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Sample records for caerulescens ganges ecotype1oa

  1. Complexation and Toxicity of Copper in Higher Plants. II. Different Mechanisms for Copper versus Cadmium Detoxification in the Copper-Sensitive Cadmium/Zinc Hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges Ecotype)1[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijovilovich, Ana; Leitenmaier, Barbara; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Kroneck, Peter M.H.; Götz, Birgit; Küpper, Hendrik

    2009-01-01

    The cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens is sensitive toward copper (Cu) toxicity, which is a problem for phytoremediation of soils with mixed contamination. Cu levels in T. caerulescens grown with 10 μm Cu2+ remained in the nonaccumulator range (<50 ppm), and most individuals were as sensitive toward Cu as the related nonaccumulator Thlaspi fendleri. Obviously, hyperaccumulation and metal resistance are highly metal specific. Cu-induced inhibition of photosynthesis followed the “sun reaction” type of damage, with inhibition of the photosystem II reaction center charge separation and the water-splitting complex. A few individuals of T. caerulescens were more Cu resistant. Compared with Cu-sensitive individuals, they recovered faster from inhibition, at least partially by enhanced repair of chlorophyll-protein complexes but not by exclusion, since the content of Cu in their shoots was increased by about 25%. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements on frozen-hydrated leaf samples revealed that a large proportion of Cu in T. caerulescens is bound by sulfur ligands. This is in contrast to the known binding environment of cadmium and zinc in the same species, which is dominated by oxygen ligands. Clearly, hyperaccumulators detoxify hyperaccumulated metals differently compared with nonaccumulated metals. Furthermore, strong features in the Cu-EXAFS spectra ascribed to metal-metal contributions were found, in particular in the Cu-resistant specimens. Some of these features may be due to Cu binding to metallothioneins, but a larger proportion seems to result from biomineralization, most likely Cu(II) oxalate and Cu(II) oxides. Additional contributions in the EXAFS spectra indicate complexation of Cu(II) by the nonproteogenic amino acid nicotianamine, which has a very high affinity for Cu(II) as further characterized here. PMID:19692532

  2. Plant response to heavy metal toxicity: comparative study between the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (ecotype Ganges) and nonaccumulator plants: lettuce, radish, and alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzarti, Saoussen; Mohri, Shino; Ono, Yoshiro

    2008-10-01

    Thlaspi caerulescens (alpine pennycress) is one of the best-known heavy metal (HM) hyperaccumulating plant species. It exhibits the ability to extract and accumulate various HM at extremely high concentrations. In this hydroponic study, the performance of T. caerulescens (ecotype Ganges) to accumulate Cd, Zn, and Cu was compared with that of three nonaccumulator plants: alfalfa (Medicago sativa), radish (Raphanus sativus), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Plants were exposed to the separately dissolved HM salts for 7 days at a wide range of increasing concentrations: 0 (control: 1/5 Hoagland nutrient solution), 0.1, 1, 10, 100, and 1000 microM. The comparative study combined chemical, physiological, and ecotoxicological assessments. Excessive concentrations of HM (100 and 1000 microM) affected plant growth, photosynthesis, and phytoaccumulation efficiency. Root exudation for all plant species was highly and significantly correlated to HM concentration in exposure solutions and proved its importance to counter effect toxicity. T. caerulescens resisted better the phytotoxic effects of Cd and Zn (at 1000 microM each), and translocated them significantly within tissues (366 and 1290 microg g(-1), respectively). At the same HM level, T. caerulescens exhibited lower performances in accumulating Cu when compared with the rest of plant species, mainly alfalfa (298 microg g(-1)). Root elongation inhibition test confirmed the selective aptitude of T. caerulescens to better cope with Cd and Zn toxicities. MetPLATE bioassay showed greater sensitivity to HM toxicity with much lower EC(50) values for beta-galactosidase activity in E. coli. Nevertheless, exaggerated HM concentrations coupled with relatively short exposure time did not allow for an efficient metal phytoextraction thus a significant reduction of ecotoxicity. PMID:18528911

  3. Transcriptional regulation of metal transport genes and mineral nutrition during acclimatization to cadmium and zinc in the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator, Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges population)

    OpenAIRE

    Küpper, Hendrik; Kochian, Leon V.

    2010-01-01

    - We investigated changes in mineral nutrient uptake and cellular expression levels for metal transporter genes in the cadmium (Cd)/zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulator, Thlaspi caerulescens during whole plant and leaf ontogenesis under different long-term treatments with Zn and Cd.- Quantitative mRNA in situ hybridization (QISH) revealed that transporter gene expression changes not only dependent on metal nutrition/toxicity, but even more so during plant and leaf development. The main mRNA abundances ...

  4. Transcriptional regulation of metal transport genes and mineral nutrition during acclimatization to cadmium and zinc in the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator, Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges population).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpper, Hendrik; Kochian, Leon V

    2010-01-01

    We investigated changes in mineral nutrient uptake and cellular expression levels for metal transporter genes in the cadmium (Cd)/zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulator, Thlaspi caerulescens during whole plant and leaf ontogenesis under different long-term treatments with Zn and Cd. Quantitative mRNA in situ hybridization (QISH) revealed that transporter gene expression changes not only dependent on metal nutrition/toxicity, but even more so during plant and leaf development. The main mRNA abundances found were: ZNT1, mature leaves of young plants; ZNT5, young leaves of young plants; MTP1 (= ZTP1 = ZAT), young leaves of both young and mature plants. Surprisingly different cellular expression patterns were found for ZNT1 and ZNT5, both belonging to the ZIP family of transition metal transporters: ZNT1, photosynthetic mesophyll and bundle sheath cells; ZNT5, nonphotosynthetic epidermal metal storage cells and bundle sheath cells. Thus, ZNT1 may function in micronutrient nutrition while ZNT5 may be involved in metal storage associated with hyperaccumulation. Cadmium inhibited the uptake of Zn, iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn), probably by competing for transporters or by interfering with the regulation of transporter gene expression. Cadmium-induced changes in cellular expression for ZNT1, ZNT5 and MTP1 could also be part of plant acclimatization to Cd toxicity. Defence against Cd toxicity involved enhanced uptake of magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca) and sulphur (S). PMID:19843304

  5. Tissue- and age-dependent differences in the complexation of cadmium and zinc in the cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges ecotype) revealed by x-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpper, Hendrik; Mijovilovich, Ana; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Kroneck, Peter M H

    2004-02-01

    Extended x-ray absorption fine structure measurements were performed on frozen hydrated samples of the cadmium (Cd)/zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges ecotype) after 6 months of Zn(2+) treatment with and without addition of Cd(2+). Ligands depended on the metal and the function and age of the plant tissue. In mature and senescent leaves, oxygen ligands dominated. This result combined with earlier knowledge about metal compartmentation indicates that the plants prefer to detoxify hyperaccumulated metals by pumping them into vacuoles rather than to synthesize metal specific ligands. In young and mature tissues (leaves, petioles, and stems), a higher percentage of Cd was bound by sulfur (S) ligands (e.g. phytochelatins) than in senescent tissues. This may indicate that young tissues require strong ligands for metal detoxification in addition to the detoxification by sequestration in the epidermal vacuoles. Alternatively, it may reflect the known smaller proportion of epidermal metal sequestration in younger tissues, combined with a constant and high proportion of S ligands in the mesophyll. In stems, a higher proportion of Cd was coordinated by S ligands and of Zn by histidine, compared with leaves of the same age. This may suggest that metals are transported as stable complexes or that the vacuolar oxygen coordination of the metals is, like in leaves, mainly found in the epidermis. The epidermis constitutes a larger percentage of the total volume in leaves than in stems and petioles. Zn-S interaction was never observed, confirming earlier results that S ligands are not involved in Zn resistance of hyperaccumulator plants. PMID:14966248

  6. Tissue- and Age-Dependent Differences in the Complexation of Cadmium and Zinc in the Cadmium/Zinc Hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges Ecotype) Revealed by X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy1[w

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpper, Hendrik; Mijovilovich, Ana; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Kroneck, Peter M.H.

    2004-01-01

    Extended x-ray absorption fine structure measurements were performed on frozen hydrated samples of the cadmium (Cd)/zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges ecotype) after 6 months of Zn2+ treatment with and without addition of Cd2+. Ligands depended on the metal and the function and age of the plant tissue. In mature and senescent leaves, oxygen ligands dominated. This result combined with earlier knowledge about metal compartmentation indicates that the plants prefer to detoxify hyperaccumulated metals by pumping them into vacuoles rather than to synthesize metal specific ligands. In young and mature tissues (leaves, petioles, and stems), a higher percentage of Cd was bound by sulfur (S) ligands (e.g. phytochelatins) than in senescent tissues. This may indicate that young tissues require strong ligands for metal detoxification in addition to the detoxification by sequestration in the epidermal vacuoles. Alternatively, it may reflect the known smaller proportion of epidermal metal sequestration in younger tissues, combined with a constant and high proportion of S ligands in the mesophyll. In stems, a higher proportion of Cd was coordinated by S ligands and of Zn by histidine, compared with leaves of the same age. This may suggest that metals are transported as stable complexes or that the vacuolar oxygen coordination of the metals is, like in leaves, mainly found in the epidermis. The epidermis constitutes a larger percentage of the total volume in leaves than in stems and petioles. Zn-S interaction was never observed, confirming earlier results that S ligands are not involved in Zn resistance of hyperaccumulator plants. PMID:14966248

  7. Does cadmium play a physiological role in the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei-Qing; Yanai, Junta; Jiang, Rong-Feng; Zhang, Fusuo; McGrath, Steve P; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2008-04-01

    The southern French (Ganges) ecotype of Thlaspi caerulescens J & C Presl is able to hyperaccumulate several thousand mg Cd kg(-1) shoot dry weight without suffering from phytotoxicity. We investigated the effect of Cd on growth and the activity of carbonic anhydrase (CA), a typical Zn-requiring enzyme, of T. caerulescens in soil and hydroponic experiments. In one of the hydroponic experiments, T. caerulescens was compared to the non-accumulator Thlaspi ferganense N. Busch. In the soil experiment, additions of Cd at 5-500 mg kg(-1) soil increased the growth of T. caerulescens significantly. In the hydroponic experiments, exposure to Cd at 1-50 microM for three weeks had no significant effect on the growth of T. caerulescens, but decreased the growth of T. ferganense markedly even at the lowest concentration of Cd (1muM). Cadmium exposure significantly increased the CA activity in T. caerulescens, but decreased it in T. ferganense. The CA activity in T. caerulescens correlated positively with the Cd concentration in the shoots up to 6000 mg kg(-1), even though shoot Zn concentration was decreased by the Cd treatments. For comparison, Cd treatments had no consistent effect on the activity of superoxide dismutase in T. caerulescens. The results suggest that Cd may play a physiological role in the Cd-hyperaccumulating ecotype of T. caerulescens by enhancing the activities of some enzymes such as CA. Further research is needed to establish whether a Cd-requiring CA exists in T. caerulescens. PMID:18262587

  8. Complexation and toxicity of copper in higher plants. II. Different mechanisms for copper versus cadmium detoxification in the copper-sensitive cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges Ecotype).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijovilovich, Ana; Leitenmaier, Barbara; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Kroneck, Peter M H; Götz, Birgit; Küpper, Hendrik

    2009-10-01

    The cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens is sensitive toward copper (Cu) toxicity, which is a problem for phytoremediation of soils with mixed contamination. Cu levels in T. caerulescens grown with 10 microm Cu(2+) remained in the nonaccumulator range (<50 ppm), and most individuals were as sensitive toward Cu as the related nonaccumulator Thlaspi fendleri. Obviously, hyperaccumulation and metal resistance are highly metal specific. Cu-induced inhibition of photosynthesis followed the "sun reaction" type of damage, with inhibition of the photosystem II reaction center charge separation and the water-splitting complex. A few individuals of T. caerulescens were more Cu resistant. Compared with Cu-sensitive individuals, they recovered faster from inhibition, at least partially by enhanced repair of chlorophyll-protein complexes but not by exclusion, since the content of Cu in their shoots was increased by about 25%. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements on frozen-hydrated leaf samples revealed that a large proportion of Cu in T. caerulescens is bound by sulfur ligands. This is in contrast to the known binding environment of cadmium and zinc in the same species, which is dominated by oxygen ligands. Clearly, hyperaccumulators detoxify hyperaccumulated metals differently compared with nonaccumulated metals. Furthermore, strong features in the Cu-EXAFS spectra ascribed to metal-metal contributions were found, in particular in the Cu-resistant specimens. Some of these features may be due to Cu binding to metallothioneins, but a larger proportion seems to result from biomineralization, most likely Cu(II) oxalate and Cu(II) oxides. Additional contributions in the EXAFS spectra indicate complexation of Cu(II) by the nonproteogenic amino acid nicotianamine, which has a very high affinity for Cu(II) as further characterized here. PMID:19692532

  9. Field evaluation of Cd and Zn phytoextraction potential by the hyperaccumulators Thlaspi caerulescens and Arabidopsis halleri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, S.P. [Agriculture and the Environment Division, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: steve.mcgrath@bbsrc.ac.uk; Lombi, E. [Agriculture and the Environment Division, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); Gray, C.W. [Agriculture and the Environment Division, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); Caille, N. [Agriculture and the Environment Division, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); Dunham, S.J. [Agriculture and the Environment Division, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); Zhao, F.J. [Agriculture and the Environment Division, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom)

    2006-05-15

    Field trials were undertaken to investigate the effect of the application of metal mobilizing agents, different sowing strategies and length of growing season on the extraction of Cd and Zn from soils by Thlaspi caerulescens and Arabidopsis halleri. None of the mobilizing agents used enhanced metal accumulation by T. caerulescens. Between 1998 and 2000, on average across plots where Cd or Zn exceeded allowable limits, T. caerulescens removed 1.3 and 0.3% of the total soil Cd and Zn. In one season when T. caerulescens was grown for 14 months, 21.7 and 4.4% of the total soil Cd and Zn was removed. This was larger than values found when T. caerulescens was grown for 4 months. A. halleri accumulated similar concentrations of Zn, but lower Cd concentrations than T. caerulescens. The results indicate that metal phytoextraction using T. caerulescens can be used to clean up soils moderately contaminated by Cd. - The hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (the Ganges ecotype) is more efficient at phytoextracting Cd than Zn from contaminated soil.

  10. Field evaluation of Cd and Zn phytoextraction potential by the hyperaccumulators Thlaspi caerulescens and Arabidopsis halleri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field trials were undertaken to investigate the effect of the application of metal mobilizing agents, different sowing strategies and length of growing season on the extraction of Cd and Zn from soils by Thlaspi caerulescens and Arabidopsis halleri. None of the mobilizing agents used enhanced metal accumulation by T. caerulescens. Between 1998 and 2000, on average across plots where Cd or Zn exceeded allowable limits, T. caerulescens removed 1.3 and 0.3% of the total soil Cd and Zn. In one season when T. caerulescens was grown for 14 months, 21.7 and 4.4% of the total soil Cd and Zn was removed. This was larger than values found when T. caerulescens was grown for 4 months. A. halleri accumulated similar concentrations of Zn, but lower Cd concentrations than T. caerulescens. The results indicate that metal phytoextraction using T. caerulescens can be used to clean up soils moderately contaminated by Cd. - The hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (the Ganges ecotype) is more efficient at phytoextracting Cd than Zn from contaminated soil

  11. Fatty acid profiles of ecotypes of hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens growing under cadmium stress

    OpenAIRE

    Zemanová, V.; Pavlík, M. (Milan); Kyjaková, P. (Pavlína); Pavlíková, D.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in the fatty acid (FAs) composition in response to the extent of Cd contamination of soils (0, 30, 60 and 90 mg Cd kg(-1)) differed between ecotypes of Noccaea caerulescens originating from France Ganges, Slovenia - Mezica and Austria - Redlschlag. Mezica ecotype accumulated more Cd in aboveground biomass compared to Ganges and Redlschlag ecotypes. Hyperaccumulators contained saturated fatty acids (SFAs) rarely occurring in plants, as are cerotic (26: 0), montanic (28: 0), melissic (3...

  12. Transport and detoxification of cadmium, copper and zinc in the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator plant Thlaspi caerulescens

    OpenAIRE

    Leitenmaier, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    SummaryIn this thesis, various aspects on heavy metal accumulation by the hyperaccumulator plant Thlaspi caerulescens have been investigated. T. caerulescens belongs to the family of Brassicaceae and hyperaccumulates zinc. Its ecotype Ganges, originating from Southern France, additionally takes up cadmium actively. It is known from previous studies that hyperaccumulators have highly overexpressed metal transporters and that most of them store the metal in the vacuole of large epidermal cells....

  13. Cadmium leaching from micro-lysimeters planted with the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens: experimental findings and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingwersen, Joachim; Bücherl, Barbara; Neumann, Günter; Streck, Thilo

    2006-01-01

    The use of heavy metal hyperaccumulating plants has the potential to become a promising new technique to remediate contaminated sites. We investigated the role of metal mobilization in the Cd hyperaccumulation of Thlaspi caerulescens (J. & C. Presl, 'Ganges'). In a micro-lysimeter experiment we investigated the dynamics of Cd concentration of leachate as well as Cd removal by plant uptake in four treatments: (i) Control (bare soil), (ii) T. caerulescens, (iii) nonhyperaccumulator Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. ('PI 426308'), and (iv) co-cropping of the hyperaccumulator and nonhyperaccumulator. The experimental findings were analyzed using one- and two-site rate-limited desorption models. Co-cropping of T. caerulescens and B. juncea did not enhance metal uptake by B. juncea. Although Cd uptake of T. caerulescens was 10 times higher than that of B. juncea, the Cd concentration of leachate of the T. caerulescens treatment did not decrease below that of the B. juncea treatment. The Cd depletion in leachate was well reproduced by the two-site rate-limited desorption model. The optimized desorption coefficient was three orders of magnitude higher in the rhizosphere than in the bulk soil. Our results indicate that T. caerulescens accelerates the resupply of Cd from soil pointing to an important role of kinetic desorption in the hyperaccumulation by T. caerulescens. PMID:17071874

  14. Effect of soil characteristics on Cd uptake by the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of soil characteristics on the phytoremediation potential of Thlaspi caerulescens is not well understood. We investigated the effect of soil pH and Cd concentration on plant Cd uptake on one soil type, and the variation in Cd uptake using a range of field contaminated soils. On soils with total Cd concentrations of 0.6-3.7 mg kg-1, T. caerulescens (the Ganges ecotype) produced greater biomass in the pH range 5.1-7.6 than at pH 4.4. The highest plant Cd concentration (236 mg kg-1) and Cd uptake (228 μg pot-1) were observed at pH 5.1. On soils with total Cd concentrations of 2.6-314.8 mg kg-1, shoot Cd concentrations were 10.9-1196 mg kg-1. Multiple regression analysis indicated that higher Cd in soil, low pH (within the range of >5) and coarser texture were associated with higher Cd concentration and Cd uptake by T. caerulescens. -- Higher total/extractable Cd in soil, lower pH and coarser texture were associated with higher Cd concentration by Thlaspi caerulescens

  15. Effect of soil characteristics on Cd uptake by the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanai, Junta [Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan) and Agriculture and the Environment Division, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: yanai@kpu.ac.jp; Zhao Fangjie [Agriculture and the Environment Division, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); McGrath, Steve P. [Agriculture and the Environment Division, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); Kosaki, Takashi [Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2006-01-15

    The influence of soil characteristics on the phytoremediation potential of Thlaspi caerulescens is not well understood. We investigated the effect of soil pH and Cd concentration on plant Cd uptake on one soil type, and the variation in Cd uptake using a range of field contaminated soils. On soils with total Cd concentrations of 0.6-3.7 mg kg{sup -1}, T. caerulescens (the Ganges ecotype) produced greater biomass in the pH range 5.1-7.6 than at pH 4.4. The highest plant Cd concentration (236 mg kg{sup -1}) and Cd uptake (228 {mu}g pot{sup -1}) were observed at pH 5.1. On soils with total Cd concentrations of 2.6-314.8 mg kg{sup -1}, shoot Cd concentrations were 10.9-1196 mg kg{sup -1}. Multiple regression analysis indicated that higher Cd in soil, low pH (within the range of >5) and coarser texture were associated with higher Cd concentration and Cd uptake by T. caerulescens. -- Higher total/extractable Cd in soil, lower pH and coarser texture were associated with higher Cd concentration by Thlaspi caerulescens.

  16. Cadmium uptake and sequestration kinetics in individual leaf cell protoplasts of the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens

    OpenAIRE

    Leitenmaier, Barbara; Küpper, Hendrik

    2011-01-01

    Hyperaccumulators store accumulated metals in the vacuoles of large leaf epidermal cells (storage cells). For investigating cadmium uptake, we incubated protoplasts obtained from leaves of Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges ecotype) with a Cd-specific fluorescent dye. A fluorescence kinetic microscope was used for selectively measuring Cd-uptake and photosynthesis in different cell types, so that physical separation of cell types was not necessary. Few minutes after its addition, cadmium accumulate...

  17. Fatty acid profiles of ecotypes of hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens growing under cadmium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemanová, Veronika; Pavlík, Milan; Kyjaková, Pavlína; Pavlíková, Daniela

    2015-05-15

    Changes in the fatty acid (FAs) composition in response to the extent of Cd contamination of soils (0, 30, 60 and 90 mg Cd kg(-1)) differed between ecotypes of Noccaea caerulescens originating from France - Ganges, Slovenia - Mežica and Austria - Redlschlag. Mežica ecotype accumulated more Cd in aboveground biomass compared to Ganges and Redlschlag ecotypes. Hyperaccumulators contained saturated fatty acids (SFAs) rarely occurring in plants, as are cerotic (26:0), montanic (28:0), melissic (30:0) acids, and unusual unsaturated fatty acids (USFAs), as are 16:2, 16:3, 20:2 and 20:3. Typical USFAs occurring in the family Brassicaceae, such as erucic, oleic and arachidonic acids, were missing in tested plants. Our results clearly indicate a relationship between Cd accumulation and the FAs composition. The content of SFAs decreased and the content of USFAs increased in aboveground biomass of Ganges and Mežica ecotypes with increasing Cd concentration. Opposite trend of FAs content was determined in Redlschlag ecotype. Linoleic (18:2n-6), α-linolenic (18:3n-3) and palmitic (16:0) acids were found in all ecotypes. The results observed in N. caerulescens ecotypes, showed that mainly Mežica ecotype has an efficient defense strategies which can be related on changes in FAs composition, mainly in VLCFAs synthesis. The most significant effect of ecotype on FAs composition was confirmed using multivariate analysis of variance. PMID:25886397

  18. Characteristics of cadmium uptake in two contrasting ecotypes of the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang-Jie; Hamon, Rebecca E; Lombi, Enzo; McLaughlin, Mike J; McGrath, Steve P

    2002-03-01

    Uptake of Cd and Zn by intact seedlings of two contrasting ecotypes of the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens was characterized using radioactive tracers. Uptake of Cd and Zn at 2 degrees C was assumed to represent mainly apoplastic binding in the roots, whereas the difference in uptake between 22 degrees C and 2 degrees C represented metabolically dependent influx. There was no significant difference between the two ecotypes in the apoplastic binding of Cd or Zn. Metabolically dependent uptake of Cd was 4.5-fold higher in the high Cd-accumulating ecotype, Ganges, than in the low Cd-accumulating ecotype, Prayon. By contrast, there was only a 1.5-fold difference in the Zn uptake between the two ecotypes. For the Ganges ecotype, Cd uptake could be described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a V(max) of 143 nmol g(-1) root FW h(-1) and a K(m) of 0.45 microM. Uptake of Cd by the Ganges ecotype was not inhibited by La, Zn, Cu, Co, Mn, Ni or Fe(II), and neither by increasing the Ca concentration. By contrast, addition of La, Zn or Mn, or increasing the Ca concentration in the uptake solution decreased Cd uptake by Prayon. Uptake of Ca was larger in Prayon than in Ganges. The results suggest that Cd uptake by the low Cd-accumulating ecotype (Prayon) may be mediated partly via Ca channels or transporters for Zn and Mn. By contrast, there may exist a highly selective Cd transport system in the root cell membranes of the high Cd-accumulating ecotype (Ganges) of T. caerulescens. PMID:11847252

  19. Influence of iron status on cadmium and zinc uptake by different ecotypes of the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombi, Enzo; Tearall, Kathryn L; Howarth, Jonathan R; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; McGrath, Steve P

    2002-04-01

    We have previously identified an ecotype of the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges), which is far superior to other ecotypes (including Prayon) in Cd uptake. In this study, we investigated the effect of Fe status on the uptake of Cd and Zn in the Ganges and Prayon ecotypes, and the kinetics of Cd and Zn influx using radioisotopes. Furthermore, the T. caerulescens ZIP (Zn-regulated transporter/Fe-regulated transporter-like protein) genes TcZNT1-G and TcIRT1-G were cloned from the Ganges ecotype and their expression under Fe-sufficient and -deficient conditions was analyzed. Both short- and long-term studies revealed that Cd uptake was significantly enhanced by Fe deficiency only in the Ganges ecotype. The concentration-dependent kinetics of Cd influx showed that the V(max) of Cd was 3 times greater in Fe-deficient Ganges plants compared with Fe-sufficient plants. In Prayon, Fe deficiency did not induce a significant increase in V(max) for Cd. Zn uptake was not influenced by the Fe status of the plants in either of the ecotypes. These results are in agreement with the gene expression study. The abundance of ZNT1-G mRNA was similar between the Fe treatments and between the two ecotypes. In contrast, abundance of the TcIRT1-G mRNA was greatly increased only in Ganges root tissue under Fe-deficient conditions. The present results indicate that the stimulatory effect of Fe deficiency on Cd uptake in Ganges may be related to an up-regulation in the expression of genes encoding for Fe(2+) uptake, possibly TcIRT1-G. PMID:11950984

  20. Influence of Iron Status on Cadmium and Zinc Uptake by Different Ecotypes of the Hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombi, Enzo; Tearall, Kathryn L.; Howarth, Jonathan R.; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Hawkesford, Malcolm J.; McGrath, Steve P.

    2002-01-01

    We have previously identified an ecotype of the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges), which is far superior to other ecotypes (including Prayon) in Cd uptake. In this study, we investigated the effect of Fe status on the uptake of Cd and Zn in the Ganges and Prayon ecotypes, and the kinetics of Cd and Zn influx using radioisotopes. Furthermore, the T. caerulescens ZIP (Zn-regulated transporter/Fe-regulated transporter-like protein) genes TcZNT1-G and TcIRT1-G were cloned from the Ganges ecotype and their expression under Fe-sufficient and -deficient conditions was analyzed. Both short- and long-term studies revealed that Cd uptake was significantly enhanced by Fe deficiency only in the Ganges ecotype. The concentration-dependent kinetics of Cd influx showed that the Vmax of Cd was 3 times greater in Fe-deficient Ganges plants compared with Fe-sufficient plants. In Prayon, Fe deficiency did not induce a significant increase in Vmax for Cd. Zn uptake was not influenced by the Fe status of the plants in either of the ecotypes. These results are in agreement with the gene expression study. The abundance of ZNT1-G mRNA was similar between the Fe treatments and between the two ecotypes. In contrast, abundance of the TcIRT1-G mRNA was greatly increased only in Ganges root tissue under Fe-deficient conditions. The present results indicate that the stimulatory effect of Fe deficiency on Cd uptake in Ganges may be related to an up-regulation in the expression of genes encoding for Fe2+ uptake, possibly TcIRT1-G. PMID:11950984

  1. Cadmium Induced Changes of Proline in Two Ecotypes of Thlaspi Caerulescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemanová V.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A Thlaspi caerulescens (J. & C. PRESL was used to study the effect of cadmium on the content of free amino acids and ability accumulation of Cd in ecotypes of this plant species. In pot experiment two ecotypes T. caerulescens were used: Ganges ecotype from France and Mežica ecotype from Slovenia. The plants were grown in soil (chernozem – Suchdol spiked with NPK and three different concentration of Cd: 30, 60 and 90 mg/kg. The content of Cd was measured in the above-ground biomass and roots using ICP-OES. Accumulation of Cd was higher in the Mežica ecotype in contrast to the low Cd-accumulating the Ganges ecotype. Analyses of free amino acids contents were measured by GC-MS method. The content of free amino acids in above-ground biomass of the Mežica ecotype declined progressively with increasing concentrations of Cd. Opposite trend was observed in roots of this ecotype. The increase of free amino acids contents in above-ground biomass and roots of the Ganges ecotype were detected. The results of specific amino acids free proline showed increased content in plant biomass with increasing Cd contamination of soil. A statistically significant increase was observed between control plants (0 mg/kg Cd and variant Cd3 (90 mg/kg Cd for both ecotypes. The statistically significant decrease of free proline was observed in the Mežica ecotype roots. Opposite trend was observed in roots of Ganges ecotype - increasing trend of free proline content. These results indicate a correlation between content of Cd and content of free proline in different parts of the plant. We can speculate that the mechanism of Cd hyperaccumulation and metabolism of free proline are not identical in ecotypes of this species.

  2. Effect of soil characteristics on Cd uptake by the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Junta; Zhao, Fang-Jie; McGrath, Steve P; Kosaki, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    The influence of soil characteristics on the phytoremediation potential of Thlaspi caerulescens is not well understood. We investigated the effect of soil pH and Cd concentration on plant Cd uptake on one soil type, and the variation in Cd uptake using a range of field contaminated soils. On soils with total Cd concentrations of 0.6-3.7 mg kg(-1), T. caerulescens (the Ganges ecotype) produced greater biomass in the pH range 5.1-7.6 than at pH 4.4. The highest plant Cd concentration (236 mg kg(-1)) and Cd uptake (228 microg pot(-1)) were observed at pH 5.1. On soils with total Cd concentrations of 2.6-314.8 mg kg(-1), shoot Cd concentrations were 10.9-1,196 mg kg(-1). Multiple regression analysis indicated that higher Cd in soil, low pH (within the range of >5) and coarser texture were associated with higher Cd concentration and Cd uptake by T. caerulescens. PMID:15998562

  3. Cults as Gangs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, Mary Lynn

    1992-01-01

    Considers cults as gangs, but also distinguishes cults from gangs by the cult's reference to and insistence on allegiance to single higher authority, usually spirit figure or spiritual leader. Examines Satanism, identifies Satanic holidays and symbols, and describes characteristics of cult-influenced youth. Includes list of organizations and books…

  4. Phenylpropanoid glycosides from Orobanche caerulescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lie-Chwen; Chiou, Wen-Fei; Chou, Cheng-Jen

    2004-01-01

    Two new phenylpropanoid glycosides, caerulescenoside ( 1), and 3'-methyl crenatoside ( 2), as well as five known phenylpropanoid glycosides [acteoside ( 3), isoacteoside ( 4), campneoside II ( 5), crenatoside ( 6), and desrhamnosyl acteoside ( 7)] were isolated from the whole plant of Orobanche caerulescens. The antioxidative effects of compounds 1 - 7 on human low-density lipoprotein were evaluated. All these compounds suppress concentration-dependently conjugated diene formation with IC (50) values of 1.25 +/- 0.06, 2.97 +/- 0.31, 0.31 +/- 0.01, 1.01 +/- 0.05, 1.15 +/- 0.04, 1.69 +/- 0.15, and 0.64 +/- 0.03 microM, respectively. Comparison of their antioxidative activities with that of resveratrol (IC (50) : 6.75 +/- 1.05 microM), a natural phenolic antioxidant isolated from grape, demonstrated that the prolonged effect on lag-time and the damping effect on oxidative rate by compounds 1 - 7 were all more potent. PMID:14765293

  5. [Stoichiometry of multi-elements in the zinc-cadmium hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens grown hydroponically under different zinc concentrations determined by ICP-AES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wen-xuan; Xu, Yi-ming; Du, Wei; Tang, Ao-han; Jiang, Rong-feng

    2009-09-01

    Thlaspi caerulescens is commonly known as a zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator, which can be used to clean up the Zn- and/or Cd-contaminated soil. However, it is unclear whether high soil Zn concentrations will stimulate undue accumulations of other elements to such an extent as to cause the nutrient unbalance in the soil. To address this question, the inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) was employed to investigate the effect of Zn on the stoichiometry of Zn, Cd, K, P, Mg, Ca, Fe, Mn and Cu in T. caerulescens (Ganges ecotype) exposed to low, middle and high Zn concentrations (5, 50 and 500 micromol x L(-1), respectively) in a hydroponic experiment. The results showed that there were no significant variations in contents of Cd, K, P, Mg, Ca, Fe, Mn and Cu in the shoot of T. caerulescens, however, the Zn content in the shoot and root with 500 mciromol x L(-1) Zn treatment increased as much as 13 times higher than that with low Zn exposure, indicating that the plant is capable of Zn hyperaccumulating. The authors' study suggests that it is improbable to induce soil nutrient unbalance when T. caerulescensis (Ganges) is used for phytoremediation of Zn-contaminated soil, in that over-uptake of nutrient elements from the soil other than Zn was not observed, at least for the elements K, P, Mg, Ca, Fe, Mn and Cu. PMID:19950676

  6. Gangs, Terrorism, and Radicalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Decker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available What can street gangs tell us about radicalization and extremist groups? At first glance, these two groups seem to push the boundaries of comparison. In this article, we examine the important similarities and differences across criminal, deviant, and extremist groups. Drawing from research on street gangs, this article explores issues such as levels of explanation,organizational structure, group process, and the increasingly important role of technology and the Internet in the context of radicalization. There are points of convergence across these groups, but it is important to understand the differences between these groups. This review finds little evidence to support the contention that American street gangs are becoming increasingly radicalized. This conclusion is based largely on organizational differences between gangs and terror groups.

  7. Becoming a Gang Member: Youth Life and Gang Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morch, Sven; Andersen, Helle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for understanding the growth in youth gangs and gang behaviour. The paper builds on a youth theory perspective and describes how the social conditions work with or are against the young individual in such a way that gangs seem to be an option or an answer for some young people when faced with…

  8. Understanding and tackling gang violence

    OpenAIRE

    Bullock, KA; Tilley, N.

    2008-01-01

    Gang-involved shootings comprise a serious problem. A Manchester-based project addressing the issue was tracked and its development is discussed. The initiative moved from a planned focus on the situational determinants of shootings, drawing on the successful Boston Gun Project, to one that focused instead on the social determinants of gang membership. The term “ gang ” itself is highly ambiguous. Equally there are difficulties in defining and operationalizing the concept of “ gang membership...

  9. Predictors and Consequences of Gang Membership: Comparing Gang Members, Gang Leaders, and Non-Gang-Affiliated Adjudicated Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitrieva, Julia; Gibson, Lauren; STEINBERG, LAURENCE; Piquero, Alex; Fagan, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    This 7-year study of 1,170 male adjudicated youth examined how self-esteem, psychopathy, and psychosocial maturity relate to gang status (low-level member, leader, and non-gang member). Low temperance, perspective, and responsibility predicted being a low-level gang member, whereas only lower temperance predicted being a gang leader. Low self-esteem predicted gang membership (low-level and high-level) at a younger age (i.e., during adolescence). However, higher self-esteem and grandiose-manip...

  10. Youth Gangs and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Few schools escape dynamics and behaviors that are associated with gangs. Think, for example, about bullying, disruptive intergroup conflicts, drug sales and abuse, and vandalism such as theft, graffiti, and other forms of property damage. From both a policy and practice perspective, it is essential for schools to understand and address…

  11. Journey: The Gang Alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellaw, Bonni

    1992-01-01

    An intensive three-day program at the Pines Catholic Camp, followed by weekly support meetings, aim to prevent Dallas teens from turning to gang participation. Program components include personal goal setting, commitment to a code of conduct, and physical activities that promote group unity and positive peer pressure. (SV)

  12. QTL analysis of cadmium and zinc accumulation in the heavy metal hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniau, A X; Pieper, B; Ten Bookum, W M; Lindhout, P; Aarts, M G M; Schat, H

    2006-09-01

    Thlaspi caerulescens (Tc; 2n = 14) is a natural Zn, Cd and Ni hyperaccumulator species belonging to the Brassicaceae family. It shares 88% DNA identity in the coding regions with Arabidopsis thaliana (At) (Rigola et al. 2006). Although the physiology of heavy metal (hyper)accumulation has been intensively studied, the molecular genetics are still largely unexplored. We address this topic by constructing a genetic map based on AFLP markers and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). To establish a genetic map, an F(2) population of 129 individuals was generated from a cross between a plant from a Pb/Cd/Zn-contaminated site near La Calamine, Belgium, and a plant from a comparable site near Ganges (GA), France. These two accessions show different degrees of Zn and, particularly, Cd accumulation. We analyzed 181 AFLP markers (of which 4 co-dominant) and 13 co-dominant EST sequences-based markers and mapped them to seven linkage groups (LGs), presumably corresponding to the seven chromosomes of T. caerulescens. The total length of the genetic map is 496 cM with an average density of one marker every 2.5 cM. This map was used for Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) mapping in the F(2). For Zn as well as Cd concentration in root we mapped two QTLs. Three QTLs and one QTL were mapped for Zn and Cd concentration in shoot, respectively. These QTLs explain 23.8-60.4% of the total variance of the traits measured. We found only one common locus (LG6) for Zn and Cd (concentration in root) and one common locus for shoot and root concentrations of Zn (LG1) and of Cd (LG3). For all QTLs, the GA allele increased the trait value except for two QTLs for Zn accumulation in shoot (LG1 and LG4) and one for Zn concentration in root (LG1). PMID:16850314

  13. Campus Gang Rape: Party Games?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhart, Julie K.; Sandler, Bernice R.

    The phenomenon of gang rape as it sometimes occurs on college campuses is described, with attention to causes, impacts on the victim and other students, responses the college should take, and prevention. Consideration is given to the role of alcohol, drugs, and pornography in fraternity gang rape; successful model programs for rape prevention…

  14. Cadmium sorption, influx, and efflux at the mesophyll layer of leaves from ecotypes of the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbs, Stephen D; Zambrano, M Clemencia; Spiller, Shawna M; Newville, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Differential sorption and transport characteristics of the leaf mesophyll layer of the Prayon and Ganges ecotypes of the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens were examined. (109)Cd influx and efflux experiments were conducted with leaf sections, and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) data were collected from leaves as a general comparison of in vivo cadmium (Cd) coordination. There were modest differences in cell wall sorption of Cd between ecotypes. There were obvious differences in time- and concentration-dependent Cd influx, including a greater V(MAX) for Prayon but a lower K(M) for Ganges for concentration-dependent Cd uptake and a notably greater Cd uptake by Ganges leaf sections at 1000 microm Cd. Leaf sections of Prayon had a greater Cd efflux than Ganges. The XANES spectra from the two ecotypes suggested differences in Cd coordination. The fundamental differences observed between the two ecotypes may reflect differential activity and/or expression of plasma membrane and tonoplast transporters. More detailed study of these transporters and the in vivo coordination of Cd are needed to determine the contribution of these processes to metal homeostasis and tolerance. PMID:19054336

  15. Cadmium sorption, influx, and efflux at the mesophyll layer of leaves from ecotypes of the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebbs, S.D.; Zambrano, M.C.; Spiller, S.M.; Newville, M. (SIU); (UC)

    2009-01-23

    Differential sorption and transport characteristics of the leaf mesophyll layer of the Prayon and Ganges ecotypes of the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens were examined. {sup 109}Cd influx and efflux experiments were conducted with leaf sections, and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) data were collected from leaves as a general comparison of in vivo cadmium (Cd) coordination. There were modest differences in cell wall sorption of Cd between ecotypes. There were obvious differences in time- and concentration-dependent Cd influx, including a greater V{sub MAX} for Prayon but a lower K{sub M} for Ganges for concentration-dependent Cd uptake and a notably greater Cd uptake by Ganges leaf sections at 1000 {micro}m Cd. Leaf sections of Prayon had a greater Cd efflux than Ganges. The XANES spectra from the two ecotypes suggested differences in Cd coordination. The fundamental differences observed between the two ecotypes may reflect differential activity and/or expression of plasma membrane and tonoplast transporters. More detailed study of these transporters and the in vivo coordination of Cd are needed to determine the contribution of these processes to metal homeostasis and tolerance.

  16. Transcription profiling of the metal-hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens

    OpenAIRE

    Plessi, M.; Rigola, D.; Hassinen, V.; Aarts, M.G.M.; Schat, H.; Ernst, D

    2005-01-01

    Thlaspi caerulescens is a well-studied metal-hyperaccumulator of zinc, cadmium and nickel, belonging to the Brassicaceae family. Moreover it is one of the few hyperaccumulators that occur on different metalliferous soil types, as well as on nonmetalliferous soils. We are interested in the development of systems to improve phytoremediation of metal contaminated soils through improved metal-accumulation. About 1900 cDNAs isolated from T. caerulescens roots were hybridized with reverse transcrib...

  17. Responding to Gangs: Evaluation and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Winifred L., Ed.; Decker, Scott H., Ed.

    This collection of papers presents a representative selection of the National Institute of Justice's portfolio of gang-related research. The 10 papers are: (1) "A Decade of Gang Research: Findings of the National Institute of Justice Gang Portfolio" (Scott H. Decker); (2) "The Evolution of Street Gangs: An Examination of Form and Variation"…

  18. 2. The Central American gang phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Does, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    2.1. Differentiating between pandillas and maras Youth gangs have existed since the 1960s and 1970s in Central America. However, there are different types of Central American gangs and thus one has to distinguish between pandillas and maras. The former are localized, homegrown gangs, which are “direct inheritors” (Jütersonke, Rodgers & Muggah 2009: 379) of the gangs that have historically characterized Central American societies, while the latter are a more recent phenomenon with transnationa...

  19. Indigenous Youth and Gangs as Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rob

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the ways in which Indigenous young people experience gang activity as stemming from family membership and family obligations. Based on recent gang research in Australia, the paper provides firsthand accounts of what "life in the gang/life in the family" means for Indigenous young people.

  20. Comparative transcriptome analysis of the metal hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halimaa, P.; Blande, D.; Aarts, M.G.M.; Tuomainen, M.; Tervahauta, A.; Karenlampi, S.

    2014-01-01

    The metal hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens is an established model to study the adaptation of plants to metalliferous soils. Various comparators have been used in these studies. The choice of suitable comparators is important and depends on the hypothesis to be tested and methods to be used. In

  1. Transcription profiling of the metal-hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plessi, M.; Rigola, D.; Hassinen, V.; Aarts, M.G.M.; Schat, H.; Ernst, D.

    2005-01-01

    Thlaspi caerulescens is a well-studied metal-hyperaccumulator of zinc, cadmium and nickel, belonging to the Brassicaceae family. Moreover it is one of the few hyperaccumulators that occur on different metalliferous soil types, as well as on nonmetalliferous soils. We are interested in the developmen

  2. Functional characterisation of three zinc transporters in Thlaspi caerulescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talukdar, S.

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metal hyperaccumulation in plants is a poorly understood phenomenon. Transmembrane metal transporters are assumed to play a key role in this process. In the research described in this thesis, genes encoding Zn transporters of Thlaspicaerulescens

  3. UNDERSTANDING GANG LEADERS : CHARACTERISTICS AND DRIVING FORCES OF STREET GANG LEADERS IN SWEDEN

    OpenAIRE

    Rostami, Amir; Leinfelt, Fredrik; Brotherton, David

    2012-01-01

    In this criminological study we have combined ethnographic fieldwork observations with twelve in-depth interviews with Swedish street gang leaders and twelve associate gang members to understand the driving forces behind street gang leadership and gang membership by delineating the multiple themes of the subjects’ narratives. A descriptive and interpretive analysis of the data suggested four ideal-types, each with specific goals, aspirations, and motives. These were in accord with a limited, ...

  4. Psychological and Behavioral Characteristics Differentiating Gang and Non-gang Girls in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Alleyne, Emma; Pritchard, E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Research has demonstrated that girls are involved in gangs as members and affiliates. However, the psychological processes related to female gang membership has, to date, not been examined using a rigorous comparative design. The main purpose of this study was to assess whether female gang members exhibit distinct psychological and behavioral features when compared to female non-gang youth. Design/methodology/approach: 117 female students were recruited from all-girls’ secondary...

  5. Isolation of Zn-responsive genes from two accessions of the hyperaccumulator plant Thlaspi caerulescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassinen, V.H.; Tervahauta, A.I.; Halimaa, P.; Plessl, M.; Peraniemi, S.; Schat, H.; Aarts, M.G.M.; Servomaa, K.; Karenlampi, S.O.

    2007-01-01

    Several populations with different metal tolerance, uptake and root-to-shoot transport are known for the metal hyperaccumulator plant Thlaspi caerulescens. In this study, genes differentially expressed under various Zn exposures were identified from the shoots of two T. caerulescens accessions (cala

  6. Identification and functional analysis of two ZIP metal transporters of the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, J.; Zhao, F.J.; Ghandilyan, A.; Logoteta, B.; Olortegui Guzman, M.C.; Schat, H.; Wang, X.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The heavy metal hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens expresses several ZIP-like genes at higher levels than their orthologues in non-hyperaccumulator species, but it is not clear why. To elucidate the function of the T. caerulescens orthologues of the Arabidopsis thaliana ZIP5 and ZIP6 gen

  7. Cadmium uptake and sequestration kinetics in individual leaf cell protoplasts of the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitenmaier, Barbara; Küpper, Hendrik

    2011-02-01

    Hyperaccumulators store accumulated metals in the vacuoles of large leaf epidermal cells (storage cells). For investigating cadmium uptake, we incubated protoplasts obtained from leaves of Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges ecotype) with a Cd-specific fluorescent dye. A fluorescence kinetic microscope was used for selectively measuring Cd-uptake and photosynthesis in different cell types, so that physical separation of cell types was not necessary. Few minutes after its addition, cadmium accumulated in the cytoplasm before its transport into the vacuole. This demonstrated that vacuolar sequestration is the rate-limiting step in cadmium uptake into protoplasts of all leaf cell types. During accumulation in the cytoplasm, Cd-rich vesicle-like structures were observed. Cd uptake rates into epidermal storage cells were higher than into standard-sized epidermal cells and mesophyll cells. This shows that the preferential heavy metal accumulation in epidermal storage cells, previously observed for several metals in intact leaves of various hyperaccumulator species, is due to differences in active metal transport and not differences in passive mechanisms like transpiration stream transport or cell wall adhesion. Combining this with previous studies, it seems likely that the transport steps over the plasma and tonoplast membranes of leaf epidermal storage cells are driving forces behind the hyperaccumulation phenotype. PMID:20880204

  8. Teaching Responsibility to Gang-Affiliated Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, Michael E.; Walsh, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching youths who affiliate with a gang can be a daunting task. Risk factors for gang membership often compound across life domains and affect pro-social connectedness, cause feelings of marginalization, and hinder life-skill development. Sports and physical activities that are structured within a positive youth-development framework provide an…

  9. Highlights of the 2011 National Youth Gang Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... addition, all three of the survey’s gang-magnitude indicators—number of gangs, gang members, and gang-related homicides—show increases within metropolitan areas from 2002 to 2011, despite the historical drop in violent and property crime rates over the past decade (Federal Bureau ...

  10. The Impact of Gang Formation on Local Patterns of Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tita, George; Ridgeway, Greg

    2007-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that even after controlling for individual level attributes, individuals who join gangs commit more crimes than do nongang members. Furthermore, the offending level of gang members is higher when they report being active members of the gang. Therefore, gang membership clearly facilitates offending above and beyond…

  11. Understanding gang membership: The significance of group processes.

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Jane L.

    2014-01-01

    Gang researchers have robustly established that gangs facilitate increased delinquency in members – even those who were prolifically delinquent before joining a gang (Klein, Weerman & Thornberry, 2006). This suggests that there is something about gang membership, specifically, that influences individuals in a pro-criminal direction. However, so far it is not clear what this influence is. This paper, taking a social psychological perspective on gang membership considers the potential influence...

  12. Confronting youth gangs in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Cliff

    2015-01-01

    Youth gang violence has continued its upward trend nationwide. It was once thought that gangs convened only in selected areas, which left churches, schools, and hospitals as "neutral" territory. Unfortunately, this is a fallacy. The results of gang violence pour into hospitals and into intensive care units regularly. The media portrays California as having a gang violence problem; however, throughout the United States, gang violence has risen more than 35% in the past year. Youth gang violence continues to rise dramatically with more and more of our youth deciding to join gangs each day. Sadly, every state has gangs, and the problem is getting much worse in areas that would never have thought about gangs a year ago. These "new generation" of gang members is younger, much more violent, and staying in the gang longer. Gangs are not just an urban problem. Gang activity is a suburban and rural problem too. There are more than 25 500 gangs in the United States, with a total gang membership of 850 000. Ninety-four percent of gang members are male and 6% are female. The ethnic composition nationwide includes 47% Latino, 31% African American, 13% White, 7% Asian, and 2% "mixed," according to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention of the U.S. Department of Justice. As a result of the ongoing proliferation of youth street gangs in our communities, it is imperative that critical care nurses and others involved with the direct care become educated about how to identify gang members, their activities, and understand their motivations. Such education and knowledge will help provide solutions to families and the youth themselves, help eradicate the problem of gang violence, and keep health care professionals safe. PMID:25463004

  13. Prison Gangs and the Community Responsibility System

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, M; Skarbek, D.

    2014-01-01

    Why do prison gangs exist? Despite the prominence of formal governance mechanisms, inmates also require self-governance institutions to facilitate illicit trade. This article examines how inmates enforce agreements in the illicit contraband trade and how they resolve social disputes. We first describe how the informal prison society operates as a community responsibility system. We then present a model of prison gang organization that accounts for both environmental factors and the endogenous...

  14. Adaptative evolution of metallothionein 3 in the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roosens, N.H.; Bernard, C.; Verbruggen, N. [Lab. de Physiologie et Genetique Moleculaire des Plantes, Univ. Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium); Leplae, R. [Service de Conformation des Macromolecules Biologiques et Bioinformatique, Univ. Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-04-01

    A functional screening in yeast allowed to identify various cDNAs from the Cd/Zn hyper-accumulator Thlaspi caerulescens. TcMT3 displayed high identity with its closest homologue in Arabidopsis thaliana but variation in its Cys residues. Functional analysis in yeast supported a higher binding capacity for Cu, but not for Cd or Zn, of TcMT3 compared to AtMT3. Expression analysis in plants indicated that metallothionein 3 (MT3) like all the other T. caerulescens genes from the screen studied is overexpressed in all studied populations of T. caerulescens compared to A. thaliana. TcMT3 was induced by Cu, but not by Cd. Moreover significant variation in expression within T. caerulescens populations that have contrasting tolerance and accumulation capacities indicated a possible local adaptation of MT3. (orig.)

  15. The molecular physiology of heavy metal transport in the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens

    OpenAIRE

    Pence, Nicole S.; Larsen, Paul B.; Ebbs, Stephen D.; Letham, Deborah L. D.; Lasat, Mitch M.; Garvin, David F; Eide, David; Kochian, Leon V.

    2000-01-01

    An integrated molecular and physiological investigation of the fundamental mechanisms of heavy metal accumulation was conducted in Thlaspi caerulescens, a Zn/Cd-hyperaccumulating plant species. A heavy metal transporter cDNA, ZNT1, was cloned from T. caerulescens through functional complementation in yeast and was shown to mediate high-affinity Zn2+ uptake as well as low-affinity Cd2+ uptake. It was found that this transporter is expressed at very high levels i...

  16. Combined endophytic inoculants enhance nickel phytoextraction from serpentine soil in the hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanna eVisioli; Teofilo eVamerali; Monica eMattarozzi; Lucia eDramis; Anna Maria Sanangelantoni

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses the effects of specific bacterial endophytes on the phytoextraction capacity of the Ni-hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens, spontaneously growing in a serpentine soil environment. Five metal-tolerant endophytes had already been selected for their high Ni tolerance (6 mM) and plant growth promoting ability. Here we demonstrate that individual bacterial inoculation is ineffective in enhancing Ni translocation and growth of N. caerulescens in serpentine soil, except for spe...

  17. Isolation of Zn-responsive genes from two accessions of the hyperaccumulator plant Thlaspi caerulescens

    OpenAIRE

    Hassinen, V. H.; Tervahauta, A. I.; Halimaa, P.; Plessl, M.; Peraniemi, S.; Schat, H.; Aarts, M. G. M.; Servomaa, K; Karenlampi, S.O.

    2007-01-01

    Several populations with different metal tolerance, uptake and root-to-shoot transport are known for the metal hyperaccumulator plant Thlaspi caerulescens. In this study, genes differentially expressed under various Zn exposures were identified from the shoots of two T. caerulescens accessions (calaminous and non-calaminous) using fluorescent differential display RT-PCR. cDNA fragments from 16 Zn-responsive genes, including those encoding metallothionein (MT) type 2 and type 3, MRP-like trans...

  18. Youth Gang Members: Psychiatric Disorders and Substance Use

    OpenAIRE

    Albert John Sargent; Sherri Simpson; Dennis W. Young; Amy Mayhew; Ayanna Brown; Stephanie Kwok; Matthew Shelton; Barbara Robles; Toi Blakley Harris; Sara Elkins; Ashley Butler

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Approximately 260,000 of youth in the United States are gang-affiliated. There is a paucity of data available to identify the prevalence of mental health disorders in this population. Gang members share many of the features of “at risk†or juvenile justice involved youth who deny gang membership. The authors identified rates of psychiatric disorders within a juvenile justice population delineated in three categories: gang members, friends of gang members, and non-gang members. M...

  19. Respectable 'illegality': Gangs, masculinities and belonging in a Nairobi ghetto

    OpenAIRE

    Geschiere, P.L.; Willemse, C.L.A.; Stapele, van, N.

    2015-01-01

    This book is about gangs in Nairobi’s ghettos, in particular why young men feel they have to become a member of a gang, how gang membership becomes crucial in their struggle for survival and why it is so difficult for them to leave a gang, even though many are trying to. My aim is to move away from the current association of gangs in Kenya with violence and ethnic politics - that is gang members as ‘thugs for hire’. One of my main discoveries was that work is at least as important to grasp pr...

  20. The effect of becoming a parent on disengagement from gangs

    OpenAIRE

    Lemanska, Natalia Maria

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to shed more light on the process of desistance from crime in the context of disengagement from youth gangs and to do so in relation to a key life-event: parenthood. Gang membership was theorised in the light of a life-course framework and gang disengagement was defined as a renunciation of a gang status and gradually decreasing gang embeddedness. The likelihood of parenthood serving as a trigger of change in gang membership was investigated.The study utilised da...

  1. A social movement theory typology of gang violence

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Joseph E.

    2010-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis uses social movement theory to describe the formation of street gangs and account for their high levels of violence. By understanding street gangs as a social movement contributing to the gang cycle, my hope is that communities and law enforcement will be able to adopt better strategies for breaking the cycle. Likewise, the study of street gangs serves as a laboratory for counterinsurgency operations overseas. By unders...

  2. Cadmium tolerance and antioxidative defenses in hairy roots of the cadmium hyperaccumulator, Thlaspi caerulescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boominathan, Rengasamy; Doran, Pauline M

    2003-07-20

    Plant species capable of hyperaccumulating heavy metals are of considerable interest for phytoremediation and phytomining. This work aims to identify the role of antioxidative metabolism in heavy metal tolerance in the Cd hyperaccumulator, Thlaspi caerulescens. Hairy roots of T. caerulescens and the non-hyperaccumulator, Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco), were used to test the effects of high Cd environments. In the absence of Cd, endogenous activities of catalase were two to three orders of magnitude higher in T. caerulescens than in N. tabacum. T. caerulescens roots also contained significantly higher endogenous superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione concentrations. Exposure to 20 ppm (178 microM) Cd prevented growth of N. tabacum roots and increased hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) levels by a factor of five relative to cultures without Cd. In contrast, growth was maintained in T. caerulescens, and H(2)O(2) concentrations were controlled to low, nontoxic levels in association with a strong catalase induction response. Treatment of roots with the glutathione synthesis inhibitor, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), exacerbated H(2)O(2) accumulation in Cd-treated N. tabacum, but had a relatively minor effect on H(2)O(2) levels and did not reduce Cd tolerance in T. caerulescens. Lipid peroxidation was increased by Cd treatment in both the hyperaccumulator and non-hyperaccumulator roots. This work demonstrates that metal-induced oxidative stress occurs in hyperaccumulator tissues even though growth is unaffected by the presence of heavy metals. It also suggests that superior antioxidative defenses, particularly catalase activity, may play an important role in the hyperaccumulator phenotype of T. caerulescens. PMID:12768621

  3. Improved utilization and responsiveness with gang scheduling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feitelson, D.G., [Institute of Computer Science, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (IsraelL); Jette, M.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Most commercial multicomputers use space-slicing schemes in which each scheduling decision has an unknown impact on the future: should a job be scheduled, risking that it will block other larger jobs later, or should the processors be left idle for now in anticipation of future arrivals? This dilemma is solved by using gang scheduling, because then the impact of each decision is limited to its time slice, and future arrivals can be accommodated in other time slices. This added flexibility is shown to improve overall system utilization and responsiveness. Empirical evidence from using gang scheduling on a Cray T3D installed at Lawrence Livermore National Lab corroborates these results, and shows conclusively that gang scheduling can be very effective with current technology. 29 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. The heavy metal hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens expresses many species-specific genes, as identified by comparative expressed sequence tag analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rigola, D.; Fiers, M.W.E.J.; Vurro, E.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    ¿ Thlaspi caerulescens is a natural zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni) hyperaccumulator and an emerging plant model species to study heavy metal hyperaccumulation and tolerance. This paper describes the analysis of the first expressed sequence tag (EST) collection from T. caerulescens. This col

  5. The Road to Gang Membership: Characteristics of Male Gang and Nongang Members from Ages 10 to 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Wendy M.; Vitaro, Frank; Gagnon, Claude; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2002-01-01

    Examined stability of gang membership in early adolescence, concurrent behaviors, family characteristics, friendships, and school attitudes of stable and unstable gang and nongang members. Found that stable gang members, compared to nongang members, had higher teacher ratings of fighting behavior, hyperactivity, inattention and oppositional…

  6. Uncoupling of reactive oxygen species accumulation and defence signalling in the metal hyperaccumulator plant Noccaea caerulescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fones, Helen N; Eyles, Chris J; Bennett, Mark H; Smith, J Andrew C; Preston, Gail M

    2013-09-01

    The metal hyperaccumulator plant Noccaea caerulescens is protected from disease by the accumulation of high concentrations of metals in its aerial tissues, which are toxic to many pathogens. As these metals can lead to the production of damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS), metal hyperaccumulator plants have developed highly effective ROS tolerance mechanisms, which might quench ROS-based signals. We therefore investigated whether metal accumulation alters defence signalling via ROS in this plant. We studied the effect of zinc (Zn) accumulation by N. caerulescens on pathogen-induced ROS production, salicylic acid accumulation and downstream defence responses, such as callose deposition and pathogenesis-related (PR) gene expression, to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola. The accumulation of Zn caused increased superoxide production in N. caerulescens, but inoculation with P. syringae did not elicit the defensive oxidative burst typical of most plants. Defences dependent on signalling through ROS (callose and PR gene expression) were also modified or absent in N. caerulescens, whereas salicylic acid production in response to infection was retained. These observations suggest that metal hyperaccumulation is incompatible with defence signalling through ROS and that, as metal hyperaccumulation became effective as a form of elemental defence, normal defence responses became progressively uncoupled from ROS signalling in N. caerulescens. PMID:23758201

  7. LA's Gang-Busters--Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Suzanne

    1989-01-01

    Regarded as the nation's gang violence capital, Los Angeles' politicians and law enforcement and school administrators are using knowledge from lost battles to win the war. Solutions include targeting younger children, teaching self-esteem and communication skills, as well as organizing group graffiti cleanups. (SI)

  8. Youth Gang Members: Psychiatric Disorders and Substance Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert John Sargent

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Approximately 260,000 of youth in the United States are gang-affiliated. There is a paucity of data available to identify the prevalence of mental health disorders in this population. Gang members share many of the features of “at risk” or juvenile justice involved youth who deny gang membership. The authors identified rates of psychiatric disorders within a juvenile justice population delineated in three categories: gang members, friends of gang members, and non-gang members. Methods: A retrospective review of records obtained by a juvenile probation department. A large detention center conducted mental health screenings on 7,615 youth aged 13–17. The mental health screenings were performed by either a master level or doctoral level mental health professional. Odds ratios were computed as an effect size for gender, race/ethnic differences, and gang-membership associations with self-reported psychiatric and substance use disorders. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the risk for psychiatric and substance use disorders among gang-members and friends of gang members. Diagnostic information was generated through a clinical interview and flexible battery. Results: Of the 7,615 youth in this study, ~50% had contact with gangs; 11% were self-identified gang-members, and 38% acknowledged having at least one friendship with a gang member. Similar to other studies, being male was a risk-factor for gang-membership (2.31 odds. In this multi-racial and ethnic study, Latinos had a greater affiliation with gang membership and association with gang members as friends (1.44 odds. Gang members were found to have increased rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (1.77 odds, current substance abuse (2.58 odds, oppositional defiant disorder, (1.24 odds and conduct disorder (4.05 odds; however, they were less likely to have an adjustment disorder than non-gang members (0.70 odds. Conclusions: Juveniles who received a mental health assessment

  9. Mineralogical Stratigraphy of Ganges Chasma, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cull-Hearth, Selby; Clark, M. Caroline

    2015-11-01

    Mars’ Valles Marineris canyon system reveals a several-kilometer deep stratigraphies sequence that extends thousands of kilometers; this sequence thus represents a unique opportunity to explore millions of years of volcanic and aqueous activity in this region of Mars. Of particular interest to the study of both volcanic and aqueous processes is Ganges Chasma, which lies on the northeastern boundary of the Valles Marineris canyon system on Mars. The canyon likely opened during the Late Noachian to Early Hesperian, modifying previously emplaced Noachian-aged volcanic plains. During formation, volcanic activity from the nearby Tharsis shield complex emplaced olivine-rich dikes throughout the region. After formation, sulfate-bearing Interior Layered Deposits (ILDs) were emplaced in Ganges and many other chasmata throughout the Valles Marineris system. Today, Ganges reveals a complex stratigraphy, including wide-spread olivine-rich sands, hydrated minerals on the plateaus surrounding the canyon, and a central sulfate-rich ILD. Here, we present updated stratigraphies of Ganges Chasma, using new data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM), and synthesizing it with previous data sets. Olivine sands are traced back to source outcrops on the canyon floor, and new outcrops of hydrated minerals on the surrounding plateau are identified and mapped. Recently reported spectroscopic signatures of ankerite and smectite in the chasm are assessed, and new olivine-rich outcrops identified and mapped. Understanding the stratigraphy of Ganges Chasma will help us compare stratigraphies among the chasmata of the Valles Marineris, further building our understanding of the geologic history of this large region of Mars.

  10. Variations in plant metallothioneins: the heavy metal hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens as a study case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosens, Nancy H; Leplae, Raphael; Bernard, Catherine; Verbruggen, Nathalie

    2005-11-01

    Plant metallothioneins (MTs) are extremely diverse and are thought to be involved in metal homeostasis or detoxification. Thlaspi caerulescens is a model Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator and thus constitutes an ideal system to study the variability of these MTs. Two T. caerulescens cDNAs (accession: 665511; accession: 665515), that are highly homologous to type 1 and type 2 Arabidopsis thaliana MTs, have been isolated using a functional screen for plant cDNAs that confer Cd tolerance to yeast. However, TcMT1 has a much shorter N-terminal domain than that of A. thaliana and so lacks Cys motifs conserved through all the plant MTs classified as type 1. A systematic search in plant databases allowed the detection of MT-related sequences. Sixty-four percent fulfil the criteria for MT classification described in Cobbett and Goldsbrough (2002) and further extend our knowledge about other conserved residues that might play an important role in plant MT structure. In addition, 34% of the total MT-related sequences cannot be classified strictly as they display modifications in the conserved residues according to the current plant MTs' classification. The significance of this variability in plant MT sequences is discussed. Functional complementation in yeast was used to assess whether these variations may alter the MTs' function in T. caerulescens. Regulation of the expression of MTs in T. caerulescens was also investigated. TcMT1 and TcMT2 display higher expression in T. caerulescens than in A. thaliana. Moreover, their differential expression patterns in organs and in response to metal exposure, suggest that the two types of MTs may have diverse roles and functions in T. caerulescens. PMID:16052319

  11. A comprehensive set of transcript sequences of the heavy metal hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YA-FEN eLIN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Noccaea caerulescens is an extremophile plant species belonging to the Brassicaceae family. It has adapted to grow on soils containing high, normally toxic, concentrations of metals such as nickel, zinc and cadmium. Next to being extremely tolerant to these metals, it is one of the few species known to hyperaccumulate these metals to extremely high concentrations in their aboveground biomass. In order to provide additional molecular resources for this model metal hyperaccumulator species to study and understand the mechanism of heavy metal exposure adaptation, we aimed to provide a comprehensive database of transcript sequences for N. caerulescens. In this study, 23830 transcript sequences (isotigs with an average length of 1025 bps were determined for roots, shoots and inflorescences of N. caerulescens accession ‘Ganges’ by Roche GS-FLEX 454 pyrosequencing. These isotigs were grouped into 20,378 isogroups, representing potential genes. This is a large expansion of the existing N. caerulescens transcriptome set consisting of 3705 unigenes. When compared to a Brassicaceae proteome set, 22,232 (93.2% of the N. caerulescens isotigs (corresponding to 19191 isogroups had a significant match and could be annotated accordingly. Of the remaining sequences, 98 isotigs resembled non-plant sequences and 1386 had no significant similarity to any sequence in the GenBank database. Among the annotated set there were many isotigs with similarity to metal homeostasis genes or genes for glucosinolate biosynthesis. Only for transcripts similar to Metallothionein3 (MT3, clear evidence for an additional copy was found. This comprehensive set of transcripts is expected to further contribute to the discovery of mechanisms used by N. caerulescens to adapt to heavy metal exposure.

  12. Gangs and America's Schools: "Spitting the Lit"--Fact or Fad?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Douglas A.; Aquila, Frank D.

    1994-01-01

    School board members, administrators, and teachers must remember that the wearing of "gang" clothing or the appearance of "gang" graffiti does not always translate into gang activity and crime. In reality, the so-called national spread of gang problems may be just another teenage fad. School personnel should treat gangs as a symptom of underlying…

  13. Gang Prevention: An Overview of Research and Programs. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, James C.

    2010-01-01

    This bulletin presents research on why youth join gangs and how a community can build gang prevention and intervention services. The author summarizes recent literature on gang formation and identifies promising and effective programs for gang prevention. The following are some key findings: (1) Youth join gangs for protection, enjoyment, respect,…

  14. Alcohol and violence in the lives of gang members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, G P; Laidler, K J

    2001-01-01

    Life within a gang includes two endemic features: violence and alcohol. Yet, to date, most researchers studying gang behavior have focused on violence and its relationship to illicit drugs, largely neglecting the importance of alcohol in gang life. Because alcohol is an integral and regular part of socializing within gang life, drinking works as a social lubricant, or social glue, to maintain not only the cohesion and social solidarity of the gang, but also to affirm masculinity and male togetherness. In addition to its role as a cohesive mechanism, particular drinking styles within gangs may operate, as with other social groups, as a mechanism to maintain group boundaries, thereby demarcating one gang from another. Other examples of internal gang violent activities associated with drinking include fighting between members because of rivalries, tensions, or notions of honor or respect. At a more symbolic level, drinking is associated with two important ritual events in gang life: initiation, or "jumping in,"and funerals. By better understanding the link between drinking and violence among youth gangs, steps can be taken to determine the social processes that occur in the development of violent behavior after drinking. PMID:11496969

  15. New Administrator of SAC, Chen Gang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On June 14th,SAC held a meeting presented by its middle-high officials,at which Zhang Qinrong,Member of CPC Leading Group and Director of Personnel Department,General Administration of Quality Supervision,Inspection and Quarantine (AQSIQ),announced the personnel decision made by the State Council,the Organization Department of the CPC Central Committee and AQSIQ.In the decision,Chen Gang was appointed as Member of CPC Leading Group of AQSIQ,Administrator of SAC and Secretary of CPC Leading Group of SAC,and Ji Zhengkun was dismissed as the Member of CPC Leading Group of AQSIQ,Administrator of SAC and Secretary of CPC Leading Group of SAC.The meeting was presided by Ji Zhengkun.Zhi Shuping,Minister of AQSIQ and Secretary of CPC Leading Group of AQSIQ,attended the meeting and gave a speech.Ji Zhengkun and Chen Gang also delivered speeches.

  16. Empowering our young people out of gangs

    OpenAIRE

    Nasir, Sudirman

    2013-01-01

    We have recently witnessed violent acts by numerous members of motorcycle gangs in several big cities in Indonesia such as Bandung, Pekanbaru and Makassar. They have been involved in aggressive behavior, including vandalism, rape and assaults. Frequently, they display this violence publicly and inevitably cause fear and panic among ordinary people. The media widely report these destructive acts and this inevitably triggers public debate and raises important questions as to who these youn...

  17. Silicate weathering in the Ganges alluvial plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frings, Patrick J.; Clymans, Wim; Fontorbe, Guillaume; Gray, William; Chakrapani, Govind J.; Conley, Daniel J.; De La Rocha, Christina

    2015-10-01

    The Ganges is one of the world's largest rivers and lies at the heart of a body of literature that investigates the interaction between mountain orogeny, weathering and global climate change. Three regions can be recognised in the Ganges basin, with the Himalayan orogeny to the north and the plateaus of peninsular India to the south together delimiting the Ganges alluvial plain. Despite constituting approximately 80% of the basin, weathering processes in the peninsula and alluvial plain have received little attention. Here we present an analysis of 51 water samples along a transect of the alluvial plain, including all major tributaries. We focus on the geochemistry of silicon and its isotopes. Area normalised dissolved Si yields are approximately twice as high in rivers of Himalaya origin than the plain and peninsular tributaries (82, 51 and 32 kmol SiO2 km-2 yr-1, respectively). Such dissolved Si fluxes are not widely used as weathering rate indicators because a large but variable fraction of the DSi mobilised during the initial weathering process is retained in secondary clay minerals. However, the silicon isotopic composition of dissolved Si (expressed as δ30Si) varies from + 0.8 ‰ in the Ganges mainstem at the Himalaya front to + 3.0 ‰ in alluvial plain streams and appears to be controlled by weathering congruency, i.e. by the degree of incorporation of Si into secondary phases. The higher δ30Si values therefore reflect decreasing weathering congruency in the lowland river catchments. This is exploited to quantify the degree of removal using a Rayleigh isotope mass balance model, and consequently derive initial silica mobilisation rates of 200, 150 and 107 kmol SiO2 km-2 yr-1, for the Himalaya, peninsular India and the alluvial plain, respectively. Because the non-Himalayan regions dominate the catchment area, the majority of initial silica mobilisation from primary minerals occurs in the alluvial plain and peninsular catchment (41% and 34%, respectively).

  18. The Effect of Prison Gang Membership on Recidivism

    OpenAIRE

    Dooley, Brendan; Seals, Alan; Skarbek, David

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: How does prison gang membership affect recidivism? In this paper, we use a unique dataset of all releasees from prisons operated by the Illinois Department of Corrections during the month of November 2000, which includes demographic information and data on gang participation. We attempt to control for confounding factors that are traditionally associated with both prison gang membership and rearrest.Methods: We develop a potential-outcomes framework and describe the conditions under ...

  19. Gang Membership, Drug Selling, and Violence in Neighborhood Context

    OpenAIRE

    Bellair, Paul E.; McNulty, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    A prominent perspective in the gang literature suggests that gang member involvement in drug selling does not necessarily increase violent behavior. In addition it is unclear from previous research whether neighborhood disadvantage strengthens that relationship. We address those issues by testing hypotheses regarding the confluence of neighborhood disadvantage, gang membership, drug selling, and violent behavior. A three-level hierarchical model is estimated from the first five waves of the 1...

  20. A comprehensive set of transcript sequences of the heavy metal hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Y.F.; Severing, E.I.; Lintel Hekkert, te B.; Schijlen, E.G.W.M.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Noccaea caerulescens is an extremophile plant species belonging to the Brassicaceae family. It has adapted to grow on soils containing high, normally toxic, concentrations of metals such as nickel, zinc, and cadmium. Next to being extremely tolerant to these metals, it is one of the few species know

  1. QTL analysis of cadmium and zinc accumulation in the heavy metal hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deniau, A.X.; Pieper, B.; Bookum, ten W.M.; Lindhout, P.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    Thlaspi caerulescens (Tc; 2n = 14) is a natural Zn, Cd and Ni hyperaccumulator species belonging to the Brassicaceae family. It shares 88% DNA identity in the coding regions with Arabidopsis thaliana (At) (Rigola et al. 2006). Although the physiology of heavy metal (hyper)accumulation has been inten

  2. Gene Expression Differences between Noccaea caerulescens Ecotypes Help to Identify Candidate Genes for Metal Phytoremediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halimaa, P.; Lin, Y.F.; Ahonen, V.H.; Blande, D.; Clemens, S.; Gyenesei, A.; Haikio, E.; Karenlampi, S.O.; Laiho, A.; Aarts, M.G.M.; Pursiheimo, J.P.; Schat, H.; Schmidt, H.; Tuomainen, M.H.; Tervahauta, A.I.

    2014-01-01

    Populations of Noccaea caerulescens show tremendous differences in their capacity to hyperaccumulate and hypertolerate metals. To explore the differences that could contribute to these traits, we undertook SOLiD high-throughput sequencing of the root transcriptomes of three phenotypically well-chara

  3. Arabidopsis thaliana and Thlaspi caerulescens respond comparably to low zinc supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talukdar, S.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to study the response of Arabidopsis thaliana L. and Thlaspi caerulescens J. & C. Presl to different Zn supplies. The A. thaliana plants were exposed to Zn-deficiency (0 and 0.05 ¿M Zn) and compared to the plants grown on media containing standard Zn (2 ¿M

  4. Decrease of labile Zn and Cd in the rhizosphere of hyperaccumulating Thlaspi caerulescens with time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By using a rhizobox micro-suction cup technique we studied in-situ mobilization and complexation of Zn and Cd in the rhizosphere of non-hyperaccumulating Thlaspi perfoliatum and two different Thlaspi caerulescens ecotypes, one of them hyperaccumulating Zn, the other Zn and Cd. The dynamic fraction (free metal ions and small labile complexes) of Zn and Cd decreased with time in the rhizosphere solution of the respective hyperaccumulating T. caerulescens ecotypes, and at the end of the experiment, it was significantly smaller than in the other treatments. Furthermore, the rhizosphere solutions of the T. caerulescens ecotypes exhibited a higher UV absorptivity than the solution of the T. perfoliatum rhizosphere and the plant-free soil. Based on our findings we suggest that mobile and labile metal-dissolved soil organic matter complexes play a key role in the rapid replenishment of available metal pools in the rhizosphere of hyperaccumulating T. caerulescens ecotypes, postulated earlier. - A mechanism that explains the rapid replenishment of metal pools accessible by hyperaccumulator plants for phytoextraction is proposed.

  5. Elevated expression of metal transporter genes in three accessions of the metal hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonçalves Leite de Assunção, A.; Da Costa Martins, P.; Folter, de S.; Vooijs, R.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2001-01-01

    Heavy metal hyperaccumulation in plants is an intriguing and poorly understood phenomenon. Transmembrane metal transporters are assumed to play a key role in this process. We describe the cloning and isolation of three zinc transporter cDNAs from the Zn hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens. The ZTP

  6. Fatty acid profiles of ecotypes of hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens growing under cadmium stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemanová, V.; Pavlík, Milan; Kyjaková, Pavlína; Pavlíková, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 180, MAY 15 (2015), s. 27-34. ISSN 0176-1617 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : Heavy metals stress * Thlaspi caerulescens (J. & C. Presl) * 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry; CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation (UOCHB-X) Impact factor: 2.557, year: 2014

  7. Magical-religious narratives in gangs. A study on the psychology of the gang member

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ordóñez Valverde

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is the result of an investigation on the cultural systems that sustain violence within gangs in marginalized neighborhoods of Cali, Colombia. It is about magical and religious beliefs of gang member that surround the episodes of violence, and that allow us to observe aspects of the psychology of the gang member that are functional adaptations to the reality of vendettas and territorial wars, which are intended to give sense and meaning to the tragic events of their lives. The study shows how Santeria was used to seek protection and harm the enemy, and how their ideas of God and the Devil, good and evil, lack of ethics that regulate the relationships with others, and are an expression of a narcissistic defense mechanism. It is concluded that this cultural belief system is an interesting transaction formula between objective social reality and subjective fantasies.

  8. Gang Youth, Substance Use Patterns, and Drug Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Gang membership is an indicator of chronic illicit substance use and such patterns of use may have a normalized character. Using epidemiological and qualitative data collected between 2006 and 2007, this manuscript examines the drug normalization thesis among a small sample (n=60) of gang youth aged 16-25 years from Los Angeles. Overall, while…

  9. Reviving the Ganges Water Machine: why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasinghe, U. A.; Mutuwatte, L.; Surinaidu, L.; Anand, S.; Jain, S. K.

    2015-09-01

    The Ganges River Basin may have a major pending water crisis. Although the basin has abundant surface water and groundwater resources, the seasonal monsoon causes a mismatch between supply and demand as well as flooding. Water availability and flood potential is high during the 3-4 months of the monsoon season. Yet, the highest demands occur during the 8-9 months of the non-monsoon period. Addressing this mismatch requires substantial additional storage for both flood reduction and improvements in water supply. Due to hydrogeological, environmental, and social constraints, expansion of surface storage in the Ganges River Basin is problematic. A range of interventions that focus more on the use of subsurface storage (SSS), and on the acceleration of surface-subsurface water exchange, have long been known as the "Ganges Water Machine". One approach for providing such SSS is through additional pumping prior to the onset of the monsoon season. An important necessary condition for creating such SSS is the degree of unmet water demand. This paper highlights that an unmet water demand ranging from 59 to 119 Bm3 exists under two different irrigation water use scenarios: (i) to increase Rabi and hot weather season irrigation to the entire irrigable area, and (ii) to provide Rabi and hot weather season irrigation to the entire cropped area. This paper shows that SSS can enhance water supply, and provide benefits for irrigation and other water use sectors. In addition, it can buffer the inherent variability in water supply and mitigate extreme flooding, especially in the downstream parts of the basin. It can also increase river flow during low-flow months via baseflow or enable the re-allocation of irrigation canal water. Importantly, SSS can mitigate the negative effects of both flooding and water scarcity in the same year, which often affects the most vulnerable segments of society - women and children, the poor and other disadvantaged social groups.

  10. Reviving the Ganges Water Machine: potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasinghe, Upali Ananda; Muthuwatta, Lal; Surinaidu, Lagudu; Anand, Sumit; Jain, Sharad Kumar

    2016-03-01

    The Ganges River basin faces severe water challenges related to a mismatch between supply and demand. Although the basin has abundant surface water and groundwater resources, the seasonal monsoon causes a mismatch between supply and demand as well as flooding. Water availability and flood potential is high during the 3-4 months (June-September) of the monsoon season. Yet, the highest demands occur during the 8-9 months (October-May) of the non-monsoon period. Addressing this mismatch, which is likely to increase with increasing demand, requires substantial additional storage for both flood reduction and improvements in water supply. Due to hydrogeological, environmental, and social constraints, expansion of surface storage in the Ganges River basin is problematic. A range of interventions that focus more on the use of subsurface storage (SSS), and on the acceleration of surface-subsurface water exchange, has long been known as the Ganges Water Machine (GWM). The approach of the GWM for providing such SSS is through additional pumping and depleting of the groundwater resources prior to the onset of the monsoon season and recharging the SSS through monsoon surface runoff. An important condition for creating such SSS is the degree of unmet water demand. The paper shows that the potential unmet water demand ranging from 59 to 124 Bm3 year-1 exists under two different irrigation water use scenarios: (i) to increase irrigation in the Rabi (November-March) and hot weather (April-May) seasons in India, and the Aman (July-November) and Boro (December-May) seasons in Bangladesh, to the entire irrigable area, and (ii) to provide irrigation to Rabi and the hot weather season in India and the Aman and Boro seasons in Bangladesh to the entire cropped area. However, the potential for realizing the unmet irrigation demand is high only in 7 sub-basins in the northern and eastern parts, is moderate to low in 11 sub-basins in the middle, and has little or no potential in 4 sub

  11. Youth Gangs, Delinquency and Drug Use: A Test of the Selection, Facilitation, and Enhancement Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Uberto; Tremblay, Richard E.; Vitaro, Frank; McDuff, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Background: Three different explanations have been given for the observation that adolescent gang members report more delinquent behaviour than their counterparts who do not affiliate with gangs: a) adolescents who commit more crimes join gangs (selection hypothesis); b) gang membership facilitates deviant behaviour (facilitation hypothesis); c)…

  12. U.S. Juvenile Arrests: Gang Membership, Social Class, and Labeling Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This study addresses the link between gang membership and arrest frequency, exploring the Gang x Socioeconomic status interaction on those arrests. Notoriously poor, delinquent, and often well-known to police, America's gang youth should have very high odds of arrest. Yet it is unclear whether mere membership in a gang increases the risk of arrest…

  13. Tandem Quadruplication of HMA4 in the Zinc (Zn) and Cadmium (Cd) Hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens

    OpenAIRE

    Seosamh Ó Lochlainn; Helen C Bowen; Fray, Rupert G.; Hammond, John P.; King, Graham J.; White, Philip J.; Graham, Neil S; Martin R Broadley

    2011-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulation may have evolved twice in the Brassicaceae, in Arabidopsis halleri and in the Noccaea genus. Tandem gene duplication and deregulated expression of the Zn transporter, HMA4, has previously been linked to Zn/Cd hyperaccumulation in A. halleri. Here, we tested the hypothesis that tandem duplication and deregulation of HMA4 expression also occurs in Noccaea. A Noccaea caerulescens genomic library was generated, containing 36,864 fosmid pCC1FOS™ clones ...

  14. QTL analysis of cadmium and zinc accumulation in the heavy metal hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens

    OpenAIRE

    Deniau, A.X.; Pieper, B.; Bookum, ten, W.M.; Lindhout, P.; Aarts, M. G. M.

    2006-01-01

    Thlaspi caerulescens (Tc; 2n = 14) is a natural Zn, Cd and Ni hyperaccumulator species belonging to the Brassicaceae family. It shares 88% DNA identity in the coding regions with Arabidopsis thaliana (At) (Rigola et al. 2006). Although the physiology of heavy metal (hyper)accumulation has been intensively studied, the molecular genetics are still largely unexplored. We address this topic by constructing a genetic map based on AFLP® markers and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). To establish a ge...

  15. Effects fo Zinc Chemistry on Phytoextraction in Thlaspi caerulescens - Vermiculite System

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Xu Dong; Eguchi, Toshihiko; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2005-01-01

    Zinc phytoextration capability of the hyperaccumulator is usually limited by zinc content in the soil. To investigate the effects of different zinc fractions (water-soluble, exchangeble, and non-exchangeble) on phytoextration of Thlaspi caerulescens from medium of vermculite, pot experiments were performed for various zinc application treatments (0~2000 mg kg[-1]). Relationships between zinc quantity accumulated in the plants and zinc content in the medium were investigated. Zinc content accu...

  16. Gang Membership Risk Factors for Eighth-Grade Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Martinez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the major risk factor domains for gang membership and the relationships of these risk factors to eighth grade students. The domains of risk factors include: individual characteristics, peer group influences, family conditions, school experiences and the community context, along with demographic information obtained from the Student Gang Survey items. Through logistic multiple regression, risk factors associated with school, peer, community-neighborhood, and family were used to predict gang membership. Demographic data were also used as predictor variables. Results indicated that an increase in Community-Neighborhood Risk was associated with a decrease in joining a gang. Non-significant findings for Peer Risk, School Risk, Family Risk and demographic variables are additionally discussed. The current research identifies issues which middle school youth encounter in a county setting; provides a homegrown report to assist stakeholders (administrators, teachers, parents, students, and law enforcement in identifying locally relevant risk factors of gang behavior; and substantiates risk factors for gang membership proliferation in those neighborhoods with no recently documented history of gangs.

  17. The molecular physiology of heavy metal transport in the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, N S; Larsen, P B; Ebbs, S D; Letham, D L; Lasat, M M; Garvin, D F; Eide, D; Kochian, L V

    2000-04-25

    An integrated molecular and physiological investigation of the fundamental mechanisms of heavy metal accumulation was conducted in Thlaspi caerulescens, a Zn/Cd-hyperaccumulating plant species. A heavy metal transporter cDNA, ZNT1, was cloned from T. caerulescens through functional complementation in yeast and was shown to mediate high-affinity Zn(2+) uptake as well as low-affinity Cd(2+) uptake. It was found that this transporter is expressed at very high levels in roots and shoots of the hyperaccumulator. A study of ZNT1 expression and high-affinity Zn(2+) uptake in roots of T. caerulescens and in a related nonaccumulator, Thlaspi arvense, showed that alteration in the regulation of ZNT1 gene expression by plant Zn status results in the overexpression of this transporter and in increased Zn influx in roots of the hyperaccumulating Thlaspi species. These findings yield insights into the molecular regulation and control of plant heavy metal and micronutrient accumulation and homeostasis, as well as provide information that will contribute to the advancement of phytoremediation by the future engineering of plants with improved heavy metal uptake and tolerance. PMID:10781104

  18. Generation of nonvernal-obligate, faster-cycling Noccaea caerulescens lines through fast neutron mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochlainn, Seosamh O; Fray, Rupert G; Hammond, John P; King, Graham J; White, Philip J; Young, Scott D; Broadley, Martin R

    2011-01-01

    Noccaea caerulescens (formerly Thlaspi caerulescens) is a widely studied metal hyperaccumulator. However, molecular genetic studies are challenging in this species because of its vernal-obligate biennial life cycle of 7-9months. Here, we describe the development of genetically stable, faster cycling lines of N. caerulescens which are nonvernal-obligate. A total of 5500 M(0) seeds from Saint Laurent Le Minier (France) were subjected to fast neutron mutagenesis. Following vernalization of young plants, 79% of plants survived to maturity. In all, 80,000 M(2) lines were screened for flowering in the absence of vernalization. Floral initials were observed in 35 lines, with nine flowering in <12wk. Two lines (A2 and A7) were selfed to the M(4) generation. Floral initials were observed 66 and 87d after sowing (DAS) in A2 and A7, respectively. Silicle development occurred for all A2 and for most A7 at 92 and 123 DAS, respectively. Floral or silicle development was not observed in wild-type (WT) plants. Leaf zinc (Zn) concentration was similar in WT, A2 and A7 lines. These lines should facilitate future genetic studies of this remarkable species. Seed is publicly available through the European Arabidopsis Stock Centre (NASC). PMID:21058953

  19. A novel CPx-ATPase from the cadmium hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Catherine; Roosens, Nancy; Czernic, Pierre; Lebrun, Michel; Verbruggen, Nathalie

    2004-07-01

    Thlaspi caerulescens exhibits a unique capacity for cadmium tolerance and accumulation. We investigated the molecular basis of this exceptional Cd(2+) tolerance by screening for T. caerulescens genes, which alleviate Cd(2+) toxicity upon expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This allowed for the isolation of a cDNA encoding a peptide with homology to the C-terminal part of a heavy metal ATPase. The corresponding TcHMA4 full-length sequence was isolated from T. caerulescens and compared to its homolog from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtHMA4). Expression of TcHMA4 and AtHMA4 cDNAs conferred Cd sensitivity in yeast, while expression of TcHMA4-C and AtHMA4-C cDNAs encoding the C-termini of, respectively, TcHMA4 and AtHMA4 conferred Cd tolerance. Moreover, heterologous expression in yeast suggested a higher Cd binding capacity of TcHMA4-C compared to AtHMA4-C. In planta, both HMA4 genes were expressed at a higher level in roots than in shoots. However, TcHMA4 shows a much higher constitutive expression than AtHMA4. Our data indicate that HMA4 could be involved in Cd(2+) transport and possibly in the Cd hyperaccumulation character. PMID:15225623

  20. Combined endophytic inoculants enhance nickel phytoextraction from serpentine soil in the hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna eVisioli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the effects of specific bacterial endophytes on the phytoextraction capacity of the Ni-hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens, spontaneously growing in a serpentine soil environment. Five metal-tolerant endophytes had already been selected for their high Ni tolerance (6 mM and plant growth promoting ability. Here we demonstrate that individual bacterial inoculation is ineffective in enhancing Ni translocation and growth of N. caerulescens in serpentine soil, except for specific strains Ncr-1 and Ncr-8, belonging to the Arthrobacter and Microbacterium genera, which showed the highest IAA production and ACC-deaminase activity. Ncr-1 and Ncr-8 co-inoculation was even more efficient in promoting plant growth, soil Ni removal and translocation of Ni, together with that of Fe, Co and Cu. Bacteria of both strains densely colonised the root surfaces and intercellular spaces of leaf epidermal tissue. These two bacterial strains also turned out to stimulate root length, shoot biomass and Ni uptake in Arabidopsis thaliana grown in MS agar medium supplemented with Ni. It is concluded that adaptation of N. caerulescens in highly Ni-contaminated serpentine soil can be enhanced by an integrated community of bacterial endophytes rather than by single strains; of the former, Arthrobacter and Microbacterium may be useful candidates for future phytoremediation trials

  1. Psychological and behavioral characteristics that distinguish street gang members in custody

    OpenAIRE

    Alleyne, Emma; Jane L Wood; Mozova, Katarina; James, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Using social dominance theory, the primary aim of this study was to examine the attitudes and beliefs that reinforce status hierarchies and facilitate aggressive behavior within and between gangs. The aim was also to determine whether these socio-cognitive processes distinguished gang-involved youth from non-gang offenders in a custodial setting. Methods. Gang-involved youth and non-gang offenders were recruited from a Young Offender Institution (YOI) located in the United King...

  2. The Trauma Response Team: a Community Intervention for Gang Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings-Bey, Timothy; Lane, Sandra D; Rubinstein, Robert A; Bergen-Cico, Dessa; Haygood-El, Arnett; Hudson, Helen; Sanchez, Shaundel; Fowler, Frank L

    2015-10-01

    While violent crime has decreased in many cities in the USA, gang-related violence remains a serious problem in impoverished inner city neighborhoods. In Syracuse, New York, gang-related murders and gun shots have topped other New York state cities. Residents of the high-murder neighborhoods suffer trauma similar to those living in civil conflict zones. The Trauma Response Team was established in 2010, in collaboration with the Police Department, health care institutions, and emergency response teams and with the research support of Syracuse University faculty. Since its inception, gang-related homicides and gun shots have decreased in the most severely affected census tracts. PMID:26282564

  3. Cadmium-induced inhibition of photosynthesis and long-term acclimation to cadmium stress in the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpper, Hendrik; Parameswaran, Aravind; Leitenmaier, Barbara; Trtílek, Martin; Setlík, Ivan

    2007-01-01

    Acclimation of hyperaccumulators to heavy metal-induced stress is crucial for phytoremediation and was investigated using the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens and the nonaccumulators T. fendleri and T. ochroleucum. Spatially and spectrally resolved kinetics of in vivo absorbance and fluorescence were measured with a novel fluorescence kinetic microscope. At the beginning of growth on cadmium (Cd), all species suffered from toxicity, but T. caerulescens subsequently recovered completely. During stress, a few mesophyll cells in T. caerulescens became more inhibited and accumulated more Cd than the majority; this heterogeneity disappeared during acclimation. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters related to photochemistry were more strongly affected by Cd stress than nonphotochemical parameters, and only photochemistry showed acclimation. Cd acclimation in T. caerulescens shows that part of its Cd tolerance is inducible and involves transient physiological heterogeneity as an emergency defence mechanism. Differential effects of Cd stress on photochemical vs nonphotochemical parameters indicate that Cd inhibits the photosynthetic light reactions more than the Calvin-Benson cycle. Differential spectral distribution of Cd effects on photochemical vs nonphotochemical quenching shows that Cd inhibits at least two different targets in/around photosystem II (PSII). Spectrally homogeneous maximal PSII efficiency (F(v)/F(m)) suggests that in healthy T. caerulescens all chlorophylls fluorescing at room temperature are PSII-associated. PMID:17688582

  4. Depression More Common in Kids Who Join Gangs, Study Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158345.html Depression More Common in Kids Who Join Gangs, Study ... 15, 2016 FRIDAY, April 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Depression and suicidal thoughts or attempts are common among ...

  5. Are the risk and protective factors similar for gang-involved, pressured-to-join, and non-gang-involved youth? A social-ecological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrin, Gabriel J; Hong, Jun Sung; Espelage, Dorothy L

    2015-11-01

    This study examines the risk and protective factors for gang involvement among subgroups of youth (i.e., current or former gang members, youth who resisted gang membership, and non-gang-involved youth) using the social-ecological framework. Middle and high school students (N = 17,366) from school districts in a large Midwestern county participated. Results indicated that males were more likely than females to be involved in gangs. For the individual context, our findings indicate that racial and ethnic minorities, females, and youth with depression/suicidal ideation are likely to be at risk for gang involvement. For the family context, we found that having gang-involved family members and family dysfunction are related to youth gang involvement. For the peer context, peers' alcohol and drug use and bullying were significantly associated with gang involvement. For the school context, as our results demonstrate, youth who perceived fair treatment from teachers and other adults in school and those with a sense of belonging in school are more likely to avoid gang membership. For the neighborhood context, we found that presence of adult support in the neighborhood and perceived neighborhood safety are negatively associated with gang membership. Findings suggest that gang prevention efforts need to target multiple ecologies that surround and influence youth. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26594921

  6. Gang Membership Risk Factors for Eighth-Grade Students

    OpenAIRE

    James Martinez; Jeremy Tost; Larry Hilgert; Tracy Woodard-Meyers

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the major risk factor domains for gang membership and the relationships of these risk factors to eighth grade students. The domains of risk factors include: individual characteristics, peer group influences, family conditions, school experiences and the community context, along with demographic information obtained from the Student Gang Survey items. Through logistic multiple regression, risk factors associated with school, peer, community-neighborhood...

  7. DoppleGang's (Sub)Version of Oz

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Megan

    2007-01-01

    Exhibited at the second Glucksman Memorial Symposium on June 13th 2007 For the 2006 Dublin Fringe Festival, DoppleGang expanded their performance from a song-based cabaret to a theatre piece with songs, dance, and dialogue. Their performance, entitled 'Oz: A Fairytale Plot,' borrows songs, stories, and characters from different Oz-related sources to develop a unique performance piece specifically for the members of the group. The DoppleGang version of these stories emphasizes the journey t...

  8. Functional analysis of zinc hyperaccumulation related genes of Noccaea (Thlaspi) caerulescens for phytoremediation purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Z

    2013-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) are toxic metals that can cause serious soil contamination when present in excess. Especially Cd exposure is a threat to human health. Plants can potentially be used to clean-up the Zn- and/or Cd-contaminated soils in a technology called “Phytoremediation”. Two major requirements for this technology are the availability of plants that are accumulating Zn/Cd to high levels in their leaves and that are producing high biomass. Noccaea caerulescens is a natu...

  9. The changes of contents of selected free amino acids associated with cadmium stress in Noccaea caerulescens and Arabidopsis halleri

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemanová, V.; Pavlík, Milan; Pavlíková, D.; Tlustoš, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 9 (2013), s. 417-422. ISSN 1214-1178 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : heavy metals * nitrogen-transport amino acids * Thlaspi caerulescens Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.113, year: 2013 http://www.agriculturejournals.cz/publicFiles/100270.pdf

  10. Local adaptation is associated with zinc tolerance in Pseudomonas endophytes of the metal-hyperaccumulator plant Noccaea caerulescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fones, H N; McCurrach, H; Mithani, A; Smith, J A C; Preston, G M

    2016-05-11

    Metal-hyperaccumulating plants, which are hypothesized to use metals for defence against pests and pathogens, provide a unique context in which to study plant-pathogen coevolution. Previously, we demonstrated that the high concentrations of zinc found in leaves of the hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens provide protection against bacterial pathogens, with a potential trade-off between metal-based and pathogen-induced defences. We speculated that an evolutionary arms race between zinc-based defences in N. caerulescens and zinc tolerance in pathogens might have driven the development of the hyperaccumulation phenotype. Here, we investigate the possibility of local adaptation by bacteria to the zinc-rich environment of N. caerulescens leaves and show that leaves sampled from the contaminated surroundings of a former mine site harboured endophytes with greater zinc tolerance than those within plants of an artificially created hyperaccumulating population. Experimental manipulation of zinc concentrations in plants of this artificial population influenced the zinc tolerance of recovered endophytes. In laboratory experiments, only endophytic bacteria isolated from plants of the natural population were able to grow to high population densities in any N. caerulescens plants. These findings suggest that long-term coexistence with zinc-hyperaccumulating plants leads to local adaptation by endophytic bacteria to the environment within their leaves. PMID:27170725

  11. Understanding Gang Membership and Crime Victimization among Jail Inmates: Testing the Effects of Self-Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Kathleen A.; Lane, Jodi; Akers, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01

    Although previous research has examined factors related to gang membership and offending, research on the relationship between gangs and victimization is limited. The present study builds on previous research and examines gang membership, victimization, and self-control among 2,414 jail inmates. Results from self-report surveys indicate that gang…

  12. Physics analysis of the gang partial rod drive event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the routine positioning of partial-length control rods in Gang 3 on the afternoon of Monday, July 27, 1992, the partial-length rods continued to drive into the reactor even after the operator released the controlling toggle switch. In response to this occurrence, the Safety Analysis and Engineering Services Group (SAEG) requested that the Applied Physics Group (APG) analyze the gang partial rod drive event. Although similar accident scenarios were considered in analysis for Chapter 15 of the Safety Analysis Report (SAR), APG and SAEG conferred and agreed that this particular type of gang partial-length rod motion event was not included in the SAR. This report details this analysis

  13. Geographical influences of an emerging network of gang rivalries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegemann, Rachel A.; Smith, Laura M.; Barbaro, Alethea B. T.; Bertozzi, Andrea L.; Reid, Shannon E.; Tita, George E.

    2011-10-01

    We propose an agent-based model to simulate the creation of street gang rivalries. The movement dynamics of agents are coupled to an evolving network of gang rivalries, which is determined by previous interactions among agents in the system. Basic gang data, geographic information, and behavioral dynamics suggested by the criminology literature are integrated into the model. The major highways, rivers, and the locations of gangs’ centers of activity influence the agents’ motion. We use a policing division of the Los Angeles Police Department as a case study to test our model. We apply common metrics from graph theory to analyze our model, comparing networks produced by our simulations and an instance of a Geographical Threshold Graph to the existing network from the criminology literature.

  14. Isolation of Zn-responsive genes from two accessions of the hyperaccumulator plant Thlaspi caerulescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassinen, V H; Tervahauta, A I; Halimaa, P; Plessl, M; Peräniemi, S; Schat, H; Aarts, M G M; Servomaa, K; Kärenlampi, S O

    2007-03-01

    Several populations with different metal tolerance, uptake and root-to-shoot transport are known for the metal hyperaccumulator plant Thlaspi caerulescens. In this study, genes differentially expressed under various Zn exposures were identified from the shoots of two T. caerulescens accessions (calaminous and non-calaminous) using fluorescent differential display RT-PCR. cDNA fragments from 16 Zn-responsive genes, including those encoding metallothionein (MT) type 2 and type 3, MRP-like transporter, pectin methylesterase (PME) and Ole e 1-like gene as well as several unknown genes, were eventually isolated. The full-length MT2 and MT3 sequences differ from those previously isolated from other Thlaspi accessions, possibly representing new alleles or isoforms. Besides the differential expression in Zn exposures, the gene expression was dependent on the accession. Thlaspi homologues of ClpP protease and MRP transporter were induced at high Zn concentrations. MT2 and PME were expressed at higher levels in the calaminous accession. The MTs and MRP transporter expressed in transgenic yeasts were capable of conferring Cu and Cd tolerance, whereas the Ole e 1-like gene enhanced toxicity to these metals. The MTs increased yeast intracellular Cd content. As no significant differences were found between Arabidopsis and Thlaspi MTs, they apparently do not differ in their capacity to bind metals. However, the higher levels of MT2 in the calaminous accession may contribute to the Zn-adapted phenotype. PMID:17013613

  15. Isolation and identification of 4-α-rhamnosyloxy benzyl glucosinolate in Noccaea caerulescens showing intraspecific variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Rob M; Krosse, Sebastian; Swolfs, Ad E M; te Brinke, Esra; Prill, Nadine; Leimu, Roosa; van Galen, Peter M; Wang, Yanli; Aarts, Mark G M; van Dam, Nicole M

    2015-02-01

    Glucosinolates are secondary plant compounds typically found in members of the Brassicaceae and a few other plant families. Usually each plant species contains a specific subset of the ∼ 130 different glucosinolates identified to date. However, intraspecific variation in glucosinolate profiles is commonly found. Sinalbin (4-hydroxybenzyl glucosinolate) so far has been identified as the main glucosinolate of the heavy metal accumulating plant species Noccaea caerulescens (Brassicaceae). However, a screening of 13 N. caerulescens populations revealed that in 10 populations a structurally related glucosinolate was found as the major component. Based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry analyses of the intact glucosinolate as well as of the products formed after enzymatic conversion by sulfatase or myrosinase, this compound was identified as 4-α-rhamnosyloxy benzyl glucosinolate (glucomoringin). So far, glucomoringin had only been reported as the main glucosinolate of Moringa spp. (Moringaceae) which are tropical tree species. There was no apparent relation between the level of soil pollution at the location of origin, and the presence of glucomoringin. The isothiocyanate that is formed after conversion of glucomoringin is a potent antimicrobial and antitumor agent. It has yet to be established whether glucomoringin or its breakdown product have an added benefit to the plant in its natural habitat. PMID:25482220

  16. Performance characteristics of gang scheduling in multiprogrammed environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jette, M.A.

    1997-11-01

    Gang scheduling provides both space-slicing and time-slicing of computer resources for parallel programs. Each thread of execution from a parallel job is concurrently scheduled on an independent processor in order to achieve an optimal level of program performance. Time-slicing of parallel jobs provides for better overall system responsiveness and utilization than otherwise possible. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has deployed three generations of its gang scheduler on a variety of computing platforms. Results indicate the potential benefits of this technology to parallel processing are no less significant than time-sharing was in the 1960`s.

  17. TcOPT3, a Member of Oligopeptide Transporters from the Hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens, Is a Novel Fe/Zn/Cd/Cu Transporter

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Ting Hu; Feng Ming; Wei Wei Chen; Jing Ying Yan; Zheng Yu Xu; Gui Xin Li; Chun Yan Xu; Jian Li Yang; Shao Jian Zheng

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thlaspi caerulescens is a natural selected heavy metal hyperaccumulator that can not only tolerate but also accumulate extremely high levels of heavy metals in the shoots. Thus, to identify the transportors involved in metal long-distance transportation is very important for understanding the mechanism of heavy metal accumulation in this hyperaccumulator. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We cloned and characterized a novel gene TcOPT3 of OPT family from T. caerulescens. TcOPT3 was ...

  18. Arbovírus Ilheus em aves silvestres (Sporophila caerulescens e Molothrus bonariensis Ilheus arbovirus in wild birds (Sporophila caerulescens and Molothrus bonariensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eloy Pereira

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar o isolamento do vírus Ilheus no Estado de São Paulo e avaliar o seu impacto para a saúde pública. MÉTODOS: O isolamento de vírus foi realizado em camundongos albinos Swiss, a partir de sangue de aves silvestres, capturadas com redes de espera tipo mist net, armadas no nível do solo, no Parque Ecológico do Tietê, São Paulo. A identificação das cepas isoladas foi feita pelos testes de inibição da hemaglutinação, fixação de complemento e neutralização em camundongos. Amostras de plasma de aves e de mamíferos silvestres foram submetidas à pesquisa sorológica para detecção de anticorpos inibidores de hemaglutinação. RESULTADOS: Foram isoladas duas cepas do vírus Ilheus em sangue de aves das espécies Sporophila caerulescens e Molothrus bonariensis e detectados anticorpos em aves das espécies Columbina talpacoti, Geopelia cuneata, Molothrus bonariensis e Sicalis flaveola, em sagüis das espécies Callithrix jacchus e Callithrix penicillata e no quati Nasua nasua. CONCLUSÕES: O isolamento do vírus Ilheus e a detecção de anticorpos específicos em aves residentes, migratórias e de cativeiro, em sagüis e quatis, comprovam a presença desse agente no Parque Ecológico do Tietê. O comportamento migratório de aves silvestres pode determinar a introdução do vírus em outras regiões. Considerando-se a patogenicidade para o homem e a confirmação da circulação desse agente viral em área urbana, freqüentada para atividade de lazer e de educação, o risco de ocorrência de infecção na população humana não pode ser descartado.OBJECTIVE: To report the first Ilheus arboviruses isolated from wild birds and analyze its public health impact. METHODS: Wild birds and mammals were captured using mist nets and Tomahawk traps, respectively. Blood samples were drawn from these animals and inoculated intracerebrally in Swiss suckling mice found in the Parque Ecológico do Tietê, Brazil. The isolates were

  19. An integrated public health and criminal justice approach to gangs: What can research tell us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebo, Erika

    2016-12-01

    There has been a call to better link public health and criminal justice approaches to best address crime problems generally, and youth and gang violence in particular. Importantly, there has yet to be a systematic examination of how criminal justice approaches can be integrated within a public health framework. This paper examines the strengths and challenges with mapping gang research and evidence-informed practices onto a public health approach. Conceptual examination reveals benefits to utilizing an integrated framework, but it also exposes core problems with identification and prediction of gang joining and gang membership. The gang label as a master status is called into question. It is argued that a public health framework can inform public policy approaches as to when the focus should be youth violence versus gangs and gang violence. PMID:27547719

  20. Chain Gang: A Framegame for Teaching Algorithms and Heuristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagarajan, Sivasailam; Pasigna, Aida L.

    1985-01-01

    Describes basic structure of a framegame, Chain Gang, in which self-instructional modules teach a cognitive skill. Procedures are presented for loading new content into the game's basic framework to teach algorithms or heuristics and for game modification to suit different situations. Handouts used in the basic game are appended. (MBR)

  1. The fate of evaporated water from the Ganges basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinenburg, O.A.; Hutjes, R.W.A.; Kabat, P.

    2012-01-01

    This research studies river basin moisture recycling rates in order to determine the atmospheric part of the water cycle and the influence of the land surface there on. For river basins in India (Ganges and Indus), the fraction of evaporation that falls again as precipitation in the same river basin

  2. Tandem quadruplication of HMA4 in the zinc (Zn and cadmium (Cd hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seosamh Ó Lochlainn

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn and cadmium (Cd hyperaccumulation may have evolved twice in the Brassicaceae, in Arabidopsis halleri and in the Noccaea genus. Tandem gene duplication and deregulated expression of the Zn transporter, HMA4, has previously been linked to Zn/Cd hyperaccumulation in A. halleri. Here, we tested the hypothesis that tandem duplication and deregulation of HMA4 expression also occurs in Noccaea.A Noccaea caerulescens genomic library was generated, containing 36,864 fosmid pCC1FOS™ clones with insert sizes ∼20-40 kbp, and screened with a PCR-generated HMA4 genomic probe. Gene copy number within the genome was estimated through DNA fingerprinting and pooled fosmid pyrosequencing. Gene copy numbers within individual clones was determined by PCR analyses with novel locus specific primers. Entire fosmids were then sequenced individually and reads equivalent to 20-fold coverage were assembled to generate complete whole contigs.Four tandem HMA4 repeats were identified in a contiguous sequence of 101,480 bp based on sequence overlap identities. These were flanked by regions syntenous with up and downstream regions of AtHMA4 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Promoter-reporter β-glucuronidase (GUS fusion analysis of a NcHMA4 in A. thaliana revealed deregulated expression in roots and shoots, analogous to AhHMA4 promoters, but distinct from AtHMA4 expression which localised to the root vascular tissue.This remarkable consistency in tandem duplication and deregulated expression of metal transport genes between N. caerulescens and A. halleri, which last shared a common ancestor >40 mya, provides intriguing evidence that parallel evolutionary pathways may underlie Zn/Cd hyperaccumulation in Brassicaceae.

  3. Tandem quadruplication of HMA4 in the zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ó Lochlainn, Seosamh; Bowen, Helen C; Fray, Rupert G; Hammond, John P; King, Graham J; White, Philip J; Graham, Neil S; Broadley, Martin R

    2011-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulation may have evolved twice in the Brassicaceae, in Arabidopsis halleri and in the Noccaea genus. Tandem gene duplication and deregulated expression of the Zn transporter, HMA4, has previously been linked to Zn/Cd hyperaccumulation in A. halleri. Here, we tested the hypothesis that tandem duplication and deregulation of HMA4 expression also occurs in Noccaea.A Noccaea caerulescens genomic library was generated, containing 36,864 fosmid pCC1FOS™ clones with insert sizes ∼20-40 kbp, and screened with a PCR-generated HMA4 genomic probe. Gene copy number within the genome was estimated through DNA fingerprinting and pooled fosmid pyrosequencing. Gene copy numbers within individual clones was determined by PCR analyses with novel locus specific primers. Entire fosmids were then sequenced individually and reads equivalent to 20-fold coverage were assembled to generate complete whole contigs.Four tandem HMA4 repeats were identified in a contiguous sequence of 101,480 bp based on sequence overlap identities. These were flanked by regions syntenous with up and downstream regions of AtHMA4 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Promoter-reporter β-glucuronidase (GUS) fusion analysis of a NcHMA4 in A. thaliana revealed deregulated expression in roots and shoots, analogous to AhHMA4 promoters, but distinct from AtHMA4 expression which localised to the root vascular tissue.This remarkable consistency in tandem duplication and deregulated expression of metal transport genes between N. caerulescens and A. halleri, which last shared a common ancestor >40 mya, provides intriguing evidence that parallel evolutionary pathways may underlie Zn/Cd hyperaccumulation in Brassicaceae. PMID:21423774

  4. Sexual risk, substance use, mental health, and trauma experiences of gang-involved homeless youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petering, Robin

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the associations of sexual risk behaviors, substance use, mental health, and trauma with varying levels of gang involvement in a sample of Los Angeles-based homeless youths. Data were collected from 505 homeless youths who self-reported various health information and whether they have ever identified as or been closely affiliated with a gang member. Multivariable logistic regression assessed associations of lifetime gang involvement with risk taking behaviors and negative health outcomes. Results revealed seventeen percent of youths have ever identified as a gang member and 46% as gang affiliated. Both gang members and affiliates were at greater risk of many negative behaviors than non-gang involved youths. Gang members and affiliates were more likely to report recent methamphetamine use, cocaine use, chronic marijuana use, having sex while intoxicated, and symptoms of depression, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. They were also more likely to have experienced childhood sexual abuse and witnessing family violence. Gang members were more likely to ever attempt suicide, experience recent partner violence, and report physical abuse during childhood. Results suggest that lifetime gang involvement is related to a trajectory of negative outcomes and amplified risk for youths experiencing homelessness. Additionally, being closely connected to a gang member appears to have just as much as an impact on risk as personally identifying as a gang member. Given the lack of knowledge regarding the intersection between youth homelessness and gang involvement, future research is needed to inform policies and programs that can address the specific needs of this population. PMID:26897432

  5. Local adaptation is associated with zinc tolerance in Pseudomonas endophytes of the metal-hyperaccumulator plant Noccaea caerulescens

    OpenAIRE

    Fones, HN; McCurrach, H; Mithani, A; Smith, JAC; Preston, GM

    2016-01-01

    Metal-hyperaccumulating plants, which are hypothesized to use metals for defence against pests and pathogens, provide a unique context in which to study plant–pathogen coevolution. Previously, we demonstrated that the high concentrations of zinc found in leaves of the hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens provide protection against bacterial pathogens, with a potential trade-off between metal-based and pathogen-induced defences. We speculated that an evolutionary arms race between zinc-based ...

  6. Phytochelatin synthesis is not responsible for Cd tolerance in the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (J. & C. Presl).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbs, Stephen; Lau, Ingar; Ahner, Beth; Kochian, Leon

    2002-02-01

    Thlaspi caerulescens (J. & C. Presl, "Prayon") is a heavy-metal hyperaccumulator that accumulates Zn and Cd to high concentrations (40,000 and 4,000 mg kg DW-1 respectively) without phytotoxicity. The mechanism of Cd tolerance has not been characterized but reportedly involves vacuolar sequestration. The role of phytochelatins (PCs) in metal tolerance in T. caerulescens and the related non-accumulator T. arvense was examined. Although PCs were produced by both species in response to Cd, these peptides do not appear to be involved in metal tolerance in the hyperaccumulator. Leaf and root PC levels for both species showed a similar positive correlation with tissue Cd, but total PC levels in the hyperaccumulator were generally lower, despite correspondingly higher metal concentrations. The lack of a role for PCs in the hyperaccumulator's response to metal stress suggests that other mechanisms are responsible Cd tolerance. The lower level of leaf PCs in T. caerulescens also implies that Cd in the shoot is sequestered in a compartment or form that does not elicit a PC response. PMID:11925047

  7. Gangs in El Salvador’s Public Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Rigoberto López Ramírez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This descriptive study focuses on the presence of criminal gangs (MS-13 and B-18 in El Salvador’s public schools while addressing it from four different perspectives: the reasons behind the penetration of gangs in schools, commission of criminal acts, the creationof social problems and finally control exercised within these schools. A series of experiences were collected from individuals involved, as well as official statistics and police reports. Finally, a general overview of the problem and its consequences for public security was concluded, which in turn ensued in a series of recommendations to treat the phenomenon as a security issue.Revista Policía y Seguridad Pública 5(1 2015: 247-298

  8. Echoes from Si gang lih: Burao Yilu's 'Moon Mountain'

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Bender (Preface)

    2011-01-01

    Wa poet Burao Yilu's utilization of myth, ritual, and folk customs in representing the Wa ethnic group in the poem 'Moon Mountain' is discussed. Negative stereotypes of the Wa, an indigenous people of southwestern Yunnan Province, China, include the now forbidden practice of headhunting. By referencing the origin myth 'Si gang lih' and evoking images of ancient cliff paintings, rituals, and agricultural practices, Burao offers a nuanced view of Wa culture while affirming deep-rooted aspects o...

  9. Santa Barbara School District Gang Intervention Specialist Evaluation Report

    OpenAIRE

    Rios, Victor M. Ph.D.; Lopez-Aguado, Patrick; Galicia, Mario; Lopez-Tello, Gisselle; Flores, Jerry; Sarabia, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    In 2009 the Santa Barbara School District launched an intervention program for some of the students identified by school personnel as possibly involved in gangs. In this pilot year the program was evaluated by a research team led by Dr. Victor Rios, from the University of California, Santa Barbara, to document the program’s implementation, analyze program efficacy, and determine student needs. This evaluation included qualitative pre test surveys completed by 59 students and qualitative post ...

  10. Ganglión perióstico: a propósito de dos casos

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    A diferencia de los gangliones de partes blandas, el ganglión perióstico es una entidad rara y poco conocida. El ganglión perióstico debe ser tenido en cuenta cuando se plantea el diagnóstico diferencial de las causas de erosión cortical. Presentamos los dos primeros casos clínicos de ganglión perióstico descritos en la literatura española

  11. Rumination and the displacement of aggression in United Kingdom gang-affiliated youth

    OpenAIRE

    Vasquez, Eduardo A.; Osman, Sarah; Wood, Jane L.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of gang aggression oftentimes elicits images of brutal intergang violence. In reality, gang-related aggression can vary widely, can have various motivations and causal factors, and includes interpersonal as well as intergroup aggression. This study examined the tendency of UK youth to engage in displaced aggression (aggression aimed at undeserving targets) and examined the relationship among gang affiliation, ruminative thought, and aggression levels. Students in three Lo...

  12. Gang FTP scheduling of periodic and parallel rigid real-time tasks

    CERN Document Server

    Goossens, Joël

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we consider the scheduling of periodic and parallel rigid tasks. We provide (and prove correct) an exact schedulability test for Fixed Task Priority (FTP) Gang scheduler sub-classes: Parallelism Monotonic, Idling, Limited Gang, and Limited Slack Reclaiming. Additionally, we study the predictability of our schedulers: we show that Gang FJP schedulers are not predictable and we identify several sub-classes which are actually predictable. Moreover, we extend the definition of rigid, moldable and malleable jobs to recurrent tasks.

  13. Associations between Gun Violence Exposure, Gang Associations, and Youth Aggression: Implications for Prevention and Intervention Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Myriam Forster; Grigsby, Timothy J.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Steve Sussman

    2015-01-01

    Using cross-sectional data collected from three middle schools in Southeast Los Angeles, we assessed the association of neighborhood violence exposure, gang associations, and social self-control with past week aggression in a sample of minority youth (n=164). Results from Poisson and logistic regression models showed that direct exposure to gun violence, having friends in gangs, and low social self control were all positively associated with past week aggression. Among girls, having gang affi...

  14. Revolutionaries, barbarians or war machines?; gangs in Nicaragua and South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Rodgers, Dennis; Jensen, Steffen

    2008-01-01

    The view of gangs as proto-revolutionary vanguards has continued to inform the analyses of many gang researchers over the past few decades. During the course of our own research on gangs in respectively a poor neighbourhood in Managua, the capital city of Nicaragua, and a coloured township in Cape Town, South Africa, we have found considerable empirical resonance between Fanon's vision and the real-life discourses of many of the gangsters that we have interviewed and spent time with. Although...

  15. Mangrove wetland ecosystems in Ganges-Brahmaputra delta in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shafi Noor ISLAM; Albrecht GNAUCK

    2008-01-01

    The Sundarbans is one of the productive man-grove wetland ecosystems in the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta in Bangladesh. The delta is undergoing rapid eco-logical changes due to human activity. In the present study, surface water salinity data from 13 rivers of the Sundarbans were collected in order to investigate the sal-ine water intrusion in the mangrove wetlands. Results demonstrate that saline water has penetrated the upstream area as river water salinity has increased signifi-cantly in 1976 compared to the year 1968. The soil and river water salinity data also shows that it has crossed the water salinity threshold line in most parts of the Sundarbans wetlands. These observations are due to the construction of Farakka Barrage in 1975, which reduced the water discharge of the Ganges River from 3700 m3/s in 1962 to 364 m3/s in 2006. The shortage of freshwater dis-charge to the deltaic area is trailing active ecosystems function, especially in the dry season in the south western region in Bangladesh. The objective of this study is to understand and analyze the present degraded mangrove wetland ecosystems and their negative impacts. The find-ings of this study would contribute to the formulation of the mangrove wetland ecosystems management plan inthe Ganges delta of Bangladesh.

  16. Racism, Schooling, and the Streets: A Critical Analysis of Vietnamese American Youth Gang Formation in Southern California

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin D. Lam

    2015-01-01

    This paper is an analysis of the relationship between educational experiences, street life, and gang formation for Vietnamese American youth gang members in Southern California. I use critical narrative methodology to center the life and experiences of a Los Angeles area gang member. His narrative substantiates how racism in schools and on the streets works together to impact and inform gang formation. Schools were sites of inter-ethnic conflict and racialized tension, and streets were spaces...

  17. Application of rhizosphere interaction of hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens to remediate cadmium-contaminated agricultural soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Jiang, Rong-Feng; Wang, Wei; Li, Hua-Fen

    2011-10-01

    There is an urgent requirement for selecting appropriate technologies to solve food safety problems due to soil contamination. In this study, the hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens and a high Cd accumulator pakchoi cultivar (Brassica rapa L. spp. Chinenesis cv.) were grown in a moderately Cd-contaminated soil with three planting systems (monocrop, inter-crop, and crop-rotation) and three growing durations (25, 50, and 75 days) to study the role of rhizosphere interaction of both species on the uptake of Cd. The Cd accumulations in the shoot of pakchoi were significantly reduced in the inter-crop treatment, also the decreased percentage increased with rhizosphere interaction between the two species. In the inter-crop systems of 75 days, the Cd concentration and amount in the shoot of pakchoi represented 54% and 83% reduction, respectively, while the total depletion of Cd decreased by approximate 19%. Although the Cd concentration and amount in the shoot of pakchoi were significantly reduced by 52% and 44%, respectively, in the crop-rotation treatment, the decreased percentage were markedly lower than in the inter-crop treatment. Therefore, the rhizosphere interaction of hyperaccumulator with non-hyperaccumulator may reduce the risk of vegetable contamination during making full use of or remediating the contaminated soil. PMID:21972514

  18. Brief Report: Do Delinquency and Community Violence Exposure Explain Internalizing Problems in Early Adolescent Gang Members?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent gang members are at higher risk for internalizing problems as well as exposure to community violence and delinquency. This study examined whether gang membership in early adolescence is associated with internalizing problems (depression, anxiety, and suicidal behavior) and whether these associations are mediated by delinquency and…

  19. Implications of Climate Change for Water Resources Development in the Ganges Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Jeuland, Marc; Harshadeep, Nagaraja; Escurra, Jorge; Blackmore, Don; Sadoff, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the first basin-wide assessment of the potential impact of climate change on the hydrology and production of the Ganges system, undertaken as part of the World Bank’s Ganges Strategic Basin Assessment. A series of modeling efforts, downscaling of climate projections, water balance calculations, hydrological simulation and economic optimization, inform the assessment. Th...

  20. The Gang's All Here: Grammar Goes Global for Purdue, Unisa and Adelaide University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Andrea; Spangenberg, Brady; Carter, Susanna; Miller, Julia

    2010-01-01

    The University of South Australia and Purdue University (Indiana) launched the "Grammar Gang Blog" in June 2008, as a collaborative forum for talking about language. The blog reaches a far-flung community of learners from Australia to the United States, Brisbane to Bangalore and Ghana to Germany. The Grammar Gang--where Owls meet Possums--started…

  1. Cognitive and Social Influences on Gang Involvement among Delinquents in Three Chinese Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, Ngan-pun; Cheung, Chau-kiu; Ngai, Steven Sek-Yum

    2007-01-01

    Inasmuch as research has held the increase in youth gang activities responsible for the escalating level of crime and delinquency in Chinese societies, ascertaining risk or protective factors of gang involvement among Chinese youths is crucial. The factors include those associated with social control, social learning, and cognitive development. To…

  2. Gangs, clubs, and alcohol: The effect of organizational membership on adolescent drinking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Chan S; Brashears, Matthew E; Genkin, Michael

    2016-07-01

    How does adolescent organizational membership in general, and simultaneous membership in distinct types of organizations in particular, impact drinking behavior? While past studies have focused either on the learning effect of involvement with gangs or on the constraining influence of conventional organizations on adolescent problem behavior, we explore the possibility that conventional school clubs can serve as socializing opportunities for existing gang members to engage in drinking behavior with non-gang club members. Using the Add Health data, we show that gang members drink more often, and engage in more binge drinking, than non-members. More importantly, individuals who are members of both gangs and school clubs drink alcohol at greater levels than those who are solely involved in gangs. In addition, non-gang adolescents who are co-members with gang members in the same school club are more likely to drink alcohol than non-members. This result has important implications for understanding the role of organizations in adolescent behavior and suggests that the study of delinquent behaviors would benefit from devoting more attention to individuals who bridge distinct types of organizations. PMID:27194666

  3. Always Running. La Vida Loca: Gang Days in L.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Luis J.

    This autobiographical narrative describes the early life of Luis J. Rodriguez, a journalist and poet who was immersed in the youth gang culture of Los Angeles (California). Framed by the story of the pull of the gang life for the poet's son, it recounts his experiences from his childhood on the United States-Mexico border through his family's…

  4. Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment: Science and Operations Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotamarthi, VR

    2010-06-21

    The Ganges Valley region is one of the largest and most rapidly developing sections of the Indian subcontinent. The Ganges River, which provides the region with water needed for sustaining life, is fed primarily by snow and rainfall associated with Indian summer monsoons. Impacts of changes in precipitation patterns, temperature, and the flow of the snow-fed rivers can be immense. Recent satellite-based measurements have indicated that the upper Ganges Valley has some of the highest persistently observed aerosol optical depth values. The aerosol layer covers a vast region, extending across the Indo-Gangetic Plain to the Bay of Bengal during the winter and early spring of each year. The persistent winter fog in the region is already a cause of much concern, and several studies have been proposed to understand the economic, scientific, and societal dimensions of this problem. During the INDian Ocean EXperiment (INDOEX) field studies, aerosols from this region were shown to affect cloud formation and monsoon activity over the Indian Ocean. This is one of the few regions showing a trend toward increasing surface dimming and enhanced mid-tropospheric warming. Increasing air pollution over this region could modify the radiative balance through direct, indirect, and semi-indirect effects associated with aerosols. The consequences of aerosols and associated pollution for surface insolation over the Ganges Valley and monsoons, in particular, are not well understood. The proposed field study is designed for use of (1) the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to measure relevant radiative, cloud, convection, and aerosol optical characteristics over mainland India during an extended period of 9–12 months and (2) the G-1 aircraft and surface sites to measure relevant aerosol chemical, physical, and optical characteristics in the Ganges Valley during a period of 6–12 weeks. The aerosols in this region have complex sources, including burning of coal, biomass, and biofuels; automobile

  5. Understanding the Black Box of Gang Organization: Implications for Involvement in Violent Crime, Drug Sales, and Violent Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Scott H.; Katz, Charles M.; Webb, Vincent J.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the influence of gang organization on several behavioral measures. Using interview data from juvenile detention facilities in three Arizona sites, this article examines the relationship between gang organizational structure and involvement in violent crime, drug sales, victimization, and arrest. The gang literature suggests…

  6. Echoes from Si gang lih: Burao Yilu's 'Moon Mountain'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bender

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wa poet Burao Yilu's utilization of myth, ritual, and folk customs in representing the Wa ethnic group in the poem 'Moon Mountain' is discussed. Negative stereotypes of the Wa, an indigenous people of southwestern Yunnan Province, China, include the now forbidden practice of headhunting. By referencing the origin myth 'Si gang lih' and evoking images of ancient cliff paintings, rituals, and agricultural practices, Burao offers a nuanced view of Wa culture while affirming deep-rooted aspects of the Wa worldview. As a literary work, 'Moon Mountain' is an example of the Chinese language (Sinophone poetry being produced by ethnic minority writers in southwest China today.

  7. Associations between Gun Violence Exposure, Gang Associations, and Youth Aggression: Implications for Prevention and Intervention Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Forster

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using cross-sectional data collected from three middle schools in Southeast Los Angeles, we assessed the association of neighborhood violence exposure, gang associations, and social self-control with past week aggression in a sample of minority youth (n=164. Results from Poisson and logistic regression models showed that direct exposure to gun violence, having friends in gangs, and low social self control were all positively associated with past week aggression. Among girls, having gang affiliated family members was positively associated with aggression, whereas among boys having friends in gangs was associated with past week aggression. Subjective expectations of engagement in future interpersonal violence were associated with being male, having friends in gangs, and fear of neighborhood gun violence. We recommend that youth violence prevention and intervention programs address the impact of family, peers, and gun violence on student coping and identify students with low social self-control who could benefit from social and emotional skills training.

  8. Characterization of the glyoxalase 1 gene TcGLX1 in the metal hyperaccumulator plant Thlaspi caerulescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomainen, Marjo; Ahonen, Viivi; Kärenlampi, Sirpa O; Schat, Henk; Paasela, Tanja; Svanys, Algirdas; Tuohimetsä, Saara; Peräniemi, Sirpa; Tervahauta, Arja

    2011-06-01

    Stress tolerance is currently one of the major research topics in plant biology because of the challenges posed by changing climate and increasing demand to grow crop plants in marginal soils. Increased Zn tolerance and accumulation has been reported in tobacco expressing the glyoxalase 1-encoding gene from Brassica juncea. Previous studies in our laboratory showed some Zn tolerance-correlated differences in the levels of glyoxalase 1-like protein among accessions of Zn hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens. We have now isolated the corresponding gene (named here TcGLX1), including ca. 570 bp of core and proximal promoter region. The predicted protein contains three glyoxalase 1 motifs and several putative sites for post-translational modification. In silico analysis predicted a number of cis-acting elements related to stress. The expression of TcGLX1 was not responsive to Zn. There was no correlation between the levels of TcGLX1 expression and the degrees of Zn tolerance or accumulation among T. caerulescens accessions nor was there co-segregation of TcGLX1 expression with Zn tolerance or Zn accumulation among F3 lines derived from crosses between plants from accessions with contrasting phenotypes for these properties. No phenotype was observed in an A. thaliana T-DNA insertion line for the closest A. thaliana homolog of TcGLX1, ATGLX1. These results suggest that glyoxalase 1 or at least the particular isoform studied here is not a major determinant of Zn tolerance in the Zn hyperaccumulator plant T. caerulescens. In addition, ATGLX1 is not essential for normal Zn tolerance in the non-tolerant, non-accumulator plant A. thaliana. Possible explanations for the apparent discrepancy between this and previous studies are discussed. PMID:21327818

  9. Histidine promotes the loading of nickel and zinc, but not of cadmium, into the xylem in Noccaea caerulescens

    OpenAIRE

    Kozhevnikova, Anna D; Seregin, Ilya V.; Verweij, Rudo; Schat, Henk

    2014-01-01

    Histidine is known to be involved in Ni hyperaccumulation. Recently, histidine-dependent xylem loading of Ni and Zn has been demonstrated in the Zn/Ni/Cd hyperaccumulator, Noccaea caerulescens. Here we tested the hypothesis whether Cd xylem loading is histidine-dependent, too. In contrast to that of Ni and Zn, the xylem loading of Cd was not affected by exogenous histidine. Histidine accumulation in root cells appears to facilitate the radial transport of Ni and Zn, but not Cd, across the roo...

  10. Zinc Isotope Fractionation in the Hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens and the Nonaccumulating Plant Thlaspi arvense at Low and High Zn Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ye-Tao; Cloquet, Christophe; Deng, Teng-Hao-Bo; Sterckeman, Thibault; Echevarria, Guillaume; Yang, Wen-Jun; Morel, Jean-Louis; Qiu, Rong-Liang

    2016-08-01

    On the basis of our previous field survey, we postulate that the pattern and degree of zinc (Zn) isotope fractionation in the Zn hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens (J. & C. Presl) F. K. Mey may reflect a relationship between Zn bioavailability and plant uptake strategies. Here, we investigated Zn isotope discrimination during Zn uptake and translocation in N. caerulescens and in a nonaccumulator Thlaspi arvense L. with a contrasting Zn accumulation ability in response to low (Zn-L) and high (Zn-H) Zn supplies. The average isotope fractionations of the N. caerulescens plant as a whole, relative to solution (Δ(66)Znplant-solution), were -0.06 and -0.12‰ at Zn-L-C and Zn-H-C, respectively, indicative of the predominance of a high-affinity (e.g., ZIP transporter proteins) transport across the root cell membrane. For T. arvense, plants were more enriched in light isotopes under Zn-H-A (Δ(66)Znplant-solution = -0.26‰) than under Zn-L-A and N. caerulescens plants, implying that a low-affinity (e.g., ion channel) transport might begin to function in the nonaccumulating plants when external Zn supply increases. Within the root tissues of both species, the apoplast fractions retained up to 30% of Zn mass under Zn-H. Moreover, the highest δ(66)Zn (0.75‰-0.86‰) was found in tightly bound apoplastic Zn, pointing to the strong sequestration in roots (e.g., binding to high-affinity ligands/precipitation with phosphate) when plants suffer from high Zn stress. During translocation, the magnitude of isotope fractionation was significantly greater at Zn-H (Δ(66)Znroot-shoot = 0.79‰) than at Zn-L, indicating that fractionation mechanisms associated with root-shoot translocation might be identical to the two plant species. Hence, we clearly demonstrated that Zn isotope fractionation could provide insight into the internal sequestration mechanisms of roots when plants respond to low and high Zn supplies. PMID:27359107

  11. Reality check. Evaluating a school-based gang prevention model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, C S; Taylor, T J; Esbensen, F A

    1998-10-01

    The Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) program is a school-based gang prevention initiative developed in 1991 through the collaborative efforts of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center, and the Phoenix Police Department. Uniformed law enforcement officers, certified as G.R.E.A.T. instructors, teach the 9-week curriculum to middle students. In 1994, the National Institute of Justice funded a national evaluation of the G.R.E.A.T. program. The process evaluation component of this larger study is reported. First, results of on-site observations of the G.R.E.A.T. Officer Training program, including an overview of the training activities, and the authors' assessment of the training process are reported. Second, observations of the implementation of the program by officers at six sites are reported. Of primary concern was whether the program delivered to students was similar to the program taught to the officers during the G.R.E.A.T. Officer Training. PMID:10186895

  12. Expression of the Znt1 zinc transporter from the metal hyperaccumulator noccaea caerulescens confers enhanced zinc and cadmium tolerance and accumulation to arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Ya Fen; Hassan, Zeshan; Talukdar, S.; Schat, Henk; Aarts, Mark G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Prompt regulation of transition metal transporters is crucial for plant zinc homeostasis. NcZNT1 is one of such transporters, found in the metal hyperaccumulator Brassicaceae species Noccaea caerulescens. It is orthologous to AtZIP4 from Arabidopsis thaliana, an important actor in Zn homeostasis.

  13. Root and shoot transcriptome analysis of two ecotypes of Noccaea caerulescens uncovers the role of NcNramp1 in Cd hyperaccumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator, Noccaea caerulescens, has been studied extensively for its ability to accumulate Zn and Cd in its leaves to extremely high levels. Previous studies have indicated that the Zn and Cd hyperaccumulation trait exhibited by this species involves different transport and toleran...

  14. Expression differences for genes involved in lignin, glutathione and sulphate metabolism in response to cadmium in Arabidopsis thaliana and the related Zn/Cd-hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mortel, van de J.E.; Schat, H.; Moerland, P.D.; Loren van Themaat, Ver E.; Ent, van der S.; Blankestijn-de Vries, M.H.C.; Ghandilyan, A.; Tsiatsiani, S.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread, naturally occurring element present in soil, rock, water, plants and animals. Cd is a non-essential element for plants and is toxic at higher concentrations. Transcript profiles of roots of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) and Thlaspi caerulescens plants exposed to Cd

  15. Responses to Cd Stress in Two Noccaea Species (Noccaea praecox and Noccaea caerulescens) Originating from Two Contaminated Sites in Mezica, Slovenia and Redlschlag, Austria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemanová, V.; Pavlík, Milan; Pavlíková, D.; Hnilička, F.; Vondráčková, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 3 (2016), s. 464-474. ISSN 0090-4341 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : HYPERACCUMULATOR THLASPI-CAERULESCENS * CADMIUM STRESS * AMINO-ACIDS Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides Impact factor: 1.895, year: 2014

  16. Socio-economic factors threatening the survival of Ganges River Dolphin Platanista gangetica gangetica in the upper Ganges River, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bashir

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted along the upper Ganges River between Narora barrages and Anupshahar from January to June 2007. Community interviews were conducted in order to assess the socio-economic profile of the fishermen community, their level of dependence on the river and their attitude towards the conservation of Ganges River Dolphin Platanista gangetica gangetica. The estimated literacy rate from interviews was 45%, and average annual income per household was 27,000 INR (Indian National Rupee. The respondents were found to be well aware of the river biodiversity and believed excessive water extraction and pollution to be the responsible for any perceived decline in the dolphin population. About 55% of the fishermen were found to fish for commercial purposes, and a majority of them (71% used nylon gill-nets. A majority (94% of respondents that had boats of their own fished in the middle of the river, an activity often conducted in groups. 12% of respondents reported to have encountered dolphin carcasses. Excessive fishing and dolphin poaching were found to be interrelated; if fishing can be more effectively managed poaching may automatically decline. 41% of the fishermen interviewed were found to be willing to stop fishing providing adequate alternative livelihoods are provided by the government.

  17. Metal binding properties and structure of a type III metallothionein from the metal hyperaccumulator plant Noccaea caerulescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Lucia Rubio; Vandenbussche, Guy; Roosens, Nancy; Govaerts, Cédric; Goormaghtigh, Erik; Verbruggen, Nathalie

    2012-09-01

    Metallothioneins (MT) are low molecular weight proteins with cysteine-rich sequences that bind heavy metals with remarkably high affinities. Plant MTs differ from animal ones by a peculiar amino acid sequence organization consisting of two short Cys-rich terminal domains (containing from 4 to 8 Cys each) linked by a Cys free region of about 30 residues. In contrast with the current knowledge on the 3D structure of animal MTs, there is a striking lack of structural data on plant MTs. We have expressed and purified a type III MT from Noccaea caerulescens (previously Thlaspi caerulescens). This protein is able to bind a variety of cations including Cd(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+) and Pb(2+), with different stoichiometries as shown by mass spectrometry. The protein displays a complete absence of periodic secondary structures as measured by far-UV circular dichroism, infrared spectroscopy and hydrogen/deuterium exchange kinetics. When attached onto a BIA-ATR biosensor, no significant structural change was observed upon removing the metal ions. PMID:22668884

  18. Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) Final Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotamarthi, VR [Argonne National Laboratory

    2013-12-01

    In general, the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) as well as the and the tropical monsoon climate is influenced by a wide range of factors. Under various climate change scenarios, temperatures over land and into the mid troposphere are expected to increase, intensifying the summer pressure gradient differential between land and ocean and thus strengthening the ISM. However, increasing aerosol concentration, air pollution, and deforestation result in changes to surface albedo and insolation, potentially leading to low monsoon rainfall. Clear evidence points to increasing aerosol concentrations over the Indian subcontinent with time, and several hypotheses regarding the effect on monsoons have been offered. The Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) field study aimed to provide critical data to address these hypotheses and contribute to developing better parameterizations for tropical clouds, convection, and aerosol-cloud interactions. The primary science questions for the mission were as follows:

  19. Risky Sexual Behaviors among a Sample of Gang-identified Youth in Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Bill; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Jackson-Bloom, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Gang youth are at an increased likelihood of participating in unsafe sexual behaviors and at an elevated risk of exposure to sexually transmitted infection (STIs), including HIV. This manuscript presents quantitative and qualitative data on sexual behaviors among a sample of predominately heterosexual, male gang youth aged 16 to 25 years interviewed in Los Angeles between 2006 and 2007 (n = 60). In particular, sexual identity, initiation and frequency of sex, and number of sexual partners; use of condoms, children, and other pregnancies; group sex; and STIs and sex with drug users. We argue that gang youth are a particular public health concern, due to their heightened risky sexual activity, and that behavioral interventions targeting gang youth need to include a component on reducing sexual risks and promoting safe sexual health. PMID:21949598

  20. Xin Gang Textile Machinery to Show Up at ITMA Asia + CITME 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Fujian Xin Gang Textile Machinery Co., Ltd., located in Industrial District of Changle City Fujian Province, occupying 32 acres, is aprofessional warp knitting machine manufacturer, which is capable of researching, producing, processing, assembling, selling and after-sale servicing.

  1. Load-to-failure bending test of wood composite beams connected by gang nail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Karelskiy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of a bending test of wood composite beams connected by gang nail are presented in this paper. Two types of wood composite beams fracture were observed: brittle and ductile. In addition, a numerical model of wood composite beams was produced and the results of the numerical investigations were analyzed. Compliance of connection «gang nail – wood» was considered by means of input elements with a reduced modulus of elasticity in the numerical model. Then the theoretical and experimental results of stress and strain state of a composite beam with gang nail were compared. The conclusion was made about the efficiency of gang nail application for increased shear resistance of wood composite structures not only for reinforcement but also for production of new beam structures.

  2. The movement and implications of the Ganges-Bramhaputra runoff on entering the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.

    phases. The Ganges-Brahmaputra discharge appears to lead to cooler sea surface temperatures in the northern Bay and to a stronger coastal current along the West Coast of India, both during the northeast monsoon...

  3. Masculine identities, youth gangs and male sex work among East Javarese migrants in South Bali (Indonesia)

    OpenAIRE

    Alcano,

    2013-01-01

    The present work examines the construction of masculine identities in the context of migration between the city of Surabaya, East Java and the region of South Bali. It addresses the issues of growth, work and the transition towards adulthood among underemployed East Javanese young men who seek membership to street gangs of male sex workers in South Bali. My focus is on social relations among youth gangs who make extensive use of violence. I try to explore the meaning of collective practices ...

  4. Street Gangs in Central America: Combating them with Intelligence Fusion Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Bruneau, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Street gangs – pandillas in Spanish – are a major security challenge in the three Northern Triangle countries of Central America – El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras.[1] They are also considered a threat in many US cities, with particular focus on the Mara Salvatrucha, MS-13. Domestic party politics in the three countries have resulted in the reliance of heavy hand (mano dura) responses to the gangs, which have mainly served to exacerbate the problem. The anomalous situation of ...

  5. Geomorphology of the Ganges fluvial system in the Himalayan foreland: an update

    OpenAIRE

    Rajiv Sinha

    2010-01-01

    The Ganges is one of the largest fluvial systems in the world rising from the loftiest Himalaya and draining into the Bay of Bengal. Together with the Brahmaputra, it also constitutes the largest delta in the world before finally meeting the sea. The Ganges system passes through a variety of terrain from the rugged mountains through the flat alluvial plains and the sea margin, and also transects variable climatic zones. As a result, the processes, landforms and stratigra...

  6. Arbovírus Ilheus em aves silvestres (Sporophila caerulescens e Molothrus bonariensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Luiz Eloy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar o isolamento do vírus Ilheus no Estado de São Paulo e avaliar o seu impacto para a saúde pública. MÉTODOS: O isolamento de vírus foi realizado em camundongos albinos Swiss, a partir de sangue de aves silvestres, capturadas com redes de espera tipo mist net, armadas no nível do solo, no Parque Ecológico do Tietê, São Paulo. A identificação das cepas isoladas foi feita pelos testes de inibição da hemaglutinação, fixação de complemento e neutralização em camundongos. Amostras de plasma de aves e de mamíferos silvestres foram submetidas à pesquisa sorológica para detecção de anticorpos inibidores de hemaglutinação. RESULTADOS: Foram isoladas duas cepas do vírus Ilheus em sangue de aves das espécies Sporophila caerulescens e Molothrus bonariensis e detectados anticorpos em aves das espécies Columbina talpacoti, Geopelia cuneata, Molothrus bonariensis e Sicalis flaveola, em sagüis das espécies Callithrix jacchus e Callithrix penicillata e no quati Nasua nasua. CONCLUSÕES: O isolamento do vírus Ilheus e a detecção de anticorpos específicos em aves residentes, migratórias e de cativeiro, em sagüis e quatis, comprovam a presença desse agente no Parque Ecológico do Tietê. O comportamento migratório de aves silvestres pode determinar a introdução do vírus em outras regiões. Considerando-se a patogenicidade para o homem e a confirmação da circulação desse agente viral em área urbana, freqüentada para atividade de lazer e de educação, o risco de ocorrência de infecção na população humana não pode ser descartado.

  7. Expression of the ZNT1 Zinc Transporter from the Metal Hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens Confers Enhanced Zinc and Cadmium Tolerance and Accumulation to Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ya-Fen; Hassan, Zeshan; Talukdar, Sangita; Schat, Henk; Aarts, Mark G M

    2016-01-01

    Prompt regulation of transition metal transporters is crucial for plant zinc homeostasis. NcZNT1 is one of such transporters, found in the metal hyperaccumulator Brassicaceae species Noccaea caerulescens. It is orthologous to AtZIP4 from Arabidopsis thaliana, an important actor in Zn homeostasis. We examined if the NcZNT1 function contributes to the metal hyperaccumulation of N. caerulescens. NcZNT1 was found to be a plasma-membrane located metal transporter. Constitutive overexpression of NcZNT1 in A. thaliana conferred enhanced tolerance to exposure to excess Zn and Cd supply, as well as increased accumulation of Zn and Cd and induction of the Fe deficiency response, when compared to non-transformed wild-type plants. Promoters of both genes were induced by Zn deficiency in roots and shoots of A. thaliana. In A. thaliana, the AtZIP4 and NcZNT1 promoters were mainly active in cortex, endodermis and pericycle cells under Zn deficient conditions. In N. caerulescens, the promoters were active in the same tissues, though the activity of the NcZNT1 promoter was higher and not limited to Zn deficient conditions. Common cis elements were identified in both promoters by 5' deletion analysis. These correspond to the previously determined Zinc Deficiency Responsive Elements found in A. thaliana to interact with two redundantly acting transcription factors, bZIP19 and bZIP23, controlling the Zn deficiency response. In conclusion, these results suggest that NcZNT1 is an important factor in contributing to Zn and Cd hyperaccumulation in N. caerulescens. Differences in cis- and trans-regulators are likely to account for the differences in expression between A. thaliana and N. caerulescens. The high, constitutive NcZNT1 expression in the stele of N. caerulescens roots implicates its involvement in long distance root-to-shoot metal transport by maintaining a Zn/Cd influx into cells responsible for xylem loading. PMID:26930473

  8. Expression of the ZNT1 Zinc Transporter from the Metal Hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens Confers Enhanced Zinc and Cadmium Tolerance and Accumulation to Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Fen Lin

    Full Text Available Prompt regulation of transition metal transporters is crucial for plant zinc homeostasis. NcZNT1 is one of such transporters, found in the metal hyperaccumulator Brassicaceae species Noccaea caerulescens. It is orthologous to AtZIP4 from Arabidopsis thaliana, an important actor in Zn homeostasis. We examined if the NcZNT1 function contributes to the metal hyperaccumulation of N. caerulescens. NcZNT1 was found to be a plasma-membrane located metal transporter. Constitutive overexpression of NcZNT1 in A. thaliana conferred enhanced tolerance to exposure to excess Zn and Cd supply, as well as increased accumulation of Zn and Cd and induction of the Fe deficiency response, when compared to non-transformed wild-type plants. Promoters of both genes were induced by Zn deficiency in roots and shoots of A. thaliana. In A. thaliana, the AtZIP4 and NcZNT1 promoters were mainly active in cortex, endodermis and pericycle cells under Zn deficient conditions. In N. caerulescens, the promoters were active in the same tissues, though the activity of the NcZNT1 promoter was higher and not limited to Zn deficient conditions. Common cis elements were identified in both promoters by 5' deletion analysis. These correspond to the previously determined Zinc Deficiency Responsive Elements found in A. thaliana to interact with two redundantly acting transcription factors, bZIP19 and bZIP23, controlling the Zn deficiency response. In conclusion, these results suggest that NcZNT1 is an important factor in contributing to Zn and Cd hyperaccumulation in N. caerulescens. Differences in cis- and trans-regulators are likely to account for the differences in expression between A. thaliana and N. caerulescens. The high, constitutive NcZNT1 expression in the stele of N. caerulescens roots implicates its involvement in long distance root-to-shoot metal transport by maintaining a Zn/Cd influx into cells responsible for xylem loading.

  9. Gangs An approach to understanding them and strategic proposals for resolving the conflicts they generate from the perspective of Conflictology

    OpenAIRE

    Vinyamata, Eduard

    2010-01-01

    Peer reviewed Gangs, as such, are a contemporary phenomenon, with only a few years of history, appearing virulently in El Salvador at the end of the 1980s. In 2005, the city of Guayaquil, Ecuador, had some sixty thousand gang members; in El Salvador, around fifty thousand. At present, and including the United States, Mexico and Central American and South American countries, the population belonging to gangs may well surpass one million. Even though not all of them have a violent or crimina...

  10. Patients or Perpetrators? The Effects of Trauma Exposure on Gang Members’ Mental Health: A Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Beresford, Hayley; Wood, Jane L.

    2016-01-01

    Given the portrayal of gang members as ‘super predators’, it is not surprising that much of the media and scholarly attention, to date, has focused on gang members as perpetrators of violence with little attention paid to their role as victims and their psychological wellbeing (Bennett et al., 1996). In this review we evaluate and synthesize theory and research relating to the relationship between gang membership and mental health problems such as anxiety, depression and Post Traumatic Stress...

  11. Condom attitudes, perceived vulnerability, and sexual risk behaviors of young Latino male urban street gang members: Implications for HIV prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, RA; Lee, SJ; Stover, GN; Barkley, TW

    2009-01-01

    We examined condom attitudes, perceived vulnerability to HIV, HIV testing experiences, and sexual and substance use risk behaviors of 161 active Latino male gang members, aged 18-26 years old, living in Los Angeles, California. Gang members reported negative condom attitudes and a perceived vulnerability to HIV. The majority (53%) of gang members reported unprotected vaginal intercourse (UVI) in the previous 12 months. Multivariate analyses indicated that participants who engaged in the follo...

  12. Putting in Work: Qualitative Research on Substance Use and Other Risk Behaviors Among Gang Youth in Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Bill; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Jackson-Bloom, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Gang youth are notoriously difficult to access for research purposes. Despite this difficulty, qualitative research about substance use among gang youth is important because research indicates that such youth use more substances than their nongang peers. This manuscript discusses how a small sample of gang youth (n = 60) in Los Angeles was accessed and interviewed during a National Institute of Drug Abuse-funded pilot study on substance use and other risk behaviors. Topics discussed include the rationale and operationalization of the research methodology, working with community-based organizations, and the recruitment of different gang youth with varying levels of substance use. PMID:20222782

  13. Local partnerships are effective in preventing the spread of gangs and gang violence: the government can’t afford not to invest in them

    OpenAIRE

    Robbins, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Ramifications of this summer’s riots are still being felt. For some local authorities though, action was already being taken, even before the riots, to address the gang culture that some have blamed for causing the disturbances. Here, Cllr Chris Robbins, Council Leader of the London Borough of Waltham Forest, discusses an approach being taken by the Borough that he believes is working.

  14. Gang membership and marijuana use among African American female adolescents in North Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wechsberg WM

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Wendee M Wechsberg,1–4 Irene A Doherty,1 Felicia A Browne,1,5 Tracy L Kline,1 Monique G Carry,6 Jerris L Raiford,6 Jeffrey H Herbst6 1Substance Abuse Treatment Evaluations and Interventions Research Program, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, 2Gillings Global School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 3Psychology in the Public Interest, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, 4Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC, 5Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, 6Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA Abstract: The southeastern US sustains the highest high school dropout rates, and gangs persist in underserved communities. African American female adolescents who drop out of school and are gang members are at substantial risk of exposure to severe violence, physical abuse, and sexual exploitation. In this study of 237 female African American adolescents 16–19 years of age from North Carolina who dropped out or considered dropping out, 11% were current or past gang members. Adolescents who reported gang membership began smoking marijuana at a mean age of 13, whereas those who reported no gang membership began at a mean age of 15 years (P<0.001. The mean ages of first alcohol use were 14 years and 15 years for gang members and non-gang members, respectively (P=0.04. Problem alcohol use was high in both groups: 40% and 65% for non-gang and gang members, respectively (P=0.02. Controlling for frequent marijuana use and problem alcohol use, adolescents who reported gang membership were more likely than non-gang members to experience sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR] =2.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.06, 6.40], experience physical abuse (OR =7.33, 95% CI [2.90, 18.5], report emotional abuse from

  15. Division inside Barrio 18 gang in El Salvador: An anthropological view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Enrique Amaya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article’s general objective is to provide a prelimary examination and analysis of the process through which Barrio 18 split into “los Sureños” and “los Revolucionarios”.The methodology this study was based on, used specialized techniques such as documentreview and in-depth interviews. This work starts from a previous effort, in which, through a holistic vision, gangs or maras are understood from four different perspectives: 1 Their organizational structure; 2 Their composition; 3 The nature of their actions; and 4Their set of values and socio-cultural norms. The definition of gang as a key category as far as their identity is essential. The need to build a holistic definition of gang is meant to “tone down” gang member’s criminal activities, as well as to “over-criminalize” gangs.Revista Policía y Seguridad Pública 5(1 2015: 149-178

  16. The Socialization Process of Street Children in the Youth Gangs and Groups of Organized Crime in Local Community. Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Michel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article includes the research report on the socialization process of children in the street, youth gangs, and organized criminal groups in local communities. The author has analysed the signs and communication codes located on walls in local communities. This is very important to the socialization process of the youth street gangs.

  17. Gang Membership, School Violence, and the Mediating Effects of Risk and Protective Behaviors in California High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Joey Nuñez, Jr.; Gilreath, Tamika D.; Astor, Ron Avi; Benbenishty, Rami

    2014-01-01

    There is insufficient empirical evidence exploring associations between gang membership and school violence behaviors. Using a sample of 272,863 high school students, this study employs a structural equation model to examine how school risk and protective behaviors and attitudes mediate effects of gang members' involvement with school…

  18. Uncertainty assessment in climate change simulation of Ganges basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Jisha; Pathak, Amey; Ghosh, Subimal

    2015-04-01

    The assessment of hydrological responses to the change in climate at river basin scale is very essential for the proper planning and management of water resources. For studying the changes in land surface hydrology with climate, various hydrological models coupled with climate models were developed. However, modeling of the regional hydroclimate involves uncertainty at multiple levels. Generally, GCMs, downscaling methods and parameterization are the main sources of uncertainty. The major challenge in hydrological modeling is the calibration of parameters which demands very accurate observed data. The inter comparison of various uncertainties can be done by modeling the uncertainties. If the major source of uncertainty in modeling is identified, the level of accuracy required in the model calibration can be studied. Our objective is to assess future hydrological scenario in the Ganges basin considering multiple GCMs, scenarios and parameter uncertainty model and to identify and compare different sources of uncertainties in assessing the hydrological impacts of climate change. Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model which is a semi-distributed macro scale hydrological model is used for the present study. The model is run for a historic period 1979-2005 using the observed and reanalysis data and is evaluated using soil moisture data. The Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) method is carried out for the four calibration parameters in VIC and the model is run for future scenario using different GCMs and downscaling methods. The probability distribution of the output is used for modeling the uncertainties. The present analysis shows that accuracy in climate change simulations can be achieved by modeling the uncertainty, which will certainly improve the future regional hydroclimate projection. Keywords: uncertainty, Variable Infiltration Capacity model, Monte Carlo simulation

  19. Racism, Schooling, and the Streets: A Critical Analysis of Vietnamese American Youth Gang Formation in Southern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D. Lam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an analysis of the relationship between educational experiences, street life, and gang formation for Vietnamese American youth gang members in Southern California. I use critical narrative methodology to center the life and experiences of a Los Angeles area gang member. His narrative substantiates how racism in schools and on the streets works together to impact and inform gang formation. Schools were sites of inter-ethnic conflict and racialized tension, and streets were spaces for contentious interactions with the police. In addition, I place the Vietnamese American youth gang phenomenon in larger historical and political contexts such as California’s anti-youth legislation, representations of Asian American youth, and U.S. geo-politics and imperialism—factors that have serious material and ideological implications and consequences.

  20. Racism, Schooling, and the Streets: A Critical Analysis of Vietnamese American Youth Gang Formation in Southern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D. Lam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an analysis of the relationship between educational experiences, street life, and gang formation for Vietnamese American youth gang members in Southern California. I use critical narrative methodology to center the life and experiences of a Los Angeles area gang member. His narrative substantiates how racism in schools and on the streets works together to impact and inform gang formation. Schools were sites of inter-ethnic conflict and racialized tension, and streets were spaces for contentious interactions with the police. In addition, I place the Vietnamese American youth gang phenomenon in larger historical and political contexts such as Californias anti-youth legislation, representations of Asian American youth, and U.S. geo-politics and imperialismfactors that have serious material and ideological implications and consequences.

  1. Location-aware gang graffiti acquisition and browsing on a mobile device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Albert; Boutin, Mireille; Delp, Edward J.

    2012-02-01

    In this paper we describe a mobile-based system that allows first responders to identify and track gang graffiti by combining the use of image analysis and location-based-services. The gang graffiti image and metadata (geoposition, date and time) obtained automatically are transferred to a server and uploaded to a database of graffiti images. The database can then be queried with the matched results sent back to the mobile device where the user can then review the results and provide extra inputs to refine the information.

  2. A Microbiological Water Quality Evaluation of Ganges River Deltaic Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerby, C. J.; Gragg, S. E.; Page, J.; Leavens, J.; Bhattacharya, P.; Harrington, J.; Datta, S.

    2014-12-01

    Substantial natural contamination from trace elements (like arsenic) and pathogens make Ganges Deltaic aquifers an area of utmost concern. Following millions of cases of chronic arsenic poisoning from the groundwaters of the region, numerous residents are still knowingly ingesting water from shallow to intermediate accessible depth drinking water wells. Added to the calamity of arsenic is the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in these waters. The increasing frequency of gastroenteritis signifies the need to quantify the magnitude and extensiveness of health degrading agents--bacterial pathogens (i.e. Salmonella) and non-pathogens (i.e. Enterobacteriaceae) --within the water supply in accessible Gangetic aquifers. To assess the dissolved microbiological quality in the region, present study sampling locations are along defined piezometer nests in an area in SE Asia (Bangladesh). Every nest contains samples from wells at varying depths covering shallow to deep aquifers. To date, 17 of the 76 water samples were analyzed for Salmonella, generic Escherichia coli (E. coli) and coliforms. Briefly, samples were plated in duplicate onto E. coli/Coliform petrifilm and incubated at 370C for 48 hours. Next, each sample was enriched in buffered peptone water and incubated at 370C for 18 hours. Bacterial DNA was extracted and amplified using a qPCR machine. Amplification plots were analyzed to determine presence/absence of microorganisms. All water samples (n=~76) are analyzed for Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria spp. and Shigella. Pathogen populations of PCR-positive water samples are enumerated using the agar direct plate method. Non-pathogenic bacterial indicator organisms (i.e. Enterobacteriaceae) will also be enumerated. Over the course of the experiment, we hypothesize that shallower wells will 1)have a higher pathogen prevalence and 2)harbor pathogens and nonpathogens at higher concentrations. While the 17 samples analyzed to date were negative for Salmonella

  3. Can a Teacher Ever Know Too Much? Ethical Considerations of Practitioner Research with Students in Gangs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Susan Roberta

    2000-01-01

    A teacher researcher studied Hispanic-American seventh graders in an English as a Second Language class who had older siblings or close friends in gangs, conducting interviews with students and their teachers. The research investigated teacher researchers' social responsibility beyond the study. This paper discusses lessons for teacher researchers…

  4. Public School Uniforms: Effect on Perceptions of Gang Presence, School Climate, and Student Self-Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Kathleen Kiley; Stafford, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the relationship between public school uniforms and student self-worth and student and staff perceptions of gang presence and school climate. Surveys of middle school students and teachers indicated that although students' perceptions did not vary across uniform policy, teachers from schools with uniform policies perceived lower levels of…

  5. Rehabilitation of Platanista gangetica (Lebeck, 1801) as the valid scientific name of the Ganges dolphin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kinze, C.C.

    2000-01-01

    The Dutch scientist Heinrich Julius Lebeck’s description of the Ganges dolphin is, based on a deduced latest date of publication 24 August 1801, given priority over William Roxburgh’s account of the same species, for which no precise date could be established. Although very similar to the work of Ro

  6. Advantages of Group Therapy for Adolescent Participants in the Same Gang Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etgar, Talia; Prager, Keren Ganot

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the issue of including in the same therapeutic group in a prison setting two (or more) young people who participated in the same gang rape. We provide a background for group therapy with adolescent sex offenders and point out the characteristics of group rape. In addition, we describe the uniqueness of working in a prison as…

  7. Findings from the Evaluation of OJJDP's Gang Reduction Program. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Meagan; Hayeslip, David

    2010-01-01

    This bulletin draws on findings from an independent evaluation, conducted by the Urban Institute, of the Gang Reduction Program's (GRP) Impact in Los Angeles, California; Milwaukee, Wisconsin; North Miami Beach, Florida; and Richmond, Virginia, to examine how effectively these sites implemented the program. Following are some of the authors' key…

  8. Ethnic Identity and Offending Trajectories among Mexican American Juvenile Offenders: Gang Membership and Psychosocial Maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, George P.; Losoya, Sandra H.; Cho, Young Il; Chassin, Laurie; Williams, Joanna Lee; Cota-Robles, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    We examined the association of joint trajectories of ethnic identity and criminal offending to psychosocial maturity, gang membership, and Mexican American affiliation among 300 Mexican American male juvenile offenders from ages 14 to 22. There were two low-offending groups: one was the highest in ethnic identity and changing slightly with age and…

  9. Adaptation tot changing water resources in the Ganges basin, northern India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moors, E.J.; Groot, A.M.E.; Biemans, H.; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, C.T.H.M.; Siderius, C.; Stoffel, M.

    2011-01-01

    An ensemble of regional climate model (RCM) runs from the EU HighNoon project are used to project future air temperatures and precipitation on a 25 km grid for the Ganges basin in northern India, with a view to assessing impact of climate change on water resources and determining what multi-sector a

  10. Fractionation of stable zinc isotopes in the field-grown zinc hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens and the zinc-tolerant plant Silene vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ye-Tao; Cloquet, Christophe; Sterckeman, Thibault; Echevarria, Guillaume; Carignan, Jean; Qiu, Rong-Liang; Morel, Jean-Louis

    2012-09-18

    Stable Zn isotope signatures offer a potential tool for tracing Zn uptake and transfer mechanisms within plant-soil systems. Zinc isotopic compositions were determined in the Zn hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens collected at a Zn-contaminated site (Viviez), a serpentine site (Vosges), and a noncontaminated site (Sainte Eulalie) in France. Meanwhile, a Zn-tolerant plant ( Silene vulgaris ) was also collected at Viviez for comparison. While δ(66)Zn was substantially differentiated among N. caerulescens from the three localities, they all exhibited an enrichment in heavy Zn isotopes of 0.40-0.72‰ from soil to root, followed by a depletion in heavy Zn from root to shoot (-0.10 to -0.50‰). The enrichment of heavy Zn in roots is ascribed to the transport systems responsible for Zn absorption into root symplast and root-to-shoot translocation, while the depletion in heavy Zn in shoots is likely to be mediated by a diffusive process and an efficient translocation driven by energy-required transporters (e.g., NcHMA4). The mass balance yielded a bulk Zn isotopic composition between plant and soil (Δ(66)Zn(plant-soil)) of -0.01‰ to 0.63‰ in N. caerulescens , indicative of high- and/or low-affinity transport systems operating in the three ecotypes. In S. vulgaris , however, there was no significant isotope fractionation between whole plant and rhizosphere soil and between root and shoot, suggesting that this species appears to have a particular Zn homeostasis. We confirm that quantifying stable Zn isotopes is useful for understanding Zn accumulation mechanisms in plants. PMID:22891730

  11. The Ganges and the GAP: An Assessment of Efforts to Clean a Sacred River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R. Tamminga

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available For centuries, the Ganges River in India has been the locus of sacred rites for the Hindus. The religious significance of the Ganges is physically manifested in ghats (stepped landings that form the land-water interface. Besides serving as a site for religious bathing and cremation, the ghats are also tied to people’s livelihoods and are an inseparable part of their daily lives. Today, the increasingly urbanized Ganges basin sustains more than 40 percent of India’s population. At the same time, industrialization and the pressures of a growing population along its banks have contributed to alarming levels of pollution in the river. In 1985, the federal government of India launched the Ganga Action Plan (GAP with the primary objective of cleaning the river. However, characterized by centralized planning and control with little public participation, the GAP had limited impact. In 2011, the government launched yet another clean up program—the National Ganga River Basin Project—with support from the World Bank. In this paper, we take a closer look at the programs to highlight the tenuous relationship between the need for ‘efficient’ management of environmental problems and public participation. Can public participation fit into the technocratic model that is often adopted by environmental programs? What approaches to participation kindle authorship and empowerment among those who share a deep relationship with the river and the ghats? Can religious practices be accommodated within scientific frameworks of adaptive management and resilience? We argue that rethinking the relationship between pollution control programs and participation is crucial for any effort to clean the Ganges, restore its waterfront, and catalyze broader regeneration in the Ganges basin.

  12. From Mérida & CARSI to Obama's New Plan: Any Impact on the Gang Situation in Central America?

    OpenAIRE

    Matei, Florina Cristiana; Cortez, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    This copy is the final, peer-reviewed manuscript. Since the end of the Cold War, the United States (US) has been supporting Latin America’s democracy and security through a series of diplomatic, social and security-related initiatives and programs.1 Fighting gangs has been part of these endeavors since the early 1990s, when the U.S. government became aware of the challenges posed domestically by gangs and enacted numerous anti-gang initiatives. This article examines efforts by ...

  13. Expression of HMA4 cDNAs of the zinc hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens from endogenous NcHMA4 promoters does not complement the zinc-deficiency phenotype of the Arabidopsis thaliana hma2hma4 double mutant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iqbal, M.; Nawaz, I.; Hassan, Z.; Hakvoort, H.W.J.; Bliek, M.; Aarts, M.G.M.; Schat, H.

    2013-01-01

    Noccaea caerulescens (Nc) exhibits a very high constitutive expression of the heavy metal transporting ATPase, HMA4, as compared to the non-hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis thaliana (At), due to copy number expansion and altered cis-regulation. We screened a BAC library for HMA4 and found that HMA4 is t

  14. Effect of microbial siderophore DFO-B on Cd accumulation by Thlaspi caerulescens hyperaccumulator in the presence of zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, Lotfollah; Heilmeier, Hermann; Merkel, Broder J

    2012-07-01

    Hyperaccumulators are grown in contaminated soil and water in order that contaminants are taken up and accumulated. Transport of metals from soil to plant is initially dependent on the solubility and mobility of metals in soil solution which is controlled by soil and metal properties and plant physiology. Complexation with organic and inorganic ligands may increase mobility and availability of metals for plants. In this work the influence of desferrioxamine-B (DFO-B), which naturally is produced in the rhizosphere, and zeolite on Cd accumulation in root and shoot of Thlaspi caerulescens (Cd hyperaccumulator) was investigated. Plants were grown in pots with clean quartz sand, amended with 1% zeolite; treatment solutions included 0, 10, and 100 μM Cd and 70 μM DFO-B. Addition of zeolite to the quartz sand significantly reduced Cd concentration in plant tissues and translocation from root to shoot. On contrary, DFO-B considerably enhanced Cd sorption by roots and translocation to aerial part of plants. Treating the plants with zeolite and DFO-B together at 10 μM Cd resulted in reduction of the bioaccumulation factor but enhancement of Cd translocation from root to shoot at the rate of 13%. In contrast, at 100 μM Cd in the solution both bioaccumulation and translocation factors decreased. Total metal accumulation as a key factor for evaluating the efficiency of phytoremediation was highly influenced by treatments. Presence of zeolite in pots significantly decreased total Cd accumulation by plants, whereas, DFO-B clearly enhanced it. PMID:22572166

  15. Exposure to Partner, Family, and Community Violence: Gang-Affiliated Latina Women and Risk of Unintended Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Elizabeth; Levenson, Rebecca; Herrera, Lili; Kurek, Laura; Stofflet, Marney; Marin, Leni

    2011-01-01

    While teen pregnancy rates appear to be declining in the USA overall, the rate of decline among young Latinas has been less than other ethnic groups. Among the myriad factors associated with elevated pregnancy rates, for Latina girls living in the inner city, exposure to gang and community violence may be a critical context for increased pregnancy risk. This study explores the relationship between gang involvement and reproductive health, and the pathways through which childhood, family, and ...

  16. Thlaspi caerulescens (Brassicaceae) population genetics in western Switzerland: is the genetic structure affected by natural variation of soil heavy metal concentrations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnard, Guillaume; Basic, Nevena; Christin, Pascal-Antoine; Savova-Bianchi, Dessislava; Galland, Nicole

    2009-03-01

    Thlaspi caerulescens (Brassicaceae) is a promising plant model with which to study heavy metal hyperaccumulation. Population genetics studies are necessary for a better understanding of its history, which will be useful for further genomic studies on the evolution of heavy metal hyperaccumulation.The genetic structure of 24 natural Swiss locations was investigated using nuclear and plastid loci. Population genetics parameters were estimated and genetic pools were identified using Bayesian inference on eight putatively neutral nuclear loci.Finally, the effect of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) soil concentrations on genetic differentiation at loci located in genes putatively involved in heavy metal responses was examined using partial Mantel tests in Jura, western Switzerland.Four main genetic clusters were recognized based on nuclear and plastid loci,which gave mostly congruent signals. In Jura, genetic differentiation linked to heavy metal concentrations in soil was shown at some candidate loci, particularly for genes encoding metal transporters. This suggests that natural selection limits gene flow between metalliferous and non metalliferous locations at such loci.Strong historical factors explain the present genetic structure of Swiss T. caerulescens populations, which has to be considered in studies testing for relationships between environmental and genetic variations. Linking of genetic differentiation at candidate genes with soil characteristics offers new perspectives in the study of heavy metal hyperaccumulation. PMID:19076982

  17. Expression differences for genes involved in lignin, glutathione and sulphate metabolism in response to cadmium in Arabidopsis thaliana and the related Zn/Cd-hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Mortel, Judith E; Schat, Henk; Moerland, Perry D; Ver Loren van Themaat, Emiel; van der Ent, Sjoerd; Blankestijn, Hetty; Ghandilyan, Artak; Tsiatsiani, Styliani; Aarts, Mark G M

    2008-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread, naturally occurring element present in soil, rock, water, plants and animals. Cd is a non-essential element for plants and is toxic at higher concentrations. Transcript profiles of roots of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) and Thlaspi caerulescens plants exposed to Cd and zinc (Zn) are examined, with the main aim to determine the differences in gene expression between the Cd-tolerant Zn-hyperaccumulator T. caerulescens and the Cd-sensitive non-accumulator Arabidopsis. This comparative transcriptional analysis emphasized the role of genes involved in lignin, glutathione and sulphate metabolism. Furthermore the transcription factors MYB72 and bHLH100 were studied for their involvement in metal homeostasis, as they showed an altered expression after exposure to Cd. The Arabidopsis myb72 knockout mutant was more sensitive to excess Zn or iron (Fe) deficiency than wild type, while Arabidopsis transformants overexpressing bHLH100 showed increased tolerance to high Zn and nickel (Ni) compared to wild-type plants, confirming their role in metal homeostasis in Arabidopsis. PMID:18088336

  18. Gangs in Catalonia. The approach from the Catalonia Government Police Troopers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Herrero Blanco

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In 2002, the presence of gangs was detected in Catalonia. The groups had their origins in bands from the American continent, with whom they maintained communication and dependency relationships. Since then, there has been steady increase both in the number of gangs and youth involved in them, as well as the level of criminal activity linked to these groups. The police corps have followed the evolution of these groups closely, although the social context is radically different and the levels of crime and violence are not comparable to the other side of the Atlantic. This article seeks to explain the Catalonia Government Troopers’ approach to this phenomenon during this time.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v1i2.1360

  19. Major identity transformations - movements beyond criminal life and the biker gang environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche; Hansen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a social practice theoretical moment-movement methodology for studying major identity transformations, as continuity and change in conduct of life, conflictual processes of belonging, recognition, and struggles of marginalization in and across different contexts and communities....... Empirically the paper illustrates these transitions and transformations with an empirical case of a young man, called Peter, changing his life conduct becoming less of a criminal member of the (biker) gang environment becoming more of a member of academia. The paper explore the action reasons of Peter......, disturbances of Peters telos, which includes transformations into a more responsible young adult becoming ready to commit to family life. The paper explores new belongings, (lack of) meanings in and across contexts, such as educations, struggles with gang exit interventions, which produces severe double bind...

  20. Barcelona and Madrid: Two different realities in the phenomenon of the Latino gangs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel López Corral

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The Latino gangs that have come into existence in Spain represent a potential risk factor for citizens’ security and coexistence. That is the view of security forces and organisations, and it also seems to be the understanding reached by the administrations of the Autonomous Communities of Catalonia and Madrid, whose actions in the light of this phenomenon are assessed in this work. To this end, the author begins with an analysis of the significance of Latino gangs inSpain, from their origins to their introduction, and carries out a review of their current situation, including their organisation, recruitment, impact and risk for citizen security. Only with suchan analysis can one begin to comprehend the scenario of dangers that will appear in the future, and the police strategy that should be introduced to deal with the phenomenon.

  1. Dangerous Spaces of Citizenship: Gang Talk, Rights Talk, and Rule of Law in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Holston, James

    2009-01-01

    This article considers an apparently perplexing aspect of democratization in Brazil: the use by notorious criminal gangs (comandos) from the poor urban peripheries and prisons of the discourses of democratic citizenship, justice, and rule of law to represent their own organizations and intentions. I situate this use within an unsettling development in Latin America generally during the last thirty years: the coincidence nearly everywhere of increasing political democracy and increasing everyd...

  2. Mareros and pandilleros in Honduras: the reintegration of youth gang members

    OpenAIRE

    Van Damme, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this research is on the reintegration of youth gang members in Honduras. The aim of this qualitative study is to broaden the knowledge of reintegration processes and programs in one specific country in Central America, namely, Honduras. A sample of fourteen interviews with stakeholders in the field of maras and pandillas has been investigated and the results revealed some similarities between the different methods of reintegration. Our data suggest that a comprehensive process, i...

  3. Governing Climate Change Adaptation in Ganges Basin : Assessing Needs and Capacities

    OpenAIRE

    Dulal, Hari

    2014-01-01

    The Ganges basin shared by India, Nepal, Bangladesh, and China is the most heavily populated river basin in the world. It sustains approximately 500 million people. Even though people living in the basin have coped with and adapted to change in climate for centuries, they are finding it increasingly difficult, as both the frequency and magnitude of climate-induced extreme weather events have increased over the years. Both market and non-market impacts of climate change are increasing, and inc...

  4. Cultivated plants in the diversified homegardens of local communities in Ganges Valley, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Syed Ajijur; Baldauf, Cristina; Mollee, Eefke Maria; Abdullah-Al-Pavel, Muha.; Abdullah-Al-Mamun, Md.; Toy, Mahmudul Mannan; Sunderland, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Homestead agroforestry, in the form of homegardens, has a long tradition in many developing countries. These systems are an intimate mix of diversified agricultural crops and multipurpose trees planted, maintained by members of the household. This paper aims to explore the species composition commonly found in the homestead agroforestry systems in the Ganges valley of northern Bangladesh and their contribution to local livelihoods. Three villages i.e., ‘Capasia’, ‘Chak Capasia’ and ‘Baduria’ ...

  5. Human group formation in online guilds and offline gangs driven by common team dynamic

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Neil F.; Xu, Chen; Zhao, Zhenyuan; Ducheneaut, Nicolas; Yee, Nicholas; Tita, George; Hui, Pak Ming

    2008-01-01

    Quantifying human group dynamics represents a unique challenge. Unlike animals and other biological systems, humans form groups in both real (offline) and virtual (online) spaces -- from potentially dangerous street gangs populated mostly by disaffected male youths, through to the massive global guilds in online role-playing games for which membership currently exceeds tens of millions of people from all possible backgrounds, age-groups and genders. We have compiled and analyzed data for thes...

  6. Commitment language and homework completion in a behavioral employment program for gang-affiliated youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caitlin; Huey, Stanley J; McDaniel, Dawn D

    2015-05-01

    Research with substance-abusing samples suggests that eliciting commitment language during treatment may improve motivation to change, increase treatment engagement, and promote positive treatment outcomes. However, the relationship between in-session client language and treatment success is not well-understood for youth offender populations. This study evaluated the relationship between commitment language, treatment engagement (i.e., homework completion), and weekly employment outcomes for six gang-affiliated juvenile offenders participating in an employment counseling intervention. Weekly counseling sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded for commitment language strength. Multilevel models were fit to the data to examine the relationship between commitment language and counseling homework or employment outcomes within participants over time. Commitment language strength predicted subsequent homework completion but not weekly employment. These findings imply that gang-affiliated delinquent youth who express motivation to change during employment counseling will be more likely to comply with counselor-initiated homework. Further research on counselor techniques for promoting commitment language among juvenile gang offenders is needed. PMID:24203526

  7. Contribution of Sediment Compaction/Loading to the Ganges-Bangladesh Delta Subsidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpytchev, Mikhail; Krien, Yann; Ballu, Valerie; Becker, Melanie; Calmant, Stephane; Spada, Giorgio; Guo, Junyi; Khan, Zahirul; Shum, Ck

    2016-04-01

    A pronounced spatial variability characterizes the subsidence/uplift rates in the Ganges-Bangladesh delta estimated from both sediment cores and modern geodetic techniques. The large variability of the subsidence rates suggests an interplay of different natural and anthropogenic processes including tectonics, sediment loading and sediment compaction, groundwater extaction among many others drivers of the delta vertical land movements.In this study, we focus on estimating the subsidence rates due to the sediments transported by the Ganges-Brahmaputra since the last 18 000 years. The delta subsidence induced by the sediment loading and the resulting sea level changes are modelled by the TABOO and SELEN software (Spada, 2003; Stocchi and Spada, 2007) in the framework of a gravitationally self-consistent Earth model. The loading history was obtained from available sediment cores and from the isopach map of Goodbread and Kuehl (2000). The results demonstrate that the delta loading enhanced by the Holocene sedimention can be responsable for a regular subsidence across the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta with an amplitude of 1-5 mm/yr along the Bengal coast. These estimates demonstrate that the contribution of the Holocene as well as modern sediment loading should be taken into account in climate change mitigation politicy for Bangladesh.

  8. Heavy metals distribution in the sediments of Ganges and Brahmaputra Rivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, V. (Jawaharial Nehru Univ., New Delhi (India)); Van Grieken, R.; Van' t Dack, L. (Univ. of Antwep, Wilrijk (Belgium))

    1987-01-01

    Bed sediments were collected from the entire region of the Ganges basin and some parts of the Brahmaputra. In addition, selected stations were sampled for suspended sediments as well. The samples were analyzed for a number of heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Ni, Cr, Cu, and Zn) by the thin-film energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique. There are pronounced temporal and spatial variations in the heavy metals distributions. Suspended sediments are 5-10 times richer than the bed sediments. None of the tributaries contribute significant heavy metal load, but around urban areas in Yamuna (tributary of Ganges), very high levels due to the distribution from the drainage network are observed. Compared to the Brahmaputra, the distribution and fractionation of heavy metals in the Ganges sediments are more erratic and highly variable. All the metals considered show high correlation among themselves. Given the high flux of suspended sediments from the Himalayan rivers (nearly 20% of the global flux), the worldwide budget for heavy metal transport may need to be suitable revised.

  9. salvadoran gang weapons: analysis of lethality, firepower, and implications for security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herard Von Santos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Since they surfaced during the final phase of the Internal Conflict in El Salvador, gangs have always used the firearms that were available on the formal and illegal markets. Once the war concluded, and despite new regulations regarding possession of firearms, gang members were able to access them through two means: purchasing on the commercial market, and creating them themselves.This initial acquisition of firearms evolved to acquisition of heavier firepower; particularly assault rifles, and guns that are able to shoot shotgun shells, as well as traditional gauges (9x19 mm, .45, and .38. The cause of this could be directly linked to two factors. On the one hand, the war between two main gangs, the “MS” and the “Barrio 18” –as could be expected– increased the need for greater firepower. On the other hand, there was greater availability of firearms on the market, such as assault rifles, and machine guns, as a result of the war.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v4i1.1558

  10. Evaluation of Water Quality of Ganges River Using Water Quality Index Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabodha Kumar Meher

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Water quality of Ganges river was evaluated using the Water Quality Index (WQI tool. Water sampled at five designated locations from Rishikesh to Allahabad (about 720 km long stretch. Collected samples were measured by ion chromatography, titrimetry and aquameter kit methods. The parameters like pH, electrical conductivity (EC, dissolved oxygen (DO, total dissolved solids (TDS, turbidity, salinity, major cations e.g. Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, major anions e.g. F-, Cl-, SO42-, NO32- and alkalinity of samples were measured at designated locations. Subsequently, WQI has been calculated from all the measured parameters. The result showed WQI of Ganges river water from Rishikesh to Allahabad ranged from 28.93 to 73.24 which denotes degradation of water quality along the downstream. In addition, values of most of the evaluated parameters increased significantly along the downstream of river suggesting that local environmental pollutants contributed incrementally in deterioration of the quality of river water. Pearson correlation matrix analysis showed a strong correlation between some of the measured parameters suggesting their origin from common source. WQI values showed easy understanding and trend of water quality of Ganges river. These results point towards requirement of urgent plans for prevention of river water pollution.

  11. Geomorphology of the Ganges fluvial system in the Himalayan foreland: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Sinha

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The Ganges is one of the largest fluvial systems in the world rising from the loftiest Himalaya and draining into the Bay of Bengal. Together with the Brahmaputra, it also constitutes the largest delta in the world before finally meeting the sea. The Ganges system passes through a variety of terrain from the rugged mountains through the flat alluvial plains and the sea margin, and also transects variable climatic zones. As a result, the processes, landforms and stratigraphy are strikingly different in different zones of the system. This paper attempts to provide an update on our understanding of this very large and diverse system. A global effort has been made in the last few decades, and the research has focused on a variety of themes. The mountainous catchments have attracted attention in view of the extent of glaciation and extensive erosional processes. The alluvial plains of the Ganges symbolizes the life line of one of the world's largest population. Consequently, a number of studies have been carried out on the morphology, hydrology including flooding history and sediment transport behaviour of the river system. The alluvial stratigraphy of the large valleys and the interfluves in the plains has provided insight about the sedimentation pattern and response to climate change. The deltaic plain is the final destination of this huge sediment dispersal system before it drains into the sea, and it also records the influence of sea level changes apart from the upstream catchment controls over a period of time.

  12. Seasonal variation of glacial melt proportion in the headwaters of the Ganges River: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Indra; Hemingway, Jordon; Sengupta, Deep; Sinha, Rajiv; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard; Chakraborty, Anirban

    2015-04-01

    The effect of global warming on Hindu Kush- Himalayan (HKH) glaciers is of global concern as they are the source of many large rivers in the Indian subcontinent such as the Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra. Questions and concerns have been raised about the melting of the Himalayan glaciers, and how this will impact downstream water supplies, hydropower generation, irrigation, and food security issues. Of all the HKH glaciers, the Gangotri glacier located in the Uttarkashi district of the Garhwal Himalaya, India has received special attention as it is receding at an alarming rate of 30 m/year. The Gangotri glacier feeds the Ganges River, which drains nearly 1 million square kilometers of land surface in India and Bangladesh, and provides water security to half a billion people. Based on remote sensing data it has been estimated that the overall area of Gangotri glacier has shrunk by 6% between 1952 and 2006, and that the glacial terminus has receded by more than 850 m over the past 25 years. However, ground observation data aimed at studying the changing influence of the Gangotri glacier on the discharge of the Ganges River are still limited. Here we report preliminary observations of physical (temperature and conductivity) and chemical (major ion and trace element concentrations, pH, and dissolved oxygen) parameters of water samples near glaciated Ganges headwaters for the pre-monsoon (May), monsoon (August), and post monsoon (November) periods corresponding to 2014. We have characterized the seasonal δ18O and δ2H variability of the Ganges headwaters. The pre-monsoonal δ18O varied between -15.1o and -9.3o whereas the monsoonal δ18O varied between -14.9o and -5.7o. The pre-monsoon δ2H varied between -105.4o and -61.5o, whereas the monsoonal δ2H varied between -103.8o and -47.2o. Our isotope-mixing model predicts significant seasonal (pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon) variability of glacial melt contributions to the total discharge. Water chemistry data also

  13. Greenhouse evaluation of EDTA effectiveness at enhancing Cd, Cr, and Ni uptake in Helianthus annuus and Thlaspi caerulescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munn, J.; January, M.; Cutright, T.J. [Dept. Civil Engineering, The Univ. of Akron, OH (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Background, aims and scope. Phytoremediation is a promising means for the treatment of heavy metal contamination. Although several species have been identified as hyperaccumulators, most studies have been conducted with only one metal. Experiments were conducted to investigate the ability of Helianthus annuus and Thlaspi caerulescens to simultaneously uptake Cd, Cr and Ni. Materials and methods. The efficiency of plants grown in a sandy-loam soil was investigated. The ability of two EDTA concentrations (0.1 and 0.3 g kg{sup -1}) for enhancing the phytoremediation of Cd, Cr and Ni at two different metal concentrations (24.75 mg kg{sup -1} and 90 mg kg{sup -1}) was studied. Results. Thlaspi hyperaccumulated Ni with 0.1 g kg{sup -1} EDTA. When the EDTA dosage was increased to 0.3 g kg{sup -1}, Thlaspi was able to hyperaccumulate both Ni and Cr. Since Thlaspi is a low-biomass plant, it was considered insufficient for full-scale applications. Helianthus annuus hyperacummulated Cr (with 0.1 g kg{sup -1} EDTA) and Cd (0.3 g kg{sup -1} EDTA). Discussion. When the contamination was 8.25 mg kg{sup -1} per metal, the total metal uptake was 10-25% (1.35 to 2.12 mg) higher and had the same uptake selectivity (Cr>>Cd>Ni) for both EDTA levels. It was hypothesized that complexation with EDTA interfered with Ni translocation. For these experiments, the optimal results were obtained with the H. annuus-0.1 g kg{sup -1} EDTA combination. Conclusions. Although the use of EDTA did increase the amount of metal that could be extracted, care should be taken during in-situ field applications. Chelators can also increase the amount of metals that are leached past the root zone. Metal leaching and subsequent migration could lead to ground water contamination as well as lead to new soil contamination. Recommendations and perspectives. Additional research to identify the optimal EDTA dosage for field applications is warranted. This is necessary to ensure that the metals do not leach past the

  14. TcOPT3, a member of oligopeptide transporters from the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens, is a novel Fe/Zn/Cd/Cu transporter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ting Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thlaspi caerulescens is a natural selected heavy metal hyperaccumulator that can not only tolerate but also accumulate extremely high levels of heavy metals in the shoots. Thus, to identify the transportors involved in metal long-distance transportation is very important for understanding the mechanism of heavy metal accumulation in this hyperaccumulator. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We cloned and characterized a novel gene TcOPT3 of OPT family from T. caerulescens. TcOPT3 was pronouncedly expressed in aerial parts, including stem and leaf. Moreover, in situ hybridization analyses showed that TcOPT3 expressed in the plant vascular systems, especially in the pericycle cells that may be involved in the long-distance transportation. The expression of TcOPT3 was highly induced by iron (Fe and zinc (Zn deficiency, especially in the stem and leaf. Sub-cellular localization showed that TcOPT3 was a plasma membrane-localized protein. Furthermore, heterogonous expression of TcOPT3 by mutant yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae complementation experiments demonstrated that TcOPT3 could transport Fe(2+ and Zn(2+. Moreover, expression of TcOPT3 in yeast increased metal (Fe, Zn, Cu and Cd accumulation and resulted in an increased sensitivity to cadmium (Cd and copper (Cu. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrated that TcOPT3 might encode an Fe/Zn/Cd/Cu influx transporter with broad-substrate. This is the first report showing that TcOPT3 may be involved in metal long-distance transportation and contribute to the heavy metal hyperaccumulation.

  15. Metallothioneins 2 and 3 contribute to the metal-adapted phenotype but are not directly linked to Zn accumulation in the metal hyperaccumulator, Thlaspi caerulescens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassinen, V. H.; Tuomainen, M.; Peräniemi, S.; Schat, H.; Kärenlampi, S. O.; Tervahauta, A. I.

    2009-01-01

    To study the role of metallothioneins (MTs) in Zn accumulation, the expression of TcMT2a, TcMT2b, and TcMT3 was analysed in three accessions and 15 F3 families of two inter-accession crosses of the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens, with different degrees of Zn accumulation. The highest expression levels were found in the shoots of a superior metal-accumulating calamine accession from St Laurent le Minier, with >10-fold TcMT3 expression compared with another calamine accession and a non-metallicolous accession. Moreover, F3 sibling lines from the inter-accession crosses that harboured the MT2a or MT3 allele from St Laurent le Minier had higher expression levels. However, there was no co-segregation of TcMT2a or TcMT3 expression and Zn accumulation. To examine the functions of TcMTs in plants, TcMT2a and TcMT3 were ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis. The transformant lines had reduced root length in control medium but not at high metal concentrations, suggesting that the ectopically expressed proteins interfered with the physiological availability of essential metals under limited supply. The Arabidopsis transformant lines did not show increased tolerance to Cd, Cu, or Zn, nor increased Cd or Zn accumulation. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that in roots, MT2 protein is localized in the epidermis and root hairs of both T. caerulescens and Arabidopsis thaliana. The results suggest that TcMT2a, TcMT2b, and TcMT3 are not primarily involved in Zn accumulation as such. However, the elevated expression levels in the metallicolous accessions suggests that they do contribute to the metal-adapted phenotype, possibly through improving Cu homeostasis at high Zn and Cd body burdens. Alternatively, they might function as hypostatic enhancers of Zn or Cd tolerance. PMID:19033549

  16. Flexible Strategies for Coping with Rainfall Variability: Seasonal Adjustments in Cropped Area in the Ganges Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siderius, Christian; Biemans, Hester; van Walsum, Paul E V; van Ierland, Ekko C; Kabat, Pavel; Hellegers, Petra J G J

    2016-01-01

    One of the main manifestations of climate change will be increased rainfall variability. How to deal with this in agriculture will be a major societal challenge. In this paper we explore flexibility in land use, through deliberate seasonal adjustments in cropped area, as a specific strategy for coping with rainfall variability. Such adjustments are not incorporated in hydro-meteorological crop models commonly used for food security analyses. Our paper contributes to the literature by making a comprehensive model assessment of inter-annual variability in crop production, including both variations in crop yield and cropped area. The Ganges basin is used as a case study. First, we assessed the contribution of cropped area variability to overall variability in rice and wheat production by applying hierarchical partitioning on time-series of agricultural statistics. We then introduced cropped area as an endogenous decision variable in a hydro-economic optimization model (WaterWise), coupled to a hydrology-vegetation model (LPJmL), and analyzed to what extent its performance in the estimation of inter-annual variability in crop production improved. From the statistics, we found that in the period 1999-2009 seasonal adjustment in cropped area can explain almost 50% of variability in wheat production and 40% of variability in rice production in the Indian part of the Ganges basin. Our improved model was well capable of mimicking existing variability at different spatial aggregation levels, especially for wheat. The value of flexibility, i.e. the foregone costs of choosing not to crop in years when water is scarce, was quantified at 4% of gross margin of wheat in the Indian part of the Ganges basin and as high as 34% of gross margin of wheat in the drought-prone state of Rajasthan. We argue that flexibility in land use is an important coping strategy to rainfall variability in water stressed regions. PMID:26934389

  17. Implications of agricultural land use change to ecosystem services in the Ganges delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, G M Tarekul; Islam, A K M Saiful; Shopan, Ahsan Azhar; Rahman, Md Munsur; Lázár, Attila N; Mukhopadhyay, Anirban

    2015-09-15

    Ecosystems provide the basis for human civilization and natural capital for green economy and sustainable development. Ecosystem services may range from crops, fish, freshwater to those that are harder to see such as erosion regulation, carbon sequestration, and pest control. Land use changes have been identified as the main sources of coastal and marine pollution in Bangladesh. This paper explores the temporal variation of agricultural land use change and its implications with ecosystem services in the Ganges delta. With time agricultural lands have been decreased and wetlands have been increased at a very high rate mainly due to the growing popularity of saltwater shrimp farming. In a span of 28 years, the agricultural lands have been reduced by approximately 50%, while the wetlands have been increased by over 500%. A large portion (nearly 40%) of the study area is covered by the Sundarbans which remained almost constant which can be attributed to the strict regulatory intervention to preserve the Sundarbans. The settlement & others land use type has also been increased to nearly 5%. There is a gradual uptrend of shrimp and fish production in the study area. The findings suggest that there are significant linkages between agricultural land use change and ecosystem services in the Ganges delta in Bangladesh. The continuous decline of agricultural land (due to salinization) and an increase of wetland have been attributed to the conversion of agricultural land into shrimp farming in the study area. Such land use change requires significant capital, therefore, only investors and wealthier land owners can get the higher profit from the land conversion while the poor people is left with the environmental consequences that affect their long-term lives and livelihood. An environmental management plan is proposed for sustainable land use in the Ganges delta in Bangladesh. PMID:25516384

  18. Adaptation to changing water resources in the Ganges basin, northern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ensemble of regional climate model (RCM) runs from the EU HighNoon project are used to project future air temperatures and precipitation on a 25 km grid for the Ganges basin in northern India, with a view to assessing impact of climate change on water resources and determining what multi-sector adaptation measures and policies might be adopted at different spatial scales. The RCM results suggest an increase in mean annual temperature, averaged over the Ganges basin, in the range 1-4 oC over the period from 2000 to 2050, using the SRES A1B forcing scenario. Projections of precipitation indicate that natural variability dominates the climate change signal and there is considerable uncertainty concerning change in regional annual mean precipitation by 2050. The RCMs do suggest an increase in annual mean precipitation in this region to 2050, but lack significant trend. Glaciers in headwater tributary basins of the Ganges appear to be continuing to decline but it is not clear whether meltwater runoff continues to increase. The predicted changes in precipitation and temperature will probably not lead to significant increase in water availability to 2050, but the timing of runoff from snowmelt will likely occur earlier in spring and summer. Water availability is subject to decadal variability, with much uncertainty in the contribution from climate change. Although global social-economic scenarios show trends to urbanization, locally these trends are less evident and in some districts rural population is increasing. Falling groundwater levels in the Ganges plain may prevent expansion of irrigated areas for food supply. Changes in socio-economic development in combination with projected changes in timing of runoff outside the monsoon period will make difficult choices for water managers. Because of the uncertainty in future water availability trends, decreasing vulnerability by augmenting resilience is the preferred way to adapt to climate change. Adaptive policies are

  19. Bank robberies by an Asian gang: an assessment of the routine activities theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, John Z

    2002-10-01

    It was reported for the first time that a series of bank robberies were committed by an Asian gang group in a major southern city. The bank robberies showed a variety of operational methods. The purpose of this descriptive study is to apply the routine activities theory to explain the causal factors of the robberies. The analysis shows that the six Asian bank robberies resulted from a supply of motivated offenders, the availability of suitable targets, and a low level of capable guardians against crime. Findings suggest that crime-specific measures are an appropriate method for examining the merits of the routine activities theory. PMID:12365143

  20. Benchmarking wide swath altimetry-based river discharge estimation algorithms for the Ganges river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnema, Matthew G.; Sikder, Safat; Hossain, Faisal; Durand, Michael; Gleason, Colin J.; Bjerklie, David M.

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the effectiveness of three algorithms that estimate discharge from remotely sensed observables (river width, water surface height, and water surface slope) in anticipation of the forthcoming NASA/CNES Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission. SWOT promises to provide these measurements simultaneously, and the river discharge algorithms included here are designed to work with these data. Two algorithms were built around Manning's equation, the Metropolis Manning (MetroMan) method, and the Mean Flow and Geomorphology (MFG) method, and one approach uses hydraulic geometry to estimate discharge, the at-many-stations hydraulic geometry (AMHG) method. A well-calibrated and ground-truthed hydrodynamic model of the Ganges river system (HEC-RAS) was used as reference for three rivers from the Ganges River Delta: the main stem of Ganges, the Arial-Khan, and the Mohananda Rivers. The high seasonal variability of these rivers due to the Monsoon presented a unique opportunity to thoroughly assess the discharge algorithms in light of typical monsoon regime rivers. It was found that the MFG method provides the most accurate discharge estimations in most cases, with an average relative root-mean-squared error (RRMSE) across all three reaches of 35.5%. It is followed closely by the Metropolis Manning algorithm, with an average RRMSE of 51.5%. However, the MFG method's reliance on knowledge of prior river discharge limits its application on ungauged rivers. In terms of input data requirement at ungauged regions with no prior records, the Metropolis Manning algorithm provides a more practical alternative over a region that is lacking in historical observations as the algorithm requires less ancillary data. The AMHG algorithm, while requiring the least prior river data, provided the least accurate discharge measurements with an average wet and dry season RRMSE of 79.8% and 119.1%, respectively, across all rivers studied. This poor

  1. Humanitarian Protection for Children Fleeing Gang-Based Violence in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Carlson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available By the end of 2011, the US Customs and Border Protection (CBP began to see a steady rise in the number of Unaccompanied Alien Children (UAC from Central America, particularly from the Northern Triangle countries—El Salvador, Honduras and Guatemala—arriving to the US-Mexico border. The number of children entering the United States from these countries more than doubled during fiscal year (FY 2012 and continued to grow through FY 2014. In FY 2013, CBP apprehended over 35,000 children. That number almost doubled to 66,127 in FY 2014, with Central American children outnumbering their Mexican counterparts for the first time. Research has identified high levels of violence perpetrated by gangs and drug cartels in the Northern Triangle countries and Mexico as a primary reason for this surge. Under the William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act (TVPRA passed with bi-partisan support in 2008, children from Central America cannot be immediately deported and must be given a court hearing.In contrast, unless there are indicia of trafficking, Mexican children are returned immediately to their country. Advocates have expressed concern that expedited removal of Mexican children places children with valid humanitarian claims at risk of being returned to harm, including forcible recruitment into drug cartels and trafficking rings. After the spike in arrivals in FY 2014, several members of Congress called for a change in the TVPRA, urging that Central American children be treated like Mexican children and undergo expedited procedures for their removal. Many of their constituents supported such measures. The Obama administration requested additional funds to strengthen border security, speed up deportation procedures and implement measures to address the humanitarian crisis in Central America. Groups and individuals across the country came together to provide shelter, medical and psychological care and legal representation to many

  2. Violence at the Margins: Street Gangs, Globalized Conflict and Sri Lankan Tamil Battlefields in London, Toronto and Paris

    OpenAIRE

    Camilla Orjuela

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the global dimensions of violent conflict and the parallels and links between violence in the diaspora and the homeland. It does so by discussing Tamil street gangs in London, Toronto and Paris. The Tamil diaspora played a key role in the war between the Sri Lankan government and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), which raged between 1983 and 2009. In spite of being a marginal phenomenon in the Tamil diaspora, Tamil street gangs became part of a wider culture o...

  3. Clay mineral distribution in the continental shelf sediments from Krishna to Ganges river mouth, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.

    Ninety six sediment samples (less than 2 mu m fractions) of the eastern continental shelf of India between Ganges in the north and Krishna in the south have been studiEd. by X-ray diffraction. On the basis of nature and abundance of different clay...

  4. Defensive Localism in White and Black: A Comparative History of European-American and African-American Youth Gangs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    Compares European American and African American youth gangs in four historical periods (seaboard, immigrant, racially changing, and hypersegregated cities), showing that differences can be traced to race-specific effects of labor, housing, and consumer markets, government policies, local politics, and organized crime on their communities.…

  5. Compresión del nervio supraescapular por ganglión: Caso clínico

    OpenAIRE

    Barra Plá, Amariel; Sala Cuartero, Diego; Gomar Sancho, Francisco

    2001-01-01

    Se describe el caso de un paciente joven con síndrome de compresión de nervio supraescapular por un ganglión que fue tratado quirúrgicamente. Asimismo se hace una revisión de los casos similares encontrados en la literatura y las diferentes maneras de tratamiento.

  6. Youth Violence and Gangs. Hearing on the Status of the Juvenile Justice System in America, Focusing on Activities of Youth Gangs and Their Access to Guns, and How Programs Can Help Prevent the Violence Associated with Youth Gangs, before the Subcommittee on Juvenile Justice of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, (November 26, 1991).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

    The text of a Senate hearing on the status of youth gangs and their access to guns, and of violence prevention programs is provided in this document. Statements from Senators Herbert Kohl, Paul Simon, and Dennis DeConcini are presented. Testimony and prepared statements from these witnesses is included: (1) James Gabarino, president, Erikson…

  7. Human group formation in online guilds and offline gangs driven by a common team dynamic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Neil F.; Xu, Chen; Zhao, Zhenyuan; Ducheneaut, Nicolas; Yee, Nicholas; Tita, George; Hui, Pak Ming

    2009-06-01

    Quantifying human group dynamics represents a unique challenge. Unlike animals and other biological systems, humans form groups in both real (offline) and virtual (online) spaces—from potentially dangerous street gangs populated mostly by disaffected male youths to the massive global guilds in online role-playing games for which membership currently exceeds tens of millions of people from all possible backgrounds, age groups, and genders. We have compiled and analyzed data for these two seemingly unrelated offline and online human activities and have uncovered an unexpected quantitative link between them. Although their overall dynamics differ visibly, we find that a common team-based model can accurately reproduce the quantitative features of each simply by adjusting the average tolerance level and attribute range for each population. By contrast, we find no evidence to support a version of the model based on like-seeking-like (i.e., kinship or “homophily”).

  8. Paradigm for Distributive & Procedural Justice in Equitable Apportionment of Transboundary Ganges Waters Under Changing Climate & Landuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, H.; Gosain, A. K.; Khosa, R.; Anand, J.

    2015-12-01

    Rivers have no regard for human demarcated boundaries. Besides, ever increasing demand-supply gap & vested riparian interests, fuel transboundary water conflicts. For resolving such disputes, appropriation doctrines advocating equity & fairness have received endorsement in the Helsinki Rules-1966 & UN Convention-1997. Thus, current study proposes the principle of equitable apportionment for sharing Ganges waters as it balances the interests & deservedness of all stakeholders, namely, India & its 11 states, Bangladesh, Nepal, & China. The study endeavors to derive a reasonable share of each co-basin state by operationalizing the vague concepts of fairness & equity through an objective & quantitative framework encompassing proportionality & egalitarianism for distributive & procedural justice. Equal weightage factors reflecting hydrology, geography & water use potential are chosen for fair share computation, wherein each contender ranks these factors to maximize his entitlement. If cumulative claims exceed the water availability, each claimant puts forth next ranked factor & this process continues till the claims match availability. Due to inter-annual variability in few factors, scenarios for Rabi & Kharif seasons are considered apart from cases for maximum, upper quartile, median, lower quartile & minimum. Possibility of spatial homogeneity & heterogeneity in factors is also recognized. Sometimes lack of technical information hinders transboundary dispute resolution via legal mechanisms. Hence, the study also attempts to bridge this gap between law & technology through GIS-based SWAT hydrologic model by estimating the Ganges water yield, & consequent share of each riparian for range of flows incorporating e-flows as well, under present & future climate & landuse scenarios. 82% of India's territory lies within interstate rivers, & therefore this research is very pertinent as it can facilitate the decision makers in effective interstate water conflict resolution.

  9. Biochemical and biophysical characterisation yields insights into the mechanism of a Cd/Zn transporting ATPase purified from the hyperaccumulator plant Thlaspi caerulescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitenmaier, Barbara; Witt, Annelie; Witzke, Annabell; Stemke, Anastasia; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Kroneck, Peter M H; Küpper, Hendrik

    2011-10-01

    TcHMA4 (GenBank no. AJ567384), a Cd/Zn transporting ATPase of the P(1B)-type (=CPx-type) was isolated and purified from roots of the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens. Optimisation of the purification protocol, based on binding of the natural C-terminal His-tag of the protein to a Ni-IDA metal affinity column, yielded pure, active TcHMA4 in quantities sufficient for its biochemical and biophysical characterisation with various techniques. TcHMA4 showed activity with Cu(2+), Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) under various concentrations (tested from 30nM to 10μM), and all three metal ions activated the ATPase at a concentration of 0.3μM. Notably, the enzyme worked best at rather high temperatures, with an activity optimum at 42°C. Arrhenius plots yielded interesting differences in activation energy. In the presence of zinc it remained constant (E(A)=38kJ⋅mol(-1)) over the whole concentration range while it increased from 17 to 42kJ⋅mol(-1) with rising copper concentration and decreased from 39 to 23kJ⋅mol(-1) with rising cadmium concentration. According to EXAFS the TcHMA4 appeared to bind Cd(2+) mainly by thiolate sulphur from cysteine, and not by imidazole nitrogen from histidine. PMID:21621506

  10. Detecting Long-term Trend of Water Quality Indices of Dong-gang River, Taiwan Using Quantile Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, D.; Shiau, J.

    2013-12-01

    ABSTRACT BODY: Abstract Surface water quality is an essential issue in water-supply for human uses and sustaining healthy ecosystem of rivers. However, water quality of rivers is easily influenced by anthropogenic activities such as urban development and wastewater disposal. Long-term monitoring of water quality can assess whether water quality of rivers deteriorates or not. Taiwan is a population-dense area and heavily depends on surface water for domestic, industrial, and agricultural uses. Dong-gang River is one of major resources in southern Taiwan for agricultural requirements. The water-quality data of four monitoring stations of the Dong-gang River for the period of 2000-2012 are selected for trend analysis. The parameters used to characterize water quality of rivers include biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO), suspended solids (SS), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N). These four water-quality parameters are integrated into an index called river pollution index (RPI) to indicate the pollution level of rivers. Although widely used non-parametric Mann-Kendall test and linear regression exhibit computational efficiency to identify trends of water-quality indices, limitations of such approaches include sensitive to outliers and estimations of conditional mean only. Quantile regression, capable of identifying changes over time of any percentile values, is employed in this study to detect long-term trend of water-quality indices for the Dong-gang River located in southern Taiwan. The results show that Dong-gang River 4 stations from 2000 to 2012 monthly long-term trends in water quality.To analyze s Dong-gang River long-term water quality trends and pollution characteristics. The results showed that the bridge measuring ammonia Long-dong, BOD5 measure in that station on a downward trend, DO, and SS is on the rise, River Pollution Index (RPI) on a downward trend. The results form Chau-Jhou station also ahowed simialar trends .more and more near the

  11. “It’s like we’re just renting over here”: The Pervasive Experiences of Discrimination of Filipino Immigrant Youth Gang Members in Hawai’i

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Su Yeong; Benner, Aprile D.; Takushi, Rena Mae Nalani; Ongbongan, Kathleen; Dennerlein, Donna; Spencer, Deborah K.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers, service providers, and policymakers must uncover and better understand the issues facing youths in Asian gangs in order to most effectively intervene with appropriate policies and programs. The present investigation sampled young male Filipino gang members in Hawai’i. Thematic analyses of the focus group data challenge the commonly held view of racial harmony in Hawai’i. It appears that racial and social discrimination from peers and authority figures propel Filipino boys to seek...

  12. An inventory of mammals, birds and reptiles along a section of the river and banks of upper Ganges, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bashir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to assess faunal diversity along a 165-km stretch of the upper Ganges River between Bijnor and Narora cities, Uttar Pradesh, from January to June 2007. Both river and bank species diversity of reptiles, birds and mammals using a combination of boat surveys, linear walks and random searches were inventoried. Presence of 18 species of mammals, 55 species of birds and 13 species of reptiles were recorded from the river stretch including 16 species of global conservation significance. Maximum encounter rate was observed for little cormorant (3.160 plus or minus 0.290, macaque (2.385 plus or minus 0.442 and brown roofed turtle (1.009 plus or minus 0.107. Our study is an attempt towards generating baseline information on the faunal diversity of the upper Ganges and we recommend exhaustive surveys and regular monitoring of this river stretch through indicator species approach.

  13. Living in the shadow of death : gangs, violence and social order in urban Nicaragua, 1996–2002

    OpenAIRE

    Rodgers, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the dynamics of the youth gang (pandilla) phenomenon in contemporary urban Nicaragua, drawing on longitudinal ethnographic research conducted with a Managua pandilla in 1996–97 and in 2002. Pandillas and their violent practices are conceived as constituting a form of local social structuration in the face of broader conditions of high crime, insecurity, and socio-political breakdown. This form of ‘ street-level politics ’ changed significantly between 1997 and 2002, howe...

  14. An inventory of mammals, birds and reptiles along a section of the river and banks of upper Ganges, India

    OpenAIRE

    Bashir, T; S. K. Behera; A. Khan; Gautam, P

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess faunal diversity along a 165-km stretch of the upper Ganges River between Bijnor and Narora cities, Uttar Pradesh, from January to June 2007. Both river and bank species diversity of reptiles, birds and mammals using a combination of boat surveys, linear walks and random searches were inventoried. Presence of 18 species of mammals, 55 species of birds and 13 species of reptiles were recorded from the river stretch including 16 species of global conservation s...

  15. Clicking in shallow rivers: short-range echolocation of Irrawaddy and Ganges River dolphins in a shallow, acoustically complex habitat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frants H Jensen

    Full Text Available Toothed whales (Cetacea, odontoceti use biosonar to navigate their environment and to find and catch prey. All studied toothed whale species have evolved highly directional, high-amplitude ultrasonic clicks suited for long-range echolocation of prey in open water. Little is known about the biosonar signals of toothed whale species inhabiting freshwater habitats such as endangered river dolphins. To address the evolutionary pressures shaping the echolocation signal parameters of non-marine toothed whales, we investigated the biosonar source parameters of Ganges river dolphins (Platanista gangetica gangetica and Irrawaddy dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris within the river systems of the Sundarban mangrove forest. Both Ganges and Irrawaddy dolphins produced echolocation clicks with a high repetition rate and low source level compared to marine species. Irrawaddy dolphins, inhabiting coastal and riverine habitats, produced a mean source level of 195 dB (max 203 dB re 1 µPapp whereas Ganges river dolphins, living exclusively upriver, produced a mean source level of 184 dB (max 191 re 1 µPapp. These source levels are 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than those of similar sized marine delphinids and may reflect an adaptation to a shallow, acoustically complex freshwater habitat with high reverberation and acoustic clutter. The centroid frequency of Ganges river dolphin clicks are an octave lower than predicted from scaling, but with an estimated beamwidth comparable to that of porpoises. The unique bony maxillary crests found in the Platanista forehead may help achieve a higher directionality than expected using clicks nearly an octave lower than similar sized odontocetes.

  16. GangMenu : Sistema col·laboratiu de publicació de menús de restaurants

    OpenAIRE

    Pursals i Garcia, Marc

    2012-01-01

    GangMenu es una aplicació desenvolupada en PhoneGap que permet, gràcies a la geolocalització, compartir les imatges dels menús de restaurants i bars, i que siguin accessibles per tothom que vulgui saber què i on menjar. Aquesta aplicació està basada en una infraestructura de 4 parts: aplicació web, api, aplicació mòbil i infraestructura de hardware.

  17. Predicting sexual coercion in early adulthood: The transaction among maltreatment, gang affiliation, and adolescent socialization of coercive relationship norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Thao; Kim, Hanjoe; Christopher, Caroline; Caruthers, Allison; Dishion, Thomas J

    2016-08-01

    This study tested a transactional hypothesis predicting early adult sexual coercion from family maltreatment, early adolescent gang affiliation, and socialization of adolescent friendships that support coercive relationship norms. The longitudinal study of a community sample of 998 11-year-olds was intensively assessed in early and middle adolescence and followed to 23-24 years of age. At age 16-17 youth were videotaped with a friend, and their interactions were coded for coercive relationship talk. Structural equation modeling revealed that maltreatment predicted gang affiliation during early adolescence. Both maltreatment and gang affiliation strongly predicted adolescent sexual promiscuity and coercive relationship norms with friends at age 16-17 years. Adolescent sexual promiscuity, however, did not predict sexual coercion in early adulthood. In contrast, higher levels of observed coercive relationship talk with a friend predicted sexual coercion in early adulthood for both males and females. These findings suggest that peers have a socialization function in the development of norms prognostic of sexual coercion, and the need to consider peers in the promotion of healthy relationships. PMID:27427801

  18. A novel CAM gene from heavy metals hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens L. and functional analysis in yeast%Zn/Cd超富集植物天蓝遏蓝菜(Thlaspi caerulescens)中TcCaM2基因的克隆及在酵母中的重金属耐受性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩璐; 魏嵬; 官子楸; 徐进; 柴团耀

    2007-01-01

    从重金属超富集植物天蓝遏蓝菜(T.caerulescens)Cd胁迫的cDNA文库中,通过基因表达的差异筛选得到的阳性克隆之一,核苷酸序列分析表明,与拟南芥CaM2的相似性高达92%,故命名为TcCaM2(T.caerulescens CaM2,GenBank No.EF053035).其核苷酸序列与迄今已知的钙调蛋白基因同源率在83%以上;其氨基酸序列同源性高达95%以上;与大多数高等植物的CaM,如印度芥菜、拟南芥、水稻等同源性则更高.将TcCaM2基因置于酵母表达启动子之下,构建酵母表达载体,并将其转入重金属敏感型酵母突变菌株,酵母重金属耐受性实验表明,TcCaM2在酵母中的过量表达提高了酵母对Co2+或Ni2+的耐受性,增加了对Cd2+的敏感性,对Zn2+胁迫抗性稍有增加但差异不显著.说明TcCaM2通过其对重金属离子的结合作用及在信号转导系统中的功能,在植物细胞对重金属的富集、耐性中发挥了重要的调节作用.

  19. Hydrogeochemistry and arsenic contamination of groundwater in the Ganges Delta Plain, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, M A; Majumder, R K; Nessa, S A; Hiroshiro, Y; Uddin, M J; Shimada, J; Jinno, K

    2009-05-30

    Geochemical composition and the level of Arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater in the Ganges Delta Plain, southwestern Bangladesh were elucidated. Hydrogeochemical data of tube well samples suggested that the groundwater is mostly Ca-Mg-HCO(3) type with bicarbonate (HCO(3)(-)) as the dominant anion, though other type waters are also observed. In contrast, the elevated EC, Cl(-) and high content of Na(+) relative to Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and K(+) in six groundwater samples suggest their saline origin. Low concentrations of NO(3)(-) and SO(4)(2-), and high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), HCO(3)(-) and PO(4)(3-) indicate the reducing conditions of subsurface aquifer where sediments are deposited with abundant organic matter. The total As concentration in the analyzed samples is very high (0.0431-1.352 mg/L) along with high Fe (2.791-17.058 mg/L) and relatively low Mn (0.134-1.972 mg/L) at different depths. Distinct relationship of As with Fe and Mn, and strong correlation with DOC suggests that the biodegradation of organic matter and reductive dissolution of Fe-oxyhydroxide is considered to be the dominant processes to release As in aquifers. Moreover, negative correlation between As and SO(4)(2-) demonstrates the As may not be directly mobilized from sulfide minerals like arsenopyrite. PMID:18977593

  20. Construction and maintenance of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta: linking process, morphology, and stratigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Carol A; Goodbred, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    We present a review of the processes, morphology, and stratigraphy of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta (GBMD), including insights gained from detailed elevation data. The review shows that the GBMD is best characterized as a composite system, with different regions having morphologic and stratigraphic attributes of an upland fluvial fan delta; a lowland, backwater-reach delta; a downdrift tidal delta plain; and an offshore subaqueous-delta clinoform. These distinct areas of upland and lowland fluvial reaches and tidal dominance vary in time and space, and we distinguish late-Holocene phases of delta construction, maintenance, and decline similar to delta-lobe cycling in other systems. The overall stability of the GBMD landform, relative to many deltas, reflects the efficient, widespread dispersal of sediment by the large monsoon discharge and high-energy tides that affect this region. However, we do identify portions of the delta that are in decline and losing elevation relative to sea level owing to insufficient sediment delivery. These areas, some of which are well inland of the coast, represent those most at risk to the continued effect of sea-level rise. PMID:25251271

  1. The impact of inter-annual rainfall variability on food production in the Ganges basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siderius, Christian; Biemans, Hester; van Walsum, Paul; hellegers, Petra; van Ierland, Ekko; Kabat, Pavel

    2014-05-01

    Rainfall variability is expected to increase in the coming decades as the world warms. Especially in regions already water stressed, a higher rainfall variability will jeopardize food security. Recently, the impact of inter-annual rainfall variability has received increasing attention in regional to global analysis on water availability and food security. But the description of the dynamics behind it is still incomplete in most models. Contemporary land surface and hydrological models used for such analyses describe variability in production primarily as a function of yield, a process driven by biophysical parameters, thereby neglecting yearly variations in cropped area, a process driven largely by management decisions. Agricultural statistics for northern India show that the latter process could explain up to 40% of the observed inter-annual variation in food production in various states. We added a simple dynamic land use decision module to a land surface model (LPJmL) and analyzed to what extent this improved the estimation of variability in food production. Using this improved modelling framework we then assessed if and at which scale rainfall variability affects meeting the food self-sufficiency threshold. Early results for the Ganges Basin indicate that, while on basin level variability in crop production is still relatively low, several districts and states are highly affected (RSTD > 50%). Such insight can contribute to better recommendations on the most effective measures, at the most appropriate scale, to buffer variability in food production.

  2. Salvadoran gangs and extortion. Challenges and priorities related to the extortion phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Andrade

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available During the last few years extortion has garnered a somber relevance for society as a whole, aside from the preponderance it already possessed from law enforcement agents and criminal investigators. The generation of income both in cash and in kind destined for criminal structures, particularly amongst gangs/maras, as well as its implications concerning danger levels and future potential, have made the agencies responsible of public security take a closer look at this crime and ensure there is a full comprehensive assessment made regarding the extortion phenomenon. The above, involved looking into this crime’s different forms of execution, existing enabling factors and the different criminal scenarios it fits into; reviewing how police and prosecutors address these offenses, all operative, investigative and legal implications, as well as the results achieved in the fight against it. Nonetheless, extortionremains a challenge, not only for the institutions involved (Police and the Prosecutor’s Office, but also for the key stakeholders and all those responsible of making strategic decisions for the country.Revista Policía y Seguridad Pública 5(1 2015: 103-148

  3. Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs: Aspects of the One-Percenter Culture for Emergency Department Personnel to Consider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand N. Bosmia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMGs are an iconic element of the criminal landscape in the United States, the country of their origin. Members of OMGs may present to the emergency department (ED as a result of motor vehicle accidents or interpersonal violence. When one member of an OMG is injured, other members and associates are likely to arrive in the ED to support the injured member. The extant literature for ED personnel lacks an overview of the culture of OMGs, a culture that promotes the display of unique symbols and that holds certain paraphernalia as integral to an outlaw biker’s identity and pride. The objective of this manuscript is to discuss various aspects of the culture of OMGs so that ED personnel may better understand the mentality of the outlaw biker. Knowledge of their symbols, values, and hierarchy can be crucial to maintaining order in the ED when an injured outlaw biker presents to the ED. We used standard search engines to obtain reports from law enforcement agencies and studies in academic journals on OMGs. We present the observations of 1 author who has conducted ethnographic research on outlaw bikers since the 1980s.

  4. Inequalities in Human Well-Being in the Urban Ganges Brahmaputra Meghna Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Szabo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The recently endorsed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs agenda unanimously agrees on the need to focus on inclusive development, the importance of eradicating extreme poverty and managing often complex human well-being impacts of rapid urban growth. Sustainable and inclusive urbanisation will accelerate progress towards the SDGs and contribute to eradicating extreme poverty. In tropical delta regions, such as the Ganges Brahmaputra Meghna delta region, urban growth and resulting intra-urban inequalities are accelerated by the impact of environmental and climate change. In this context, the present study uses the 2010 Household Income and Expenditure Survey to analyse the extent of wealth-based inequalities in human well-being in the urban delta region and the determinants of selected welfare measures. The results suggest that the extent of intra-urban inequalities is greatest in educational attainment and access to postnatal healthcare and relatively low in the occurrence of gastric disease. The paper concludes by providing policy recommendations to reduce increasing wealth inequalities in urban areas, thus contributing to sustainable development of the region.

  5. A statistical comparison of four precipitation climate datasets in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenton, James

    There are 630 million people that live within the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna River basin (GBM) who depend on these rivers for their livelihood (Frenken, 2011). These rivers greatly depend upon the precipitation and rain fall to contribute to their flows. Researchers and end-users in the GBM basin depend on climate precipitation datasets to help them study the impact precipitation has the hydrology and agricultural. To properly utilize a dataset, the source input data, the algorithms used to merge the data, and the final temporal and spatial resolution of the dataset all need to be properly understood. The goal for this study is to statistically compare four climate precipitation datasets, GPCP, CMAP, CHIRPS and APHRODITE, in the GBM basin to identify significant differences among them. Their respective data will be compared and, the evaluations will be shared with the SERVIR science team and the hydrologists at ICIMOD. Then, SERVIR and ICIMOD can better aid decision makers in the GBM Basin by improving their knowledge and interpretation of precipitation datasets and how it will affect the people of the GBM Basin.

  6. Outlaw motorcycle gangs: aspects of the one-percenter culture for emergency department personnel to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmia, Anand N; Quinn, James F; Peterson, Todd B; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Tubbs, R Shane

    2014-07-01

    Outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMGs) are an iconic element of the criminal landscape in the United States, the country of their origin. Members of OMGs may present to the emergency department (ED) as a result of motor vehicle accidents or interpersonal violence. When one member of an OMG is injured, other members and associates are likely to arrive in the ED to support the injured member. The extant literature for ED personnel lacks an overview of the culture of OMGs, a culture that promotes the display of unique symbols and that holds certain paraphernalia as integral to an outlaw biker's identity and pride. The objective of this manuscript is to discuss various aspects of the culture of OMGs so that ED personnel may better understand the mentality of the outlaw biker. Knowledge of their symbols, values, and hierarchy can be crucial to maintaining order in the ED when an injured outlaw biker presents to the ED. We used standard search engines to obtain reports from law enforcement agencies and studies in academic journals on OMGs. We present the observations of 1 author who has conducted ethnographic research on outlaw bikers since the 1980s. PMID:25035762

  7. Terrestrial gamma radiation dose measurement and health hazard along river Alaknanda and Ganges in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prerna Sharma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Direct measurement of absorbed dose rate in air due to exposure from outdoor terrestrial γ radiation and assessment of consequent public health hazard continues to be of environmental and public concern. Present study was aimed to establish a baseline data of annual effective dose and to assess the associated health risk from outdoor terrestrial γ radiation along the river Alaknanda and Ganges of India. Terrestrial γ radiation exposure doses (excluding cosmic radiation were measured using a Plastic Scintillation Counter. Absorbed dose rates in air were measured at eight designated locations from Nandprayag to Allahabad along the river. From the average absorbed dose rates, annual effective dose (AED and excess life time cancer risks (ELCR were calculated by standard method. Results showed that absorbed dose rates in air ranged between 81.33 ± 2.34 nSv.h−1 and 144 ± 5.77 nSv.h−1 and calculated AED ranged between 0.10 ± 0.012 mSv.y−1 to 0.18 ± 0.007 mSv.y−1 at the designated locations along these rivers. Calculated ELCR were found in the range of 0.375 × 10−3 to 0.662 × 10−3. Present study measured the outdoor γ radiation levels along the rivers. The calculated annual effective doses and life time cancer risk were found higher than the world average value at higher altitudes. But the measured doses and calculated risks at plains were close to that of reported average values.

  8. Integrated water resources management. Constraints and opportunities with a focus on the Ganges and the Brahmaputra river basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahaman, M.M.

    2009-07-01

    The key aims of this thesis are to identify the constraints and opportunities of implementing the integrated water resources management (IWRM) concept at both the policy and field level. IWRM has been chosen as a focus of this study as all contemporary international conferences, summits, regional water policies and declarations promote the IWRM concept for the effective and efficient management of water resources. The thesis has two parts. The first part reviews the evolution of the IWRM concept and the principles that have been developed at international conferences over the last three decades. Through two case studies on the EU Water Framework Directive (2000) and the Fourth World Water Forum's Ministerial Declaration (2006), an attempt is made to analyse the current implementation status of IWRM principles in practice. The findings suggest that existing policies tend to take a rather narrow view of the concept and have largely failed to incorporate the principles. This part also identifies the seven future challenges in implementing IWRM in practice. Water resources management is multidimensional in nature. In transboundary river basins, implementing the IWRM concept is even more complex as it involves more than one sovereign nation sharing the same water. The second part of the thesis focuses on implementation of IWRM in the transboundary river basin context. This part provides indepth analyses focusing on the integrated management of the Ganges and Brahmaputra river basins that are shared by China, Nepal, Bhutan, India and Bangladesh. It identifies the various dimensions of water conflict among the riparian countries and their views on integrated management of the basins. It analyzes the existing bilateral treaties between the riparian countries and identifies the constraints and benefits of integrated water management along the basins. Practical recommendations for the integrated management of the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins are formulated. The

  9. Violence Against Women: What’s Law Got to Do With It? A Reflection on Gang Rape in India

    OpenAIRE

    Richa Sharma; Susan Bazilli

    2014-01-01

    The brutal gang rape of a physiotherapy student in India in December 2012 drew the world’s attention to the problem of sexual violence against women in the country.  Protests and mass public reaction towards the case pressurized the government to respond to the crisis by changing the laws on sexual violence. However, these new laws have not led to a decrease in VAW. Is this the result of the failure of the rule of law? Or does it highlight the limitations of law in absence of social change? T...

  10. Air Pollution Over the Ganges Basin and Northwest Bay of Bengal in the Early Postmonsoon Season Based on NASA MERRAero Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishcha, Pavel; Da Silva, Arlindo M.; Starobinets, Boris; Alpert, Pinhas

    2014-01-01

    The MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero) has been recently developed at NASA's Global Modeling Assimilation Office. This reanalysis is based on a version of the Goddard Earth Observing System-5 (GEOS-5) model radiatively coupled with Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport aerosols, and it includes assimilation of bias-corrected aerosol optical thickness (AOT) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on both Terra and Aqua satellites. In October over the period 2002-2009, MERRAero showed that AOT was lower over the east of the Ganges basin than over the northwest of the Ganges basin: this was despite the fact that the east of the Ganges basin should have produced higher anthropogenic aerosol emissions because of higher population density, increased industrial output, and transportation. This is evidence that higher aerosol emissions do not always correspond to higher AOT over the areas where the effects of meteorological factors on AOT dominate those of aerosol emissions. MODIS AOT assimilation was essential for correcting modeled AOT mainly over the northwest of the Ganges basin, where AOT increments were maximal. Over the east of the Ganges basin and northwest Bay of Bengal (BoB), AOT increments were low and MODIS AOT assimilation did not contribute significantly to modeled AOT. Our analysis showed that increasing AOT trends over northwest BoB (exceeding those over the east of the Ganges basin) were reproduced by GEOS-5, not because of MODIS AOT assimilation butmainly because of the model capability of reproducing meteorological factors contributing to AOT trends. Moreover, vertically integrated aerosol mass flux was sensitive to wind convergence causing aerosol accumulation over northwest BoB.

  11. Water and Climate Data in the Ganges Basin: Assessing Access to Information Regimes and Implications for Cooperation on Transboundary Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar Prasai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Public access to government-maintained water and climate data in the three major co-riparian countries of the Ganges Basin – Nepal, India and Bangladesh – has been either inadequately granted or formally restricted. This paper examines the effects of newly enacted Right to Information (RTI laws in these three countries to assess changes in the information access regimes as they relate to hydrological data. We find that neither the RTI laws nor the internal and external demand for increased transparency in governments have affected access to information regimes on water at a fundamental level. In India, the RTI laws have not eased public access to data on its transboundary rivers including in the Ganges Basin and in Nepal and Bangladesh, while data can be legally accessed using RTI laws, the administrative procedures for such an access are not developed enough to make a tangible difference on the ground. We then discuss the implications of our findings on the continuing impasse on regional collaboration on water in South Asia and point to rapid advancements in technology as an emerging pathway to greater data democracy.

  12. Analysis of some heavy metals in the riverine water, sediments and fish from river Ganges at Allahabad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aradhna; Rai, Devendra K; Pandey, Ravi S; Sharma, Bechan

    2009-10-01

    The river Ganges has been one of the major recipients of industrial effluents in India. The present paper deals with the study related to occurrence and bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn) in the riverine water, sediment, and the muscles of two cat fish species, Channa punctatus (C. punctatus) and Aorichthys aor (A. aor) procured from the river Ganges at Allahabad. The data obtained after water analysis reflected the order of occurrence of heavy metals to be Zn > Pb > Cu > Cr > Cd, respectively. The analysis of heavy metals in sediment indicated that among the five heavy metals tested; Zn was maximally accumulated followed by Pb, Cr, Cu and Cd. The trend of heavy metals accumulation in fish muscles was found to be similar to that observed in sediment and water such as Zn > Pb > Cu > Cr > Cd. Data indicated that Zn accumulated maximally in the sediment as well as muscles of both of the fish species in comparison to other metals. PMID:18850290

  13. Public intervention on Latin American youth gangs: A few considerations based on immigration laws and their application in Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Moya Malapeira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Administrative intervention on young people from Latin American origins and who belong to youth gangs can be relatively complex, at least from a legal standpoint. On one hand, the young people in question may possess varying types of legal status (foreigners-nationals, youths-adults, regular or irregular which determine the type of administrative intervention that is applied. On the other hand, the resources and routes of administrative intervention that currently exist (intervention on minors deemed to be socially at risk, youth justice, prosecution for crimes, etc. should be modulated and adapted to the peculiarities of these groups, and of the young people themselves. This study is based on the premise that, with certain exceptions, the youth gangs that exist in our cities still do not possess a criminal structure or organisation comparable to the Maras of Central America or the “Latino gangs”, but rather that their proliferation is a symptom of the lack of social integration and the educational failure of these young people in our society. As a consequence, the article stresses that in addition to policing and legal initiatives aimed at fighting crime, there is a need to reinforce social and educational resources to prevent this phenomenon and, particularly, a need to enlarge and make more flexible the non-regulated education-training services that currently exist in order that they should serve as a bridge for these young people’s insertion into the labour market, and thus to prevent their social and legal exclusion.

  14. Abundancia estacional, fenología reproductiva y fidelidad al sitio del mulato (Melanotis caerulescens en ambientes ribereños del suroeste de Jalisco Seasonal abundance, reproductive phenology and site fidelity in riparian environments of the Blue Mockingbird (Melanotis caerulescens in southwestern Jalisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz de los Milagros Rodríguez-Parga

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio describe la abundancia estacional, fenología reproductiva y fidelidad al sitio de Melanotis caerulescens, especie de ave endémica de México, localmente conocida como mulato y valorada por su canto. Se realizó un muestreo con el método de captura con redes de niebla durante 2 años en 3 sitios de la vegetación ribereña del río Ayuquila, Jalisco. Se caracterizó el hábitat mediante muestreos de los estratos arbóreo, arbustivo y herbáceo. Mediante modelos lineales generalizados se analizaron las diferencias de cobertura de los estratos entre los sitios y se identificó el efecto del sitio y el mes sobre la abundancia de la especie. La presencia de parche de incubación y protuberancia cloacal describe un periodo reproductor de abril a agosto. La abundancia del mulato se relacionó positivamente con sitios de mayor cobertura arbustiva y el análisis de fidelidad (por presencia-ausencia de 16 individuos mostró que 3 parejas reproductoras mantuvieron sus territorios. Estos resultados sugieren que mantener una adecuada densidad de sotobosque arbustivo en zonas ribereñas es importante para proveer alimento y áreas para la nidificación que requiere el mulato. El presente estudio es relevante por tratarse de los primeros datos al respecto que se publican sobre esta especie endémica.This study describes the seasonal abundance, reproductive phenology and site fidelity of the Blue Mockingbird (Melanotis caerulescens, an endemic species of Mexico noted for its singing capabilities. This species was sampled using mist-nets for 2 consecutive years at 3 sites of riparian vegetation in the Ayuquila River, Jalisco. Habitat characterization was carried out through sampling strata of trees, shrubs, and herbaceous ground cover. We used Generalized Linear Models to analyze the differences in coverage strata between the sites, and to identify the effect of site and month on the abundance of the species. The presence of a brood patch and

  15. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of River Channel Migration on the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta: 2000-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, C.; Chiu, S.; Sousa, D.; Mondal, D. R.; Steckler, M. S.; Akhter, S. H.; Mia, B.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Wilson, C.; Seeber, L.

    2014-12-01

    We use multitemporal multiscale satellite remote sensing to complement field observations and subsurface measurements to better understand the relationship between recent and historic fluvial dynamics on the Ganges-Brahmaputra (GB) delta. To provide regional context for the interannual changes in river channel geometry we conduct spatiotemporal (ST) analyses of MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) imagery for 2000-2013 using a new method of Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis. We use EVI because it distinguishes water from wet and dry sediment on the basis of the spectral slope at VNIR wavelengths. Water has a negative slope while dry sediment has a small positive slope and vegetation has a large positive slope. To characterize the ST patterns associated with river channel migration we use iterative EOF analysis (iEOF). In iEOF we first conduct a single year EOF analysis for each year in the time series to identify the primary spatial principal component (PC1) for each year and separate this from the spatial structure of the subannual temporal patterns associated with vegetation phenology. We then construct a decadal time series of PC 1 for each single year and conduct a second EOF analysis of the time series of 13 individual year PCs. The standard EOFs of the full (312 images x 16 day) time series only resolve a decadal trend (EOF 8), but the iEOF clearly distinguishs the progressive decadal trend (EOF 2) from the cyclic component (EOF 3) of decadal changes in sediment reflectance. The temporal feature space constructed from PC 2 and PC 3 (corresponding to temporal EOFs 2 and 3) distinguishes pixels with progressive decadal increases and decreases in reflectance from pixels with cyclic changes. Evolution of the annual structure is animated at www.youtube.com/watch?v=UM1UYvdnYXk Despite significant differences in the 2 rivers'morphologies, and the considerable magnitude of flooding every year, we observe year-to-year continuity in the progressive

  16. Strategies for transdisciplinary research on peri-urban groundwater management in the Ganges delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Leon; Thissen, Wil; Gomes, Sharlene; Banerjee, Poulomi; Narain, Vishal; Salehin, Mashfiqus; Hasan, Rezaul; Barua, Anamika; Alam Khan, Shah; Bhattacharya, Samir; Kempers, Remi; Banerjee, Parthasarathi; Hossain, Zakir; Majumdar, Binoy; Hossain, Riad

    2016-04-01

    Transdisciplinary science transcends disciplinary boundaries. The reasons to engage in transdisciplinary science are many and include the desire to nurture a more direct relationship between science and society, as well as the desire to explain phenomena that cannot be explained by any of the existing disciplinary bodies of knowledge in isolation. Both reasons also reinforce each other, as reality often features a level of complexity that demands and inspires the combination of scientific knowledge from various disciplines. The challenge in transdisciplinary science, however, is not so much to cross disciplinary boundaries, but to ensure an effective connection between disciplines. This contribution reports on the strategy used in a transdisciplinary research project to address groundwater management in peri-urban areas in the Ganges delta. Groundwater management in peri-urban areas in rapidly urbanizing deltas is affected by diverse forces such as rapid population growth, increased economic activity and changing livelihood patterns, and other forces which result in a growing pressure on available groundwater resources. Understanding the intervention possibilities for a more sustainable groundwater management in these peri-urban areas requires an understanding of the dynamic interplay between various sub-systems, such as the physical groundwater system, the water using activities in households and livelihoods, and the institutional system of formal and informal rules that are used by various parties to access groundwater resources and to distribute the associated societal and economic costs and benefits. The ambition in the reported project is to contribute both new scientific knowledge, as well as build capacity with peri-urban stakeholders to improve the sustainability and equitability of local groundwater management. This is done by combining science and development activities, led by different organizations. The scientific component further consists of three

  17. Deducing Weathering Processes Using Silicon Isotopes in the Ganges Alluvial Plain, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frings, P.; De La Rocha, C. L.; Fontorbe, G.; Chakrapani, G.; Clymans, W.; Conley, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Ganges Alluvial Plain ('GAP') is the sedimentary infill of the foreland basin created during Himalayan orogeny. Freshly eroded material from the Himalaya and southern cratonic tributaries is deposited into a system with long water-sediment interaction times, creating potential for further generation of river weathering fluxes. To quantify weathering processes in the GAP, 51 sites including all major tributaries were sampled in a September 2013 campaign and analysed for major and minor ions, Ge/Si ratios and δ30Si, δ13C and δ18O. Net dissolved Si (DSi) and major cation yields are 2 to 5 times lower in the GAP than the Himalaya, and at a whole basin scale approximate the global average, indicating that the plain apparently moderates the efficiency of Himalayan weathering rates. Mainstem δ30Si spans 0.81 to 1.93‰ (see figure) and gives the impression of a system buffered to moderate DSi and δ30Si. Ge/Si ratios (µmol/mol) are higher than expected in the Himalaya (>3), reflecting input of Ge-enriched water from hot springs, and decline to ~1.4 in the GAP. For the Himalayan sourced rivers, δ30Si increases with distance from the Himalayan front, and can not be explained entirely by conservative mixing with higher δ30Si peninsular and GAP streams. To a first degree, the δ30Si data suggest incorporation of Si into secondary minerals as the key fractionating process, and that this occurs both in situ during initial weathering and progressively in the GAP. Partitioning of solutes between sources is complicated in the GAP. Consistent with previous work, carbonate weathering dominates the ion fluxes, but with substantial contributions from saline/alkaline soil salts, the chlorination of wastewater and highly variable rainfall chemistry. Due to these contributions, precisely inferring the input from silicate weathering is difficult. We introduce a novel method to infer silicate-weathering rates that exploits the fractionation of Si during clay formation to account

  18. Predicting Gang Fight Participation in a General Youth Sample via the HEW Youth Development Model's Community Program Impact Scales, Age, and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truckenmiller, James L.

    The accurate prediction of violence has been in the spotlight of critical concern in recent years. To investigate the relative predictive power of peer pressure, youth perceived negative labeling, youth perceived access to educational and occupational roles, social alienation, self-esteem, sex, and age with regard to gang fight participation…

  19. The Lived Experiences of Single Hispanic Mothers Raising Gang-Affiliated Male Youth Released from Texas Juvenile Justice Department State Facilities: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Almendarez, Ruby

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study (Moustakas, 1994) was to describe the experiences that single Hispanic mothers of gang-affiliated male juveniles face during their sons' reentry process after being released from a Texas Juvenile Justice Department state facility. Methods: After an extensive…

  20. “轮奸”认定的相关问题探究%To Explore the Related Issues of“Gang rape”Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许妙贤

    2014-01-01

    随着近几年国内外轮奸案件的频发,如轰动一时的“印度黑公交轮奸案”、“旌德县三男子轮奸一女教师案”、“李某某轮奸案”等,轮奸对社会的影响巨大也成为阻碍社会秩序稳定的不良因素,我国刑事立法将其置为强奸罪的法定加重情节之一予以严厉打击,但该情节的司法适用仍旧存在问题,通过反思立法存在的不足从而探究完善之路径。%With the frequent gang rape case in recent years at home and abroad, Such as " india black bus gang rape case" which create a great sensation, "The three man gang rape a woman teacher in Jingde county, "Li gang rape case" etc. Great effect of gang rape to the society become the adverse factors that hinder the social order and stability. The criminal legislation of our country place it on one of the statutory aggravating circumstances of crime of rape to be severely punished. But the circumstances of the judicial application still exist problems. A reflection of legislation are to explore perfect path.

  1. Exploring the influence of precipitation extremes and human water use on total water storage (TWS) changes in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandu; Forootan, Ehsan; Schumacher, Maike; Awange, Joseph L.; Müller Schmied, Hannes

    2016-03-01

    Climate extremes such as droughts and intense rainfall events are expected to strongly influence global/regional water resources in addition to the growing demands for freshwater. This study examines the impacts of precipitation extremes and human water usage on total water storage (TWS) over the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) River Basin in South Asia. Monthly TWS changes derived from the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) (2002-2014) and soil moisture from three reanalyses (1979-2014) are used to estimate new extreme indices. These indices are applied in conjunction with standardized precipitation indices (SPI) to explore the impacts of precipitation extremes on TWS in the region. The results indicate that although long-term precipitation do not indicate any significant trends over the two subbasins (Ganges and Brahmaputra-Meghna), there is significant decline in rainfall (9.0 ± 4.0 mm/decade) over the Brahmaputra-Meghna River Basin from 1998 to 2014. Both river basins exhibit a rapid decline of TWS from 2002 to 2014 (Ganges: 12.2 ± 3.4 km3/yr and Brahmaputra-Meghna: 9.1 ± 2.7 km3/yr). While the Ganges River Basin has been regaining TWS (5.4 ± 2.2 km3/yr) from 2010 onward, the Brahmaputra-Meghna River Basin exhibits a further decline (13.0 ± 3.2 km3/yr) in TWS from 2011 onward. The impact of human water consumption on TWS appears to be considerably higher in Ganges compared to Brahmaputra-Meghna, where it is mainly concentrated over Bangladesh. The interannual water storage dynamics are found to be strongly associated with meteorological forcing data such as precipitation. In particular, extreme drought conditions, such as those of 2006 and 2009, had profound negative impacts on the TWS, where groundwater resources are already being unsustainably exploited.

  2. In the Balance: Natural v. Embanked Landscapes in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Tidal Delta Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace Auerbach, L.; Goodbred, S. L.; Mondal, D. R.; Wilson, C.; Ahmed, K.; Roy, K.; Steckler, M. S.; Gilligan, J. M.; Nooner, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    Natural river deltas are defined by a balance of net aggradational processes that construct the delta platform, and marine processes that redistribute sediments and facilitate platform evolution. The future of deltas worldwide will be determined by this balance of sedimentation, subsidence and sea-level rise, in addition to human-caused perturbations. Among the world's delta systems the Ganges-Brahmaputra is perceived to be at great risk to degradation and submergence under multiple climate and sea-level rise (SLR) scenarios. In particular, the lower delta plain in southwest Bangladesh is isolated from fluvial processes, yet still receives up to 1 cm of sediment accretion annually as sediments discharged at the river mouth are reworked by tides and deposited onto the lower delta plain. In the Sundarbans, a 10,000 km2 block of pristine mangrove forest in the region, this tidally supported sedimentation has been effective in maintaining a dynamic equilibrium with SLR that is augmented by local subsidence and shallow compaction. Adjacent to the Sundarbans, however, human modification has significantly impacted the landscape through embankment construction that occurred in the 1960s to increase arable land for rice production and famine relief. As a consequence, the embankments have locally inhibited sediment delivery to the landscape, decoupling these interacting systems. In the ensuing five decades the land has continued to subside and compact, and in the absence of sediment accretion has experienced a net elevation loss of more than 1 m since embankment construction. The acute effects of this elevation offset were felt in 2009 when the embankments of several large islands breached during Cyclone Aila. We are studying Polder 32, a 60 km2 island that was land tidally inundated for two years until its embankments were repaired. Despite sustained human suffering during this time, the newly reconnected landscape rebounded with tens of centimeters of tidally deposited

  3. Evolution of the P/Shoemaker-Levy 9 'Gang of Four' Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This series of eight NASA Hubble Space Telescope 'snapshots' shows the evolution of the P-Q complex, also called the 'gang of four' region, of comet P/Shoemaker-Levy 9.The eight individual frames chronicle changes in the comet during the 12 months before colliding with Jupiter. The sequence shows that the relative separations of the various cometary fragments, thought to range in size from about 500 meters to almost 4 km (2.5 miles) across, changed dramatically over this period. The apparent separation of Q1 and Q2 was only about 1100 kilometers (680 miles) on 1 July 1993 and increased to 28,000 kilometers (17,400 miles) by 20 July 1994.The P-Q complex demonstrates that further fragmentation occurred after the breakup of the parent body in July 1992. Fragments Q1 and Q2 were probably together at some point in a single body. However, it is not clear how P1 and P2, and the P and Q objects are related.Between 24 January and 30 March 1994, the P2 nucleus broke-up into two separate fragments, one of which disappeared by late June. (It might be present in the mid-May image.) The P1 nucleus had a 'streaked' appearance on 24 January 1994 and then became a barely discernible 'puff' through mid-May. It was not detected in subsequent observations.Throughout the period, most nuclei were within a 4000 kilometer-wide (2500 miles) spherical cloud of dust, called a coma. However, shortly before impact, the coma around each nucleus became highly elongated along the comet's travel path due to 'stretching' by Jupiter's rapidly increasing gravity.This stretching is dramatic in the image of the Q-complex taken on 20 July 1994, just 10 hours before collision. Despite the coma's changes, HST images show that the core of each nucleus always remained concentrated. This shows that the nuclei were probably not catastrophically fragmenting, at least not up to 10 hours before impact.The first HST image was taken on 1 July 1993 with the Planetary Camera before the December 1993 HST servicing

  4. Precocious transitions and long-term heroin use outcomes: A longitudinal study of gang-affiliated Mexican-American males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, Alice; Nowotny, Kathryn M; Frankeberger, Jessica; Valdez, Avelardo

    2016-09-01

    A longitudinal study (15years) investigates heroin use patterns following precocious transition experiences for gang-affiliated Mexican-American males (n=119) in San Antonio, Texas. Five precocious transitions are examined: cohabitation, early nest leaving, school dropout, teenage parenthood, and unemployment (while not in school). Half of these men used heroin over the follow-up period for an average of under 4years. Findings from a zero-inflated Poisson model indicate that while these transitions do not have a significant effect on initiation of heroin use, they do have an important influence on individual's drug trajectories once they have initiated. Early-nest leaving and teenage parenthood are protective factors for continued heroin use while dropping out of high school and cohabiting during this same period are risk factors. Findings are discussed within the context of these disadvantaged and marginalized communities. PMID:27092995

  5. Reviving the Ganges Water Machine: Accelerating surface water and groundwater interactions in the Ramganga sub-basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surinaidu, L.; Muthuwatta, L.; Amarasinghe, U. A.; Jain, S. K.; Ghosh, N. C.; Kumar, Sudhir; Singh, Surjeet

    2016-09-01

    Reviving the Ganges Water Machine (GWM), coined 40 years ago, is the most opportune solution for mitigating the impacts of recurrent droughts and floods in the Ganges River Basin in South Asia. GWM create subsurface storage (SSS) by pumping more groundwater from the aquifers before the monsoon for irrigation and other uses and recharge it during the monsoon. The present study uses fully processed and physically based numerical models, MODFLOW and SWAT, in a semi-coupled modelling framework to examine the technical feasibility of recharging the SSS. The aquifer was simulated as a two-layer system using hydrogeological and groundwater data, model was calibrated from 1999 to 2005 and validated from 2006 to 2010. It assesses the impacts of gradual increase of SSS in 10 years from the base year 2010 under two scenarios (increased rainfall or controlled pumping and recharge) to meet a potential unmet demand of 1.68 billion cubic meters (Bm3) in the Ramganga sub-basin with an area of 18,668 km2. The results show that 3-4 m of subsurface storage can be created by groundwater pumping of 0.25 Bm3/year by 2020. Under the controlled pumping and recharge scenario, groundwater recharge and river seepage could increase by 14% (4.21-4.80 Bm3) and 31% (1.10-1.44 Bm3), respectively. However, baseflow will decrease by 30% (0.18-0.12 Bm3) over the same time period. The results also show that recharge increased 44% (4.21-6.05 Bm3) under an increased rainfall scenario. Simultaneously, river seepage and baseflows would increase 36% (1.10-1.14 Bm3) and 11% (0.18-0.20 Bm3), respectively. A well-designed managed aquifer recharge program is required to eliminate the negative impact of river flows in the low flow season.

  6. Engineering Design of A Gang Drilling Machine Equipped with Jig and Fixtures to Make A Prototype Machine in Birdcage Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Widiyono

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dealing with the engineering design of a gang drilling machine with jig & fixtures to make a prototype machine. This effort has been done in order to solve the problem which aroused in small business enterprises producing birdcages. The problem was how to minimize the production time in making a lot of holes that have same distance and straightness. Hopefully, the prototype machine can help the small business enterprises to increase their production rate.The design engineering process has been carried out by variant approximation on dowel pin modular fixtures in order to simplify fixtures design. CAD CAM software has also been used as fixtures synthesized method including geometric analysis and three dimensional fixtures assembling. The resulting prototype machine can be well operated and based on the running test, it can be concluded that the greater the motor rotation the greater the power needed. As for teak wood, at 250 rpm motor rotation the power needed is 26.5 watt, and at 400 rpm the motor needs power of 43.6 watt while at 600 rpm the motor needs power of 600 watt. The power consumption is also depends on the type of material, the better the mechanical properties of the materials, the higher the power consumption. For cast iron, the 400 rpm motor rotation needs power as high as 569.7 watt. This prototype of gang drilling machine needs power of 350 watt to make five holes on teak wood while ordinary drilling machine needs total power of 1350 watt.

  7. Spatial gradients in freshwater fish diversity, abundance and current pattern in the Himalayan region of Upper Ganges Basin, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AJEY KUMAR PATHAK

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pathak AK, Sarkar UK, Singh SP. 2014. Spatial gradients in freshwater fish diversity, abundance and current pattern in the Himalayan region of Upper Ganges Basin, India. Biodiversitas 15: 186-194.The present study describes the analysis and mapping of the different measurements of freshwater fish biodiversity of the Upper Ganges basin in the Himalayan region using spatial interpolation methods of Geographical Information System. The diversity, richness and abundance of fishes for each sampling location were determined and Kriging interpolation was applied on each fisheries measurement to predict and produce semivariogram. The semivariogarms produced were cross validated and reclassified. The reclassified maps for richness, abundance and diversity of fishes, occurrence of cold water threatened fish and abundance of important genera like Tor, Schziothorax and species were produced. The result of the Kriging produced good results and overall error in the estimation process was found significant. The cross validation of semovariograms also provided a better result with the observed data sets. Moreover, weighted overlay analysis of the reclassified raster maps of richness and abundance of fishes produced the classified raster map at different evaluation scale (0-10 qualitatively describing the gradient of species richness and abundance compositely. Similarly, the classified raster map at same evaluation scale qualitatively describing the gradient of species abundance and diversity compositely was produced and published. Further, basin wise analysis between Alaknanda/Pindar and Ganga1 sub basins showed 0.745 disparities at 0.745 distances in 2 dimensional spaces. The richness, diversity and abundance of threatened fishes among the different sampling locations were not significant (p = 0.9.

  8. Lithium isotope fractionation in the Ganges-Brahmaputra floodplain and implications for groundwater impact on seawater isotopic composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagard, Marie-Laure; West, A. Joshua; Newman, Karla; Basu, Asish R.

    2015-12-01

    Lithium isotopes are a promising proxy for reconstructing past weathering processes, but unraveling the seawater record requires a comprehensive understanding of the magnitude and isotopic composition of Li fluxes to the oceans, and of how these change over time. Little information is available on the role of floodplain sediments and groundwater systems in setting the Li isotope signature of the dissolved flux delivered from the continents to the oceans. Here we investigate the Li dissolved fluxes of river waters and groundwaters in the Ganges-Brahmaputra floodplain. The data suggest that a maximum of 3.1 ×108 and 1.5 ×108 moles Li/yr are carried to the Bay of Bengal by Ganges-Brahmaputra rivers and groundwaters, respectively. The riverine flux has a significantly heavier Li isotope composition (average δ7Li: 26‰) than the groundwater flux (average δ7Li: 16‰) and increases downstream across the floodplain. δ7Li in both river waters and shallow groundwater can be explained by Li scavenging by Quaternary floodplain sediments following a Rayleigh fractionation process, with preferential removal of 6Li. On the other hand, deep groundwaters (>40 m) contributing to submarine groundwater discharge to the Bay of Bengal are enriched in 6Li at depth, likely due to the dissolution of floodplain sediments releasing Li with a light isotope composition. Similarly low δ7Li has been reported in other large sedimentary aquifers. The deep groundwater values are close to the average isotope composition of the global Li inputs to the ocean (∼15‰), so groundwater submarine discharge has only a minor influence on the assessment of the modern Li isotope budget of the ocean. Our analysis further suggests that groundwater discharge of Li has probably played at most a small and secondary role in past changes in the isotope composition of the total continental flux of Li to the ocean.

  9. 包庇与纵容黑社会性质组织罪之犯罪构成比较%A Comparative Research of Shielding and Conniving the Organizing Crime with Gang Nature and Gangs Crime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁经顺; 牛忠志

    2012-01-01

    There exists big difference between shielding the organizing crime with Gang nature and conniving the organizing crime with Gang nature.On the object condition,the two crimes have different behavior premise,behavior method and the time of behaviors.On the subject of the crimes,the first crime always happens on national office staff without any limits.The second crime always happens on national office staff with certain obligation.On the object condition of the crimes,although the two crimes have the same main object conditions,the crimes have different secondary object condition.On the subject condition,the first crime can be viewed as direct and intentionally action and the second include direct intention and indirect intention,but have much indirect intention in practice.%包庇黑社会性质组织罪与纵容黑社会性质组织罪之犯罪构成存在较大的差异。在客观要件上,二罪的行为前提(负有特定职责)和行为方式截然不同,行为的发生时间也有着重大的区别;在犯罪主体方面,前者为国家机关工作人员,没有任何限制,而后者必须是负有特定义务的国家机关工作人员;在犯罪客体要件方面,尽管二罪的主要客体要件相同,但次要客体要件却是不同的;主观要件上,一般认为,前者仅限于直接故意,而后者包括直接故意和间接故意,但实践中以间接故意者居多。

  10. Characterization of the artisanal fishing communities in Nepal and potential implications for the conservation and management of Ganges River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica gangetica)

    OpenAIRE

    Paudel, S.; Levesque, J.C. (Juan); Saavedra, C.; Pita, C.; Pal, P.

    2016-01-01

    The Ganges River dolphin (Platanista gangetica gangetica) (GRD) is classified as one of the most endangered of all cetaceans in the world and the second scarcest freshwater cetacean. The population is estimated to be less than 2,000 individuals. In Nepal’s Narayani, Sapta Koshi, and Karnali river systems, survival of GRD continues to be threatened by various anthropogenic activities, such as dam construction and interactions with artisanal fisheries. A basic description of the ...

  11. Letting Go of Clecha, While Holding Corazón; Developing a New Approach to Empowering Youth in Gangs the Homeboy Industries Way

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Cesar A.

    2016-01-01

    This capstone seeks to assess and support Homeboy Industries (HBI), a leader in wrap-around services for formerly gang-involved and incarcerated men and women, in their co-creation of a youth services committee and a comprehensive system of care for young people. In doing so, my strategic project consists of conducting stakeholder interviews, focus groups, and synthesizing those findings to present to the organization. The second part of the strategic project involves building and working wit...

  12. Salvadoran gangs and their criminal behavior: Foresight on their organizational structures and territorial expansion for the next decade, 2015-2025

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herard Von Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This analysis will address gangs as its focal point, including who their members are, their level of organization or their structure, the illegal activities they carry out, and their territorial control. Therefore, a Foresight with three estimated scenarios for the next decade shall be developed, as this situation currently represents the biggest challenge to the country´s public safety.But, how is the impact of gangs in a society measured? Some parameters might be: Measuring their extent and territorial expansion, their criminal activities in total, their willingness to break the established social order, their ability to displace and substitute state control, and their capability of ending the life of human beings.Likewise, this analysis shall shed light on the impact that external or internal organized crime groups have in order to influence these trends, as well as the policies and resources that the State has used to prevent or lessen the realization of such trends among the gangs. Furthermore, it will include a study of possible measures to be implemented to counter these criminal trends.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v4i2.1762

  13. Violence Against Women: What’s Law Got to Do With It? A Reflection on Gang Rape in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Sharma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The brutal gang rape of a physiotherapy student in India in December 2012 drew the world’s attention to the problem of sexual violence against women in the country.  Protests and mass public reaction towards the case pressurized the government to respond to the crisis by changing the laws on sexual violence. However, these new laws have not led to a decrease in VAW. Is this the result of the failure of the rule of law? Or does it highlight the limitations of law in absence of social change? This paper addresses the need for using law as a key tool in addressing violence against women in India.  It recognizes that unless we address the structural and root causes of violence against women, our analysis will be limited. It is important to bridge the creation of new laws, with an analysis that speaks to the role of hypermasculinity, neoliberalism and culture in VAW. If unaddressed, what may result instead are quick fixes, symbolized by passing laws that act as token gestures, rather than leading to transformative action.

  14. Object-based Dune Analysis: Automated dune mapping and pattern characterization for Ganges Chasma and Gale crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, David A.; Sarmento, Pedro T. K.; Barata, Maria T.; Fenton, Lori K.; Michaels, Timothy I.

    2015-12-01

    A method that enables the automated mapping and characterization of dune fields on Mars is described. Using CTX image mosaics, the introduced Object-based Dune Analysis (OBDA) technique produces an objective and reproducible mapping of dune morphologies over extensive areas. The data set thus obtained integrates a large variety of data, allowing a simple cross-analysis of dune patterns, spectral and morphometric information, and mesoscale wind models. Two dune fields, located in Gale crater and Ganges Chasma, were used to test and validate the methodology. The segmentation of dune-related morphologies is highly efficient, reaching overall accuracies of 95%. In addition, we show that the automated segmentation of slipface traces is also possible with expected accuracies of 85-90%. A qualitative and quantitative comparison of the final outputs with photointerpretations is performed, and the precision of the directional characterization of the dune patterns is evaluated. We demonstrate a good agreement between the OBDA outputs and the photointerpreted dune morphologies, with local trend deviations below 45° for 80-95% of the mapped areas. Because the developed algorithm is tuned for the recognition of linear features from the imagery, the slipfaces of small barchans can be preferentially overlooked owing to their small extent at the spatial resolution of the CTX mosaics. Dune types composed of longer linear morphologies are much better represented, including correct mapping of secondary structures. Having proved the effectiveness and accuracy of the mapping procedure, we discuss its future applications for the improvement of dune catalogs on Mars.

  15. Modeling complex flow dynamics of fluvial floods exacerbated by sea level rise in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeuchi, Hiroaki; Hirabayashi, Yukiko; Yamazaki, Dai; Kiguchi, Masashi; Koirala, Sujan; Nagano, Takanori; Kotera, Akihiko; Kanae, Shinjiro

    2015-12-01

    Global warming is likely to exacerbate future fluvial floods in the world’s mega-delta regions due to both changing climate and rising sea levels. However, the effects of sea level rise (SLR) on fluvial floods in such regions have not been taken into account in current global assessments of future flood risk, due to the difficulties in modeling channel bifurcation and the backwater effect. We used a state-of-the-art global river routing model to demonstrate how these complexities contribute to future flood hazard associated with changing climate and SLR in the world’s largest mega-delta region, the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta. The model demonstrated that flood water in the main channels flows into tributaries through bifurcation channels, which resulted in an increase in inundation depth in deltaic regions. We found that there were large areas that experienced an increase in inundation depth and period not directly from the SLR itself but from the backwater effect of SLR, and the effect propagated upstream to locations far from the river mouth. Projections under future climate scenarios as well as SLR indicated that exposure to fluvial floods will increase in the last part of the 21st century, and both SLR and channel bifurcation make meaningful contributions.

  16. Recent trends in groundwater levels in a highly seasonal hydrological system: the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shamsudduha

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater levels in shallow aquifers underlying Asian mega-deltas are characterized by strong seasonal variations associated with monsoon rainfall. To resolve trend and seasonal components in weekly groundwater levels in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM Delta, we apply a nonparametric seasonal-trend decomposition procedure (STL to observations compiled from 1985 to 2005 in Bangladesh. Seasonality dominates observed variance in groundwater levels but declining groundwater levels (>1 m/yr are detected in urban and peri-urban areas around Dhaka as well as in north-central, northwestern, and southwestern parts of the country (0.1 to 0.5 m/yr where intensive abstraction of groundwater is conducted for dry-season rice cultivation. Rising groundwater levels (0.5 to 2.5 cm/yr are observed in the estuarine and southern coastal regions. This novel application of the STL procedure reveals, for the first time, the unsustainability of irrigation supplied by shallow aquifers in some areas of the GBM Delta and the hydrological impact of seawater intrusion of coastal aquifers associated with sea-level rise. Our findings provide important insight into the hydrological impacts of groundwater-fed irrigation and sea-level rise in other Asian mega-deltas where monitoring data are limited.

  17. Recent trends in groundwater levels in a highly seasonal hydrological system: the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shamsudduha

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater levels in shallow aquifers underlying Asian mega-deltas are characterized by strong seasonal variations associated with monsoon rainfall. To resolve trend and seasonal components in weekly groundwater levels in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM Delta, we apply a nonparametric seasonal-trend decomposition procedure (STL to observations compiled from 1985–2005 in Bangladesh. Seasonality dominates observed variance in groundwater levels but declining groundwater levels (>1 m/yr are detected in urban and peri-urban areas around Dhaka as well as in north-central, northwestern, and southwestern parts of the country (0.1–0.5 m/yr where intensive abstraction of groundwater is conducted for dry-season rice cultivation. Rising groundwater levels (0.5–2.5 cm/yr are observed in the estuarine and southern coastal regions. This novel application of the STL procedure reveals, for the first time, the unsustainability of irrigation supplied by shallow aquifers in some areas (e.g., High Barind Tract of the GBM Delta and the hydrological impact of potential seawater intrusion of coastal aquifers associated with sea-level rise. Our findings provide important insight into the hydrological impacts of groundwater-fed irrigation and sea-level rise in other Asian mega-deltas where monitoring data are limited.

  18. Gang/Anti-Gang Strategic Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    HENRY WAS SEVENTEEN when he began attending high school at a Los Angeles juvenile detention camp. Despite his Anglicized name, Henry spoke no English. He had come from Tegucigalpa, Honduras two years earlier, having undertaken a harrowing six-month journey to Los Angeles in order to look for his mother. His story is common. His mother left him as a toddler in the care of extended family, but the arrangement fell through, forcing Henry into the street life at age five. He lived with other chil...

  19. The Gang Problem in America: Formulating an Effective Federal Response. Hearing To Examine How the Federal Government Can Establish Effective Programs To Deter Youth Violence in America before the Subcommittee on Juvenile Justice of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, Second Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

    The Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Justice of the Committee on the Judiciary convened to discuss the federal role in combating juvenile participation in gangs. A proposed amendment to the crime bill being developed, described at the hearing by Senator Orrin G. Hatch (Utah), makes it a federal offense to engage in gang-related crime and subjects…

  20. Effects of seasonal and inter-annual land cover changes on the hydrology of the Upper Ganges basin, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsarouchi, G.; Mijic, A.; Buytaert, W.

    2013-12-01

    In recent decades India has undergone substantial environmental change. The expansion of agricultural land area to meet the demand of a rapidly increasing population and the increasing intensification of groundwater extractions have led to an alarming drop in the water table levels. The recent floods over northern India have raised concerns about how the regional climate variations and human induced changes in landscape are influencing the temporal dynamics of climate-surface-groundwater interactions. Earlier work by the authors developed high-resolution land cover maps for northern India, based on satellite imagery, for the years 1984, 1998 and 2010. These maps were used to drive the distributed version of the land surface model JULES in order to investigate the impact of inter-annual land cover changes in the hydrology of the Upper Ganges (UG) river basin in India. However, JULES in its current version does not simulate crop growth. Since 60% of the study area is occupied by agriculture, the model was improved with routines that allow for dynamic representation of crop growth. The parametrization was done for the two main crops of the UG basin (wheat and rice), allowing for 2 cropping seasons per year. The impact of seasonal and inter-annual land cover changes was investigated by calculating variations in hydrological components such as stream flow, evapotranspiration and soil moisture. The results show that the seasonal cycle is changing a lot when crop growth is taken into account, whereas annual fluxes do not change much. The dynamic coupling of land-surface schemes and crop models is an essential step toward the analysis of future changes of water resources in India caused by climate change, land use change, and potential interactions between both. This is a prerequisite for constructing decision support tools for regional land-use planning and management.

  1. Post-flood status of the Endangered Ganges River Dolphin Platanista gangetica gangetica (Cetartiodactyla: Platanistidae in the Koshi River, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.B. Khatri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The breach of the eastern embankment of the Koshi Barrage at Paschim Kusaha Village of Sunsari District on 18 August 2008, created havoc for wildlife and their habitats, as well as people’s livelihood and welfare. The Koshi River flowed through the breach for five months. Following the breach, a population assessment survey of the Endangered Ganges River Dolphin Platanista gangetica gangetica was made between March and November 2009 in the Koshi River main channel starting from Chatara to 2km south of Koshi Barrage to ascertain their status. A direct count survey was conducted by two teams of researchers simultaneously searching for animals by boat from Chatara to the Koshi Barrage including the Triyuga River and on foot along the river banks downstream of Koshi Barrage and along the Mariya River. Standard protocols were followed to record the number of sighted dolphins. A total of 11 dolphins were recorded in the entire 49-km river stretch with an encounter rate of 0.23 dolphins per km. The current result showed an encouraging population of dolphins in the Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and its buffer zone but the threats for conservation still remain challenging. Close monitoring of dolphins and their habitats involving local communities are required for long term conservation of the river dolphins in Nepal. The breach of the eastern embankment of the Koshi Barrage at Paschim Kusaha Village of Sunsari District on 18 August 2008, created havoc for wildlife and their habitats, as well as people’s livelihood and welfare. The Koshi River flowed through the breach for five months. Following the breach, a population assessment survey of the Endangered Ganges River Dolphin Platanista gangetica gangetica was made between March and November 2009 in the Koshi River main channel starting from Chatara to 2km south of Koshi Barrage to ascertain their status. A direct count survey was conducted by two teams of researchers simultaneously searching for

  2. Evaluación de ácidos siálico y gangliósidos en leche y preparados infantiles

    OpenAIRE

    Lacomba Perales, Ramón

    2011-01-01

    La leche materna es el alimento idóneo para satisfacer las necesidades del lactante, durante las primeras etapas de la vida. No obstante, en algunas situaciones se recurre a la alimentación con preparados infantiles, cuya composición en macronutrientes y oligoelementos esenciales (vitaminas y minerales) tiende a ser semejante a la de la leche humana. El ácido siálico y los gangliósidos son componentes bioactivos, presentes en leche que desempeñan un papel fundamental en distintos procesos ...

  3. Maar- and crater lakes of the Long Gang Volcanic Field (N.E. China)—overview, laminated sediments, and vegetation history of the last 900 years

    OpenAIRE

    Jens Mingram; Allen, J. R. M.; C. Brüchmann; Liu, J; Luo, X.(Central China Normal University (HZNU), Wuhan, 430079, China); Jörg F.W. Negendank; Norbert Nowaczyk; Georg Schettler

    2004-01-01

    Maar- and crater lakes have, due to their specific formation and characteristic morphology, a high potential for the development and preservation of seasonally laminated sediments (varves). Within the Long Gang Volcanic Field (LGVF) in N.E. China eight maar- or crater lakes with water depths between 15 and 127 m are located. The seasonal climate with strong influence of the East Asian summer—and winter monsoon and the position of the LGVF at the northern margin of the East Asian dust storm tr...

  4. Gang de jeunes et groupes armés dans la Région Métropolitaine de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brésil

    OpenAIRE

    Zilli, Luis Felipe; Beato, Cláudio

    2015-01-01

    Cet article prend pour objet les recherches sociologiques traitant de l’implication de jeunes dans des dynamiques de violence et de criminalité des quartiers pauvres et des banlieues de grands centres urbains. Il présente les principaux résultats d’une recherche empirique sur les gangs de jeunes et les groupes armés qui opèrent dans les favelas de la région de Belo Horizonte (RMBH), capitale de l’État de Minas Gerais, au Brésil. Du point de vue théorique, nous adoptons ici le postulat qu’au B...

  5. Site response of the Ganges Basin inferred from re-evaluated macroseismic observations from the 1897 Shillong, 1905 Kangra and 1934 Nepal earthquakes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Susan E Hough; Roger Bilham

    2008-11-01

    We analyze previously published geodetic data and intensity values for the = 8.1 Shillong (1897), = 7.8 Kangra (1905), and = 8.2 Nepal/Bihar (1934) earthquakes to investigate the rupture zones of these earthquakes as well as the amplification of ground motions throughout the Punjab, Ganges and Brahmaputra valleys. For each earthquake we subtract the observed MSK intensities from a synthetic intensity derived from an inferred planar rupture model of the earthquake, combined with an attenuation function derived from instrumentally recorded earthquakes. The resulting residuals are contoured to identify regions of anomalous intensity caused primarily by local site effects. Observations indicative of liquefaction are treated separately from other indications of shaking severity lest they inflate inferred residual shaking estimates. Despite this precaution we find that intensites are 1–3 units higher near the major rivers, as well as at the edges of the Ganges basin. We find evidence for a post-critical Moho reflection from the 1897 and 1905 earthquakes that raises intensities 1–2 units at distances of the order of 150 km from the rupture zone, and we find that the 1905 earthquake triggered a substantial subsequent earthquake at Dehra Dun, at a distance of approximately 150 km. Four or more = 8 earthquakes are apparently overdue in the region based on seismic moment summation in the past 500 years. Results from the current study permit anticipated intensities in these future earthquakes to be refined to incorporate site effects derived from dense macroseismic data.

  6. Modeling Floodplain Dynamics: Can the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta keep pace with 21st Century Sea Level Rise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, K. G.; Overeem, I.

    2013-12-01

    The low-lying Ganges-Brahmaputra (G-B) Delta in Bangladesh is densely populated (~1200 people/km2) and could be flooded within the next century by rapid sea level rise and increased monsoonal rains. The G-B Rivers currently transport 1*109 tons of sediment from their basins in the Himalaya Mountains to the delta each year, with ~90% of the annual sediment load delivered during the Asian summer monsoon. Sediment distribution across the delta's surface by floods and coastal storms has kept pace with the rate of relative sea level rise along the Bengal coast, enabling the delta to maintain a positive elevation. However, ensemble Community Climate System Model experiments predict 11% higher monsoonal rainfall for the next century, potentially leading to extreme flooding events in the delta. Stratigraphic reconstructions show that sedimentation in the upper G-B floodplain was more than doubled under the Early Holocene enhanced monsoonal regime, suggesting that the delta may withstand an increase in monsoon intensity, flooding, and tropical cyclones that are currently predicted. Whether the G-B floodplains and coastal areas will ultimately drown under predicted sea level rise and monsoon intensification depends on a balance of aggradation, eustatic sea level rise and subsidence. To improve predictions of climatic forcing on aggradation rates in the lower G-B floodplain and coastal plain, direct sedimentation measurements collected in 2008 and 2012 in the lower delta are paired with a series of model components coupled within the Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System (CSDMS) Modeling Tool (CMT). We use three separate numerical models to simulate river basin sediment flux, floodplain sedimentation, and tidal-plain aggradation. The model inputs are based on available 20Th century climate and river gauge data, and outputs are compared to modern sedimentation rates within the G-B tidal delta and highly cultivated central coastal plain. The models are then used to test

  7. Delta Morphodynamics Matters! Ecosystem Services, Poverty and Morphodynamic Change in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Mega-Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, R. J.; Adger, N.; Allan, A.; Darby, S. E.; Hutton, C.; Matthews, Z.; Rahman, M.; Whitehead, P. G.; Wolf, J.

    2013-12-01

    The world's deltas are probably the most vulnerable type of coastal environment, and they face multiple stresses in the coming decades. These stresses include, amongst others, local drivers due to land subsidence, population growth and urbanisation within the deltas, regional drivers due to changes in catchment management (e.g. upstream land use and dam construction), as well as global climate change impacts such as sea-level rise. At the same time, the ecosystem services of river deltas support high population densities, with around 14% of the global population inhabiting deltas. A large proportion of these people experience extremes of poverty and they are therefore severely exposed to vulnerability from environmental and ecological stress and degradation. In areas close to or below the poverty boundary, both subsistence and cash elements of the economy tend to rely disproportionately heavily on ecosystem services which underpin livelihoods. Therefore, to sustainably manage delta environments they must be viewed as complex social-environmental systems where change is only partially driven by physical drivers such as sea level rise and climate change, and human-induced development activities are also critical. Here we outline a new conceptual framework for the development of methods to understand and characterise the key drivers of change in ecosystem services that affect the environment and economic status of populous deltas, focusing specifically on the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) mega-delta. The GBM delta is characterised by densely populated coastal lowlands with significant poverty, with livelihoods supported to a large extent by natural ecosystems such as the Sunderbahns (the largest mangrove forest in the world). However, the GBM delta is under severe development pressure due to many growing cities. At present the importance of ecosystems services to poverty and livelihoods is poorly understood. This is due to due to the complexity of interactions

  8. Methyl mercury in fish--a case study on various samples collected from Ganges river at West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Moumita; Ghosh, Santinath; Mukhopadhyay, Madhumita; Ghosh, Mahua

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the presence of total mercury (Hg) and organic mercury levels in the muscle of 19 common fresh water fish species captured from river Ganges, West Bengal, India. The total mercury level found in our study may not cause any toxic effect, but the methyl mercury (MeHg) level in some freshwater fish species was surprisingly very high and toxically unacceptable. The results of mercury analysis in various specimens indicated that some fish muscles tended to accumulate high levels of Hg, and approximately 50-84% of Hg was organic mercury. A strong positive correlation between mercury levels in muscle with food habit and fish length (age) was found. Wallago attu possessed the highest amount of organic mercury in their muscle tissues, and it was 0.93 ± 0.61 μg Hg/g of wet weight. Whereas in small-sized fishes Eutropiichthys murius, Puntius sarana, Cirrhinus mrigala, Mystus vittatus or Mystus gulio, and Tilapia mossambicus, it was below the detection limit. Contamination in Catla catla (0.32 ± 0.11), Anguilla bengalensis bengalensis (0.26 ± 0.07 μg Hg/g), Chitala chitala (0.25 ± 0.18), Rita rita (0.34 ± 0.14), and Ompok pabda (0.26 ± 0.04) was also above the 0.25 μg Hg/g of wet weight, the limit set by the PFA for the maximum level for consumption of fish exposed to MeHg. Though in Labeo rohita (0.12 ± 0.03), Mastacembelus armatus (0.17 ± 0.02), Pangasius pangasius (0.12 ± 0.16), Bagarius bagarius (0.12 ± 0.01), and Clupisoma garua (0.1 ± 0.01), concentration was below the recommended level, in Lates calcarifer (0.23 ± 0.0) and Mystus aor (0.23 ± 0.1), it was threatening. Interestingly, a low concentration of Hg was found in post-monsoon samples. PMID:21713467

  9. Individual and Ecological Assets and Thriving among African American Adolescent Male Gang and Community-Based Organization Members: A Report From Wave 3 of the "Overcoming the Odds" Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Carl S.; Smith, Pamela R.; Taylor, Virgil A.; von Eye, Alexander; Lerner, Richard M.; Balsano, Aida Bilalbegovic; Anderson, Pamela M.; Banik, Rumeli; Almerigi, Jason B.

    2005-01-01

    The third wave of the Overcoming the Odds longitudinal study involves data about individual and ecological developmental assets and thriving among African American male adolescents in inner-city Detroit gangs (N = 43) or in youth development, community-based organizations (CBO; N = 50). Both groups had comparable levels of either low or high…

  10. A first look at the influence of anthropogenic climate change on the future delivery of fluvial sediment to the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, Stephen E; Dunn, Frances E; Nicholls, Robert J; Rahman, Munsur; Riddy, Liam

    2015-09-01

    We employ a climate-driven hydrological water balance and sediment transport model (HydroTrend) to simulate future climate-driven sediment loads flowing into the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) mega-delta. The model was parameterised using high-quality topographic data and forced with daily temperature and precipitation data obtained from downscaled Regional Climate Model (RCM) simulations for the period 1971-2100. Three perturbed RCM model runs were selected to quantify the potential range of future climate conditions associated with the SRES A1B scenario. Fluvial sediment delivery rates to the GBM delta associated with these climate data sets are projected to increase under the influence of anthropogenic climate change, albeit with the magnitude of the increase varying across the two catchments. Of the two study basins, the Brahmaputra's fluvial sediment load is predicted to be more sensitive to future climate change. Specifically, by the middle part of the 21(st) century, our model results suggest that sediment loads increase (relative to the 1981-2000 baseline period) over a range of between 16% and 18% (depending on climate model run) for the Ganges, but by between 25% and 28% for the Brahmaputra. The simulated increase in sediment flux emanating from the two catchments further increases towards the end of the 21(st) century, reaching between 34% and 37% for the Ganges and between 52% and 60% for the Brahmaputra by the 2090s. The variability in these changes across the three climate change simulations is small compared to the changes, suggesting they represent a significant increase. The new data obtained in this study offer the first estimate of whether and how anthropogenic climate change may affect the delivery of fluvial sediment to the GBM delta, informing assessments of the future sustainability and resilience of one of the world's most vulnerable mega-deltas. Specifically, such significant increases in future sediment loads could increase the resilience

  11. Geomorphology and Landscape Evolution Model for the natural and human-impacted regions of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C.; Goodbred, S. L.; Wallace Auerbach, L.; Ahmed, K.; Paola, C.; Reitz, M. D.; Pickering, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta (GBMD) in south Asia is generally considered a tide-dominated system, but much of the subaerial delta plain is geomorphically similar to river-dominated systems such as the Mississippi River delta, with a well-developed distributary network separated by low-lying, organic-rich interdistributary basins. By contrast, the lower GBMD is dominated by tidal processes and comprises a 100-km wide coastal plain with dense, interconnected tidal channels that are amalgamated to the seaward edge of the river-dominated portion of the delta. These distinct river- and tide-dominated geomorphic regions are simultaneously sustained by the enormous sediment load of the GBM rivers and its efficient dispersal via the distributary channel network and onshore advection by tides. Together these processes have resulted in the ability of the GBMD to keep pace with sea-level rise throughout the Holocene, with comparatively little shoreline transgression. However, topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) highlight low-lying regions of the delta that are located at the interface of the river- and tide-dominated portions of the delta, where the transport energy of small distributaries and the upper tidal zone go to zero. As a result, these are the most sediment-starved regions of the delta and those most at risk to flooding by the summer monsoon and storm surges. Compounding the slow rates of sedimentation and high local organic content, these regions have been strongly affected by the construction of embankments (polders) that artificially de-water the soils and accelerate organic decomposition during the dry season, and further starve the land surface of sediment. Here, we present an integrated conceptual model for the geomorphic evolution of the GBMD that incorporates river- and tide-dominated regions in conjunction with channel-avulsion processes and delta-lobe construction. Each of these is also overprinted by tectonic

  12. Late Pleistocene to Holocene soil development and environments in the Long Gang Volcanic Field area, Jilin Province, NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Daniela; Zhang, Xinrong; Knöbel, Jette; Maerker, Lutz

    2014-05-01

    Late Pleistocene to Holocene shifts of climate and vegetation in the Long Gang Volcanic Field in NE China have been reconstructed, e. g. by Steblich et al. (2009), based on Maar lake sediment cores. In this study, we investigated soil development during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene and linked it to the climate and vegetation reported in the literature. Three pedons were described and analyzed on a crater wall surrounding a maar. The lower part of the slope is covered by basic pyroclastics that are obviously younger than the maar itself. Pedon 1 is located on the upper slope, where the younger pyroclastics are not present; thus it developed over the entire Holocene and part of the Late Pleistocene. Pedon 2 is on the toe slope and developed from the young basic pyroclastics. Vegetation remains, charred by fire that was caused by the volcanic ash fall, were found in the lowermost part of the pyroclastics layer, on top of a paleosol. Charcoal fragments were dated to 18950-18830 cal BP (using INTCAL 09). Thus, pedon 2 developed since around 18.9 ka BP, whereas the development of the paleosol that was buried under the pyroclastics (pedon 3), was stopped at this time. Pedons 1 and 2 are Vitric Andosols, developed mainly from basic pyroclastics, as evidenced by the composition of rock fragments in the soils, comprising 78 / 81 mass % lapilli and 22 / 19 mass % gneiss fragments, respectively. Pedon 3 is a Cutanic Luvisol (Chromic) that developed entirely from gneiss fragments produced by the maar explosion. Lab data suggest increasing intensity of pedogenesis in the direction: Pedon 3 (paleosol) characterized by reddish-brown color (7.5YR), strong angular blocky structure and well-expressed illuvial clay coatings, rather indicates that it developed over a longer time-span and/or warmer climate than the two yellowish-brown surface soils. Since the morphology of the paleosol clearly reflects interglacial climatic conditions and forest cover, it most likely started

  13. 'When you're boxing you don't think so much': Pugilism, Transitional Masculinities and Criminal Desistance among Young Danish Gang Members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deuchar, Ross; Søgaard, Thomas Friis; Kolind, Torsten; Thylstrup, Birgitte; Wells, Liam

    2015-01-01

    This paper draws upon international research evidence that suggests a relationship between protest masculinity and the manifestation of violent crime among young males, and that criminal desistance may be linked to (inter-) subjective processes such as the reconstruction of masculine identity. The...... paper considers the potential that pugilism (the art and practice of boxing) may have on enabling young, disadvantaged minority male gang members to find avenues for alternative identity construction and to gain transitional experiences which trigger self-confessed desistance actions. Drawing upon an...... ethnographic study conducted in a boxing rehabilitation centre on the outskirts of Copenhagen, Denmark, the paper reports on data gleaned from participant observation and qualitative interviews with 22 ethnic minority young men. Findings suggest that the masculine context within the rehabilitation programme...

  14. Melting Himalayan glaciers contaminated by legacy atmospheric depositions are important sources of PCBs and high-molecular-weight PAHs for the Ganges floodplain during dry periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Brij Mohan; Nizzetto, Luca; Bharat, Girija K; Tayal, Shresth; Melymuk, Lisa; Sáňka, Ondřej; Přibylová, Petra; Audy, Ondřej; Larssen, Thorjørn

    2015-11-01

    Melting glaciers are natural redistributors of legacy airborne pollutants, affecting exposure of pristine proglacial environments. Our data shows that melting Himalayan glaciers can be major contributors of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for surface water in the Gangetic Plain during the dry season. Glacial emissions can exceed in some cases inputs from diffuse sources within the catchment. We analyzed air, deposition and river water in several sections along the Ganges River and its major headwaters. The predominant glacial origin of these contaminants in the Himalayan reach was demonstrated using air-water fugacity ratios and mass balance analysis. The proportion of meltwater emissions compared to pollutant discharge at downstream sections in the central part of the Gangetic Plain was between 2 and 200%. By remobilizing legacy pollutants from melting glaciers, climate change can enhance exposure levels over large and already heavily impacted regions of Northern India. PMID:26312740

  15. Holocene construction and evolution of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta: the influence of climate, eustasy, and tectonics on stratigraphic architecture and fluvial dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sincavage, R.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Pickering, J.; Wilson, C.; Patrick, M. G.; Akhter, S. H.; Seeber, L.; Paola, C.; Jean-Louis, G.; Grall, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta (GBMD), an archetypal tidally-influenced deltaic margin, has been the subject of several multi-national, multi-institutional, and interdisciplinary field studies over the past several years, resulting in an unprecedented density of data coverage for stratigraphy, hydrodynamics, and tectonics on a scale previously only found on well-studied delta systems of other types (e.g., Nile, Mississippi, Rhine-Meuse). Using a suite of geochemical, geophysical, and lithologic data extracted from a network of over 400 shallow (sediments suggests the position of the Brahmaputra River was once west of its modern location, following a course along the eastern edge of the Tista Fan and west of the modern confluence with the Ganges. Construction of the modern delta, consisting of a thick (up to 80 m) succession of fluvial and deltaic sediments, was initiated by an intensified summer monsoon, coincident with accommodation generated by rapid sea-level rise following the Younger-Dryas. Sediment delivery has been focused along three pathways associated with antecedent topography inherited from Pleistocene lowstands. Stacked channel sands are the predominant facies within the upper delta, grading to isolated sand lenses in the distal reaches of Sylhet Basin, indicative of a shift from a highly mobile braidbelt to a less mobile distributary system as bedload is extracted to deposition. Episodic avulsions of the Brahmaputra River into Sylhet Basin during the mid-Holocene have been documented using a robust radiocarbon geochronology. The volume of sediment preserved from these events is insufficient to account for the entire sediment budget based on estimates of modern discharge, likely a consequence of both a weakened mid-Holocene monsoon and bypass out of the basin. Rapid (up to 7 mm/yr) subsidence in Sylhet Basin has not acted as an attractor for channel steering during much of the Holocene. Instead, the Brahmaputra has followed the steepest descent

  16. Potential Economic Pitfalls Call for Removal of Institutional Drawbacks——An Interview with Mr. FAN Gang (樊纲), Ph.D. of Economics, Doctoral Advisor, Director of National Research Institute of Economics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟; 封莉

    2007-01-01

    The continuous rise of consumer price index (CPI) has increased concern over China’s macroeconomic situation. Will inflation have a disastrous impact on the Chinese economy? What risks are brewing behind the booming real estate and stock markets? Have bubbles already occurred in the Chinese economy? From his office in Guohong Building, Beijing, Dr. Fan Gang gave his views on these questions in an exclusive interview with China Economist.

  17. 非法交易犯罪团伙的社会网络分析研究%Social Network Analysis for Exploratory Mining of Criminal Gangs Engaged in Illegal Transactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢秦川

    2014-01-01

    Social network theory is used to mathematically model massive transactions for aiding law enforcement agencies, in the status of art of increasing rate of gang crimes which are more dangerous than common crimes. Graph-based clustering algorithms are employed to mine out gangs of transactions, to analyze their structures and smartly identify gangs engaged in illegal transactions. Thereby, it provides for accurate crime clues for law enforcement agencies, and enhances initiative and efifciency to crack down on criminal offenses.%针对团伙犯罪的发案率不断升高,且其造成的社会危害性较大的社会现状,根据执法机构的数据分析需求,文章引入社会网络分析的相关理论与方法,对海量交易进行数学建模。采用图聚类算法挖掘出交易团伙,解析其内部结构,智能识别出从事非法交易的犯罪团伙,从而为执法机构提供准确的犯罪线索,增强打击刑事犯罪的主动性及效率。

  18. Feasilbility of phytoextraction to remediate cadmium and zinc contaminated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, G.F.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.; Fokkema, M.J.; Song, J.; Luo, Y.M.; Japenga, J.; Zhao, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    A Cd and Zn contaminated soil was mixed and equilibrated with an uncontaminated, but otherwise similar soil to establish a gradient in soil contamination levels. Growth of Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges ecotype) significantly decreased the metal concentrations in soil solution. Plant uptake of Cd and

  19. Impacts of climate change and socio-economic scenarios on flow and water quality of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna (GBM) river systems: low flow and flood statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, P G; Barbour, E; Futter, M N; Sarkar, S; Rodda, H; Caesar, J; Butterfield, D; Jin, L; Sinha, R; Nicholls, R; Salehin, M

    2015-06-01

    The potential impacts of climate change and socio-economic change on flow and water quality in rivers worldwide is a key area of interest. The Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) is one of the largest river basins in the world serving a population of over 650 million, and is of vital concern to India and Bangladesh as it provides fresh water for people, agriculture, industry, conservation and for the delta system downstream. This paper seeks to assess future changes in flow and water quality utilising a modelling approach as a means of assessment in a very complex system. The INCA-N model has been applied to the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna river systems to simulate flow and water quality along the rivers under a range of future climate conditions. Three model realisations of the Met Office Hadley Centre global and regional climate models were selected from 17 perturbed model runs to evaluate a range of potential futures in climate. In addition, the models have also been evaluated using socio-economic scenarios, comprising (1) a business as usual future, (2) a more sustainable future, and (3) a less sustainable future. Model results for the 2050s and the 2090s indicate a significant increase in monsoon flows under the future climates, with enhanced flood potential. Low flows are predicted to fall with extended drought periods, which could have impacts on water and sediment supply, irrigated agriculture and saline intrusion. In contrast, the socio-economic changes had relatively little impact on flows, except under the low flow regimes where increased irrigation could further reduce water availability. However, should large scale water transfers upstream of Bangladesh be constructed, these have the potential to reduce flows and divert water away from the delta region depending on the volume and timing of the transfers. This could have significant implications for the delta in terms of saline intrusion, water supply, agriculture and maintaining crucial ecosystems such

  20. [Textual research on Guang dong xin yu (New Sayings of Guangdong) quoted in Ben cao gang mu shi yi (Supplements to Compendium of Materia Medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruixian; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jian; Liang, Fei

    2014-05-01

    Altogether 15 terms for Guang dong xin yu (New Sayings of Guangdong) were used in Ben cao gang mu shi yi (Supplements to Compendium of Materia Medica), including Yue yu (Cantonese sayings), Chong yu (Sayings from Insect Drug), Jie yu (Sayings from Crustacean Drug), Xin yu (New Sayings), Yue hai xiang yu (Fragrant Sayings from Cantonese Region), Yue zhi mu yu (Sayings from Plants in Cantonese Annals), Guang dong suo yu (Trivial Sayings from Guangdong), Yue shan lu (Records of Cantonese Mountains), Yue lu (Cantonese Records), Jiao guang lu (Joint Guangdong Records), Yue cao zhi (Records of Cantonese Grasses), Guang guo lu (Records of Guangdong Fruits), Nan yue suo ji (Trivial Records of Southern Canton), Guang zhi (Guangdong Records), Yue zhi (Cantonese Records) etc. dealing with 57 sorts of drugs (with individual overlapping ones), the author of Xin yu was Qu Dajun, a surviving fogy of the Ming Dynasty actively involved in the activities to restore the old dynasty and resist the Qing Dynasty, and was persecuted in the literary inquisition in which his works were burnt so that Zhao Xuemin, when quoting his texts, had to go in a roundabout way. PMID:25208840

  1. 论《我们这一伙》的讽刺艺术%On the Satirical Art inOur Gang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊宇

    2015-01-01

    In Our Gang, Philip Roth employs such figures of speech as parody, irony, hyperbole, caricature and parody of genre for his satirical skills to expose the hypocrisy of American politicians, the ugliness of politics, and the role of accomplice played by media for the government; to express standpoint of anti-war and try to deconstruct the authority of discourse that was maintained making use of media by American president.%在《我们这一伙》中,菲利普·罗斯利用戏拟、反讽、夸张、漫画式刻画、文类仿拟等修辞格作为其讽刺手法,揭露了美国政客的虚伪、政治的丑恶和媒体充当政府帮凶的角色,表达了其强烈的反战立场,同时力图解构美国总统利用媒体所建立的话语权威。

  2. Hydrologic Visualization of Glacier-Driven Watersheds to Enhance Education Exchange Between Students from the US and Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta on Freshwater Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, F.

    2014-12-01

    It has been argued and demonstrated in the past that STEM outreach in the field of hydrology is effective only when it is contextualized using an actual problem that students can visualize in 'their backyard.' The Puyallup watershed, which is in the "backyard" of University of Washington (UW) and the Ganges Brahmaputra (GB) Delta (which UW Department of Civil Engineering has institutional access through an MOU with Institute of Water Modeling-IWM, Bangladesh and International Center for Integrated Mountain Development-ICIMOD, Nepal) provide an ideal opportunity to build a unique education program for US and South Asian students on global freshwater sustainability. Using a rich set of geospatial data layers, dynamic hydrologic datasets and a user-driven visualization platform called Hydro-VIZ, we present a plan on how exchange students can witness the differences in human-nature coupling of each region and share notes on the future of freshwater supply for densely-populated deltas. We discuss the development of a set of place-based learning curricular material built around two contrasting regions and the HydroVIZ platform with functionality to explore the human coupling of water sustainability.

  3. Characterization of the artisanal fishing communities in Nepal and potential implications for the conservation and management of Ganges River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica gangetica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Shambhu; Levesque, Juan C; Saavedra, Camilo; Pita, Cristina; Pal, Prabhat

    2016-01-01

    The Ganges River dolphin (Platanista gangetica gangetica) (GRD) is classified as one of the most endangered of all cetaceans in the world and the second scarcest freshwater cetacean. The population is estimated to be less than 2,000 individuals. In Nepal's Narayani, Sapta Koshi, and Karnali river systems, survival of GRD continues to be threatened by various anthropogenic activities, such as dam construction and interactions with artisanal fisheries. A basic description of the geographic scope, economics, and types of gear used in these fisheries would help managers understand the fishery-dolphin interaction conflict and assist with developing potential solutions. The main goal was to provide new information on the artisanal fishing communities in Nepal. The specific objectives were to identify, compile, and investigate the demographics, economics, fishing characteristics, and perception of fishermen about GRD conservation in the Narayani, Sapta Koshi, and Karnali rivers so conservation managers can develop and implement a potential solution to the GRD-fishery interaction problem in Nepal. Based on 169 interviews, 79% of Nepalese fishermen indicated fishing was their primary form of income. Fishermen reported fishing effort was greater in summer than winter; greatest in the afternoon (14:30 hrs ± 0:27) and during low water level conditions; and gear was set 4.8 ± 0.2 days/week. Fishermen reported using eight different types of monofilament nets (gillnets and cast nets). Sixty percent used gillnets less than 10 m long, and nearly 30% preferred gillnets between 10 and 100 m long; a few used gillnets longer than 100 m. Most fishermen reported they believed education, awareness, and changing occupations were important for GRD conservation, but they indicated that alternative occupational options were currently limited in Nepal. Nepalese fishermen acknowledged that fisheries posed a risk to GRD, but they believed water pollution, and dam/irrigation developments were

  4. Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in river and ground/drinking water of the Ganges River basin: Emissions and implications for human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Brij Mohan; Bharat, Girija K; Tayal, Shresth; Larssen, Thorjørn; Bečanová, Jitka; Karásková, Pavlína; Whitehead, Paul G; Futter, Martyn N; Butterfield, Dan; Nizzetto, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Many perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. They have been widely used in production processes and daily-use products or may result from degradation of precursor compounds in products or the environment. India, with its developing industrialization and population moving from traditional to contemporary lifestyles, represents an interesting case study to investigate PFAS emission and exposure along steep environmental and socioeconomic gradients. This study assesses PFAS concentrations in river and groundwater (used in this region as drinking water) from several locations along the Ganges River and estimates direct emissions, specifically for PFOS and PFOA. 15 PFAS were frequently detected in the river with the highest concentrations observed for PFHxA (0.4-4.7 ng L(-1)) and PFBS (PFOA and PFOS substitution are visible in environmental samples from India. The spatial pattern of C5-C7 PFCAs co-varied with that of PFOS suggesting similar emission drivers. PFDA and PFNA had much lower concentrations and covaried with PFOA especially in two hotspots downstream of Kanpur and Patna. PFOS and PFOA emissions to the river varied dramatically along the transect (0.20-190 and 0.03-150 g d(-1), respectively). PFOS emission pattern could be explained by the number of urban residents in the subcatchment (rather than total population). Per-capita emissions were lower than in many developed countries. In groundwater, PFBA (

  5. Climate Variability over India and Bangladesh from the Perturbed UK Met Office Hadley Model: Impacts on Flow and Nutrient Fluxes in the Ganges Delta System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, P. G.; Caesar, J.; Crossman, J.; Barbour, E.; Ledesma, J.; Futter, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    A semi-distributed flow and water quality model (INCA- Integrated Catchments Model) has been set up for the whole of the Ganges- Brahmaputra- Meghna (GBM) River system in India and Bangladesh. These massive rivers transport large fluxes of water and nutrients into the Bay of Bengal via the GBM Delta system in Bangladesh. Future climate change will impact these fluxes with changing rainfall, temperature, evapotranspiration and soil moisture deficits being altered in the catchment systems. In this study the INCA model has been used to assess potential impacts of climate change using the UK Met Office Hadley Centre GCM model linked to a regionally coupled model of South East Asia, covering India and Bangladesh. The Hadley Centre model has been pururbed by varying the parameters in the model to generate 17 realisations of future climates. Some of these reflect expected change but others capture the more extreme potential behaviour of future climate conditions. The 17 realisations have been used to drive the INCA Flow and Nitrogen model inorder to generate downstream times series of hydrology and nitrate- nitrogen. The variability of the climates on these fluxes are investigated and and their likley impact on the Bay of Begal Delta considered. Results indicate a slight shift in the monsoon season with increased wet season flows and increased temperatures which alter nutrient fluxes. Societal Importance to Stakeholders The GBM Delta supports one of the most densely populated regions of people living in poverty, who rely on ecosystem services provided by the Delta for survival. These ecosystem services are dependent upon fluxes of water and nutrients. Freshwater for urban, agriculture, and aquaculture requirements are essential to livelihoods. Nutrient loads stimulate estuarine ecosystems, supporting fishing stocks, which contribute significantly the economy of Bangladesh. Thus the societal importance of upstream climate driven change change in Bangladesh are very

  6. 基于聚类分析检索团伙多起犯罪的迭代算法%Iterative Algorithm of Searching Gang Several Crimes Based on Clustering Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨静; 王靖

    2013-01-01

    The data mining technology is applied to the investigation of a crime process in the public security organs, considering the gang several crime cases is harm to the interests of the people, the paper proposes a kind of definite algorithm which is based on the theory of social network and the method of hierarchical clustering analysis to find out the association rules of the gang several crime cases, then uses iteratively expand set method to classify cases into a child set which has the relationship, it can match and find out the gang several crime cases and joint crime suspect in each subsets of cases. Compare to the old basic solution, the algorithms greatly improve work efficiency, reduce the running time of inquires.%将数据挖掘技术应用到公安机关侦查犯罪的过程当中,针对危害人民利益的团伙多起犯罪案件,提出一种确定性的算法,该算法基于社会网络理论和层次聚类方法,找出形成团伙多起犯罪的关联关系,用迭代拓展集合的方法将有关联关系的案件分类成一个个子集合,每个子集合中案件进行匹配查找,找出团伙多起犯罪的案件及共同犯罪嫌疑人.本文提出的这种算法相比之前的基本解决方案,大大提高工作效率,降低查询的运行时间.

  7. 新港电动汽车充电站建设方案浅析%Superficial Analysis for Construction Scheme of Charging Stations for Electric Car in Xin'gang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹元; 张春欣

    2011-01-01

    This paper mainly introduces the construction,design scheme and technique keys of charging stations for electric cars according to the construction of Xin'gang charging station(the first station in Fuzhou),to provide reference for construction of charging stations.%以福州市第一座电动汽车充电站——新港充电站为例,介绍了电动汽车充电站的建设、设计方案和技术要点,对今后充电设施建设提供参考。

  8. Coupling a land surface model with a crop growth model to improve ET flux estimations in the Upper Ganges basin, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsarouchi, G. M.; Buytaert, W.; Mijic, A.

    2014-06-01

    Land surface models are tools that represent energy and water flux exchanges between land and the atmosphere. Although much progress has been made in adding detailed physical processes into these models, there is much room left for improved estimates of evapotranspiration fluxes, by including a more reasonable and accurate representation of crop dynamics. Recent studies suggest a strong land surface-atmosphere coupling over India and since this is one of the most intensively cultivated areas in the world, the strong impact of crops on the evaporative flux cannot be neglected. In this study we dynamically couple the land surface model JULES with the crop growth model InfoCrop. JULES in its current version does not simulate crop growth. Instead, it treats crops as natural grass, while using prescribed vegetation parameters. Such simplification might lead to modelling errors. Therefore we developed a coupled modelling scheme that simulates dynamically crop development and parameterised it for the two main crops of the study area, wheat and rice. This setup is used to examine the impact of inter-seasonal land cover changes in evapotranspiration fluxes of the Upper Ganges river basin (India). The sensitivity of JULES with regard to the dynamics of the vegetation cover is evaluated. Our results show that the model is sensitive to the changes introduced after coupling it with the crop model. Evapotranspiration fluxes, which are significantly different between the original and the coupled model, are giving an approximation of the magnitude of error to be expected in LSMs that do not include dynamic crop growth. For the wet season, in the original model, the monthly Mean Error ranges from 7.5 to 24.4 mm m-1, depending on different precipitation forcing. For the same season, in the coupled model, the monthly Mean Error's range is reduced to 7-14 mm m-1. For the dry season, in the original model, the monthly Mean Error ranges from 10 to 17 mm m-1, depending on different

  9. Coupling a land-surface model with a crop growth model to improve ET flux estimations in the Upper Ganges basin, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsarouchi, G. M.; Buytaert, W.; Mijic, A.

    2014-10-01

    Land-Surface Models (LSMs) are tools that represent energy and water flux exchanges between land and the atmosphere. Although much progress has been made in adding detailed physical processes into these models, there is much room left for improved estimates of evapotranspiration fluxes, by including a more reasonable and accurate representation of crop dynamics. Recent studies suggest a strong land-surface-atmosphere coupling over India and since this is one of the most intensively cultivated areas in the world, the strong impact of crops on the evaporative flux cannot be neglected. In this study we dynamically couple the LSM JULES with the crop growth model InfoCrop. JULES in its current version (v3.4) does not simulate crop growth. Instead, it treats crops as natural grass, while using prescribed vegetation parameters. Such simplification might lead to modelling errors. Therefore we developed a coupled modelling scheme that simulates dynamically crop development and parametrized it for the two main crops of the study area, wheat and rice. This setup is used to examine the impact of inter-seasonal land cover changes in evapotranspiration fluxes of the Upper Ganges River basin (India). The sensitivity of JULES with regard to the dynamics of the vegetation cover is evaluated. Our results show that the model is sensitive to the changes introduced after coupling it with the crop model. Evapotranspiration fluxes, which are significantly different between the original and the coupled model, are giving an approximation of the magnitude of error to be expected in LSMs that do not include dynamic crop growth. For the wet season, in the original model, the monthly Mean Error ranges from 7.5 to 24.4 mm month-1, depending on different precipitation forcing. For the same season, in the coupled model, the monthly Mean Error's range is reduced to 5.4-11.6 mm month-1. For the dry season, in the original model, the monthly Mean Error ranges from 10 to 17 mm month-1, depending on

  10. Coupling a land surface model with a crop growth model to improve ET flux estimations in the Upper Ganges basin, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Tsarouchi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Land surface models are tools that represent energy and water flux exchanges between land and the atmosphere. Although much progress has been made in adding detailed physical processes into these models, there is much room left for improved estimates of evapotranspiration fluxes, by including a more reasonable and accurate representation of crop dynamics. Recent studies suggest a strong land surface–atmosphere coupling over India and since this is one of the most intensively cultivated areas in the world, the strong impact of crops on the evaporative flux cannot be neglected. In this study we dynamically couple the land surface model JULES with the crop growth model InfoCrop. JULES in its current version does not simulate crop growth. Instead, it treats crops as natural grass, while using prescribed vegetation parameters. Such simplification might lead to modelling errors. Therefore we developed a coupled modelling scheme that simulates dynamically crop development and parameterised it for the two main crops of the study area, wheat and rice. This setup is used to examine the impact of inter-seasonal land cover changes in evapotranspiration fluxes of the Upper Ganges river basin (India. The sensitivity of JULES with regard to the dynamics of the vegetation cover is evaluated. Our results show that the model is sensitive to the changes introduced after coupling it with the crop model. Evapotranspiration fluxes, which are significantly different between the original and the coupled model, are giving an approximation of the magnitude of error to be expected in LSMs that do not include dynamic crop growth. For the wet season, in the original model, the monthly Mean Error ranges from 7.5 to 24.4 mm m−1, depending on different precipitation forcing. For the same season, in the coupled model, the monthly Mean Error's range is reduced to 7–14 mm m−1. For the dry season, in the original model, the monthly Mean Error ranges from 10 to 17 mm m−1

  11. Enhancing University Courses and Field Schools through Cross-cultural Exchange: Joint US-Bangladeshi Trips to the Ganges-Brahmaputra and Mississippi Deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckler, M. S.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Lowes, S.; Gilligan, J. M.; Ackerly, B.; Ahmed, K. M.; Akhter, S. H.; Sousa, D.; Wilson, C.; Datta, D. K.; Roy, K.; Mondal, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    As part of an NSF PIRE grant, we have led four field trips for undergraduate, MS and PhD students to large deltaic systems. Three trips took US students to the Ganges-Brahmaputra (GB) delta in Bangladesh and one brought Bangladeshi faculty and students to the Mississippi (Miss.) delta in the US. An essential component in the learning process and overall experience of each trip was that ~2/5 of the participants were students and professors from Bangladesh. In all cases, the involvement of a substantial international cohort greatly broadened perspectives on the topics being covered. For example, in GBD the local geologic and cultural knowledge of the Bangladeshis deepened the learning and engagement of the US students, an outcome that was almost universally noted in student reviews. The trips received similar feedback from Bangladeshi participants, as they had an enthusiastic and engaged audience of peers from the US. Even for the Miss. delta trip, the Bangladeshis added a unique perspective from a nation that faces similar environmental issues. These overwhelmingly positive contributions have been experienced in several different contexts. Three trips were associated with US courses and run over Spring Break. One matched sustainable development undergrads at Columbia U. with geology undergrads from Dhaka U., and two others matched a mixed group of graduate and undergrad students from Vanderbilt U. with cohorts from Bangladesh. The fourth trip was a stand-alone Field School for PhD students from 14 US universities and mostly MS students from 4 Bangladeshi universities. The focus of each trip ranged from broader surveys of tectonic, fluvial and coastal processes to investigations of geology and people affected by tropical storms. Of particular interest was the success of mixing undergrad and graduate students in the Vanderbilt course, which centered on the intersection of social sciences, physical sciences, and engineering. In this case, undergrads engaged in a

  12. El consumo de drogas como una práctica cultural dentro de las pandillas O uso de drogas como prática cultural dentro de gangues Drugs use as a cultural practice within gangs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rafael Guzmán-Facundo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente el fenómeno social del narcotráfico y la violencia relacionada a la drogas ha minimizado las implicaciones del consumo de drogas en pandillas. Este artículo se basa en entrevistas semi-estructuradas a profundidad de un estudio realizado con jóvenes de pandillas del área Metropolitana de Nuevo León, México, con el objetivo de reflexionar y analizar el consumo de drogas como práctica cultural dentro de las pandillas. En la búsqueda del significado, lo primero que se muestra es el inicio de los miembros de pandillas en el consumo de drogas, y se describe la forma en que las drogas le son presentadas por la familia y/o los amigos miembros de la pandilla. Posteriormente se describe el significado del uso de drogas en la vida cotidiana de las pandillas y se observa en qué medida su uso es aceptable y normalizado.O fenômeno social do narcotráfico e da violência, relacionada às drogas, tende, atualmente, a minimizar os envolvimentos do consumo de drogas em gangues. Esse artigo se baseia em entrevistas, aprofundadas, de estudo realizado com jovens de gangues, na área Metropolitana de Nuevo León, México, com o objetivo de refletir e analisar o consumo de drogas como prática cultural, dentro das gangues. Na busca do significado, a primeira coisa mostrada é o início dos membros de gangues no uso de drogas, e se descreve a forma em que as drogas são apresentadas pela família e pelos amigos, membros das gangues. Em seguida, descreve-se o significado do uso de drogas na vida cotidiana e mostra até que ponto sua utilização é aceitável e normal.Today, the social phenomenon of drugs trafficking and violence related to drugs has tended to minimize the implications of drugs consumption in gangs. This article is based on in-depth interviews in young gangs in the metropolitan area of Nuevo León, Mexico, with a view to reflecting on and analyzing the drug as a cultural practice within gangs. In the search for meaning, the first

  13. ICP-AES分析不同锌浓度培养下锌镉超累积植物遏蓝菜的元素计量变化%Stoichiometry of Multi-Elements in the Zinc-Cadmium Hyperaccumulator Thlaspi Caerulescens Grown Hydroponically under Different Zinc Concentrations Determined bv ICP-AES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩文轩; 徐一鸣; 杜威; 唐傲寒; 江荣风

    2009-01-01

    锌镉超累积植物遏蓝菜(Thlaspi caerulescens)是重要的重金属污染土壤修复植物,但环境Zn浓度是否会影响该植物对其他元素的吸收,进而影响土壤养分的平衡,此前并不清楚.研究采用可同时测量多种元素的ICP-AES技术,分析高、中、低Zn浓度(5,50和500μmolL-1)多元素营养液培养的遏蓝菜中Zn,Cd,K,P,Mg,Ca,Fe,Mn,cu等元素的计量变化特征.结果显示,随着Zn供给浓度的升高,遏蓝菜根和茎叶的Zn含量都显著增加,高Zn培养的遏蓝菜茎叶和根的Zn含量比低Zn培养条件分别增加12和19倍;但植物茎叶中其他八种元素的含量均无显著变化,即在应用遏蓝菜修复Zn污染的土壤时,不会造成K,P,Mg,Ca,Fe,Mn,Cu元素从土壤中被植物过量带走而出现养分失衡.

  14. On the new factors and value in children's literature creation of Chang Xin-gang%常新港儿童文学创作中的新质素及价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海兵

    2013-01-01

    Chang Xin-gang is engaged in children's literature for decades, has won the "most popular with students of the ten book" award, Song Qing-ling prize for children's literature, Zhuang Chong-wen literary award, national excellent children's literature award, "best books we read" (China Taiwan) and other awards, at the same time, in the United States, Japan, South Korea and other countries, many works have been translated and published. Chang Xin-gang’s children literary works can always touch the bottom of most children's, growth of human nature, also can give the child mental foundation. This paper outlines the Chang Xin-gang and the creation of children's literature, secondly, discusses the new factors and value in children's literature creation of Chang Xin-gang, put forward his own proposals and views, with some reference value.%  常新港从事儿童文学几十年来,先后获得“最受学生欢迎的十大好书”奖、宋庆龄儿童文学奖、庄重文文学奖、全国优秀儿童文学奖、“好书大家读”最佳奖(中国台湾地区)等多种奖项,与此同时,在美国、日本、韩国等多个国家,常新港的多篇作品都得到了翻译出版。常新港的儿童文学作品总是能够触及到少年儿童成长的最深处、人性的最底部,也是能够给少年儿童精神打底子、可以对他们的性格从根子上真正塑造的好书。本文首先概述了常新港及其儿童文学创作,其次,就常新港儿童文学创作中的新质素及价值展开了深入的探讨,提出了自己的建议和看法,具有一定的参考价值。

  15. On the new factors and value in children's literature creation of Chang Xin-gang%常新港儿童文学创作中的新质素及价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海兵

    2013-01-01

      常新港从事儿童文学几十年来,先后获得“最受学生欢迎的十大好书”奖、宋庆龄儿童文学奖、庄重文文学奖、全国优秀儿童文学奖、“好书大家读”最佳奖(中国台湾地区)等多种奖项,与此同时,在美国、日本、韩国等多个国家,常新港的多篇作品都得到了翻译出版。常新港的儿童文学作品总是能够触及到少年儿童成长的最深处、人性的最底部,也是能够给少年儿童精神打底子、可以对他们的性格从根子上真正塑造的好书。本文首先概述了常新港及其儿童文学创作,其次,就常新港儿童文学创作中的新质素及价值展开了深入的探讨,提出了自己的建议和看法,具有一定的参考价值。%Chang Xin-gang is engaged in children's literature for decades, has won the "most popular with students of the ten book" award, Song Qing-ling prize for children's literature, Zhuang Chong-wen literary award, national excellent children's literature award, "best books we read" (China Taiwan) and other awards, at the same time, in the United States, Japan, South Korea and other countries, many works have been translated and published. Chang Xin-gang’s children literary works can always touch the bottom of most children's, growth of human nature, also can give the child mental foundation. This paper outlines the Chang Xin-gang and the creation of children's literature, secondly, discusses the new factors and value in children's literature creation of Chang Xin-gang, put forward his own proposals and views, with some reference value.

  16. Refugees from Central American gangs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth G Kennedy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras are among the world’s mostfragile nations, yet they are largely ignored by refugee agencies whounderestimate transnational criminal organisations’ abuses andpowers of control, while overestimating national governments’ abilityand willingness to protect their citizens.

  17. The tree gangs of Glittertown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes the activities of four groups in Los Angeles as part of The Global ReLeaf challenge to plant trees for environmental improvement and to combat global warming. The activities include: training of 'citizen foresters' in selection of tree species, planting sites, maintenance, and fund-raising; education of school children about recycling, organic gardening, water conservation and composting. By working with civic groups, school children, public works, housing developers and the forestry division these groups hope to cool their communities and reduce energy consumption

  18. Village Elder SHAN Gang:The Difficulties of Realizing Procedural Justice in Customary Society and the Causes%《被告山杠爷》:乡土社会程序正义实现的困境及成因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷怡

    2015-01-01

    In the movie Village Elder SHAN Gang,the dispute resolution“procedure”used by elder SHAN Gang was suitable for local villagers,which yet was a violation of the laws of the modern legal procedure. Relationship between villagers in a customary socie-ty is transforming from defamiliarization to rationalization,which is embodied in a dual-structure where the basic form of social ac-quaintances is still retained. Villagers still prefer no-litigation dispute resolutions mostly and the high cost of litigation to achieve proce-dural justice is an inherent defect,making procedural justice in the contemporary sense hard to penetrate into their daily lives.%电影《被告山杠爷》中,山杠爷解决纠纷的“程序”是适合乡土的,但却是违反现代法律的“程序”。乡土社会正在发生陌生化和理性化的改变,纠纷解决呈现双重空间结构,但是熟人社会的基本形态仍然保留,无讼的法律文化传统依旧存在,诉讼程序本身存在的高成本缺陷,使得现代意义上的程序正义难以渗入。

  19. 基于五品联动理论的品位效益优化决策研究%Study on the optimization and decision of grade benefits based on Five Grades Ganged theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵安林

    2014-01-01

    The correlation of exploration,mining,ore blending,processing and smelting sectors,which are considered to be series-coupled in mine engineering,is considered to be principal for mines. The corresponding geological grade,mining grade,milling grade,concen-trate grade,charged grade all plays an important role in the general economical benefits of mines. Based on Five Grades Ganged(FGG)theory,an economic effectiveness model for min-ing grade benefits was established. The proposed model obeys the principle of ore conservation and metal conservation. Grade-profit activity index was proposed and analyzed via an example. The grade of optimization of a certain metal mine was obtained and the proposed model would establish a foundation for further study of the management mode in mining enterprises.%本文以五品联动理论为研究背景,考虑到矿山工程中地质工程、采矿工程、配矿工程、选矿工程和冶炼工程5个工程是相互联系的串联耦合工程,是矿山企业活动的主体,而与其相对应的地质品位、采出品位、入选品位、精矿品位和入炉品位对于矿山整体经济效益起到关键的控制作用。本文运用并拓展了“质量守恒”原理,利用“矿量守恒”和“金属量守恒”建立了品位经济效益模型,提出了五品联动品位-效益活跃指数,通过实例计算与分析,获得了某铁矿的品位优化数值,为进一步研究矿山企业工程管理模式奠定了基础。

  20. "I virkeligheden lurer katastrofen hver gang"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmboe, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    artFREQ. – eller artFREQUENCY – som navnet lyder i sin helhed, har gennem de seneste 6 år stået for nogle af de mest spektakulære musikalske begivenheder på den københavnske scene. Seismograf/DMT har mødt kunstnerisk leder, Lars Top-Galia til en snak om kvalitet, intuition, radikal højkultur og om...

  1. Reviving the Ganges Water Machine: why?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. A. Amarasinghe

    2015-09-01

    Rabi and hot weather season irrigation to the entire irrigable area, and (ii to provide Rabi and hot weather season irrigation to the entire cropped area. This paper shows that SSS can enhance water supply, and provide benefits for irrigation and other water use sectors. In addition, it can buffer the inherent variability in water supply and mitigate extreme flooding, especially in the downstream parts of the basin. It can also increase river flow during low-flow months via baseflow or enable the re-allocation of irrigation canal water. Importantly, SSS can mitigate the negative effects of both flooding and water scarcity in the same year, which often affects the most vulnerable segments of society – women and children, the poor and other disadvantaged social groups.

  2. Sportsmans Road/Gangs Bayou 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Measured fine-scale distributions of nekton on the vegetated marsh surface using drop samplers and utilized these patterns to estimate population size. Natant...

  3. Taming the Gang at Animal House

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caires, Matthew R.

    2004-01-01

    Most boards are insulated from misbehavior of college fraternities and sororities. This article shows how they could aid reforms by facilitating partnerships and developing a better understanding of today's Greek culture. To change the current culture, a renewed commitment is needed to develop working partnerships between the key constituencies…

  4. Contract gangs: race, gender and vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Goodall

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available While violence directed at Indian students in Australian cities has been highlighted in the Indian and Australian press, far less attention has been paid to the violence directed at Indians in rural areas. This has most often involved Indians employed in contract labour in seasonal industries like fruit or vegetable picking. This article reviews various media accounts, both urban and rural, of violence directed at Indians from 2009 to 2012. It draws attention to the far longer history of labour exploitation which has taken place in rural and urban Australia in contract labour conditions and the particular invisibility of rural settings for such violence. Racial minorities, like Aboriginal and Chinese workers, and women in agriculture and domestic work, have seldom had adequate power to respond industrially or politically. This means that in the past, these groups been particularly vulnerable to such structural exploitation. The paper concludes by calling for greater attention not only to the particular vulnerability of Indians in rural settings but to the wider presence of racialised and gendered exploitation enabled by contract labour structures.

  5. 当代中国道德传统接续与重构的理论自觉--从《新理学》到《新纲常》%On Theoretical Conscientiousness of Connecting and Reconstructing Contemporary Chinese Moral Tradition -From New Confucian to Xin Gang Chang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴兆国

    2014-01-01

    New Confucian by Feng Youlan is based on moral consciousness of reflection,with the conscien-tious responsibility of circulation.It is to discover the new path for China in calamity.The book of Xin Gang Chang also embodies the theoretical conscientiousness of connecting and reconstructing Chinese moral tradition.The theoretical creation from New Confucian to Xin Gang Chang is full of consciousness of theo-retical creation.This kind of theoretical conscientiousness is to pursue social moral base,introspect moral tradition,think dialectically of new moral and ethical characteristics,as well as inspect how to carry out the new moral path.%冯友兰的《新理学》以自觉的道德反思意识为出发点,肩负着贞下起元的自觉使命,试图为处在国难中的中国找寻新的发展方向。这种对传统道德接续与重构的理论自觉在何怀宏的《新纲常》中也有集中的体现。从《新理学》到《新纲常》的理论创作,均充满了自觉的理论创造意识。这种理论自觉既有对社会道德根基的寻求,也有对道德传统的反思,既有对新道德伦理特点的理性辩证,也有对如何实施新伦理路径的详细考量。

  6. Social adaptation of Latin American youth gangs in Spain: Gangs and street youth organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Soriano Gatica

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article carries out a brief summary of the evolution of the phenomenon of what are known as “Latino gangs” in Spain since the late 1990s. The upsurge of these new street youth organisations is closely linked with the mass arrival of thousands of young Latin Americans in Spain during the past decade, and the consequent integration challenges that this has brought for both the welcoming society and for the young newcomers. In the sphere of public policy inSpain, there have been two main approaches to the phenomenon: one which is more oriented towards repression than prevention, and the other, known as the “Barcelona model”, which has promoted a process of normalisation and integration of these groups into Spanish society. The second option makes it possible for different social actors to carry out coordinated actions, and may serve as a guideline for developing similar initiatives in different countries in Europe and Latin America.

  7. Heavy metal tolerance and accumulation in Thlaspi caerulescens, a heavy metal hyperaccumulating plant species = Zware metalen tolerantie en accumulatie in Thlaspi caerulescens, een zware metalen hyperaccumulerende plantensoort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mortel, van de J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Minerals are essential for humans, plants and animals and have an important micronutrient role in physiological and metabolic processes of plants. Next to this essential role of minerals, they can also be very toxic when available to the plant in elevated amounts. Plants therefore need to keep very

  8. Arbovírus Ilheus em aves silvestres (Sporophila caerulescens e Molothrus bonariensis) Ilheus arbovirus in wild birds (Sporophila caerulescens and Molothrus bonariensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Eloy Pereira; Akemi Suzuki; Terezinha Lisieux Moraes Coimbra; Renato Pereira Souza; Esther Luiza Bocato Chamelet

    2001-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Relatar o isolamento do vírus Ilheus no Estado de São Paulo e avaliar o seu impacto para a saúde pública. MÉTODOS: O isolamento de vírus foi realizado em camundongos albinos Swiss, a partir de sangue de aves silvestres, capturadas com redes de espera tipo mist net, armadas no nível do solo, no Parque Ecológico do Tietê, São Paulo. A identificação das cepas isoladas foi feita pelos testes de inibição da hemaglutinação, fixação de complemento e neutralização em camundongos. Amostras d...

  9. Functional characterization of NRAMP3 and NRAMP4 from the metal hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen, R.J.F.J.; Wu, J.; Lelievre, F.; Blanchet, S.; Richaud, P.; Barbier-Brygoo, H.; Aarts, M.G.M.; Thomine, S.

    2009-01-01

    The ability of metal hyperaccumulating plants to tolerate and accumulate heavy metals results from adaptations of metal homeostasis. NRAMP metal transporters were found to be highly expressed in some hyperaccumulating plant species. Here, we identified TcNRAMP3 and TcNRAMP4, the closest homologues t

  10. Thlaspi caerulescens, an attractive model species to study heavy metal hyperaccumulation in plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonçalves Leite de Assunção, A.; Schat, H.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Studying heavy metal hyperaccumulation is becoming more and more interesting for ecological, evolutionary, nutritional, and environmental reasons. One model species, especially in the era of high throughput genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics technologies, would be very advantageo

  11. Isolation and identification of 4-a-rhamnosyloxy benzyl glucosinolate in Noccaea caerulescens showing intraspecific variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de R.M.; Krosse, S.; Swolfs, A.E.M.; Brinke, te E.; Prill, N.; Leimu, R.; Galen, van P.M.; Wang, Y.; Aarts, M.G.M.; Dam, van N.M.

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolates are secondary plant compounds typically found in members of the Brassicaceae and a few other plant families. Usually each plant species contains a specific subset of the ~130 different glucosinolates identified to date. However, intraspecific variation in glucosinolate profiles is com

  12. Arbovírus Ilheus em aves silvestres (Sporophila caerulescens e Molothrus bonariensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira Luiz Eloy; Suzuki Akemi; Coimbra Terezinha Lisieux Moraes; Souza Renato Pereira de; Chamelet Esther Luiza Bocato

    2001-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Relatar o isolamento do vírus Ilheus no Estado de São Paulo e avaliar o seu impacto para a saúde pública. MÉTODOS: O isolamento de vírus foi realizado em camundongos albinos Swiss, a partir de sangue de aves silvestres, capturadas com redes de espera tipo mist net, armadas no nível do solo, no Parque Ecológico do Tietê, São Paulo. A identificação das cepas isoladas foi feita pelos testes de inibição da hemaglutinação, fixação de complemento e neutralização em camundongos. Amostras d...

  13. Functional analysis of zinc hyperaccumulation related genes of Noccaea (Thlaspi) caerulescens for phytoremediation purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassan, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) are toxic metals that can cause serious soil contamination when present in excess. Especially Cd exposure is a threat to human health. Plants can potentially be used to clean-up the Zn- and/or Cd-contaminated soils in a technology called “Phytoremediation”. Two

  14. Forsker: De danske kommuner er godt i gang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    2015-01-01

    Debat: Skal de overordnede målsætninger om et fossilfrit dansk energisystem nås, er det nødvendigt, at kommunerne er aktive og formår at udnytte alle forhåndenværende redskaber til fremme af bæredygtig energi, skriver RUC-lektor Thomas Budde Christensen.......Debat: Skal de overordnede målsætninger om et fossilfrit dansk energisystem nås, er det nødvendigt, at kommunerne er aktive og formår at udnytte alle forhåndenværende redskaber til fremme af bæredygtig energi, skriver RUC-lektor Thomas Budde Christensen....

  15. Praxis development in relation to gang conflicts in Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche; Hussain, Khaled; Møller-Andersen, Camilla;

    2013-01-01

    The primary question addressed in this article is how to understand and produce praxis development in the complex and contentious field of street communities of young marginalized men, an area highlighted almost on a daily basis in the Danish media under headlines with terms such as ‘foreigner...... in social work practice, community building activities and praxis research....

  16. On the quantization of the Poincare gange model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gauge model based on the Yang-Mills equations for the Poincare group cannot be consistently quantized, at least in a perturbative approach. The problem is related to the absence of a Lagrangian. Adding the counterterms required by consistency and renormalizability turns the model into a gauge theory for a de Sitter group. (Author)

  17. The Sweet Valley High Gang Goes to College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litton, Joyce A.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the first 14 books of the "Sweet Valley University" series. Finds that the storylines on sex send conflicting messages that make readers believe that premarital sex is not an important issue. Notes that date rape and a brief look at racism and alcohol abuse are the only serious topics addressed. (RS)

  18. Small Arms Survey 2010—GANGS,GROUPS,AND GUNS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    1.Background of The Small Arms Survey The proliferation of small arms and light weapons represents a grave threat to human security. The unchecked spread of these weapons has exacerbated inter-and intra-state conflicts,contributed to human

  19. ”Hver eneste gang en ungdom …”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Morten

    En analyse af mødet mellem dansk musikkultur og amerikansk rock 'n' roll i sidste halvdel af 1905'erne......En analyse af mødet mellem dansk musikkultur og amerikansk rock 'n' roll i sidste halvdel af 1905'erne...

  20. Personal and interpersonal risk factors in the consumption of illicit drugs by marginal adolescents and young people from juvenile gangs Factores de riesgo personales e interpersonales en el consumo drogas ilícitas en adolescentes y jóvenes marginales de bandas juveniles Fatores de risco pessoais e interpessoais no consumo de drogas ilícitas em adolescentes e jovens marginais de bandos juvenis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rafael Guzmán Facundo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Marginal populations are groups which are known to present higher risks of drug consumption. It is possible to identify adolescents and young people from juvenile gangs that constitute this group. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of personal and interpersonal risk factors of drug consumption in 175 marginal adolescents and young people who belong to juvenile gangs in Mexico. Results showed a significant effect of personal factors on drug use, with an estimated variation of 26.1%. The factors that presented the highest rates were: gender, age and mental problems. The interpersonal factors (relationships with friends who have maladaptive behaviors and inappropriate relationships with parents showed an effect with an estimated variation of 15%. These results will allow for reflection and, in the future, the elaboration of adequate preventive programs aimed at this group of young people.Grupos reconocidos con mayor riesgo para consumir drogas, son los marginales, dentro de estos podemos localizar a los adolescentes y jóvenes de bandas juveniles. El objetivo del estudio fue analizar el efecto de los factores de riesgo personales e interpersonales sobre el consumo de drogas, en 175 adolescentes y jóvenes margínales de bandas juveniles de México. Los resultados mostraron efecto significativo de los factores personales sobre el consumo de drogas, con una varianza explicada del 26.1%, los factores que mostraron una mayor contribución fueron; el sexo, edad y problemas de salud mental. Los factores interpersonales (relación con amigos con conductas mal adaptadas y relación inapropiada con padres mostraron un efecto sobre el consumo de drogas, con una varianza explicada del 15%. Estos resultados posibilitarán la reflexión y en un futuro diseñar programas adecuados dirigidos a la prevención en este grupo de jóvenes.Grupos reconhecidos com maior risco para o consumo de drogas, são os de populações marginais, e, dentro destas

  1. Cadmium-induced inhibition of photosynthesis and long-term acclimation to cadmium stress in the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Küpper, H.; Parameswaran, A.; Leitenmaier, B.; Trtílek, M.; Šetlík, Ivan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 175, - (2007), s. 655-674. ISSN 0028-646X R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 138 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) VS96085 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : hyperaccumulators * phytoremediation * photosystem II Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 5.249, year: 2007

  2. An evolutionary perspective on differential regulation of zinc and cadmium homeostatis genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and Noccaea caerulescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Y.F.

    2014-01-01

    Some plants can tolerate and accumulate unusually high levels of toxic metals, and the analysis of such plants can provide insights into the ecology of environments that are polluted with heavy metals due to human industrial activities. The study of heavy metal hyperaccumulators such as Noccaea caer

  3. Increase of Cd and Zn uptake by the hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens grown in biochar-amended soils

    OpenAIRE

    Rees, Frédéric; Germain, Cyril; Sterckeman, Thibault; Morel, Jean-Louis

    2015-01-01

    Biochar, i.e. the solid product of biomass pyrolysis, has recently been investigated as a soil amendment in metal contaminated soils, mostly for its ability to decrease the phytoavailability of trace elements and to support plant growth. Several works have shown its efficiency for limiting the uptake of metals by plants, but the combination of biochar with metal-hyperaccumulating plants has never been tested. This work was conducted to examine the effects of biochar amendments on metal up...

  4. Geospatial approach towards enumerative analysis of suspended sediment concentration for Ganges-Brahmaputra Bay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pandey, P.; Kunte, P.D.

    This study presents an easy, modular, user-friendly, and flexible software package for processing of Landsat 7 ETM and Landsat 8 OLI-TIRS data for estimating suspended particulate matter concentrations in the coastal waters. This package includes 1...

  5. Guns, Gangs, and Gossip: An Analysis of Student Essays on Youth Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Marc A.; Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Wong, Naima; Tarver, Darian; Rabiah, Deana; White, Sharrice

    2004-01-01

    Youth violence is an important public health problem, but few researchers have studied violence from youth's perspectives. Middle school students' essays about the causes of youth violence were analyzed using qualitative and quantitative methods. The causes of violence identified by students were categorized into individual, peer, family, and…

  6. Cultivated plants in the diversified homegardens of local communities in Ganges Valley, Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Syed Ajijur; Baldauf, Cristina; Mollee, Eefke Maria;

    2013-01-01

    Homestead agroforestry, in the form of homegardens, has a long tradition in many developing countries. These systems are an intimate mix of diversified agricultural crops and multipurpose trees planted, maintained by members of the household. This paper aims to explore the species composition com...

  7. El Atila del Ganges en la ganadería colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Gallini

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available El artículo explora las lógicas y discursos que fueron instrumento para el proceso que, en las primeras tres décadasdel siglo XX, gestó el cambio genético de la ganadería colombiana, es decir, su “cebuización”. Se estudian en particularlas ideas que los discursos expertos expresaron acerca de la relación entre razas vacunas y medio ambiente, y los debatesacerca de las defensas de las razas criollas, europeas y cebuinas respectivamente.

  8. Teens and blogs network An online community emerging from a teenage gang

    OpenAIRE

    Fluckiger, Cédric

    2008-01-01

    International audience New communication tools at disposal of teenagers renew the forms of the progressive emancipation towards family that results in the adhesion to youth culture and the appearance of teenage forms of sociability (DE SINGLY, 2006 ; PASQUIER, 2005). For some years, French teenagers massively adopted blogs as a social media. Indeed, for teenagers, blogs provided by the Skyblog platform take the form of a massive generational phenomenon. Through blogs, teenagers aim at stay...

  9. Humanitarian Protection for Children Fleeing Gang-Based Violence in the Americas

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Carlson; Anna Marie Gallagher

    2015-01-01

    By the end of 2011, the US Customs and Border Protection (CBP) began to see a steady rise in the number of Unaccompanied Alien Children (UAC) from Central America, particularly from the Northern Triangle countries—El Salvador, Honduras and Guatemala—arriving to the US-Mexico border. The number of children entering the United States from these countries more than doubled during fiscal year (FY) 2012 and continued to grow through FY 2014. In FY 2013, CBP apprehended over 35,000 children. That n...

  10. Da Sherlock Holmes kom til Danmark første gang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Palle Schantz

    2011-01-01

    Præsentation og analyse af Holmes-figurens udvikling i populærkulturen med udgangspunkt i det succesfulde teaterstykke "Sherlock Holmes" fra 1901......Præsentation og analyse af Holmes-figurens udvikling i populærkulturen med udgangspunkt i det succesfulde teaterstykke "Sherlock Holmes" fra 1901...

  11. That Old Gang of Mine. Movies about Friendship, Loyalty, and the Culture of Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Bernard

    1997-01-01

    Reviews three contemporary movies, "Sleepers,""Girls Town," and "Slingblade" in which the common thread is abuse of helpless children by patriarchal authorities, adult white men who assert power over young people. In all three movies, the anger of the young people and their friends suggests respect for the righteousness of violence that raises…

  12. CRIMEN Y TURISMO OPORTUNIDADES ORGANIZATIVAS Y CAMBIO SOCIAL EN “L.A. GANG TOURS”

    OpenAIRE

    Zerva, Konstantina

    2013-01-01

    La investigacion existente sobre el crimen y el turismo ha indicado una relacion negativa entre estos dos conceptos, donde el crimen aparece como un factor influyente en la limitacion de los flujos turisticos. Aunque los turistas han enfocado en repetidas ocasiones la importancia de la seguridad en sus viajes, se presenta una relacion paradojicamente positiva entre el turismo y el crimen actual, donde la cultura de las pandillas es la atraccion principal de la visita. Este estudio de caso se ...

  13. Analysing the geographies of the 'transnational' gangs of Central America: the changing spaces of violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailsa Winton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es dar a conocer nuevo conocimiento sobre las pandillas 'transnacionales' en la región de Centroamérica, a través del análisis de los procesos (mutuamente constitutivos de la producción de identidad, espacio y lugar. Se argumenta que el análisis de las dinámicas y prácticas espaciales, y la discusión de las diferentes maneras en que estas dinámicas y procesos se conectan a la escala local y global, nos proporcionan nuevo conocimiento 'útil' en este campo de investigación aún naciente. Basado sobre más de una década de investigación directa con jóvenes en la región, este trabajo argumenta que entendimientos pobres de las pandillas, resultan en intervenciones ineficaces y contraproducentes, y demuestra que las geografías de las maras representan un aspecto fundamental -y todavía bastante descuidado- de su desarrollo y transformación.

  14. Analysing the geographies of the 'transnational' gangs of Central America: the changing spaces of violence

    OpenAIRE

    Ailsa Winton

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es dar a conocer nuevo conocimiento sobre las pandillas 'transnacionales' en la región de Centroamérica, a través del análisis de los procesos (mutuamente constitutivos) de la producción de identidad, espacio y lugar. Se argumenta que el análisis de las dinámicas y prácticas espaciales, y la discusión de las diferentes maneras en que estas dinámicas y procesos se conectan a la escala local y global, nos proporcionan nuevo conocimiento 'útil' en este campo de invest...

  15. 轮奸情节的司法认定%Judicial Determination of Gang Rape Plot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勋文

    2015-01-01

    轮奸系强奸罪的加重情节,依法应当从重处罚.如果行为人并未亲自实施奸淫行为,或者并未与其他行为人之间形成轮奸共同故意,这种情况下的认定,应从以下方面具体把握:轮奸的行为主体必须为二人以上,且各行为人在轮奸之共同故意下,亲自实施了奸淫行为方能成立轮奸.此外,行为人中至少有一个强奸既遂,才宜认定有轮奸情节;对奸淫未得逞的行为人不宜认定为轮奸未遂.

  16. Old Heads Tell Their Stories: From Street Gangs to Street Organizations in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotherton, David C.

    It has been the contention of researchers that the "old heads" (identified by Anderson in 1990 and Wilson in 1987) of the ghettos and barrios of America have voluntarily or involuntarily left the community, leaving behind new generations of youth without adult role models and legitimate social controllers. This absence of an adult strata of…

  17. Delincuencia juvenil y pandillerismo: Hombre y sociedad/Juvenile delinquency and gang: Man and society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Barraza Pérez (México

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available La creciente descomposición social y la perdida de valores, han atrapado a un buen número de nuestros jóvenes en conductas delictivas altamente peligrosas, según detecté en las investigaciones de campo, la iniciación en grandes ciudades se puede dar desde los 8 años en adelante, porque en el primer plano el niño aprende de la conducta de sus padres, si desde esa instancia tenemos un ambiente de incertidumbre, donde están de por medio los gritos, los golpes físicos y morales, nuestros niños o jóvenes pierden el sentido del honor, el amor al trabajo la confianza, la seguridad en sí mismos, perdiendo la afectividad por los demás, siendo preocupante y necesaria la intervención del gobierno, pero mas aún los limites de conducta deben de imponerse en la familia. The growing of social decomposition and the loss of values, have caught a good number of our young people in highly dangerous criminal behavior, as I detected in field investigations, initiation in large cities can be from 8 years onwards, because in the foreground the child learns from the behavior of their parents, from that instance we have an atmosphere of uncertainty, where they are of through screams, mental and physical shock , our children or young people lose the sense of honor, love to work the confidence and security in themselves, losing the affection for others, still worrying and required the intervention of the Government, but more still limits of conduct should prevail in the family

  18. Creating Opportunities for Mutual Affiliation: Gang Prevention and Relational-Cultural Theory in Project YES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randell, Stacy T.; Smith, Amy E.; Steinman, Bernard A.

    2015-01-01

    American youth do not have equal access to academic success and life achievements. In particular, low-income male students of color are disproportionately failing in school, filling prisons, and enduring the consequences of low social capital and poor investment in their futures. Unfortunately, many young people cope with poverty and life in…

  19. Bringing in Gangs and Community: A Re-Evaluation of Social Disorganization and Collective Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Tuthill, Louis C.

    2012-01-01

    For the last two decades, social disorganization and collective efficacy have been two of the main tenants of criminological thinking. Although gaps in these theories have been pointed out during the past decade, these theories persisted in the criminological literature. Further, these theories have been used as the bases for models of intervention, prevention, and suppression to reduce crime and juvenile delinquency. These programs have had mixed results because they do not account for pr...

  20. Large expression differences in genes for iron and zinc homeostasis, stress response, and lignin biosynthesis distinguish roots of Arabidopsis thaliana and the related metal hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. van de Mortel; L. Almar Villanueva; H. Schat; J. Kwekkeboom; S. Coughlan; P.D. Moerland; E.V.L. van Themaat; M. Koornneef; M.G.M. Aarts

    2006-01-01

    The micronutrient zinc has an essential role in physiological and metabolic processes in plants as a cofactor or structural element in 300 catalytic and noncatalytic proteins, but it is very toxic when available in elevated amounts. Plants tightly regulate their internal zinc concentrations in a pro

  1. Large Expression Differences in Genes for Iron and Zinc Homeostasis, Stress Response, and Lignin Biosynthesis Distinguish Roots of Arabidopsis thaliana and the Related Metal Hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mortel, van de J.E.; Almar Villanueva, L.; Schat, H.; Kwekkeboom, J.; Coughlan, S.; Moerland, P.D.; Verloren van Themaat, E.; Koornneef, M.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    The micronutrient zinc has an essential role in physiological and metabolic processes in plants as a cofactor or structural element in 300 catalytic and noncatalytic proteins, but it is very toxic when available in elevated amounts. Plants tightly regulate their internal zinc concentrations in a pro

  2. Student Expression: The First Amendment Does Not Protect Everything. (Student Newspapers, Handouts, Protests, Gangs, and Hate Speech).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Joe B.

    The U.S. Supreme Court decision in "Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier" established that a public high school newspaper, produced by students in a journalism class, is not a forum for public expression. The Court said that although school board policy specified that student free speech would not be restricted, other factors concerning the…

  3. Being an Indian on a White gang. Migration and Racialized Agricultural Labor in the Era of Globalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Alonso Hernández López

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this reflection is to analyze the ethnic-racial relations generated in agricultural workplaces that tilt in racist practices caused by the indigenous population migrations from the area of Chiapas to the land of tequilain Altos de Jalisco located in Mexico, specifically the municipality of Arandas. Such relationships have been evolving since the end of the last century as a result of the increasing expansion of the tequila agro-industry. It is of particular interest to address issues that deal with labor and social relations in the environments migrants arrive, because these relationships are based on a negative appreciation of the difference. This attitude leads the native people of Jalisco to discriminate, segregate, marginalize and exploit, not only strangers or foreigners (even in the same country, but also who, by his indigenous status, is positioned in a lower stratum and whose phenotype is far from the idealized Altos del Jalisco native: the Caucasian type, Catholic, rancher.

  4. Inequalities in human well-being in the urban Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta: implications for sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Szabo, Sylvia; Hajra, Rituparna; Matthews, Zoe; Baschieri, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Discussions on post Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) unanimously agree on the need to focus on sustainable development, finishing the job of ending extreme poverty and the importance of supporting urban development. Urbanization has the ability to transform societies and cities are the primary engine of economic growth and development. On the other hand, there is an increasing number of people living in poverty in urban environments and inequalities are increasing. Sustainable and inclusiv...

  5. Integrated water resources management : constraints and opportunities with a focus on the Ganges and the Brahmaputra River Basins

    OpenAIRE

    Rahaman, Mizanur Muhammad

    2009-01-01

    The key aims of this thesis are to identify the constraints and opportunities of implementing the integrated water resources management (IWRM) concept at both the policy and field level. IWRM has been chosen as a focus of this study as all contemporary international conferences, summits, regional water policies and declarations promote the IWRM concept for the effective and efficient management of water resources. The thesis has two parts. The first part reviews the evolution of the IWRM...

  6. Indacaterol er en én gang dagligt inhaleret β 2-agonist til behandling af kronisk obstruktiv lungesygdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2010-01-01

    The aim of pharmacological treatment of COPD is best possible disease control. Bronchodilators are accepted as the mainstay of COPD therapy. This short review focuses on the available data on indacaterol - a new once-daily beta2-agonist. The analysed studies show that indacaterol has clinically i...... important effects on quality of life, dyspnoea, level of FEV1, hyperinflation, and exacerbation rate in patients with COPD. Indacaterol is therefore in the near future expected to be an important part of maintenance therapy for patients with COPD....

  7. Korte ture i bil:Kan bilister ændre adfærd til gang eller cykling

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Linda; Jensen, Thomas Christian

    2008-01-01

    It is often discussed how two-wheelers and walking could take over some of the short trips by car. To make this discussion more actual DTU Transport has used the Danish National Travel Survey (TU) to analyse the potential for a shift from cars to cycling and walking. In Denmark a relatively large share (about 20 %) of the round tours below 22 km (from home and back to home) is driven on a bicycle and additional 22 % is done by foot. In all 23 % of the short tour kilometres is today done by cy...

  8. Nightlife Partnership Policing: (Dis)trust Building Between Bouncers and the Police in the War on Gangs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Søgaard, Thomas; Houborg, Esben; Tutenges, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    partnership policing has employed a police perspective and a top-down approach, thus emphasizing organizational ties between policing bodies, this article uses a bottom-up, interactional approach, with a focus on bouncers’ everyday experiences and understandings of partnerships with the police. Our findings...... show that the formation of informal police-bouncer networks has significantly increased the degree of police influence in private nightlife environments such as bars and nightclubs. Our findings also indicate that inter-agency trust building is crucial to the collaborative willingness and capability of...

  9. Population dynamics in the context of environmental vulnerability: comparison of the Mekong, Ganges-Brahmaputra and Amazon delta regions

    OpenAIRE

    Szabo, Sylvia; Brondizio, Eduardo; Hetrick, Scott; Matthews, Zoe; Renaud, Fabrice; NICHOLLS, Robert; Sebesvari, Zita; da Costa, Sandra; Dearing, John; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi; Tejedor, Alejandro; Tessler, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Tropical delta regions experience complex population dynamics, which are strongly influenced by socio-economic and environmental factors. They are subject to increasing pressure from relative sea-level rise, and because of human alterations they are becoming more and more vulnerable to extreme floods, storms, surges, and salinity intrusion, hazards which could also increase in magnitude and frequency with a changing climate. In this context, understanding population dynamics in delta regions ...

  10. CryoSat-2 altimetry for river level monitoring - Evaluation in the Ganges-Brahmaputra River basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Heidi; Andersen, Ole B.; Stenseng, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    , the results from the method developed in this study involving virtual stations show that the CryoSat-2 data can indeed be used for such monitoring by utilizing the high spatial coverage and the sub-cycle period of 30 days. The results show that it is possible to capture the peak flow occurring during...

  11. Computation and graphics in mathematical research. Progress report, June 1, 1991--May 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, D.A.; Spruck, J.

    1992-08-13

    This report discusses: The description of the GANG Project and results for prior research; the center for geometry, analysis, numerics and graphics; description of GANG Laboratory; software development at GANG; and mathematical and scientific research activities.

  12. Computation and graphics in mathematical research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, D.A.; Spruck, J.

    1992-08-13

    This report discusses: The description of the GANG Project and results for prior research; the center for geometry, analysis, numerics and graphics; description of GANG Laboratory; software development at GANG; and mathematical and scientific research activities.

  13. Gangland Online: Performing the Real Imaginary World of Gangstas and Ghettos in Brussels

    OpenAIRE

    Van Hellemont, Elke

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of the content analysis of 170 weblogs related to the Brussels-based Black African gangs. This article aims to contribute to the gang literature as it claims that gang myths are considered key for gangs’ consolidation and existence. The paper shows that mythmaking activities increasingly take place online, offering gang members new ways of communicating gang-ness. By using Goffman’s theory (1959) of “Impression Management” as an analytic theoretical framework ...

  14. 超累积植物与高生物量植物提取镉效率的比较%Comparison of phytoextraction efficiency of Cd with the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens and three high biomass species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨勇; 王巍; 江荣风; 李花粉

    2009-01-01

    利用植物修复污染的土壤已受到广泛的关注.采用土壤盆栽试验,比较了超累积植物遏蓝菜与3种高生物量植物印度芥菜、烟草和向日葵对长期施用含镉有机、无机肥料污染的土壤(总Cd,2.87mg·kg-1)的提取效率.研究结果表明,遏蓝菜富集镉的能力明显高于其他3种植物,其地上部镉含量可达43.7mg·kg-1,分别是烟草、印度芥菜和向日葵(叶)的10、27和56倍;而地上部生物量最高的植物烟草,其生物量干重为24.8g· pot-1,分别是遏蓝菜、印度芥菜、向日葵的35倍、3倍、2倍.4种植物提取镉最多的是烟草,每盆可以提取117μg,遏蓝菜和印度芥菜提取镉量分别为35μg·pot-1和30μg·pot-1,向日葵提取量最少,每盆仅为10μg左右.植物对土壤中镉的提取效率分别为:烟草 1%,遏蓝菜0.6%,印度芥菜 0.5%,向日葵0.08%.4种植物种植后,土壤总镉和有效态镉含量没有显著的变化.

  15. Organic acid complexation, heavy metal distribution and the effect of ATPase inhibition in hairy roots of hyperaccumulator plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boominathan, Rengasamy; Doran, Pauline M

    2003-03-01

    Heavy metal uptake and distribution were investigated in hairy roots of the Cd hyperaccumulator, Thlaspi caerulescens, and the Ni hyperaccumulator, Alyssum bertolonii. Hairy roots of both species contained high constitutive levels of citric, malic and malonic acids. After treatment with 20 ppm Cd or 25 ppm Ni, about 13% of the total Cd in T. caerulescens roots and 28% of the total Ni in A. bertolonii were associated with organic acids. T. caerulescens and A. bertolonii hairy roots remained healthy and grew well at high concentrations of Cd and Ni, respectively, whereas hairy roots of the non-hyperaccumulator, Nicotiana tabacum, did not. Most of the Cd in T. caerulescens and N. tabacum roots was localised in the cell walls. In contrast, 85-95% of the Ni in A. bertolonii and N. tabacum was associated with the symplasm. Growth of T. caerulescens and A. bertolonii hairy roots was severely reduced in the presence of diethylstilbestrol (DES), an inhibitor of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase. Treatment with DES increased the concentration of Cd in the symplasm of T. caerulescens about 6-fold with retention of root viability, whereas viability and Ni transport across the plasma membrane were both reduced in A. bertolonii. These results suggest that the mechanisms of Cd tolerance and hyperaccumulation in T. caerulescens hairy roots are capable of withstanding the effects of plasma membrane depolarisation, whereas Ni tolerance and hyperaccumulation in A. bertolonii hairy roots are not. PMID:12568742

  16. 珠三角地区恶势力违法犯罪团伙研究%A Study on Mafia-like Gangs in Pearl River Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗海明; 汪国华

    2008-01-01

    恶势力违法犯罪团伙,拉拢腐蚀基层治安人员、竭力寻求"保护伞"趋势明显;从其自身规模实力看,抗打击能力低,脆弱性特征明显;从其运转方式看,大多结构松散,雇用式特征明显;从其对社会的冲击方式来看,隐蔽性特征明显.政府对无业人员的管理缺位,法律法规的不完善以及打黑除恶专业队伍建设的滞后,为恶势力团伙提供了滋生发展的空间.应针对恶势力团伙的特点、形成原因入手,寻求对恶势力团伙的打击防范之策.

  17. New Understandings on Mafia-style Criminal Gang%对黑社会性质组织犯罪的新认识

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许细燕

    2004-01-01

    黑社会性质组织犯罪的本质特征是具有稳定的组织结构与组织性的表现形式内在化;具有固定的犯罪活动据点,并具有向合法经济渗透迹象或具体行为;以暴力手段为一切犯罪行为的基本保障;编织关系网,获取信息,寻求保护,注重反侦查.

  18. 我国刑法中黑社会性质组织探析%An Approach into the Mafia- style Criminal Gang in our Criminal Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙勤

    2002-01-01

    本文立足于静态区别与动态发展的观点,通过与典型的黑社会组织的全面比较,概括出黑社会性质组织在社会性、行为以及危害性三个方面的构成特征,提出了认定黑社会性质组织的标准,并对实践中存在的"保护伞"问题、恶势力团伙犯罪问题、黑社会性质组织与犯罪集团的关系问题等进行了分析讨论.

  19. On Methods Investigating Crimes Committed by Mafia-style Criminal Gang%黑社会性质组织犯罪案件侦办思路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云良

    2006-01-01

    涉黑案件是有组织、有领导、众多成员参与的集多种罪名于一体的严重危害社会的犯罪,认识其成因,对于超前预防、不让其坐大坐强,对于减少危害,对于构建和谐社会,具有现实意义.

  20. 脑外伤后遗忘症%Posttraumatic amnesia(PTA) YIN Wen-gang.Institute of Psychology,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100029,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹文刚

    2001-01-01

    介绍脑外伤后遗症 (PTA)的遗忘的发生、表现的类型以及持续时间等方面的基本特征 , 从精神心理的角度较为深入地研讨这种记忆障碍的内在机制 , 并从脑外伤康复的临床实践出发 , 着重介绍国内外几种常用的记忆量表 , 探讨如何对 PTA进行测定和评估的问题 .

  1. ‘Amice, ga je gang, maar maak het niet te moeilijk’. De wetenschapsrubriek van Pierre Vinken in Vrij Nederland: 1959-1963

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Meulenberg

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available

    P.J. Vinken's science column in the weekly Vrij Nederland: 1959-1963


    Pierre Vinken (1927 began bis professional career as a consultant neurosurgeon and ended it as chairman of the Reed Elsevier publishing company. Only a few insiders have ever known, however, that, in his younger days, he was an anonymous contributor to Vrij Nederland, at the time one of the two most widely read weekly newspapers in the Netherlands. During the period 1959-1963, the paper published a total of 175 of his articles. Though dealing with a wide range of subjects, ranging from linguistics to iconology, the majority of them were devoted to aspects of medical science. In retrospect, he was remarkably modern in the focus he brought to bear: spread the net wide in the choice of subject; rely strictly on tested research; seek always to keep an open mind; think logically; and attack prejudice and superstition. Vinken's name does not feature in any work on Dutch journalism. However, bearing in mind the fact that he made his debut in the field as long ago as 14 May 1959, he must rightly be considered to be one of the pioneers of scientific journalism in the Netherlands.

  2. Recent social and biogeophysical changes in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna, Mekong, and Amazon deltas as inputs into evolutionary policy-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo Barbosa, C. C.; Hossain, S.; Szabo, S.; Matthews, Z.; Heard, S.; Dearing, J.

    2014-12-01

    Policy-making in social-ecological systems increasingly looks to iterative, evolutionary approaches that can address the inherent complexity of interactions between human wellbeing, agricultural and aquacultural production, and ecosystem services. Here we show how an analysis of available time-series in delta regions over past decades can provide important insight into the social-ecological system dynamics that result from the complexity. The presentation summarises the recent changes for major elements of each social-ecological system, for example demography, economy, health, climate, food, and water. Time-series data from official statistics, monitoring programmes and sequential satellite imagery are analysed to define the range of trends, the presence of change points, slow and fast variables, and the significant drivers of change. For example, in the Bangladesh delta zone, increasing gross domestic product and per capita income levels since the 1980s mirror rising levels of food and inland fish production. In contrast, non-food ecosystem services such as water availability, water quality and land stability have deteriorated. As a result, poverty alleviation is associated with environmental degradation. Trends in indicators of human wellbeing and ecosystem services point to widespread non-stationary dynamics governed by slowly changing variables with increased probability of systemic threshold changes/tipping points in the near future. We conclude by examining how the findings could feed into new management tools, such as system dynamic models and assessments of safe operating spaces. Such tools have the potential to help create policies that deliver alternative and sustainable paths for land management while accommodating social and environmental change.

  3. Speech on the Opening Ceremony of ISO/TC 176 Plenary Meeting 2011 Chen Gang,Administrator of SAC October 24,2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Ladies and gentlemen,Good morning!We come to the 28th Plenary Meeting of ISO/TC 176 in Beijing just after the World Standards Day Conference in this so nice October.Secretary General of ISO,Rob Steele,especially sent us a video speech to express his congratulations on World Standards Day activities and ISO/TC 176 Meeting held by China.This year also marks the tenth anniversary of SAC.As the undertaker of this meeting,on behalf of SAC,I am greatly honored to send my congratulations on the opening of this meeting,my welcome to all experts and friends here,and my sincere thanks to relevant units and friends who made great contributions to this meeting.

  4. 强奸罪中"轮奸"情节的司法认定%The Judicial Determination of Gang Rape in Crimes of Rapes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴情树; 苏宏伟

    2009-01-01

    轮奸是强奸罪中的加重构成之一,轮奸是否成立直接涉及被告人重大的人身自由,甚至是生命的剥夺.其中,关于"轮奸"的认定主要存在两人以上的连续强奸行为是否均要求达到既递、轮奸是否以共同犯罪为前提、是否存在片面轮奸等三大问题.从客观主义、主观违法性、犯罪的本质以及有效保护被害人的公共政策出发,本文初步回答了这三大问题,认为"轮奸"并不需要以共同犯罪为前提、两人以上的连续强奸行为均要求达到既遂,存在片面轮奸.

  5. Coupling a land surface model with a crop growth model to improve ET flux estimations in the Upper Ganges basin, India

    OpenAIRE

    G. M. Tsarouchi; Buytaert, W.; A. Mijic

    2014-01-01

    Land surface models are tools that represent energy and water flux exchanges between land and the atmosphere. Although much progress has been made in adding detailed physical processes into these models, there is much room left for improved estimates of evapotranspiration fluxes, by including a more reasonable and accurate representation of crop dynamics. Recent studies suggest a strong land surface–atmosphere coupling over India and since this is one of the...

  6. Coupling a land-surface model with a crop growth model to improve ET flux estimations in the Upper Ganges basin, India

    OpenAIRE

    G. M. Tsarouchi; Buytaert, W.; A. Mijic

    2014-01-01

    Land-Surface Models (LSMs) are tools that represent energy and water flux exchanges between land and the atmosphere. Although much progress has been made in adding detailed physical processes into these models, there is much room left for improved estimates of evapotranspiration fluxes, by including a more reasonable and accurate representation of crop dynamics. Recent studies suggest a strong land-surface–atmosphere coupling over India and since this is one...

  7. Stress og frugtbarhed. En forløbsundersøgelse blandt par, som forsøger at blive gravide for første gang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, Niels Henrik; Jensen, Tina Kold; Bonde, Jens Peter;

    2000-01-01

    Mental distress has often been suggested as a cause of unexplained infertility. However, the causal direction may well be from infertility to distress, and prospective data are needed. We therefore followed 393 couples, who were planning their first pregnancy, with prospective collection of infor...... was based on a small number of observations. It is concluded that psychological distress may be a risk factor for reduced fertility in women with long menstrual cycles.......Mental distress has often been suggested as a cause of unexplained infertility. However, the causal direction may well be from infertility to distress, and prospective data are needed. We therefore followed 393 couples, who were planning their first pregnancy, with prospective collection of...... information on distress from termination of birth control until pregnancy for a maximum of six menstrual cycles. The analyses included 1,475 menstrual cycles, and mental distress was measured in each cycle by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Urine samples from each period of vaginal bleeding were...

  8. Stratigraphic architecture, bedload extraction, and mass balance of Holocene fluvial sediments in a tectonically subsiding basin within the Ganges-Brahmaputra River delta, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sincavage, R.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Pickering, J.; Wilson, C.; Paola, C.; Hossain, S.; Steckler, M. S.; Seeber, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Brahmaputra River occupied the tectonically active Sylhet Basin in eastern Bangladesh three times during the Holocene. With samples from more than 200 closely-spaced (3-5 km) boreholes, we take advantage of these discrete channel occupations and the high trapping efficiency of the subsiding basin to investigate dispersal of fluvial sediments. Experiment and theory suggest that depositional units transition from channels to lobes as transported sediment mass declines below ~30% of the total measured at the basin head. We test these ideas by reconstructing the geometry and grain size distributions of a large (30 m thick x 80 km wide) sand lobe formed during the mid-Holocene occupation (~7000-4000 years BP) of Sylhet Basin. Based on estimates of modern sediment discharge in the system, the volume of this sediment lobe is insufficient to account for the entire sediment budget. The smaller sediment volume is likely a consequence of reduced sediment discharge during a weakened monsoon. Additional sediment is likely to have also been routed out of the basin via an outlet located approximately along the modern Meghna River channel. Facies within Sylhet Basin can be characterized as stacked braidbelt sands in the proximal portion of the system, with isolated sand lenses further downstream, indicating a transition from a highly mobile braidbelt to a less mobile distributary system. The majority of bed load is extracted within a distance of ~150 km from the avulsion node, approximately coincident with the regional backwater reach of the Bengal Basin, suggesting a link between the hydraulic and "morphodynamic" backwater reaches of the system. Downstream fining is more rapid in sediments associated with the long-term occupation of Sylhet Basin, for which sediment is trapped over a relatively short distance within the sand wedge of central Sylhet Basin, than those from the early- and late-Holocene occupations, for which sediment is distributed over a longer path that follows the course of the Old Brahmaputra River. Fine-grained sediments preserved in the system do not display measureable downstream fining. The increased rate of sediment extraction in the eastern part of the basin is likely coupled with a subsidence maximum (~7 mm/year) associated with the foredeep of the Dauki thrust fault.

  9. The Infinity Puzzle - The story of the Higgs Boson:From QED to the LHC via Higgs and the Gang of Six

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Rutherford and Bohr discovered the nuclear atom 100 years ago. Roughly 50 years ago a theory of this basic structure of matter was inspired by the work of Peter Higgs and others. In July 2012 the discovery "beyond reasonable doubt" of Higgs's boson, and the experimental proof of the theory, was announced and speculations about Nobel prizes mushroomed. The Economist said of Frank Close's book, The Infinity Puzzle (OUP,2012): "The Nobel Committee would be well advised to read Mr Close’s book before making their decision." This pedagogic talk reviews the ideas and the history, and assesses how the credits should be shared. The conclusions may not be what you anticipate

  10. 论我国黑社会性质犯罪的防范措施%Prevention measures for crimes of criminal gangs in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴忆萍

    2003-01-01

    近年我国黑社会组织性质犯罪呈现出蔓延和泛滥的趋势,有向黑社会犯罪演变的可能性,必须加强对黑社会性质犯罪的立法;同时,通过对洗钱罪的研究并完善,从根源上堵住黑社会犯罪.

  11. The Early Years of Condensed Matter Physics at Illinois -- in Celebration of the 80th Birth Year of Charles P. Slichter -- Charlie Slichter & the gang at Urbana

    CERN Document Server

    Kadanoff, Leo P

    2014-01-01

    The 1950s-- and perhaps also the 1960s-- were very special times for the development of solid-state/condensed-matter physics. The University of Illinois at Urbana was at the center of these activities. In areas like NMR and superconductivity, methods were developed which would form the basis for the next half century of science and technology. Experimentalists, including Charlie and John Wheatley, worked hand in hand with theorists, including the incomparable John Bardeen. They worked cooperatively to develop ideas, often born in Urbana, but with godparents at Harvard and Moscow and Paris. A characteristic style of broad collaboration and spirited exchange developed and spread from Illinois. This development was not an accident but the result of the vision of leaders like Wheeler Loomis, Fred Seitz, and later Gerald Almy1. The strong leadership saved the other scientists from expending their time on departmental decision-making. The style of the scientific activity was set by Fred, who strongly encouraged joi...

  12. Internship Management of Gangli Hotel in Singapore%新加坡港丽酒店实习员工管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    矫永慧

    2007-01-01

    本文借鉴新加坡港丽酒店实习员工管理的经验,从招聘、实习协议、岗位安排、培训及实习环境等几个方面探讨了酒店对实习员工进行管理应当做好的工作.对国内酒店实习员工的管理工作有一定的参考价值.

  13. L’agriculture et l’élevage dans les plaines indo-gangétiques de l’Inde : vers une nouvelle intégration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbier Bruno

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available A huge importer of food aid in the post-independence years, India has rapidly reached selfsufficiency in grain in the late sixties, thanks to a pro-active policy oriented towards grain production in the indo-gangetic plains. However facing the today’s gigantic surpluses of grains, and the worrisome budget deficit of the central government and the Indian states, India ha come under pressure from various national and international institutions to shift state support from grain production to other productions. For the indo-gangetic plains, current grain basket of India, dairy is considered among the best alternatives. Grain producers of these regions are already the one contributing most, with producers form the North West (Gujarat, Maharastra, to the national dairy production and they are the ones with the better chances to respond to the increasing national demand for dairy products. The simulations developed in this study show that there is an important potential for crop livestock integration and that this integration can maintain agricultural incomes; partially compensate the likely reduction of subsidies and contribute to a better management of soil fertility. Whether national production will be able to respond to the demand in grain from both humans and animals, is a hot debate in India. On one hand, dairy production system is so extensive that production can be increased easily without much additional feeding of grain or concentrates but with cheaper sources of forages. On the other hand, the rapidly increasing poultry industry depends heavily upon maize, which is still a marginal production in India.

  14. “Hva har romerne noen gang gjort for oss i Nord- Norge?” Om mulige forbindelser mellom Romerriket og det nordligste Norge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per-Bjarne Ravnå

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available “What Have the Romans Ever Done for Us Here in North Norway?”: On Possible Connections Between the Roman Empire and Northernmost Norway. This article argues that scholars studying the early history of northern Norway should pay more attention to Roman history. Even if the geographical distances were long, there are clear signs of connections between inhabitants of northern Norway and the Roman world during the Roman era. In order to understand these connections scholars also need to study Roman history in its own right. To make this point the article investigates the possible Roman connections of a well-known warrior grave from Steigen (Nordland County, North Norway, dated to the middle of the third century CE. The investigation yields no stunning new discoveries, but aims to contribute to a broader and more well-founded understanding of the buried man and the experiences he might have had, as well as a cautious and informed view of broader connections between the North and the Roman world.

  15. A survey of perfluorinated compounds in surface water and biota including dolphins from the Ganges River and in other waterbodies in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Yeung, L.W.Y.; Yamashita, N.; Taniyasu, S.; Lam, P.K.S.; Sinha, R.K.; Borole, D.V.; Kannan, K.

    †,**, RAVINDRA K. SINHAǁ, DNYANDEV V. BOROLE§, KURUNTHACHALAM KANNAN┴ Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China....yamashita@aist.go.jp **Paul K. S. Lam Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China. Tel: +852-2788-7681; Fax: +852-2788-7406; E-mail: bhpksl@cityu.edu.hk †City University...

  16. Identifying root exudates in field contaminated soil systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, C.; Martinez, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    Carbon (C) compounds exuded from plant roots comprise a significant and reactive fraction of belowground C pools. These exudates substantially alter the soil directly surrounding plant roots and play a vital role in the global C cycle, soil ecology, and ecosystem mobility of both nutrients and contaminants. In soils, the solubility and bioavailability of metals such as iron, zinc, and cadmium are intricately linked to the quantity and chemical characteristics of the C compounds allocated to the soil by plants. Cadmium (Cd), a toxic heavy metal, forms stronger bonds with reduced S- and N-containing compounds than with carboxylic acids, which may influence exudate composition in hyperaccumulator and tolerant plants grown in Cd contaminated soils. We hypothesize that hyperaccumulator plants will exude a larger quantity of aromatic N and chelating di- and tri-carboxylic acid molecules, while plants that exclude heavy metals from uptake will exude a larger proportion of reduced S containing molecules. This study examines how a variety of techniques can measure the low concentrations of complex organic mixtures exuded by hyperaccumulator and non-hyperaccumulator plants grown in Cd-contaminated soils. Two congeneric plants, Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges ecotype), and T. caerulescens (Prayon ecotype) were grown in 0.5 kg pots filled with Cd-contaminated field soils from Chicago, IL. Field soils were contaminated as a result of the application of contaminated biosolids in the 1960's and 1970's. Pots were fitted for rhizon soil moisture samplers, micro-lysimeters developed for in situ collection of small volumes in unsaturated soils, prior to planting. Plants were grown for 8 weeks before exudate collection. After the 8 weeks of growth, a pulse-chase isotope tracer method using the C stable isotope, 13C, was employed to differentiate plant-derived compounds from background soil and microbial-derived compounds. Plants were placed in a CO2 impermeable chamber, and the soil

  17. Dispersal and flock integrity of snow geese in Louisiana and Texas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During the winter 1972-73, 1,000 Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescensj were captured and color-marked at Sabine National Wildlife Refuge in southwestern...

  18. Securing The Streets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Chongqing takes back its streets from gangs six people were sentenced to death and another five received jail terms during trials in southwest China’s Chongqing Municipality on October 21 for their involvement in gang activity.

  19. Motivations behind Inmate Participation in Correctional Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Clyde A.

    2000-01-01

    A study used attribution theory to explain the self-efficacy of 70 prison inmates (35 were gang members) participating in correctional education. Many gang members had low efficacy and expectations for educational attainment. (SK)

  20. Poetiske livtag med kristendommen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter Stein

    2015-01-01

    Færøerne har to betydelige nulevende digtere, der adskillige gange er blevet oversat til dansk og flere gange Fer blevet nomineret til Nordisk Råds Pris, nemlig Jóannes Nielsen og Tóroddur Poulsen.......Færøerne har to betydelige nulevende digtere, der adskillige gange er blevet oversat til dansk og flere gange Fer blevet nomineret til Nordisk Råds Pris, nemlig Jóannes Nielsen og Tóroddur Poulsen....

  1. Maras y barras : Pandillas y violencia juvenil en los barrios marginales de Centroamérica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savenije, W.

    2009-01-01

    Street gangs -especially ‘Mara Salvatrucha’ [MS] and 18th Street Gang [18]- and student gangs are feared throughout Central America. This study looks at the violent and criminal acts they engage in, the attraction they hold over other young people, the solidarity among their members, and the physica

  2. 连云港市公众急救知识普及现状调查%Investigation on public awareness of first aid knowledge in LianYunGang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊继芒; 周立君; 姜玛球; 徐育军

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand public awareness of first aid knowledge citywide, and explore the effective methods on how to popularize the concept of first-aid in public. Methods A survey designed by the center was given to the city residents. Reviewing a total of 12,000 answers to the questionnaires, a clear picture was obtained on people's awareness of first aid, demand, and exploring the factors which influenced the answers. Results In people who were surveyed, male to female ratio is 1.77 to 1; age ratio: 20 years old or younger 15.2%, 21 to 30 years old 50.9%, 31 to 40 years old 16.8%, 41 to 50 years old 14.2%, 51 years old and above 2.9%. Ratio of education level: middle school 44.85%, junior college 28.18%, undergraduate 22.28%, master and above 4.69%. Ratio of occupation: civil servant 7.4%, worker 12.7%, farmer 17.4%, soldier 2.9%, student -36.75%, entrepreneur 11.75%, community resident 11.1%. All the people who were surveyed expressed their desire to learn first aid techniques of which 38.4% had first aid training, only 68.6% was aware of calling 120 at emergency, and 27% was capable to conduct some basic on-site resuce techniques before ambulance arrived. Conclusion Popularizing first aid in communities is considered a long-term project which requires mutual efforts from every aspect of the society. Besides the technique, concept of sel/mutual relief is also strongly recommended.%目的 了解连云港市市民急救知识普及状况,探索向公众普及急救知识的科学方法.方法 用 自行设计的连云港市市民急救知识掌握现况调查问卷,通过分层随机抽样的方法,对培训人员进行12000 份的问卷调查,了解市民急救知识现状与需求,探讨其影响因素.结果 调查人群中,男女比例1.77:1.年 龄:20岁以下、21~30岁、31~40岁、41~50岁、51岁以上所占比例分别为15.2%、50.9%、16.8%、14.2%、2.9%.文化程度:中学以下、大专、本科、硕士及以上构成比为44.85%、28.18%、22.28%、4.69%.职业:干 部、工人、农民、军人、学生、企业主、社区居民构成比为7.4%、12.7%、17.4%、2.9%、36.75%、11.75%、11.1%.公众100%的愿意学习急救知识,其中38.4%的人以往接受过类似培训,只有68.6%的人在遇到危 难想到打120电话,27%的人能在救护车到达之前动手救助.结论 急救知识普及是社会、基础、系统和长 期工程.普及急救知识,还要加强公众自救互救的理念和意识.

  3. 鄂钢4300 mm精轧机EGC制动器故障分析及改造%Fault Analysis and Revamp of EGC Brake for 4 300 mm Finishing Mill in E Gang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏立华; 杨金华

    2015-01-01

    鄂钢宽厚板厂4 300 mm精轧机的EGC制动器原设计采用进口电磁盘式制动器,发热量大、开合冲击大、故障多,容易导致EGC锁死而产生废品.通过分析制动器存在的问题,对其进行改造,杜绝了故障,实现了制动器的稳定运行,设备可靠性得到提高.

  4. Analysis of the Causes of Crimes Committed by Mafia-like Gang and the Characteristics in Our Country%浅析我国黑社会性质组织犯罪的成因及特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗志军

    2010-01-01

    黑社会性质组织犯罪具有严重的社会危害性,其不仅破坏社会治安,扰乱经济秩序,而且阻碍社会进步,腐蚀党政肌体,散布腐朽的意识形态,甚至会威胁地方政权的稳定.分析黑社会性质组织犯罪产生的原因及特征,为遏制黑社会性质组织犯罪提供理论依据和实践参考,已成为打击黑社会性质组织犯罪的重要命题.

  5. Chen Zhiying Probing the causes of crimes committed by mafia-style gangs in China%我国黑社会性质组织犯罪成因初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游伟; 肖晚祥

    2001-01-01

    本文对我国黑社会性质组织犯罪的成因进行了较为宏观的分析,指出:我国二元社会结构以及人口、就业所形成的压力造成的社会分配不公和不均、社会不良需求的存在、社会正式控制力量的软化与虚化、非法控制力量的兴起,以及国家公职人员的腐败,是我国黑社会性质组织形成的重要原因.

  6. Thinking on the Difficulties and Countermeasures of Mafia—like Gangs Crime Investigation at Present%现阶段黑恶势力犯罪侦查难点及对策思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄进; 樊瑛

    2010-01-01

    进一步深入推进打黑除恶专项斗争是刑侦部门的工作重点之一.黑恶势力是恶势力和黑社会性质组织的合称,目前呈现高度组织性、较强暴力性、逐利性和垄断性、对公权力的腐蚀性等特点.现阶段应强化对打黑除恶工作指导原则的深刻认识,强化业务精通打黑除恶专业队伍的建设,丰富和完善打黑除恶侦查工作的机制建设,加强打黑除恶情报信息搜集和研判,注重吸收借鉴国外的有益经验,以不断提高打黑除恶专项斗争水平,维护社会稳定和百姓安宁.

  7. On the Problems Existing in the Social Security File Management LIU Zhi-gang%浅谈社保档案管理工作中存在的问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志刚

    2015-01-01

    社保档案管理做为社会保障体系建设的一个重要方面,在记录信息、改进社保政策、创新社保体系等方面有着重要的参考意义。但是在实际工作中,社保档案管理存在着许多问题。本文在分析社保档案特点的基础上,对这些问题进行探析,并提出了相应的改进对策。%As an important aspect of social security system construction, the social security file management has important reference value in the aspects of recording information, improving the social security policy and innovation of social security system. But in practice, there are many problems in the social security file management. Based on the analysis on the characteristics of social security files, this paper analyzes these problems, and puts forward the corresponding improvement countermeasures.

  8. El consumo de drogas como una práctica cultural dentro de las pandillas O uso de drogas como prática cultural dentro de gangues Drugs use as a cultural practice within gangs

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Rafael Guzmán-Facundo; Luiz Jorge Pedrão; Karla Selene Lopez-García; María Magdalena Alonso-Castillo; Santiaga Enriqueta Esparza-Almanza

    2011-01-01

    Actualmente el fenómeno social del narcotráfico y la violencia relacionada a la drogas ha minimizado las implicaciones del consumo de drogas en pandillas. Este artículo se basa en entrevistas semi-estructuradas a profundidad de un estudio realizado con jóvenes de pandillas del área Metropolitana de Nuevo León, México, con el objetivo de reflexionar y analizar el consumo de drogas como práctica cultural dentro de las pandillas. En la búsqueda del significado, lo primero que se muestra es el in...

  9. SamenStarten App ter ondersteuning van gesprek in de JGZ in Nederland: implementatie in gang [Implementation of StartingTogether App supporting preventive youth health care in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanson Henkemans, O.; Keij, M.; Beckers, M.; Kamphuis, M.

    2015-01-01

    De SamenStarten App is ontwikkeld ter ondersteuning van het gesprek tussen jeugdverpleegkundigen en ouders tijdens het huisbezoek. Met de App verloopt het gesprek gestructureerd en krijgt de ouder meer verantwoordelijkheid. Dit artikel bespreekt een landelijk implementatietraject van de App. Het res

  10. Trans Formantion from Oil to Gas in Heating Furnace of MaGang No.2 Rolling Mill%马钢二轧加热炉油改气实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏; 王刚

    2002-01-01

    为调整能源利用结构,充分利用公司的煤气资源,实现节能增效,将燃油加热炉改烧混合煤气,可取得可观的效益,同时新材料、新技术的应用使加热炉节能装备水平上了一个新台阶.

  11. 论李纲的荆湘贬谪诗及其对屈原思想的补正%On li Gang's Poetry Written in His Relegation,and His Corrective Addition to Qu Yuan's Thinking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗敏中

    2000-01-01

    建炎元年(1127),李纲罢相落职鄂州,开始了他的荆湘贬谪生涯。建炎三年 (1129),更远谪雷州、琼州,即所谓岭海、海外。每到一地,李纲都要用诗纪其行,抒其愤,写其忧。在这些诗中,李纲每每自比于屈原,表示对屈原爱国主义思想和刚直品德的仰慕,同时,用儒家思想观照屈家思想,对屈原不注意讲究斗争策略,保存有生力量,以适应现实政治斗争需要的偏激情绪表示了枇评意见。又以其特有的人生视角,陶写山川,以缓冲心中激愤,分流心中不平之气。这些,是对屈原思想的重要补正。

  12. 青少年黑社会性质组织犯罪的特点与成因分析——以重庆万州区张波、张涛黑社会性质组织犯罪为视角%On Characters and Causations of Juvenile Mafia-Style Criminal Gang:From the Perspective of Zhang Bo and ZhangTao Mafia-Style Criminal Gang in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅传强; 赵亮

    2010-01-01

    青少年黑社会性质组织犯罪除了具备黑社会性质组织犯罪的一般特征外,在犯罪主体、组织形式、犯罪行为方式、非法控制程度、经济实力等方面都有其特殊性.青少年黑社会性质组织犯罪的成因,除了犯罪主体的个人因为外,主要是由于在社会转型期,留守儿童存在社会化障碍,社会闲散人员的文化生活匮乏,弱势群体的广泛存在、利益主体的多层次性导致价值观多元化;同时,国家机关公信力下降,社会管理出现局部缺失,这些现象刺激了青少年黑社会性质组织的产生和发展.

  13. Maras y barras : Pandillas y violencia juvenil en los barrios marginales de Centroamérica

    OpenAIRE

    Savenije, W.

    2009-01-01

    Street gangs -especially ‘Mara Salvatrucha’ [MS] and 18th Street Gang [18]- and student gangs are feared throughout Central America. This study looks at the violent and criminal acts they engage in, the attraction they hold over other young people, the solidarity among their members, and the physical and social risks they face. It sheds light on an even more alarming phenomena: the dynamics of social exclusion and self exclusion faced by large groups of young Central Americans. The reproducti...

  14. La vida en contra: apuntes para una teoría sobre el fenómeno de las pandillas transnacionales en El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Hernández, Hugo César

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a theoretical approach to understand the phenomenon of transnational gangs from the perspective ofmodern subjectivity production. According to Nietzsche perspective, it is a closed or spherical subjectivity, while following thecontributions of Roberto Esposito, it is observed gang members in a subjectivity open to the other through the gift and communitydrifting, resulting violent clashes between gangs and the rest of the society. First, there is a discussion about subje...

  15. Bróderes descobijados y vagos alucinados: una década con las pandillas nicaragüenses 1997-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, José Luis; Rodgers, Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Also available in an English version entitled "Gangs of Nicaragua". What is a gang? A quick overview of the literature shows that this generic and non-specific term can refer to a range of phenomena, from spontaneous youth peer groups to organised criminal collectives. This variety notwithstanding, gangs generally have extremely negative connotations, particularly in contemporary Central America, where they are highly demonized and subject to extensive mystification. This collection of essays...

  16. Learning to live

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche

    2014-01-01

    The paper develops a social practice theoretical framework to analyze expansive learning in relation to Danish gang exit intervention. We follow 22-year-old Bilal’s movements and moments in and out of gang communities, and how Bilal, collectively with his mentor and teacher Jesper and other role...... models is ‘walking and expanding the margins’ of Danish exit intervention. At age 12, Bilal started a trajectory becoming ‘more of’ and later ‘less of’ a criminal gang member. The paper explores new belongings and (lack of) meanings in and across educations, interventions and gang communities, and how...

  17. Territorial developments based on graffiti: A statistical mechanics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Alethea B. T.; Chayes, Lincoln; D'Orsogna, Maria R.

    2013-01-01

    We study the well-known sociological phenomenon of gang aggregation and territory formation through an interacting agent system defined on a lattice. We introduce a two-gang Hamiltonian model where agents have red or blue affiliation but are otherwise indistinguishable. In this model, all interactions are indirect and occur only via graffiti markings, on-site as well as on nearest neighbor locations. We also allow for gang proliferation and graffiti suppression. Within the context of this model, we show that gang clustering and territory formation may arise under specific parameter choices and that a phase transition may occur between well-mixed, possibly dilute configurations and well separated, clustered ones. Using methods from statistical mechanics, we study the phase transition between these two qualitatively different scenarios. In the mean-fields rendition of this model, we identify parameter regimes where the transition is first or second order. In all cases, we have found that the transitions are a consequence solely of the gang to graffiti couplings, implying that direct gang to gang interactions are not strictly necessary for gang territory formation; in particular, graffiti may be the sole driving force behind gang clustering. We further discuss possible sociological-as well as ecological-ramifications of our results.

  18. A native Zn/Cd transporting P1B ATPase from natural overexpression in a hyperaccumulator plant reveals post-translational processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    TcHMA4 is a P1B-type ATPase that is highly expressed in the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator plant Thlaspi caerulescens and contains a C-terminal 9-histidine repeat. After isolation from roots, we purified TcHMA4 protein via metal affinity chromatography. The purified protein exhibited Cd- and Zn activated AT...

  19. Connecting Activists and Journalists: Twitter communication in the aftermath of the 2012 Delhi rape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Poell; S. Rajagopalan

    2015-01-01

    This article examines how feminist activists, women's organizations, and journalists in India connected with each other through Twitter following the gang rape incident in New Delhi in December 2012. First, the investigation draws on a set of +15 million tweets specifically focused on rape and gang

  20. Mediation of agency in teamwork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajslev, Jeppe Zielinski Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution we examine the potentials of the construction gang as a frame for collegial handling of physical strain and pain in work. On a framework viewing social inclusion and a positive professional identity as dependent on the display of meaningful agency within the gang (team), we e...

  1. Meninger er gratis - og næsten umulige at måle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    Ganggang rammer meningsmålinger forkert - senest ved parlamentsvalget i Storbritannien. Det er der mindst tre gode grunde til, at de vil blive ved med. Men der findes en metode, som giver bedre pejlinger: Køb aktier i et forventet valgresultat...

  2. 'Supermarkedsrevolutionen' i Indonesien

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vetter, Thomas Christian; Larsen, Marianne Nylandsted

    2014-01-01

    Efter sammenbruddet af General Suhartos diktatorregime i 1998 er Indonesien endnu en gang skueplads for en ’revolution’. Denne gang handler det dog ikke om demokratisering, men om fødevaresystemet. Et stigende antal supermarkeder udfordrer de traditionelle markeder, hvilket medfører en omstilling...

  3. Lagos "Area Boys", Substance Usage and Potential Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaam, Abeeb Olufemi; Brown, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The current study explores the rate at which members of Lagos' "area boys" engage in drug and alcohol use, and determines the predictive roles of parental and neighbourhood characteristics in the gang patterns of psychoactive substance misuse behaviour. The study approached gang members (N = 129) aged from 18 to 38 years (M = 25.83, SD = 4.82)…

  4. Determining the background levels of bismuth in tissues of wild game birds: a first step in addressing the environmental consequences of using bismuth shotshells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bismuth shotshells have been approved as a 'nontoxic' alternative to lead in North America. Approval was based on a limited number of studies; even background levels of bismuth in wildfowl were unknown. We report on the concentration of bismuth (and lead) in muscle and liver tissues of wildfowl (Anas platyrhynchos, Anas acuta, Anas crecca, Branta canadensis, Chen caerulescens) harvested with lead shotshell. Average liver-bismuth levels detected in the present study (e.g., teal, 0.05 μg/g dw; mallard, 0.09 μg/g dw) suggest analytical error in other studies examining the effects of bismuth in birds. Significant positive relationships between bismuth- and lead-tissue levels for muscle when all species were combined (and for B. canadensis and C. caerulescens separately) can be explained by noting that bismuth is a contaminant of lead. Thus, more research is recommended to confirm the appropriateness of bismuth as a 'nontoxic' shot alternative

  5. Metal Hyperaccumulation Armors Plants against Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Helen Fones; Davis, Calum A. R.; Arantza Rico; Fang Fang; Smith, J. Andrew C.; Preston, Gail M.

    2010-01-01

    Metal hyperaccumulation, in which plants store exceptional concentrations of metals in their shoots, is an unusual trait whose evolutionary and ecological significance has prompted extensive debate. Hyperaccumulation plants are usually found on metalliferous soils, and it has been proposed that hyperaccumulation provides a defense against herbivores and pathogens, an idea termed the 'elemental defense' hypothesis. We have investigated this hypothesis using the crucifer Thlaspi caerulescens, a...

  6. Two Models of the Prison: Accidental Humanity and Hypermasculinity in the L.A. County Jail

    OpenAIRE

    Dolovich, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    This Article considers what can be learned about humanizing the modern American prison from studying a small and unorthodox unit inside L.A. County’s Men’s Central Jail. This unit, known as K6G, has an inmate culture that contrasts dramatically with that of the Jail’s generalpopulation (GP) units. Most notably, whereas life in the Jail’s GP is governed by rules created and violently enforced by powerful inmate gangs, K6G is wholly free of gang politics and the threat of violence gang control ...

  7. Media coverage of violence against women in India: a systematic study of a high profile rape case

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Mark; Mostofian, Fargol; Jetly, Rajeev; Puthukudy, Nazar; Madden, Kim; Bhandari, Mohit

    2015-01-01

    Background On December 16, 2012 a 23 year old female was gang-raped on a bus in Delhi. We systematically reviewed professional online media sources used to inform the timing, breadth of coverage, opinions and consistency in the depiction of events surrounding the gang-rape. Methods We searched two news databases (LexisNexis Academic and Factivia) and individual newspapers for English-language published media reports covering the gang-rape. Two reviewers screened the media reports and extracte...

  8. Exit-strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche; Palm, Anne-Mette; Sys Møller-Andersen, Camilla

    different empirical sources. To develop and extend an "exit-prototype" about conditions of importance for moving beyond a gang/criminal position, we have analyzed documents (from newspapers and books), involved ex-gang members, social workers and experts as co-researchers in interviews, "gang......-conferences" and in feedback-meetings, where we have discussed drafts for presentations, papers and articles. Our main goal is to produce more practice relevant and precise (theoretical and empirical) understandings of exit as well as different community anchored perspectives on how to exit/move beyond criminal...

  9. 恐怖活动组织与黑社会性质组织之比较——刑法视角下的界定与辨析%Comparison between Terrorist Organization and Mafia-Style Gang--Differentiation and Analysis from A Penalty Viewpoint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈莺

    2003-01-01

    恐怖活动组织与黑社会性质组织的比较,有助于对“组织、领导、参加恐怖活动组织罪”及“组织、领导、参加黑社会性质组织罪”的准确界定。在对两类组织分歧点讨论的基础上,分别提出两类组织的内涵作为二者比较的基础。辨析主要从两类组织的目的特征、行为内容及侵害客体三个层面进行,分别指出差异的关键在于“利他”性与“利己”性,“犯罪”与“违法犯罪”以及“公共安全与社会管理秩序”与“社会公共秩序”。

  10. The features and determination of organized crimes and crimes committed by mafia-style criminal gangs or by hooligan evil forces%有组织犯罪、带黑社会性质的团伙犯罪和流氓恶势力犯罪的特征及其认定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡敏; 万富海

    2001-01-01

    有组织犯罪、带黑社会性质的团伙犯罪和流氓恶势力犯罪,是"严打"整治斗争中要重点打击的犯罪.正确把握这类犯罪的特征,界定其相互间的区别,对依法"从重、从快"打击犯罪是很有必要的.本文结合办案实际,对这类犯罪的主要特征、区别及如何认定,作了初步的探讨.

  11. A Brief Introduction about the Legislative Explanation of NPC Standing Committee on the Terms of "Mafia -style Criminal Gang" and Misappropriating Public Funds "for Private Uses"%全国人大常委会关于"黑社会性质的组织"和挪用公款"归个人使用"的立法解释简介

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄太云

    2002-01-01

    @@ 2002年4月28日九届全国人大常委会第二十七次会议通过的第二百九十四条第一款的解释>和第三百八十四条第一款的解释>,是1997年刑法实施以来,第一次在有关的法律问题已有司法解释的情况下,由于司法机关对法律规定认识不一致,而由全国人大常委会作出的立法解释.这两个立法解释对于明确法律规定的立法本意,进一步规范司法解释,具有重要意义.现将全国人大常委会两个立法解释所涉及的一些重要问题简要介绍如下:

  12. 1Li jian-jun, 1Wang Ding-wen, 1Yang Zhi-gang, 1Zhu Xin-chen, 1Sa Mu-ke∕Taxiqiemuer, 1A li-mu, 2Liu Wen-he%经尺骨鹰嘴截骨入路治疗肱骨髁上复杂骨折

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建军; 刘文和; 杨志刚; 朱新晨; 阿里木; 萨木克·塔西铁木尔; 王顶文

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the treatment effect of intercondylar fracture of humerus through approach of osteotomy of olecranon (AOO) with dual anatomical steel plate(DASP). Method From July 2000 to March 2013,30 patients of intercondylar fracture of humerus were treated surgical y through AOO, and the fracture was reduced and fixed with DASP. The patients included 18 males and 12 females with a mean age of 34 years (range 17~56 years), According to Riseborough and Radin classification, type Ⅱ fracture was found in 7 cases, type Ⅲ in 18, type Ⅳ in 5. Early rehabilitation exercises was taken in al the cases.Result The fractures in al the cases were satisfactory reduced but two not too good, none had incision infection, injuries of the ulnar nerve.Al 30 patients were fol owed up from 8 months to 23 months (average 14.6 months), of these 30 patients, al the osteotomies healed in 12.8 weeks averagely(range 12~18 weeks) and the injuried ulnar nerve recovered completely. The function of the elbow (according to Cassbaum scale) showed excel ent in 10 cases,good in 14, fair in 4 and poor in 2. the good-excel ent rate was 80%.Conclusion The technique of DASP is a good method for the treatment intercondylar fracture of humerus through transolecranon approach.%探讨经尺骨鹰嘴截骨入路应用肱骨内、外髁解剖钢板治疗肱骨髁间骨折的方法和临床疗效。方法:2000年7月~2013年3月采用经尺骨鹰嘴截骨入路结合肱骨内、外髁解剖钢板治疗肱骨髁间骨折30例,男18例,女12例;年龄17~56岁,平均34岁。按照Riseborough和Radin的分类方法,Ⅱ型7例,Ⅲ型18例,Ⅳ型5例。结果:术后30例骨折复位满意,2例复位稍差,无切口感染,1例术中牵拉损伤尺神经,30例获得随访,时间8~23个月,平均12.8个月。尺神经损伤恢复,骨折全部愈合,无内固定松动及断裂,愈合时间12~18周,平均14.6周。根据改良的Cassebaum评分系统评价肘关节功能,其中优10例,良14例,可4例,差2例,优良率80%。结论:经尺骨鹰嘴截骨入路结合肱骨内、外髁解剖钢板固定是治疗肱骨髁间骨折的较为有较的方法。

  13. Anàlisi de l'expressió gènica en els ganglis de les arrels dorsals del nervi ciàtic en el ratolí transgènic rip/infβ, model de neuropatia diabètica

    OpenAIRE

    Foradada Felip, Laia

    2014-01-01

    La polineuropatia diabètica (PND) és una de les complicacions secundàries més freqüents de la diabetis mellitus. Provoca un empobriment de la qualitat de vida dels malalts, causa dolor i úlceres i, en última instància, amputació de l’extremitat afectada. La patogènia és multifactorial, hi ha alteracions estructurals en els nervis perifèrics i els tractaments actuals són simptomàtics, no específics i poc efectius. El ratolí transgènic RIP/INFβ és un model de diabetis, que mimetitza la diab...

  14. 非洲康复医学发展与中国援非医疗队%Development of Rehabilitation Medicine and Chinese Medical Teams in Africa ZHANG Shan-gang, FAN Guang-hui. Wuhan General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, Wuhan 430070, Hubei, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张善纲; 樊光辉

    2014-01-01

    In Africa about 133 million people lived with disabilities which were mainly the sequelae of infectious disease, war or trau-ma accidents, single organ dysfunction, refractive error and some others. Medical rehabilitation and community-based rehabilitation could only meet 5%~55%of their rehabilitation needs. Weak infrastructure, poverty and lack of funds, negative attitudes and the monotonous hu-man and culture environments restricted the development of rehabilitation medicine in Africa. Chinese model of rehabilitation medicine seemed to be suitable for Africa. Chinese medical teams in Africa could do a lot in admissions of the disabled, improving hardware condi-tions, training of professionals, developing new technology and expanding the prestige of rehabilitation medicine.%非洲约有1.33亿残疾人,多由感染性疾病、战争创伤事故、单器官功能障碍、屈光不正等引起。非洲的医学康复与社区康复只能满足其康复需求的5%~55%,基础设施薄弱、贫穷及资金匮乏、工作不落实、人文环境单调等是制约康复医学发展的因素。中国康复医学模式适合非洲,医疗队在接诊康复患者、改善硬件条件、培训专业人员、开展新技术、制定新流程及扩大康复医学的影响上可以做很多工作。

  15. 论宋高宗朝谪宦的北归心态——以李纲、孙觌为中心%The Mind State of Relegated Officers Returning towards North in the Period of Emperor Gaozong of Song Dynasty——Centering on Li Gang and Sun Di

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭庆财

    2013-01-01

    宋高宗一朝,大量官员因罪而遭遇贬谪,而赦宥人数亦多,总体呈现出谪叙不常、前宽后紧的趋向.谪宦在北归途中常跼蹙于家乡与朝廷之间,困心衡虑,表现出强烈的归乡之愿和畏祸心态.同为常州人的李纲与孙觌在被赦北归后做出了不同选择:李纲入朝而孙觌归乡.李纲退则乐、进则忧的人生情怀,使其进退得宜,发而中节;孙觌“思忧知乐”的适意背后,则是忧谗畏讥的悲凉.李、孙两人进退之间的不同心态,体现了谋国与谋身的深刻矛盾,以及“欲有所为”和“欲有所止”的两种典型人格.

  16. 辽宁沿海工业园区生产性服务业发展系统动力学仿真研究--以葫芦岛市北港开发区为例%Simulation of Dynamic Development of Industrial Park of Productive Service Industry---A Case Study of HuLuDao BeiGang Industrial Park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王乐; 路世昌

    2015-01-01

    Since 2009 the Liaoning coastal economic belt development rose to national strategy , 43 Industrial Parks of six cities in Liaoning have a-chieved rapid development in infrastructure, equipment manufacturing, industrial agglomeration etc.Along with the concept of information technolo-gy, the service economy, the deepening of innovation system, Industrial Park needs to realize the transformation and upgrading in a higher level. Looking from the actual experience of developed regions, Development way of Liaoning coastal industrial park is the productive service industry breakthrough.Using system dynamics theory, selection of manufacturing, finance, labor , producer services supply and demand factors, the con-struction of the development of Liaoning Coastal Industrial Park production services model.This model takes the Huludao Beigang industrial zone as an example, on the 2012--2020 the development trend of the simulated.The results show that the production service industry of park maintained a growth momentum in the simulation period , but the subsystems are interrelated and influence each other , development trend and magnitude of both common and there are certain differences.%自2009年辽宁沿海经济带发展上升为国家战略以来,辽宁沿海六市的43个工业园区在基础设施、装备制造、产业集聚等方面都实现了快速发展。伴随着信息技术、服务经济、创新体系等概念的不断深入,辽宁沿海工业园区也需要在更高层面上实现转型升级。从发达地区经验和自身实际看,辽宁沿海工业园区的发展出路在于生产性服务业的突破。为此,运用系统动力学理论,选取制造业、劳动力、园区财政、生产性服务业供求等要素,构建了辽宁沿海工业园区生产性服务业发展模型。同时,以葫芦岛市北港开发区为例,对其2012—2020年发展趋势进行了仿真模拟。结果表明,园区生产性服务业的各项相关指标在仿真期内保持了增长势头,但各指标之间则彼此联系,相互影响,发展趋势和幅度既有共性也存在一定差异。

  17. Plaadid / Mari Peegel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peegel, Mari, 1978-

    2005-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Neil Tennant/Chris Lowe "Battleship Potemkin", Institute "Distort Yourself", Bob Dylan "No Direction Home", Jem "Finally Woken", Machine Men "Elegies", Jamie Cullum "Catching Tales", Bloodhound Gang "Hefty Fine"

  18. Sådan kan Danmarks fire nyeste krige undersøges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmesen, Michael Hesselholt

    2016-01-01

    Artiklen understreger behovet for hurtigst muligt komme i gang med delprojekter for at redde arkivalierne fra Danmarks krigsdeltagelse i Kosovo, Irak og Afghanistan. Den anviser i slutningen en mulig, pragmatisk vej frem....

  19. PEOPLE/POINTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Top Forex Regulators Shuffled Yi Gang, a scholar-turned-official, has been named director of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange (SAFE), replacing Hu Xiaolian. Yi, 51, received a phD at the University of Illinois

  20. Geochemistry of sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.

    chemistry, isotope geochemistry, rare-earth element fractionation and patterns to delineate the southern limits of influence of Ganges-Brahmaputra river system are described. Other sources of sediments to the northern and central Indian Ocean identified from...

  1. Ages and Stages: Teen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Parent's Guide to Teen Parties Are Henna Tattoos Safe? AUDIO Body Odor in Teens VIDEO Body ... Teens AUDIO Tampon Safety and Toxic Shock Syndrome Tattoos Teenagers and Gangs Teens & Tanning: Safety Information for ...

  2. Animated Dreamsi grand prix' sai film dododest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Animafilmide festivali "Animated Dreams" (21.-25. XI kinos Sõprus) auhinnasaajad : peaauhinna sai LAV-i "Lugu sellest, kuidas" (autor The Blackheart Gang), Balti- ja Põhjamaade festivali auhinna sai Eesti "Kleit" (Mari-Liis Bassovskaja, Jelena Girlin)

  3. School-Associated Violent Death Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Featured Topic: Opportunities for Action Featured Topic: Bullying Research Featured Topic: Prevent Gang Membership Featured Topic: ... fatal injury (e.g., homicide, suicide, or legal intervention) that occurs on school property, on the way ...

  4. Entomopathogenic and nematophagous fungal endophytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Quesada-Moraga, E.; Herrero, Noemí; Zabalgogeazcoa, I.

    Delhi: Springer, 2014 - (Verma, V.; Gange, A.), s. 85-99 ISBN 978-81-322-1574-5 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : entomopathogenic fungi Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection

  5. In Science Students Must Also Play Their Part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekke, Stewart E.

    1993-01-01

    Argues that very little is being done to improve the environmental conditions that cause poor student performance such as gang behavior, violence in children's lives, behavior problems, and the detrimental effects of poverty. (CCM)

  6. Safe Youth. Safe Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... violence can take different forms, such as fighting, bullying, threats with weapons, and gang-related violence. It ... federal government's one-stop-shop for information about bullying, including what bullying is (and isn't), state ...

  7. Child Maltreatment Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Featured Topic: Opportunities for Action Featured Topic: Bullying Research Featured Topic: Prevent Gang Membership Featured Topic: School Violence Data & Statistics Risk & Protective Factors Prevention Prevention Tools & Resources Featured Topic: Electronic Aggression Funded ...

  8. Electronic Aggression: New Technology and Youth Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Featured Topic: Opportunities for Action Featured Topic: Bullying Research Featured Topic: Prevent Gang Membership Featured Topic: School Violence Data & Statistics Risk & Protective Factors Prevention Prevention Tools & Resources Featured Topic: Electronic Aggression Funded ...

  9. National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Featured Topic: Opportunities for Action Featured Topic: Bullying Research Featured Topic: Prevent Gang Membership Featured Topic: School Violence Data & Statistics Risk & Protective Factors Prevention Prevention Tools & Resources Featured Topic: Electronic Aggression Funded ...

  10. Holiday Suicides: Fact or Myth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Featured Topic: Opportunities for Action Featured Topic: Bullying Research Featured Topic: Prevent Gang Membership Featured Topic: School Violence Data & Statistics Risk & Protective Factors Prevention Prevention Tools & Resources Featured Topic: Electronic Aggression Funded ...

  11. Kuidas kirjutada Oscarit väärt filmi / Andres Maimik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maimik, Andres, 1970-

    2003-01-01

    Spike Jonze'i mängufilm "Kuidas kirjutada kassafilmi" ("Adaptation") : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2002 ja Martin Scorsese "New Yorgi jõugud" ("Gangs of New York") : Ameerika Ühendriigid - Saksamaa - Itaalia - Suurbritannia 2002

  12. Comparative assessment of the vulnerability and resilience of 10 deltas : work document

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucx, T.; Marchand, M.; Makaske, B.; Guchte, van de C.

    2010-01-01

    Background information about: Nile delta (Egypt), Incomati delta (Mozambique), Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (Bangladesh), Yangtze (China), Ciliwung (Indonesia), Mekong (Vietnam), Rhine-Meuse (The Netherlands), Danube (Romania), California Bay-Delta, Mississippi River Delta (USA)

  13. Territorial Developments Based on Graffiti: a Statistical Mechanics Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Barbaro, Alethea B T; D'Orsogna, Maria R

    2012-01-01

    We study the well-known sociological phenomenon of gang aggregation and territory formation through an interacting agent system defined on a lattice. We introduce a two-gang Hamiltonian model where agents have red or blue affiliation but are otherwise indistinguishable. In this model, all interactions are indirect and occur only via graffiti markings, on-site as well as on nearest neighbor locations. We also allow for gang proliferation and graffiti suppression. Within the context of this model, we show that gang clustering and territory formation may arise under specific parameter choices and that a phase transition may occur between well-mixed, possibly dilute configurations and well separated, clustered ones. Using methods from statistical mechanics, we study the phase transition between these two qualitatively different scenarios. In the mean-field rendition of this model, we identify parameter regimes where the transition is first or second order. In all cases, we have found that the transitions are a co...

  14. PEOPLE/POINTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Economist Eyes Taxation Recipe Fan Gang,a prestigious economist from an elite government think tank,has called for an overhaul of the progressive individual income tax rate as part of China’s efforts toboost consumer spending.

  15. Traumatic events and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... over and over are: Physical or emotional abuse Sexual abuse Gang violence War Terrorist events ... Force on Community Preventive Services. The effectiveness of interventions to reduce psychological harm from traumatic events among ...

  16. Plaadid / Heidi Purga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Purga, Heidy, 1975-

    2007-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Gang Starr "Mass Appeal: The Best Of", Nas "Hiphop Is Dead", The Beatles "Love", Block Party " A Weekend In The City", Pet Shop Boys "Concrete", Keith Urban "Love, Pain & the Whole Crazy Thing", 2Marquess"

  17. State-of-the-art ProteinChips Offer a Powerful Tool for Bio-medical Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Aresearch group led by Prof.JIN Gang from the National Microgravity Laboratory at the CAS Institute of Mechanics has made major progress in the research and development of optical protein micro-array chips.

  18. Regarding the Popular

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    bogen er andet bind i serien af europæiske avantgarde- og modernismestudier redigeret af EAMs publikationskomite. Temaet er denne gang forholdet mellem modernisme, avantgarde og såkaldt lavkultur eller trivialkultur....

  19. Popmuusika / Mart Juur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juur, Mart, 1964-

    2006-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Les Diamants "Fortune Fools", Shout Out Louds "Howl Howl Gaff Gaff", Ulf Wakenius "Notes From The Heart", Angie Stone "Stone Hits", Bloodhound Gang "Hefty Fine", "Alternating Current 2", "The Best Smooth Jazz"

  20. Distribution of biochemical constituents in the surface sediments of western coastal Bay of Bengal: Influence of river discharge and water column properties

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kumar, B.S.K.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Krishna, M.S.

    of discharged water and associated biogeochemical processes in the water column. The northwest (NW) region of coastal Bay of Bengal was influenced by discharges from Ganges river while peninsular (monsoonal) rivers influenced the southwest (SW) region. The NW...

  1. Federal Bureau of Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... addiction. More News What We Investigate Spies. Terrorists. Hackers. Pedophiles. Mobsters. Gang leaders and serial killers. We investigate them all, and many more besides. Terrorism Counterintelligence Cyber Crime Public Corruption Civil Rights Organized ...

  2. Hydrological cycle over South and Southeast Asian river basins as simulated by PCMDI/CMIP3 experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Hasson, S.; Lucarini, V.; Pascale, S.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate how CMIP3 climate models describe the hydrological cycle over four major South and Southeast Asian river basins (Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra and Mekong) for the XX, XXI, and XXII centuries. For the XX century, models' simulated water balance and total runoff quantities are neither consistent with the observed mean river discharges nor among the models. Most of the models underestimate the water balance for the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Mekong basin and overestimate it for the Indu...

  3. Gangliosides attenuate stress-induced changes on body weight, motor activity and on the behavioral response to 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancela, L M; Volosin, M; Molina, V A

    1996-01-01

    The major goal of this study was to evaluate the influence of gangliosides (GANG) treatment on the onset of adaptive changes and the sequelae induced by stress exposure. With this purpose, the behavioral response to 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeODMT, 5 mg/kg, IP) and motor activity were evaluated in rats previously submitted either to a single restraint session (2 h) or to a daily restraint event for 3 consecutive days, combined or not to GANG administration (30 mg/kg IP). GANG was always injected 2 h before stress exposure. In addition, differences in body weights were recorded throughout the experiments. A similar behavioral response after 5-MeODMT was observed between saline (SAL) and GANG unstressed rats. Exposure to one or three restraint sessions did not modify the behavioral response to 5-MeODMT, whereas the association of GANG and stress during 3 consecutive days enhanced forepaw treading and hindlimb abduction. SAL-treated animals submitted to a single or to three stressful stimuli showed reduced locomotion and rearing. The combination of GANG and stress for 3 days, but not after a unique association, reversed the decrease on motor activity induced by the aversive experience. The decrease of body weights produced by one or three stress sessions was recovered only in animals treated with GANG and stress for 3 days. These findings suggest that GANG may accelerate the onset of adaptive changes on 5-HT1 sites and attenuate certain sequelae induced by previous stress experience. PMID:8724427

  4. Iran: Helt særlig - og ganske almindelig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    2016-01-01

    Ganggang har Iran som stat og folk fremkaldt misforståelser, fascination og fordømmelser. Kritikere forkaster landets religiøse ledere og politiske undertrykkelse; kendere lovpriser landets dybe kulturhistorie og mangfoldighed. Men hvorfor er særligt Iran genstand for så blandede opfattelser......? Er Iran noget helt særligt – eller ganske almindelig?...

  5. Las bandas: entre el mito y el estereotipo ¿emergencia de nuevas formas de comunicacion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Reguillo

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available The author abstracts from the urban landscape the strategies of cultural presence and permanence of the youth gangs. Her work focuses on explaining and understanding the struggle, confrontation, interchange, and loans of values between the groups of power and the marginal sectors in our societies. The article shows forth communicative practices (bulletins, grafitti, radio programmes and tatooing, production and circulation of the cultural products of a specific group in the city of Guadalajara known as The Olivos Gang.

  6. Mere skattetryg eller højere skattetryk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurrild-Klitgaard, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Skal vi lykønske VK-regeringen, med at skattestoppet har varet 3.000 dage, eller er sandheden, at regeringen selv har brudt skattestoppet utallige gange? Berlingskes Peter Kurrild-Klitgaard er i debat med skatteminister Kristian Jensen.......Skal vi lykønske VK-regeringen, med at skattestoppet har varet 3.000 dage, eller er sandheden, at regeringen selv har brudt skattestoppet utallige gange? Berlingskes Peter Kurrild-Klitgaard er i debat med skatteminister Kristian Jensen....

  7. “Basically... porn is everywhere”: a rapid evidence assessment on the effects that access and exposure to pornography has on children and young people

    OpenAIRE

    Horvath, Miranda; Alys, Llian; Massey, Kristina; Pina, Afroditi; Scally, Maria; Adler, Joanna R.

    2013-01-01

    This Rapid Evidence Assessment (REA) was commissioned by the Office of the Children’s Commissioner (OCC) as part of its Inquiry into Child Sexual Exploitation in Gangs and Groups (CSEGG). It was conducted by a consortium led by Middlesex University, to explore the effects that exposure and access to pornography have on children and young people. The CSEGG Inquiry was launched in October 2011 to better understand the scale, scope, extent and nature of child sexual exploitation in gangs and gro...

  8. Exploitation Feminism: Trashiness, Lo-Fidelity and Utopia in She-Devils on Wheels and Blood Orgy of the Leather Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Hofer, Kristina Pia

    2016-01-01

    From the mid-1960s onwards, American exploitation cinema has spawned a number of Girl Gang movies whose potential for challenging androcentric and heteronormative modes of representation have been hotly disputed by fans and academics alike. This article discusses this potential by sounding the trashy material textures of two outstanding Girl Gang films: She-Devils on Wheels (Herschell Gordon Lewis, 1968) and Blood Orgy of the Leather Girls (Michael Lucas, 1988). To date, excessive materialiti...

  9. From Rage to Rap and Prison to Print:

    OpenAIRE

    Josephine Metcalf

    2009-01-01

    1. IntroductionBy the late 1980s, while thousands of former gang members were either dead or incarcerated, their legacy and the gang subculture was being celebrated and commodified through gangsta rap music and videos, film and fashion. In the early 1990s this lucrative cultural trend sparked interest from potential authors and publishers. Such literary attention was partially fuelled by a public fascination with life in the ghettos following the 1992 Los Angeles (LA) riots, resulting in a ne...

  10. DELINQUENCY AND THE STRUCTURE OF ADOLESCENT PEER GROUPS*

    OpenAIRE

    Kreager, Derek A.; Rulison, Kelly; Moody, James

    2011-01-01

    Gangs and group-level processes were once central phenomena for criminological theory and research. By the mid-1970's, however, gang research was primarily displaced by studies of individual behavior using randomized self-report surveys, a shift that also removed groups from the theoretical foreground. In this project, we return to the group level to test competing theoretical claims about delinquent group structure. We use network-based clustering methods to identify 897 friendship groups in...

  11. The Science of Intelligence for Big, Complex Work

    OpenAIRE

    Pamela Noel Gray; Xenogene Gray

    2009-01-01

    An epistemological 5GL shell, eGanges, offers systemic intelligence for big, complex work. It is designed for construction of e-learning aids in the workplaces of the finite domains of law, management and education; there may be other suitable uses as well. Law is concerned with large, complex social organisation, and business is concerned with large, complex commercial organisations; work skills for each organisation are taught in tertiary education. This paper illustrates how eGanges aids m...

  12. The coldness of fear: Violence and culture in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mario Perea Restrepo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Why do Mexican gangs not give rise to the same levels of violence as their Central American counterparts do, or those in Los Angeles? Why are their towns and neighbourhoods not flooded with lawlessness and gang violence? In the light of the fact that violence is decreasing in Mexico (even though this has not brought about the disappearance of criminal activity, this work carries out an examination of urban conflict to explore the forces that are preventing violence from proliferating in the country. To this end, the author studies the experience of a gang member in Tijuana. First of all, his testimony is transcribed, and the result is a direct view without any mediation of the inaccessible world of gangs. Secondly, the author examines the aspects and elements through which this individual forms part of the “customs and behaviour” typical of the world of gangs, and whichhave now spread throughout the world. Thirdly, the work highlights the uniqueness of the Mexican case; that is to say, the aspects that differentiate the violence of the country’s gangs. Finally, the authorpresents the cultural elements that explain the containment of violence that exists in Mexico.

  13. Metal hyperaccumulation armors plants against disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Fones

    Full Text Available Metal hyperaccumulation, in which plants store exceptional concentrations of metals in their shoots, is an unusual trait whose evolutionary and ecological significance has prompted extensive debate. Hyperaccumulator plants are usually found on metalliferous soils, and it has been proposed that hyperaccumulation provides a defense against herbivores and pathogens, an idea termed the 'elemental defense' hypothesis. We have investigated this hypothesis using the crucifer Thlaspi caerulescens, a hyperaccumulator of zinc, nickel, and cadmium, and the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola (Psm. Using leaf inoculation assays, we have shown that hyperaccumulation of any of the three metals inhibits growth of Psm in planta. Metal concentrations in the bulk leaf and in the apoplast, through which the pathogen invades the leaf, were shown to be sufficient to account for the defensive effect by comparison with in vitro dose-response curves. Further, mutants of Psm with increased and decreased zinc tolerance created by transposon insertion had either enhanced or reduced ability, respectively, to grow in high-zinc plants, indicating that the metal affects the pathogen directly. Finally, we have shown that bacteria naturally colonizing T. caerulescens leaves at the site of a former lead-zinc mine have high zinc tolerance compared with bacteria isolated from non-accumulating plants, suggesting local adaptation to high metal. These results demonstrate that the disease resistance observed in metal-exposed T. caerulescens can be attributed to a direct effect of metal hyperaccumulation, which may thus be functionally analogous to the resistance conferred by antimicrobial metabolites in non-accumulating plants.

  14. Using hyperaccumulator plants to phytoextract soil Ni and Cd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaney, R.L. [USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Animal Manure and By-Products Lab, Beltsville, MD (United States); Scott Angle, J.; McIntosh, M.S. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Phytoextraction Associates LLC, Baltimore, MD (United States); Reeves, R.D. [Inst. of Fundamental Science-Chemistry, Massey Univ., Palmerston North, NZ (United States); Li Yin-Ming; Brewer, E.P. [Viridian LLC, Houston, TX (United States); Chen Kuang-Yu; Synkowski, E.C.; Leigh Broadhurst, C.; Wang, S. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Roseberg, R.J. [Oregon State Univ., Central Point, OR (United States); Perner, H. [Inst. for Plant Nutrition, Hohenheim Univ. (Germany); Baker, A.J.M. [Univ. of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia)

    2005-04-01

    Two strategies of phytoextraction have been shown to have promise for practical soil remediation: domestication of natural hyperaccumulators and bioengineering plants with the genes that allow natural hyperaccumulators to achieve useful phytoextraction. Because different elements have different value, some can be phytomined for profit and others can be phytoremediated at lower cost than soil removal and replacement. Ni phytoextraction from contaminated or mineralized soils offers economic return greater than producing most crops, especially when considering the low fertility or phytotoxicity of Ni rich soils. Only soils that require remediation based on risk assessment will comprise the market for phytoremediation. Improved risk assessment has indicated that most Zn + Cd contaminated soils will not require Cd phytoextraction because the Zn limits practical risk from soil Cd. But rice and tobacco, and foods grown on soils with Cd contamination without corresponding 100-fold greater Zn contamination, allow Cd to readily enter food plants and diets. Clear evidence of human renal tubular dysfunction from soil Cd has only been obtained for subsistence rice farm families in Asia. Because of historic metal mining and smelting, Zn + Cd contaminated rice soils have been found in Japan, China, Korea, Vietnam and Thailand. Phytoextraction using southern France populations of Thlaspi caerulescens appears to be the only practical method to alleviate Cd risk without soil removal and replacement. The southern France plants accumulate 10-20-fold higher Cd in shoots than most T. caerulescens populations such as those from Belgium and the UK. Addition of fertilizers to maximize yield does not reduce Cd concentration in shoots; and soil management promotes annual Cd removal. The value of Cd in the plants is low, so the remediation service must pay the costs of Cd phytoextraction plus profits to the parties who conduct phytoextraction. Some other plants have been studied for Cd

  15. Interacciones sociales, conductas delictivas, violencia y consumo de drogas en una banda juvenil: reporte de registros conductuales y diarios de campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Stern

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Two types of data-collectlng systems, field diarles and time sampling of behavíor, were used to study a juvenile gang in a marginal community of Mexico City. These two ways of gathering data give us ímportant Information conceming the gang. wlth regards lo social functioníng, víolence, delinquency and dmg usage. Field diaries offer us a panoramlc, global vision of the gang. as we find here descriptions of the .person or the group and how they interact with other factors of their envíronment, Iike the family or the community. Time sampling of bebavior gives us quantitative Information on tbe types of behavior whicb occur most frequentIy wlthin the gang. Both types of information are necessary in orden to arrive at a more comprehensive view of the gang. as one needs to inelude qualitative and quantítatíve aspects to better describe and understand It

  16. Identification and validation of heavy metal and radionuclide accumulating terrestrial plant species. Quarterly technical progress report, June 21, 1995--September 20, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochian, L.

    1995-12-31

    This quarterly report describes experiments on uptake of a variety of heavy metals by plants. Titles of report sections are (1) Alleviation of heavy-metal induced micronutrient deficiency through foliar fertilization, (2) Second screen for Zn, Cu, and Cd accumulation, (3) Characterization of the root Zn hyperaccumulation by Thlaspi caerulescens, (4) Comparison of commercial Brassica accessions obtained from the Iowa seed bank, (5) Second screening experiment for the accumulation of Cs and Sr by plants, (6) Effect of Ca on Cs and Sr accumulation by selected dicot species, and (7) Preliminary investigations into the forms of uranium taken up by plants.

  17. Proposed MIDAS II processing array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, J.

    1982-03-01

    MIDAS (Modular Interactive Data Analysis System) is a ganged processor scheme used to interactively process large data bases occurring as a finite sequence of similar events. The existing device uses a system of eight ganged minicomputer central processor boards servicing a rotating group of 16 memory blocks. A proposal for MIDAS II, the successor to MIDAS, is to use a much larger number of ganged processors, one per memory block, avoiding the necessity of switching memories from processor to processor. To be economic, MIDAS II must use a small, relatively fast and inexpensive microprocessor, such as the TMS 9995. This paper analyzes the use of the TMS 9995 applied to the MIDAS II processing array, emphasizing computational, architectural and physical characteristics which make the use of the TMS 9995 attractive for this application.

  18. Central America’s Maras: Public policies and best practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Falkenburger

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, youth gangs in Central America have become a significant focus of great attention, both in the region itself and in the United States. Nevertheless, there is a general lack of understanding as to who they are, why they form and how best to tackle the violence and crime that are commonly associated with their activities. Generally speaking, the local authorities have opted for repressive, hard-line policies to eliminate the problem. However, these policies have proved counter-productive, and recent studies have shown that the most effective way of reducing the high rates of crime and violence caused by youth gangs is to develop policies aimedat prevention, so as to tackle directly the causes that lead young people to join these gangs.

  19. Hellige krigere eller hemmelige lejesvende?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    2009-01-01

    Søndag angreb den sunnimuslimske Jondollah-milits igen i Iran - denne gang med højtplacerede officerer blandt ofrene. Står Iran overfor en borgerkrig? Eller har Irans fjender optrappet deres hemmelige krig mod den islamiske republik? Udgivelsesdato: 20/10......Søndag angreb den sunnimuslimske Jondollah-milits igen i Iran - denne gang med højtplacerede officerer blandt ofrene. Står Iran overfor en borgerkrig? Eller har Irans fjender optrappet deres hemmelige krig mod den islamiske republik? Udgivelsesdato: 20/10...

  20. Helgoland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Mogens Rostgaard

    2008-01-01

     Helgoland er en klippeø i Nordsøen - få beboere, begrænsede erhvervsmuligheder og placeret langt fra kysten. Tilsyneladende kun en lille plet på Europakortet. Og dog har dens historie været ualmindelig dramatisk. For netop øens geografiske placering har ganggang gjort den til en brik i det s...... med pomp og pragt, men festen blev kort. Under begge verdenskrige fik Helgoland rollen som militær forpost - på godt og ondt. Mest ondt!...

  1. Kan 1500 skoler skille sig ud?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Camilla

    Featureartikel: Kampen om opmærksomhed er skudt i gang, og uddannelsesinstitutioner er med i ræset om at være noget særligt. Men kan alle 1500 folkeskoler skille sig ud? Og betyder det, at vi mister den fælles skole?......Featureartikel: Kampen om opmærksomhed er skudt i gang, og uddannelsesinstitutioner er med i ræset om at være noget særligt. Men kan alle 1500 folkeskoler skille sig ud? Og betyder det, at vi mister den fælles skole?...

  2. From Rage to Rap and Prison to Print:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine Metcalf

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available 1. IntroductionBy the late 1980s, while thousands of former gang members were either dead or incarcerated, their legacy and the gang subculture was being celebrated and commodified through gangsta rap music and videos, film and fashion. In the early 1990s this lucrative cultural trend sparked interest from potential authors and publishers. Such literary attention was partially fuelled by a public fascination with life in the ghettos following the 1992 Los Angeles (LA riots, resulting in a ne...

  3. The Destructive Cult, the Cause of Formation,Nature and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Xiang, Ma

    2015-01-01

    The destructive cult is an underworld gang organization with the witchcraft and anti-social characteristics, in "Theliving god", namely the gang master, as the faith. The cause of formation bases on mankind cognitive level andsocial environment except for artificial factors. So in any time, the destructive cult has the possibility and necessityof its existence. In paper, it emphasizes that we should strengthen scientific education, open mind and sublimationof self at the same time of improving society. In this way, can only we eliminate the influence of the cult, breakdown the foundations of the cult.

  4. Collective violence: comparisons between youths and chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrangham, Richard W; Wilson, Michael L

    2004-12-01

    Patterns of collective violence found among humans include similarities to those seen among chimpanzees. These include participation predominantly by males, an intense personal and group concern with status, variable subgroup composition, defense of group integrity, inter-group fights that include surprise attacks, and a tendency to avoid mass confrontation. Compared to chimpanzee communities, youth gangs tend to be larger, composed of younger individuals, occupying smaller territories and having a more complex organization. Youth gangs also differ from chimpanzee communities as a result of numerous cultural and environmental influences including complex relations with non-gang society. These relations are governed in important ways by such factors as perceived economic and personal constraints, policing, family structure, and levels of poverty, crime, and racism. Nevertheless, the concepts that sociologists use to account for collective violence in youth gangs are somewhat similar to those applied by anthropologists and biologists to chimpanzees. Thus in both cases collective violence is considered to emerge partly because males are highly motivated to gain personal status, which they do by physical violence. In the case of youth gangs, the reasons for the prevalence of physical violence in status competition compared to non-gang society are clearly context-specific, both culturally and historically. By contrast, among chimpanzees the use of physical violence to settle status competition is universal (in the wild and captivity). The use of physical violence in individual status competition therefore has different sources in youth gangs and chimpanzees. Regardless of its origin, however, its combination with an intense concern for status can explain: (1) why individual males form alliances among each other; and hence (2) how such alliances generate social power, closed groups, and a capacity for defense of territory or pre-emptive attacks on rivals. This comparison

  5. ”En sværm af skyer, som skal tænkes”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Martin Blok; Morsing, Ole

    2014-01-01

    Der findes mange forskellige forståelser og definitioner af begrebet æstetik i dag. Nogle gange betragtes det som identisk med det skønne eller det sanselige og andre gange har det en mere hverdagsagtig betydning, hvor det associeres med fx et veldækket frokostbord. Det fælles for dem er imidlert...... tager sit teoretiske afsæt hos filosoffen Jean-Francois Lyotard, og den henter sit eksempelmateriale hos forfatteren Karl Ove Knausgård....

  6. Dilemmaet ved piratkopiering -en iterativ designproces

    OpenAIRE

    Jakobsen, Caroline; Weber, Nicoline; Scheike, Mikkel; Christiansen, Michelle Sømmerly; Johannessen, Maja

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Piratkopiering er et problem. Industrien råber vagt i gevær, og fremviser ganggang dokumenter der påpeger tabt fortjeneste. Om industrien direkte lider, er der både folk der argumenterer for og imod. Men en ting er sikkert, der foregår ulovlig distribution af musik via nettet hver dag. Ikke desto mindre findes der en række alternativer som har til opgave at komme dette til livs. Disse onlinetjenester skal bygge bro mellem internettets gratis, og ofte ulovlige muligheder, samt ...

  7. Clay minerals and Sr-Nd isotopes of the sediments along the western margin of India and their implication for sediment provenance

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kessarkar, P.M.; Rao, V.P.; Ahmad, S.M.; Babu, G.A.

    the central Indian Basin, Bengal Fan and the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) cores of the distal Bengal Fan (Rea, 1992; Fagel et al., 1994, 1997; Bouquillon et al., 1990; France-Lanord et al., 1993; Derry and France-Lanord, 1996; Colin et al., 1999) were reported...¡ the Ganges^Brahmaputra (0.720^ 0.726; 312.5 to 312.8), or the Ganges River (s0.735; 315.0) (see Bouquillon et al., 1990; France-Lanord et al., 1993; Derry and France- Lanord, 1996; Colin et al., 1999). The 87 Sr/ 86 Sr vs. O Nd plot of the samples also falls...

  8. Sulfur and strontium isotopic compositions of carbonate and evaporite rocks from the late Neoproterozoic–early Cambrian Bilara Group (Nagaur-Ganganagar Basin, India): Constraints on intrabasinal correlation and global sulfur cycle

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mazumdar, A.; Strauss, H.

    - 615. Bickle, M. J., Harris, N. B.W., Bunbury, J. M., Chapman, H. J., Fairchild, I. J., Ahmad, T., 2001. Controls on the 87Sr/86Sr ratios of carbonates in the Garhwal Himalaya, Headwaters of the Ganges. Jour. Geol. 109, 737?753. Bickle, M. J...., Bunbury, J., Chapman, H. J., Harris, N. B. W., Fairchild, I., Ahmad, T., 2003. Fluxes of Sr into the headwater of the Ganges. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 67, 2567? 2584. B?ttcher, M.E., Thamdrup, B., Vennemann, T., 2001. Oxygen and sulphur isotope...

  9. HIV-vaccine-jægeren fra Århus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars

    2008-01-01

    AIDS og den manglende HIV-vaccine, der en gang for alle kan forebygge den dødbringende sygdom, er den største sundhedsmæssige udordring på verdensplan udtaler Lars Østergaard Udgivelsesdato: 06.11.08......AIDS og den manglende HIV-vaccine, der en gang for alle kan forebygge den dødbringende sygdom, er den største sundhedsmæssige udordring på verdensplan udtaler Lars Østergaard Udgivelsesdato: 06.11.08...

  10. PTSD hos ældre efterladte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connor, Maja

    2009-01-01

    Intro: Tab af ægtefælle i alderdommen kan være en traumatisk begivenhed med reaktioner og symptomer på linje med dem, man nogle gange ser efter overfald, ulykker og naturkatastrofer. Det slår en ny undersøgelse fast. Udgivelsesdato: Maj 2009......Intro: Tab af ægtefælle i alderdommen kan være en traumatisk begivenhed med reaktioner og symptomer på linje med dem, man nogle gange ser efter overfald, ulykker og naturkatastrofer. Det slår en ny undersøgelse fast. Udgivelsesdato: Maj 2009...

  11. On the water hazards in the trans-boundary Kosi River basin

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, N. Sh.; Hu, G. Sh.; Deng, W.; Khanal, N.; Zhu, Y.H.; D. Han

    2013-01-01

    The Kosi River is an important tributary of the Ganges River, which passes through China, Nepal and India. With a basin area of 71 500 km2, the Kosi River has the largest elevation drop in the world (from 8848 m of Mt Everest to 60 m of the Ganges Plain) and covers a broad spectrum of climate, soil, vegetation and socioeconomic zones. The basin suffers from multiple water related hazards including glacial lake outburst, debris flow, landslides, flooding, drought, soil erosion and sedimentatio...

  12. En tragisk parodi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Etemadi, Maziar Haghpaidar

    2004-01-01

    Tre skikkelser symboliserer den europæiske ånds gang gennem historien; disse tre er antikkens homeriske helt Odysseus; Dantes opdigtede selvbiografi i den førmoderne og kristne middelalderlige fortælling Den guddommelige komedie og endelig Goethes moderne historie om Faust.......Tre skikkelser symboliserer den europæiske ånds gang gennem historien; disse tre er antikkens homeriske helt Odysseus; Dantes opdigtede selvbiografi i den førmoderne og kristne middelalderlige fortælling Den guddommelige komedie og endelig Goethes moderne historie om Faust....

  13. Mange paralleller Anker og Fogh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærgård, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Både Anker Jørgensen og Anders Fogh Rasmussen var statsministre i omkring otte år, blev genvalgt adskillige gange og var populære i deres samtid. Men de efterlod begge et Danmark i økonomisk krise.......Både Anker Jørgensen og Anders Fogh Rasmussen var statsministre i omkring otte år, blev genvalgt adskillige gange og var populære i deres samtid. Men de efterlod begge et Danmark i økonomisk krise....

  14. Bikes and Movies: A Brief History Of Motorcycle In Cinema

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Martinez; Antonio Sanjuán

    2014-01-01

    Bikers, gangs, heroes and villains, cops, races... after an exhaustive compilation and categorization fo more than 2.500 movies, this article explores the biker image on films through the most representatives.This is a brief review of the motorcycle use from the Early Cinema to the end of the 20th century, highlighting the fifties and seventies. Some movies of those years marked the biker genre and the biker and gang aesthetics, both in costume and in the way they relate to the world. Also th...

  15. Antibodies against Pasteurella multocida in snow geese in the western arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, M.D.; Shadduck, D.J.; Goldberg, D.R.; Baranyuk, V.; Sileo, L.; Price, J.I.

    1999-01-01

    To determine if lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) are a potential reservoir for the Pasteurella multocida bacterium that causes avian cholera, serum samples and/or pharyngeal swabs were collected from > 3,400 adult geese breeding on Wrangel Island (Russia) and Banks Island (Canada) during 1993-1996. Pharyngeal swab sampling rarely (> 0.1%) detected birds that were exposed to P. multocida in these populations. Geese with serum antibody levels indicating recent infection with P. multocida were found at both breeding colonies. Prevalence of seropositive birds was 3.5% at Wrangel Island, an area that has no recorded history of avian cholera epizootics. Prevalence of seropositive birds was 2.8% at Banks Island in 1994, but increased to 8.2% during 1995 and 1996 when an estimated 40,000-60,000 snow geese were infected. Approximately 50% of the infected birds died during the epizootic and a portion of the surviving birds may have become carriers of the disease. This pattern of prevalence indicated that enzootic levels of infection with P. multocida occurred at both breeding colonies. When no avian cholera epizootics occurred (Wrangel Island, Banks Island in 1994), female snow geese (4.7%) had higher antibody prevalence than males (2.0%).

  16. Changes in abundance and spatial distribution of geese molting near Teshekpuk Lake, Alaska: Interspecific competition or ecological change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, P.L.; Mallek, E.J.; King, R.J.; Schmutz, J.A.; Bollinger, K.S.; Derksen, D.V.

    2008-01-01

    Goose populations molting in the Teshekpuk Lake Special Area of the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska have changed in size and distribution over the past 30 years. Black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) are relatively stable in numbers but are shifting from large, inland lakes to salt marshes. Concurrently, populations of greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) have increased seven fold. Populations of Canada geese (Branta canadensis and/or B. hutchinsii) are stable with little indication of distributional shifts. The lesser snow goose (Anser caerulescens caerulescens) population is proportionally small, but increasing rapidly. Coastline erosion of the Beaufort Sea has altered tundra habitats by allowing saltwater intrusion, which has resulted in shifts in composition of forage plant species. We propose two alternative hypotheses for the observed shift in black brant distribution. Ecological change may have altered optimal foraging habitats for molting birds, or alternatively, interspecific competition between black brant and greater white-fronted geese may be excluding black brant from preferred habitats. Regardless of the causative mechanism, the observed shifts in species distributions are an important consideration for future resource planning. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

  17. What to eat now? Shifts in polar bear diet during the ice-free season in western Hudson Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormezano, Linda J; Rockwell, Robert F

    2013-09-01

    Under current climate trends, spring ice breakup in Hudson Bay is advancing rapidly, leaving polar bears (Ursus maritimus) less time to hunt seals during the spring when they accumulate the majority of their annual fat reserves. For this reason, foods that polar bears consume during the ice-free season may become increasingly important in alleviating nutritional stress from lost seal hunting opportunities. Defining how the terrestrial diet might have changed since the onset of rapid climate change is an important step in understanding how polar bears may be reacting to climate change. We characterized the current terrestrial diet of polar bears in western Hudson Bay by evaluating the contents of passively sampled scat and comparing it to a similar study conducted 40 years ago. While the two terrestrial diets broadly overlap, polar bears currently appear to be exploiting increasingly abundant resources such as caribou (Rangifer tarandus) and snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) and newly available resources such as eggs. This opportunistic shift is similar to the diet mixing strategy common among other Arctic predators and bear species. We discuss whether the observed diet shift is solely a response to a nutritional stress or is an expression of plastic foraging behavior. PMID:24223286

  18. What to eat now? Shifts in polar bear diet during the ice-free season in western Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormezano, Linda J; Rockwell, Robert F

    2013-01-01

    Under current climate trends, spring ice breakup in Hudson Bay is advancing rapidly, leaving polar bears (Ursus maritimus) less time to hunt seals during the spring when they accumulate the majority of their annual fat reserves. For this reason, foods that polar bears consume during the ice-free season may become increasingly important in alleviating nutritional stress from lost seal hunting opportunities. Defining how the terrestrial diet might have changed since the onset of rapid climate change is an important step in understanding how polar bears may be reacting to climate change. We characterized the current terrestrial diet of polar bears in western Hudson Bay by evaluating the contents of passively sampled scat and comparing it to a similar study conducted 40 years ago. While the two terrestrial diets broadly overlap, polar bears currently appear to be exploiting increasingly abundant resources such as caribou (Rangifer tarandus) and snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) and newly available resources such as eggs. This opportunistic shift is similar to the diet mixing strategy common among other Arctic predators and bear species. We discuss whether the observed diet shift is solely a response to a nutritional stress or is an expression of plastic foraging behavior. PMID:24223286

  19. Interactions between plant and rhizosphere microbial communities in a metalliferous soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, the relationships between plant consortia, consisting of 1-4 metallicolous pseudometallophytes with different metal-tolerance strategies (Thlaspi caerulescens: hyperaccumulator; Jasione montana: accumulator; Rumex acetosa: indicator; Festuca rubra: excluder), and their rhizosphere microbial communities were studied in a mine soil polluted with high levels of Cd, Pb and Zn. Physiological response and phytoremediation potential of the studied pseudometallophytes were also investigated. The studied metallicolous populations are tolerant to metal pollution and offer potential for the development of phytoextraction and phytostabilization technologies. T. caerulescens appears very tolerant to metal stress and most suitable for metal phytoextraction; the other three species enhance soil functionality. Soil microbial properties had a stronger effect on plant biomass rather than the other way around (35.2% versus 14.9%). An ecological understanding of how contaminants, ecosystem functions and biological communities interact in the long-term is needed for proper management of these fragile metalliferous ecosystems. - Rhizosphere microbial communities in highly polluted mine soils are determinant for the growth of pseudometallophytes.

  20. Characterization of Zinc and Cadmium Hyperaccumulation in Three Noccaea (Brassicaceae) Populations from Non-metalliferous Sites in the Eastern Pyrenees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos, Soledad; Gallego, Berta; Sáez, Llorenç; López-Alvarado, Javier; Cabot, Catalina; Poschenrieder, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    The Southern slope of the Pyrenees is the meridional limit for the distribution of several Noccaea populations. However, the systematic description of these populations and their hyperaccumulation mechanisms are not well established. Morphological and genetic analysis (ITS and 3 chloroplast regions) were used to identify Noccaea populations localized on non-metallicolous soils during a survey in the Catalonian Pyrenees. Cd and Zn concentrations were analyzed in soils and plants both sampled in the field and grown hydroponically. The expression of selected metal transporter genes was assessed by quantitative PCR. The populations were identified as Noccaea brachypetala (Jord.) F.K. Mey by conspicuous morphological traits. Principal component analysis provided a clear separation among N. brachypetala, Noccaea caerulescens J. Presl & C. Presl and Noccaea occitanica (Jord.) F.K. Mey., three Noccaea species reported in the Pyrenees. Contrastingly, ITS and cpDNA analyses were unable to clearly differentiate these taxa. Differences in the expression of the metal transporter genes HMA3, HMA4, and MTP1 between N. caerulescens and N. brachypetala, and those amongst the N. brachypetala populations suggest differences in the strategies for handling enhanced Cd and Zn availability. This is the first report demonstrating Cd and Zn hyperaccumulation by N. brachypetala both in the field and in hydroponics. This comprehensive study based on taxonomic, molecular, and physiological data allows both the correct identification of this species and the characterization of population differences in hyperaccumulation and tolerance of Zn and Cd. PMID:26904085