haematein derivative (Hae'), indigotin, indirubin, isoliquiritigenin, isorhamnetin, kaempferide, kaempferol, kermesic acid, luteolin, naringenin, purpurin, quercetin, rhamnazin, rhamnetin, sulfuretin, and type B and type C compounds (last two are markers for Caesalpinia trees). Early, semi-synthetic dyes, for example indigo carmine, fuchsin components, and rhodamine B were identified in objects dated late 19th to early 20th century. A dyestuff extraction method which involves use of TFA, instead of HCl, was applied to selected historical samples, showing that the mild method enables efficient extraction of weld (Reseda luteola L.) and dyer's broom (Genista tinctoria L.) glycosides. The marker compound (Hae') for logwood (Haematoxylum campechianum L.) identification after treatment with HCl was investigated by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in negative electrospray ionization (LC-MS-ESI(-)) mode. LC-MS in negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (LC-MS-APCI(-)) mode was used, probably for the first time, to investigate cochineal (Dactylopius coccus Costa) samples. Positive electrospray ionization (LC-MS-ESI(+)) mode was used for identification of fuchsin components. Detailed HPLC-DAD studies were performed on young fustic (Cotinus coggygria Scop.) and Persian berries (Rhamnus trees).

  9. Evaluation of the stability and antimicrobial activity of an ethanolic extract of Libidibia ferrea

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    de Oliveira Marreiro R

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Raquel de Oliveira Marreiro,1 Maria Fulgência Costa Lima Bandeira,1 Tatiane Pereira de Souza,2 Mailza Costa de Almeida,1 Katiana Bendaham,1 Gisely Naura Venâncio,1 Isis Costa Rodrigues,2 Cristiane Nagai Coelho,1 Patrícia Sâmea Lêdo Lima Milério,1 Glauber Palma de Oliveira,1 Nikeila Chacon de Oliveira Conde11School of Dentistry, Federal University of Amazonas, Manaus, Amazonas; 2School of Pharmacy, Federal University of Amazonas, Manaus, Amazonas, BrazilAbstract: Biofilm is a dense, whitish, noncalcified aggregate of bacteria, with desquamated epithelial cells and food debris creating conditions for an imbalance of resident oral microflora and favoring the destruction of hard and soft tissues by development of caries and gingivitis. The aim of this study was to obtain and characterize an extract of Libidibia ferrea, ex Caesalpinia ferrea L. and to evaluate its feasibility for formulation as a mouthwash, according to current legislation. For this purpose, pH, sedimentation, density, and stability were evaluated, along with microbiological testing of the extract. The microbiological test was used to verify the presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, fungi, yeasts, coliforms, and minimum inhibitory concentrations of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus oralis strains. Characterization, microbiological evaluation, and minimum inhibitory concentration results were tabulated and described using descriptive statistics. The L. ferrea extract showed stable characteristics, product quality, and antibacterial activity against the microorganisms tested irrespective of experimental time intervals. According to these results, it can be concluded that formulation of a mouthwash containing L. ferrea extract to control biofilm is feasible, but further studies are needed.Keywords: biofilm, extract, quality control

  10. SELEÇÃO DE ESPÉCIES ARBÓREAS PARA REVEGETAÇÃO DE ÁREAS DEGRADADAS POR MINERAÇÃO DE PIÇARRA NA CAATINGA

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    KHADIDJA DANTAS ROCHA DE LIMA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The piçarra (subsoil material mainly formed by silt, sand and gravel is commonly used in the civil construction and activities related to the onshore oil production in the Caatinga biome. The revegetation of the piçarra mines at the end of exploration cycle is mandatory and generally demands the planting of native tree species. However, there is scarce information about tree species able to grow in these degraded environments. This study aimed to evaluate the development and survival of 20 tree species, including native and exotic spe-cies, and nodulating and non nodulating species, planted in five piçarra mines located in three cities in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The experiment was a split-split block design, where 10 nodulating tree species were compared with ten other non nodulating species in areas with and without addition of a 20 cm topsoil layer and/or 2 L cattle manure in the planting hole. Biometric measurements were made at the end of the dry and rainy seasons (February 2008 to February 2010 up to 660 days after planting. The addition of topsoil re-duced the survival of trees, especially of non nodulating species, likely due to the vigorous herbaceous regener-ation in this treatment. Conversely, the addition of manure favored the tree growth. The nodulating species outperformed the non nodulating in respect to survival rate, total height, trunk diameter, and growth rate. The native species with the best survival and development rates were Mimosa tenuiflora, Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, Caesalpinia ferrea and Tabebuia caraiba, and among the exotics were Azadirachta indica and Pseudosamanea guachapele.

  11. Rede de distribuição de energia elétrica e arborização viária: o caso da Cidade de Maringá, Estado do Paraná - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v33i4.8405

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    Bruno Luiz Domingos De Angelis

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo analisar a interação entre a arborização de acompanhamento viário e a rede de distribuição de energia elétrica de alta tensão e, ao mesmo tempo, avaliar as espécies arbóreas utilizadas na cidade de Maringá, Estado do Paraná, em uma área específica - Zona 7. Essa área foi escolhida tendo em vista as particularidades locais, como a utilização de árvores de grande porte e os diferentes tipos de rede de energia (convencional e compacta para alta tensão e convencional e isolada para baixa tensão. Constatou-se que as espécies arbóreas de grande porte são predominantes, como Caesalpinia peltophoroides e Tipuana tipu, que representam, respectivamente, 32,92 e 30,79% da arborização total. Como resultado final tem-se a minimização dos impactos causados pela arborização sobre a rede de energia elétrica, visto que os indicadores da qualidade do fornecimento de energia elétrica melhoraram em até 80%. Os custos de manutenção da rede diminuíram sensivelmente, e a qualidade da arborização, sobretudo pela redução nas podas, apresentou melhoras consideráveis, comprovando a eficácia da rede compacta protegida quando comparada às demais.

  12. Enhanced Cutaneous Wound Healing In Vivo by Standardized Crude Extract of Poincianella pluviosa.

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    Fernanda Giacomini Bueno

    Full Text Available Wound healing is a complex process that involves several biological events, and a delay in this process may cause economic and social problems for the patient. The search continues for new alternative treatments to aid healing, including the use of herbal medicines. Members of the genus Caesalpinia are used in traditional medicine to treat wounds. The related species Poincianella pluviosa (DC. L.P. Queiroz increases the cell viability of keratinocytes and fibroblasts and stimulates the proliferation of keratinocytes in vitro. The crude extract (CE from bark of P. pluviosa was evaluated in the wound-healing process in vivo, to validate the traditional use and the in vitro activity. Standardized CE was incorporated into a gel and applied on cutaneous wounds (TCEG and compared with the formulation without CE (Control for 4, 7, 10, or 14 days of treatment. The effects of the CE on wound re-epithelialization; cell proliferation; permeation, using photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS; and proteins, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD-2 and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2 were evaluated. The TCEG stimulated the migration of keratinocytes at day 4 and proliferation on the following days, with a high concentration of cells in metaphase at 7 days. Type I collagen formed more rapidly in the TCEG. PAS showed that the CE had permeated through the skin. TCEG stimulated VEGF at day 4 and SOD-2 and COX-2 at day 7. The results suggest that the CE promoted the regulation of proteins and helped to accelerate the processes involved in healing, promoting early angiogenesis. This led to an increase in the re-epithelialized surface, with significant mitotic activity. Maturation of collagen fibers was also enhanced, which may affect the resistance of the extracellular matrix. PAS indicated a correlation between the rate of diffusion and biological events during the healing process. The CE from P. pluviosa appears promising as an aid in

  13. Forest restoration in a fog oasis: evidence indicates need for cultural awareness in constructing the reference.

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    Luís Balaguer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the Peruvian Coastal Desert, an archipelago of fog oases, locally called lomas, are centers of biodiversity and of past human activity. Fog interception by a tree canopy, dominated by the legume tree tara (Caesalpinia spinosa, enables the occurrence in the Atiquipa lomas (southern Peru of an environmental island with a diverse flora and high productivity. Although this forest provides essential services to the local population, it has suffered 90% anthropogenic reduction in area. Restoration efforts are now getting under way, including discussion as to the most appropriate reference ecosystem to use. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Genetic diversity of tara was studied in the Atiquipa population and over a wide geographical and ecological range. Neither exclusive plastid haplotypes to loma formations nor clear geographical structuring of the genetic diversity was found. Photosynthetic performance and growth of seedlings naturally recruited in remnant patches of loma forest were compared with those of seedlings recruited or planted in the adjacent deforested area. Despite the greater water and nitrogen availability under tree canopy, growth of forest seedlings did not differ from that of those recruited into the deforested area, and was lower than that of planted seedlings. Tara seedlings exhibited tight stomatal control of photosynthesis, and a structural photoprotection by leaflet closure. These drought-avoiding mechanisms did not optimize seedling performance under the conditions produced by forest interception of fog moisture. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Both weak geographic partitioning of genetic variation and lack of physiological specialization of seedlings to the forest water regime strongly suggest that tara was introduced to lomas by humans. Therefore, the most diverse fragment of lomas is the result of landscape management and resource use by pre-Columbian cultures. We argue that an appropriate reference ecosystem for

  14. DECOMPOSIÇÃO DA SERAPILHEIRA FOLIAR DE FLORESTA NATIVA E PLANTIOS DE Pterogyne nitens E Eucalyptus urophylla NO SUDOESTE DA BAHIA

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    Heloísa Cintra Alves Pinto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The decomposition process regulates the accumulation of litter and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems, being central to its maintenance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of leaf litter decomposition in three forest ecosystems (semideciduous forest Montana and homogeneous stands of Pterogyne nitens Tul. and Eucalyptus urophylla ST Blake, located in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil. To evaluate the decomposition, newly fallen leaves on the ground of trees and shrubs in each of the studied toppings were collected. The sheets were dried at 65 °C, and thereafter, 10 g portions were weighed and placed in litter bags, which were randomly distributed on the surface of the forest floor in each of the areas studied. Five litter bags at random were collected after 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days of installation. After collection, the material contained in each litter bag was subjected to drying in an oven at 65 °C and weighed. Based on the obtained masses were estimated the percentage of the remaining mass, the rate of decomposition ( k and half-life time of the litter ( t 1 /2 . For chemical characterization three subsamples were separated from the dried leaf litter, which were ground and analyzed by determination of the total nitrogen, carbon, polyphenols, lignin and cellulose. The decomposition was related to environmental variables (precipitation, temperature and humidity and the microenvironment (temperature and soil moisture.The total accumulated litter varied significantly between the settlements studied, the highest value was observed in the area of Eucalyptus urophylla (12,7 Mg ha -1 , followed by native forest (6,9 Mg ha -1 and Pterogyne nitens (1,1 Mg ha -1 . At the end of the six months of the experiment, Eucalyptus urophylla showed the greatest remaining mass (73,6%, followed by native forest (67,8% and Pterogyne nitens (46,3%. The decomposition constant ( k was higher in litter of Pterogyne nitens (0,0054 g

  15. Photodynamic inhibitory effects of three perylenequinones on human colorectal carcinoma cell line and primate embryonic stem cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan Ma; Hong Tai; Cong Li; Yu Zhang; Ze-Hua Wang; Wei-Zhi Ji

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the photodynamic inhibitory effects of Elsinochrome A (EA), Hypocrellin A (HA) and Hypocrellin B (HB) on human colorectal carcinoma Hce-8693 cells and rhesus monkey embryonic stem R366.4 cells, via inducing apoptosis.METHODS: EA, HA and HB were extracted from metabolites of Hypomyces (Fr) Tul.Sp. R366.4 cells or Hce8693 cells were cultured with different concentrations of EA, HA or HB respectively, irradiated and incubated with fresh medium for 2 h. Cell cycle analysis was performed by flow cytometry (FCM). Data were expressed as means ±SD and analysis of variance and Student' t-test for individual comparisons.RESULTS: The photodynamic bioactivity of EA was first reported in this study. After irradiation for 5 min, 6 min, 10 min or 20 min, photoactivated EA at lower concentrations,which were 10-7 Mol/L, 10-6 Mol/L, 10-5 Mol/L respectively,had no cytotoxic effects on R366.4 ES ceils. Whereas, all of the three perylenequinones could induce apoptosis with a dose-dependent manner when Hce-8693 cells were incubated with photoactivated EA, HA and HB respectively. When Hce-8693 cells were incubated with EA at 10-6 Mol/L and irradiated 5 lin, 6 min, 10 min and 20 min respectively,the rates of EA-induced apoptosis were 0, 0, 13.4 % and 40.5 %. While the rates of HA-induced apoptosis were 29.5 %, 32.0 %, 40.2 % and 22.6 %. And the rates of HBinduced apoptosis were 0, 0, 0 and 13.7 % respectively.Meanwhile, after 10-5 Mol/L treatment, the rates of EA-induced apoptosis were 32.7 %, 19.3 %, 26.4 % and 52.7 %, the rates of HA-induced apoptosis were 47.2 %, 39.1%, 45.2% and 56.6 %, and the rates of HB-induced apoptosis were 0, 0, 20.0 % and 13.9 % respectively.CONCLUSION: EA, HA and HB have significant anti-cancer activity. The order of photodynamic inhibitory effects on tumor cells would be approximately HA>EA>HB. The molecular mechanisms of apoptosis may not be induced by reactive oxygen species and are worth further investigation.

  16. Fitossociologia de duas fitocenoses de floresta ombrófila aberta no município de Codó, Estado do Maranhão Phytosociology of two open ombrophylous forest phytocenosis Codó municipality, State of Maranhão, Brazil

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    João Ricardo Vasconcellos Gama

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado no Projeto Magela (04º 35' 20" S e 43º 49' 55,2" W, pertencente à Empresa MARGUSA (Maranhão Gusa S.A., localizado no Município de Codó, Estado do Maranhão. Teve como objetivo analisar a composição florística e a estrutura horizontal de Floresta Ombrófila Aberta com cipó (FOAcipó e Floresta Ombrófila Aberta com palmeira (FOApalmeira. No inventário florestal, utilizou-se amostragem casual estratificada com 12 parcelas na FOAcipó e nove na FOApalmeira. Em parcelas de 50 x 200 m, mensuraram-se todos os indivíduos com DAP > 15 cm (nível I de inclusão e, em subparcelas de 5 x 50 m, os indivíduos com 5 cm The study was carried out in the area of the Magela Project (04º 35' 20" S and 43º 49' 55,2" W owned by MARGUSA Enterprise (Maranhão Gusa S/A, located in the Municipality of Codó, State of Maranhão. The forest cover belongs to the Open Ombrophylous Forest with lianas (OOFliana and to the Open Ombrophylous Forest with palms (OOFpalm. The objective was to analyze the floristic composition and horizontal structure of the OOFliana and OOFpalm. In 50 x 200 m plots, all individuals with DBH > 15 cm (inclusion level I were measured, and in 5 x 50 m subplots, individuals with 5 cm < DBH < 15 cm (inclusion level II were included. The OOFpalm formation showed the highest floristic diversity. Species with higher ecological importance in OOFliana were: Cenostigma macrophyllum Tul. (Leguminosae, Galipea jasminiflora (A. St.-Hil. Engl. (Rutaceae e Hymenaea parvifolia Huber (Leguminosae. In OOFpalms, the most important species were: Attalea speciosa Mart. Ex Spreng. (Arecaceae, Actinostemon klotzshii (Didr. Pax (Euphorbiaceae e Cenostigma macrophyllum.

  17. Escala diagramática para avaliação da severidade da mancha-de-micosferela em morangueiro Diagramatic scale to evaluate the mycosphaerella blight severity in strawberry

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    Sergio Miguel Mazaro

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Uma escala diagramática com cinco níveis: 0,11; 0,51; 2,4; 10,2 e 34,9% foi desenvolvida e validada para quantificar a severidade da mancha-de-micosferela do morangueiro, causado por Mycosphaerella fragariae (Tul. Lin. A escala considerou os limites de severidade mínima e máxima da doença observados no campo e os níveis intermediários seguiram incrementos logarítmicos, obedecendo-se à "Lei do estímulo de Weber-Fechner". Inicialmente, a estimativa da severidade foi feita sem auxílio da escala em 30 folíolos com diferentes níveis de severidade, por sete indivíduos, sem experiência na avaliação da mancha-de-micosferela do morangueiro . Em seguida, os mesmos avaliadores utilizaram a escala diagramática proposta. As avaliações com a escala diagramática foram mais precisas e acuradas nas estimativas de todos os avaliadores, não ocorrendo erro sistemático na superestimativa ou subestimativa da doença entre estes. A escala diagramática proposta foi considerada adequada para estimar a severidade de mancha-de-micosferela em morangueiro.A diagramatic scale with five levels of disease severity: 0.11; 0.51; 2.4; 10.2 and 34.9% was developed and validated to assess mycosphaerella blight in strawberry, caused by Mycosphaerella fragariae. The scale was developed considering the maximum and minimum limits of disease severity observed in the field and the intermediate values followed logarithmic increments according to the "Stimulus Law by Weber-Fechner". Initially the estimates of severity were performed without the use of the scale in 30 leaves with different levels of severity. Validation was carried out by seven appraisers, without previous pratice in assessing mycosphaerella blight in strawberry. Then, the appraisers estimated the severity of the same leaves previously assessed using the proposed diagrammatic scale. Assessments with the diagrammatic scale were of great precision for all raters and did not constitute systematic

  18. Monitoring of selected essential elements and contaminants at sheep and cow farms in Eastern Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina TUNEGOVÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determinate the actual contamination of selected area of Slovakia, in view of its environmental character referred both to the suitability or unsuitability of the use of milk from this area, to other food processing. This article deals with analysis of the content of selected compounds in soil, feed and milk, at the cow and sheep farms. Village in Eastern Slovakia, Tulčík, was the area of investigation. This area is characterized as an area with mild disturbance of environment. 11 compounds have been analyzed (calcium, selenium, cadmium, arsenic, polychlorinated biphenyls – congeners 138, 153, 180, and pesticides - p,p´ DDE, Endosulfan I., Beta-HCH, aflatoxin M1. Samples of soil were collected once a year (spring season, samples of feeds and milk were collected two-times a year (spring and autumn season. Analysis of samples was performed in Eurofins Bel/Novamann (Nové Zámky, Slovak Republic. Analyses were performed by routine methods, according to the valid methodologies. Levels of compounds were obtained and then results have been compared with the most acceptable limits in according to applicable legislation. At both farms, 73.08% (38 samples of analyzed compounds were below the limit of quantification (LOQ and 26.92% (14 samples of compounds were quantifiable. The most significant differences between monitored farms were recorded in soil (27 720 mg·kg-1 Ca, feed (27 620 mg·kg-1 Ca and milk (960 mg·kg-1 Ca. The high content of calcium in soil and feed did not affect the content of calcium in milk. The results showed that the content of toxic elements, polychorinated biphenyls, pesticides and aflatoxin M1 in analyzed area of Eastern Slovakia was very low and under the limit of quantification. It can be concluded, that the use of milk from this area for direct use or for dairy products is appropriate and poses no health risk to the consumers.

  19. Wind tunnel test on vibration reduction of forest by spring damper in casing pipe%套管弹簧减振器控制的林木减振风洞试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建中

    2012-01-01

    In order to reduce wind-induced vibration damage of forest, four spring dampers in casing pipe were developed based on vibration reduction theory in this article, and wind-induced vibration reduction of four Populus alba var. Pyramidalis specimens were carried out separately by them. In a self-made simple wind tunnel, contrast tests of vibration reduction with/without the action of damper were carried out by simulating natural wind environment; comparative characteristics curves of wind-induced dynamic strain, wind-induced dynamic displacement, wind-induced dynamic speed and wind-induced dynamic acceleration response were obtained. Results showed that wind-induced dynamic response of forest could be measured by strain gages pasting on forest and charge accelerometer installed on forest, and wind-induced dynamic peak response, such as strain, displacement, velocity and acceleration, could be reduced effectively by spring damper in casing pipe fixed on forest, and the effect of vibration reduction of forest equipped with spring damper in casing pipe was very good. Spring damper in casing pipe developed in this paper has features such as relative simple structure, low cost, and good weather resistance, and therefore it is suitable for popularization over large areas, especially suitable for wind disaster protection of forest in difficult stand conditions. Wind disaster protection of forest are carried out through the use of spring damper in casing pipe developed in this paper, and the methods in this paper give a new approach to wind disaster protection of forest.%为了减轻林木的风致振动灾害,该文基于减振控制理论研制了4个套管弹簧减振器,并分别对4株新疆杨试件实施风致减振控制.在自制的简易风涧中模拟自然风环境,进行有、无减振器作用的减振对比试验,得到了风致动态应变、风致动态位移、风致动态速度及风致动态加速度响应特征对比曲线.结果表明:在林木上粘

  20. Degradabilidade ruminal de resíduos da agroindústria de frutas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Paula Braga

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste estudo avaliar a composição quimico - bromatológica e a degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca (MS, da proteína bruta (PB e fibra em detergente neutro (FDN de resíduos da agroindústria de fruta. foram utilizados três ovinos fistulados no rúmen, mantidos em baias coletivas, recebendo diariamente dieta composta de capim canarana (Echinochloa pyramidalis e concentrado a base de milho e soja e os resíduos estudados. Os animais passaram por período de adaptação de sete dias. Os resíduos foram secos ao sol e triturados em peneira de 4,0 mm e incubados nos tempos de 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 e 96 horas, utilizando sacos de tecido não tecido de gramatura 60, nas dimensões de 14 x 12 cm2. Foram realizadas as análises químico - bromatologica dos resíduos. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso com parcelas subdivididas. Os resíduos de graviola e tamarindo apresentaram as maiores concentrações de proteína bruta (12,66 e 11,79%, para o teor de extrato etéreo (22,30% destaca-se o resíduo de graviola. Os resíduos de caju e goiaba apresentaram os maiores teores de lignina, (22,13 e 18,34%. A Degradabilidade efetiva da matéria seca do resíduo de abacaxi e tamarindo, para taxa de passagem de 5%/h foram de 53,04% e 42,61% respectivamente. Já os resíduos de goiaba graviola e caju apresentaram valores inferiores 19,16%, 26,86% e 29,21% respectivamente. Os resíduos de graviola, goiaba e abacaxi apresentaram maiores valores da degradabilidade potencial para proteína bruta, 87,81%; 86,02%; 90,94% respectivamente, com média para degradabilidade efetiva de 50,0% na taxa de 5%/h. Os resíduos de abacaxi e tamarindo apresentaram maiores valores da degradabilidade efetiva da fibra em detergente neutro 35,38% e 34,49% respectivamente, para taxa de passagem de 5%/h. O resíduo de abacaxi apresentou maior potencial para utilização na alimentação animal em função da composição qu

  1. 钙抑制剂对机械损伤胁迫下合作杨叶片活性氧代谢的影响%Effects of Calcium lnhibitors on Reactive Oxygen Species Metabolism in Poplar Leaves under Mechanical Damage Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安钰; 沈应柏

    2011-01-01

    With one year old poplar (Populus simonii X P. Pyramidalis cv. 'Opera 8277') as materials, the effects of Ca2+ channel blockers LaCl3 and Ca2+ chelator EGTA on antioxidant enzymes activities, H2O2 and MDA contents,and O2- producing rate in poplar leaves under mechanical damage stress were studied. The results showed that the activities of SOD,POD,CAT and APX were significantly higher than those of control; the contents of H2O2 and MDA and producing rate of O2- were obviously increased in poplar leaves treated by mechanical damage, Exogenous EGTA and LaCl3 application on the leaf remarkably reduced the activities of SOD,POD,CAT and APX, slowed down the producing rate of O2- ,the contents of H2O2 and MDA were decreased; And the inhibition of EGTA was stronger than that of LaCl3. The results suggested that the metabolism of active oxygen species induced by mechanical da nage stress need the participation of Ca2+. Ca2+ and active oxygen species were closely related in plant defense signal transmission;extracellular Ca2+ influx induced by damage was an important source of the increasing of intracellular Ca2+ concentration. The damage induced Ca2+ flowed into cells and increased Ca2+ concentration in cells.%以1年生‘合作杨’扦插苗为材料,研究了叶面喷施Ca2+通道阻断剂氯化镧(LaCl3)和Ca2+螯合剂EGTA预处理对机械损伤胁迫下‘合作杨’叶片抗氧化酶活性、过氧化氨(H2O2)和丙二醛(MDA)含量以及氧自由基(O-2)产生速率的影响.结果显示,与对照相比,机械损伤胁迫下‘合作杨’叶片超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)和抗坏血酸过氧化物酶(APX)等抗氧化酶活性均显著升高,活性氧水平和MDA含量显著增加;外源喷施EGTA和LaCl3降低了机械损伤胁迫下叶片SOD、POD、CAT和APX活性,减缓了O-2产生速率,H2O2含量和MDA含量显著下降;且EGTA的抑制作用比LaCl3更强.研究表明,机械损伤胁迫诱

  2. Use of fog water to the initial establishment of tree species under conditions of barren Lomas in the Quebrada Topará, Chincha-Perú

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, A.; Cabrera, R.; Bederski, K.; Orellana, A.

    2010-07-01

    The Quebrada Topara is located in the Peruvian coastal desert (13012'L.S, 76009'L.W.) and is influenced by the fog during the winter months, these conditions of high humidity allows its use to achieve the establishment of a permanent vegetation cover Huaquina hill, which is representative at the place of study. Uncounted fog water can be captured and used for irrigation of plants. Also due to the absence of any tree species coverage in this region is not known which or which could have a better performance under these environmental conditions, We used to native species Caesalpinia spinosa "tara" and Schinus molle "molle" also introduced species Casuarina equisetifolia "Casuarina", as these could have a better adaptation. Soil analysis determined a high salinity and nitrogen poverty, preventing water infiltration into the soil and is not used by the plant so that the saline soil difficult to establish plants. This research can be considered an exploratory phase, the objectives were: to determine the potential for fog water harvesting to capture in the study area, to assess for 20 months the initial performance of the species tara, molle and casuarina, and profit incorporation in the final sowing of organic matter and soil amendments to facilitate a better development of plants. 3 standard fog collector (SFC) proposed by Schemenauer and Cereceda (1993) were installed and we evaluated the capture water during 31 months, from June 2007 to December 2009, finding much water collected in the winter months, the average annual in the 3 SFC was similar (1.1, 1.2 and 1.1 L m -2 day-1) which allows us to plan according to necessary the best way to harness and store water to supply the plants. It was found that native species, tara and molle were more adaptable to extreme conditions of the place that introduced casuarina species. The tara does grow faster in height and stem diameter, also achieves a good coverage to intercept fog water itself making it more viable and capable

  3. A Novel Pharmacological Method to Study the Chinese Medicinal Formula Hua-Zheng-Hui-Sheng-Dan

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    Rui Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Hua-Zheng-Hui-Sheng-Dan (HZHSD was used as an experimental model to explore research methods of large formulae in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM using current molecular biology approaches. Materials and Methods. The trypan blue exclusion assay was used to determine cell viability and cell numbers. Flow cytometry was used to assess cell cycle distribution and apoptosis. The concentration of cyclin D1 was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The median effect principle was used in drug combination studies. An orthogonal experimental design was used to estimate the effects of each herb at different concentrations. The HeLa xenograft mouse model was used to compare the antitumor activity of drugs in vivo. Results. Among the 35 herbs that comprise HZHSD, Radix Rehmanniae Preparata (RRP, Caesalpinia sappan (CS, Evodia rutaecarpa (ER, Folium Artemisiae Argyi (FAA, Leonurus japonicus Houtt (LJH, Tumeric (Tu, Radix Paeoniae Alba (RPA, and Trogopterus Dung (TD effectively inhibited the proliferation of HeLa and SKOV3 cells. Only RRR had an effect on HeLa and SKOV3 cell viability. According to the median effect principle, Angelica sinensis (Oliv. (AS, Tabanus (Ta, and Pollen Typhae (PT, which were proven to have a significant synergistic inhibitory effect on the proliferation of HeLa cells, were added to the original eight positive herbs. The combination of RPA and AS had a synergistic effect on inducing cell cycle S phase arrest and decreasing intracellular cyclin D1 in HeLa cells. By orthogonal experimental design, LJH and Tu were considered unnecessary herbs. The small formula (SHZHSD consisted of RPA, AS, RRR, Ta., TD, PT, ER, CS, and FAA and was able to inhibit cell proliferation and induce cell apoptosis. The antitumor effects of HZHSD and SHZHSD were also compared in vivo. Conclusions. Through molecular biology approaches both in vitro and in vivo, research into single drugs, and analysis using the median effect principle

  4. Weed community and growth under the canopy of trees adapted to the brazilian semi-arid region Comunidade e crescimento de plantas daninhas sob a copa de árvores adaptadas ao semi-árido brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S.L. Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to evaluate the floristic composition and dry biomass of weeds under the canopy of seven perennial species adapted to the Semi-Arid region of Brazil, and correlate these characteristics with growth traits of the perennial species. The following perennial species were evaluated in two experiments (E1 and E2: mesquite (Prosopis juliflora, jucá (Caesalpinia ferrea, white popinac (Leucaena leucocephala, mofumbo (Combretum leprosum, neem (Azadirachata indica, sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia and tamarind (Tamarindus indica. In E1, the seven species were evaluated in a random block design with four replicates and nine plants per plot. In E2, evaluation comprised four species (mesquite, jucá, white popinac, and tamarind in a random block design with eight replicates and nine plants per plot. A circle with an area of 1.77 m² was established around the trunk of each plant, two years after they were transplanted to the permanent location. The weeds collected within this circle were cut even with the ground, classified and weighed. At this time, plant height, and crown and stem diameters were evaluated in all trees of each plot. In E1 there were no differences between tree species as to weed frequency under their canopies; however, weed growth was smaller under the canopy of sabiá trees. Mesquite and sabiá had the greatest plant height and crown diameter means, but only sabiá had the greatest stem diameter. In E2, the perennial species were not different with regard to weed frequency and growth under their canopies, but mesquite had the greatest growth, as measured by plant height (with significant results for jucá as well and crown and stem diameter.Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar a composição florística e a biomassa de plantas daninhas sob a copa de sete espécies perenes adaptadas à região semi-árida do Brasil, e correlacionar essas características com características do crescimento das esp

  5. ESTUDO DA ARBORIZAÇÃO E DAS ÁREAS VERDES DO CAMPUS II DA UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE GOIÁS STUDY OF THE ARBORIZATION AND GREEN AREAS OF THE CAMPUS II OF THE FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF GOIÁS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ângelo Rizzo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Em continuidade ao estudo das áreas verdes do Campus II da UFG, desenvolveu-se um trabalho para verificar a situação da arborização localizada no referido Campus. O local para o estudo da vegetação consistiu nos espaços entre prédios, sistema viário, praças, estacionamentos e mini-bosque e para a localização dos mesmos usou-se uma planta aerofotogramétrica de escala aproximada de 1:5000. As plantas foram locadas e identificadas. As espécies nativas são remanescentes da cobertura da Mata Semidecídua ocorrente no local, tendo como destaque Apuleia molaris Spruce (garapa, Anadenanthera perigrina L. (angico, Cedrela fissilis Vell. (cedro e Tabebuia serratifolia (Vahl. Nichols (ipê amarelo e outras. As espécies exóticas e algumas da flora do Estado de Goiás têm como representantes Spathodea campanulata Beauv. (espatódea, Delonix regia Rafin (flamboyant, Pachira aquatica Aublet (munguba, Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (pau-brasil e Syagrus oleracea (Mart. Becc. (guariroba. O total de 1.389 indivíduos levantados está distribuído em 43 famílias e 84 gêneros. O trabalho demonstrou que algumas espécies não foram plantadas em locais adequados em razão do porte, sistema radicular e queda de folhas. O estudo desenvolvido permitirá ampliação, melhoria na arborização e recomposição das áreas verdes do Campus II, bem como contribuirá para os futuros projetos paisagísticos.

    Continuing the study of the green areas of the Campus II of the Federal University of Goiás it was developed a research in order to check the situation of the arborization at Campus. The sites of the present study consisted of spaces

  6. Plantas tóxicas para ruminantes e eqüídeos no Norte Piauiense Toxic plants for ruminants and equidae in Northern Piauí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo W.S. Mello

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo realizar um levantamento sobre as plantas tóxicas para ruminantes e equídeos na Mesorregião Norte do Piauí. Foram feitas 71 entrevistas a médicos veterinários, engenheiros agrônomos, técnicos agrícolas e produtores de 16 municípios, entrevistando pelo menos quatro pessoas por município. As plantas comprovadamente tóxicas que foram apontadas com maior frequência na região estudada foram Ipomoea asarifolia, que causa intoxicações em pequenos ruminantes em todas as áreas visitadas. Stryphnodendron coriaceum pelas mortes que ocasiona é, aparentemente, a planta que causa maiores perdas econômicas na mesorregião estudada. Enterolobium contortisiliquum também foi citada como causa importante de sinais digestivos, abortamentos e fotossensibilização em bovinos da região. Os entrevistados confirmaram a ocorrência de surtos de intoxicação em bovinos por Thiloa glaucocarpa no inicio do período chuvoso. Manihot spp. e Piptadenia macrocarpa são plantas cianogênicas apontadas como causa de mortes superagudas em bovinos. Outras plantas relatadas como tóxicas pelos entrevistados, mas sem que haja comprovação de sua toxicidade, foram Buchenavia tomentosa, Caesalpinia sp., Brunfelsia sp., Luetzelburgia sp., Hybantus ipecaconha, Phisalys angulata e Spondias luta. De acordo com os entrevistados os frutos de Buchenavia tomentosa causam sinais digestivos e abortos em caprinos, ovinos e bovinos. Produtores relatam surtos de intoxicação em caprinos que apresentam sinais digestivos e morte após a ingestão de favas de Luetzelburgia sp. Brunfelsia sp. é relatada como causa de alterações nervosas, no começo das chuvas, quando os animais ingerem as folhas e flores e os asininos são aparentemente mais afetados. Os frutos de Spondias luta foram mencionados como causa de diarréia em caprinos. Experimentos não publicados demonstraram a toxicidade de Brunfelsia sp. em ovinos e de Luetzelburgia sp. como

  7. Assessing water salinity along River Limón and Caño San Miguel irrigation paleochannel (Maracaibo, Venezuela) as affected by the balance of soluble salts in alluvium soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Raquel; Moreno, Juan; Hermosilla, Daphne; Gascó, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    The saline degradation of soils that are irrigated with brackish water is worrisome increasing worldwide, and it may further affect the salinity of fresh water in those streams flowing across. The problem that is caused by an increasing concentration of salts that are more soluble than gypsum depends on the quality of irrigation water, climatic aridity, and drainage limitations. All these conditions meet in the alluvium soils of River Limón basin that are crossed by Caño San Miguel irrigation paleochannel. River Limón's regulation by closing Manuelote and Tulé artificial reservoirs has diminished the input of water and sediments from flooding events, which exerted dilutive effects in the past. In addition, the balance of soluble salts in these soils has also registered further net accumulation during those extremely dry years happened before 2006, because the great dilution contribution of ombrogenic dammed water coming from rain has not been enough to compensate salts concentration generated by water evapotranspiration in those irrigated soils of the middle basin, particularly in the absence of superficial runoff and deep drainage. Considering those semi-arid climate conditions prevailing in the area (annual precipitation = 710 mm; potential evapotransporation = 2361 mm), it resulted that water analyses in River Limón showed a ten-fold increased maximum annual salinity concentration (March) along the stream; that is, an electric conductivity (Ce) of 0.37 dS•m-1 (at 25 °C) at Puente Carrasquero pumping station, where water for crop irrigation is subtracted, turns to 34.60 dS•m-1 (at 25 °C) at its base level in Puerto Mara, where it discharges to Lake Maracaibo. In addition, the quality of irrigation water from Caño San Miguel, which aggregates to those coming from River Limón at the pumping station located in Carrasquero just before running through the alluvium of this water stream, resulted pretty irregular. In short, it spanned form C1 to C4 soil

  8. Erosion wear analysis of solid particles in liquid-solid two-phase flow of right-angle bend pipe%直角弯管内液固两相流固体颗粒冲蚀磨损分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁矿; 朱宏武; 张建华; 朱君尧; 罗璇

    2013-01-01

    Internal flow law of right-angle bend pipe is analyzed base on the CFD method. Calculation results show that flow separation occurs at the 90° corner and in downstream horizontal pipeline and obvious secondary circulation in the downstream horizontal pipeline. Erosion model provided by the Erosion and Corrosion Joint Research Center of Tulsa University (E/CRC) is introduced on the basis of flow field calculation to conduct the research on erosive wear of the right-angle bend pipe, in which spatial distribution characteristics of solid particles as well as maximum erosion rate and overall quality loss of upstream and downstream pipe walls are analyzed to show good consistency between calculation results and experimental data. Spatial distribution characteristics of solid particles depend on fluid flow characteristics and the most serious wear occurs at the bent pipe corner and inside wall surface of downstream pipeline. Flow rate, particle concentration and particle diameter have a significant effect on the maximum erosion rate, of which the flow rate follows an exponential growth relationship so that flow rates of upstream and downstream pipe walls respectively reach the index of 2.5 and 2.3.%基于流体力学(CFD)方法,分析了直角弯管的内部流动规律,计算结果表明:直角弯管在90°转角和下游水平管路中存在流动分离现象,同时在下游水平管路中形成明显的二次环流.在流场计算的基础上,引入TulSa大学冲蚀与腐蚀联合研究中心(E/CRC)提供的冲蚀模型,对直角弯管的冲蚀磨损问题进行研究,分析了固体颗粒的空间分布特征和上下游管壁的最大冲蚀率以及总体质量损失,计算结果与实验数据具有良好的一致性.固体颗粒的空间分布特征依赖于流体流动特性,磨损最严重的位置发生在弯管转角处和下游管路的内侧壁面.流速、颗粒浓度和颗粒直径对最大冲蚀率有明显影响,其中,流速与最大冲蚀率呈指数

  9. 梗阻性肾功能衰竭的急诊处理%The emergency treatment of obstructive renal failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于永纲; 姚华强; 李学德; 刘东荣; 武英杰; 莫建勋; 于洋; 黄明坦

    2001-01-01

    Purpose:To present the experiences and lessons of emergency management for the obstructive renal failure induced by urinary calculi.Methods:Clinical data of 81 cases of patients with obstructive renal failure from January 1988 to May 2000 was reviewed retrospectively.Results:14 cases were treated by emergent open operation (one died of bleeding ceaselessly), 36 cases by dwelling ureteral stent retrogradely(28 cases succeeded and no severe complications observed, the other 8 cases received nephrostomy of TUL),38 cases treated with percutaneous nephrostomy drainage(3 cases had to undergo nephrectomy, and the other 2 patients died after the primary treatment because of bleeding continually). The serum creatinine level decreased significantly after treatments(P<0.01).Conclusions:It is noteworthy that the surgical interventions were affected severely by the bleeding tendency caused by uremia, and the complicated surgical intervention could not be carried out before the bleeding tendency be corrected. The indwelling ureteral stent retrogradely is recommended as the first choice of emergent treatment for patients with obstructive renal failure.%目的:总结急诊处理由结石引起的梗阻性肾功能衰竭的经验与教训。方法:对1988年1月~2000年5月收治的81例梗阻性肾功能衰竭患者的急诊处理方法进行回顾性分析,其中行急诊开放手术14例,输尿管逆行插管引流36例,经皮肾穿刺造口31例;引流失败的8例,1例改行URS,7例改行经皮肾穿刺造口。结果:死亡3例,1例为开放手术者,2例为穿刺造口者;引流成功28例,无一例出现严重并发症;穿刺造口者有3例行肾切除术,手术后病情改善,血清肌酐下降。结论:对此类患者应特别注意出血倾向对外科手术的严重影响,在患者出血倾向未得到纠正以前切勿轻易进行复杂的外科处理。推荐输尿管逆行插管引流作为梗阻性肾功能衰竭急诊处理的首选方法。

  10. "Kes kaunis on, peab andma vastse võsu..." : [sonetid] / William Shakespeare ; tlk. Harald Rajamets, Ants Oras

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Shakespeare, William, 1564-1616

    2006-01-01

    Sisu: "Kes kaunis on, peab andma vastse võsu..." ; "Sa peeglist näed: need palgejooned nüüd..." ; "Seesama aeg, mis kunstipeenelt voolib..." ; "Miks muusika teeb nukraks sind, kes ise..." ; "Ei, armastust ei tunne sinu rind..." ; "Nii ruttu, kui sa hääbud, uueks sirgud..." ; "Kui kuulen, kuidas aega mõõdab kell..." ; "Kuid miks sa ise tõhusamal moel..." ; "Kas suvepäeva sarnaseks sind kiita?..." ; "Aeg, õgard, küüned lõvil tömbiks kääna... ; "Ei veena peegel mind, et olen vana..." ; "Just nagu näitleja, kel kinni keel..." ; "Mu silm kui taidur võttis pilti teha..." ; "Mu armu isand, kelle truu vasall..." ; "Ma reisist väsinuna heidan sängi..." ; "Kui õnnest hüljatuna nutan sala..." ; "Kui vaikse leebe mõtte kohtu ette..." ; "Ma olen näinud küll, kuis tõusev päike..." ; "Ma tunnistan, et meid on siiski kaks..." ; "Nii nagu isa, vanadusest nõrka..." ; "Kui sulen laud, mu silmad hästi näevad..." ; "Nii ränk on reisida mul tüütul teel..." ; "Mis on su olemus, mis tuum su, miks..." ; "Ei kuningate uhked marmorsambad..." ; "Arm, uuenda end, nii et öelda sust..." ; "Kui uut ei olegi, vaid kõik on sama..." ; "Nii nagu lained ulgumerelt randa..." ; "Neiks päeviks, kui kord aeg mu armsal palge..." ; "Et näen, kuis aja käsi kõike lõhub..." ; "Kui pronksi, kivi, maad ja merd võib neelda..." ; "Mu tusk on ränk, nüüd surma kutsuks küll..." ; "Kui suren, ära leina mind sa kaua..." ; "Sa minus seda aastaaega näed..." ; "Mul sinust kirjutades arg on meel..." ; "Oo hüvasti! Liig kallis mul su hind..." ; "Siis vihka mind, kui pead, ja kohe praegu..." ; "Mõnd uhkeks teeb ta kunst, mõnd sünnipära..." ; "Sust eemal olin kevadel, mu arm..." ; "Kui möödaläinud aja kroonikais..." ; "Mis on veel ajul paberile kanda..." ; "Jah, tõsi, olen käinus siin ja seal..." ; "Ma uskuda ei saa, et murda suudab..." ; "On parem olla halb kui halvaks peetud..." ; "Ei, aeg, sa ära hoople, et mind muudad..." ; "Mu muusika, kui muusikat sa teed

  11. A study of the mandibular characteristic in genetic Class Ⅲ malocclusion%安氏Ⅲ类错(牙合)下颌形态遗传性特征的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娜; 王建国

    2011-01-01

    occlusion group and the malocclusion group; ② By stepwise discrimination analysis,6 discrimination factors were selected:(TUL-SnTC)- (TLL-SnTC),ANB,Sn-Ns-Sb,Wits,L1-MP,SNA+NSAr; () Mandibular cephalometric measurements had stronger similarity between parents and offsprings.Conclusions ① In this sample Class Ⅲ malocclusion are mainly resulted from abnormal mandible; ② Maybe there are some special genetic features in Class Ⅲmalocclusion.

  12. Late Cretaceous - Paleogene forearc sedimentation and accretion of oceanic plateaus and seamounts along the Middle American convergent margin (Costa Rica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Peter O.; Baumgartner-Mora, Claudia; Andjic, Goran

    2016-04-01

    -derived plateaus and seamounts. Scarce redeposited remnants of Campanian-Maastrichtian and Late Paleocene-Early Eocene shallow water limestones are associated either with shoals on oceanic seamounts such as the Tulín and Quepos Terranes, or on accreted and uplifted plateaus, such as the Inner Osa Igneous Complex. The latter was probably accreted during the Early Paleocene and partly uplifted and maintained in the photic zone during the Late Paleocene - Late Eocene, as indicated by shallow water material both in place (Burica Peninsula, western Panama) and resedimented in deep water hemipelagic series. The Paleocene-Middle Eocene period is punctuated by the accretion of large pieces of plateaus and oceanic islands that may have temporarily extinguished the arc in southern Costa Rica. Only distal (airborne and suspension) volcanic material is known from that time. By Late Eocene, arc-volcanic activity resumed. The accretion of small seamounts and mass wasting of earlier accreted material from the hanging wall created the Osa Mélange. It contains scarce remnants of the insular shallow water carbonates along with a big volume of arc-derived detritals, including upper Eocene shallow water resediments.

  13. Predacion de semillas de Amaranthus quitensis H.B.K. en un cultivo de soja: influencia del sistema de siembra Predation of Amaranthus quitensis H.B.K. seeds in soybean crops: influence of the tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Nisensohn

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue evaluar las pérdidas del banco superficial de semillas de Amaranthus quitensis H.B.K. (yuyo colorado debidas a la predación por insectos en un cultivo de soja y en el barbecho posterior, en dos sistemas de laboreo. Los experimentos se realizaron durante las campañas 94/95 y 95/96. Para calcular la tasa de predación se emplearon bandejas cubiertas con tejido para evitar el ingreso de roedores y con tela de tul en los tratamientos testigos; en cada una se sembraron 100 semillas de la maleza y cada 15 días se registró el número de semillas remanentes. Para determinar los insectos presentes y su abundancia se emplearon trampas "pitfall". Entre los insectos capturados se encontró el carábido Notiobia cupripennis, su mayor abundancia se registró en marzo (4,5 y 5,8 insectos/trampa en convencional y 2,7 y 3,3 insectos/trampa en siembra directa, coincidiendo con las tasas de predación más altas (5,6% y 8% en convencional y 2,7% y 3,8% en siembra directa; tanto en abundancia como en predación se observaron diferencias significativas entre ambos sistemas. A partir de este mes, las diferencias no fueron significativas, el número de insectos y la tasa de predación disminuyeron. En ambos años existió una correlación positiva entre estas variables.The objective was to evaluate the losses of the superficial bank of Amaranthus quitensis seeds, due to insect predation, in a soybean crop and in the subsequent fallow, in two tillage systems. Experiments were conducted during 1994/95 and 1995/96. To estimate predation rates, trays covered with wire meshes to prevent rodent predation, and with fine sheer net (tulle in the control treatment were used; 100 weed seeds were sown in each tray, and the number of remaining seeds was registered every 15 days. Pitfall traps were used to identify insects species occurring in the field and to estimate their abundance. The carabid Notiobia cupripennis was captured in pitfall traps, the higher

  14. Registro de novos hospedeiros de Megaplatypus mutatus (Chapuis (Coleoptera, Platypodidae no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil (Nota Científica. A register of new hosts of Megaplatypus mutatus (Chapuis (Coleoptera, Platypodidae in the State of São Paulo (Scientific Note.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Borges CONFORTI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Megaplatypus mutatus (Chapuis éespécie nativa da América do Sul e é pragaprimária de espécies arbóreas exóticas e nativas.No município de Campinas, Estado de São Paulo,durante pesquisa realizada nos anos de 2004,2005 e 2006, visando descobrir a causa damortalidade de árvores que compõem o dossel defragmentos de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual noBosque dos Jequitibás e na Mata Santa Genebra,foi coletado material associado a várias espéciesarbóreas ainda não registradas na literatura.Schizolobium parahyba (Vel l . S. F. Bl ake,Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong,Livistona chinensis (Jacq. R. Br., Caesalpiniapluviosa (Benth. DC., Pittosporum undulatumVent., Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook Raf.,Mangifera indica L., Croton floribundus Spreng.,Croton piptocalyx Müll. Arg., Cariniana legalis(Mart. Kuntze, Luetzelburgia guaissaraToledo, Piptadenia gonoacantha (Mart. J. F.Macbr., Ficus benjamina L., Platypodium elegansVogel, Cariniana estrellensis (Raddi Kuntze,Machaerium stipitatum (DC. Vogel, Centrolobiumtomentosum Guillemin ex Benth., Pachira aquaticaAubl., Inga cf. vera Willd. ssp. affinis (DC. T.D.Penn., são registradas pela primeira vez comohospedeiros de M. mutatus no stado de São Paulo,Brasil. Plantas hospedeiras referidas em bibliografiatambém são relacionadas.Megaplatypus mutatus (Chapuis isnative from South America and it is a primary pestof native and exotic trees. In the county ofCampinas, state of São Paulo, during researchcarried out in the years of 2004, 2005 and 2006aiming at to discover the cause of the mortality oftrees that compose the canopy of fragments ofSemideciduous Forest in the Bosque dos Jequitibásand Mata Santa Genebra, was collected materialassociated with some species still not recorded inthe literature. Schizolobium parahyba (Vel l . S.F. Bl ake, Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell.Morong, Livistona chinensis (Jacq. R. Br.,Caesalpinia pluviosa (Benth. DC., Pittosporumundulatum Vent., Delonix

  15. A revision of the Axylus group of Agraeciini (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Conocephalinae) and of some other species formerly included in Nicsara or Anthracites Revision of the Indo-Australian Conocephalinae, Part 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrisch, Sigfrid

    2015-11-23

    . and E. ornata (Brunner, 1898) comb. nov. (from Axylus); Heminicsara excisa (Karny, 1926) comb. nov., H. insulana (Willemse, 1966) comb. nov., H. schlaginhaufeni (Karny, 1912) comb. nov., and H. viridipes (Karny, 1912) comb. nov. (from Nicsara); Heminicsara castaneipictus (Willemse, 1966) comb. nov., H. insularis (Willemse, 1942) comb. nov., and H. palauensis (Vickery & Kevan, 1999) comb. nov. (from Spinisternum); Heminicsara decipiens (Karny, 1926) comb. nov. and H. griffinii (Karny, 1911) comb. nov. (from Gonatacanthus); Heminicsara novaeguineae (Willemse, 1966) comb. nov. (from Eucoptaspis); Sulasara aethiops (Karny, 1931) comb. nov., S. karnyi (Willemse, 1932) comb. nov., and Sulasara sarasini (Karny, 1931) comb. nov. (from Nicsara); Papuacites nigrifrons (Karny, 1912) comb. nov. and P. nakanaiensis (Naskrecki & Rentz, 2010) comb. nov. (from Anthracites); Paramacroxiphus multispinosa (Bolivar, 1898) comb. nov. (from Nicsara); Palaeoagraecia globiceratus Vickery & Kevan, 1999 comb. nov. (from Macroxiphus). Odontocoryphus pullus Karny, 1907 becomes a new synonym of Macroxiphus sumatranus sumatranus (Haan, 1842). 87 species are described as new: nine species in Axylus: A. brachypterus sp. nov., A. dulang sp. nov., A. furcatus sp. nov., A. mengkoka sp. nov., A. montanus sp. nov., A. negros sp. nov. , A. superior sp. nov., A. totop sp. nov. , A. unicolor sp. nov.; six species in Anthracites: A. bilineatus sp. nov., A. flagellatus sp. nov., A. pyramidalis sp. nov., A. romblon sp. nov., A. sinuatus sp. nov., A. unispinus sp. nov.; four species in Euanthracites: E. bispinus sp. nov., E. eboreus sp. nov., E. ile sp. nov., E. uru sp. nov.; six species in Eucoptaspis: E. adonara sp. nov., E. hexamaculatus sp. nov., E. remotus sp. nov., E. stylatus sp. nov., E. trapezoides sp. nov., E. wawo sp. nov.; eight species in Eulobaspis: E. bacan C.Willemse & Ingrisch sp. nov., E. baduri sp. nov., E. buruensis sp. nov., E. ceramica C.Willemse & Ingrisch sp. nov., E. morotai sp. nov., E

  16. DDX1基因对神经母细胞瘤细胞侵袭、迁移及耐药能力的影响%Effects of dead box 1 gene on invasion, migration and drug resistance capability of neuroblastoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建华; 刘玉峰; 王家勤; 郭学鹏

    2016-01-01

    V细胞的1.38倍.DDX1基因表达降低能显著提高NB细胞对顺铂和多柔比星的药物敏感性.结论 DDX1的表达受到抑制后,NB细胞侵袭、迁移能力均减弱,NB细胞对多柔比星和顺铂的药物敏感性增加,NB细胞的耐药能力减弱.%Objective To explore the effects of dead box 1 (DDX1) gene on invasion,migration and drug resistance capability of neuroblastoma(NB) cells.Methods According to the virus drop degree,the appropriate amount of target virus(Lenti-DDX1-MIR virus liquid,drop degrees 1012 TU/L) and negative control virus(Lenti-EGFP virus liquid,drop degrees 3 × 1011 TU/L) (multiplicity of infection was 10) were added into 2 hole cells,respectively.SK-N-BE(2)/blank,SK-N-BE(2)/shV and SK-N-BE(2)/shDDX1 cells which grew in good condition were cultured.Transwell chamber was used to detect the invasion,and cell staining was made with crystal violet.The researchers calculate 5 field counting in each small room and calculate the average cell invasion rate.Transwell chamber was used to detect the migration,and cell staining was made with crystal violet.The 570 nm absorbance values was tested with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) reader,and cell migration was calculated.The researchers used 50 mg Cisplatin,solution 10 g/L mother liquor standby with 5 mL dimethyl sulphoxide,and 50 mg Doxorubicin,solution 1 g/L mother liquor standby with PBS.Drugs were added to the cell culture plate,and Doxorubicin final concentration was 1.0 mg/L,and Cisplatin final concentration was 2.5 mg/L,and photographic record was documented after drug treatment for 24 h.Cell Count Kit-8 (CCK-8) was used to detect the drug sensitivity to NB cells to Doxorubicin and Cisplatin.Results Transwell results showed that,cell invasion concentration in SK-N-BE (2)/shDDX1 was 60% compared with SK-N-BE (2)/blank and SK-N-BE (2) /shV;Crystal violet staining showed that cell invasion of SK-N-BE(2)/shDDX1 was significantly weaker than that of SK-N-BE(2)/blank and SK-N-BE(2

  17. 咬合垂直距离升高后咬合重建修复患者的头影测量分析%X-ray cephalometric analysis of the occlusal rehabilitation treatment for the patients with occlusal vertical dimension increasement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗媛; 李彦

    2012-01-01

    Objective To discuss and analyze the cephalometric changes of the hard and soft tissues before and after increasing occlusal vertical dimension (IOVD). Methods Fifteen adult patients accepted the occlusal rehabilitation treatment with reasonablely IOVD. The pre- and post-IOVD X-rays cephalometric are examined. Using Winceph 8. 0, craniomaxillofacial parameters were chosen from Jarabak, Tweed and McNamara system to fulfill the analysis. The changes of the hard tissue and soft tissue were calculated by self-control paired (-test. Results The parameters of craniobase and maxilla bone showed no statistical significant difference before and after IOVD (P>0.05) ; the SNB angle, SND angle , SNPOg angle, NA-PA angle, and SN-Y axis angle which describe the sagittal direction relationship of jaw bones; The anterior lower facial height, the anterior facial height, the posterior facial height, the lower facial height, the total facial height, the distance of Me-FH, the FMA angle, the mandibular plane angle, GoGn-SN angle and the Y axis angle which describe the vertical direction relationship of jaw bones; SL and SE which describe the position of the mandibular condyle; Overbite, IMPA and FMIA which describe the occlusion; and the Z angle, the distance of Sn-MeNamara, the distance of TUL-McNamara, the distance of TLL-McNamara and the distance of SB-McNamara which describe the soft tissue profile, showed statistical significant difference before and after IOVD (P <0. 05). Conclusion The mandibular would twist backward and downward; the occlusal rehabilitation treatment with IOVD can improve the facial profile by converging the upper and lower lips, and increasing the lower facial height.%目的 采用X线头影测量方法研究咬合垂直距离(occlusal vertical dimension,OVD)升高后咬合重建修复患者的软硬组织变化情况.方法 咬合升高重建修复患者15例,分别于修复前后拍摄X线头颅侧位片进行头影测量分析,对

  18. Soil fertility and {sup 137} Cs redistribution as related to land use, landscape and texture in a watershed of Paraiba State; Fertilidade do solo e redistribuicao de {sup 137} Cs em funcao da cobertura vegetal, relevo, e classes texturais, em uma microbacia hidrografica do Estado da Paraiba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Antonio Clementino dos

    2004-03-15

    Intensive land use and growing deforestation of the natural vegetation in Northeastern Brazil have contributed to the degradation of resources, particularly the decrease of soil fertility. As a result, biodiversity and ecosystem capacity to restore its resources after disturbances have been diminished. The decrease in soil fertility is more substantial in areas dominated by an undulating topography. In these areas, erosion is intensified when crops or pasture replaces natural vegetation. Even though degradation processes are reflected in environmental, social, and economical changes, there is a lack of information regarding the interrelationship between these changes and soil fertility and erosion. Thus, the 'Vaca Brava' watershed (14,04 km{sup 2}), located in the 'Agreste' region of Paraiba State, was selected to study the interrelationships between land use, landscape, particle size distribution, soil fertility and erosion using {sup 137} Cs redistribution. Small farms, where subsistence agriculture is intensive, are common in this watershed, as well as areas for environmental protection. A georreferenced survey of the watershed topography was initially carried out. Based on the survey data, the watershed was digitalized using a scale of 1:5000, and a 3-D map was created. Each landform element had its area determined on a area (absolute value) and percentage (relative value) basis. Shoulder, backslope and footslope positions represented 83% of the cultivated area in the watershed. A data base of 360 georreferenced soil samples (0-20 cm), collected using a stratified sampling scheme, was further created. Sites were stratified based on their landscape position (summit, shoulder, backslope, footslope, and toeslope) in factorial combination with land use (annual crops, pasture, Pennisetum purpureum, Mimosa caesalpiniae folia, bush fallow, and native forest). Physical analyses of the soil samples included particle size distribution and bulk density

  19. Soil fertility and {sup 137} Cs redistribution as related to land use, landscape and texture in a watershed of Paraiba State; Fertilidade do solo e redistribuicao de {sup 137} Cs em funcao da cobertura vegetal, relevo, e classes texturais, em uma microbacia hidrografica do Estado da Paraiba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Antonio Clementino dos

    2004-03-15

    Intensive land use and growing deforestation of the natural vegetation in Northeastern Brazil have contributed to the degradation of resources, particularly the decrease of soil fertility. As a result, biodiversity and ecosystem capacity to restore its resources after disturbances have been diminished. The decrease in soil fertility is more substantial in areas dominated by an undulating topography. In these areas, erosion is intensified when crops or pasture replaces natural vegetation. Even though degradation processes are reflected in environmental, social, and economical changes, there is a lack of information regarding the interrelationship between these changes and soil fertility and erosion. Thus, the 'Vaca Brava' watershed (14,04 km{sup 2}), located in the 'Agreste' region of Paraiba State, was selected to study the interrelationships between land use, landscape, particle size distribution, soil fertility and erosion using {sup 137} Cs redistribution. Small farms, where subsistence agriculture is intensive, are common in this watershed, as well as areas for environmental protection. A georreferenced survey of the watershed topography was initially carried out. Based on the survey data, the watershed was digitalized using a scale of 1:5000, and a 3-D map was created. Each landform element had its area determined on a area (absolute value) and percentage (relative value) basis. Shoulder, backslope and footslope positions represented 83% of the cultivated area in the watershed. A data base of 360 georreferenced soil samples (0-20 cm), collected using a stratified sampling scheme, was further created. Sites were stratified based on their landscape position (summit, shoulder, backslope, footslope, and toeslope) in factorial combination with land use (annual crops, pasture, Pennisetum purpureum, Mimosa caesalpiniae folia, bush fallow, and native forest). Physical analyses of the soil samples included particle size distribution and bulk density