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Sample records for caerulescens ganges ecotype1oa

  1. Plant response to heavy metal toxicity: comparative study between the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (ecotype Ganges) and nonaccumulator plants: lettuce, radish, and alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzarti, Saoussen; Mohri, Shino; Ono, Yoshiro

    2008-10-01

    Thlaspi caerulescens (alpine pennycress) is one of the best-known heavy metal (HM) hyperaccumulating plant species. It exhibits the ability to extract and accumulate various HM at extremely high concentrations. In this hydroponic study, the performance of T. caerulescens (ecotype Ganges) to accumulate Cd, Zn, and Cu was compared with that of three nonaccumulator plants: alfalfa (Medicago sativa), radish (Raphanus sativus), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Plants were exposed to the separately dissolved HM salts for 7 days at a wide range of increasing concentrations: 0 (control: 1/5 Hoagland nutrient solution), 0.1, 1, 10, 100, and 1000 microM. The comparative study combined chemical, physiological, and ecotoxicological assessments. Excessive concentrations of HM (100 and 1000 microM) affected plant growth, photosynthesis, and phytoaccumulation efficiency. Root exudation for all plant species was highly and significantly correlated to HM concentration in exposure solutions and proved its importance to counter effect toxicity. T. caerulescens resisted better the phytotoxic effects of Cd and Zn (at 1000 microM each), and translocated them significantly within tissues (366 and 1290 microg g(-1), respectively). At the same HM level, T. caerulescens exhibited lower performances in accumulating Cu when compared with the rest of plant species, mainly alfalfa (298 microg g(-1)). Root elongation inhibition test confirmed the selective aptitude of T. caerulescens to better cope with Cd and Zn toxicities. MetPLATE bioassay showed greater sensitivity to HM toxicity with much lower EC(50) values for beta-galactosidase activity in E. coli. Nevertheless, exaggerated HM concentrations coupled with relatively short exposure time did not allow for an efficient metal phytoextraction thus a significant reduction of ecotoxicity.

  2. Phytoremediation of urban soils contaminated with trace metals using Noccaea caerulescens: comparing non-metallicolous populations to the metallicolous 'Ganges' in field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Arnaud; Drouet, Thomas; Sterckeman, Thibault; Noret, Nausicaa

    2017-03-01

    Urban soil contamination with trace metals is a major obstacle to the development of urban agriculture as crops grown in urban gardens are prone to accumulate trace metals up to toxic levels for human consumption. Phytoextraction is considered as a potentially cost-effective alternative to conventional methods such as excavation. Field trials of phytoextraction with Noccaea caerulescens were conducted on urban soils contaminated with Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn (respectively around 2, 150-200, 400-500, and 400-700 μg g-1 of dry soil). Metallicolous (Ganges population) and non-metallicolous (NMET) populations were compared for biomass production and trace metal uptake. Moreover, we tested the effect of compost and fertilizer addition. Maximal biomass of 5 t ha-1 was obtained with NMET populations on some plots. Compared to Ganges- the high Cd-accumulating ecotype from South of France often used in phytoextraction trials- NMET populations have an advantage for biomass production and for Zn accumulation, with an average Zn uptake of 2.5 times higher. The addition of compost seems detrimental due to metal immobilization in the soil with little or no effect on plant growth. In addition to differences between populations, variations of growth and metal accumulation were mostly explained by soil Cd and Zn concentrations and texture. Our field trials confirm the potential of using N. caerulescens for both Cd and Zn remediation of moderately contaminated soils-with uptake values of up to 200 g Cd ha-1 and 47 kg Zn ha-1-and show the interest of selecting the adequate population according to the targeted metal.

  3. Cadmium tolerance and accumulation in Excluder Thlaspi arvense and various accessions of hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seregin, I.V.; Kozhevnikova, A.D.; Zhukovskaya, V.; Schat, H.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) accumulation and tolerance were analyzed in hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens F.K. Mey and excluder Thlaspi arvense L. Five accessions of N. caerulescens (La Calamine (LC, Belgium), Saint Félix de Palliéres (SF, France), Col du Mas de l’Aire (CMA, France), Ganges (GA, France) from

  4. Ganges Landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a high resolution view of portions of the lobes of several landslide deposits in Ganges Chasma. Dark material near the bottom (south) end of the image is windblown sand. Location near: 8.2oS, 44.3oW Image width: 3.0 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

  5. Ganges Landslide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03681 Ganges Landslide Two large landslides dominate this image of part of Ganges Chasma. The eroded surface of an old landslide covers the north half of the image, while a more recent landslide occurs to the south. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6.7N, Longitude 310.4E. 17 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  6. Urban Street Gang Enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute for Law and Justice, Inc., Alexandria, VA.

    Strategies to enhance prosecution of gang-related crimes are presented, with a focus on enforcement and prosecution targeting urban street gangs. The model programs introduced offer strategies largely based on the practical experiences of agencies that participated in a demonstration program, the Urban Street Gang Drug Trafficking Enforcement…

  7. Cults as Gangs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, Mary Lynn

    1992-01-01

    Considers cults as gangs, but also distinguishes cults from gangs by the cult's reference to and insistence on allegiance to single higher authority, usually spirit figure or spiritual leader. Examines Satanism, identifies Satanic holidays and symbols, and describes characteristics of cult-influenced youth. Includes list of organizations and books…

  8. Gangs, Terrorism, and Radicalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Decker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available What can street gangs tell us about radicalization and extremist groups? At first glance, these two groups seem to push the boundaries of comparison. In this article, we examine the important similarities and differences across criminal, deviant, and extremist groups. Drawing from research on street gangs, this article explores issues such as levels of explanation,organizational structure, group process, and the increasingly important role of technology and the Internet in the context of radicalization. There are points of convergence across these groups, but it is important to understand the differences between these groups. This review finds little evidence to support the contention that American street gangs are becoming increasingly radicalized. This conclusion is based largely on organizational differences between gangs and terror groups.

  9. Gangs in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-10

    the root causes of gang violence, which include poverty, joblessness , and the social exclusion of at-risk youth , are addressed in a holistic manner...the Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13). The 18th Street gang was formed by Mexican immigrants in the Rampart section of Los Angeles in the 1960s, youth who were...populations; growing youth populations facing stagnant job markets; and an absence of political will to fight crime in a holistic manner. Some

  10. Predictors and Consequences of Gang Membership: Comparing Gang Members, Gang Leaders, and Non-Gang-Affiliated Adjudicated Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrieva, Julia; Gibson, Lauren; Steinberg, Laurence; Piquero, Alex; Fagan, Jeffrey

    2014-06-01

    This 7-year study of 1,170 male adjudicated youth examined how self-esteem, psychopathy, and psychosocial maturity relate to gang status (low-level member, leader, and non-gang member). Low temperance, perspective, and responsibility predicted being a low-level gang member, whereas only lower temperance predicted being a gang leader. Low self-esteem predicted gang membership (low-level and high-level) at a younger age (i.e., during adolescence). However, higher self-esteem and grandiose-manipulative traits predicted being a gang leader during young adulthood. Over time, low-level members became more psychopathic and less psychosocially mature. Gang leaders also became more psychopathic and undercontrolled (as indicted by lower temperance). However, their perspective and responsibility aspects of psychosocial maturity were not affected.

  11. Predictors and Consequences of Gang Membership: Comparing Gang Members, Gang Leaders, and Non-Gang-Affiliated Adjudicated Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrieva, Julia; Gibson, Lauren; Steinberg, Laurence; Piquero, Alex; Fagan, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    This 7-year study of 1,170 male adjudicated youth examined how self-esteem, psychopathy, and psychosocial maturity relate to gang status (low-level member, leader, and non-gang member). Low temperance, perspective, and responsibility predicted being a low-level gang member, whereas only lower temperance predicted being a gang leader. Low self-esteem predicted gang membership (low-level and high-level) at a younger age (i.e., during adolescence). However, higher self-esteem and grandiose-manipulative traits predicted being a gang leader during young adulthood. Over time, low-level members became more psychopathic and less psychosocially mature. Gang leaders also became more psychopathic and undercontrolled (as indicted by lower temperance). However, their perspective and responsibility aspects of psychosocial maturity were not affected. PMID:27087767

  12. Hurtigt i gang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh Graversen, Brian; Damgaard, Bodil; Rosdahl, Anders

    hurtigere i job. Det gjaldt for alle grupper af ledige, men effekten var særlig stor for akademikere. Tilsyneladende har mange stærke ledige hurtigt selv fundet et job, for at undgå at deltage i aktiviteterne under den intensive indsats. Svagere ledige synes derimod at være blevet hjulpet i gang af...

  13. Victory Junction Gang Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell, Ryan

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the Victory Junction Gang Camp, a not-for-profit, NASCAR-themed camp for children with chronic medical conditions that serves 24 different disease groups. The mission of the camp is to give children life-changing camping experiences that are exciting, fun, and empowering in a safe and medically sound environment. While doing…

  14. California Prison Gang Project. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Eric

    A project investigated the cultural life, ideology, and education systems of particular prison gangs. It focused on recent changes in the gang system regarding gang education, organizational structure, and the balance of power in prisons and in relations with street gangs. Finally, the project assessed California's response to its prison gangs, in…

  15. Gangs in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    extortion, prostitution , terrorism, and arms trafficking, among some others. Third, to mention some of the strategies taken by the government of El...neighborhood gangs such as the Crips and Bloods whose origin was Afro-American, the Mexico -American EME made of illegal immigrants; and the Mexican Mafia...are forced to prostitute themselves. They also have a business network at the national level. Lately, according to PNC information, the criminal

  16. Landscape change and its effects on the wintering range of a lesser snow goose Chen caerulescens caerulescens population: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Donna G.; Slack, R. Douglas

    1995-01-01

    The Texas coast has experienced considerable urban, industrial, and agricultural growth during the 20th Century. The region provides important wintering habitat to many avian species, including lesser snow geese Chen caerulescens caerulescens. This paper draws the biological and ecological fields into an historical perspective by examining available literature on the development of the upper Texas coast and range changes of lesser snow geese. Historically, lesser snow geese wintered in the coastal marshes, but expanded their range into the adjacent prairies in the mid-1900s. Winter range expansion was negatively affected by urban and industrial encroachment in the coastal marshes and positively influenced by agricultural development in the prairies, which increased dramatically during World War II. The lesser snow goose population flourished alongside some human-induced landscape alterations. However, projected declines in agriculture and increased urbanization of prairie and coastal marsh habitats may result in significant negative effects on the lesser snow goose population.

  17. Community-based gang desistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard Dichmann, Kirstine; Jensen, Tobias Bo; Mørck, Line Lerche

    2018-01-01

    . The strong sense of longing for belonging, the emotional connections of family and love to their former gangs, and the socio-economic marginalization, otherness and alienation related to being a poor (former) gang member lacking a legal source of income are the greatest barriers in the process of gang...... of belonging to the communities in Homeboy Industries also facilitates self-reflection and identity transformation. Homeboy Industries is furthermore an important life changing resource because it offers former gang members a legal source of income. This provides them with a new and secure base, a way...

  18. Multivariate analysis of protein profiles of metal hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens accessions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuomainen, M.H.; Nunan, N.; Lehesranta, S.J.; Tervahauta, A.I.; Hassinen, V.H.; Schat, H.; Koistinen, K.M.; Auriola, S.; McNicol, J.; Karenlampi, S.O.

    2006-01-01

    Thlaspi caerulescens is increasingly acknowledged as one of the best models for studying metal hyperaccumulation in plants. In order to study the mechanisms underlying metal hyper-accumulation, we used proteomic profiling to identify differences in protein intensities among three T caerulescens

  19. Campus Gang Rape: Party Games?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhart, Julie K.; Sandler, Bernice R.

    The phenomenon of gang rape as it sometimes occurs on college campuses is described, with attention to causes, impacts on the victim and other students, responses the college should take, and prevention. Consideration is given to the role of alcohol, drugs, and pornography in fraternity gang rape; successful model programs for rape prevention…

  20. Functional characterisation of three zinc transporters in Thlaspi caerulescens

    OpenAIRE

    Talukdar, S.

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metal hyperaccumulation in plants is a poorly understood phenomenon. Transmembrane metal transporters are assumed to play a key role in this process. In the research described in this thesis, genes encoding Zn transporters of Thlaspicaerulescens, a heavy metal hyperaccumulator plant,are studied and compared to their orthologues in Arabidopsis thaliana, a non-hyperaccumulator plant.The TcZNT1 and TcZNT2 genes of T. caerulescens are members of the Zrt, Irt ( ZIP) -like gene family and sho...

  1. Adaptative evolution of metallothionein 3 in the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roosens, N.H.; Bernard, C.; Verbruggen, N. [Lab. de Physiologie et Genetique Moleculaire des Plantes, Univ. Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium); Leplae, R. [Service de Conformation des Macromolecules Biologiques et Bioinformatique, Univ. Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-04-01

    A functional screening in yeast allowed to identify various cDNAs from the Cd/Zn hyper-accumulator Thlaspi caerulescens. TcMT3 displayed high identity with its closest homologue in Arabidopsis thaliana but variation in its Cys residues. Functional analysis in yeast supported a higher binding capacity for Cu, but not for Cd or Zn, of TcMT3 compared to AtMT3. Expression analysis in plants indicated that metallothionein 3 (MT3) like all the other T. caerulescens genes from the screen studied is overexpressed in all studied populations of T. caerulescens compared to A. thaliana. TcMT3 was induced by Cu, but not by Cd. Moreover significant variation in expression within T. caerulescens populations that have contrasting tolerance and accumulation capacities indicated a possible local adaptation of MT3. (orig.)

  2. Restricting Gang Clothing in the Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, N. Denise

    1993-01-01

    Examines whether schools can or should restrict gang clothing and how to restrict gang clothing without infringing on students' constitutional rights. Concludes that a policy that stresses the importance of reducing distractions that inhibit learning is more likely to be found legal than a policy restricting gang communication via limitations on…

  3. DIFFERENT STROKES FOR DIFFERENT GANGS? AN ANALYSIS OF CAPITAL AMONG LATINO AND ASIAN GANG MEMBERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    PIH, KAY KEI-HO; DE LA ROSA, MARIO; RUGH, DOUGLAS; MAO, KUORAY

    2009-01-01

    Gang activity and membership were noted to be significantly related to financial rewards. As such, gang membership and gang activity should also be understood from an economic perspective. In this article, Pierre Bourdieu's framework of capital is used to analyze two separate samples of Latino and Asian gang members. Stark contrasts in socioeconomic backgrounds are recorded among the two samples of gang members, and gang membership and activities are also noticeably dissimilar. Accessibility to economic, cultural, and social capital is argued to affect gang membership and activities. The results suggest that the availability of legitimate and illegitimate capital greatly affects the trajectory and the length of gang involvement. Also, gangs provide significant material and social capital for the respondents of the study. PMID:19578563

  4. A comprehensive set of transcript sequences of the heavy metal hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YA-FEN eLIN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Noccaea caerulescens is an extremophile plant species belonging to the Brassicaceae family. It has adapted to grow on soils containing high, normally toxic, concentrations of metals such as nickel, zinc and cadmium. Next to being extremely tolerant to these metals, it is one of the few species known to hyperaccumulate these metals to extremely high concentrations in their aboveground biomass. In order to provide additional molecular resources for this model metal hyperaccumulator species to study and understand the mechanism of heavy metal exposure adaptation, we aimed to provide a comprehensive database of transcript sequences for N. caerulescens. In this study, 23830 transcript sequences (isotigs with an average length of 1025 bps were determined for roots, shoots and inflorescences of N. caerulescens accession ‘Ganges’ by Roche GS-FLEX 454 pyrosequencing. These isotigs were grouped into 20,378 isogroups, representing potential genes. This is a large expansion of the existing N. caerulescens transcriptome set consisting of 3705 unigenes. When compared to a Brassicaceae proteome set, 22,232 (93.2% of the N. caerulescens isotigs (corresponding to 19191 isogroups had a significant match and could be annotated accordingly. Of the remaining sequences, 98 isotigs resembled non-plant sequences and 1386 had no significant similarity to any sequence in the GenBank database. Among the annotated set there were many isotigs with similarity to metal homeostasis genes or genes for glucosinolate biosynthesis. Only for transcripts similar to Metallothionein3 (MT3, clear evidence for an additional copy was found. This comprehensive set of transcripts is expected to further contribute to the discovery of mechanisms used by N. caerulescens to adapt to heavy metal exposure.

  5. Differentiating Gang Members, Gang Affiliates, and Violent Men on Their Psychiatric Morbidity and Traumatic Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jane L; Kallis, Constantinos; Coid, Jeremy W

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the differences between gang members and gang affiliates-or those individuals who associate with gangs but are not gang members. Even less is known about how these groups compare with other violent populations. This study examined how gang members, gang affiliates, and violent men compare on mental health symptoms and traumatic experiences. Data included a sample of 1,539 adult males, aged 19 to 34 years, taken from an earlier survey conducted in the United Kingdom. Participants provided informed consent before completing questionnaires and were paid £5 for participation. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to compare participants' symptoms of psychiatric morbidity and traumatic event exposure. Findings showed that, compared to violent men and gang affiliates, gang members had experienced more severe violence, sexual assaults, and suffered more serious/life-threatening injuries. Compared to violent men, gang members and gang affiliates had made more suicide attempts; had self-harmed more frequently; and had experienced more domestic violence, violence at work, homelessness, stalking, and bankruptcy. Findings further showed a decreasing gradient from gang members to gang affiliates to violent men in symptom levels of anxiety, antisocial personality disorder, pathological gambling, stalking others, and drug and/or alcohol dependence. Depression symptoms were similar across groups. The identified relationship between gang membership, affiliation, and adverse mental health indicates that mental health in gang membership deserves more research attention. Findings also indicate that criminal justice strategies need to consider gang members' mental health more fully, if gang membership is to be appropriately addressed and reduced.

  6. Gangs: The Origins and Impact of Contemporary Youth Gangs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Scott, Ed.; Monti, Daniel J., Ed.

    This book presents papers from some leading social scientists and scholars who examine the contemporary contours of America's gang problem. New material is provided on wilding (i.e., running amok for no specific reason) gangs, migration and drug trafficking, and public education disruption. Other topics involve organization of gangs, their social…

  7. Histidine-mediated xylem loading of zinc is a species-wide character in Noccaea caerulescens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozhevnikova, A.; Seregin, I.V.; Erlikh, N.T.; Shevyreva, T.A.; Andreev, I.M.; Verweij, R.; Schat, H.

    2014-01-01

    Histidine plays a crucial role in nickel (Ni) translocation in Ni-hyperaccumulating plants. Here, we investigated its role in zinc (Zn) translocation in four accessions of the Zn hyperaccumulator, Noccaea caerulescens, using the related non-hyperaccumulator, Thlaspi arvense, as a reference. We

  8. A cosegregation analysis of zinc (Zn) accumulation and Zn tolerance in the Zn hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assunção, A.G.L.; ten Bookum, W.M.; Nelissen, H.J.M.; Vooijs, H.; Schat, H.; Ernst, W.H.O.

    2003-01-01

    • To analyse the relation between zinc (Zn) accumulation and Zn tolerance in the Zn hyperaccumulator, Thlaspi caerulescens, a cross was made between a plant from a nonmetallicolous population (LE: high accumulation, low tolerance) and one from a calamine population (LC: low accumulation, high

  9. Arabidopsis thaliana and Thlaspi caerulescens respond comparably to low zinc supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talukdar, S.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to study the response of Arabidopsis thaliana L. and Thlaspi caerulescens J. & C. Presl to different Zn supplies. The A. thaliana plants were exposed to Zn-deficiency (0 and 0.05 ¿M Zn) and compared to the plants grown on media containing standard Zn (2

  10. Responses of Noccaea caerulescens and Lupinus albus in trace elements-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Alcalá, Isabel; Hernández, Luis E; Esteban, Elvira; Walker, David J; Bernal, M Pilar

    2013-05-01

    Plants exposed to trace elements can suffer from oxidative stress, which is characterised by the accumulation of reactive oxygen species, alteration in the cellular antioxidant defence system and ultimately lipid peroxidation. We assessed the most-appropriate stress indexes to describe the response of two plant species, with different strategies for coping with trace elements (TEs), to particular contaminants. Noccaea caerulescens, a hyperaccumulator, and Lupinus albus, an excluder, were grown in three soils of differing pH: an acidic soil, a neutral soil (both contaminated mainly by Cu, Zn and As) and a control soil. Then, plant stress indicators were measured. As expected, N. caerulescens accumulated higher levels of Zn and Cd in shoots than L. albus, this effect being stronger in the acid soil, reflecting greater TE solubility in this soil. However, the shoot concentrations of Mn were higher in L. albus than in N. caerulescens, while the As concentration was similar in the two species. In L. albus, the phenolic content and lipid peroxidation were related with the Cu concentration, whereas the Zn and Cd concentrations in N. caerulescens were more closely related to glutathione content and lipid peroxidation. Interestingly, phytochelatins were only found in L. albus grown in polluted soils. Hence, the two species differed with respect to the TEs which provoked stress and the biochemical indicators of the stress, there being a close relationship between the accumulation of TEs and their associated stress indicators in the different plant organs. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Teaching Responsibility to Gang-Affiliated Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, Michael E.; Walsh, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching youths who affiliate with a gang can be a daunting task. Risk factors for gang membership often compound across life domains and affect pro-social connectedness, cause feelings of marginalization, and hinder life-skill development. Sports and physical activities that are structured within a positive youth-development framework provide an…

  12. Puerto Rican Gangs: A Historical Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Rivera, Edil; Phan, Loan T.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the problem of gangs on the island of Puerto Rico from a historical, economical, and political perspective. Some Puerto Rican historians are convinced that the gang problem in Puerto Rico is due to the political ambiguity and human rights violations of prison inmates (F. Pico, 1998). Some social scientists believe that gangs…

  13. The Youth Gangs, Drugs, and Violence Connection. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, James C.; Decker, Scott H.

    This bulletin addresses questions about the interrelatedness of youth gangs, drugs, and violent crime, discussing whether drug trafficking is a main cause of violence in youth gangs or only a correlate, and noting whether there are other important sources of gang violence. Section 1 presents a historical overview of gang drug use and trafficking,…

  14. Confronting youth gangs in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Cliff

    2015-01-01

    Youth gang violence has continued its upward trend nationwide. It was once thought that gangs convened only in selected areas, which left churches, schools, and hospitals as "neutral" territory. Unfortunately, this is a fallacy. The results of gang violence pour into hospitals and into intensive care units regularly. The media portrays California as having a gang violence problem; however, throughout the United States, gang violence has risen more than 35% in the past year. Youth gang violence continues to rise dramatically with more and more of our youth deciding to join gangs each day. Sadly, every state has gangs, and the problem is getting much worse in areas that would never have thought about gangs a year ago. These "new generation" of gang members is younger, much more violent, and staying in the gang longer. Gangs are not just an urban problem. Gang activity is a suburban and rural problem too. There are more than 25 500 gangs in the United States, with a total gang membership of 850 000. Ninety-four percent of gang members are male and 6% are female. The ethnic composition nationwide includes 47% Latino, 31% African American, 13% White, 7% Asian, and 2% "mixed," according to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention of the U.S. Department of Justice. As a result of the ongoing proliferation of youth street gangs in our communities, it is imperative that critical care nurses and others involved with the direct care become educated about how to identify gang members, their activities, and understand their motivations. Such education and knowledge will help provide solutions to families and the youth themselves, help eradicate the problem of gang violence, and keep health care professionals safe.

  15. Impact of metal pollution and Thlaspi caerulescens growth on soil microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epelde, Lur; Becerril, José M; Kowalchuk, George A; Deng, Ye; Zhou, Jizhong; Garbisu, Carlos

    2010-12-01

    Soil microorganisms drive critical functions in plant-soil systems. As such, various microbial properties have been proposed as indicators of soil functioning, making them potentially useful in evaluating the recovery of polluted soils via phytoremediation strategies. To evaluate microbial responses to metal phytoextraction using hyperaccumulators, a microcosm experiment was carried out to study the impacts of Zn and/or Cd pollution and Thlaspi caerulescens growth on key soil microbial properties: basal respiration; substrate-induced respiration (SIR); bacterial community structure as assessed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE); community sizes of total bacteria, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, and chitin-degrading bacteria as assessed by quantitative PCR (Q-PCR); and functional gene distributions as determined by functional gene arrays (GeoChip). T. caerulescens proved to be suitable for Zn and Cd phytoextraction: shoots accumulated up to 8,211 and 1,763 mg kg(-1) (dry weight [DW]) of Zn and Cd, respectively. In general, Zn pollution led to decreased levels of basal respiration and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, while T. caerulescens growth increased the values of substrate-induced respiration (SIR) and total bacteria. In soils polluted with 1,000 mg Zn kg(-1) and 250 mg Cd kg(-1) (DW), soil bacterial community profiles and the distribution of microbial functional genes were most affected by the presence of metals. Metal-polluted and planted soils had the highest percentage of unique genes detected via the GeoChip (35%). It was possible to track microbial responses to planting with T. caerulescens and to gain insight into the effects of metal pollution on soilborne microbial communities.

  16. Central American Gang Violence: Foregrounding the Silences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sonja Wolf

    2012-01-01

    .... The first of these is the kind of community that spawns gangs. A second conspicuous setting is the prison system, which has long suffered from overcrowding, failing infrastructure, and pervasive...

  17. Combined endophytic inoculants enhance nickel phytoextraction from serpentine soil in the hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna eVisioli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the effects of specific bacterial endophytes on the phytoextraction capacity of the Ni-hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens, spontaneously growing in a serpentine soil environment. Five metal-tolerant endophytes had already been selected for their high Ni tolerance (6 mM and plant growth promoting ability. Here we demonstrate that individual bacterial inoculation is ineffective in enhancing Ni translocation and growth of N. caerulescens in serpentine soil, except for specific strains Ncr-1 and Ncr-8, belonging to the Arthrobacter and Microbacterium genera, which showed the highest IAA production and ACC-deaminase activity. Ncr-1 and Ncr-8 co-inoculation was even more efficient in promoting plant growth, soil Ni removal and translocation of Ni, together with that of Fe, Co and Cu. Bacteria of both strains densely colonised the root surfaces and intercellular spaces of leaf epidermal tissue. These two bacterial strains also turned out to stimulate root length, shoot biomass and Ni uptake in Arabidopsis thaliana grown in MS agar medium supplemented with Ni. It is concluded that adaptation of N. caerulescens in highly Ni-contaminated serpentine soil can be enhanced by an integrated community of bacterial endophytes rather than by single strains; of the former, Arthrobacter and Microbacterium may be useful candidates for future phytoremediation trials

  18. Blue pigment in Hypocrea caerulescens sp. nov. and two additional new species in sect. Trichoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaklitsch, Walter M; Stadler, Marc; Voglmayr, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    Three new species of Hypocrea/Trichoderma sect. Trichoderma (Hypocreaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota, Fungi) are described from recent collections in southern Europe and the Canary Islands. They have been characterized by morphological and molecular methods, including microscopic examination of the teleomorph in thin sections, the anamorph, growth rate experiments and phylogenetic analyses based on a part of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha encoding gene (tef1) containing the two last introns and a part of the rpb2 gene, encoding the second largest RNA polymerase subunit. Analyses involving tef1 did not unequivocally resolve the sister clade relationship of Hypocrea caerulescens relative to the Koningii and Viride clades, while analyses based on rpb2 clearly suggest a close relationship with the former, although the phenotype of H. caerulescens is similar to H. viridescens, particularly by its warted conidia and a coconut-like odor in CMD culture. Hypocrea hispanica and T. samuelsii however are clearly related to the Viride clade by both phylogenetic markers, despite their morphological similarity to H. koningii and its relatives. An apparently specific blue pigment is formed in CMD cultures by Hypocrea caerulescens but could not be obtained by extraction with organic solvents.

  19. Automatic gang graffiti recognition and interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Albert; Boutin, Mireille; Delp, Edward J.

    2017-09-01

    One of the roles of emergency first responders (e.g., police and fire departments) is to prevent and protect against events that can jeopardize the safety and well-being of a community. In the case of criminal gang activity, tools are needed for finding, documenting, and taking the necessary actions to mitigate the problem or issue. We describe an integrated mobile-based system capable of using location-based services, combined with image analysis, to track and analyze gang activity through the acquisition, indexing, and recognition of gang graffiti images. This approach uses image analysis methods for color recognition, image segmentation, and image retrieval and classification. A database of gang graffiti images is described that includes not only the images but also metadata related to the images, such as date and time, geoposition, gang, gang member, colors, and symbols. The user can then query the data in a useful manner. We have implemented these features both as applications for Android and iOS hand-held devices and as a web-based interface.

  20. Finding Street Gang Members on Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasuriya, Lakshika; Wijeratne, Sanjaya; Doran, Derek; Sheth, Amit

    2017-01-01

    Most street gang members use Twitter to intimidate others, to present outrageous images and statements to the world, and to share recent illegal activities. Their tweets may thus be useful to law enforcement agencies to discover clues about recent crimes or to anticipate ones that may occur. Finding these posts, however, requires a method to discover gang member Twitter profiles. This is a challenging task since gang members represent a very small population of the 320 million Twitter users. This paper studies the problem of automatically finding gang members on Twitter. It outlines a process to curate one of the largest sets of verifiable gang member profiles that have ever been studied. A review of these profiles establishes differences in the language, images, YouTube links, and emojis gang members use compared to the rest of the Twitter population. Features from this review are used to train a series of supervised classifiers. Our classifier achieves a promising F1 score with a low false positive rate. PMID:28713880

  1. Finding Street Gang Members on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasuriya, Lakshika; Wijeratne, Sanjaya; Doran, Derek; Sheth, Amit

    2016-08-01

    Most street gang members use Twitter to intimidate others, to present outrageous images and statements to the world, and to share recent illegal activities. Their tweets may thus be useful to law enforcement agencies to discover clues about recent crimes or to anticipate ones that may occur. Finding these posts, however, requires a method to discover gang member Twitter profiles. This is a challenging task since gang members represent a very small population of the 320 million Twitter users. This paper studies the problem of automatically finding gang members on Twitter. It outlines a process to curate one of the largest sets of verifiable gang member profiles that have ever been studied. A review of these profiles establishes differences in the language, images, YouTube links, and emojis gang members use compared to the rest of the Twitter population. Features from this review are used to train a series of supervised classifiers. Our classifier achieves a promising F 1 score with a low false positive rate.

  2. Gang activity in English prisons: the Staff perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Jane L; Adler, Joanna R.

    2001-01-01

    Gang behaviour has been associated with serious problems in American prisons (e.g., Fong and Buentello, 199 1). This study explored the possible existence of indicators of gang activity in English prisons. Surveys of problems consistent with gang activity were completed by 374 prison staff in 16 prisons that were representative of the English Prison Estate. Results showed significant differences between categories of institution. The most gang-related activity was reported in male Medium secu...

  3. Gang: Culture. Eidos and Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don Crewe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The terms ‘gang’ and ‘culture’ are used with varying degrees of (imprecision in different fields of academe, media, public, and policy; and this paper will contend that this circumstance provides a fertile ground for the reification of these two concepts. It will suggest that this phenomenon of reification has already taken hold in various parts of the study of gangs more recently, and in cultural criminology in a more established way. This paper will deconstruct the concepts ‘gang’ and ‘culture’ and attempt to reconstruct them in a way that opens up the discourse of ‘gangs’ and ‘culture’ such that better sense may be made of the phenomena that these terms are intended to evoke. Los terminos "banda" y "cultura" se usan con diferentes grados de (imprecisión en distintos ámbitos del mundo académico, medios de comunicación, público y política. En este artículo se defiende que esta circunstancia ofrece un campo fértil para la cosificación de estos dos conceptos. Se sugiere que este fenómeno de cosificación ya ha arraigado de diversa forma en los estudios de bandas recientes, y en la criminología cultural de forma más consolidada. Este artículo deconstruye los conceptos "banda" y "cultura" e intenta reconstruirlos de forma que se abra el discurso sobre "bandas" y "cultura" para tener una sensación mejor del fenómeno que estos términos intentan evocar. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2875344

  4. Re-framing Gang Violence: A Pro-Youth Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Frederick

    1992-01-01

    Focuses on one aspect of contemporary youth violence, youth gangs and groups, in effort to open broad discussion of youth gangs and frame the process of developing a comprehensive prevention/intervention strategy in proyouth way. Examines three ways of framing youth gang phenomenon: youth violence as racism, alienation, and criminality. Considers…

  5. The Road to Gang Membership: Characteristics of Male Gang and Nongang Members from Ages 10 to 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Wendy M.; Vitaro, Frank; Gagnon, Claude; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2002-01-01

    Examined stability of gang membership in early adolescence, concurrent behaviors, family characteristics, friendships, and school attitudes of stable and unstable gang and nongang members. Found that stable gang members, compared to nongang members, had higher teacher ratings of fighting behavior, hyperactivity, inattention and oppositional…

  6. The process of desistance among core ex-gang members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Rony; Abu-Raiya, Hisham; Heineberg, Yotam; Zimbardo, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Research has established robust links between gang membership, delinquency, violence and victimization. Yet studies examining the process of gang desistance in general and that of core gang members in particular, are quite rare. The current study aims to identify factors associated with desistance of core gang members as well as describe the nature of the process that these "formers" have undergone. Thirty-nine core ex-gang members (80% males and 20% females) from the San Francisco Bay area and Los Angeles, with an average length of 11.6-years gang membership, were interviewed regarding their involvement in the gang and the desistance process. A systematic qualitative analysis based on grounded theory methodology was mainly utilized. We found that the decision to leave the gang is a result of a combination of push (e.g., personal and vicarious victimization, burnout of gang lifestyle, disillusionment by the gang) and pull (e.g., parenthood, family responsibilities, religious and cultural awakening) factors that evolved over time. Push factors were more dominant in this domain. We also found that while male core ex-gang members tended to leave the gang more frequently because of push factors, female ex-gang members were more inclined to desist due to pull factors. Our analysis also showed that core gang members shared a general pattern of the desistance process comprising of the following 5 stages: triggering, contemplation, exploration, exiting and maintenance. Based on these results, we outlined stage-specific recommendations for agents of societal change to help in facilitating the desistance of core gang members. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Street Gangs: The New Urban Insurgency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    boundary disputes remain alive―such as the Bolivian desire to regain access to the Pacifi c Ocean, and the chronic problems between India and...Bonilla, “Current Situation of Gangs in El Salvador,” unpublished paper for the Consejo Nacional de Seguridad Pública, El Salvador, November 2004

  8. Gangs, Netwar, and Community Counterinsurgency in Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    against other political groups. From the Tonton Macoutes, armed thugs of the François Duvalier and son Jean-Claude Duvalier dictatorships, to the self...named attaches of the right-wing military after the fall of the Duvalier family, up to the chimères (that is, gang members) who were a manifesta

  9. Youth Gang Members: Psychiatric Disorders and Substance Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert John Sargent

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Approximately 260,000 of youth in the United States are gang-affiliated. There is a paucity of data available to identify the prevalence of mental health disorders in this population. Gang members share many of the features of “at risk” or juvenile justice involved youth who deny gang membership. The authors identified rates of psychiatric disorders within a juvenile justice population delineated in three categories: gang members, friends of gang members, and non-gang members. Methods: A retrospective review of records obtained by a juvenile probation department. A large detention center conducted mental health screenings on 7,615 youth aged 13–17. The mental health screenings were performed by either a master level or doctoral level mental health professional. Odds ratios were computed as an effect size for gender, race/ethnic differences, and gang-membership associations with self-reported psychiatric and substance use disorders. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the risk for psychiatric and substance use disorders among gang-members and friends of gang members. Diagnostic information was generated through a clinical interview and flexible battery. Results: Of the 7,615 youth in this study, ~50% had contact with gangs; 11% were self-identified gang-members, and 38% acknowledged having at least one friendship with a gang member. Similar to other studies, being male was a risk-factor for gang-membership (2.31 odds. In this multi-racial and ethnic study, Latinos had a greater affiliation with gang membership and association with gang members as friends (1.44 odds. Gang members were found to have increased rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (1.77 odds, current substance abuse (2.58 odds, oppositional defiant disorder, (1.24 odds and conduct disorder (4.05 odds; however, they were less likely to have an adjustment disorder than non-gang members (0.70 odds. Conclusions: Juveniles who received a mental health assessment

  10. Arbovírus Ilheus em aves silvestres (Sporophila caerulescens e Molothrus bonariensis Ilheus arbovirus in wild birds (Sporophila caerulescens and Molothrus bonariensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eloy Pereira

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar o isolamento do vírus Ilheus no Estado de São Paulo e avaliar o seu impacto para a saúde pública. MÉTODOS: O isolamento de vírus foi realizado em camundongos albinos Swiss, a partir de sangue de aves silvestres, capturadas com redes de espera tipo mist net, armadas no nível do solo, no Parque Ecológico do Tietê, São Paulo. A identificação das cepas isoladas foi feita pelos testes de inibição da hemaglutinação, fixação de complemento e neutralização em camundongos. Amostras de plasma de aves e de mamíferos silvestres foram submetidas à pesquisa sorológica para detecção de anticorpos inibidores de hemaglutinação. RESULTADOS: Foram isoladas duas cepas do vírus Ilheus em sangue de aves das espécies Sporophila caerulescens e Molothrus bonariensis e detectados anticorpos em aves das espécies Columbina talpacoti, Geopelia cuneata, Molothrus bonariensis e Sicalis flaveola, em sagüis das espécies Callithrix jacchus e Callithrix penicillata e no quati Nasua nasua. CONCLUSÕES: O isolamento do vírus Ilheus e a detecção de anticorpos específicos em aves residentes, migratórias e de cativeiro, em sagüis e quatis, comprovam a presença desse agente no Parque Ecológico do Tietê. O comportamento migratório de aves silvestres pode determinar a introdução do vírus em outras regiões. Considerando-se a patogenicidade para o homem e a confirmação da circulação desse agente viral em área urbana, freqüentada para atividade de lazer e de educação, o risco de ocorrência de infecção na população humana não pode ser descartado.OBJECTIVE: To report the first Ilheus arboviruses isolated from wild birds and analyze its public health impact. METHODS: Wild birds and mammals were captured using mist nets and Tomahawk traps, respectively. Blood samples were drawn from these animals and inoculated intracerebrally in Swiss suckling mice found in the Parque Ecológico do Tietê, Brazil. The isolates were

  11. Local adaptation is associated with zinc tolerance in Pseudomonas endophytes of the metal-hyperaccumulator plant Noccaea caerulescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fones, H N; McCurrach, H; Mithani, A; Smith, J A C; Preston, G M

    2016-05-11

    Metal-hyperaccumulating plants, which are hypothesized to use metals for defence against pests and pathogens, provide a unique context in which to study plant-pathogen coevolution. Previously, we demonstrated that the high concentrations of zinc found in leaves of the hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens provide protection against bacterial pathogens, with a potential trade-off between metal-based and pathogen-induced defences. We speculated that an evolutionary arms race between zinc-based defences in N. caerulescens and zinc tolerance in pathogens might have driven the development of the hyperaccumulation phenotype. Here, we investigate the possibility of local adaptation by bacteria to the zinc-rich environment of N. caerulescens leaves and show that leaves sampled from the contaminated surroundings of a former mine site harboured endophytes with greater zinc tolerance than those within plants of an artificially created hyperaccumulating population. Experimental manipulation of zinc concentrations in plants of this artificial population influenced the zinc tolerance of recovered endophytes. In laboratory experiments, only endophytic bacteria isolated from plants of the natural population were able to grow to high population densities in any N. caerulescens plants. These findings suggest that long-term coexistence with zinc-hyperaccumulating plants leads to local adaptation by endophytic bacteria to the environment within their leaves. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Gang Membership, Drug Selling, and Violence in Neighborhood Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellair, Paul E; McNulty, Thomas L

    2009-12-01

    A prominent perspective in the gang literature suggests that gang member involvement in drug selling does not necessarily increase violent behavior. In addition it is unclear from previous research whether neighborhood disadvantage strengthens that relationship. We address those issues by testing hypotheses regarding the confluence of neighborhood disadvantage, gang membership, drug selling, and violent behavior. A three-level hierarchical model is estimated from the first five waves of the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, matched with block-group characteristics from the 2000 U.S. Census. Results indicate that (1) gang members who sell drugs are significantly more violent than gang members that don't sell drugs and drug sellers that don't belong to gangs; (2) drug sellers that don't belong to gangs and gang members who don't sell drugs engage in comparable levels of violence; and (3) an increase in neighborhood disadvantaged intensifies the effect of gang membership on violence, especially among gang members that sell drugs.

  13. Gang masculinity and high-risk sexual behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Quinn, Katherine; Broaddus, Michelle; Pacella, Maria

    2017-02-01

    High-risk sexual behaviours include practices such as relationship violence and substance use, which often cluster together among young people in high-risk settings. Youth gang members often show high rates of such behaviours, substance use and relationship violence. This paper draws on data from in-depth interviews with male and female gang members from six different gangs to explore the role of powerful socialising peer groups that set gender, sexual and relationship roles and expectations for their male and female members. High-risk sexual behaviours among gang members included sex with multiple partners and group sex. Gang norms included the belief that male members were sexually insatiable with multiple sexual partners and that female gang members should be sexually available to male members. Alcohol and drugs were seen to have a large influence on sexual desire and the inability to use condoms. Much sexual behaviour with gangs, such as group sex, was viewed with ambivalence and seen as somewhat coercive. Finally, gendered sexual expectations (boys as sexually insatiable and girls as sexually available) made forming long-term romantic relationships problematic for gang members. The influence of gang norms such as these must be addressed in future programmes and interventions with gang members.

  14. Dimensions of Gang Issues at the National and International Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svatošová Veronika

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to define the main dimensions of gang, its structure, mutual connections and influence on the contemporary society at national and international level. This paper is based on knowledge about the issues of gang and presents the main differences and characteristics of formalized and non-formalized gang and the main identical and different characters. It comes from a study of current knowledge on the issue of gang and discusses its general forms. In this paper, a discussion of existing studies and typologies of these peculiar social groups, including an explanation is provided. The next section will introduce the particular qualities of the crimes committed by (mostly youth gangs and explain their possible causes. The main findings of the paper is putting relations between formalized and non-formalized gang and their influence on the present and future society in the social, psychological, economic, ethnic and criminal dimension.

  15. A Second's Chance: Gang Violence Task Force prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, K Michael; Griner, Devan; Guarino, Michelle; Drabik-Medeiros, Bernie; Williams, Kristy

    2012-01-01

    We describe a gang violence intervention and define targets for prevention. At-risk youths were identified through courts, public schools, and law enforcement regarding gang-related activities. They participated in "A Second's Chance," a true-to-life mock emergency department resuscitation and death of a gang member provided over an 18-month period. A questionnaire was completed by each participant. Forty-nine youths identified as at risk for gang involvement participated (37 male and 12 female, P criminal drug activity (P activities. Family and neighborhood characteristics should be included in development of intervention scenarios.

  16. Homegirls, Hoodrats and Hos: Co-constructing Gang Status through Discourse and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Kolb

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite a growing literature regarding female gang membership, little is known about the ways in which gang-affiliated women negotiate the boundaries of gang membership. The current study, based on semi-structured interviews with twenty-four formerly gang-affiliated Chicana women involved with a prominent gang prevention/intervention organization, sought to understand how these women negotiated their interactions and understood their identity within the gang. Findings suggest that these women and the gangs in which they operate recreate broader gender norms that affect their standing and social mobility within the gang.

  17. Local adaptation is associated with zinc tolerance in Pseudomonas endophytes of the metal-hyperaccumulator plant Noccaea caerulescens

    OpenAIRE

    Fones, HN; McCurrach, H; Mithani, A.; Smith, JAC; Preston, GM

    2016-01-01

    Metal-hyperaccumulating plants, which are hypothesized to use metals for defence against pests and pathogens, provide a unique context in which to study plant–pathogen coevolution. Previously, we demonstrated that the high concentrations of zinc found in leaves of the hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens provide protection against bacterial pathogens, with a potential trade-off between metal-based and pathogen-induced defences. We speculated that an evolutionary arms race between zinc-based ...

  18. Raising Barriers to 'Outlaw Motorcycle Gang-Related Events'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. van Ruitenburg (Teun)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractFighting outlaw motorcycle gangs is currently one of the top priorities of many governments around the world. This is due to the notion that outlaw motorcycle gangs do not consist solely of motorcycle enthusiasts. Numerous cases reveal that these clubs, or at least their members, are

  19. Gang Membership and Drug Involvement: Untangling the Complex Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, Beth

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has consistently demonstrated a relationship between gang membership and involvement in illegal substances. In addition, researchers have noted that gang members are frequently more heavily involved in drug sales, which often lead to increases in violent behaviors. Most of this research, however, is either cross-sectional or…

  20. Criminal gangs as perpetrators and 'protectors' | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Security interventions should avoid alienating urban residents caught between gangs and authorities; approaches to 'social cohesion' may need to be rethought ... are the main threat to those living in areas they control, they also force community members to accept their 'protection' from external threats such as rival gangs.

  1. Development and characterization of an embryonic cell line from endangered endemic cyprinid Honmoroko Gnathopogon caerulescens (Sauvage, 1883).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higaki, Shogo; Shimada, Manami; Koyama, Yoshie; Fujioka, Yasuhiro; Sakai, Noriyoshi; Takada, Tatsuyuki

    2015-09-01

    Establishing a cell line from endemic species facilitates the cell biological research of these species in the laboratory. In this study, an epithelium-like cell line RME1 was established from the blastula-stage embryos of the critically endangered cyprinid Honmoroko Gnathopogon caerulescens, which is endemic to ancient Lake Biwa in Japan. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first embryonic cell line from an endangered fish species. This cell line is well adapted to grow at 28°C in the culture medium, which was successfully used for establishing testicular and ovarian cell lines of G. caerulescens, and has displayed stable growth over 60 passages since its initiation in June 2011. Although RME1 did not express the genes detected in blastula-stage embryos, such as oct4, sox2, nanog, and klf4, it showed a high euploidy rate (2n = 50; 67.2%) with normal diploid karyotype morphology, suggesting that RME1 retains the genomic organization of G. caerulescens and can prove to be a useful tool to investigate the unique properties of endangered endemic fishes at cellular level.

  2. Report on Gang Violence in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-01

    school students in Montgomery County formed a gang that partied, played basketball , and protected one another in school When accused of a serious crime...of which they were cleared, a member told a reporter that they gave themselves a name because they felt that they needed a name for their basketball ...November 1993, 4B. "..’"Jamaican Mafia’ trial nearing end; Man in wheelchair is at center stage," The Baltimore Sun, 13 November 1993, lB. "Simms: There

  3. Protein Biochemistry and Expression Regulation of Cadmium/Zinc Pumping ATPases in the Hyperaccumulator Plants Arabidopsis halleri and Noccaea caerulescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Mishra

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available P1B-ATPases are decisive for metal accumulation phenotypes, but mechanisms of their regulation are only partially understood. Here, we studied the Cd/Zn transporting ATPases NcHMA3 and NcHMA4 from Noccaea caerulescens as well as AhHMA3 and AhHMA4 from Arabidopsis halleri. Protein biochemistry was analyzed on HMA4 purified from roots of N. caerulescens in active state. Metal titration of NcHMA4 protein with an electrochromic dye as charge indicator suggested that HMA4 reaches maximal ATPase activity when all internal high-affinity Cd2+ binding sites are occupied. Although HMA4 was reported to be mainly responsible for xylem loading of heavy metals for root to shoot transport, the current study revealed high expression of NcHMA4 in shoots as well. Further, there were additional 20 and 40 kD fragments at replete Zn2+ and toxic Cd2+, but not at deficient Zn2+ concentrations. Altogether, the protein level expression analysis suggested a more multifunctional role of NcHMA4 than previously assumed. Organ-level transcription analysis through quantitative PCR of mRNA in N. caerulescens and A. halleri confirmed the strong shoot expression of both NcHMA4 and AhHMA4. Further, in shoots NcHMA4 was more abundant in 10 μM Zn2+ and AhHMA4 in Zn2+ deficiency. In roots, NcHMA4 was up-regulated in response to deficient Zn2+ when compared to replete Zn2+ and toxic Cd2+ treatment. In both species, HMA3 was much more expressed in shoots than in roots, and HMA3 transcript levels remained rather constant regardless of Zn2+ supply, but were up-regulated by 10 μM Cd2+. Analysis of cellular expression by quantitative mRNA in situ hybridisation showed that in A. halleri, both HMA3 and HMA4 mRNA levels were highest in the mesophyll, while in N. caerulescens they were highest in the bundle sheath of the vein. This is likely related to the different final storage sites for hyperaccumulated metals in both species: epidermis in N. caerulescens, mesophyll in A. halleri.

  4. Youth Gangs, Delinquency and Drug Use: A Test of the Selection, Facilitation, and Enhancement Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Uberto; Tremblay, Richard E.; Vitaro, Frank; McDuff, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Background: Three different explanations have been given for the observation that adolescent gang members report more delinquent behaviour than their counterparts who do not affiliate with gangs: a) adolescents who commit more crimes join gangs (selection hypothesis); b) gang membership facilitates deviant behaviour (facilitation hypothesis); c)…

  5. Gang Membership Risk Factors for Eighth-Grade Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Martinez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the major risk factor domains for gang membership and the relationships of these risk factors to eighth grade students. The domains of risk factors include: individual characteristics, peer group influences, family conditions, school experiences and the community context, along with demographic information obtained from the Student Gang Survey items. Through logistic multiple regression, risk factors associated with school, peer, community-neighborhood, and family were used to predict gang membership. Demographic data were also used as predictor variables. Results indicated that an increase in Community-Neighborhood Risk was associated with a decrease in joining a gang. Non-significant findings for Peer Risk, School Risk, Family Risk and demographic variables are additionally discussed. The current research identifies issues which middle school youth encounter in a county setting; provides a homegrown report to assist stakeholders (administrators, teachers, parents, students, and law enforcement in identifying locally relevant risk factors of gang behavior; and substantiates risk factors for gang membership proliferation in those neighborhoods with no recently documented history of gangs.

  6. Highlights of the 2011 National Youth Gang Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are wide-ranging, typi cally involving turf disputes, interpersonal disagreements, and a series of escalating and deescalating ... collect and maintain intelli gence on local gang activities. Of these agencies, a major ity reported that ...

  7. "Who maintains order, who creates disorder": prison gangs in Bahia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luiz Claudio Lourenço; Odilza Lines de Almeida

    2013-01-01

    In various western democracies where policy directives for incarceration have been implemented, we can identify an ever stronger and persistent presence of organized groups of prisoners, i.e. prison gangs...

  8. Effects of avian cholera on survival of Lesser Snow geese Anser caerulescens: An experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Michael D.; Takekawa, John Y.; Baranyuk, Vasily V.; Orthmeyer, Dennis L.

    1999-01-01

    Avian cholera, caused by the bacterium Pasteurella multocida, is one of the most important diseases affecting waterfowl in North America but little is known about the epizootiology of this disease or its impacts on annual survival rates. We ringed Lesser Snow Geese Anser caerulescens nesting at Wrangel Island, Russia and Banks Island, Canada with metal rings and individually coded plastic neck-collars or radio-transmitters to determine survival, movement and cause of death. We vaccinated half of the neck-collared and radiotagged geese to provide protection from avian cholera for up to one year following ringing and thus experimentally determine the impacts of this disease on survival. We found that vaccination did not reduce short-term survival of the experimental birds, compared with control geese. Neck-collared geese vaccinated in 1993 at Wrangel Island had higher survival during winter 1993–94 than control birds. In contrast, we found similar survival during winter 1994–95 between vaccinated and control geese neck-collared in 1994 at Wrangel and Banks Islands. Survival of radiotagged geese on wintering areas during 1994–95 was consistent with the vaccination versus control results for neck-collared geese during the same winter. However, we found that radiotagged geese that were vaccinated had better survival than control geese during winter 1995–96. We believe that harvest and avian cholera are the two principal causes of mortality for Lesser Snow Geese wintering in the Pacific Flyway and that avian cholera may be one of the factors affecting these populations.

  9. MEXICAN AMERICAN YOUTH AND ADULT PRISON GANGS IN A CHANGING HEROIN MARKET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Avelardo

    2005-10-01

    This article focuses on the interaction between the larger community's drug markets and youth and adult prison gangs, and the process that leads to specific adverse consequences both to the youth gangs as organizations, and to individual members. Described is the emergence of a restructured heroin market dominated by an adult prison gang. A major consequence of this was the increasing use of heroin among Mexican American gang members and their transformation from autonomous youth gangs to extensions of the adult prison gangs or their demise. Data was collected from 160 members of 26 Mexican American youth gangs and key informants in San Antonio. Findings focus on organizational rules, drug market transformations, consequences on members, and the impact of heroin on the gang's organization. Discussed is how the dominance of prison gangs is related to the increased incarceration and recidivism rates of Mexican Americans and declining economic opportunities for urban minorities.

  10. Response of antioxidative enzymes and apoplastic bypass transport in Thlaspi caerulescens and Raphanus sativus to cadmium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzarti, Saoussen; Hamdi, Helmi; Mohri, Shino; Ono, Yoshiro

    2010-01-01

    A hydroponics experiment using hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (alpine pennycress) and non-specific accumulator Raphanus sativus (common radish) was conducted to investigate the short-term effect of increasing Cd concentrations (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 microM) on metal uptake, chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzymes, and apoplastic bypass flow. As expected, T. caerulescens generally showed better resistance to metal stress, which was reflected by higher Cd accumulation within plant tissues with no signs of chlorosis, or wilt. Glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in fresh leaves were monitored as the plant metal-detoxifying response. In general, both plant species exhibited an increase trend of GR activity before declining at 100 microM likely due to excessive levels of phytotoxic Cd. SOD activity exhibited almost a similar variation pattern to GR and decreased also at 100 microM Cd. For both plant species, fluorescent PTS uptake (8-hydroxy-1,3,6-pyrenetrisulphonic acid) increased significantly with metal level in exposure solutions indicating that Cd has a comparable effect to drought or salinity in terms of the gain of relative importance in apoplastic bypass transport under such stress conditions.

  11. Lithium isotope behaviour during weathering in the Ganges Alluvial Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogge von Strandmann, Philip A. E.; Frings, Patrick J.; Murphy, Melissa J.

    2017-02-01

    The Ganges river system is responsible for the transportation of a large flux of dissolved materials derived from Himalayan weathering to the oceans. Silicate weathering-driven cooling resulting from uplift of the Himalayas has been proposed to be a key player in Cenozoic climate variation. This study has analysed Li isotope (δ7Li) ratios from over 50 Ganges river waters and sediments, in order to trace silicate weathering processes. Sediments have δ7Li of ∼0‰, identical to bulk continental crust, however suspended sediment depth profiles do not display variations associated with grain size that have been observed in other large river systems. Dissolved δ7Li are low (∼11‰) in the Ganges headwaters, but reach a constant value of 21 ± 1.6‰ within a relatively short distance downstream, which is then maintained for almost 2000 km to the Ganges mouth. Given that Li isotopes are controlled by the ratio of primary mineral dissolution to secondary mineral formation, this suggests that the Ganges floodplain is at steady-state in terms of these processes for most of its length. Low δ7Li in the mountainous regions suggest silicate weathering is therefore at its most congruent where uplift and fresh silicate exposure rates are high. However, there is no correlation between δ7Li and the silicate weathering rate in these rivers, suggesting that Li isotopes cannot be used as a weathering-rate tracer, although they do inform on weathering congruency and intensity. The close-to-constant δ7Li values for the final 2000 km of Ganges flow also suggest that once the size of the alluvial plain reached more than ∼500 km (the flow distance after which riverine δ7Li stops varying), the Ganges exerted little influence on the changing Cenozoic seawater δ7Li, because riverine δ7Li attained a near steady-state composition.

  12. Gang Membership: Links to Violence Exposure, Paranoia, PTSD, Anxiety, and Forced Control of Behavior in Prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jane; Dennard, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    Gang membership inherently links to violence, and violent experiences strongly relate to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and paranoia. Yet to date, gang members' mental health has received little attention, and their paranoia has not been examined. This study, using established measures, assessed street gang and nongang prisoners' levels of violence exposure, symptoms of PTSD, paranoia, and anxiety, forced behavioral control, and segregation in prison. Participants were 65 (32 gang and 33 nongang) prisoners, recruited using opportunity sampling. Participants provided informed consent and were interviewed individually. Interviews were anonymized to maintain confidentiality. Chi-square and discriminant function analyses were used to compare participants' demographics, segregation levels, mental health symptoms, and to identify predictors of street gang membership. As compared to nongang prisoners, street gang prisoners have higher levels of exposure to violence, symptoms of paranoia, PTSD, anxiety, and forced control of their behavior in prison. Street gang prisoners were not more likely to be segregated, but they were more likely to belong to ethnic minorities. Street gang prisoners were only found to be younger than nongang prisoners, when other variables were controlled for. Mental health deserves more attention in gang research. The implications of findings are that gang membership may undermine members' mental health, and/or that individuals with existing mental health problems may be those attracted to gang membership. Moreover, justice responses, via policies and intervention strategies, need to identify and address the mental health needs in gang member prisoners, if successful rehabilitation of gang members is to be achieved.

  13. Expression of the Znt1 zinc transporter from the metal hyperaccumulator noccaea caerulescens confers enhanced zinc and cadmium tolerance and accumulation to arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Ya Fen; Hassan, Zeshan; Talukdar, S.; Schat, Henk; Aarts, Mark G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Prompt regulation of transition metal transporters is crucial for plant zinc homeostasis. NcZNT1 is one of such transporters, found in the metal hyperaccumulator Brassicaceae species Noccaea caerulescens. It is orthologous to AtZIP4 from Arabidopsis thaliana, an important actor in Zn homeostasis.

  14. Arbovírus Ilheus em aves silvestres (Sporophila caerulescens e Molothrus bonariensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Luiz Eloy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar o isolamento do vírus Ilheus no Estado de São Paulo e avaliar o seu impacto para a saúde pública. MÉTODOS: O isolamento de vírus foi realizado em camundongos albinos Swiss, a partir de sangue de aves silvestres, capturadas com redes de espera tipo mist net, armadas no nível do solo, no Parque Ecológico do Tietê, São Paulo. A identificação das cepas isoladas foi feita pelos testes de inibição da hemaglutinação, fixação de complemento e neutralização em camundongos. Amostras de plasma de aves e de mamíferos silvestres foram submetidas à pesquisa sorológica para detecção de anticorpos inibidores de hemaglutinação. RESULTADOS: Foram isoladas duas cepas do vírus Ilheus em sangue de aves das espécies Sporophila caerulescens e Molothrus bonariensis e detectados anticorpos em aves das espécies Columbina talpacoti, Geopelia cuneata, Molothrus bonariensis e Sicalis flaveola, em sagüis das espécies Callithrix jacchus e Callithrix penicillata e no quati Nasua nasua. CONCLUSÕES: O isolamento do vírus Ilheus e a detecção de anticorpos específicos em aves residentes, migratórias e de cativeiro, em sagüis e quatis, comprovam a presença desse agente no Parque Ecológico do Tietê. O comportamento migratório de aves silvestres pode determinar a introdução do vírus em outras regiões. Considerando-se a patogenicidade para o homem e a confirmação da circulação desse agente viral em área urbana, freqüentada para atividade de lazer e de educação, o risco de ocorrência de infecção na população humana não pode ser descartado.

  15. Geographical influences of an emerging network of gang rivalries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegemann, Rachel A.; Smith, Laura M.; Barbaro, Alethea B. T.; Bertozzi, Andrea L.; Reid, Shannon E.; Tita, George E.

    2011-10-01

    We propose an agent-based model to simulate the creation of street gang rivalries. The movement dynamics of agents are coupled to an evolving network of gang rivalries, which is determined by previous interactions among agents in the system. Basic gang data, geographic information, and behavioral dynamics suggested by the criminology literature are integrated into the model. The major highways, rivers, and the locations of gangs’ centers of activity influence the agents’ motion. We use a policing division of the Los Angeles Police Department as a case study to test our model. We apply common metrics from graph theory to analyze our model, comparing networks produced by our simulations and an instance of a Geographical Threshold Graph to the existing network from the criminology literature.

  16. Understanding Gang Membership and Crime Victimization among Jail Inmates: Testing the Effects of Self-Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Kathleen A.; Lane, Jodi; Akers, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01

    Although previous research has examined factors related to gang membership and offending, research on the relationship between gangs and victimization is limited. The present study builds on previous research and examines gang membership, victimization, and self-control among 2,414 jail inmates. Results from self-report surveys indicate that gang…

  17. Deportation of Gang Members: Sub-Optimal Solution for Both America and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    of youths who join gangs are poor, reside in urban areas with higher crime rates, have limited education and find few legitimate job opportunities...Back the Streets 36 James C. Howell. “Gang prevention: An Overview of Research and Programs”, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency ...in only the largest urban areas of the country, gangs have evolved from 50 Jonah M

  18. Gangs, Migration and Crime; The changing landscape in Europe and the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Decker, S.; van Gemert, F.H.M.; Pyrooz, D.C.

    2009-01-01

    The history of gangs is intertwined with migration. In America, a number of classic studies have reported on the possible causal link between immigration, socio-economic position, social disorganization, and gang formation. More recently in Europe, the impact of migration on gangs reflects a complex

  19. Evaluating Criminal Justice Programs Designed to Reduce Crime by Targeting Repeat Gang Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Douglas R.; Donaldson, Stewart I.; Wyrick, Phelan A.; Smith, Peggy J.

    2000-01-01

    Used a theory-driven approach to evaluate a gang crime reduction program over 7 years. Data for 237 repeat juvenile offenders admitted to the program indicate a strong relationship between incarceration and gang crime trends and an overall reduction of 47% in gang crime. Discusses implications of the approach for program evaluation. (SLD)

  20. Do the Himalaya Export Air Pollutants from the Ganges Basin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, A.; Fiore, A.; Horowitz, L.; Levy, H.

    2009-04-01

    The Ganges Basin in South Asia ranks close to Eastern China in both population and air pollutant emissions. During the winter-spring dry season it often experiences a similar "atmospheric brown cloud" haze layer of aerosols and trace gases. Global model results, however, have suggested that the Ganges Basin's contribution to long distance pollution transport is significantly less than that of Eastern China. The assumption is that, for much of the dry season, the Ganges Basin experiences a large-scale inversion that suppresses vertical mixing of pollutants into the jet stream aloft. Yet both observations at high-altitude stations (such as the Nepal Climate Observatory - Pyramid station located at 5079 meters above sea level near Everest Base Camp) and vertically resolved satellite data show significant pollution levels at high altitudes over the Himalaya, which line the northern edge of the Ganges Basin. Using the WRF model at resolutions as high as 1 km, along with photography over the Himalaya, we present several mechanisms by which pollutants from the boundary layer over the Ganges Basin can be transported vertically by Himalaya meteorology to heights where they can mix into the jetstream and be exported long distances. These mechanisms are closely tied to the shape of the topography and operate at scales of less than a few kilometers while global model grid spacing typically exceeds 100 km. We attempt to sum up the total contribution to pollutant export by the entire Himalaya region, and discuss the implications for both air quality over the Ganges Basin and global atmospheric chemistry and climate.

  1. Delinquency Among Members of Hong Kong Youth Street Gangs: The Role of the Organizational Structures of Gangs and Triad Affiliations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Wing Hong; Khiatani, Paul Vinod

    2017-09-01

    This study explores the importance of organizational structures and formal affiliations with the Hong Kong triads to delinquency among youth street gang members in Hong Kong. More specifically, this study examines the relative importance of the number of organizational structures and triad affiliation to patterns of delinquency in a sample of active members of youth street gangs ( N = 201). With the aid of outreach social workers, a convenience sampling method was used to recruit a gender-balanced sample of at-risk youths. Logistic regression analysis of the survey data that was gathered indicated that formal affiliation to Hong Kong triads and the presence of organizational structures significantly increased the odds of delinquency (independently of each other). Suggestions for future research on gang membership and delinquency, with particular reference to the Asian context, are provided.

  2. Zinc hyperaccumulation substitutes for defense failures beyond salicylate and jasmonate signaling pathways of Alternaria brassicicola attack in Noccaea caerulescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Berta; Martos, Soledad; Cabot, Catalina; Barceló, Juan; Poschenrieder, Charlotte

    2017-04-01

    The hypothesis of metal defense as a substitute for a defective biotic stress signaling system in metal hyperaccumulators was tested using the pathosystem Alternaria brassicicola-Noccaea caerulescens under low (2 µM), medium (12 µM) and high (102 µM) Zn supply. Regardless the Zn supply, N. caerulescens responded to fungal attack with the activation of both HMA4 coding for a Zn transporter, and biotic stress signaling pathways. Salicylate, jasmonate, abscisic acid and indoleacetic acid concentrations, as well as biotic stress marker genes (PDF1.2, CHIB, LOX2, PR1 and BGL2) were activated 24 h upon inoculation. Based on the activation of defense genes 24 h after the inoculation an incompatible fungal-plant interaction could be predicted. Nonetheless, in the longer term (7 days) no effective protection against A. brassicicola was achieved in plants exposed to low and medium Zn supply. After 1 week the biotic stress markers were even further increased in these plants, and this compatible interaction was apparently not caused by a failure in the signaling of the fungal attack, but due to the lack of specificity in the type of the activated defense mechanisms. Only plants receiving high Zn exhibited an incompatible fungal interaction. High Zn accumulation in these plants, possibly in cooperation with high glucosinolate concentrations, substituted for the ineffective defense system and the interaction turned into incompatible. In a threshold-type response, these joint effects efficiently hampered fungal spread and, consequently decreased the biotic stress signaling. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  3. An integrated public health and criminal justice approach to gangs: What can research tell us?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Gebo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a call to better link public health and criminal justice approaches to best address crime problems generally, and youth and gang violence in particular. Importantly, there has yet to be a systematic examination of how criminal justice approaches can be integrated within a public health framework. This paper examines the strengths and challenges with mapping gang research and evidence-informed practices onto a public health approach. Conceptual examination reveals benefits to utilizing an integrated framework, but it also exposes core problems with identification and prediction of gang joining and gang membership. The gang label as a master status is called into question. It is argued that a public health framework can inform public policy approaches as to when the focus should be youth violence versus gangs and gang violence.

  4. Surviving gangs, violence and racism in cape town

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie Rosenkrantz

    Surviving Gangs, Violence and Racism in Cape Town offers an ethnographic study of young men in Cape Town and considers how they stay safe in when growing up in post-apartheid South Africa. Breaking away from previous studies looking at structural inequality and differences, this unique book focuses...

  5. “GETTING HIGH AND GETTING BY”: DIMENSIONS OF DRUG SELLING BEHAVIORS AMONG AMERICAN MEXICAN GANG MEMBERS IN SOUTH TEXAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Avelardo; Sifaneck, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    This article discerns the role that Mexican American gang members play in drug markets, and the relationship between gang members’drug use and drug selling in South Texas. A four-part typology based on the two dimensions of gang type and gang member emerged from this qualitative analysis of 160 male gang members: Homeboys, Hustlers, Slangers, and Ballers. Major findings include the following: (1) many gang members are user/sellers and are not profit-oriented dealers, (2) gangs commonly do extend “protection” to drug-selling members, and (3) proximity to Mexican drug markets, adult prison gangs, and criminal family members may play important roles in whether these gang members have access and the profit potential to actually deal drugs. This research contributes to our complex intersections between gangs, drug using, and drug selling. PMID:21218191

  6. BULLYING BEHAVIOUR OF ADOLESCENTS BASED ON GENDER, GANG AND FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadek Ayu Erika

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bullying is a social problem which is part of aggressive violent behaviour done continuously and have negative impact to victims and its subject and happened at school. This study aimed to know the description of knowledge and adolescents behavior about bullying based on their age, gang, and family. Methods: This study used analytic descriptive design with number of sample was 246 adolescents from grade 1, 2, 3 of senior high school which used stratified random sampling. Instruments of this study were knowledge questioner, and modified of The Bullying Prevalence Questionnaire in guttman and likert scale. Data analysis used cross tabulation. Result: Data show that adolescents have a good knowledge (93.9% and less (6.1%. Bullying subjects were 93.9% and victims 94.7%. Forms of verbal bullying indicated the subjects (93.1% and victims (92.3%. Bullying subjects majority occurred in males (94.1% and women become victims (96.3%. Numbers of bullying subjects do not have a gang (94.5%, while those with gang as victims (95.2%. There were five adolescents who live in stepfamilies become subjects and victims of bullying. Conclusion: The majority of adolescents have good knowledge about bullying, bullying form the vast majority were verbal bullying with subjects and victims of bullying who occurs in all classes. The majority of bullying subjects do not have a gang, and as the majority of victims have a gang. Almost all adolescents with different family types become subjects and victims of bullying. Therefore, an intensive educational effort and spiritual needs to be done to change the behavior of adolescents to be adolescents with well character.

  7. Sexual risk, substance use, mental health, and trauma experiences of gang-involved homeless youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petering, Robin

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the associations of sexual risk behaviors, substance use, mental health, and trauma with varying levels of gang involvement in a sample of Los Angeles-based homeless youths. Data were collected from 505 homeless youths who self-reported various health information and whether they have ever identified as or been closely affiliated with a gang member. Multivariable logistic regression assessed associations of lifetime gang involvement with risk taking behaviors and negative health outcomes. Results revealed seventeen percent of youths have ever identified as a gang member and 46% as gang affiliated. Both gang members and affiliates were at greater risk of many negative behaviors than non-gang involved youths. Gang members and affiliates were more likely to report recent methamphetamine use, cocaine use, chronic marijuana use, having sex while intoxicated, and symptoms of depression, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. They were also more likely to have experienced childhood sexual abuse and witnessing family violence. Gang members were more likely to ever attempt suicide, experience recent partner violence, and report physical abuse during childhood. Results suggest that lifetime gang involvement is related to a trajectory of negative outcomes and amplified risk for youths experiencing homelessness. Additionally, being closely connected to a gang member appears to have just as much as an impact on risk as personally identifying as a gang member. Given the lack of knowledge regarding the intersection between youth homelessness and gang involvement, future research is needed to inform policies and programs that can address the specific needs of this population. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Central American Street Gangs: Their Role in Communities and Prisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Wolf

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available – Territories of Violence: State, Marginal Youth, and Public Security in Honduras, by Lirio Gutiérrez Rivera. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.– Adiós Niño: The Gangs of Guatemala City and the Politics of Death, by Deborah T. Levenson. Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2013.– The Rule of Law in Central America: Citizens’ Reactions to Crime and Punishment, by Mary Fran T. Malone. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2012.– Ver, oír, callar. En las profundidades de una pandilla salvadoreña, by Juan José Martínez D’Aubuisson. San Salvador: AURA Ediciones, 2013.– Gangsters Without Borders: An Ethnography of a Salvadoran Street Gang, by T. W. Ward. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.

  9. An analysis of the self-control and criminal versatility of gang and dating violence offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapple, Constance L; Hope, Trina L

    2003-12-01

    How versatile are gang and dating violence offenders? Current gang research highlights the versatility of gang members, yet the versatility of intimate violence offenders is often unexamined. Gottfredson and Hirschi, A General Theory of Crime (1990), support the idea of versatile rather than specialized offenders and suggests that low self-control is associated with a host of criminal and noncriminal risk-taking activities. Using data from a self-report sample of 1139 youths in grades 9 through 11, we investigated both the versatility of gang and dating violence offenders and theoretical variables associated with each. We find disproportionate offending by dating and gang violence offenders in a variety of crimes, as well as considerable overlap in the independent variables associated with both types of violence. Low levels of self-control and exposure to general and crime-specific criminal opportunities are significantly associated with engaging in dating and gang violence.

  10. Gangs in Honduras: A Threat to National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    44,000 youths were deported to Central America. These deportees who returned to Honduras were instrumental in the proliferation of the two gangs...United States Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) deportation of these youths, beginning in 1992. In July 2004, 20,000 youths, and in 2011...less well understood, and more unpredictable than their parent organization.”42 Like the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and the

  11. Latin American Street Gangs in Catalonia and Their Delinquency

    OpenAIRE

    Kazyrytski, Leanid

    2017-01-01

    The increased influx of immigrants from the countries of Latin America to the autonomous Spanish community of Catalonia had a considerable impact on its young people. This phenomenon filled city streets with groups of young migrants characterized by specific outfits and manners. Some groups of young migrants adopted the names of notorious criminal gangs from Central and North America and developed collective schemes of deviant behavior. The Catalonian police, together with mass media, view th...

  12. Gangs and Transnational Criminals Threaten Central American Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-10

    compounded by limited educational opportunities, overwhelmed and ineffective justice systems, easy access to arms and an illicit economy , dysfunctional...coordination. The United States has pledged assistance to the region primarily in the form of the Merida Initiative, named for a city on the Yucatan ...security in the region and promotes nation-state failure. Gangs erode democratic institutions as well as derail free-market economies . The U.S. must

  13. Gangs and Guerrillas: Ideas from Counterinsurgency and Counterterrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    complicated goals. 2: The goals don’t make any sense to me (they have to do with fundamentalist religion, racism , tribal culture or something else...include: Labor unions Religious groups Professional organizations Sports teams Social clubs Parent groups like the PTA Organizations and networks...which is one reason groups and gangs compete: to determine this. Alternatively, consider the movie Fight Club . It clearly struck a chord. Why? Because

  14. Bullying Behaviour of Adolescents Based on Gender, Gang and Family

    OpenAIRE

    Erika, Kadek Ayu; Pertiwi, Dian Atma; Seniwati, Tuti

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Bullying is a social problem which is part of aggressive violent behaviour done continuously and have negative impact to victims and its subject and happened at school. This study aimed to know the description of knowledge and adolescents behavior about bullying based on their age, gang, and family. Methods: This study used analytic descriptive design with number of sample was 246 adolescents from grade 1, 2, 3 of senior high school which used stratified random sampling. Instrum...

  15. BULLYING BEHAVIOUR OF ADOLESCENTS BASED ON GENDER, GANG AND FAMILY

    OpenAIRE

    Kadek Ayu Erika; Dian Atma Pertiwi; Tuti Seniwati

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Bullying is a social problem which is part of aggressive violent behaviour done continuously and have negative impact to victims and its subject and happened at school. This study aimed to know the description of knowledge and adolescents behavior about bullying based on their age, gang, and family. Methods: This study used analytic descriptive design with number of sample was 246 adolescents from grade 1, 2, 3 of senior high school which used stratified random sampling. Instrum...

  16. Street Gangs: A Modeling Approach to Evaluating "At Risk" Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    last part of the definition, also requires clarification. This term can be extended anywhere from adolescents to those in their twenties. However...the behavior of children and teenagers. A study performed by Craig et al. (2002) on adolescents showed that those who have friends that are members...definition of street gangs used in this thesis is “individual members, gang cliques , or entire gang organizations that traffic drugs; commit shootings

  17. In vitro differentiation of fertile sperm from cryopreserved spermatogonia of the endangered endemic cyprinid honmoroko (Gnathopogon caerulescens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higaki, Shogo; Shimada, Manami; Kawamoto, Kazuaki; Todo, Takaaki; Kawasaki, Toshihiro; Tooyama, Ikuo; Fujioka, Yasuhiro; Sakai, Noriyoshi; Takada, Tatsuyuki

    2017-02-01

    Many endemic fish species are threatened with extinction. Conservation strategies and the restoration of endemic fish after extinction must therefore be investigated. Although sperm cryopreservation is indispensable for the conservation of endangered fishes, the limited number of mature fish and limited availability (volume and period) of sperm from small endemic fish hinders the optimization and practical use of this material. In this report, we demonstrate the in vitro differentiation of fertile sperm from cryopreserved spermatogonia of juveniles of the endangered small cyprinid honmoroko (Gnathopogon caerulescens), which is endemic to Lake Biwa in Japan. The entire process of spermatogenesis was recapitulated in vitro using cryopreserved spermatogonia of non-spawning adult and juvenile fish. The differentiation of sperm from spermatogonia was captured as a time-lapse video and confirmed by 5-ethynyl-2‧-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation into sperm. Fertility was demonstrated by artificial insemination. These results suggest that the combination of cryopreservation of spermatogonia and in vitro sperm differentiation will provide a new and promising strategy for the preservation of paternal genetic materials.

  18. Influência de temperatura, luz e giberelina na germinação de sementes de Thlaspi caerulescens J. Presl & C. Presl (Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Almeida Guimarães

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Thlaspi caerulescens é espécie hiperacumuladora de metais como Cd2+, Ni2+ e Zn2+, considerada como uma plantamodelo para estudar a acumulação e tolerância a metais pesados. No entanto, a baixa produção de sementes em nossas condições climáticas tornam necessária a determinação de condições que possam maximizar a germinação e o vigor de suas sementes. Para identificar as melhores condições para a germinação, sementes de T. caerulescens foram colocadas na presença (15 mmol.m-2.s-1, 8 h luz/16 h escuro ou ausência de luz nas temperaturas de 10, 15, 20 e 25 ºC, em papel germitest previamente umedecido com solução de ácido giberélico (GA3 a 0,05% ou água destilada. Foram avaliados a porcentagem de germinação (%G e o índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG. Maior porcentagem de germinação (66% foi observada nos tratamentos com GA3 e temperaturas de 15 e 20 ºC, na presença de luz. Maiores valores do IVG foram obtidos com a utilização de GA3 nas temperaturas de 15 e 20 ºC, tanto na presença quanto na ausência de luz. Maiores germinação e IVG de T. caerulescens foram observados com uso de GA3 na presença de luz nas temperaturas de 15 e 20 ºC.

  19. Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment: Science and Operations Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotamarthi, VR

    2010-06-21

    The Ganges Valley region is one of the largest and most rapidly developing sections of the Indian subcontinent. The Ganges River, which provides the region with water needed for sustaining life, is fed primarily by snow and rainfall associated with Indian summer monsoons. Impacts of changes in precipitation patterns, temperature, and the flow of the snow-fed rivers can be immense. Recent satellite-based measurements have indicated that the upper Ganges Valley has some of the highest persistently observed aerosol optical depth values. The aerosol layer covers a vast region, extending across the Indo-Gangetic Plain to the Bay of Bengal during the winter and early spring of each year. The persistent winter fog in the region is already a cause of much concern, and several studies have been proposed to understand the economic, scientific, and societal dimensions of this problem. During the INDian Ocean EXperiment (INDOEX) field studies, aerosols from this region were shown to affect cloud formation and monsoon activity over the Indian Ocean. This is one of the few regions showing a trend toward increasing surface dimming and enhanced mid-tropospheric warming. Increasing air pollution over this region could modify the radiative balance through direct, indirect, and semi-indirect effects associated with aerosols. The consequences of aerosols and associated pollution for surface insolation over the Ganges Valley and monsoons, in particular, are not well understood. The proposed field study is designed for use of (1) the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to measure relevant radiative, cloud, convection, and aerosol optical characteristics over mainland India during an extended period of 9–12 months and (2) the G-1 aircraft and surface sites to measure relevant aerosol chemical, physical, and optical characteristics in the Ganges Valley during a period of 6–12 weeks. The aerosols in this region have complex sources, including burning of coal, biomass, and biofuels; automobile

  20. Gangs, clubs, and alcohol: The effect of organizational membership on adolescent drinking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Chan S; Brashears, Matthew E; Genkin, Michael

    2016-07-01

    How does adolescent organizational membership in general, and simultaneous membership in distinct types of organizations in particular, impact drinking behavior? While past studies have focused either on the learning effect of involvement with gangs or on the constraining influence of conventional organizations on adolescent problem behavior, we explore the possibility that conventional school clubs can serve as socializing opportunities for existing gang members to engage in drinking behavior with non-gang club members. Using the Add Health data, we show that gang members drink more often, and engage in more binge drinking, than non-members. More importantly, individuals who are members of both gangs and school clubs drink alcohol at greater levels than those who are solely involved in gangs. In addition, non-gang adolescents who are co-members with gang members in the same school club are more likely to drink alcohol than non-members. This result has important implications for understanding the role of organizations in adolescent behavior and suggests that the study of delinquent behaviors would benefit from devoting more attention to individuals who bridge distinct types of organizations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Affiliation to Youth Gangs during Adolescence: The Interaction between Childhood Psychopathic Tendencies and Neighborhood Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupere, Veronique; Lacourse, Eric; Willms, J. Douglas; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    Because youth gangs tend to cluster in disadvantaged neighborhoods, adolescents living in such neighborhoods are more likely to encounter opportunities to join youth gangs. However, in the face of these opportunities, not all adolescents respond in the same manner. Those with preexisting psychopathic tendencies might be especially likely to join.…

  2. Brief Report: Do Delinquency and Community Violence Exposure Explain Internalizing Problems in Early Adolescent Gang Members?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent gang members are at higher risk for internalizing problems as well as exposure to community violence and delinquency. This study examined whether gang membership in early adolescence is associated with internalizing problems (depression, anxiety, and suicidal behavior) and whether these associations are mediated by delinquency and…

  3. Gang Membership and Subsequent Engagement into a Drug Free Therapeutic Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widlitz, Michelle; Dermatis, Helen; Galanter, Marc; Bunt, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationship of history of gang involvement to engagement in Therapeutic Community (TC) treatment. Residents (N = 222) at two Daytop facilities completed a survey assessing sociodemographic characteristics, prior gang involvement and multiple aspects of TC functioning. Residents with prior gang…

  4. Life-Course Events, Social Networks, and the Emergence of Violence among Female Gang Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisher, Mark S.; Krienert, Jessie L.

    2004-01-01

    Using data gathered from a multi-year field study, this article identifies specific life-course events shared by gang-affiliated women. Gangs emerge as a cultural adaptation or pro-social community response to poverty and racial isolation. Through the use of a social-network approach, data show that violence dramatically increases in the period…

  5. Always Running. La Vida Loca: Gang Days in L.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Luis J.

    This autobiographical narrative describes the early life of Luis J. Rodriguez, a journalist and poet who was immersed in the youth gang culture of Los Angeles (California). Framed by the story of the pull of the gang life for the poet's son, it recounts his experiences from his childhood on the United States-Mexico border through his family's…

  6. Substance Abuse among Juvenile Delinquents and Gang Members. Prevention Research Update Number Six, Spring 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, John A.; Austin, Gregory A.

    There is a strong statistical correlation between delinquency activity level and the level of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use in adolescents. A strong association between drug use, drug trafficking, and youth gangs has also emerged. However, several important questions concerning the relationship of delinquency, gang membership, and AOD use…

  7. Gangkill: An Exploratory Empirical Assessment of Gang Membership, Homicide Offending, and Prison Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Alan J.; DeLisi, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Extant research indicates that inmates with street gang history are prone for prison misconduct but that inmates convicted of homicide offenses are less likely to be noncompliant. No research has explored the interaction between street gang history and homicide offending. Based on official infraction data from 1,005 inmates selected from the…

  8. Canadian Female Gang Inmates: Risk, Needs, and the Potential for Prison Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Terri-Lynne; Ruddell, Rick

    2011-01-01

    A comparison of the characteristics of 337 Canadian adult female gang offenders with a matched sample of women offenders showed that they were more likely to have been sentenced for violent offenses, had a greater number of prior youth and criminal convictions, and served prior terms of incarceration. Gang members were also assessed as having…

  9. Gang Involvement among Immigrant and Refugee Youth: A Developmental Ecological Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrum, Nada M.; Chan, Wing Yi; Latzman, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Immigrant and refugee youth are at elevated risk for joining gangs, which, in turn, is associated with a host of maladaptive outcomes. Previous literature on risk and protective factors for immigrant and refugee youth gang involvement has been inconclusive. Applying a developmental ecological systems approach, this study investigated contextual…

  10. Risk Behaviors among Young Mexican American Gang-Associated Females: Sexual Relations, Partying, Substance Use, and Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, Alice; Valdez, Avelardo

    2003-01-01

    This qualitative research examined risk-taking behavior among Mexican American adolescent girls who are not formal gang members but are associated with male gangs. Findings illustrate how outcomes associated with sexual relations, partying, substance use, and crime vary according to the girl's relationship with the male gang and status within the…

  11. Gangs of Chicago: Perceptions of crime and its effect on the recreation behavior of Latino residents in urban communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monika Stodolska; Juan Carlos Acevedo; Kimberly J. Shinew

    2009-01-01

    Perception of safety is an important factor affecting the leisure behavior of Latinos residing in urban neighborhoods. Yet research on how fear of crime and fear of gangs in particular affect leisure of ethnic and racial minorities is underdeveloped. The objectives of this study are to examine how gangs operate in recreation spaces in Latino neighborhoods, how gangs...

  12. Effect of microbial siderophore DFO-B on Cd accumulation by Thlaspi caerulescens hyperaccumulator in the presence of zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, Lotfollah; Heilmeier, Hermann; Merkel, Broder J

    2012-07-01

    Hyperaccumulators are grown in contaminated soil and water in order that contaminants are taken up and accumulated. Transport of metals from soil to plant is initially dependent on the solubility and mobility of metals in soil solution which is controlled by soil and metal properties and plant physiology. Complexation with organic and inorganic ligands may increase mobility and availability of metals for plants. In this work the influence of desferrioxamine-B (DFO-B), which naturally is produced in the rhizosphere, and zeolite on Cd accumulation in root and shoot of Thlaspi caerulescens (Cd hyperaccumulator) was investigated. Plants were grown in pots with clean quartz sand, amended with 1% zeolite; treatment solutions included 0, 10, and 100 μM Cd and 70 μM DFO-B. Addition of zeolite to the quartz sand significantly reduced Cd concentration in plant tissues and translocation from root to shoot. On contrary, DFO-B considerably enhanced Cd sorption by roots and translocation to aerial part of plants. Treating the plants with zeolite and DFO-B together at 10 μM Cd resulted in reduction of the bioaccumulation factor but enhancement of Cd translocation from root to shoot at the rate of 13%. In contrast, at 100 μM Cd in the solution both bioaccumulation and translocation factors decreased. Total metal accumulation as a key factor for evaluating the efficiency of phytoremediation was highly influenced by treatments. Presence of zeolite in pots significantly decreased total Cd accumulation by plants, whereas, DFO-B clearly enhanced it. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Roy Greenslade, Press Gang - How Newspapers Make Profits From Propaganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Millat

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Avec son titre Press Gang en rouge sur fond noir, la volumineuse étude de Roy Greenslade, au sous-titre accrocheur How Newspapers Make Profits From Propaganda, se présente davantage sous les dehors d’un roman policier que d’un ouvrage savant. Au terme d’une longue carrière de journaliste, l’auteur, ancien rédacteur en chef du Daily Mirror et qui a collaboré à neuf journaux nationaux, est devenu Professor of Journalism à la City University de Londres. Grâce à sa connaissance encyclopédique du ...

  14. Serious Delinquency and Gang Participation: Combining and Specializing in Drug Selling, Theft and Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Rachel A.; Rowe, Hillary L.; Pardini, Dustin; Loeber, Rolf; White, Helene Raskin; Farrington, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Using Pittsburgh Youth Study data, we examined the extent to which over 600 gang members and non-gang involved young men specialized in drug selling, serious theft, or serious violence or engaged simultaneously in these serious delinquent behaviors, throughout the 1990s. We found that the increase in delinquency associated with gang membership was concentrated in two combinations: serious violence and drug selling; serious violence, drug selling, and serious theft. Several covariates were similarly associated with multi-type serious delinquency and gang membership (age, historical time, Black race, and residential mobility), suggesting that these behaviors may share common developmental, familial, and contextual risks. We encourage future research to further examine the association of gang membership with engagement in particular configurations of serious delinquency. PMID:24954999

  15. Associations between Gun Violence Exposure, Gang Associations, and Youth Aggression: Implications for Prevention and Intervention Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Forster

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using cross-sectional data collected from three middle schools in Southeast Los Angeles, we assessed the association of neighborhood violence exposure, gang associations, and social self-control with past week aggression in a sample of minority youth (n=164. Results from Poisson and logistic regression models showed that direct exposure to gun violence, having friends in gangs, and low social self control were all positively associated with past week aggression. Among girls, having gang affiliated family members was positively associated with aggression, whereas among boys having friends in gangs was associated with past week aggression. Subjective expectations of engagement in future interpersonal violence were associated with being male, having friends in gangs, and fear of neighborhood gun violence. We recommend that youth violence prevention and intervention programs address the impact of family, peers, and gun violence on student coping and identify students with low social self-control who could benefit from social and emotional skills training.

  16. Socio-economic factors threatening the survival of Ganges River Dolphin Platanista gangetica gangetica in the upper Ganges River, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bashir

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted along the upper Ganges River between Narora barrages and Anupshahar from January to June 2007. Community interviews were conducted in order to assess the socio-economic profile of the fishermen community, their level of dependence on the river and their attitude towards the conservation of Ganges River Dolphin Platanista gangetica gangetica. The estimated literacy rate from interviews was 45%, and average annual income per household was 27,000 INR (Indian National Rupee. The respondents were found to be well aware of the river biodiversity and believed excessive water extraction and pollution to be the responsible for any perceived decline in the dolphin population. About 55% of the fishermen were found to fish for commercial purposes, and a majority of them (71% used nylon gill-nets. A majority (94% of respondents that had boats of their own fished in the middle of the river, an activity often conducted in groups. 12% of respondents reported to have encountered dolphin carcasses. Excessive fishing and dolphin poaching were found to be interrelated; if fishing can be more effectively managed poaching may automatically decline. 41% of the fishermen interviewed were found to be willing to stop fishing providing adequate alternative livelihoods are provided by the government.

  17. The role of delinquency, proactive aggression, psychopathy and behavioral school engagement in reported youth gang membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Rebecca P; Huan, Vivien S; Chan, Wei Teng; Cheong, Siew Ann; Leaw, Jia Ning

    2015-06-01

    Given the robust positive association between gangs and crime, a better understanding of factors related to reported youth gang membership is critical and especially since youth in gangs are a universal concern. The present study investigated the role of delinquency, proactive aggression, psychopathy and behavioral school engagement in reported youth gang membership using a large sample of 1027 Singapore adolescents. Results from logistic regression showed that delinquency, proactive aggression, and behavioral school engagement were statistically significant risk factors for reported youth gang membership, and that psychopathy was not related to reported gang membership. Implications for prevention and intervention work with respect to youth gang membership were discussed. In particular, strengthening students' engagement with school and meaningful school-related activities and developing supportive teacher-student relationships are particularly important in working with young people with respect to prevention work. Additionally, the present study's theoretical and empirical contributions were also discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Greenhouse evaluation of EDTA effectiveness at enhancing Cd, Cr, and Ni uptake in Helianthus annuus and Thlaspi caerulescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munn, J.; January, M.; Cutright, T.J. [Dept. Civil Engineering, The Univ. of Akron, OH (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Background, aims and scope. Phytoremediation is a promising means for the treatment of heavy metal contamination. Although several species have been identified as hyperaccumulators, most studies have been conducted with only one metal. Experiments were conducted to investigate the ability of Helianthus annuus and Thlaspi caerulescens to simultaneously uptake Cd, Cr and Ni. Materials and methods. The efficiency of plants grown in a sandy-loam soil was investigated. The ability of two EDTA concentrations (0.1 and 0.3 g kg{sup -1}) for enhancing the phytoremediation of Cd, Cr and Ni at two different metal concentrations (24.75 mg kg{sup -1} and 90 mg kg{sup -1}) was studied. Results. Thlaspi hyperaccumulated Ni with 0.1 g kg{sup -1} EDTA. When the EDTA dosage was increased to 0.3 g kg{sup -1}, Thlaspi was able to hyperaccumulate both Ni and Cr. Since Thlaspi is a low-biomass plant, it was considered insufficient for full-scale applications. Helianthus annuus hyperacummulated Cr (with 0.1 g kg{sup -1} EDTA) and Cd (0.3 g kg{sup -1} EDTA). Discussion. When the contamination was 8.25 mg kg{sup -1} per metal, the total metal uptake was 10-25% (1.35 to 2.12 mg) higher and had the same uptake selectivity (Cr>>Cd>Ni) for both EDTA levels. It was hypothesized that complexation with EDTA interfered with Ni translocation. For these experiments, the optimal results were obtained with the H. annuus-0.1 g kg{sup -1} EDTA combination. Conclusions. Although the use of EDTA did increase the amount of metal that could be extracted, care should be taken during in-situ field applications. Chelators can also increase the amount of metals that are leached past the root zone. Metal leaching and subsequent migration could lead to ground water contamination as well as lead to new soil contamination. Recommendations and perspectives. Additional research to identify the optimal EDTA dosage for field applications is warranted. This is necessary to ensure that the metals do not leach past the

  19. Epidemiological criminology: drug use among African American gang members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, Mark M; Pack, Robert P; Akers, Timothy A

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological methods and public health theories can be tied to theories of crime and delinquency and used to create evidence-based policy. Interdisciplinary theoretical approaches to existing, and emerging, public health and criminal justice problems hold great promise. Differential association theory postulates that close association with delinquent peers leads to an increase in deviant activities such as illicit drug use. Social cognitive theory postulates that health behavior change is driven by the interaction of (a) cognitive states that support a health outcome, (b) the social and contextual environment, (c) and individual action. Combined, these theories can be applied to drug eradication programs as well as other health and crime issues. Focus groups and interviews were performed to identify rates of illicit substance use among incarcerated African American adolescent male gang members and nongang members. The policy recommendations illustrate the convergence of criminological and epidemiological theory under the new paradigm of epidemiological criminology or ''EpiCrim.''

  20. Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) Final Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotamarthi, VR [Argonne National Laboratory

    2013-12-01

    In general, the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) as well as the and the tropical monsoon climate is influenced by a wide range of factors. Under various climate change scenarios, temperatures over land and into the mid troposphere are expected to increase, intensifying the summer pressure gradient differential between land and ocean and thus strengthening the ISM. However, increasing aerosol concentration, air pollution, and deforestation result in changes to surface albedo and insolation, potentially leading to low monsoon rainfall. Clear evidence points to increasing aerosol concentrations over the Indian subcontinent with time, and several hypotheses regarding the effect on monsoons have been offered. The Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) field study aimed to provide critical data to address these hypotheses and contribute to developing better parameterizations for tropical clouds, convection, and aerosol-cloud interactions. The primary science questions for the mission were as follows:

  1. Nuevo puente sobre el río Ganges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwal, S.

    1960-07-01

    Full Text Available Recientemente se ha puesto en servicio un nuevo puente sobre el río Ganges, a unos cinco kilómetros aguas abajo de la estación ferroviaria de Mokameh Ghat, del Estado de Bihar, en la India. La obra consta de 14 tramos principales, de unos 120 m, aproximadamente, de luz cada uno, y 4 tramos, dos en cada extremidad, de 30 m de luz, que constituyen un total de 1.820 m de longitud. El puente tiene dos tableros: el superior, de 7,30 m de anchura, destinado a un paso de carretera, y el inferior, convenientemente separado, para el paso de un ferrocarril. Entre la parte inferior del puente y el nivel de aguas se ha dejado una altura libre de 10,50 m para el paso de la navegación fluvial.

  2. Adolescents, gangs, and perceptions of safety, parental engagement, and peer pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sarah E; Anderson, Debra G

    2012-10-01

    Adolescents are exposed to various forms of gang violence, and such exposure has led them to feel unsafe in their neighborhood and have differing interactions with their parents and peers. This qualitative study explored adolescents', parents', and community center employees' perceptions of adolescents' interaction with their neighborhood, family, and peers. Three themes emerged from the data: Most adolescents reported that the community center provided a safe environment for them; parental engagement influenced adolescents' experiences with gangs; and adolescents were subjected to peer pressure in order to belong. Exposure to gang violence can leave an impression on adolescents and affect their mental health, but neighborhood safety and relationships with parents and peers can influence adolescents' exposure to gang violence. Recommendations regarding the use of health care professionals at community centers are proposed. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Analysing the geographies of the 'transnational' gangs of Central America: the changing spaces of violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa Winton

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to contribute to knowledge of 'transnational' youth gangs in the Central American region, through an analysis of the mutually constitutive processes of identity, space and place production. It is argued that insights into gangs gained through analyzing their spatial dynamics and practices, and discussing ways in which these dynamics and processes connect the local and global scales, offer useful knowledge concerning the functioning of these gangs in a field still lacking in–depth academic research. Drawing on over a decade of direct research with young people in the region, the paper finds that poor understanding of gangs inevitably leads to ineffective, counterproductive interventions, and demonstrates that the geographies of maras are a fundamental –and still neglected– aspect of their development and transformation.

  4. Projective report on gangs in El Salvador and the prospects of its territorial expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Report that analyzes the operating structures of criminal gangs and their organizational nature, from where projections are made about possible internal conflicts and criminal developments for the foreseeable future, and the social consequences they could generate.

  5. Can the Jamaican Security Forces Successfully Reduce the Violent Impact of Gangs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    face, milling , movement through space as a unit, conflict and planning. The result of this collective behavior is the development of tradition...Red Phalanx.” This materialized when released and escaped prisoners went back to the depressed favelas in Rio de Janeiro and organized criminal...linked to its gangs, but was framed by the literature to be a consequence of the favelas which is home to gang activity. Joarez Alves Pereira Junior

  6. The Problem with Templates: Learning from Organic Gang-Related Violence Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Rodgers

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article considers what demobilisation, disarmament, and reintegration (DDR programmes might learn from research on gangs and the problems associated with government-instituted ‘wars on gangs’ putatively aimed at reducing or fighting gang-related violence. It begins by considering interventions associated with the global war on gangs, and compares their underlying premises and practices with those of DDR programmes while highlighting how both are plagued with problems associated with drawing on de-contextualized templates. Drawing on long-term ethnographic research carried out in Nicaragua and South Africa, the article then goes on to explore why individuals leave gangs, focusing in particular on the more organic processes that deplete gangs of their members, as well as the consequences that the different possible occupational trajectories of ex-gang members can have for patterns of violence. These offer a number of potential lessons for DDR programmes, particularly with regard to reducing violence in a realistic and sustainable manner.

  7. Phytochemical analysis of non-volatile fraction of Artemisia caerulescens subsp. densiflora (Viv.) (Asteraceae), an endemic species of La Maddalena Archipelago (Sardinia--Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornano, Luigi; Venditti, Alessandro; Donno, Yuri; Sanna, Cinzia; Ballero, Mauro; Bianco, Armandodoriano

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia caerulescens subsp. densiflora Viv. is a rare endemic species from Corsica and Sardinia. We studied a sample collected from Razzoli, an island of the La Maddalena Archipelago. The polar secondary metabolites content of this species was investigated for the first time in this study showing the presence of sesquiterpenoids, flavonoids, caffeoylquinic acids and a coumarin, with the presence of several compounds already recognised in this genus. The metabolites composition was analysed in two different phenological stages, post blooming and flowering. During the blooming stage, the plant showed a molecular pattern mainly represented by sesquiterpenes and sterols with a minor amount of phenolics, while in flowering stage the molecular pattern was more rich in flavonoids and phenylpropanoids.

  8. Reviving the "Ganges Water Machine": where and how much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuwatta, Lal; Amarasinghe, Upali A.; Sood, Aditya; Surinaidu, Lagudu

    2017-05-01

    Runoff generated in the monsoon months in the upstream parts of the Ganges River basin (GRB) contributes substantially to downstream floods, while water shortages in the dry months affect agricultural production in the basin. This paper examines the potential for subsurface storage (SSS) in the Ganges basin to mitigate floods in the downstream areas and increase the availability of water during drier months. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is used to estimate sub-basin water availability. The water availability estimated is then compared with the sub-basin-wise unmet water demand for agriculture. Hydrological analysis reveals that some of the unmet water demand in the sub-basin can be met provided it is possible to capture the runoff in sub-surface storage during the monsoon season (June to September). Some of the groundwater recharge is returned to the stream as baseflow and has the potential to increase dry season river flows. To examine the impacts of groundwater recharge on flood inundation and flows in the dry season (October to May), two groundwater recharge scenarios are tested in the Ramganga sub-basin. Increasing groundwater recharge by 35 and 65 % of the current level would increase the baseflow during the dry season by 1.46 billion m3 (34.5 % of the baseline) and 3.01 billion m3 (71.3 % of the baseline), respectively. Analysis of pumping scenarios indicates that 80 000 to 112 000 ha of additional wheat area can be irrigated in the Ramganga sub-basin by additional SSS without reducing the current baseflow volumes. Augmenting SSS reduces the peak flow and flood inundated areas in Ramganga (by up to 13.0 % for the 65 % scenario compared to the baseline), indicating the effectiveness of SSS in reducing areas inundated under floods in the sub-basin. However, this may not be sufficient to effectively control the flood in the downstream areas of the GRB, such as in the state of Bihar (prone to floods), which receives a total flow of 277 billion m3

  9. Putting in Work: Qualitative Research on Substance Use and Other Risk Behaviors Among Gang Youth in Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Bill; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Jackson-Bloom, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Gang youth are notoriously difficult to access for research purposes. Despite this difficulty, qualitative research about substance use among gang youth is important because research indicates that such youth use more substances than their nongang peers. This manuscript discusses how a small sample of gang youth (n = 60) in Los Angeles was accessed and interviewed during a National Institute of Drug Abuse-funded pilot study on substance use and other risk behaviors. Topics discussed include the rationale and operationalization of the research methodology, working with community-based organizations, and the recruitment of different gang youth with varying levels of substance use. PMID:20222782

  10. Gang membership and marijuana use among African American female adolescents in North Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wechsberg WM

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Wendee M Wechsberg,1–4 Irene A Doherty,1 Felicia A Browne,1,5 Tracy L Kline,1 Monique G Carry,6 Jerris L Raiford,6 Jeffrey H Herbst6 1Substance Abuse Treatment Evaluations and Interventions Research Program, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, 2Gillings Global School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 3Psychology in the Public Interest, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, 4Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC, 5Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, 6Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA Abstract: The southeastern US sustains the highest high school dropout rates, and gangs persist in underserved communities. African American female adolescents who drop out of school and are gang members are at substantial risk of exposure to severe violence, physical abuse, and sexual exploitation. In this study of 237 female African American adolescents 16–19 years of age from North Carolina who dropped out or considered dropping out, 11% were current or past gang members. Adolescents who reported gang membership began smoking marijuana at a mean age of 13, whereas those who reported no gang membership began at a mean age of 15 years (P<0.001. The mean ages of first alcohol use were 14 years and 15 years for gang members and non-gang members, respectively (P=0.04. Problem alcohol use was high in both groups: 40% and 65% for non-gang and gang members, respectively (P=0.02. Controlling for frequent marijuana use and problem alcohol use, adolescents who reported gang membership were more likely than non-gang members to experience sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR] =2.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.06, 6.40], experience physical abuse (OR =7.33, 95% CI [2.90, 18.5], report emotional abuse from

  11. Essential oil composition and biological activity from Artemisia caerulescens subsp. densiflora (Viv.) Gamisans ex Kerguélen & Lambinon (Asteraceae), an endemic species in the habitat of La Maddalena Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornano, Luigi; Venditti, Alessandro; Ballero, Mauro; Sanna, Cinzia; Donno, Yuri; Quassinti, Luana; Bramucci, Massimo; Vitali, Luca A; Petrelli, Dezemona; Tirillini, Bruno; Papa, Fabrizio; Maggi, Filippo; Bianco, Armanodoriano

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the composition of the essential oil obtained from a population of Artemisia caerulescens subsp. densiflora growing in Razzoli, an island in the La Maddalena Archipelago (Sardinia, Italy). A. caerulescens sups. densiflora Viv. (Asteraceae), a wild herb, seldom studied in the Mediterranean, represents one of the many rare endemic species growing in North Sardinia. The essential oil composition was analysed by means of GC/MS analysis, which showed davana ethers as the major volatile components, accounting together for 17.5%, followed by (E)-nerolidol (4.5%), β-oplopenone (3.3%), cis-sabinene hydrate (5.2%) and terpinen-4-ol (4.7%). The oil was tested for antioxidant activity by means of DPPH test, inhibition of lipid oxidation test and hypochlorous acid test, which showed a quite interesting scavenger capacity. For the first time, we reported the cytotoxic activity of the essential oil of A. caerulescens subsp. densiflora, against three human tumour cell lines (A375, MDA-MB231 and HCT116), with IC50 values in the range 5.20-7.61 μg/mL, which deserved further studies to support its use as chemopreventive agent. Finally, the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil, displayed on a panel of human pathogens, was very low.

  12. Gang Membership, School Violence, and the Mediating Effects of Risk and Protective Behaviors in California High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Joey Nuñez, Jr.; Gilreath, Tamika D.; Astor, Ron Avi; Benbenishty, Rami

    2014-01-01

    There is insufficient empirical evidence exploring associations between gang membership and school violence behaviors. Using a sample of 272,863 high school students, this study employs a structural equation model to examine how school risk and protective behaviors and attitudes mediate effects of gang members' involvement with school violence…

  13. Drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents in a rural farming community in Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkmann, Tyson; Fraga, Miguel A.; Brodine, Stephanie K.; Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Cepeda, Alice; Elder, John P.; Garfein, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    We examined drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents of a migrant farming community in rural Baja California, Mexico. In October 2010, 164 members of a single colonia (community) underwent an interviewer-administered survey to assess ‘exposure to gang violence’ and ‘drug-scene familiarity’, as well as other health indicators. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of exposure to gang violence. Overall, 20% of participants were male, the median age was 27 years, 24% spoke an indigenous language, 42% reported exposure to gang violence, and 39% reported drug-scene familiarity. Factors independently associated with exposure to gang violence included being younger (AOR=0.80 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=0.67–0.96), living in the community longer (AOR=1.47 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.11–1.72), higher educational attainment (AOR=1.70 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.07–1.12), and drug-scene familiarity (AOR=5.10, 95%CI=2.39–10.89). Exposure to gang violence was very common in this community and was associated with drug-scene familiarity, suggesting a close relationship between drugs and gang violence in this rural community. In a region characterised by mass migration from poorer parts of Mexico, where drugs and gangs have not been previously reported, emerging social harms may affect these communities unless interventions are implemented. PMID:23072623

  14. The effect of urban street gang densities on small area homicide incidence in a large metropolitan county, 1994-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Paul L; Boscardin, W John; George, Sheba M; Teklehaimanot, Senait; Heslin, Kevin C; Bluthenthal, Ricky N

    2009-07-01

    The presence of street gangs has been hypothesized as influencing overall levels of violence in urban communities through a process of gun-drug diffusion and cross-type homicide. This effect is said to act independently of other known correlates of violence, i.e., neighborhood poverty. To test this hypothesis, we independently assessed the impact of population exposure to local street gang densities on 8-year homicide rates in small areas of Los Angeles County, California. Homicide data from the Los Angeles County Coroners Office were analyzed with original field survey data on street gang locations, while controlling for the established covariates of community homicide rates. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses explicated strong relationships between homicide rates, gang density, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic structure. Street gang densities alone had cumulative effects on small area homicide rates. Local gang densities, along with high school dropout rates, high unemployment rates, racial and ethnic concentration, and higher population densities, together explained 90% of the variation in local 8-year homicide rates. Several other commonly considered covariates were insignificant in the model. Urban environments with higher densities of street gangs exhibited higher overall homicide rates, independent of other community covariates of homicide. The unique nature of street gang killings and their greater potential to influence future local rates of violence suggests that more direct public health interventions are needed alongside traditional criminal justice mechanisms to combat urban violence and homicides.

  15. Brotherhood or Brothers in the "Hood"? Debunking the "Educated Gang" Thesis as Black Fraternity and Sorority Slander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughey, Matthew W.

    2008-01-01

    In this article the author explores the controversial thesis that African American Collegiate Fraternities and Sororities, also known as Black Greek Letter Organizations (BGLOs), are "educated gangs". First, the author examines this polemic as a "truth claim" and compares BGLOs and gangs through: (1) hazing; (2) rape and substance abuse; (3)…

  16. The Socialization Process of Street Children in the Youth Gangs and Groups of Organized Crime in Local Community. Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Michel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article includes the research report on the socialization process of children in the street, youth gangs, and organized criminal groups in local communities. The author has analysed the signs and communication codes located on walls in local communities. This is very important to the socialization process of the youth street gangs.

  17. The spatial distribution of arsenic contamination in fluvial sediment of the Ganges River : Case study from Bihar, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donselaar, M.E.; Bhatt, A.G.; Bruining, J.; Bose, N.; Ghosh, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    Shallow aquifers in the Ganges River channel belt (Bihar, India) have high and spatially variable concentrations of arsenic contamination. The arsenic is of geogenic origin. Hydrated iron-arsenic-oxide coatings on quartz and clay minerals occur in the Ganges River deposits. The arsenic is

  18. A composite mineralogical map of Ganges Chasma and surroundings, Valles Marineris, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cull-Hearth, Selby; Clark, M. Caroline

    2017-08-01

    Ganges Chasma is a mineralogically diverse canyon in the far-eastern portion of the Valles Marineris system. It exposes bedrock outcrops of olivine, large dune fields enriched in olivine, a central Interior Layered Deposit with monohydrated sulfates, and Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates on the plateaus surrounding the canyon and in the canyon walls. The co-existence of hydrated minerals with unaltered olivine makes this an excellent location to study the timing of aqueous processes in this region. Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) and the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE), synthesizing them with previous data sets to produce a composite mineralogical map of Ganges Chasma. We then produce a timeline of mineralogic deposition for the Ganges area, relating it to regional geologic events.

  19. Social Learning Theory, Self-Reported Delinquency, and Youth Gangs: A New Twist on a General Theory of Crime and Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfree, L. Thomas, Jr.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examines the utility of applying selected elements of the social-learning theory to the examination of youth gangs. Studying ninth-grade public-school pupils, researchers discovered that the social-learning perspective provided insights into gang membership. Group-context offending was related to both social-learning theory and gang membership.…

  20. Any of them will do: In-group identification, out-group entitativity, and gang membership as predictors of group-based retribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Eduardo A; Wenborne, Lisa; Peers, Madeline; Alleyne, Emma; Ellis, Kirsty

    2015-05-01

    In non-gang populations, the degree of identification with an in-group and perceptions of out-group entitativity, the perception of an out-group as bonded or unified, are important contributors to group-based aggression or vicarious retribution. The link between these factors and group-based aggression, however, has not been examined in the context of street gangs. The current study assessed the relationship among in-group identification, perceptions of out-group entitativity, and the willingness to retaliate against members of rival groups who did not themselves attack the in-group among juvenile gang and non-gang members in London. Our results showed the predicted membership (gang/non-gang) × in-group identification × entitativity interaction. Decomposition of the three-way interaction by membership revealed a significant identification × entitativity interaction for gang, but not for non-gang members. More specifically, gang members who identify more strongly with their gang and perceived a rival group as high on entitativity were more willing to retaliate against any of them. In addition, entitativity was a significant predictor of group-based aggression after controlling for gender, in-group identification, and gang membership. Our results are consistent with socio-psychological theories of group-based aggression and support the proposal that such theories are applicable for understanding gang-related violence. Aggr. Behav. 41:242-252, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Weapon carrying, physical fighting and gang membership among youth in Washington state military families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Sarah C; Bell, Janice F; Edwards, Todd C

    2014-10-01

    To examine associations between parental military service and school-based weapon carrying, school-based physical fighting and gang membership among youth. We used cross-sectional data from the 2008 Washington State Healthy Youth Survey collected in 8th, 10th, and 12th grades of public schools (n = 9,987). Parental military service was categorized as none (reference group), without combat zone deployment, or deployed to a combat zone. Multivariable logistic regression was used to test associations between parental military service and three outcomes: school-based weapon carrying, school-based physical fighting and gang membership. Standard errors were adjusted for the complex survey design. In 8th grade, parental deployment was associated with higher odds of reporting gang membership (OR = 1.8) among girls, and higher odds of physical fighting (OR = 1.6), and gang membership (OR = 1.9) among boys. In 10th/12th grade, parental deployment was associated with higher odds of reporting physical fighting (OR = 2.0) and gang membership (OR = 2.2) among girls, and physical fighting (OR = 2.0), carrying a weapon (OR = 2.3) among boys. Parental military deployment is associated with increased odds of reporting engagement in school-based physical fighting, school-based weapon carrying, and gang membership, particularly among older youth. Military, school, and public health professionals have a unique, collaborative opportunity to develop school- and community-based interventions to prevent violence-related behaviors among youth and, ultimately, improve the health and safety of youth in military families. Ideally, such programs would target families and youth before they enter eighth grade.

  2. Racism, Schooling, and the Streets: A Critical Analysis of Vietnamese American Youth Gang Formation in Southern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D. Lam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an analysis of the relationship between educational experiences, street life, and gang formation for Vietnamese American youth gang members in Southern California. I use critical narrative methodology to center the life and experiences of a Los Angeles area gang member. His narrative substantiates how racism in schools and on the streets works together to impact and inform gang formation. Schools were sites of inter-ethnic conflict and racialized tension, and streets were spaces for contentious interactions with the police. In addition, I place the Vietnamese American youth gang phenomenon in larger historical and political contexts such as California’s anti-youth legislation, representations of Asian American youth, and U.S. geo-politics and imperialism—factors that have serious material and ideological implications and consequences.

  3. Racism, Schooling, and the Streets: A Critical Analysis of Vietnamese American Youth Gang Formation in Southern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D. Lam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an analysis of the relationship between educational experiences, street life, and gang formation for Vietnamese American youth gang members in Southern California. I use critical narrative methodology to center the life and experiences of a Los Angeles area gang member. His narrative substantiates how racism in schools and on the streets works together to impact and inform gang formation. Schools were sites of inter-ethnic conflict and racialized tension, and streets were spaces for contentious interactions with the police. In addition, I place the Vietnamese American youth gang phenomenon in larger historical and political contexts such as Californias anti-youth legislation, representations of Asian American youth, and U.S. geo-politics and imperialismfactors that have serious material and ideological implications and consequences.

  4. Location-aware gang graffiti acquisition and browsing on a mobile device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Albert; Boutin, Mireille; Delp, Edward J.

    2012-02-01

    In this paper we describe a mobile-based system that allows first responders to identify and track gang graffiti by combining the use of image analysis and location-based-services. The gang graffiti image and metadata (geoposition, date and time) obtained automatically are transferred to a server and uploaded to a database of graffiti images. The database can then be queried with the matched results sent back to the mobile device where the user can then review the results and provide extra inputs to refine the information.

  5. Validating Luminescence Dating for the Ganges Brahmaputra Meghna Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, E. L.; Wallinga, J.; Reimann, T.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Steckler, M. S.; Shen, Z.; Sincavage, R.

    2016-12-01

    The Ganges Brahmaputra Meghna Delta (GBMD), Bangladesh, is one of many major world deltas positioned for crises associated with 21st century sea level rise including increasingly recurrent and severe flooding from multiple sources, and strain on infrastructure and livelihoods. Yet, the GBMD is unique from other deltas in that it has a wealth of fluvial sediment associated with rapid Himalaya erosion. The combination of a 1 billion tons/yr sediment flux and a relative lack of hard infrastructure, which could otherwise impede nature-based engineering, suggests that it is possible for the delta to adapt to changing base level. Successful management of the GBMD for the 21st century and beyond must utilize natural processes active in the delta to accomodate and protect its 150 million inhabitants. Establishing chronology methods for the GBMD is necessary for quantitative understanding of these geologic processes. However, dating in this delta is difficult: the GBMD has low organic preservation (i.e., low potential for radiocarbon dating) and previous studies suggest that Himalayan sands have poor luminescence properties (i.e., hampering use of luminescence dating). Here, we present the first delta-wide assessment of GBMD sediment suitability for luminescence dating, considering grain size, mineralogy, and provenance, and using samples with constrained depositional ages to validate the measurement approach. For 14 samples representing a range of sediments deposited in the last centuries (0-400 years), we find that sand-sized quartz has poor luminescence sensitivity across the delta with the exception of highly weathered, second-generation sands from the Meghna catchment. In contrast, quartz silt is found to have universally suitable luminescence characteristics including acceptable sensitivity. We show that OSL signals of these silt grains are well reset by light exposure prior to deposition, and that dating up to 24 ka should be possible. Our findings demonstrate the

  6. A Microbiological Water Quality Evaluation of Ganges River Deltaic Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerby, C. J.; Gragg, S. E.; Page, J.; Leavens, J.; Bhattacharya, P.; Harrington, J.; Datta, S.

    2014-12-01

    Substantial natural contamination from trace elements (like arsenic) and pathogens make Ganges Deltaic aquifers an area of utmost concern. Following millions of cases of chronic arsenic poisoning from the groundwaters of the region, numerous residents are still knowingly ingesting water from shallow to intermediate accessible depth drinking water wells. Added to the calamity of arsenic is the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in these waters. The increasing frequency of gastroenteritis signifies the need to quantify the magnitude and extensiveness of health degrading agents--bacterial pathogens (i.e. Salmonella) and non-pathogens (i.e. Enterobacteriaceae) --within the water supply in accessible Gangetic aquifers. To assess the dissolved microbiological quality in the region, present study sampling locations are along defined piezometer nests in an area in SE Asia (Bangladesh). Every nest contains samples from wells at varying depths covering shallow to deep aquifers. To date, 17 of the 76 water samples were analyzed for Salmonella, generic Escherichia coli (E. coli) and coliforms. Briefly, samples were plated in duplicate onto E. coli/Coliform petrifilm and incubated at 370C for 48 hours. Next, each sample was enriched in buffered peptone water and incubated at 370C for 18 hours. Bacterial DNA was extracted and amplified using a qPCR machine. Amplification plots were analyzed to determine presence/absence of microorganisms. All water samples (n=~76) are analyzed for Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria spp. and Shigella. Pathogen populations of PCR-positive water samples are enumerated using the agar direct plate method. Non-pathogenic bacterial indicator organisms (i.e. Enterobacteriaceae) will also be enumerated. Over the course of the experiment, we hypothesize that shallower wells will 1)have a higher pathogen prevalence and 2)harbor pathogens and nonpathogens at higher concentrations. While the 17 samples analyzed to date were negative for Salmonella

  7. School Counselors' and Principals' Perceptions of Violence: Guns, Gangs and Drugs in Rural Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Rosemary; VanZommeren, Wayne; Young, Clark; Holtman, Paula

    2001-01-01

    Research investigating perceptions of guns, gangs, drugs, and violence in rural schools surveyed 266 principals and counselors in rural elementary, middle, and high schools in northern Missouri. Smaller schools and elementary schools had fewer problems than larger and middle/high schools. Community collaboration is essential to solving…

  8. The movement and implications of the Ganges-Bramhaputra runoff on entering the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.

    The Ganges-Brahmaputra rivers discharge annually approximately 10 sup(2) m sup(3) of freshwater into the Bay of Bengal at its northern end. We propose that the spread of this water, accompaniEd. by mixing with the ambient waters, occurs in three...

  9. Adaptation tot changing water resources in the Ganges basin, northern India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moors, E.J.; Groot, A.M.E.; Biemans, H.; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, C.T.H.M.; Siderius, C.; Stoffel, M.

    2011-01-01

    An ensemble of regional climate model (RCM) runs from the EU HighNoon project are used to project future air temperatures and precipitation on a 25 km grid for the Ganges basin in northern India, with a view to assessing impact of climate change on water resources and determining what multi-sector

  10. Book review: Don Pinnock, Gang town | van der Spuy | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Title: Gang town. Publisher: Tafelberg, Cape Town, 2016. Price: 312. Pages: R196 Availability: Published ISBN: 9780624067894. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

  11. Rehabilitation of Platanista gangetica (Lebeck, 1801) as the valid scientific name of the Ganges dolphin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kinze, C.C.

    2000-01-01

    The Dutch scientist Heinrich Julius Lebeck’s description of the Ganges dolphin is, based on a deduced latest date of publication 24 August 1801, given priority over William Roxburgh’s account of the same species, for which no precise date could be established. Although very similar to the work of

  12. Evaluating a School-Based Gang-Prevention Program: A Theoretical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfree, L. Thomas, Jr.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    It is argued that the Gang Resistance Education and Training Program, developed by the Phoenix (Arizona) police department and the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, consisted of pedagogical elements with strong conceptual and operational ties to social learning and self-control theories, and two mainstream criminological theories. (SLD)

  13. Conflict & Gang Violence Prevention Using Peer Leadership: Training Manual for CHAMPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHAMPS Peer Leadership, Inc., Scottsdale, AZ.

    Conflict and violence on the part of adolescents and pre-adolescents has been a growing problem. Young people will respond to an "anti-gang message" if that message is delivered from their peer group. This manual describes a peer approach to impact young people about productive ways to handle conflict. Older students are trained to operate puppets…

  14. School Dress Code Law in the 90's: "Tinkering" with Fashion and Gangs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Kenneth E.; Richardson, Michael D.

    Dress codes directed at gang attire present school officials with the dilemma of ensuring the safety of the students in a school environment versus the First Amendment rights of students to express themselves. A review of some of the court decisions limited to freedom of expression and general dress code cases serves as a foundation from which to…

  15. An Adapted Brief Strategic Family Therapy for Gang-Affiliated Mexican American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Avelardo; Cepeda, Alice; Parrish, Danielle; Horowitz, Rosalind; Kaplan, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the effectiveness of an adapted Brief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT) intervention for gang-affiliated Mexican American adolescents and their parents. Methods: A total of 200 adolescents and their family caregivers were randomized to either a treatment or a control condition. Outcomes included adolescent substance…

  16. Late Holocene depositional variability and provenance in the lower Ganges-Brahmaputra delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Rory; Barr, Iestyn; Weltje, Gert Jan; Roberson, Sam; Russell, Mark; Meneely, John; Orford, Julian

    2017-04-01

    The Sundarbans is one of the largest coastal wetland sites in the world, extending over an area of approximately one million hectares of the western delta of the Ganges and Brahmaputra (G-B) rivers. The western delta has not been directly fluvially sourced, due to the eastward shift of the Ganges. This western extent of the delta is considered abandoned with sediments derived from dominant estuary-tidal dynamics, with sediment source unknown. In this study, sediment cores from the Indian Sundarbans were examined for grain-size distributions (GSDs), mineralogy through X-ray diffraction (XRD), and geochemistry with X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Chemical weathering, transport, and hydrodynamic sorting processes all affect the internal facies composition. The West Bengal Sundarbans has been examined extensively and found to reveal intensively weathered, terrestrial sediment derived from the Ganges River. There is a predominance of quartz and mica with clay minerals, with quartz interpreted as G-B Rivers draining the Himalayas during low-relief tropical weathering. Kaolinite formation is derived from feldspar and muscovite mica with kaolinite the product of intense chemical weathering. Lithofacies through GSDs are indicative of a muddy tidal flat environment with aggradation and fining-up in sizes. Mineralogy and geochemistry has revealed that the TMF in the late Holocene is still considerably influenced by regional sedimentary provenance of the Ganges River.

  17. Between Illegality and Legality: (In)security, crime and gangs in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article analyses the informal security market in the Nairobi slums of Kibera and Mathare. It assesses how gangs manoeuvre between legality and illegality in the provision of security. This article argues that there is a need to move away from a traditional interpretation of crime and criminal groups so as to understand the ...

  18. Public School Uniforms: Effect on Perceptions of Gang Presence, School Climate, and Student Self-Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Kathleen Kiley; Stafford, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the relationship between public school uniforms and student self-worth and student and staff perceptions of gang presence and school climate. Surveys of middle school students and teachers indicated that although students' perceptions did not vary across uniform policy, teachers from schools with uniform policies perceived lower levels of…

  19. Advantages of Group Therapy for Adolescent Participants in the Same Gang Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etgar, Talia; Prager, Keren Ganot

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the issue of including in the same therapeutic group in a prison setting two (or more) young people who participated in the same gang rape. We provide a background for group therapy with adolescent sex offenders and point out the characteristics of group rape. In addition, we describe the uniqueness of working in a prison as…

  20. Coffeyville, Kansas: The Town That Stopped the Dalton Gang. Teaching with Historic Places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Kathleen

    By 1890 the legendary outlaws of the 1870s and 1880s were mostly dead or in prison. When Luther Perkins erected his new bank building in Coffeyville, Kansas, a bank robbery was the farthest thing from his mind. But the Dalton cousins, former Coffeyville residents, were interested in the bank because they wanted to outdo the James gang by using the…

  1. Findings from the Evaluation of OJJDP's Gang Reduction Program. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Meagan; Hayeslip, David

    2010-01-01

    This bulletin draws on findings from an independent evaluation, conducted by the Urban Institute, of the Gang Reduction Program's (GRP) Impact in Los Angeles, California; Milwaukee, Wisconsin; North Miami Beach, Florida; and Richmond, Virginia, to examine how effectively these sites implemented the program. Following are some of the authors' key…

  2. Drugs, Gangs, Transnational Organized Crime and Malgoverened Spaces in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    despite-gang-truce. 57. “Otto Pérez apoya legalizar marihuana y amapola,” Prensa Libre, March 4, 2014, http://www.prensalibre.com/ noticias/politica...Perez-apoya-legalizar- marihuana -amapola_0_1113488655.html. 58. See, for example, Celina B. Realuyo, “Its All About the Money: Advancing Anti-Money

  3. The Ganges and the GAP: An Assessment of Efforts to Clean a Sacred River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R. Tamminga

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available For centuries, the Ganges River in India has been the locus of sacred rites for the Hindus. The religious significance of the Ganges is physically manifested in ghats (stepped landings that form the land-water interface. Besides serving as a site for religious bathing and cremation, the ghats are also tied to people’s livelihoods and are an inseparable part of their daily lives. Today, the increasingly urbanized Ganges basin sustains more than 40 percent of India’s population. At the same time, industrialization and the pressures of a growing population along its banks have contributed to alarming levels of pollution in the river. In 1985, the federal government of India launched the Ganga Action Plan (GAP with the primary objective of cleaning the river. However, characterized by centralized planning and control with little public participation, the GAP had limited impact. In 2011, the government launched yet another clean up program—the National Ganga River Basin Project—with support from the World Bank. In this paper, we take a closer look at the programs to highlight the tenuous relationship between the need for ‘efficient’ management of environmental problems and public participation. Can public participation fit into the technocratic model that is often adopted by environmental programs? What approaches to participation kindle authorship and empowerment among those who share a deep relationship with the river and the ghats? Can religious practices be accommodated within scientific frameworks of adaptive management and resilience? We argue that rethinking the relationship between pollution control programs and participation is crucial for any effort to clean the Ganges, restore its waterfront, and catalyze broader regeneration in the Ganges basin.

  4. Expression of HMA4 cDNAs of the zinc hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens from endogenous NcHMA4 promoters does not complement the zinc-deficiency phenotype of the Arabidopsis thaliana hma2hma4 double mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar eIqbal

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Noccaea caerulescens (Nc exhibits a very high constitutive expression of the heavy metal transporting ATPase, HMA4, as compared to the non-hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis thaliana (At, due to copy number expansion and altered cis-regulation. We screened a BAC library for HMA4 and found that HMA4 is triplicated in the genome of a N. caerulescens accession from a former Zn mine near La Calamine (LC, Belgium. We amplified multiple HMA4 promoter sequences from three calamine N. caerulescens accessions, and expressed AtHMA4 and different NcHMA4 cDNAs under At and Nc HMA4 promoters in the A. thaliana (Col hma2hma4 double mutant. Transgenic lines expressing HMA4 under the At promoter were always fully complemented for root-to-shoot Zn translocation and developed normally at a 2- µM Zn supply, whereas the lines expressing HMA4 under Nc promoters usually showed only slightly enhanced root to shoot Zn translocation rates in comparison with the double mutant, probably owing to ectopic expression in the roots, respectively. When expression of the Zn deficiency responsive marker gene ZIP4 was tested, the transgenic lines expressing AtHMA4 under an NcHMA4-1-LC promoter showed on average a 7-fold higher expression in the leaves, in comparison with the double hma2hma4 mutant, showing that this construct aggravated, rather than alleviated the severity of foliar Zn deficiency in the mutant, possible owing to expression in the leaf mesophyll.

  5. Exposure to Partner, Family, and Community Violence: Gang-Affiliated Latina Women and Risk of Unintended Pregnancy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Elizabeth; Levenson, Rebecca; Herrera, Lili; Kurek, Laura; Stofflet, Marney; Marin, Leni

    .... Among the myriad factors associated with elevated pregnancy rates, for Latina girls living in the inner city, exposure to gang and community violence may be a critical context for increased pregnancy risk...

  6. 2011 Workplace and Equal Opportunity Survey of Reserve Component Members: Qualitative Analysis on Extremist Groups, Hate Crimes, and Gangs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Black  “There are a lot of kids in our neighborhood that are a part of a gang. They have been robbing homes and cars in our area and doing and...White  “There are young teenagers that are in the gangs. Some of these teens do crimes such as theft or trespassing.” —ANG, male, senior

  7. Barcelona and Madrid: Two different realities in the phenomenon of the Latino gangs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel López Corral

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The Latino gangs that have come into existence in Spain represent a potential risk factor for citizens’ security and coexistence. That is the view of security forces and organisations, and it also seems to be the understanding reached by the administrations of the Autonomous Communities of Catalonia and Madrid, whose actions in the light of this phenomenon are assessed in this work. To this end, the author begins with an analysis of the significance of Latino gangs inSpain, from their origins to their introduction, and carries out a review of their current situation, including their organisation, recruitment, impact and risk for citizen security. Only with suchan analysis can one begin to comprehend the scenario of dangers that will appear in the future, and the police strategy that should be introduced to deal with the phenomenon.

  8. Major identity transformations - movements beyond criminal life and the biker gang environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche; Hansen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a social practice theoretical moment-movement methodology for studying major identity transformations, as continuity and change in conduct of life, conflictual processes of belonging, recognition, and struggles of marginalization in and across different contexts and communities....... Empirically the paper illustrates these transitions and transformations with an empirical case of a young man, called Peter, changing his life conduct becoming less of a criminal member of the (biker) gang environment becoming more of a member of academia. The paper explore the action reasons of Peter......, disturbances of Peters telos, which includes transformations into a more responsible young adult becoming ready to commit to family life. The paper explores new belongings, (lack of) meanings in and across contexts, such as educations, struggles with gang exit interventions, which produces severe double bind...

  9. Gangs in Catalonia. The approach from the Catalonia Government Police Troopers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Herrero Blanco

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In 2002, the presence of gangs was detected in Catalonia. The groups had their origins in bands from the American continent, with whom they maintained communication and dependency relationships. Since then, there has been steady increase both in the number of gangs and youth involved in them, as well as the level of criminal activity linked to these groups. The police corps have followed the evolution of these groups closely, although the social context is radically different and the levels of crime and violence are not comparable to the other side of the Atlantic. This article seeks to explain the Catalonia Government Troopers’ approach to this phenomenon during this time.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v1i2.1360

  10. Ganges River dolphin: an overview of biology, ecology, and conservation status in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Ravindra K; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2014-12-01

    Ganges River dolphin, Platanista gangetica gangetica, is one of the three obligatory freshwater dolphins in the world and is distributed in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna and Sangu-Karnaphuli River systems in India, Nepal, and Bangladesh. This species is facing considerable threats to its survival, and its population has dwindled from 4000 to 5000 in the early 1980s to 3500 in 2014 in the distribution range. This article reviews current status of the sub-species, habitat use, and the potential threats that the dolphins face for their survival (details of taxonomic status and genetics, evolutionary adaptations and anatomical peculiarities, physical adaptation, primitive characteristics, biology, behavior, surfacing behavior and dive times, mating and birth, and life span/age have been placed as Electronic Supplementary Materials). Recommendations have been made for the protection and developing strategies for the conservation of this Endangered and endemic sub-species.

  11. How do Females Make Sense of Their Experiences of Being Involved in Gang Activity?

    OpenAIRE

    Couper, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Female gang involvement continues to be a largely under researched topic,\\ud particularly within the UK and understandings are often based on the perspectives\\ud of male participants. Furthermore, media discourses continue to be individualistic\\ud and blaming, and often fail to consider the impact of the wider context on a\\ud person’s experiences. Taking a critical realist – social constructionist\\ud epistemological position, this research aims to contribute to the understanding of\\ud female ...

  12. salvadoran gang weapons: analysis of lethality, firepower, and implications for security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herard Von Santos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Since they surfaced during the final phase of the Internal Conflict in El Salvador, gangs have always used the firearms that were available on the formal and illegal markets. Once the war concluded, and despite new regulations regarding possession of firearms, gang members were able to access them through two means: purchasing on the commercial market, and creating them themselves.This initial acquisition of firearms evolved to acquisition of heavier firepower; particularly assault rifles, and guns that are able to shoot shotgun shells, as well as traditional gauges (9x19 mm, .45, and .38. The cause of this could be directly linked to two factors. On the one hand, the war between two main gangs, the “MS” and the “Barrio 18” –as could be expected– increased the need for greater firepower. On the other hand, there was greater availability of firearms on the market, such as assault rifles, and machine guns, as a result of the war.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v4i1.1558

  13. Geomorphology of the Ganges fluvial system in the Himalayan foreland: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Sinha

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The Ganges is one of the largest fluvial systems in the world rising from the loftiest Himalaya and draining into the Bay of Bengal. Together with the Brahmaputra, it also constitutes the largest delta in the world before finally meeting the sea. The Ganges system passes through a variety of terrain from the rugged mountains through the flat alluvial plains and the sea margin, and also transects variable climatic zones. As a result, the processes, landforms and stratigraphy are strikingly different in different zones of the system. This paper attempts to provide an update on our understanding of this very large and diverse system. A global effort has been made in the last few decades, and the research has focused on a variety of themes. The mountainous catchments have attracted attention in view of the extent of glaciation and extensive erosional processes. The alluvial plains of the Ganges symbolizes the life line of one of the world's largest population. Consequently, a number of studies have been carried out on the morphology, hydrology including flooding history and sediment transport behaviour of the river system. The alluvial stratigraphy of the large valleys and the interfluves in the plains has provided insight about the sedimentation pattern and response to climate change. The deltaic plain is the final destination of this huge sediment dispersal system before it drains into the sea, and it also records the influence of sea level changes apart from the upstream catchment controls over a period of time.

  14. Development of seasonal flow outlook model for Ganges-Brahmaputra Basins in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hossain

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is crisscrossed by the branches and tributaries of three main river systems, the Ganges, Bramaputra and Meghna (GBM. The temporal variation of water availability of those rivers has an impact on the different water usages such as irrigation, urban water supply, hydropower generation, navigation etc. Thus, seasonal flow outlook can play important role in various aspects of water management. The Flood Forecasting and Warning Center (FFWC in Bangladesh provides short term and medium term flood forecast, and there is a wide demand from end-users about seasonal flow outlook for agricultural purposes. The objective of this study is to develop a seasonal flow outlook model in Bangladesh based on rainfall forecast. It uses European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF seasonal precipitation, temperature forecast to simulate HYDROMAD hydrological model. Present study is limited for Ganges and Brahmaputra River Basins. ARIMA correction is applied to correct the model error. The performance of the model is evaluated using coefficient of determination (R2 and Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE. The model result shows good performance with R2 value of 0.78 and NSE of 0.61 for the Brahmaputra River Basin, and R2 value of 0.72 and NSE of 0.59 for the Ganges River Basin for the period of May to July 2015. The result of the study indicates strong potential to make seasonal outlook to be operationalized.

  15. Commitment language and homework completion in a behavioral employment program for gang-affiliated youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caitlin; Huey, Stanley J; McDaniel, Dawn D

    2015-05-01

    Research with substance-abusing samples suggests that eliciting commitment language during treatment may improve motivation to change, increase treatment engagement, and promote positive treatment outcomes. However, the relationship between in-session client language and treatment success is not well-understood for youth offender populations. This study evaluated the relationship between commitment language, treatment engagement (i.e., homework completion), and weekly employment outcomes for six gang-affiliated juvenile offenders participating in an employment counseling intervention. Weekly counseling sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded for commitment language strength. Multilevel models were fit to the data to examine the relationship between commitment language and counseling homework or employment outcomes within participants over time. Commitment language strength predicted subsequent homework completion but not weekly employment. These findings imply that gang-affiliated delinquent youth who express motivation to change during employment counseling will be more likely to comply with counselor-initiated homework. Further research on counselor techniques for promoting commitment language among juvenile gang offenders is needed. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. Abundancia estacional, fenología reproductiva y fidelidad al sitio del mulato (Melanotis caerulescens en ambientes ribereños del suroeste de Jalisco Seasonal abundance, reproductive phenology and site fidelity in riparian environments of the Blue Mockingbird (Melanotis caerulescens in southwestern Jalisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz de los Milagros Rodríguez-Parga

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio describe la abundancia estacional, fenología reproductiva y fidelidad al sitio de Melanotis caerulescens, especie de ave endémica de México, localmente conocida como mulato y valorada por su canto. Se realizó un muestreo con el método de captura con redes de niebla durante 2 años en 3 sitios de la vegetación ribereña del río Ayuquila, Jalisco. Se caracterizó el hábitat mediante muestreos de los estratos arbóreo, arbustivo y herbáceo. Mediante modelos lineales generalizados se analizaron las diferencias de cobertura de los estratos entre los sitios y se identificó el efecto del sitio y el mes sobre la abundancia de la especie. La presencia de parche de incubación y protuberancia cloacal describe un periodo reproductor de abril a agosto. La abundancia del mulato se relacionó positivamente con sitios de mayor cobertura arbustiva y el análisis de fidelidad (por presencia-ausencia de 16 individuos mostró que 3 parejas reproductoras mantuvieron sus territorios. Estos resultados sugieren que mantener una adecuada densidad de sotobosque arbustivo en zonas ribereñas es importante para proveer alimento y áreas para la nidificación que requiere el mulato. El presente estudio es relevante por tratarse de los primeros datos al respecto que se publican sobre esta especie endémica.This study describes the seasonal abundance, reproductive phenology and site fidelity of the Blue Mockingbird (Melanotis caerulescens, an endemic species of Mexico noted for its singing capabilities. This species was sampled using mist-nets for 2 consecutive years at 3 sites of riparian vegetation in the Ayuquila River, Jalisco. Habitat characterization was carried out through sampling strata of trees, shrubs, and herbaceous ground cover. We used Generalized Linear Models to analyze the differences in coverage strata between the sites, and to identify the effect of site and month on the abundance of the species. The presence of a brood patch and

  17. Differential heating in the Indian Ocean differentially modulates precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervez, Md Shahriar; Henebry, Geoffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Indo-Pacific sea surface temperature dynamics play a prominent role in Asian summer monsoon variability. Two interactive climate modes of the Indo-Pacific—the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean dipole mode—modulate the amount of precipitation over India, in addition to precipitation over Africa, Indonesia, and Australia. However, this modulation is not spatially uniform. The precipitation in southern India is strongly forced by the Indian Ocean dipole mode and ENSO. In contrast, across northern India, encompassing the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins, the climate mode influence on precipitation is much less. Understanding the forcing of precipitation in these river basins is vital for food security and ecosystem services for over half a billion people. Using 28 years of remote sensing observations, we demonstrate that (i) the tropical west-east differential heating in the Indian Ocean influences the Ganges precipitation and (ii) the north-south differential heating in the Indian Ocean influences the Brahmaputra precipitation. The El Niño phase induces warming in the warm pool of the Indian Ocean and exerts more influence on Ganges precipitation than Brahmaputra precipitation. The analyses indicate that both the magnitude and position of the sea surface temperature anomalies in the Indian Ocean are important drivers for precipitation dynamics that can be effectively summarized using two new indices, one tuned for each basin. These new indices have the potential to aid forecasting of drought and flooding, to contextualize land cover and land use change, and to assess the regional impacts of climate change.

  18. Flexible Strategies for Coping with Rainfall Variability: Seasonal Adjustments in Cropped Area in the Ganges Basin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Siderius

    Full Text Available One of the main manifestations of climate change will be increased rainfall variability. How to deal with this in agriculture will be a major societal challenge. In this paper we explore flexibility in land use, through deliberate seasonal adjustments in cropped area, as a specific strategy for coping with rainfall variability. Such adjustments are not incorporated in hydro-meteorological crop models commonly used for food security analyses. Our paper contributes to the literature by making a comprehensive model assessment of inter-annual variability in crop production, including both variations in crop yield and cropped area. The Ganges basin is used as a case study. First, we assessed the contribution of cropped area variability to overall variability in rice and wheat production by applying hierarchical partitioning on time-series of agricultural statistics. We then introduced cropped area as an endogenous decision variable in a hydro-economic optimization model (WaterWise, coupled to a hydrology-vegetation model (LPJmL, and analyzed to what extent its performance in the estimation of inter-annual variability in crop production improved. From the statistics, we found that in the period 1999-2009 seasonal adjustment in cropped area can explain almost 50% of variability in wheat production and 40% of variability in rice production in the Indian part of the Ganges basin. Our improved model was well capable of mimicking existing variability at different spatial aggregation levels, especially for wheat. The value of flexibility, i.e. the foregone costs of choosing not to crop in years when water is scarce, was quantified at 4% of gross margin of wheat in the Indian part of the Ganges basin and as high as 34% of gross margin of wheat in the drought-prone state of Rajasthan. We argue that flexibility in land use is an important coping strategy to rainfall variability in water stressed regions.

  19. Cultivated plants in the diversified homegardens of local communities in Ganges Valley, Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Syed Ajijur; Baldauf, Cristina; Mollee, Eefke Maria

    2013-01-01

    commonly found in the homestead agroforestry systems in the Ganges valley of northern Bangladesh and their contribution to local livelihoods. Three villages i.e., ‘Capasia’, ‘Chak Capasia’ and ‘Baduria’ were selected as the primary study area. Data were collected by (1) rapid rural appraisal, (2) direct....... The comparison of Shannon-Wiener index between agroforestry systems and natural forest showed no statistical difference, reinforcing the role of homegardens in biological conservation in Bangladesh. Therefore, increasing agroforestry practices in homesteads, should be the strategy for enhancing tree cover...

  20. Årets gang i ord og sang, med Axel, Anna og lille Camilla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Lise Charlotte Sanders; Lefmann, Else

    "Årets gang i ord og sang med Axel, Anna og lille Camilla" henvender sig til de 5-8 årige i skole, hjem eller daginstitution - og består af: En illustreret bog med: 14 historier, der følger en familie, bestående af far, mor og tre børn. Gennem et helt år, måned for måned, hører vi om deres liv...

  1. AHP 10: Echoes from Si gang lih: Burao Yilu's 'Moon Mountain'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bender

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Wa poet Burao Yilu's utilization of myth, ritual, and folk customs in representing the Wa ethnic group in the poem Moon Mountain' is discussed. Negative stereotypes of the Wa, an indigenous people of southwestern Yunnan Province, China, include the now forbidden practice of headhunting. By referencing the origin myth 'Si gang lih' and evoking images of ancient cliff paintings, rituals, and agricultural practices, Burao offers a nuanced view of Wa culture while affirming deep-rooted aspects of the Wa worldview. As a literary work, 'Moon Mountain' is an example of the Chinese language (Sinophone poetry being produced by ethnic minority writers in southwest China today.

  2. Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs: Aspects of the One-Percenter Culture for Emergency Department Personnel to Consider

    OpenAIRE

    Bosmia, Anand N.; Quinn, James F.; Peterson, Todd B.; Griessenauer, Christoph J; R. Shane Tubbs

    2014-01-01

    Outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMGs) are an iconic element of the criminal landscape in the United States, the country of their origin. Members of OMGs may present to the emergency department (ED) as a result of motor vehicle accidents or interpersonal violence. When one member of an OMG is injured, other members and associates are likely to arrive in the ED to support the injured member. The extant literature for ED personnel lacks an overview of the culture of OMGs, a culture that promotes the di...

  3. Humanitarian Protection for Children Fleeing Gang-Based Violence in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Carlson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available By the end of 2011, the US Customs and Border Protection (CBP began to see a steady rise in the number of Unaccompanied Alien Children (UAC from Central America, particularly from the Northern Triangle countries—El Salvador, Honduras and Guatemala—arriving to the US-Mexico border. The number of children entering the United States from these countries more than doubled during fiscal year (FY 2012 and continued to grow through FY 2014. In FY 2013, CBP apprehended over 35,000 children. That number almost doubled to 66,127 in FY 2014, with Central American children outnumbering their Mexican counterparts for the first time. Research has identified high levels of violence perpetrated by gangs and drug cartels in the Northern Triangle countries and Mexico as a primary reason for this surge. Under the William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act (TVPRA passed with bi-partisan support in 2008, children from Central America cannot be immediately deported and must be given a court hearing.In contrast, unless there are indicia of trafficking, Mexican children are returned immediately to their country. Advocates have expressed concern that expedited removal of Mexican children places children with valid humanitarian claims at risk of being returned to harm, including forcible recruitment into drug cartels and trafficking rings. After the spike in arrivals in FY 2014, several members of Congress called for a change in the TVPRA, urging that Central American children be treated like Mexican children and undergo expedited procedures for their removal. Many of their constituents supported such measures. The Obama administration requested additional funds to strengthen border security, speed up deportation procedures and implement measures to address the humanitarian crisis in Central America. Groups and individuals across the country came together to provide shelter, medical and psychological care and legal representation to many

  4. Soil Gas Sample Handling: Evaluation of Water Removal and Sample Ganging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Brad G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Abrecht, David G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hayes, James C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mendoza, Donaldo P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-10-31

    Soil gas sampling is currently conducted in support of Nuclear Test Ban treaty verification. Soil gas samples are collected and analyzed for isotopes of interest. Some issues that can impact sampling and analysis of these samples are excess moisture and sample processing time. Here we discuss three potential improvements to the current sampling protocol; a desiccant for water removal, use of molecular sieve to remove CO2 from the sample during collection, and a ganging manifold to allow composite analysis of multiple samples.

  5. Assessment of pollution of river Ganges by tannery effluents using genotoxicity biomarkers in murrel fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpure, N S; Srivastava, Rashmi; Kumar, Ravindra; Dabas, Anurag; Kushwaha, Basdeo; Kumar, Pavan

    2015-07-01

    River pollution due to rapid industrialization and anthropogenic activities adversely affects the aquatic organisms, especially fish. Here, we assessed the genotoxicity, mutagenicity and bioaccumulative aspects of tannery effluents in freshwater murrel, Channa punctatus, an inhabitant of river Ganges. Test specimens were collected from three different polluted sites of the river within and nearby Kanpur area during different seasons and blood samples of these specimens were processed for comet assay and micronucleus test as genotoxicity biomarkers. A significantly (P industry) above the maximum permissible limits as prescribed by World Health Organization (WHO). The findings of the present analysis indicated contamination of river Ganges with tannery effluents which induce genotoxicity in fish with seasonal variation.

  6. Occurrence of Organic Contaminants in Lower Reaches of River Ganges, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta Gupta, S.; Bhattacharya, A.; Mukherjee, A.; Bhattacharya, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Gangetic plain of eastern India has been long known as the "bread basket" of the Indian subcontinent. However, indiscriminate use of pesticides in the agricultural fields is to increase crop production. These resulted to increased vulnerability of pesticide pollution of the hydrological systems of the area, potentially exposing to significant human health consequences. Our present study delineate pesticides occurrence in lower Ganges in West Bengal. The major organic contaminants regularly detected in the studied reaches of the Ganges belong to wide range of herbicides and insecticides, which especially include organochlorides and organophosphates such as Aldrin, Alachlor, Lindane, Malathion, Chlorpyrifos and Methyl parathion. Results show Alachlor and Malathion were the most abundant organic contaminant in the river. Among the other pesticides, one of the most venomous substances, Malathion has been noticed from the last year insecticide screening study. The mean concentration of river water Malathion was found to be 5 times higher than the maximum concentration limit (MCL). Presence of Malathion or its derivative Malaoxon in river water is suspected to be caused by agricultural run-off and it showed a good correlation with river water chlorine concentrations.

  7. CryoSat-2 altimetry for river level monitoring - Evaluation in the Ganges-Brahmaputra River basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Heidi; Andersen, Ole B.; Stenseng, Lars

    2015-01-01

    larger differences. For five virtual stations in the Brahmaputra River, the mean difference between the obtained amplitudes is similar to 10 cm, whereas the mean phase difference is less than 2.7 days. A virtual station in the Ganges River shows a phase difference of around 5 days and a difference...

  8. Water resources management in the Ganges Basin: a comparison of three strategies for conjunctive use of groundwater and surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mahfuzur R.; Voss, Clifford I.; Yu, Winston; Michael, Holly A.

    2014-01-01

    The most difficult water resources management challenge in the Ganges Basin is the imbalance between water demand and seasonal availability. More than 80 % of the annual flow in the Ganges River occurs during the 4-month monsoon, resulting in widespread flooding. During the rest of the year, irrigation, navigation, and ecosystems suffer because of water scarcity. Storage of monsoonal flow for utilization during the dry season is one approach to mitigating these problems. Three conjunctive use management strategies involving subsurface water storage are evaluated in this study: Ganges Water Machine (GWM), Pumping Along Canals (PAC), and Distributed Pumping and Recharge (DPR). Numerical models are used to determine the efficacy of these strategies. Results for the Indian State of Uttar Pradesh (UP) indicate that these strategies create seasonal subsurface storage from 6 to 37 % of the yearly average monsoonal flow in the Ganges exiting UP over the considered range of conditions. This has clear implications for flood reduction, and each strategy has the potential to provide irrigation water and to reduce soil waterlogging. However, GWM and PAC require significant public investment in infrastructure and management, as well as major shifts in existing water use practices; these also involve spatially-concentrated pumping, which may induce land subsidence. DPR also requires investment and management, but the distributed pumping is less costly and can be more easily implemented via adaptation of existing water use practices in the basin.

  9. The Etiology of Female Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Membership: A Test of Psychological and Social Structural Explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Lee H.; Klein, Malcolm W.

    1983-01-01

    Examined female delinquency and gang membership in 122 black female juveniles using data from the 1960s. Concluded that racism, sexism, poverty, and limited opportunity are more important predictors of delinquency than personality and family relationships. Relationships with girl friends were more significant predictors than heterosexual…

  10. Point bars as stratigraphic traps for arsenic contamination in groundwater : Case study of the Ganges River, Bihar, India (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donselaar, M.E.; Bhatt, A.G.; Bruining, J.; Bose, N.; Ghosh, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic-contaminated groundwater causes a wide-spread, serious health risk affecting millions of people worldwide. Focus of the research is the floodplain of the Ganges River in the State of Bihar (India) where groundwater is the principal source of drinking water and irrigation, and where the

  11. Hydroclimatic sustainability assessment of changing climate on cholera in the Ganges-Brahmaputra basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr-Azadani, Fariborz; Khan, Rakibul; Rahimikollu, Javad; Unnikrishnan, Avinash; Akanda, Ali; Alam, Munirul; Huq, Anwar; Jutla, Antarpreet; Colwell, Rita

    2017-10-01

    The association of cholera and climate has been extensively documented. However, determining the effects of changing climate on the occurrence of disease remains a challenge. Bimodal peaks of cholera in Bengal Delta are hypothesized to be linked to asymmetric flow of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers. Spring cholera is related to intrusion of bacteria-laden coastal seawater during low flow seasons, while autumn cholera results from cross-contamination of water resources when high flows in the rivers cause massive inundation. Coarse resolution of General Circulation Model (GCM) output (usually at 100 - 300 km)cannot be used to evaluate variability at the local scale(10-20 km),hence the goal of this study was to develop a framework that could be used to understand impacts of climate change on occurrence of cholera. Instead of a traditional approach of downscaling precipitation, streamflow of the two rivers was directly linked to GCM outputs, achieving reasonable accuracy (R2 = 0.89 for the Ganges and R2 = 0.91 for the Brahmaputra)using machine learning algorithms (Support Vector Regression-Particle Swarm Optimization). Copula methods were used to determine probabilistic risks of cholera under several discharge conditions. Key results, using model outputs from ECHAM5, GFDL, andHadCM3for A1B and A2 scenarios, suggest that the combined low flow of the two rivers may increase in the future, with high flows increasing for first half of this century, decreasing thereafter. Spring and autumn cholera, assuming societal conditions remain constant e.g., at the current rate, may decrease. However significant shifts were noted in the magnitude of river discharge suggesting that cholera dynamics of the delta may well demonstrate an uncertain predictable pattern of occurrence over the next century.

  12. A Contemporary Challenge to State Sovereignty: Gangs and Other Illicit Transnational Criminal Organizations in Central America, El Salvador, Mexico, Jamaica, and Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manwaring, Max G

    2007-01-01

    ... Transnational Criminal Organizations (TCOs). In this new type of war, national security and sovereignty of affected countries is being impinged every day, and gangs illicit commercial motives are, in fact, becoming an ominous political agenda...

  13. Detecting Long-term Trend of Water Quality Indices of Dong-gang River, Taiwan Using Quantile Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, D.; Shiau, J.

    2013-12-01

    ABSTRACT BODY: Abstract Surface water quality is an essential issue in water-supply for human uses and sustaining healthy ecosystem of rivers. However, water quality of rivers is easily influenced by anthropogenic activities such as urban development and wastewater disposal. Long-term monitoring of water quality can assess whether water quality of rivers deteriorates or not. Taiwan is a population-dense area and heavily depends on surface water for domestic, industrial, and agricultural uses. Dong-gang River is one of major resources in southern Taiwan for agricultural requirements. The water-quality data of four monitoring stations of the Dong-gang River for the period of 2000-2012 are selected for trend analysis. The parameters used to characterize water quality of rivers include biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO), suspended solids (SS), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N). These four water-quality parameters are integrated into an index called river pollution index (RPI) to indicate the pollution level of rivers. Although widely used non-parametric Mann-Kendall test and linear regression exhibit computational efficiency to identify trends of water-quality indices, limitations of such approaches include sensitive to outliers and estimations of conditional mean only. Quantile regression, capable of identifying changes over time of any percentile values, is employed in this study to detect long-term trend of water-quality indices for the Dong-gang River located in southern Taiwan. The results show that Dong-gang River 4 stations from 2000 to 2012 monthly long-term trends in water quality.To analyze s Dong-gang River long-term water quality trends and pollution characteristics. The results showed that the bridge measuring ammonia Long-dong, BOD5 measure in that station on a downward trend, DO, and SS is on the rise, River Pollution Index (RPI) on a downward trend. The results form Chau-Jhou station also ahowed simialar trends .more and more near the

  14. Using Natural Language Processing and Qualitative Analysis to Intervene in Gang Violence: A Collaboration Between Social Work Researchers and Data Scientists

    OpenAIRE

    Patton, Desmond Upton; McKeown, Kathleen; Rambow, Owen; Macbeth, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. has the highest rate of firearm-related deaths when compared to other industrialized countries. Violence particularly affects low-income, urban neighborhoods in cities like Chicago, which saw a 40% increase in firearm violence from 2014 to 2015 to more than 3,000 shooting victims. While recent studies have found that urban, gang-involved individuals curate a unique and complex communication style within and between social media platforms, organizations focused on reducing gang violen...

  15. Putting Out Fires: Understanding the Developmental Nature and Roles of Inmate Gangs in the Philippine Overcrowded Jails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narag, Raymund E; Lee, Sou

    2017-12-01

    Utilizing intensive interview data from inmates in one of the most overcrowded and underresourced jails in Metro Manila, Philippines, this article explores the origins and roles of inmate pangkats (a derivative of gangs) in jail management. Responding to institutional deficiencies, such as police misconduct and court case delays, and structural shortages, such as lack of space, operational resources, and personnel, this article investigates how the pangkats supplement jail management and help keep the jail operations afloat. Specifically, this article documents how the pangkats put out fires: their intricate roles in mitigating pains of imprisonment, conflict mediation, order maintenance, and instilling discipline among their members. This article also details the emergence of a give-and-take relationship that develops between and among the pangkats and jail officials that are reflective of the Philippine sociocultural realities. Implications to theory on prison community and policy on gang management in a developing country context are discussed.

  16. Public intervention on Latin American youth gangs: A few considerations based on immigration laws and their application in Catalonia

    OpenAIRE

    David Moya Malapeira

    2008-01-01

    Administrative intervention on young people from Latin American origins and who belong to youth gangs can be relatively complex, at least from a legal standpoint. On one hand, the young people in question may possess varying types of legal status (foreigners-nationals, youths-adults, regular or irregular) which determine the type of administrative intervention that is applied. On the other hand, the resources and routes of administrative intervention that currently exist (intervention on mino...

  17. Clicking in shallow rivers: short-range echolocation of Irrawaddy and Ganges River dolphins in a shallow, acoustically complex habitat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frants H Jensen

    Full Text Available Toothed whales (Cetacea, odontoceti use biosonar to navigate their environment and to find and catch prey. All studied toothed whale species have evolved highly directional, high-amplitude ultrasonic clicks suited for long-range echolocation of prey in open water. Little is known about the biosonar signals of toothed whale species inhabiting freshwater habitats such as endangered river dolphins. To address the evolutionary pressures shaping the echolocation signal parameters of non-marine toothed whales, we investigated the biosonar source parameters of Ganges river dolphins (Platanista gangetica gangetica and Irrawaddy dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris within the river systems of the Sundarban mangrove forest. Both Ganges and Irrawaddy dolphins produced echolocation clicks with a high repetition rate and low source level compared to marine species. Irrawaddy dolphins, inhabiting coastal and riverine habitats, produced a mean source level of 195 dB (max 203 dB re 1 µPapp whereas Ganges river dolphins, living exclusively upriver, produced a mean source level of 184 dB (max 191 re 1 µPapp. These source levels are 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than those of similar sized marine delphinids and may reflect an adaptation to a shallow, acoustically complex freshwater habitat with high reverberation and acoustic clutter. The centroid frequency of Ganges river dolphin clicks are an octave lower than predicted from scaling, but with an estimated beamwidth comparable to that of porpoises. The unique bony maxillary crests found in the Platanista forehead may help achieve a higher directionality than expected using clicks nearly an octave lower than similar sized odontocetes.

  18. Clicking in shallow rivers: short-range echolocation of Irrawaddy and Ganges River dolphins in a shallow, acoustically complex habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Frants H; Rocco, Alice; Mansur, Rubaiyat M; Smith, Brian D; Janik, Vincent M; Madsen, Peter T

    2013-01-01

    Toothed whales (Cetacea, odontoceti) use biosonar to navigate their environment and to find and catch prey. All studied toothed whale species have evolved highly directional, high-amplitude ultrasonic clicks suited for long-range echolocation of prey in open water. Little is known about the biosonar signals of toothed whale species inhabiting freshwater habitats such as endangered river dolphins. To address the evolutionary pressures shaping the echolocation signal parameters of non-marine toothed whales, we investigated the biosonar source parameters of Ganges river dolphins (Platanista gangetica gangetica) and Irrawaddy dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris) within the river systems of the Sundarban mangrove forest. Both Ganges and Irrawaddy dolphins produced echolocation clicks with a high repetition rate and low source level compared to marine species. Irrawaddy dolphins, inhabiting coastal and riverine habitats, produced a mean source level of 195 dB (max 203 dB) re 1 µPapp whereas Ganges river dolphins, living exclusively upriver, produced a mean source level of 184 dB (max 191) re 1 µPapp. These source levels are 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than those of similar sized marine delphinids and may reflect an adaptation to a shallow, acoustically complex freshwater habitat with high reverberation and acoustic clutter. The centroid frequency of Ganges river dolphin clicks are an octave lower than predicted from scaling, but with an estimated beamwidth comparable to that of porpoises. The unique bony maxillary crests found in the Platanista forehead may help achieve a higher directionality than expected using clicks nearly an octave lower than similar sized odontocetes.

  19. Chain Gang-The Chemistry of Polymers (edited by Mickey Sarquis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collard, David M.

    1999-01-01

    Science in Our World, Vol. 5. Mickey Sarquis, series editor. Terrific Science Press: Middletown, OH, 1995. xiv + 149 pp. ISBN 1-883822-13-0. Spiral-bound, $13.95. Our familiarity with plastics makes polymers ideal examples of chemicals for discussion in K-12 science classes. Most importantly, polymers can be used as examples of chemicals that are safe to handle and of obvious use to society. The structures of polymers are easily represented by a number of models. These simple models go a long way in explaining the familiar physical properties of plastics. However, the introduction of polymers in the classroom relies on the availability of teaching material, experiments, and demonstrations that illustrate concepts in the current science curriculum. Chain Gang-The Chemistry of Polymers, one of the Science in Our World series published by the Center for Chemical Education at Miami University-Middletown (Ohio), will serve as a great resource for teachers interested in providing their students with a series of activities that can be related to their everyday experiences with these ubiquitous chemicals. After a brief introduction to some basic concepts, the book presents a series of 23 experiments. The collection of experiments presented here spans illustrations of chemistry, physical properties, analysis, and processing. Each experiment is recommended as either a hands-on activity or demonstration for various grade levels. A guide for the teacher suggests how the experiment can be used to illustrate topics in the science curriculum. The materials required for each activity are listed in detail, with quantities and sources (all materials are available from Flinn Scientific or hardware stores). There are detailed instructions for preparation of each experiment and how to introduce the experiment to students, and step-by-step instructions for activity. Very importantly, safety and disposal issues are clearly presented. Suggestions for cross-curriculum integration are also

  20. ETHNIC RELATIONS IN THE CITY OF PONTIANAK (A STUDY OF INTER-ETHNIC RELATIONS AT GANG DAMAI, KOTA BARU, PONTIANAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim MS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Peace and harmony in life is one of the goals of the communities at Gang Damai in their social relations. This condition becomes very special when, in other places at the same time, conflicts and hostilities often occurred in the history of inter-ethnic relations in this region. This is the underlying reason of the naming of the place of this research i.e. “Gang Damai” (peaceful alley. This study found four key factors underlying the harmony and good relations between the ethnic groups; first, a positive outlook on the ethnic communities; second, distinctive efforts undertaken by the community members in order to continue to maintain good social relations, security, peace and harmony; third, awareness practiced by all communities in an effort to build and maintain social relations in the spirit of solidarity; fourth, different ethnic communities manage to minimize all forms of issues that could potentially become a trigger for conflicts by building intensive communication and social relations among themselves. In addition, unique social relation patterns built and inter-ethnic marriages have also become a model in building peaceful ethnic relations at Gang Damai until today. Keywords: Peace, Harmony, Social Relations, Ethnicity

  1. Projections of the Ganges-Brahmaputra precipitation: downscaled from GCM predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervez, Md Shahriar; Henebry, Geoffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Downscaling Global Climate Model (GCM) projections of future climate is critical for impact studies. Downscaling enables use of GCM experiments for regional scale impact studies by generating regionally specific forecasts connecting global scale predictions and regional scale dynamics. We employed the Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM) to downscale 21st century precipitation for two data-sparse hydrologically challenging river basins in South Asia—the Ganges and the Brahmaputra. We used CGCM3.1 by Canadian Center for Climate Modeling and Analysis version 3.1 predictors in downscaling the precipitation. Downscaling was performed on the basis of established relationships between historical Global Summary of Day observed precipitation records from 43 stations and National Center for Environmental Prediction re-analysis large scale atmospheric predictors. Although the selection of predictors was challenging during the set-up of SDSM, they were found to be indicative of important physical forcings in the basins. The precipitation of both basins was largely influenced by geopotential height: the Ganges precipitation was modulated by the U component of the wind and specific humidity at 500 and 1000 h Pa pressure levels; whereas, the Brahmaputra precipitation was modulated by the V component of the wind at 850 and 1000 h Pa pressure levels. The evaluation of the SDSM performance indicated that model accuracy for reproducing precipitation at the monthly scale was acceptable, but at the daily scale the model inadequately simulated some daily extreme precipitation events. Therefore, while the downscaled precipitation may not be the suitable input to analyze future extreme flooding or drought events, it could be adequate for analysis of future freshwater availability. Analysis of the CGCM3.1 downscaled precipitation projection with respect to observed precipitation reveals that the precipitation regime in each basin may be significantly impacted by climate change

  2. Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from Ganges water, human clinical and milk samples at Varanasi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Dharmendra K; Singh, Rakesh K; Singh, Durg V; Dubey, Suresh K

    2013-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes isolated from Ganges water, human clinical and milk samples were characterized by antibiotic susceptibility, serotype identification, detection of virulence genes and ERIC- and REP-PCR fingerprint analyses. All isolates were uniformly resistant to ampicillin, except two isolates, and showed variable resistance to gentamicin, cotrimoxazole, ofloxacin, rifampicin and tetracycline. Of the 20 isolates found positive for pathogens, seven (four human and three water isolates) belong to serogroups 4b, 4d and 4e; six (one human and five water isolates) belong to serogroups 1/2c and 3c; four milk isolates belong to serogroups 1/2b and 3b; and three milk isolates belong to serogroups 1/2a and 3a. Two water isolates, all human isolates, except one (Pb1) lacking inlJ gene, and three milk isolates possess inlA, inlC, plcA, prfA, actA, hlyA and iap genes. The remaining water and milk isolates showed variable presence of inlJ, plcA, prfA, and iap genes. ERIC- and REP-PCR based analyses collectively indicated that isolates of human clinical samples belong to identical or similar clone and isolates of water and milk samples belong to different clones. Overall study demonstrates the prevalence of pathogenic L. monocytogenes species in the environmental and clinical samples. Most of the isolates were resistant to commonly used antibiotics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Model to assess the impacts of external drivers on the hydrology of the Ganges River Basin

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    L. Muthuwatta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Impact of climate change on the hydrology of the Ganges River Basin (GRB is simulated by using a hydrological model – Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT. Climate data from the GCM, Hadley Centre Coupled Model, version 3 (HadCM3 was downscaled with PRECIS for the GRB under A1B Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES scenarios. The annual average precipitation will increase by 2.2% and 14.1% by 2030 and 2050, respectively, compared to the baseline period (1981–2010. Spatial distribution of the future precipitation shows that in the substantial areas of the middle part of the GRB, the annual precipitation in 2030 and 2050 will be reduced compared to the baseline period. Simulations indicate that in 2050 the total groundwater recharge would increase by 12%, while the increase of evapotranspiration will be about 10% compared to the baseline period. The water yield is also expected to increase in the future (up to 40% by 2050 compared to baseline, especially during the wetter months. The model setup is available for free from IWMI’s modelling inventory.

  4. Salvadoran gangs and extortion. Challenges and priorities related to the extortion phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Andrade

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available During the last few years extortion has garnered a somber relevance for society as a whole, aside from the preponderance it already possessed from law enforcement agents and criminal investigators. The generation of income both in cash and in kind destined for criminal structures, particularly amongst gangs/maras, as well as its implications concerning danger levels and future potential, have made the agencies responsible of public security take a closer look at this crime and ensure there is a full comprehensive assessment made regarding the extortion phenomenon. The above, involved looking into this crime’s different forms of execution, existing enabling factors and the different criminal scenarios it fits into; reviewing how police and prosecutors address these offenses, all operative, investigative and legal implications, as well as the results achieved in the fight against it. Nonetheless, extortionremains a challenge, not only for the institutions involved (Police and the Prosecutor’s Office, but also for the key stakeholders and all those responsible of making strategic decisions for the country.Revista Policía y Seguridad Pública 5(1 2015: 103-148

  5. Inequalities in Human Well-Being in the Urban Ganges Brahmaputra Meghna Delta

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    Sylvia Szabo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The recently endorsed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs agenda unanimously agrees on the need to focus on inclusive development, the importance of eradicating extreme poverty and managing often complex human well-being impacts of rapid urban growth. Sustainable and inclusive urbanisation will accelerate progress towards the SDGs and contribute to eradicating extreme poverty. In tropical delta regions, such as the Ganges Brahmaputra Meghna delta region, urban growth and resulting intra-urban inequalities are accelerated by the impact of environmental and climate change. In this context, the present study uses the 2010 Household Income and Expenditure Survey to analyse the extent of wealth-based inequalities in human well-being in the urban delta region and the determinants of selected welfare measures. The results suggest that the extent of intra-urban inequalities is greatest in educational attainment and access to postnatal healthcare and relatively low in the occurrence of gastric disease. The paper concludes by providing policy recommendations to reduce increasing wealth inequalities in urban areas, thus contributing to sustainable development of the region.

  6. Outlaw motorcycle gangs: aspects of the one-percenter culture for emergency department personnel to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmia, Anand N; Quinn, James F; Peterson, Todd B; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Tubbs, R Shane

    2014-07-01

    Outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMGs) are an iconic element of the criminal landscape in the United States, the country of their origin. Members of OMGs may present to the emergency department (ED) as a result of motor vehicle accidents or interpersonal violence. When one member of an OMG is injured, other members and associates are likely to arrive in the ED to support the injured member. The extant literature for ED personnel lacks an overview of the culture of OMGs, a culture that promotes the display of unique symbols and that holds certain paraphernalia as integral to an outlaw biker's identity and pride. The objective of this manuscript is to discuss various aspects of the culture of OMGs so that ED personnel may better understand the mentality of the outlaw biker. Knowledge of their symbols, values, and hierarchy can be crucial to maintaining order in the ED when an injured outlaw biker presents to the ED. We used standard search engines to obtain reports from law enforcement agencies and studies in academic journals on OMGs. We present the observations of 1 author who has conducted ethnographic research on outlaw bikers since the 1980s.

  7. Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs: Aspects of the One-Percenter Culture for Emergency Department Personnel to Consider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand N. Bosmia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMGs are an iconic element of the criminal landscape in the United States, the country of their origin. Members of OMGs may present to the emergency department (ED as a result of motor vehicle accidents or interpersonal violence. When one member of an OMG is injured, other members and associates are likely to arrive in the ED to support the injured member. The extant literature for ED personnel lacks an overview of the culture of OMGs, a culture that promotes the display of unique symbols and that holds certain paraphernalia as integral to an outlaw biker’s identity and pride. The objective of this manuscript is to discuss various aspects of the culture of OMGs so that ED personnel may better understand the mentality of the outlaw biker. Knowledge of their symbols, values, and hierarchy can be crucial to maintaining order in the ED when an injured outlaw biker presents to the ED. We used standard search engines to obtain reports from law enforcement agencies and studies in academic journals on OMGs. We present the observations of 1 author who has conducted ethnographic research on outlaw bikers since the 1980s.

  8. Humidity Bias and Effect on Simulated Aerosol Optical Properties during the Ganges Valley Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Yan; Cadeddu, M.; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Renju, R.; Suresh Raju, C.

    2016-07-10

    The radiosonde humidity profiles available during the Ganges Valley Experiment were compared to those simulated from the regional Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with a chemistry module (WRF -Chern) and the global reanalysis datasets. Large biases were revealed. On a monthly mean basis at Nainital, located in northern India, the WRFChern model simulates a large moist bias in the free troposphere (up to +20%) as well as a large dry bias in the boundary layer (up to -30%). While the overall pattern of the biases is similar, the magnitude of the biases varies from time to time and from one location to another. At Thiruvananthapuram, the magnitude of the dry bias is smaller, and in contrast to Nainital, the higher-resolution regional WRF -Chern model generates larger moist biases in the upper troposphere than the global reanalysis data. Furthermore, the humidity biases in the upper troposphere, while significant, have little impact on the model estimation of column aerosol optical depth (AOD). The frequent occurrences of the dry boundary-layer bias simulated by the large-scale models tend to lead to the underestimation of AOD. It is thus important to quantify the humidity vertical profiles for aerosol simulations over South Asia.

  9. The impact of inter-annual rainfall variability on food production in the Ganges basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siderius, Christian; Biemans, Hester; van Walsum, Paul; hellegers, Petra; van Ierland, Ekko; Kabat, Pavel

    2014-05-01

    Rainfall variability is expected to increase in the coming decades as the world warms. Especially in regions already water stressed, a higher rainfall variability will jeopardize food security. Recently, the impact of inter-annual rainfall variability has received increasing attention in regional to global analysis on water availability and food security. But the description of the dynamics behind it is still incomplete in most models. Contemporary land surface and hydrological models used for such analyses describe variability in production primarily as a function of yield, a process driven by biophysical parameters, thereby neglecting yearly variations in cropped area, a process driven largely by management decisions. Agricultural statistics for northern India show that the latter process could explain up to 40% of the observed inter-annual variation in food production in various states. We added a simple dynamic land use decision module to a land surface model (LPJmL) and analyzed to what extent this improved the estimation of variability in food production. Using this improved modelling framework we then assessed if and at which scale rainfall variability affects meeting the food self-sufficiency threshold. Early results for the Ganges Basin indicate that, while on basin level variability in crop production is still relatively low, several districts and states are highly affected (RSTD > 50%). Such insight can contribute to better recommendations on the most effective measures, at the most appropriate scale, to buffer variability in food production.

  10. Muddy waters: International actors and transboundary water cooperation in the Ganges-Brahmaputra problemshed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Hanasz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The portion of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna mega-basin shared between Nepal, Bhutan, northern India, and Bangladesh is one of the poorest, most densely populated, ecologically vulnerable, and socially and politically unstable areas in the world. As such, reducing the potential for transboundary water conflict by increasing cooperation between riparian states has been of increasing interest to policy-makers and foreign aid donors. The World Bank-led South Asia Water Initiative (SAWI commenced in the mid-2000s. Yet, in more than a decade of existence, neither SAWI nor other international initiatives, have been able to improve transboundary water interactions between India, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh. In part this is because of the sheer complexity of transboundary water governance, and in part because of contextual factors. Addressing transboundary water issues is not a priority for the riparian states; there is significant distrust between them and resentment about India’s hydro-hegemony; and bilateral, rather than multilateral, arrangements prevail. These factors make collective action both more urgent and more difficult. If they are to increase transboundary water cooperation, international actors should, among other things, resolve historical grievances; strengthen water-sharing institutions; build trust between riparian states; and work toward outcomes based on principles of water justice.

  11. Integrated assessment of social and environmental sustainability dynamics in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, R. J.; Hutton, C. W.; Lázár, A. N.; Allan, A.; Adger, W. N.; Adams, H.; Wolf, J.; Rahman, M.; Salehin, M.

    2016-12-01

    Deltas provide diverse ecosystem services and benefits for their populations. At the same time, deltas are also recognised as one of the most vulnerable coastal environments, with a range of drivers operating at multiple scales, from global climate change and sea-level rise to deltaic-scale subsidence and land cover change. These drivers threaten these ecosystem services, which often provide livelihoods for the poorest communities in these regions. The imperative to maintain ecosystem services presents a development challenge: how to develop deltaic areas in ways that are sustainable and benefit all residents including the most vulnerable. Here we present an integrated framework to analyse changing ecosystem services in deltas and the implications for human well-being, focussing in particular on the provisioning ecosystem services of agriculture, inland and offshore capture fisheries, aquaculture and mangroves that directly support livelihoods. The framework is applied to the world's most populated delta, the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta within Bangladesh. The framework adopts a systemic perspective to represent the principal biophysical and socio-ecological components and their interaction. A range of methods are integrated within a quantitative framework, including biophysical and socio-economic modelling and analyses of governance through scenario development. The approach is iterative, with learning both within the project team and with national policy-making stakeholders. The analysis is used to explore physical and social outcomes for the delta under different scenarios and policy choices. We consider how the approach is transferable to other deltas and potentially other coastal areas.

  12. Construction and maintenance of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta: linking process, morphology, and stratigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Carol A; Goodbred, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    We present a review of the processes, morphology, and stratigraphy of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta (GBMD), including insights gained from detailed elevation data. The review shows that the GBMD is best characterized as a composite system, with different regions having morphologic and stratigraphic attributes of an upland fluvial fan delta; a lowland, backwater-reach delta; a downdrift tidal delta plain; and an offshore subaqueous-delta clinoform. These distinct areas of upland and lowland fluvial reaches and tidal dominance vary in time and space, and we distinguish late-Holocene phases of delta construction, maintenance, and decline similar to delta-lobe cycling in other systems. The overall stability of the GBMD landform, relative to many deltas, reflects the efficient, widespread dispersal of sediment by the large monsoon discharge and high-energy tides that affect this region. However, we do identify portions of the delta that are in decline and losing elevation relative to sea level owing to insufficient sediment delivery. These areas, some of which are well inland of the coast, represent those most at risk to the continued effect of sea-level rise.

  13. Downstream and seasonal changes of lithium isotope ratios in the Ganges-Brahmaputra river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaka, Takuya; Araoka, Daisuke; Yoshimura, Toshihiro; Hossain, H. M. Zakir; Nishio, Yoshiro; Suzuki, Atsushi; Kawahata, Hodaka

    2017-08-01

    The Li isotope ratio (δ7Li) is expected to be a useful tracer of silicate weathering in river and groundwater systems, which is an important contributor to the seawater compositional changes that accompany the evolution of the Earth's surface environment. To obtain accurate estimates of continental Li fluxes to the ocean, we determined δ7Li values of dissolved Li in the lower Ganges-Brahmaputra river system in both the dry and rainy seasons, and in deep groundwater in the Bengal basin. Dissolved Li and δ7Li values in the lower reaches of the rivers (0.04-0.66 µmol kg-1 and +19.1‰ to +34.2‰, respectively) were predominantly derived from silicate weathering, as is the case in the upper parts of these rivers. We observed large changes in δ7Li over a distance of more than 1000 km downstream that were due mainly to Rayleigh-type removal of Li from river water. Extremely high Li concentrations (1.15-1.67 µmol kg-1) and low δ7Li values (+5.1‰ to +11.6‰) in groundwater samples indicate congruent isotope leaching and dissolution of silicate minerals in the deep aquifer, where the water residence time is long. In the rainy season, Li concentrations and δ7Li values were lower than in the dry season, owing to the shorter residence time of river water and the substantial input of local subsurface flow through lowland alluvium. These results suggest that accurate estimation of continental Li fluxes to the ocean should take account of downstream and seasonal changes, as well as aquifer depth variations, in δ7Li values.

  14. Food and nutrition security trends and challenges in the Ganges Brahmaputra Meghna (GBM delta

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    Arnout van Soesbergen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The population of the Ganges Brahmaputra Meghna (GBM delta is highly vulnerable to food insecurity and malnutrition due to the specific environmental, climatic and human development factors affecting agricultural production and fisheries. To better understand the impacts of climate and environmental change on food security and nutrition in this delta, this study combines spatially explicit data from the 2007 and 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS with a standard satellite remotely sensed vegetation greenness index (Normalised Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI, used as a proxy for rice production. The strength of association between NDVI and child nutrition in this tropical mega-delta were tested, showing correlations between two widely used indicators of child malnutrition; stunting and wasting, and deviations from a 10 year mean NDVI (anomalies for rice crop growing seasons – regarded as critical to individual children’s early lives. For children surveyed in 2007 we found that the likelihood of being stunted decreased with increased NDVI as a measure of food production. Similarly, for children surveyed in 2011, the likelihood of being wasted reduced with increased NDVI. However, regression results for stunting in 2011 and wasting in 2007 were not statistically significant. Our findings suggest that NDVI can be regarded as indicative of climatic variability and periods of low food production but is only partly successful as an indicator of climate related impacts on child nutrition in the GBM delta. Furthermore, our study highlights some of the uncertainties and challenges with linking environmental indicators such as the NDVI with household survey data across spatial and temporal scales.

  15. Terrestrial gamma radiation dose measurement and health hazard along river Alaknanda and Ganges in India

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    Prerna Sharma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Direct measurement of absorbed dose rate in air due to exposure from outdoor terrestrial γ radiation and assessment of consequent public health hazard continues to be of environmental and public concern. Present study was aimed to establish a baseline data of annual effective dose and to assess the associated health risk from outdoor terrestrial γ radiation along the river Alaknanda and Ganges of India. Terrestrial γ radiation exposure doses (excluding cosmic radiation were measured using a Plastic Scintillation Counter. Absorbed dose rates in air were measured at eight designated locations from Nandprayag to Allahabad along the river. From the average absorbed dose rates, annual effective dose (AED and excess life time cancer risks (ELCR were calculated by standard method. Results showed that absorbed dose rates in air ranged between 81.33 ± 2.34 nSv.h−1 and 144 ± 5.77 nSv.h−1 and calculated AED ranged between 0.10 ± 0.012 mSv.y−1 to 0.18 ± 0.007 mSv.y−1 at the designated locations along these rivers. Calculated ELCR were found in the range of 0.375 × 10−3 to 0.662 × 10−3. Present study measured the outdoor γ radiation levels along the rivers. The calculated annual effective doses and life time cancer risk were found higher than the world average value at higher altitudes. But the measured doses and calculated risks at plains were close to that of reported average values.

  16. Assessing regional climate simulations of the last 30 years (1982-2012) over Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandu; Awange, Joseph L.; Anyah, Richard; Kuhn, Michael; Fukuda, Yoichi

    2017-10-01

    The Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) River Basin presents a spatially diverse hydrological regime due to it's complex topography and escalating demand for freshwater resources. This presents a big challenge in applying the current state-of-the-art regional climate models (RCMs) for climate change impact studies in the GBM River Basin. In this study, several RCM simulations generated by RegCM4.4 and PRECIS are assessed for their seasonal and interannual variations, onset/withdrawal of the Indian monsoon, and long-term trends in precipitation and temperature from 1982 to 2012. The results indicate that in general, RegCM4.4 and PRECIS simulations appear to reasonably reproduce the mean seasonal distribution of precipitation and temperature across the GBM River Basin, although the two RCMs are integrated over a different domain size. On average, the RegCM4.4 simulations overestimate monsoon precipitation by {˜ }26 and {˜ }5% in the Ganges and Brahmaputra-Meghna River Basin, respectively, while PRECIS simulations underestimate (overestimate) the same by {˜ }7% ({˜ }16%). Both RegCM4.4 and PRECIS simulations indicate an intense cold bias (up to 10° C) in the Himalayas, and are generally stronger in the RegCM4.4 simulations. Additionally, they tend to produce high precipitation between April and May in the Ganges (RegCM4.4 simulations) and Brahmaputra-Meghna (PRECIS simulations) River Basins, resulting in early onset of the Indian monsoon in the Ganges River Basin. PRECIS simulations exhibit a delayed monsoon withdrawal in the Brahmaputra-Meghna River Basin. Despite large spatial variations in onset and withdrawal periods across the GBM River Basin, the basin-averaged results agree reasonably well with the observed periods. Although global climate model (GCM) driven simulations are generally poor in representing the interannual variability of precipitation and winter temperature variations, they tend to agree well with observed precipitation anomalies when driven by

  17. Air Pollution Over the Ganges Basin and Northwest Bay of Bengal in the Early Postmonsoon Season Based on NASA MERRAero Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishcha, Pavel; Da Silva, Arlindo M.; Starobinets, Boris; Alpert, Pinhas

    2014-01-01

    The MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero) has been recently developed at NASA's Global Modeling Assimilation Office. This reanalysis is based on a version of the Goddard Earth Observing System-5 (GEOS-5) model radiatively coupled with Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport aerosols, and it includes assimilation of bias-corrected aerosol optical thickness (AOT) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on both Terra and Aqua satellites. In October over the period 2002-2009, MERRAero showed that AOT was lower over the east of the Ganges basin than over the northwest of the Ganges basin: this was despite the fact that the east of the Ganges basin should have produced higher anthropogenic aerosol emissions because of higher population density, increased industrial output, and transportation. This is evidence that higher aerosol emissions do not always correspond to higher AOT over the areas where the effects of meteorological factors on AOT dominate those of aerosol emissions. MODIS AOT assimilation was essential for correcting modeled AOT mainly over the northwest of the Ganges basin, where AOT increments were maximal. Over the east of the Ganges basin and northwest Bay of Bengal (BoB), AOT increments were low and MODIS AOT assimilation did not contribute significantly to modeled AOT. Our analysis showed that increasing AOT trends over northwest BoB (exceeding those over the east of the Ganges basin) were reproduced by GEOS-5, not because of MODIS AOT assimilation butmainly because of the model capability of reproducing meteorological factors contributing to AOT trends. Moreover, vertically integrated aerosol mass flux was sensitive to wind convergence causing aerosol accumulation over northwest BoB.

  18. Public intervention on Latin American youth gangs: A few considerations based on immigration laws and their application in Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Moya Malapeira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Administrative intervention on young people from Latin American origins and who belong to youth gangs can be relatively complex, at least from a legal standpoint. On one hand, the young people in question may possess varying types of legal status (foreigners-nationals, youths-adults, regular or irregular which determine the type of administrative intervention that is applied. On the other hand, the resources and routes of administrative intervention that currently exist (intervention on minors deemed to be socially at risk, youth justice, prosecution for crimes, etc. should be modulated and adapted to the peculiarities of these groups, and of the young people themselves. This study is based on the premise that, with certain exceptions, the youth gangs that exist in our cities still do not possess a criminal structure or organisation comparable to the Maras of Central America or the “Latino gangs”, but rather that their proliferation is a symptom of the lack of social integration and the educational failure of these young people in our society. As a consequence, the article stresses that in addition to policing and legal initiatives aimed at fighting crime, there is a need to reinforce social and educational resources to prevent this phenomenon and, particularly, a need to enlarge and make more flexible the non-regulated education-training services that currently exist in order that they should serve as a bridge for these young people’s insertion into the labour market, and thus to prevent their social and legal exclusion.

  19. Water and Climate Data in the Ganges Basin: Assessing Access to Information Regimes and Implications for Cooperation on Transboundary Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar Prasai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Public access to government-maintained water and climate data in the three major co-riparian countries of the Ganges Basin – Nepal, India and Bangladesh – has been either inadequately granted or formally restricted. This paper examines the effects of newly enacted Right to Information (RTI laws in these three countries to assess changes in the information access regimes as they relate to hydrological data. We find that neither the RTI laws nor the internal and external demand for increased transparency in governments have affected access to information regimes on water at a fundamental level. In India, the RTI laws have not eased public access to data on its transboundary rivers including in the Ganges Basin and in Nepal and Bangladesh, while data can be legally accessed using RTI laws, the administrative procedures for such an access are not developed enough to make a tangible difference on the ground. We then discuss the implications of our findings on the continuing impasse on regional collaboration on water in South Asia and point to rapid advancements in technology as an emerging pathway to greater data democracy.

  20. Food and Nutrition Security Trends, Determinants and Challenges in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, K.; van Soesbergen, A.; Matthews, Z.; Burgess, N.

    2016-12-01

    In the last 20 years many developing countries have made considerable progress towards improving food security and nutrition. However, progress across countries and dimensions of food security have been uneven. While challenges to food security in the context of environmental and climate changes have been studied widely, limited evidence exists for their implications for food and nutrition security in tropical deltaic regions. Delta areas are particularly vulnerable to food insecurity and malnutrition due the specific environmental, climatic and human development factors affecting agricultural production and fisheries. These include coastal flooding and storm surges, deforestation, changes to river flow patterns and water tables, increased soil salinity and water quality degradation. Due to the large number of people living in deltaic regions and their importance in regional food production, there is a pressing need for a better understanding on how environmental factors affect food security and malnutrition. This study explores the potential impacts and challenges posed by environmental and climate change on food and nutrition security in the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta. This delta is one of the world's largest delta's draining land from Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India and Nepal. The delta makes up around two thirds of the country of Bangladesh, a country facing high levels of child undernutrition, child mortality and a high number of people living under extreme poverty. By combining spatially explicit data from the 2007 and 2011 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) for Bangladesh with satellite remote sensing data (Normalised Difference Vegetation Index) for relevant growing seasons of rice, the strength of association between this climate related environmental variable and indicators of child nutrition (wasting and stunting) in the delta were evaluated. Our results show that NDVI for the growing season of rice can be used to determine trends in rice production

  1. Deducing Weathering Processes Using Silicon Isotopes in the Ganges Alluvial Plain, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frings, P.; De La Rocha, C. L.; Fontorbe, G.; Chakrapani, G.; Clymans, W.; Conley, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Ganges Alluvial Plain ('GAP') is the sedimentary infill of the foreland basin created during Himalayan orogeny. Freshly eroded material from the Himalaya and southern cratonic tributaries is deposited into a system with long water-sediment interaction times, creating potential for further generation of river weathering fluxes. To quantify weathering processes in the GAP, 51 sites including all major tributaries were sampled in a September 2013 campaign and analysed for major and minor ions, Ge/Si ratios and δ30Si, δ13C and δ18O. Net dissolved Si (DSi) and major cation yields are 2 to 5 times lower in the GAP than the Himalaya, and at a whole basin scale approximate the global average, indicating that the plain apparently moderates the efficiency of Himalayan weathering rates. Mainstem δ30Si spans 0.81 to 1.93‰ (see figure) and gives the impression of a system buffered to moderate DSi and δ30Si. Ge/Si ratios (µmol/mol) are higher than expected in the Himalaya (>3), reflecting input of Ge-enriched water from hot springs, and decline to ~1.4 in the GAP. For the Himalayan sourced rivers, δ30Si increases with distance from the Himalayan front, and can not be explained entirely by conservative mixing with higher δ30Si peninsular and GAP streams. To a first degree, the δ30Si data suggest incorporation of Si into secondary minerals as the key fractionating process, and that this occurs both in situ during initial weathering and progressively in the GAP. Partitioning of solutes between sources is complicated in the GAP. Consistent with previous work, carbonate weathering dominates the ion fluxes, but with substantial contributions from saline/alkaline soil salts, the chlorination of wastewater and highly variable rainfall chemistry. Due to these contributions, precisely inferring the input from silicate weathering is difficult. We introduce a novel method to infer silicate-weathering rates that exploits the fractionation of Si during clay formation to account

  2. Strategies for transdisciplinary research on peri-urban groundwater management in the Ganges delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Leon; Thissen, Wil; Gomes, Sharlene; Banerjee, Poulomi; Narain, Vishal; Salehin, Mashfiqus; Hasan, Rezaul; Barua, Anamika; Alam Khan, Shah; Bhattacharya, Samir; Kempers, Remi; Banerjee, Parthasarathi; Hossain, Zakir; Majumdar, Binoy; Hossain, Riad

    2016-04-01

    Transdisciplinary science transcends disciplinary boundaries. The reasons to engage in transdisciplinary science are many and include the desire to nurture a more direct relationship between science and society, as well as the desire to explain phenomena that cannot be explained by any of the existing disciplinary bodies of knowledge in isolation. Both reasons also reinforce each other, as reality often features a level of complexity that demands and inspires the combination of scientific knowledge from various disciplines. The challenge in transdisciplinary science, however, is not so much to cross disciplinary boundaries, but to ensure an effective connection between disciplines. This contribution reports on the strategy used in a transdisciplinary research project to address groundwater management in peri-urban areas in the Ganges delta. Groundwater management in peri-urban areas in rapidly urbanizing deltas is affected by diverse forces such as rapid population growth, increased economic activity and changing livelihood patterns, and other forces which result in a growing pressure on available groundwater resources. Understanding the intervention possibilities for a more sustainable groundwater management in these peri-urban areas requires an understanding of the dynamic interplay between various sub-systems, such as the physical groundwater system, the water using activities in households and livelihoods, and the institutional system of formal and informal rules that are used by various parties to access groundwater resources and to distribute the associated societal and economic costs and benefits. The ambition in the reported project is to contribute both new scientific knowledge, as well as build capacity with peri-urban stakeholders to improve the sustainability and equitability of local groundwater management. This is done by combining science and development activities, led by different organizations. The scientific component further consists of three

  3. Modeling of GPS velocities across the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta - Burma Arc oblique subduction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckler, M. S.; Mondal, D. R.; Akhter, S. H.; Seeber, L.; Feng, L.; Gale, J.; Howe, M.; Masson, F.; Maurin, T.; Rangin, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Burma Arc is the northward continuation of the Sumatra-Anadaman subduction zone that gave rise to the 2004 M9.3 earthquake and tsunami. Near its northern end, it is colliding with the thick sediments of the Bengal Basin. The sediments of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta are folded and faulted, creating a subaerial 250-km wide accretionary prism. The deformation front is blind and reaches ½ way across the delta. Whether subduction is still occurring at this highly oblique plate boundary has been hotly debated. To investigate this, we combined our 25 continuous GPS receivers in Bangladesh with the campaign network in Myanmar, processing them together with GAMIT/GLOBK. We combined this data with 28 mostly campaign GPS sites in India (Gahalaut et al., 2012) by processing using the same IGS sites and performing a Helmert transformation to place all the data in same reference frame within ITRF2008. Published Indian plate poles yield a systematic residual for Bangladeshi sites believed to be on stable India. We estimated a new pole by combining 13 Indian stations (Mahesh et al., 2013) with 2 of our stations. Due to the rapid growth of the accretionary prism and the overthrusting by the Shillong Plateau, the Burma Arc changes shape from the backstop to the front folds. To project the GPS velocities into a profile, we have experimented with several projections that vary across the foldbelt, using the arc of the earthquakes and the topography as a guide. Strike-slip is mostly absorbed by the Sagaing and CMF faults, and some additional shear is distributed over the region. The best fitting suite of models for the shortening component yield 13-15 mm/y of shortening across the arc on a shallow-dipping megathrust. Additional shortening of ~4 mm/y is absorbed in the vicinity of the Kabaw Fault, where coverage is sparse. The dip of the megathrust and the depth of its downdip end trade off with one another in the different projections. The low range of dips of 6-10° is consistent

  4. The role of water use patterns and sewage pollution in incidence of water-borne/enteric diseases along the Ganges river in Varanasi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamner, Steve; Tripathi, Anshuman; Mishra, Rajesh Kumar; Bouskill, Nik; Broadaway, Susan C; Pyle, Barry H; Ford, Timothy E

    2006-04-01

    In Varanasi, India, an estimated 200 million liters daily or more of untreated human sewage is discharged into the Ganges River. River water monitoring over the past 12 years has demonstrated faecal coliform counts up to 10(8) MPN (most probable number) per 100 ml and biological oxygen demand levels averaging over 40 mg/l in the most polluted part of the river in Varanasi. A questionnaire-based survey was used to estimate water-borne and enteric disease incidence and study river use among resident users of the Ganges River in Varanasi. The overall rate of water-borne/enteric disease incidence, including acute gastrointestinal disease, cholera, dysentery, hepatitis-A, and typhoid, was estimated to be about 66% during the one-year period prior to the survey. Logistic regression analysis revealed significant associations between water-borne/enteric disease occurrence and the use of the river for bathing, laundry, washing eating utensils, and brushing teeth. Thirty-three cases of cholera were identified among families exposed to washing clothing or bathing in the Ganges while no cholera cases occurred in unexposed families. Other exposure factors such as lack of sewerage and toilets at residence, children defecating outdoors, poor sanitation, low income and low education levels also showed significant associations with enteric disease outcome. This study provides an estimate of water-borne/enteric disease incidence and identifies possible risk factors for residents who live by and use the Ganges River in Varanasi.

  5. Gender Norms and Age-Disparate Sexual Relationships as Predictors of Intimate Partner Violence, Sexual Violence, and Risky Sex among Adolescent Gang Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nydegger, Liesl A; DiFranceisco, Wayne; Quinn, Katherine; Dickson-Gomez, Julia

    2017-04-01

    Unequal gender norms and age-disparate sexual relationships can lead to power imbalances and are also associated with intimate partner violence (IPV), sexual coercion and violence, and sexual risk behaviors. The present study examined these variables from both victim and perpetrator perspectives among adolescent gang members. Age-disparate sexual relationships were defined as sex partners 5 or more years older among female participants and 5 or more years younger among male participants. Participants were recruited from a mid-sized Midwestern city and completed a 60-90-min audio computer-assisted self-interview in a community-based setting. Participants in this study included 107 female gang members (68 % African-American, 19 % Latina; mean age, 17.6) and 169 male gang members (62 % African-American, 28 % Latino; mean age, 17.7). As hypothesized, endorsing unequal gender norms toward women was significantly related to IPV victimization among female participants and perpetration among male participants, and engagement in group sex in the past month among both female and male participants (ps gender norms were significantly related to male participants' perpetrating rape (p gender norms, and interpersonal and sexual coercion/violence. Early intervention will also be necessary as these adolescent gang members are already engaged in extremely high-risk, coercive, and violent behaviors.

  6. Predictability of current and future multi-river discharges: Ganges, Brahmaputra, Yangtze, Blue Nile, and Murray-Darling rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Jun

    2007-12-01

    Determining river discharge is of critical importance to many societies as they struggle with fresh water supply and risk of flooding. In Bangladesh, floods occur almost every year but with sufficient irregularity to have adverse social and economical consequences. Important goals are to predict the discharge to be used for the optimization of agricultural practices, disaster mitigation and water resource management. The aim of this study is to determine the predictability of river discharge in a number of major rivers on time scale varying from weeks to a century. We investigated predictability considering relationship between SST and discharge. Next, we consider IPCC model projections of river discharge while the models are statistically adjusted against observed discharges. In this study, we consider five rivers, the Ganges, the Brahmaputra, the Yangtze, the Blue Nile, and the Murray-Darling Rivers. On seasonal time scales, statistically significant correlations are found between mean monthly equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) and the summer Ganges discharge with lead times of 2-3 months due to oscillations of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomena. In addition, there are strong correlations in the southwest and northeast Pacific. These, too, appear to be tied to the ENSO cycle. The Brahmaputra discharge, on the other hand, shows somewhat weaker relationships with tropical SST. Strong lagged correlations relationships are found with SST in the Bay of Bengal but these are the result of very warm SSTs and exceptional Brahmaputra discharge during the summer of 1998. When this year is removed from the time series, relationships weaken everywhere except in the northwestern Pacific for the June discharge and in areas of the central Pacific straddling the equator for the July discharge. The relationships are relative strong, but they are persistent from month to month and suggest that two different and sequential factors influence Brahmaputra

  7. Spatial gradients in freshwater fish diversity, abundance and current pattern in the Himalayan region of Upper Ganges Basin, India

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    AJEY KUMAR PATHAK

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pathak AK, Sarkar UK, Singh SP. 2014. Spatial gradients in freshwater fish diversity, abundance and current pattern in the Himalayan region of Upper Ganges Basin, India. Biodiversitas 15: 186-194.The present study describes the analysis and mapping of the different measurements of freshwater fish biodiversity of the Upper Ganges basin in the Himalayan region using spatial interpolation methods of Geographical Information System. The diversity, richness and abundance of fishes for each sampling location were determined and Kriging interpolation was applied on each fisheries measurement to predict and produce semivariogram. The semivariogarms produced were cross validated and reclassified. The reclassified maps for richness, abundance and diversity of fishes, occurrence of cold water threatened fish and abundance of important genera like Tor, Schziothorax and species were produced. The result of the Kriging produced good results and overall error in the estimation process was found significant. The cross validation of semovariograms also provided a better result with the observed data sets. Moreover, weighted overlay analysis of the reclassified raster maps of richness and abundance of fishes produced the classified raster map at different evaluation scale (0-10 qualitatively describing the gradient of species richness and abundance compositely. Similarly, the classified raster map at same evaluation scale qualitatively describing the gradient of species abundance and diversity compositely was produced and published. Further, basin wise analysis between Alaknanda/Pindar and Ganga1 sub basins showed 0.745 disparities at 0.745 distances in 2 dimensional spaces. The richness, diversity and abundance of threatened fishes among the different sampling locations were not significant (p = 0.9.

  8. Evaluation of WRF PBL parameterization schemes against direct observations during a dry event over the Ganges valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyanadh, Anusha; Prabha, Thara V.; Balaji, B.; Resmi, E. A.; Karipot, Anandakumar

    2017-09-01

    Accurate representations of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) are important in all weather forecast systems, especially in simulations of turbulence, wind and air quality in the lower atmosphere. In the present study, detailed observations from the Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement Experiment - Integrated Ground based Observational Campaign (CAIPEEX-IGOC) 2014 comprising of the complete surface energy budget and detailed boundary layer observations are used to validate Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model simulations over a diverse terrain over the Ganges valley region, Uttar Pradesh, India. A drying event in June 2014 associated with a heat wave is selected for validation.Six local and nonlocal PBL schemes from WRF at 1 km resolution are compared with hourly observations during the diurnal cycle. Near-surface observations of weather parameters, radiation components and eddy covariance fluxes from micrometeorological tower, and profiles of variables from microwave radiometer, and radiosonde observations are used for model evaluations. Models produce a warmer, drier surface layer with higher wind speed, sensible heat flux and temperature than observations. Layered boundary layer dynamics, including the residual layer structure as illustrated in the observations over the Ganges valley are missed in the model, which lead to deeper mixed layers and excessive drying.Although it is difficult to identify any single scheme as the best, the qualitative and quantitative analyses for the entire study period and overall reproducibility of the observations indicate that the MYNN2 simulations describe lower errors and more realistic simulation of spatio-temporal variations in the boundary layer height.

  9. Engineering Design of A Gang Drilling Machine Equipped with Jig and Fixtures to Make A Prototype Machine in Birdcage Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Widiyono

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dealing with the engineering design of a gang drilling machine with jig & fixtures to make a prototype machine. This effort has been done in order to solve the problem which aroused in small business enterprises producing birdcages. The problem was how to minimize the production time in making a lot of holes that have same distance and straightness. Hopefully, the prototype machine can help the small business enterprises to increase their production rate.The design engineering process has been carried out by variant approximation on dowel pin modular fixtures in order to simplify fixtures design. CAD CAM software has also been used as fixtures synthesized method including geometric analysis and three dimensional fixtures assembling. The resulting prototype machine can be well operated and based on the running test, it can be concluded that the greater the motor rotation the greater the power needed. As for teak wood, at 250 rpm motor rotation the power needed is 26.5 watt, and at 400 rpm the motor needs power of 43.6 watt while at 600 rpm the motor needs power of 600 watt. The power consumption is also depends on the type of material, the better the mechanical properties of the materials, the higher the power consumption. For cast iron, the 400 rpm motor rotation needs power as high as 569.7 watt. This prototype of gang drilling machine needs power of 350 watt to make five holes on teak wood while ordinary drilling machine needs total power of 1350 watt.

  10. Countering Islamic Radicalization and Al Shabaab Recruitment Within the Ethnic Somali Population of the United States: An Argument for Applying Best Practices for Stemming Youth Gang Recruitment and Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Deen, & Parker, 1994, para. 2). The primary risk factors determining youth susceptibility to gang recruitment are racism , poverty, lack of a support...feelings of alienation and stigma ” while non-Muslim communities harbor resentment for Muslim communities because they are receiving government funding...future terrorist attacks. 29 III. COUNTERGANG BEST PRACTICES Street gangs are an amalgam of racism , of urban underclass poverty, of minority and

  11. Fifteen Years (1993–2007 of Surface Freshwater Storage Variability in the Ganges-Brahmaputra River Basin Using Multi-Satellite Observations

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    Edward Salameh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface water storage is a key component of the terrestrial hydrological and biogeochemical cycles that also plays a major role in water resources management. In this study, surface water storage (SWS variations are estimated at monthly time-scale over 15 years (1993–2007 using a hypsographic approach based on the combination of topographic information from Advance Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER and Hydrological Modeling and Analysis Platform (HyMAP-based Global Digital Elevation Models (GDEM and the Global Inundation Extent Multi-Satellite (GIEMS product in the Ganges-Brahmaputra basin. The monthly variations of the surface water storage are in good accordance with precipitation from Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP, river discharges at the outlet of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra, and terrestrial water storage (TWS from the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE, with correlations higher than 0.85. Surface water storage presents a strong seasonal signal (~496 km3 estimated by GIEMS/ASTER and ~378 km3 by GIEMS/HyMAPs, representing ~51% and ~41% respectively of the total water storage signal and it exhibits a large inter-annual variability with strong negative anomalies during the drought-like conditions of 1994 or strong positive anomalies such as in 1998. This new dataset of SWS is a new, highly valuable source of information for hydrological and climate modeling studies of the Ganges-Brahmaputra river basin.

  12. Post-glacial climate forcing of surface processes in the Ganges-Brahmaputra river basin and implications for carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Christopher J.; Galy, Valier; Galy, Albert; France-Lanord, Christian; Kudrass, Hermann; Schwenk, Tilmann

    2017-11-01

    Climate has been proposed to control both the rate of terrestrial silicate weathering and the export rate of associated sediments and terrestrial organic carbon to river-dominated margins - and thus the rate of sequestration of atmospheric CO2 in the coastal ocean - over glacial-interglacial timescales. Focused on the Ganges-Brahmaputra rivers, this study presents records of post-glacial changes in basin-scale Indian summer monsoon intensity and vegetation composition based on stable hydrogen (δD) and carbon (δ13C) isotopic compositions of terrestrial plant wax compounds preserved in the channel-levee system of the Bengal Fan. It then explores the role of these changes in controlling the provenance and degree of chemical weathering of sediments exported by these rivers, and the potential climate feedbacks through organic-carbon burial in the Bengal Fan. An observed 40‰ shift in δD and a 3-4‰ shift in both bulk organic-carbon and plant-wax δ13C values between the late glacial and mid-Holocene, followed by a return to more intermediate values during the late Holocene, correlates well with regional post-glacial paleoclimate records. Sediment provenance proxies (Sr, Nd isotopic compositions) reveal that these changes likely coincided with a subtle focusing of erosion on the southern flank of the Himalayan range during periods of greater monsoon strength and enhanced sediment discharge. However, grain-size-normalized organic-carbon concentrations in the Bengal Fan remained constant through time, despite order-of-magnitude level changes in catchment-scale monsoon precipitation and enhanced chemical weathering (recorded as a gradual increase in K/Si* and detrital carbonate content, and decrease in H2O+/Si*, proxies) throughout the study period. These findings demonstrate a partial decoupling of climate change and silicate weathering during the Holocene and that marine organic-carbon sequestration rates primary reflect rates of physical erosion and sediment export

  13. Spatial and seasonal responses of precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra river basins to ENSO and Indian Ocean dipole modes: implications for flooding and drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervez, Md Shahriar; Henebry, Geoffry M.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the spatial and seasonal responses of precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins as modulated by the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) modes using Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) full data reanalysis of monthly global land-surface precipitation data from 1901 to 2010 with a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5°. The GPCC monthly total precipitation climatology targeting the period 1951–2000 was used to compute gridded monthly anomalies for the entire time period. The gridded monthly anomalies were averaged for the years influenced by combinations of climate modes. Occurrences of El Niño alone significantly reduce (88% of the long-term average (LTA)) precipitation during the monsoon months in the western and southeastern Ganges Basin. In contrast, occurrences of La Niña and co-occurrences of La Niña and negative IOD events significantly enhance (110 and 109% of LTA in the Ganges and Brahmaputra Basin, respectively) precipitation across both basins. When El Niño co-occurs with positive IOD events, the impacts of El Niño on the basins' precipitation diminishes. When there is no active ENSO or IOD events (occurring in 41 out of 110 years), precipitation remains below average (95% of LTA) in the agriculturally intensive areas of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Western Nepal in the Ganges Basin, whereas precipitation remains average to above average (104% of LTA) across the Brahmaputra Basin. This pattern implies that a regular water deficit is likely, especially in the Ganges Basin, with implications for the agriculture sector due to its reliance on consistent rainfall for successful production. Historically, major droughts occurred during El Niño and co-occurrences of El Niño and positive IOD events, while major flooding occurred during La Niña and co-occurrences of La Niña and negative IOD events in the basins. This observational analysis will facilitate well

  14. Variations in hydrostratigraphy and groundwater quality between major geomorphic units of the Western Ganges Delta plain, SW Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Md. Ilias; Sultana, Sarmin; Hasan, M. Aziz; Ahmed, Kazi Matin

    2017-10-01

    Relationships among geomorphology, hydrostratigraphy, and groundwater quality with special emphasis on arsenic and salinity have been analyzed in the Bangladesh part of the Western Ganges Delta (WGD). On the basis of the presence of characteristic geomorphic features, the study area is divided into two geomorphic units: fluvial deltaic plain (FDP) and fluvio-tidal deltaic plain (FTDP). Lithostratigraphic sections demonstrate that FDP is composed predominately of sandy material whereas FTDP is characterized by alternation of sand and clay/silty clay material. Hydrostratigraphically, FDP is characterized as a single aquifer system, whereas FTDP is a complex multi-aquifer system. Spatial distributions of arsenic concentrations in groundwater reveal that elevated arsenic (>0.01 mg/l) occurs mostly in the FDP. Occurrences of high arsenic in deeper part of the aquifer system (>100 m) in the FDP, particularly in the south-western part, is probably due to the absence of any prominent impermeable layer between the shallow and deeper part of the aquifer system. Distributions of chloride concentrations show an increasing trend in groundwater salinity from north to south, i.e., from FDP to FTDP.

  15. Contamination of nitrate and fluoride in ground water along the Ganges Alluvial Plain of Kanpur district, Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankararamakrishnan, Nalini; Sharma, Ajit Kumar; Iyengar, Leela

    2008-11-01

    Nitrate-N and Fluoride concentrations were analyzed in shallow and unconfined ground water aquifers of Kanpur district along the Ganges Alluvial Plain of Northern India. Kanpur district was divided into three zones namely, Bithore, Kanpur City and Beyond Jajmau and sampling was carried out three seasons (summer, monsoon and winter). The data set consisted of the results of water samples from around 99 India Mark II hand Pumps, which were analyzed for summer monsoon and winter seasons. In Bithore zone, 19% of the samples exceeded the BIS (Bureau of India Standards) limit 10.2 mg/l as nitrate-N and as high as 166 mg/l as nitrate-N was observed. 10% and 7% samples in Kanpur city and beyond Jajmau zone respectively, exceeded the BIS limit. The Frequency distribution histogram of nitrate-N revealed a skewed (non-normal) distribution. Both point and non-point sources contribute to the ground water contamination. Especially in Bithore zone, the point sources could be attributed to the animal wastes derived from cows and buffaloes and non point sources could be due to the extensive agricultural activity prevalent in that area. Fluoride concentration in most samples was within the BIS maximum permissible level of 1.5 mg/l. No significant seasonal variation in water quality parameters was observed.

  16. To see or not to see: investigating detectability of Ganges River dolphins using a combined visual-acoustic survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Nadia I; Gibbons, James M; Turvey, Samuel T; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Ahmed, Benazir; Mahabub, Emile; Smith, Brian D; Jones, Julia P G

    2014-01-01

    Detection of animals during visual surveys is rarely perfect or constant, and failure to account for imperfect detectability affects the accuracy of abundance estimates. Freshwater cetaceans are among the most threatened group of mammals, and visual surveys are a commonly employed method for estimating population size despite concerns over imperfect and unquantified detectability. We used a combined visual-acoustic survey to estimate detectability of Ganges River dolphins (Platanista gangetica gangetica) in four waterways of southern Bangladesh. The combined visual-acoustic survey resulted in consistently higher detectability than a single observer-team visual survey, thereby improving power to detect trends. Visual detectability was particularly low for dolphins close to meanders where these habitat features temporarily block the view of the preceding river surface. This systematic bias in detectability during visual-only surveys may lead researchers to underestimate the importance of heavily meandering river reaches. Although the benefits of acoustic surveys are increasingly recognised for marine cetaceans, they have not been widely used for monitoring abundance of freshwater cetaceans due to perceived costs and technical skill requirements. We show that acoustic surveys are in fact a relatively cost-effective approach for surveying freshwater cetaceans, once it is acknowledged that methods that do not account for imperfect detectability are of limited value for monitoring.

  17. Problem Analysis in Community Violence Assessment: Revealing Early Childhood Trauma as a Driver of Youth and Gang Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Laurie; Arsenault, Samantha

    2017-11-01

    Problem analysis conducted by a university-based research partner can provide communities with data-driven options to address the local drivers of serious youth and gang violence. Situated in Worcester, Massachusetts, this article describes how subsequent to early childhood trauma being identified as a potential driver of adolescent and young adult violence; problem analysis using local data confirmed that being the victim or witness of a traumatic incident before the age of 12 years was significantly correlated with involvement in violence in adolescence or young adulthood. Although there is a robust literature on the relationship between early childhood trauma and later delinquency, local decision makers did not consider this knowledge actionable until the research partner used the city's own police records to demonstrate the extent of the problem in the city. Rigorous problem analysis, conducted collaboratively between practitioners and an academic research partner, helped to compel local change and ensured that strategies addressed the right risk factors and directed service to the appropriate target population.

  18. Violence Against Women: What’s Law Got to Do With It? A Reflection on Gang Rape in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Sharma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The brutal gang rape of a physiotherapy student in India in December 2012 drew the world’s attention to the problem of sexual violence against women in the country.  Protests and mass public reaction towards the case pressurized the government to respond to the crisis by changing the laws on sexual violence. However, these new laws have not led to a decrease in VAW. Is this the result of the failure of the rule of law? Or does it highlight the limitations of law in absence of social change? This paper addresses the need for using law as a key tool in addressing violence against women in India.  It recognizes that unless we address the structural and root causes of violence against women, our analysis will be limited. It is important to bridge the creation of new laws, with an analysis that speaks to the role of hypermasculinity, neoliberalism and culture in VAW. If unaddressed, what may result instead are quick fixes, symbolized by passing laws that act as token gestures, rather than leading to transformative action.

  19. Post-flood status of the Endangered Ganges River Dolphin Platanista gangetica gangetica (Cetartiodactyla: Platanistidae in the Koshi River, Nepal

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    T.B. Khatri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The breach of the eastern embankment of the Koshi Barrage at Paschim Kusaha Village of Sunsari District on 18 August 2008, created havoc for wildlife and their habitats, as well as people’s livelihood and welfare. The Koshi River flowed through the breach for five months. Following the breach, a population assessment survey of the Endangered Ganges River Dolphin Platanista gangetica gangetica was made between March and November 2009 in the Koshi River main channel starting from Chatara to 2km south of Koshi Barrage to ascertain their status. A direct count survey was conducted by two teams of researchers simultaneously searching for animals by boat from Chatara to the Koshi Barrage including the Triyuga River and on foot along the river banks downstream of Koshi Barrage and along the Mariya River. Standard protocols were followed to record the number of sighted dolphins. A total of 11 dolphins were recorded in the entire 49-km river stretch with an encounter rate of 0.23 dolphins per km. The current result showed an encouraging population of dolphins in the Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and its buffer zone but the threats for conservation still remain challenging. Close monitoring of dolphins and their habitats involving local communities are required for long term conservation of the river dolphins in Nepal. The breach of the eastern embankment of the Koshi Barrage at Paschim Kusaha Village of Sunsari District on 18 August 2008, created havoc for wildlife and their habitats, as well as people’s livelihood and welfare. The Koshi River flowed through the breach for five months. Following the breach, a population assessment survey of the Endangered Ganges River Dolphin Platanista gangetica gangetica was made between March and November 2009 in the Koshi River main channel starting from Chatara to 2km south of Koshi Barrage to ascertain their status. A direct count survey was conducted by two teams of researchers simultaneously searching for

  20. Evaluación de ácidos siálico y gangliósidos en leche y preparados infantiles

    OpenAIRE

    Lacomba Perales, Ramón

    2011-01-01

    La leche materna es el alimento idóneo para satisfacer las necesidades del lactante, durante las primeras etapas de la vida. No obstante, en algunas situaciones se recurre a la alimentación con preparados infantiles, cuya composición en macronutrientes y oligoelementos esenciales (vitaminas y minerales) tiende a ser semejante a la de la leche humana. El ácido siálico y los gangliósidos son componentes bioactivos, presentes en leche que desempeñan un papel fundamental en distintos procesos ...

  1. Gang de jeunes et groupes armés dans la Région Métropolitaine de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brésil

    OpenAIRE

    Zilli, Luis Felipe; Beato,Cláudio

    2015-01-01

    Cet article prend pour objet les recherches sociologiques traitant de l’implication de jeunes dans des dynamiques de violence et de criminalité des quartiers pauvres et des banlieues de grands centres urbains. Il présente les principaux résultats d’une recherche empirique sur les gangs de jeunes et les groupes armés qui opèrent dans les favelas de la région de Belo Horizonte (RMBH), capitale de l’État de Minas Gerais, au Brésil. Du point de vue théorique, nous adoptons ici le postulat qu’au B...

  2. Late Pleistocene to Holocene soil development and environments in the Long Gang Volcanic Field area, Jilin Province, NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Daniela; Zhang, Xinrong; Knöbel, Jette; Maerker, Lutz

    2014-05-01

    Late Pleistocene to Holocene shifts of climate and vegetation in the Long Gang Volcanic Field in NE China have been reconstructed, e. g. by Steblich et al. (2009), based on Maar lake sediment cores. In this study, we investigated soil development during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene and linked it to the climate and vegetation reported in the literature. Three pedons were described and analyzed on a crater wall surrounding a maar. The lower part of the slope is covered by basic pyroclastics that are obviously younger than the maar itself. Pedon 1 is located on the upper slope, where the younger pyroclastics are not present; thus it developed over the entire Holocene and part of the Late Pleistocene. Pedon 2 is on the toe slope and developed from the young basic pyroclastics. Vegetation remains, charred by fire that was caused by the volcanic ash fall, were found in the lowermost part of the pyroclastics layer, on top of a paleosol. Charcoal fragments were dated to 18950-18830 cal BP (using INTCAL 09). Thus, pedon 2 developed since around 18.9 ka BP, whereas the development of the paleosol that was buried under the pyroclastics (pedon 3), was stopped at this time. Pedons 1 and 2 are Vitric Andosols, developed mainly from basic pyroclastics, as evidenced by the composition of rock fragments in the soils, comprising 78 / 81 mass % lapilli and 22 / 19 mass % gneiss fragments, respectively. Pedon 3 is a Cutanic Luvisol (Chromic) that developed entirely from gneiss fragments produced by the maar explosion. Lab data suggest increasing intensity of pedogenesis in the direction: Pedon 3 (paleosol) climate than the two yellowish-brown surface soils. Since the morphology of the paleosol clearly reflects interglacial climatic conditions and forest cover, it most likely started developing during the Eemian. Steblich et al. (2009) reconstructed for the period 16.7-14.45 ka BP steppe with Betula (and minor proportions of Larix, Alnus, Picea and Salix). We assume a similar

  3. The development of the Ganges-Brahmaputra tidal delta plain: construction to maintenance phase changes in platform and channel morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Hale, R. P.; Bain, R. L.

    2016-12-01

    The lower Ganges-Brahmaputra (G-B) delta can be divided into the fluvial-tidal river mouth and distributaries under active construction by the G-B rivers, and the distal tidally maintained deltaplain. In the active river-mouth, distributaries have constructed 5,000 km2 of large, coalescing islands that define the prograding coastline and subaerial-delta front. Although seasonal riverbank erosion is common, the area as a whole has gained land, primarily via horizontal and vertical accretion of intertidal mudflats and seaward progradation of emergent, tidally-elongated sandy channel-mouth bars. An analysis of historical imagery within the active river mouth shows larger and higher order channels form as merging bars and shoal-islands constrict distributary channels, while lower order creeks emerge secondarily, presumably as flow on shoaling intertidal mudflats becomes channelized and mangrove vegetation takes hold. With waning fluvial input (occurring from major distributary migration or avulsion), tidal and marine processes exhibit a stronger control on sediment transport and distribution, as is happening in the downdrift areas of the G-B tidal delta plain. The relatively pristine Sundarbans mangrove forest covers 4,100 km2 along the coast, while 11,200 km2 of the lower tidal delta plain is densely inhabited (population density up to 1,000/km2) and embanked for agricultural purposes. Although considered moribund or abandoned from direct fluvial sediment input, distal portions of the tidal delta are connected to the sediment transport system by its dense network of tidal channels. The subaerial landscape that was initially constructed by the point-sourced input of coarser-grained fluvial sediment from the mainstem rivers is thereafter maintained predominantly by onshore tidal sediment transport of finer-grained silt, and we observe accretion rates as high as 2-4 cm/y supported on the mangrove platform during the monsoon season. The tidal channels show evidence of

  4. Delta Morphodynamics Matters! Ecosystem Services, Poverty and Morphodynamic Change in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Mega-Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, R. J.; Adger, N.; Allan, A.; Darby, S. E.; Hutton, C.; Matthews, Z.; Rahman, M.; Whitehead, P. G.; Wolf, J.

    2013-12-01

    The world's deltas are probably the most vulnerable type of coastal environment, and they face multiple stresses in the coming decades. These stresses include, amongst others, local drivers due to land subsidence, population growth and urbanisation within the deltas, regional drivers due to changes in catchment management (e.g. upstream land use and dam construction), as well as global climate change impacts such as sea-level rise. At the same time, the ecosystem services of river deltas support high population densities, with around 14% of the global population inhabiting deltas. A large proportion of these people experience extremes of poverty and they are therefore severely exposed to vulnerability from environmental and ecological stress and degradation. In areas close to or below the poverty boundary, both subsistence and cash elements of the economy tend to rely disproportionately heavily on ecosystem services which underpin livelihoods. Therefore, to sustainably manage delta environments they must be viewed as complex social-environmental systems where change is only partially driven by physical drivers such as sea level rise and climate change, and human-induced development activities are also critical. Here we outline a new conceptual framework for the development of methods to understand and characterise the key drivers of change in ecosystem services that affect the environment and economic status of populous deltas, focusing specifically on the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) mega-delta. The GBM delta is characterised by densely populated coastal lowlands with significant poverty, with livelihoods supported to a large extent by natural ecosystems such as the Sunderbahns (the largest mangrove forest in the world). However, the GBM delta is under severe development pressure due to many growing cities. At present the importance of ecosystems services to poverty and livelihoods is poorly understood. This is due to due to the complexity of interactions

  5. Vertical distribution of heavy metals in soil profile in a seasonally waterlogging agriculture field in Eastern Ganges Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajmohan, N; Prathapar, S A; Jayaprakash, M; Nagarajan, R

    2014-09-01

    The accumulation of heavy metals in soil and water is a serious concern due to their persistence and toxicity. This study investigated the vertical distribution of heavy metals, possible sources and their relation with soil texture in a soil profile from seasonally waterlogged agriculture fields of Eastern Ganges basin. Fifteen samples were collected at ~0.90-m interval during drilling of 13.11 mbgl and analysed for physical parameters (moisture content and grain size parameters: sand, silt, clay ratio) and heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Co, Ni and Cd). The average metal content was in the decreasing order of Fe > Mn > Cr > Zn > Ni > Cu > Co > Pb > Cd. Vertical distribution of Fe, Mn, Zn and Ni shows more or less similar trends, and clay zone records high concentration of heavy metals. The enrichment of heavy metals in clay zone with alkaline pH strongly implies that the heavy metal distributions in the study site are effectively regulated by soil texture and reductive dissolution of Fe and Mn oxy-hydroxides. Correlation coefficient analysis indicates that most of the metals correlate with Fe, Mn and soil texture (clay and silt). Soil quality assessment was carried out using geoaccumulation index (I(geo)), enrichment factor (EF) and contamination factor (CF). The enrichment factor values were ranged between 0.66 (Mn) and 2.34 (Co) for the studied metals, and the contamination factor values varied between 0.79 (Mn) and 2.55 (Co). Results suggest that the elements such as Cu and Co are categorized as moderate to moderately severe contamination, which are further confirmed by I(geo) values (0.69 for Cu and 0.78 for Co). The concentration of Ni exceeded the effects-range median values, and the biological adverse effect of this metal is 87%. The average concentration of heavy metals was compared with published data such as concentration of heavy metals in Ganga River sediments, Ganga Delta sediments and upper continental crust (UCC

  6. A first look at the influence of anthropogenic climate change on the future delivery of fluvial sediment to the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, Stephen E; Dunn, Frances E; Nicholls, Robert J; Rahman, Munsur; Riddy, Liam

    2015-09-01

    We employ a climate-driven hydrological water balance and sediment transport model (HydroTrend) to simulate future climate-driven sediment loads flowing into the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) mega-delta. The model was parameterised using high-quality topographic data and forced with daily temperature and precipitation data obtained from downscaled Regional Climate Model (RCM) simulations for the period 1971-2100. Three perturbed RCM model runs were selected to quantify the potential range of future climate conditions associated with the SRES A1B scenario. Fluvial sediment delivery rates to the GBM delta associated with these climate data sets are projected to increase under the influence of anthropogenic climate change, albeit with the magnitude of the increase varying across the two catchments. Of the two study basins, the Brahmaputra's fluvial sediment load is predicted to be more sensitive to future climate change. Specifically, by the middle part of the 21(st) century, our model results suggest that sediment loads increase (relative to the 1981-2000 baseline period) over a range of between 16% and 18% (depending on climate model run) for the Ganges, but by between 25% and 28% for the Brahmaputra. The simulated increase in sediment flux emanating from the two catchments further increases towards the end of the 21(st) century, reaching between 34% and 37% for the Ganges and between 52% and 60% for the Brahmaputra by the 2090s. The variability in these changes across the three climate change simulations is small compared to the changes, suggesting they represent a significant increase. The new data obtained in this study offer the first estimate of whether and how anthropogenic climate change may affect the delivery of fluvial sediment to the GBM delta, informing assessments of the future sustainability and resilience of one of the world's most vulnerable mega-deltas. Specifically, such significant increases in future sediment loads could increase the resilience

  7. Quantifying the individual contributions of snow and glaciers in High Mountain Asia River basins: Amu Darya, Syr Darya, Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittger, K.; Bair, N.; Brodzik, M. J.; Racoviteanu, A.; Barrett, A.; Khalsa, S. J. S.; Raup, B. H.; Painter, T. H.; Dozier, J.; Armstrong, R. L.

    2016-12-01

    In High Mountain Asia, snow and glacier ice contribute to streamflow, but the respective contributions are not fully understood. We use daily maps of snow cover and exposed glacier ice from MODIS data at 500 m resolution as input to melt models to estimate daily snow and glacier ice contributions to streamflow. Daily maps of 1) snow over ice (SOI), 2) exposed glacier ice (EGI), and 3) snow over land (SOL) are generated using fractional snow cover, snow grain size, and annual minimum ice and snow from the MODIS-derived MODSCAG and MODICE products. Using these maps, snow and ice melt contributions are then estimated using two different melt models: a calibrated temperature-index (TI) model and an uncalibrated energy balance (EB) model (ParBal). We run the TI model over snow-covered regions of the Amu Darya, Syr Darya, Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra River basins. We run the EB model in sub-basins where streamflow is available and compare the EB model results to the TI model results. In the Shigar, Hunza, and Shyok sub-basins of the highly glaciated portion of the Upper Indus River basin (UIB), the EB model shows that 31%, 27%, and 20% of the surface water comes from SOI; 24%, 19%, and 15% from EGI; 44%, 49%, 48% from SOL; and 0%, 6%, and 17% from rainfall, respectively. In the less glaciated, more arid Kharmong and Astore regions, the EB model shows that 2% and 6% of surface water comes from SOI; 2% and 45% from EGI; 77% and 89% from SOL; and 19% and 0% from rainfall, respectively. In the lower elevation Tarbela sub-basin, 3% of surface water comes from SOI, 2% from EGI, 44% from SOL, and 51% from rainfall. Along with the UIB, we will present TI and EB model results in the Vakhsh sub-basin of the Amu Darya River basin and the Narayani, Sapta Kosi, and Karnali sub-basins of the Ganges River basin. Our comparisons of the TI model to the EB model show similar partitioning, but differ in timing and elevation of the melt. When moving from east to west across High Mountain

  8. Geomorphology and Landscape Evolution Model for the natural and human-impacted regions of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C.; Goodbred, S. L.; Wallace Auerbach, L.; Ahmed, K.; Paola, C.; Reitz, M. D.; Pickering, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta (GBMD) in south Asia is generally considered a tide-dominated system, but much of the subaerial delta plain is geomorphically similar to river-dominated systems such as the Mississippi River delta, with a well-developed distributary network separated by low-lying, organic-rich interdistributary basins. By contrast, the lower GBMD is dominated by tidal processes and comprises a 100-km wide coastal plain with dense, interconnected tidal channels that are amalgamated to the seaward edge of the river-dominated portion of the delta. These distinct river- and tide-dominated geomorphic regions are simultaneously sustained by the enormous sediment load of the GBM rivers and its efficient dispersal via the distributary channel network and onshore advection by tides. Together these processes have resulted in the ability of the GBMD to keep pace with sea-level rise throughout the Holocene, with comparatively little shoreline transgression. However, topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) highlight low-lying regions of the delta that are located at the interface of the river- and tide-dominated portions of the delta, where the transport energy of small distributaries and the upper tidal zone go to zero. As a result, these are the most sediment-starved regions of the delta and those most at risk to flooding by the summer monsoon and storm surges. Compounding the slow rates of sedimentation and high local organic content, these regions have been strongly affected by the construction of embankments (polders) that artificially de-water the soils and accelerate organic decomposition during the dry season, and further starve the land surface of sediment. Here, we present an integrated conceptual model for the geomorphic evolution of the GBMD that incorporates river- and tide-dominated regions in conjunction with channel-avulsion processes and delta-lobe construction. Each of these is also overprinted by tectonic

  9. Marlene Wind efterlyser selvransagelse: Medierne spåede igen forkert. Denne gang om Brexit og Trumps effekt på Europa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, Marlene

    2017-01-01

    Torsdag d. 11 maj, var centerleder og professor ved Center for Europæisk Politik aktuel med en kronik i Politiken med titlen: ”Marlene Wind efterlyser selvransagelse: Medierne spåede igen forkert. Denne gang om Brexit og Trumps effekt på Europa”. Professorens indspark i debatten går på, at medierne...... allerede inden valget havde en ’antielitedagsorden’, og valget af Emmanuel Macron derfor bør henlede til selvransagelse i det danske medielandskab. ”Selvransagelsen burde derfor være lige så stor efter valget af Macron som den, mediefolk opviste efter valget af Trump og Brexit, da de sendte deres bedste...

  10. [Preliminary textual research on Zhijintang Sanctum re-revised version of Jinling edition of Ben cao gang mu (Compendium of Materia Medica)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jinsheng

    2014-03-01

    The Zhijintang Sanctum version of the re-revised edition of Jinling edition of Ben cao gang mu (Compendium of Materia Medica)collected by Zhao Huiyuan of Baihe, Henan Province in 2008 was opted as one of the third batch of the National Directory of Rare Ancient Worksin 2010. On the second cover page (patent page), it is recorded as"Original Jiangxi version". However, it is investigated to find that most of its paper sheets were reprinted after the original Jinling version, only scores of paper sheets were supplemented block-printed, including the additional block-printed second preface and Li Jianyuan's submitted report of the Jiangxi version, the re-revised time of which should be after the Jiangxi edition, or 1603. The exact time can be determined only by checking it carefully against another Jinling re-revised version (the Sheyuantang Sanctum edition).

  11. Holocene construction and evolution of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta: the influence of climate, eustasy, and tectonics on stratigraphic architecture and fluvial dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sincavage, R.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Pickering, J.; Wilson, C.; Patrick, M. G.; Akhter, S. H.; Seeber, L.; Paola, C.; Jean-Louis, G.; Grall, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta (GBMD), an archetypal tidally-influenced deltaic margin, has been the subject of several multi-national, multi-institutional, and interdisciplinary field studies over the past several years, resulting in an unprecedented density of data coverage for stratigraphy, hydrodynamics, and tectonics on a scale previously only found on well-studied delta systems of other types (e.g., Nile, Mississippi, Rhine-Meuse). Using a suite of geochemical, geophysical, and lithologic data extracted from a network of over 400 shallow (course along the eastern edge of the Tista Fan and west of the modern confluence with the Ganges. Construction of the modern delta, consisting of a thick (up to 80 m) succession of fluvial and deltaic sediments, was initiated by an intensified summer monsoon, coincident with accommodation generated by rapid sea-level rise following the Younger-Dryas. Sediment delivery has been focused along three pathways associated with antecedent topography inherited from Pleistocene lowstands. Stacked channel sands are the predominant facies within the upper delta, grading to isolated sand lenses in the distal reaches of Sylhet Basin, indicative of a shift from a highly mobile braidbelt to a less mobile distributary system as bedload is extracted to deposition. Episodic avulsions of the Brahmaputra River into Sylhet Basin during the mid-Holocene have been documented using a robust radiocarbon geochronology. The volume of sediment preserved from these events is insufficient to account for the entire sediment budget based on estimates of modern discharge, likely a consequence of both a weakened mid-Holocene monsoon and bypass out of the basin. Rapid (up to 7 mm/yr) subsidence in Sylhet Basin has not acted as an attractor for channel steering during much of the Holocene. Instead, the Brahmaputra has followed the steepest descent path associated with flexural loading downstream of the hinge zone along the modern braidbelt.

  12. Risk and protective factors associated with gang-involved youth in Trinidad and Tobago Factores de riesgo y factores protectores asociados con la participación de los adolescentes en pandillas en Trinidad y Tabago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles M. Katz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence of gang involvement, the risk and protective factors associated with gang involvement, and the association between gang involvement and exposure to multiple risk and protective factors among school-aged youth in Trinidad and Tobago. METHODS: A survey instrument was administered to 2 206 students enrolled in 22 high-risk, urban public schools, from March-June 2006. It measured 30 risk factors and 13 protective factors within four domains: community, school, family, and peer-individual, plus levels of alcohol/drug use and delinquency. RESULTS: About 7.7% of youth reported being a gang associate; 6.8%, a former gang member; and 6.2%, a current gang member. Gang involvement was associated with perceived availability of handguns, residential mobility, having parents who favor antisocial behavior, early initiation of antisocial behavior, intention to use drugs, having antisocial peers, and having peers who use drugs. Those with social skills, belief in moral order, and interactions with prosocial peers were significantly less likely to self-report gang membership. Additionally, the probability of gang involvement increased as the number of risk factors increased. CONCLUSIONS: Gang membership among public school youth is about as prevalent in Trinidad and Tobago as it is in the United States, Canada, and Western Europe, but further research is needed. Although risk factors associated with gang involvement were present in all four domains, peer-individual risk factors were disproportionately likely to be associated with gang status. The most effective gang prevention strategies might be those that focus on multiple risk factors, with an emphasis on peer-individual factors and promoting a "belief in moral order."OBJETIVOS: Examinar la prevalencia de la participación en pandillas, los factores de riesgo y los factores protectores asociados con la participación en pandillas, y la asociación entre la participaci

  13. Las bandas juveniles violentas de Madrid: su socialización y aculturación Violent youth gangs in Madrid: socialization and culturalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Martín

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: El presente artículo analiza el discurso de jóvenes involucrados en grupos violentos o bandas juveniles con el objetivo de profundizar en la interpretación que realizan de los procesos de adoctrinamiento, socialización y aculturación en sus respectivos colectivos. Complementariamente, de acuerdo con el marco teórico de partida (teoría de la socialización primaria y teoría de la asociación diferencial se aborda la dinámica de influencia social con otros referentes sociales de los jóvenes violentos (pareja, trabajo, familia, etc.. MÉTODOS: Análisis cualitativo de 40 entrevistas realizadas a jóvenes pertenecientes a bandas o grupos violentos. RESULTADOS: En concordancia con la "teoría de la socialización primaria" y la teoría de la "socialización diferencial", se puede postular una sobresocialización del grupo violento y una infrasocialización del resto de agentes socializadores. En relación con la supervisión y el apoyo parental, se identifican tres tipos de familias claramente asociadas al problema de la violencia juvenil. La diversidad o unicidad de identidad social de los jóvenes violentos, así como su autoestima y autoconcepto individuales, conforman un conjunto de procesos de gran relevancia predictiva. Finalmente, un buen indicador de la evolución de estos jóvenes es el apoyo social percibido, absoluto y relativo (distribuido entre los distintos agentes de influencia. CONCLUSIONES: Se ilustra la necesidad de replantear las bases filosófico-epistemológicas y metodológicas de la investigación sobre esta clase de fenómenos sociales, incorporando elementos centrales del enfoque postmoderno, construccionista y crítico.OBJECTIVES: This study explores the subject of youth involved in violent groups or gangs, with the goal of further understanding the indoctrination, socialization, and culturalization processes undergone by youth involved in group violence or gangs. Furthermore, to examine the dynamics

  14. Automatic 6-speed transmissions for passenger cars - a milestone in powertrain development; Automatische 6-Gang-Getriebe fuer Personenkraftwagen - ein Meilenstein in der Antriebstechnik-Entwicklung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, G. [ZF Getriebe GmbH, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    In order to respond to the demands made on passenger car power train systems regarding reduction of fuel consumption, pollutant and noise emissions, increased performance and drive comfort, corporate product identification and innovative products, an 6-speed automatic transmission for standard use with 8- and 12-cylinder engines was developed. The demands of customers as well as production aspects were taken into account in the development process. Compared with its predecessor, the ZF-6HP26 provides a higher torque capacity, is more compact and 13% lighter. As a result of consistent system and component optimization, the transmission has a reduced number of components, lower transmission losses and increased efficiency. At the same time, functionality regarding reduction of fuel consumption and increase in comfort has been expanded. Fuel consumption simulation for a vehicle with 8-cylinder Otto engine revealed that fuel consumption was cut by 5 to 6% while acceleration was improved by 4%. Consumption tests with prototype transmissions confirmed the computed results. The 6HP26 is worldwide the first 6-speed automatic transmission and a milestone in passenger car transmission technology. (orig.) [German] Um den zukuenftigen Anforderungen an den Pkw-Antrieb hinsichtlich der Reduzierung des Kraftstoffverbrauchs, der Schadstoff- und Geraeuschemissionen, einer Steigerung der Fahrleistung und Erhoehung des Fahrkomforts bei gleichzeitiger Differenzierung zum Wettbewerb durch innovative Produkte gerecht zu werden, wurde ein automatisches 6-Gang-Getriebe fuer den Einsatz im Standardantrieb mit 8- und 12-Zylindermotoren entwickelt. Im bisherigen Entwicklungsprozess fanden sowohl Kundenanforderungen als auch Fertigungsbelange Beruecksichtigung. Verglichen mit dem Vorgaengeraggregat ist das ZF-6HP26 bei gleichzeitig hoeherer Drehmomentkapazitaet kompakter, baut kleiner und ist etwa 13% leichter. Durch konsequente System- und Bauteiloptimierung ist es gelungen, die Anzahl der

  15. Impacts of climate change and socio-economic scenarios on flow and water quality of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna (GBM) river systems: low flow and flood statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, P G; Barbour, E; Futter, M N; Sarkar, S; Rodda, H; Caesar, J; Butterfield, D; Jin, L; Sinha, R; Nicholls, R; Salehin, M

    2015-06-01

    The potential impacts of climate change and socio-economic change on flow and water quality in rivers worldwide is a key area of interest. The Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) is one of the largest river basins in the world serving a population of over 650 million, and is of vital concern to India and Bangladesh as it provides fresh water for people, agriculture, industry, conservation and for the delta system downstream. This paper seeks to assess future changes in flow and water quality utilising a modelling approach as a means of assessment in a very complex system. The INCA-N model has been applied to the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna river systems to simulate flow and water quality along the rivers under a range of future climate conditions. Three model realisations of the Met Office Hadley Centre global and regional climate models were selected from 17 perturbed model runs to evaluate a range of potential futures in climate. In addition, the models have also been evaluated using socio-economic scenarios, comprising (1) a business as usual future, (2) a more sustainable future, and (3) a less sustainable future. Model results for the 2050s and the 2090s indicate a significant increase in monsoon flows under the future climates, with enhanced flood potential. Low flows are predicted to fall with extended drought periods, which could have impacts on water and sediment supply, irrigated agriculture and saline intrusion. In contrast, the socio-economic changes had relatively little impact on flows, except under the low flow regimes where increased irrigation could further reduce water availability. However, should large scale water transfers upstream of Bangladesh be constructed, these have the potential to reduce flows and divert water away from the delta region depending on the volume and timing of the transfers. This could have significant implications for the delta in terms of saline intrusion, water supply, agriculture and maintaining crucial ecosystems such

  16. Post-Glacial Climate Forcing of Surface Processes in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Basin and Implications for the Global Carbon Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, C. J.; Galy, V.; France-Lanord, C.; Galy, A.; Kudrass, H. R.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.

    2016-12-01

    Silicate weathering coupled with carbonate precipitation and organic carbon (OC) burial in marine sediments are the primary mechanisms sequestering atmospheric CO2 over a range of timescales. The efficiency of both processes has long been mechanistically linked to climate: increased atmospheric CO2 sequestration under warm/wet conditions acts as a negative feedback, thereby contributing to global climate regulation. Over glacial-interglacial timescales, climate has been proposed to control the export rate of terrestrial silicate weathering products and terrestrial OC to river-dominated margins, as well as the rates of chemical weathering (i.e., the efficiency of carbon sequestration). Focused on the Ganges-Brahmaputra drainage basin, this study quantifies the relative role of climate change in the efficiency of silicate weathering and OC burial following the last glacial maximum. Stable hydrogen (δD) and carbon (δ13C) isotopic compositions of terrestrial plant wax compounds preserved in the Bengal Fan channel-levee system capture variations in the strength of the Indian summer monsoon and vegetation dynamics. Specifically, a 40‰ shift in δD and a 4‰ shift in both bulk OC and plant wax δ13C values between the late glacial and mid-Holocene, followed by a return to more intermediate values during the late Holocene, correlate well with regional post-glacial paleoclimate records. Sediment provenance proxies (Sr, Nd isotopic compositions) reveal that these changes coincided with a focusing of erosion on the southern flank of the Himalayan range during periods of greater monsoon strength and enhanced sediment discharge. However, OC loading, and thus carbon burial efficiency, in the Bengal Fan remained constant through time, demonstrating the primacy of physical erosion and climate-driven sediment export in marine OC sequestration. In contrast, a gradual increase in K/Si* and Ca/Si, and decrease in H2O+/Si*, throughout the study period may demonstrate the

  17. Impact of land-use on groundwater quality: GIS-based study from an alluvial aquifer in the western Ganges basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Arina; Khan, Haris Hasan; Umar, Rashid

    2017-12-01

    In this study, groundwater quality of an alluvial aquifer in the western Ganges basin is assessed using a GIS-based groundwater quality index (GQI) concept that uses groundwater quality data from field survey and laboratory analysis. Groundwater samples were collected from 42 wells during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon periods of 2012 and analysed for pH, EC, TDS, Anions (Cl, SO4, NO3), and Cations (Ca, Mg, Na). To generate the index, several parameters were selected based on WHO recommendations. The spatially variable grids of each parameter were modified by normalizing with the WHO standards and finally integrated into a GQI grid. The mean GQI values for both the season suggest good groundwater quality. However, spatial variations exist and are represented by GQI map of both seasons. This spatial variability was compared with the existing land-use, prepared using high-resolution satellite imagery available in Google earth. The GQI grids were compared to the land-use map using an innovative GIS-based method. Results indicate that the spatial variability of groundwater quality in the region is not fully controlled by the land-use pattern. This probably reflects the diffuse nature of land-use classes, especially settlements and plantations.

  18. Impact of land-use on groundwater quality: GIS-based study from an alluvial aquifer in the western Ganges basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Arina; Khan, Haris Hasan; Umar, Rashid

    2017-09-01

    In this study, groundwater quality of an alluvial aquifer in the western Ganges basin is assessed using a GIS-based groundwater quality index (GQI) concept that uses groundwater quality data from field survey and laboratory analysis. Groundwater samples were collected from 42 wells during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon periods of 2012 and analysed for pH, EC, TDS, Anions (Cl, SO4, NO3), and Cations (Ca, Mg, Na). To generate the index, several parameters were selected based on WHO recommendations. The spatially variable grids of each parameter were modified by normalizing with the WHO standards and finally integrated into a GQI grid. The mean GQI values for both the season suggest good groundwater quality. However, spatial variations exist and are represented by GQI map of both seasons. This spatial variability was compared with the existing land-use, prepared using high-resolution satellite imagery available in Google earth. The GQI grids were compared to the land-use map using an innovative GIS-based method. Results indicate that the spatial variability of groundwater quality in the region is not fully controlled by the land-use pattern. This probably reflects the diffuse nature of land-use classes, especially settlements and plantations.

  19. Hydrologic Visualization of Glacier-Driven Watersheds to Enhance Education Exchange Between Students from the US and Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta on Freshwater Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, F.

    2014-12-01

    It has been argued and demonstrated in the past that STEM outreach in the field of hydrology is effective only when it is contextualized using an actual problem that students can visualize in 'their backyard.' The Puyallup watershed, which is in the "backyard" of University of Washington (UW) and the Ganges Brahmaputra (GB) Delta (which UW Department of Civil Engineering has institutional access through an MOU with Institute of Water Modeling-IWM, Bangladesh and International Center for Integrated Mountain Development-ICIMOD, Nepal) provide an ideal opportunity to build a unique education program for US and South Asian students on global freshwater sustainability. Using a rich set of geospatial data layers, dynamic hydrologic datasets and a user-driven visualization platform called Hydro-VIZ, we present a plan on how exchange students can witness the differences in human-nature coupling of each region and share notes on the future of freshwater supply for densely-populated deltas. We discuss the development of a set of place-based learning curricular material built around two contrasting regions and the HydroVIZ platform with functionality to explore the human coupling of water sustainability.

  20. [Textual research on Guang dong xin yu (New Sayings of Guangdong) quoted in Ben cao gang mu shi yi (Supplements to Compendium of Materia Medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruixian; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jian; Liang, Fei

    2014-05-01

    Altogether 15 terms for Guang dong xin yu (New Sayings of Guangdong) were used in Ben cao gang mu shi yi (Supplements to Compendium of Materia Medica), including Yue yu (Cantonese sayings), Chong yu (Sayings from Insect Drug), Jie yu (Sayings from Crustacean Drug), Xin yu (New Sayings), Yue hai xiang yu (Fragrant Sayings from Cantonese Region), Yue zhi mu yu (Sayings from Plants in Cantonese Annals), Guang dong suo yu (Trivial Sayings from Guangdong), Yue shan lu (Records of Cantonese Mountains), Yue lu (Cantonese Records), Jiao guang lu (Joint Guangdong Records), Yue cao zhi (Records of Cantonese Grasses), Guang guo lu (Records of Guangdong Fruits), Nan yue suo ji (Trivial Records of Southern Canton), Guang zhi (Guangdong Records), Yue zhi (Cantonese Records) etc. dealing with 57 sorts of drugs (with individual overlapping ones), the author of Xin yu was Qu Dajun, a surviving fogy of the Ming Dynasty actively involved in the activities to restore the old dynasty and resist the Qing Dynasty, and was persecuted in the literary inquisition in which his works were burnt so that Zhao Xuemin, when quoting his texts, had to go in a roundabout way.

  1. Quantifying the individual contributions of melt from snow and glaciers in High Mountain Asia river basins: Syr Darya, Amu Darya, Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittger, Karl; Bair, Edward; Racoviteanu, Adina; Brodzik, Mary J.; Armstrong, Richard L.; Jodha Khalsa, Siri; Raup, Bruce; Painter, Thomas H.; Dozier, Jeff

    2017-04-01

    In High Mountain Asia, snow and glacier ice contribute to streamflow, but the respective contributions are not fully understood. We use daily maps of snow and glacier ice from MODIS at 500 m spatial resolution as input to an energy balance melt model to estimate daily snow and glacier ice contributions to streamflow. Daily maps of 1) snow over ice (SOI), 2) exposed glacier ice (EGI), and 3) snow over land (SOL) are generated using fractional snow cover, snow grain size, and annual minimum ice and snow from MODIS-derived MODSCAG and MODICE products. These maps are calibrated using semi-automated class maps from Landsat 8 at 30 m spatial resolution. We estimate snow and ice melt contributions using an uncalibrated energy balance model (ParBal) forced with CERES meteorological data. We summarize rainfall from APHRODITE for available years in the MODIS record to complete the balance of atmospheric sources of water. The ParBal model is superior for estimating snow and ice melt volumes relative to a temperature index model because it does not rely on calibration and can easily be transferred from basin to basin. It is also less sensitive to temperature biases frequently observed in reanalysis data because solar and longwave radiation contribute significant energy to melt. In cloudy regions, using CERES data is more accurate than widely-used LDAS forcing data. We compare total melt volumes from ParBal summed with rainfall from APHRODITE to streamflow in the Naryn sub-basin of the Syr Darya River basin, the Vakhsh sub-basin of the Amu Darya River basin, the Narayani, Sapta Kosi, and Karnali sub-basins of the Ganges River basin and multiple nested sub-basins of the Indus River basin. The expansive modeled geographic area captures a wide range of snow and ice conditions including: highly glacierized regions, less glacierized and more arid regions, and lower elevation regions with only seasonal snow cover and large contributions from rainfall. For example, melt from the Par

  2. Characterization of the artisanal fishing communities in Nepal and potential implications for the conservation and management of Ganges River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica gangetica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shambhu Paudel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ganges River dolphin (Platanista gangetica gangetica (GRD is classified as one of the most endangered of all cetaceans in the world and the second scarcest freshwater cetacean. The population is estimated to be less than 2,000 individuals. In Nepal’s Narayani, Sapta Koshi, and Karnali river systems, survival of GRD continues to be threatened by various anthropogenic activities, such as dam construction and interactions with artisanal fisheries. A basic description of the geographic scope, economics, and types of gear used in these fisheries would help managers understand the fishery-dolphin interaction conflict and assist with developing potential solutions. The main goal was to provide new information on the artisanal fishing communities in Nepal. The specific objectives were to identify, compile, and investigate the demographics, economics, fishing characteristics, and perception of fishermen about GRD conservation in the Narayani, Sapta Koshi, and Karnali rivers so conservation managers can develop and implement a potential solution to the GRD-fishery interaction problem in Nepal. Based on 169 interviews, 79% of Nepalese fishermen indicated fishing was their primary form of income. Fishermen reported fishing effort was greater in summer than winter; greatest in the afternoon (14:30 hrs ± 0:27 and during low water level conditions; and gear was set 4.8 ± 0.2 days/week. Fishermen reported using eight different types of monofilament nets (gillnets and cast nets. Sixty percent used gillnets less than 10 m long, and nearly 30% preferred gillnets between 10 and 100 m long; a few used gillnets longer than 100 m. Most fishermen reported they believed education, awareness, and changing occupations were important for GRD conservation, but they indicated that alternative occupational options were currently limited in Nepal. Nepalese fishermen acknowledged that fisheries posed a risk to GRD, but they believed water pollution, and dam

  3. Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in river and ground/drinking water of the Ganges River basin: Emissions and implications for human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Brij Mohan; Bharat, Girija K; Tayal, Shresth; Larssen, Thorjørn; Bečanová, Jitka; Karásková, Pavlína; Whitehead, Paul G; Futter, Martyn N; Butterfield, Dan; Nizzetto, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Many perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. They have been widely used in production processes and daily-use products or may result from degradation of precursor compounds in products or the environment. India, with its developing industrialization and population moving from traditional to contemporary lifestyles, represents an interesting case study to investigate PFAS emission and exposure along steep environmental and socioeconomic gradients. This study assesses PFAS concentrations in river and groundwater (used in this region as drinking water) from several locations along the Ganges River and estimates direct emissions, specifically for PFOS and PFOA. 15 PFAS were frequently detected in the river with the highest concentrations observed for PFHxA (0.4-4.7 ng L(-1)) and PFBS (PFAS indicates that the effects of PFOA and PFOS substitution are visible in environmental samples from India. The spatial pattern of C5-C7 PFCAs co-varied with that of PFOS suggesting similar emission drivers. PFDA and PFNA had much lower concentrations and covaried with PFOA especially in two hotspots downstream of Kanpur and Patna. PFOS and PFOA emissions to the river varied dramatically along the transect (0.20-190 and 0.03-150 g d(-1), respectively). PFOS emission pattern could be explained by the number of urban residents in the subcatchment (rather than total population). Per-capita emissions were lower than in many developed countries. In groundwater, PFBA (PFAS exposure intakes through drinking water were below safety thresholds for oral non-cancer risk in all age groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Climate Variability over India and Bangladesh from the Perturbed UK Met Office Hadley Model: Impacts on Flow and Nutrient Fluxes in the Ganges Delta System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, P. G.; Caesar, J.; Crossman, J.; Barbour, E.; Ledesma, J.; Futter, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    A semi-distributed flow and water quality model (INCA- Integrated Catchments Model) has been set up for the whole of the Ganges- Brahmaputra- Meghna (GBM) River system in India and Bangladesh. These massive rivers transport large fluxes of water and nutrients into the Bay of Bengal via the GBM Delta system in Bangladesh. Future climate change will impact these fluxes with changing rainfall, temperature, evapotranspiration and soil moisture deficits being altered in the catchment systems. In this study the INCA model has been used to assess potential impacts of climate change using the UK Met Office Hadley Centre GCM model linked to a regionally coupled model of South East Asia, covering India and Bangladesh. The Hadley Centre model has been pururbed by varying the parameters in the model to generate 17 realisations of future climates. Some of these reflect expected change but others capture the more extreme potential behaviour of future climate conditions. The 17 realisations have been used to drive the INCA Flow and Nitrogen model inorder to generate downstream times series of hydrology and nitrate- nitrogen. The variability of the climates on these fluxes are investigated and and their likley impact on the Bay of Begal Delta considered. Results indicate a slight shift in the monsoon season with increased wet season flows and increased temperatures which alter nutrient fluxes. Societal Importance to Stakeholders The GBM Delta supports one of the most densely populated regions of people living in poverty, who rely on ecosystem services provided by the Delta for survival. These ecosystem services are dependent upon fluxes of water and nutrients. Freshwater for urban, agriculture, and aquaculture requirements are essential to livelihoods. Nutrient loads stimulate estuarine ecosystems, supporting fishing stocks, which contribute significantly the economy of Bangladesh. Thus the societal importance of upstream climate driven change change in Bangladesh are very

  5. Interannual variability of temperature in the UTLS region over Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna river basin based on COSMIC GNSS RO data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandu; Awange, Joseph L.; Forootan, Ehsan

    2016-04-01

    Poor reliability of radiosonde records across South Asia imposes serious challenges in understanding the structure of upper-tropospheric and lower-stratospheric (UTLS) region. The Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) mission launched in April 2006 has overcome many observational limitations inherent in conventional atmospheric sounding instruments. This study examines the interannual variability of UTLS temperature over the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) river basin in South Asia using monthly averaged COSMIC radio occultation (RO) data, together with two global reanalyses. Comparisons between August 2006 and December 2013 indicate that MERRA (Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research Application) and ERA-Interim (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts reanalysis) are warmer than COSMIC RO data by 2 °C between 200 and 50 hPa levels. These warm biases with respect to COSMIC RO data are found to be consistent over time. The UTLS temperature show considerable interannual variability from 2006 to 2013 in addition to warming (cooling) trends in the troposphere (stratosphere). The cold (warm) anomalies in the upper troposphere (tropopause region) are found to be associated with warm ENSO (El Niño-Southern Oscillation) phase, while quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) is negatively (positively) correlated with temperature anomalies at 70 hPa (50 hPa) level. PCA (principal component analysis) decomposition of tropopause temperatures and heights over the basin indicate that ENSO accounts for 73 % of the interannual (non-seasonal) variability with a correlation of 0.77 with Niño3.4 index whereas the QBO explains about 10 % of the variability. The largest tropopause anomaly associated with ENSO occurs during the winter, when ENSO reaches its peak. The tropopause temperature (height) increased (decreased) by about 1.5 °C (300 m) during the last major El Niño event of 2009/2010. In general, we find decreasing

  6. Quaternary stratigraphy, sediment characteristics and geochemistry of arsenic-contaminated alluvial aquifers in the Ganges-Brahmaputra floodplain in central Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsudduha, M; Uddin, A; Saunders, J A; Lee, M-K

    2008-07-29

    This study focuses on the Quaternary stratigraphy, sediment composition, mineralogy, and geochemistry of arsenic (As)-contaminated alluvial aquifers in the Ganges-Brahmaputra floodplain in the central Bangladesh. Arsenic concentrations in 85 tubewells in Manikganj area, 70 km northwest of Dhaka City, range from 0.25 microg/L to 191 microg/L with a mean concentration of 33 microg/L. Groundwater is mainly Ca-HCO(3) type with high concentrations of dissolved As, Fe, and Mn, but low level of SO(4). The uppermost aquifer occurs between 10 m and 80 m below the surface that has a mean arsenic concentration of 35 microg/L. Deeper aquifer (>100 m depth) has a mean arsenic concentration of 18 microg/L. Sediments in the upper aquifer are mostly gray to dark-gray, whereas sediments in the deep aquifer are mostly yellowing-gray to brown. Quartz, feldspar, mica, hornblende, garnet, kyanite, tourmaline, magnetite, ilmenite are the major minerals in sediments from both aquifers. Biotite and potassium feldspar are dominant in shallow aquifer, although plagioclase feldspar and garnet are abundant in deep aquifer sediments. Sediment composition suggests a mixed provenance with sediment supplies from both orogenic belts and cratons. High arsenic concentrations in sediments are found within the upper 50 m in drilled core samples. Statistical analysis shows that As, Fe, Mn, Ca, and P are strongly correlated in sediments. Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Bi also show strong correlations with arsenic in the Manikganj sediment cores. Authigenic goethite concretions, possibly formed by bacteria, are found in the shallow sediments, which contain arsenic of a concentration as high as 8.8 mg/kg. High arsenic concentrations in aquifers are associated with fine-grained sediments that were derived mostly from the recycled orogens and relatively rapidly deposited mainly by meandering channels during the Early to Middle Holocene rising sea-level conditions.

  7. Functional characterisation of three zinc transporters in Thlaspi caerulescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talukdar, S.

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metal hyperaccumulation in plants is a poorly understood phenomenon. Transmembrane metal transporters are assumed to play a key role in this process. In the research described in this thesis, genes encoding Zn transporters of Thlaspi

  8. New insights on the subsidence of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta Plain by using 2D multichannel seismic data, gravity and flexural modeling, BanglaPIRE Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grall, C.; Pickering, J.; Steckler, M. S.; Spiess, V.; Seeber, L.; Paola, C.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Palamenghi, L.; Schwenk, T.

    2015-12-01

    Deltas can subside very fast, yet many deltas remain emergent over geologic time. A large sediment input is often enough to compensate for subsidence and rising sea level to keep many deltas at sea level. This implies a balance between subsidence and sedimentation, both of which may, however, be controlled by independent factors such as sediment supply, tectonic loads and sea-level change. We here examine the subsidence of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (GBD). Located in the NE boundary of the Indian-Eurasian collision zone, the GBD is surrounded by active uplifts (Indo-Burma Fold Belt and the Shillong Massif). The pattern of subsidence from these tectonic loads can strongly vary depending on both loads and lithospheric flexural rigidity, both of which can vary in space and time. Sediment cover changes both the lithostatic pressure and the thermal properties and thus the rigidity of the lithosphere. While sediments are deposited cold, they also insulate the lithosphere, acting as a thermal blanket to increase lower crustal temperatures. These effects are a function of sedimentation rates and may be more important where the lithosphere is thin. At the massive GBD the impact of sedimentation should be considered for properly constraining flexural subsidence. The flexural rigidity of the lithosphere is here modeled by using a yield-stress envelope based on a thermomechanic model that includes geothermal changes associated with sedimentation. Models are constrained by using two different data sets, multichannel seismic data correlated to borehole stratigraphy, and gravity data. This approach allows us to determine the Holocene regional distribution of subsidence from the Hinge Zone to the Bengal Fan and the mass-anomalies associated with the flexural loading. Different end-member scenarios are explored for reproducing the observed land tilting and gravity anomalies. For all scenarios considered, data can be reproduced only if we consider an extremely weak lithosphere and

  9. Modelling the increased frequency of extreme sea levels in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta due to sea level rise and other effects of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, S; Caesar, J; Wolf, J; Bricheno, L; Nicholls, R J; Saiful Islam, A K M; Haque, A; Pardaens, A; Lowe, J A

    2015-07-01

    Coastal flooding due to storm surge and high tides is a serious risk for inhabitants of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) delta, as much of the land is close to sea level. Climate change could lead to large areas of land being subject to increased flooding, salinization and ultimate abandonment in West Bengal, India, and Bangladesh. IPCC 5th assessment modelling of sea level rise and estimates of subsidence rates from the EU IMPACT2C project suggest that sea level in the GBM delta region may rise by 0.63 to 0.88 m by 2090, with some studies suggesting this could be up to 0.5 m higher if potential substantial melting of the West Antarctic ice sheet is included. These sea level rise scenarios lead to increased frequency of high water coastal events. Any effect of climate change on the frequency and severity of storms can also have an effect on extreme sea levels. A shelf-sea model of the Bay of Bengal has been used to investigate how the combined effect of sea level rise and changes in other environmental conditions under climate change may alter the frequency of extreme sea level events for the period 1971 to 2099. The model was forced using atmospheric and oceanic boundary conditions derived from climate model projections and the future scenario increase in sea level was applied at its ocean boundary. The model results show an increased likelihood of extreme sea level events through the 21st century, with the frequency of events increasing greatly in the second half of the century: water levels that occurred at decadal time intervals under present-day model conditions occurred in most years by the middle of the 21st century and 3-15 times per year by 2100. The heights of the most extreme events tend to increase more in the first half of the century than the second. The modelled scenarios provide a case study of how sea level rise and other effects of climate change may combine to produce a greatly increased threat to life and property in the GBM delta by the end

  10. River Modeling in Large and Ungauged Basins: Experience of Setting up the HEC RAS Model over the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, F.; Maswood, M.

    2014-12-01

    River modeling is the processing of setting up a physically-based hydrodynamic model that can simulate the water flow dynamics of a stream network against time varying boundary conditions. Such river models are an important component of any flood forecasting system that forecasts river levels in flood prone regions. However, many large river basins in the developing world such as the Ganges, Brahmaputra, Meghna (GBM), Indus, Irrawaddy, Salween, Mekong and Niger are mostly ungauged. Such large basins lack the necessary in-situ measurements of river bed depth/slope, bathymetry (river cross section), floodplain mapping and boundary condition flows for forcing a river model. For such basins, proxy approaches relying mostly on remote sensing data from space platforms are the only alternative. In this study, we share our experience of setting up the widely-used 1-D river model over the entire GBM basin and its stream network. Good quality in-situ measurements of river hydraulics (cross section, slope, flow) was available only for the downstream and flood prone region of the basin, which comprises only 7% of the basin area. For the remaining 93% of the basin area, we resorted to the use of data from the following satellite sensors to build a workable river model: a) Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) for deriving bed slope; b) LANDSAT/MODIS for updating river network and flow direction generated by elevation data; c) radar altimetry data to build depth versus width relationship at river locations; d) satellite precipitation based hydrologic modeling of lateral flows into main stem rivers. In addition, we referred to an extensive body of literature to estimate the prevailing baseline hydraulics of rivers in the ungauged region. We measured success of our approach by systematically testing how well the basin-wide river model could simulate river level dynamics at two measured locations inside Bangladesh. Our experience of river modeling was replete with numerous

  11. Interannual variability of upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric (UTLS) region over Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna basin based on COSMIC GNSS RO data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandu; Awange, J.; Forootan, E.

    2015-09-01

    Poor reliability of radiosonde observational networks across South Asia imposes serious challenges in understanding climate variability and thermodynamic structure of the upper-tropospheric and lower-stratospheric (UTLS) region. The Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) mission launched in April 2006 have overcome many observational limitations that are inherent in conventional atmospheric sounding instruments. This study investigated the interannual variability of the UTLS region over the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) basin based on COSMIC radio occultation (RO) data from August 2006 to December 2013. Detailed comparisons were also made with various different radiosonde types and Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) products. The results indicated that Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) radiosondes performed poorly despite upgrading to newer techniques. ShangE (of China) sonde showed the best agreement with COSMIC RO data with a mean temperature difference of -0.06 °C and a standard deviation of 1.44 °C while the older version (ShangM) indicated a cold bias of 0.61 °C in the UTLS region. The inter-annual variability of temperature in the UTLS region based on COSMIC RO data indicated a clear pattern of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) while the stratospheric temperature anomalies reflected all three major Sudden Stratospheric Warming (SSW) events since 2007. The mean tropopause temperature varied from -70 to -80 °C, with an average height of about 15.5 to 16.3 km from winter to summer, indicating a pronounced annual cycle. The annual amplitudes of tropopause were found to be in the order of 0-6 °C and 0-1.5 km from tropical south to subtropical north. The anomalies of tropopause temperature and height exhibited the patterns of ENSO and IOD exceptionally well with a correlation of 0.65 and -0.52, respectively. The temperature data from Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research

  12. Patterns of Downstream Fining and Facies Change Reflecting Differing Modes of Mid-Holocene Sediment Dispersal across the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sincavage, R.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Paola, C.

    2016-12-01

    The removal of sediment mass to deposition in sedimentary systems creates predictable patterns of downstream fining and facies changes. We examine the mid-Holocene sedimentary record of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta (GBMD) in a mass balance framework to demonstrate a shift from bypass-dominated to extraction enhanced modes of sediment dispersal. A prolonged ( 3000 year) occupation of the tectonically-influenced Sylhet Basin occurred from 7.5-4.5 ka, producing thick (20-30 m) packages of channel sands and splay deposits. Sediment was initially ( 7.5-6.0 ka) routed along the western edge of Sylhet Basin, where confinement in antecedent valleys promoted bypass to downstream depocenters. This bypass dominance is reflected in low rates of downstream fining, minimal variability in percent sand values, and persistent channel sand preservation. At 6.0-5.5 ka, the system shifted to an extraction enhanced mode of sediment dispersal, as a large (3500 km2) splay developed northeast of the main sediment delivery pathway. Evidence for this shift includes rapid downstream fining and the prevalence of lower net:gross values in facies preserved in the deepest parts of the central basin. This pattern of deposition persists through the end of the occupation ( 4.5 ka) as reflected in another large ( 4000 km2) splay along the Shillong Foredeep at the basin's northern margin. The spatial distribution of sediment mass contained in each of the three pathways was apportioned spatially to calculate chi, a scale-independent dimensionless downstream distance that represents the total percent of supplied sediment flux lost to deposition at any given point in the system. Both of the splay deposits contain distinct facies shifts and a reduction in net:gross at a chi value of 0.6. The bypass-dominated pathway does not contain a full depositional length, meaning that true chi values cannot be calculated. However, a similar facies change and decrease in percent sand occurs at a geographic

  13. Enhancing University Courses and Field Schools through Cross-cultural Exchange: Joint US-Bangladeshi Trips to the Ganges-Brahmaputra and Mississippi Deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckler, M. S.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Lowes, S.; Gilligan, J. M.; Ackerly, B.; Ahmed, K. M.; Akhter, S. H.; Sousa, D.; Wilson, C.; Datta, D. K.; Roy, K.; Mondal, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    As part of an NSF PIRE grant, we have led four field trips for undergraduate, MS and PhD students to large deltaic systems. Three trips took US students to the Ganges-Brahmaputra (GB) delta in Bangladesh and one brought Bangladeshi faculty and students to the Mississippi (Miss.) delta in the US. An essential component in the learning process and overall experience of each trip was that ~2/5 of the participants were students and professors from Bangladesh. In all cases, the involvement of a substantial international cohort greatly broadened perspectives on the topics being covered. For example, in GBD the local geologic and cultural knowledge of the Bangladeshis deepened the learning and engagement of the US students, an outcome that was almost universally noted in student reviews. The trips received similar feedback from Bangladeshi participants, as they had an enthusiastic and engaged audience of peers from the US. Even for the Miss. delta trip, the Bangladeshis added a unique perspective from a nation that faces similar environmental issues. These overwhelmingly positive contributions have been experienced in several different contexts. Three trips were associated with US courses and run over Spring Break. One matched sustainable development undergrads at Columbia U. with geology undergrads from Dhaka U., and two others matched a mixed group of graduate and undergrad students from Vanderbilt U. with cohorts from Bangladesh. The fourth trip was a stand-alone Field School for PhD students from 14 US universities and mostly MS students from 4 Bangladeshi universities. The focus of each trip ranged from broader surveys of tectonic, fluvial and coastal processes to investigations of geology and people affected by tropical storms. Of particular interest was the success of mixing undergrad and graduate students in the Vanderbilt course, which centered on the intersection of social sciences, physical sciences, and engineering. In this case, undergrads engaged in a

  14. El consumo de drogas como una práctica cultural dentro de las pandillas O uso de drogas como prática cultural dentro de gangues Drugs use as a cultural practice within gangs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rafael Guzmán-Facundo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente el fenómeno social del narcotráfico y la violencia relacionada a la drogas ha minimizado las implicaciones del consumo de drogas en pandillas. Este artículo se basa en entrevistas semi-estructuradas a profundidad de un estudio realizado con jóvenes de pandillas del área Metropolitana de Nuevo León, México, con el objetivo de reflexionar y analizar el consumo de drogas como práctica cultural dentro de las pandillas. En la búsqueda del significado, lo primero que se muestra es el inicio de los miembros de pandillas en el consumo de drogas, y se describe la forma en que las drogas le son presentadas por la familia y/o los amigos miembros de la pandilla. Posteriormente se describe el significado del uso de drogas en la vida cotidiana de las pandillas y se observa en qué medida su uso es aceptable y normalizado.O fenômeno social do narcotráfico e da violência, relacionada às drogas, tende, atualmente, a minimizar os envolvimentos do consumo de drogas em gangues. Esse artigo se baseia em entrevistas, aprofundadas, de estudo realizado com jovens de gangues, na área Metropolitana de Nuevo León, México, com o objetivo de refletir e analisar o consumo de drogas como prática cultural, dentro das gangues. Na busca do significado, a primeira coisa mostrada é o início dos membros de gangues no uso de drogas, e se descreve a forma em que as drogas são apresentadas pela família e pelos amigos, membros das gangues. Em seguida, descreve-se o significado do uso de drogas na vida cotidiana e mostra até que ponto sua utilização é aceitável e normal.Today, the social phenomenon of drugs trafficking and violence related to drugs has tended to minimize the implications of drugs consumption in gangs. This article is based on in-depth interviews in young gangs in the metropolitan area of Nuevo León, Mexico, with a view to reflecting on and analyzing the drug as a cultural practice within gangs. In the search for meaning, the first

  15. Refugees from Central American gangs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth G Kennedy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras are among the world’s mostfragile nations, yet they are largely ignored by refugee agencies whounderestimate transnational criminal organisations’ abuses andpowers of control, while overestimating national governments’ abilityand willingness to protect their citizens.

  16. Surface atmosphere exchange in dry and a wet regime over the Ganges valley: a comprehensive investigation with direct observations and numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyanadh, Anusha; Prabhakaran, Thara; Karipot, Anandakumar

    2017-04-01

    Land atmosphere interactions in the Ganges Valley basin is a topic of significant importance as it is most vulnerable region due to extreme weather, air pollution, etc. The complete energy balance observations over this region was conducted as part of the CAIPEEX-IGOC (Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement Experiment - Integrated Ground based Observational Campaign) experiment for an entire year. These observations give first insight into the partitioning of energy in this vulnerable environment during the dry and wet regimes, which are typically part of the intraseasonal oscillations during the Indian monsoon season. These transitions wet-dry and dry-wet are poorly represented in GCMs and is the motivation for the detailed investigation here. Observations conducted with micrometeorological tower instrumented with eddy covariance sensors, radiation balance, soil heat flux measurements, microwave radiometer, sodar, radiosonde data are used in the present study. A set of numerical investigations of different Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) schemes is also carried out to investigate features of the diurnal cycle during the wet and dry regimes. General behaviour of both local and nonlocal PBL schemes found from the investigation is to accomplish enhanced mixing, leading to a deeper PBL in the valley. However, observations give clear evidence of residual boundary layer characterised by a weak stratification, playing a key role in the exchange of PBL air mass with that of free atmosphere. Impact of changes in parameterization and controlling factors on the PBL height are investigated. Case studies for a dry phase during the incidence of a heat wave and a wet phase during a land depression are presented. Observed diurnal features of the surface meteorological parameters including the surface energy budget components were well captured by local and nonlocal PBL schemes during both the cases. Vertical profiles of temperature, mixing ratio and winds from

  17. La deformación mediática de los jóvenes pandilleros; A deformação midiática dos jovens pandilleros; Media Deformation of Young Gang Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo César Moreno Hernández

    2016-07-01

    society from recognizing them as vulnerable and breached subjects. In this way, society accepts criminal law legislation of the enemy, which not only detracts from the exercise of political and fundamental rights of young gang members but also from all citizens.   Key words: transnational gangs, criminalization, youth, de-citizenization, moral panic.

  18. Forecasting Flooding in the Brahmaputra and Ganges Delta of Bangladesh on Short (1-10 days), Medium (20-30 days) and Seasonal Time Scales (1-6 months)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, P. J.; Hoyos, C. D.; Hopson, T. M.; Chang, H.; Jian, J.

    2007-12-01

    Following the devastating flood years of 1998 during which 60% of Bangladesh was under water for a period of 3 months, the Climate Forecast Applications in Bangladesh (CFAB) project was formed with funding by USAID and NSF which eventually resulted in a joint project with the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF), the Asian Disaster Preparedness Centre (ADPC) and the Bangladesh Flood Forecasting and Warning Centre. The project was organized and developed through the Georgia Institute of Technology. The aim of CFAB was to develop innovative methods of extending the warning of flooding in Bangladesh noting that there was a unique problem: India provided no upstream discharge data to Bangladesh so that before CFAB the maximum lead time of a forecast was that given by measuring river discharge at the India-Bangladesh border: no lead-time at the border and 2 days in the southern parts of the country. Given that the Brahmaputra and Ganges catchment areas had to be regarded as essentially unguaged, it was clear that innovative techniques had to be developed. On of the basic criterion was that the system should provide probabilistic forecasts in order for the Bangladeshis to assess risk. A three-tier system was developed to allow strategic and tactical decisions to be made for agricultural purposes and disaster mitigation: seasonal (1-6 months: strategic), medium range (20-30 days: strategic/tactical) and short range (1-10 days: tactical). The system that has been developed brings together for the first time operational meteorological forecasts (ensemble forecasts from ECMWF), with satellite and discharge data and a suite of hydrological models. In addition, with ADPC and FFWC we have developed an in-country forecast dispersion system that allows a rapid dissemination. The system has proven to be rather successful, especially in the short range. The flooding events of 2004 were forecast with all forecasting tiers at the respective lead time. In

  19. Strategic Gang Scheduling for Railroad Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    We address the railway track maintenance scheduling problem. The problem stems from the : significant percentage of the annual budget invested by the railway industry for maintaining its railway : tracks. The process requires consideration of human r...

  20. Die onstuitbare gang van die wetenskap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Ten einde nie in té vae algemeenhede te verval nie, sal skrywervan hierdie standpunt hom beperk tot die natuurwetenskap, endan slegs tot enkele terreine binne hierdie bepaalde gebied.

  1. Contract gangs: race, gender and vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Goodall

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available While violence directed at Indian students in Australian cities has been highlighted in the Indian and Australian press, far less attention has been paid to the violence directed at Indians in rural areas. This has most often involved Indians employed in contract labour in seasonal industries like fruit or vegetable picking. This article reviews various media accounts, both urban and rural, of violence directed at Indians from 2009 to 2012. It draws attention to the far longer history of labour exploitation which has taken place in rural and urban Australia in contract labour conditions and the particular invisibility of rural settings for such violence. Racial minorities, like Aboriginal and Chinese workers, and women in agriculture and domestic work, have seldom had adequate power to respond industrially or politically. This means that in the past, these groups been particularly vulnerable to such structural exploitation. The paper concludes by calling for greater attention not only to the particular vulnerability of Indians in rural settings but to the wider presence of racialised and gendered exploitation enabled by contract labour structures.

  2. Sportsmans Road/Gangs Bayou 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Measured fine-scale distributions of nekton on the vegetated marsh surface using drop samplers and utilized these patterns to estimate population size. Natant...

  3. "I virkeligheden lurer katastrofen hver gang"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmboe, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    artFREQ. – eller artFREQUENCY – som navnet lyder i sin helhed, har gennem de seneste 6 år stået for nogle af de mest spektakulære musikalske begivenheder på den københavnske scene. Seismograf/DMT har mødt kunstnerisk leder, Lars Top-Galia til en snak om kvalitet, intuition, radikal højkultur og om...

  4. Isolation and identification of 4-a-rhamnosyloxy benzyl glucosinolate in Noccaea caerulescens showing intraspecific variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de R.M.; Krosse, S.; Swolfs, A.E.M.; Brinke, te E.; Prill, N.; Leimu, R.; Galen, van P.M.; Wang, Y.; Aarts, M.G.M.; Dam, van N.M.

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolates are secondary plant compounds typically found in members of the Brassicaceae and a few other plant families. Usually each plant species contains a specific subset of the ~130 different glucosinolates identified to date. However, intraspecific variation in glucosinolate profiles is

  5. Functional analysis of zinc hyperaccumulation related genes of Noccaea (Thlaspi) caerulescens for phytoremediation purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassan, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) are toxic metals that can cause serious soil contamination when present in excess. Especially Cd exposure is a threat to human health. Plants can potentially be used to clean-up the Zn- and/or Cd-contaminated soils in a technology called “Phytoremediation”. Two

  6. Social adaptation of Latin American youth gangs in Spain: Gangs and street youth organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Soriano Gatica

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article carries out a brief summary of the evolution of the phenomenon of what are known as “Latino gangs” in Spain since the late 1990s. The upsurge of these new street youth organisations is closely linked with the mass arrival of thousands of young Latin Americans in Spain during the past decade, and the consequent integration challenges that this has brought for both the welcoming society and for the young newcomers. In the sphere of public policy inSpain, there have been two main approaches to the phenomenon: one which is more oriented towards repression than prevention, and the other, known as the “Barcelona model”, which has promoted a process of normalisation and integration of these groups into Spanish society. The second option makes it possible for different social actors to carry out coordinated actions, and may serve as a guideline for developing similar initiatives in different countries in Europe and Latin America.

  7. The Gang’s All Here: The Globalization of Gang Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    and vendettas (Braga, Kennedy, and Tita 2002). This leads one to assume that populations with high levels of juvenile delinquency may be fertile ...Drug Offenses Region and country Cannabis Amphetamines EsayCocaine Opiates Trafficking . Drug Offenses cases per 100,000 of nationality or Source POP

  8. Trastornos por consumo de alcohol (AUDIT en adolescentes y jovenes marginales de bandas juveniles de Mexico Transtornos por consumo de álcool (AUDIT em adolescentes e jovens marginais de bandos juvenis do México Alcohol consumption disorder (AUDIT for marginal adolescents and youth from juvenile gangs of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rafael Guzmán Facundo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Adolescentes y jóvenes que pertenecen a bandas juveniles con frecuencia son omitidos de las encuestas nacionales sobre consumo de alcohol y drogas. El objetivo del estudio fue conocer los trastornos por consumo de alcohol, y analizar el efecto de factores personales sobre estos, en 125 adolescentes y jóvenes margínales de bandas juveniles de Monterrey, NL. México. Los resultados indicaron que 70% mostró consumo excesivo, 62% se clasificó con consumo perjudicial y el 50% con dependencia. Los factores que más contribuyeron en la predicción del consumo excesivo fueron la edad, sexo y el bajo nivel educativo, para el consumo perjudicial fueron la edad y problemas de salud mental, y para el consumo dependiente fueron la edad, los años de escolaridad y los problemas de salud mental. Estos resultados posibilitarán la reflexión de la necesidad de diseñar programas adecuados dirigidos a la prevención en este grupo de jóvenes marginales.Adolescentes e jovens que pertencem a bandos juvenis com freqüência são omitidos dos estudos nacionais sobre consumo de álcool e drogas. O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi conhecer os transtornos por consumo de álcool e analisar o efeito de fatores pessoais sobre estes, em 125 adolescentes e jovens marginais de bandos juvenis do México. Os resultados mostraram que 70% têm consumo excessivo, 62% se classificou em um consumo prejudicial, e o 50% com dependência. Os fatores que maior contribuíram na predição do consumo excessivo foram a idade, sexo e o baixo nível educacional, para o consumo prejudicial foram a idade e os problemas de saúde mental, e para o consumo dependente foram a idade, os anos de escolaridade e os problemas de saúde mental. Estes resultados possibilitaram a reflexão da necessidade de elaboração de programas adequados direcionados à prevenção neste grupo de jovens.Adolescents and youngers who are involved in gangs, are frequently excluded from the national surveys about

  9. Protein Biochemistry and Expression Regulation of Cadmium/Zinc Pumping ATPases in the Hyperaccumulator Plants Arabidopsis halleri and Noccaea caerulescens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mishra, S.; Mishra, Archana; Küpper, Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, May 22 (2017), č. článku 835. ISSN 1664-462X R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_003/0000336 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : cellular compartmentation * zinc homeostasis * cadmium * metal hyperaccumulator plants Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.298, year: 2016

  10. Mexico/USA. Magtkamp om muren er i gang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelardi, Maiken

    2017-01-01

    Trump skaber nervøsitet i Mexico. Men vil et svagere Mexico få uoverskuelige konsekvenser for USA?......Trump skaber nervøsitet i Mexico. Men vil et svagere Mexico få uoverskuelige konsekvenser for USA?...

  11. The Trauma Response Team: a Community Intervention for Gang Violence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jennings-Bey, Timothy; Lane, Sandra D; Rubinstein, Robert A; Bergen-Cico, Dessa; Haygood-El, Arnett; Hudson, Helen; Sanchez, Shaundel; Fowler, Frank L

    2015-01-01

    .... The Trauma Response Team was established in 2010, in collaboration with the Police Department, health care institutions, and emergency response teams and with the research support of Syracuse University faculty...

  12. Gang Free: Influencing Friendship Choices in Today's World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Valerie

    This book presents information as to how teenagers select their friends. Material was garnered through a review of the literature and hundreds of interviews. The book opens with a focus on how teenagers make friends, and includes such issues as the power of self, finding groups, peer impact, the merging process, seeking significance, and putting…

  13. Criminal gangs as perpetrators and 'protectors' | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-10-28

    Oct 28, 2015 ... ... deeply embedded, residents would not call for police under any circumstances, out of fear of reprisals. The introduction of Policing and Pacification Units initially reduced some forms of crime, but left residents walking a tightrope: they may suffer retribution from drug traffickers if they cooperate with police.

  14. Praxis development in relation to gang conflicts in Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche; Hussain, Khaled; Møller-Andersen, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    The primary question addressed in this article is how to understand and produce praxis development in the complex and contentious field of street communities of young marginalized men, an area highlighted almost on a daily basis in the Danish media under headlines with terms such as ‘foreigner...

  15. Gezamenlijke toetsontwikkeling op Erwinia chrysanthemi in volle gang

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van J.; Dees, R.H.L.; Martin, W.S.; Vreeburg, P.J.M.; Leeuwen, van P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Erwinia bezorgde menig ondernemer de afgelopen jaren de nodige hoofdbrekens. Onderzoek door PPO reikte al een aantal oplossingen aan. Nader onderzoek is gedaan naar de mogelijkheid om partijen te toetsen. In dit artkel de achtergronden bij dit onderzoek

  16. EL ATILA DEL GANGES EN LA GANADERÍA COLOMBIANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Gallini

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo explora las lógicas y discursos que fueron instrumento para el proceso que, en las primeras tres décadas del siglo XX, gestó el cambio genético de la ganadería colombiana, es decir, su "cebuización". Se estudian en particular las ideas que los discursos expertos expresaron acerca de la relación entre razas vacunas y medio ambiente, y los debates acerca de las defensas de las razas criollas, europeas y cebuinas respectivamente.

  17. Portrette in my gang. Dolf van Niekerk. Pretoria: Protea Boekhuis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Van Niekerk is daar nie 'n samehang of sluiting van teenstellings nie soos Cloete dikwels verdig en dikwels baie goed; die spanning word nie opgelos nie; dit word gelate aanvaar in wat lyk na 'n nederige, agnostiese oorgawe (“Visbaai”, 59, my kursivering). En in “Paradigma”: “En elke geslag. / sal telkens 'n kopskuif maak ...

  18. Forsker: De danske kommuner er godt i gang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    2015-01-01

    Debat: Skal de overordnede målsætninger om et fossilfrit dansk energisystem nås, er det nødvendigt, at kommunerne er aktive og formår at udnytte alle forhåndenværende redskaber til fremme af bæredygtig energi, skriver RUC-lektor Thomas Budde Christensen....

  19. A Social Movement Theory Typology of Gang Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    than “2,800 arrests; 5,000 probation and parole searches; and 21,000 traffic and pedestrian stops,” Police Chief Fetherolf considers the continued...unfortunate by product of having a family member on parole or probation is that we are allowed to enter their place of residence to conduct a...of parolees or those on probation will fail to view their loved ones as criminals. Instead, the community regards parolees as victims of corrupt

  20. Ganging Up on Brain Metastases | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    When primary tumors metastasize to the brain, the prognosis for patients is poor. The currently accepted treatment is whole-brain radiation therapy, and the median survival time is several months. Since these types of tumors form in 10 to 30 percent of adult cancer patients, improvements in treatment methods are a necessity.  

  1. Potentiale for overflytning af korte bilture til cykel og gang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda; Jensen, Thomas Christian

    Formålet med dette paper er at belyse mulighederne for at få en større del af de korte ture i bil afviklet til fods eller på cykel for herigennem at opnå en miljø- og sundhedsmæssig gevinst. I projektet er op-stillet en logistisk valgmodel, der anvendes til at belyse, hvilke forhold, der især har...

  2. Science fiction (SF - wat is eintlik aan die gang?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. W. Venter

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available ’n Paar jaar gelede was daar ’n uitstalling in die Everard Read Galery in Johannesburg. Dit was ’n versameling kunswerke in die vorm van hologramme en apparaat wat ’n mens die geleentheid gegee het om rekenaargeskepte “skynwerklikhede” of “virtual realities” te ervaar. Die uitstaller was Don Searll en hy het die uitstalling “Haptics” genoem.

  3. Bacterial gangs: United and strong by means of quorum sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuipers, Oscar P.; Kovács, Ákos T.

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms can effectively communicate with each other. They share information about their community size (quorum), and thereby their nutrient requirement, then take appropriate action such as moving away. They use signalling molecules to coordinate their behaviour. These compounds, like simi...... similar molecules in humans, are called pheromones....

  4. The Sweet Valley High Gang Goes to College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litton, Joyce A.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the first 14 books of the "Sweet Valley University" series. Finds that the storylines on sex send conflicting messages that make readers believe that premarital sex is not an important issue. Notes that date rape and a brief look at racism and alcohol abuse are the only serious topics addressed. (RS)

  5. The marine Element in the Fauna of the Ganges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annandale, N.; D.Sc.,

    1922-01-01

    In discussing the aquatic fauna of Europe we are accustomed to divide it into two sections, the marine fauna and that of fresh water. With a few exceptions, such as that of the Decapod Crustacean Palaemonetes varians in brackish water in Northern Europe (and in fresh water in the Mediterranean

  6. Personal and interpersonal risk factors in the consumption of illicit drugs by marginal adolescents and young people from juvenile gangs Factores de riesgo personales e interpersonales en el consumo drogas ilícitas en adolescentes y jóvenes marginales de bandas juveniles Fatores de risco pessoais e interpessoais no consumo de drogas ilícitas em adolescentes e jovens marginais de bandos juvenis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rafael Guzmán Facundo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Marginal populations are groups which are known to present higher risks of drug consumption. It is possible to identify adolescents and young people from juvenile gangs that constitute this group. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of personal and interpersonal risk factors of drug consumption in 175 marginal adolescents and young people who belong to juvenile gangs in Mexico. Results showed a significant effect of personal factors on drug use, with an estimated variation of 26.1%. The factors that presented the highest rates were: gender, age and mental problems. The interpersonal factors (relationships with friends who have maladaptive behaviors and inappropriate relationships with parents showed an effect with an estimated variation of 15%. These results will allow for reflection and, in the future, the elaboration of adequate preventive programs aimed at this group of young people.Grupos reconocidos con mayor riesgo para consumir drogas, son los marginales, dentro de estos podemos localizar a los adolescentes y jóvenes de bandas juveniles. El objetivo del estudio fue analizar el efecto de los factores de riesgo personales e interpersonales sobre el consumo de drogas, en 175 adolescentes y jóvenes margínales de bandas juveniles de México. Los resultados mostraron efecto significativo de los factores personales sobre el consumo de drogas, con una varianza explicada del 26.1%, los factores que mostraron una mayor contribución fueron; el sexo, edad y problemas de salud mental. Los factores interpersonales (relación con amigos con conductas mal adaptadas y relación inapropiada con padres mostraron un efecto sobre el consumo de drogas, con una varianza explicada del 15%. Estos resultados posibilitarán la reflexión y en un futuro diseñar programas adecuados dirigidos a la prevención en este grupo de jóvenes.Grupos reconhecidos com maior risco para o consumo de drogas, são os de populações marginais, e, dentro destas

  7. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13335-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Thlaspi caerulescens phytochelatin... 268 3e-70 FJ406049_1( FJ406049 |pid:none) Thlaspi caerulescens phytochelatin...3e-70 AB085627_1( AB085627 |pid:none) Thlaspi caerulescens TcPCS mRNA fo... 267 4e-70 AM265632_1( AM265632...1e-67 EU263059_1( EU263059 |pid:none) Thlaspi caerulescens phytochelatin... 259 1e-67 AY235426_1( AY235426

  8. Dicty_cDB: SLE573 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Thlaspi caerulescens phytochelatin... 231 3e-59 FJ406049_1( FJ406049 |pid:none) Thlaspi caerulescens phytochelatin...4e-59 AB085627_1( AB085627 |pid:none) Thlaspi caerulescens TcPCS mRNA fo... 231 4e-59 AP008211_1182( AP008211

  9. Can Counter-Gang Models be Applied to Counter ISIS’s Internet Recruitment Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    magazine, where the world will end, and Allah will judge who goes to hell and who goes to heaven.17 ISIS and its estimated sixty thousand followers...information amongst themselves. With considerable effort from project leaders, these communication barriers eventually receded, though it took

  10. Gangs and Terrorist: Dangerous Classmates in Minnesota’s Somali Community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Brown

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Morning television programs are suddenly interrupted across the world as pictures of frightened people running panicked through downtown city streets fill the airwaves.  In the background, smoke and flames billow from a towering icon of the cityscape.  Panic grips the US as security goes on high alert across the nation, bringing a virtual standstill to transportation and commerce.  The Commodities Exchange closes during the middle of the day sending shockwaves through the global financial establishment.

  11. Childhood Adversity and the Continued Exposure to Trauma and Violence Among Adolescent Gang Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Katherine; Pacella, Maria L; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Nydegger, Liesl A

    2017-03-01

    This study investigates interfaith groups from across the United States to understand how these religious settings may serve as mediating structures to facilitate individual political action. Based on a multilevel modeling analysis with 169 individuals from 25 interfaith groups, we found that core activities of the group, such as group members sharing community information (e.g., announcing upcoming events, political meetings, community issues) or sharing religious information (e.g., educating members about their religion) positively and negatively predicted individual political action as a result of group participation, respectively. Moreover, a sense that the interfaith group served as a community to work for local change, but not trust within the group, predicted political action as a result of group participation. However, this effect for a sense the group served as a community to work for local change was stronger and more positive as the degree of community information sharing in the group increased. These results show that a core activity of sharing community information may enhance the ability of a group to mediate political action. Overall, these findings demonstrate the potential role of interfaith groups to mediate political action, and show the importance of considering both individual and group characteristics when understanding these religious settings. Limitations and directions for future research are also discussed. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  12. Drug Cartels and Gangs in Mexico and Central America: A View through the Lens of Counterinsurgency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    On June 6, 2009, two Mexican soldiers and 16 drug cartel hit-men died in a fierce gun battle near Acapulco . The Mexican Army, sent to act on an...Samuel Goldsmith, “Two-hour gunfight leaves 16 cartel gunmen, 2 Mexican soldiers dead in bloody Acapulco hostage fight,” New York Daily News, June 7...accessed January 14, 2010). 24William Booth, “ Acapulco Gun Battle Leaves 18 Dead,” The Washington Post, June 8, 2009, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn

  13. Da Sherlock Holmes kom til Danmark første gang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Palle Schantz

    2011-01-01

    Præsentation og analyse af Holmes-figurens udvikling i populærkulturen med udgangspunkt i det succesfulde teaterstykke "Sherlock Holmes" fra 1901......Præsentation og analyse af Holmes-figurens udvikling i populærkulturen med udgangspunkt i det succesfulde teaterstykke "Sherlock Holmes" fra 1901...

  14. Gangs, Soldiers and "Idle Girls": Constructions of Youth and Development in World Bank Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttrell-Rowland, Mikaela

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the World Bank's recent World Development Report on youth and development (2007) as an empirical example to explore the links between the employment of "group identity" and the use of policy frameworks. Drawing on feminist theory to analyse the representations of young people put forward within the report, this article…

  15. 76 FR 61279 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Cargo Riding Gang Member (DFARS Case...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... (DFARS) to implement section 3504 of the National Defense ] Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2009... Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for Fiscal Year (FY) 2009 (Pub. L. 110-417). Section 3504 amended section.... nonimmigrant visa for an individual to enter the U.S. temporarily for business as required for an alien to be...

  16. Delincuencia juvenil y pandillerismo: Hombre y sociedad/Juvenile delinquency and gang: Man and society

    OpenAIRE

    Rolando Barraza Pérez (México)

    2009-01-01

    La creciente descomposición social y la perdida de valores, han atrapado a un buen número de nuestros jóvenes en conductas delictivas altamente peligrosas, según detecté en las investigaciones de campo, la iniciación en grandes ciudades se puede dar desde los 8 años en adelante, porque en el primer plano el niño aprende de la conducta de sus padres, si desde esa instancia tenemos un ambiente de incertidumbre, donde están de por medio los gritos, los golpes físicos y morales, nuestros niños o ...

  17. El Atila del Ganges en la ganadería colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Gallini

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available El artículo explora las lógicas y discursos que fueron instrumento para el proceso que, en las primeras tres décadasdel siglo XX, gestó el cambio genético de la ganadería colombiana, es decir, su “cebuización”. Se estudian en particularlas ideas que los discursos expertos expresaron acerca de la relación entre razas vacunas y medio ambiente, y los debatesacerca de las defensas de las razas criollas, europeas y cebuinas respectivamente.

  18. gang" maar gebruik dit hier nie. B. G EM SER . TEK SV ERBETER IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    ROM . 1:3 EN 4.— Die Afrikaanse Vertaling lui. „aangaande sy seun wat gebore is na die vlees uit die geslag van Dawid (3) en na die Gees van heiligheid met krag verklaar is as die Seun van God deur die opstanding van die dode, Jesus Christus, onse Here, (4)." A s ons mag aanneem dat die skryf van „seun" hier met 'n ...

  19. Kemi. Nu går klima-manipulationen i gang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gregers; Jacobsen, Stefan Gaarsmand

    2017-01-01

    Analyse. De globale klimamål vil næppe blive nået. Det får nu både politikere og videnskabsfolk til at overveje farlige eksperimenter med manipulation af atmosfæren.......Analyse. De globale klimamål vil næppe blive nået. Det får nu både politikere og videnskabsfolk til at overveje farlige eksperimenter med manipulation af atmosfæren....

  20. State and Nonstate Associated Gangs: Credible ’Midwives of New Social Orders’

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    movement can be achieved.14 This is not the rhetoric of a deranged dreamer . It is, significantly, the rhetoric of an individual who is performing...dream of a return to the glories of the 8th–15th centuries understand that such a dream cannot be fulfilled overnight. And these dreamers know that

  1. Flexible strategies for coping with rainfall variability : seasonal adjustments in cropped area in the Ganges basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siderius, C.; Biemans, H.J.A.; Walsum, van P.E.V.; Ierland, van E.C.; Hellegers, P.J.G.J.

    2016-01-01

    One of the main manifestations of climate change is expected to be increased rainfall variability. How to deal with this in agriculture will be a major societal challenge. In this paper we explore flexibility in land use, through deliberate seasonal adjustments in cropped area, as a specific

  2. Anti-social sociability: Mary Shelley and the Posthumous "Pisa Gang"

    OpenAIRE

    Sheridan, Claire

    2013-01-01

    This article draws on recent criticism of Romantic biography, as well as scholarly attention to Romantic sociability and Romantic afterlives, to revise our understanding of how Percy Shelley’s literary reputation was shaped and preserved by his friends immediately after his death. \\ud \\ud Julian North's 2009 book on biography in the Romantic period, The Domestication of Genius, makes a crucial reassessment of the role of biography in our understanding of the Romantic poets. In her discussion ...

  3. Teens and blogs network An online community emerging from a teenage gang

    OpenAIRE

    Fluckiger, Cédric

    2008-01-01

    International audience; New communication tools at disposal of teenagers renew the forms of the progressive emancipation towards family that results in the adhesion to youth culture and the appearance of teenage forms of sociability (DE SINGLY, 2006 ; PASQUIER, 2005). For some years, French teenagers massively adopted blogs as a social media. Indeed, for teenagers, blogs provided by the Skyblog platform take the form of a massive generational phenomenon. Through blogs, teenagers aim at stayin...

  4. Small Town Insurgency: The Struggle for Information Dominance to Reduce Gang Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    29 b. Unity of Effort The well-known organizational theorist Richard Daft succinctly captures the importance of a shared common vision in the...Dominance, and Information Warfare. 73 Richard L. Daft and Ann Armstrong, "Fundamentals of Organizational Structure," in Organizational Theory and...CA: Roxbury Publishing Company, 2003. 244 Daft , Richard L. Essentials of Organization Theory & Design. 2nd ed. Cincinnati, Ohio: South-Western

  5. Delincuencia juvenil y pandillerismo: Hombre y sociedad/Juvenile delinquency and gang: Man and society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Barraza Pérez (México

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available La creciente descomposición social y la perdida de valores, han atrapado a un buen número de nuestros jóvenes en conductas delictivas altamente peligrosas, según detecté en las investigaciones de campo, la iniciación en grandes ciudades se puede dar desde los 8 años en adelante, porque en el primer plano el niño aprende de la conducta de sus padres, si desde esa instancia tenemos un ambiente de incertidumbre, donde están de por medio los gritos, los golpes físicos y morales, nuestros niños o jóvenes pierden el sentido del honor, el amor al trabajo la confianza, la seguridad en sí mismos, perdiendo la afectividad por los demás, siendo preocupante y necesaria la intervención del gobierno, pero mas aún los limites de conducta deben de imponerse en la familia. The growing of social decomposition and the loss of values, have caught a good number of our young people in highly dangerous criminal behavior, as I detected in field investigations, initiation in large cities can be from 8 years onwards, because in the foreground the child learns from the behavior of their parents, from that instance we have an atmosphere of uncertainty, where they are of through screams, mental and physical shock , our children or young people lose the sense of honor, love to work the confidence and security in themselves, losing the affection for others, still worrying and required the intervention of the Government, but more still limits of conduct should prevail in the family

  6. El Atila del Ganges en la ganadería colombiana

    OpenAIRE

    Stefania Gallini

    2005-01-01

    El artículo explora las lógicas y discursos que fueron instrumento para el proceso que, en las primeras tres décadas del siglo XX, gestó el cambio genético de la ganadería colombiana, es decir, su "cebuización". Se estudian en particular las ideas que los discursos expertos expresaron acerca de la relación entre razas vacunas y medio ambiente, y los debates acerca de las defensas de las razas criollas, europeas y cebuinas respectivamente.

  7. Countering Gang Violence: What Small Town Communities Can Learn from the US Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    the population iii. Participate in cross functional teams and be prepared to lead as required iv. Conduct probation and parole sweeps within Hebbron...ii. Universal services linked to Operation Ceasefire iii. Improved collaboration with police on child welfare k. County Probation and Parole ...Hebbron viii. Identify potential youth mentors from returning students l. County Probation and Parole Measures of Effectiveness i. Increased

  8. Estrangement, Machismo, and Gang Violence. Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Papers 362-76.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlanger, Howard S.; Persily, Fred

    In considering whether subcultural values were associated with violence, it was critical to determine both the precise content of such values and the way in which the subculture interacts with structural forces to affect the level of violence. Based on interview and observational materials, this qualitative study examined the role of…

  9. Grooming and the 'Asian sex gang predator': the construction of a racial crime threat

    OpenAIRE

    Cockbain, E.

    2013-01-01

    Following a mainstream British newspaper’s claim to have uncovered a new crime threat of ‘on-street grooming’, extensive and emotive debate continues around the so-called ‘Asian sex gang’ problem in the UK. This article examines the construction of a new racial crime threat, assessing the validity of its foundations and exploring its possible causes and consequences. Grooming is shown to be a dubious category, not a distinct offence but an ill-defined subset of child sexual exploitation more ...

  10. The Likelihood of Collaboration Between Central American Transnational Gangs and Terrorist Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Advances have made trade more efficient – creation of more powerful engines, for example, have cut transportation time. Technology has also made...sectors were the most affected: a majority of the public programs cut had benefited this specific societal segment. Furthermore, many previously...Amiga’ Para La Formacion Del Adolescente ," Tiwy.com, http://www.tiwy.com/noticias/2004/esp-10.phtml (accessed August 31, 2006). 71 Nicaragua has been

  11. Der skal gang i robotterne - fra Lego til LocoKit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jørgen Christian

    2014-01-01

    Hvis robotter i fremtiden skal udføre slidsomt og kedeligt arbejde i vores hverdag, bør robotterne have ben. Robotingeniøren Jørgen Christian Larsen fortæller her om sit arbejde med at udvikle et byggesæt, der skal gøre vejen til gående robotter kortere....

  12. Geospatial approach towards enumerative analysis of suspended sediment concentration for Ganges-Brahmaputra Bay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pandey, P.; Kunte, P.D.

    stream_size 47513 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Comput_Geosci_95_32a.pdf.txt stream_source_info Comput_Geosci_95_32a.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 1    Author Version... the top of atmosphere reflectance. ߩ௖ ൌ  ߩ்ை஺ െ ߩ௥ Algorithm 2B: Aerosol Correction and Marine Reflectance Calculation Aerosol-type (ε) is determined from the ratio of reflectance in the band pair, over water pixels where the marine contribution...

  13. Violence in Street Culture: Cross-Cultural Comparison of Youth Groups and Criminal Gangs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdun, Steffen

    2008-01-01

    Violence is a widespread phenomenon in juvenile street culture. But the questions of whether this relationship is a deterministic one, and if not, which are the contributing factors, are largely unanswered. This article focuses on the role of public space, starting with a comparison of the meaning of deviant behavior and crime in street culture in…

  14. Footy, Gangs and Love: Using Auto-Ethnography to Problematise Practice on a Practicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Roz

    2017-01-01

    This article was written as an auto ethnography, which allowed for a complex and personal exploration of professional standards, teachers' professional identities, neoliberal reforms, and approaches to literacy and creativity. This article reflects on a practicum which involved teaching Romeo and Juliet to two year nine classes at an all boys'…

  15. Creating Opportunities for Mutual Affiliation: Gang Prevention and Relational-Cultural Theory in Project YES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randell, Stacy T.; Smith, Amy E.; Steinman, Bernard A.

    2015-01-01

    American youth do not have equal access to academic success and life achievements. In particular, low-income male students of color are disproportionately failing in school, filling prisons, and enduring the consequences of low social capital and poor investment in their futures. Unfortunately, many young people cope with poverty and life in…

  16. Geospatial approach towards enumerative analysis of suspended sediment concentration for Ganges-Brahmaputra Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Palak; Kunte, Pravin D.

    2016-10-01

    This study presents an easy, modular, user-friendly, and flexible software package for processing of Landsat 7 ETM and Landsat 8 OLI-TIRS data for estimating suspended particulate matter concentrations in the coastal waters. This package includes 1) algorithm developed using freely downloadable SCILAB package, 2) ERDAS Models for iterative processing of Landsat images and 3) ArcMAP tool for plotting and map making. Utilizing SCILAB package, a module is written for geometric corrections, radiometric corrections and obtaining normalized water-leaving reflectance by incorporating Landsat 8 OLI-TIRS and Landsat 7 ETM+ data. Using ERDAS models, a sequence of modules are developed for iterative processing of Landsat images and estimating suspended particulate matter concentrations. Processed images are used for preparing suspended sediment concentration maps. The applicability of this software package is demonstrated by estimating and plotting seasonal suspended sediment concentration maps off the Bengal delta. The software is flexible enough to accommodate other remotely sensed data like Ocean Color monitor (OCM) data, Indian Remote Sensing data (IRS), MODIS data etc. by replacing a few parameters in the algorithm, for estimating suspended sediment concentration in coastal waters.

  17. r Genet rice (Or tic ass ryza sp the sessme pp.) fo Gang ent of or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2015-01-05

    Jan 5, 2015 ... varieties MTU ifferent enviro avidyalaya, Su. Bidhan Chand ions in yield ariances reve icle weight, g ariation (PCV he influences ere observed ritability coup grain length, low genetic a genotypic co ents. Path c evident from er panicle foll per panicle d panicle num n respect of g er panicle giv ariation, genet.

  18. Eradicating Organized Criminal Gangs in Jamaica: Can Lessons be Learnt From a Successful Counterinsurgency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    cannabis (ganja). The country ranks in the top 20 in terms of global seizures of cocaine. It is estimated that 3 up to 100 metric tons of cocaine, with...drawn from the Chinese minority residing amidst a Malay majority population. It never gained much support from the Malayan or Indian elements of...lived mainly along the outskirts or just inside these jungles, within reach of the Min Yuen, Chinese squatter communities. Another significant feature

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U04627-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Thlaspi caerulescens ZIP-like zinc... 56 4e-10 AY456088_1( AY456088 |pid:none) Thlaspi caerulescens Zn and...Thlaspi caerulescens Zn and Cd tra... 56 4e-10 AY456089_1( AY456089 |pid:none) Thlaspi caerulescens Zn and...1e-09 AF292029_1( AF292029 |pid:none) Thlaspi caerulescens putative Zn t... 59 1e-09 AE016820_228( AE016820...4e-05 AM293350_1( AM293350 |pid:none) Thlaspi caerulescens irt1-G gene f... 43 4e-05 BT064213_1( BT064213...5e-05 AM293351_1( AM293351 |pid:none) Thlaspi caerulescens irt1-P gene f... 42 5e-05 AF136579_1( AF136579

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U08405-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2e-09 AF292029_1( AF292029 |pid:none) Thlaspi caerulescens putative Zn t... 66 2e-09 AE013599_201( AE013599...Thlaspi caerulescens Zn and Cd tra... 63 1e-08 AY456088_1( AY456088 |pid:none) Thlaspi caerulescens Zn and...Thlaspi caerulescens ZIP-like zinc... 63 1e-08 AF133267_1( AF133267 |pid:none) Thlaspi caerulescens Zn and...2e-08 AM293350_1( AM293350 |pid:none) Thlaspi caerulescens irt1-G gene f... 62 2e-08 AK075257_1( AK075257...7e-08 AM293351_1( AM293351 |pid:none) Thlaspi caerulescens irt1-P gene f... 61 7e-08 ( Q38856 ) RecName:

  1. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U08391-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Thlaspi caerulescens Zn and Cd tra... 48 3e-04 AF275751_1( AF275751 |pid:none) Thlaspi caerulescens ZIP-like...001 AF133267_1( AF133267 |pid:none) Thlaspi caerulescens Zn and Cd tra... 45 0.001 EU958153_1( EU958153...003 AY456089_1( AY456089 |pid:none) Thlaspi caerulescens Zn and Cd tra... 44 0.004 AF136579_1( AF136579...Thlaspi caerulescens irt1-G gene f... 37 0.37 AM293351_1( AM293351 |pid:none) Thlaspi caerulescens irt1-P...1.1 AF292029_1( AF292029 |pid:none) Thlaspi caerulescens putative Zn t... 35 1.4 FN357314_17( FN357314

  2. Media Gangs of Social Resistance: Urban Adolescents Take Back Their Images and Their Streets through Media Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charmaraman, Linda

    2008-01-01

    This article describes "Youthscapes," a year-round afterschool program in the San Francisco East Bay Area (CA) that offers urban youth the opportunity to use technology to reconstruct their identities in at least two ways: (1) by encouraging its apprentices to create media content that directly counteracted stereotypes about urban youth;…

  3. Optical Properties Of Mineral Dust Particles Mixed With Black Carbon In Indo-Ganges Basin, Northern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, S. K.; Tripathi, S. N.

    2008-12-01

    Among all the aerosol species estimation of radiative forcing of dust particles is most uncertain because of the difficulties in modeling accurately their optical properties due to our limited knowledge of their mineralogy and morphology (Sokolik and Toon, 1999). There is large variation in their shapes and mineralogical composition across the global deserts and the data available is limited. The problem becomes further complicated when these highly non spherical shaped particles interact with other absorbing particles e. g. Black Carbon emitted from pollution sources. The dust from Indian desert, while being transported through the Indo Gangetic basin during the Pre Monsoon season (March-May), mixes with BC particles present in large concentration in the region (Tripathi et al., 2005). The accurate estimation of optical properties of these particles, which could be different from pure dust or BC particles, is important because of their suspected impact on the development of monsoon (Lau et al, 2006). In this work, we have made an attempt to model the optical properties of these complicated aerosol systems. We have used dust mineralogical composition (absorbing and non absorbing) from the recent work of Mishra and Tripathi (2008), who modeled the optical properties of pure dust particles over Indian desert. Mixing state of the two species i.e. dust and BC is an important issue (Clarke et al., 2004) while modeling these systems. We consider both external and internal mixing scenarios while modeling in absence of any observational information. Earlier study on mixing state of aerosols (assuming them to be spherical in shape), in IGB, have indicated that dust coated with BC is the most probable scenario for internal mixing (Dey et al., 2008). In the present study, optical properties (scattering and absorption cross-sections, phase functions and asymmetry parameter) have been modeled using Discrete Dipole Approximation method (Draine and Flatau, 2004) for a variety of non spherical shapes such as concentric spheres, spheroids, ellipsoids and layered rectangular bar, and various combinations of spheres and spheroids attached externally (maximum up to three). References Clarke, A. D., et al. (2004), Size distributions and mixtures of dust and black carbon aerosol in Asian outflow: Physiochemistry and optical properties, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D15S09. Dey, S., et al. (2008), On the mixing state of aerosols in the Indo-Gangetic basin, northern India, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L03808. Draine, B. T., and P. J. Flatau (2004), User Guide for the Discrete Dipole Approximation Code DDSCAT 6.1, http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0409262v2. Lau, K. M., et al. (2006), Asian summer monsoon anomalies induced by aerosol direct forcing: the role of the Tibetan Plateau., J. Climate, 26, 855-864. Mishra, S. K., and S. N. Tripathi (2008), Modeling optical properties of mineral dust over the Indian Desert, J. Geophys. Res., accepted. Sokolik, I. N., and O. B. Toon (1999), Incorporation of mineralogical composition into models of the radiative properties of mineral aerosol from UV to IR wavelengths, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 9423- 9444. Tripathi S. N., et al. (2005), Aerosol black carbon radiative forcing at an industrial city in Northern India, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32(8), L08802. class="ab'>

  4. Influence of Ganges-Brahmaputra Discharge on the Variability of Salinity Observed Along the East Coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaign, L.; Chaitanya, A. V. S.

    2016-02-01

    The Bay of Bengal (BoB) is unique amongst tropical oceans, being a semi-enclosed basin that receives a very large influx of freshwater through strong summer monsoon rainfall and runoff from the Ganga-Brahmaputra (GB), Irrawaddy and Indian peninsular rivers. To date, the paucity of salinity data has prevented a thorough description of the spreading of this freshwater into the Bay. The potential impact of the salinity on cyclones and regional climate in the Bay of Bengal is however a strong incentive for a better description of the water cycle in this region. Since May 2005, the CSIR-NIO conducts a program in which fishermen collect coastal seawater samples every 5 days at eight stations scattered along the Indian coastline. This new dataset reveals a seasonal salinity drop of more than 10 g kg-1 in the northern BoB at the end of the summer monsoon. This freshening signal originates from GB outflow and propagates southward as a narrow ( 100 km wide) strip along the eastern coast of India, before reaching the southern tip of India after 2.5 months. The southward propagation of the freshwater along the coast is consistent with transport by the southward flowing East Indian Coastal current, while other processes are at stake in the ensuing erosion of this coastal freshening. This seasonal evolution has been consistently observed year after year since 2005. Beyond this climatological picture, the year-to-year anomalies of GB runoff also have a distinct influence on the coastal salinity in the northernmost part of the basin.

  5. Indacaterol er en én gang dagligt inhaleret β 2-agonist til behandling af kronisk obstruktiv lungesygdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2010-01-01

    The aim of pharmacological treatment of COPD is best possible disease control. Bronchodilators are accepted as the mainstay of COPD therapy. This short review focuses on the available data on indacaterol - a new once-daily beta2-agonist. The analysed studies show that indacaterol has clinically...... important effects on quality of life, dyspnoea, level of FEV1, hyperinflation, and exacerbation rate in patients with COPD. Indacaterol is therefore in the near future expected to be an important part of maintenance therapy for patients with COPD....

  6. Applicability of ranked Regional Climate Models (RCM) to assess the impact of climate change on Ganges: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Jatin; Devak, Manjula; Gosain, Ashvani Kumar; Khosa, Rakesh; Dhanya, Ct

    2017-04-01

    The negative impact of climate change is felt over wide range of spatial scales, ranging from small basins to large watershed area, which can possibly outweighs the benefits of natural water system. General Circulation Models (GCMs) has been widely used as an input to a hydrological models (HMs), to simulate different hydrological components of a river basin. However, the coarser scale of GCMs and spatio-temporal biases, restricted its use at finer resolution. If downscaled, adds one more level of uncertainty i.e., downscaling uncertainty together with model and scenario uncertainty. The outputs computed from Regional Climate Models (RCM) may aid the uncertainties arising from GCMs, as the RCMs are the miniatures of GCMs. However, the RCMs do have some inherent systematic biases, hence bias correction is a prerequisite process before it is fed to HMs. RCMs, together with the input from GCMs at later boundaries also takes topography of the area into account. Hence, RCMs need to be ranked a priori. In this study, impact of climate change on the Ganga basin, India, is assessed using the ranked RCMs. Firstly, bias correction of 14 RCM models are done using Quantile-Quantile mapping and Equidistant cumulative distribution method, for historic (1990-2004) and future scenario (2021-2100), respectively. The runoff simulations from Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), for historic scenario is used for ranking of RCMs. Entropy and PROMETHEE-2 method is employed to rank the RCMs based on five performance indicators namely, Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), coefficient of determination (R2), normalised root mean square error (NRMSE), absolute normalised mean bias error (ANMBE) and average absolute relative error (AARE). The results illustrated that each of the performance indicators behaves differently for different RCMs. RCA 4 (CNRM-CERFACS) is found as the best model with the highest value of  (0.85), followed by RCA4 (MIROC) and RCA4 (ICHEC) with  values of 0.80 and 0.53, respectively, for Ganga basin. Flow-duration curve and long-term average of streamflow for ranked RCMs, confirm that SWAT model is efficient in capturing the hydrology of the basin. For monsoon months (June, July, August and September), future annual mean surface runoff decreases substantially ( -50 % to -10%), while the base flow for October, November and December is projected to increase ( 10- 20 %). Analysis of snow-melt hydrology, indicated that the snow-melt is projected to increase during the months of November to March, with a maximum increase (400%) shown by RCA 4 (CNRM-CERFACS) and least by RCA4 (ICHEC) (15%). Further, all the RCMs projected higher and lower frequency of dry and wet monsoon, respectively. The analysis of simulated base flow and recharge illustrates that the change varies from +100% to - 500% and +97% to -600%, respectively, with central part of the basin undergoing major loss in the recharge. Hence, this research provides important insights of surface runoff to climate change projections and therefore, better administration and management of available resources is necessary. Keyword: Climate change, uncertainty, Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), General Circulation Model (GCM), Regional Climate Models (RCM), Bias correction.

  7. Homies with Aspirations and Positive Peer Network Ties: Associations with Reduced Frequent Substance Use among Gang-Affiliated Latino Youth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    van Dommelen-Gonzalez, Evan; Deardorff, Julianna; Herd, Denise; Minnis, Alexandra M

    2015-01-01

    .... Drawing on a positive deviance framework, in this study, we examine the relationship between positive peer network characteristics tied to post-secondary educational aspirations and frequent alcohol...

  8. Clay mineral distribution in the continental shelf sediments from Krishna to Ganges river mouth, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.

    is 12A degrees type in contrast to the 15A degrees montmorillonite in the remaining part of the shelf. It is found that the Godavari derived sediments extend northwards and deposit up to Visakhapatnam under the influence of southwest monsoon currents....

  9. Being an Indian on a White gang. Migration and Racialized Agricultural Labor in the Era of Globalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Alonso Hernández López

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this reflection is to analyze the ethnic-racial relations generated in agricultural workplaces that tilt in racist practices caused by the indigenous population migrations from the area of Chiapas to the land of tequilain Altos de Jalisco located in Mexico, specifically the municipality of Arandas. Such relationships have been evolving since the end of the last century as a result of the increasing expansion of the tequila agro-industry. It is of particular interest to address issues that deal with labor and social relations in the environments migrants arrive, because these relationships are based on a negative appreciation of the difference. This attitude leads the native people of Jalisco to discriminate, segregate, marginalize and exploit, not only strangers or foreigners (even in the same country, but also who, by his indigenous status, is positioned in a lower stratum and whose phenotype is far from the idealized Altos del Jalisco native: the Caucasian type, Catholic, rancher.

  10. Indacaterol er en én gang dagligt inhaleret β 2-agonist til behandling af kronisk obstruktiv lungesygdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2010-01-01

    The aim of pharmacological treatment of COPD is best possible disease control. Bronchodilators are accepted as the mainstay of COPD therapy. This short review focuses on the available data on indacaterol - a new once-daily beta2-agonist. The analysed studies show that indacaterol has clinically i...... important effects on quality of life, dyspnoea, level of FEV1, hyperinflation, and exacerbation rate in patients with COPD. Indacaterol is therefore in the near future expected to be an important part of maintenance therapy for patients with COPD....

  11. Fysisk traening ved type 2-diabetes. Er tre gange ti minutter om dagen bedre end 30 minutter?--sekundaerpublikation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl-Petersen, Inger Katrine; Eriksen, Louise; Haugaard, Steen B

    2009-01-01

    We compared the effects on glycaemic control of two different exercise protocols in elderly men with type 2-diabetes; one 30-minute session per day (1 x 30) and three 10-minute sessions per day (3 x 10). Cardiopulmonary fitness increased in both groups. Improvement in glycaemic control was only...... found in the 3 x 10 group. A likely explanation is that the total energy expenditure during training performed as multiple sessions is higher than the expenditure achieved during a single session per day....

  12. Fysisk traening ved type 2-diabetes. Er tre gange ti minutter om dagen bedre end 30 minutter?--sekundaerpublikation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl-Petersen, Inger; Eriksen, Louise; Haugaard, Steen B

    2009-01-01

    We compared the effects on glycaemic control of two different exercise protocols in elderly men with type 2-diabetes; one 30-minute session per day (1 x 30) and three 10-minute sessions per day (3 x 10). Cardiopulmonary fitness increased in both groups. Improvement in glycaemic control was only...... found in the 3 x 10 group. A likely explanation is that the total energy expenditure during training performed as multiple sessions is higher than the expenditure achieved during a single session per day. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Mar-9...

  13. Stemming the Growth: Exploring the Risk Factors in Group Membership in Domestic Street Gangs and Foreign Terrorist Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    between childhood and adulthood. Youth is a time of radical change- the great body changes accompanying puberty, the ability of the mind to search one’s...recruited to a terrorist group via personal connections with existing members. No terrorist wants to try to recruit someone who might betray the

  14. Korte ture i bil:Kan bilister ændre adfærd til gang eller cykling

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Linda; Jensen, Thomas Christian

    2008-01-01

    It is often discussed how two-wheelers and walking could take over some of the short trips by car. To make this discussion more actual DTU Transport has used the Danish National Travel Survey (TU) to analyse the potential for a shift from cars to cycling and walking. In Denmark a relatively large share (about 20 %) of the round tours below 22 km (from home and back to home) is driven on a bicycle and additional 22 % is done by foot. In all 23 % of the short tour kilometres is today done by cy...

  15. Nightlife partnership policing: (Dis)trust building between bouncers and the police in the war on gangs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Thomas Friis; Houborg, Esben; Tutenges, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    This article contributes to the research on trust in policing by examining how private security actors (bouncers) experience the police as a partner in informal policing networks emerging as part of the ‘war on bikers and gangs’ in Danish nightlife. While much international research about...... partnership policing has employed a police perspective and a top-down approach, thus emphasizing organizational ties between policing bodies, this article uses a bottom-up, interactional approach, with a focus on bouncers’ everyday experiences and understandings of partnerships with the police. Our findings...... of bouncers. However, collaborative relationships are challenged when the police use coercive tactics in their dealings with bouncers and, also, when there is uncertainty about the partition of roles and responsibilities between bouncers and police....

  16. Habitat Restoration and Mitigation the Impact of Transportation Network on Hyporheic Organisms Dwelling in the Upper Ganges, India

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Ramesh C.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated ecosystem approach is essential to offset adverse impact of transportation network on aquatic habitats in the fragile ecosystem of the Himalayan mountains. It is a cause of concern that the poorly designed network of roads and trails in mountain areas are expanding, without giving due consideration to natural processes of ecosystem function and climatic severity in the Himalayas. These effects have been quantified for a period of three-year (January 2003-December 2005) for hyporhei...

  17. Computation and graphics in mathematical research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, D.A.; Spruck, J.

    1992-08-13

    This report discusses: The description of the GANG Project and results for prior research; the center for geometry, analysis, numerics and graphics; description of GANG Laboratory; software development at GANG; and mathematical and scientific research activities.

  18. Computation and graphics in mathematical research. Progress report, June 1, 1991--May 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, D.A.; Spruck, J.

    1992-08-13

    This report discusses: The description of the GANG Project and results for prior research; the center for geometry, analysis, numerics and graphics; description of GANG Laboratory; software development at GANG; and mathematical and scientific research activities.

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11411-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2e-15 DQ268828_1( DQ268828 |pid:none) Thlaspi caerulescens YSL transport... 87 2e-15 AM480423_1( AM480423...5e-15 DQ268827_1( DQ268827 |pid:none) Thlaspi caerulescens YSL transport... 85 6e-15 AB032539_1( AB032539...1e-13 DQ268829_1( DQ268829 |pid:none) Thlaspi caerulescens YSL transport... 79 3e-13 (Q6AVD0) RecName:

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05875-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4e-12 DQ418489_1( DQ418489 |pid:none) Thlaspi caerulescens metal transpo... 73 4e-12 EU980599_1( EU980599...6e-11 AY714056_1( AY714056 |pid:none) Thlaspi caerulescens Nramp metal t... 69 1e-10 (Q9SNV9) RecName:...3e-09 AJ746245_1( AJ746245 |pid:none) Thlaspi caerulescens partial Nramp... 63 6e-09 BC019137_1( BC019137

  1. Identifying root exudates in field contaminated soil systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, C.; Martinez, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    Carbon (C) compounds exuded from plant roots comprise a significant and reactive fraction of belowground C pools. These exudates substantially alter the soil directly surrounding plant roots and play a vital role in the global C cycle, soil ecology, and ecosystem mobility of both nutrients and contaminants. In soils, the solubility and bioavailability of metals such as iron, zinc, and cadmium are intricately linked to the quantity and chemical characteristics of the C compounds allocated to the soil by plants. Cadmium (Cd), a toxic heavy metal, forms stronger bonds with reduced S- and N-containing compounds than with carboxylic acids, which may influence exudate composition in hyperaccumulator and tolerant plants grown in Cd contaminated soils. We hypothesize that hyperaccumulator plants will exude a larger quantity of aromatic N and chelating di- and tri-carboxylic acid molecules, while plants that exclude heavy metals from uptake will exude a larger proportion of reduced S containing molecules. This study examines how a variety of techniques can measure the low concentrations of complex organic mixtures exuded by hyperaccumulator and non-hyperaccumulator plants grown in Cd-contaminated soils. Two congeneric plants, Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges ecotype), and T. caerulescens (Prayon ecotype) were grown in 0.5 kg pots filled with Cd-contaminated field soils from Chicago, IL. Field soils were contaminated as a result of the application of contaminated biosolids in the 1960's and 1970's. Pots were fitted for rhizon soil moisture samplers, micro-lysimeters developed for in situ collection of small volumes in unsaturated soils, prior to planting. Plants were grown for 8 weeks before exudate collection. After the 8 weeks of growth, a pulse-chase isotope tracer method using the C stable isotope, 13C, was employed to differentiate plant-derived compounds from background soil and microbial-derived compounds. Plants were placed in a CO2 impermeable chamber, and the soil

  2. L’agriculture et l’élevage dans les plaines indo-gangétiques de l’Inde : vers une nouvelle intégration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbier Bruno

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available A huge importer of food aid in the post-independence years, India has rapidly reached selfsufficiency in grain in the late sixties, thanks to a pro-active policy oriented towards grain production in the indo-gangetic plains. However facing the today’s gigantic surpluses of grains, and the worrisome budget deficit of the central government and the Indian states, India ha come under pressure from various national and international institutions to shift state support from grain production to other productions. For the indo-gangetic plains, current grain basket of India, dairy is considered among the best alternatives. Grain producers of these regions are already the one contributing most, with producers form the North West (Gujarat, Maharastra, to the national dairy production and they are the ones with the better chances to respond to the increasing national demand for dairy products. The simulations developed in this study show that there is an important potential for crop livestock integration and that this integration can maintain agricultural incomes; partially compensate the likely reduction of subsidies and contribute to a better management of soil fertility. Whether national production will be able to respond to the demand in grain from both humans and animals, is a hot debate in India. On one hand, dairy production system is so extensive that production can be increased easily without much additional feeding of grain or concentrates but with cheaper sources of forages. On the other hand, the rapidly increasing poultry industry depends heavily upon maize, which is still a marginal production in India.

  3. 'When you're boxing you don't think so much': Pugilism, transitional masculinities and criminal desistance among young Danish gang members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deuchar, Ross; Søgaard, Thomas Friis; Kolind, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    This paper draws upon international research evidence that suggests a relationship between protest masculinity and the manifestation of violent crime among young males, and that criminal desistance may be linked to (inter-) subjective processes such as the reconstruction of masculine identity. Th...... and despair. In some cases it appeared that the young men's dogged attempts to desist from crime became a new way for them to ‘do masculinity’. The authors draw upon the findings to make recommendations for policy, practice and research....

  4. Stress og frugtbarhed. En forløbsundersøgelse blandt par, som forsøger at blive gravide for første gang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, N H; Jensen, T K; Bonde, J P

    2000-01-01

    Mental distress has often been suggested as a cause of unexplained infertility. However, the causal direction may well be from infertility to distress, and prospective data are needed. We therefore followed 393 couples, who were planning their first pregnancy, with prospective collection...... on a small number of observations. It is concluded that psychological distress may be a risk factor for reduced fertility in women with long menstrual cycles....

  5. A survey of perfluorinated compounds in surface water and biota including dolphins from the Ganges River and in other waterbodies in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Yeung, L.W.Y.; Yamashita, N.; Taniyasu, S.; Lam, P.K.S.; Sinha, R.K.; Borole, D.V.; Kannan, K.

    chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry: Comparison to patterns of long-chain perfluorinated acids (C5-C18) Anal. Chim. Acta 2008, 619, 221-230. Tomy, G. T.; Budakowski, W.; Halldorson, T.; Helm, P. A.; Stern, G. A.; Friesen, K.; Pepper, K.; Tittlemier, S. A...

  6. Stress og frugtbarhed. En forløbsundersøgelse blandt par, som forsøger at blive gravide for første gang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, N H; Jensen, T K; Bonde, J P

    2000-01-01

    of information on distress from termination of birth control until pregnancy for a maximum of six menstrual cycles. The analyses included 1,475 menstrual cycles, and mental distress was measured in each cycle by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Urine samples from each period of vaginal bleeding were...... of distress was almost exclusively found among women with long menstrual cycles (OR 0.1; 95% CI 0.01-0.4 and OR 0.9; 0.5-1.4 for women with cycles > or = 35 and cycles, but was based...... on a small number of observations. It is concluded that psychological distress may be a risk factor for reduced fertility in women with long menstrual cycles....

  7. Transitional narratives of identity among ethnic minority youth gangs in Denmark: from collectivism to individualism / Torsten Kolind, Thomas Friis Søgaard, Geoffrey Hunt, Birgitte Thylstrup

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kolind, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    Kopenhaageni rahvusvähemuses olevate meeste seas läbi viidud etnograafilisest uuringust, nende võimalustest hoida eemale jõukudesse kuulumisest, kriminaalsusest, nakrootikumide tarvitamisest ja müümisest

  8. Changes and variability of precipitation and temperature in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna River Basin based on global high-resolution reanalyses

    OpenAIRE

    Khandu, .; Awange, Joseph L.; Kuhn, M.; Anyah, R.; Forootan, Ehsan

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that climate change impacts significantly on the hydro-climatic processes within the Ganges–Brahmaputra–Meghna (GBM) River Basin (RB). This study examines the observed climate characteristics and potential strengths and limitations of three global high-resolution reanalyses and satellite remote-sensing products over the GBM RB for period 1980–2013 by (1) estimating trends and interannual variations of precipitation and temperature, and (2) isolating precipitation vari...

  9. “Hva har romerne noen gang gjort for oss i Nord- Norge?” Om mulige forbindelser mellom Romerriket og det nordligste Norge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per-Bjarne Ravnå

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available “What Have the Romans Ever Done for Us Here in North Norway?”: On Possible Connections Between the Roman Empire and Northernmost Norway. This article argues that scholars studying the early history of northern Norway should pay more attention to Roman history. Even if the geographical distances were long, there are clear signs of connections between inhabitants of northern Norway and the Roman world during the Roman era. In order to understand these connections scholars also need to study Roman history in its own right. To make this point the article investigates the possible Roman connections of a well-known warrior grave from Steigen (Nordland County, North Norway, dated to the middle of the third century CE. The investigation yields no stunning new discoveries, but aims to contribute to a broader and more well-founded understanding of the buried man and the experiences he might have had, as well as a cautious and informed view of broader connections between the North and the Roman world.

  10. Stress og frugtbarhed. En forløbsundersøgelse blandt par, som forsøger at blive gravide for første gang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, Niels Henrik; Jensen, Tina Kold; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2000-01-01

    of information on distress from termination of birth control until pregnancy for a maximum of six menstrual cycles. The analyses included 1,475 menstrual cycles, and mental distress was measured in each cycle by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Urine samples from each period of vaginal bleeding were...... of distress was almost exclusively found among women with long menstrual cycles (OR 0.1; 95% CI 0.01-0.4 and OR 0.9; 0.5-1.4 for women with cycles > or = 35 and women with long cycles, but was based...... on a small number of observations. It is concluded that psychological distress may be a risk factor for reduced fertility in women with long menstrual cycles....

  11. A Contemporary Challenge to State Sovereignty: Gangs and Other Illicit Transnational Criminal Organizations in Central America, El Salvador, Mexico, Jamaica, and Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Criminal values are derived from norms based on slave holding, sexual activity with minors and their exploitation in prostitution, the farming of humans...values from norms based on slave holding, sexual activity with minors and their exploitation in prostitution, the “farming” of humans for body...de Cocaina, abuso de drogas (Coca Paste and Cocaine: The Abuse of Drugs), Lima: CEDRO, 1990, pp. 301-321; Stephen E. Flynn, The Transnational Drug

  12. Within-grade quality differences for 1 and 2A common lumber affect processsing and yields when gang-ripping red oak lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles J. Gatchell; R. Edward Thomas; R. Edward Thomas

    1997-01-01

    Using a new computer grading program (UGRS), 1 and 2A Common lumber was sorted based on the percentage of board surface measure found in the maximum allowable number of grading cuttings. For 1 Common, 46.0 percent of 921 boards had percentages in the FAS range (83-1/3% and above). For 2A Common, 54.7 percent of 825 boards had percentages in the 1 Common range. When...

  13. The Infinity Puzzle - The story of the Higgs Boson:From QED to the LHC via Higgs and the Gang of Six

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Rutherford and Bohr discovered the nuclear atom 100 years ago. Roughly 50 years ago a theory of this basic structure of matter was inspired by the work of Peter Higgs and others. In July 2012 the discovery "beyond reasonable doubt" of Higgs's boson, and the experimental proof of the theory, was announced and speculations about Nobel prizes mushroomed. The Economist said of Frank Close's book, The Infinity Puzzle (OUP,2012): "The Nobel Committee would be well advised to read Mr Close’s book before making their decision." This pedagogic talk reviews the ideas and the history, and assesses how the credits should be shared. The conclusions may not be what you anticipate

  14. "I Didn't Want My Life to Be Like That": Gangs, College, or the Military for Latino Male High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Adrian H.

    2015-01-01

    Nationally, only half of Latino males graduate from high school (Contreras, 2011). Scholars are beginning to critically examine the various internal and external influences which contribute to low academic achievement for Latino males. This qualitative study uses a human ecological theory to examine how Latino male high school students with high…

  15. Stratigraphic architecture, bedload extraction, and mass balance of Holocene fluvial sediments in a tectonically subsiding basin within the Ganges-Brahmaputra River delta, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sincavage, R.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Pickering, J.; Wilson, C.; Paola, C.; Hossain, S.; Steckler, M. S.; Seeber, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Brahmaputra River occupied the tectonically active Sylhet Basin in eastern Bangladesh three times during the Holocene. With samples from more than 200 closely-spaced (3-5 km) boreholes, we take advantage of these discrete channel occupations and the high trapping efficiency of the subsiding basin to investigate dispersal of fluvial sediments. Experiment and theory suggest that depositional units transition from channels to lobes as transported sediment mass declines below ~30% of the total measured at the basin head. We test these ideas by reconstructing the geometry and grain size distributions of a large (30 m thick x 80 km wide) sand lobe formed during the mid-Holocene occupation (~7000-4000 years BP) of Sylhet Basin. Based on estimates of modern sediment discharge in the system, the volume of this sediment lobe is insufficient to account for the entire sediment budget. The smaller sediment volume is likely a consequence of reduced sediment discharge during a weakened monsoon. Additional sediment is likely to have also been routed out of the basin via an outlet located approximately along the modern Meghna River channel. Facies within Sylhet Basin can be characterized as stacked braidbelt sands in the proximal portion of the system, with isolated sand lenses further downstream, indicating a transition from a highly mobile braidbelt to a less mobile distributary system. The majority of bed load is extracted within a distance of ~150 km from the avulsion node, approximately coincident with the regional backwater reach of the Bengal Basin, suggesting a link between the hydraulic and "morphodynamic" backwater reaches of the system. Downstream fining is more rapid in sediments associated with the long-term occupation of Sylhet Basin, for which sediment is trapped over a relatively short distance within the sand wedge of central Sylhet Basin, than those from the early- and late-Holocene occupations, for which sediment is distributed over a longer path that follows the course of the Old Brahmaputra River. Fine-grained sediments preserved in the system do not display measureable downstream fining. The increased rate of sediment extraction in the eastern part of the basin is likely coupled with a subsidence maximum (~7 mm/year) associated with the foredeep of the Dauki thrust fault.

  16. Dicty_cDB: SSK308 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1.0 AJ538345_1( AJ538345 |pid:none) Thlaspi caerulescens partial mRNA ... 34 1.4 (Q8S3W4) RecName: Full=Probable...1.4 AJ538344_1( AJ538344 |pid:none) Thlaspi caerulescens partial mRNA ... 34 1.4 AY960754_1( AY960754

  17. Motivations behind Inmate Participation in Correctional Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Clyde A.

    2000-01-01

    A study used attribution theory to explain the self-efficacy of 70 prison inmates (35 were gang members) participating in correctional education. Many gang members had low efficacy and expectations for educational attainment. (SK)

  18. The Stoners: Drugs, Demons, and Delinquency. Garland Series, Cults and Nonconventional Religious Groups: A Collection of Outstanding Dissertations and Monographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trostle, Lawrence C.

    Some adolescent Hispanic gang members in East Los Angeles call themselves Stoners, a reference to heavy illegal substance abuse. Stoners are distinguished from other gang members by their acquaintance with the occult sciences and Satanism. This book begins with a literature review covering traditional gangs and their subcultures in the 19th and…

  19. Going Down to the Barrio: Homeboys and Homegirls in Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Joan W.

    This book traces the histories of two Chicano gangs in East Los Angeles since the early 1940s, when common gang stereotypes were created by the media and law enforcement agencies. In an unusual collaborative effort, researchers worked with former gang members to make contact with and interview members of various "cliques" (cohorts) of…

  20. Maras y barras : Pandillas y violencia juvenil en los barrios marginales de Centroamérica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savenije, W.

    2009-01-01

    Street gangs -especially ‘Mara Salvatrucha’ [MS] and 18th Street Gang [18]- and student gangs are feared throughout Central America. This study looks at the violent and criminal acts they engage in, the attraction they hold over other young people, the solidarity among their members, and the

  1. 78 FR 49292 - Northshore Mining Company, a Subsidiary of Cliffs Natural Resources, Including On-Site Leased...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... taconite pellets to a foreign country. Information also shows that workers leased from Our Gang Staffing..., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Vanhouse, Express Employment and Our Gang Staffing Silver Bay... Workers From Vanhouse, Express Employment and Our Gang Staffing Babbitt, Minnesota; Amended Certification...

  2. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05246-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 062 1 ( EB241437 ) PEG003-C-218092-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleural Gang... 50 0.062 ...1 ( EB237069 ) PEG003-C-222426-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleural Gang... 50 0.062 1 ( EB232866 ) PEG003-C-200628-501 Normalized Pedal...-Pleural Gang... 50 0.062 1 ( EB230829 ) PEG003-C-205337-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleural Ga...ng... 50 0.062 1 ( EB229487 ) PEG003-C-204752-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleural Gang..

  3. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U03994-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available PEG003-C-228422-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleural Gang... 46 0.57 1 ( EB244056 ) PEG003-C-221437-501 Normalized Pedal...-Pleural Gang... 46 0.57 1 ( EB240287 ) PEG003-C-226487-501 Normalized Pedal-...Pleural Gang... 46 0.57 1 ( EB236730 ) PEG003-C-211948-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleural Gang... 46 0.57 1 ( EB23...3656 ) PEG003-C-203434-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleural Gang... 46 0.57 1 ( EB210066 ) PEG002-C-002921-501 Normalized Pedal

  4. Pasteurella multocida serotype 1 isolated from a lesser snow goose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, M.D.; Goldberg, D.R.; Shadduck, D.J.; Price, J.I.; Cooch, E.G.

    1997-01-01

    Pharyngeal swabs were collected from 298 lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) at Banks Island (Northwest Territories. Canada) in the summer of 1994. Pasteurella multocida serotype 1 was isolated from an adult male bird and P. multocida serotype 3 was isolated from an adult female goose. Pathogenicity of the serotype 1 isolate was confirmed by inoculation in Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). The serotype 3 isolate was non-pathogenic in Pekin ducks. This is the first documented isolation of pathogenic P. multocida serotype 1 from apparently healthy wild snow geese.

  5. Nieuwe en zeldzame zweefvliegen voor de Nederlandse fauna (Diptera: Syrphidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aartsen, van B.

    1993-01-01

    New and rare hoverflies for the Dutch fauna (Diptera: Syrphidae). Paragus albifrons (Fallén), P. bicolor (Fabricius), Sphegina verecunda Collin, Neoascia annexa (O.F. Müller), Callicera aenea (Fabricius), Cheilosia caerulescens (Meigen), C. chloris (Meigen), C. flavipes (Panzer), Chamaesyrphus

  6. Adiciones al catálogo micológico de Madeira (Portugal). III. Registro de 15 especies nuevas.

    OpenAIRE

    Calonge, F.D.; Menezes de Sequeira, M.; Aguiar, G.; Hernández-Crespo, Juan C.

    2009-01-01

    [EN] The species listed below are new records for Madeira: 2 Ascomycota: Otidea alutacea, Rhizina undulata and 13 Basidiomycota: Clavulinopsis laeticolor, C. subtilis, Cortinarius caerulescens, Entoloma juncinum, Entoloma lampropus, Hydnellum auratile, Paxillus involutus, Psilocybe semilanceata, Ramaria flaccida, Russula claroflava, R. medullata, R. nigricans and Stereum subtomentosum.

  7. Distribution of some lichenicolous fungi in Poland. II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Czyżewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty six species of lichenicolous fungi, one lichenicolous lichen and one lichenicolous myxomycete are discussed. Vouauxiomyces sp., the anamorph of Abrothallus caerulescens, is reported as new to Poland. Abrothallus microspermus is reported from the Polish lowlands for the first time. Trichonectria hirta and Vouauxiomyces truncatus are reported from Poland for the second time.

  8. Lead, zinc and cadmium accumulation from two metalliferous soils with contrasting calcium contents in hyperaccumulating and non-hyperaccumulating metallophytes: a comparative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohtadi, A.; Ghaderian, S.M.; Schat, H.

    2012-01-01

    Aims and background: We previously compared metallicolous (M) and non-metallicolous (NM) populations of Noccaea (=Thlaspi) caerulescens, Silene vulgaris, and Matthiola flavida for their abilities to tolerate and (hyper)-accumulate lead (Pb) in hydroponics. In the present study we aimed 1) to check

  9. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12082-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .. 56 0.002 1 ( EB246766 ) PEG003-C-229632-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleural Gang... 5...6 0.002 1 ( EB241260 ) PEG003-C-217803-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleural Gang... 56 0.002 1 ( EB240796 ) PEG003-C...-217226-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleural Gang... 56 0.002 1 ( EB236863 ) PEG003-C-222153-501 Normalized Pedal-Pl...eural Gang... 56 0.002 1 ( EB231416 ) PEG003-C-201969-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleura...l Gang... 56 0.002 1 ( EB224910 ) PEG002-C-106771-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleural Gang... 56 0.002 1 ( FD570768

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05436-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available urons Aplysi... 46 1.4 1 ( EB243719 ) PEG003-C-221050-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleural Gang... 46 1.4 1 ( EB2417...46 ) PEG003-C-218427-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleural Gang... 46 1.4 1 ( EB240929 ) P...EG003-C-217387-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleural Gang... 46 1.4 1 ( EB235790 ) PEG003-C-210941-501 Normalized Pedal...-Pleural Gang... 46 1.4 1 ( EB233827 ) PEG003-C-202118-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleural Gang... 46 1.4 1 ( EB2...15074 ) PEG002-C-010796-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleural Gang... 46 1.4 1 ( EB208533

  11. “Stones run it”: taking back control of organized crime in Chicago, 1940-1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Will

    2011-01-01

    In the 1960s and 1970s African American “supergangs” emerged in Chicago. Many scholars have touted the “prosocial” goals of these gangs but fail to contextualize them in the larger history of black organized crime. Thus, they have overlooked how gang members sought to reclaim the underground economy in their neighborhoods. Yet even as gangs drove out white organized crime figures, they often lacked the know-how to reorganize the complex informal economy. Inexperienced gang members turned to extreme violence, excessive recruitment programs, and unforgiving extortion schemes to take power over criminal activities. These methods alienated black citizens and exacerbated tensions with law enforcement. In addition, the political shelter enjoyed by the previous generation of black criminals was turned into pervasive pressure to break up street gangs. Black street gangs fulfilled their narrow goal of community control of vice. Their interactions with their neighbors, however, remained contentious.

  12. Making Friends in Violent Neighborhoods: Strategies among Elementary School Children

    OpenAIRE

    Anjanette M. Chan Tack; Small, Mario L.

    2017-01-01

    While many studies have examined friendship formation among children in conventional contexts, comparatively fewer have examined how the process is shaped by neighborhood violence. The literature on violence and gangs has identified coping strategies that likely affect friendships, but most children in violent neighborhoods are not gang members, and not all friendship relations involve gangs. We examine the friendship-formation process based on in-depth interviews with 72 students, parents, a...

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15452-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lized CNS library (juven... 58 7e-04 1 ( EB236466 ) PEG003-C-211646-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleural Gang... 58 ...7e-04 1 ( EB230264 ) PEG003-C-204182-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleural Gang... 58 7e-04 1 ( EB213153 ) PEG002-C-005139-501 Normalized Peda...l-Pleural Gang... 58 7e-04 1 ( EB207191 ) PEG002-C-005139-301 Normalized Pedal-Pleu

  14. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12463-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available l... 56 0.002 1 ( EB246299 ) PEG003-C-229117-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleural Gang...... 54 0.008 1 ( EB230633 ) PEG003-C-204902-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleural Gang... 54 0.008 1 ( EB202374 ) PEG00...2-C-112228-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleural Gang... 54 0.008 1 ( FD503098 ) Pam01b_22_G02_C013.g1 Persea america

  15. A Penny for Your Thoughts, a Nickel for Your Heart: The Influence of the Commander’s Emergency Response Program on Insurgency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    of gang behavior, Akerlof (1997) stated that perception of fairness of the criminal justice system (lack of corruption, etc.), and attitudes toward...86 George Akerlof and Janet Yellen, “Gang Behavior, Law Enforcement, and Community Values,” in Human Well Being and Economic Goals... Akerlof , George and Janet Yellen. “Gang Behavior, Law Enforcement, and Community Values.” in Human Well Being and Economic Goals, 220–223 Washington D.C

  16. Media coverage of violence against women in India: a systematic study of a high profile rape case

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Mark; Mostofian, Fargol; Jetly, Rajeev; Puthukudy, Nazar; Madden, Kim; Bhandari, Mohit

    2015-01-01

    Background On December 16, 2012 a 23?year old female was gang-raped on a bus in Delhi. We systematically reviewed professional online media sources used to inform the timing, breadth of coverage, opinions and consistency in the depiction of events surrounding the gang-rape. Methods We searched two news databases (LexisNexis Academic and Factivia) and individual newspapers for English-language published media reports covering the gang-rape. Two reviewers screened the media reports and extracte...

  17. Manden, der så englen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    2008-01-01

    Man skal helst se Andrei Tarkovskys film mindst to gange: En gang for at fange de enestående fortællinger, og en gang for at se på de fantastiske billeder. Uden sidestykke formåede Tarkovsky at koble sine fortællinger til en visuel repræsentation, der giver noget nær fuldendte værker. I anledning...

  18. Amatørpianister i ballonhøjde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen-Nielsen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Eftertanken. Når en solist træder frem foran publikum ved en koncert, gribes jeg hver gang af en nervøsitet, der først letter, når stykket er godt i gang. Tænk, at de tør!......Eftertanken. Når en solist træder frem foran publikum ved en koncert, gribes jeg hver gang af en nervøsitet, der først letter, når stykket er godt i gang. Tænk, at de tør!...

  19. Territorial developments based on graffiti: A statistical mechanics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Alethea B. T.; Chayes, Lincoln; D'Orsogna, Maria R.

    2013-01-01

    We study the well-known sociological phenomenon of gang aggregation and territory formation through an interacting agent system defined on a lattice. We introduce a two-gang Hamiltonian model where agents have red or blue affiliation but are otherwise indistinguishable. In this model, all interactions are indirect and occur only via graffiti markings, on-site as well as on nearest neighbor locations. We also allow for gang proliferation and graffiti suppression. Within the context of this model, we show that gang clustering and territory formation may arise under specific parameter choices and that a phase transition may occur between well-mixed, possibly dilute configurations and well separated, clustered ones. Using methods from statistical mechanics, we study the phase transition between these two qualitatively different scenarios. In the mean-fields rendition of this model, we identify parameter regimes where the transition is first or second order. In all cases, we have found that the transitions are a consequence solely of the gang to graffiti couplings, implying that direct gang to gang interactions are not strictly necessary for gang territory formation; in particular, graffiti may be the sole driving force behind gang clustering. We further discuss possible sociological-as well as ecological-ramifications of our results.

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14852-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4.6 1 ( EH637959 ) EST9067 LK04 Laupala kohalensis cDNA clone 106102... 44 4.6 1 ( EB250277 ) PEG003-C-032853-501 Normalized Pedal...-Pleural Gang... 44 4.6 1 ( EB249473 ) PEG003-C-035127-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleural G...ang... 44 4.6 1 ( EB244527 ) PEG003-C-226813-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleural Gang...... 44 4.6 1 ( EB238293 ) PEG003-C-223968-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleural Gang... 44 4.6 1 ( EB231006 ) PEG003-C-205783-501 Normalized Peda

  1. Sandhedens smukke smerte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redvall, Eva Novrup

    2017-01-01

    François Ozon fornyr endnu en gang mesterligt sig selv med violiner, Verlaine og visuel elegance i det fransktyske drama ’Frantz’ om efterkrigssorg og mulig forsoning......François Ozon fornyr endnu en gang mesterligt sig selv med violiner, Verlaine og visuel elegance i det fransktyske drama ’Frantz’ om efterkrigssorg og mulig forsoning...

  2. Old and New Insurgency Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Mexican cartels, Central American gangs, and the Italian mafia —are viewed as a law enforcement concern. However, some of the African warlords and the...this insurgency form—Colombian and Mexican car- tels, Central American gangs, and the Italian mafia — are viewed as a law enforcement concern. However

  3. Mediation of agency in teamwork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajslev, Jeppe Zielinski Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution we examine the potentials of the construction gang as a frame for collegial handling of physical strain and pain in work. On a framework viewing social inclusion and a positive professional identity as dependent on the display of meaningful agency within the gang (team), we e...

  4. Creation of a Homeland Security Jail Information Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    about drug cartels, human trafficking/illegal immigration, firearms and explosives, counterfeit merchandise used to fund terrorist groups, and...gang activity. Beyond the scope of street gangs there exists untapped information regarding the counterfeiting of U.S. currency, illegal border...and local law enforcement agencies with an expertise in cartels, immigration fraud, counterfeit currency, international terrorist organizations

  5. Safe, Disciplined, Drug-Free Schools. A Background Paper for the Goals 2000: Educate America Satellite Town Meeting July 20, 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    What can be done to solve the problem of crime in schools? "Project Freedom," in Wichita, Kansas, is creating programs to help children learn about dangers that come with joining gangs and becoming involved in drugs. A community program in Los Angeles, Community Youth Gang Services," is a crisis intervention team working with…

  6. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U08935-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available library in... 50 0.003 2 ( EB241584 ) PEG003-C-218219-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleural Gang... 42 0.003 2 ( AC1...0 ) PEG002-C-007902-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleural Gang... 42 0.003 2 ( BX323087 ) Zebrafish DNA sequence from

  7. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05670-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ea... 42 2.3 2 ( EB243087 ) PEG003-C-220148-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleural Gang... ..... 34 2.4 7 ( EB247517 ) PEG003-C-030630-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleural Gang... 36 2.4 2 ( AC119220 ) Mus musc

  8. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U07057-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available r... 46 1.4 1 ( EB239074 ) PEG003-C-224959-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleural Gang... 4...6 1.4 1 ( EB207769 ) PEG002-C-009168-301 Normalized Pedal-Pleural Gang... 46 1.4 1 ( BX897664 ) Zebrafish DN

  9. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14471-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 32 0.100 9 ( EB240842 ) PEG003-C-217239-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleural Gang... 38 0.11 2 ( EB216646 ) PEG002-C...-013539-301 Normalized Pedal-Pleural Gang... 38 0.11 2 ( CU606889 ) Pig DNA sequence *** SEQUENCING IN PROGR

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12785-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .. 46 1.3 1 ( EB230631 ) PEG003-C-204973-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleural Gang... 46 1.3 1 ( EB226825 ) PEG002-C...-110577-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleural Gang... 46 1.3 1 ( CT763162 ) Paramecium tetraurelia 5-PRIME EST from c

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12832-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available . 44 5.2 1 ( EB237901 ) PEG003-C-223486-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleural Gang... 44 5.2 1 ( EB212075 ) PEG002-C-011268-301 Normalized Ped...al-Pleural Gang... 44 5.2 1 ( EB210376 ) PEG002-C-005208-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleur

  12. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12111-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rmalized CNS library (adult... 44 9.2 1 ( EB232919 ) PEG003-C-200760-501 Normalized Pedal...-Pleural Gang... 44 9.2 1 ( EB232215 ) PEG003-C-201573-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleural Gang... 44 9.2 1

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14331-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ed cDNA populations Arabidopsis tha... 52 0.023 1 ( EB208158 ) PEG002-C-001728-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleural ...Gang... 52 0.023 1 ( EB203465 ) PEG002-C-001736-301 Normalized Pedal-Pleural Gang... 52 0.023 1 ( DH470103 )

  14. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05624-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 242068 ) PEG003-C-218852-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleural Gang... 44 4.3 1 ( EB237713 ) PEG003-C-223275-501 Normalized Pedal...-Pleural Gang... 44 4.3 1 ( EB234388 ) PEG003-C-208595-501 Normalized Pedal

  15. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06758-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available EST from clone SA0AA... 38 0.002 3 ( EB230413 ) PEG003-C-204404-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleural Gang... 44 0.00...2 2 ( EB241667 ) PEG003-C-218351-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleural Gang... 44 0.003 2 ( AP008189 ) Lotus japonicu

  16. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05341-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available EG003-C-203669-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleural Gang... 50 0.018 1 ( EB228005 ) PEG00...2-C-110187-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleural Gang... 50 0.018 1 ( EB201701 ) PEG002-C-104206-501 Normalized Pedal

  17. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U01953-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4e-28 2 ( EB250252 ) PEG003-C-032882-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleural Gang... 46 0.7...6 1 ( EB239380 ) PEG003-C-225374-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleural Gang... 46 0.76 1 ( GD240729 ) G1045P345FH10.T

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14105-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available oideum cDNA clone:dda17m12, 5' ... 58 4e-04 1 ( EB223488 ) PEG002-C-104408-501 Normalized Pedal...-Pleural Gang... 44 0.64 2 ( EB238172 ) PEG003-C-223796-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleural Gang... 4

  19. Promoting inclusive policies and approaches to address youth ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This has led to disillusionment and an increased propensity towards violence by youth, manifested by the number of youth joining gangs. Youth ... and gang violence in Cape Town, the study will highlight the scope of youth participation in these networks of violence through the perspectives of both young men and women.

  20. Will Dress Codes Save the Schools? Teaching Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvez, Aggie

    1994-01-01

    Discusses issues related to dress codes, student behavior, and youth gangs. Presents a role-playing activity based on a proposed dress code aimed at gang-related clothing in a secondary school. Includes two student handouts and step-by-step instructional procedures. (CFR)

  1. Data release of the LAMOST pilot survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A-Li Luo Hao-Tong Zhang Yong-Heng Zhao Gang Zhao Xiang-Qun Cui Guo-Ping Li Yao-Quan Chu Jian-Rong Shi Gang Wang Jian-Nan Zhang Zhong-Rui Bai Xiao-Yan Chen Feng-Fei Wang Yan-Xin Guo Jian-Jun Chen Bing Du Xiao Kong Ya-Juan Lei Yin-Bi Li Yi-Han Song Yue Wu Yan-Xia Zhang Xin-Lin Zhou Fang Zuo Peng Du Lin He Wen Hou Yi-Qiao Dong Jian Li Guang-Wei Li Shuang Li Jing Song Yuan Tian Meng-Xin Wang Yong-Hui Hou Zhi-Ying Huo Hong-Zhuan Hu Ning-Sheng Hu Zhong-Wen Hu Lei Jia Fang-Hua Jiang Xiang Jiang Zi-Bo Jiang Ge Jin Ai-Hua Li Qi Li Yin-Dun Mao Zheng-Hong Tang Qing-Sheng Tao Liang-Ping Tu Da-Qing Wang Dan Wang Jian-Ping Wang Lei Wang Shou-Guan Wang Shu-Qing Wang Ya-Nan Wang You Wang Yue-Fei Wang Ming-Zhi Wei Xiang-Xiang Xue Xiao-Zheng Xing Ling-Zhe Xu Xin-Qi Xu Yan Xu De-Hua Yang Shi-Hai Yang Zheng-Qiu Yao Yong Yu Hui Yuan Chao Zhai En-Peng Zhang Jing Zhang Li-Ping Zhang WeiZhang Yong Zhang Zhen-Chao Zhang Ming Zhao Fang Zhou Yong-Tian Zhu Jie Zhu Si-Cheng Zou

    2012-01-01

    ... esearch in A stronomy and A strophysics A—Li Luo .Hao.Tong Zhang ,Yong-Heng Zhao ,Gang Zhao ,Xiang—Qun Cui ,Guo Ping Li2.Yao—Quan Chu3,Jian—Rong Shi ,Gang Wang ,Jian...

  2. Lagos "Area Boys", Substance Usage and Potential Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaam, Abeeb Olufemi; Brown, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The current study explores the rate at which members of Lagos' "area boys" engage in drug and alcohol use, and determines the predictive roles of parental and neighbourhood characteristics in the gang patterns of psychoactive substance misuse behaviour. The study approached gang members (N = 129) aged from 18 to 38 years (M = 25.83, SD = 4.82)…

  3. Zomerziekten in de visvijver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haenen, O.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Met het stijgen van de watertemperatuur in het voorjaar komt ook het metabolisme van de vis op gang. Veel vissoorten paaien bovendien in het voorjaar of de vroege zomer, dus ook hormonaal verandert er van alles. Dit hoort bij een natuurlijke gang van zaken maar geeft ook stress aan de vis. Stress is

  4. Connecting Activists and Journalists: Twitter communication in the aftermath of the 2012 Delhi rape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poell, T.; Rajagopalan, S.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines how feminist activists, women's organizations, and journalists in India connected with each other through Twitter following the gang rape incident in New Delhi in December 2012. First, the investigation draws on a set of +15 million tweets specifically focused on rape and gang

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF A RIDGE PROFILE WEEDER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    1980-03-01

    driven rotating horizontal short shaft which is connected by universal joints to two gangs of rotary hoe weeders. With the short shaft nearly at the bottom of a furrow between two ridges, the gangs of weeders lie on the sides of ...

  6. Meninger er gratis - og næsten umulige at måle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    Ganggang rammer meningsmålinger forkert - senest ved parlamentsvalget i Storbritannien. Det er der mindst tre gode grunde til, at de vil blive ved med. Men der findes en metode, som giver bedre pejlinger: Køb aktier i et forventet valgresultat...

  7. Development of a Ridge Profile Weeder | Odigboh | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prototype weeder described in this paper consists of a ground-driven rotating horizontal short shaft which is connected by universal joints to two gangs of rotary hoe weeders. With the short shaft nearly at the bottom of a furrow between two ridges, the gangs of weeders lie on the sides of the two ridges. The universal ...

  8. Learning to live

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche

    2014-01-01

    The paper develops a social practice theoretical framework to analyze expansive learning in relation to Danish gang exit intervention. We follow 22-year-old Bilal’s movements and moments in and out of gang communities, and how Bilal, collectively with his mentor and teacher Jesper and other role...

  9. Characteristics of Adolescent Felons in a Prison Treatment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenman, Russell

    1993-01-01

    Studied 43 youthful male offenders. Over 50% of subjects had antisocial, antiauthority values; did not know how to be anything other than criminal; had been subjected to physical, psychological, or sexual abuse; were members of minority group; and were gang members. Whites were less likely to be gang members; those who were tended to be Skinheads…

  10. Variations in band reporting rate and implications for kill rate in Greater Snow Geese

    OpenAIRE

    Guillaume Souchay; Olivier Gimenez; Gilles Gauthier; Roger Pradel

    2014-01-01

    We assessed spatial and temporal variation in reporting probability of banded Greater Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica) shot by hunters in eastern North America and evaluated potential residual biases in kill rate estimation. Adult Greater Snow Geese were marked with reward (value: US$10, $20, $30, $50, and $100) and standard bands ($0, control) in the Canadian Arctic from 2003 to 2005. We used a spatially explicit multinomial model based on 200 direct recoveries from 4256 banded geese...

  11. Environmental Assessment: Bird Strike Risk Reduction at Laughlin Air Force Base, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    killed when a goose shattered the plexi-glass cockpit of his T-38 trainer, resulting in shards being ingested by the engines leading to a fatal crash...November 20, 2001-A Boeing 727 struck a flock of snow geese (Chen caerulescens) on approach. At least three geese impacted the aircraft, one shattering ...crops such as cotton, turf, ornamentals, hops, cereal , com, deciduous fruit, peanuts, potatoes, and other vegetables. Cyfluthrin is also used in public

  12. How is MS-13 a Threat to US National Security?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-12

    like the Bloods and Crips as well as established Latino gangs like M18. Salvadoran youths banded together to survive.16 They organized into a new...gang and started calling themselves Mara Salvatrucha (MS). “Mara” is street slang for gang and references the Spanish word “marabunta”--South...American army ants known for devastating everything in their path.17 “Salva” stands for Salvador, and “trucha” is slang for “on alert.”18 MS’s early

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14628-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3724-501 Normalized MCC Neurons Aplysi... 44 5.1 1 ( EB248792 ) PEG003-C-033565-502 Normalized Pedal-Pleural... Gang... 44 5.1 1 ( EB223661 ) PEG002-C-105281-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleural Gang... 44 5.1 1 ( EB200727 ) PE...G002-C-111843-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleural Gang... 44 5.1 1 ( EB196050 ) PEG001-C...-003569-301 Non-Normalized Pedal-Pleural ... 44 5.1 1 ( CV517671 ) 0089P0004Z_A02_SP6 Mimulus guttatus libra

  14. Challenges, Approaches and Experiences from Asian Deltas and the Rhine-Meuse Delta : Regional Training Workshop on Delta Planning and Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wosten, J.H.M.; Douven, W.; Long Phi, H.; Fida Abdullah Khan, M.

    2013-01-01

    River delta's, like the Mekong Delta (Vietnam), Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (Bangladesh), Ayeyarwady Delta (Myanmar), Nile (Egypt) and Ciliwung Delta (Indonesia) are developing rapidly and are characterised by large-scale urbanisation and industrialization processes. They are facing serious planning

  15. State Capacity and Effectiveness in Combating Crime: A Comparative Study of El Salvador and Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    result other than overpopulating prisons and hardening gang members. Most detrimental it focused resources away from the primary causes of homicide...conviction rate. Plan Escoba only served to overpopulate the prisons, over-burden a weak 173 E. Martinez

  16. Distribution of rare earth elements and heavy metals in the surficial sediments of the Himalayan river system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramesh, R; Ramanathan, Al; Ramesh, S; Purvaja, R; Subramanian, V

    2000-01-01

    .... REEs and heavy metals (V, Pb, Cr, Co, Ag, Zn, Cd, Ni) were analyzed from the suspended sediments of Ganges and surficial sediments of Yamuna, Brahmaputra, Jamuna, Padma and Meghna, using VG Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer...

  17. Zes jaar multifunctionele beplantingen in Winterswijk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterbaan, A.; Berg, van den C.A.; Valk, H.

    2005-01-01

    Dit rapport geeft de ervaringen binnen het project meervoudig duurzaam landgebruik. Op een 10 ha groot gebied werden verschillende bomen geplant, met de walnoot als belangrijkste. De notenproductie komt pas na 6 jaar op gang, daarmee drukken de investeringskosten lang

  18. Student Dress Codes in Public Schools: A Selective Annotated Bibliography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joan Pedzich

    2002-01-01

    P1 In an attempt to curb the rising presence of gangs in public schools and to reduce disciplinary conflicts, officials in school districts across the United States are implementing dress codes or introducing uniforms...

  19. behavioural strategies for the management of domestic violence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -related, youth-gang and school ... Accumulation of minor hurts (stress), anxiety, disappointments, and frustration can produce ... Learning to use simple relaxation such as deep breathing, muscle relaxation and positive imagery could inhibit ...

  20. International week – a tool for internationalisation of the curriculum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lam, Sabine

    Bidraget redegør for overvejelser bag organisering af UCC's internationale uge, som afholdes en gang om året og reflekterer over de udfordringer der er for at integrere denne uge i undervisningen på stedet....

  1. Popmuusika / Mart Juur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juur, Mart, 1964-

    2006-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Les Diamants "Fortune Fools", Shout Out Louds "Howl Howl Gaff Gaff", Ulf Wakenius "Notes From The Heart", Angie Stone "Stone Hits", Bloodhound Gang "Hefty Fine", "Alternating Current 2", "The Best Smooth Jazz"

  2. Experiment list: SRX997039 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral gang...lia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers

  3. Professor of English, Linguistics, and Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sherrise Truesdale-Moore

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reexamines cultural curriculum and marginalized youth at-risk for gang involvement. While the literature expresses various approaches to addressing the gang problem in the United States, including comprehensive gang initiative models, get tough policies, and comprehensive peace campaigns to stop the violence. All of these initiatives have seemingly done little to stop gang membership among school age youth. Education has proven to be the most significant means to improve an individual’s life chances, but African American students, in particular, are performing worse than Whites on an average. If society is to reach these youth through education, we argue that a new classroom pedagogy is needed. To this aim, creating a culturally responsive classroom through hip hop may be the answer to engage troubled youth in the classroom.

  4. Kuidas kirjutada Oscarit väärt filmi / Andres Maimik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maimik, Andres, 1970-

    2003-01-01

    Spike Jonze'i mängufilm "Kuidas kirjutada kassafilmi" ("Adaptation") : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2002 ja Martin Scorsese "New Yorgi jõugud" ("Gangs of New York") : Ameerika Ühendriigid - Saksamaa - Itaalia - Suurbritannia 2002

  5. Ethylene scrubbing preserves firmness of Elstar-apples (in Dutch)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaik, van A.C.R.

    1995-01-01

    Ethyleen is een gasvormig hormoon, dat rijpingsprocessen bij appels in gang zet. Gevolg is dat de vruchten hun hardheid verliezen. Bij Elstar verloopt dat proces snel. Uit onderzoek blijkt dat ethyleen scrubben het verlies aan hardheid reduceert

  6. In Science Students Must Also Play Their Part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekke, Stewart E.

    1993-01-01

    Argues that very little is being done to improve the environmental conditions that cause poor student performance such as gang behavior, violence in children's lives, behavior problems, and the detrimental effects of poverty. (CCM)

  7. Distribution of biochemical constituents in the surface sediments of western coastal Bay of Bengal: Influence of river discharge and water column properties

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kumar, B.S.K.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Krishna, M.S.

    of discharged water and associated biogeochemical processes in the water column. The northwest (NW) region of coastal Bay of Bengal was influenced by discharges from Ganges river while peninsular (monsoonal) rivers influenced the southwest (SW) region. The NW...

  8. Transitions to Peace: Effects on Internal Security Forces in Nicaragua, El Salvador and Guatemala

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Atha, Roberto J

    2008-01-01

    .... It reveals how the influence of the military affected the implementation of internal security reforms, influencing the professionalism and effectiveness of police forces in the fight against violence and gangs today...

  9. Safe Streets in Tacoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebgen, Mary

    1990-01-01

    In Tacoma, Washington, the Safe Street Campaign united the schools, government agencies, labor groups, community and religious organizations, businesses, youth, and substance abuse agencies in responding to gangs and drugs. (MLF)

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14579-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sequence from clone CH211-235O3 in ... 50 0.014 1 ( EB222306 ) PEG002-C-102648-502 Normalized Pedal-Pleural...42 3.5 1 ( BX072539 ) Zebrafish DNA sequence from clone CH211-286O24 in... 32 6.8 2 ( EB247584 ) PEG003-C-030737-501 Normalized Pedal...-Pleural Gang... 30 8.8 2 ( EB221310 ) PEG002-C-101461-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleural... Gang... 30 8.8 2 ( EB250200 ) PEG003-C-032744-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleural Gang... 30 8.8 2 ( EB201801 ) PE...G002-C-109088-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleural Gang... 30 8.9 2 ( EB201595 ) PEG002-C

  11. Animated Dreamsi grand prix' sai film dododest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Animafilmide festivali "Animated Dreams" (21.-25. XI kinos Sõprus) auhinnasaajad : peaauhinna sai LAV-i "Lugu sellest, kuidas" (autor The Blackheart Gang), Balti- ja Põhjamaade festivali auhinna sai Eesti "Kleit" (Mari-Liis Bassovskaja, Jelena Girlin)

  12. Spatial patterns and insecurity in urban Nigeria | Idemudia | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    density residents. Other security-related information and recommendations have also been discussed. Keywords: crime network, gang-related violence, insecurity, housing density, youths. Journal of Psychology in Africa 2005, 15(1): 65–722 ...

  13. Media Re-victimization of Rape Victims in a Shame Culture? Exploring the Framing and Representation of Rape Cases in Nigerian Dailies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chinenye Nwabueze; Fidelis Oduah

    2015-01-01

      [...]India as a country has in recent time, continued to have its doses of not just rape cases but "gang raping" of powerless, defenseless and innocent women and girls by rapists and "the situation...

  14. Plaadid / Heidi Purga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Purga, Heidy, 1975-

    2007-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Gang Starr "Mass Appeal: The Best Of", Nas "Hiphop Is Dead", The Beatles "Love", Block Party " A Weekend In The City", Pet Shop Boys "Concrete", Keith Urban "Love, Pain & the Whole Crazy Thing", 2Marquess"

  15. On the road

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... being followed What girls have to say about drunk drivers Distracted Driving At home In school On the Internet Gangs ... your parent/guardian is the one who is driving drunk, talk to another adult you trust or contact ...

  16. Search | Page 8 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-03-30

    Unravelling the interplay between youth socio-economic ... Mar 30, 2017 ... Rejection can take the form of participation in gang violence, petty crime, organized crime, gender violence, radicalization, and armed conflict.

  17. View the Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Institute for Security Studies/UCT

    in academia has enabled him to produce a work that displays a ... Pinnock's work on this topic. The South .... for criminal behaviour is widespread, but such reluctance .... 9 P Sefali, Gang violence in Khayelitsha, Safety and Violence. Initiative ...

  18. Ødelæg alt muligt med et bogstav

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konzack, Lars

    2017-01-01

    En gang imellem griber en raptus SoMe-Danmark, og så fyldes alles feed med samme slags indhold. Senest overspringshandlede vi med hashtagget #oedelaeg1filmed1bogstav - og alle mulige afledninger af det....

  19. Organic carbon removal in the sea: the continental connection

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ittekkot, V.; Haake, B.; Bartsch, M.; Nair, R.R.; Ramaswamy, V.

    maxima coincide with the period of maximum discharge of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers during which river plumes enriched in nutrients are advected into offshore areas. Additionally, the winds and river plums supply enormous amounts of mineral matter...

  20. Plaadid / Mari Peegel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peegel, Mari, 1978-

    2005-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Neil Tennant/Chris Lowe "Battleship Potemkin", Institute "Distort Yourself", Bob Dylan "No Direction Home", Jem "Finally Woken", Machine Men "Elegies", Jamie Cullum "Catching Tales", Bloodhound Gang "Hefty Fine"

  1. Child Maltreatment Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data LGB Youth Report School Violence Featured Topic: Bullying Research Featured Topic: Prevent Gang Membership Featured Topic: ... OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 USA 800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636) , TTY: 888- ...

  2. Holiday Suicides: Fact or Myth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data LGB Youth Report School Violence Featured Topic: Bullying Research Featured Topic: Prevent Gang Membership Featured Topic: ... OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 USA 800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636) , TTY: 888- ...

  3. Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data LGB Youth Report School Violence Featured Topic: Bullying Research Featured Topic: Prevent Gang Membership Featured Topic: ... OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 USA 800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636) , TTY: 888- ...

  4. The Rule of Law and the U.S. Quest for Security in El Salvador

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stapleton, Anthony K

    2007-01-01

    .... Separate case studies examine U.S. efforts to promote the rule of law in El Salvador in response to security threats ranging from human rights violations and insurgency to illegal immigration and transnational street gangs...

  5. 77 FR 71018 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Extension of a Currently Approved Collection; Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... agencies. Other: None. Abstract: This collection will gather information related to youth and their... Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Agency Information Collection Activities; Extension of a Currently Approved Collection; Comment Request: National Youth Gang Survey AGENCY: Office of...

  6. Time to Put the Military on the Border

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deforge, Robert D

    2006-01-01

    .... It is well documented that the U.S. Border Patrol is undermanned, under-equipped, and under-trained to deal with the increasing numbers of illegal immigrants, escalating violent gang activity, and in the increasing incidents...

  7. Mixed Methodology to Predict Social Meaning for Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    membership based solely on their use of language. While aspects of gang language, such as the stylistic tendencies of the language of graffiti (Adams and...related to our study, are gangs’ stylistic tendencies. Gang language, notably expressed as graffiti on city walls, includes names, threats, and... graffiti also expresses fondness, as with men boasting of female counterparts or honoring fallen fellow gangsters. Multiple names on an amatory wall

  8. Honduran-U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-06

    September 22, 2009. 45 Ibid. 46 “Embajada de Brasil en Honduras tuvo agua , luz y teléfono cortados,” Agence France Presse, September 22, 2009; “UN...Gangs and Crime in Latin America,” April 20, 2005. 103 U.S. Agency for International Development, “Central America and Mexico Gang Assessment...Increasing deportations from the United States have been accompanied by similar increases in deportations from Mexico , a transit country for Central

  9. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15555-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ( EC823945 ) SME00006892 esmbsro2 Sawyeria marylandensis cDNA,... 54 0.021 1 ( EB242245 ) PEG003-C-219072-501 Normalized Pedal...-Pleural Gang... 54 0.021 1 ( EB236277 ) PEG003-C-211435-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleural Gan...um slug cDNA, clone SLH495. 36 0.99 2 ( EB213764 ) PEG002-C-007046-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleural Gang... 38 1

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16318-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 5 2 ( EB238172 ) PEG003-C-223796-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleural Gang... 44 5.6 2 ( EE132875 ) SiJWA08ADE Lausa...C-104408-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleural Gang... 44 4.6 2 ( AL929202 ) Zebrafish DNA sequence from clone DKEY-1...... 34 2.4 2 ( EH012888 ) USDA-FP_185744 Lysiphlebus testaceipes adult whol... 42 3.3 2 ( EB223488 ) PEG002-

  11. Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    2016-01-01

    Ganggang har Iran som stat og folk fremkaldt misforståelser, fascination og fordømmelser. Kritikere forkaster landets religiøse ledere og politiske undertrykkelse; kendere lovpriser landets dybe kulturhistorie og mangfoldighed. Men hvorfor er særligt Iran genstand for så blandede opfattelser......? Er Iran noget helt særligt – eller ganske almindelig?...

  12. CTC Sentinel (Volume 5, Issue 6, June 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    reach from Los Angeles to New York to Guatemala and El Salvador , MS-13 emerged in Los Angeles. Often portrayed as a consequence of the...This is for the Mara Salvatrucha: Inside the MS-13, America’s Most Violent Gang (New York: Hype- rion, 2009). 10 Hannah Stone, “El Salvador Gangs...respect to influential cliques and their leaders. Enforcing fealty is a brutal process and is simply expressed in the gang’s informal motto, “ Mata

  13. Neglected Issues and Possible Strategies for the Iraqi Economy After the 2003 Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    proliferated the unemployment rate, and created tension and hatred among the young jobless soldiers. The unemployed 300,000 former soldiers became a...the formal sectors of the economy.122 This in turn, caused the jobless youth to choose to join criminal gangs that offer financial support with...14. SUBJECT TERMS Iraqi Economy, The Informal Economy, Deterioration in Social Capital, The Insurgency and Criminal Gangs, Inflation, Unemployment

  14. Da vinen kom til Frankrig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker-Nielsen, Tønnes

    2010-01-01

    Grækerne dyrkede som de første vin i Sydfrankrig, men det var den romerske erobring i 121 f.Kr. der for alvor satte gang i den galliske vinproduktion.......Grækerne dyrkede som de første vin i Sydfrankrig, men det var den romerske erobring i 121 f.Kr. der for alvor satte gang i den galliske vinproduktion....

  15. Strategic Thinking: A Proposal to Reduce Violence in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    governmental institutions and organizations of civil society that work towards the prevention of youth violence by creating diverse occupational industries ...Seelke, “Gangs in Central America”, 5 23 21 Carmen Gentile, “The Gangs of El Salvador: A Growing Industry ”, TIME, http://www.time.com/time/world...Development Program (UNDP), “Informe Sobre Desarrollo Humano Para América Central 2009-2010: Abrir Espacios a la Seguridad Ciudadana y el Desarrollo

  16. Krise på italiensk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Östman, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Med Berlusconis exit fra italiensk politik siger italienerne farvel til deres ridder. Men det er ikke alt, de vinker farvel til. Italienerne har endnu en gang fået deres demokrati tilsidesat. Det er de vant til.......Med Berlusconis exit fra italiensk politik siger italienerne farvel til deres ridder. Men det er ikke alt, de vinker farvel til. Italienerne har endnu en gang fået deres demokrati tilsidesat. Det er de vant til....

  17. Using hyperaccumulator plants to phytoextract soil Ni and Cd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaney, R.L. [USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Animal Manure and By-Products Lab, Beltsville, MD (United States); Scott Angle, J.; McIntosh, M.S. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Phytoextraction Associates LLC, Baltimore, MD (United States); Reeves, R.D. [Inst. of Fundamental Science-Chemistry, Massey Univ., Palmerston North, NZ (United States); Li Yin-Ming; Brewer, E.P. [Viridian LLC, Houston, TX (United States); Chen Kuang-Yu; Synkowski, E.C.; Leigh Broadhurst, C.; Wang, S. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Roseberg, R.J. [Oregon State Univ., Central Point, OR (United States); Perner, H. [Inst. for Plant Nutrition, Hohenheim Univ. (Germany); Baker, A.J.M. [Univ. of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia)

    2005-04-01

    Two strategies of phytoextraction have been shown to have promise for practical soil remediation: domestication of natural hyperaccumulators and bioengineering plants with the genes that allow natural hyperaccumulators to achieve useful phytoextraction. Because different elements have different value, some can be phytomined for profit and others can be phytoremediated at lower cost than soil removal and replacement. Ni phytoextraction from contaminated or mineralized soils offers economic return greater than producing most crops, especially when considering the low fertility or phytotoxicity of Ni rich soils. Only soils that require remediation based on risk assessment will comprise the market for phytoremediation. Improved risk assessment has indicated that most Zn + Cd contaminated soils will not require Cd phytoextraction because the Zn limits practical risk from soil Cd. But rice and tobacco, and foods grown on soils with Cd contamination without corresponding 100-fold greater Zn contamination, allow Cd to readily enter food plants and diets. Clear evidence of human renal tubular dysfunction from soil Cd has only been obtained for subsistence rice farm families in Asia. Because of historic metal mining and smelting, Zn + Cd contaminated rice soils have been found in Japan, China, Korea, Vietnam and Thailand. Phytoextraction using southern France populations of Thlaspi caerulescens appears to be the only practical method to alleviate Cd risk without soil removal and replacement. The southern France plants accumulate 10-20-fold higher Cd in shoots than most T. caerulescens populations such as those from Belgium and the UK. Addition of fertilizers to maximize yield does not reduce Cd concentration in shoots; and soil management promotes annual Cd removal. The value of Cd in the plants is low, so the remediation service must pay the costs of Cd phytoextraction plus profits to the parties who conduct phytoextraction. Some other plants have been studied for Cd

  18. Identification and validation of heavy metal and radionuclide accumulating terrestrial plant species. Quarterly technical progress report, June 21, 1995--September 20, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochian, L.

    1995-12-31

    This quarterly report describes experiments on uptake of a variety of heavy metals by plants. Titles of report sections are (1) Alleviation of heavy-metal induced micronutrient deficiency through foliar fertilization, (2) Second screen for Zn, Cu, and Cd accumulation, (3) Characterization of the root Zn hyperaccumulation by Thlaspi caerulescens, (4) Comparison of commercial Brassica accessions obtained from the Iowa seed bank, (5) Second screening experiment for the accumulation of Cs and Sr by plants, (6) Effect of Ca on Cs and Sr accumulation by selected dicot species, and (7) Preliminary investigations into the forms of uranium taken up by plants.

  19. Interacciones sociales, conductas delictivas, violencia y consumo de drogas en una banda juvenil: reporte de registros conductuales y diarios de campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Stern

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Two types of data-collectlng systems, field diarles and time sampling of behavíor, were used to study a juvenile gang in a marginal community of Mexico City. These two ways of gathering data give us ímportant Information conceming the gang. wlth regards lo social functioníng, víolence, delinquency and dmg usage. Field diaries offer us a panoramlc, global vision of the gang. as we find here descriptions of the .person or the group and how they interact with other factors of their envíronment, Iike the family or the community. Time sampling of bebavior gives us quantitative Information on tbe types of behavior whicb occur most frequentIy wlthin the gang. Both types of information are necessary in orden to arrive at a more comprehensive view of the gang. as one needs to inelude qualitative and quantítatíve aspects to better describe and understand It

  20. Recovery of tall cotton-grass following real and simulated feeding by snow geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupp, J.W.; Robertson, Donna G.; Schmutz, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    Lesser snow geese Anser caerulescens caerulescens from the western Canadian Arctic feed on underground parts of tall cotton-grass Eriophorum angustifolium during autumn staging on the coastal plain of the Beaufort Sea in Canada and Alaska. We studied revegetation of sites where cotton-grass had been removed either by human-imprinted snow geese or by hand to simulate snow goose feeding. Aerial cover of cotton-grass at sites (n = 4) exploited by human-imprinted snow geese averaged 60 and 39% lower than in undisturbed control plots during the first and second year after feeding, respectively. Underground biomass of cotton-grass stembases and rhizomes in hand-treated plots was 80 and 62% less than in control plots 2 and 4 yr after removal, respectively (n = 10 yr-1). Aerial cover and biomass of common non-forage species such as Carex aquatilis did not increase on treated areas. Removal of cotton-grass by geese likely reduces forage availability at exploited sites for at least 2-4 yr after feeding but probably does not affect long-term community composition. Temporal heterogeneity in forage abundance likely contributes to the large spatial requirement of snow geese during staging.

  1. What to eat now? Shifts in polar bear diet during the ice-free season in western Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormezano, Linda J; Rockwell, Robert F

    2013-01-01

    Under current climate trends, spring ice breakup in Hudson Bay is advancing rapidly, leaving polar bears (Ursus maritimus) less time to hunt seals during the spring when they accumulate the majority of their annual fat reserves. For this reason, foods that polar bears consume during the ice-free season may become increasingly important in alleviating nutritional stress from lost seal hunting opportunities. Defining how the terrestrial diet might have changed since the onset of rapid climate change is an important step in understanding how polar bears may be reacting to climate change. We characterized the current terrestrial diet of polar bears in western Hudson Bay by evaluating the contents of passively sampled scat and comparing it to a similar study conducted 40 years ago. While the two terrestrial diets broadly overlap, polar bears currently appear to be exploiting increasingly abundant resources such as caribou (Rangifer tarandus) and snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) and newly available resources such as eggs. This opportunistic shift is similar to the diet mixing strategy common among other Arctic predators and bear species. We discuss whether the observed diet shift is solely a response to a nutritional stress or is an expression of plastic foraging behavior. PMID:24223286

  2. Characterization of Zinc and Cadmium Hyperaccumulation in Three Noccaea (Brassicaceae) Populations from Non-metalliferous Sites in the Eastern Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos, Soledad; Gallego, Berta; Sáez, Llorenç; López-Alvarado, Javier; Cabot, Catalina; Poschenrieder, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    The Southern slope of the Pyrenees is the meridional limit for the distribution of several Noccaea populations. However, the systematic description of these populations and their hyperaccumulation mechanisms are not well established. Morphological and genetic analysis (ITS and 3 chloroplast regions) were used to identify Noccaea populations localized on non-metallicolous soils during a survey in the Catalonian Pyrenees. Cd and Zn concentrations were analyzed in soils and plants both sampled in the field and grown hydroponically. The expression of selected metal transporter genes was assessed by quantitative PCR. The populations were identified as Noccaea brachypetala (Jord.) F.K. Mey by conspicuous morphological traits. Principal component analysis provided a clear separation among N. brachypetala, Noccaea caerulescens J. Presl & C. Presl and Noccaea occitanica (Jord.) F.K. Mey., three Noccaea species reported in the Pyrenees. Contrastingly, ITS and cpDNA analyses were unable to clearly differentiate these taxa. Differences in the expression of the metal transporter genes HMA3, HMA4, and MTP1 between N. caerulescens and N. brachypetala, and those amongst the N. brachypetala populations suggest differences in the strategies for handling enhanced Cd and Zn availability. This is the first report demonstrating Cd and Zn hyperaccumulation by N. brachypetala both in the field and in hydroponics. This comprehensive study based on taxonomic, molecular, and physiological data allows both the correct identification of this species and the characterization of population differences in hyperaccumulation and tolerance of Zn and Cd. PMID:26904085

  3. Species associations and habitat influence the range-wide distribution of breeding Canada Geese (Branta canadensis interior) on Western Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Matthew E.; Andersen, David E.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Humburg, Dale D.

    2017-01-01

    Inter- and intra-specific interactions are potentially important factors influencing the distribution of populations. Aerial survey data, collected during range-wide breeding population surveys for Eastern Prairie Population (EPP) Canada Geese (Branta canadensis interior), 1987–2008, were evaluated to assess factors influencing their nesting distribution. Specifically, associations between nesting Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) and EPP Canada Geese were quantified; and changes in the spatial distribution of EPP Canada Geese were identified. Mixed-effects Poisson regression models of EPP Canada Goose nest counts were evaluated within a cross-validation framework. The total count of EPP Canada Goose nests varied moderately among years between 1987 and 2008 with no long-term trend; however, the total count of nesting Lesser Snow Geese generally increased. Three models containing factors related to previous EPP Canada Goose nest density (representing recruitment), distance to Hudson Bay (representing brood-habitat), nesting habitat type, and Lesser Snow Goose nest density (inter-specific associations) were the most accurate, improving prediction accuracy by 45% when compared to intercept-only models. EPP Canada Goose nest density varied by habitat type, was negatively associated with distance to coastal brood-rearing areas, and suggested density-dependent intra-specific effects on recruitment. However, a non-linear relationship between Lesser Snow and EPP Canada Goose nest density suggests that as nesting Lesser Snow Geese increase, EPP Canada Geese locally decline and subsequently the spatial distribution of EPP Canada Geese on western Hudson Bay has changed.

  4. Multi-species patterns of avian cholera mortality in Nebraska's rainwater basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchong, Julie A.; Samuel, M.D.; Mack, G.

    2006-01-01

    Nebraska's Rainwater Basin (RWB) is a key spring migration area for millions of waterfowl and other avian species. Avian cholera has been endemic in the RWB since the 1970s and in some years tens of thousands of waterfowl have died from the disease. We evaluated patterns of avian cholera mortality in waterfowl species using the RWB during the last quarter of the 20th century. Mortality patterns changed between the years before (1976 - 1988) and coincident with (1989 - 1999) the dramatic increases in lesser snow goose abundance and mortality. Lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) have commonly been associated with mortality events in the RWB and are known to carry virulent strains of Pasteurella multocida, the agent causing avian cholera. Lesser snow geese appeared to be the species most affected by avian cholera during 1989 - 1999; however, mortality in several other waterfowl species was positively correlated with lesser snow goose mortality. Coincident with increased lesser snow goose mortality, spring avian cholera outbreaks were detected earlier and ended earlier compared to 1976 - 1988. Dense concentrations of lesser snow geese may facilitate intraspecific disease transmission through bird-to-bird contact and wetland contamination. Rates of interspecific avian cholera transmission within the waterfowl community, however, are difficult to determine.

  5. Avian cholera in waterfowl: the role of lesser snow and Ross's geese as carriers of avian cholera in the Playa Lakes region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, M.D.; Shadduck, D.J.; Goldberg, Diana R.; Johnson, W.P.

    2005-01-01

    We collected samples from apparently healthy geese in the Playa Lakes Region (USA) during the winters of 2000a??01 and 2001a??02 to determine whether carriers of Pasteurella multocida, the bacterium that causes avian cholera, were present in wild populations. With the use of methods developed in laboratory challenge trials (Samuel et al., 2003a) and a serotype-specific polymerase chain reaction method for identification of P. multocida serotype 1, we found that a small proportion of 322 wild birds (cholera infection. Our results confirm the hypothesis that wild waterfowl are carriers of avian cholera and add support for the hypothesis that wild birds are a reservoir for this disease. In concert with other research, this work indicates that enzootic infection with avian cholera occurs in lesser snow goose (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) populations throughout their annual cycle. Although fewer Rossa??s geese (Chen rossii) were sampled, we also found these birds were carriers of P. multocida. Even in the absence of disease outbreaks, serologic evidence indicates that chronic disease transmission and recent infection are apparently occurring year-round in these highly gregarious birds and that a small portion of these populations are potential carriers with active infection.

  6. Antibodies against Pasteurella multocida in snow geese in the western arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, M.D.; Shadduck, D.J.; Goldberg, Diana R.; Baranyuk, V.; Sileo, L.; Price, J.I.

    1999-01-01

    To determine if lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) are a potential reservoir for the Pasteurella multocida bacterium that causes avian cholera, serum samples and/or pharyngeal swabs were collected from > 3,400 adult geese breeding on Wrangel Island (Russia) and Banks Island (Canada) during 1993-1996. Pharyngeal swab sampling rarely (> 0.1%) detected birds that were exposed to P. multocida in these populations. Geese with serum antibody levels indicating recent infection with P. multocida were found at both breeding colonies. Prevalence of seropositive birds was 3.5% at Wrangel Island, an area that has no recorded history of avian cholera epizootics. Prevalence of seropositive birds was 2.8% at Banks Island in 1994, but increased to 8.2% during 1995 and 1996 when an estimated 40,000-60,000 snow geese were infected. Approximately 50% of the infected birds died during the epizootic and a portion of the surviving birds may have become carriers of the disease. This pattern of prevalence indicated that enzootic levels of infection with P. multocida occurred at both breeding colonies. When no avian cholera epizootics occurred (Wrangel Island, Banks Island in 1994), female snow geese (4.7%) had higher antibody prevalence than males (2.0%).

  7. Different time and energy budgets of Lesser Snow Geese in rice-prairies and coastal marshes in southwest Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, J.E.; Afton, A.D.

    2006-01-01

    Many bird species use human-made habitats and an important issue is whether these are equally suitable foraging habitats as are historical, natural habitats. Historically, Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens, hereafter Snow Geese) wintered in coastal marshes in Louisiana but began using rice-prairies within the last 60 years. Time spent feeding was used as an indicator of habitat suitability and time and energy budgets of Snow Geese were compared between rice-prairies and coastal marshes in southwest Louisiana. Composite diets of Snow Geese have a lower energy density in the rice-prairies than in coastal marshes; thus, we predicted that Snow Geese would spend relatively more time feeding in rice-praires to obtain existence energy. However, time spent feeding was higher in coastal marshes and thus, not proportional to energy density of composite diets. Snow Geese in coastal marshes ingested less apparent metabolizable energy than did Snow Geese in rice-prairies. In rice-prairies, juveniles spent more time feeding than did adults; however, time spent feeding was similar between age classes in coastal marshes. Undeveloped foraging skills probably cause juvenile Snow Geese to forage less efficiently in coastal marshes than in rice-prairies. These findings are consistent with recent trends in Snow Goose numbers, which increased in rice-prairies but remained stable in coastal marshes.

  8. What to eat now? Shifts in polar bear diet during the ice-free season in western Hudson Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormezano, Linda J; Rockwell, Robert F

    2013-09-01

    Under current climate trends, spring ice breakup in Hudson Bay is advancing rapidly, leaving polar bears (Ursus maritimus) less time to hunt seals during the spring when they accumulate the majority of their annual fat reserves. For this reason, foods that polar bears consume during the ice-free season may become increasingly important in alleviating nutritional stress from lost seal hunting opportunities. Defining how the terrestrial diet might have changed since the onset of rapid climate change is an important step in understanding how polar bears may be reacting to climate change. We characterized the current terrestrial diet of polar bears in western Hudson Bay by evaluating the contents of passively sampled scat and comparing it to a similar study conducted 40 years ago. While the two terrestrial diets broadly overlap, polar bears currently appear to be exploiting increasingly abundant resources such as caribou (Rangifer tarandus) and snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) and newly available resources such as eggs. This opportunistic shift is similar to the diet mixing strategy common among other Arctic predators and bear species. We discuss whether the observed diet shift is solely a response to a nutritional stress or is an expression of plastic foraging behavior.

  9. The construction of an engineered bacterium to remove cadmium from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S; Shu, H

    2014-01-01

    The removal of cadmium (Cd) from wastewater before it is released from factories is important for protecting human health. Although some researchers have developed engineered bacteria, the resistance of these engineered bacteria to Cd have not been improved. In this study, two key genes involved in glutathione synthesis (gshA and gshB), a serine acetyltransferase gene (cysE), a Thlaspi caerulescens phytochelatin synthase gene (TcPCS1), and a heavy metal ATPase gene (TcHMA3) were transformed into Escherichia coli BL21. The resistance of the engineered bacterium to Cd was significantly greater than that of the initial bacterium and the Cd accumulation in the engineered bacterium was much higher than in the initial bacterium. In addition, the Cd resistance of the bacteria harboring gshB, gshA, cysE, and TcPCS1 was higher than that of the bacteria harboring gshA, cysE, and TcPCS1. This finding demonstrated that gshB played an important role in glutathione synthesis and that the reaction catalyzed by glutathione synthase was the limiting step for producing phytochelatins. Furthermore, TcPCS1 had a greater specificity and a higher capacity for removing Cd than SpPCS1, and TcHMA3 not only played a role in T. caerulescens but also functioned in E. coli.

  10. Mo(ve)ment-methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche; Christian Celosse-Andersen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    of major identity formation and gang exit processes, done together with a former biker gang member, Martin, becoming a research apprentice and more academically reflective, while moving beyond gang involvement. The paper empirically exemplifies the mo(ve)ment methodology presenting and analyzing one...... experienced moment called “Sp(l)itting on the street”. It is a moment which captures multiple and double feelings of conflictual concerns, frustrations, anger, a new feeling of insecurity of masculinity, as well as the feeling of engagement and deep meaningfulness, when becoming a more reflective academic....... These various conflictual feelings, also includes a sense of being split into conflicting identities. The paper analyzes how such conflictual feelings also can be productive, and produce movements and change in identity formation through our social practice research analysis and joint venture. The analyzed...

  11. Penangulangan Pelanggaran Hukum yang Dilakukan Geng Motor oleh Kepolisian di Wilayah Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandang Sambas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available At first, motorbike gang was considered as hobbyist-based-community created to express solidarity and creativity among its members. Recent growing number of violence cases  involving motorbike gang members in West Java, especially in Bandung, has posed us with enough evidences to cathegorize their activity as law violation acts which threatening public safety. From social crime perspective, any law violations were considered as delinquency acts. Considering that majority of gang members are teenagers, or children/underage, significant factor to be attended seriously is family as the first source of norms and socialization.Weakness ties among members of family, anomie, and mass media strong influence are threatening young members of family in this situation.   A collaboration between police institution and family and other social group representative such as religious leaders on every aspect was the key to overcome the problem of motorbike rascals.

  12. Vi gör det för vår överlevnad : En kvalitativ studie om tre personer medtillhörlighet inom svensk organiserad brottslighet.

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Niklas; Omodho, Daisy

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to research and gain knowledge about people involved in organized crime in Sweden. By conducting interviews we were able to analyze what factors played a role in an individual's choice to become a member of a criminal gang, as well as to gain an overall picture of these people. The qualitative research was carried out in three different cities in Sweden. Three people, aged between 30 and 60, who are currently members of a gang, were interviewed. In these inter...

  13. Defining Mara Salvatrucha’s Texas Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    the prison gang Mexican Mafia , which ran the street gang Sureño 13 network. Both of those criminal groups are present in Texas. The Texas Department...additional four regions have listed associates of MS 13 as having a significant presence in each of them.9 With the Mexican Mafia having a major presence...the Mexican Mafia or “La Eme” as it is known in places it dominates.99 The number 13 is a reference to the letter “m,” which is the thirteenth letter

  14. Barrierer for realisering af energibesparelser i bygninger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Michael

    2004-01-01

    For få bygningsejere går i gang med at investere i energibesparelser. Årsagen tilskrives en række barrierer, som møder den enkelte bygningsejer, når denne vil i gang med at foretage energirenoveringer. Men ikke alle barrierer handler om barrierer i traditionel forstand, men om tilbageholdenhed. Den...... tilbageholdenhed, som mange bygningsejere har over for energirenovering, gælder snarere en manglende anerkendelse fra omverdenen, en manglende tro på, at der kan spares noget og en manglende lyst til at se håndværkere i huset....

  15. Crime Trend Prediction Using Regression Models for Salinas, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Mafia (La Eme) and Nuestra Familia (NF)” (Sureños, 2005). The original members of the gang were associated with the urban Hispanic population...Morales et al., 2008, p. 8). The Norteños are associated with the Nuestra Familia gang. The Norteños, Spanish for “Our Family,” are rumored to have... Familia in Salinas. Monterey Herald. 55 San Francisco Citizen. (2010, 22 April). Jerry Brown Takes Down: “Operation Knockout” Arrests 94 Norteños

  16. Bourdieu for begyndere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilken, Lisanne

    Bourdieu for begyndere giver en kort introduktion til Pierre Bourdieus forfatterskab. Bogen forklarer Bourdieus teori om praksis og hans forskellige analytiske begreber og giver anvisninger på, hvordan man selv kommer i gang med at læse hans egne tekster.......Bourdieu for begyndere giver en kort introduktion til Pierre Bourdieus forfatterskab. Bogen forklarer Bourdieus teori om praksis og hans forskellige analytiske begreber og giver anvisninger på, hvordan man selv kommer i gang med at læse hans egne tekster....

  17. Bikes and Movies: A Brief History Of Motorcycle In Cinema

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Martinez; Antonio Sanjuán

    2014-01-01

    Bikers, gangs, heroes and villains, cops, races... after an exhaustive compilation and categorization fo more than 2.500 movies, this article explores the biker image on films through the most representatives.This is a brief review of the motorcycle use from the Early Cinema to the end of the 20th century, highlighting the fifties and seventies. Some movies of those years marked the biker genre and the biker and gang aesthetics, both in costume and in the way they relate to the world. Also th...

  18. Fiktionen, der var ude af sig selv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    2007-01-01

    På baggrund af en analyse af Lars Frosts roman Smukke biler efter krigen (2004) reflekterer jeg over fiktionen som på én gang selvberoende og selvnedbrydende størrelse, og der henvises til Adornos æstetik som en mulig teoretisk ramme for begribelsen af dette tilsyneladende paradoks.......På baggrund af en analyse af Lars Frosts roman Smukke biler efter krigen (2004) reflekterer jeg over fiktionen som på én gang selvberoende og selvnedbrydende størrelse, og der henvises til Adornos æstetik som en mulig teoretisk ramme for begribelsen af dette tilsyneladende paradoks....

  19. Bikes and Movies: A Brief History Of Motorcycle In Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Martinez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bikers, gangs, heroes and villains, cops, races... after an exhaustive compilation and categorization fo more than 2.500 movies, this article explores the biker image on films through the most representatives.This is a brief review of the motorcycle use from the Early Cinema to the end of the 20th century, highlighting the fifties and seventies. Some movies of those years marked the biker genre and the biker and gang aesthetics, both in costume and in the way they relate to the world. Also the presence of "soft motorbikes", the scooter and the European image of the motorcycle is reviewed.

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05280-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 442_H09 Developing fruit albedo at 165 DAF... 52 2e-06 2 ( EB244753 ) PEG003-C-227153-501 Normalized Pedal-P...leural Gang... 36 2e-06 3 ( EB247251 ) PEG003-C-030389-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleur...5 ) MCCN20-F-132634-501 Normalized MCC Neurons Aplysi... 36 2e-06 3 ( EB233633 ) PEG003-C-205930-501 Normalized Pedal...3 ( EB224013 ) PEG002-C-105410-501 Normalized Pedal-Pleural Gang... 36 2e-06 3 ( EB264627 ) MCCN20-F-130925-