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Sample records for caesalpinia digyna extracts

  1. Textile wastewater biocoagulation by Caesalpinia spinosa extracts

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    Andrés Revelo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2014/12/06 - Accepted: 2015/03/24The textile industry in Ecuador is still a matter of concern because of the inappropriate disposal of their effluents into the local water supply. The present research was carried out in Pelileo (Tungurahua-Ecuador where textile wastewaters are discharged into waterways. An environmentally friendly solution to treat highly contaminated organic textile wastewaters is herein evaluated: a remediation process of biocoagulation was performed using extracts from the Caesalpinia spinosa plant also known as guarango or tara. It was determined that using C. spinosa extracts to treat wastewater has the same statistical effect as when applying a chemical coagulant (polyaluminum chloride 15%. Activated zeolite adsorbed color residuals from treated water to obtain turbidity removal more than 90%. A mathematical model showed that turbidity removal between 50-90% can be obtained by applying 25-45 g/L of guarango extracts and zeolite per 700 mL of textile wastewater. The natural coagulation using C. spinosa extracts produced 85% less sludge than polyaluminum chloride, and removed high organic matter content in the wastewater (1050 mg/L by 52%.

  2. Immunomodulatory activities of the ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia bonducella seeds.

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    Shukla, Shruti; Mehta, Archana; John, Jinu; Mehta, Pradeep; Vyas, Suresh Prasad; Shukla, Savita

    2009-09-07

    Caesalpinia bonducella FLEMING (Caesalpiniaceae) is a plant well known for its medicinal value in Indian Ayurveda. However, to prove its efficiency for the clinical utilization, more experimental data will be beneficial. The present study involved the investigation of immunomodulatory activities of ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia bonducella seeds. Neutrophil adhesion test, haemagglutinating antibody (HA) titre, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response, phagocytic activity and cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression were determined by in vivo experiments. The evaluation of immunomodulatory potential by oral administration of ethanolic seed extract of Caesalpinia bonducella (200-500 mg/kg) evoked a significant increase in percent neutrophil adhesion to nylon fibers as well as a dose-dependent increase in antibody titre values, and potentiated the delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction induced by sheep red blood cells. Also it prevented myelosuppression in cyclophosphamide drug treated rats and good response towards phagocytosis in carbon clearance assay. The results obtained in this study indicate that Caesalpinia bonducella possesses potential immunomodulatory activity and has therapeutic potential for the prevention of autoimmune diseases.

  3. Flavonoids content in extracts secang (Caesalpinia Sappan L. maceration method infundation analysis and visible ultraviolet spectrophotometer

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    Youstiana Dwi Rusita

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Secang (Caesalpinia sappan L has a component of a chemical compound essential oils, flavonoids, benzopyran, sapanin, brazilin, caesalpin S, caesalpin P, sapanon A, sapanon B. Flavonoids are chemical components that can be used in medical and industrial fields. This study aimed to determine the levels of flavonoids contained in extracts secang results maceration and extraction methods infundation. This study used quantitative and descriptive research design. This study using purposive sampling with two sample of Caesalpinia sappan L extract result of infundation and maceration. Analysis using univariate analysis. This study shows that there are types of flavonoids flavones, flavonols and flavanols on extracts of Caesalpinia sappan L results maceration method, and there are flavonoid types of flavones, flavonols and flavanols on extracts of Caesalpinia sappan L results infundation method. Flavonoid content test results showed that the levels of flavonoids in extracts of Caesalpinia sappan L results maceration 0.0539% whereas the levels of flavonoids in the extract of Caesalpinia sappan L results infundation methods 0.1902%. Necessary standardization of botanicals Caesalpinia sappan L to determine the levels of flavonoids using ultraviolet visible spectrophotometer, and the analysis of the levels of flavonoids in the extract of Caesalpinia sappan L using different solvents. As a follow-up is necessary to design the manufacture of dosage formulations of the active ingredient flavanoid compounds from the extract of Caesalpinia sappan L.

  4. Performance of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract as photo sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cells

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    Ananth, S.; Vivek, P.; Saravana Kumar, G.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2015-02-01

    A natural dye extracted from Caesalpinia sappan heartwood was used as photo sensitizer for the first time to fabricate titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles based dye sensitized solar cells. Brazilin and brazilein are the major pigments present in the natural dye and their optimized molecular structure were calculated using Density functional theory (DFT) at 6-31G (d) level. The HOMO-LUMO were performed to reveal the energy gap using optimized structure. Pure TiO2 nanoparticles in anatase phase were synthesized by sol-gel technique. The pure and natural dye sensitized TiO2 nanoparticles were subjected to structural, optical, spectral and morphological studies. Low cost and environment friendly dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated using natural dye sensitized TiO2 based photo anode. The solar light to electron conversion efficiency of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract sensitized dye sensitized solar cell is 1.1%.

  5. Antioxidant potential of hydro-methanolic extract of seed of Caesalpinia bonduc: An in vitro study

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    Kishalay Jana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the over production of reactive oxygen species is harmful for living organisms and it damages major cellular constituents such as DNA, protein, and lipid. At present, searching of new plant sources having free radical scavenging activity is an important field of research in phytomedicine as natural products are safe and relatively low cost. In this respect, attention has been focused to evaluate the antioxidant potential of hydro-methanolic extract of seed of Caesalpinia bonduc (Caesalpenacae using different in vitro models. To evaluate the antioxidant activity, extract was examined on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging effect, scavenging of hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical scavenging potential, and anti-lipid peroxidation activity by biochemical methods. Total phenol and flavonoids contents in the said extract were measured biochemically as per standard methods. Results were compared with butylated hydroxyl toluene and α-tocopherol. Results indicated that hydro-methanolic extract has strong scavenging activity on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical with IC 50 value 157.4 μg/ml, hydroxyl radical with IC 50 value 61.9 μg/ml and hydrogen peroxide with IC 50 value 64.32 μg/ml. Hydro-methanolic extract also showed notable inhibition in lipid peroxidation having IC 50 value 58.87 μg/ml. Phytochemical study focused that the extract is rich in phenolic compounds (24.66 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dried extract and flavonoids (136.65 mg quercetin equivalent/g dried extract. Findings of the experiment indicated that the hydro-methanolic extract of seed of Caesalpinia bonduc is a source of natural antioxidants.

  6. Performance of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract as photo sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cells.

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    Ananth, S; Vivek, P; Saravana Kumar, G; Murugakoothan, P

    2015-02-25

    A natural dye extracted from Caesalpinia sappan heartwood was used as photo sensitizer for the first time to fabricate titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles based dye sensitized solar cells. Brazilin and brazilein are the major pigments present in the natural dye and their optimized molecular structure were calculated using Density functional theory (DFT) at 6-31G (d) level. The HOMO-LUMO were performed to reveal the energy gap using optimized structure. Pure TiO2 nanoparticles in anatase phase were synthesized by sol-gel technique. The pure and natural dye sensitized TiO2 nanoparticles were subjected to structural, optical, spectral and morphological studies. Low cost and environment friendly dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated using natural dye sensitized TiO2 based photo anode. The solar light to electron conversion efficiency of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract sensitized dye sensitized solar cell is 1.1%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. In vitro antioxidant activity, phytochemical screening, cytotoxicity and total phenolic content in extracts of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (Caesalpiniaceae) pods.

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    Kumbhare, M R; Sivakumar, T; Udavant, P B; Dhake, A S; Surana, A R

    2012-04-01

    Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. Swartz (Caesalpiniaceae) is an ornamental plant also used as a common medicinal plant in India, Taiwan and South-East Asian countries. Majority of the diseases/disorders are mainly linked to oxidative stress due to free radicals. The aims of this study were to screen for phytochemical constituents, evaluate cytotoxicity, in vitro antioxidant activity and estimation of total phenolic content of extracts of pods of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, steroids and alkaloids. Brine Shrimp Lethality (BSL) bioassay was used to investigate the cytotoxic effects. The LC50(microg mL(-1)) values obtained for extracts as 750 microg mL(-1) for petroleum ether extract, 800 microg mL(-1) for chloroform extract and 900 microg mL(-1) for methanol extract. The total phenolic content of the methanolic extract was 38.04% w/w, equivalent to gallic acid. Petroleum ether, chloroform and methanolic extracts of Caesalpinia pulcherrima and standard ascorbic acid were found to be scavenger of DPPH radical with an IC50 of 124.75, 112.08, 54.34 and 13.86 microg mL(-1), respectively. Methanolic extract was good scavenger of DPPH radical. Petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate soluble fraction of methanolic extracts of pods of Caesalpinia pulcherrima and ascorbic acid were found to be scavenger of nitric oxide radical with an IC50 of 93.32, 65.12, 54.83 and 12.59 microg mL(-1), respectively. Ethyl acetate soluble fraction was found to be good scavenger of nitric oxide radical. Our conclusion provides support that the crude extracts of C. pulcherrima is a probable source of natural antioxidants and this justified its uses in folkloric medicines.

  8. Evaluation of Caesalpinia bonduc seed coat extract for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity

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    Dayanand M Kannur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, Caesalpinia bonduc seed coat extract (CBSCE has been evaluated for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity C. bonduc seeds have been attributed with anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties in the folklore medicine. Here in our study, we have tried to carry out the systematic evaluation of the seed coat extract of C. bonduc to substantiate these claims. C. bonduc seed coat was extracted with 95% ethanol and concentrated; further, the extract was screened for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. The studies were carried using Carrageenan-induced Paw Edema, Egg albumin-induced paw edema, Eddy′s Hot Plate Test, Tail Immersion Method so as to prove acclaimed properties. The data was analyzed statistically by Students′ ′t′ test. The results indicate that seed coat extract has the ability to decrease the induced inflammation at varied doses in Carrageenan model as well as in the Egg albumin model in rats. The antinociceptive results indicate that the extract has the ability to increase the pain threshold of the animals and reduce the pain factor, thereby inducing analgesia. Thus, it can be concluded that CBSCE posses analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity.

  9. Evaluation of Caesalpinia bonduc seed coat extract for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity

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    Kannur, Dayanand M.; Paranjpe, Mukta P.; Sonavane, Lalit V.; Dongre, Prerana P.; Khandelwal, Kishanchand R.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, Caesalpinia bonduc seed coat extract (CBSCE) has been evaluated for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity C. bonduc seeds have been attributed with anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties in the folklore medicine. Here in our study, we have tried to carry out the systematic evaluation of the seed coat extract of C. bonduc to substantiate these claims. C. bonduc seed coat was extracted with 95% ethanol and concentrated; further, the extract was screened for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. The studies were carried using Carrageenan-induced Paw Edema, Egg albumin-induced paw edema, Eddy's Hot Plate Test, Tail Immersion Method so as to prove acclaimed properties. The data was analyzed statistically by Students’ ‘t’ test. The results indicate that seed coat extract has the ability to decrease the induced inflammation at varied doses in Carrageenan model as well as in the Egg albumin model in rats. The antinociceptive results indicate that the extract has the ability to increase the pain threshold of the animals and reduce the pain factor, thereby inducing analgesia. Thus, it can be concluded that CBSCE posses analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:23057003

  10. Caesalpinia decapetala Extracts as Inhibitors of Lipid Oxidation in Beef Patties

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    Maria G. Gallego

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the effects of Caesalpinia decapetala (CD extracts on lipid oxidation in ground beef patties. Plant extracts and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT were individually added to patties at both 0.1% and 0.5% (w/w concentrations. We assessed the antioxidant efficacy of CD by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay and evaluated their potential as natural antioxidants for meat preservation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS values, hexanal content, fatty acid composition and color parameters. These were tested periodically during 11 days of refrigerated storage. TBARS levels were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05 in the samples containing plant extracts or BHT than in the non-treated control. In addition, the beef patties formulated with the selected plant extracts showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05 better color stability than those without antioxidants. These results indicate that edible plant extracts are promising sources of natural antioxidants and can potentially be used as functional preservatives in meat products.

  11. Caesalpinia decapetala Extracts as Inhibitors of Lipid Oxidation in Beef Patties.

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    Gallego, Maria G; Gordon, Michael H; Segovia, Francisco J; Almajano, María P

    2015-07-31

    In this study we investigated the effects of Caesalpinia decapetala (CD) extracts on lipid oxidation in ground beef patties. Plant extracts and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were individually added to patties at both 0.1% and 0.5% (w/w) concentrations. We assessed the antioxidant efficacy of CD by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and evaluated their potential as natural antioxidants for meat preservation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values, hexanal content, fatty acid composition and color parameters. These were tested periodically during 11 days of refrigerated storage. TBARS levels were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) in the samples containing plant extracts or BHT than in the non-treated control. In addition, the beef patties formulated with the selected plant extracts showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) better color stability than those without antioxidants. These results indicate that edible plant extracts are promising sources of natural antioxidants and can potentially be used as functional preservatives in meat products.

  12. Biological Effect of Leaf Aqueous Extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis in Goats Naturally Infected with Gastrointestinal Nematodes

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    Roberto Robson Borges-dos-Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-eight goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes were randomly divided into four groups (n=12: negative control (G1 (untreated, positive control (G2 (treated with doramectin, 1 mL/50 Kg b.w., and G3 and G4 treated with 2.5 and 5 mg/Kg b.w. of a leaf aqueous extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (CP. Fecal and blood samples were regularly collected for the evaluation of fecal egg count (FEC, hematological and immunological parameters to assess the anthelmintic activity. In treated animals with CP, there was noted a significant reduction of 54.6 and 71.2% in the mean FEC (P<0.05. An increase in IgA levels was observed in G3 and G4 (P<0.05, during the experimental period, suggesting that it was stimulated by the extract administration. In conclusion, the results showed that CP provoked a protective response in infected animals treated with them. This response could be partly explained by the CP chemical composition.

  13. Comparative study on anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Caesalpinia crista and Centella asiatica leaf extracts.

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    Ramesh, B N; Girish, T K; Raghavendra, R H; Naidu, K Akhilender; Rao, U J S Prasada; Rao, K S

    2014-04-01

    Amyloidosis, oxidative stress and inflammation have been strongly implicated in neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease. Traditionally, Caesalpinia crista and Centella asiatica leaf extracts are used to treat brain related diseases in India. C. crista is used as a mental relaxant drink as well as to treat inflammatory diseases, whereas C. asiatica is reported to be used to enhance memory and to treat dementia. The present study is aimed to understand the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of C. asiatica and C. crista leaf extracts. Phenolic acid composition of the aqueous extracts of C. crista and C. asiatica were separated on a reverse phase C18 column (4.6 x 250 mm) using HPLC system. Antioxidant properties of the leaf extracts were determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and the reducing potential assay. The anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous extracts of C. crista and C. asiatica were studied using 5-lipoxygenase assay. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) were isolated from blood by Ficoll-Histopaque density gradient followed by hypotonic lysis of erythrocytes. Gallic, protocatechuic, gentisic, chlorogenic, caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids were the phenolic acids identified in C. crista and C. asiatica leaf aqueous extracts. However, gallic acid and ferulic acid contents were much higher in C. crista compared to C. asiatica. Leaf extracts of C. asiatica and C. crista exhibited antioxidant properties and inhibited 5-lipoxygenase (anti-inflammatory) in a dose dependent manner. However, leaf extracts of C. crista had better antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity compared to that of C. asiatica. The better activity of C. crista is attributed to high gallic acid and ferulic acid compared to C. asiatica. Thus, the leaf extract of C. crista can be a potential therapeutic role for Alzheimer's disease.

  14. Effect of ethanolic seed extract of Caesalpinia bonducella on female reproductive system of albino rat: a focus on antifertility efficacy

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    Lilaram

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of oral administration of the ethanolic seed extract of Caesalpinia bonducella on the reproductive system in Wistar female albino rat. Methods: The study was divided into four groups. The group I received distilled water and served as vehicle treated control. Groups II, III and IV were orally administered 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight dose of seed extract respectively, for 10 consecutive days and subsequently euthanized twenty four hours after the last dose. Results: The treatment prolonged the length of estrous cycle with significant increase in the duration of diestrus stage. The analysis of the principal hormones viz. LH, FSH, estradiol and progesterone showed significantly decreased levels in dose-dependant manner. Ovarian and uterine weight was significantly reduced as compared to that of the control group. Histoarchitectural observations revealed follicular atresia and degeneration of corpora lutea in ovary. Oviduct showed degeneration of mucosal folds and epithelium cells. Uterus showed evidence of degeneration of endometrial epithelium and endometrial glands. Lamina propria and muscularis layer of vagina were found slightly disorganized. Conclusions: It can be concluded that significant decrease in the hormone levels, reproductive organs weight and alterations in histoarchitecture of reproductive organs might be due to antiestrogenic nature of seed extract.

  15. Preparation of demipermanent and semipermanent hair dyes gels from ethanol extract of Caesalpinia sappan L. using carbomer as gelling agent

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    Indrawati, T.; Syahrin, A.; Irpan

    2017-07-01

    Caesalpinia sappan L. (Cs L) contains of essential oils, saponin, brazilin, brazilein, alkaloids, flavonoids and tannins that have a function as cationic natural dyes. The aim of this research was to prepare the ethanol extract of Cs L wood and to prepare demi-permanent and semi-permanent of hair dye gels by using Carbomer of 2 % and 1.5 % as gelling agent and Cs L extract as cationic dyes. The Extract of Cs L was macerated by using ethanol of 96 % as the solvent, and then thickened. Three formula of demi-permanent hair dye gels were made by using Cs L extract of 3 %, 6% and 9 %. Three formula of semi-permanent hair dye gels were made by using Cs L extract of 2.50 %, 7.00 % and 10.50 %. Those hair dyes gels were prepared by swelling and mixing methods. All products of hair dyes gels were evaluated with organoleptic test, homogeneity test, pH test, consistency test, rheological properties test and dyeing effect test. The demi-permanent hair dye gels products had brown to brown dark black colors, pH of 5.05-5.43, homogeny, specific Cs L odor, and had pseudoplastic thixotropic flow characteristic. The semi-permanent hair dye gels products had red color pH of 6.5-6.25, homogeny, Cs L odor, and have pseudoplastic thixotropic flow characteristics. The optimum formula of demi-permanent was formula gel that contained of 6 % extract of Cs L and the optimum formula of permanent hair dyes gel was formula that contained of 10.50 % extract of Cs L.

  16. Anisotropic Snowman-Like Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized byCaesalpinia sappanExtract andIn VitroAntibacterial Activity.

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    Lee, You Jeong; Park, Youmie

    2018-06-01

    Anisotropic snowman-like silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using the extract of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood as a reducing agent in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. Two surface plasmon resonance bands of the orange solution were observed at 446 nm and 539 nm in UV-visible spectra. High-resolution X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the face-centered cubic structure of the AgNPs. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images clearly revealed snowman-like AgNPs with an average size of 34.36 ± 11.44 nm. The C-O functional group was most likely involved in the synthesis of the AgNPs, which was demonstrated by Fourier transform infrared spectra. Most interestingly, the snowman-like AgNPs exhibited higher antibacterial activity than the spherical AgNPs and the extract alone. Among the tested strains, the snowman-like AgNPs showed the highest activity against Staphylococcus aureus, with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 4.69 μg/mL for the extract and 0.443 μg/mL for the silver. The antibacterial activity of the snowman-like AgNPs increased 24-fold against S. aureus. These results strongly suggested that the snowman-like AgNPs synthesized from C. sappan extract have potential for treating infected disease caused by S. aureus when the antibacterial activity was combined from plant extract and AgNPs. To our knowledge, the present report is the first in which the snowman-like AgNPs synthesized using a plant extract as a reducing agent showed excellent In Vitro antibacterial activity.

  17. Characterization and Quantification of the Compounds of the Ethanolic Extract from Caesalpinia ferrea Stem Bark and Evaluation of Their Mutagenic Activity

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    Carlos César Wyrepkowski

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia ferrea Martius has traditionally been used in Brazil for many medicinal purposes, such as the treatment of bronchitis, diabetes and wounds. Despite its use as a medicinal plant, there is still no data regarding the genotoxic effect of the stem bark. This present work aims to assess the qualitative and quantitative profiles of the ethanolic extract from the stem bark of C. ferrea and to evaluate its mutagenic activity, using a Salmonella/microsome assay for this species. As a result, a total of twenty compounds were identified by Flow Injection Analysis Electrospray Ionization Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry (FIA-ESI-IT-MS/MSn in the ethanolic extract from the stem bark of C. ferrea. Hydrolyzable tannins predominated, principally gallic acid derivatives. The HPLC-DAD method was developed for rapid quantification of six gallic acid compounds and ellagic acid derivatives. C. ferrea is widely used in Brazil, and the absence of any mutagenic effect in the Salmonella/microsome assay is important for pharmacological purposes and the safe use of this plant.

  18. The Ethanol Extract of the Inner Bark of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Tul. Reduces Urinary Bladder Damage during Cyclophosphamide-Induced Cystitis in Rats

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    Janaína P. Moraes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC is a common side effect of cyclophosphamide therapy, which deserves new therapeutic strategies, such as those based on natural products. The ethanol extract of the inner bark of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Tul. (EECp possesses anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antioxidant activities as previously showed by our group. We have investigated the effect of EECp on the cyclophosphamide-induced HC. Cystitis was induced in male Wistar rats by the injection of cyclophosphamide. These animals were pretreated with EECp (100–400 mg/kg, vehicle, or mesna. Myeloperoxidase activity and malondialdehyde formation were measured in urinary bladder and other tissues. Bladder edema and histopathological alterations and serum nitric oxide metabolites concentration NOx- were also evaluated. Treatment with EECp (100–400 mg/kg or mesna impaired the increase of myeloperoxidase activity in urinary bladder and the serum NOx- induced by cyclophosphamide but did not reduce edema in this tissue, as did mesna. Total histological score was reduced by EECp (100 mg/kg. Lung myeloperoxidase activity, which was increased by cyclophosphamide, was decreased significantly by EECp (400 mg/kg. EECp also diminished the malondialdehyde formation in bladder, lung, and spleen, although these parameters were not affected by cyclophosphamide. These results indicate that EECp reduced urinary bladder damage during cyclophosphamide-induced HC in rats.

  19. The Ethanol Extract of the Inner Bark of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Tul.) Reduces Urinary Bladder Damage during Cyclophosphamide-Induced Cystitis in Rats

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    Moraes, Janaína P.; Pereira, Denyson S.; Matos, Alexandre S.; Santana, Danielle G.; Santos, Cliomar A.; Estevam, Charles S.; Fakhouri, Ricardo; de Lucca Junior, Waldecy; Camargo, Enilton A.

    2013-01-01

    Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is a common side effect of cyclophosphamide therapy, which deserves new therapeutic strategies, such as those based on natural products. The ethanol extract of the inner bark of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Tul.) (EECp) possesses anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antioxidant activities as previously showed by our group. We have investigated the effect of EECp on the cyclophosphamide-induced HC. Cystitis was induced in male Wistar rats by the injection of cyclophosphamide. These animals were pretreated with EECp (100–400 mg/kg), vehicle, or mesna. Myeloperoxidase activity and malondialdehyde formation were measured in urinary bladder and other tissues. Bladder edema and histopathological alterations and serum nitric oxide metabolites concentration NOx − were also evaluated. Treatment with EECp (100–400 mg/kg) or mesna impaired the increase of myeloperoxidase activity in urinary bladder and the serum NOx − induced by cyclophosphamide but did not reduce edema in this tissue, as did mesna. Total histological score was reduced by EECp (100 mg/kg). Lung myeloperoxidase activity, which was increased by cyclophosphamide, was decreased significantly by EECp (400 mg/kg). EECp also diminished the malondialdehyde formation in bladder, lung, and spleen, although these parameters were not affected by cyclophosphamide. These results indicate that EECp reduced urinary bladder damage during cyclophosphamide-induced HC in rats. PMID:24348180

  20. Efeito inibitório do extrato hexânico dos folíolos de Caesalpinia spinosa em Fusarium solani e Phoma tarda - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i2.1329 Inhibitory effect of Caesalpinia spinosa leaflets crude extract on Fusarium solani and Phoma tarda - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i2.1329

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    Júlio César Miranda

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Extrato hexânico foi obtido dos folíolos do falso pau-brasil (Caesalpinia spinosa e incorporado em BDA (batata-dextrose-ágar, obtendo-se as concentrações de 2204 mg L-1, 4460 mg L-1, 6370 mg L-1, 7644 mg L-1 e 16179 mg L-1. Foi avaliado o crescimento micelial de Fusarium solani e Phoma tarda. Os resultados mostraram o efeito inibitório do extrato em porcentagens variáveis de 3,95% a 32,20% para P. tarda e de 7,29% a 33,83% para F. solani, conforme as doses crescentes do extrato, cuja fungitoxidade evidencia seu potencial alternativo aos métodos físicos e químicos de controle da fusariose em vários cultivos e mancha de Phoma no cafeeiroIn order to evaluate the plant extract effect on the in vitro growth of Fusarium solani and Phoma tarda, hexane crude extract from spiny holdback (Caesalpinia spinosa leaflets was obtained and incorporated into potato-dextrose-agar (PDA at 2204 mg L-1, 4460 mg L-1, 6370 mg L-1, 7644 mg L-1 and 16179 mg L-1 concentrations. The hexane crude extract inhibited mycelial growth at the range of 3,95% to 32,20% of P. tarda and 7,29% to 33,83% of F. solani, according to the extract concentration. It was demonstrated that the extract has antifungal activity and might be an alternative to physical or chemical control methods of fusariosis disease in several cultivations and of Phoma spot on coffee plant leaf

  1. Antioxidant properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of tara (Caesalpinia spinosa) pods in vitro and in model food emulsions.

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    Skowyra, Monika; Falguera, Víctor; Gallego, Gabriela; Peiró, Sara; Almajano, María Pilar

    2014-03-30

    The successful replacement of some synthetic food antioxidants by safe natural antioxidants has fostered intensive search for new vegetable sources of antioxidants. In our study the phenol and flavonoid content of extracts of tara pods was determined. The antioxidant activity was also studied by three different analytical assays: the measurement of scavenging capacity against a radical ABTS⁺ , the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). All analyzed samples showed a good antioxidant capacity, but the use of a solution of ethanol 75% in a 1 h ultrasonic process allowed achieving the greatest quantity of phenolics (0.464 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) g⁻¹ dry weight (DW) ) and the highest antioxidant activity measured by the ABTS⁺ and ORAC methods (10.17 and 4.29 mmol L⁻¹ Trolox equivalents (TE) g⁻¹ DW, respectively). The best method for efficient extraction of flavonoids (3.08 mg catechin equivalent (CE) g⁻¹ DW) was a 24 h maceration in cold water. Two extracts obtained with ethanol 75% and water were added to a model food system (oil-in-water emulsion) and the oxidative stability was studied during storage at 38 °C. Oxidation was monitored by determination of the peroxide value. The addition of 48 µg mL⁻¹ ethanol extract to the emulsion delayed oxidation to the same extent as 17.8 µg mL⁻¹ of Trolox, while water extract was only effective in the early stages of the oxidation process. The results of this study indicate that ethanolic tara extracts may be suitable for use in food, cosmetic and nutraceutical applications. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Optional use of CAM photosynthesis in two C4 species, Portulaca cyclophylla and Portulaca digyna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtum, Joseph A M; Hancock, Lillian P; Edwards, Erika J; Winter, Klaus

    2017-07-01

    Low levels of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) are demonstrated in two species with C4 photosynthesis, Portulaca cyclophylla and P. digyna. The expression of CAM in P. cyclophylla and P. digyna is facultative, i.e. optional. Well-watered plants did not accumulate acid at night and exhibited gas-exchange patterns consistent with C4 photosynthesis. CAM-type nocturnal acidification was reversible in that it was induced following drought and lost when droughted plants were rewatered. In P. cyclophylla, droughting was accompanied by a small but discernible net uptake of CO2 during the dark, whereas in P. digyna, net CO2 exchange at night approached the CO2 compensation point but did not transition beyond it. This report brings the number of known C4 species with a capacity for expressing CAM to six. All are species of Portulaca. The observation of CAM in P. cyclophylla and P. digyna is the first for species in the opposite-leaved (OL) Portulacelloid-anatomy lineage of Portulaca and for the Australian clade therein. The other four species are within the alternate-leaved (AL) lineage, in the Atriploid-anatomy Oleracea and the Pilosoid-anatomy Pilosa clades. Studies of the evolutionary origins of C4 and CAM in Portulaca will benefit from a more wide-range survey of CAM across its species, particularly in the C3-C4 intermediate-containing Cryptopetala clade. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties

    OpenAIRE

    María Gabriela Gallego; Gordon, Michael H.; Francisco Segovia; María Pilar Almajano Pablos

    2016-01-01

    The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD) and Caesalpinia spinosa “Tara” (CS) were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts...

  4. Occurrence of biflavones in leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis specimens

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    Marcus V. Bahia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The chloroform partition of methanol extract of leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis was submitted to different chromatographic procedures which afforded besides agathisflavone and taxifolin, the minor biflavones loniflavone, amentoflavone, 5'- hydroxyamentoflavone and podocarpusflavone A. The structures of the compounds were established on the basis of NMR and MS data analysis. Besides, the content of biflavones of different specimens of C. pyramidalis, which are collected in different habitats of the Brazilian semi-arid region, was determinated by LC-APCI-MS analysis. These analysis demonstrated that only the specimens harvested in Bahia state showed collectively the presence of agathisflavone, amentoflavone, sequoiaflavone and podocarpusflavone A.

  5. Evaluation of wound healing property of Caesalpinia mimosoides Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Pradeep Bhaskar; Hegde, Shruti; Upadhya, Vinayak; Hegde, Ganesh R; Habbu, Prasanna V; Mulgund, Gangadhar S

    2016-12-04

    Caesalpinia mimosoides Lam. is one of the important traditional folk medicinal plants in the treatment of skin diseases and wounds used by healers of Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka state (India). However scientific validation of documented traditional knowledge related to medicinal plants is an important path in current scenario to fulfill the increasing demand of herbal medicine. The study was carried out to evaluate the claimed uses of Caesalpinia mimosoides using antimicrobial, wound healing and antioxidant activities followed by detection of possible active bio-constituents. Extracts prepared by hot percolation method were subjected to preliminary phytochemical analysis followed by antimicrobial activity using MIC assay. In vivo wound healing activity was evaluated by circular excision and linear incision wound models. The extract with significant antimicrobial and wound healing activity was investigated for antioxidant capacity using DPPH, nitric oxide, antilipid peroxidation and total antioxidant activity methods. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also determined by Folin-Ciocalteu, Swain and Hillis methods. Possible bio-active constituents were identified by GC-MS technique. RP-UFLC-DAD analysis was carried out to quantify ethyl gallate and gallic acid in the plant extract. Preliminary phytochemical analysis showed positive results for ethanol and aqueous extracts for all the chemical constituents. The ethanol extract proved potent antimicrobial activity against both bacterial and fungal skin pathogens compared to other extracts. The efficacy of topical application of potent ethanol extract and traditionally used aqueous extracts was evidenced by the complete re-epithelization of the epidermal layer with increased percentage of wound contraction in a shorter period. However, aqueous extract failed to perform a consistent effect in the histopathological assessment. Ethanol extract showed effective scavenging activity against DPPH and nitric

  6. In Vitro Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Gallic Acid Isolated From Caesalpinia Decapetala Wood

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    Upendra Bhadoriya

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Antioxidant capacities and phenolic contents of Gallic Acid isolated from plant Caesalpinia decapetala were investigated. Caesalpinia decapetala is a plant used to treat burns, biliousness and stomach disorders. Methods: The antioxidant activity was estimated by the ABTS and DPPH methods. The total phenolic was measured using Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Identification of isolated Gallic Acid was also performed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC using Cosmosil C18 column (150mm x 4.6mm, 5毺 m particle. The mobile phase was a mixture of ethyl acetate: ethanol: water (1:5:4, v/v/v delivered at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min-1. Results: The total phenolic content was found to be 4.31% (w/w. Isolation of Gallic Acid with optimum yield was performed using a mixture of solvents (Ethanol: Water 65:35. Isolated Gallic Acid showed significant in vitro free radical scavenging activity in both model; but in ABTS assay significant % inhibition of free radical was observed as compared to DPPH assay. Conclusions: Research concluded that Caesalpinia decapetala extract can be used as potent antioxidant which can play vital role against the diseases like neurodegenerative disorders, inflammation, viral infections and gastric ulcer

  7. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, María Gabriela; Gordon, Michael H.; Segovia, Francisco; Almajano Pablos, María Pilar

    2016-01-01

    The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD) and Caesalpinia spinosa “Tara” (CS) were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts at a high concentration had lower tensile strength with higher elongation at break points, compared to the control film (p antioxidant activity in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and Trolox equivalence antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays when added at 0.2%. The application of gelatine film containing CD and CS was found to be effective in delaying lipid oxidation and deterioration of beef patty quality during storage. Therefore, the films prepared in this study offered an alternative edible coating for the preservation of fresh food. PMID:27043638

  8. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, María Gabriela; Gordon, Michael H; Segovia, Francisco; Almajano Pablos, María Pilar

    2016-03-31

    The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD) and Caesalpinia spinosa "Tara" (CS) were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts at a high concentration had lower tensile strength with higher elongation at break points, compared to the control film (p gelatine film containing CD and CS was found to be effective in delaying lipid oxidation and deterioration of beef patty quality during storage. Therefore, the films prepared in this study offered an alternative edible coating for the preservation of fresh food.

  9. Effect of Leaves of Caesalpinia decapetala on Oxidative Stability of Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gabriela Gallego

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth Alston (Fabaceae (CD is used in folk medicine to prevent colds and treat bronchitis. This plant has antitumor and antioxidant activity. The antioxidant effects of an extract from Caesalpinia decapetala (Fabaceae were assessed by storage of model food oil-in-water emulsions with analysis of primary and secondary oxidation products. The antioxidant capacity of the plant extract was evaluated by the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays and by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy. Lyophilized extracts of CD were added at concentrations of 0.002%, 0.02% and 0.2% into oil-in-water emulsions, which were stored for 30 days at 33 ± 1 °C, and then, oxidative stability was evaluated. The CD extract had high antioxidant activity (700 ± 70 µmol Trolox/g dry plant for the ORAC assay, mainly due to its phenolic components: gallic acid, quercetin, catechin, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and p-coumaric acid. At a concentration of 0.2%, the extract significantly reduced the oxidative deterioration of oil-in-water emulsions. The results of the present study show the possibility of utilizing CD as a promising source of natural antioxidants for retarding lipid oxidation in the food and cosmetic industries.

  10. Effect of Leaves of Caesalpinia decapetala on Oxidative Stability of Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, María Gabriela; Skowyra, Monika; Gordon, Michael H.; Azman, Nurul Aini Mohd; Almajano, María Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth) Alston (Fabaceae) (CD) is used in folk medicine to prevent colds and treat bronchitis. This plant has antitumor and antioxidant activity. The antioxidant effects of an extract from Caesalpinia decapetala (Fabaceae) were assessed by storage of model food oil-in-water emulsions with analysis of primary and secondary oxidation products. The antioxidant capacity of the plant extract was evaluated by the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays and by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Lyophilized extracts of CD were added at concentrations of 0.002%, 0.02% and 0.2% into oil-in-water emulsions, which were stored for 30 days at 33 ± 1 °C, and then, oxidative stability was evaluated. The CD extract had high antioxidant activity (700 ± 70 µmol Trolox/g dry plant for the ORAC assay), mainly due to its phenolic components: gallic acid, quercetin, catechin, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and p-coumaric acid. At a concentration of 0.2%, the extract significantly reduced the oxidative deterioration of oil-in-water emulsions. The results of the present study show the possibility of utilizing CD as a promising source of natural antioxidants for retarding lipid oxidation in the food and cosmetic industries. PMID:28273843

  11. Effect of Leaves of Caesalpinia decapetala on Oxidative Stability of Oil-in-Water Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, María Gabriela; Skowyra, Monika; Gordon, Michael H; Azman, Nurul Aini Mohd; Almajano, María Pilar

    2017-03-04

    Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth) Alston (Fabaceae) (CD) is used in folk medicine to prevent colds and treat bronchitis. This plant has antitumor and antioxidant activity. The antioxidant effects of an extract from Caesalpinia decapetala (Fabaceae) were assessed by storage of model food oil-in-water emulsions with analysis of primary and secondary oxidation products. The antioxidant capacity of the plant extract was evaluated by the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays and by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Lyophilized extracts of CD were added at concentrations of 0.002%, 0.02% and 0.2% into oil-in-water emulsions, which were stored for 30 days at 33 ± 1 °C, and then, oxidative stability was evaluated. The CD extract had high antioxidant activity (700 ± 70 µmol Trolox/g dry plant for the ORAC assay), mainly due to its phenolic components: gallic acid, quercetin, catechin, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and p-coumaric acid. At a concentration of 0.2%, the extract significantly reduced the oxidative deterioration of oil-in-water emulsions. The results of the present study show the possibility of utilizing CD as a promising source of natural antioxidants for retarding lipid oxidation in the food and cosmetic industries.

  12. Chemical Constituents of Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth Alston

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    Song Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study targets the chemical constituents of Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth Alston and investigates the bioactivities of the isolated compounds. Fourteen known compounds were isolated using column chromatography, and structural identification was performed by physical and spectral analyses. The biological activities of the compounds were also evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT and 2,2-diphenlyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assays. Emodin (6, baicalein (9, and apigenin (12 displayed antitumor activities against the MGC-803 cell line, while quercetin (2, rutin (5, baicalein (9, and epicatechin (13 showed stronger DPPH scavenging activities compared with ascorbic acid. Andrographolide (1, quercetin (2, bergenin (4, rutin (5, emodin (6, betulin (7, baicalein (9, polydatin (10, salicin (11, and apigenin (12, were obtained from C. decapetala (Roth Alston for the first time.

  13. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential of Caesalpinia ferrea

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    Sandrine Maria A. Lima

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. belongs to the family Fabaceae. Known as pau-ferro and jucá, it is used in folk medicine to treat diabetes, as antipyretic and antirheumatic. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of the ethanol extract of the fruits of C. ferrea (EECf. In the evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity, EECf (50 mg/kg produced significantly inhibition of ear edema by 66.6% compared to control. Indomethacin (10 mg/kg showed inhibition of 83.9% compared to control. EECf (50 mg/kg inhibited of vascular permeability induced by acetic acid and was also able to reduce of cell migration to the peritoneal cavity induced by thioglycolate. In the writhing test induced by acid acetic, EECf (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg significantly reduced the number of contortions by 24.9, 46.9 and 74.2%, respectively. In the formalin test, EECf presented effects only in the second phase. The results provided experimental evidence for the effectiveness of the traditional use of C. ferrea in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain.

  14. Karyomorphology and karyotype asymmetry in the South American Caesalpinia species (Leguminosae and Caesalpinioideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, P S; Souza, M M; Corrêa, R X

    2014-10-20

    With the purpose of addressing the pattern of karyotype evolution in Caesalpinia species, chromosome morphology was characterized in five species from Brazil, and karyotypic asymmetry was analyzed in 14 species from South America. All accessions had the chromosome number 2n = 24, which was first described here for Caesalpinia laxiflora Tul. and Cenostigma macrophyllum Tul. The karyotype formula of C. laxiflora, Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul., and C. macrophyllum was 12 m. The formula varies amongst the populations of Caesalpinia bracteosa Tul. (11 m + 1 sm) and Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (10 m + 2 sm and 9 m + 3 sm). The intra- and interspecific variations in chromosome length were significant (analysis of variance, P karyotype (AI = 10.52), whereas Caesalpinia paraguarienses (D. Parodi) Burkat. and Caesalpinia gilliesii (Hook.) Benth. had the most symmetrical karyotypes (AI = 0.91 and 1.10, respectively). There has been a trend to lower AI values for the Caesalpinia s.l. species assigned in Libidibia and intermediate values for those combined into Poincianella. On the other hand, the karyotypes of Erythrostemon species had extremely different AI values. This study confirms the existence of karyotype variability in Caesalpinia s.l. while revealing a possible uniformity of this trait in some of the new genera that are being divided from Caesalpinia s.l. More broadly, the 2n = 24 chromosome number is conserved. Metacentric chromosomes and low AI values predominate among Caesalpinia s.l. and Cenostigma.

  15. The impact of Pleistocene climate change on an ancient arctic-alpine plant: multiple lineages of disparate history in Oxyria digyna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Geraldine A; Marr, Kendrick L; McCormick, Laurie J; Hebda, Richard J

    2012-03-01

    The ranges of arctic-alpine species have shifted extensively with Pleistocene climate changes and glaciations. Using sequence data from the trnH-psbA and trnT-trnL chloroplast DNA spacer regions, we investigated the phylogeography of the widespread, ancient (>3 million years) arctic-alpine plant Oxyria digyna (Polygonaceae). We identified 45 haplotypes and six highly divergent major lineages; estimated ages of these lineages (time to most recent common ancestor, T(MRCA)) ranged from ∼0.5 to 2.5 million years. One lineage is widespread in the arctic, a second is restricted to the southern Rocky Mountains of the western United States, and a third was found only in the Himalayan and Altai regions of Asia. Three other lineages are widespread in western North America, where they overlap extensively. The high genetic diversity and the presence of divergent major cpDNA lineages within Oxyria digyna reflect its age and suggest that it was widespread during much of its history. The distributions of individual lineages indicate repeated spread of Oxyria digyna through North America over multiple glacial cycles. During the Last Glacial Maximum it persisted in multiple refugia in western North America, including Beringia, south of the continental ice, and within the northern limits of the Cordilleran ice sheet. Our data contribute to a growing body of evidence that arctic-alpine species have migrated from different source regions over multiple glacial cycles and that cryptic refugia contributed to persistence through the Last Glacial Maximum.

  16. A New Diterpenoid from the Seeds of Caesalpinia sappan Linn

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    Yong-Jiang Xu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A new cassane-type d iterpene, named Phangininoxy A (1 and one known Phanginin A (2 were isolated from the exact of seeds of Caesalpinia sappan Linn. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, mainly 1D and 2D NMR.

  17. Development of a UV/Vis spectrophotometric method for analysis of total polyphenols from Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth

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    Fernanda G. Bueno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia peltophoroides is a domesticated tree found in Brazil. It was necessary to develop an analytical method to determine the content of total polyphenols (TP in this herbal drug. The pre-analytical method was standardized for analysis time, wavelength, and the best standard to use. The optimum conditions were: pyrogallol, 760 nm, and 30 min respectively. Under these conditions, validation by UV/Vis spectrophotometry proved to be reliable for TP of the crude extract and semipurified fractions from C. peltophoroides. Standardization is required for every herbal drug, and this method proved to be linear, precise, accurate, reproducible, robust, and easy to perform.

  18. Hepatoprotective Potential of Caesalpinia crista against Iron-Overload-Induced Liver Toxicity in Mice

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    Rhitajit Sarkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the ameliorating effect of Caesalpinia crista Linn. (CCME extract on iron-overload-induced liver injury. Iron overload was induced by intraperitoneal administration of iron dextran into mice. CCME attenuated the percentage increase in liver iron and serum ferritin levels when compared to control group. CCME also showed a dose-dependent inhibition of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and liver fibrosis. The serum enzyme markers were found to be less, whereas enhanced levels of liver antioxidant enzymes were detected in CCME-treated group. In presence of CCME, the reductive release of ferritin iron was increased significantly. Furthermore, CCME exhibited DPPH radical scavenging and protection against Fe2+-mediated oxidative DNA damage. The current study confirmed the hepatoprotective effect of CCME against the model hepatotoxicant iron overload and the activity is likely related to its potent antioxidant and iron-chelating property.

  19. Test de germination des graines de Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La présente étude a pour objectif d'évaluer la germination des graines de deux provenances (Ouèdo/Bénin et Atakpamè/Togo) de Caesalpinia bonduc sur différents types de substrats (terreau chauffé, terreau traité aux fongicide et insecticide-nématicide et terreau non traité). Pour chacune des provenances, deux lots de ...

  20. Actividad antiinflamatoria de flores y hojas de Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. (Swartz Anti-inflammatory activity of flowers and leaves of Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. (Swartz

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    Germán Eduardo Matiz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Partes aéreas de la planta Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. (Swartz han sido usadas en medicina tradicional al sur del Departamento de Cundinamarca para el tratamiento de afecciones inflamatorias. Objetivo: Evaluar la actividad antiinflamatoria de flores, hojas y frutos verdes de Caesalpinia pulcherrima para cuantificar su actividad antiinflamatoria en modelos murinos de inflamación aguda y subcrónica. Metodología: Este estudio cuantificó la actividad antiinflamatoria de diferentes extractos de tejidos aéreos de esta especie encontrada en Colombia por dos modelos de inflamación aguda, el edema auricular inducido por TPA (acetato de 12-O-tetradecanoil-forbol y el edema plantar inducido por carragenina; así como el modelo de inflamación sub-crónico de granuloma inducido por pellet de algodón. Resultados: Los extractos de flores mostraron la mayor actividad antiinflamatoria en el modelo del TPA, en tanto que las hojas fueron más efectivas en disminuir el granuloma, en el modelo del pellet de algodón. No se observó ninguna actividad antiinflamatoria de ningún extracto en el modelo de carragenina. Los frutos verdes no mostraron actividad en ningún modelo. Conclusión: Los resultados demostraron la efectividad que el uso etnobotánico le atribuye a esta planta. Los extractos activos obtenidos mostraron el potencial uso de esta planta en la fabricación fitoterapéuticos efectivos. Salud UIS 2011; 43 (3: 281-287Introduction: Aerial parts of Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. (Swartz have been used in traditional medicine in southern Cundinamarca Department for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Objective: Evaluate the antiinflammatory activity of flowers, leaves and green fruits of the plant to quantify inflammatory activity of acute and subchronic murine inflammation models. Methodology: This study quantified the anti-inflammatory activity of different extracts of aerial tissues of this species for two models of acute

  1. SENYAWA KIMIA DAN ARAH WARNA KAYU SECANG (Caesalpinia sappan Linn DAN GAMBIR (Uncaria gambir PADA BERBAGAI KONDISI EKSTRAKSI UNTUK PEWARNAAN BATIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titiek Pujilestari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKTumbuhan pembawa warna mengandung senyawa kimia yang berbeda beda baik jumlah maupun jenis senyawanya. Senyawa-senyawa dominan pembawa warna mempunyai ketahanan tertentu pada berbagai kondisi suhu . Suhu ekstraksi zat warna alam dari tumbuhan mempengaruhi arah warna. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kandungan senyawa kimia dan arah warna kayu secang dan gambir. Ekstraksi zat warna alam dilakukan pada berbagai variasi suhu pemanasan yaitu 50 oC, 75 oC, 100 oC dan perendaman dalam alkohol selama 7 (tujuh hari pada suhu kamar. Zat warna alam yang diperoleh diaplikasikan untuk pewarna batik pada kain katun dan sutera. Arah warna ditentukan melalui fiksasi menggunakan tawas, kapur dan tujung. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa suhu ekstraksi berpengaruh pada senyawa kimia zat warna alam kayu secang dan gambir.  Jumlah senyawa zat warna alam pada kayu secang semakin berkurang seiring dengan peningkatan suhu ekstraksi.  Pada gambir jumlah senyawa zat warna paling banyak diperoleh pada suhu ekstraksi 75 oC. Senyawa zat warna dominan pada kayu secang adalah cyclohexanone sedang pada gambir  adalah methyl 3,4 dideutero 3 nonenoate 3. Arah warna kayu secang merah sampai merah kecoklatan dan pada gambir warna kecoklatan sampai coklat tua.ABSTRACTColor bearing plant contains chemical compounds that vary both the number and types of compounds. Compounds dominant color carriers having different resistance at various temperature conditions. The temperature of the extraction of natural dyes from plants affects the direction of color. This study aims to determine the content of chemical compounds and direction color of Caesalpinia sappan Linn and Uncaria gambir. Extraction of natural dyes made at various heating temperature is 50 ° C, 75 ° C, 100 ° C and soaking in alcohol for seven (7 days at room temperature. Natural dyes obtained is applied to dye batik on cotton and silk. Directions color is determined by fixation using alum, lime and

  2. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gabriela Gallego

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD and Caesalpinia spinosa “Tara” (CS were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts at a high concentration had lower tensile strength with higher elongation at break points, compared to the control film (p < 0.05. Films exhibited antioxidant activity in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC and Trolox equivalence antioxidant capacity (TEAC assays when added at 0.2%. The application of gelatine film containing CD and CS was found to be effective in delaying lipid oxidation and deterioration of beef patty quality during storage. Therefore, the films prepared in this study offered an alternative edible coating for the preservation of fresh food.

  3. EFECTO INHIBIDOR DEL EXTRACTO ETANÓLICO DE CAESALPINIA SPINOSA (TAYA) EN COMPARACIÓN A HIDRÓXIDO DE CALCIO, PARAMONOCLOROFENOL ALCANFORADO Y CLORHEXIDINA EN GEL AL 2%, SOBRE CEPAS DE ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS. ESTUDIO IN VITRO

    OpenAIRE

    FLORES ARMAS, CINTYA LISET

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to compare the inhibitory effect in vitro of the etanolic extract Caesalpinia spinosa (taya) to calcium hidroxide, camphorated paramonochlorophenol, and 2% chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis. The susceptibility test was made, using the method of dissemination in discs. The strains os e. faecalis were sown in plates containing culture médium Mueller Hinton, and placed discs with differents concentrations of etanolic extract, calcium hidroxide...

  4. Antitumor activity and antioxidant status of Caesalpinia bonducella against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Malaya; Mazumder, Upal Kanti; Kumar, Ramanathan Sambath; Sivakumar, Thangavel; Vamsi, Madgula Lakshmi Mohan

    2004-02-01

    The methanol extract of Caesalpinia bonducella FLEMING (Caesalpiniaceae) leaves (MECB) were evaluated for antitumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC)-bearing Swiss albino mice. The extract was administered at the doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight per day for 14 days after 24 h of tumor inoculation. After the last dose and 18 h fasting, the mice were sacrificed. The present study deals with the effect of MECB on the growth of transplantable murine tumor, life span of EAC-bearing hosts, hematological profile, and biochemical parameters such as lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities. MECB caused significant (P<0.01) decrease in tumor volume, packed cell volume, and viable cell count; and it prolonged the life span of EAC-tumor bearing mice. Hematological profile converted to more or less normal levels in extract-treated mice. MECB significantly (P<0.05) decreased the levels of lipid peroxidation and significantly (P<0.05) increased the levels of GSH, SOD, and CAT. The MECB was found to be devoid of conspicuous short-term toxicity in the mice when administered daily (i.p.) for 14 days at the doses of 50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg. The treated mice showed conspicuous toxic symptoms only at 300 mg/kg. The results indicate that MECB exhibited significant antitumor and antioxidant activity in EAC-bearing mice.

  5. PASS-Predicted Hepatoprotective Activity of Caesalpinia sappan in Thioacetamide-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Rats

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    Farkaad A. Kadir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The antifibrotic effects of traditional medicinal herb Caesalpinia sappan (CS extract on liver fibrosis induced by thioacetamide (TAA and the expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1, α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA in rats were studied. A computer-aided prediction of antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities was primarily performed with the Prediction Activity Spectra of the Substance (PASS Program. Liver fibrosis was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by TAA administration (0.03% w/v in drinking water for a period of 12 weeks. Rats were divided into seven groups: control, TAA, Silymarin (SY, and CS 300 mg/kg body weight and 100 mg/kg groups. The effect of CS on liver fibrogenesis was determined by Masson’s trichrome staining, immunohistochemical analysis, and western blotting. In vivo determination of hepatic antioxidant activities, cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1, and matrix metalloproteinases (MPPS was employed. CS treatment had significantly increased hepatic antioxidant enzymes activity in the TAA-treated rats. Liver fibrosis was greatly alleviated in rats when treated with CS extract. CS treatment was noted to normalize the expression of TGF-β1, αSMA, PCNA, MMPs, and TIMP1 proteins. PASS-predicted plant activity could efficiently guide in selecting a promising pharmaceutical lead with high accuracy and required antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties.

  6. Enhanced in vitro dissolution of Iloperidone using Caesalpinia Pulcherrima mucoadhesive microspheres

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    Pradum Pundlikrao Ige

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to improve the solubility and dissolution rate of Iloperidone. Microspheres containing Iloperidone were prepared by spray drying using mucilage extracted from seeds of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. The novelty of this work is that, the extraction of mucilage and its usage for preparation of drug loaded microspheres. The prepared microspheres were characterized by SEM, DSC, XRPD, FTIR, 1H-NMR, particle size, drug content, entrapment efficiency, in vitro dissolution and ex vivo mucoadhesion. Based on particle size, drug content, ex vivo mucoadhesive strength and in vitro drug release, the best formulation was optimized. Percent entrapment efficiency and mean particle size for optimized formulation was found to be 73.49 and 3.27 ± 1.23 μm, respectively. More precisely, mucilage of C. pulcherrima could be significant carrier of (drug and polymer ratio 1:5 microspheres for the development of oral drug delivery.

  7. Germination, carbohydrate composition and vigor of cryopreserved Caesalpinia echinata seeds

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    Rafael Fonsêca Zanotti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the germination and vigor of Caesalpinia echinata (Brazilwood seeds stored at negative temperatures. Recently harvested seeds were cryopreserved at -18º or -196ºC and periodically evaluated for germination, seed vigor and carbohydrate composition. The temperatures did not influence the germination percentages or vigor. The germination percentage decreased from 88% in recently harvested seeds to 60% after 730 days of storage. The different temperature and storage times tested did not affect the vigor seed germination as indicated by the measures of plant growth and survival. The different temperatures used did not cause changes in the carbohydrate composition. The tegument cell walls were rich in lignin, arabinose and xylose. The cytoplasm of the cotyledons and embryos had high levels of glucose, fructose, and sucrose. The cryopreservation technique here presented was effective in the conservation of Brazilwood seeds for the medium term.

  8. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of the polyphenolic fractions isolated from the seed coat of Abrus precatorius and Caesalpinia crista.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobin, Lubna; Saeed, Syed Asad; Ali, Rashida; Saeed, Syed Ghufran; Ahmed, Rahil

    2017-09-26

    Crude seed coat extracts from Abrus precatorius and Caesalpinia crista were purified into four different fractions namely phenolic acids, flavonols, flavanols and anthocyanin which were then examined for their polyphenol contents and antimicrobial potentials. The fractions derived from seed coat of A. precatorius were found more potent with high phenolic and flavonoid contents as compared to C. crista fractions. The significant antibacterial activity was observed against all strain tested by the fractions of both samples apart from anthocyanin fraction. It was interesting to note that the phenolic acid fractions of both samples was found more active against gram-negative bacteria, while gram-positive bacteria were found to be more sensitive towards flavonol fractions. The phenolic acid and flavonol fractions being potent antibacterial were selected to demonstrate the antifungal capacity of two samples. Among them, phenolic acid fraction of both samples was found active towards all the fungal strain.

  9. Hepatoprotective effect of Caesalpinia gilliesii and Cajanus cajan proteins against acetoaminophen overdose-induced hepatic damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Maha Z; Aly, Hanan F; Abo-Elmatty, Dina M; Desoky, M M; Ibrahim, N; Younis, Eman A

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to evaluate two proteins derived from the seeds of the plants Cajanus cajan (Leguminosae) and Caesalpinia gilliesii (Leguminosae) for their abilities to ameliorate the toxic effects of chronic doses of acetoaminphen (APAP) through the determination of certain biochemical parameters including liver marker enzymes: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin. Also, total protein content and hepatic marker enzyme, lactate dehydrogenase were studied. Moreover, liver antioxidants, glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide, and lipid peroxides were determined in this study. Hepatic adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), adenylate energy charge (ATP, adenosine diphosphate, adenosine monophosphate, and inorganic phosphate), and phosphate potential, serum interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and myeloperoxidase were also examined in the present study. On the other hand, histopathological examination of intoxicated and liver treated with both proteins was taken into consideration. The present results show disturbances in all biochemical parameters and hepatic toxicity signs including mild vascular congestion, moderate inflammatory changes with moderate congested sinusoids, moderate nuclear changes (pyknosis), moderate centrilobular necrosis, fatty changes, nuclear pyknosis vascular congestion, and change in fatty centrilobular necrosis liver. Improvement in all biochemical parameters studied was noticed as a result of treatment intoxicated liver with C. gilliesii and C. cajan proteins either paracetamol with or post paracetamol treatment. These results were documented by the amelioration signs in rat's hepatic architecture. Thus, both plant protein extracts can upregulate and counteract the inflammatory process, minimize damage of the liver, delay disease progression, and reduce its complications. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Leishmanicidal compounds of Nectria pseudotrichia, an endophytic fungus isolated from the plant Caesalpinia echinata (Brazilwood

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    Betania Barros Cota

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In a screen of extracts from plants and fungi to detect antileishmanial activity, we found that the ethyl acetate extract of the fungus Nectria pseudotrichia, isolated from the tree Caesalpinia echinata (Brazilwood, is a promising source of bioactive compounds. OBJECTIVES The aims of this study were to isolate and determine the chemical structures of the compounds responsible for the antileishmanial activity of the organic extract from N. pseudotrichia. METHODS Compounds were isolated by chromatographic fractionation using semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography, and their chemical structures were determined by analytical and spectral data and by comparison with published data. The antileishmanial activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated in intracellular amastigote forms of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis expressing firefly luciferase as reporter gene, and cytotoxicity was determined in Vero and THP-1 mammalian cell lines by MTT assay. FINDINGS Fractionation of the extract yielded seven compounds: 10-acetyl trichoderonic acid A (1, 6′-acetoxy-piliformic acid (2, 5′,6′-dehydropiliformic acid (3, piliformic acid (4, hydroheptelidic acid (5, xylaric acid D (6, and cytochalasin D (7. Compounds 1, 2 and 3 are reported here for the first time. Compounds 1, 2, and 5 were more active, with IC50 values of 21.4, 28.3, and 24.8 µM, respectively, and showed low toxicity to Vero and THP-1 cells. MAIN CONCLUSIONS N. pseudotrichia produces secondary metabolites that are more toxic to intracellular amastigote forms of L. (V. braziliensis than to mammalian cells.

  11. Bioactive endophytic fungi isolated from Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brazilwood) and identification of beauvericin as a trypanocidal metabolite from Fusarium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Fernanda Fraga; Sales Junior, Policarpo A; Romanha, Alvaro José; Araújo, Márcio S S; Siqueira, Ezequias P; Resende, Jarbas M; Alves, Tânia M A; Martins-Filho, Olindo A; Santos, Vera Lúcia dos; Rosa, Carlos A; Zani, Carlos L; Cota, Betania Barros

    2015-02-01

    Aiming to identify new sources of bioactive secondary metabolites, we isolated 82 endophytic fungi from stems and barks of the native Brazilian tree Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Fabaceae). We tested their ethyl acetate extracts in several in vitro assays. The organic extracts from three isolates showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli [minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) 32-64 μg/mL]. One isolate inhibited the growth of Salmonella typhimurium (MIC 64 μg/mL) and two isolates inhibited the growth of Klebsiella oxytoca (MIC 64 μg/mL), Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis (MIC 64-128 μg/mL). Fourteen extracts at a concentration of 20 μg/mL showed antitumour activities against human breast cancer and human renal cancer cells, while two isolates showed anti-tumour activities against human melanoma cancer cells. Six extracts were able to reduce the proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, indicating some degree of selective toxicity. Four isolates were able to inhibit Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and one isolate inhibited Trypanosoma cruzi by at least 40% at 20 μg/mL. The trypanocidal extract obtained from Fusarium sp. [KF611679] culture was subjected to bioguided fractionation, which revealed beauvericin as the compound responsible for the observed toxicity of Fusarium sp. to T. cruzi. This depsipeptide showed a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 1.9 μg/mL (2.43 μM) in a T. cruzi cellular culture assay.

  12. Effects of nutrient omission in Caesalpinia echinata plants

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    Sergio Valiengo Valeri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth, the morphological alterations and the mineral composition of brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata plants caused by mineral nutrients omission in a green house experiment. The experimental units were distributed in the green house according to a completely random design. The treatments, each repeated five times, were the following : check (natural soil, complete (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Mn, and Zn and a complete solution but for the omission of one of the nutrients in parenthesis. Each plot was represented by a plant growing in a 7 dm3 vase filled with Quartzarenic Neosol. The analyzed variables were the following: visual nutritional deficiency symptoms, plant height, stem diameter, shoot dry matter, stem, branches and leaves included, and leaf nutrients level. The omission of nitrogen limited plant growth in height and shoot biomass production. The first visual deficiency symptoms were those due to N omission followed by those caused by P, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, and Mn omissions. Later on the K and B deficiency symptoms became visible. The omission of a nutrient always caused its level in the leaves to be significantly lower than that found when it was not omitted.

  13. Avaliação do uso da casca do fruto e das folhas de Caesalpinia ferrea Martius como suplemento nutricional de Fe, Mn e Zn Evaluation of the use of the fruit peel and leaves of Caesalpinia ferrea Martius as a nutritional supplement of Fe, Mn and Zn

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    Clelivaldo Santos da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As plantas medicinais podem ser usadas como fontes alternativas de nutrientes minerais na dieta alimentar. Elementos como ferro, manganês e zinco apresentam biodisponibilidade variável em função de suas formas químicas (espécies presentes em um alimento. Este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar o teor e a biodisponibilidade de ferro, manganês e zinco em extratos da casca do fruto e das folhas de Caesalpinia ferrea Martius por Espectrometria de Absorção Atômica com Chama (FAAS. Os agentes extratores testados foram as soluções de NaOH 0,05 mol. L-1, tampão Tris-HCl 0,05 mol.L-1 (pH= 8, tampão Tris-HCl 0,05 mol.L-1 (pH = 8 em dodecil sulfato de sódio (SDS 1% (m/v, HCl 0,05 mol.L-1 e água quente (60 ºC. A casca do fruto e as folhas de Caesalpinia ferrea Martius apresentaram níveis altos de ferro e manganês quando comparados aos de outras plantas medicinais. Os elementos estudados mostraram predominante associação com compostos de alta e baixa massa molecular, espécies solúveis e insolúveis em água. Dentre os elementos analisados, o ferro apresentou melhor biodisponibilidade na casca do fruto e nas folhas. Manganês e zinco se mostraram mais biodisponível nas folhas. A casca do fruto e as folhas de Caesalpinia ferrea Martius podem ser uma fonte alternativa de ferro, manganês e zinco na dieta alimentar.Medicinal plants can be used as alternative sources of mineral nutrients in the alimentary diet. Elements such as iron, manganese, and zinc present variable bioavailability due to their chemical form (species present in foods. This work has the objective of evaluating the concentration and bioavailability of iron, manganese, and zinc in extracts of the peel and leaves of Caesalpinia ferrea Martius by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS. The extraction agents tested were 0.05 mol.L-1 NaOH, 0.05 mol.L-1 Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.0, 0.05 mol.L-1 Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.0 containing 1% (m/v sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS, 0.05 mol.L-1

  14. A gallotannin-rich fraction from Caesalpinia spinosa (Molina) Kuntze displays cytotoxic activity and raises sensitivity to doxorubicin in a leukemia cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, Diana M; Pombo, Luis Miguel; Urueña, Claudia Patricia; Hernandez, John Fredy; Fiorentino, Susana

    2012-04-10

    Enhancement of tumor cell sensitivity may help facilitate a reduction in drug dosage using conventional chemotherapies. Consequently, it is worthwhile to search for adjuvants with the potential of increasing chemotherapeutic drug effectiveness and improving patient quality of life. Natural products are a very good source of such adjuvants. The biological activity of a fraction enriched in hydrolysable polyphenols (P2Et) obtained from Caesalpinia spinosa was evaluated using the hematopoietic cell line K562. This fraction was tested alone or in combination with the conventional chemotherapeutic drugs doxorubicin, vincristine, etoposide, camptothecin and taxol. The parameters evaluated were mitochondrial depolarization, caspase 3 activation, chromatin condensation and clonogenic activity. We found that the P2Et fraction induced mitochondrial depolarization, activated caspase 3, induced chromatin condensation and decreased the clonogenic capacity of the K562 cell line. When the P2Et fraction was used in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs at sub-lethal concentrations, a fourfold reduction in doxorubicin inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) was seen in the K562 cell line. This finding suggested that P2Et fraction activity is specific for the molecular target of doxorubicin. Our results suggest that a natural fraction extracted from Caesalpinia spinosa in combination with conventional chemotherapy in combination with natural products on leukemia cells may increase therapeutic effectiveness in relation to leukemia.

  15. In vitro and in vivo assessment of the anti-malarial activity of Caesalpinia pluviosa

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    Eberlin Marcos N

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To overcome the problem of increasing drug resistance, traditional medicines are an important source for potential new anti-malarials. Caesalpinia pluviosa, commonly named "sibipiruna", originates from Brazil and possess multiple therapeutic properties, including anti-malarial activity. Methods Crude extract (CE was obtained from stem bark by purification using different solvents, resulting in seven fractions. An MTT assay was performed to evaluate cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells. The CE and its fractions were tested in vitro against chloroquine-sensitive (3D7 and -resistant (S20 strains of Plasmodium falciparum and in vivo in Plasmodium chabaudi-infected mice. In vitro interaction with artesunate and the active C. pluviosa fractions was assessed, and mass spectrometry analyses were conducted. Results At non-toxic concentrations, the 100% ethanolic (F4 and 50% methanolic (F5 fractions possessed significant anti-malarial activity against both 3D7 and S20 strains. Drug interaction assays with artesunate showed a synergistic interaction with the F4. Four days of treatment with this fraction significantly inhibited parasitaemia in mice in a dose-dependent manner. Mass spectrometry analyses revealed the presence of an ion corresponding to m/z 303.0450, suggesting the presence of quercetin. However, a second set of analyses, with a quercetin standard, showed distinct ions of m/z 137 and 153. Conclusions The findings show that the F4 fraction of C. pluviosa exhibits anti-malarial activity in vitro at non-toxic concentrations, which was potentiated in the presence of artesunate. Moreover, this anti-malarial activity was also sustained in vivo after treatment of infected mice. Finally, mass spectrometry analyses suggest that a new compound, most likely an isomer of quercetin, is responsible for the anti-malarial activity of the F4.

  16. Filogeografía del complejo Caesalpinia hintonii: (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae: Poincianella Phylogeography of the Caesalpinia hintonii complex (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae: Poincianella

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    Solange Sotuyo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesar del crecido número de estudios que se ha realizado para explorar la estructura genética y filogeográfica en especies mexicanas, hay carencia de estudios para especies de selva baja, zonas con alto grado de endemismo. Para un mejor entendimiento de dichas áreas se realizó un estudio filogeográfico y el fechamiento de las especies del complejo Caesalpinia hintonii distribuido en la depresión del río Balsas y el valle de Tehuacán-Cuicatlán. Se determinó la estructura filogeográfica del complejo analizando las secuencias de 4 regiones de plastidio (intrón trnL, espaciador trnL-F, espaciador psbA-trnH y espaciador accD-psaI en todas las poblaciones disponibles. Se estimó la fecha del origen del complejo mediante un método no paramétrico (NPRS. Las diversidades haplotídicas (0.64-1 y las diferencias nucleotídicas (3.8-11.52 en todas las especies fueron altas respecto a valores registrados para otras plantas. Las poblaciones de C. oyamae, morfológicamente indistintas están genéticamente estructuradas y presentan 3 haplogrupos donde el flujo génico entre ellos es bajo y se consideraron entidades crípticas. Las poblaciones de C. hintonii son un grupo genéticamente homogéneo a pesar de ser morfológicamente distintas. Las poblaciones de C. macvaughii forman 2 linajes divergentes entre los que existe flujo génico (Nm=1.41. Los eventos de divergencia en 2 grandes linajes al este y oeste del río Balsas pueden explicarse por eventos geológicos. Los resultados indican que el complejo se encuentra bajo divergencia y en algunos casos radiación morfostática.Although many phylogeographic studies have been conducted to analyze the genetic and phylogeographic structure of Mexican species, such studies are nearly absent for plants of dry seasonal forest, precincts with high level of endemism. To better understand this areas, we undertook a phylogeographic study and dating were carried out on the Caesalpinia hintonii complex

  17. Bioactive endophytic fungi isolated from Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brazilwood and identification of beauvericin as a trypanocidal metabolite from Fusarium sp.

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    Fernanda Fraga Campos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to identify new sources of bioactive secondary metabolites, we isolated 82 endophytic fungi from stems and barks of the native Brazilian tree Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Fabaceae. We tested their ethyl acetate extracts in several in vitro assays. The organic extracts from three isolates showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli [minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC 32-64 μg/mL]. One isolate inhibited the growth of Salmonella typhimurium (MIC 64 μg/mL and two isolates inhibited the growth of Klebsiella oxytoca (MIC 64 μg/mL, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis (MIC 64-128 μg/mL. Fourteen extracts at a concentration of 20 μg/mL showed antitumour activities against human breast cancer and human renal cancer cells, while two isolates showed anti-tumour activities against human melanoma cancer cells. Six extracts were able to reduce the proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, indicating some degree of selective toxicity. Four isolates were able to inhibit Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis and one isolate inhibited Trypanosoma cruzi by at least 40% at 20 μg/mL. The trypanocidal extract obtained from Fusarium sp. [KF611679] culture was subjected to bioguided fractionation, which revealed beauvericin as the compound responsible for the observed toxicity of Fusarium sp. to T. cruzi. This depsipeptide showed a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 1.9 μg/mL (2.43 μM in a T. cruzi cellular culture assay.

  18. Light as an indicator of ecological succession in brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata Lam.)

    OpenAIRE

    Mengarda,Liana H. G.; Souza,Rogério L. F. de; Campostrini, Eliemar; Reis,Fabrício O.; Vendrame,Wagner A.; Cuzzuol,Geraldo R. F.

    2009-01-01

    The ecophysiological behavior of brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata Lam.) plants was evaluated as affected by light quantity and quality. Nine-month-old plants were cultivated under 0%, 50%, and 80% artificial shading, and natural shading imposed by a closed canopy for a period of 392 days. At the end of that period growth parameters were measured, including relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), leaf area ratio (LAR), specific leaf mass (SLM) and root:shoot ratio (R:S). Highe...

  19. Cytogenetic characterization of Caesalpinia spinosafrom Tarma and Palca (Junín

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    Alberto López

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Somatic chromosomes of Caesalpinia spinosa (Feuillée ex Molina Kuntze, “Tara”, wild populations of Huinco and Palca (Junín regions were studied. The specie were diploid (2n=24. Chromosomes were small. The karyotypes showed the same chromosome number, they found differences in morphological parameters of the same, with the karyotype formula for the town of Huinco: 6m + 6 sm and the town of Palca: 5m + 7 sm.

  20. Strong Regionality and Dominance of Anaerobic Bacterial Taxa Characterize Diazotrophic Bacterial Communities of the Arcto-Alpine Plant Species Oxyria digyna and Saxifraga oppositifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Nissinen, Riitta

    2017-01-01

    Arctic and alpine biomes are most often strongly nitrogen-limited, and hence biological nitrogen fixation is a strong driver of these ecosystems. Both biomes are characterized by low temperatures and short growing seasons, but they differ in seasonality of solar radiation and in soil water balance due to underlying permafrost in the Arctic. Arcto-alpine plant species are well-adapted to the low temperatures that prevail in their habitats, and plant growth is mainly limited by the availability of nutrients, in particular nitrogen, due to slow mineralization. Nitrogen fixing bacteria are likely important for plant growth in these habitats, but very little is known of these bacteria or forces shaping their communities. In this study, we characterized the potential nitrogen fixing bacterial (PNFB) communities associated with two arcto-alpine pioneer plant species, Oxyria digyna (mountain sorrel) and Saxifraga oppositifolia (blue saxifrage), in three climate regions. Both of these plants readily colonize low nutrient mineral soils. Our goal was to investigate how climate (region) and, on the other hand, host plant and plant species shape these communities. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive study describing PNFB communities associated with pioneer plants in different arcto-alpine biomes. Replicate samples were taken from two arctic regions, Kilpisjärvi and Ny-Ålesund, and one alpine region, Mayrhofen. In these, the PNFB communities in the bulk and rhizosphere soils and the plant endospheres were characterized by nifH-targeted PCR and massive parallel sequencing. The data revealed strong effects of climatic region on the dominating nitrogen fixers. Specifically, nifH sequences related to Geobacter (δ-Proteobacteria) were present in high relative abundances in the nitrogen-fixing communities in the Mayrhofen and Kilpisjärvi regions, while members of the Clostridiales prevailed in the Kilpisjärvi and Ny-Ålesund regions. The bulk and rhizosphere soil as

  1. Strong Regionality and Dominance of Anaerobic Bacterial Taxa Characterize Diazotrophic Bacterial Communities of the Arcto-Alpine Plant Species Oxyria digyna and Saxifraga oppositifolia

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    Manoj Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Arctic and alpine biomes are most often strongly nitrogen-limited, and hence biological nitrogen fixation is a strong driver of these ecosystems. Both biomes are characterized by low temperatures and short growing seasons, but they differ in seasonality of solar radiation and in soil water balance due to underlying permafrost in the Arctic. Arcto-alpine plant species are well-adapted to the low temperatures that prevail in their habitats, and plant growth is mainly limited by the availability of nutrients, in particular nitrogen, due to slow mineralization. Nitrogen fixing bacteria are likely important for plant growth in these habitats, but very little is known of these bacteria or forces shaping their communities. In this study, we characterized the potential nitrogen fixing bacterial (PNFB communities associated with two arcto-alpine pioneer plant species, Oxyria digyna (mountain sorrel and Saxifraga oppositifolia (blue saxifrage, in three climate regions. Both of these plants readily colonize low nutrient mineral soils. Our goal was to investigate how climate (region and, on the other hand, host plant and plant species shape these communities. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive study describing PNFB communities associated with pioneer plants in different arcto-alpine biomes. Replicate samples were taken from two arctic regions, Kilpisjärvi and Ny-Ålesund, and one alpine region, Mayrhofen. In these, the PNFB communities in the bulk and rhizosphere soils and the plant endospheres were characterized by nifH-targeted PCR and massive parallel sequencing. The data revealed strong effects of climatic region on the dominating nitrogen fixers. Specifically, nifH sequences related to Geobacter (δ-Proteobacteria were present in high relative abundances in the nitrogen-fixing communities in the Mayrhofen and Kilpisjärvi regions, while members of the Clostridiales prevailed in the Kilpisjärvi and Ny-Ålesund regions. The bulk and

  2. Ocurrencia de Argyrotaenia sphaleropa Meyrick (1909 (Lepidoptero: Tortricidae en Caesalpinia spinosa (Molina Kuntze Britton & Rose (1824

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    Hipólito Murga Orrillo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Los derivados de las vainas de tara (Caesalpinia spinosa (Molina Kuntze Britton & Rose (1824, presentan crecientes demandas industriales. En octubre del 2015 en la provincia de San Marcos, región Cajamarca, se verificó la ocurrencia de ataque de Argyrotaenia aphaleropa Meyrick (1909 a vainas de tara, produciendo daños directos, interfiriendo en su desarrollo y crecimiento, depreciando comercialmente el producto, generando restricciones en las exportaciones; por lo que esta plaga demanda su manejo integrado para disminuir la incidencia y evitar el ingreso a otras regiones libres de ataques.

  3. Does Caesalpinia bonducella ameliorate genotoxicity? An in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study is to investigate the antimutagenic and antigenotoxic potential of alcoholic extracts of C. bonducella against methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) induced genotoxicity. In this experiment we have used in vitro method i.e., human lymphocyte culture and in vivo method in bone marrow cells of albino mice, ...

  4. Substrate in the emergence and initial growth of seedlings of Caesalpinia pulcherrima

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    Magnólia Martins Alves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Caesalpinia pulcherrima is an exotic species belongs to the Fabaceae family commonly known as flamboyant-mirim, and widely used for urban forestry. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different substrates on the emergence and early seedlings growth of C. pulcherrima . The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse belonging to the Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal da Paraíba. The experimental design was completely randomized and treatments had 14 substrates: sand, vegetable soil, vermiculite, wood dust, carbonized rice straw, vegetable soil + sand 1:1, sand + wood dust 1:1, sand + carbonized rice straw 1:1, earth + wood dust 1:1, vegetable soil + carbonized rice straw 1:1, vermiculite + sand 1:1, vermiculite + wood dust 1:1, vermiculite + earth 1:1 and vermiculite + carbonized rice straw 1:1. Evaluation of the effect of the treatments was through the following determinations: percentage of emergency, first count, index of germination speed, length and dry weight of roots and shoots. The vermiculite, vegetable soil + sand 1:1, vermiculite + sand 1:1, vermiculite + saw dust 1:1, are suitable for emergence and early growth of seedlings of Caesalpinia pulcherrima . Substrates saw dust and carbonized rice straw were responsible for the worst performers on emergence and seedling development.

  5. Fungos associados com sementes de flamboyant-mirim (Caesalpinia pulcherrima: incidência, efeito na germinação, transmissão e controle

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    José George Ferreira Medeiros

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Most pathogens that cause diseases in crops can be transported and transmitted by seeds, with great economic significance. The objective of this work was to assess the incidence of pathogens and their effect in the germination and vigor of Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. seeds. The seed sanity experiment was completely randomized with five treatments, and ten repetitions. The seeds were immersed in extracts of Allamanda cathartica, Momordica charantia and Foenicullum. vulgare for five minutes, and the control was immersed in sterile water. For the germination test, 200 seeds were used, distributed in four replicates of 50 seeds per treatment. The vigor tests consisted of the first count and germination speed index. The evaluation of fungi transmission were performed during the germination test, by counting the symptoms in the primary root, hypocotyl and epicotyl. The treatments reduced the incidence of Cladosporium sp., Aspergillus sp. Rhizopus sp., Penicillium sp. Nigrospora sp and Pestalotiasp..It was also found the fungus Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. associated with the lesions in the seed integument. The treatments provided a higher percentage of germination of seedlings. Higher percentages of germination were observed when oil extracts of Allamanda cathartica, Momordica charantia and Foenicullum vulgare were used.

  6. Repellent Action of Carapa guianensis and Caesalpinia ferrea for flies species of Calliphoridae family

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    Ciciane Pereira Marten Fernandes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Myiases occur by the infestation of fly larvae in tissues of live vertebrate animals, resulting in economic loss. Phytotherapy is considered an important alternative in the control of insects, which may reduce the economic impacts . Carapa guianensis is a plant that has been studied as a repellent against mosquitoes and Caesalpinia ferrea is reported in tropical climates, and there are few studies about its repellent action. The present study was designed to evaluate the repellent action of s C. guianensis and C. ferrea plants on flies species of the Calliphoridae family. W.O.T. traps containing deteriorated bovine liver and herbs cream of at concentrations of 20 and 50% were used to catch the flies. It was reported that the creams containing C. ferrea at concentrations of 20 and 50% and C. guianensis at the concentration of 50% have repellent effect against species of Calliphoridae family.

  7. Structure of a fragment of Atlantic Rainforest in regeneration with occurrence of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (brazil-wood

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    Liliane Baldan Zani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the phytosociological structure of a remaining fragment of Atlantic Rainforest undergoing regeneration in the town of Aracruz-ES in a forest board with natural occurrence of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. We installed 10 sample units (plots of 10 x 50m, sampling all individuals with DBH≥5cm and <10cm. Altogether, we sampled 500 individuals distributed into 181 species. The richest families were Leguminosae (35, Sapotaceae (18, and Myrtaceae (14. The most important species were Caesalpinia echinata Lam., Eugenia tinguyensis Cambess., and Pterocarpus rohrii Vahl. The Shannon index (H’ was 4.89 and the equability (J’ was 0.94. This area is one of the last remaining fragments with brazil-wood from the state of Espirito Santo and the population of this species is well preserved at the site, it occurs very frequently, emphasizing the importance of preserving small forest fragments to conserve biodiversity.

  8. Maturação de frutos de Caesalpinia echinata Lam., pau-brasil Maturation of fruits of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brasil wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francismar Francisco Alves Aguiar

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se parâmetros indicativos da maturação de frutos de árvores de Caesalpinia echinata, visando determinar a melhor época de colheita para propagação. Foram utilizadas 10 plantas-matriz cultivadas em Mogi-Guaçu, SP, nas quais foram etiquetadas 250 inflorescências no pico da floração para acompanhamento da maturação. As coletas de frutos tiveram início a partir da 5ª semana após a antese, prolongando-se até a 9ª, com intervalos de sete dias. Em cada coleta, analisaram-se os parâmetros: comprimento, largura e teor de água dos frutos; teor de água das sementes (após três dias de exposição ao sol para deiscência do fruto e extração da semente; porcentagem de germinação e peso de matéria seca de frutos, sementes e plântulas. Observou-se, ainda, a coloração dos frutos como parâmetro visual de maturação das sementes. O experimento foi repetido por três anos. Os testes de germinação foram realizados em caixas Gerbox contendo vermiculita umedecida com água destilada. As sementes foram colocadas para germinar em câmara regulada para 30 ºC e fotoperíodo de 12 horas O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições de 25 sementes por parcela, nos anos de 1991, 1992 e 1993. As leituras de germinação foram realizadas nos 4º e 8º dias após a semeadura. Pelos resultados, conclui-se que o momento ideal para coleta dos frutos de C. echinata é no estádio de pré-dispersão (entre a 8º e 9º após a antese visualizado através da coloração, quando estes mudam de verde para castanho.Several indicative parameters regarding fruit maturity of Caesalpinia echinata were studied in order to establish the ideal harvest time. Ten matrix plants were cultivated in Moji-Guaçu, SP (22°11' to 1022°18' S and 47°13' to 47°20' WG, altitude between 600m and 730m. The climate of the region is classified as Cwa. Two hundred and fifty blossoms were tagged during the the peak

  9. Potencial de rizobactérias no crescimento de mudas de sibipiruna (caesalpinia peltophoroides BENTH Epotential of rhizobacterias for the growth of seedlings of sibipiruna (Caesalpinia peltophoroides BENTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeane de Fátima Cunha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o potencial de isolados de rizobactérias na germinação de sementes e no crescimento de mudas de sibipiruna (Caesalpinia peltophoroides. Testaram-se os isolados pré-selecionados para eucalipto, Ca, FL2, MF2, MF4, RC3, R1, 3918, S1, S2 e CIIB. Para tanto, amostras de substrato à base de vermiculita e casca de arroz carbonizada (1:1 foram tratados com 5 mL de uma suspensão de cada isolado (OD540= 0,2 A/ tubete de 55 cc de capacidade, correspondendo a cerca de 10 ufc/mL. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado (DIC com cinco repetições por tratamento, com 20 sementes cada. Aos 40 dias, avaliaram-se a porcentagem de germinação e a massa seca de raízes e da parte aérea. Verificou-se aumento significativo em matéria seca de raiz e da parte aérea para todos os isolados de rizobactérias testados, em relação à testemunha. Todos os isolados proporcionaram aumento significativo na germinação, à exceção do 3918 e CIIB que não diferiram da testemunha. Entre os isolados testados, quatro destacaram-se como os mais promissores (FL2, MF4, MF2 e CIIB. Os resultados obtidos mostram ganhos significativos na produção de mudas, sem nenhum ajuste no manejo ou na estrutura do viveiro. Além desse ganho direto, pode-se ter um melhor aproveitamento da estrutura física dos viveiros, ao se diminuir o tempo de formação das mudas, reduzindo-se o custo de produção.The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of growth-promoting rhizobacteria for seed germination and biomass of the root system and aerial part of seedlings of sibipiruna ( Caesalpinia Peltophoroides: . Isolates pre-selected for eucalyptus were used, Ca, FL2, MF2, MF4, RC3, R1, 3918, S1, S2 and CIIB. Thus, samples of vermiculite-based substrate and carbonized rice hull (1:1 were treated with 5 mL of a suspension of each isolate (OD540= 0.2 A/ tubette of 55 cc capacity corresponding to around 10 ufc/mL. The experimental

  10. Avaliação do potencial toxicológico e farmacológico das folhas de Caesalpinia echinata Lam

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth Sampaio Grangeiro, Ana

    2009-01-01

    Caesalpinia echinata Lam, popularmente conhecida como pau-brasil ou pernambuco, é uma árvore considerada de valor histórico e econômico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a toxicidade aguda e as atividades antinociceptiva, antiinflamatória e antitumoral frente ao Sarcoma 180 do extrato bruto etanólico das folhas de Caesalpinia echinata Lam. A toxicidade aguda foi avaliada através da metodologia da Organização para Cooperação Econômica e Desenvolvimento (OECD 423), que pr...

  11. Caesalpinia echinata Lam. - BRAZILWOOD: THERMAL BEHAVIOR, STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS, AND RESISTANCE TO BIODETERIORATION IN STATIC SYSTEMS

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    Ana Paula Pinto Pinheiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Wood is the best-known biological material used as a raw material since the dawn of mankind until present days. As a natural and renewable composite, its lifetime is limited by the degradation of its basic elements. This degradation can be caused by chemical reactions or by biological agents capable of accelerating the process of deterioration. In this work, the wear, thermal, and micro-structural characteristics, as also the bio-degradation behavior in static systems, of the wood species Brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata were studied under laboratory conditions in order to use these woods in design. The results show that Brazilwood has a good visual performance after abrasion test, since it has not shown any representative roughness increase. In addition, Brazilwood has high level of crystallinity of, approximately, 68% and was almost insensitive to fungi attack, forming only 5.3 x 103 CFU/mL. Besides, its texture did not change due to exposure to water or sweat.

  12. In vitro propagation of Caesalpinia spinosa (Mol. O. Kuntz from axillary buds of selected trees

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    Jenny E Núñez Núñez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Guarango or tara [Caesalpinia spinosa (Mol. O. Kuntz] is a tree native to the Andes, with great economic importance and for reforestation programs. The aim of this work was to in vitro propagate this specie from axillary buds of selected trees. During in vitro establishment, the effect of sodium hypochlorite (3.0% with different times of disinfection (5.0, 10, 15 min, as well as the effect of 6-BAP on the in vitro response of buds were studied. For multiplication, different combination of 6-BAP with 0.1 mg l-1 ANA were tested. A free-growth regulator culture medium was used for rooting. The best results for in vitro establishment were achieved with a disinfection treatment with sodium hypochlorite 3.0% for 10 minutes and cultivation in a culture medium with 0.25 mg l-1 6-BAP, which 90% of buds in vitro established, with a length of 6.71 cm. The highest multiplication rate of shoot (2.88 per explant was obtained with 1.0 mg l-1 6-BAP and 0.1 mg l-1 ANA, after 60 days of culture. The 55% of these shoots developed roots in a half-strength basal salts MS culture medium free of regulators of growth.   Keywords: biodiversity, conservation, forest plant, guarango, tissue culture

  13. Constituintes químicos voláteis das flores e folhas do pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata, Lam.

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    Rezende Claudia M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The volatile constituents obtained from a static cryogenic headspace of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Leguminosae showed E-beta-ocimene as the major compound (57.2%, beside other monoterpenes, C6 derivatives like n-hexanal and (E-2-hexenal and nitrogen compounds such as indole and methyl anthranilate. From the essential oil of the leaves obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus, (E-3-hexen-1-ol was identified as the major constituent while phenolic compounds were the most representative class of secondary metabolites.

  14. Carbon Sequestration of Caesalpinia platyloba S. Watt (Leguminosae) (Lott 1985) in the Tropical Deciduous Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Gustavo, Norma; Martínez-Salvador, Martín; García-Hernández, José Luís; Norzagaray-Campos, Mariano; Luna-González, Antonio; González-Ocampo, Héctor Abelardo

    2015-01-01

    Caesalpinia platyloba was evaluated as an alternative for the retention of atmospheric carbon and as a feasible and viable economic activity in terms of income for tropical deciduous forest (TDF) peasants in the carbon markets. A total of 110 trees of C. platyloba from plantations and a TDF in the Northwest of Mexico were sampled. Growth (increase in height, diameter, and volume curves) was adjusted to assess their growth. Growth of individuals (height, diameter at breast height [DBH], age, and tree crown cover) was recorded. The Schumacher model (H = β(0)e(β1 • E-1)), by means of the guided curve method, was used to adjust growth models. Information analysis was made through the non-linear procedure with the multivariate secant or false position (DUD) method using the SAS software. Growth and increase models revealed acceptable adjustments (pseudo R(2)>0.8). C. platyloba reaches >8m of height with 12 cm in diameter and 550 cm(3) of volume, presenting the highest increase at 11 years considered as basal age. Highest significant density of wood was in good quality sites (0.80 g • cm(-3)), with a carbon content (average of 99.15tC • ha(-1)) at the highest density of 2500 trees • ha(-1) (without thinning). Average incomes of US$483.33tC • ha(-1) are expected. The profitability values (NPW = US$81,646.65, IRR = 472%, and B/C = 0.82) for C. platyloba make its cultivation a viable and profitable activity, considering a management scheme of the income derived from wood selling and from carbon credits.

  15. Efeitos da luminosidade no crescimento de mudas de Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinoideae Effects of luminosity on the growth seedlings of Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Domingues Lima

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia ferrea é uma espécie muito utilizada como planta medicinal e na arborização e paisagismo urbano no estado do Amapá. Entretanto, informações ecofisiológicas a seu respeito são escassas. A luz é um importante fator ambiental que controla processos associados ao acúmulo de matéria seca, contribuindo assim para o crescimento vegetal. Diante disso, estudou-se o efeito de diferentes níveis de luminosidade sobre o crescimento de mudas desta espécie. Para tal, plântulas foram repicadas para sacos plásticos contendo mistura de solo e areia (2:1, sendo mantidas a pleno sol, sob sombreamento artificial com redução de 50% e 70% da luminosidade e sob sombreamento natural de um dossel fechado de floresta. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco repetições. Mudas submetidas ao sombreamento natural tiveram seu crescimento fortemente inibido. A pleno sol, as mudas apresentaram maiores taxas assimilatórias líquida (TAL, menor razão parte aérea/raiz (RPAR e menor razão de área foliar (RAF. Verificou-se pouca diferença no crescimento e alocação de biomassa entre mudas mantidas sob 50 e 70% de sombreamento, sendo que as mudas desses tratamentos atingiram valores mais altos de RPAR e RAF. Isto indica existência de plasticidade, o que reflete no aumento potencial da captura de luz, importante para manter o crescimento e a sobrevivência das mudas em baixa luminosidade. Em conjunto, os resultados mostraram ajustamento morfológico e fisiológico aos diferentes níveis de luminosidade em Caesalpinia ferrea.Caesalpinia ferrea is a species used a lot as a medicinal plant, for urban arborization and landscape design in the state of Amapa. Yet there is not much ecophysiological information available on it. Light is an important environment factor that controls processes associates with the accumulation of dry matter, contributing thus for plant growth. The object of this research was to study the effect of

  16. Efecto antibacteriano in vitro de diferentes concentraciones del extracto etan??lico de Caesalpinia spinosa (tara) frente a Streptococcus mutans ATCC 35668

    OpenAIRE

    AUTOR: Centuri??n Villar, Karina Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar el efecto antibacteriano in vitro del extracto etan??lico de Caesalpinia Spinosa (Tara) sobre Streptococcus mutans ATCC 35668. La muestra estuvo conformada por 64 observaciones, distribuidas en 4 grupos de 4 placas Petri cada uno, en cada placa se coloc?? el porcentaje de concentraci??n de estudio, frente a tres controles: control positivo (Clorhexidina al 0.12%), control negativo (Etanol) y un porcentaje de concentraci??n similar (para comp...

  17. Estudio de factibilidad para la implementación de una finca productora de guaranga (Caesalpinia spinosa) en el sector San Guillermo, Imbabura, Ecuador 2014.

    OpenAIRE

    Arteaga Rodríguez, Byron Apolinario

    2015-01-01

    The Ecuador by geography is rich in flora fauna country, same to be exploited in different areas. The rich Ecuadorian soil is one of the key factors to promote the development of agricultural projects, benefiting sectors of popular economy, where agriculture is the main income source. The guarango (Caesalpinia spinosa) is a wild plant which are harvested pods and nuggets, which since ancient times they were used as plant input - natural in the method of tanning leather to waterproof Pondos...

  18. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/......., organism, tissue and disease terms. The evaluators in the BioCreative V Interactive Annotation Task found the system to be intuitive, useful, well documented and sufficiently accurate to be helpful in spotting relevant text passages and extracting organism and environment terms. Comparison of fully manual...

  19. Characterization of reaction products of iron and iron salts and aqueous plant extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaen, J.A. [Universidad de Panama, Centro de Investigaciones con Tecnicas Nucleares/Depto. de Quimica (Panama); Garcia de Saldana, E.; Hernandez, C. [Universidad de Panama, Maestria en Ciencias Quimicas (Panama)

    1999-11-15

    The complexes formed in aqueous solution as a result of a reaction of iron and iron salts (Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}) and some plant extracts were analyzed using Moessbauer spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared. The extracts were obtained from Opuntia elatior mill., Acanthocereus pentagonus (L.) Britton, Mimosa tenuiflora, Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd., Bumbacopsis quinata (Jacq.) Dugand and Acacia mangium Willd., plants growing wildly in different zones of the Isthmus of Panama. Results suggest the formation of mono- and bis-type complexes, and in some cases, the occurrence of a redox reaction. The feasibility of application of the studied extracts as atmospheric corrosion inhibitors is discussed.

  20. Characterization of reaction products of iron and iron salts and aqueous plant extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaén, J. A.; García de Saldaña, E.; Hernández, C.

    1999-11-01

    The complexes formed in aqueous solution as a result of a reaction of iron and iron salts (Fe2+ and Fe3+) and some plant extracts were analyzed using Mössbauer spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared. The extracts were obtained from Opuntia elatior mill., Acanthocereus pentagonus (L.) Britton, Mimosa tenuiflora, Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd., Bumbacopsis quinata (Jacq.) Dugand and Acacia mangium Willd., plants growing wildly in different zones of the Isthmus of Panama. Results suggest the formation of mono- and bis-type complexes, and in some cases, the occurrence of a redox reaction. The feasibility of application of the studied extracts as atmospheric corrosion inhibitors is discussed.

  1. Efeito da temperatura e do substrato na germinação de sementes de Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinoideae Effect of temperature and substrate on seed germination of Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Domingues Lima

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. é uma leguminosa arbórea tropical que ocorre na região amazônica, sendo muito utilizada como planta medicinal e na arborização e paisagismo urbanos. Para viabilizar a produção de mudas, determinaram-se a melhor temperatura e o melhor substrato para a germinação das sementes. Sementes recém-colhidas apresentaram teor médio de água de 7,46%, porcentagem de germinação de 3,33% e baixo ganho de água durante a embebição, mostrando dormência tegumentar. A escarificação mecânica com lixa nº 40 foi um método eficiente para superação da dormência, comprovado pela alta porcentagem de germinação e embebição de água em sementes escarificadas. A porcentagem de germinação dessas sementes foi influenciada pela temperatura, mas não pelo substrato. Com base no tempo médio de germinação, recomenda-se a temperatura de 30 ºC e areia como substrato para germinação mais rápida de sementes escarificadas.Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. is a tropical legume tree occurring in the Amazon region, commonly used as medicine plant and in urban landscaping. To make seedling production feasible the best temperature and substrate for seed germination were determined. Recently harvested seeds present 7.46% mean moisture content, 3.33% germination percentage and lower moisture gain during soaking, showing tegument dormancy. Mechanical scarification with 40 grit sandpaper was proven an efficient method to overcome the dormancy, resulting in higher germination percentage and water imbibition in scarified seeds. The germination percentage of scarified seeds was influenced by temperature, but not by substrate. Based on the mean germination time, it is recommended the temperature of 30ºC and sand like substrate for faster germination of scarified seeds.

  2. Proposed mechanism of antibacterial mode of action of Caesalpinia bonducella seed oil against food-borne pathogens

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    Shruti Shukla

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial mechanism of action of Caesalpinia bonducella seed oil on membrane permeability of Listeria monocytogenes NCIM 24563 (MIC: 2 mg/mL and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 (MIC: 4 mg/mL was determined by measuring the extracellular ATP concentration, release of 260-nm absorbing materials, leakage of potassium ions and measurement of relative electrical conductivity of the bacterial cells treated at MIC concentration. Its mode of action on membrane integrity was confirmed by release of extracellular ATP (1.42 and 1.33 pg/mL, loss of 260-nm absorbing materials (4.36 and 4.19 optical density, leakage of potassium ions (950 and 1000 mmol/L and increase in relative electrical conductivity (12.6 and 10.5% against food-borne pathogenic bacteria L. monocytogenes and E. coli, respectively. These findings propose that C. bonducella oil compromised its mode of action on membrane integrity, suggesting its enormous food and pharmacological potential.

  3. Cytotoxic and Pro-Apoptotic Effects of Cassane Diterpenoids from the Seeds of Caesalpinia sappan in Cancer Cells

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    Han Bao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemical study on the seeds of Caesalpinia sappan led to the isolation of five new cassane diterpenoids, phanginins R‒T (1–3 and caesalsappanins M and N (4 and 5, together with seven known compounds 6–12. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR and HRESIMS analyses. The absolute configurations of compounds 1 and 4 were determined by the corresponding CD spectra. All the isolated compounds were tested for their cytotoxicity against ovarian cancer A2780 and HEY, gastric cancer AGS, and non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells. Compound 1 displayed significant toxicity against the four cell lines with the IC50 values of 9.9 ± 1.6 µM, 12.2 ± 6.5 µM, 5.3 ± 1.9 µM, and 12.3 ± 3.1 µM, respectively. Compound 1 induced G1 phase cell cycle arrest in A2780 cells. Furthermore, compound 1 dose-dependently induced A2780 cells apoptosis as evidenced by Hoechst 33342 staining, Annexin V positive cells, the up-regulated cleaved-PARP and the enhanced Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. What’s more, compound 1 also promoted the expression of the tumor suppressor p53 protein. These findings indicate that cassane diterpenoids might have potential as anti-cancer agents, and further in vivo animal studies and structural modification investigation are needed.

  4. Anatomia e densidade básica da madeira de Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. (Fabaceae), espécie endêmica da caatinga do Nordeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Lazaro Benedito da; Santos, Francisco de Assis Ribeiro dos; GASSON, PETER; Cutler, David

    2009-01-01

    Este trabalho objetivou estudar a anatomia e a densidade básica da madeira de Caesalpinia pyramidalis utilizada pelas comunidades locais, ocorrente na caatinga de Pernambuco, nos municípios de Serra Talhada e Sertânia, assim como comparar a percentagem dos elementos do lenho no tronco e nos galhos, na própria árvore, a fim de estabelecer o potencial total do lenho para produção de energia. As amostras do lenho do tronco (DAP) e de ramos de seis árvores da espécie foram coletadas nos dois muni...

  5. Anatomia e densidade básica da madeira de Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. (Fabaceae), espécie endêmica da caatinga do Nordeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Lazaro Benedito da; Santos, Francisco de Assis Ribeiro dos; GASSON, PETER; Cutler, David

    2009-01-01

    p.436-445 Este trabalho objetivou estudar a anatomia e a densidade básica da madeira de Caesalpinia pyramidalis utilizada pelas comunidades locais, ocorrente na caatinga de Pernambuco, nos municípios de Serra Talhada e Sertânia, assim como comparar a percentagem dos elementos do lenho no tronco e nos galhos, na própria árvore, a fim de estabelecer o potencial total do lenho para produção de energia. As amostras do lenho do tronco (DAP) e de ramos de seis árvores da espécie foram coletadas ...

  6. Estrutura de um fragmento de Floresta Atlântica em regeneração com ocorrência de Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (pau-brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Baldan Zani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2012v25n4p75   Este trabalho teve por objetivo analisar a estrutura fitossociológica de um fragmento remanescente de Floresta Atlântica em regeneração no município de Aracruz-ES em uma floresta de tabuleiro com ocorrência natural de Caesalpinia echinata Lam. Foram instaladas 10 unidades amostrais (parcelas de 10 x 50m sendo amostrados todos os indivíduos com DAP≥5cm e <10cm. Ao todo foram amostrados 500 indivíduos distribuídos em 181 espécies. As famílias com maior riqueza foram Leguminosae (35, Sapotaceae (18 e Myrtaceae (14. As espécies mais importantes foram Caesalpinia echinata Lam., Eugenia tinguyensis Cambess. e Pterocarpus rohrii Vahl. O índice de Shannon (H’ foi de 4,89 e a equabilidade (J’ foi de 0,94. Essa área é um dos últimos fragmentos remanescentes com pau-brasil nativo do estado do Espírito Santo e a população dessa espécie encontra-se bem preservada no local, ocorrendo com grande frequência, enfatizando a importância da preservação de pequenos fragmentos florestais para conservação da biodiversidade.

  7. Desempenho germinativo da invasora Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit. e comparação com Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. e Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L. Sw. (Fabaceae Germination performance of the invader Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit. compared to Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. and C. pulcherrima (L. Sw. (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Gonçalves da Fonseca

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O sucesso das plantas na colonização de novas áreas está fortemente relacionado ao comportamento germinativo das sementes nas condições ambientais locais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o desempenho germinativo da exótica invasora Leucaena leucocephala ao das leguminosas (Caesalpinia ferrea, nativa e C. pulcherrima, exótica não consideradas invasoras. Sementes não escarificadas foram expostas às temperaturas de 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 e 40 °C, sob um fotoperíodo de 12 horas, durante 100 dias. Tanto a porcentagem final quanto a velocidade de germinação apresentaram diferenças significativas entre as três espécies. C. ferrea teve baixo desempenho, com temperatura ótima para a germinação a 25°C, porcentagem de germinação de 59% e IVG de 0,68 sementes d-1. Já C. pulcherrima, apresentou altas porcentagens de germinação em todas as temperaturas testadas, com faixa ótima entre 20-40 °C. As sementes de L. leucocephala apresentaram as menores porcentagens de germinação e temperatura ótima de 35 °C. O desempenho germinativo desta exótica não se sobressai ao das demais espécies estudadas e fatores como a pressão de propágulos, escarificação natural e bom desempenho em outras fases da vida devem contribuir para seu perfil de invasora.Success in establishing and colonizing new areas is directly related to germination behaviour of seeds under local environmental conditions. This work aimed to compare germination performance of the exotic invader Leucaena leucocephala to two legumes (Caesalpinia ferrea, native, and C. pulcherrima, exotic which are not considered invasive. Non-scarified seeds were exposed to constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40ºC, within a photoperiod of 12 hours, for 100 days. Both final germination percentage and germination speed showed significant differences among the three species. C. ferrea had low germination percentage, with optimal germination temperature at 25ºC, reaching

  8. Anticonvulsant effect of the ethanol extract of Caesalpiniapulcherrima (L. Sw., Fabaceae, leaves

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    Dinesh Kumar

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ethanol extract of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L. Sw., Fabaceae, leaves (CPEE was investigated for anticonvulsant effect against maximal electroshock (MES and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ induced seizures in rats and mice at dose levels 200 and 400 mg/kg, i.p. respectively. Diazepam (3 mg/kg, i.p. was used as a standard anticonvulsant drug for comparison. CPEE was found to be safe up to the dose of 4000 mg/kg in mice, when administered intraperitoneally. The extract at 400 mg/kg dose produced significant (p<0.01 anticonvulsant effect w.r.t. control against PTZ-induced clonic seizures. In MES-induced seizure model, there were no significant alterations in the onset as well as duration of hind limb extension seizures as compared to control at a dose of 200 mg/kg when administered intraperitoneally. However, the extract (CPEE, 400 mg/kg i.p. significantly (p<0.01 delayed the onset as well as decreased the duration of hind limb extension seizures (HLES as compared to control. However, the extract, CPEE, percentage protection of the animals was increased at higher dose (200 mg/kg in both the models. The results of the study suggest that ethanol extract of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L. Sw. leaves possess anticonvulsant effect.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of natural red dye from Caesalpinia sappan linn

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    Mulyanto, Subur, E-mail: subur.mulyanto@poltekba.ac.id [Graduate Program of Mechanical Engineering, SebelasMaret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta (Indonesia); Department of Mechanical Engineering, State Polytechnic of Balikpapan, Jl. Soekarno-Hatta Km.8 Balikpapan (Indonesia); Suyitno,, E-mail: suyitno@uns.ac.id; Rachmanto, Rendy Adhi, E-mail: rendy.ar@gmail.com; Hidayat, Lullus Lambang Govinda, E-mail: lulus-l@yahoo.com; Hadi, Syamsul, E-mail: syamsulhadi@ft.uns.ac.id [Department of Mechanical Engineering, SebelasMaret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta (Indonesia); Wibowo, Atmanto Heru, E-mail: aheruwibowo@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, SebelasMaret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    The study reports the synthesis and characterization of natural red dye. The dyes were extracted from woods of Caesalpiniasappanlinn at varied temperatures of 70, 80, 90, and 100°C for three hours. The dry wood chips and water at a ratio of 6:1 were immersed in the reactor of 150 liters. The absorbance spectra of the natural red dyes were measured by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. Meanwhile, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to investigate the functional groups of the natural red dyes. In addition, the basic production cost was calculated and the fastness property towards cotton fabrics was investigated according to the Indonesia national standard of 105-C06:2010, 105-B01:2010, and 0288-2008. The results showed that the functional groups found the extracted red dyes indicated the complex bond of brazilein with peak absorbance at a wavelength of 538-540 nm. The extraction temperature also changed the functional group of brazilein. From the color, the absorbance peak, the functional groups, and the main production cost, the best parameter to synthesize the natural red dyes from Caesalpiniasappanlinn was at a temperature of 80°C for two hours. Moreover, the natural red dyes has the fastness to wash resistance, light resistance, and scrub resistance by 4-5, 4, and 3-4, respectively. However, further studies for synthesis the natural red dyes by using a continuous reactor are required to identify the naturally complex compounds in brazilein for improving the fastness properties and for reducing the cost.

  10. Anatomia e densidade básica da madeira de Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. (Fabaceae, espécie endêmica da caatinga do Nordeste do Brasil Wood anatomy and basic density of Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. (Fabaceae, an endemic species of Northeast Brazil

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    Lazaro Benedito da Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou estudar a anatomia e a densidade básica da madeira de Caesalpinia pyramidalis utilizada pelas comunidades locais, ocorrente na caatinga de Pernambuco, nos municípios de Serra Talhada e Sertânia, assim como comparar a percentagem dos elementos do lenho no tronco e nos galhos, na própria árvore, a fim de estabelecer o potencial total do lenho para produção de energia. As amostras do lenho do tronco (DAP e de ramos de seis árvores da espécie foram coletadas nos dois municípios acima citados, em 2002. As análises das amostras seguiram os métodos usualmente empregados em estudo de anatomia de madeiras. Pelos parâmetros anatômicos do lenho e a elevada densidade básica (>0,84 g/cm³, concluiu-se que Caesalpinia pyramidalis revela grande quantidade de celulose e lignina, portanto apresentou perspectivas seguras para produção de álcool combustível e carvão vegetal. Pode-se propor o uso do lenho do tronco e dos galhos como combustível, desde a fase jovem da madeira, pela grande concentração de fibras, menor concentração de vasos e menor quantidade de parênquima, nos espécimes dos dois municípios.This work aimed to study the anatomy and basic density of Caesalpinia pyramidalis wood, used by local populations in the municipalities of Serra Talhada and Sertânia (Pernambuco, to assess the percentage of wood elements in the trunk and branches in both localities, and in the tree itself, in order to establish total wood potential for energy production. Samples of the trunk (dbh and of branches from six trees of the species were collected in 2002. Sample analysis followed the usual methods of wood anatomy studies. Based on the anatomical parameters of the trunk and the high basic density (>0.84 g/cm³, we conclude that Caesalpinia pyramidalis wood contains an enormous amount of cellulose and lignin. Due to these features, this species showed good perspectives for the production of alcohol and charcoal. The

  11. EFFECTS OF EXTRACTIVES AND DENSITY ON NATURAL RESISTANCE OF WOODS TO TERMITE Nasutitermes corniger

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    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the natural resistance of wood to wood-destroying organisms is of fundamental importance in the choice of species to be used in buildings and furniture industry. Thus, the effects of extractives and wood density on biological resistance of Acacia mangium, Casuarina equisetifolia, Corymbia torelliana, Eucalyptus cloeziana, Tectona grandis and Caesalpinia echinata woods to the xylophagous termite Nasutitermes corniger was evaluated under laboratory conditions. Test samples, with dimensions of 2.00 x 2.54 x 0.64 cm (radial x tangential x longitudinal in four positions in pith-bark direction (internal heart, intermediate heart, outer heart and sapwood were taken. The woods were exposed to termite action for 28 days in no-choice feeding test. The samples not selected for the termite test were turned into sawdust and the extractive contents were obtained using the shavings that passed through the sieve of 40 and were retained in the sieve of 60 mesh. The wood natural resistance, within the pith-bark positions, for the studied species, is not correlated with the density and extractive content. However, among the woods, those with higher density and extractive content are more resistant. The woods with greater biological resistance to the termite Nasutitermes corniger (smaller mass loss, waste and survival time of insects are Corymbia torelliana and Caesalpinia echinata and of less resistance is Casuarina equisetifolia.

  12. Woods with physical, mechanical and acoustic properties similar to those of Caesalpinia echinata have high potential as alternative woods for bow makers

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    Eduardo Luiz Longui

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For nearly two hundred years, Caesalpinia echinata wood has been the standard for modern bows. However, the threat of extinction and the enforcement of trade bans have required bow makers to seek alternative woods. The hypothesis tested was that woods with physical, mechanical and acoustic properties similar to those of C. echinata would have high potential as alternative woods for bows. Accordingly, were investigated Handroanthus spp., Mezilaurus itauba, Hymenaea spp., Dipteryx spp., Diplotropis spp. and Astronium lecointei. Handroanthus and Diplotropis have the greatest number of similarities with C. echinata, but only Handroanthus spp. showed significant results in actual bow manufacture, suggesting the importance of such key properties as specific gravity, speed of sound propagation and modulus of elasticity. In practice, Handroanthus and Dipteryx produced bows of quality similar to that of C. echinata.

  13. Superação da dormência em sementes de Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. var. ferrea de duas populações

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    Maria de Fatima Barbosa Coelho

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 O objetivo no presente trabalho foi superar a dormência de sementes de Caesalpinia ferrea. As sementes foram obtidas em duas populações no município de Acarape e no distrito de Antonio Diogo no Ceará. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições de 50 sementes. Os tratamentos usados foram a sementes de Acarape intactas, b sementes de Acarape escarificadas, c sementes de Antonio Diogo intactas e d sementes de Antonio Diogo escarificadas. A escarificação foi feita com desponte com tesoura de poda no tegumento do lado oposto ao hilo da semente. As características avaliadas foram porcentagem de emergência, índice de velocidade de emergência, comprimento da parte aérea e da raiz principal das plântulas. O maior pico de emergência ocorreu aos sete dias após a semeadura. A porcentagem de emergência foi maior nas sementes de Acarape e Antonio Diogo escarificadas (58,25 e 58,50 respectivamente, enquanto as sementes não escarificadas apresentaram menos de 15% de emergência. O índice de velocidade de emergência foi maior nas sementes de Acarape e Antonio Diogo escarificadas (7,94 e 7,20 respectivamente. Os resultados comprovam a dormência tegumentar de sementes de Caesalpinia férrea, a eficiência da escarificação mecânica na superação da dormência e que há diferença no processo germinativo de sementes de diferentes populações Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE

  14. Crescimento inicial de mudas de pau ferro (Caesalpinia ferreaMart. ex Tul. var. leiostachya Benth. sob diferentes regimes hídricos Initial growth of wood iron (Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex. Tul var. leiostachya Benth under different hydric regimes

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    Nádia Regina Lenhard

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este estudo avaliar o crescimento inicial de mudas de pau-ferro (Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex. Tul. var. leiostachya Benth -Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae sob quatro regimes hídricos (alagamento, 70%, 40% e 12,5% de capacidade de campo. As mudas foram submetidas aos tratamentos aos 60 dias de idade. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições de oito mudas por tratamento. Após 7 dias de permanência sob tratamento, iniciaram-se as avaliações. O diâmetro (6,5 mm, teor relativo de água (52,45%, área foliar específica (174,58 g cm², taxa de crescimento relativo (0,0160 g g-1, taxa assimilatória líquida (0,0004 g dm-2 dias-1 e peso específico de folha (0,0062 g cm² não variaram estatisticamente entre os tratamentos. As mudas sob 70% CC apresentaram maior altura (84,6cm, tamanho da raiz (28,9 cm, massa seca da raiz (6,24 g, área foliar (376,0 cm², massa seca da folha (1,98 g, massa seca da parte aérea (8,27 g e teor de clorofila (31,67 ìg cm². A razão de peso específico (0,2368 g g-1 e o teor de nitrogênio (0,37 g kg-1 foram maiores sob 12,5% CC. A razão de área foliar (35,09 g g-1 foi menor sob 12,5% CC. Dessa forma, a melhor condição para a produção das mudas é em 70% da capacidade de campo.The objective of this study was to evaluate the initial growth of Caesapinia ferrea Mart ex. Tul var. leiostachva Benth (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae under four hidric regimes (overflow, 70, 40 and 12.5% of field capacity. The seedlings were submitted to the treatments after 60 days of age. The experimental delineation was completely randomized with four repetitions of eight seedlings for treatment. After 7 days of permanence under treatment, the evaluations had been initiated. The diameter (6,5 mm, relative water content (52.45%, specific foliar area (174.58 g cm², rate of relative growth (0.0160 g g-1, liquid assimilated rate (0.0004 g dm-2 days-1 and specific weight of leaf (0.0062 g

  15. Avaliação da incorporação de galactomanana de Caesalpinia pulcherrima em sorvetes e comparação com estabilizantes comerciais

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    Antonia Ariana Camelo Passos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Com o mercado cada vez mais competitivo e consumidores mais exigentes é de suma importância buscar alternativas mais eficientes e diversificadas para a melhoria da qualidade de sorvetes. Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver sorvetes sabor goiaba utilizando galactomanana de Caesalpinia pulcherrima em substituição a estabilizantes, avaliar suas propriedades e comparar com dois estabilizantes comumente utilizados (goma xantana e super liga neutra. Para caracterizar os sorvetes foram feitas análises de overrun, resistência ao derretimento, umidade, cinzas, proteínas, lipídios, carboidratos, sólidos totais e pH. A qualidade microbiológica foi investigada pelas análises de coliformes a 45 °C/g, Estafilococos coagulase positiva/g e Salmonella sp/25 g. Sensorialmente, foram avaliados a intenção de compra e os atributos sensoriais de cor, aroma, textura, sabor e impressão global. Foram realizadas três formulações de sorvetes, modificando o estabilizante empregado: super liga neutra (T1, galactomanana de C. pulcherrima (T2 e goma xantana (T3. A taxa de derretimento mostrou-se similar até 35 minutos para as três formulações, mostrando-se comportamentos lineares. As amostras de sorvetes apresentaram um bom valor de overrun. Nenhuma das variáveis físico-químicas apresentou diferença estatística entre si. Sensorialmente, a formulação T2 apresentou desempenho semelhante a T1 e T3. No entanto, o sorvete da formulação T3 apresentou no atributo textura uma nota melhor que o estabilizante super liga neutra (T1. Todas as formulações apresentaram altos índices de intenção de compra por parte dos provadores. Todos os sorvetes produzidos apresentaram-se de acordo com a legislação vigente demonstrando que a galactomanana de Caesalpinia pulcherrima pode ser utilizada como substituto aos estabilizantes convencionais.

  16. Brazilein from Caesalpinia sappan L. Antioxidant Inhibits Adipocyte Differentiation and Induces Apoptosis through Caspase-3 Activity and Anthelmintic Activities against Hymenolepis nana and Anisakis simplex

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    Chia-Hua Liang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazilein, a natural, biologically active compound from Caesalpinia sappan L., has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and to inhibit the growth of several cancer cells. This study verifies the antioxidant and antitumor characteristics of brazilein in skin cancer cells and is the first time to elucidate the inhibition mechanism of adipocyte differentiation, cestocidal activities against Hymenolepis nana, and reduction of spontaneous movement in Anisakis simplex. Brazilein exhibits an antioxidant capacity as well as the ability to scavenge DPPH• and ABTS•+ free radicals and to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Brazilein inhibited intracellular lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells and suppressed the induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ, the master regulator of adipogenesis, suggesting that brazilein presents the antiobesity effects. The toxic effects of brazilein were evaluated in terms of cell viability, induction of apoptosis, and the activity of caspase-3 in BCC cells. The inhibition of the growth of skin cancer cells (A431, BCC, and SCC25 by brazilein is greater than that of human skin malignant melanoma (A375 cells, mouse leukemic monocyte macrophage (RAW 264.7 cells, and noncancerous cells (HaCaT and BNLCL2 cells. The anthelmintic activities of brazilein against Hymenolepis nana are better than those of Anisakis simplex.

  17. Caracterização físico-química e biológica do caule de Caesalpinia ferrea Mart.

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    A. P. Z. Frasson

    Full Text Available Visando estabelecer parâmetros para o controle da qualidade do caule de Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. (Caesalpiniaceae, foram realizados testes preconizados pela Farmacopéia Brasileira IV e pela Organização Mundial da Saúde para a avaliação da pureza, através das determinações de materiais estranhos, cinzas totais, cinzas insolúveis em ácido, umidade, ensaios-limites de cloretos e sulfatos, além da pesquisa de contaminantes microbianos no material pulverizado. Para a caracterização dos constituintes, eventualmente presentes na droga vegetal, foram realizadas as determinações de taninos, dos índices de espuma, intumescimento e amargor e o teste de hemólise; também foi realizada a caracterização do extrato etanólico bruto e suas frações por cromatografia em camada delgada.

  18. Brazilein from Caesalpinia sappan L. Antioxidant Inhibits Adipocyte Differentiation and Induces Apoptosis through Caspase-3 Activity and Anthelmintic Activities against Hymenolepis nana and Anisakis simplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chia-Hua; Chan, Leong-Perng; Chou, Tzung-Han; Chiang, Feng-Yu; Yen, Chuan-Min; Chen, Pin-Ju; Ding, Hsiou-Yu; Lin, Rong-Jyh

    2013-01-01

    Brazilein, a natural, biologically active compound from Caesalpinia sappan L., has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and to inhibit the growth of several cancer cells. This study verifies the antioxidant and antitumor characteristics of brazilein in skin cancer cells and is the first time to elucidate the inhibition mechanism of adipocyte differentiation, cestocidal activities against Hymenolepis nana, and reduction of spontaneous movement in Anisakis simplex. Brazilein exhibits an antioxidant capacity as well as the ability to scavenge DPPH(•) and ABTS(•+) free radicals and to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Brazilein inhibited intracellular lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells and suppressed the induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR γ ), the master regulator of adipogenesis, suggesting that brazilein presents the antiobesity effects. The toxic effects of brazilein were evaluated in terms of cell viability, induction of apoptosis, and the activity of caspase-3 in BCC cells. The inhibition of the growth of skin cancer cells (A431, BCC, and SCC25) by brazilein is greater than that of human skin malignant melanoma (A375) cells, mouse leukemic monocyte macrophage (RAW 264.7 cells), and noncancerous cells (HaCaT and BNLCL2 cells). The anthelmintic activities of brazilein against Hymenolepis nana are better than those of Anisakis simplex.

  19. Molecular characterization of Cryptococcus gattii genotype AFLP6/VGII isolated from woody debris of divi-divi (Caesalpinia coriaria), Bonaire, Dutch Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Ferry; Chowdhary, Anuradha; Prakash, Anupam; Yntema, Jan-Bart; Meis, Jacques F

    2014-01-01

    The basidiomycetous yeast Cryptococcus gattii is an emerging and primary pathogen. There is a lack of information about its environmental spread outside outbreak regions in Mediterranean Europe, North and South America. Environmental sampling for C. gattii and molecular characterization of the obtained isolates will provide an insight into the global spread of the various genotypes. Woody debris of native divi-divi (Caesalpinia coriaria) trees were sampled across Bonaire, Dutch Caribbean. Colonies suspected for Cryptococcus species were subjected to standard mycology investigations and identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Isolates identified as C. gattii were subjected to amplified fragment length polymorphism genotyping, mating-type analysis and multi-locus sequence typing. Ten colonies of C. gattii were cultured from different trunk hollows of the same divi-divi tree. Molecular characterization showed that all isolates were genotype AFLP6/VGII and mating-type α. Multi-locus sequence typing revealed that all isolates were genetically indistinguishable from each other. C. gattii is present in the environment of Bonaire, which suggests that this yeast is likely to be present in the environment of other Caribbean islands. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Biochemical Aspects of a Serine Protease from Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brazilwood Seeds: A Potential Tool to Access the Mobilization of Seed Storage Proteins

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    Priscila Praxedes-Garcia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several proteins have been isolated from seeds of leguminous, but this is the first report that a protease was obtained from seeds of Caesalpinia echinata Lam., a tree belonging to the Fabaceae family. This enzyme was purified to homogeneity by hydrophobic interaction and anion exchange chromatographies and gel filtration. This 61-kDa serine protease (CeSP hydrolyses H-D-prolyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-arginine-p-nitroanilide (Km 55.7 μM in an optimum pH of 7.1, and this activity is effectively retained until 50∘C. CeSP remained stable in the presence of kosmotropic anions (PO4 3−, SO4 2−, and CH3COO− or chaotropic cations (K+ and Na+. It is strongly inhibited by TLCK, a serine protease inhibitor, but not by E-64, EDTA or pepstatin A. The characteristics of the purified enzyme allowed us to classify it as a serine protease. The role of CeSP in the seeds cannot be assigned yet but is possible to infer that it is involved in the mobilization of seed storage proteins.

  1. BIOMETRIA DE FRUTOS E SEMENTES E SUPERAÇÃO DE DORMÊNCIA DE JUCÁ (Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul (LEGUMINOSAE - CAESALPINOIDEAE

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    Francisco Augusto Alves Câmara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to study the characteristics biometrics of the fruit and the effect of the physical and chemical scarification in the germination of seeds of Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. Ripe fruits were collected in August of 2007 of existent trees in the campus of the Rural Federal University of the Semi-arid, Mossoró- RN. The evaluations were carried at the Laboratory of Analysis of Seeds of the Department of Vegetable Sciences of UFERSA. The germination test was constituted of witness and 4 treatments (types of common vinegar: vinegar of alcohol, vinegar of red wine and vinegar of white wine and hot water to 65ºC, with 4 repetitions of 50 seeds. The sowing was in containers plastic with dimensions of 32.5 x 24 x 4 cm (length, width and depth. The used substrates were sand washed sterilized previously and being irrigated with water distilled. The appraised characteristics were: mass of the fresh matter and matter dries of the seedling, germination percentage and index of emergency velocity. The immersion of the seeds in vinegar of white wine favors the germination, the index of germination velocity and the accumulation of fresh and dry matter of the juca seedlings.

  2. Effects of ovule and seed abortion on brood size and fruit costs in the leguminous shrub Caesalpinia gilliesii (Wall. ex Hook. D. Dietr

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    Ana Calviño

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For several plant species, brood size results from the abortion of ovules and seeds. However, these processes have rarely been studied together in wild plants. In some of the leguminous species studied, seed abortion has been found to depend on pollen quality and on the position of the ovule or fruit. The direct consequence for the mother plant is that fruit costs increase as the seed:ovule ratio decreases. However, because ovule abortion occurs earlier than does seed abortion, the former can reduce the biomass invested per seed (i.e., fruit costs more efficiently than does the latter. Here, the frequencies of aborted ovules and seeds were analyzed in relation to the type of pollination treatment (open pollination vs. hand cross-pollination and ovule/fruit position within pods of the leguminous shrub Caesalpinia gilliesii. The influence of ovule and seed abortion on fruit costs was analyzed by comparing the pericarp mass per seed between fruits with different frequencies of aborted ovules and seeds. The rate of ovule abortion was similar between hand cross-pollinated and open-pollinated fruits but was higher than that of seed abortion in one- and two-seeded fruits, as well as in those at stylar positions and in distal fruits. Hand cross-pollination reduced seed abortion but did not increase the seed:ovule ratio. In addition, fruits that aborted ovules were found to be less costly than were those that aborted seeds. From the mother plant perspective, these results indicate that ovule abortion is a more efficient mechanism of reducing fruit costs than is seed abortion, because fertilization opportunities decrease with position, and show that brood size is significantly influenced by the fate of the ovule at the pre-zygotic stage.

  3. Synergy of aminoglycoside antibiotics by 3-Benzylchroman derivatives from the Chinese drug Caesalpinia sappan against clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, G Y; Han, Z Q; Hao, X Y; Han, J; Li, Z S; Wang, G C

    2014-06-15

    The in vitro antimicrobial activities of three 3-Benzylchroman derivatives, i.e. Brazilin (1), Brazilein (2) and Sappanone B (3) from Caesalpinia sappan L. (Leguminosae) were assayed, which mainly dealt with synergistic evaluation of aminoglycoside and other type of antibiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by the three compounds through the Chequerboard and Time-kill curve methods. The results showed that Compounds 1-3 alone exhibited moderate to weak activity against methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and other standard strains by MICs/MBCs ranged from 32/64 to >1024/>1024 μg/ml, with the order of activity as 1>2>3. Chequerboard method showed significant anti-MRSA synergy of 1/Aminoglycosides (Gentamicin, Amikacin, Etimicin and Streptomycin) combinations with (FICIs)50 at 0.375-0.5. The combined (MICs)50 values (μg/ml) reduced from 32-128/16-64 to 4-8/4-16, respectively. The percent of reduction by MICs ranged from 50% to 87.5%, with a maximum of 93.8% (1/16 of the alone MIC). Combinations of 2 and 3 with Aminoglycosides and the other antibiotics showed less potency of synergy. The dynamic Time-killing experiment further demonstrated that the combinations of 1/aminoglycoside were synergistically bactericidal against MRSA. The anti-MRSA synergy results of the bacteriostatic (Chequerboard method) and bactericidal (time-kill method) efficiencies of 1/Aminoglycoside combinations was in good consistency, which made the resistance reversed by CLSI guidelines. We concluded that the 3-Benzylchroman derivative Brazilin (1) showed in vitro synergy of bactericidal activities against MRSA when combined with Aminoglycosides, which might be beneficial for combinatory therapy of MRSA infection. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  4. Mobilização de reservas durante a germinação das sementes e crescimento das plântulas de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae Mobilization of the reserves during germination of seeds and growth of seedlings of Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae

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    Viviana Borges Corte

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a mobilização de reservas de sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. durante a germinação e crescimento inicial das plântulas. As variações nas reservas de carbiodratos, lipídios e proteínas foram analisadas desde o período pré-germinativo (0 a 5 dias após a semeadura - DAS até a total senescência e abscisão dos cotilédones, aos 35 DAS, por meio de testes bioquímicos nos cotilédones das sementes. Os resultados indicaram que os lipídios constituem o principal composto de reserva nos cotilédones, contribuindo com cerca de 50% de massa seca. Carboidratos solúveis representaram 32%, as proteínas solúveis 7,7% e o amido 6,8% de massa seca dos cotilédones. Os lipídios sofreram marcante decréscimo entre 5 e 10 dias após a semeadura, período em que se observou elevada taxa de crescimento das plântulas. Carboidratos e proteínas solúveis exibiram tendência gradativa de queda, enquanto no amido, isso quase não foi detectado. A redução do peso de massa seca dos cotilédones foi bem correlacionada com o aumento da biomassa da plântula.This work aimed at studying the mobilization seed reserves during germination and initial growth of seedlings of Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. The variations in carbohydrate, lipid and protein reserves were analyzed from the pre-sprouting period (0 to 5 days after sowing -DAS to the total senescence and abscission of seeds. The results showed that lipids constitute the main reserve compound in the cotyledon, contributing with almost 50 % of its dry mass weight. Soluble carbohydrates represent 32 %, the soluble proteins 7.7 % and starch 6.8 % of the dry mass weight of cotyledons. Lipids showed a marked decrease between 5 and 10 days after sowing, period of a high seedling growth rate. Carbohydrates and soluble proteins showed a gradual tendency to decrease, while starch was almost non-detectable. The reduction in cotyledon dry mass of weight

  5. Morfologia foliar de indivíduos jovens e adultos de Caesalpinia echinata Lam. numa floresta semidecídua do Sul da Bahia Leaf morphology of saplings and adult individuals of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. in a semidecidual forest of Southern Bahia, Brazil

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    Maria Cristina Sanches

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Caesalpiniaceae é uma espécie arbórea que ocorre naturalmente no interior da floresta e atinge os estratos superiores do dossel por meio de pequenas clareiras. Objetivou-se, neste estudo, comparar alguns aspectos da morfologia foliar entre indivíduos adultos, cujas folhas se encontravam em pleno sol e jovens no sub-bosque. O estudo foi realizado numa floresta semidecídua, localizada no Município de Jussari, Bahia. Inicialmente, foram localizados e marcados oito indivíduos adultos e oito jovens para cada adulto. Foram coletadas e analisadas oito folhas para cada adulto e três para cada jovem, em duas épocas (setembro/novembro de 2004 e abril de 2005. Em geral, as áreas das folhas, das ráquis e dos folíolos, o comprimento das ráquis, a largura das folhas, o número de pinas e a massa seca das folhas foram significativamente superiores nos indivíduos jovens, ao passo que as massas específicas das folhas e dos folíolos foram significativamente superiores nos indivíduos adultos. Tanto nos adultos quanto nos jovens, nas duas épocas de coleta foram verificadas relações altamente significativas entre a massa seca e a área das folhas. Os resultados indicaram que folhas de C. echinata apresentam características que maximizam a absorção de luz onde este recurso é limitante e, ao mesmo tempo, direcionam maior alocação de carbono para os tecidos de suporte. Tais resultados estão de acordo com o observado no estádio sucessional da espécie analisada e com a sua estratégia de ocupação dos espaços gerados pela formação de pequenas clareiras, em ambiente de mata semidecídua.Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Caesalpiniaceae is a tree species that naturally regenerates in the forest understory and reaches the upper canopy through small gaps. We conducted a study with the objective of comparing some aspects of leaf morphology of adult individuals, in which the leaves were exposed to full sunlight, and saplings

  6. Histochemical aspects of reserves mobilization of Caesalpinia peltophoroides (Leguminosae seeds during germination and seedlings early growth Estudo Histoquímico da mobilização de reservas de sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides (Leguminosae durante a germinação e crescimento inicial

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    Viviana Borges Corte

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate reserve mobilization in Caesalpinia peltophoroides seeds during germination and initial seedling growth. The variation in these compounds was analyzed from the pre-germination period (0 to 5 days after sowing - DAS to the total cotyledon senescence and abscission at 35 DAS. For this histochemical tests were made on cotyledons fixed in FAA50 or included in glycol-metacrylate. To follow the mobilization of the main reserve compounds, sudan III was used to detect total lipids, xylidine Ponceau to detect total proteins, lugol to detect starch and polarized light to visualize the crystals. The lipids, present in a great quantity in the cotyledon, gradually decreased in the period studied. A greater quantity of starch was observed on the 10th DAS than in the previous periods and it was totally consumed by 30 DAS. The distribution pattern and the morphology of the protein material were very modified by 10 DAS, a period during which it was intensely consumed, remaining only parietally fragments distributed, that practically disappeared at 25 DAS. The calcium oxalate druses were not consumed during the period studied, there was only crystal agglutination.Este trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo da mobilização de reservas de sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. durante a germinação e crescimento inicial das plântulas. As variações nesses compostos foram analisadas desde o período pré-germinativo (0 a 5 dias após a semeadura - DAS até a total senescência e abscisão dos cotilédones, aos 35 DAS. Para isso, foram realizados testes histoquímicos em cotilédones fixados em FAA50 ou incluídos em glicol-metacrilato. Para acompanhamento da mobilização dos principais compostos de reserva, foi usado o sudan III para detecção de lipídios totais, xylidine Ponceau para proteínas totais, Lugol para amido e luz polarizada para visualização dos cristais. Os lipídios, presentes em maior

  7. Meios de cultura, reguladores de crescimento e fontes de nitrogênio na regulação da calogênese do pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. Culture media, growth regulators and nitrogen sources in callus formation regulation of Brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata Lam.

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    Elias Terra Werner

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A regulação da calogênese é o primeiro passo para a embriogênese somática indireta in vitro. Nesse sentido, foram investigados os efeitos de diferentes meios de cultura, reguladores de crescimento e fontes nitrogenadas no desenvolvimento de calos em tecidos foliares de Caesalpinia echinata (pau-brasil. Explantes foliares foram cultivados em meios de cultura MS, B5, White e WPM. Testou-se, também, o efeito dos compostos nitrogenados (NH4NO3, KNO3 e glutamina e a interação entre auxinas (2,4-D, AIA e AIB e citocininas (BAP e KIN na desdiferenciação celular indicado pela formação de calos. Os meios MS, B5 e White não foram significantemente diferentes e proporcionaram melhores resultados. Em meio MS contendo as fontes nitrogenadas 2,4 g L-1 NH4NO3 e 1,35 g L-1 glutamina + 4,11 g L-1 de KNO3 na presença de 1,0 mg L-1 2,4-D e 5,0 mg L-1 BAP ocorreu maior proliferação celular indicada pela massa fresca dos calos. As combinações dos reguladores 0,5 mg L-1 2,4-D + 5 mg L-1 BAP e 0,5 mg L-1 AIB + 5,0 mg L-1 BAP suplementado com 2,4 g L-1 NH4NO3 em meio MS estimularam o crescimento dos calos. De maneira geral, os calos apresentaram aspectos friáveis, não embriogênicos, com acúmulo de fenóis e presença de áreas meristemáticas (meristemóides.The regulation of callus formation is the first step to indirect somatic embryogenesis in vitro. Therefore, we investigated hormonal and nutrient factors on development of callus in leaf tissues of Caesalpinia echinata (Brazilwood. Explants were cultivated in culture media MS, B5, WPM, and White. The effect of nitrogen sources (NH4NO3, KNO3 and glutamine and the interaction between auxins (2,4-D, IAA and IBA and cytokinins (BAP and KIN were also evaluated. Media MS, B5 and White were not significantly different and provided better results. MS medium containing 2.4 g L-1 NH4NO3, 1.35 g L-1 glutamine, and 4.11 g L-1 of KNO3 in the presence of 1 mg.L-1 2,4-D and 5 mg.L-1 BAP increased cellular

  8. Enraizamento de estacas de Pau-Brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. tratadas com ácido indol butírico e ácido naftaleno acético Rooting cuttings of Pau-Brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. treated with indole butyric acid and naphthalene acetic acid

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    Laurício Endres

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. tem grande valor cultural no Brasil e a sua propagação por sementes é dificultada pela rápida perda do poder germinativo delas. A estaquia pode ser usada para a produção de mudas de espécies florestais, principalmente quando existem algumas dificuldades de propagação por sementes. Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar o efeito de concentrações e fontes de auxinas sobre o enraizamento de estacas de pau-brasil. Estacas com cerca de 12cm de comprimento e de um a dois pares de folhas foram tratadas na base com ácido indol butírico (AIB, ácido naftaleno acético (ANA na forma líquida ou na forma de pó nas concentrações de 0, 1.250, 2.500, 5.000, 10.000mg L-1 ou mg Kg-1, respectivamente. As estacas foram transferidas para substrato contendo areia e mantidas sob nebulização (90-95% UR. Aos 120 dias de estaquia, foram avaliados a mortalidade, a retenção foliar, a formação de calo e a percentagem de estacas enraizadas. As estacas apresentaram índices de sobrevivência de até 70%. A formação de calos não foi relacionada com a concentração de auxinas utilizadas. O maior índice de enraizamento de estacas de pau-brasil, em torno de 16%, foi resgistrada com a utilização do ácido indolbutírico (AIB e do ácido naftalenoacético (ANA na concentração 2.500mg L-1. Os altos índices de sobrevivência e os baixos índices de enraizamento sugerem que as estacas devem permanecer por mais tempo sob nebulização, a fim de induzir o seu processo de enraizamento.The 'pau-brasil' tree (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. have a high cultural value in Brazil and its seed propagation is very difficult because of its rapid losses of germination potential. Cuttings propagation has been considered as alternative method to propagate forest species that seed propagation is poor. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA and naphthalene acetic (NAA acid on

  9. Allelopathy by extracts of Caatinga species on melon seeds

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    Andreya Kalyana de Oliveira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The melon crop is of great socioeconomic importance in Brazil and some species from the Caatinga biome show allelopathic effects on other species. The aim of this study was to assess leaf and seed extracts of cumaru (Amburana cearensis (Allemao A.C. Sm., the jujube tree (Zizyphus joazeiro Mart., Jucá (Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. Ex. Tul. Var. Ferrea and mulungu (Erythrina velutina Willd. on the emergence of melon seeds (Cucumis melo L.. Leaves and seeds were used to produce extracts for each species at concentrations of a 1%, b 0.5% c 0.25%, d 0.125% and e 0% (control. The experiment was conducted with each extract type and its respective concentrations in a completely randomized design, with four replicates, each of 20 seeds. The percentage emergence and rate index, percentage of abnormal seedlings, seedling dry matter and seedling shoot and root length were assessed. Seed extracts of A. cearensis prevented melon germination, whereas the other extracts had no effect on this variable. Leaf extracts of A. cearensis and leaf and seed extracts of Z. joazeiro, C. ferrea and E. velutina resulted in abnormal melon seedlings. The percentage of abnormal melon seedlings exceeded 30% when treated with C. ferrea seed extract at the highest concentration. Most extracts did not affect seedling dry matter, but E. velutina leaf and seed extract increased the dry matter accumulation of melon seedlings and Z. joazeiro seed extract decreased dry matter accumulation at a concentration of 0.25%. The highest concentrations of mulungu and jucá leaf extracts promoted the shoot growth of melon seedlings. The extract from E. velutina seeds negatively affected root length compared to the control, similar to the effect of C. ferrea and E. velutina leaf extracts at the highest concentrations. Extracts of different organs of Caatinga plants can affect the emergence and characteristics related to seedling growth, depending on the concentration. Most extracts did not affect

  10. Antioxidant activity and potential photoprotective from amazon native flora extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Francislene J; Caneschi, César A; Vieira, José L F; Barbosa, Wagner; Raposo, Nádia R B

    2016-08-01

    Plant species are sources of active compounds that can fight and/or prevent damage caused by reactive oxygen species, which enables the development of natural products that can help to prevent premature aging caused by exposure to solar radiation. This study assessed the antioxidant and photoprotective activities of six dried extracts of plants from the Brazilian Amazon biome. Plant extracts were prepared in 70% (v/v) ethanol by dynamic maceration for 72h in the dark, and then filtered, concentrated and lyophilized. The extracts were subjected to a phytochemical screening. The antioxidant activity was measured using a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay and the photoprotection assay was performed using the diffuse transmittance technique. The data obtained from the antioxidant activity assay was evaluated by Student's t-test for independent samples, with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences v.14.0 for Windows software. The flavonoids represent a special metabolites class present in all analyzed extracts. The antioxidant activity (μgmL(-1)) decreased in the following order: Aniba canelilla (1.80±0.16), Brosimum acutifolium (2.84±0.38), Dalbergia monetaria (5.46±0.17) or Caesalpinia pyramidalis (6.45±1.18), Arrabidaea chica (15.35±0.86), and Aspidosperma nitidum (99.14±2.3). Only D. monetaria showed a considerable sun protection factor allowing for labeling (6.0±0.3). The D. monetaria extract was considered the most promising sample because it had optimal antioxidant and photoprotective activities against solar radiation, considering the limit established by regulatory agencies. These extracts with antioxidant potential can be used in photoprotective formulations, providing synergistic photoprotective effect or elevating the adeed value of the product. Additionally, these formulations are attractive to a population who searchs for products made with natural ingredients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. SCREENING OF THE ACARICIDAL EFFICACY OF PHYTOCHEMICAL EXTRACTS ON THE CATTLE TICK Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Acari: ixodidae BY LARVAL IMMERSION TEST

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    Jose Alberto Rosado-Aguilar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the acaricidal efficacy of selected native plants from Yucatán, Mexico on acaricide resistant larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. Methanolic extracts from roots, leaves, stems, and stem barks of 15 plants were tested using the modified larval immersion test. A final concentration of 10% (100 mg/ml of plant crude-extract was used. The percentage mortality from different plants and extracts were: Petiveria alliacea  leaves (95.7±2.9 % and stems (99.2±0.5 %; Diospyros anisandra leaves (87.9±8.6 % and stem bark (98.8±1.0 %; Havardia albicans leaves (93.0±12.0 %, Caesalpinia gaumeri (90.1±4.8 % and Capraria biflora (86.6±9.9 %, stems of Solanum tridinamum (98.0±1.7 % and Solanum erianthum (97.8±1.8 %, stem bark of Bursera simaruba (99.1±0.7 % and Cassearia corymbosa (99.5±0.5 %; and the root of Ocimum micrantun (87.0±3.2 %. We concluded that plants from Yucatan, Mexico showed a high acaricidal efficacy that could be used to control R. (B. microplus acaricide resistant larvae. P. alliacea, Havardia albicans and Caesalpinia gaumeri were of the most encouraging plants to be used as an acaricide. Further studies are needed to evaluate these plants on adult ticks (in vivo conditions and to identify the active compound(s on R. (B. microplus.

  12. EFFECT OF SAPPAN WOOD (Caesalpinnia sappan L EXTRACT ON BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL IN WHITE RATS

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    Saefudin Saefudin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sappan wood or kayu secang (Caesalpinia sappan L. was reported of having medicinal properties, such as natural antioxidant, relieve vomiting of blood, and mix of ingredients for malaria drugs. The research was conducted to study the influence of ethanol extract from sappan wood on blood glucose level of white rats. The study of the blood glucose level in rats was carried out by using glucose tolerance method. It was measured by Refloluxs (Accutrend GC with Chloropropamide 50 mg/200 g BW (Body weight as positive control. The ethanol extracts were used in various concentrations 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/200 g BW per-oral and was observed every hour, beginning one hour before to 7 hours after the extract being administered. The results showed that treatment of ethanol extract of sappan wood by administer doses gave remarkable effect on the blood glucose level in white rat. It reduced the glucose level in the blood compared to the negative and positive control. Treatment of dose 30 mg/200 g BW gave similar effect to positive controls, while a dose of 50 mg/200 g BW gave lower blood glucose level (93 mg/dl than the positive controls.

  13. Distinctive patterns of callose deposition provide an early sign of ovule abortion1 in the andromonoecious shrub Caesalpinia gilliesii Patrones distintivos de deposición de calosa proveen evidencia temprana de aborto de óvulos en el arbusto andromonoico Caesalpinia gilliesii

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    A. Calviño

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Ovule abortion may lead to the partial or complete reduction of the number of functional ovules in the ovary and then is the primary factor that determines the sexual expression of the plant. In different species, ovule abortion was associated with the presence of callose in advanced ovules. Based on these observations, we studied the pattern of ovule development and callose deposition in both perfect and staminate flowers of the andromonoecious shrub Caesalpinia gilliesii. The obtained results showed that all ovules reached the 8-nucleate stage of embryo sac development and exhibited callose deposition at advanced stages. Nevertheless, from the 2-nucleate stage, a distinct spatial pattern of callose deposition within the ovule was observed between perfect and staminate flowers. Differences in callose deposition suggest that not callose per se but its distribution pattern in the ovule tissues is the main factor that triggers ovule isolation and abortion and leads to flowers with non-functional pistils in this species. Furthermore, previous observed differential growth rates between perfect and staminate flowers support for resource depletion as the likely underlying mechanism of ovule fate in C. gilliesii.El aborto de óvulos puede llevar a la reducción parcial o completa de óvulos fértiles en el ovario, pudiendo ser entonces un factor primario que determine la expresión sexual de toda la planta. En diferentes especies de plantas, el aborto de los óvulos ha sido asociado con la presencia de calosa en estadios avanzados del desarrollo de los óvulos. Basado en estas observaciones, se estudiaron el desarrollo de los óvulos y el patrón de deposición de calosa tanto en flores perfectas como estaminadas en el arbusto andromonoico C. gilliesii. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que los sacos embrionarios alcanzan el estadio de desarrollo 8-nucleado en todos los óvulos, y que presentan deposición de calosa en los estadios avanzados. Sin

  14. Evaluation of seed extracts from plants found in the Caatinga biome for the control of Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Patrícia Batista Barra Medeiros; de Oliveira, Julliete Medeiros; Chagas, Juliana Macêdo; Rabelo, Luciana Maria Araujo; de Medeiros, Guilherme Fulgêncio; Giodani, Raquel Brant; da Silva, Elizeu Antunes; Uchôa, Adriana Ferreira; de Fátima de Freire Melo Ximenes, Maria

    2014-10-01

    Dengue fever, currently the most important arbovirus, is transmitted by the bite of the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Given the absence of a prophylactic vaccine, the disease can only be controlled by combating the vector insect. However, increasing reports of resistance and environmental damage caused by insecticides have led to the urgent search for new safer alternatives. In this regard, plants stand out as a source of easy-to-obtain biodegradable insecticide molecules. Twenty (20) plant seed extracts from the Caatinga, an exclusively Brazilian biome, were prepared. Sodium phosphate (50 mM, pH 8.0) was used as extractor. The extracts were used in bioassays and submitted to partial characterisation. A Probit analysis of insecticides was carried out, and intergroup differences were verified by the Student's t test and ANOVA. All the extracts exhibited larvicidal and ovipositional deterrence activity. The extracts of Amburana cearenses, Piptadenia viridiflora, Erythrina velutina, Myracrodruon urundeuva and Schinopsis brasiliensis were also pupicides, while the extracts of P. viridiflora, E. velutina, A. cearenses, Anadenanthera colubrina, Diocleia grandiflora, Bauhinia cheilantha, Senna spectabilis, Caesalpinia pyramidalis, Mimosa regnelli and Genipa americana displayed adulticidal activity. Egg laying was compromised when females were fed extracts of Ricinus communis, Croton sonderianus and S. brasiliensis. At least two proteins with insecticidal activity were found in all the extracts. Phenol compounds were identified in all the extracts and flavonoids, triterpenes or alkaloids in 14 of them. The results show the potential of plant seed extracts from the Caatinga as a source of active molecules against A. aegypti mosquitos.

  15. Evaluation of the stability and antimicrobial activity of an ethanolic extract of Libidibia ferrea

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    de Oliveira Marreiro R

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Raquel de Oliveira Marreiro,1 Maria Fulgência Costa Lima Bandeira,1 Tatiane Pereira de Souza,2 Mailza Costa de Almeida,1 Katiana Bendaham,1 Gisely Naura Venâncio,1 Isis Costa Rodrigues,2 Cristiane Nagai Coelho,1 Patrícia Sâmea Lêdo Lima Milério,1 Glauber Palma de Oliveira,1 Nikeila Chacon de Oliveira Conde11School of Dentistry, Federal University of Amazonas, Manaus, Amazonas; 2School of Pharmacy, Federal University of Amazonas, Manaus, Amazonas, BrazilAbstract: Biofilm is a dense, whitish, noncalcified aggregate of bacteria, with desquamated epithelial cells and food debris creating conditions for an imbalance of resident oral microflora and favoring the destruction of hard and soft tissues by development of caries and gingivitis. The aim of this study was to obtain and characterize an extract of Libidibia ferrea, ex Caesalpinia ferrea L. and to evaluate its feasibility for formulation as a mouthwash, according to current legislation. For this purpose, pH, sedimentation, density, and stability were evaluated, along with microbiological testing of the extract. The microbiological test was used to verify the presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, fungi, yeasts, coliforms, and minimum inhibitory concentrations of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus oralis strains. Characterization, microbiological evaluation, and minimum inhibitory concentration results were tabulated and described using descriptive statistics. The L. ferrea extract showed stable characteristics, product quality, and antibacterial activity against the microorganisms tested irrespective of experimental time intervals. According to these results, it can be concluded that formulation of a mouthwash containing L. ferrea extract to control biofilm is feasible, but further studies are needed.Keywords: biofilm, extract, quality control

  16. Electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Chen, Zhiliang; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was inspired by solid-phase microextraction and developed from hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction in 2006 by applying an electric field over the supported liquid membrane (SLM). EME provides rapid extraction, efficient sample clean-up and selectivity based...

  17. Vacuum extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maagaard, Mathilde; Oestergaard, Jeanett; Johansen, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To develop and validate an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scale for vacuum extraction. Design. Two part study design: Primarily, development of a procedure-specific checklist for vacuum extraction. Hereafter, validationof the developed OSATS scale for vacuum...

  18. Pharmacological profile of Caesalpinia bonducella Flem | Ahmed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caesalpiniabonducella Flem. (local name: natalkanta, kutum kanta) isemployed tocure various disorders such as urinary disorders, diarrhoea, dysentery, leucorrhoea, piles, wounds, indolentulcers, skind iseases, leprosy, toothache. The present study was performed to investigate the scientific basis for the traditional uses of ...

  19. EXPANDING EXTRACTIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Erik; Lahr, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we generalize hypothetical extraction techniques. We suggest that the effect of certain economic phenomena can be measured by removing them from an input-output (I-O) table and by rebalancing the set of I-O accounts. The difference between the two sets of accounts yields the

  20. Protein Extractability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    limited to high oleic acid oil and water purification property (Katayon et al., 2006; Foid et al., 2001 and. Folkard et al., 1993), whereas it contains up to. 332.5 g of crude protein per kg of sample (Jose et al., 1999). Studies to characterize the interaction effects of pH and salts on the extraction of. PROTEIN EXTRACTABILITY ...

  1. Enhanced Cutaneous Wound Healing In Vivo by Standardized Crude Extract of Poincianella pluviosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Giacomini Bueno

    Full Text Available Wound healing is a complex process that involves several biological events, and a delay in this process may cause economic and social problems for the patient. The search continues for new alternative treatments to aid healing, including the use of herbal medicines. Members of the genus Caesalpinia are used in traditional medicine to treat wounds. The related species Poincianella pluviosa (DC. L.P. Queiroz increases the cell viability of keratinocytes and fibroblasts and stimulates the proliferation of keratinocytes in vitro. The crude extract (CE from bark of P. pluviosa was evaluated in the wound-healing process in vivo, to validate the traditional use and the in vitro activity. Standardized CE was incorporated into a gel and applied on cutaneous wounds (TCEG and compared with the formulation without CE (Control for 4, 7, 10, or 14 days of treatment. The effects of the CE on wound re-epithelialization; cell proliferation; permeation, using photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS; and proteins, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD-2 and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2 were evaluated. The TCEG stimulated the migration of keratinocytes at day 4 and proliferation on the following days, with a high concentration of cells in metaphase at 7 days. Type I collagen formed more rapidly in the TCEG. PAS showed that the CE had permeated through the skin. TCEG stimulated VEGF at day 4 and SOD-2 and COX-2 at day 7. The results suggest that the CE promoted the regulation of proteins and helped to accelerate the processes involved in healing, promoting early angiogenesis. This led to an increase in the re-epithelialized surface, with significant mitotic activity. Maturation of collagen fibers was also enhanced, which may affect the resistance of the extracellular matrix. PAS indicated a correlation between the rate of diffusion and biological events during the healing process. The CE from P. pluviosa appears promising as an aid in

  2. Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2013-03-19

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  3. Exhaustive extraction of peptides by electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2015-01-01

    This fundamental work illustrates for the first time the possibility of exhaustive extraction of peptides using electromembrane extraction (EME) under low system-current conditions (... 15% (v/v) DEHP was selected as a suitable SLM for exhaustive extraction of peptides under low system-current conditions. Interestingly, increasing the SLM volume from 5 to 10 μL was found to be beneficial for stable and efficient EME. The pH of the sample strongly affected the EME process, and pH 3.......5 was found to be optimal. The EME efficiency was also dependent on the acceptor solution composition, and the extraction time was found to be an important element for exhaustive extraction. When EME was carried out for 25 min with an extraction voltage of 15 V, the system-current across the SLM was less than...

  4. NEPTUNIUM SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, L.R.; Fields, P.R.

    1959-10-01

    The separation of neptunium from an aqueous solution by solvent extraction and the extraction of neptunium from the solvent solution are described. Neptunium is separated from an aqueous solution containing tetravalent or hexavalent neptunium nitrate, nitric acid, and a nitrate salting out agent, such as sodium nitrate, by contacting the solution with an organic solvent such as diethyl ether. Subsequently, the neptunium nitrate is extracted from the organic solvent extract phase with water.

  5. Information extraction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmond, Tracy D; Hanley, William G; Guensche, Joseph Wendell; Perry, Nathan C; Nitao, John J; Kidwell, Paul Brandon; Boakye, Kofi Agyeman; Glaser, Ron E; Prenger, Ryan James

    2014-05-13

    An information extraction system and methods of operating the system are provided. In particular, an information extraction system for performing meta-extraction of named entities of people, organizations, and locations as well as relationships and events from text documents are described herein.

  6. Frequency of orthodontic extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardengo, Camila de S.; Fernandes, Luciana Q. P.; Capelli, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The option of dental extraction for orthodontic purposes has been debated for more than 100 years, including periods when it was widely used in treatment, including the present, during which other methods are used to avoid dental extractions. The objective was to analyze the frequency of tooth extraction treatment performed between 1980 and 2011 at the Orthodontic Clinic of Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ). Material and Methods: The clinical records of 1484 patients undergoing orthodontic treatment were evaluated. The frequency of extractions was evaluated with regard to sex, Angle's classification, the different combinations of extractions and the period when orthodontic treatment began. Chi-square test was used to determine correlations between variables, while the chi-square test for trends was used to assess the frequency of extractions over the years. Results: There was a reduction of approximately 20% in the frequency of cases treated with tooth extraction over the last 32 years. The most frequently extracted teeth were first premolars. Patients with Class I malocclusion showed fewer extractions, while Class II patients underwent a higher number of extraction treatment. There were no statistically significant differences with regard to sex. Conclusion: New features introduced into the orthodontic clinic and new esthetic concepts contributed to reducing the number of cases treated with dental extractions. However, dental extractions for orthodontic purposes are still well indicated in certain cases. PMID:27007762

  7. Extractant Design by Covalency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaunt, Andrew James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Olson, Angela Christine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kozimor, Stosh Anthony [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cross, Justin Neil [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Batista, Enrique Ricardo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Macor, Joe [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Peterman, Dean R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Grimes, Travis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-01-21

    This project aims to provide an electronic structure-to-function understanding of extractants for actinide selective separation processes. The research entails a multi-disciplinary approach that integrates chemical syntheses, structural determination, K-edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS), and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. In FY15, the project reached the final stage of testing the extraction performance of a new ligand design and preparing an americium-extractant complex for analysis.

  8. Extraction of polyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loucif Seiad L.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of certain parameters on efficiency of the extraction of polyphenols from an Algerian tree (Pinus Halepensis Mill. Extraction was conducted in a stirred closed extractor. Our study was conducted to optimize the extraction conditions for total phenolic contents (TPC using Folin Ciocalteu method. A response surface methodology (RSM was launched to investigate the influence of process variables on extraction followed by a composite design (CD approach. The statistical analysis revealed that the optimized conditions were for a temperature of 45°C and for the smallest particles.

  9. EXTRACT OF Vitex simplicifolia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2016-06-01

    Jun 1, 2016 ... HYPOGLYCEMIC AND HYPOLIPID. EXTRACT OF Vitex simplicifolia. Department of Human Physiology, Fa. *Corresponding author: zafa. ABSTRACT. The effects of oral administration and lipid profile levels of alloxan induced conducted with 30 Wister rats, assigned of ethyl acetate leaf extract of Vitex sim.

  10. Plant extraction process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    A method for producing a plant extract comprises incubating a plant material with an enzyme composition comprising a lipolytic enzyme.......A method for producing a plant extract comprises incubating a plant material with an enzyme composition comprising a lipolytic enzyme....

  11. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF NEPTUNIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J.P.

    1958-08-12

    A process is described for the recovery of neptuniunn from dissolver solutions by solvent extraction. The neptunium containing solution should be about 5N, in nitric acid.and about 0.1 M in ferrous ion. The organic extracting agent is tributyl phosphate, and the neptuniunn is recovered from the organic solvent phase by washing with water.

  12. Nano-electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Payán, María D Ramos; Li, Bin; Petersen, Nickolaj J.

    2013-01-01

    The present work has for the first time described nano-electromembrane extraction (nano-EME). In nano-EME, five basic drugs substances were extracted as model analytes from 200 μL acidified sample solution, through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) of 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE......), and into approximately 8 nL phosphate buffer (pH 2.7) as acceptor phase. The driving force for the extraction was an electrical potential sustained over the SLM. The acceptor phase was located inside a fused silica capillary, and this capillary was also used for the final analysis of the acceptor phase by capillary...... as extraction selectivity. Compared with conventional EME, the acceptor phase volume in nano-EME was down-scaled by a factor of more than 1000. This resulted in a very high enrichment capacity. With loperamide as an example, an enrichment factor exceeding 500 was obtained in only 5 min of extraction...

  13. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonke, A.A.

    1957-10-01

    In improved solvent extraction process is described for the extraction of metal values from highly dilute aqueous solutions. The process comprises contacting an aqueous solution with an organic substantially water-immiscible solvent, whereby metal values are taken up by a solvent extract phase; scrubbing the solvent extract phase with an aqueous scrubbing solution; separating an aqueous solution from the scrubbed solvent extract phase; and contacting the scrubbed solvent phase with an aqueous medium whereby the extracted metal values are removed from the solvent phase and taken up by said medium to form a strip solution containing said metal values, the aqueous scrubbing solution being a mixture of strip solution and an aqueous solution which contains mineral acids anions and is free of the metal values. The process is particularly effective for purifying uranium, where one starts with impure aqueous uranyl nitrate, extracts with tributyl phosphate dissolved in carbon tetrachloride, scrubs with aqueous nitric acid and employs water to strip the uranium from the scrubbed organic phase.

  14. Étude ethnobotanique et screening phytochimique de Caesalpinia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrateur

    Yves-Alain BÉKRO1*, Janat A. MAMYRBEKOVA BÉKRO1, Boua B. BOUA1, Fézan H. TRA BI2 & Ehouan E. ÉHILÉ2. 1Laboratoire de Chimie Bioorganique et de ... extraits bruts des racines de Cb a révélé qu'elles renferment des stérols, polyterpènes, flavonoïdes, saponines, tannins, sucres réducteurs, coumarines et des ...

  15. Étude ethnobotanique et screening phytochimique de Caesalpinia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    En effet, sur les quinze (15) espèces de plantes médicinales (réparties entre 14 familles) utilisées pour le traitement de diverses pathologies liées aux troubles de ... extraits bruts des racines de Cb a révélé qu\\'elles renferment des stérols, polyterpènes, flavonoïdes, saponines, tannins, sucres réducteurs, coumarines et des ...

  16. Does Caesalpinia bonducella ameliorate genotoxicity? An in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Md. Sultan Ahmad

    2013-06-10

    Jun 10, 2013 ... intermittent fevers, and for expelling intestinal worms. In Cey- lon, they are applied for toothache, ... chromosomal damage at metaphase stage gives a more precise and detailed picture of the clastogenic ... Utmost care was taken to avoid a cut across the esophagus or the intestine, which could otherwise ...

  17. ENRAIZAMENTO DE ESTACAS DE CAESALPINIA ECHINATA LAM. EM HIDROPONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Valiengo Valeri

    2012-01-01

    ethanol solution containing 0, 1000, 3000 and 5000 mg L-1 of IBA during 5 seconds. The cuttings were maintained in the hydroponic system for 90 days and, for additional 90 days in plastic bags containing substrate (Plantmax® under intermittent mist. After 90 and 180 days of rooting, the percentage of cuttings that survived, the rooting percentage and the number and length of adventious root were evaluated. Cuttings should be treated with IBA at 100 mg L-1 for 14 hours and placed to root in a hydroponic system.

  18. Multimedia Information Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Maybury, Mark T

    2012-01-01

    The advent of increasingly large consumer collections of audio (e.g., iTunes), imagery (e.g., Flickr), and video (e.g., YouTube) is driving a need not only for multimedia retrieval but also information extraction from and across media. Furthermore, industrial and government collections fuel requirements for stock media access, media preservation, broadcast news retrieval, identity management, and video surveillance.  While significant advances have been made in language processing for information extraction from unstructured multilingual text and extraction of objects from imagery and vid

  19. Grape Seed Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... seeds, which are by-products of the wine industry. Grape seed extract is available in capsules and ... take anticoagulants (blood thinners), such as warfarin or aspirin. Keep in Mind Tell all your health care ...

  20. Extraction of cyanobacterial endotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, John; Linke, Thomas A; Kapralos, Con; Nicholson, Brenton C; Steffensen, Dennis A

    2004-02-01

    To simplify our efforts in acquiring toxicological information on endotoxins produced by cyanobacteria, a method development study was undertaken to identify relatively hazard-free and efficient procedures for their extraction. One article sourced and two novel methods were evaluated for their ability to extract lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) or endotoxins from cyanobacteria. The Limulus polyphemus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) assay was employed to compare the performance of a novel method utilizing a 1-butanol-water (HBW) solvent system to that of Westphal's (1965) phenol-water system (HPW) for the extraction of endotoxin from various cyanobacteria. The traditional HPW method extracted from 3- to 12-fold more endotoxin from six different cyanobacterial blooms and culture materials than did the novel HBW method. In direct contrast, the novel HBW method extracted ninefold more endotoxin from a non-microcystin producing Microcystis aeruginosa culture as compared to the HPW method. A solvent system utilizing N,N'-dimethylformamide-water (HDW) was compared to both the HPW and HBW methods for the extraction of endotoxin from natural samples of Anabaena circinalis, Microcystis flos-aquae, and a 1:1 mixture of Microcystis aeruginosa/Microcystisflos-aquae. The LAL activities of these extracts showed that the novel HDW method extracted two- and threefold more endotoxin from the Anabaena sample that did the HBW and HPW methods, respectively. The HDW method also extracted approximately 1.5-fold more endotoxin from the Microcystis flos-aquae sample as compared to both the HBW and HPW methods. On the other hand, the HBW method extracted 2- and 14-fold more endotoxin from the Microcystis flos-aquae/Microcystis aeruginosa mixture than did the HPW and HDW methods, respectively. Results of this study demonstrate that significant disparities exist between the physicochemical properties of the cell wall constituents not only of different cyanobacterial species but also of different strains of

  1. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF RUTHENIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, H.H.; Leader, G.R.

    1959-07-14

    The separation of rathenium from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction is described. According to the invention, a nitrite selected from the group consisting of alkali nitrite and alkaline earth nitrite in an equimolecular quantity with regard to the quantity of rathenium present is added to an aqueous solution containing ruthenium tetrantrate to form a ruthenium complex. Adding an organic solvent such as ethyl ether to the resulting mixture selectively extracts the rathenium complex.

  2. NLC Extraction Line Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Nosochkov, Y. M.; Raubenheimer, T. O.

    2001-01-01

    In this note, we briefly review the current lattice of the NLC extraction line which was designed for the nominal NLC beam parameters. Then we describe the beam parameters for the high luminosity option with larger beam disruption parameter and discuss its effect on beam loss in the extraction line. Finally, we present a summary of the optics study aimed at minimizing the beam loss with high disruption beams.

  3. Asymmetric extractions in orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Aquino Melgaço

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Extraction decisions are extremely important in during treatment planning. In addition to the extraction decision orthodontists have to choose what tooth should be extracted for the best solution of the problem and the esthetic/functional benefit of the patient. OBJECTIVE: This article aims at reviewing the literature relating the advantages, disadvantages and clinical implications of asymmetric extractions to orthodontics. METHODS: Keywords were selected in English and Portuguese and the EndNote 9 program was used for data base search in PubMed, Web of Science (WSc and LILACS. The selected articles were case reports, original articles and prospective or retrospective case-control studies concerning asymmetrical extractions of permanent teeth for the treatment of malocclusions. CONCLUSION: According to the literature reviewed asymmetric extractions can make some specific treatment mechanics easier. Cases finished with first permanent molars in Class II or III relationship in one or both sides seem not to cause esthetic or functional problems. However, diagnosis knowledge and mechanics control are essential for treatment success.

  4. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction: Effect of Extraction Time and Solvent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the influence of extraction conditions assisted by ultrasound on the quality of extracts obtained from Mesembryanthemum edule shoots. Methods: The extraction procedure was carried out in an ultrasonic bath. The effect of two solvents (methanol and ethanol) and two extraction times (5 and 10 min) ...

  5. Determination of Lipophilic Extractives in Ionic Liquid Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of Lipophilic Extractives in Ionic Liquid Extracts of Eucalyptus Pulp by Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry. ... The effect of temperature of the added precipitating solvent during cellulose regeneration on the recovery of extractives was also studied. Recovery of extractives increased with increasing ...

  6. Isoflavones hydrolisis and extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozilene Fernandes Farias dos Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones are found in leguminous species and are used as phytoestrogens widely used by industry for its beneficial effects as estrogens mimicked, antioxidant action and anti-cancer activity. The identification and quantification of isoflavones in plants is a need due to the high demand of industry. Several methods are used for its extraction, using organic solvents (methanol, ethanol and acetonitrile. Samples from five legumes species from Instituto de Zootecnia (IZ, Forage Gene Bank were tested. All seeds received a hydrothermic treatment immersed in pure water at 50°C for 12 hours. Seeds were then oven-dryed. In this work we tested the extraction using only the hydrothermic treatment and hyfrothermic treatment allied to methanol extaction protocol. Seeds were grinded and half of the samples were ressuspended in PBS (phosphate Buffer and the other half were submited to 4 mL of methanol and 1% of acetic acid, soaked for 5 hours, shaked every 15 minutes, at room temperature. The five legume species that we quantify isoflavones by enzyme immunoassay (EIA were: Calopogonium mucunoides, Bauhinia sp., Cajanus cajan, Galactia martii, Leucaena leucocephala. The extraction procedure is a recomendation of AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists for isoflavone quantification. Ours results show an increase of extraction using methanol 80% plus acetic acid 1% and was obtained using solvent extraction in comparison to hydrothermic procedure alone (figure 1.

  7. Extraction with supercritical gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D.F.

    1981-01-01

    Extraction with compressed fluids in the critical region is discussed in terms of the marked effect on solvent properties that can be brought about by small changes in pressure or temperature. The theoretical background and experimental data are described, including the classification of the phase behaviour of binary systems. A number of application studies are quoted, and comparison is made with liquid solvent extraction and distillation. Apart from such topics as the breaking of azeotropes, the main area of study is in performing separations on the basis of volatility where the general level of volatility is low. In the field of natural products these include the removal of undesirable substances such as caffeine and nicotine and the isolation of valuable constituents such as food essences and drugs. For fossil fuels, applications are described in enhanced oil recovery, fractionation of heavy petroleum liquids and extraction of liquids from coal.

  8. Genotoxicity of plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera M. F. Vargas

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extracts of seven species used in Brazilian popular medicine (Achyrocline satureoides, Iodina rhombifolia, Desmodium incanum, Baccharis anomala, Tibouchina asperior, Luehea divaricata, Maytenus ilicifolia were screened to the presence of mutagenic activity in the Ames test (Salmonella/microsome. Positive results were obtained for A. satureoides, B anomala and L. divaricata with microsomal activation. As shown elsewhere (Vargas et al., 1990 the metabolites of A. satureoides extract also show the capacity to induce prophage and/or SOS response in microscreen phage induction assay and SOS spot chromotest.

  9. Extraction Methods, Variability Encountered in

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodelier, P.L.E.; Nelson, K.E.

    2014-01-01

    Synonyms Bias in DNA extractions methods; Variation in DNA extraction methods Definition The variability in extraction methods is defined as differences in quality and quantity of DNA observed using various extraction protocols, leading to differences in outcome of microbial community composition

  10. Extract of Acanthospermum hispidum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Extract of Acanthospermum hispidum. *Chika A, Onyebueke D.C and Bello S.O. aDepartment of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Health Sciences,. Usmanu Danfodiyo University. Sokoto, Nigeria. ABSTRACT. The current study is aimed at investigating the antidiabetic activity of the leaves of Acanthospermum ...

  11. CARICA PAPAYA EXTRACTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Powdered leaves of Carica papaya (L.) were extracted with ethanol and ... isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas species ... fractions were inactive against P. aeruginosa at all concentrations used in ..... Food. Chem. 51:5579-5597. Sofowora, A. (1993): Medicinal plants and ...

  12. SPS extraction systems

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1973-01-01

    One of the 3-m long electrostatics septa. The septum itself consists of 0.15 mm thick molybdenum wires with a 1.5 mm pitch. Each of the two SPS extraction systems will contain four of these electrostatic septa.

  13. LEAR: antiproton extraction lines

    CERN Document Server

    Photographic Service

    1992-01-01

    Antiprotons, decelerated in LEAR to a momentum of 100 MeV/c (kinetic energy of 5.3 MeV), were delivered to the experiments in an "Ultra-Slow Extraction", dispensing some 1E9 antiprotons over times counted in hours. Beam-splitters and a multitude of beam-lines allowed several users to be supplied simultaneously.

  14. EXTRACAPSULAR CATARACT EXTRACTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cataract is the leading cause of blindness in leprosy patients. Sight restoration to blind leprosy patients prevents them from injuring their anaesthetic limbs. The visual outcome and complications of extracapsular cataract extraction with intraocular lens implant in 42 leprosy and 91 non-leprosy patients were compared.

  15. URANIUM SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, C.D.

    1959-09-01

    A method is given for extracting uranium values from ores of high phosphate content consisting of dissolving them in aqueous nitric acid, adjusting the concentration of the aqueous solution to about 2 M with respect to nitric acid, and then contacting it with diethyl ether which has previously been made 1 M with respect to nitric acid.

  16. SPS slow extraction septa

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    SPS long straight section (LSS) with a series of 5 septum tanks for slow extraction (view in the direction of the proton beam). There are 2 of these: in LSS2, towards the N-Area; in LSS6 towards the W-Area. See also Annual Report 1975, p.175.

  17. ALTERNANTHERA NODIFLORA EXTRACTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2013-12-02

    Dec 2, 2013 ... concentrations (100mg/ml, 75mg/ml, 50mg/ml and 25mg/ml) of both extracts were determined ... of the powdered plant sample was soaked in 100ml of methanol for the same 24hours at room temperature with occasional stirring. The content was .... To the above solution 2 drops of olive oil was added.

  18. Extraction of plant secondary metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, William P; Kinghorn, A Douglas

    2012-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of the preparation of extracts from plants using organic solvents, with emphasis on common problems encountered and methods for their reduction or elimination. In addition to generally applicable extraction protocols, methods are suggested for selectively extracting specific classes of plant-derived compounds, and phytochemical procedures are presented for the detection of classes of compounds encountered commonly during extraction, including selected groups of secondary metabolites and interfering compounds. Successful extraction begins with careful selection and preparation of plant samples and thorough review of the appropriate literature for suitable protocols for a particular class of compounds or plant species. During the extraction of plant material, it is important to minimize interference from compounds that may co-extract with the target compounds, and to avoid contamination of the extract, as well as to prevent decomposition of important metabolites or artifact formation as a result of extraction conditions or solvent impurities.

  19. Extractable Work from Correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martí Perarnau-Llobet

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Work and quantum correlations are two fundamental resources in thermodynamics and quantum information theory. In this work, we study how to use correlations among quantum systems to optimally store work. We analyze this question for isolated quantum ensembles, where the work can be naturally divided into two contributions: a local contribution from each system and a global contribution originating from correlations among systems. We focus on the latter and consider quantum systems that are locally thermal, thus from which any extractable work can only come from correlations. We compute the maximum extractable work for general entangled states, separable states, and states with fixed entropy. Our results show that while entanglement gives an advantage for small quantum ensembles, this gain vanishes for a large number of systems.

  20. Automated Water Extraction Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyisa, Gudina Legese; Meilby, Henrik; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    . We tested the accuracy and robustness of the new method using Landsat 5 TM images of several water bodies in Denmark, Switzerland, Ethiopia, South Africa and New Zealand. Kappa coefficient, omission and commission errors were calculated to evaluate accuracies. The performance of the classifier...... of various sorts of environmental noise and at the same time offers a stable threshold value. Thus we introduced a new Automated Water Extraction Index (AWEI) improving classification accuracy in areas that include shadow and dark surfaces that other classification methods often fail to classify correctly...... and omission errors by 50% compared to those resulting from MNDWI and about 25% compared to ML classifiers. Besides, the new method was shown to have a fairly stable optimal threshold value. Therefore, AWEI can be used for extracting water with high accuracy, especially in mountainous areas where deep shadow...

  1. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction: Effect of Extraction Time and Solvent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    activity by methanol and ethanol extracts of. Mesembryanthemum edule shoots after 5 and 10 min of sonication (n = 3, p< 0.05). DISCUSSION. Phenolic content and antioxidant capacities of plant extracts largely depend on extraction conditions and compositions [12]. Antioxidant molecules and capacities are influenced by.

  2. Ancient DNA extraction from plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Logan

    2012-01-01

    A variety of protocols for DNA extraction from archaeological and paleobotanical plant specimens have been proposed. This is not surprising given the range of taxa and tissue types that may be preserved and the variety of conditions in which that preservation may take place. Commercially available DNA extraction kits can be used to recover ancient plant DNA, but modifications to standard approaches are often necessary to improve yield. In this chapter, I describe two protocols for extracting DNA from small amounts of ancient plant tissue. The CTAB protocol, which I recommend for use with single seeds, utilizes an incubation period in extraction buffer and subsequent chloroform extraction followed by DNA purification and suspension. The PTB protocol, which I recommend for use with gourd rind and similar tissues, utilizes an overnight incubation of pulverized tissue in extraction buffer, removal of the tissue by centrifugation, and DNA extraction from the buffer using commercial plant DNA extraction kits.

  3. Dynamics of Agricultural Groundwater Extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Zilberman, D.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural shallow groundwater extraction can result in desiccation of neighbouring nature reserves and degradation of groundwater quality in the Netherlands, whereas both externalities are often not considered when agricultural groundwater extraction patterns are being determined. A model is

  4. Contact dermatitis to botanical extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiken, David A; Cohen, David E

    2002-09-01

    A review of the literature of reported cases of contact dermatitis to a variety of natural herbal extracts is Presented. Natural extracts are commonly used ingredients in many cosmetic preparations and homeopathic remedies. Although the term natural botanical extracts inherently purports to have beneficial and benign properties, these extracts can cause adverse reactions in individuals. As such, dermatologists should be cognizant of these agents as possible sources of allergenicity in patients presenting with contact dermatitis. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  5. DYNAMICS OF AGRICULTURAL GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Hellegers, Petra J.G.J.; Zilberman, David; van Ierland, Ekko C.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural shallow groundwater extraction can result in desiccation of neighbouring nature reserves and degradation of groundwater quality in the Netherlands, whereas both externalities are often not considered when agricultural groundwater extraction patterns are being determined. A model is developed to study socially optimal agricultural shallow groundwater extraction patterns. It shows the importance of stock size to slow down changes in groundwater quality.

  6. AGRICULTURAL USES OF SEAWEEDS EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Popescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine bioactive substances extracted from seaweed are currently used in food, animal feed, as a raw material in the industry and have therapeutic applications. Most of the products based on marine algae are extracted from Brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum. The use of extracts of seaweed in agriculture is beneficial because the amount of chemical fertilizers and obtaining organic yield.

  7. AGRICULTURAL USES OF SEAWEEDS EXTRACTS

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Popescu

    2013-01-01

    Marine bioactive substances extracted from seaweed are currently used in food, animal feed, as a raw material in the industry and have therapeutic applications. Most of the products based on marine algae are extracted from Brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum. The use of extracts of seaweed in agriculture is beneficial because the amount of chemical fertilizers and obtaining organic yield.

  8. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF URANIUM VALUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, H.M.; Ader, M.; Ross, L.E.

    1959-02-01

    A process is presented for extracting uranium salt from aqueous acidic solutions by organic solvent extraction. It consists in contacting the uranium bearing solution with a water immiscible dialkylacetamide having at least 8 carbon atoms in the molecule. Mentioned as a preferred extractant is dibutylacetamide. The organic solvent is usually used with a diluent such as kerosene or CCl/sub 4/.

  9. Challenges in Managing Information Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Warren H.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation studies information extraction (IE), the problem of extracting structured information from unstructured data. Example IE tasks include extracting person names from news articles, product information from e-commerce Web pages, street addresses from emails, and names of emerging music bands from blogs. IE is all increasingly…

  10. Fission product solvent extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, B.A.; Bonnesen, P.V.; Sachleben, R.A. [and others

    1998-02-01

    Two main objectives concerning removal of fission products from high-level tank wastes will be accomplished in this project. The first objective entails the development of an acid-side Cs solvent-extraction (SX) process applicable to remediation of the sodium-bearing waste (SBW) and dissolved calcine waste (DCW) at INEEL. The second objective is to develop alkaline-side SX processes for the combined removal of Tc, Cs, and possibly Sr and for individual separation of Tc (alone or together with Sr) and Cs. These alkaline-side processes apply to tank wastes stored at Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge. This work exploits the useful properties of crown ethers and calixarenes and has shown that such compounds may be economically adapted to practical processing conditions. Potential benefits for both acid- and alkaline-side processing include order-of-magnitude concentration factors, high rejection of bulk sodium and potassium salts, and stripping with dilute (typically 10 mM) nitric acid. These benefits minimize the subsequent burden on the very expensive vitrification and storage of the high-activity waste. In the case of the SRTALK process for Tc extraction as pertechnetate anion from alkaline waste, such benefits have now been proven at the scale of a 12-stage flowsheet tested in 2-cm centrifugal contactors with a Hanford supernatant waste simulant. SRTALK employs a crown ether in a TBP-modified aliphatic kerosene diluent, is economically competitive with other applicable separation processes being considered, and has been successfully tested in batch extraction of actual Hanford double-shell slurry feed (DSSF).

  11. Microwave extraction of bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Blekić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Microwave extraction presents novel extraction and treatment method for food processing. In paper, several examples of microwave extraction of bioactive compounds are presented. Also, novel innovative equipment for microwave extraction and hydrodiffusion with gravitation is presented. Advantage of using novel equipment for microwave extraction is shown, and it include, shorter treatment time, less usage or without any solvent use. Novel method is compared to standard extraction methods. Some positive and negative aspects of microwave heating can be observed, and also its influence on development of oxidation in sunflower oil subjected to microwave heating. Also, use of microwaves for the extraction of essential oils is shown. One can also see the advantages of solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from aromatic herbs in comparison with the standard extraction, and determination of antioxidant components in rice bran oil extracted by microwave-assisted method. Comparison of microwave and ultrasound extraction, as well as positive and negative aspects of the combination of microwaves and ultrasound is described.

  12. Extraction and elemental analysis of Coleus forskohlii extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanne, Haritha; Burte, Narayan Pandurang; Prasanna, V; Gujjula, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Coleus forskohlii Willd. is a popular traditional medicine used since ancient times for treatment of heart diseases, abdominal colic and respiratory disorders. The aim of this study was to characterize the root extract of the medicinal plant Coleus forskohlii. Dry roots of C. forskohlii were used to extract Forskolin using toluene as a solvent. Thus, obtained extract of C. forskohlii was standardized to 30% and used for further studies. The physical properties of the extract were analyzed through scanning electron microscopy analysis, while the characterization of root extract through X-ray diffraction (XRD) and element analysis. The morphological feature of the C. forskohlii extract showed a flake like structure and the XRD showed sulfur trioxide (SO3) and trimer of sulfur trioxide (S3 O9). Through element analysis, elements such as carbon, oxygen, magnesium, aluminum, silicon, phosphorous, and sulfur were identified. Carbon showed the highest weight of 75.49% in comparison to all other elements.

  13. Oxygen Extraction from Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen, whether used as part of rocket bipropellant or for astronaut life support, is a key consumable for space exploration and commercialization. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) has been proposed many times as a method for making space exploration more cost effective and sustainable. On planetary and asteroid surfaces the presence of minerals in the regolith that contain oxygen is very common, making them a potential oxygen resource. The majority of research and development for oxygen extraction from minerals has been for lunar regolith although this work would generally be applicable to regolith at other locations in space. This presentation will briefly survey the major methods investigated for oxygen extraction from regolith with a focus on the current status of those methods and possible future development pathways. The major oxygen production methods are (1) extraction from lunar ilmenite (FeTiO3) with either hydrogen or carbon monoxide, (2) carbothermal reduction of iron oxides and silicates with methane, and (3) molten regolith electrolysis (MRE) of silicates. Methods (1) and (2) have also been investigated in a two-step process using CO reduction and carbon deposition followed by carbothermal reduction. All three processes have byproducts that could also be used as resources. Hydrogen or carbon monoxide reduction produce iron metal in small amounts that could potentially be used as construction material. Carbothermal reduction also makes iron metal along with silicon metal and a glass with possible applications. MRE produces iron, silicon, aluminum, titanium, and glass, with higher silicon yields than carbothermal reduction. On Mars and possibly on some moons and asteroids, water is present in the form of mineral hydrates, hydroxyl (-OH) groups on minerals, andor water adsorbed on mineral surfaces. Heating of the minerals can liberate the water which can be electrolyzed to provide a source of oxygen as well. The chemistry of these processes, some key

  14. Producing ashless coal extracts by microwave irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozgur Sonmez; Elife Sultan Giray [Mersin University, Mersin (Turkey). Department of Chemistry

    2011-06-15

    To produce ashless coal extracts, three Turkish coals were extracted with N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP), NMP/ethylenediamine (EDA) (17/1, vol/vol) mixture and NMP/tetralin (9/1, vol/vol) mixture through thermal extraction and microwave extraction. Solvent extraction by microwave irradiation (MI) was found to be more effective than that by thermal extraction. Extraction yield of coals in NMP enhanced by addition of a little EDA, but tetralin addition showed variances according to extraction method used. While tetralin addition caused a decrease in the thermal extraction yield, it increased the yield of the extraction by MI. Following the extraction, the solid extracts were produced with ash content ranging from 0.11% to 1.1%. Ash content of solid extract obtained from microwave extraction are less than ash contents of solid extracts obtained from thermal extraction. 34 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Metadata Extraction and Search Interfaces - Specification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demidova, Elena; Zenz, Gideon; Olmedilla, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The Metadata Extraction and Search Interfaces offer a framework which allows for crawling specific knowledge resources and extraction their metadata. Furthermore, extracted metadata can be made persistently available for search using Metadata Extraction Listener and Search Interfaces of the

  16. Evaluation of the toxicological profile of the leaves and young twigs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute and sub-acute toxicological effects of ethanolic extract of the leaves and young twigs of Caesalpinia bonduc were carried out on albino rats. Single extract doses from 2000 to 5000 mg/kg body weight were administered orally and monitored for 14 days in acute study, while extract doses from 200 to 1600 mg/kg body ...

  17. Extraction chromatography: Progress and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bond, A.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.

    1997-10-01

    Extraction chromatography provides a simple and effective method for the analytical and preparative-scale separation of a variety of metal ions. Recent advances in extractant design, particularly the development of extractants capable of metal ion recognition or of strong complex formation in highly acidic media, have significantly improved the utility of the technique. Advances in support design, most notably the introduction of functionalized supports to enhance metal ion retention, promise to yield further improvements. Column instability remains a significant obstacle, however, to the process-scale application of extraction chromatography. 79 refs.

  18. ANTHOCYANINS ALIPHATIC ALCOHOLS EXTRACTION FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Savvin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins red pigments that give color a wide range of fruits, berries and flowers. In the food industry it is widely known as a dye a food additive E163. To extract from natural vegetable raw materials traditionally used ethanol or acidified water, but in same technologies it’s unacceptable. In order to expand the use of anthocyanins as colorants and antioxidants were explored extracting pigments alcohols with different structures of the carbon skeleton, and the position and number of hydroxyl groups. For the isolation anthocyanins raw materials were extracted sequentially twice with t = 60 C for 1.5 hours. The evaluation was performed using extracts of classical spectrophotometric methods and modern express chromaticity. Color black currant extracts depends on the length of the carbon skeleton and position of the hydroxyl group, with the alcohols of normal structure have higher alcohols compared to the isomeric structure of the optical density and index of the red color component. This is due to the different ability to form hydrogen bonds when allocating anthocyanins and other intermolecular interactions. During storage blackcurrant extracts are significant structural changes recoverable pigments, which leads to a significant change in color. In this variation, the stronger the higher the length of the carbon skeleton and branched molecules extractant. Extraction polyols (ethyleneglycol, glycerol are less effective than the corresponding monohydric alcohols. However these extracts saved significantly higher because of their reducing ability at interacting with polyphenolic compounds.

  19. Salt effects in electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seip, Knut Fredrik; Jensen, Henrik; Kieu, Thanh Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was performed on samples containing substantial amounts of NaCl to investigate how the presence of salts affected the recovery, repeatability, and membrane current in the extraction system. A group of 17 non-polar basic drugs with various physical chemical...... this loss and the physical chemical properties of these substances was seen. The recovery loss was hypothesized to be caused by ion pairing in the SLM, and a mathematical model for the extraction recovery in the presence of salts was made according to the experimental observations. Some variations...... improves the theoretical understanding of the extraction process, and can contribute to the future development and optimization of the technique....

  20. New extraction technique for alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djilani Abdelouaheb

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of extraction of natural products has been developed. Compared with existing methods, the new technique is rapid, more efficient and consumes less solvent. Extraction of alkaloids from natural products such as Hyoscyamus muticus, Datura stramonium and Ruta graveolens consists of the use of a sonicated solution containing a surfactant as extracting agent. The alkaloids are precipitated by Mayer reagent, dissolved in an alkaline solution, and then extracted with chloroform. This article compares the results obtained with other methods showing clearly the advantages of the new method.

  1. determination of lipophilic extractives in ionic liquid extracts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    EXTRACTS OF EUCALYPTUS PULP BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY - ... Key words: Dissolving pulp, Extractives, Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, Green .... regeneration of the cellulose the samples were filtered while hot using glass fibre filters. Then, the retained cellulose on the filter paper was washed using 5 ...

  2. Accuracy of nimodipine gel extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyler, Douglas R; Stump, Sarah E; Cook, Aaron M

    2015-02-01

    Until recently, use of nimodipine in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients unable to swallow required extraction of gel from inside the commercially available capsule. Despite the Black-Box warning against inadvertent intravenous administration, bedside extraction of the gel from the capsule continues to be a common practice in some institutions. The accuracy of bedside extraction has not been formally evaluated. Twenty-eight nurses from the neurology and neurosurgical ICUs at a single center attempted to extract nimodipine gel from 2 capsules, each using the method currently approved by the US FDA. The primary outcome was mean weight of extracted gel per capsule, which was compared to both gel weight from batch compounded pharmacy syringes and a pre-calculated appropriate weight for 30 mg nimodipine gel. Simulated bedside extraction provided lower yield than pharmacy-compounded syringes (22.6 ± 4.6 mg vs 30.4 ± 0.59 mg, p = 0.001). Bedside extraction provided inconsistent and low yield (75.4 ± 15.32 % of possible dose extracted, p = 0.0001 for comparison of means between bedside extraction syringes and predicted gel weight). Pharmacy-compounded syringes provided consistent high yield (101.3 ± 2.0 % of possible dose extracted, p = 0.14 for comparison of means between pharmacy syringes and predicted gel weight). Combined with reports of significant patient harm and death with inadvertent intravenous administration, this study suggests that there is no role for bedside extraction of nimodipine in clinical practice.

  3. Nonlocal Intracranial Cavity Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjón, José V.; Eskildsen, Simon F.; Coupé, Pierrick; Romero, José E.; Collins, D. Louis; Robles, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Automatic and accurate methods to estimate normalized regional brain volumes from MRI data are valuable tools which may help to obtain an objective diagnosis and followup of many neurological diseases. To estimate such regional brain volumes, the intracranial cavity volume (ICV) is often used for normalization. However, the high variability of brain shape and size due to normal intersubject variability, normal changes occurring over the lifespan, and abnormal changes due to disease makes the ICV estimation problem challenging. In this paper, we present a new approach to perform ICV extraction based on the use of a library of prelabeled brain images to capture the large variability of brain shapes. To this end, an improved nonlocal label fusion scheme based on BEaST technique is proposed to increase the accuracy of the ICV estimation. The proposed method is compared with recent state-of-the-art methods and the results demonstrate an improved performance both in terms of accuracy and reproducibility while maintaining a reduced computational burden. PMID:25328511

  4. Effect of soybean extract after tooth extraction on osteoblast numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Sharon Suhono

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many researches were done to find natural materials that may increase and promote bone healing processes after trauma and surgery. One of natural material that had been studied was soybean extract which contains phytoestrogen, a non-steroidal compounds found in plants that may binds to estrogen receptors and have estrogen-like activity. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of soybean extract feeding on the number of osteoblast cells in alveolar bone socket after mandibular tooth extraction. Methods: This study was studied on male Rattus norvegicus strain Wistar. Seventeen rats divided into three groups were used in this study. Group 1 fed with carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC solution 0,2% for seven days, and the left mandibular central incisivus was extracted; group 2 fed with soybean extract for seven days and the left mandibular central incisives was extracted; group 3 received the left mandibular central incisives extraction followed by soybean extract feeding for seven days after the extraction. All groups were sacrificed on the seventh day post-extraction, and the alveolar bone sockets were taken for histopathological observation. The tissues were processed and stained using hematoxylin and eosin to identify the amount of osteoblast cells. The number of osteoblast cells was counted using an Image Tool program. The data was analyzed statistically using the One-Way ANOVA test. Results: Significant differences were found on the number of osteoblast cells in alveolar bone after tooth extraction between groups. Group 2 (fed with soybean extract is higher than group 1 (fed with CMC and group 3 (fed with soybean extract after extraction. Conclusion: Soybean extract feeding that given for seven days pre-tooth extraction can increase the number of osteoblast cells compared with the group that were not given soybean extract feeding and also with the group that were given soybean extract feeding for seven days post

  5. ACTIVITIES OF ACACIA NILOTICA EXTRACTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Recophin was used against Escherischia coli,. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes and Shigella dysenteriae. Ethanol and chloroform/water extracts of. Acacia nilotica stem bark appear to have the highest antibacterial activities on the bacterial isolates tested, followed by methanol and ethyl acetate extracts ...

  6. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H.H.; Asprey, L.B.

    1960-02-01

    A process of separating plutonium in at least the tetravalent state from fission products contained in an aqueous acidic solution by extraction with alkyl phosphate is reported. The plutonium can then be back-extracted from the organic phase by contact with an aqueous solution of sulfuric, phosphoric, or oxalic acid as a complexing agent.

  7. Sterilization of Extracted Human Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantera, Eugene A., Jr.; Schuster, George S.

    1990-01-01

    At present, there is no specific recommendation for sterilization of extracted human teeth used in dental technique courses. The purpose of this study was to determine whether autoclaving would be effective in the sterilization of extracted teeth without compromising the characteristics that make their use in clinical simulations desirable. (MLW)

  8. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstad, Astrid; Rasmussen, Knut Einar; Parmer, Marthe Petrine

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports development of a new approach towards analytical liquid-liquid-liquid membrane extraction termed parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction. A donor plate and acceptor plate create a sandwich, in which each sample (human plasma) and acceptor solution is separated by an arti......This paper reports development of a new approach towards analytical liquid-liquid-liquid membrane extraction termed parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction. A donor plate and acceptor plate create a sandwich, in which each sample (human plasma) and acceptor solution is separated...... by an artificial liquid membrane. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction is a modification of hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction, where the hollow fibers are replaced by flat membranes in a 96-well plate format....

  9. ACCELERATED SOLVENT EXTRACTION COMBINED WITH ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A research project was initiated to address a recurring problem of elevated detection limits above required risk-based concentrations for the determination of semivolatile organic compounds in high moisture content solid samples. This project was initiated, in cooperation with the EPA Region 1 Laboratory, under the Regional Methods Program administered through the ORD Office of Science Policy. The aim of the project was to develop an approach for the rapid removal of water in high moisture content solids (e.g., wetland sediments) in preparation for analysis via Method 8270. Alternative methods for water removal have been investigated to enhance compound solid concentrations and improve extraction efficiency, with the use of pressure filtration providing a high-throughput alternative for removal of the majority of free water in sediments and sludges. In order to eliminate problems with phase separation during extraction of solids using Accelerated Solvent Extraction, a variation of a water-isopropanol extraction method developed at the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory in Denver, CO is being employed. The concentrations of target compounds in water-isopropanol extraction fluids are subsequently analyzed using an automated Solid Phase Extraction (SPE)-GC/MS method developed in our laboratory. The coupled approaches for dewatering, extraction, and target compound identification-quantitation provide a useful alternative to enhance sample throughput for Me

  10. Microaesthetics of The Smile: Extraction vs. Non-extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauheed, Sanam; Shaikh, Attiya; Fida, Mubassar

    2012-04-01

    To compare microaesthetics in pre- and post-orthodontic cases, treated with non-extraction and extraction treatment and assessed whether the achieved microaesthetic parameters are comparable to the proposed norms. Quasi-experimental study. Orthodontic Clinic, the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from January 2005 to December 2009. Orthodontic records of 31 cases treated with non-extraction therapy and 26 cases treated with extraction of upper first premolars were selected. Patients were of Pakistani origin, aged between 12 to 30 years. Microaesthetics was assessed by measuring maxillary central incisor crown width-height ratio, connectors between the maxillary anterior sextant, gingival zenith level of the maxillary lateral incisor and golden percentage of the anterior teeth using the patients' plaster models and intraoral frontal photographs. Measurements of the golden percentage were made using the software Adobe Photoshop, whereas all other parameters were measured on the plaster casts using a digital vernier caliper. Paired t-test, independent t-test and one sample t-test were used to make comparisons within the groups, between the groups, and to compare the posttreatment values with the proposed norms, respectively. Statistical significance level was set at p ² 0.05. A statistically significant improvement in the microaesthetic parameters was observed for both extraction and non-extraction subjects (p < 0.05) after orthodontic treatment. Values closer to the proposed norms were achieved more readily in the non-extraction group. Microaesthetics of the smile is improved with orthodontic treatment. It is recommended that greater consideration be given to the microaesthetic parameters of the smile during the finishing stages particularly when utilizing extraction mechanics during orthodontic treatment.

  11. Influence of Extraction Parameters on Hydroalcohol Extracts of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A 33 factorial design was used to evaluate the influence of alcohol concentration (50, 70 and 90 % v/v), extraction time (2, 6 and 10 h), and particle size of the herbal drug (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mm) on the pH, dry residue and myrsinoic acid B (MAB) content of hydroalcoholic extracts by high performance liquid ...

  12. Extraction, isolation and characterization of bioactive compounds from plants' extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidharan, S; Chen, Y; Saravanan, D; Sundram, K M; Yoga Latha, L

    2011-01-01

    Natural products from medicinal plants, either as pure compounds or as standardized extracts, provide unlimited opportunities for new drug leads because of the unmatched availability of chemical diversity. Due to an increasing demand for chemical diversity in screening programs, seeking therapeutic drugs from natural products, interest particularly in edible plants has grown throughout the world. Botanicals and herbal preparations for medicinal usage contain various types of bioactive compounds. The focus of this paper is on the analytical methodologies, which include the extraction, isolation and characterization of active ingredients in botanicals and herbal preparations. The common problems and key challenges in the extraction, isolation and characterization of active ingredients in botanicals and herbal preparations are discussed. As extraction is the most important step in the analysis of constituents present in botanicals and herbal preparations, the strengths and weaknesses of different extraction techniques are discussed. The analysis of bioactive compounds present in the plant extracts involving the applications of common phytochemical screening assays, chromatographic techniques such as HPLC and, TLC as well as non-chromatographic techniques such as immunoassay and Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) are discussed.

  13. Extraction and characterization of mucilage from Crotalaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mucilages from the leaves, stem and root of Crotalaria senegalensis Linn. (Fam. Fabaceae) has been extracted using both the cold and hot extraction methods. The results obtained showed that the hot extraction method (HEM) is a better extraction method than the cold extraction method (CEM) as the yields were:- 10.2%; ...

  14. Novel Fluorinated Tensioactive Extractant Combined with Flotation for Decontamination of Extractant Residual during Solvent Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xue; Chang, Zhidong; Liu, Yao; Choe, Chol Ryong

    2017-12-01

    Solvent-extraction is widely used in chemical industry. Due to the amphiphilic character, a large amount of extractant remains in water phase, which causes not only loss of reagent, but also secondary contamination in water phase. Novel fluorinated extractants with ultra-low solubility in water were regarded as effective choice to reduce extractant loss in aqueous phase. However, trace amount of extractant still remained in water. Based on the high tensioactive aptitude of fluorinated solvent, flotation was applied to separate fluorinated extractant remaining in raffinate. According to the data of surface tension measurement, the surface tension of solution was obviously decreased with the addition of fluorinated extractant tris(2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-octafluoropentyl) phosphate (FTAP). After flotation, the FTAP dissolved in water can be removed as much as 70%, which proved the feasibility of this key idea. The effects of operation time, gas velocity, pH and salinity of bulk solution on flotation performance were discussed. The optimum operating parameters were determined as gas velocity of 12ml/min, operating time of 15min, pH of 8.7, and NaCl volume concentration of 1.5%, respectively. Moreover, adsorption process of FTAP on bubble surface was simulated by ANSYS VOF model using SIMPLE algorithm. The dynamic mechanism of flotation was also theoretically investigated, which can be considered as supplement to the experimental results.

  15. Coil for LEAR extraction septum

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    Which way does the current flow ? This intriguing object is the coil for the LEAR extraction septum. There were two septa, first a thin one, then this one, not so thin, somewhat on the borderline between septum and bending magnet.

  16. TSCA Inventory Data Extraction Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data extraction tool contains the non confidential identities of chemical substances submitted under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). TSCA was enacted...

  17. VT Mineral Resources - MRDS Extract

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) MRDSVT is an extract from the Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS) covering the State of Vermont only. MRDS database contains the records provided...

  18. Dental extractions during anticoagulant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anavi, Y; Sharon, A; Gutman, D; Laufer, D

    1981-04-01

    1. 15 patients, whose therapy with the anticoagulant Coumarin was not discontinued, were observed for bleeding following dental extractions. 2. There was no significant bleeding in these patients as compared to 15 others whose Coumarin therapy was temporarily interrupted. 3. Patients with prosthetic heart valves should preferably be hospitalized for dental extractions. but Coumarin/anticoagulant therapy need not be discontinued. The procedures can safely be done within a therapeutic range of 20-30% P.T.

  19. Optimizing Sustainable Geothermal Heat Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Iti; Bielicki, Jeffrey; Buscheck, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Geothermal heat, though renewable, can be depleted over time if the rate of heat extraction exceeds the natural rate of renewal. As such, the sustainability of a geothermal resource is typically viewed as preserving the energy of the reservoir by weighing heat extraction against renewability. But heat that is extracted from a geothermal reservoir is used to provide a service to society and an economic gain to the provider of that service. For heat extraction used for market commodities, sustainability entails balancing the rate at which the reservoir temperature renews with the rate at which heat is extracted and converted into economic profit. We present a model for managing geothermal resources that combines simulations of geothermal reservoir performance with natural resource economics in order to develop optimal heat mining strategies. Similar optimal control approaches have been developed for managing other renewable resources, like fisheries and forests. We used the Non-isothermal Unsaturated-saturated Flow and Transport (NUFT) model to simulate the performance of a sedimentary geothermal reservoir under a variety of geologic and operational situations. The results of NUFT are integrated into the optimization model to determine the extraction path over time that maximizes the net present profit given the performance of the geothermal resource. Results suggest that the discount rate that is used to calculate the net present value of economic gain is a major determinant of the optimal extraction path, particularly for shallower and cooler reservoirs, where the regeneration of energy due to the natural geothermal heat flux is a smaller percentage of the amount of energy that is extracted from the reservoir.

  20. Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.; Leonard, R.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems are a series of novel solvent extraction (SX) processes that will remove and recover all of the major radioisotopes from acidic-dissolved sludge or other acidic high-level wastes. The major focus of this effort during the last 2 years has been the development of a combined cesium-strontium extraction/recovery process, the Combined CSEX-SREX Process. The Combined CSEX-SREX Process relies on a mixture of a strontium-selective macrocyclic polyether and a novel cesium-selective extractant based on dibenzo 18-crown-6. The process offers several potential advantages over possible alternatives in a chemical processing scheme for high-level waste treatment. First, if the process is applied as the first step in chemical pretreatment, the radiation level for all subsequent processing steps (e.g., transuranic extraction/recovery, or TRUEX) will be significantly reduced. Thus, less costly shielding would be required. The second advantage of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process is that the recovered Cs-Sr fraction is non-transuranic, and therefore will decay to low-level waste after only a few hundred years. Finally, combining individual processes into a single process will reduce the amount of equipment required to pretreat the waste and therefore reduce the size and cost of the waste processing facility. In an ongoing collaboration with Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Company (LMITCO), the authors have successfully tested various segments of the Advanced Integrated Solvent Extraction Systems. Eichrom Industries, Inc. (Darien, IL) synthesizes and markets the Sr extractant and can supply the Cs extractant on a limited basis. Plans are under way to perform a test of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process with real waste at LMITCO in the near future.

  1. extracts as potential dietary supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Strugała

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In times of worsening civilization diseases the interest in natural healing substances is on the increase. To reduce unwanted side effects of many synthetic drugs, it is reasonable to introduce to the daily diet foods rich in natural compounds of plant origin that are beneficial for health. The purpose of the study was to determine the biological activity and stability of selected ethanol extracts of the fruit of chokeberry, blackcurrant, hawthorn, rosehip, quince and Japanese quince as potential nutraceuticals.Materials and methods: Antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined in relation to model phospholipid membranes (IC50 PC. Antiradical activity was determined in a test with the DPPH• radical (IC50 DPPH. Also the inhibition of enzymatic (1-LOX oxidation of linoleic acid was determined at the beginning of the period of storage of the extracts at room temperature and after 12 months. Results: After 12 months of storage the highest antioxidant stability was shown by blackcurrant extract (1.5% increase in IC50 PC, the highest antiradical stability by quince extract (1.0% reduction in IC50 DPPH, and the highest stability of 1-LOX enzyme inhibition by chokeberry extract (6.3% reduction in inhibition at a concentration of 8 μg∙ml-1. Japanese quince extract showed the strongest regenerating properties with respect to oxidized phospholipid membranes and the highest ability to eliminate the free radical DPPH•. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the ethanol extracts of the fruits (in particular blackcurrant, chokeberry and Japanese quince are a potential source of dietary supplements of expected effectiveness in preventive treatment.

  2. EFFECT OF CALITROPIS PROCERA AQUEOUS ROOT EXTRACT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABUBAKAR

    The C. Procera root extract was found to significantly (p<0.05) reduce the serum levels of AST, ... urea. These indicates the possible hepatocurative effects of aqueous root extract of C. ... extracts is an excellent source of therapeutic agents.

  3. EXTRACTION OF D- LIMONENE FROM ORANGE PEELS

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad R. Mahajan; Pratika D. Wankhede2; Omkumar S. Gulhane3

    2017-01-01

    The orange peel which is considered as a waste can be used for the extraction of limonene (D-Limonene ) which has many applications ranging from food flavouring agent to cosmetics. Limonene can be extracted by various conventional methods like steam distillation cold press, solvent extraction, novel methods like super critical CO2 extraction, it means varied typical ways like steam distillation cold press, solvent extraction, novel ways like super essential greenhouse emission extraction. The...

  4. Extractant composition including crown ether and calixarene extractants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikrantz, David H.; Todd, Terry A.; Riddle, Catherine L.; Law, Jack D.; Peterman, Dean R.; Mincher, Bruce J.; McGrath, Christopher A.; Baker, John D.

    2009-04-28

    An extractant composition comprising a mixed extractant solvent consisting of calix[4] arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The DtBu18C6 may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.4M, such as at from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The extractant composition further comprises an aqueous phase. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from the aqueous phase.

  5. Caesium extraction by calixarene molecules: Some aspects of extraction kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, N.; Tournois, B.; Volle, G

    2004-07-01

    In the framework of the environment Code (2000 studies were developed to recover long-lived fission products (F.P.) from acidic highly radioactive effluents issuing the reprocessing of spent fuels, to destroy them by transmutation or to encapsulate them into specific matrices. Efforts had been directed towards caesium, particularly {sup 135}Cs, which is one of the most harmful fission products because of its long half life (more than 2.10{sup 6} years) and its mobility in repository. The flow-sheet will be included in the general scheme of long-lived radionuclide partitioning. It was decided to define a process based on liquid-liquid extraction. Crown-calixarenes molecules were chosen for process development. To refine the flowsheet diagram, it is necessary to know the rate constants of the implied chemical reactions involved in the extraction. This paper describes the first determination of rate constant in the Cs extraction with crown calixarenes. (authors)

  6. Propolis extract application in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiano Spaziani Pereira

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Propolis has been ground in various areas of science, but its application in agriculture, is a recent and almost unknown subject. In agronomy work mainly seek to explore the antibiotic and antifungal properties of propolis, but other uses have been proposed, such as plant nutrition, pest control (such as mites and even reducing water stress in plants. Despite numerous utilities proven and proposals, there are many questions, particularly for the preparation of the extract, most appropriate chemical composition for a particular use, application forms, crude propolis extract in percentages, dose minimum efficiency, efficiency, etc. Given the above, the purpose of this literature review is to present the origin and chemical composition of propolis, making methodology of propolis extract, more effective dose in the control of fungi, plant pathogenic bacteria and reduce water stress. During the study, it can be seen that the difference in propolis composition occurs mainly due to the variability of vegetable composition in the vicinity of the hive, the bees forage and chemical composition is quite complex and variable in terms of both concentration and chemicals gifts. In the extraction, there are still many gaps to be studied, including the best way to obtain the extract, with questions about the best puller, with lack of consensus in the literature. On the efficiency of this technology, there are numerous studies with promising results, which allow implementation of technology in the field and these jobs concentrated in coffee crops, beans, cucumber and tomato.

  7. Optimal Extraction of Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golabi, Kamal; Scherer, Charles, R.

    1977-06-01

    This study is concerned with the optimal extraction of energy from a hot water geothermal field. In view of the relative "commercial" availability of the many energy sources alternative to geothermal, it is possible that a socially "best" extraction policy may not include producing geothermal energy as fast as the current technology will permit. Rather, a truly "optimal" policy will depend on, among other things, the costs and value of geothermal energy in the future and the analogous values of other energy sources. Hence, a general approach to this problem would make the policy contingent on pertinent information on alternative sources. A good example of this approach is given in Manne's (1976) Energy Technology Assessment Model, where he points out that "Each energy source has its own cost parameters and introduction date, but is interdependent with other components of the energy sector." (Manne (1976), p. 379). But by their large dimensions, such relativity macro-analyses tend to preclude a close look at the specific technology of a process is important in developing meaningful resource management models, we substitute for a macro model the increasing value over time of the energy extracted. In this contact we seek an extraction rate (and an economic life) that maximizes the net discounted value of the energy extracted. [DJE-2005

  8. Effect of extraction methods on the chemical components and taste quality of green tea extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong-Quan; Ji, Wei-Bin; Yu, Peigen; Chen, Jian-Xin; Wang, Fang; Yin, Jun-Feng

    2018-05-15

    The physicochemical properties of tea extracts are significantly affected by the extraction method. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of static and dynamic extractions on the concentrations of chemical components and taste quality of green tea extracts. Our results show that extraction of chemical components using static extraction follows a pseudo-second-order reaction, while that of dynamic extraction follows a first-order reaction. The concentrations of the solids, polyphenols, and free amino acids in green tea extract prepared by dynamic extraction were much higher, although the overall yields were not significantly different between the two extraction methods. Green tea extracts obtained via dynamic extraction were of lower bitterness and astringency, as well and higher intensities of umami and overall acceptability. These results suggest that dynamic extraction is more suitable for the processing of green tea concentrate because of the higher concentration of green tea extract. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hepatoxicity of aqueous extract and fractionated methanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-22

    Feb 22, 2010 ... Phytolacca americana is a perennial plant native to North America and other parts of the world. It is well known for several medicinal properties despite being considered to have digestive toxicity (especially hepatotoxicity). Our objective is to examine whether extract of aerial parts of P. americana could.

  10. Solvent extraction: the coordination chemistry behind extractive metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A Matthew; Bailey, Phillip J; Tasker, Peter A; Turkington, Jennifer R; Grant, Richard A; Love, Jason B

    2014-01-07

    The modes of action of the commercial solvent extractants used in extractive hydrometallurgy are classified according to whether the recovery process involves the transport of metal cations, M(n+), metalate anions, MXx(n-), or metal salts, MXx into a water-immiscible solvent. Well-established principles of coordination chemistry provide an explanation for the remarkable strengths and selectivities shown by most of these extractants. Reagents which achieve high selectivity when transporting metal cations or metal salts into a water-immiscible solvent usually operate in the inner coordination sphere of the metal and provide donor atom types or dispositions which favour the formation of particularly stable neutral complexes that have high solubility in the hydrocarbons commonly used in recovery processes. In the extraction of metalates, the structures of the neutral assemblies formed in the water-immiscible phase are usually not well defined and the cationic reagents can be assumed to operate in the outer coordination spheres. The formation of secondary bonds in the outer sphere using, for example, electrostatic or H-bonding interactions are favoured by the low polarity of the water-immiscible solvents.

  11. Injection and extraction magnets: septa

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, M J; Goddard, B; Hourican, M

    2010-01-01

    An accelerator has limited dynamic range: a chain of accelerators is required to reach high energy. A combination of septa and kicker magnets is frequently used to inject and extract beam from each stage. The kicker magnets typically produce rectangular field pulses with fast rise- and/or fall-times, however the field strength is relatively low. To compensate for their relatively low field strength, the kicker magnets are generally combined with electromagnetic septa. The septa provide relatively strong field strength but are either DC or slow pulsed. This paper discusses injection and extraction systems with particular emphasis on the hardware required for the septa.

  12. Hybrid Model of Content Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah

    2012-01-01

    We present a hybrid model for content extraction from HTML documents. The model operates on Document Object Model (DOM) tree of the corresponding HTML document. It evaluates each tree node and associated statistical features like link density and text distribution across the node to predict...... model outperformed other existing content extraction models. We present a browser based implementation of the proposed model as proof of concept and compare the implementation strategy with various state of art implementations. We also discuss various applications of the proposed model with special...

  13. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ascari, Matthew [Lockheed Martin Corporation, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2012-10-28

    The Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization (OTEEV) project focuses on assessing the Maximum Practicably Extractable Energy (MPEE) from the world’s ocean thermal resources. MPEE is defined as being sustainable and technically feasible, given today’s state-of-the-art ocean energy technology. Under this project the OTEEV team developed a comprehensive Geospatial Information System (GIS) dataset and software tool, and used the tool to provide a meaningful assessment of MPEE from the global and domestic U.S. ocean thermal resources.

  14. 21 CFR 73.1410 - Logwood extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Logwood extract. 73.1410 Section 73.1410 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1410 Logwood extract. (a) Identity. The color additive logwood extract is a reddish brown-to-black solid material extracted from the heartwood of the leguminous...

  15. 21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.30 Section 73.30 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.30 Annatto extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive annatto extract is an extract prepared from annatto seed, Bixa orellana L., using any one or an...

  16. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY..., Extracts § 319.720 Meat extract. Meat extract (e.g., “Beef Extract”) shall contain not more than 25 percent...

  17. 21 CFR 573.520 - Hemicellulose extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hemicellulose extract. 573.520 Section 573.520... Additive Listing § 573.520 Hemicellulose extract. Hemicellulose extract may be safely used in animal feed... from the aqueous extract obtained by the treatment of wood with water at elevated temperatures (325...

  18. Pressurized liquid extraction of mate tea leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Rosângela Assis; Dariva, Cláudio; de Oliveira, José Vladimir; Caramão, Elina Bastos

    2008-09-05

    The objective of this work is to investigate the influence of process parameters on the pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of Ilex paraguariensis leaves. A factorial 2(6-2) experimental design was employed using responses as the extraction yield and the chromatographic profile of the extracts. The extraction time, polarity of solvent, amount of sample, numbers of PLE cycles, flushing volume and extraction temperature were selected as independent variables (factors). Results obtained indicated that the solvent polarity was the most significant variable in the study, while the amount of sample and extraction temperature also showed significant effect. The other variables did not present significant influence in the yield of extraction. GC/MS analysis of the extract enabled the identification of saturated hydrocarbons, fatty acids, fatty acid methyl esters, phytosterols and theobromine in the extracts. Quantitative analysis of four compounds presented in the extracts (caffeine, phytol, vitamin E and squalene) was performed by the GC/MS in the SIM mode.

  19. Antibacterial activity of Quercus ilex bark's extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berahou, A; Auhmani, A; Fdil, N; Benharref, A; Jana, M; Gadhi, C A

    2007-07-25

    The antibacterial activity of different extracts of Quercus ilex bark (Fagaceae) was studied in vitro against seven reference strains of bacteria by using a disc-diffusion method and agar-dilution method. The ethyl acetate extract (QE), n-butanol extract (QB) and final aqueous layer (QA) were effective against all bacterial strains tested at MICs ranging from 128 to 512 microg/ml. The n-hexane extract (QH) and dichloromethane extract (QD) showed no activity.

  20. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible...... to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range....

  1. Feature extraction using fractal codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.A.M. Ben Schouten; Paul M. de Zeeuw

    1999-01-01

    Fast and successful searching for an object in a multimedia database is a highly desirable functionality. Several approaches to content based retrieval for multimedia databases can be found in the literature [9,10,12,14,17]. The approach we consider is feature extraction. A feature can be seen as a

  2. extracts of Buchholzia Coriacea Engler

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ojinnala C.M Prof

    and methanol respectively, and the crude extracts were analyzed using GC-MS. The result indicated presence of cyclooctasulphur ... Buchholzia coriacea using GC-MS and to determine the bioactivity of the constituents. To the best of ... Dextrose Agar plates containing cyclohexamide. 4mg/ml, penicillin 20µ/ml, streptomycin ...

  3. aqueous root extract on spermatogenesis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HPLC-MS spectra were collected for the extracts and compared to the data found in literature. As such, assignment of the chemical composition was possible only .... (coumarins). Body and organ weight of male rats. A significant decrease in body weight of the. HDR-receiving rats was observed when compared to the ...

  4. Extractive Summarisation of Medical Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeed Sarker

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Evidence Based Medicine (EBM practice requires practitioners to extract evidence from published medical research when answering clinical queries. Due to the time-consuming nature of this practice, there is a strong motivation for systems that can automatically summarise medical documents and help practitioners find relevant information. Aim The aim of this work is to propose an automatic query-focused, extractive summarisation approach that selects informative sentences from medical documents. MethodWe use a corpus that is specifically designed for summarisation in the EBM domain. We use approximately half the corpus for deriving important statistics associated with the best possible extractive summaries. We take into account factors such as sentence position, length, sentence content, and the type of the query posed. Using the statistics from the first set, we evaluate our approach on a separate set. Evaluation of the qualities of the generated summaries is performed automatically using ROUGE, which is a popular tool for evaluating automatic summaries. Results Our summarisation approach outperforms all baselines (best baseline score: 0.1594; our score 0.1653. Further improvements are achieved when query types are taken into account. Conclusion The quality of extractive summarisation in the medical domain can be significantly improved by incorporating domain knowledge and statistics derived from a specialised corpus. Such techniques can therefore be applied for content selection in end-to-end summarisation systems.

  5. Statistical Model for Content Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah

    2011-01-01

    We present a statistical model for content extraction from HTML documents. The model operates on Document Object Model (DOM) tree of the corresponding HTML document. It evaluates each tree node and associated statistical features to predict significance of the node towards overall content...

  6. DNA Extraction and Primer Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karst, Søren Michael; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Albertsen, Mads

    Talk regarding pitfalls in DNA extraction and 16S amplicon primer choice when performing community analysis of complex microbial communities. The talk was a part of Workshop 2 "Principles, Potential, and Limitations of Novel Molecular Methods in Water Engineering; from Amplicon Sequencing to -omics...

  7. EVALUATION OF UNIVERSAL EXTRACTANTS FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    the most suitable universal extractant for determination of available Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn in soil of the studied areas. KEY WORDS: .... potato and teff. On the other hand, urea and diammonium phosphate (DAP) were commonly .... The amounts of basic oxides such as calcium oxide (CaO), magnesium oxide (MgO), potassium ...

  8. Extraction of Proteins with ABS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desai, R.K.; Streefland, M.; Wijffels, R.H.; Eppink, M.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past years, there has been an increasing trend in research on the extraction and purification of proteins using aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) formed by polymers, e.g., polyethylene glycol (PEG). In general, when dealing with protein purification processes, it is essential to maintain their

  9. Extracting Gamers' Opinions from Reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sirbu, Dorinela; Secui, Ana; Dascalu, Mihai; Crossley, Scott; Ruseti, Stefan; Trausan-Matu, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Opinion mining and sentiment analysis are a trending research domain in Natural Language Processing focused on automatically extracting subjective information, feelings, opinions, ideas or emotions from texts. Our study is centered on identifying sentiments and opinions, as well as other latent

  10. Extracting useful information from images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucheryavskiy, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of methods for extracting useful information from digital images. It covers various approaches that utilized different properties of images, like intensity distribution, spatial frequencies content and several others. A few case studies including isotropic...... and heterogeneous, congruent and non-congruent images are used to illustrate how the described methods work and to compare some of them...

  11. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PROTACTINIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, E.K.; Katzin, L.I.; Wolf, M.J.

    1961-04-01

    A process is described for separating protactinium from thorium present together as the nitrates in a 0.1 to 10 N nitric acid solution. The separation is carried out by extraction with an aliphatic alcohol, ketone, and/or ester having at least six carbon atoms, such as n-amyl acetate, 2-ethyl hexanol, and diisopropyl ketone.

  12. Butterfly extracts show antibacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extracts of several British butterfly species were tested and shown to possess powerful bactericidal activity against the gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The active compounds were identified as hydroxylated pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) related to loline with nitrogen at C-...

  13. EVALUATION OF UNIVERSAL EXTRACTANTS FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    DTPA for determination of micronutrients (Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn) in Ethiopian soil is scarce. The purpose of this work was, therefore, to assess the effectiveness of these universal extractants for soils of selected pH and to identify the most suitable ...

  14. Selective extraction of triazine herbicides based on a combination of membrane assisted solvent extraction and molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimuka, Luke; van Pinxteren, Manuela; Billing, Johan; Yilmaz, Ecevit; Jönsson, Jan Åke

    2011-02-04

    A selective extraction technique based on the combination of membrane assisted solvent extraction and molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction for triazine herbicides in food samples was developed. Simazine, atrazine, prometon, terbumeton, terbuthylazine and prometryn were extracted from aqueous food samples into a hydrophobic polypropylene membrane bag containing 1000μL of toluene as the acceptor phase along with 100mg of MIP particles. In the acceptor phase, the compounds were re-extracted onto MIP particles. The extraction technique was optimised for the type of organic acceptor solvent, amount of molecularly imprinted polymers particles in the organic acceptor phase, extraction time and addition of salt. Toluene as the acceptor phase was found to give higher triazine binding onto MIP particles compared to hexane and cyclohexane. Extraction time of 120min and 100mg of MIP were found to be optimum parameters. Addition of salt increased the extraction efficiency for more polar triazines. The selectivity of the technique was demonstrated by extracting spiked cow pea and corn extracts where clean chromatograms were obtained compared to only membrane assisted solvent extraction or only molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction. The study revealed that this combination may be a simple way of selectively extracting compounds in complex samples. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Extraction of fatty acids from dried freshwater algae using accelerated solvent extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    A high temperature/pressure extraction method (accelerated solvent extraction)(ASE) and a manual extraction method (modified Folch extraction) were compared with regard to their ability to extract total fat from three samples of air-dried filamentous algae and determine the fatty acid (FA) profile o...

  16. Kinetic behavior of lanthanide extraction with acidic phosphorus extractants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, E.; Muralidharan, S.; Freiser, H. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    The kinetics of the formation of the complexes of tervalent lanthanides with several organophosphorus extractants in the octane-H{sub 2}O phase pair have been characterized by competition kinetics. The kinetic studies were conducted by the extraction of the EDTA complexes of Y{sup 3+}, Nd{sup 3+}, Gd{sup 3+}, Ho{sup 3+} and Lu{sup 3+} by bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP), 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH[EHP]) and bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid (Cyanex 272) in octane. The observed rate constants bore an inverse relationship to the stability constants of the metal-EDTA complexes. For a given metal the rate constants as a function of ligand followed the order HDEHP > HEH[EHP] > Cyanex 272. The mechanistic details of the competition kinetics and the implications of the kinetic results will be discussed.

  17. HIV-1 protease inhibitory effects of some selected plants in Caesalpiniaceae and Papilionaceae families

    OpenAIRE

    Pranee Rattanasuwan; Sanan Subhadhirasakul; Supinya Tewtrakul

    2003-01-01

    Fifty-two ethanol and water extracts of the plants in Caesalpiniaceae and Papilionaceae families were screened for their HIV-1 protease (HIV-1 PR) inhibitory activities using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique. Among the tested extracts, Cassia garrettiana (wood, water extract) showed the most potent inhibitory activity against HIV-1 PR, followed by Cassia garrettiana (wood, EtOH extract) and Caesalpinia sappan (wood, EtOH extract) with IC50 of 18, 32 and 75 μg/ml, respec...

  18. Recent trends in metals extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regel-Rosocka, M.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available After near 70 years of practical usage, solvent extraction is a perfectly mastered technique of separation, widely used on an industrial scale for the separation of metals mainly from raw materials. However, currently, in the era of depleting natural resources and increasingly less accessible deposits, environmental restrictions, etc., an increasing interest, both from social and economical constrains, is being directed at the extraction of metals from the secondary sources (such as batteries, electronic scrap. In many cases, solvent extraction, due to its operational characteristics, can be considered as the Best Available Technology for the purpose of separating multielemental metal solutions. This paper provides a brief overview of past achievements and present scenario of solvent extraction investigations and developments, describing some recently commissioned solvent extraction plants, whereas the Skorpion Zinc plant (Namibia for zinc extraction from raw materials and caesium removal from radioactive High Level Wastes (HLWs are told over in detail as case studies. The paper also presents some proposals for the use of liquid-liquid extraction to separate metal ions from secondary sources (e.g. cobalt from industrial waste streams. The review highlights the emerging use of ionic liquids as new extractants for metals, providing an insight into this exciting research field. Despite its detractors, solvent extraction has entered in force into XXI century as a leading separation technology for metals.Después de casi 70 años de uso práctico, la extracción líquido-líquido o extracción con disolventes es una técnica de separación muy evolucionada, utilizándose a escala industrial en el beneficio de metales obtenidos de diversas materias primas. Sin embargo, con el agotamiento de los recursos naturales y el aumento de depósitos minerales de más difícil acceso, restricciones medio ambientales, etc., ha aumentado el interés, tanto desde

  19. Air-assisted solvent extraction: towards a novel extraction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.M. Tarkan; J.A. Finch [McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada). Department of Mining, Metals and Materials Engineering

    2005-01-01

    The air-assisted solvent extraction (AASX) concept uses a solvent-coated bubble to contact the organic and aqueous phases. Compared to conventional solvent extraction, a high contact area can be created using less solvent and the natural buoyancy provided by the air core promotes phase separation. A method of producing coated bubbles exploiting foaming properties of kerosene-based solvent is introduced. Coating thickness is estimated at about 3 {mu}m on a 0.44 cm diameter bubble giving a solvent specific surface area of about 3000 cm{sup 2}/cm{sup 3}, equivalent to a solvent droplet of about 20 {mu}m. Such a droplet would have very poor phase separation properties. In extraction tests (500 mg/l Cu solution), high aqueous/organic ratios could be used (e.g., 75:1) while phase separation remained excellent. This shows the potential for AASX to treat large volume, low concentration streams such as acid mine drainage.

  20. A comparative study of Averrhoabilimbi extraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulhaimi, H. I.; Rosli, I. R.; Kasim, K. F.; Akmal, H. Muhammad; Nuradibah, M. A.; Sam, S. T.

    2017-09-01

    In recent year, bioactive compound in plant has become a limelight in the food and pharmaceutical market, leading to research interest to implement effective technologies for extracting bioactive substance. Therefore, this study is focusing on extraction of Averrhoabilimbi by different extraction technique namely, maceration and ultrasound-assisted extraction. Fewplant partsof Averrhoabilimbiweretaken as extraction samples which are fruits, leaves and twig. Different solvents such as methanol, ethanol and distilled water were utilized in the process. Fruit extractsresult in highest extraction yield compared to other plant parts. Ethanol and distilled water have significant role compared to methanol in all parts and both extraction technique. The result also shows that ultrasound-assisted extraction gave comparable result with maceration. Besides, the shorter period on extraction process gives useful in term of implementation to industries.

  1. Histochemical and ultrastructural study of Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae seeds Estudo histoquímico e ultraestrutural de sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Borges Corte

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to correlate data on light microscopy observations through histochemical analysis and polarized light techniques and investigations in transmission electron microscopy (TEM to characterize the reserve materials in C. peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae cotyledons, popularly known as "sibipiruna", a tropical tree species with wide distribution in Brazil. The cotyledon mesophyll, especially in the abaxial face, is rich in unsaturated neutral lipids contained in numerous lipid bodies dispersed in the cytoplasm. Proteins, more concentrated in the adaxial face of the cotyledons, occur in all the mesophyll and are stored in protein bodies containing globoids, with variable number and size, responsible for accumulation of mineral reserves. Calcium oxalate druses have distribution restricted to the cotyledons adaxial face and are associated with protein bodies. Starch, also distributed all over the cotyledon mesophyll, occurs in small amounts in plastids with developed lamellar system. Secretory cavities rich in phenolic compounds occur among procambial strands.Este trabalho procurou correlacionar dados de observações em microscopia de luz através de técnicas histoquímicas e de luz polarizada e investigações em microscopia eletrônica de transmissão para caracterizar os materiais de reserva em cotilédones de C. peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae, conhecida popularmente como sibipiruna, ou falso pau-brasil, uma espécie tropical com ampla distribuição no Brasil. O mesofilo cotiledonar, especialmente na face abaxial, apresenta-se rico em lipídios neutros, insaturados, contidos em numerosos corpos lipídicos dispersos no citoplasma. As proteínas, mais concentradas na face adaxial dos cotilédones, ocorrem em todo o mesofilo e são armazenadas em corpos proteicos contendo globoides, com número e tamanho variáveis, responsáveis pelo acúmulo de reservas minerais. Drusas de oxalato de cálcio têm distribuição restrita à face adaxial dos cotilédones e estão associadas aos corpos proteicos. O amido, também distribuído por todo o mesofilo cotiledonar, ocorre em pequena quantidade em plastídios, com sistema lamelar desenvolvido. Entre os cordões procambiais ocorrem cavidades secretoras ricas em compostos fenólicos.

  2. Superação da dormência em sementes de Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul Overcoming dormancy of Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Ursulino Alves

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Espécies florestais com sementes duras freqüentemente apresentam consideráveis problemas para os viveiristas, porque seus tegumentos duros e impermeáveis à água dificultam e retardam a germinação. Por isso, desenvolveu-se este experimento em casa de vegetação no Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal da Paraíba, com o objetivo de determinar metodologias para superar a dormência de sementes de catingueira. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro repetições de 25 sementes. As sementes foram submetidas a 12 tratamentos: testemunha - sementes intactas (T1, escarificação mecânica feita manualmente com lixa nº. 80 (T2, desponte - pequeno corte na região oposta à micrópila (T3, imersão no ácido sulfúrico concentrado por 6, 8 e 10 min (T4, T5 e T6, respectivamente, imersão em água nas temperaturas de 60, 70 e 80 ºC por 1 min (T7, T8 e T9, respectivamente e imersão em água fria por 24, 48 e 72 h (T10, T11 e T12, respectivamente. As sementes foram semeadas em bandejas plásticas com areia umedecida esterilizada. Através de avaliações diárias durante 21 dias, verificaram-se as características de porcentagem de emergência, primeira contagem de emergência, índice de velocidade de emergência, comprimento e massa seca das plântulas. Os resultados evidenciaram que os tratamentos pré-germinativos promoveram a germinação das sementes de catingueira, e a escarificação manual com lixa, imersão em ácido sulfúrico concentrado por 8 e 10 min e imersão em água a 80 ºC por 1 min revelaram ser os métodos mais efetivos.Forest species with hard seeds often cause important problems for nursery managers because their hard and water impermeable seed coats hinder and delay germination. For this reason, an experiment was carried out to determine methodologies for overcoming dormancy of catingueira seeds, under greenhouse conditions, in the Center for Agricultural Sciences, of the Federal University of Paraíba. The experiment was arranged in a complete randomized design, with four replicates of 25 seeds/treatment. Seeds were subjected to 12 treatments: control - intact seeds (T1, mechanical scarification using fine sandpaper nº. 80 (T2, coating cutting in the opposite side of micropylar region (T3, immersion in sulfuric acid (98% for 6, 8 and 10 minutes (T4, T5 and T6, respectively, immersion in water at 60, 70 and 80ºC for one minute (T7, T8 and T9, respectively, immersion in water at room temperature for 24, 48 and 72 hours (T10, T11 and T12, respectively. The seeds were sown in plastic trays with sterilized humidified sand. Daily evaluations were carried out during 21 days observing characteristics of emergence percentage, emergence first count, emergence velocity index, height and dry matter weight of seedlings. The results demonstrated that germinative pre-treatments increased seed germination of catingueira seeds, and higher values were observed with manual scarification with sandpaper, immersion in concentrated sulfuric acid during eight and ten minutes and immersion in water at 80ºC for one minute were the most effective methods.

  3. Pressurized Hot Water Extraction of anthocyanins from red onion: A study on extraction and degradation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Erik V; Liu, Jiayin; Sjöberg, Per J R; Danielsson, Rolf; Turner, Charlotta

    2010-03-17

    Pressurized Hot Water Extraction (PHWE) is a quick, efficient and environmentally friendly technique for extractions. However, when using PHWE to extract thermally unstable analytes, extraction and degradation effects occur at the same time, and thereby compete. At first, the extraction effect dominates, but degradation effects soon take over. In this paper, extraction and degradation rates of anthocyanins from red onion were studied with experiments in a static batch reactor at 110 degrees C. A total extraction curve was calculated with data from the actual extraction and degradation curves, showing that more anthocyanins, 21-36% depending on the species, could be extracted if no degradation occurred, but then longer extraction times would be required than those needed to reach the peak level in the apparent extraction curves. The results give information about the different kinetic processes competing during an extraction procedure. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Recent trends in extractive metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Metallurgists and solution geochemists are joining forces to develop processes for extraction of metals from low-grade ores. The processes, which come under the name hydrometallurgy, include several new applications of solvent extraction techniques. Aqueous solutions are employed, leaching metals from ores, mine waste dumps, and even from deposits still in the ground. It was notable, for example, that Chemical and Engineering News (Feb. 8, 1982) recently featured the subject of hydrometallurgy in a special report. They noted that ‘recovering metals by use of aqueous solutions at relatively low temperatures increasingly is competing with dry, high-temperature pyrometallurgical methods.’ The relatively new techniques have caused a revolution, of sorts, in engineering programs of university metallurgy departments. The challenge of developing selective metal dissolution processes is drawing upon the best national talent in the fields of solution geochemistry and metallurgy.

  5. Soil vapor extraction with dewatering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, N.R. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-08-01

    The physical treatment technology of soil vapor extraction (SVE) is reliable, safe, robust, and able to remove significant amounts of mass at a relatively low cost. SVE combined with a pump-and-treat system to create a dewatered zone has the opportunity to remove more mass with the added cost of treating the extracted groundwater. Various limiting processes result in a significant reduction in the overall mass removal rates from a SVE system in porous media. Only pilot scale, limited duration SVE tests conducted in low permeability media have been reported in the literature. It is expected that the presence of a fracture network in low permeability media will add another complexity to the limiting conditions surrounding the SVE technology. 20 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Extracting aluminum from dross tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, A. M.

    2002-11-01

    Aluminum dross tailings, an industrial waste, from the Egyptian Aluminium Company (Egyptalum) was used to produce two types of alums: aluminum-sulfate alum [itAl2(SO4)3.12H2O] and ammonium-aluminum alum [ (NH 4)2SO4AL2(SO4)3.24H2O]. This was carried out in two processes. The first process is leaching the impurities using diluted H2SO4 with different solid/liquid ratios at different temperatures to dissolve the impurities present in the starting material in the form of solute sulfates. The second process is the extraction of aluminum (as aluminum sulfate) from the purifi ed aluminum dross tailings thus produced. The effects of temperature, time of reaction, and acid concentration on leaching and extraction processes were studied. The product alums were analyzed using x-ray diffraction and thermal analysis techniques.

  7. Electrostatic septa for SPS extraction

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    The extraction system for the N-Area is located in LSS2 (another one for the W-Area, now abandoned, was in LSS6). The electrostatic septum consists of 4 parts, each 3 m long. It is made of W-wires, 0.12 mm thick. The nominal electric field is 100 kV/cm. See also Annual Report 1975, p.175.

  8. Titanium metal: extraction to application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambogi, Joseph (USGS, Reston, VA); Gerdemann, Stephen J.

    2002-09-01

    In 1998, approximately 57,000 tons of titanium metal was consumed in the form of mill products (1). Only about 5% of the 4 million tons of titanium minerals consumed each year is used to produce titanium metal, with the remainder primarily used to produce titanium dioxide pigment. Titanium metal production is primarily based on the direct chlorination of rutile to produce titanium tetrachloride, which is then reduced to metal using the Kroll magnesium reduction process. The use of titanium is tied to its high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Aerospace is the largest application for titanium. In this paper, we discuss all aspects of the titanium industry from ore deposits through extraction to present and future applications. The methods of both primary (mining of ore, extraction, and purification) and secondary (forming and machining) operations will be analyzed. The chemical and physical properties of titanium metal will be briefly examined. Present and future applications for titanium will be discussed. Finally, the economics of titanium metal production also are analyzed as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various alternative extraction methods.

  9. Extractive distillation of hydrocarbon mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, F.M.; Brown, R.E.; Johnson, M.M.

    1991-07-16

    This patent describes a process for separating at least one aromatic hydrocarbon containing 6-12 carbon atoms per molecule from at least one close-boiling alkane by extractive distillation of a feed consisting essentially of the at least one aromatic hydrocarbon and the at least one alkane in the presence of a solvent consisting essentially of N-methyl-2-thiopyrrolidone, optionally in combination with at least one cosolvent selected from the group consisting of glycol compounds, sulfolane compounds and N-({beta}-mercaptoalkyl)-2-pyrrolidone compounds; wherein the extractive distillation process produces an overhead distillate product which contains a smaller volume percentage of the at least one alkane than the feed, and a bottoms product which contains the solvent and a larger volume percentage of the at least one aromatic hydrocarbon and a smaller volume percentage of the at least one alkane than the feed; and wherein the at least one aromatic hydrocarbon is separated from the solvent and recovered from the bottoms product. This patent also describes a process for separating at least one cycloalkane containing 5-10 carbon atoms per molecule from at least one close-boiling alkane by extracting distillation of a feed consisting essentially of the at least one cycloalkane and the at least one alkane in the presence of a solvent consisting essentially of N-methyl-2-thiopyrrolidone, optionally in combination with at least one cosolvent selected from the group consisting of glycol compounds, sulfone compounds and N-({beta}-mercaptoalkyl)-2-pyrrolidone compounds.

  10. Piezoelectric extraction of ECG signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud Al

    2016-01-01

    The monitoring and early detection of abnormalities or variations in the cardiac cycle functionality are very critical practices and have significant impact on the prevention of heart diseases and their associated complications. Currently, in the field of biomedical engineering, there is a growing need for devices capable of measuring and monitoring a wide range of cardiac cycle parameters continuously, effectively and on a real-time basis using easily accessible and reusable probes. In this paper, the revolutionary generation and extraction of the corresponding ECG signal using a piezoelectric transducer as alternative for the ECG will be discussed. The piezoelectric transducer pick up the vibrations from the heart beats and convert them into electrical output signals. To this end, piezoelectric and signal processing techniques were employed to extract the ECG corresponding signal from the piezoelectric output voltage signal. The measured electrode based and the extracted piezoelectric based ECG traces are well corroborated. Their peaks amplitudes and locations are well aligned with each other. PMID:27853180

  11. DNA extraction from herbarium specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drábková, Lenka Záveská

    2014-01-01

    With the expansion of molecular techniques, the historical collections have become widely used. Studying plant DNA using modern molecular techniques such as DNA sequencing plays an important role in understanding evolutionary relationships, identification through DNA barcoding, conservation status, and many other aspects of plant biology. Enormous herbarium collections are an important source of material especially for specimens from areas difficult to access or from taxa that are now extinct. The ability to utilize these specimens greatly enhances the research. However, the process of extracting DNA from herbarium specimens is often fraught with difficulty related to such variables as plant chemistry, drying method of the specimen, and chemical treatment of the specimen. Although many methods have been developed for extraction of DNA from herbarium specimens, the most frequently used are modified CTAB and DNeasy Plant Mini Kit protocols. Nine selected protocols in this chapter have been successfully used for high-quality DNA extraction from different kinds of plant herbarium tissues. These methods differ primarily with respect to their requirements for input material (from algae to vascular plants), type of the plant tissue (leaves with incrustations, sclerenchyma strands, mucilaginous tissues, needles, seeds), and further possible applications (PCR-based methods or microsatellites, AFLP).

  12. Optimal and Sustainable Groundwater Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A. Wada

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available With climate change exacerbating over-exploitation, groundwater scarcity looms as an increasingly critical issue worldwide. Minimizing the adverse effects of scarcity requires optimal as well as sustainable patterns of groundwater management. We review the many sustainable paths for groundwater extraction from a coastal aquifer and show how to find the particular sustainable path that is welfare maximizing. In some cases the optimal path converges to the maximum sustainable yield. For sufficiently convex extraction costs, the extraction path converges to an internal steady state above the level of maximum sustainable yield. We describe the challenges facing groundwater managers faced with multiple aquifers, the prospect of using recycled water, and the interdependence with watershed management. The integrated water management thus described results in less water scarcity and higher total welfare gains from groundwater use. The framework also can be applied to climate-change specifications about the frequency, duration, and intensity of precipitation by comparing before and after optimal management. For the case of South Oahu in Hawaii, the prospect of climate change increases the gains of integrated groundwater management.

  13. Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of capsaicinoids from peppers

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Barbero, Gerardo; Liazid, Ali; Palma Lovillo, Miguel; García Barroso, Carmelo

    2008-01-01

    The development of a rapid, reproducible and simple method of extraction of the majority capsaicinoids (nordihydrocapsaicin, capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, homocapsaicin and homodihydrocapsaicin) present in hot peppers by the employment of ultrasound-assisted extraction is reported.

  14. Aphrodisiac properties of Allium tuberosum seeds extract

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guohua, Hu; Yanhua, Lu; Rengang, Mao; Dongzhi, Wei; Zhengzhi, Ma; Hua, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the effect of Allium tuberosum seeds extract upon the expression of male rat sexual behavior, in order to know whether Allium tuberosum seeds extract possess aphrodisiac property...

  15. Inflation of Unreefed and Reefed Extraction Parachutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Eric S.; Varela, Jose G.

    2015-01-01

    Data from the Orion and several other test programs have been used to reconstruct inflation parameters for 28 ft Do extraction parachutes as well as the parent aircraft pitch response during extraction. The inflation force generated by extraction parachutes is recorded directly during tow tests but is usually inferred from the payload accelerometer during Low Velocity Airdrop Delivery (LVAD) flight test extractions. Inflation parameters are dependent on the type of parent aircraft, number of canopies, and standard vs. high altitude extraction conditions. For standard altitudes, single canopy inflations are modeled as infinite mass, but the non-symmetric inflations in a cluster are modeled as finite mass. High altitude extractions have necessitated reefing the extraction parachutes, which are best modeled as infinite mass for those conditions. Distributions of aircraft pitch profiles and inflation parameters have been generated for use in Monte Carlo simulations of payload extractions.

  16. Automated DNA extraction from pollen in honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertler, Patrick; Eicheldinger, Adelina; Muschler, Paul; Goerlich, Ottmar; Busch, Ulrich

    2014-04-15

    In recent years, honey has become subject of DNA analysis due to potential risks evoked by microorganisms, allergens or genetically modified organisms. However, so far, only a few DNA extraction procedures are available, mostly time-consuming and laborious. Therefore, we developed an automated DNA extraction method from pollen in honey based on a CTAB buffer-based DNA extraction using the Maxwell 16 instrument and the Maxwell 16 FFS Nucleic Acid Extraction System, Custom-Kit. We altered several components and extraction parameters and compared the optimised method with a manual CTAB buffer-based DNA isolation method. The automated DNA extraction was faster and resulted in higher DNA yield and sufficient DNA purity. Real-time PCR results obtained after automated DNA extraction are comparable to results after manual DNA extraction. No PCR inhibition was observed. The applicability of this method was further successfully confirmed by analysis of different routine honey samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. CANINE ECTOPIC TREATMENT WITH FIRST MOLAR EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Margo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Decision to extract or not and the type of tooth must be analyzed carefully in orthodontic treatment. Preferable tooth to be extracted was the tooth with large caries or restoration. Usually the type of tooth to be extracted was second molar (if the third molar appears, incisor, first molar, and combination of several teeth. Orthodontic treatment with molar extraction is more difficult to treat and the result is usually compromise. There are several considerations in extracting first molar such as tooth with large caries or restoration, hypoplasia, periapical disease, large discrepancy, high maxilla-mandibular plane angle, and cases with anterior open bite. Nowadays, orthodontic cases with molar extraction do not prolong the treatment time compared to premolar extraction case, but the anchorage system must be considered carefully. The present case was treated with extraction of first molar to solve anterior crowding with maximum anchorage at the upper jaw and using Nance Holding Appliance.

  18. WEB CONTENT EXTRACTION USING HYBRID APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    K. Nethra; Anitha, J.; G. Thilagavathi

    2014-01-01

    The World Wide Web has rich source of voluminous and heterogeneous information which continues to expand in size and complexity. Many Web pages are unstructured and semi-structured, so it consists of noisy information like advertisement, links, headers, footers etc. This noisy information makes extraction of Web content tedious. Many techniques that were proposed for Web content extraction are based on automatic extraction and hand crafted rule generation. Automatic extraction technique is do...

  19. Atividade moluscicida de alguns produtos naturais sobre Biomphalaria glabrata Molluscicide activity of some natural products on Biomphalaria glabrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelymar Martineli Mendes

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada, em laboratório, a ação moluscicida de extratos aquosos (macerado e fervido, hexânico e etanólico de Aristolochia brasiliensis, Caesalpinia peltophoroides, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Delonix regia, Spathodea campanulata e Tibouchina scrobiculata. As soluções dos extratos obtidos foram testadas sobre caramujos adultos e desovas de Biomphalaria glabrata, criados em laboratório, nas concentrações de 1, 10, 20, 200 e 1000ppm. Dos extratos testado o mais ativo foi o etanólico das flores da D. regia (flamboyant que apresentou atividade moluscicida sobre caramujos adultos na concentração de 20ppm.The molluscicide activity of aqueous (macerated and boiled, hexamic and ethylic extracts of Aristolochia brasiliensis, Caesalpinia peltophoroides, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Delonix regia, Spathodea campanulata and Tibouchina scrobiculata was evaluated in the laboratory. The solutions obtained from those extracts were tested on adults and egg masses of Biomphalaria glabrata reared in the laboratory at 1, 10, 20, 100 and 1000ppm concentrations. The most active of the extracts studied was D. regia flowers' (flamboyant ethylic extracts which presented molluscicidal activity on adult snails at 20ppm.

  20. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ekeanyanwu, RC. Vol 6, No 3 (2010) - Articles Vulnerability and adaptations of Niger-delta coast to sea level rise. Abstract · Vol 6, No 3 (2010) - Articles Phytochemical characteristics and in vitro antibacterial activity of caesalpinia pulcherrima stem bark extracts against some clinical isolates. Abstract. ISSN: 0794-4713.

  1. Identification of Compounds and Insecticidal Activity of the Root of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caesalpinia pulcherrima (Caesalpiniaceae) is an ornamental plant with several ethnomedicinal uses. The present study was designed to investigate the brine shrimp cytotoxicity and insecticidal activity of oil obtained from C. pulcherrima root. The powdered root was extracted with methanol and then defatted with petroleum ...

  2. Screening of traditionally used plants for in vivo antimalarial activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Leguminosae) and Caesalpinia bonducella L. Fleming (Fabaceae) were screened for antimalarial activity to establish validity of their claims. The extracts exhibited antimalarial activity in the 4-day Peter's suppressive antimalarial assay in mice inoculated with red blood cells parasitized with Plasmodium berghei.

  3. Analgesic activity of Justicia beddomei leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa, U; Rao, J Venkateshwara; Krupanidhi, A M; Shanmukhappa, S

    2007-10-01

    The analgesic activity of ethanolic extract of Justicia beddome leaves (Family: Acanthaceae) was evaluated in albino rats using Eddy's hot plate method. The extract at 50 and 100 mg/ kg, (i.p), showed significant analgesic activity at 90 minutes of administration. The analgesic effect of the extract was comparable to that of morphine sulphate.

  4. Lipid extraction from isolated single nerve cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnov, I. V.

    1977-01-01

    A method of extracting lipids from single neurons isolated from lyophilized tissue is described. The method permits the simultaneous extraction of lipids from 30-40 nerve cells and for each cell provides equal conditions of solvent removal at the conclusion of extraction.

  5. Supercritical carbondioxide extraction of cypermethrin in different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is a promising method of extraction for pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables. A rapid and high percetage of recoveries extraction of cypermethrin insecticides from fresh yardlong bean, carrot and eggplant vegetables matrixs using drying agent and SC-CO2 was developed in this study ...

  6. COMPARISONS OF SOXHLET EXTRACTION, PRESSURIZED LIQUID EXTRACTION, SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION, AND SUBCRITICAL WATER EXTRACTION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SOLIDS: RECOVERY, SELECTIVITY, AND EFFECTS ON SAMPLE MATRIX. (R825394)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extractions of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a former manufactured gas plant site were performed with a Soxhlet apparatus (18 h), by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) (50 min at 100°C), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) (1 h at 150°...

  7. Extraction of phenolic compounds from Temnocalyx obovatus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenolic compounds yield in plant extracts depend on the method employed in the extraction process. In this study, we investigated systematically, a method of determination of extraction yield of antioxidant compounds from Temnocalyx obovatus. A sample treatment and preparation protocol that employs strict statistical ...

  8. Different enzyme extraction methods for human dentin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fernando Nato; Alberto Bavelloni; Alessandra Ruggeri; Pietro Gobbi; Lorenzo Breschi

    2010-01-01

    ... The purpose of this study was to analyze different enzymes extraction methods in relation to the assay to be performed, i.e. zymography and western blotting (WB) for MMP-2 and -9. Methods Proteins were extracted from human dentin powder and demineralized with 1% phosphoric acid for 10min. Two different extraction buffers with different extrac...

  9. Supercritical fluid extraction of Beauvericin from maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosino, P; Galvano, F; Fogliano, V; Logrieco, A; Fresa, R; Ritieni, A

    2004-02-27

    Beauvericin (BEA), a supercritical fluid extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide from maize was investigated. Extraction efficiencies under several different extraction conditions were examined. Pressure, temperature, extraction time, organic modifier and water matrix content (10%) were investigated. The best extraction conditions were at a temperature of 60 degrees C, 3200psi, for 30min static extraction time and methanol as modifier solvent. Extraction recovery of 36% without modifier by adding water to the matrix in the extraction vessel (reproducibility relative standard deviations (R.S.D.)=3-5%) were recorded. Extraction recovery of 76.9% with methanol as co-solvent (reproducibility R.S.D.=3-5%) was obtained. Data shows that SFE gives a lower BEA recovery compared to conventional extraction protocol with organic solvents while SFE with modifier and conventional extraction yields are comparable. BEA extract contents were determined by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a diode array detector (DAD) at 205nm and BEA peak confirmed by LC-MS. Acetonitrile-water as mobile phase and column C-18 were both tested. Instrumental and analytical parameters were optimized in the range linear interval from 1 to 500mgkg(-1) and reached a detection limit of 2ng.

  10. Antimicrobial activity of extracts and a germacranolidetype ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the leaf of Tithonia diversifolia, and one sesquiterpene lactone 1 isolated from the ethyl acetate extract was studied. Of the fourteen strains of bacteria used, the ethyl acetate extract was the most active, showing inhibitory activity against ...

  11. 21 CFR 182.7255 - Chondrus extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Chondrus extract. 182.7255 Section 182.7255 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... extract. (a) Product. Chondrus extract (carrageenin). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  12. 21 CFR 73.1030 - Annatto extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.1030 Section 73.1030 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1030 Annatto extract. (a) Identity and specifications. (1) The color additive annatto extract shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of...

  13. 21 CFR 582.7255 - Chondrus extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chondrus extract. 582.7255 Section 582.7255 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Chondrus extract. (a) Product. Chondrus extract (carrageenin). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  14. Determining efficient extraction procedure of phytochemicals from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the most effective method of extracting metabolites from the two herbs Ziziphus abyssinica and Tamaridus. Indicus. Methodology and results: The methods used included cold and soxhlet extraction using methanol as the solvent and hot extraction using distilled water. To determine the efficiency in ...

  15. (Mill Druce) using Supercritical Fluid Extraction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the effects of temperature, pressure and extraction time on oil yield obtained from Polygonatum odoratum as well as the optimum processing conditions for supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) extraction. Methods: Supercritical CO2 extraction technology was adopted in this experiment to study the ...

  16. Automated extraction system design review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parry, H.L.; Eklund, J.D.; Halter, J.M.; Sullivan, R.G.

    1979-03-01

    The Automated Extraction System (AES) is an advanced fullface continuous mining system designed and built by National Mine Service Co. Since initial testing in a coal mine revealed operational problems, a design review was conducted. Two potential conceptual problems were identified: the roof control concept and the hydraulic sumping concept. It is felt that the combination of uneven and cyclic roof loading may promote roof failure even in bolted roof areas. Critical design problem areas include weight and balance, friction-induced excessive sumping forces, and design complexity.

  17. Targets and Secondary Beam Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noah, Etam

    2014-02-01

    Several applications make use of secondary beams of particles generated by the interaction of a primary beam of particles with a target. Spallation neutrons, bremsstrahlung photon-produced neutrons, radioactive ions and neutrinos are available to users at state-of-the-art facilities worldwide. Plans for even higher secondary beam intensities place severe constraints on the design of targets. This article reports on the main targetry challenges and highlights a variety of solutions for targetry and secondary beam extraction. Issues related to target station layout, instrumentation at the beam-target interface, safety and radioprotection are also discussed.

  18. Pulmonary extraction of circulating noradrenaline in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Christensen, N J; Ring-Larsen, H

    1986-01-01

    was not significantly different from that of age-matched control subjects. The lungs extracted both endogenous NA and 3H-NA significantly, but no significant pulmonary extraction of endogenous adrenaline was found. The pulmonary arterial-systemic arterial extraction ratio of NA was mean 0.08 (n = 9) as compared......% of this value. The small, but significant, pulmonary extraction of circulating noradrenaline implies that whole-body clearance, as estimated from infusion rate and systemic arterial sampling, will be overestimated by approximately 7%. As pulmonary extraction of NA and 3H-NA was almost identical, the results...

  19. Automatic extraction of planetary image features

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMoigne-Stewart, Jacqueline J. (Inventor); Troglio, Giulia (Inventor); Benediktsson, Jon A. (Inventor); Serpico, Sebastiano B. (Inventor); Moser, Gabriele (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method for the extraction of Lunar data and/or planetary features is provided. The feature extraction method can include one or more image processing techniques, including, but not limited to, a watershed segmentation and/or the generalized Hough Transform. According to some embodiments, the feature extraction method can include extracting features, such as, small rocks. According to some embodiments, small rocks can be extracted by applying a watershed segmentation algorithm to the Canny gradient. According to some embodiments, applying a watershed segmentation algorithm to the Canny gradient can allow regions that appear as close contours in the gradient to be segmented.

  20. Antibacterial activity of some Artemisia species extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiată, Antonia; Tuchiluş, Cristina; Ivănescu, Bianca; Ionescu, A; Lazăr, M I

    2009-01-01

    The antimicrobial activities of ethanol, methanol and hexane extracts from Artemisia absinthium, Artemisia annua and Artemisia vulgaris were studied. Plant extracts were tested against five Gram-positive bacteria, two Gram-negative bacteria and one fungal strain. The results indicated that Artemisia annua alcoholic extracts are more effective against tested microorganisms. However, all plants extracts have moderate or no activity against Gram-negative bacteria. The obtained results confirm the justification of extracts of Artemisia species use in traditional medicine as treatment for microbial infections.

  1. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 750.21 Section 750.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals...

  2. Integration of galacturonic acid extraction with alkaline protein extraction from green tea leaf residue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Chen; Bozileva, Elvira; Klis, van der Frits; Dong, Yiyuan; Sanders, Johan P.M.; Bruins, Marieke E.

    2016-01-01

    Leaf pectin can be used as a feedstock for galacturonic acid (GA) production, but high extraction costs limit economic feasibility. To improve the extraction efficiency, leaf pectin extraction was integrated with an already cost-effective alkaline protein extraction, focusing on high yield of GA

  3. THE ACCELERATED SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF XINYU COKING COAL AND ITS EXTRACTION MECHANISM

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lu; Qi, Shi-Chao; Norinaga, Koyo

    2015-01-01

    Coking coal from Xinyu of Shanxi Province is extracted under elevated temperature and pressure via Accelerated Solvent and Soxhlet Extraction. Analyzing their GC/MS results, we explore the two extraction methods’ impact on the dissolution behavior of small molecules in coal and investigate the mechanism of the extraction.

  4. Handling uncertainty in relation extraction: a case study on tennis tournament results extraction from tweets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, Jochem; Habib, Mena Badieh; van Keulen, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    Relation extraction involves different types of uncertainty due to the imperfection of the extraction tools and the inherent ambiguity of unstructured text. In this paper, we discuss several ways of handling uncertainties in relation extraction from social media. Our study case is to extract tennis

  5. Schistosoma mansoni antigenic extracts obtained by different extraction procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Tendler

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available Solubilization of Schistosoma mansoni antigens was obtained by agitation of adult worms in a 3M KCl solution. The protein contents of the KCl extrats varied from 0.35 to 0.96 mg/ml. Sera from 97 patients with hepatointestinal shistosomiasis and viable eggs in stools from a Brazilian endemic area were studied by immunoelectroomophoresis and Ouchterlony immunodiffusion methods with the KCl extract and with another antigen, obtained by homogenization of adult schistosomes in saline. The rate of positiveness of immunoprecipitation deterctions by immunoelectroomophoresis with the KCl extract was 53.5%. A correlation was verified between methods of detection and extration procedures, resulting in a better association of the extract obtained by agitation in 3M KCl and immunoelectroomophoresis.Foi obtida a solubilização de antígenos do Schistosoma mansoni por agitação de vermes adultos em solução de KCl 3M. O teor protéico dos extratos de KCl variou de 0,35 a 0,96mg/ ml. Foram testados pelos métodos de imunoeletroosmoforese (IEOP e dupla imunodifusão (Ouchterlony, 97 soros de doentes de area endêmica brasileira de esquistossomose, forma clínica hepatointestinal e com exames coprológicos positivos para S. mansoni, com o extrato de KCl e outro antígeno obtido pela homogenização de vermes adultos em salina. A taxa de positividade das reações de imunoprecipitação por IEOP com o antígeno extraído pela ação do KCl 3M foi 53,5%. Foi verificada a correlação entre os métodos de detecção e de extração resultando numa melhor associação entre o extrato obtido por agitação no KCl 3M e a IEOP.

  6. [Study on condition for extraction of arctiin from fruits of Arctium lappa using supercritical fluid extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wen-hong; Liu, Ben

    2006-08-01

    To study the feasibility of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) for arctiin from the fruits of Arctium lappa. The extracts were analyzed by HPLC, optimum extraction conditions were studied by orthogonal tests. The optimal extraction conditions were: pressure 40 MPa, temperature 70 degrees C, using methanol as modifier carrier at the rate of 0.55 mL x min(-1), static extraction time 5 min, dynamic extraction 30 min, flow rate of CO2 2 L x min(-1). SFE has the superiority of adjustable polarity, and has the ability of extracting arctiin.

  7. Extraction and bioactivity of polygonatum polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qunguang; Lv, Yunxia; Dai, Weidong; Miao, Xiongying; Zhong, Dewu

    2013-03-01

    The present study is to explore the optimal extraction parameters and liver protective effect of the polygonatum polysaccharides in vivo. The order of factor effects on polysaccharides production was found to be extraction time (min, A)>ratio of solvent to solid (C)>extraction temperature (°C, B)>extraction number (D). The results show that the effects of extraction time (min, A) and ratio of solvent to solid (C) were more significant than those of the other factors. Optimal extraction parameters were as followings: extraction time 120 min, extraction temperature 100 °C, ratio of solvent to solid 5, and extraction number 4. Polygonatum polysaccharides was administered orally at doses of 150, 300 and 450 mg/(kg day) to carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-treated rats. Results showed that administration of polygonatum polysaccharides could increase rats' final body weight, liver antioxidant enzymes activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione reductase (GR)), decrease serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) level. The liver sections obtained from animals supplemented with polygonatum polysaccharides extract demonstrated reduced pathological damages, supporting that polygonatum polysaccharides extract could effectively decrease the toxicity of CCl(4). It can be concluded that polygonatum polysaccharides treatment may prevent CCl(4)-induced liver oxidative injury in experimental rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Antioxidant properties of fermented mango leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Anna; Ku, Taekyu; Yoo, Ilsou

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of mango (Mangifera indica) leaves were evaluated. Hydroalcoholic leaf extracts that were lyophilized were subsequently fermented with either Lactobacillus casei or effective microorganisms (EM) such as probiotic bacteria and/or other anaerobic organisms. Antioxidant properties were measured as a function of the mango leaf extract concentration in the fermentation broth. Tests for radical scavenging using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical showed higher antioxidant activity for Lactobacillus- and EM-fermented mango leaf extracts than for the synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene. Antioxidant activity generally increased with increasing fermented extract concentration as did the fermented extracts' polyphenol and flavonoid contents. Fermented extracts reduced reactive oxygen species generation by lipopolysaccharide in RAW 264.7 cells when measured via fluorescence of dichlorodihydrofluorescein acetate treated cells using flow cytometry. RAW 264.7 cells also showed a concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect of the fermented extracts using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthialol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase activity as well as nitrite scavenging by the fermented extracts increased as fermented extract concentrations increased. Tyrosinase activity was assayed with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine as substrate. Nitrite scavenging was assessed via measurement of inhibition of chromophore production from nitrite-naphthylamine-sulfanilic acid mixtures. The antioxidant properties of fermented mango leaf extracts suggest the fermented extracts may be useful in developing health food and fermentation-based beauty products.

  9. Percutaneous extraction of stented device leads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Bryan; Wazni, Oussama; Chung, Roy; Martin, David O; Rickard, John; Tanaka-Esposito, Christine; Bassiouny, Mohammed; Wilkoff, Bruce L

    2012-05-01

    There are limited published data regarding the percutaneous extraction of device leads jailed by a venous stent. In this study we assessed the feasibility and safety of percutaneous extraction of stented device leads. We reviewed our experience percutaneously extracting 7 chronically implanted device leads jailed to the wall of the left innominate and/or subclavian veins by a previously placed stent. All leads were successfully extracted by using a percutaneous approach. Both pacing leads and defibrillator leads were extracted. The oldest pacing lead extracted was 14 years old. The oldest defibrillator lead extracted was 6 years old. Three of the leads were extracted with simple manual traction alone. The 4 remaining leads required a more complex, femoral extraction approach for successful removal. In our experience extracting 7 stented device leads, complete percutaneous removal was feasible 100% of the time using a combination of simple manual traction and a femoral approach. No major complications were associated with the extraction procedures. Copyright © 2012 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Algal Proteins: Extraction, Application, and Challenges Concerning Production

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stephen Bleakley; Maria Hayes

    2017-01-01

    .... Protein extraction methods applied to algae to date, including enzymatic hydrolysis, physical processes, and chemical extraction and novel methods such as ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed...

  11. DESIGNING AN EVENT EXTRACTION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botond BENEDEK

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Internet world, the amount of information available reaches very high quotas. In order to find specific information, some tools were created that automatically scroll through the existing web pages and update their databases with the latest information on the Internet. In order to systematize the search and achieve a result in a concrete form, another step is needed for processing the information returned by the search engine and generating the response in a more organized form. Centralizing events of a certain type is useful first of all for creating a news service. Through this system we are pursuing a knowledge - events from the Internet documents - extraction system. The system will recognize events of a certain type (weather, sports, politics, text data mining, etc. depending on how it will be trained (the concept it has in the dictionary. These events can be provided to the user, or it can also extract the context in which the event occurred, to indicate the initial form in which the event was embedded.

  12. Wind Extraction for Natural Ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Tadeu; Yaghoobian, Neda; Kumar, Rajan; Ordonez, Juan

    2017-11-01

    Due to the depletion of energy resources and the environmental impact of pollution and unsustainable energy resources, energy consumption has become one of the main concerns in our rapidly growing world. Natural ventilation, a traditional method to remove anthropogenic and solar heat gains, proved to be a cost-effective, alternative method to mechanical ventilation. However, while natural ventilation is simple in theory, its detailed design can be a challenge, particularly for wind-driven ventilation, which its performance highly involves the buildings' form, surrounding topography, turbulent flow characteristics, and climate. One of the main challenges with wind-driven natural ventilation schemes is due to the turbulent and unpredictable nature of the wind around the building that impose complex pressure loads on the structure. In practice, these challenges have resulted in founding the natural ventilation mainly on buoyancy (rather than the wind), as the primary force. This study is the initial step for investigating the physical principals of wind extraction over building walls and investigating strategies to reduce the dependence of the wind extraction on the incoming flow characteristics and the target building form.

  13. Liquid-Liquid Extraction Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack D. Law; Terry A. Todd

    2008-12-01

    Solvent extraction processing has demonstrated the ability to achieve high decontamination factors for uranium and plutonium while operating at high throughputs. Historical application of solvent extraction contacting equipment implies that for the HA cycle (primary separation of uranium and plutonium from fission products) the equipment of choice is pulse columns. This is likely due to relatively short residence times (as compared to mixer-settlers) and the ability of the columns to tolerate solids in the feed. Savannah River successfully operated the F-Canyon with centrifugal contactors in the HA cycle (which have shorter residence times than columns). All three contactors have been successfully deployed in uranium and plutonium purification cycles. Over the past 20 years, there has been significant development of centrifugal contactor designs and they have become very common for research and development applications. New reprocessing plants are being planned in Russia and China and the United States has done preliminary design studies on future reprocessing plants. The choice of contactors for all of these facilities is yet to be determined.

  14. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Hibiscus cannabinus L. seed extracts after sequential solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusri, Noordin Mohd; Chan, Kim Wei; Iqbal, Shahid; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-10-25

    A sequential solvent extraction scheme was employed for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds. Yield of extracts varied widely among the solvents and was the highest for hexane extract (16.6% based on dry weight basis), while water extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (18.78 mg GAE/g extract), total flavonoid content (2.49 mg RE/g extract), and antioxidant activities (p < 0.05). DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching, metal chelating activity, ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assays were employed to comprehensively assess the antioxidant potential of different solvent extracts prepared sequentially. Besides water, methanolic extract also exhibited high retardation towards the formation of hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the total antioxidant activity tests (p < 0.05). As conclusion, water and methanol extracts of kenaf seed may potentially serve as new sources of antioxidants for food and nutraceutical applications.

  15. Study on the microalgal pigments extraction process: Performance of microwave assisted extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Pasquet, Virginie; Cherouvrier, Jean-rene; Farhat, Firas; Thiery, Valerie; Piot, Jean-Marie; Berard, Jean-baptiste; Kaas, Raymond; Serive, Benoit; Patrice, Thierry; Cadoret, Jean-paul; Picot, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    The performance of microwaves irradiation (MAE and VMAE) to extract pigments from two marine microalgae was compared to conventional processes (cold and hot soaking and ultrasound-assisted extraction). Pigments were quantified by RP-HPLC and extraction performance was assessed regarding rapidity, reproducibility and extraction yields. Scanning electron microscopy was used at all extraction steps to assess the impact of the process on microalgal cell integrity. Freeze-drying and pigments extra...

  16. Kinetics study of oil extraction from Citrus auranticum L. by solvent-free microwave extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heri Septya Kusuma

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Citrus and its oil are of high economic and medicinal value because of their multiple uses, such as in the food industry, cosmetics and folk medicine. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential of solvent-free microwave extraction for the extraction of essential oils from Citrus auranticum L. peels. Specifically, this study verifies the kinetics based on second-order model and mechanism of solvent-free microwave extraction of Citrus auranticum L. peels. Solvent-free microwave extraction is used to extract essential oils from Citrus auranticum L. peels. The initial extraction rate, the extraction capacity and the second-order extraction rate constant were calculated using the model. Using a three-step experimental design of the kinetics of oil extraction from Citrus auranticum L. peels by solvent-free microwave extraction, this study showed that the extraction process was based on the second-order extraction model. The initial extraction rate (h, the extraction capacity (CS, the second-order extraction rate constant (k, and coefficient of determination (R2 was 0.7483 g L-1 min-1, 0.7291 g L-1, 1.4075 L g-1 min-1 and 0.9992, respectively.

  17. Changing perspectives on resource extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Hazel; Stewart, Iain; Pahl, Sabine; Stokes, Alison

    2015-04-01

    Over the last century, resource extraction in the UK has changed immeasurably; from relatively small-scale, manually-operated facilities to the larger technological advanced sites that exist today. The communities that live near these sites have also changed, from housing workers that were as much of a resource as the geological material, to local residents who are environmentally literate and strongly value their landscape. Nowadays great pressure is put on the extractive industry to work in both environmentally sustainable and socially ethical ways, but how does this impact upon the local population? How do communities perceive the resource extraction that neighbours them? And is this perception rooted in a general understanding of geology and the subsurface? To explore resident's perceptions of the geological environment, three villages in the southwest of England have been investigated, using a mixed-methods mental models approach. The villages were selected as each has a different geological setting, both commercially and culturally. The first village has a strong historical geological identity, but little current geological activity. The second village has a large tungsten mine in the process of beginning production. The third village has no obvious cultural or commercial relationships with geology and acts as the control site. A broad sample from each of the three villages was qualitatively interviewed, the results of which were analyzed using an emergent thematic coding scheme. These qualitative results were then modelled using Morgan et al's mental models method (2002) and tested using a quantitative questionnaire. The results of this mixed method approach reveals the principal perceptions (or mental models) of residents in these three villages. The villages each present a different general perception of resource exploitation, which appears to be culturally driven, with the first village having the most positive correlations. These mental models are

  18. Extraction matrine from Radix Sopheorae Tonkinensis by non-supported liquid membrane extraction technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifeng Guo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-Supported Liquid Membrane Extraction (NSLME is a new development extraction technology based on Supported Liquid Membrane Extraction (SLME. Sample extraction assembly is composed of three phases: an acceptor phase: phosphate–sodium dihydrogen phosphate buffer solution at the bottom; an organic phase: chloroform applied as the non-supported liquid membrane in the middle layer; and a donor phase: aqueous solution samples containing alkaloids in the upper layer. The whole system is maintained stable by density difference among the three layers that avoided the mutual interferences. The alkaloid in the donor phase can spread to the underlying acidic acceptor phase, where it is able to form water soluble salt in the acid environment, and thus cannot return to the middle organic phase. Therefore, the transmission of alkaloid is a one-way path, and the extraction of alkaloids can be achieved and enriched. In this study, the extraction of alkaloid was carried out by using matrine aqueous solution as the donor phase, and the extraction quantity and efficiency were investigated by GC/MS. This study evaluated the relationship between extracted quantity and extraction time. The effects of extraction temperature, membrane thickness, pH value of acceptor phase on extraction quantity and efficiency were also studied, and the optimal extraction condition was found. The extracted quantity achieved the largest amount at 45 °C when pure phosphoric acid was applied as the acceptor phase; the organic solvent volume was 0.2 mL. The extraction of alkaloid from Radix Sophorae Tonkinensis was performed under the optimized condition. The extraction rate of matrine was up to 54% after a four-hour extraction. A huge advantage of NSLME technology is that the extracted alkaloid enjoyed high purity compared with that extracted by the traditional Liquid–Liquid Extraction (LLE.

  19. Extraction of bromelain from pineapple peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketnawa, S; Chaiwut, P; Rawdkuen, S

    2011-08-01

    Large amount of pineapple peels (by-products) is left over after processing and they are a potential source for bromelain extraction. Distilled water (DI), DI containing cysteine and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (DI-CE), sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.0 (PB) and PB containing cysteine and EDTA (PB-CE) were used as extractants for bromelain from the pineapple peels. The highest bromelain activity was obtained when it was extracted with PB-CE (867 and 1032 units for Nang Lae and Phu Lae cultv, respectively). The PB could maintain the pH of the extract (pH 5.1-5.7) when compared with others. Under sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the extract showed protein bands in the range 24-28 kDa. The protein band with a molecular weight of ∼28 kDa exposed the clear zone on blue background under the casein-substrate gel electrophoresis. The effects of the bromelain extract on the protein patterns of beef, chicken and squid muscles were also determined. Trichloroacetic acid soluble peptide content of all the treated muscles increased when the amount of bromelain extract increased. Decrease in myosin heavy chains and actin was observed in all the muscle types when bromelain extract was used. The best extractant for bromelain from pineapple peels was PB-CE. Moreover, bromelain extract could be used as a muscle food tenderizing agent in food industries.

  20. Beam stripping extraction from the VINCY cyclotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić-Đurović Jasna L.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction system of a cyclotron guides an ion beam from a spiral acceleration orbit, through an extraction trajectory, into a high energy transport line. The two methods commonly used to direct an ion into the extraction path are deflection, by the electric field of an electrostatic deflector, and ion stripping, by a thin carbon foil. Compared to the electrostatic deflector system, the stripping extraction provides a fast and easy change of the extracted ion energy and is easier to manufacture operate, and maintain. However, the extraction trajectory and dynamics of an ion beam after stripping are highly dependant on the ion energy and specific charge. Thus, when a multipurpose machine such as the VINCY Cyclotron is concerned, it is far from easy to deliver a variety of ion beams into the same high energy transport line and at the same time preserve a reasonable compactness of the extraction system. The front side stripping extraction system of the VINCY Cyclotron provides high (~70 MeV and mid (~30 MeV energy protons, as well as a number of heavy ions in broad energy ranges. The back side stripping extraction system extracts low energy protons (~18 MeV and enables their simultaneous use with high energy protons at the front side of the machine.

  1. Adaptive web data extraction policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Provetti, Alessandro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Web data extraction is concerned, among other things, with routine data accessing and downloading from continuously-updated dynamic Web pages. There is a relevant trade-off between the rate at which the external Web sites are accessed and the computational burden on the accessing client. We address the problem by proposing a predictive model, typical of the Operating Systems literature, of the rate-of-update of each Web source. The presented model has been implemented into a new version of the Dynamo project: a middleware that assists in generating informative RSS feeds out of traditional HTML Web sites. To be effective, i.e., make RSS feeds be timely and informative and to be scalable, Dynamo needs a careful tuning and customization of its polling policies, which are described in detail.

  2. Extracting information from multiplex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovacci, Jacopo; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2016-06-01

    Multiplex networks are generalized network structures that are able to describe networks in which the same set of nodes are connected by links that have different connotations. Multiplex networks are ubiquitous since they describe social, financial, engineering, and biological networks as well. Extending our ability to analyze complex networks to multiplex network structures increases greatly the level of information that is possible to extract from big data. For these reasons, characterizing the centrality of nodes in multiplex networks and finding new ways to solve challenging inference problems defined on multiplex networks are fundamental questions of network science. In this paper, we discuss the relevance of the Multiplex PageRank algorithm for measuring the centrality of nodes in multilayer networks and we characterize the utility of the recently introduced indicator function Θ̃(S) for describing their mesoscale organization and community structure. As working examples for studying these measures, we consider three multiplex network datasets coming for social science.

  3. Metadata extraction using text mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Shivani; Rüping, Stefan; Wrobel, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Grid technologies have proven to be very successful in the area of eScience, and healthcare in particular, because they allow to easily combine proven solutions for data querying, integration, and analysis into a secure, scalable framework. In order to integrate the services that implement these solutions into a given Grid architecture, some metadata is required, for example information about the low-level access to these services, security information, and some documentation for the user. In this paper, we investigate how relevant metadata can be extracted from a semi-structured textual documentation of the algorithm that is underlying the service, by the use of text mining methods. In particular, we investigate the semi-automatic conversion of functions of the statistical environment R into Grid services as implemented by the GridR tool by the generation of appropriate metadata.

  4. Corneal astigmatism following cataract extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wishart, M S; Wishart, P K; Gregor, Z J

    1986-01-01

    The changes in corneal curvature in the first six months after cataract extraction were studied by performing sequential keratometry on a group of 57 patients. 8/0 Virgin silk interrupted sutures were used for the closure of corneoscleral incisions, and 10/0 monofilament tied in double running (bootlace) or single running (continuous) fashion was used for corneal wound closure. A high degree of with-the-rule astigmatism was evident in all patients two weeks postoperatively, but thereafter the character of the astigmatism produced by 8/0 virgin silk and 10/0 monofilament closure was quite different: in the 8/0 virgin silk group there was an early and pronounced shift in the axis of astigmatism to against-the-rule, whereas in the 10/0 monofilament group there was little further change in the astigmatism unless the sutures were removed. Wound compression and wound gape as factors responsible for these changes are discussed. PMID:3539177

  5. Incremental Observer Relative Data Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukauskas, Linas; Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter

    2004-01-01

    or a Panorama, where an observer is data space this approach is far from optimal. A more scalable approach is to make the observer-aware database system and to restrict the communication between the database and visualization systems to the relevant data. In this paper VR-tree, an extension of the R......The visual exploration of large databases calls for a tight coupling of database and visualization systems. Current visualization systems typically fetch all the data and organize it in a scene tree that is then used to render the visible data. For immersive data explorations in a Cave......-tree, is used to index visibility ranges of objects. We introduce a new operator for incremental Observer Relative data Extraction (iORDE). We propose the Volatile Access STructure (VAST), a lightweight main memory structure that is created on the fly and is maintained during visual data explorations. VAST...

  6. Advances in information extraction techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, G.

    1982-01-01

    Sundry recent developments are presented which show some potential for affecting the automatic extraction of information from remotely sensed data. Pattern representations more abstract than Euclidean vector spaces offer some hope of unifying structural and decision theoretical approaches. The estimation of expected classification error rates is becoming more sophisticated and rigorous, but useful finite-sample results for nonparametric distributions appear unobtainable. Focus on computational complexity allows comparison of algorithms, while software engineering techniques reduce the effort necessary to develop and maintain complex image processing systems. Advances in computer systems architecture, commercial database technology, and man-machine communications should be closely monitored by the remote sensing community. A NASA-sponsored recommendation for research directions in mathematical pattern recognition are offered.

  7. Topic extraction from adverbial clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rubio Alcalá

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers new data to support findings about Topic extraction from adverbial clauses. Since such clauses are strong islands, they should not allow extraction of any kind, but we show here that if the appropriate conditions are met, Topics of the CLLD kind in Romance can move out of them. We propose that two conditions must be met for such movement to be possible: the first is that the adverbial clause must have undergone topicalisation in the first place; the second is that the adverbial clause is inherently topical from a semantic viewpoint. Contrast with other language families (Germanic, Quechua and Japanese is provided and the semantic implications of the proposal are briefly discussed. Keywords: topicalisation; Clitic Left Dislocation; syntactic islands; adverbial clauses Este artículo ofrece nuevos datos sobre la extracción de Tópicos desde oraciones subordinadas adverbiales. Dado que dichas oraciones son islas fuertes, no deberían permitir extracción de ningún tipo, pero mostramos que si se dan las condiciones apropiadas, los Tópicos del tipo CLLD en lenguas románicas pueden desplazarse fuera de ellas. Proponemos que se deben cumplir dos condiciones para que ese movimiento sea posible: la primera es que la propia subordinada adverbial se haya topicalizado en primer lugar; la segunda es que la subordinada adverbial sea inherentemente un Tópico desde el punto de vista semántico. Proporcionamos también algunos contrastes con otras familias lingüísticas (germánica, quechua y japonés y se discuten brevemente las implicaciones semánticas de la propuesta. Palabras clave: topicalización; dislocación a la izquierda con clítico; islas sintácticas; oraciones adverbiales

  8. Extraction of functional ingredients from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) using liquid solvent and supercritical CO₂ extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, Laura; Vázquez, Erika; Fornari, Tiziana; López-Hazas, María del Carmen; García-Risco, Mónica R; Santoyo, Susana; Reglero, Guillermo

    2015-03-15

    In this work three different techniques were applied to extract dry leaves of spinach (Spinacia oleracea): solid-liquid extraction (SLE), pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to investigate the influence of extraction solvent and technique on extracts composition and antioxidant activity. Moreover, the influence of carotenoids and phenolic compounds on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of spinach extracts was also studied. The higher concentrations of carotenoids and the lower content of phenolic compounds were observed in the supercritical CO₂ extracts; whereas water and/or ethanol PLE extracts presented low amounts of carotenoids and the higher concentrations of phenolic compounds. PLE extract with the highest content of phenolic compounds showed the highest antioxidant activity, although SFE carotenoid rich extract also showed a high antioxidant activity. Moreover, both extracts presented an important anti-inflammatory activity. PLE seems to be a good technique for the extraction of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds from spinach leaves. Moreover, spinach phenolic compounds and carotenoids present a high antioxidant activity, whereas spinach carotenoids seem to show a higher anti-inflammatory activity than phenolic compounds. It is worth noting that of our knowledge this is the first time the anti-inflammatory activity of lipophilic extracts from spinach leaves is reported. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Caffeine adsorption of montmorillonite in coffee extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiono, Takashi; Yamamoto, Kenichiro; Yotsumoto, Yuko; Yoshida, Aruto

    2017-08-01

    The growth in health-conscious consumers continues to drive the demand for a wide variety of decaffeinated beverages. We previously developed a new technology using montmorillonite (MMT) in selective decaffeination of tea extract. This study evaluated and compared decaffeination of coffee extract using MMT and activated carbon (AC). MMT adsorbed caffeine without significant adsorption of caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs), feruloylquinic acids (FQAs), dicaffeoylquinic acids (di-CQAs), or caffeoylquinic lactones (CQLs). AC adsorbed caffeine, chlorogenic acids (CGAs) and CQLs simultaneously. The results suggested that the adsorption selectivity for caffeine in coffee extract is higher in MMT than AC. The caffeine adsorption isotherms of MMT in coffee extract fitted well to the Langmuir adsorption model. The adsorption properties in coffee extracts from the same species were comparable, regardless of roasting level and locality of growth. Our findings suggest that MMT is a useful adsorbent in the decaffeination of a wide range of coffee extracts.

  10. Data extraction from proteomics raw data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mancuso, Francesco; Bunkenborg, Jakob; Wierer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In shot-gun proteomics raw tandem MS data are processed with extraction tools to produce condensed peak lists that can be uploaded to database search engines. Many extraction tools are available but to our knowledge, a systematic comparison of such tools has not yet been carried out. Using raw data...... and agreement in-between tools. Processing a primary data set with 9 different tandem MS extraction tools resulted in a low overlap of identified peptides. The tools differ by assigned charge states of precursors, precursor and fragment ion masses, and we show that peptides identified very confidently using one...... extraction tool might not be matched when using another tool. We also found a bias towards peptides of lower charge state when extracting fragment ion data from higher resolution raw data without deconvolution. Collecting and comparing the extracted data from the same raw data allow adjusting parameters...

  11. Antifungal activity of plant extracts against dermatophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali-Shtayeh, M S; Abu Ghdeib, S I

    1999-01-01

    The aqueous extracts (15 micrograms ml-1 medium) of 22 plants used in folkloric medicine in Palestine were investigated for their antifungal activity and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against nine isolates of Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton violaceum. The extract of the different plant species reduced colony growth of the three dermatophytes by 36 to 100% compared with the control treatment. Antimycotic activity of the extract against the three dermatophytes varied significantly (P Ruscus aculeatus, Retema raetam and Salvia fruticosa against T. violaceum. The MICs of these most active plants ranged from 0.6 to 40 micrograms ml-1. The three dermatophytes differed significantly with regard to their susceptibility to plant extracts. Trichophyton violaceum was the most susceptible being completely inhibited by 50% of the extracts followed by M. canis and T. mentagrophytes which were completely inhibited by only 23 and 14% of the extracts, respectively.

  12. Antibacterial activity of Aristolochia bracteata root extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, P S; Anandharamakrishnan, C; Jayaprakasha, G K

    2003-01-01

    Aristolochia bracteata (Aristolochiaceae) is used in traditional medicines as a gastric stimulant and in the treatment of cancer, lung inflammation, and dysentery and snake bites. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Aristolochia bracteata root extracts. Roots of A. bracteata were powdered and successively extracted with ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol, and water for 8 hours each using a Soxhlet extractor. Antibacterial activity of dried extracts was evaluated by the pour-plate method against a few Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. All the crude extracts showed a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. The ethyl acetate extract was found to be the most effective. This study shows the potential for replacement of synthetic preservatives by the use of natural extracts.

  13. Antioxidant potential of Tanacetum vulgare L. extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojković, M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant activity of Tanacetum vulgare L. extracts was determined. Areal plant parts (leaves and flowers were dried, grinded and extracted with five different solvents: methanol, ethanol, acetone, water and isopropanol. Total phenols and total flavonoids were determined and four in vitro antioxidant assays were applied. The best extraction medium (considering only phenols and flavonoids was methanol and 62.7 mg galic acid equivalents per gram of dry weight were found (for leaves extract. Comparing amounts of phenolic compounds found in the extracts and its antioxidant potential with other herbal teas and extracts, it may be concluded that T. vulgare is a plant species destitute with phenolic compounds. Obtained results suggest that phenolic compounds, present in the plant tissues, are carriers of antioxidant properties.

  14. Mentha aquatica L. extract affects mitochondrial bioenergetics

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Fernanda M.; Pereira, Olívia R.; Cardoso, Susana M.; Oliveira, Paulo J; Moreno, António J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Mentha aquatica extracts are commonly used in food flavoring and pharmacology. In the present work, we evaluated the possible effects of Mentha aquatica L. (water mint) ethanolic extract on rat liver mitochondria bioenergetics. Rat liver mitochondria were isolated using conventional protocols. M. aquatica extracts were evaluated on mitochondrial membrane electric potential by using a tetraphenylphosphonium cation (TPP+)-selective electrode, while mitochondrial respiratory activity was eval...

  15. Rules Extraction with an Immune Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deqin Yan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a method of extracting rules with immune algorithms from information systems is proposed. Designing an immune algorithm is based on a sharing mechanism to extract rules. The principle of sharing and competing resources in the sharing mechanism is consistent with the relationship of sharing and rivalry among rules. In order to extract rules efficiently, a new concept of flexible confidence and rule measurement is introduced. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed method is effective.

  16. Extraction in Dutch with Lexical Rules

    CERN Document Server

    Rentier, G

    1994-01-01

    Unbounded dependencies are often modelled by ``traces'' (and ``gap threading'') in unification-based grammars. Pollard and Sag, however, suggest an analysis of extraction based on lexical rules, which excludes the notion of traces (P&S 1994, Chapter 9). In parsing, it suggests a trade of indeterminism for lexical ambiguity. This paper provides a short introduction to this approach to extraction with lexical rules, and illustrates the linguistic power of the approach by applying it to particularly idiosyncratic Dutch extraction data.

  17. Supercritical solvent extraction of oil sand bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanbayev, Ye. I.; Ongarbayev, Ye. K.; Tileuberdi, Ye.; Mansurov, Z. A.; Golovko, A. K.; Rudyk, S.

    2017-08-01

    The supercritical solvent extraction of bitumen from oil sand studied with organic solvents. The experiments were performed in autoclave reactor at temperature above 255 °C and pressure 29 atm with stirring for 6 h. The reaction resulted in the formation of coke products with mineral part of oil sands. The remaining products separated into SARA fractions. The properties of the obtained products were studied. The supercritical solvent extraction significantly upgraded extracted natural bitumen.

  18. Method of Tibetan Person Knowledge Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yuan; Zhu, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Person knowledge extraction is the foundation of the Tibetan knowledge graph construction, which provides support for Tibetan question answering system, information retrieval, information extraction and other researches, and promotes national unity and social stability. This paper proposes a SVM and template based approach to Tibetan person knowledge extraction. Through constructing the training corpus, we build the templates based the shallow parsing analysis of Tibetan syntactic, semantic f...

  19. Development of an efficient glucosinolate extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doheny-Adams, T; Redeker, K; Kittipol, V; Bancroft, I; Hartley, S E

    2017-01-01

    Glucosinolates, anionic sulfur rich secondary metabolites, have been extensively studied because of their occurrence in the agriculturally important brassicaceae and their impact on human and animal health. There is also increasing interest in the biofumigant properties of toxic glucosinolate hydrolysis products as a method to control agricultural pests. Evaluating biofumigation potential requires rapid and accurate quantification of glucosinolates, but current commonly used methods of extraction prior to analysis involve a number of time consuming and hazardous steps; this study aimed to develop an improved method for glucosinolate extraction. Three methods previously used to extract glucosinolates from brassicaceae tissues, namely extraction in cold methanol, extraction in boiling methanol, and extraction in boiling water were compared across tissue type (root, stem leaf) and four brassicaceae species (B. juncea, S. alba, R. sativus, and E. sativa). Cold methanol extraction was shown to perform as well or better than all other tested methods for extraction of glucosinolates with the exception of glucoraphasatin in R. sativus shoots. It was also demonstrated that lyophilisation methods, routinely used during extraction to allow tissue disruption, can reduce final glucosinolate concentrations and that extracting from frozen wet tissue samples in cold 80% methanol is more effective. We present a simplified method for extracting glucosinolates from plant tissues which does not require the use of a freeze drier or boiling methanol, and is therefore less hazardous, and more time and cost effective. The presented method has been shown to have comparable or improved glucosinolate extraction efficiency relative to the commonly used ISO method for major glucosinolates in the Brassicaceae species studied: sinigrin and gluconasturtiin in B. juncea; sinalbin, glucotropaeolin, and gluconasturtiin in S. alba; glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin in R. sativus; and glucosatavin

  20. Refining Automatically Extracted Knowledge Bases Using Crowdsourcing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chunhua Li; Pengpeng Zhao; Victor S. Sheng; Xuefeng Xian; Jian Wu; Zhiming Cui

    2017-01-01

    .... Automated approaches improve the quality of knowledge bases but are far from perfect. In this paper, we leverage crowdsourcing to improve the quality of automatically extracted knowledge bases...

  1. Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibits adipocyte differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, Nicole; Galvis, Adriana; Marcano, Adriana; Priestap, Horacio A; Bennett, Bradley C; Barbieri, M Alejandro

    2013-07-01

    The fruits of saw palmetto have been used for the treatment of a variety of urinary and reproductive system problems. In this study we investigated whether the fruit extracts affect in vitro adipogenesis. Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibited the lipid droplet accumulation by induction media in a dose-dependent manner, and it also attenuated the protein expressions of C-EBPα and PPARγ. Phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt1 were also decreased by saw palmetto ethanol extract. This report suggests that saw palmetto extracts selectively affect the adipocyte differentiation through the modulation of several key factors that play a critical role during adipogenesis.

  2. Fungal metabolite extracts active against phytopathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, B; Seigle-Murandi, F; Steiman, R; Buarque De Gusmão, N

    1994-10-14

    The effectiveness of some genetically engineered microorganisms in the control of plant disease pathogens is widely acknowledged. These biopesticides, so far, pose less danger to the environment. However, little attention has been paid to the potential benefit of the use of exometabolites of some microorganisms in spite of their known activity and high biodegradability. A total of 1108 fungal metabolite extracts obtained from different strains of micromycetes cultured in two different liquid media (malt extract and yeast saccharose) were tested for antifungal activity. The target organisms were Collectotrichum musae, Drechslera spicifera, Fusarium oxysporum, Geotrichum candidum, Pyricularia oryzae, Drechslera oryzae and Gerlachia oryzae. Percentage mycelial growth inhibition activities varied widely with the different taxonomic groups. Extracts from Aspergillus and Penicillium spp. consistently showed the highest activity. A greater number of micromycetes produced active extracts in a liquid yeast extract saccharose medium than in a liquid malt extract medium. Mycelial growth inhibition diameters were also greater in assays with extracts from the yeast extract saccharose medium. The results generally demonstrated fungal metabolite extracts as potential sources of agricultural chemical input.

  3. Vessel tree extraction using locally optimal paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; van Ginneken, Bram; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to extract vessel trees by continually extending detected branches with locally optimal paths. Our approach uses a cost function from a multi scale vessel enhancement filter. Optimal paths are selected based on rules that take into account the geometric characteristics...... of the vessel tree. Experiments were performed on 10 low dose chest CT scans for which the pulmonary vessel trees were extracted. The proposed method is shown to extract a better connected vessel tree and extract more of the small peripheral vessels in comparison to applying a threshold on the output...

  4. Automatic Keyword Extraction from Individual Documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Stuart J.; Engel, David W.; Cramer, Nicholas O.; Cowley, Wendy E.

    2010-05-03

    This paper introduces a novel and domain-independent method for automatically extracting keywords, as sequences of one or more words, from individual documents. We describe the method’s configuration parameters and algorithm, and present an evaluation on a benchmark corpus of technical abstracts. We also present a method for generating lists of stop words for specific corpora and domains, and evaluate its ability to improve keyword extraction on the benchmark corpus. Finally, we apply our method of automatic keyword extraction to a corpus of news articles and define metrics for characterizing the exclusivity, essentiality, and generality of extracted keywords within a corpus.

  5. Zingiber officinale Roscoe aqueous extract modulates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zingiber officinale Roscoe aqueous extract modulates Matrixmetalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of Metalloproteinases expressions in Dengue virus-infected cells: implications for prevention of vascular permeability.

  6. Antioxidant properties of Rubus discolor leaf extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Veličković Ivona Z.; Grujić Slavica M.; Marin Petar D.

    2016-01-01

    In this work were examined aqueous, methanol, ethanol and acetone leaf extracts of Rubus discolor, wild growing blackberry, for their antioxidant properties and total phenol and flavonoid content. The total phenol content (TPC) varried from 250.05 to 446.61 mg GAE/g of dry extract, while total flavonoid content (TFC) was in range between 22.44 and 61.15 mg QE/g of dry extract. Aqueous extracts were the richest in phenols, as well as in flavonoids. In vitro ...

  7. Solvent Extraction and Ion Exchange in Radiochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarnemark, G.

    In 1805, Bucholz extracted uranium from a nitric acid solution into ether and back-extracted it into pure water. This is probably the first reported solvent-extraction investigation. During the following decades, the distribution of neutral compounds between aqueous phases and pure solvents was studied, e.g., by Peligot, Berthelot and Jungfleisch, and Nernst. Selective extractants for analytical purposes became available during the first decades of the twentieth century. From about 1940, extractants such as organophosphorous esters and amines were developed for use in the nuclear fuel cycle. This connection between radiochemistry and solvent-extraction chemistry made radiochemists heavily involved in the development of new solvent extraction processes, and eventually solvent extraction became a major separation technique in radiochemistry. About 160 years ago, Thompson and Way observed that soil can remove potassium and ammonium ions from an aqueous solution and release calcium ions. This is probably the first scientific report on an ion-exchange separation. The first synthesis of the type of organic ion exchangers that are used today was performed by Adams and Holmes in 1935. Since then, ion-exchange techniques have been used extensively for separations of various radionuclides in trace as well as macro amounts. During the last 4 decades, inorganic ion exchangers have also found a variety of applications. Today, solvent extraction as well as ion exchange are used extensively in the nuclear industry and for nuclear, chemical, and medical research. Some of these applications are discussed in the chapter.

  8. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR URANIUM RECOVERY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, H.M.; Duffey, D.

    1958-06-17

    A process is described for extracting uranium from uranium ore, wherein the uranium is substantially free from molybdenum contamination. In a solvent extraction process for recovering uranium, uranium and molybdenum ions are extracted from the ore with ether under high acidity conditions. The ether phase is then stripped with water at a lower controiled acidity, resaturated with salting materials such as sodium nitrate, and reextracted with the separation of the molybdenum from the uranium without interference from other metals that have been previously extracted.

  9. Troubleshooting with cell blanks in PLE extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-González, V; Grueiro-Noche, G; Concha-Graña, E; Turnes-Carou, M I; Muniategui-Lorenzo, S; López-Mahía, P; Prada-Rodríguez, D

    2005-09-01

    The blank extracts obtained from the pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of a 11 mL empty cell of ASE 200 were analysed by GC-FID and GC-ECD and many interfering peaks were detected, which could difficult the trace analysis of persistent organic pollutants (i.e. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides). These interfering compounds were identified as phthalates, silicones and organic acids and their sources were established. A solution to this analytical trouble is a previous extraction step of the empty cell under the same conditions optimised for the sample extraction.

  10. Significance of wood extractives for wood bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffael, Edmone

    2016-02-01

    Wood contains primary extractives, which are present in all woods, and secondary extractives, which are confined in certain wood species. Extractives in wood play a major role in wood-bonding processes, as they can contribute to or determine the bonding relevant properties of wood such as acidity and wettability. Therefore, extractives play an immanent role in bonding of wood chips and wood fibres with common synthetic adhesives such as urea-formaldehyde-resins (UF-resins) and phenol-formaldehyde-resins (PF-resins). Extractives of high acidity accelerate the curing of acid curing UF-resins and decelerate bonding with alkaline hardening PF-resins. Water-soluble extractives like free sugars are detrimental for bonding of wood with cement. Polyphenolic extractives (tannins) can be used as a binder in the wood-based industry. Additionally, extractives in wood can react with formaldehyde and reduce the formaldehyde emission of wood-based panels. Moreover, some wood extractives are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and insofar also relevant to the emission of VOC from wood and wood-based panels.

  11. RED WINE EXTRACT OBTAINED BY MEMBRANE-BASED SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION: PRELIMINARY CHARACTERIZATION OF CHEMICAL PROPERTIES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aims to obtain an extract from red wine by using membrane-based supercritical fluid extraction. This technique involves the use of porous membranes as contactors during the dense gas extraction process from liquid matrices. In this work, a Cabernet Sauvignon wine extract was obtained from supercritical fluid extraction using pressurized carbon dioxide as solvent and a hollow fiber contactor as extraction setup. The process was continuously conducted at pressures between 12 and 18 MPa and temperatures ranged from 30 to 50ºC. Meanwhile, flow rates of feed wine and supercritical CO2 varied from 0.1 to 0.5 mL min-1 and from 60 to 80 mL min-1 (NCPT, respectively. From extraction assays, the highest extraction percentage value obtained from the total amount of phenolic compounds was 14% in only one extraction step at 18MPa and 35ºC. A summarized chemical characterization of the obtained extract is reported in this work; one of the main compounds in this extract could be a low molecular weight organic acid with aromatic structure and methyl and carboxyl groups. Finally, this preliminary characterization of this extract shows a remarkable ORAC value equal to 101737 ± 5324 µmol Trolox equivalents (TE per 100 g of extract.

  12. Extraction of PCBs and water from river sediment using liquefied dimethyl ether as an extractant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshita, Kazuyuki; Takaoka, Masaki; Kitade, Sin-ichiro; Takeda, Nobuo; Kanda, Hideki; Makino, Hisao; Matsumoto, Tadao; Morisawa, Shinsuke

    2010-02-01

    We investigated whether polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and water could be simultaneously removed from river sediment by solvent extraction using liquefied dimethyl ether (DME) as the extractant. DME exists in a gaseous state at normal temperature and pressure and can dissolve organic substances and some amount of water; therefore, liquefied DME under moderate pressure (0.6-0.8 MPa) at room temperature can be effectively used to extract PCBs and water from contaminated sediment, and it can be recovered from the extract and reused easily. First, we evaluated the PCB and water extraction characteristics of DME from contaminated sediment. We found that 99% of PCBs and 97% of water were simultaneously extracted from the sediment using liquefied DME at an extraction time of 4320 s and a liquefied DME/sediment ratio of 60 mL g(-1). The extraction rate of PCBs and water was expressed in terms of a pseudo-first-order reaction rate. Second, we estimated the amount of DME that was recovered after extraction. We found that 91-92% of DME could be recovered. In other words, approximately 5-10% of DME was lost during extraction and recovery. It is necessary to optimize this process in order to recover DME efficiently. The extraction efficiency of the recovered DME is similar to that of the pure DME. From the results, we conclude that solvent extraction using liquefied DME is suitable for extracting PCBs and water from contaminated sediment. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. University of California, Irvine-Pathology Extraction Pipeline: the pathology extraction pipeline for information extraction from pathology reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashish, Naveen; Dahm, Lisa; Boicey, Charles

    2014-12-01

    We describe Pathology Extraction Pipeline (PEP)--a new Open Health Natural Language Processing pipeline that we have developed for information extraction from pathology reports, with the goal of populating the extracted data into a research data warehouse. Specifically, we have built upon Medical Knowledge Analysis Tool pipeline (MedKATp), which is an extraction framework focused on pathology reports. Our particular contributions include additional customization and development on MedKATp to extract data elements and relationships from cancer pathology reports in richer detail than at present, an abstraction layer that provides significantly easier configuration of MedKATp for extraction tasks, and a machine-learning-based approach that makes the extraction more resilient to deviations from the common reporting format in a pathology reports corpus. We present experimental results demonstrating the effectiveness of our pipeline for information extraction in a real-world task, demonstrating performance improvement due to our approach for increasing extractor resilience to format deviation, and finally demonstrating the scalability of the pipeline across pathology reports for different cancer types. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Biliary Ascariasis: A difficult extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Kumar Thakur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatobiliary ascariasis (HBA is a common complication of Ascaris infestation. It is reported mostly from developing countries. It is a common cause of biliary colic and cholangitis in some parts of India. It is also proposed as an etiology of a subset of patients with recurrent pyogenic cholangitis (RPC. Conservative management, endoscopic removal of the worm wherever needed and deworming is the accepted treatment approach. We herewith present a unique challenge that we encountered during worm removal. The patient was a 35-year-old female with 3 days history of epigastric pain, fever with rigors and vomiting. Her biochemical evaluation showed mild neutrophilic leukocytosis, mild elevation of aminotransferases and alkaline phosphatase. Ultrasound abdomen showed a tubular filling defect in the common bile duct extending in to the left hepatic duct. On endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP, the extraction was difficult because of left ductal stricture and a knot at the end of the worm. Such a worm conformation is rarely reported in the literature. In addition to presenting a challenge during removal it may act as a nidus for further infections and damage to the biliary tree particularly if the worm is dead or decaying. RPC is a disease with high morbidity and mortality. HBA is argued as an inciting event in significant number of cases. Recognition of such worm conformations emphasizes the need of meticulous ductal clearance at the time of ERCP, subsequent deworming and improved sanitation to protect such case from subsequent dreaded complications.

  15. ECTOPIC LENS EXTRACTION IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Pfeifer

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ectopia lentis continues to be a therapeutic challenge for ophthalmologists. It can occur as an isolated condition, after ocular trauma, in association with other ocular disorders, as part of a systemic mesodermal disease or a complication of general metabolic disorders. Minimal subluxation of the lens may cause no visual symptoms, but in more advanced cases serious optical disturbances arise. The most important is amblyopia. Surgical treatment options include iris manipulation, lens discission, aspiration, intracapsular or extracapsular extraction, and pars plana lensectomy. The choice of surgical technique remains controversial, in part because of the historically poor visual results and high rate of perioperative complications, including vitreous loss and retinal detachment.Methods. We describe a surgical technique based on the use of the Cionni endocapsular tension ring, dry irrigation aspiration of lens material, centration of the capsular bag and foldable intraocular lens implantation into the bag. With mentioned surgical technique 8 patients were operated; 4 boys and 4 girls, together 11 eyes.Results. The final BCVA after follow up period improved in 9 eyes and it remained the same as before operation in one eye. Statistical comparison of preoperative and postoperative visual acuities showed significant improvement. On the other hand there was no correlation between preoperative and postoperative visual acuity.Conclusions. This surgical procedure is an alternative approach in solving this challenging cases of ectopia lentis with good postoperative visual rehabilitation.

  16. Combined extraction processes of lipid from Chlorella vulgaris microalgae: microwave prior to supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dejoye, Céline; Vian, Maryline Abert; Lumia, Guy; Bouscarle, Christian; Charton, Frederic; Chemat, Farid

    2011-01-01

    ...) allowed to obtain the highest extraction yield (4.73%) compared to SCCO(2) extraction alone (1.81%). Qualitative and quantitative analyses of microalgae oil showed that palmitic, oleic, linoleic...

  17. Extraction of glabridin with heat reflux extraction by response surface analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-ying DING

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the extraction process of glabridin from Glycyrrhiza glabra. Methods: The solid-liquid ratio, extraction time and extraction temperature are the three main factors in the experiment, and the extract solvent is ethyl acetate. Establish the response surface quadratic regression equation of glabridin extraction rate and purity. Results:The results indicate that the optimum conditions for glabridin are as follows: solvent is ethyl acetate, extraction time is 90 min, the ratio of solvent to solid is 35 ∶1 (ml/g, and extraction temperature is 44.7 ℃, purity and the maximum yield of Extraction of glabridin are 6.96% and 0.241%, The validation test shows that the experimental values of the model are 0.235% and 6.05% . Conclusion: The model equation can predict the experimental results, it can be used as reference in industrial production. 

  18. Kinetics of solute leachate from imbibing Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brazilwood seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor Martini Neto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The electrical conductivity of leachates from imbibing seeds has been used as a vigor test for several species. The adaptation of this methodology to different species requires knowledge on the leaching kinetics of electrolytes. For Brazilwood seeds, the classic method was not satisfactory and rapid tests are essential because they have low storage capacity at room temperature. Leaching kinetics during seed imbibition is a function of physiological quality, presence or absence of seed coat, imbibing temperature and the initial moisture content of seed. In this study, the electrolyte leaching rate of six different categories of seeds, from two regions, was evaluated in seeds with and without seed coat and incubated with different moisture contents and at different temperatures. The results showed that the electrolyte leaching rate in Brazilwood seeds is independent of the physiological quality, the presence or absence of seed coat and imbibition temperature, but these factors changed the total amount of electrolytes leached. The leaching rate increased in the first few minutes of imbibition, suggesting that the adjustment of the methodology must consider the reduction in imbibition time, reduction in temperature, use of a controlled and slower pre-imbibition, and replacement of the imbibition solution after the first few minutes.

  19. Caracteristicas anatomicas y propiedades fisicas de la madera de Caesalpinia gaumeri Greenm en Dzan, Yucatan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Interian-Ku, Victor Manuel; Borja de la Rosa, Maria Amparo; Valdez-Hernandez, Juan Ignacio; Garcia-Moya, Edmundo; Romero-Manzanares, Angelica; Vaquera-Huerta, Humberto

    2011-01-01

    .... Con la finalidad de contribuir al conocimiento tecnologico de sus atributos y proponer usos potenciales de la madera de esta especie, se describieron sus caracteristicas anatomicas y propiedades fisicas...

  20. ESSENTIAL OIL OF Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden IN STIMULATING MYCORRHIZAL SIBIPIRUNA SEEDLINGS (Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Bemfica Steffen; Zaida Inês Antoniolli; Gerusa Pauli Kist Steffen; Rodrigo Ferreira da Silva

    2012-01-01

    RESUMO Os metabólitos secundários extraídos de espécies florestais formadoras de ectomicorrizas podem estimular a simbiose entre fungos ectomicorrízicos e espécies florestais nativas do Rio Grande do Sul. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o efeito do óleo essencial de eucalipto na formação de associação ectomicorrízica e no crescimento de mudas de sibipiruna, em condições de casa de vegetação. Plântulas de sibipiruna foram submetidas a quatro tratamentos constituídos pela presença e au...

  1. Extraction Techniques for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Lau

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide a review of the analytical extraction techniques for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in soils. The extraction technologies described here include Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic and mechanical agitation, accelerated solvent extraction, supercritical and subcritical fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, solid phase extraction and microextraction, thermal desorption and flash pyrolysis, as well as fluidised-bed extraction. The influencing factors in the extraction of PAHs from soil such as temperature, type of solvent, soil moisture, and other soil characteristics are also discussed. The paper concludes with a review of the models used to describe the kinetics of PAH desorption from soils during solvent extraction.

  2. Extraction Techniques for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, E. V.; Gan, S.; Ng, H. K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a review of the analytical extraction techniques for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils. The extraction technologies described here include Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic and mechanical agitation, accelerated solvent extraction, supercritical and subcritical fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, solid phase extraction and microextraction, thermal desorption and flash pyrolysis, as well as fluidised-bed extraction. The influencing factors in the extraction of PAHs from soil such as temperature, type of solvent, soil moisture, and other soil characteristics are also discussed. The paper concludes with a review of the models used to describe the kinetics of PAH desorption from soils during solvent extraction. PMID:20396670

  3. Optimisation of extraction and sludge dewatering efficiencies of bio-flocculants extracted from Abelmoschus esculentus (okra)

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Siah Lee; Chong, Mei Fong; Robinson, John P.; Binner, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    The production of natural biopolymers as flocculants for water treatment is highly desirable due to their inherent low toxicity and low environmental footprint. In this study, bio-flocculants were extracted from Hibiscus/Abelmoschus esculentus (okra) by using a water extraction method, and the extract yield and its performance in sludge dewatering were evaluated. Single factor experimental design was employed to obtain the optimum conditions for extraction temperature (25–90 °C), time (0.25–5...

  4. Statistical feature extraction based iris recognition system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Iris recognition systems have been proposed by numerous researchers using different feature extraction techniques for accurate and reliable biometric authentication. In this paper, a statistical feature extraction technique based on correlation between adjacent pixels has been proposed and implemented. Hamming ...

  5. Supercritical carbondioxide extraction of cypermethrin in different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-04-12

    Apr 12, 2010 ... extracted from vegetables when using anhydrous Na2SO4 as the drying agent. Filter paper, Whatman # 3 (Maidstone, Kent, UK) was cut into disks which were placed at both ends to keep particles from affecting sealing of the vessels. The vessels were kept cold before extraction in order to reduce losses of ...

  6. Antimicrobial Activities of Clove and Thyme Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzeako, B C; Al-Kharousi, Zahra S N; Al-Mahrooqui, Zahra

    2006-01-01

    Objective: It has been postulated that geographical locations of the herbs affect the constituents of their essential oils and thus the degree of their antimicrobial action. This study examine two samples of clove obtained from Sri Lanka and Zanzibar and two samples of thyme from Iran and Oman to determine the antimicrobial potential of their extracted oils. Method: The active agents in each plant were extracted by steam distillation and by boiling. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts were determined at neat and by two-fold dilutions in well agar diffusion technique using Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes, Corynebacterium species, Salmonella species, Bacteroides fragilis and Candida albicans. Results: All oil extracts possessed antimicrobial activity against all bacteria and yeast tested. Their water extracts exhibited lower antimicrobial activity, though thyme aqueous extract was active only against S. aureus. The lowest concentration of antimicrobial activity (0.1% i.e., 1:1024) was obtained with thyme oil extract using Candida albicans. There was no significant difference in antimicrobial activity between clove obtained from Sri Lanka or Zanzibar or thyme obtained from Iran or Oman. Conclusion: Our experiment showed that the country of origin of the herbs has no effect on their antimicrobial activity. However, further work is necessary to ascertain why Candida albicans displayed remarkable degree of sensitivity with the extracts than all the other organisms test. PMID:21748125

  7. [Extraction of thermolabile compounds with supercritical gases.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, E; Keller, K

    1983-02-01

    The thermolabile acoragermacrone and other sesquiterpenes could be extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide from beta-asarone free calamus rhizomes ( Acorus calamus L. var. americanus Wulff. A usual steam distillation lets this substance partly decompose into shyobunone. By using high pressure extraction with fractionated separation a higher yield of the bitter principles of calamus, acorone and isoacorone, is obtained.

  8. Mastering aesthetics in post-extraction sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goené, R.J.; van Daelen, A.C.L.

    2013-01-01

    Patients increasingly seek implant-supported restorations that can be delivered as quickly and non-invasively as possible. Many also prefer to avoid wearing a removable prothesis after tooth extraction. Implants that are placed immediately in fresh extraction sockets and provisionalized immediately

  9. VALORIZATION ABOVEGROUND OF THE EXTRACT OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this study was to highlight the fertilizing capacity of the extract of ovine compost (prepared to the simple infusion) in gardening nursery, while specifying the appropriate ratios of extraction and dilution ,for soilless plant fertigation intended for two strategic summer crops in Tunisia: seasonal tomato and ...

  10. Reactive extraction of lactic acid using alamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wasewar, Kailas L.; Heesink, Albertus B.M.; Versteeg, Geert; Pangarkar, Vishwas G.

    2002-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important commercial product and extracting it out of aqueous solution is a growing requirement in fermentation based industries and recovery from waste streams. The design of an amine extraction process requires (i) equilibrium and (ii) kinetic data for the acid–amine (solvent)

  11. Intracapsular cataract extraction with anterior chamber intraocular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To assess the visual outcome of cataract extraction with ACIOL implantation in a Nigerian hospital. Methods: The visual outcome of 50 eyes of 42 patients aged 40 years and above, out of 212 eyes that underwent intracapsular cataract extraction (ICCE) and anterior chamber intraocular lens (ACIOL) implantation, were ...

  12. Extraction optimization and characterization of polysaccharide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the optimum extraction conditions of polysaccharides from Pinellia Rhizoma (PRP) and their antioxidant activities. Methods: Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the water extraction conditions of PRP by Box-Benhnken design (BBD). A high performance liquid ...

  13. Ranking XPaths for extracting search result records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trieschnigg, Rudolf Berend; Tjin-Kam-Jet, Kien; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2012-01-01

    Extracting search result records (SRRs) from webpages is useful for building an aggregated search engine which combines search results from a variety of search engines. Most automatic approaches to search result extraction are not portable: the complete process has to be rerun on a new search result

  14. comparative antitrypanosomal screening of methanolic extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. The in vitro and in vivo activities of methanolic extracts of defatted leaves and stems of Khaya senegalensis and. Moringa oleifera on Trypanosoma brucei brucei were investigated and compared. The in vitro assessment involved incubating the parasite (in triplicate) in the presence of various extract ...

  15. Extraction and characterization of Retama monosperma fibers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    XPERT

    The aims of this study were to determine the good conditions for fibers extraction from Retama monosperma leaves and their mechanical, physical and chemical characteristics. The fibers were extracted using a range of NaOH concentration from 1 to 16% in a period of treatment of 1 to 24 h, coupled with a physical ...

  16. SHORT COMMUNICATION GOSSIPIUM HIRSUTUM L. EXTRACT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT. Inhibitive effect of Gossipium hirsutum L. leaves extract on the acid corrosion of aluminum in 1. M HCl solution was studied by weight loss technique. The extract at optimum concentration inhibited the corrosion of aluminum, with about 92% inhibition efficiency and the inhibition efficiency increased with.

  17. Comparative Neuropharmacological Activities Methanolic Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative Neuropharmacological Activities Methanolic Extracts of Leaves and Roots of Cissus Cornifolia in Mice. ... leaf and root extract respectively at the same dose of 300 mg k-1 bd. wt. in mice. This work further confirms our earlier report on sedative effects of this plant as used traditionally against mental problems.

  18. Anethum Graveolens Linn (Umbelliferae) Extract Attenuates Stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anethum Graveolens Linn (Umbelliferae) Extract Attenuates Stress-induced Urinary Biochemical Changes and Improves Cognition in Scopolamineinduced Amnesic Rats. ... Conclusion: The aqueous extract of A. graveolens exhibited significant anti-stress, antioxidant and memory enhancing activities. The study provides a ...

  19. WEB CONTENT EXTRACTION USING HYBRID APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nethra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The World Wide Web has rich source of voluminous and heterogeneous information which continues to expand in size and complexity. Many Web pages are unstructured and semi-structured, so it consists of noisy information like advertisement, links, headers, footers etc. This noisy information makes extraction of Web content tedious. Many techniques that were proposed for Web content extraction are based on automatic extraction and hand crafted rule generation. Automatic extraction technique is done through Web page segmentation, but it increases the time complexity. Hand crafted rule generation uses string manipulation function for rule generation, but generating those rules is very difficult. A hybrid approach is proposed to extract main content from Web pages. A HTML Web page is converted to DOM tree and features are extracted and with the extracted features, rules are generated. Decision tree classification and Naïve Bayes classification are machine learning methods used for rules generation. By using the rules, noisy part in the Web page is discarded and informative content in the Web page is extracted. The performance of both decision tree classification and Naïve Bayes classification are measured with metrics like precision, recall, F-measure and accuracy.

  20. Antioxidant properties of Rubus discolor leaf extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veličković Ivona Z.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work were examined aqueous, methanol, ethanol and acetone leaf extracts of Rubus discolor, wild growing blackberry, for their antioxidant properties and total phenol and flavonoid content. The total phenol content (TPC varried from 250.05 to 446.61 mg GAE/g of dry extract, while total flavonoid content (TFC was in range between 22.44 and 61.15 mg QE/g of dry extract. Aqueous extracts were the richest in phenols, as well as in flavonoids. In vitro antioxidant capacity of leaf extracts was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH, 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS free radical scavenging procedures and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP assay. Aqueous extracts were the most effective through all antioxidant tests. The total phenol content highly correlated with antioxidant activity of extracts. Moreover, weak correlation was established between total phenol and total flavonoid content. The results presented in this work indicate that phenol compounds contribute to antioxidant ability of extracts. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 173029

  1. ANTIFUNGAL PROPERTY OF THE CRUDE EXTRACTS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Epidermophyton floccosium, Fusarium solani, Mucor mucedo, Microsporium audonii and Trichophyton verrucosum. The ethanol extract of Richardia brasiliensis was the most active of the four extrtacts. The water extract of Brachystegia eurycoma was more active ...

  2. Automated extraction of DNA from clothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Hjort, Benjamin Benn; Nøhr Hansen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Presence of PCR inhibitors in extracted DNA may interfere with the subsequent quantification and short tandem repeat (STR) reactions used in forensic genetic DNA typing. We have compared three automated DNA extraction methods based on magnetic beads with a manual method with the aim of reducing t...

  3. Idioms-based Business Rule Extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R Smit (Rob)

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractThis thesis studies the extraction of embedded business rules, using the idioms of the used framework to identify them. Embedded business rules exist as source code in the software system and knowledge about them may get lost. Extraction of those business rules could make them accessible

  4. Photoprotective Effects of Hydroalcohol Tagetes Erectus Extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of topical application of Tagetes erectus hydroalcohol extract as a dermal antioxidant agent and evaluate its capacity to prevent ultraviolet (UV)–induced oxidative damage. Methods: The plant flower was extracted with aqueous ethanol (60 %). Female Lacca mice were divided into five ...

  5. DNA Extraction Techniques for Use in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, R. P.; Arblaster, K. E.

    2010-01-01

    DNA extraction provides a hands-on introduction to DNA and enables students to gain real life experience and practical knowledge of DNA. Students gain a sense of ownership and are more enthusiastic when they use their own DNA. A cost effective, simple protocol for DNA extraction and visualization was devised. Buccal mucosal epithelia provide a…

  6. A spreadsheet algorithm for stagewise solvent extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, R.A.; Regalbuto, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    Part of the novelty is the way in which the problem is organized in the spreadsheet. In addition, to facilitate spreadsheet setup, a new calculational procedure has been developed. The resulting Spreadsheet Algorithm for Stagewise Solvent Extraction (SASSE) can be used with either IBM or Macintosh personal computers as a simple yet powerful tool for analyzing solvent extraction flowsheets.

  7. Comparative antitrypanosomal screening of methanolic extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in vitro and in vivo activities of methanolic extracts of defatted leaves and stems of Khaya senegalensis and Moringa oleifera on Trypanosoma brucei brucei were investigated and compared. The in vitro assessment involved incubating the parasite (in triplicate) in the presence of various extract concentrations in a ...

  8. Ion extraction system study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyman, J. Jr.; Williamson, W.S.

    1977-05-01

    Results of an 8-month study of plasma-extraction processes for laser isotope separation of uranium are reported. A simulation technology was developed, using mercury instead of uranium, and analytical and experimental studies of plasma-extraction processes were performed in the context of mercury simulation. (LK)

  9. Fingerprint Minutiae Extraction using Deep Learning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Darlow, Luke Nicholas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available components, such as image enhancement. We pose minutiae extraction as a machine learning problem and propose a deep neural network – MENet, for Minutiae Extraction Network – to learn a data-driven representation of minutiae points. By using the existing...

  10. How biomass composition determines protein extractability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sari, Y.W.; Syafitri, U.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Bruins, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Biomass consists of a complex mixture of different components, of which protein potentially has a high added value for biorefinery. In this study, protein extractability of different types of biomass, mostly by-products, was analyzed. Protein yield obtained from a three step extraction using alkali

  11. Lipase and protease extraction from activated sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gessesse, Amare; Dueholm, Thomas; Petersen, Steffen B.

    2003-01-01

    of gentle and efficient enzyme extraction methods from environmental samples is very important. In this study we present a method for the extraction of lipases and proteases from activated sludge using the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100, EDTA, and cation exchange resin (CER), alone or in combination...

  12. Telfairia Occidentalis Extract Stabilizes Human Erythrocyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition to being a widely consumed vegetable in West Africa, the leaves extract of Telfairia occidentalis is believed to have beneficial health effects and is used in tradomedical preparations. The effect of saline extract of T. occidentalis leaves on sickle and normal erythrocytes membrane stability was investigated. Human ...

  13. Natural colorants: Pigment stability and extraction yield enhancement via utilization of appropriate pretreatment and extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamwonglumlert, Luxsika; Devahastin, Sakamon; Chiewchan, Naphaporn

    2017-10-13

    Natural colorants from plant-based materials have gained increasing popularity due to health consciousness of consumers. Among the many steps involved in the production of natural colorants, pigment extraction is one of the most important. Soxhlet extraction, maceration, and hydrodistillation are conventional methods that have been widely used in industry and laboratory for such a purpose. Recently, various non-conventional methods, such as supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized liquid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed-electric field extraction, and enzyme-assisted extraction have emerged as alternatives to conventional methods due to the advantages of the former in terms of smaller solvent consumption, shorter extraction time, and more environment-friendliness. Prior to the extraction step, pretreatment of plant materials to enhance the stability of natural pigments is another important step that must be carefully taken care of. In this paper, a comprehensive review of appropriate pretreatment and extraction methods for chlorophylls, carotenoids, betalains, and anthocyanins, which are major classes of plant pigments, is provided by using pigment stability and extraction yield as assessment criteria.

  14. Assessment of conventional and novel extraction techniques on extraction efficiency of five anthraquinones from Rheum emodi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvindekar, Aditya U; Pereira, Galvina R; Laddha, Kirti S

    2015-10-01

    Rheum emodi is principally known to consist 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinones (DHAQs) that find immense use in the chemical, pharmaceutical, cosmetic industries and in herbal medication and food sector. The aim of this study was to compare non-conventional and classical methods for extraction of anthraquinones from R. emodi. Optimisation of the extraction parameters for various methods was done and their extraction efficiency was evaluated. In preliminary screening experiments, choice of solvent and solid : solvent ratio was optimised. Comparison of extraction efficiency for classical methods like maceration, heat-reflux, soxhletion and non-conventional methods like ultra-sonication and sublimation was done for five DHAQs - aloe emodin, rhein, emodin, chrysophanol and physcion using HPLC-UV and fluorescence detection in native and acid hydrolysed samples. It was observed that ethanol was the best solvent for extraction of anthraquinones with a solid : solvent ratio of 1:20. A prior acid hydrolysis led to significant increase in anthraquinone extraction. Among the extraction methods heat reflux for 45 min was the most prominent extraction method with highest recovery of the DHAQs. In ultrasonic assisted extraction, an increase in the anthraquinone extraction was seen till 45 min after which the concentration declined. A novel, solvent-free, green and selective method of extraction by sublimation was found to be effective for extraction of anthraquinones.

  15. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY, TOTAL PHENOLIC AND FLAVONOID CONTENT OF MORINDA CITRIFOLIA FRUIT EXTRACTS FROM VARIOUS EXTRACTION PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRAVEEN K. RAMAMOORTHY

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Soxhlet, Ultrasonic extract of Morinda citrifolia L. fruit and four extracts from high pressure extraction at 10 MPa using ethanol, ethyl acetate as solvent and dried by vacuum oven and spray dryer were analyzed for their antioxidant activity by peroxide value method and diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The five extracts along with the reference samples, butylated hydroxyl toluene and tannic acid were further analyzed to determine their total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteau method and total flavonoid content by Dowd method. The M. citrifolia extract by high pressure extraction with ethyl acetate as solvent and spray dried was found to exhibit highest antioxidant activity and total flavonoid content. High total phenolic content was determined in the high pressure extract using ethyl acetate as solvent and vacuum dried. It was interesting to note that ultrasonic extract exhibited significant antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content. High pressure extracted M. citrifolia in ethanol was found to express lesser values comparatively. The significant difference in activity among the high pressure extracts was found to be due to the polarity of the solvents used for extraction as M. citrifolia fruit contains relatively larger quantity of non-polar antioxidant compounds. It was also found that the drying methods had significant impact on the antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content of the extracts.

  16. Plant location and extraction procedure strongly alter the antimicrobial activity of murta extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shene, Carolina; Reyes, Agnes K.; Villarroel, Mario

    2009-01-01

    in extracting polyphenols, showing pure solvents-both water and ethanol-a lower extraction capacity. No correlation between antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic content was found. Extracts from Murta leaves provoked a decrease in the growing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus...

  17. Antimicrobial Effect of Extracts of Cruciferous Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Hui Hu

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The cruciferous vegetables cauliflower, broccoli, cabbage, Chinese radish, Chinese kale, and Chinese kitam were used in this study to prepare water-soluble and methanol-water extracts. Crude protein extracts were also obtained by diethylaminoethyl (DEAE anion exchange chromatography. Water-soluble polysaccharides were prepared by ethanol precipitation followed by ultrafiltration. The antimicrobial effects of all these extracts were evaluated against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and yeast. Crude protein extracts exhibited the greatest antimicrobial activity in monoculture experiments. The antimicrobial effects of cruciferous vegetables were also studied by steeping beef, carrot, and celery in chlorine (10 ppm or citric acid solution (1% containing the crude protein extract (500 ppm for different time periods. Total aerobic plate counts and coliform counts on these foods decreased significantly after 10 minutes in all steeping solutions (p < 0.05.

  18. Audio feature extraction using probability distribution function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaib, A.; Wan, Khairunizam; Aziz, Azri A.; Hazry, D.; Razlan, Zuradzman M.; Shahriman A., B.

    2015-05-01

    Voice recognition has been one of the popular applications in robotic field. It is also known to be recently used for biometric and multimedia information retrieval system. This technology is attained from successive research on audio feature extraction analysis. Probability Distribution Function (PDF) is a statistical method which is usually used as one of the processes in complex feature extraction methods such as GMM and PCA. In this paper, a new method for audio feature extraction is proposed which is by using only PDF as a feature extraction method itself for speech analysis purpose. Certain pre-processing techniques are performed in prior to the proposed feature extraction method. Subsequently, the PDF result values for each frame of sampled voice signals obtained from certain numbers of individuals are plotted. From the experimental results obtained, it can be seen visually from the plotted data that each individuals' voice has comparable PDF values and shapes.

  19. Yellow Dye Extraction from Eucalyptus Grandis Bark.

    OpenAIRE

    Chengeto Zvavamwe; Cathrine Khetiwe Mkandhla; Clever Mpofu; Vernon Phiri; Felicity Bgwoni; Bettina Khonzokuhle Ncube; Mafika Sibutha; Joel Tshuma

    2016-01-01

    In this article, yellow dye was extracted from Eucalyptus Grandis bark using methanol solvent at a temperature of 250C and pressure of 1 atmosphere. The extraction process was optimized by varying extraction material-to-liquor ratio, in the ratios of 1:100, 1:50, 3:100, 1:25, 1:20, 3:50, 7:100, 2:25, 9:100 and 1:10. The extraction pH was varied from 1 to 13 at an interval of pH 1. The mass of the dye extract was found to be directly proportional to the mass of the bark at each pH. The optimum...

  20. Virgin almond oil: Extraction methods and composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roncero, J.M.; Alvarez-Orti, M.; Pardo-Gimenez, A.; Gomez, R.; Rabadan, A.; Pardo, J.E.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper the extraction methods of virgin almond oil and its chemical composition are reviewed. The most common methods for obtaining oil are solvent extraction, extraction with supercritical fluids (CO2) and pressure systems (hydraulic and screw presses). The best industrial performance, but also the worst oil quality is achieved by using solvents. Oils obtained by this method cannot be considered virgin oils as they are obtained by chemical treatments. Supercritical fluid extraction results in higher quality oils but at a very high price. Extraction by pressing becomes the best option to achieve high quality oils at an affordable price. With regards chemical composition, almond oil is characterized by its low content in saturated fatty acids and the predominance of monounsaturated, especially oleic acid. Furthermore, almond oil contains antioxidants and fat-soluble bioactive compounds that make it an oil with interesting nutritional and cosmetic properties.

  1. Antimalarial activity of three Pakistani medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irshad, Saba; Mannan, Abdul; Mirza, Bushra

    2011-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the in vitro anti-malarial activity of three medicinal plants, Picrorhiza kurroa, Caesalpinia bonducella and Artemisia absinthium of Pakistan. Different extracts of various parts of these plants were prepared by maceration and percolation, and were evaluated for their antimalarial activity. Aqueous, cold alcoholic and hot alcoholic extracts of Picrorhiza kurroa showed 34%, 100% and 90% inhibition in growth of Plasmodium falciparum, respectively, at 2.00 mg/ml. While aqueous, cold alcoholic and hot alcoholic extracts of Caesalpinia bonducella showed 65%, 56% and 76% inhibition in growth of Plasmodium falciparum, respectively at same concentrations. In the case of Artemisia absinthium, aqueous, cold alcoholic and hot alcoholic extract of Artemisia absinthium showed 35%, 55% and 21% inhibition in growth of Plasmodium falciparum, respectively at 2.00 mg/ml. In our study, extracts of Picrorhiza kurroa were found good for traditional therapy with highly significant results.

  2. Cinnamomum casia Extract Encapsulated Nanochitosan as Antihypercholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngadiwiyana; Purbowatiningrum; Fachriyah, Enny; Ismiyarto

    2017-02-01

    Atherosclerosis vascular disease with clinical manifestations such as cardiovascular disease and stroke are the leading cause of death in Indonesia. One solution to these problems is a natural antihypercholesterol medicine by utilizing Cinnamomum casia extract. However, the use of natural extracts to lower blood cholesterol levels do not provide optimal results because it is possible that the active components of extract have been degraded/damaged during the absorption process. So that, we need to do the research to get a combination of chitosan nanoparticles-Cinnamomum casia. extract as a compound which has an antihypercholesterol activity through the in vitro study. Modification of natural extracts encapsulated nanochitosan be a freshness in this study, which were conducted using the method of inclusion. The combination of both has the dual function of protecting the natural extracts from degradation and deliver the natural extracts to the target site. Analysis of nanochitosan using the Particle Size Analyzer (PSA) shows the particle size of synthesis product that is equal to 64.9 nm. Encapsulation efficiency of Cinnamomum casia extract-Chitosan Nanoparticles known through UV-VIS spectrophotometry test and obtained the efficiency encapsulation percentage of 84.93%. Zeta Potential at 193,3 mv that chitosan appropriate for a delivery drug. Antihypercholesterol activity tested in vitro assay that showed the extract-nanoparticle chitosan in concentration 150 ppm gave the highest cholesterol decreasing level in the amount of 49.66% w/v. So it can be concluded that Cinnamomum casia extract can be encapsulated in nanoparticles of chitosan and proved that it has a cholesterol-lowering effect through the in vitro study.

  3. Extraction of bioactive carbohydrates from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) external bracts using microwave assisted extraction and pressurized liquid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Aceituno, Laura; García-Sarrió, M Jesús; Alonso-Rodriguez, Belén; Ramos, Lourdes; Sanz, M Luz

    2016-04-01

    Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) methods using water as solvent have been optimized by means of a Box-Behnken and 3(2) composite experimental designs, respectively, for the effective extraction of bioactive carbohydrates (inositols and inulin) from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) external bracts. MAE at 60 °C for 3 min of 0.3 g of sample allowed the extraction of slightly higher concentrations of inositol than PLE at 75 °C for 26.7 min (11.6 mg/g dry sample vs. 7.6 mg/g dry sample). On the contrary, under these conditions, higher concentrations of inulin were extracted with the latter technique (185.4 mg/g vs. 96.4 mg/g dry sample), considering two successive extraction cycles for both techniques. Both methodologies can be considered appropriate for the simultaneous extraction of these bioactive carbohydrates from this particular industrial by-product. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that these techniques are applied for this purpose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Extraction Methods in Soil Phosphorus Characterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soinne, Helena

    2010-05-01

    Extraction methods are widely used to assess the bioavailability of P and to characterise soil P reserves. Even though new and more sophisticated methods to characterise soil P are constantly developed the use of extraction methods is not likely to be replaced because of the relatively simple analytical equipment needed for the analysis. However, the large variety of extractants, pre-treatments and sample preparation procedures complicate the comparison of published results. In order to improve our understanding of the behaviour and cycling of P in soil, it is important to know the role of extracted P in the soil P cycle. The knowledge of the factors affecting the analytical outcome is a prerequisite for justified interpretation of the results. In this study, the effect of sample pre-treatment and properties of the used extractant on extractable molybdate-reactive phosphorus (MRP) and molybdate-unreactive phosphorus (MUP) was studied. Furthermore, the effect of sample preparation procedures prior the analysis on measured MRP and MUP was studied. Two widely used sequential extraction procedures were compared on their ability to show management induced differences on soil P. These results revealed that pre-treatments changed soil properties and air-drying was found to affect soil P, particularly extractable MUP, thought to represent organic P, by disrupting organic matter. This was evidenced by an increase in the water-extractable small-sized (0.2 µm) P. In addition to the effects of sample pre-treatment, the results showed that extractable organic P was sensitive to the chemical nature of the used extractant and to the sample preparation procedures employed prior to P analysis, including centrifugation and filtering of soil suspensions. Filtering may remove a major proportion of extractable MUP; therefore filtering cannot be recommended in the characterisation of solubilised MUP. However, extractants having high ionic strength may cause the organic molecules to

  5. Optimization study of Chromalaena odorata essential oil extracted using solventless extraction technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasshorudin, Dalila; Ahmad, Muhammad Syarhabil; Mamat, Awang Soh; Rosli, Suraya

    2015-05-01

    Solventless extraction process of Chromalaena odorata using reduced pressure and temperature has been investigated. The percentage yield of essential oil produce was calculated for every experiment with different experimental condition. The effect of different parameters, such as temperature and extraction time on the yield was investigated using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) through Central Composite Design (CCD). The temperature and extraction time were found to have significant effect on the yield of extract. A final essential oil yield was 0.095% could be extracted under the following optimized conditions; a temperature of 80 °C and a time of 8 hours.

  6. Green Extraction: Enhanced Extraction Yield of Asiatic Acid from Centella asiatica (L.) Nanopowders

    OpenAIRE

    Borhan, M. Z.; Ahmad, R.; Rusop, M.; Abdullah, S.

    2013-01-01

    Nanopowders of Centella asiatica (L.) were produced using planetary ball mill in order to investigate the differences of water extraction yield of asiatic acid as compared to micropowders of Centella asiatica. Effect of extraction time (20–60 min) on extraction yield of asiatic acid from Centella asiatica was examined. Results showed that water extraction of asiatic acid using Centella asiatica nanopowders exhibits was almost 50% higher extraction yield with 7.09 mg/g as compared to the micro...

  7. Frequency of data extraction errors and methods to increase data extraction quality: a methodological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Tim; Klaßen, Pauline; Pieper, Dawid

    2017-11-28

    Our objective was to assess the frequency of data extraction errors and its potential impact on results in systematic reviews. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of different extraction methods, reviewer characteristics and reviewer training on error rates and results. We performed a systematic review of methodological literature in PubMed, Cochrane methodological registry, and by manual searches (12/2016). Studies were selected by two reviewers independently. Data were extracted in standardized tables by one reviewer and verified by a second. The analysis included six studies; four studies on extraction error frequency, one study comparing different reviewer extraction methods and two studies comparing different reviewer characteristics. We did not find a study on reviewer training. There was a high rate of extraction errors (up to 50%). Errors often had an influence on effect estimates. Different data extraction methods and reviewer characteristics had moderate effect on extraction error rates and effect estimates. The evidence base for established standards of data extraction seems weak despite the high prevalence of extraction errors. More comparative studies are needed to get deeper insights into the influence of different extraction methods.

  8. Clinical research of persimmon leaf extract and ginkgo biloba extract in the treatment of vertebrobasilar insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, S G; Guan, S H; Wang, G M; Liu, G Y; Sun, H; Wang, B J; Xu, F

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to compare the curative effects of persimmon leaf extract and ginkgo biloba extract in the treatment of headache and dizziness caused by vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Sixty patients were observed, who underwent therapy with persimmon leaf extract and ginkgo biloba extract based on the treatment of nimodipine and aspirin. After 30 days, 30 patients treated with persimmon leaf extract and 30 patients with ginkgo biloba extract were examined for changes in hemodynamic indexes and symptoms, such as headache and dizziness. The results showed statistically significant differences of 88.3% for the persimmon leaf extract and 73.1% for the ginkgo biloba extract, P ginkgo biloba extract, the group of persimmon leaf extract had more apparent improvement in the whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, fibrinogen, hematokrit, and platelet adhesion rate, and the difference was statistically significant (P ginkgo biloba extract in many aspects, such as cerebral circulation improvement, cerebral vascular expansion, hypercoagulable state lowering and vertebrobasilar insufficiency-induced headache and dizziness relief.

  9. Selective and Efficient Solvent Extraction of Copper(II Ions from Chloride Solutions by Oxime Extractants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Kaboli Tanha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxime extractants 3-tert-butyl-2-hydroxy-5-methyl benzaldehyde oxime (HL1 and 3-tert-butyl-2-hydroxy-5-methoxy benzaldehyde oxime (HL2 were synthesized and characterized by conventional spectroscopic methods. Suitable lipophilic nature of the prepared extractants allowed examining the ability of these molecules for extraction-separation of copper from its mixture with normally associated metal ions by performing competitive extraction experiments of Cu(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Zn(II, Cd(II and Pb(II ions from chloride solutions. Both ligands transfer selectively the copper ions into dichloromethane by a cation exchange mechanism. Conventional log-log analysis and isotherm curves showed that Cu(II ions are extracted as the complexes with 1:2 metal to ligand ratio by both extractants. Verification of the effect of the organic diluent used in the extraction of copper ions by HL1 and HL2 demonstrated that the extraction efficiency varies as: dichloromethane ~ dichloroethane > toluene > xylene > ethylacetate. Time dependency investigation of the extraction processes revealed that the kinetics of the extraction of copper by HL2 is more rapid than that of HL1. The application of the ligands for extraction-separation of copper ions from leach solutions of cobalt and nickel-cadmium filter-cakes of a zinc production plants was evaluated.

  10. One-step extraction of polar drugs from plasma by Parallel Artificial Liquid Membrane Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilařová, Veronika; Sultani, Mumtaz; Ask, Kristine Skoglund

    2017-01-01

    for extraction of polar basic drugs was developed in the present work. The basic drugs hydralazine, ephedrine, metaraminol, salbutamol, and cimetidine were used as model analytes, and were extracted from alkalized human plasma into an aqueous solution via the supported liquid membrane. The extraction......The new microextraction technique named parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction (PALME) was introduced as an alternative approach to liquid-liquid extraction of charged analytes from aqueous samples. The concept is based on extraction of analytes across a supported liquid membrane sustained...... in the pores of a thin polymeric membrane, a well-known extraction principle also used in hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME). However, the new PALME technique offers a more user-friendly setup in which the supported liquid membrane is incorporated in a 96 well plate system. Thus, high...

  11. [DNA extraction from bones and teeth using AutoMate Express forensic DNA extraction system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lin-Lin; Xu, Nian-Lai; Xie, Wei; Ding, Shao-Cheng; Wang, Dong-Jing; Ma, Li-Qin; Li, You-Ying

    2013-04-01

    To explore a new method in order to extract DNA from bones and teeth automatically. Samples of 33 bones and 15 teeth were acquired by freeze-mill method and manual method, respectively. DNA materials were extracted and quantified from the triturated samples by AutoMate Express forensic DNA extraction system. DNA extraction from bones and teeth were completed in 3 hours using the AutoMate Express forensic DNA extraction system. There was no statistical difference between the two methods in the DNA concentration of bones. Both bones and teeth got the good STR typing by freeze-mill method, and the DNA concentration of teeth was higher than those by manual method. AutoMate Express forensic DNA extraction system is a new method to extract DNA from bones and teeth, which can be applied in forensic practice.

  12. Development of pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE) for essential compounds from Moringa oleifera leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matshediso, Phatsimo G; Cukrowska, Ewa; Chimuka, Luke

    2015-04-01

    Pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE) is a "green" technology which can be used for the extraction of essential components in Moringa oleifera leaf extracts. The behaviour of three flavonols (myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol) and total phenolic content (TPC) in Moringa leaf powder were investigated at various temperatures using PHWE. The TPC of extracts from PHWE were investigated using two indicators. These are reducing activity and the radical scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Flavonols content in the PHWE extracts were analysed on high performance liquid chromatography with ultra violet (HPLC-UV) detection. The concentration of kaempferol and myricetin started decreasing at 150 °C while that of quercetin remained steady with extraction temperature. Optimum extraction temperature for flavonols and DPPH radical scavenging activity was found to be 100 °C. The TPC increased with temperature until 150 °C and then decreased while the reducing activity increased. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ultrasound assisted extraction of bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Drmić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many novel and innovative techniques are nowadays researched and explored in order to replace or improve classical, thermal processing technologies. One of newer technique is technique of minimal food processing, under what we assume ultrasound processing. Ultrasound technology can be very useful for minimal food processing because transmission of acoustic energy through product is fast and complete, which allows reduction in total processing time, and therefore lower energy consumption. Industrial processing is growing more and more waste products, and in desire of preservation of global recourses and energy efficiency, several ways of active compounds extraction techniques are now explored. The goal is to implement novel extraction techniques in food and pharmaceutical industry as well in medicine. Ultrasound assisted extraction of bioactive compounds offers increase in yield, and reduction or total avoiding of solvent usage. Increase in temperature of treatment is controlled and restricted, thereby preserving extracted bioactive compounds. In this paper, several methods of ultrasound assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from plant materials are shown. Ultrasound can improve classic mechanisms of extraction, and thereby offer novel possibilities of commercial extraction of desired compounds. Application of sonochemistry (ultrasound chemistry is providing better yield in desired compounds and reduction in treatment time.

  14. Dental extractions in patients with cardiac sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Yasuro; Nariai, Yoshiki; Yoshimura, Hitoshi

    2007-09-01

    To present data on hemodynamic changes during dental extractions in 5 patients with cardiac sarcoidosis, performed with electrocardiogram, heart rate, and blood pressure monitoring throughout the procedures, and to discuss the problems relating to the disease and dental extraction. The medical data for 5 patients, including medical records, physician correspondence, and laboratory data before the treatments, were assessed. Seven dental extractions were then performed while monitoring and recording the hemodynamic conditions. Heart rate, blood pressure, rate pressure products, and electrocardiographic findings were analyzed. Finally, posttreatment evaluations of the general and local conditions of the patients were conducted. All dental extractions were performed in nonactive stable periods, with no remarkable hemodynamic changes or complications, while maintaining a stable hemodynamic state throughout the extraction procedure. All patients received a pretreatment supplement of corticosteroid. Wound healing was similar to that in normal patients under antibiotic prophylaxis against infection originating from the dental extraction wound and the original dental lesion. Pretreatment general evaluation of patients with cardiac sarcoidosis should be performed through various examinations and physician consultation, and a stable hemodynamic change during the surgical procedure should be maintained under any hemodynamic monitors. Corticosteroid supplement and antibiotic coverage are also necessary for safe dental extraction and suitable healing.

  15. Massive clot formation after tooth extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Hunasgi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral surgical procedures mainly tooth extraction can be related with an extended hemorrhage owed to the nature of the process resulting in an "open wound." The attempt of this paper is to present a case of massive postoperative clot formation after tooth extraction and highlight on the oral complications of surgical procedures. A 32-year-old male patient reported to the Dental Clinic for evaluation and extraction of grossly decayed 46. Clinical evaluation of 46 revealed root stumps. Extraction of the root stumps was performed, and it was uneventful. Hemostasis was achieved and postsurgical instructions were specified to the patient. The patient reported to the clinic, the very subsequent morning with a criticism of bleeding at the extraction site. On clinical examination, bleeding was noted from the socket in relation to 46. To control bleeding, oral hemostatic drugs Revici - E (Ethamsylate 500 mg was prescribed and bleeding was stopped in 2 h. However, a massive clot was formed at the extraction site. Further, this clot resolved on its own in 1-week time. Despite the fact that dental extraction is considered to be a minor surgical procedure, some cases may present with life-threatening complications including hemorrhage. Vigilant and significant history taking, physical and dental examinations prior to dental procedures are a must to avoid intraoperative and postoperative complications.

  16. Mechanisms of aqueous extraction of soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, K A; Glatz, C E

    2009-11-25

    Aqueous extraction processing (AEP) of soy is a promising green alternative to hexane extraction processing. To improve AEP oil yields, experiments were conducted to probe the mechanisms of oil release. Microscopy of extruded soy before and after extraction with and without protease indicated that unextracted oil is sequestered in an insoluble matrix of denatured protein and is released by proteolytic digestion of this matrix. In flour from flake, unextracted oil is contained as intact oil bodies in undisrupted cells, or as coalesced oil droplets too large to pass out of the disrupted cellular matrix. Our results suggest that emulsification is an important extraction mechanism that reduces the size of these droplets and increases yield. Protease and SDS were both successful in increasing extraction yields. We propose that this is because they disrupt a viscoelastic protein film at the droplet interface, facilitating droplet disruption. An extraction model based on oil droplet coalescence and the formation of a viscoelastic film was able to fit kinetic extraction data well.

  17. Some plant extracts retarde nitrification in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul–Mehdi S. AL-ANSARI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An incubation experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of aqueous extracts of 17 plant materials on nitrification inhibition of urea- N in soil as compared with chemical inhibitor Dicyandiamide (DCD. Plant materials used in study were collected from different areas of Basrah province, south of Iraq. Aqueous extracts were prepared at ratio of 1:10 (plant material: water and added at conc. of 0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 ml g– 1 soil to loamy sand soil. DCD was added to soil at rate of 50 µg g-1 soil . Soil received urea at rate of 1000 µg N g-1 soil. Treated soils were incubated at 30 OC for 40 days. Results showed that application of all plant extracts, except those of casuarina, date palm and eucalyptus to soil retarded nitrification in soil. Caper, Sowthistle ,bladygrass and pomegranate extracts showed highest inhibition percentage (51, 42, 40 and 40 %, respectively and were found to be more effective than DCD (33 %. Highest inhibition was achieved by using those extracts at conc. of 0.1 ml g-1 soil after 10 days of incubation . Data also revealed that treated soil with these plant extracts significantly increased amount of NH4+–N and decreased amount of NO3-–N accumulation in soil compared with DCD and control treatments. Results of the study suggested a possibility of using aqueous extracts of some studied plants as potent nitrification inhibitor in soil.

  18. Additional considerations on electrolysis in electromembrane extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šlampová, Andrea; Kubáň, Pavel; Boček, Petr

    2016-01-15

    Optimized acceptor solutions, which eliminate electrolytically induced variations in their pH values, have been shown to improve electromembrane extraction (EME) performance. Acceptor solutions containing 500 mM formic acid (pH 1.97) ensured stable EME process for three basic drugs extracted at 50 V across 1-ethyl-2-nitrobenzene and constant extraction recoveries (66-89%) were achieved for 40-80 min EMEs. Back-extraction of analytes into donor solutions has been eliminated by application of optimized acceptor solutions, moreover, saturation of acceptor solutions with analytes had no additional effect on their back-extraction; the presence of up to 300-fold excess of analytes in optimized acceptor solutions led to slightly reduced but stable enrichment of analytes over the entire extraction time. Stable EME performance has been also achieved for extractions into 100mM HCl, note however, that seriously compromised performance of subsequent capillary electrophoretic analyses has been observed due to high conductivities of resulting acceptor solutions. Electrolytically produced H(+) and OH(-) ions have mostly remained in corresponding operating solutions, have determined their final pH values and have not been subjects of EME transfers across selective phase interfaces as was experimentally verified by pH measurements of anolytes and catholytes at various EME times. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. PROPOLIS EXTRACT IN POSTHARVEST CONSERVATION BANANA ' PRATA'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLÁVIA REGINA PASSOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present work were evaluated the effects of propolis coatings of various botanical sources on quality traits of bananas cv. Prata (Musa sapientum L. stored at room temperature. ´Prata´ bananas were selected and submitted to five postharvest treatments: four coatings applied by immersion in propolis extracts at a concentration of 2.5% (w/v and a control (without coating. Propolis extracts were applied as 1 a wild type aqueous propolis extract, 2 a wild type hydroalcoholic propolis extract, 3 a rosemary green type hydroalcoholic propolis extract and 4 a red type hydroalcoholic propolis extract. The bananas were evaluated at three-day intervals along 12 days for fresh weight losses, flesh firmness, soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA, the ratio SS/TA and pH. Sensory analyses were performed after three and six days of storage by 55 not trained panelists designed for acceptability. At the end of the twelve-day storage period, bananas coated either with the rosemary green hydroalcoholic extract or with the aqueous extract presented lower fresh weight losses in comparison to the bananas of the control treatment. No differences were determined in relation to flesh firmness and along the storage period TA values decreased and pH values increased in bananas of all treatments. SS contents increased towards the end of the storage period that, consequently, contributed to increases in the SS/TA ratio. The most significant increase in SS/TA ratio was determined in bananas coated with the red type hydroalcoholic extract. Taste panelists did not detect significant differences amongst coated and not coated cv. Prata bananas up to six days of storage.

  20. COBALT SALTS PRODUCTION BY USING SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila V. Dyakova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the extracting cobalt salts by using mixtures on the basis of tertiary amine from multicomponent solutions from the process of hydrochloride leaching of cobalt concentrate. The optimal composition for the extraction mixture, the relationship between the cobalt distribution coefficients and modifier’s nature and concentration, and the saltingout agent type have been determined. A hydrochloride extraction technology of cobalt concentrate yielding a purified concentrated cobalt solution for the production of pure cobalt salts has been developed and introduced at Severonikel combine.

  1. Abstract Generation based on Rhetorical Structure Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Ono, K; Ono, Kenji; Sumita, Kazuo

    1994-01-01

    We have developed an automatic abstract generation system for Japanese expository writings based on rhetorical structure extraction. The system first extracts the rhetorical structure, the compound of the rhetorical relations between sentences, and then cuts out less important parts in the extracted structure to generate an abstract of the desired length. Evaluation of the generated abstract showed that it contains at maximum 74\\% of the most important sentences of the original text. The system is now utilized as a text browser for a prototypical interactive document retrieval system.

  2. Nootropic effect of meadowsweet (Filipendula vulgaris) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilova, I V; Suslov, N I

    2015-03-01

    The effects of the extracts of the aboveground parts of Filipendula vulgaris Moench on the behavior and memory of mice after hypoxic injury and their physical performance in the open-field test were studied using the models of hypoxia in a sealed volume, conditioned passive avoidance response (CPAR), and forced swimming with a load. The extracts improved animal resistance to hypoxia, normalized orientation and exploration activities, promoted CPAR retention after hypoxic injury, and increased physical performance. Aqueous extract of meadowsweet had the most pronounced effect that corresponded to the effect of the reference drug piracetam. These effects were probably caused by modulation of hippocampal activity.

  3. Technology Corner: Automated Data Extraction Using Facebook

    OpenAIRE

    Nick Flor

    2012-01-01

    Because of Facebook’s popularity, law enforcement agents often use it as a key source of evidence. But like many user digital trails, there can be a large amount of data to extract for analysis. In this paper, we explore the basics of extracting data programmatically from a user’s Facebook via a Web app. A data extraction app requests data using the Facebook Graph API, and Facebook returns a JSON object containing the data. Before an app can access a user’s Facebook data, the user must ...

  4. A Spreadsheet Algorithm for Stagewise Solvent Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, R.A.; Regalbuto, M.C.

    1993-08-01

    The material balance and equilibrium equations for solvent extraction processes have been combined with computer spreadsheets in a new way so that models for very complex multicomponent multistage operations can be setup and used easily. A part of the novelty is the way in which the problem is organized in the spreadsheet. In addition, to facilitate spreadsheet setup, a new calculational procedure has been developed. The resulting Spreadsheet Algorithm for Stagewise Solvent Extraction (SASSE) can be used with either IBM or Macintosh personal computers as a simple yet powerful tool for analyzing solvent extraction flowsheets.

  5. Extraction of latent images from printed media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeyev, Vladislav; Fedoseev, Victor

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we propose an automatic technology for extraction of latent images from printed media such as documents, banknotes, financial securities, etc. This technology includes image processing by adaptively constructed Gabor filter bank for obtaining feature images, as well as subsequent stages of feature selection, grouping and multicomponent segmentation. The main advantage of the proposed technique is versatility: it allows to extract latent images made by different texture variations. Experimental results showing performance of the method over another known system for latent image extraction are given.

  6. Assessment of Aristolochia bracteolata leaf extracts for its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... was found to have the significant activity followed by the chloroform extract against certain bacteria. Water extract did not have any activity against bacteria. Antifungal activity assessment indicated that the tested fungal strains are more susceptible to aqueous extract followed by methanol extract and chloroform extract.

  7. In vitro Antimalarial and Cytotoxic Activities of Leaf Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    specimen (ESO/VA/08) of the plant deposited in the herbarium of the University of Benin, Benin. City, Nigeria. Extract Preparation: The leaves were air-dried, crushed and extracted into 3 extract types which consisted of ethanolic, aqueous, and hydro- ethanolic (50:50 v/v) extracts using standard extraction procedures ...

  8. Study on the extraction of dioscin by the ultrasonicassisted ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The method was compared with solvent extraction process for the effect on extraction yield of dioscin. It was shown that the technology of ultrasonic assisted ethanol extraction which can significantly increase the extraction yield and extraction efficiency of dioscin. The ultrasonic did not destroy D. zingiberensis cell structure, ...

  9. Extraction of bioactive compounds against cardiovascular diseases from Lentinula edodes using a sequential extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Diego; Piris, Adriana J; Ruiz-Rodriguez, Alejandro; Prodanov, Marin; Soler-Rivas, Cristina

    2018-02-01

    Three extraction methods were sequentially combined to obtain fractions from Lentinula edodes (shiitake mushrooms) containing bioactive compounds against cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Fruiting bodies were first extracted with plain water, obtained residue was then submitted to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and remaining residue submitted to hot water extraction. Sequential design allowed re-utilization of the non-extracted material as raw material for the successive extractions increasing extraction yields and separating interesting compounds. Obtained fractions contained different amounts of ß-glucans, chitins, eritadenine, lenthionine, ergosterol, proteins/peptides and phenolic compounds conferring them different bioactivities. Water soluble fractions showed high antioxidant activities (ABTS+• and DPPH• scavenging capacity and reducing power), they were also able to inhibit one of the main enzymes involved in hypertension (angiotensin-I converting enzyme) and the key enzyme of cholesterol metabolism (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase). The latter inhibitory activity was also noticed in SFE extracts although ergosterol and other lipid-like molecules were isolated. Dietary fibers were separated in the third extraction. Therefore, with this sequential extraction procedure bioactive compounds against CVDs can be selectively separated from a single batch of shiitake powder. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  10. Separation of digoxin by luiquid-luiquid extraction from extracts of foxglove secondary glycosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novković Vesna V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the extraction of digoxin (Dgx from chloroform and trichloroethylene extracts of the secondary glycosides of fermented foxglove (Digitalis lanata Ehrh. foliage by liquid-liquid extraction. The extraction degree (ED of Dgx achieved by maceration and percolation using 10% vol. aqueous ethanol solutions were higher than 95%. Using trichlorethylene and chloroform, the ED of Dgx of about 100% and 96%, respectively from the liquid ethanolic extracts (macerate or percolate were achieved by the four-cycle extraction. Fifteen separating funnels were employed for the liquid-liquid extraction. Three different four-component two-phase systems (ethanol:water - chloroform:ethyl acetate, ethanol:water - chloroform:trichloroethylene and ethanol:water - trichloroethylene:ethyl acetate were tested as an extracting solvent to get the final product having more than 98% of Dgx. The initial amount of the chloroform or trichloroethylene extract in the light phase was varied between 5 and 25 g/L, while the volume ratio of light and heavy phases was in the range of 1:1 to 1:2. The best Dgx yield of 98% was achieved with the system ethanol:water - chloroform:trichloroethylene 35:15:20:30 at the volume ratio of the phases of 1:1.1 and at the initial amount of the extract of 15 g/L. Purity of the separated digoxin was 99.8 %. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-34012

  11. Antioxidant activities of extracts from five edible mushrooms using different extractants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suphaphit Boonsong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Extractions were performed of the total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant properties of five edible mushroom samples—Lentinus edodes, Volvariella volvacea, Pleurotus eous, Pleurotus sajor-caju and Auricularia auricular—using three different extractants. Among the three different extractants, 50% (volume per volume; v/v ethanol was the most suitable for antioxidant extraction from the mushroom samples. The 50% (v/v ethanolic extract of dried L. edodes contained higher total phenolic and flavonoid contents than in the other mushroom extract samples. The antioxidant activities of 50% (v/v ethanolic extract of dried L. edodes showed the strongest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging assay (64.34% compared to butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA and α-tocopherol at 500 μg/mL. The ethanolic extract showed a lower reducing power of 0.10 compared to BHA and α-tocopherol at 500 μg/mL. Moreover, the L. edodes ethanolic extract also had the highest chelating ability (66.28% which was lower than for ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid at 500 μg/mL and showed the strongest superoxide radical-scavenging activity (64.17% compared to BHA and α-tocopherol. Therefore, the 50% (v/v ethanolic extract of L. edodes could be used as a potential natural antioxidative source or as an ingredient in the fish and fishery product industries.

  12. Effects of Hot-Pressure Extraction Time on Composition and Gelatin Properties of Chicken Bone Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Jian-Ying; Wang, Jin-Zhi; Zhang, Chun-Hui; Jia, Wei; Li, Xia; Sun, Zhen

    2017-05-01

    Hot-pressure extraction was utilized in this study to extract proteins from chicken bones at 130 °C. The obtained extracts were further used to prepare gelatin gels. Results demonstrated that the extraction time can significantly affect the composition of the chicken bone extracts (P 30 KDa was only visible in the extracts collected between 40 and 60 min. The highest contents of hydroxyproline, imino acids, and hydrophobic amino acids were all achieved in the chicken bone extracts after 120 min of extraction, being 3.9, 7.7, and 16.0 mg/g, respectively. The prepared gelatin properties were evaluated in terms of viscosity, storage and loss modulus, stability, gel strength, and their microstructures. Results indicated that gelatins made from chicken bone extracts of 20, 40, and 60 min extraction had better properties compared to that of 90 and 120 min. Significant correlations were identified between gelatin's composition and properties (P gelatin's properties. This study illustrated a promising and natural way to obtain edible gelatins from chicken bones. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  13. Compositional variance in extracted particulate matter using different filter extraction techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bein, K. J.; Wexler, A. S.

    2015-04-01

    Collection and subsequent extraction of particulate matter (PM) from filter substrates is a common requirement for in vivo and in vitro toxicological studies, as well as chemical analyses such as ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Several filter extraction protocols exist and different laboratories employ different methods, potentially biasing inter-study comparisons. Previous studies have shown significant differences in extraction efficiency between techniques and identified the relevant extraction artifacts. However, a comprehensive inter-comparison of different methods based on the chemical composition of the extracted PM has never been conducted. In the current study, an exhaustive suite of chemical analyses is performed on PM extracted from glass micro-fiber filters using techniques commonly employed in different laboratories: Multi-solvent extraction (MSE) and spin-down extraction (SDE). PM samples were collected simultaneously during field studies conducted in an urban and rural setting using a high-volume PM2.5 sampler. Results show remarkable compositional variance between the PM extracts for all chemical components analyzed, including metals, water soluble ions, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, non-aromatic organics, elemental carbon and organic carbon. Mass closure was greater than 90% for MSE but deviated substantially for SDE. Detailed retrospective gravimetric analysis of archived SDE samples revealed that a process-based loss of PM mass is the root cause of the differences. These losses are shown to be compositionally biased, both externally between different PM mixtures and internally within a given PM mixture. In combination, the results of this study are the first to demonstrate (i) an exhaustive chemical characterization of a single PM extract, (ii) the significance of directly characterizing the extracted PM used in toxicological studies, (iii) the existence of substantial compositional biases between

  14. [Effect of extraction and non-extraction treatment on frontal smiling esthetics: a meta-analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Mei-lu; Xiao, Meng; Yu, Zhe; Liu, Dong-xu

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of tooth extraction and non-extraction orthodontic treatment on frontal smiling esthetics. A literature research was performed using Wanfang database, Chinese Biological Literature database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Scientific Journals Database of VIP, Medline and the Cochrane Library, dating from the establishment of the databases to 31st, August, 2014. Weighted mean difference (WMD) was calculated and meta analysis was performed by Review Manager 5.2. A total of 8 controlled studies were included. The results of meta analysis showed no significant difference between extraction and non-extraction treatment on subjective evaluation of smile esthetics [5.74-7.05 for extraction; 5.53-7.02 for non-extraction; WMD=0.09, 95%CI (-0.28, 0.46), P=0.64], buccal corridor [0.12-0.19 for extraction; 0.11-0.18 for non-extraction; WMD=0.01, 95%CI (-0.00,0.02), P=0.09], maxillary visual arch width [26.3-52.17 mm for extraction; 25.43-52.37 mm for non-extraction; WMD=-0.13, 95%CI (-1.01, 0.75), P=0.77] and smile height [5.7-10.39 mm for extraction; 5.4-9.97 mm for non-extraction; WMD=0.38, 95%CI (-0.27, 1.03), P=0.25]. Based on the results of this meta analysis, it can't be concluded that extraction treatment could affect the frontal smiling esthetics based on the present clinic evidences. Given the small sample size and the potential heterogeneity, more well-designed prospective studies should be performed in future.

  15. SPIRAL CONTACTOR FOR SOLVENT EXTRACTION COLUMN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, C.R.

    1961-06-13

    The patented extraction apparatus includes a column, perforated plates extending across the column, liquid pulse means connected to the column, and an imperforate spiral ribbon along the length of the column.

  16. Black ginseng extract ameliorates hypercholesterolemia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Saba

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Administration of BG extracts to Sprague Dawley rats fed with high-cholesterol diet ameliorated hypercholesterolemia, which was mediated via modulation of cholesterol-metabolizing marker genes. This data throw a light on BG's cardioprotective effects.

  17. Pressurized liquid extraction of capsaicinoids from peppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Gerardo F; Palma, Miguel; Barroso, Carmelo G

    2006-05-03

    A method has been developed for the extraction of capsaicinoids from peppers by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE); these compounds are determined by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), with detection by fluorescence spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry (MS). The stability of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin has been studied at different temperatures (50-200 degrees C), and several extraction variables have been assayed: solvent (methanol, ethanol, and water), different percentages of water in the methanol (0-20%) and in the ethanol (0-20%), and the number of extraction cycles. The study has evaluated the repeatability (RSD capsaicinoids present in three varieties of hot peppers cultivated in Spain, quantifying five capsaicinoids: nordihydrocapsaicin, capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, an isomer of dihydrocapsaicin, and homodihydrocapsaicin.

  18. Ion Beam Extraction by Discrete Ion Focusing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    An apparatus (900) and methods are disclosed for ion beam extraction. In an implementation, the apparatus includes a plasma source (or plasma) (802) and an ion extractor (804). The plasma source is adapted to generate ions and the ion extractor is immersed in the plasma source to extract a fraction...... of the generated ions. The ion extractor is surrounded by a space charge (810) formed at least in part by the extracted ions. The ion extractor includes a biased electrode (806) forming an interface with an insulator (808). The interface is customized to form a strongly curved potential distribution (812......) in the space-charge surrounding the ion extractor. The strongly curved potential distribution focuses the extracted ions towards an opening (814) on a surface of the biased electrode thereby resulting in an ion beam....

  19. Improved Bligh and Dyer extraction procedure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren K

    2008-01-01

    Fatty acids are specific compounds with well known chemical composition, but they exist in a great variety of molecules which differ in chemical and physical characteristics. Quantitative extraction of fatty acids is therefore a challenge. An acidic Bligh and Dyer method has been developed...... and compared with the traditional Stoldt fat extraction method. It is shown that depending on the matrix, the HCl-Bligh and Dyer extraction leads to 10-15% more total fatty acids and a 30-50% increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids compared with the official EU method. Besides being much more efficient...... for extraction of fatty acids, the HCl-Bligh and Dyer method is faster, and allows the inclusion of internal standard at the beginning of the sample treatment....

  20. Automatic Statistics Extraction for Amateur Soccer Videos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, J.C.; Schavemaker, J.G.M.; Bonenkamp, K.; Spink, A.J.; Loijens, L.W.S.; Woloszynowska-Fraser, M.; Noldus, L.P.J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Amateur soccer statistics have interesting applications such as providing insights to improve team performance, individual coaching, monitoring team progress and personal or team entertainment. Professional soccer statistics are extracted with labor intensive expensive manual effort which is not

  1. SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY OF SEA BUCKTHORN EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Mihaela Topală

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The application of sea buckthorn oil is to incorporate the oil into foodstuffs such as milk, yoghurt, cheese, butter, juice and snacks which represents new opportunities for food manufacturers, food supplements and nutraceuticals providing nutritional supports. The FTIR spectroscopy is a powerful technique for assessing food production and studied materials provides fundamental information on the behavior of the spectral metabolites and bio product. The extracts were studied from two varieties of sea buckthorn oil Pitesti I and II. Oil obtained from peel and seeds by the Soxhlet extraction with hexane solvent and CO2 supercriticalwas analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy. The concentration of fatty acids in oil extracted from seeds and peels was similar in both extraction techniques.

  2. Technology Corner: Automated Data Extraction Using Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Flor

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Because of Facebook’s popularity, law enforcement agents often use it as a key source of evidence. But like many user digital trails, there can be a large amount of data to extract for analysis. In this paper, we explore the basics of extracting data programmatically from a user’s Facebook via a Web app. A data extraction app requests data using the Facebook Graph API, and Facebook returns a JSON object containing the data. Before an app can access a user’s Facebook data, the user must log into Facebook and give permission. Thus, this approach is limited to situations where users give consent to the data extraction.

  3. Extracting Minerals from Seawater: An Energy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Bardi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of recovering minerals from seawater has been proposed as a way of counteracting the gradual depletion of conventional mineral ores. Seawater contains large amounts of dissolved ions and the four most concentrated metal ones (Na, Mg, Ca, K are being commercially extracted today. However, all the other metal ions exist at much lower concentrations. This paper reports an estimate of the feasibility of the extraction of these metal ions on the basis of the energy needed. In most cases, the result is that extraction in amounts comparable to the present production from land mines would be impossible because of the very large amount of energy needed. This conclusion holds also for uranium as fuel for the present generation of nuclear fission plants. Nevertheless, in a few cases, mainly lithium, extraction from seawater could provide amounts of metals sufficient for closing the cycle of metal use in the economy, provided that an increased level of recycling can be attained.

  4. VT Lake Champlain (extracted from VHDCARTO) - polygon

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) LKCH5K is an extract of Lake Champlain that is derived from VHDCARTO. The following metadata is from VHDCARTO.VHDCARTO is a simplified version of...

  5. Current practice in transvenous lead extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bongiorni, Maria Grazia; Blomström-Lundqvist, Carina; Kennergren, Charles

    2012-01-01

    AIM: Current practice with regard to transvenous lead extraction among European implanting centres was analysed by this survey. METHODS AND RESULTS: Among all contacted centres, 164, from 30 countries, declared that they perform transvenous lead extraction and answered 58 questions...... with a compliance rate of 99.9%. Data from the survey show that there seems to be an overall increasing experience of managing various techniques of lead extraction and a widespread involvement of cardiac centres in this treatment. Results and complication rates seem comparable with those of main international...... registries. CONCLUSION: This survey gives an interesting snapshot of lead extraction in Europe today and gives some clues for future research and prospective European registries....

  6. Supported Liquid Membrane Extraction of Anabolic Androgenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    Anabolic androgenic compounds, supported liquid membrane, liquid chromatography, electrospray ionization, mass spectrometry. 1. Introduction ... monitoring of some of the anabolic hormones in muscles via pentafluoropropionyl derivatization and ... androgenic steroid hormones involve the use of solid phase extraction ...

  7. Lunar In-Situ Volatile Extraction Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A method of extracting volatile resources from the Lunar regolith is proposed to reduce the launch mass and cost of bringing such resources from the Earth to enable...

  8. Biologically active extracts with kidney affections applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascu (Neagu), Mihaela; Pascu, Daniela-Elena; Cozea, Andreea; Bunaciu, Andrei A.; Miron, Alexandra Raluca; Nechifor, Cristina Aurelia

    2015-12-01

    This paper is aimed to select plant materials rich in bioflavonoid compounds, made from herbs known for their application performances in the prevention and therapy of renal diseases, namely kidney stones and urinary infections (renal lithiasis, nephritis, urethritis, cystitis, etc.). This paper presents a comparative study of the medicinal plant extracts composition belonging to Ericaceae-Cranberry (fruit and leaves) - Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Bilberry (fruit) - Vaccinium myrtillus L. Concentrated extracts obtained from medicinal plants used in this work were analyzed from structural, morphological and compositional points of view using different techniques: chromatographic methods (HPLC), scanning electronic microscopy, infrared, and UV spectrophotometry, also by using kinetic model. Liquid chromatography was able to identify the specific compounds of the Ericaceae family, present in all three extracts, arbutosid, as well as specific components of each species, mostly from the class of polyphenols. The identification and quantitative determination of the active ingredients from these extracts can give information related to their therapeutic effects.

  9. Anethum Graveolens Linn (Umbelliferae) Extract Attenuates Stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    College of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Department of Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Chungju, ... anti-stress and cognition-improving effects of A. graveolens extract in a rat model. ..... was determined using Student's t-test, p < 0.05.

  10. Some plant extracts retarde nitrification in soil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    AL-ANSARI, Abdul –Mehdi S; ABDULKAREEM, Mohammed A

    An incubation experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of aqueous extracts of 17 plant materials on nitrification inhibition of urea- N in soil as compared with chemical inhibitor Dicyandiamide (DCD...

  11. Chemical composition of Clinopodium menthifolium aqueous extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition of Clinopodium menthifolium aqueous extract and its influence on antioxidant system in black nightshade (Solanum nigrum) and pepper (Capsicum annuum) seedlings and mortality rate of whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) adults.

  12. Automated Feature Extraction from Hyperspectral Imagery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed activities will result in the development of a novel hyperspectral feature-extraction toolkit that will provide a simple, automated, and accurate...

  13. Parallel centerline extraction on the GPU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Baoquan; Telea, Alexandru C.; Roerdink, Jos B. T. M.; Clapworthy, Gordon J.; Williams, David; Yang, Po; Dong, Feng; Codreanu, Valeriu; Chiarini, Alessandro

    Centerline extraction is important in a variety of visualization applications including shape analysis, geometry processing, and virtual endoscopy. Centerlines allow accurate measurements of length along winding tubular structures, assist automatic virtual navigation, and provide a path-planning

  14. Automatic Contour Extraction from 2D Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis GIOANNIS

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To develop a method for automatic contour extraction from a 2D image. Material and Method: The method is divided in two basic parts where the user initially chooses the starting point and the threshold. Finally the method is applied to computed tomography of bone images. Results: An interesting method is developed which can lead to a successful boundary extraction of 2D images. Specifically data extracted from a computed tomography images can be used for 2D bone reconstruction. Conclusions: We believe that such an algorithm or part of it can be applied on several other applications for shape feature extraction in medical image analysis and generally at computer graphics.

  15. Anti- Plasmodium Falciparum Activity of Extracts from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    malaria drugs. Dendrathema indicum/ Dunkufea plant used in the treatment of malaria in the northern part of Nigeria was evaluated for activity against Plasmodium falciparum. The crude ethanol extract of the plant, n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl ...

  16. Extracting pronunciation rules for phonemic variants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davel, M

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Various automated techniques can be used to generalise from phonemic lexicons through the extraction of grapheme-to-phoneme rule sets. These techniques are particularly useful when developing pronunciation models for previously unmodelled languages...

  17. Unconventional Oil and Gas Extraction Effluent Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview and documents for the Unconventional Oil and Gas Extraction Pretreatment Standards final rule (6/28/2016), direct final rule (Sept. 2016) and proposed rule (Sept. 2016). 40 CFR Part 435, Subpart C.

  18. Oil and Gas Extraction Sector (NAICS 211)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental regulatory information for oil and gas extraction sectors, including oil and natural gas drilling. Includes information about NESHAPs for RICE and stationary combustion engines, and effluent guidelines for synthetic-based drilling fluids

  19. Additional considerations on electrolysis in electromembrane extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Šlampová, A. (Andrea); Kubáň, P. (Pavel); Boček, P. (Petr)

    2016-01-01

    Additional considerations on quantitative aspects of electrolysis in EME have been evaluated. The most likely reasons for back-extraction of analytes during EMEs have been examined and efficient approaches for electrolysis elimination have been proposed.

  20. Medicaid Analytic eXtract (MAX) Chartbooks

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicaid Analytic eXtract Chartbooks are research tools and reference guides on Medicaid enrollees and their Medicaid experience in 2002 and 2004. Developed for...

  1. Incorporating Relation Paths in Neural Relation Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Wenyuan; Lin, Yankai; Liu, Zhiyuan; Sun, Maosong

    2016-01-01

    Distantly supervised relation extraction has been widely used to find novel relational facts from plain text. To predict the relation between a pair of two target entities, existing methods solely rely on those direct sentences containing both entities. In fact, there are also many sentences containing only one of the target entities, which provide rich and useful information for relation extraction. To address this issue, we build inference chains between two target entities via intermediate...

  2. Extracting Business Intelligence from Online Product Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Soundarya.V; Siddareddy Sowmya Rupa; Sristi Khanna; G. Swathi; Manjula, D.

    2013-01-01

    The project proposes to build a system which is capable of extracting business intelligence for amanufacturer, from online product reviews. For a particular product, it extracts a list of the discussedfeatures and their associated sentiment scores. Online products reviews and review characteristics areextracted from www.Amazon.com. A two level filtering approach is adapted to choose a set of reviews thatare perceived to be useful by customers. The filtering process is based on the concept tha...

  3. Extraction, bioavailability, and bioefficacy of capsaicinoids

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Muwen; Ho, Chi-Tang; Huang, Qingrong

    2017-01-01

    Capsaicinoids are active constituents responsible for the pungent and spicy flavor in chili peppers. During the past few decades, various extraction methods of capsaicinoids from peppers have been developed with high yields. Through biological studies, pharmacological benefits have been reported such as pain relief, antiinflammation, anticancer, cardio-protection, as well as weight loss. In this paper, the extraction methods and bioavailability of capsaicinoids are reviewed and discussed. In ...

  4. Immunosuppresive effects of the methanolic extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Viability of MΦs and Vero cells was determined by the MTT method. Results: The MeOH extract of C. cainito leaves inhibited significantly the phagocytosis, and decreased IL-6 and TNF-α production as well as NO and H2O2 released by the MΦs, in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, MeOH extract of C. cainito ...

  5. Deep Webpage Classification and Extraction (DWCE)

    OpenAIRE

    Supriya; Meenakshi Sharma

    2013-01-01

    As the Deep web (or Hidden web) information is hidden behind the search query forms, this information can only be accessed by interacting with these forms. Therefore, development of automated system that interacts with the search forms and extracts the hidden web pages would be of great value to human users. To accomplishthis task stated above, this paper proposes a novel method “Deep Webpage Classification and Extraction” which classifies the websites into appropriate domain, extracts their ...

  6. Gold and Silver Extraction from Leach Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagdaulet K. Kenzhaliyev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been carried out an investigation on the extraction of gold and silver from thiosulfate solutions: standard test and technological solutions of chemical and electrochemical leaching. The influence of related metals on the process of extracting gold from solution was studied. There has been conducted a comparative study of the IR spectra of solutions after the sorption of gold, silver and related metals.

  7. SPASMOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF CASUARINA EQUISETIFOLIA BARK EXTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    D. V. Kishore and Rumana Rahman*

    2012-01-01

    Casuarina equisetifolia (Casuarinaceae) is considered a medicinal plant and is traditionally used for the treatment of diarrhoea. Preliminary phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of the aerial bark revealed the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, proteins, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids and tannins. The extract reduced contractions in isolated ileum induced by spasmogens like ACh, Histamine, KCl and BaCl2 and potentiated the effect of Nifedipine suggesting an antimuscarinic, anti...

  8. Enzymatic hydrolysis of plant extracts containing inulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiraud, J.P.; Galzy, P.

    1981-10-01

    Inulin-rich extracts of chicory and Jerusalem artichoke are a good potential source of fructose. Total enzymatic hydrolysis of these extracts can be effected by yeast inulinases (EC 3.2.1.7). Chemical prehydrolysis is unfavourable. Enzymatic hydrolysis has advantages over chemical hydrolysis: it does not produce a dark-coloured fraction or secondary substances. It is possible to envisage the preparation of high fructose syrups using this process. (Refs. 42).

  9. Extraction, bioavailability, and bioefficacy of capsaicinoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muwen Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Capsaicinoids are active constituents responsible for the pungent and spicy flavor in chili peppers. During the past few decades, various extraction methods of capsaicinoids from peppers have been developed with high yields. Through biological studies, pharmacological benefits have been reported such as pain relief, antiinflammation, anticancer, cardio-protection, as well as weight loss. In this paper, the extraction methods and bioavailability of capsaicinoids are reviewed and discussed. In addition, the pharmacological effects and their underlying mechanisms are also studied.

  10. Unsupervised relation extraction by massive clustering

    OpenAIRE

    González Pellicer, Edgar; Turmo Borras, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    The goal of Information Extraction is to automatically generate structured pieces of information from the relevant information contained in text documents. Machine Learning techniques have been applied to reduce the cost of Information Extraction system adaptation. However, elements of human supervision strongly bias the learning process. Unsupervised learning approaches can avoid these biases. In this paper, we propose an unsupervised approach to learning for Relation Detection, based...

  11. MTN magnet for the SPS extracted beam.

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    This type of dipole magnet was used in the extracted beam lines of the North Area. It shows an opening for three different proton beam lines: a primary extracted proton beam, split by an upstream magnetic beam splitter (see photo 7612017) into three separated beams passes through different parts of its aperture: right, left up, left down. These magnets were designed to be concrete-insulated for radiation resistance. F. Streun stands on the right.

  12. SEPARATION OF RARE EARTHS BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppard, D.F.; Mason, G.W.

    1960-10-11

    A process is given for separating lanthanide rare earths from each other from an aqueous mineral acid solution, e.g., hydrochloric or nitric acid of a concentration of above 3 M, preferably 12 to 16 M, by extraction with a water- immiscible alkyl phosphate, such as tributyl phosphate or a mixture of mono-, di- and tributyl phosphate, and fractional back-extraction with mineral acid whereby the lanthanides are taken up by the acid in the order of increasing atomic number.

  13. Extracting Product Features from Chinese Product Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Yahui Xi

    2013-01-01

    With the great development of e-commerce, the number of product reviews grows rapidly on the e-commerce websites. Review mining has recently received a lot of attention, which aims to discover the valuable information from the massive product reviews. Product feature extraction is one of the basic tasks of product review mining. Its effectiveness can influence significantly the performance of subsequent jobs. Double Propagation is a state-of-the-art technique in product feature extraction. In...

  14. Multiplexed Colorimetric Solid-Phase Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazda, Daniel B.; Fritz, James S.; Porter, Marc D.

    2009-01-01

    Multiplexed colorimetric solid-phase extraction (MC-SPE) is an extension of colorimetric solid-phase extraction (C-SPE) an analytical platform that combines colorimetric reagents, solid phase extraction, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to quantify trace analytes in water. In CSPE, analytes are extracted and complexed on the surface of an extraction membrane impregnated with a colorimetric reagent. The analytes are then quantified directly on the membrane surface using a handheld diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer. Importantly, the use of solid-phase extraction membranes as the matrix for impregnation of the colorimetric reagents creates a concentration factor that enables the detection of low concentrations of analytes in small sample volumes. In extending C-SPE to a multiplexed format, a filter holder that incorporates discrete analysis channels and a jig that facilitates the concurrent operation of multiple sample syringes have been designed, enabling the simultaneous determination of multiple analytes. Separate, single analyte membranes, placed in a readout cartridge create unique, analyte-specific addresses at the exit of each channel. Following sample exposure, the diffuse reflectance spectrum of each address is collected serially and the Kubelka-Munk function is used to quantify each water quality parameter via calibration curves. In a demonstration, MC-SPE was used to measure the pH of a sample and quantitate Ag(I) and Ni(II).

  15. Screening for bioactivity of Mutinus elegans extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajendiran, A.; Cyriac, RE; Abraham, J.

    2017-11-01

    Mutinus elegans is a species of fungi that is commonly called as Elegant Stinkhorn. The aim of this study was to screen the crude extracts of the fungus for phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial activity, antioxidant assay and anticancer activity. Extraction of the fungal sample in Soxhlet apparatus was done with n-hexane and methanol as the solvent. Stock solutions of the crude methanol extract were prepared and used for microbiological assay. Thin layer chromatography was performed in order to determine the number of active components in n-hexane, and methanol solvent system for the fungus Mutinus elegans. Further, antioxidant assay was performed using DPPH radical scavenging assay. The fungal sample was then tested for cytotoxicity assay against MG63 osteosarcoma cell lines. The antimicrobial assay of Mutinus elegans extract exhibited activity against five pathogens. The zone of inhibition was measured with respect to standard antibiotics. Gas chromatography and Mass spectrometry (GC/MS analysis), revealed the presence of dibromo-tetradecan-1-ol-acetate, 2-myristynoyl-glycinamide, fumaric acid, and cyclohexylmethyldecyl ester compounds were presented in methanol and n-hexane extract of Mutinus elegans. The present study concludes the presence of bioactive compound in the extract which exhibited antimicrobial and antioxidant activity in Mutinus elegans.

  16. Development of mouthwash with Rosmarinus officinalis extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Moreira Baumgratz de Paula

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rosmarinus officinalis, which belongs to the Lamiaceaefamily, is a species of medicinal flora with therapeutic properties. In order to exploit the benefits of these properties, a mouthwash formulation was developed, with careful selection of raw materials to meet pharmacotechnical requirements. Extracts of the plant were incorporated into a mouthwash, which was shown to have inhibitory action in vitro against the micro-organisms commonly found in periodontics. Controls for assessing the quality of the drugs were carried out, quantifying phenols and flavonoids as chemical markers. Mouthwash solutions were formulated containing 0.1, 5 and 10% ethanol extract of R. officinalis; and 0.05, 5 and 10% of the hexane fraction of R. officinalis. In order to evaluate synergism, ethanol extract and hexane fraction were also added to formulations containing 0.05% sodium fluoride and 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate. These formulations were assessed for inhibitory effect against the specific microorganisms involved in the process of bacterial plaque formation, S. mutans(ATCC25175 and C. albicans(ATCC 10231, frequently found in cases of oral infections. The agar diffusion method was used to evaluate the inhibitory activity of extracts and formulations. All mouthwash solutions displayed inhibitory activity having higher sensitivity to S. mutansfor the 5% ethanol extract+0.05% sodium fluoride, and greater sensitivity to C. albicansfor the 10% hexane fraction. Results were characterized by the appearance of a growth inhibition halo, justifying the utilization and association of extracts of R. officinalis.

  17. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF GINGER OLEORESIN USING ULTRASOUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normalina Arpi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of ultrasound in extraction process creates novel and interesting methodologies, which are oftencomplementary to conventional extraction methods. In the present study, the use of ultrasound to extract oleoresin fromginger (Zingiber officinale R. was investigated. The extraction was performed by using ethanol as solvent in thepresence of ultrasonic irradiations operating at frequency of 42 kHz at extraction temperature of 60 oC. The oleoresinextracted was in the form of dark thick liquid with specific ginger flavor. Based on GC-MS analysis, the use ofultrasound was not give an effect on alteration of main component in ginger oleoresin. The main component inextracted ginger oleoresin was zingerone. Gingerol as one of the pungent principle of the ginger oleoresin was notdetected due to decomposition of gingerol at a temperature above 45 oC. Extraction rate of ultrasound-assistedextraction was about 1.75 times more rapid than a conventional system based on soxhlet. The scanning electronmicroscopy images provided more evidence for the mechanical effects of ultrasound, mainly appearing on cells’ wallsand shown by the destruction of cells, facilitating the release of their contents.

  18. Pollen used to produce allergen extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codina, Rosa; Lockey, Richard F

    2017-02-01

    To review the use of pollen for the production of allergen extracts to diagnose and treat allergic diseases, examine the associated regulations, and highlight candidate areas for improvement. A PubMed search was performed using focused keywords combined with a review of regulatory documents and industry guidelines. The information obtained through literature, documents, and industry was scrutinized and used with personal experience and expertise to write this article. Both genetic and environmental factors affect the allergenic composition of pollen because it is a biologically active pharmaceutical ingredient obtained from nature. The potential effect of airborne contaminants in pollen requires major attention but can be properly addressed through careful collection practices, combined with a proper interpretation of the data on purity obtained for each pollen lot. The regulations associated with pollen used to manufacture allergen extracts in the United States and Europe and the numbers of pollen allergen extracts commercially available in both areas of the world differ. A critical parameter to select the appropriate extracts for diagnosis and allergen immunotherapy is to understand the phenomenon of cross-reactivity among pollen families, genera, and species. Physicians should be aware of the factors responsible for the qualitative and quantitative composition of pollen allergen extracts and the associated regulations to produce suitable extracts to diagnose and treat allergic diseases. Collaboration and cooperation among allergen manufacturing companies and regulatory agencies are necessary. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Kenaf seed oil from supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hibiscus cannabinus) variety V36 extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction (SFE) with different combinations of pressure (bars) and temperature (°C). Extracted oils were tested on human promyelocytic HL-60, murine ...

  20. Term extraction from sparse, ungrammatical domain-specific documents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ittoo, Ashwin; Bouma, Gosse

    2013-01-01

    Existing term extraction systems have predominantly targeted large and well-written document collections, which provide reliable statistical and linguistic evidence to support term extraction. In this article, we address the term extraction challenges posed by sparse, ungrammatical texts with

  1. Improving extraction efficiency of the third integer resonant extraction using higher order multipoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Schoefer, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tomizawa, M. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan)

    2017-03-09

    The new accelerator complex at J-PARC will operate with both high energy and very high intensity proton beams. With a design slow extraction efficiency of greater than 99% this facility will still be depositing significant beam power onto accelerator components [2]. To achieve even higher efficiencies requires some new ideas. The design of the extraction system and the accelerator lattice structure leaves little room for improvement using conventional techniques. In this report we will present one method for improving the slow extraction efficiency at J-PARC by adding duodecapoles or octupoles to the slow extraction system. We will review the theory of resonant extraction, describe simulation methods, and present the results of detailed simulations. From our investigations we find that we can improve extraction efficiency and thereby reduce the level of residual activation in the accelerator components and surrounding shielding.

  2. Extraction and determination of total flavonoids in jujube by alcohol extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Y. B.; Ru, X.; Yu, M.; Wang, S. W.; Lu, L.; Qiao, A. N.; Guo, A. Z.

    2017-12-01

    Jujube is a ripe fruit of Rhamnaceae. Its main active component is flavonoids, so the extraction and determination of total flavonoids in jujube will help to develop and utilize the medicinal value of jujube. In this study, the total flavonoids were extracted from jujube by alcohol extraction method. Through single factor investigation and orthogonal test, it was found that the total flavonoids content in jujube was the highest under the condition of 70°C, material ratio of 1:40, and extraction of 30 min by 70% ethanol. The content of total flavonoids in the extract of jujube was 1.57% at the wavelength of 510 nm by UV and rutin as the standard. The method was evaluated by methodological study, and it was determined that this method could be used as the detection of total flavonoids in jujube extraction.

  3. Microwave-assisted extraction versus Soxhlet extraction in the analysis of 21 organochlorine pesticides in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriada-Pereira, M; Concha-Graña, E; González-Castro, M J; Muniategui-Lorenzo, S; López-Mahía, P; Prada-Rodríguez, D; Fernández-Fernández, E

    2003-08-01

    A method to determine 21 organochlorine pesticides in vegetation samples using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) is described and compared with Soxhlet extraction. Samples were extracted with hexane-acetone (1:1, v/v) and the extracts were cleaned using solid-phase extraction with Florisil and alumine as adsorbents. Pesticides were eluted with hexane-ethyl acetate (80:20, v/v) and determined by gas chromatography and electron-capture detection. Recoveries obtained (75.5-132.7% for Soxhlet extraction and 81.5-108.4% for MAE) show that both methods are suitable for the determination of chlorinated pesticides in vegetation samples. The method using microwave energy was applied to grass samples from parks of A Coruña (N.W. Spain) and to vegetation from the contaminated industrial area of Torneiros (Pontevedra, N.W. Spain).

  4. Thermoanalysis of soybean oil extracted by two methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S. A. de Lima

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal stability of vegetable oils is an important factor that affects their quality. In this study, we investigated the thermal stability of oil and lecithin extracted from soybeans by two distinct processes: mechanical extraction (pressing and physical extraction (solvent. Thermal analysis was used to obtain information about different methodologies of extraction. The physically extracted products proved more stable than those extracted mechanically. Raman and UV-Vis techniques were applied to underpin the discussion of process differences.

  5. Thermoanalysis of soybean oil extracted by two methods

    OpenAIRE

    Lima,Maria S. A. de; ROCHA, LUCAS A.; Molina,Eduardo F.; Caetano,Bruno L.; Liziane Marçal; César Mello; CIUFFI,KATIA J.; PAULO S. CALEFI; Nassar,Eduardo J.

    2008-01-01

    The thermal stability of vegetable oils is an important factor that affects their quality. In this study, we investigated the thermal stability of oil and lecithin extracted from soybeans by two distinct processes: mechanical extraction (pressing) and physical extraction (solvent). Thermal analysis was used to obtain information about different methodologies of extraction. The physically extracted products proved more stable than those extracted mechanically. Raman and UV-Vis techniques were ...

  6. Comparative Analysis of the Antioxidant Activity of Cassia fistula Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Irshad, Md.; Zafaryab, Md.; Singh, Man; Rizvi, M. Moshahid A.

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidant potential of various extracts of Cassia fistula was determined by the DPPH, FRAP, Fe3+ reducing power, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay. Methanolic extracts of Cassia fistula showed the highest amount of phenolic and flavonoid content and reducing capacity, whereas hexane extracts exhibited the lowest level of reducing capacity. The order of antioxidant activity in Cassia fistula extracts displayed from higher to lower level as methanolic extracts of pulp, methanolic extract...

  7. Optimization of microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and soxhlet extraction of phenolic compound from licorice root

    OpenAIRE

    Karami, Zohreh; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra; Mirzaee, Habib Allah; Khomeiri, Morteza; Mahoonak, Alireza Sadeghi; Aydani, Emad

    2014-01-01

    In present study, response surface methodology was used to optimize extraction condition of phenolic compounds from licorice root by microwave application. Investigated factors were solvent (ethanol 80 %, methanol 80 % and water), liquid/solid ratio (10:1–25:1) and time (2–6 min). Experiments were designed according to the central composite rotatable design. The results showed that extraction conditions had significant effect on the extraction yield of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capac...

  8. BEAM EXTRACTION FROM THE SNS RING AND DESIGN OF EXTRACTION KICKERS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TSOUPAS, N.; BLASKIEWICZ, M.; LEE, Y.Y.; MI, J.L.; SOUKAS, A.; WANG, J.G.; WEI, J.; ZHANG, S.Y.

    2000-06-30

    The accumulator ring of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) [1] will accumulate a proton beam, injected from a LINAC, into a single bunch containing {approximately} 2.1 x 10{sup 14} protons at a maximum energy of 1.3 GeV. The single bunch with length {approximately}650 nsec and a gap of {approximately}290 nsec will circulate into the accumulator ring for {approximately}1.0 msec before it is extracted into the RTBT transfer line. The accumulation, extraction frequency is set at 60 Hz. This paper discusses the extraction process and the requirements of the fast beam extraction system.

  9. Selective Liquid-Liquid Extraction of Lead Ions Using Newly Synthesized Extractant 2-(Dibutylcarbamoylbenzoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Soltani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A new carboxylic acid extractant, named 2-(dibutylcarbamoylbenzoic acid, is prepared and its potential for selective solvent extraction and recovery of lead ions from industrial samples was investigated. The slope analysis indicated that the lead ions are extracted by formation of 1:2 metal to ligand complexes. The effect of the parameters influencing the extraction efficiency including kind of the organic diluent, extractant concentration, type of the salt used for ionic strength adjustment, contact time and temperature was evaluated and discussed. Under optimized conditions (aqueous phase: 5 ml, initial lead concentration 1 × 10-4 M, pH 4, sodium chloride 0.1 M; organic phase: 5 ml dichloromethane, ligand concentration 0.05 M, a quantitative (75.2 ± 0.8% and highly selective extraction of lead ions in the presence of zinc, nickel, cobalt and cadmium ions (each 1 × 10-4 M was achieved, after 20 min. magnetically stirring of the phases, at      25 °C. The extracted lead ions were stripped from the organic phase by diluted nitric acid (0.1 M solution. The proposed method was successfully applied for separation of lead from industrial samples. The study of the effect of temperature allowed evaluating the thermodynamic parameters of the extraction process of lead ions by the studied extractant into dichloromethane.

  10. Effects of Different Extraction Methods and Conditions on the Phenolic Composition of Mate Tea Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Vladic

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A simple and rapid HPLC method for determination of chlorogenic acid (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid in mate tea extracts was developed and validated. The chromatography used isocratic elution with a mobile phase of aqueous 1.5% acetic acid-methanol (85:15, v/v. The flow rate was 0.8 mL/min and detection by UV at 325 nm. The method showed good selectivity, accuracy, repeatability and robustness, with detection limit of 0.26 mg/L and recovery of 97.76%. The developed method was applied for the determination of chlorogenic acid in mate tea extracts obtained by ethanol extraction and liquid carbon dioxide extraction with ethanol as co-solvent. Different ethanol concentrations were used (40, 50 and 60%, v/v and liquid CO2 extraction was performed at different pressures (50 and 100 bar and constant temperature (27 ± 1 °C. Significant influence of extraction methods, conditions and solvent polarity on chlorogenic acid content, antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid content of mate tea extracts was established. The most efficient extraction solvent was liquid CO2 with aqueous ethanol (40% as co-solvent using an extraction pressure of 100 bar.

  11. Extraction, fatty acid profile and antioxidant activity of sesame extract (Sesamum Indicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. R. Carvalho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article carried out the extraction of sesame oil by using three extraction techniques: supercritical fluid extraction (SFE, Soxhlet and sequential extraction. The SFE was performed using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 as solvent and ethanol as cosolvent. Tests were performed at 20 MPa, 35ºC and a flow rate of 2.5 g CO2/min with a total extraction time of 210 minutes. The Soxhlet extraction was performed for 8 hours, using petroleum ether and ethanol as solvents, until the exhaustion of the oil contained in the seeds. The sequential extraction used ethyl ether, ethanol and water as solvents. The Soxhlet extraction was the most effective (58.93%, while the SFE technique obtained 26.47% as the best result. The antioxidant activity (AA was determined by the β-carotene/linoleic acid system, with good oxidation inhibition percentages (29.32-83.49% for all the extracts. The main fatty acids (FA in sesame oil were oleic and linoleic acids.

  12. Extraction of antioxidant components from peanut skins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzman, C. A.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to extract antioxidant components from peanut skins using different solvents and to determine antioxidant activity of the extracts. Methanolic, ethanolic, acetonic and aqueous extracts were prepared from defatted and non defatted peanut skins. Total dry matter content and total phenolic content, radical-scavenging activity and antioxidant activity in sunflower oil were determined from the extracts. The peanut skins used in this work had the following proximate composition: 16.60 % oil, 12.32 % protein, 2.83 % ash and 69.8 % other components. High content of total dry matter was found in methanolic (17.11 %, ethanolic (17.70 % and acetonic (18.54 % extracts from non defatted peanut skins. The acetonic extract from defatted peanut skins had lower dry matter extraction than the non defatted peanut skin extract. High content of total phenolics was detected in methanolic (158.6 mg/g and ethanolic (144.1 mg/g extracts from deffated peanut skins. These last two extracts in concentration of 1 μg/mL, the radical-scavenging activities were 32.59 % in methanolic extract and 31.5 % in ethanolic extract. All extracts (0.05 % w/w in sunflower oil showed antioxidant activity. This antioxidant activity from the extracts was lower than that activity from BHT.El objetivo del trabajo fue extraer sustancias antioxidantes del tegumento de las semillas de maní usando diferentes tipos de solventes y determinar la actividad antioxidante de los extractos. Extractos metanólicos, etanólicos, acetónicos y acuosos fueron preparados desde tegumento de maní desengrasado y sin desengrasar. Sobre los extractos se determinaron los contenidos de materia seca y fenoles totales, actividad secuestrante de radicales libres y la actividad antioxidante sobre aceite de girasol. El tegumento de maní usado en este trabajo tuvo la siguiente composición porcentual: 16.60 % de aceite, 12.32 % de proteínas, 2.83 % de cenizas y 69.8 % de otros

  13. Empirical evaluation of bone extraction protocols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy P Cleland

    Full Text Available The application of high-resolution analytical techniques to characterize ancient bone proteins requires clean, efficient extraction to obtain high quality data. Here, we evaluated many different protocols from the literature on ostrich cortical bone and moa cortical bone to evaluate their yield and relative purity using the identification of antibody-antigen complexes on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and gel electrophoresis. Moa bone provided an ancient comparison for the effectiveness of bone extraction protocols tested on ostrich bone. For the immunological part of this study, we focused on collagen I, osteocalcin, and hemoglobin because collagen and osteocalcin are the most abundant proteins in the mineralized extracellular matrix and hemoglobin is common in the vasculature. Most of these procedures demineralize the bone first, and then the remaining organics are chemically extracted. We found that the use of hydrochloric acid, rather than ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, for demineralization resulted in the cleanest extractions because the acid was easily removed. In contrast, the use of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid resulted in smearing upon electrophoretic separation, possibly indicating these samples were not as pure. The denaturing agents sodium dodecyl sulfate, urea, and guanidine HCl have been used extensively for the solubilization of proteins in non-biomineralized tissue, but only the latter has been used on bone. We show that all three denaturing agents are effective for extracting bone proteins. One additional method tested uses ammonium bicarbonate as a solubilizing buffer that is more appropriate for post-extraction analyses (e.g., proteomics by removing the need for desalting. We found that both guanidine HCl and ammonium bicarbonate were effective for extracting many bone proteins, resulting in similar electrophoretic patterns. With the increasing use of proteomics, a new generation of scientists are now interested in the

  14. Empirical evaluation of bone extraction protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Timothy P; Voegele, Kristyn; Schweitzer, Mary H

    2012-01-01

    The application of high-resolution analytical techniques to characterize ancient bone proteins requires clean, efficient extraction to obtain high quality data. Here, we evaluated many different protocols from the literature on ostrich cortical bone and moa cortical bone to evaluate their yield and relative purity using the identification of antibody-antigen complexes on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and gel electrophoresis. Moa bone provided an ancient comparison for the effectiveness of bone extraction protocols tested on ostrich bone. For the immunological part of this study, we focused on collagen I, osteocalcin, and hemoglobin because collagen and osteocalcin are the most abundant proteins in the mineralized extracellular matrix and hemoglobin is common in the vasculature. Most of these procedures demineralize the bone first, and then the remaining organics are chemically extracted. We found that the use of hydrochloric acid, rather than ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, for demineralization resulted in the cleanest extractions because the acid was easily removed. In contrast, the use of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid resulted in smearing upon electrophoretic separation, possibly indicating these samples were not as pure. The denaturing agents sodium dodecyl sulfate, urea, and guanidine HCl have been used extensively for the solubilization of proteins in non-biomineralized tissue, but only the latter has been used on bone. We show that all three denaturing agents are effective for extracting bone proteins. One additional method tested uses ammonium bicarbonate as a solubilizing buffer that is more appropriate for post-extraction analyses (e.g., proteomics) by removing the need for desalting. We found that both guanidine HCl and ammonium bicarbonate were effective for extracting many bone proteins, resulting in similar electrophoretic patterns. With the increasing use of proteomics, a new generation of scientists are now interested in the study of proteins

  15. Negative ion beam extraction in ROBIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, Gourab, E-mail: bansal@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India); Gahlaut, Agrajit; Soni, Jignesh; Pandya, Kaushal; Parmar, Kanu G.; Pandey, Ravi; Vuppugalla, Mahesh; Prajapati, Bhavesh; Patel, Amee; Mistery, Hiren [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India); Chakraborty, Arun; Bandyopadhyay, Mainak; Singh, Mahendrajit J.; Phukan, Arindam; Yadav, Ratnakar K.; Parmar, Deepak [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, A-29, Sector 25, GIDC, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 380025 (India)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► A RF based negative hydrogen ion beam test bed has been set up at IPR, India. ► Ion source has been successfully commissioned and three campaigns of plasma production have been carried out. ► Extraction system (35 kV) has been installed and commissioning has been initiated. Negative ion beam extraction is immediate milestone. -- Abstract: The RF based single driver −ve ion source experiment test bed ROBIN (Replica Of BATMAN like source in INDIA) has been set up at Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), India in a technical collaboration with IPP, Garching, Germany. A hydrogen plasma of density 5 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −3} is expected in driver region of ROBIN by launching 100 kW RF power into the driver by 1 MHz RF generator. The cesiated source is expected to deliver a hydrogen negative ion beam of 10 A at 35 kV with a current density of 35 mA/cm{sup 2} as observed in BATMAN. In first phase operation of the ROBIN ion source, a hydrogen plasma has been successfully generated (without extraction system) by coupling 80 kW RF input power through a matching network with high power factor (cos θ > 0.8) and different plasma parameters have been measured using Langmuir probes and emission spectroscopy. The plasma density of 2.5 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −3} has been measured in the extraction region of ROBIN. For negative hydrogen ion beam extraction in second phase operation, extraction system has been assembled and installed with ion source on the vacuum vessel. The source shall be first operated in volume mode for negative ion beam extraction. The commissioning of the source with high voltage power supply has been initiated.

  16. Herbal extracts in diets for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Goulart Petrolli

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding herbal extracts for broilers on performance and histology of the intestinal mucosa and its effects on the profiting from the metabolizable energy of experimental diets. For so, two experiments were conducted. In experiment I, the inclusion of different herbal extracts in diets on performance and intestinal histology of broilers was evaluated, and in experiment II, the values of apparent metabolizable energy and metabolizable energy corrected by the nitrogen balance of the experimental diets were studied. Treatments consisted of: positive control diet; positive control + avilamycin; negative control; negative control + 100 ppm of a complex containing three different herbal medicines (pepper, cinnamon and oregano; negative control + 75 ppm garlic extract; negative control + 150 ppm garlic extract. In the performance experiment, which comprised the period of 1 to 40 days of age, 960 male broilers were distributed in a randomized block design, with six treatments and eight replicates, with 20 birds per experimental unit. In experiment II, the method adopted was the traditional of total excreta collection with male broiler chicks in the age of 14 to 24 days, in a completely randomized design, with six treatments and eight replicates with five birds per experimental unit. The intestinal villus height was improved with addition of the composite containing the three herbal extracts; however, crypt depth and villus/crypt ratio were not affected. The use of herbal extract in diets for broilers promotes performance similar to that with the use of antibiotics. Herbal extracts can be incorporated into diets replacing antibiotics without compromising the metabolizable energy of diets, performance or intestinal mucosa for broilers in the period of 1 to 40 days of age.

  17. Extraction and determination of glucosinolates from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimsing, Anne Louise; Kirkegaard, John A; Bruun Hansen, Hans Christian

    2005-12-14

    The use of glucosinolate-containing plants as soil-incorporated biofumigants for pest and disease control has raised questions regarding the fate of glucosinolates in soil; however, no method for routine analysis of glucosinolates in soil has been reported. A simple method to extract glucosinolates from soil with quantification as desulfoglucosinolates by HPLC is presented. The method involves two extractions with 70% methanol at room temperature, centrifugation, and filtration prior to the desulfation step. The desulfoglucosinolates are then quantified by HPLC using established protocols for plant tissue analysis. There were no significant interfering peaks from the soil extracts, and the method provided high extraction efficiencies (around 100%) for both aromatic (benzyl) and aliphatic (2-propenyl) glucosinolates when amended at a wide range of realistic field soil concentrations (1.6-120 nmol/g of soil). The method was equally effective in three diverse Australian soils that varied in organic matter, clay content, and pH. The method was effective in air-dried or field-moist soil, although evidence for rapid glucosinolate degradation in field-moist soil indicates that extraction of moist soils should be performed as soon as possible after sampling. The method is compatible with field soil sampling at remote sites and utilizes the same equipment and protocols already established for plant tissue analysis. Extraction of glucosinolates in the field following incorporation of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and rape (Brassica napus) green manure crops was also tested. Eight different glucosinolates contained in the plant tissues were identified and quantified in soil extracts at concentrations ranging from 0.11 to 21.7 nmol/g of soil.

  18. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE) and Solvent Extraction of Papaya Seed Oil: Yield, Fatty Acid Composition and Triacylglycerol Profile

    OpenAIRE

    Hasanah Mohd Ghazali; Chin Ping Tan; Hamed Mirhosseini; Shadi Samaram

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE) and solvent extraction (SE)). In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (...

  19. Extraction of rice bran extract and some factors affecting its inhibition of polyphenol oxidase activity and browning in potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsiripiphat, Kunnikar; Theerakulkait, Chockchai

    2009-01-01

    The extraction conditions of rice bran extract (RBE), including extraction ratio, extraction time, and extraction temperature, were studied in relation to enzymatic browning inhibition in potato. The inhibitory effect of RBE on potato polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and its total phenolic compound content were highest at an extraction ratio of 1:3 (rice bran:water, w/v), extraction time of 30 min, and extraction temperature of 40 degrees C. RBE showed the most inhibitory effect on PPO activity at pH 6.5. However, the inhibitory effect of RBE on potato PPO activity and its total phenolic compound content were decreased at the higher temperature and longer time.

  20. Antimicrobial and resistance modulatory activity of Alpinia katsumadai seed phenolic extract, essential oil and post-distillation extract

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kovac, Jasna; Gavaric, Neda; Bucar, Franz; Mozina, Sonja Smole

    2014-01-01

    .... We investigated antimicrobial and resistance modulatory activity of the phenolic extract, essential oil and post-distillation extract of Alpinia katsumadai seeds against Campylobacter jejuni and Staphylococcus aureus...

  1. Extracting definition candidates from specialized corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senja Pollak

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Human knowledge is available in different forms, including domain texts, terminological dictionaries, encyclopaediae, and recently also in computer- understandable representations of domain knowledge, such as taxonomies and ontologies. Since manual domain modeling is costly and time-consuming, researchers in human language technologies have started developing methods and tools for semi-automatic extraction of domain-specific knowledge from unstructured texts, involving tasks, such as terminology extraction, definition extraction, semantic relations extraction, or semi-automatic ontology building. This article presents a methodology for definition extraction from domain corpora, currently available for Slovene and English. Since most of the existing methods and tools are language specific and not developed for minor languages, the main contribution of the dissertation is the developed definition extraction methodology for Slovene. The proposed definition extraction methodology is based on three different approaches to extracting definition candidates. The first follows the traditional pattern-based approach, in which patterns are composed of lemmas and morphosyntactic descriptions; the second approach relies on pairs of domain terms extracted through automatic term extraction; the third approach exploits wordnet hypernym pairs. We propose an original combination of the three approaches. The developed methodology was applied to a real-case problem of modeling the language technologies domain, for which we constructed a comparable Slovene- English corpus consisting of about two million tokens. We extracted more than 3,400 definition candidates, of which over 700 (approximately 480 for Slovene and 230 for English were evaluated as definitions. The results are used as a basis for the Language Technologies Glossary.17 An additional contribution is the proposed domain-modeling pipeline—from corpus uploading and preprocessing to inspecting the

  2. Optimisation of extraction and sludge dewatering efficiencies of bio-flocculants extracted from Abelmoschus esculentus (okra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chai Siah; Chong, Mei Fong; Robinson, John; Binner, Eleanor

    2015-07-01

    The production of natural biopolymers as flocculants for water treatment is highly desirable due to their inherent low toxicity and low environmental footprint. In this study, bio-flocculants were extracted from Hibiscus/Abelmoschus esculentus (okra) by using a water extraction method, and the extract yield and its performance in sludge dewatering were evaluated. Single factor experimental design was employed to obtain the optimum conditions for extraction temperature (25-90 °C), time (0.25-5 h), solvent loading (0.5-5 w/w) and agitation speed (0-225 rpm). Results showed that extraction yield was affected non-linearly by all experimental variables, whilst the sludge dewatering ability was only influenced by the temperature of the extraction process. The optimum extraction conditions were obtained at 70 °C, 2 h, solvent loading of 2.5 w/w and agitation at 200 rpm. Under the optimal conditions, the extract yield was 2.38%, which is comparable to the extraction of other polysaccharides (0.69-3.66%). The bio-flocculants displayed >98% removal of suspended solids and 68% water recovery during sludge dewatering, and were shown to be comparable with commercial polyacrylamide flocculants. This work shows that bio-flocculants could offer a feasible alternative to synthetic flocculants for water treatment and sludge dewatering applications, and can be extracted using only water as a solvent, minimising the environmental footprint of the extraction process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of Extraction and Non-extraction Orthodontic Treatment using the Objective Grading System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Farhadian

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The extraction versus non-extraction debate is almost as old as the advent of orthodontic practice and up to now, this dilemma remains. Recently, the American Board of Orthodontics (ABO has developed a method by the name of Objective Grading System (OGS in order to evaluate the results of orthodontic treatment.Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the patients’ final occlusion after extraction and non-extraction therapy using the OGS.Materials and Methods: Sixty sex-matched cases with an age range of 15-20 year old were selected and evenly divided into 2 groups as follows: 30 patients were treated by extraction of 4 premolars and 30 received a non-extraction treatment. All patients had class 1 malocclusion before treatment and were well treated with the standard edgewisesystem in a private clinic. With the aid of an ABO measuring gauge, 8 parameters of occlusion were measured 3 times,each. Reproducibility of the measurements were evaluated by use of the Phi correlation coefficient and the total OGS scores between thetwo groups were compared using Levene`s test and Student t- test with the significant level at 95%.Results: The mean OSG scores were significantly more negative in the non–extraction group (-6.58 ± 8.63 as compared to the extraction group (-28.65 ± 6.67, p < 0.004.Acceptable occlusion was observed in 73.4% of the extraction and 43.4% of the nonextraction cases.Conclusion: In this study according to the ABO grading system (OGS, the final occlusion of patients treated with extraction seemed more acceptable than non-extracted cases.

  4. Enhancement of Extraction of Uranium from Seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Sheikhly, Mohamad [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Dietz, Travis [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Tsinas, Zois [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Tomaszewski, Claire [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Pazos, Ileana M. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Nigliazzo, Olga [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States); Li, Weixing [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States); Adel-Hadadi, Mohamad [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Barkatt, Aaron [Univ. of Palermo (Italy)

    2016-04-01

    Even at a concentration of 3 μg/L, the world’s oceans contain a thousand times more uranium than currently know terrestrial sources. In order to take advantage of this stockpile, methods and materials must be developed to extract it efficiently, a difficult task considering the very low concentration of the element and the competition for extraction by other atoms in seawater such as sodium, calcium, and vanadium. The majority of current research on methods to extract uranium from seawater are vertical explorations of the grafting of amidoxime ligand, which was originally discovered and promoted by Japanese studies in the late 1980s. Our study expands on this research horizontally by exploring the effectiveness of novel uranium extraction ligands grafted to the surface of polymer substrates using radiation. Through this expansion, a greater understanding of uranium binding chemistry and radiation grafting effects on polymers has been obtained. While amidoxime-functionalized fabrics have been shown to have the greatest extraction efficiency so far, they suffer from an extensive chemical processing step which involves treatment with powerful basic solutions. Not only does this add to the chemical waste produced in the extraction process and add to the method’s complexity, but it also significantly impacts the regenerability of the amidoxime fabric. The approach of this project has been to utilize alternative, commercially available monomers capable of extracting uranium and containing a carbon-carbon double bond to allow it to be grafted using radiation, specifically phosphate, oxalate, and azo monomers. The use of commercially available monomers and radiation grafting with electron beam or gamma irradiation will allow for an easily scalable fabrication process once the technology has been optimized. The need to develop a cheap and reliable method for extracting uranium from seawater is extremely valuable to energy independence and will extend the quantity of

  5. AGS RESONANT EXTRACTION WITH HIGH INTENSITY BEAMS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AHRENS,L.; BROWN,K.; GLENN,J.W.; ROSER,T.; TSOUPAS,N.; VANASSELT,W.

    1999-03-29

    The Brookhaven AGS third integer resonant extraction system allows the AGS to provide high quality, high intensity 25.5 GeV/c proton beams simultaneously to four target stations and as many as 8 experiments. With the increasing intensities (over 7 x 10{sup 13} protons/pulse) and associated longer spill periods (2.4 to 3 seconds long), we continue to run with low losses and high quality low modulation continuous current beams.[1] Learning to extract and transport these higher intensity beams has required a process of careful modeling and experimentation. We have had to learn how to correct for various instabilities and how to better match extraction and the transport lines to the higher emittance beams being accelerated in the AGS. Techniques employed include ''RF'' methods to smooth out momentum distributions and fine structure. We will present results of detailed multi-particle tracking modeling studies which enabled us to develop a clear understanding of beam loss mechanisms in the transport and extraction process. We will report on our status, experiences, and the present understanding of the intensity limitations imposed by resonant extraction and transport to fixed target stations.

  6. Antimicrobial effects of Quercus ilex L. extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güllüce, M; Adigüzel, A; Oğütçü, H; Sengül, M; Karaman, I; Sahin, F

    2004-03-01

    The antimicrobial activities of the methanol extract of Quercus ilex L. (Pirnal oak) leaves were tested in vitro against a wide range of human and plant-associated microorganisms. A total of 132 microbial organisms belonging to 55 bacteria and five fungi and yeast species were studied using a disc-diffusion method and microdilution assays. The results were evaluated as inhibition zones around the disc impregnated with Q. ilex extract at a concentration of 300 micro L/mL. The results showed that Q. ilex did not have any antifungal activities against Alterneria alternata, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillum spp., whereas there were inhibition effects on the growth of all Candida albicans isolates. In total 97 bacterial strains (74%) were found to be resistant to Q. ilex extract. The remaining 35 (27%) strains of seven different bacteria genera including Brucella, Bacillus, Enterobacter, Neisseria, Pseudomonas and Escherichia were susceptible to the extract tested. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the extract ranged from 125 to 500 micro L/mL. These results suggest that Q. ilex possesses compounds with antibacterial and anticandidal properties. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Use of allelopathic plant extract with herbicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Tansel SERİM

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Herbicides are one of the plant protection products that have been discussed due to their adversely effects caused by the usage of them although they have an important role on the sustainability of crop production. Researches on the plant protection practices, such as the development of new herbicide application techniques, the reduction of the application rate, the use of adjuvant, changing herbicide application time and the use of allelopathic plant extract, and the applications based on the results of these research have increased in recent years. The cost of weed control may exceed the economic benefits because a large amount of plant extract is needed to control weeds alone with allelopathic chemicals. Using the mixture of plant extracts with the reduced rate of herbicides is important both to reduce environmental and economic losses and to prevent some problem caused by use of herbicide. The extracts of plants which have got allelopathic character, such as sunflower, sorghum, brassica and rice, are commonly used for this aim. The aim of presented review is to emphasize the efficacy of allelopathic plant extract with herbicide to control weeds and its economical contribution.

  8. Microwave-assisted extraction and ultrasound-assisted extraction for recovering carotenoids from Gac peel and their effects on antioxidant capacity of the extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuyen, Hoang V; Nguyen, Minh H; Roach, Paul D; Golding, John B; Parks, Sophie E

    2018-01-01

    The peel of Gac fruit ( Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.) contains high levels of bioactive compounds, especially carotenoids which possess significant antioxidant capacities. However, the peel of Gac is regarded as a waste from the production of carotenoid-rich oil from Gac fruit. In this study, carotenoids of Gac peel were extracted by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) using ethyl acetate as extraction solvent. The effect of extraction time and different levels of microwave and ultrasonic powers on the yield of total carotenoid and antioxidant capacity of the extracts were investigated. The results showed that an extraction at 120 W for 25 min and an extraction at 200 W for 80 min were the most effective for MAE and UAE of the Gac peel samples, respectively. The maximum carotenoid and antioxidant capacity yields of UAE were significantly higher than those of the MAE. The antioxidant capacity of extract obtained by the UAE was also significantly higher that of the conventional extraction using the same ratio of solvent to material. The results showed that both MAE and UAE could be used to reduce the extraction time significantly in comparison with conventional extraction of Gac peel while still obtained good extraction efficiencies. Thus, MAE and UAE are recommended for the improvement of carotenoid and antioxidant capacity extraction from Gac peel.

  9. Effect of Extraction Conditions on the Antioxidant Activity of Olive Wood Extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez-Bonilla, M.; Salido, S.; Sánchez, A.; Beek, van T.A.; Altarejos, J.

    2013-01-01

    An investigation to optimize the extraction yield and the radical scavenging activity from the agricultural by-product olive tree wood (Olea europaea L., cultivar Picual) using six different extraction protocols was carried out. Four olive wood samples from different geographical origin, and

  10. Bioactivity of non-edible oil seed extracts and purified extracts against Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Pushpa; Joseph, Mary; Tungikar, Vijay; Joshi, Swati

    2004-01-01

    Extracts and purified extracts of seeds of two plant species, Madhuca latifolia and Calophyllum inophyllum when evaluated against the 2nd instar larvae of Helicoverpa armigera reared on synthetic diet, exhibited high larval mortality, prolongation of developmental period, morphological deformities and highly significant reduction in adult emergence. The reduction in larval weights in the treatments was also highly significant.

  11. Antioxidant Properties of Crude Extract, Partition Extract, and Fermented Medium of Dendrobium sabin Flower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahziela Abu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant properties of crude extract, partition extract, and fermented medium from Dendrobium sabin (DS flower were investigated. The oven-dried DS flower was extracted using 100% methanol (w/v, 100% ethanol (w/v, and 100% water (w/v. The 100% methanolic crude extract showed the highest total phenolic content (40.33 ± mg GAE/g extract and the best antioxidant properties as shown by DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays. A correlation relationship between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content showed that phenolic compounds were the dominant antioxidant components in this flower extract. The microbial fermentation on DS flower medium showed a potential in increasing the phenolic content and DPPH scavenging activity. The TPC of final fermented medium showed approximately 18% increment, while the DPPH of fermented medium increased significantly to approximately 80% at the end of the fermentation. Dendrobium sabin (DS flower showed very good potential properties of antioxidant in crude extract and partition extract as well as better antioxidant activity in the flower fermented medium.

  12. Antioxidant Properties of Crude Extract, Partition Extract, and Fermented Medium of Dendrobium sabin Flower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu, Farahziela; Mohd Akhir, Sobri

    2017-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of crude extract, partition extract, and fermented medium from Dendrobium sabin (DS) flower were investigated. The oven-dried DS flower was extracted using 100% methanol (w/v), 100% ethanol (w/v), and 100% water (w/v). The 100% methanolic crude extract showed the highest total phenolic content (40.33 ± mg GAE/g extract) and the best antioxidant properties as shown by DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays. A correlation relationship between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content showed that phenolic compounds were the dominant antioxidant components in this flower extract. The microbial fermentation on DS flower medium showed a potential in increasing the phenolic content and DPPH scavenging activity. The TPC of final fermented medium showed approximately 18% increment, while the DPPH of fermented medium increased significantly to approximately 80% at the end of the fermentation. Dendrobium sabin (DS) flower showed very good potential properties of antioxidant in crude extract and partition extract as well as better antioxidant activity in the flower fermented medium. PMID:28761496

  13. Extraction and Separation of Fucoidan from Laminaria japonica with Chitosan as Extractant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronge Xing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein the extraction method of fucoidan from Laminaria japonica is reported. Firstly, chitosan, chitosan-N-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (HACC, and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CPAB were used to extract the fucoidan. The results showed that chitosan was the optimal extractant compared with the other two extractants. After extraction, different aqueous solutions, including NaCl, KCl, and HCl (pH2, were used to separate fucoidan from chitosan-fucoidan complex. The results showed that the separation ability of NaCl was slightly higher than that of KCl. Moreover, the price of NaCl is lower than that of KCl. Given the quality-price rate, NaCl solution was chosen as the separation solution. Thirdly, the concentration and ratio of NaCl solution : sediment influence the separation of fucoidan from chitosan-fucoidan complex. The results showed that the optimal separation conditions include 4 mol/L NaCl solution with the ratio of NaCl solution to sediment at 30 : 1. Fucoidan content was found to be affected by different separation time. Fucoidan content increased with the increase of separation time, and the optimal separation time was 6 h. Compared with traditional alkali extraction method, this method not only reduces the usage of alkali and acid and alleviate environment pollution, but also has the comparable extraction yield of fucoidan. It is a potential method for extraction of fucoidan.

  14. Extraction of Lactic Acid from Aqueous Feeds Using Membrane-Supported Reactive Extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gössi, A.; Riedl, Wolfgang; Schuur, B.

    Lactic acid extraction and back-extraction were studied using trioctylamine as reactive agent. Different hollow fiber and capillary membrane containing contactors with areas between 0.005 and 1.4 m2as well as various temperatures flow rates and phase ratios of up to 1:40 solvent/feed (S/F) were

  15. The applicability of Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE) to extract lipid biomarkers from soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, B.; Nierop, K.G.J.; Kotte, M.C.; de Voogt, P.; Verstraten, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the ability of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) to extract selected lipid biomarkers (C-19=C-34 n-alkanes, n-alcohols and n-fatty acids as well as dehydroabietic acid and P-sitosterol) from a sandy soil profile under Corsican pine. Two organic layers (moss and F1) as well as two

  16. Effect of extraction solvent/technique on the antioxidant activity of selected medicinal plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Bushra; Anwar, Farooq; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2009-06-15

    Theeffects of four extracting solvents [absolute ethanol, absolute methanol, aqueous ethanol (ethanol: water, 80:20 v/v) and aqueous methanol (methanol: water, 80:20 v/v)] and two extraction techniques (shaking and reflux) on the antioxidant activity of extracts of barks of Azadirachta indica, Acacia nilotica, Eugenia jambolana, Terminalia arjuna, leaves and roots of Moringa oleifera, fruit of Ficus religiosa,and leaves of Aloe barbadensis were investigated. The tested plant materials contained appreciable amounts of total phenolic contents (0.31-16.5 g GAE /100g DW), total flavonoid (2.63-8.66 g CE/100g DW); reducing power at 10 mg/mL extract concentration (1.36-2.91), DPPH(.) scavenging capacity (37.2-86.6%), and percent inhibition of linoleic acid (66.0-90.6%). Generally higher extract yields, phenolic contents and plant material antioxidant activity were obtained using aqueous organic solvents, as compared to the respective absolute organic solvents. Although higher extract yields were obtained by the refluxing extraction technique, in general higher amounts of total phenolic contents and better antioxidant activity were found in the extracts prepared using a shaker.

  17. Combined Extraction Processes of Lipid from Chlorella vulgaris Microalgae: Microwave Prior to Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejoye, Céline; Vian, Maryline Abert; Lumia, Guy; Bouscarle, Christian; Charton, Frederic; Chemat, Farid

    2011-01-01

    Extraction yields and fatty acid profiles from freeze-dried Chlorella vulgaris by microwave pretreatment followed by supercritical carbon dioxide (MW-SCCO2) extraction were compared with those obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction alone (SCCO2). Work performed with pressure range of 20–28 Mpa and temperature interval of 40–70 °C, gave the highest extraction yield (w/w dry weight) at 28 MPa/40 °C. MW-SCCO2 allowed to obtain the highest extraction yield (4.73%) compared to SCCO2 extraction alone (1.81%). Qualitative and quantitative analyses of microalgae oil showed that palmitic, oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acid were the most abundant identified fatty acids. Oils obtained by MW-SCCO2 extraction had the highest concentrations of fatty acids compared to SCCO2 extraction without pretreatment. Native form, and microwave pretreated and untreated microalgae were observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). SEM micrographs of pretreated microalgae present tearing wall agglomerates. After SCCO2, microwave pretreated microalgae presented several micro cracks; while native form microalgae wall was slightly damaged. PMID:22272135

  18. Combined Extraction Processes of Lipid from Chlorella vulgaris Microalgae: Microwave Prior to Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Chemat

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Extraction yields and fatty acid profiles from freeze-dried Chlorella vulgaris by microwave pretreatment followed by supercritical carbon dioxide (MW-SCCO2 extraction were compared with those obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction alone (SCCO2. Work performed with pressure range of 20–28 Mpa and temperature interval of 40–70 °C, gave the highest extraction yield (w/w dry weight at 28 MPa/40 °C. MW-SCCO2 allowed to obtain the highest extraction yield (4.73% compared to SCCO2 extraction alone (1.81%. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of microalgae oil showed that palmitic, oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acid were the most abundant identified fatty acids. Oils obtained by MW-SCCO2 extraction had the highest concentrations of fatty acids compared to SCCO2 extraction without pretreatment. Native form, and microwave pretreated and untreated microalgae were observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM. SEM micrographs of pretreated microalgae present tearing wall agglomerates. After SCCO2, microwave pretreated microalgae presented several micro cracks; while native form microalgae wall was slightly damaged.

  19. Effect of Extraction Solvent/Technique on the Antioxidant Activity of Selected Medicinal Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushra Sultana

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Theeffects of four extracting solvents [absolute ethanol, absolute methanol, aqueous ethanol (ethanol: water, 80:20 v/v and aqueous methanol (methanol: water, 80:20 v/v] and two extraction techniques (shaking and reflux on the antioxidant activity of extracts of barks of Azadirachta indica, Acacia nilotica, Eugenia jambolana, Terminalia arjuna, leaves and roots of Moringa oleifera, fruit of Ficus religiosa,and leaves of Aloe barbadensis were investigated. The tested plant materials contained appreciable amounts of total phenolic contents (0.31-16.5 g GAE /100g DW, total flavonoid (2.63-8.66 g CE/100g DW; reducing power at 10 mg/mL extract concentration (1.36-2.91, DPPH. scavenging capacity (37.2-86.6%, and percent inhibition of linoleic acid (66.0-90.6%. Generally higher extract yields, phenolic contents and plant material antioxidant activity were obtained using aqueous organic solvents, as compared to the respective absolute organic solvents. Although higher extract yields were obtained by the refluxing extraction technique, in general higher amounts of total phenolic contents and better antioxidant activity were found in the extracts prepared using a shaker.

  20. Extractable and Non-Extractable Phenolics and Antioxidant Capacity of Mandarin Waste Dried at Different Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esparza-Martínez, Francisco J; Miranda-López, Rita; Mata-Sánchez, Sara M; Guzmán-Maldonado, Salvador H

    2016-09-01

    The mandarin industry is generating more waste due to the increasing demand for juice. In this study, extractable and non-extractable phenolics as well as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) antioxidant activities in Satsuma mandarin waste dried at different temperatures were determined. The amounts of non-extractable total phenols, total flavonoids, and condensed tannins measured in mandarin waste dried at 120 °C were 39.4, 44.3, and 45.6 %, respectively, which were higher than those of fresh-mandarin waste. Dried mandarin waste is rich in extractable and non-extractable hesperidin (259.86 and 182.52 mg/g, respectively) and eriocitrin (85.12 and 197.24 mg/g, respectively), as well as non-extractable gallic acid (36.08 μg/g). The antioxidant capacities of extractable and non-extractable phenolics, from the highest to the lowest, were ABTS > ORAC > DPPH > FRAP and ORAC > ABTS > DPPH > FRAP, respectively. The information reported here may encourage mandarin industry operators to re-evaluate their by-products, extending the application of mandarin fruits and reducing waste.