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Sample records for caerulescens ganges ecotype1oa

  1. Phytoremediation of urban soils contaminated with trace metals using Noccaea caerulescens: comparing non-metallicolous populations to the metallicolous 'Ganges' in field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Arnaud; Drouet, Thomas; Sterckeman, Thibault; Noret, Nausicaa

    2017-03-01

    Urban soil contamination with trace metals is a major obstacle to the development of urban agriculture as crops grown in urban gardens are prone to accumulate trace metals up to toxic levels for human consumption. Phytoextraction is considered as a potentially cost-effective alternative to conventional methods such as excavation. Field trials of phytoextraction with Noccaea caerulescens were conducted on urban soils contaminated with Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn (respectively around 2, 150-200, 400-500, and 400-700 μg g(-1) of dry soil). Metallicolous (Ganges population) and non-metallicolous (NMET) populations were compared for biomass production and trace metal uptake. Moreover, we tested the effect of compost and fertilizer addition. Maximal biomass of 5 t ha(-1) was obtained with NMET populations on some plots. Compared to Ganges- the high Cd-accumulating ecotype from South of France often used in phytoextraction trials- NMET populations have an advantage for biomass production and for Zn accumulation, with an average Zn uptake of 2.5 times higher. The addition of compost seems detrimental due to metal immobilization in the soil with little or no effect on plant growth. In addition to differences between populations, variations of growth and metal accumulation were mostly explained by soil Cd and Zn concentrations and texture. Our field trials confirm the potential of using N. caerulescens for both Cd and Zn remediation of moderately contaminated soils-with uptake values of up to 200 g Cd ha(-1) and 47 kg Zn ha(-1)-and show the interest of selecting the adequate population according to the targeted metal.

  2. Transcriptional regulation of metal transport genes and mineral nutrition during acclimatization to cadmium and zinc in the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator, Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges population).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpper, Hendrik; Kochian, Leon V

    2010-01-01

    We investigated changes in mineral nutrient uptake and cellular expression levels for metal transporter genes in the cadmium (Cd)/zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulator, Thlaspi caerulescens during whole plant and leaf ontogenesis under different long-term treatments with Zn and Cd. Quantitative mRNA in situ hybridization (QISH) revealed that transporter gene expression changes not only dependent on metal nutrition/toxicity, but even more so during plant and leaf development. The main mRNA abundances found were: ZNT1, mature leaves of young plants; ZNT5, young leaves of young plants; MTP1 (= ZTP1 = ZAT), young leaves of both young and mature plants. Surprisingly different cellular expression patterns were found for ZNT1 and ZNT5, both belonging to the ZIP family of transition metal transporters: ZNT1, photosynthetic mesophyll and bundle sheath cells; ZNT5, nonphotosynthetic epidermal metal storage cells and bundle sheath cells. Thus, ZNT1 may function in micronutrient nutrition while ZNT5 may be involved in metal storage associated with hyperaccumulation. Cadmium inhibited the uptake of Zn, iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn), probably by competing for transporters or by interfering with the regulation of transporter gene expression. Cadmium-induced changes in cellular expression for ZNT1, ZNT5 and MTP1 could also be part of plant acclimatization to Cd toxicity. Defence against Cd toxicity involved enhanced uptake of magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca) and sulphur (S).

  3. Complexation and toxicity of copper in higher plants. II. Different mechanisms for copper versus cadmium detoxification in the copper-sensitive cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges Ecotype).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijovilovich, Ana; Leitenmaier, Barbara; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Kroneck, Peter M H; Götz, Birgit; Küpper, Hendrik

    2009-10-01

    The cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens is sensitive toward copper (Cu) toxicity, which is a problem for phytoremediation of soils with mixed contamination. Cu levels in T. caerulescens grown with 10 microm Cu(2+) remained in the nonaccumulator range (hyperaccumulation and metal resistance are highly metal specific. Cu-induced inhibition of photosynthesis followed the "sun reaction" type of damage, with inhibition of the photosystem II reaction center charge separation and the water-splitting complex. A few individuals of T. caerulescens were more Cu resistant. Compared with Cu-sensitive individuals, they recovered faster from inhibition, at least partially by enhanced repair of chlorophyll-protein complexes but not by exclusion, since the content of Cu in their shoots was increased by about 25%. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements on frozen-hydrated leaf samples revealed that a large proportion of Cu in T. caerulescens is bound by sulfur ligands. This is in contrast to the known binding environment of cadmium and zinc in the same species, which is dominated by oxygen ligands. Clearly, hyperaccumulators detoxify hyperaccumulated metals differently compared with nonaccumulated metals. Furthermore, strong features in the Cu-EXAFS spectra ascribed to metal-metal contributions were found, in particular in the Cu-resistant specimens. Some of these features may be due to Cu binding to metallothioneins, but a larger proportion seems to result from biomineralization, most likely Cu(II) oxalate and Cu(II) oxides. Additional contributions in the EXAFS spectra indicate complexation of Cu(II) by the nonproteogenic amino acid nicotianamine, which has a very high affinity for Cu(II) as further characterized here.

  4. An evolutionary and functional genomics study of Noccaea caerulescens, a heavy metal hyperaccumulating plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Noccaea caerulescens is the only known Zn/Cd/Ni hyperaccumulator. The Ganges accession (2n = 14) has an, yet unpublished, genome size of ~319 Mb, with 29,712 predicted genes representing 15,874 gene families. This species is distributed mainly in Europe. Three ecotypes can be distinguished: two

  5. Cadmium leaching from micro-lysimeters planted with the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens: experimental findings and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingwersen, Joachim; Bücherl, Barbara; Neumann, Günter; Streck, Thilo

    2006-01-01

    The use of heavy metal hyperaccumulating plants has the potential to become a promising new technique to remediate contaminated sites. We investigated the role of metal mobilization in the Cd hyperaccumulation of Thlaspi caerulescens (J. & C. Presl, 'Ganges'). In a micro-lysimeter experiment we investigated the dynamics of Cd concentration of leachate as well as Cd removal by plant uptake in four treatments: (i) Control (bare soil), (ii) T. caerulescens, (iii) nonhyperaccumulator Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. ('PI 426308'), and (iv) co-cropping of the hyperaccumulator and nonhyperaccumulator. The experimental findings were analyzed using one- and two-site rate-limited desorption models. Co-cropping of T. caerulescens and B. juncea did not enhance metal uptake by B. juncea. Although Cd uptake of T. caerulescens was 10 times higher than that of B. juncea, the Cd concentration of leachate of the T. caerulescens treatment did not decrease below that of the B. juncea treatment. The Cd depletion in leachate was well reproduced by the two-site rate-limited desorption model. The optimized desorption coefficient was three orders of magnitude higher in the rhizosphere than in the bulk soil. Our results indicate that T. caerulescens accelerates the resupply of Cd from soil pointing to an important role of kinetic desorption in the hyperaccumulation by T. caerulescens.

  6. An evolutionary and functional genomics study of Noccaea caerulescens, a heavy metal hyperaccumulating plant species

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Noccaea caerulescens is the only known Zn/Cd/Ni hyperaccumulator. The Ganges accession (2n = 14) has an, yet unpublished, genome size of ~319 Mb, with 29,712 predicted genes representing 15,874 gene families. This species is distributed mainly in Europe. Three ecotypes can be distinguished: two metallicolous ecotypes, resident to serpentine soil (Ni enriched) and calamine soil (Zn/Cd enriched), and a non-metallicolous ecotype, growing on regular, non-metalliferous soils. The physiological dif...

  7. Cadmium hyperaccumulation protects Thlaspi caerulescens from leaf feeding damage by thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, R F; Ma, D Y; Zhao, F J; McGrath, S P

    2005-09-01

    Metal hyperaccumulation has been proposed as a plant defensive strategy. Here, we investigated whether cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulation protected Thlaspi caerulescens from leaf feeding damage by thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis). Two ecotypes differing in Cd accumulation, Ganges (high) and Prayon (low), were grown in compost amended with 0-1000 mg Cd kg(-1) in two experiments under glasshouse conditions. F2 and F3 plants from the Prayon x Ganges crosses were grown with 5 mg Cd kg(-1). Plants were naturally colonized by thrips and the leaf feeding damage index (LFDI) was assessed. The LFDI decreased significantly with increasing Cd in both ecotypes, and correlated with shoot Cd concentration in a log-linear fashion. Prayon was more attractive to thrips than Ganges, but the ecotypic difference in the LFDI was largely accounted for by the shoot Cd concentration. In the F2 and F3 plants, the LFDI correlated significantly and negatively with shoot Cd, but not with shoot zinc (Zn) or sulphur (S) concentrations. We conclude that Cd hyperaccumulation deters thrips from feeding on T. caerulescens leaves, which may offer an adaptive benefit to the plant.

  8. Ganges Landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a high resolution view of portions of the lobes of several landslide deposits in Ganges Chasma. Dark material near the bottom (south) end of the image is windblown sand. Location near: 8.2oS, 44.3oW Image width: 3.0 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

  9. Root and shoot transcriptome analysis of two ecotypes of Noccaea caerulescens uncovers the role of NcNramp1 in Cd hyperaccumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Matthew J; Mitani-Ueno, Namiki; Yamaji, Naoki; Yokosho, Kengo; Craft, Eric; Fei, Zhangjun; Ebbs, Stephen; Clemencia Zambrano, M; Ma, Jian Feng; Kochian, Leon V

    2014-05-01

    The Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator, Noccaea caerulescens, has been studied extensively for its ability to accumulate high levels of Zn and Cd in its leaves. Previous studies have indicated that the Zn and Cd hyperaccumulation trait exhibited by this species involves different transport and tolerance mechanisms. It has also been well documented that certain ecotypes of N. caerulescens are much better Cd hyperaccumulators than others. However, there does not seem to be much ecotypic variation for Zn hyperaccumulation in N. caerulescens. In this study we employed a comparative transcriptomics approach to look at root and shoot gene expression in Ganges and Prayon plants in response to Cd stress to identify transporter genes that were more highly expressed in either the roots or shoots of the superior Cd accumulator, Ganges. Comparison of the transcriptomes from the two ecotypes of Noccaea caerulescens identified a number of genes that encoded metal transporters that were more highly expressed in the Ganges ecotype in response to Cd stress. Characterization of one of these transporters, NcNramp1, showed that it is involved in the influx of Cd across the endodermal plasma membrane and thus may play a key role in Cd flux into the stele and root-to-shoot Cd transport. NcNramp1 may be one of the main transporters involved in Cd hyperaccumulation in N. caerulescens and copy number variation appears to be the main reason for high NcNramp1 gene expression underlying the increased Cd accumulation in the Ganges ecotype. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Hyperaccumulation of cadmium and zinc in Thlaspi caerulescens and Arabidopsis halleri at the leaf cellular level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosio, Claudia; Martinoia, Enrico; Keller, Catherine

    2004-02-01

    Vacuolar compartmentalization or cell wall binding in leaves could play a major role in hyperaccumulation of heavy metals. However, little is known about the physiology of intracellular cadmium (Cd) sequestration in plants. We investigated the role of the leaf cells in allocating metal in hyperaccumulating plants by measuring short-term (109)Cd and (65)Zn uptake in mesophyll protoplasts of Thlaspi caerulescens "Ganges" and Arabidopsis halleri, both hyperaccumulators of zinc (Zn) and Cd, and T. caerulescens "Prayon," accumulating Cd at a lower degree. The effects of low temperature, several divalent cations, and pre-exposure of the plants to metals were investigated. There was no significant difference between the Michaelis-Menten kinetic constants of the three plants. It indicates that differences in metal uptake cannot be explained by different constitutive transport capacities at the leaf protoplast level and that plasma and vacuole membranes of mesophyll cells are not responsible for the differences observed in heavy metal allocation. This suggests the existence of regulation mechanisms before the plasma membrane of leaf mesophyll protoplasts. However, pre-exposure of the plants to Cd induced an increase in Cd accumulation in protoplasts of "Ganges," whereas it decreased Cd accumulation in A. halleri protoplasts, indicating that Cd-permeable transport proteins are differentially regulated. The experiment with competitors has shown that probably more than one single transport system is carrying Cd in parallel into the cell and that in T. caerulescens "Prayon," Cd could be transported by a Zn and Ca pathway, whereas in "Ganges," Cd could be transported mainly by other pathways.

  11. Ganges Landslide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03681 Ganges Landslide Two large landslides dominate this image of part of Ganges Chasma. The eroded surface of an old landslide covers the north half of the image, while a more recent landslide occurs to the south. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6.7N, Longitude 310.4E. 17 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  12. Ganges Landslide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03681 Ganges Landslide Two large landslides dominate this image of part of Ganges Chasma. The eroded surface of an old landslide covers the north half of the image, while a more recent landslide occurs to the south. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6.7N, Longitude 310.4E. 17 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  13. Cadmium Induced Changes of Proline in Two Ecotypes of Thlaspi Caerulescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemanová V.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A Thlaspi caerulescens (J. & C. PRESL was used to study the effect of cadmium on the content of free amino acids and ability accumulation of Cd in ecotypes of this plant species. In pot experiment two ecotypes T. caerulescens were used: Ganges ecotype from France and Mežica ecotype from Slovenia. The plants were grown in soil (chernozem – Suchdol spiked with NPK and three different concentration of Cd: 30, 60 and 90 mg/kg. The content of Cd was measured in the above-ground biomass and roots using ICP-OES. Accumulation of Cd was higher in the Mežica ecotype in contrast to the low Cd-accumulating the Ganges ecotype. Analyses of free amino acids contents were measured by GC-MS method. The content of free amino acids in above-ground biomass of the Mežica ecotype declined progressively with increasing concentrations of Cd. Opposite trend was observed in roots of this ecotype. The increase of free amino acids contents in above-ground biomass and roots of the Ganges ecotype were detected. The results of specific amino acids free proline showed increased content in plant biomass with increasing Cd contamination of soil. A statistically significant increase was observed between control plants (0 mg/kg Cd and variant Cd3 (90 mg/kg Cd for both ecotypes. The statistically significant decrease of free proline was observed in the Mežica ecotype roots. Opposite trend was observed in roots of Ganges ecotype - increasing trend of free proline content. These results indicate a correlation between content of Cd and content of free proline in different parts of the plant. We can speculate that the mechanism of Cd hyperaccumulation and metabolism of free proline are not identical in ecotypes of this species.

  14. Urban Street Gang Enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute for Law and Justice, Inc., Alexandria, VA.

    Strategies to enhance prosecution of gang-related crimes are presented, with a focus on enforcement and prosecution targeting urban street gangs. The model programs introduced offer strategies largely based on the practical experiences of agencies that participated in a demonstration program, the Urban Street Gang Drug Trafficking Enforcement…

  15. Expression and functional analysis of metal transporter genes in two contrasting ecotypes of the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Sonia; Tearall, Kathryn L; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Buchner, Peter; McGrath, Steve P; Hawkesford, Malcolm J

    2007-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulation is a constitutive property of Thlaspi caerulescens, whereas cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulation varies greatly among different ecotypes. The molecular basis of this variation is unknown. Ecotypic differences in the sequences and expression of four representative ZIP family transporter genes were investigated. Genome analysis indicated the presence of at least two closely related copies of the TcIRT1 gene in both Ganges (high Cd accumulating) and Prayon (low Cd accumulating) ecotypes, with different copies being expressed in each, and, furthermore, the two genes potentially encode different length transcripts. The predominant transcript in Prayon was truncated, missing sequence coding for the putative metal-binding site and the five C-terminal transmembrane helices. The two ecotypes were grown hydroponically +/-Fe and Cd, and mRNA abundance determined for four ZIP genes. The four ZIP genes studied (TcIRT1, TcIRT2, TcZNT1, and TcZNT5) were expressed in roots only. TcIRT1 expression (full-length in Ganges, TcIRT1-1G; truncated in Prayon, TcIRT1-2P) was enhanced by Fe deficiency or by exposure to Cd. TcIRT2 expression was induced by Fe deficiency, but was unaffected by Cd exposure. TcZNT5-G showed greater expression in Prayon compared with Ganges. The functions of TcIRT1 from Ganges and Prayon and the Arabidopsis homologue were analysed by heterologous expression in yeast. All three IRT1 genes were able to facilitate growth on low Fe concentrations. Cd sensitivity of yeast was conferred in the order AtIRT1>TcIRT1-1G>TcIRT1-2P (truncated). Cd uptake after 4 h was only detectable following complementation by AtIRT1. The results suggest that although TcIRT1-G may be involved in Cd hyperaccumulation in the Ganges ecotype of T. caerulescens, the transporter expressed in yeast does not have an enhanced ability to transport Cd compared with AtIRT1. Therefore, the unique Cd-accumulating ability of the T. caerulescens Ganges ecotype must be due to the

  16. Hyperaccumulation of Cadmium and Zinc in Thlaspi caerulescens and Arabidopsis halleri at the Leaf Cellular Level1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosio, Claudia; Martinoia, Enrico; Keller, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    Vacuolar compartmentalization or cell wall binding in leaves could play a major role in hyperaccumulation of heavy metals. However, little is known about the physiology of intracellular cadmium (Cd) sequestration in plants. We investigated the role of the leaf cells in allocating metal in hyperaccumulating plants by measuring short-term 109Cd and 65Zn uptake in mesophyll protoplasts of Thlaspi caerulescens “Ganges” and Arabidopsis halleri, both hyperaccumulators of zinc (Zn) and Cd, and T. caerulescens “Prayon,” accumulating Cd at a lower degree. The effects of low temperature, several divalent cations, and pre-exposure of the plants to metals were investigated. There was no significant difference between the Michaelis-Menten kinetic constants of the three plants. It indicates that differences in metal uptake cannot be explained by different constitutive transport capacities at the leaf protoplast level and that plasma and vacuole membranes of mesophyll cells are not responsible for the differences observed in heavy metal allocation. This suggests the existence of regulation mechanisms before the plasma membrane of leaf mesophyll protoplasts. However, pre-exposure of the plants to Cd induced an increase in Cd accumulation in protoplasts of “Ganges,” whereas it decreased Cd accumulation in A. halleri protoplasts, indicating that Cd-permeable transport proteins are differentially regulated. The experiment with competitors has shown that probably more than one single transport system is carrying Cd in parallel into the cell and that in T. caerulescens “Prayon,” Cd could be transported by a Zn and Ca pathway, whereas in “Ganges,” Cd could be transported mainly by other pathways. PMID:14730081

  17. Resource Brief: Gangs. Inquiry Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Howard

    2013-01-01

    After a period of decline, gang membership and gang activity are on the increase in the United States. Recent Department of Justice figures indicate that there are currently over 26,000 gangs involving over 800,000 members active in virtually every community in the nation. No longer territorial, gang activity extends from the most impoverished and…

  18. Hyperaccumulation of cadmium by hairy roots of Thlaspi caerulescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedelkoska, T.V.; Doran, P.M.

    2000-03-05

    Hairy roots were used to investigate cadmium uptake by Thlaspi caerulescens, a metal hyperaccumulator plant with potential applications in phytoremediation and phytomining. Experiments were carried out in nutrient media under conditions supporting root growth. Accumulation of Cd in short-term (9-h) experiments varied with initial medium pH and increased after treating the roots with H{sup +}-ATPase inhibitor. The highest equilibrium Cd content measured in T. caerulescens roots was 62,800 {micro}g g{sup {minus}1} dry weight, or 6.3% dry weight, at a liquid Cd concentration of 3,710 ppm. Cd levels in live T. caerulescens roots were 1.5- to 1.7-fold those in hairy roots of nonhyperaccumulator species exposed to the same Cd concentration, but similar to the Cd content of auto-claved T. caerulescens roots. The ability to grow at Cd concentrations of up to 100 ppm clearly distinguished T. caerulescens hairy roots from the nonhyperaccumulators. The specific growth rate of T. caerulescens roots was essentially unaffected by 20 to 50 ppm Cd in the culture medium; in contrast, N. tabacum roots turned dark brown at 20 ppm and growth was negligible. Up to 10,600 {micro}g g{sup {minus}1} dry weight Cd was accumulated by growing T. caerulescens hairy roots. Measurement of Cd levels in while roots and in the cell wall fraction revealed significant differences in the responses of T. caerulescens and N. tabacum roots to 20 ppm Cd. Most metal was transported directly into the symplasm of N. tabacum roots within 3 days of exposure; in contrast, T. caerulescens roots stored virtually all of their Cd in the wall fraction for the first 7 to 10 days. This delay in transmembrane uptake may represent an important defensive strategy against Cd poisoning in T. caerulescens, allowing time for activation of intracellular mechanisms for heavy metal detoxification.

  19. Gangs, Terrorism, and Radicalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Decker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available What can street gangs tell us about radicalization and extremist groups? At first glance, these two groups seem to push the boundaries of comparison. In this article, we examine the important similarities and differences across criminal, deviant, and extremist groups. Drawing from research on street gangs, this article explores issues such as levels of explanation,organizational structure, group process, and the increasingly important role of technology and the Internet in the context of radicalization. There are points of convergence across these groups, but it is important to understand the differences between these groups. This review finds little evidence to support the contention that American street gangs are becoming increasingly radicalized. This conclusion is based largely on organizational differences between gangs and terror groups.

  20. Gangs in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    laws for juvenile legislation establish that young people under 15 are not criminally responsible. They should not be held criminally responsible...the juvenile offenders law to guarantee their judicial treatment when they commit serious crimes, even though they were or not related to gangs...corrupt officials from the judiciary and prosecution, tougher sentences , executing anti- gang laws against under-age individuals’ parents who break the law

  1. Becoming a Gang Member: Youth Life and Gang Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morch, Sven; Andersen, Helle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for understanding the growth in youth gangs and gang behaviour. The paper builds on a youth theory perspective and describes how the social conditions work with or are against the young individual in such a way that gangs seem to be an option or an answer for some young people when faced with…

  2. Gå i gang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ole; Andreassen, Pernille

    Evaluering af projektet Gå i gang, som er et samarbejde mellem DGI, Diabetesforeningen, Gigtforeningen og Kræftens bekæmpelse. Projektet tager sigte på, at fysisk inaktive - især inden for patientforeningernes primære målgruppe - kan komme til at dyrke idræt med ligestillede. Evalueringen beskriver......, hvordan Gå i gang er blevet etableret i syv forskellige kommuner, hvilke aktiviteter der blev udbudt samt effekten af og deltagelsen deri, foruden at belyse projektets samarbejde med syv forskellige kommuner....

  3. Report on Gang Violence in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-01

    gangs ( Crips and Bloods ) in those two counties, as well as...County, said that he is a Crip gang member and that Los Angeles-based Crip and Blood gang members have begun to organize recruiting and drug networks...black gangs fall into one of two main groups: Crips and Bloods . Crip gangs , as a rule, are enemies of the Blood gangs , although not all Crip gangs

  4. Hurtigt i gang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh Graversen, Brian; Damgaard, Bodil; Rosdahl, Anders

    hurtigere i job. Det gjaldt for alle grupper af ledige, men effekten var særlig stor for akademikere. Tilsyneladende har mange stærke ledige hurtigt selv fundet et job, for at undgå at deltage i aktiviteterne under den intensive indsats. Svagere ledige synes derimod at være blevet hjulpet i gang af...

  5. Hurtigt i gang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh Graversen, Brian; Damgaard, Bodil; Rosdahl, Anders

    hurtigere i job. Det gjaldt for alle grupper af ledige, men effekten var særlig stor for akademikere. Tilsyneladende har mange stærke ledige hurtigt selv fundet et job, for at undgå at deltage i aktiviteterne under den intensive indsats. Svagere ledige synes derimod at være blevet hjulpet i gang af...

  6. Youth Gangs and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Few schools escape dynamics and behaviors that are associated with gangs. Think, for example, about bullying, disruptive intergroup conflicts, drug sales and abuse, and vandalism such as theft, graffiti, and other forms of property damage. From both a policy and practice perspective, it is essential for schools to understand and address…

  7. Data from: De novo transcriptome assemblies of four accessions of the metal hyperaccumulator plant Noccaea caerulescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blande, D.; Halimaa, Pauliina; Tervahauta, Arja I.; Aarts, M.G.M.; Kärenlampi, Sirpa O.

    2017-01-01

    Noccaea caerulescens of the Brassicaceae family has become the key model plant among the metal hyperaccumulator plants. Populations/accessions of N. caerulescens from geographic locations with different soil metal concentrations differ in their ability to hyperaccumulate and hypertolerate metals.

  8. Gå i Gang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerlund, Karsten

    Gå i Gang-initiativet tager sigte på at skabe gode muligheder for, at fysisk inaktive kan komme til at dyrke idræt sammen med ligestillede. Målgruppen er primært patientorganisationernes målgrupper samt den del af befolkningen, der grundet inaktivitet er i særlig risiko for at udvikle livsstilsre......Gå i Gang-initiativet tager sigte på at skabe gode muligheder for, at fysisk inaktive kan komme til at dyrke idræt sammen med ligestillede. Målgruppen er primært patientorganisationernes målgrupper samt den del af befolkningen, der grundet inaktivitet er i særlig risiko for at udvikle...

  9. Comparative transcriptome analysis of the metal hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauliina eHalimaa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The metal hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens is an established model to study the adaptation of plants to metalliferous soils. Various comparators have been used in these studies. The choice of suitable comparators is important and depends on the hypothesis to be tested and methods to be used. In high-throughput analyses such as microarray, N. caerulescens has been compared to non-tolerant, non-accumulator plants like Arabidopsis thaliana or Thlaspi arvense rather than to the related hypertolerant or hyperaccumulator plants. An underutilized source is N. caerulescens populations with considerable variation in their capacity to accumulate and tolerate metals. Whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq is revealing interesting variation in their gene expression profiles. Combining physiological characteristics of N. caerulescens accessions with their RNA-Seq has a great potential to provide detailed insight into the underlying molecular mechanisms, including entirely new gene products. In this review we will critically consider comparative transcriptome analyses carried out to explore metal hyperaccumulation and hypertolerance of N. caerulescens, and demonstrate the potential of RNA-Seq analysis as a tool in evolutionary genomics.

  10. Breaking the Code: Austin's Gang Enigma. Austin Police Department Gang Suppression Unit Resource Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin Police Dept., TX.

    This resource handbook provides facts about gangs in Austin (Texas) and suggests ways parents and the community can work to reduce the city's gang problem. Criminal street gangs are becoming one of the most serious crime problems in Texas today, with 38 major cities reporting the presence of gangs. Texas gangs are defined as social, delinquent,…

  11. Responding to Gangs: Evaluation and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Winifred L., Ed.; Decker, Scott H., Ed.

    This collection of papers presents a representative selection of the National Institute of Justice's portfolio of gang-related research. The 10 papers are: (1) "A Decade of Gang Research: Findings of the National Institute of Justice Gang Portfolio" (Scott H. Decker); (2) "The Evolution of Street Gangs: An Examination of Form and Variation"…

  12. Gangs in Schools: Signs, Symbols, and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Arnold P.; Kodluboy, Donald W.

    The first part of this book describes juvenile gangs in schools and provides information to help recognize gang presence. The second part focuses on effective interventions to deal with the gang problem. An introduction describes the history and current status of youth gangs in the United States to set the stage for the subsequent exploration of…

  13. Transcription profiling of the metal-hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plessi, M.; Rigola, D.; Hassinen, V.; Aarts, M.G.M.; Schat, H.; Ernst, D.

    2005-01-01

    Thlaspi caerulescens is a well-studied metal-hyperaccumulator of zinc, cadmium and nickel, belonging to the Brassicaceae family. Moreover it is one of the few hyperaccumulators that occur on different metalliferous soil types, as well as on nonmetalliferous soils. We are interested in the

  14. Comparative transcriptome analysis of the metal hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halimaa, P.; Blande, D.; Aarts, M.G.M.; Tuomainen, M.; Tervahauta, A.; Karenlampi, S.

    2014-01-01

    The metal hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens is an established model to study the adaptation of plants to metalliferous soils. Various comparators have been used in these studies. The choice of suitable comparators is important and depends on the hypothesis to be tested and methods to be used. In

  15. Functional characterisation of three zinc transporters in Thlaspi caerulescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talukdar, S.

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metal hyperaccumulation in plants is a poorly understood phenomenon. Transmembrane metal transporters are assumed to play a key role in this process. In the research described in this thesis, genes encoding Zn transporters of Thlaspicaerulescens

  16. Young boys and street gangs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruselius-Jensen, Maria; Pless, Mette

    of joining street gangs, this presentation demonstrates that, to the young boys, street gangs represent alternative societies that seems much more accessible than school and work communities. Street gangs seemingly gives access to social recognition and networks, economic opportunities and material status...... to the police sta- tion and a short police internship, show that the boys are very attracted to the police profession and find that it offers many of the same opportunities; network, recognition and thrills. Thus, indicating that, for the 40 boys, the line between civic and anti-civic participation can...

  17. Gang Involvement and Membership among Homeless and Runaway Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Kevin A.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Hoyt, Dan R.

    2003-01-01

    Assessed the extent of gang involvement among homeless and runaway youth, comparing gang members, gang-involved youth (not members), and non-gang youth on several dimensions. Interview data indicated that 15.4 percent of the youth were gang members and 32.2 percent were involved in gangs. These youth reported more family problems and school…

  18. Ethnic Differences in the Effect of Parenting on Gang Involvement and Gang Delinquency: A Longitudinal, Hierarchical Linear Modeling Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker-Barnes, Chanequa J.; Mason, Craig A.

    2001-01-01

    Examined relative influence of peer and parenting behavior on changes in adolescent gang involvement and gang-related delinquency among ninth-graders. Found that gang involvement decreased over the school year, with average levels of gang delinquency remaining constant. Gang involvement and gang-related delinquency were most strongly predicted by…

  19. De novo transcriptome assemblies of four accessions of the metal hyperaccumulator plant Noccaea caerulescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blande, Daniel; Halimaa, Pauliina; Tervahauta, Arja I.; Aarts, Mark G.M.; Kärenlampi, Sirpa O.

    2017-01-01

    Noccaea caerulescens of the Brassicaceae family has become the key model plant among the metal hyperaccumulator plants. Populations/accessions of N. caerulescens from geographic locations with different soil metal concentrations differ in their ability to hyperaccumulate and hypertolerate metals.

  20. Youth Gangs in Schools. Youth Gang Series. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, James C.; Lynch, James P.

    A report issued by the U.S. Department of Education (Chandler et al., 1998) analyzed the findings of the 1989 and 1995 School Crime Supplements to the National Crime Victim Survey, each of which was distributed to approximately 10,000 students. Findings of these surveys and other data sources show that gangs are very prevalent in schools, with 37%…

  1. DIFFERENT STROKES FOR DIFFERENT GANGS? AN ANALYSIS OF CAPITAL AMONG LATINO AND ASIAN GANG MEMBERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    PIH, KAY KEI-HO; DE LA ROSA, MARIO; RUGH, DOUGLAS; MAO, KUORAY

    2009-01-01

    Gang activity and membership were noted to be significantly related to financial rewards. As such, gang membership and gang activity should also be understood from an economic perspective. In this article, Pierre Bourdieu's framework of capital is used to analyze two separate samples of Latino and Asian gang members. Stark contrasts in socioeconomic backgrounds are recorded among the two samples of gang members, and gang membership and activities are also noticeably dissimilar. Accessibility to economic, cultural, and social capital is argued to affect gang membership and activities. The results suggest that the availability of legitimate and illegitimate capital greatly affects the trajectory and the length of gang involvement. Also, gangs provide significant material and social capital for the respondents of the study. PMID:19578563

  2. Gang Membership and Pathways to Maladaptive Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustyn, Megan Bears; Thornberry, Terence P; Krohn, Marvin D

    2014-06-01

    A limited amount of research examines the short-term consequences of gang membership. Rarer, though, is the examination of more distal consequences of gang membership. This is unfortunate because it understates the true detrimental effect of gang membership across the life course, as well as the effects it may have on children of former gang members. Using data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, this work investigates the impact of gang membership in adolescence (ages 12-18) on a particularly problematic style of parenting, child maltreatment. Using discrete time survival analysis, this study finds that gang membership increases the likelihood of child maltreatment and this relationship is mediated by the more proximal outcomes of gang membership during adolescence, precocious transitions to adulthood.

  3. Highlights of the 2007 National Youth Gang Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egley, Jr., Arlen; O'Donnell, Christina E.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents findings from the 2007 National Youth Gang Survey. Data on the number of gangs, gang members, and gang-related homicides in larger cities, suburban counties, smaller cities, and rural counties are provided to accurately reflect youth gang activity in the United States. Based on survey results, it is estimated that nearly 3,550…

  4. Reciprocal grafting separates the roles of the root and shoot in zinc hyperaccumulation in Thlaspi caerulescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guimarães, Marcelo A; Gustin, Jeffery L; Salt, David E

    2009-10-01

    * The extreme phenotype of zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulation, which is found in several Brassicaceae species, is determined by mechanisms that promote elevated Zn tolerance and high Zn accumulation in shoots. * We used reciprocal grafting between a Zn hyperaccumulator, Thlaspi caerulescens, and a Zn nonaccumulator, Thlaspi perfoliatum, to determine the relative importance of roots and shoots in Zn hyperaccumulation and hypertolerance. * Leaves from plants with a T. perfoliatum rootstock and a T. caerulescens shoot scion did not hyperaccumulate Zn, whereas plants with a T. caerulescens rootstock and a T. perfoliatum shoot scion did hyperaccumulate Zn. However, although leaves from plants with a T. caerulescens rootstock and a T. perfoliatum shoot scion hyperaccumulated Zn, at high Zn loads these leaves showed significant symptoms of Zn toxicity, unlike leaves of self grafted T. caerulescens. * Hyperaccumulation of Zn in leaves of the hyperaccumulator T. caerulescens is pri-marily dictated by root processes. Further, the mechanisms controlling Zn hypertolerance in the hyperaccumulator T. caerulescens are driven primarily by shoot processes.

  5. Predicting involvement in prison gang activity: street gang membership, social and psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jane L; Alleyne, Emma; Mozova, Katarina; James, Mark

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether street gang membership, psychological factors, and social factors such as preprison experiences could predict young offenders' involvement in prison gang activity. Data were collected via individual interviews with 188 young offenders held in a Young Offenders Institution in the United Kingdom. Results showed that psychological factors such as the value individuals attached to social status, a social dominance orientation, and antiauthority attitudes were important in predicting young offenders' involvement in prison gang activity. Further important predictors included preimprisonment events such as levels of threat, levels of individual delinquency, and levels of involvement in group crime. Longer current sentences also predicted involvement in prison gang activity. However, street gang membership was not an important predictor of involvement in prison gang activity. These findings have implications for identifying prisoners involved in prison gang activity and for considering the role of psychological factors and group processes in gang research.

  6. Cadmium hyperaccumulation and reproductive traits in natural Thlaspi caerulescens populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basic, N; Keller, C; Fontanillas, P; Vittoz, P; Besnard, G; Galland, N

    2006-01-01

    During the last decade, the metal hyperaccumulating plants have attracted considerable attention because of their potential use in decontamination of heavy metal contaminated soils. However, in most species, little is known regarding the function, the ecological and the evolutionary significances of hyperaccumulation. In our study, we investigated the parameters influencing the Cd concentration in plants as well as the biological implications of Cd hyperaccumulation in nine natural populations of Thlaspi caerulescens. First, we showed that Cd concentration in the plant was positively correlated with plant Zn, Fe, and Cu concentrations. This suggested that the physiological and/or molecular mechanisms for uptake, transport and/or accumulation of these four heavy metals interact with each other. Second, we specified a measure of Cd hyperaccumulation capacity by populations and showed that T. caerulescens plants originating from populations with high Cd hyperaccumulation capacity had better growth, by developing more and bigger leaves, taller stems, and produced more fruits and heavier seeds. These results suggest a tolerance/disposal role of Cd hyperaccumulation in this species.

  7. Gang Reengagement Intentions among Incarcerated Serious Juvenile Offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Boduszek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research examining the factors that precipitate gang membership has contributed substantially to our understanding of gangs and gang-related activity, yet we know little about the factors influencing intentions to rejoin a gang after having being incarcerated. This study examines the relationship between gang characteristics, number of incarcerated friends, and family characteristics and gang reengagement intentions, while controlling for ethnicity. Participants were 206 male serious juvenile offenders interviewed as part of the Pathways to Desistance Study. The model explained between 35% and 47% of variance in gang reengagement intentions. However, only three variables made a unique statistically significant contribution to the model (punishment if gang rules are broken, importance of gang membership, and moral disengagement, with the strongest predictor being importance of gang membership. The results suggest that challenging young offenders’ perceptions about the importance of gang membership might be particularly effective in reducing gang reengagement intentions after incarceration.

  8. Female Gangs: A Focus on Research. Youth Gang Series. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Joan; Hagedorn, John

    This report summarizes past and current research on female gangs, noting programmatic and research needs. Seven sections include: "Early Reports: A History of Stereotypes"; "Number of Female Gang Members"; "Being in a Gang: The Background" (economic and ethnic forces, family pressure, and sex stereotyping and…

  9. Gangs: The Origins and Impact of Contemporary Youth Gangs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Scott, Ed.; Monti, Daniel J., Ed.

    This book presents papers from some leading social scientists and scholars who examine the contemporary contours of America's gang problem. New material is provided on wilding (i.e., running amok for no specific reason) gangs, migration and drug trafficking, and public education disruption. Other topics involve organization of gangs, their social…

  10. The Gang’s All Here: The Globalization of Gang Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    youth Skinhead activity (Spergel 1995). What is unique is that distinctively US-style gangs are being exported to other countries, especially Latin...cartels. Also, this’study will not focus on prison or hate-oriented gangs (i.e. Skinhead groups). Gang activity in the US has been extensively studied

  11. Unemployment and Gang Crime: Could Prosperity Backfire?

    OpenAIRE

    Poutvaara, Panu; Priks, Mikael

    2007-01-01

    Empirical evidence reveals that unemployment tends to increase property crime but that it has no effect on violent crime. To explain these facts, we examine a model of criminal gangs and suggest that there is a substitution effect between property crime and violent crime at work. In the model, non-monetary valuation of gang membership is private knowledge. Thus the leaders face a trade-off between less crime per member in large gangs and more crime per member in small gangs. Unemployment i...

  12. Adaptative evolution of metallothionein 3 in the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roosens, N.H.; Bernard, C.; Verbruggen, N. [Lab. de Physiologie et Genetique Moleculaire des Plantes, Univ. Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium); Leplae, R. [Service de Conformation des Macromolecules Biologiques et Bioinformatique, Univ. Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-04-01

    A functional screening in yeast allowed to identify various cDNAs from the Cd/Zn hyper-accumulator Thlaspi caerulescens. TcMT3 displayed high identity with its closest homologue in Arabidopsis thaliana but variation in its Cys residues. Functional analysis in yeast supported a higher binding capacity for Cu, but not for Cd or Zn, of TcMT3 compared to AtMT3. Expression analysis in plants indicated that metallothionein 3 (MT3) like all the other T. caerulescens genes from the screen studied is overexpressed in all studied populations of T. caerulescens compared to A. thaliana. TcMT3 was induced by Cu, but not by Cd. Moreover significant variation in expression within T. caerulescens populations that have contrasting tolerance and accumulation capacities indicated a possible local adaptation of MT3. (orig.)

  13. Anti-gang policies and gang responses in the Northern Triangle : The Evolution of the Gang Phenomenon in Central America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Borgh, G.J.C.; Savenije, W.

    2014-01-01

    During the past decade, gangs have become a powerful and violent presence in El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras, the ‘Northern Triangle’ of Central America. 1 The particular evolution of the gang phenomenon has been deeply shaped by a series of reactions and adaptations to ill-developed security po

  14. Snowmelt contributions to discharge of the Ganges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siderius, C.; Biemans, H.; Wilthshire, A.; Rao, S.; Franssen, W.H.P.; Kumar, P.; Gosain, A.K.; Vliet, van A.; Collins, D.N.

    2013-01-01

    Himalayan headwaters supply large quantities of runoff derived from snowmelt and monsoon rainfall to the Ganges River. Actual snowmelt contribution to discharge in the Ganges remains conjectural under both present and future climatic conditions. As snowmelt is likely to be perturbed through climatic

  15. Gender and Gangs: A Quantitative Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Kerryn E.

    2009-01-01

    Research and theory about female gang involvement remain scarce. Drawing on the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study addresses whether males and females differ in risk factors associated with gang membership (e.g., community characteristics, parent-child relationships, associations with deviant friends). Integrating theory…

  16. Teaching Responsibility to Gang-Affiliated Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, Michael E.; Walsh, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching youths who affiliate with a gang can be a daunting task. Risk factors for gang membership often compound across life domains and affect pro-social connectedness, cause feelings of marginalization, and hinder life-skill development. Sports and physical activities that are structured within a positive youth-development framework provide an…

  17. Neighborhood Variation in Gang Member Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Charles M.; Schnebly, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between neighborhood structure, violent crime, and concentrations of gang members at the neighborhood level. We rely on official police gang list data, police crime data, and two waves of decennial census data characterizing the socioeconomic and demographic conditions of 93 neighborhoods in Mesa, Arizona.…

  18. The Youth Gangs, Drugs, and Violence Connection. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, James C.; Decker, Scott H.

    This bulletin addresses questions about the interrelatedness of youth gangs, drugs, and violent crime, discussing whether drug trafficking is a main cause of violence in youth gangs or only a correlate, and noting whether there are other important sources of gang violence. Section 1 presents a historical overview of gang drug use and trafficking,…

  19. Gang Activity on Campus: A Crisis Response Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Mahauganee; Meaney, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This case study challenges readers to consider a contemporary issue for campus threat assessment and emergency preparedness: gang presence on college campuses. A body of research examining the presence of gangs and gang activity on college campuses has developed, revealing that gangs pose a viable threat for institutions of higher education. The…

  20. The Impact of Gang Formation on Local Patterns of Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tita, George; Ridgeway, Greg

    2007-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that even after controlling for individual level attributes, individuals who join gangs commit more crimes than do nongang members. Furthermore, the offending level of gang members is higher when they report being active members of the gang. Therefore, gang membership clearly facilitates offending above and beyond…

  1. The Impact of Gang Formation on Local Patterns of Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tita, George; Ridgeway, Greg

    2007-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that even after controlling for individual level attributes, individuals who join gangs commit more crimes than do nongang members. Furthermore, the offending level of gang members is higher when they report being active members of the gang. Therefore, gang membership clearly facilitates offending above and beyond…

  2. Respectable 'illegality': Gangs, masculinities and belonging in a Nairobi ghetto

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. van Stapele

    2015-01-01

    This book is about gangs in Nairobi’s ghettos, in particular why young men feel they have to become a member of a gang, how gang membership becomes crucial in their struggle for survival and why it is so difficult for them to leave a gang, even though many are trying to. My aim is to move away from

  3. The heavy metal hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens expresses many species-specific genes, as identified by comparative expressed sequence tag analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rigola, D.; Fiers, M.W.E.J.; Vurro, E.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    ¿ Thlaspi caerulescens is a natural zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni) hyperaccumulator and an emerging plant model species to study heavy metal hyperaccumulation and tolerance. This paper describes the analysis of the first expressed sequence tag (EST) collection from T. caerulescens. This

  4. Histidine-mediated xylem loading of zinc is a species-wide character in Noccaea caerulescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhevnikova, Anna D; Seregin, Ilya V; Erlikh, Nadezhda T; Shevyreva, Taisiya A; Andreev, Igor M; Verweij, Rudo; Schat, Henk

    2014-07-01

    Histidine plays a crucial role in nickel (Ni) translocation in Ni-hyperaccumulating plants. Here, we investigated its role in zinc (Zn) translocation in four accessions of the Zn hyperaccumulator, Noccaea caerulescens, using the related non-hyperaccumulator, Thlaspi arvense, as a reference. We compared the effects of exogenous histidine supply on Zn xylem loading, and of Zn-histidine complex formation on Zn uptake in energized tonoplast vesicles. The Zn distribution patterns over root tissues were also compared. Exogenous histidine supply enhanced Zn xylem loading in all the N. caerulescens accessions, but decreased it in T. arvense. Zn distribution patterns over root tissues were similar, apart from the accumulation in cortical and endodermal cells, which was much lower in N. caerulescens than in T. arvense. Zn uptake in energized tonoplast vesicles was inhibited significantly in N. caerulescens, but not affected significantly in T. arvense, when Zn was supplied in combination with histidine in a 1:2 molar ratio. Histidine-mediated Zn xylem loading seems to be a species-wide character in N. caerulescens. It may well have evolved as a component trait of the hyperaccumulation machinery for Zn, rather than for Ni. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Uncoupling of reactive oxygen species accumulation and defence signalling in the metal hyperaccumulator plant Noccaea caerulescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fones, Helen N; Eyles, Chris J; Bennett, Mark H; Smith, J Andrew C; Preston, Gail M

    2013-09-01

    The metal hyperaccumulator plant Noccaea caerulescens is protected from disease by the accumulation of high concentrations of metals in its aerial tissues, which are toxic to many pathogens. As these metals can lead to the production of damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS), metal hyperaccumulator plants have developed highly effective ROS tolerance mechanisms, which might quench ROS-based signals. We therefore investigated whether metal accumulation alters defence signalling via ROS in this plant. We studied the effect of zinc (Zn) accumulation by N. caerulescens on pathogen-induced ROS production, salicylic acid accumulation and downstream defence responses, such as callose deposition and pathogenesis-related (PR) gene expression, to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola. The accumulation of Zn caused increased superoxide production in N. caerulescens, but inoculation with P. syringae did not elicit the defensive oxidative burst typical of most plants. Defences dependent on signalling through ROS (callose and PR gene expression) were also modified or absent in N. caerulescens, whereas salicylic acid production in response to infection was retained. These observations suggest that metal hyperaccumulation is incompatible with defence signalling through ROS and that, as metal hyperaccumulation became effective as a form of elemental defence, normal defence responses became progressively uncoupled from ROS signalling in N. caerulescens. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Confronting youth gangs in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Cliff

    2015-01-01

    Youth gang violence has continued its upward trend nationwide. It was once thought that gangs convened only in selected areas, which left churches, schools, and hospitals as "neutral" territory. Unfortunately, this is a fallacy. The results of gang violence pour into hospitals and into intensive care units regularly. The media portrays California as having a gang violence problem; however, throughout the United States, gang violence has risen more than 35% in the past year. Youth gang violence continues to rise dramatically with more and more of our youth deciding to join gangs each day. Sadly, every state has gangs, and the problem is getting much worse in areas that would never have thought about gangs a year ago. These "new generation" of gang members is younger, much more violent, and staying in the gang longer. Gangs are not just an urban problem. Gang activity is a suburban and rural problem too. There are more than 25 500 gangs in the United States, with a total gang membership of 850 000. Ninety-four percent of gang members are male and 6% are female. The ethnic composition nationwide includes 47% Latino, 31% African American, 13% White, 7% Asian, and 2% "mixed," according to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention of the U.S. Department of Justice. As a result of the ongoing proliferation of youth street gangs in our communities, it is imperative that critical care nurses and others involved with the direct care become educated about how to identify gang members, their activities, and understand their motivations. Such education and knowledge will help provide solutions to families and the youth themselves, help eradicate the problem of gang violence, and keep health care professionals safe.

  7. Investigation of Heavy Metal Hyperaccumulation at the Cellular Level: Development and Characterization of Thlaspi caerulescens Suspension Cell Lines1[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Melinda A.; Sekimoto, Hitoshi; Milner, Matthew J.; Kochian, Leon V.

    2008-01-01

    The ability of Thlaspi caerulescens, a zinc (Zn)/cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator, to accumulate extremely high foliar concentrations of toxic heavy metals requires coordination of uptake, transport, and sequestration to avoid damage to the photosynthetic machinery. The study of these metal hyperaccumulation processes at the cellular level in T. caerulescens has been hampered by the lack of a cellular system that mimics the whole plant, is easily transformable, and competent for longer term studies. Therefore, to better understand the contribution of the cellular physiology and molecular biology to Zn/Cd hyperaccumulation in the intact plant, T. caerulescens suspension cell lines were developed. Differences in cellular metal tolerance and accumulation between the cell lines of T. caerulescens and the related nonhyperaccumulator, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), were examined. A number of Zn/Cd transport-related differences between T. caerulescens and Arabidopsis cell lines were identified that also are seen in the whole plant. T. caerulescens suspension cell lines exhibited: (1) higher growth requirements for Zn; (2) much greater Zn and Cd tolerance; (3) enhanced expression of specific metal transport-related genes; and (4) significant differences in metal fluxes compared with Arabidopsis. One interesting feature exhibited by the T. caerulescens cell lines was that they accumulated less Zn and Cd than the Arabidopsis cell lines, most likely due to a greater metal efflux. This finding suggests that the T. caerulescens suspension cells represent cells of the Zn/Cd transport pathway between the root epidermis and leaf. We also show it is possible to stably transform T. caerulescens suspension cells, which will allow us to alter the expression of candidate hyperaccumulation genes and thus dissect the molecular and physiological processes underlying metal hyperaccumulation in T. caerulescens. PMID:18550685

  8. Investigation of heavy metal hyperaccumulation at the cellular level: development and characterization of Thlaspi caerulescens suspension cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Melinda A; Sekimoto, Hitoshi; Milner, Matthew J; Kochian, Leon V

    2008-08-01

    The ability of Thlaspi caerulescens, a zinc (Zn)/cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator, to accumulate extremely high foliar concentrations of toxic heavy metals requires coordination of uptake, transport, and sequestration to avoid damage to the photosynthetic machinery. The study of these metal hyperaccumulation processes at the cellular level in T. caerulescens has been hampered by the lack of a cellular system that mimics the whole plant, is easily transformable, and competent for longer term studies. Therefore, to better understand the contribution of the cellular physiology and molecular biology to Zn/Cd hyperaccumulation in the intact plant, T. caerulescens suspension cell lines were developed. Differences in cellular metal tolerance and accumulation between the cell lines of T. caerulescens and the related nonhyperaccumulator, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), were examined. A number of Zn/Cd transport-related differences between T. caerulescens and Arabidopsis cell lines were identified that also are seen in the whole plant. T. caerulescens suspension cell lines exhibited: (1) higher growth requirements for Zn; (2) much greater Zn and Cd tolerance; (3) enhanced expression of specific metal transport-related genes; and (4) significant differences in metal fluxes compared with Arabidopsis. One interesting feature exhibited by the T. caerulescens cell lines was that they accumulated less Zn and Cd than the Arabidopsis cell lines, most likely due to a greater metal efflux. This finding suggests that the T. caerulescens suspension cells represent cells of the Zn/Cd transport pathway between the root epidermis and leaf. We also show it is possible to stably transform T. caerulescens suspension cells, which will allow us to alter the expression of candidate hyperaccumulation genes and thus dissect the molecular and physiological processes underlying metal hyperaccumulation in T. caerulescens.

  9. Cadmium-zinc accumulation and photosystem II responses of Noccaea caerulescens to Cd and Zn exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayçu, Gülriz; Gevrek-Kürüm, Nurbir; Moustaka, Julietta; Csatári, István; Rognes, Sven Erik; Moustakas, Michael

    2017-01-01

    A population of the metallophyte Noccaea (Thlaspi) caerulescens originating from a Zn-enriched area at Røros Copper Mine (Norway) was studied. N. caerulescens tolerance to accumulate Cd and Zn was evaluated in hydroponic experiments by chlorophyll fluorescence imaging analysis. In the field-collected N. caerulescens mother plants, Zn shoot concentrations were above Zn hyperaccumulation threshold while, in hydroponic experiments under 40-μM Cd exposure, shoot Cd concentrations were clearly above Cd hyperaccumulation threshold. Cadmium ions and, to a less extent, Zn were mainly retained in the roots. Exposure to Cd enhanced Zn translocation to the shoot, while decreased significant total Ca(2+) uptake, suggesting that Cd uptake occurs through Ca(2+) transporters. Nevertheless, it increased Ca(2+) translocation to the leaf, possibly for photoprotection of photosystem II (PSII). Exposure to 800 μM Zn or 40 μM Cd resulted in increased Fe(3+) uptake suggesting that in N. caerulescens, Cd uptake does not take place through the pathway of Fe(3+) uptake and that conditions that lead to Cd and Zn accumulation in plants may also favor Fe accumulation. Despite the significant high toxicity levels of Zn and Cd in leaves, under Zn and Cd exposure, respectively, the allocation of absorbed light energy at PSII did not differ compared to controls. The results showed that N. caerulescens keep Cd and Zn concentrations in the mesophyll cells in non-toxic forms for PSII and that the increased Ca and Fe accumulation in leaves alleviates the toxicity effects. Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging revealed that PSII of N. caerulescens resisted better the phytotoxic effects of 20 times higher Zn than Cd exposure concentration. Overall, it is concluded that the use of chlorophyll fluorescence imaging constitutes a promising basis for investigating heavy metal tolerance of plants.

  10. Investigating heavy-metal hyperaccumulation using Thlaspi caerulescens as a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Matthew J; Kochian, Leon V

    2008-07-01

    Metal-hyperaccumulating plant species are plants that are endemic to metalliferous soils and are able to tolerate and accumulate metals in their above-ground tissues to very high concentrations. One such hyperaccumulator, Thlaspi caerulescens, has been widely studied for its remarkable properties to tolerate toxic levels of zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and sometimes nickel (Ni) in the soil, and accumulate these metals to very high levels in the shoot. The increased awareness regarding metal-hyperaccumulating plants by the plant biology community has helped spur interest in the possible use of plants to remove heavy metals from contaminated soils, a process known as phytoremediation. Hence, there has been a focus on understanding the mechanisms that metal-hyperaccumulator plant species such as Thlaspi caerulescens employ to absorb, detoxify and store metals in order to use this information to develop plants better suited for the phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soils. In this review, an overview of the findings from recent research aimed at better understanding the physiological mechanisms of Thlaspi caerulescens heavy-metal hyperaccumulation as well as the underlying molecular and genetic determinants for this trait will be discussed. Progress has been made in understanding some of the fundamental Zn and Cd transport physiology in T. caerulescens. Furthermore, some interesting metal-related genes have been identified and characterized in this plant species, and regulation of the expression of some of these genes may be important for hyperaccumulation. Thlaspi caerulescens is a fascinating and useful model system not only for studying metal hyperaccumulation, but also for better understanding micronutrient homeostasis and nutrition. Considerable future research is still needed to elucidate the molecular, genetic and physiological bases for the extreme metal tolerance and hyperaccumulation exhibited by plant species such as T. caerulescens.

  11. Isolation and characterization of Arabidopsis halleri and Thlaspi caerulescens phytochelatin synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Claire-Lise; Peisker, Daniel; Courbot, Mikael; Craciun, Adrian Radu; Cazalé, Anne-Claire; Desgain, Denis; Schat, Henk; Clemens, Stephan; Verbruggen, Nathalie

    2011-07-01

    The synthesis of phytochelatins (PC) represents a major metal and metalloid detoxification mechanism in various species. PC most likely play a role in the distribution and accumulation of Cd and possibly other metals. However, to date, no studies have investigated the phytochelatin synthase (PCS) genes and their expression in the Cd-hyperaccumulating species. We used functional screens in two yeast species to identify genes expressed by two Cd hyperaccumulators (Arabidopsis halleri and Thlaspi caerulescens) and involved in cellular Cd tolerance. As a result of these screens, PCS genes were identified for both species. PCS1 was in each case the dominating cDNA isolated. The deduced sequences of AhPCS1 and TcPCS1 are very similar to AtPCS1 and their identity is particularly high in the proposed catalytic N-terminal domain. We also identified in A. halleri and T. caerulescens orthologues of AtPCS2 that encode functional PCS. As compared to A. halleri and A. thaliana, T. caerulescens showed the lowest PCS expression. Furthermore, concentrations of PC in Cd-treated roots were the highest in A. thaliana, intermediate in A. halleri and the lowest in T. caerulescens. This mirrors the known capacity of these species to translocate Cd to the shoot, with T. caerulescens being the best translocator. Very low or undetectable concentrations of PC were measured in A. halleri and T. caerulescens shoots, contrary to A. thaliana. These results suggest that extremely efficient alternative Cd sequestration pathways in leaves of Cd hyperaccumulators prevent activation of PC synthase by Cd²⁺ ions.

  12. A comprehensive set of transcript sequences of the heavy metal hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YA-FEN eLIN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Noccaea caerulescens is an extremophile plant species belonging to the Brassicaceae family. It has adapted to grow on soils containing high, normally toxic, concentrations of metals such as nickel, zinc and cadmium. Next to being extremely tolerant to these metals, it is one of the few species known to hyperaccumulate these metals to extremely high concentrations in their aboveground biomass. In order to provide additional molecular resources for this model metal hyperaccumulator species to study and understand the mechanism of heavy metal exposure adaptation, we aimed to provide a comprehensive database of transcript sequences for N. caerulescens. In this study, 23830 transcript sequences (isotigs with an average length of 1025 bps were determined for roots, shoots and inflorescences of N. caerulescens accession ‘Ganges’ by Roche GS-FLEX 454 pyrosequencing. These isotigs were grouped into 20,378 isogroups, representing potential genes. This is a large expansion of the existing N. caerulescens transcriptome set consisting of 3705 unigenes. When compared to a Brassicaceae proteome set, 22,232 (93.2% of the N. caerulescens isotigs (corresponding to 19191 isogroups had a significant match and could be annotated accordingly. Of the remaining sequences, 98 isotigs resembled non-plant sequences and 1386 had no significant similarity to any sequence in the GenBank database. Among the annotated set there were many isotigs with similarity to metal homeostasis genes or genes for glucosinolate biosynthesis. Only for transcripts similar to Metallothionein3 (MT3, clear evidence for an additional copy was found. This comprehensive set of transcripts is expected to further contribute to the discovery of mechanisms used by N. caerulescens to adapt to heavy metal exposure.

  13. Mentoring Siblings of Gang Members: A Template for Reaching Families of Gang Members?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Juanjo; Ralphs, Robert; Aldridge, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Mentoring has become a popular model of intervention to reduce the risk of offending, and has been proposed as an effective tool to tackle the risk of gang membership. This paper reviews the existing literature on mentoring and reports on a qualitative evaluation of a mentoring programme targeted at young people "at risk" of gang membership in an…

  14. Gang Problems and Gang Programs in a National Sample of Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfredson, Gary D.; Gottfredson, Denise C.

    This report describes approaches used by schools to prevent or reduce gang involvement among schools. The study of gang prevention and intervention builds on a large-scale National Study of Delinquency Prevention in Schools. A sample of 1,279 schools participated in the study. Overall, 7.6% of the male and 3.8% of the female secondary students…

  15. Molecular physiology of zinc transport in the Zn hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasat, M M; Pence, N S; Garvin, D F; Ebbs, S D; Kochian, L V

    2000-01-01

    In this manuscript, recent research from this laboratory into physiological and molecular aspects of heavy metal (Zn) transport in the hyperaccumulating plant species, Thlaspi caerulescens is reviewed. This research is aimed at elucidating the processes that underlie the accumulation of extraordinarily high levels of Zn in the T. caerulescens shoot (up to 3% Zn dry wt.) without any associated toxicity symptom. Physiological studies focused on the use of radiotracer flux techniques (65Zn2+) to characterize zinc transport and compartmentation in the root, and translocation and accumulation in the shoot of T. caerulescens in comparison with a related non-accumulator, T. arvense. These studies indicated that Zn transport was stimulated at a number of sites in T. caerulescens, contributing to the hyperaccumulation trait. The transport processes that were stimulated included Zn influx into both root and leaf cells, and Zn loading into the xylem. The 4- to 5-fold stimulation of Zn influx into the root was hypothesized to be due to an increased abundance of Zn transporters in T. caerulescens root cells. Additionally, compartmental analysis (radiotracer wash out or efflux techniques) was used to show that Zn was sequestered in the vacuoles of T. arvense root cells which retarded Zn translocation to the shoot in this non-accumulator species. Molecular studies have focused on the cloning and characterization of Zn transport genes in T. caerulescens. Complementation of a yeast Zn transport-defective mutant with a T. caerulescens cDNA library resulted in the recovery of a cDNA, ZNT1, that encodes a Zn transporter. Sequence analysis of ZNT1 indicated it is a member of a recently discovered micronutrient transport gene family which includes the Arabidopsis Fe transporter, IRT1, and the ZIP Zn transporters. Expression of ZNT1 in yeast allowed for a physiological characterization of this transporter. It was shown to encode a high affinity Zn transporter which can also mediate low

  16. The Developmental Dynamics of Joining a Gang in Adolescence: Patterns and Predictors of Gang Membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Amanda B; Hill, Karl G; Hawkins, J David; Howell, James C; Kosterman, Rick

    2014-06-01

    Researchers have examined the predictors of adolescent gang membership, finding significant factors in the neighborhood, family, school, peers, and individual domains. However, little is known about whether risk and protective factors differ in predictive salience at different developmental periods. The present study examines predictors of joining a gang, tests whether these factors have different effects at different ages, and whether they differ by gender using the Seattle Social Development Project (SSDP) sample (n=808). By age 19, 173 participants had joined a gang. Using survival analysis, results showed that unique predictors of gang membership onset included living with a gang member, antisocial neighborhood, and antisocial peer influences in the previous year. No time or gender interactions with predictors were statistically significant.

  17. A Second's Chance: Gang Violence Task Force prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, K Michael; Griner, Devan; Guarino, Michelle; Drabik-Medeiros, Bernie; Williams, Kristy

    2012-01-01

    We describe a gang violence intervention and define targets for prevention. At-risk youths were identified through courts, public schools, and law enforcement regarding gang-related activities. They participated in "A Second's Chance," a true-to-life mock emergency department resuscitation and death of a gang member provided over an 18-month period. A questionnaire was completed by each participant. Forty-nine youths identified as at risk for gang involvement participated (37 male and 12 female, P Gang violence prevention should be channeled through maternal family members. History of incarcerated relatives, acquaintances, and neighborhood exposure to drugs and crime may represent additional risk factors for gang-related involvement. Demonstrations of gang violence scenarios raise awareness to consequences of gang-related activities. Family and neighborhood characteristics should be included in development of intervention scenarios.

  18. Pride and prejudice in high school gang members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, A Y

    1994-01-01

    This study compared gang versus nongang high school students along measures of self-esteem, racial attitudes, and their self-professed role models. A total of 78 Caucasian (65 nongang and 13 gang members) and 77 African-American students (41 nongang and 36 gang members) participated. Results indicated that gang members had significantly lower levels of self-esteem compared to their nongang peers. All students, regardless of ethnicity, manifested negative racial stereotyping toward racial outgroups; gang members were not more racially prejudiced compared to other students. The role model data revealed that overall, gang members could name fewer role models than did their nongang peers. African-American students who were not gang members were much more likely to mention a parent or teacher as a role model. A regression analysis indicated that the absence of parental or teacher roles models was the best predictor of gang membership. These results are conceptualized within the framework provided by social identity theory.

  19. A social movement theory typology of gang violence

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Joseph E.

    2010-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis uses social movement theory to describe the formation of street gangs and account for their high levels of violence. By understanding street gangs as a social movement contributing to the gang cycle, my hope is that communities and law enforcement will be able to adopt better strategies for breaking the cycle. Likewise, the study of street gangs serves as a laboratory for counterinsurgency operations overseas. By unders...

  20. Arabidopsis thaliana and Thlaspi caerulescens respond comparably to low zinc supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talukdar, S.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to study the response of Arabidopsis thaliana L. and Thlaspi caerulescens J. & C. Presl to different Zn supplies. The A. thaliana plants were exposed to Zn-deficiency (0 and 0.05 ¿M Zn) and compared to the plants grown on media containing standard Zn (2

  1. Elevated expression of metal transporter genes in three accessions of the metal hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonçalves Leite de Assunção, A.; Costa Martins, Da P.; Folter, de S.; Vooijs, R.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2001-01-01

    Heavy metal hyperaccumulation in plants is an intriguing and poorly understood phenomenon. Transmembrane metal transporters are assumed to play a key role in this process. We describe the cloning and isolation of three zinc transporter cDNAs from the Zn hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens. The

  2. Gene Expression Differences between Noccaea caerulescens Ecotypes Help to Identify Candidate Genes for Metal Phytoremediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halimaa, P.; Lin, Y.F.; Ahonen, V.H.; Blande, D.; Clemens, S.; Gyenesei, A.; Haikio, E.; Karenlampi, S.O.; Laiho, A.; Aarts, M.G.M.; Pursiheimo, J.P.; Schat, H.; Schmidt, H.; Tuomainen, M.H.; Tervahauta, A.I.

    2014-01-01

    Populations of Noccaea caerulescens show tremendous differences in their capacity to hyperaccumulate and hypertolerate metals. To explore the differences that could contribute to these traits, we undertook SOLiD high-throughput sequencing of the root transcriptomes of three phenotypically

  3. Gang Membership as a Risk Factor for Adolescent Violent Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Terrance J.; Peterson, Dana; Esbensen, Finn-Aage; Freng, Adrienne

    2007-01-01

    Youth gangs and violence have received substantial scholarly and public attention during the past two decades. While most of the extant research on youth gang members has focused on their offending behaviors, few quantitative studies have been conducted to examine the link between gang membership and violent victimization. The current study uses…

  4. Latino High School Students' Perceptions of Gangs and Crews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Edward M.; Wishard, Alison; Gallimore, Ronald; Rivera, Wendy

    2006-01-01

    Controversies around definitions and perceptions of gangs are heightened by the scarcity of research on crews. In an open-ended interview, 77 Latino 10th graders from a random longitudinal sample provided information about gangs and crews. Although less than 10% reported having been in gangs or crews, 84% reported having personal contact with…

  5. Metal availability and soil toxicity after repeated croppings of Thlaspi caerulescens in metal contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Catherine; Hammer, Daniel

    2004-09-01

    Metal phytoextraction with hyperaccumulating plants could be a useful method to decontaminate soils, but it is not fully validated yet. In order to quantify the efficiency of Cd and Zn extraction from a calcareous soil with and without Fe amendment and an acidic soil, we performed a pot experiment with three successive croppings of Thlaspi caerulescens followed by 3 months without plant and 7 weeks with lettuce. We used a combined approach to assess total extraction efficiency (2 M HNO{sub 3}-extractable metals), changes in metal bio/availability (0.1 M NaNO{sub 3}-extractable metals and lettuce uptake) and toxicity (lettuce biomass and the BIOMETreg] biosensor). The soil solution was monitored over the whole experiment. In the calcareous soil large Cu concentrations were probably responsible for chlorosis symptoms observed on T. caerulescens. When this soil was treated with Fe, the amount of extracted metal by T. caerulescens increased and metal availability and soil toxicity decreased when compared to the untreated soil. In the acidic soil, T. caerulescens was most efficient: Cd and Zn concentrations in plants were in the range of hyperaccumulation and HNO{sub 3}-extractable Cd and Zn, metal bio/availability, soil toxicity, and Cd and Zn concentrations in the soil solution decreased significantly. However, a reduced Cd concentration measured in the third T. caerulescens cropping indicated a decrease in metal availability below a critical threshold, whereas the increase of dissolved Cd and Zn concentrations after the third cropping may be the early sign of soil re-equilibration. This indicates that phytoextraction efficiency must be assessed by different approaches in order not to overlook any potential hazard and that an efficient phytoextraction scheme will have to take into account the different dynamics of the soil-plant system.

  6. The Road to Gang Membership: Characteristics of Male Gang and Nongang Members from Ages 10 to 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Wendy M.; Vitaro, Frank; Gagnon, Claude; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2002-01-01

    Examined stability of gang membership in early adolescence, concurrent behaviors, family characteristics, friendships, and school attitudes of stable and unstable gang and nongang members. Found that stable gang members, compared to nongang members, had higher teacher ratings of fighting behavior, hyperactivity, inattention and oppositional…

  7. The process of desistance among core ex-gang members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Rony; Abu-Raiya, Hisham; Heineberg, Yotam; Zimbardo, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Research has established robust links between gang membership, delinquency, violence and victimization. Yet studies examining the process of gang desistance in general and that of core gang members in particular, are quite rare. The current study aims to identify factors associated with desistance of core gang members as well as describe the nature of the process that these "formers" have undergone. Thirty-nine core ex-gang members (80% males and 20% females) from the San Francisco Bay area and Los Angeles, with an average length of 11.6-years gang membership, were interviewed regarding their involvement in the gang and the desistance process. A systematic qualitative analysis based on grounded theory methodology was mainly utilized. We found that the decision to leave the gang is a result of a combination of push (e.g., personal and vicarious victimization, burnout of gang lifestyle, disillusionment by the gang) and pull (e.g., parenthood, family responsibilities, religious and cultural awakening) factors that evolved over time. Push factors were more dominant in this domain. We also found that while male core ex-gang members tended to leave the gang more frequently because of push factors, female ex-gang members were more inclined to desist due to pull factors. Our analysis also showed that core gang members shared a general pattern of the desistance process comprising of the following 5 stages: triggering, contemplation, exploration, exiting and maintenance. Based on these results, we outlined stage-specific recommendations for agents of societal change to help in facilitating the desistance of core gang members. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Gender differences in juvenile gang members: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, R Anna; Honegger, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, gang membership within the United States has continued to rise and has spread from urban centers to suburban and rural areas. Juvenile gang membership is of particular concern because of the relationship between early gang involvement and later adolescent and adult criminal behavior and incarceration. Female gang membership and affiliation are receiving increased attention as female crime and incarceration rates outpace those of their male counterparts. This study explores gender differences between male and female juveniles who have verified gang membership in one suburban jurisdiction. Findings suggest important differences between males and females, and implications for research and practice are discussed.

  9. Hyperaccumulation of Zn by Thlaspi caerulescens can ameliorate Zn toxicity in the rhizosphere of cocropped Thlaspi arvense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, S N; Leake, J R; McGrath, S P; Baker, A J

    2001-08-01

    The metal hyperaccumulating plant Thlaspi caerulescens is effective in depleting plant-available metals from the soil. We hypothesized that this reduction of toxic metals in the rhizosphere of T. caerulescens would increase the growth of less metal-tolerant plants with their roots permitted to intermingle and develop coincident rhizospheres. The extent of rhizosphere interaction between T. caerulescens and a coplanted nonaccumulator species, Thlaspi arvense, was controlled using barriers. Two media with elevated concentrations of water-extractable Zn were prepared by enriching one soil with zinc oxide (ZnO) or zinc sulfide (ZnS). The shoot mass of T. arvense was increased by 30% when its roots were permitted to intermingle with those of T. caerulescens in the ZnO treatment. The concomitant 2-3-fold reduction in shoot Zn concentration in T. arvense confirmed that its improved growth was associated with reduced uptake and phytotoxicity of Zn. Thlaspi arvense also showed increased growth and reduced metal uptake when cocropped with T. caerulescens in the ZnS treatment. We conclude that the strong Zn accumulation by T. caerulescens might enhance the establishment and development of surrounding less-tolerant species on soils that are naturally- or anthropogenically-enriched with metals.

  10. Hydraulic Actuator for Ganged Control Rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. C.; Robey, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    Hydraulic actuator moves several nuclear-reactor control rods in unison. Electromagnetic pump pushes liquid lithium against ends of control rods, forcing them out of or into nuclear reactor. Color arrows show lithium flow for reactor startup and operation. Flow reversed for shutdown. Conceived for use aboard spacecraft, actuator principle applied to terrestrial hydraulic machinery involving motion of ganged rods.

  11. Youth Gang Members: Psychiatric Disorders and Substance Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert John Sargent

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Approximately 260,000 of youth in the United States are gang-affiliated. There is a paucity of data available to identify the prevalence of mental health disorders in this population. Gang members share many of the features of “at risk” or juvenile justice involved youth who deny gang membership. The authors identified rates of psychiatric disorders within a juvenile justice population delineated in three categories: gang members, friends of gang members, and non-gang members. Methods: A retrospective review of records obtained by a juvenile probation department. A large detention center conducted mental health screenings on 7,615 youth aged 13–17. The mental health screenings were performed by either a master level or doctoral level mental health professional. Odds ratios were computed as an effect size for gender, race/ethnic differences, and gang-membership associations with self-reported psychiatric and substance use disorders. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the risk for psychiatric and substance use disorders among gang-members and friends of gang members. Diagnostic information was generated through a clinical interview and flexible battery. Results: Of the 7,615 youth in this study, ~50% had contact with gangs; 11% were self-identified gang-members, and 38% acknowledged having at least one friendship with a gang member. Similar to other studies, being male was a risk-factor for gang-membership (2.31 odds. In this multi-racial and ethnic study, Latinos had a greater affiliation with gang membership and association with gang members as friends (1.44 odds. Gang members were found to have increased rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (1.77 odds, current substance abuse (2.58 odds, oppositional defiant disorder, (1.24 odds and conduct disorder (4.05 odds; however, they were less likely to have an adjustment disorder than non-gang members (0.70 odds. Conclusions: Juveniles who received a mental health assessment

  12. Gang Prevention: An Overview of Research and Programs. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, James C.

    2010-01-01

    This bulletin presents research on why youth join gangs and how a community can build gang prevention and intervention services. The author summarizes recent literature on gang formation and identifies promising and effective programs for gang prevention. The following are some key findings: (1) Youth join gangs for protection, enjoyment, respect,…

  13. Youth Gang Membership and Serious Violent Victimization: The Importance of Lifestyles and Routine Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Terrance J.; Freng, Adrienne; Esbensen, Finn-Aage; Peterson, Dana

    2008-01-01

    Youth gangs have received substantial scholarly and public attention during the past two decades. Although most of the extant research on youth gang members has focused on their offending behaviors, recent studies have examined the victimization of youth gang members relative to their non-gang peers. Gang members generally have been found to be at…

  14. Are There Gangs in Schools?: It Depends upon Whom You Ask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naber, Patricia A.; May, David C.; Decker, Scott H.; Minor, Kevin I.; Wells, James B.

    2006-01-01

    In the past, juvenile gang researchers have focused primarily on the characteristics of gangs and the prevalence of gangs in communities and schools. One of the greatest limitations of this research, however, surrounds the lack of agreement on the definition of a gang and, consequently, the prevalence of gangs in the community and in schools. In…

  15. Gang masculinity and high-risk sexual behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Quinn, Katherine; Broaddus, Michelle; Pacella, Maria

    2017-02-01

    High-risk sexual behaviours include practices such as relationship violence and substance use, which often cluster together among young people in high-risk settings. Youth gang members often show high rates of such behaviours, substance use and relationship violence. This paper draws on data from in-depth interviews with male and female gang members from six different gangs to explore the role of powerful socialising peer groups that set gender, sexual and relationship roles and expectations for their male and female members. High-risk sexual behaviours among gang members included sex with multiple partners and group sex. Gang norms included the belief that male members were sexually insatiable with multiple sexual partners and that female gang members should be sexually available to male members. Alcohol and drugs were seen to have a large influence on sexual desire and the inability to use condoms. Much sexual behaviour with gangs, such as group sex, was viewed with ambivalence and seen as somewhat coercive. Finally, gendered sexual expectations (boys as sexually insatiable and girls as sexually available) made forming long-term romantic relationships problematic for gang members. The influence of gang norms such as these must be addressed in future programmes and interventions with gang members.

  16. Palatability of Thlaspi caerulescens for snails: influence of zinc and glucosinolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noret, N; Meerts, P; Tolrà, R; Poschenrieder, C; Barceló, J; Escarre, J

    2005-03-01

    * The hypothesis that zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulation defends Thlaspi caerulescens against herbivores is tested with the snail Helix aspersa. We investigated the effects of leaf zinc, cadmium, glucosinolate, nitrogen and dry matter concentrations on the feeding preferences of snails. * Four T. caerulescens populations from southern France (two from metalliferous and two from normal soils) were grown on low- and high-Zn soils to obtain contrasting leaf Zn concentrations. Plants were also collected in the field, and binary feeding choices involving low- and high-Zn leaves were conducted. * Foliar Zn, Cd, N and dry matter concentrations did not affect the feeding choices of snails, whereas glucosinolate had a significant negative effect on herbivore preferences. Compared with metallicolous plants, nonmetallicolous ones appeared to be better protected against snails, whatever their Zn concentration. * These results do not support the defence hypothesis, as glucosinolates appear to decrease the degree of herbivory when Zn does not.

  17. Reciprocal grafting separates the roles of the root and shoot in zinc hyperaccumulation in Thlaspi caerulescens

    OpenAIRE

    de A Guimarães, Marcelo; Gustin, Jeffery L; Salt, David E.

    2009-01-01

    The extreme phenotype of zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulation, which is found in several Brassicaceae species, is determined by mechanisms that promote elevated Zn tolerance and high Zn accumulation in shoots. We used reciprocal grafting between a Zn hyperaccumulator, Thlaspi caerulescens, and a Zn nonaccumulator, Thlaspi perfoliatum, to determine the relative importance of roots and shoots in Zn hyperaccumulation and hypertolerance. Leaves from plants with a T. perfoliatum rootstock and a T. caerules...

  18. Impact of Metal Pollution and Thlaspi caerulescens Growth on Soil Microbial Communities▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epelde, Lur; Becerril, José M.; Kowalchuk, George A.; Deng, Ye; Zhou, Jizhong; Garbisu, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Soil microorganisms drive critical functions in plant-soil systems. As such, various microbial properties have been proposed as indicators of soil functioning, making them potentially useful in evaluating the recovery of polluted soils via phytoremediation strategies. To evaluate microbial responses to metal phytoextraction using hyperaccumulators, a microcosm experiment was carried out to study the impacts of Zn and/or Cd pollution and Thlaspi caerulescens growth on key soil microbial properties: basal respiration; substrate-induced respiration (SIR); bacterial community structure as assessed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE); community sizes of total bacteria, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, and chitin-degrading bacteria as assessed by quantitative PCR (Q-PCR); and functional gene distributions as determined by functional gene arrays (GeoChip). T. caerulescens proved to be suitable for Zn and Cd phytoextraction: shoots accumulated up to 8,211 and 1,763 mg kg−1 (dry weight [DW]) of Zn and Cd, respectively. In general, Zn pollution led to decreased levels of basal respiration and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, while T. caerulescens growth increased the values of substrate-induced respiration (SIR) and total bacteria. In soils polluted with 1,000 mg Zn kg−1 and 250 mg Cd kg−1 (DW), soil bacterial community profiles and the distribution of microbial functional genes were most affected by the presence of metals. Metal-polluted and planted soils had the highest percentage of unique genes detected via the GeoChip (35%). It was possible to track microbial responses to planting with T. caerulescens and to gain insight into the effects of metal pollution on soilborne microbial communities. PMID:20935131

  19. Ethnic differences in the effect of parenting on gang involvement and gang delinquency: a longitudinal, hierarchical linear modeling perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker-Barnes, C J; Mason, C A

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the relative influence of peer and parenting behavior on changes in adolescent gang involvement and gang-related delinquency. An ethnically diverse sample of 300 ninth-grade students was recruited and assessed on eight occasions during the school year. Analyses were conducted using hierarchical linear modeling. Results indicated that, in general, adolescents decreased their level of gang involvement over the course of the school year, whereas the average level of gang delinquency remained constant over time. As predicted, adolescent gang involvement and gang-related delinquency were most strongly predicted by peer gang involvement and peer gang delinquency, respectively. Nevertheless, parenting behavior continued to significantly predict change in both gang involvement and gang delinquency, even after controlling for peer behavior. A significant interaction between parenting and ethnic and cultural heritage found the effect of parenting to be particularly salient for Black students, for whom higher levels of behavioral control and lower levels of lax parental control were related to better behavioral outcomes over time, whereas higher levels of psychological control predicted worse behavioral outcomes.

  20. Genome Structure of the Heavy Metal Hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens and Its Stability on Metalliferous and Nonmetalliferous Soils1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandáková, Terezie; Singh, Vasantika; Krämer, Ute; Lysak, Martin A.

    2015-01-01

    Noccaea caerulescens (formerly known as Thlaspi caerulescens), an extremophile heavy metal hyperaccumulator model plant in the Brassicaceae family, is a morphologically and phenotypically diverse species exhibiting metal tolerance and leaf accumulation of zinc, cadmium, and nickel. Here, we provide a detailed genome structure of the approximately 267-Mb N. caerulescens genome, which has descended from seven chromosomes of the ancestral proto-Calepineae Karyotype (n = 7) through an unusually high number of pericentric inversions. Genome analysis in two other related species, Noccaea jankae and Raparia bulbosa, showed that all three species, and thus probably the entire Coluteocarpeae tribe, have descended from the proto-Calepineae Karyotype. All three analyzed species share the chromosome structure of six out of seven chromosomes and an unusually high metal accumulation in leaves, which remains moderate in N. jankae and R. bulbosa and is extreme in N. caerulescens. Among these species, N. caerulescens has the most derived karyotype, with species-specific inversions on chromosome NC6, which grouped onto its bottom arm functionally related genes of zinc and iron metal homeostasis comprising the major candidate genes NICOTIANAMINE SYNTHASE2 and ZINC-INDUCED FACILITATOR-LIKE1. Concurrently, copper and organellar metal homeostasis genes, which are functionally unrelated to the extreme traits characteristic of N. caerulescens, were grouped onto the top arm of NC6. Compared with Arabidopsis thaliana, more distal chromosomal positions in N. caerulescens were enriched among more highly expressed metal homeostasis genes but not among other groups of genes. Thus, chromosome rearrangements could have facilitated the evolution of enhanced metal homeostasis gene expression, a known hallmark of metal hyperaccumulation. PMID:26195571

  1. Dimensions of Gang Issues at the National and International Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svatošová Veronika

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to define the main dimensions of gang, its structure, mutual connections and influence on the contemporary society at national and international level. This paper is based on knowledge about the issues of gang and presents the main differences and characteristics of formalized and non-formalized gang and the main identical and different characters. It comes from a study of current knowledge on the issue of gang and discusses its general forms. In this paper, a discussion of existing studies and typologies of these peculiar social groups, including an explanation is provided. The next section will introduce the particular qualities of the crimes committed by (mostly youth gangs and explain their possible causes. The main findings of the paper is putting relations between formalized and non-formalized gang and their influence on the present and future society in the social, psychological, economic, ethnic and criminal dimension.

  2. New Administrator of SAC, Chen Gang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On June 14th,SAC held a meeting presented by its middle-high officials,at which Zhang Qinrong,Member of CPC Leading Group and Director of Personnel Department,General Administration of Quality Supervision,Inspection and Quarantine (AQSIQ),announced the personnel decision made by the State Council,the Organization Department of the CPC Central Committee and AQSIQ.In the decision,Chen Gang was appointed as Member of CPC Leading Group of AQSIQ,Administrator of SAC and Secretary of CPC Leading Group of SAC,and Ji Zhengkun was dismissed as the Member of CPC Leading Group of AQSIQ,Administrator of SAC and Secretary of CPC Leading Group of SAC.The meeting was presided by Ji Zhengkun.Zhi Shuping,Minister of AQSIQ and Secretary of CPC Leading Group of AQSIQ,attended the meeting and gave a speech.Ji Zhengkun and Chen Gang also delivered speeches.

  3. Street Gangs: The New Urban Insurgency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    Ibid.; Francisco Rojas Aravena, “Nuevo contexto de seguridad internacional : nuevos desafíos, nuevas oportunidades?” in Francisco Rojas Aravena, ed...Bonilla, “Current Situation of Gangs in El Salvador,” unpublished paper for the Consejo Nacional de Seguridad Pública, El Salvador, November 2004...La seguridad en America Latina pos 11 de Septiembre, FLACSO–Chile, 2003, pp. 23-43; and author interviews. 42. These keys to security and civil

  4. Empowering our young people out of gangs

    OpenAIRE

    Nasir, Sudirman

    2013-01-01

    We have recently witnessed violent acts by numerous members of motorcycle gangs in several big cities in Indonesia such as Bandung, Pekanbaru and Makassar. They have been involved in aggressive behavior, including vandalism, rape and assaults. Frequently, they display this violence publicly and inevitably cause fear and panic among ordinary people. The media widely report these destructive acts and this inevitably triggers public debate and raises important questions as to who these youn...

  5. Magical-religious narratives in gangs. A study on the psychology of the gang member

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ordóñez Valverde

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is the result of an investigation on the cultural systems that sustain violence within gangs in marginalized neighborhoods of Cali, Colombia. It is about magical and religious beliefs of gang member that surround the episodes of violence, and that allow us to observe aspects of the psychology of the gang member that are functional adaptations to the reality of vendettas and territorial wars, which are intended to give sense and meaning to the tragic events of their lives. The study shows how Santeria was used to seek protection and harm the enemy, and how their ideas of God and the Devil, good and evil, lack of ethics that regulate the relationships with others, and are an expression of a narcissistic defense mechanism. It is concluded that this cultural belief system is an interesting transaction formula between objective social reality and subjective fantasies.

  6. Gangs in Our Schools: Identifying Gang Indicators in Our School Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struyk, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    Although teachers used to teach in the communities where they resided, they now commute to schools in other districts. For teachers who teach in districts that are culturally or ethnically different than their own, it may be a new experience of which to become aware or identify issues such as dealing with gang behavior. For other teachers, there…

  7. Mentoring Siblings of Gang Members: A Template for Reaching Families of Gang Members?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Juanjo; Ralphs, Robert; Aldridge, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Mentoring has become a popular model of intervention to reduce the risk of offending, and has been proposed as an effective tool to tackle the risk of gang membership. This paper reviews the existing literature on mentoring and reports on a qualitative evaluation of a mentoring programme targeted at young people "at risk" of gang…

  8. Gang Youth, Substance Use Patterns, and Drug Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Gang membership is an indicator of chronic illicit substance use and such patterns of use may have a normalized character. Using epidemiological and qualitative data collected between 2006 and 2007, this manuscript examines the drug normalization thesis among a small sample (n=60) of gang youth aged 16-25 years from Los Angeles. Overall, while…

  9. Insurgency in the Hood: Understanding Insurgencies Through Urban Gangs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    expectation of receiving a cost, the costitself. ( Eb *B)-(Ec*C)=Decision 18 and beliefs. People act to advance their pure preferences, but the common...gangs fall under the control of Nuestra Familia and the Mexican Mafia respectively. This fault line between two competing gangs results in a

  10. Reconsidering Hispanic Gang Membership and Acculturation in a Multivariate Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Holly Ventura; Barnes, J. C.; Hartley, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    Previous qualitative research has suggested that Hispanic gang membership is linked to the process of acculturation. Specifically, studies have indicated that those who are less assimilated into mainstream American or "Anglo" society are at greater risk for joining gangs. Building on these observations, this study examines the relationship between…

  11. Raising Barriers to 'Outlaw Motorcycle Gang-Related Events'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. van Ruitenburg (Teun)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractFighting outlaw motorcycle gangs is currently one of the top priorities of many governments around the world. This is due to the notion that outlaw motorcycle gangs do not consist solely of motorcycle enthusiasts. Numerous cases reveal that these clubs, or at least their members, are inv

  12. Gang Membership and Drug Involvement: Untangling the Complex Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, Beth

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has consistently demonstrated a relationship between gang membership and involvement in illegal substances. In addition, researchers have noted that gang members are frequently more heavily involved in drug sales, which often lead to increases in violent behaviors. Most of this research, however, is either cross-sectional or…

  13. Reconsidering Hispanic Gang Membership and Acculturation in a Multivariate Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Holly Ventura; Barnes, J. C.; Hartley, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    Previous qualitative research has suggested that Hispanic gang membership is linked to the process of acculturation. Specifically, studies have indicated that those who are less assimilated into mainstream American or "Anglo" society are at greater risk for joining gangs. Building on these observations, this study examines the relationship between…

  14. Pride and Prejudice in High School Gang Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Alvin Y.

    1994-01-01

    Compared gang versus nongang high school students along measures of self-esteem, racial attitudes, and self-professed role models. Results from 78 white and 77 black students revealed that gang members had significantly lower levels of self-esteem compared to nongang peers. All students, regardless of ethnicity, manifested negative racial…

  15. Reviving the Ganges Water Machine: why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasinghe, U. A.; Mutuwatte, L.; Surinaidu, L.; Anand, S.; Jain, S. K.

    2015-09-01

    The Ganges River Basin may have a major pending water crisis. Although the basin has abundant surface water and groundwater resources, the seasonal monsoon causes a mismatch between supply and demand as well as flooding. Water availability and flood potential is high during the 3-4 months of the monsoon season. Yet, the highest demands occur during the 8-9 months of the non-monsoon period. Addressing this mismatch requires substantial additional storage for both flood reduction and improvements in water supply. Due to hydrogeological, environmental, and social constraints, expansion of surface storage in the Ganges River Basin is problematic. A range of interventions that focus more on the use of subsurface storage (SSS), and on the acceleration of surface-subsurface water exchange, have long been known as the "Ganges Water Machine". One approach for providing such SSS is through additional pumping prior to the onset of the monsoon season. An important necessary condition for creating such SSS is the degree of unmet water demand. This paper highlights that an unmet water demand ranging from 59 to 119 Bm3 exists under two different irrigation water use scenarios: (i) to increase Rabi and hot weather season irrigation to the entire irrigable area, and (ii) to provide Rabi and hot weather season irrigation to the entire cropped area. This paper shows that SSS can enhance water supply, and provide benefits for irrigation and other water use sectors. In addition, it can buffer the inherent variability in water supply and mitigate extreme flooding, especially in the downstream parts of the basin. It can also increase river flow during low-flow months via baseflow or enable the re-allocation of irrigation canal water. Importantly, SSS can mitigate the negative effects of both flooding and water scarcity in the same year, which often affects the most vulnerable segments of society - women and children, the poor and other disadvantaged social groups.

  16. A Systematic Review on the Functions of Rap Among Gangs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozon, Jeffrey; Bensimon, Moshe

    2017-08-01

    Although the field of gangs is well studied, information regarding the way gangs may use or misuse music for different needs is sparse. The aim of this systematic review is to gather descriptive and empirical information to ascertain the important roles rap music possesses within gang life. This review suggests five main functions of rap used within gangs with an emphasis on the subgenre of gangsta rap. First, rap facilitates antisocial behavior by reinforcing such messages in its lyrics. Second, its deviant lyrics serve as a reflection of the violent reality experienced in many urban ghetto communities. Third, it operates as a means for constructing individual and collective identity, as well as resistance identity. Fourth, it functions as an educating force by teaching its members how to act and respond in the urban ghetto. Finally, rap glorifies gang norms among newcomers and successfully spreads its values to the general population.

  17. Reviving the Ganges Water Machine: potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasinghe, Upali Ananda; Muthuwatta, Lal; Surinaidu, Lagudu; Anand, Sumit; Jain, Sharad Kumar

    2016-03-01

    The Ganges River basin faces severe water challenges related to a mismatch between supply and demand. Although the basin has abundant surface water and groundwater resources, the seasonal monsoon causes a mismatch between supply and demand as well as flooding. Water availability and flood potential is high during the 3-4 months (June-September) of the monsoon season. Yet, the highest demands occur during the 8-9 months (October-May) of the non-monsoon period. Addressing this mismatch, which is likely to increase with increasing demand, requires substantial additional storage for both flood reduction and improvements in water supply. Due to hydrogeological, environmental, and social constraints, expansion of surface storage in the Ganges River basin is problematic. A range of interventions that focus more on the use of subsurface storage (SSS), and on the acceleration of surface-subsurface water exchange, has long been known as the Ganges Water Machine (GWM). The approach of the GWM for providing such SSS is through additional pumping and depleting of the groundwater resources prior to the onset of the monsoon season and recharging the SSS through monsoon surface runoff. An important condition for creating such SSS is the degree of unmet water demand. The paper shows that the potential unmet water demand ranging from 59 to 124 Bm3 year-1 exists under two different irrigation water use scenarios: (i) to increase irrigation in the Rabi (November-March) and hot weather (April-May) seasons in India, and the Aman (July-November) and Boro (December-May) seasons in Bangladesh, to the entire irrigable area, and (ii) to provide irrigation to Rabi and the hot weather season in India and the Aman and Boro seasons in Bangladesh to the entire cropped area. However, the potential for realizing the unmet irrigation demand is high only in 7 sub-basins in the northern and eastern parts, is moderate to low in 11 sub-basins in the middle, and has little or no potential in 4 sub

  18. De-securitising and Re-securitising Gang Policies : The Funes Government and Gangs in El Salvador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Borgh, G.J.C.; Savenije, W.

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the gang policies of the first years of the Funes administration in El Salvador, from June 2.009 until July 2.012.. Using securitisation theory, it explains why the administration returned to an emphasis on extraordinary measures, most of them repressive, to deal with gangs. It

  19. De-securitising and Re-securitising Gang Policies : The Funes Government and Gangs in El Salvador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Borgh, G.J.C.; Savenije, W.

    This article analyses the gang policies of the first years of the Funes administration in El Salvador, from June 2.009 until July 2.012.. Using securitisation theory, it explains why the administration returned to an emphasis on extraordinary measures, most of them repressive, to deal with gangs. It

  20. De-securitising and Re-securitising Gang Policies: The Funes Government and Gangs in El Salvador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Borgh, G.J.C.; Savenije, W.

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the gang policies of the first years of the Funes administration in El Salvador, from June 2009 until July 2012. Using securitisation theory, it explains why the administration returned to an emphasis on extraordinary measures, most of them repressive, to deal with gangs. It ar

  1. U.S. Juvenile Arrests: Gang Membership, Social Class, and Labeling Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This study addresses the link between gang membership and arrest frequency, exploring the Gang x Socioeconomic status interaction on those arrests. Notoriously poor, delinquent, and often well-known to police, America's gang youth should have very high odds of arrest. Yet it is unclear whether mere membership in a gang increases the risk of arrest…

  2. Self-Definitions of Gang Membership and Involvement in Delinquent Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, Beth

    2002-01-01

    Examined the relationship between various methods of operationalizing gang membership and delinquency. Surveys of inner city adolescents indicated that teens reporting membership in organized gangs were far more likely to believe their gangs possessed characteristics typically associated with traditional street gangs. Teens who considered…

  3. Perceptions of Risk Factors for Female Gang Involvement among African American and Hispanic Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker-Barnes, Chanequa J.; Mason, Craig A.

    2001-01-01

    Female minority students at an urban alternative high school completed interviews regarding perceptions of risk factors for female gang involvement. Peer pressure was the largest influence on female gang involvement. Respondents believed girls might turn to gangs for protection from neighborhood crime, abusive families, and other gangs. Lack of…

  4. Local adaptation is associated with zinc tolerance in Pseudomonas endophytes of the metal-hyperaccumulator plant Noccaea caerulescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fones, H N; McCurrach, H; Mithani, A; Smith, J A C; Preston, G M

    2016-05-11

    Metal-hyperaccumulating plants, which are hypothesized to use metals for defence against pests and pathogens, provide a unique context in which to study plant-pathogen coevolution. Previously, we demonstrated that the high concentrations of zinc found in leaves of the hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens provide protection against bacterial pathogens, with a potential trade-off between metal-based and pathogen-induced defences. We speculated that an evolutionary arms race between zinc-based defences in N. caerulescens and zinc tolerance in pathogens might have driven the development of the hyperaccumulation phenotype. Here, we investigate the possibility of local adaptation by bacteria to the zinc-rich environment of N. caerulescens leaves and show that leaves sampled from the contaminated surroundings of a former mine site harboured endophytes with greater zinc tolerance than those within plants of an artificially created hyperaccumulating population. Experimental manipulation of zinc concentrations in plants of this artificial population influenced the zinc tolerance of recovered endophytes. In laboratory experiments, only endophytic bacteria isolated from plants of the natural population were able to grow to high population densities in any N. caerulescens plants. These findings suggest that long-term coexistence with zinc-hyperaccumulating plants leads to local adaptation by endophytic bacteria to the environment within their leaves. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Construction of a genetic linkage map of Thlaspi caerulescens and quatitative trait loci analysis of zinc accumulation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonçalves Leite de Assunção, A.; Pieper, B.; Vromans, J.; Lindhout, P.; Aarts, M.G.M.; Schat, H.

    2006-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulation seems to be a constitutive species-level trait in Thlaspi caerulescens. When compared under conditions of equal Zn availability, considerable variation in the degree of hyperaccumulation is observed among accessions originating from different soil types. This variation

  6. Local adaptation is associated with zinc tolerance in Pseudomonas endophytes of the metal-hyperaccumulator plant Noccaea caerulescens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fones, H. N.; McCurrach, H.; Mithani, A.; Smith, J. A. C.

    2016-01-01

    Metal-hyperaccumulating plants, which are hypothesized to use metals for defence against pests and pathogens, provide a unique context in which to study plant–pathogen coevolution. Previously, we demonstrated that the high concentrations of zinc found in leaves of the hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens provide protection against bacterial pathogens, with a potential trade-off between metal-based and pathogen-induced defences. We speculated that an evolutionary arms race between zinc-based defences in N. caerulescens and zinc tolerance in pathogens might have driven the development of the hyperaccumulation phenotype. Here, we investigate the possibility of local adaptation by bacteria to the zinc-rich environment of N. caerulescens leaves and show that leaves sampled from the contaminated surroundings of a former mine site harboured endophytes with greater zinc tolerance than those within plants of an artificially created hyperaccumulating population. Experimental manipulation of zinc concentrations in plants of this artificial population influenced the zinc tolerance of recovered endophytes. In laboratory experiments, only endophytic bacteria isolated from plants of the natural population were able to grow to high population densities in any N. caerulescens plants. These findings suggest that long-term coexistence with zinc-hyperaccumulating plants leads to local adaptation by endophytic bacteria to the environment within their leaves. PMID:27170725

  7. Isolation and identification of 4-α-rhamnosyloxy benzyl glucosinolate in Noccaea caerulescens showing intraspecific variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Rob M; Krosse, Sebastian; Swolfs, Ad E M; te Brinke, Esra; Prill, Nadine; Leimu, Roosa; van Galen, Peter M; Wang, Yanli; Aarts, Mark G M; van Dam, Nicole M

    2015-02-01

    Glucosinolates are secondary plant compounds typically found in members of the Brassicaceae and a few other plant families. Usually each plant species contains a specific subset of the ∼ 130 different glucosinolates identified to date. However, intraspecific variation in glucosinolate profiles is commonly found. Sinalbin (4-hydroxybenzyl glucosinolate) so far has been identified as the main glucosinolate of the heavy metal accumulating plant species Noccaea caerulescens (Brassicaceae). However, a screening of 13 N. caerulescens populations revealed that in 10 populations a structurally related glucosinolate was found as the major component. Based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry analyses of the intact glucosinolate as well as of the products formed after enzymatic conversion by sulfatase or myrosinase, this compound was identified as 4-α-rhamnosyloxy benzyl glucosinolate (glucomoringin). So far, glucomoringin had only been reported as the main glucosinolate of Moringa spp. (Moringaceae) which are tropical tree species. There was no apparent relation between the level of soil pollution at the location of origin, and the presence of glucomoringin. The isothiocyanate that is formed after conversion of glucomoringin is a potent antimicrobial and antitumor agent. It has yet to be established whether glucomoringin or its breakdown product have an added benefit to the plant in its natural habitat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Praxis development in relation to gang conflicts in Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche; Hussain, Khaled; Møller-Andersen, Camilla;

    2013-01-01

    . The article explores these practices and changes, including some of the communal initiatives arising in response to the escalating gang conflicts. The conflict and community building activities are contextualized in terms of broader tendencies and changes in Danish society, from enduring struggles with ethnic...... othering of young minority men since the late 1990s, to other societal changes escalating ‘gang-conflicts’ to ‘gang-war’. The article examines how these changes produce new dynamics, tensions and dimensions of binary thinking, which in turn creates new dilemmas in the everyday lives of the people involved...

  9. The Trauma Response Team: a Community Intervention for Gang Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings-Bey, Timothy; Lane, Sandra D; Rubinstein, Robert A; Bergen-Cico, Dessa; Haygood-El, Arnett; Hudson, Helen; Sanchez, Shaundel; Fowler, Frank L

    2015-10-01

    While violent crime has decreased in many cities in the USA, gang-related violence remains a serious problem in impoverished inner city neighborhoods. In Syracuse, New York, gang-related murders and gun shots have topped other New York state cities. Residents of the high-murder neighborhoods suffer trauma similar to those living in civil conflict zones. The Trauma Response Team was established in 2010, in collaboration with the Police Department, health care institutions, and emergency response teams and with the research support of Syracuse University faculty. Since its inception, gang-related homicides and gun shots have decreased in the most severely affected census tracts.

  10. Praxis development in relation to gang conflicts in Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche; Hussain, Khaled; Møller-Andersen, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    The primary question addressed in this article is how to understand and produce praxis development in the complex and contentious field of street communities of young marginalized men, an area highlighted almost on a daily basis in the Danish media under headlines with terms such as ‘foreigner...... problems’, ‘ghetto problems’, ‘gang conflicts’ and ‘gang war’. Since 2009, activists and professionals related to this field have gathered at Grundtvigs Højskole where they initiated and inspired community building activities in relation to the recent gang conflicts in the Copenhagen area of Denmark...... in social work practice, community building activities and praxis research....

  11. Gang Member: Who Says? Definitional and Structural Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Smithson, Hannah; Monchuk, Leanne; Armitage, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Owing to a number of high profile shootings in the UK over the past decade, there has been a significant amount of media and political interest in youth gangs. This chapter reports on a study conducted in 2009 in a large city in the North of England. It discusses the structure and formation of gangs in this city from the view of the young people identified as gang members and those responsible for this identification, i.e. police officers. Findings demonstrated that few of the young people vi...

  12. Arbovírus Ilheus em aves silvestres (Sporophila caerulescens e Molothrus bonariensis Ilheus arbovirus in wild birds (Sporophila caerulescens and Molothrus bonariensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eloy Pereira

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar o isolamento do vírus Ilheus no Estado de São Paulo e avaliar o seu impacto para a saúde pública. MÉTODOS: O isolamento de vírus foi realizado em camundongos albinos Swiss, a partir de sangue de aves silvestres, capturadas com redes de espera tipo mist net, armadas no nível do solo, no Parque Ecológico do Tietê, São Paulo. A identificação das cepas isoladas foi feita pelos testes de inibição da hemaglutinação, fixação de complemento e neutralização em camundongos. Amostras de plasma de aves e de mamíferos silvestres foram submetidas à pesquisa sorológica para detecção de anticorpos inibidores de hemaglutinação. RESULTADOS: Foram isoladas duas cepas do vírus Ilheus em sangue de aves das espécies Sporophila caerulescens e Molothrus bonariensis e detectados anticorpos em aves das espécies Columbina talpacoti, Geopelia cuneata, Molothrus bonariensis e Sicalis flaveola, em sagüis das espécies Callithrix jacchus e Callithrix penicillata e no quati Nasua nasua. CONCLUSÕES: O isolamento do vírus Ilheus e a detecção de anticorpos específicos em aves residentes, migratórias e de cativeiro, em sagüis e quatis, comprovam a presença desse agente no Parque Ecológico do Tietê. O comportamento migratório de aves silvestres pode determinar a introdução do vírus em outras regiões. Considerando-se a patogenicidade para o homem e a confirmação da circulação desse agente viral em área urbana, freqüentada para atividade de lazer e de educação, o risco de ocorrência de infecção na população humana não pode ser descartado.OBJECTIVE: To report the first Ilheus arboviruses isolated from wild birds and analyze its public health impact. METHODS: Wild birds and mammals were captured using mist nets and Tomahawk traps, respectively. Blood samples were drawn from these animals and inoculated intracerebrally in Swiss suckling mice found in the Parque Ecológico do Tietê, Brazil. The isolates were

  13. Forhandlingerne om fremtidens udviklingsfinansiering er skudt i gang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fejerskov, Adam Moe

    2015-01-01

    Til juli, skal verdens ledere vedtage hvordan vi finansierer fremtidens udviklingssamarbejde. Forhandlingerne er skudt i gang, og et stort skel mellem udviklede og udviklingslande, med vækstøkonomierne inde imellem, tegnes allerede op....

  14. Combating Gangs: Federal Agencies Have Implemented a Central American Gang Strategy, but Could Strengthen Oversight and Measurement of Efforts. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-10-395

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larence, Eileen R.

    2010-01-01

    Thousands of gang members in the United States belong to gangs such as MS-13 and 18th Street that are also active in Central American countries. Federal entities with responsibilities for addressing Central American gangs include the National Security Council (NSC); the Departments of Homeland Security (DHS), Justice (DOJ), and State; and the U.S.…

  15. Are the risk and protective factors similar for gang-involved, pressured-to-join, and non-gang-involved youth? A social-ecological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrin, Gabriel J; Hong, Jun Sung; Espelage, Dorothy L

    2015-11-01

    This study examines the risk and protective factors for gang involvement among subgroups of youth (i.e., current or former gang members, youth who resisted gang membership, and non-gang-involved youth) using the social-ecological framework. Middle and high school students (N = 17,366) from school districts in a large Midwestern county participated. Results indicated that males were more likely than females to be involved in gangs. For the individual context, our findings indicate that racial and ethnic minorities, females, and youth with depression/suicidal ideation are likely to be at risk for gang involvement. For the family context, we found that having gang-involved family members and family dysfunction are related to youth gang involvement. For the peer context, peers' alcohol and drug use and bullying were significantly associated with gang involvement. For the school context, as our results demonstrate, youth who perceived fair treatment from teachers and other adults in school and those with a sense of belonging in school are more likely to avoid gang membership. For the neighborhood context, we found that presence of adult support in the neighborhood and perceived neighborhood safety are negatively associated with gang membership. Findings suggest that gang prevention efforts need to target multiple ecologies that surround and influence youth. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Gangs and Transnational Criminals Threaten Central American Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-10

    threaten state sovereignty in Central America and Mexico have close ties with the United States and the two largest ( Mara Salvatrucha , MS-13, and the...distance from our shores. The two predominant regional gangs are Mara Salvatrucha (MS13) and the 18th Street gang (Barrio 18 or M-18). Both originated in...Ibid. 13 Ibid.,19. 14 Ibid. 15 Ibid. 16 Thomas C. Bruneau, "The Maras and National Security in Central America," Strategic Inisghts, (May 2005), http

  17. A Social Movement Theory Typology of Gang Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    for Youth and Families’ Streetworker Program BPA Berkeley Policy Associates CYO California Youth Outreach GTF Gang Task Force. GTF in this...pragmatic connections to the outside world severed, street gangs are free to creatively inject strategic framing back into the isolated population...population of 400,000 is approximately 2.5 times larger,97 with a more diverse racial composition . Oakland’s residents are only 21.9 percent Hispanic

  18. Hidden behind the gunfire: young women's experiences of gang-related violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Juanjo; Ralphs, Robert; Aldridge, Judith

    2012-06-01

    This article uses data from a 3-year multisite ethnographic research study of gangs within an English city, to explore the different ways that "gang culture" shapes the victimization experiences and everyday lives of (young) women. Victims of lethal gang violence in Research City are almost exclusively young men, rendering invisible the ways in which gangs have an impact on the lives of women living in neighborhoods with a gang presence. The article also discusses how the adoption of a transdisciplinary approach could be useful in developing a holistic picture of the impact of gang-related violence on the lives of women.

  19. Tandem quadruplication of HMA4 in the zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ó Lochlainn, Seosamh; Bowen, Helen C; Fray, Rupert G; Hammond, John P; King, Graham J; White, Philip J; Graham, Neil S; Broadley, Martin R

    2011-03-10

    Zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulation may have evolved twice in the Brassicaceae, in Arabidopsis halleri and in the Noccaea genus. Tandem gene duplication and deregulated expression of the Zn transporter, HMA4, has previously been linked to Zn/Cd hyperaccumulation in A. halleri. Here, we tested the hypothesis that tandem duplication and deregulation of HMA4 expression also occurs in Noccaea.A Noccaea caerulescens genomic library was generated, containing 36,864 fosmid pCC1FOS™ clones with insert sizes ∼20-40 kbp, and screened with a PCR-generated HMA4 genomic probe. Gene copy number within the genome was estimated through DNA fingerprinting and pooled fosmid pyrosequencing. Gene copy numbers within individual clones was determined by PCR analyses with novel locus specific primers. Entire fosmids were then sequenced individually and reads equivalent to 20-fold coverage were assembled to generate complete whole contigs.Four tandem HMA4 repeats were identified in a contiguous sequence of 101,480 bp based on sequence overlap identities. These were flanked by regions syntenous with up and downstream regions of AtHMA4 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Promoter-reporter β-glucuronidase (GUS) fusion analysis of a NcHMA4 in A. thaliana revealed deregulated expression in roots and shoots, analogous to AhHMA4 promoters, but distinct from AtHMA4 expression which localised to the root vascular tissue.This remarkable consistency in tandem duplication and deregulated expression of metal transport genes between N. caerulescens and A. halleri, which last shared a common ancestor >40 mya, provides intriguing evidence that parallel evolutionary pathways may underlie Zn/Cd hyperaccumulation in Brassicaceae.

  20. Tandem quadruplication of HMA4 in the zinc (Zn and cadmium (Cd hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seosamh Ó Lochlainn

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn and cadmium (Cd hyperaccumulation may have evolved twice in the Brassicaceae, in Arabidopsis halleri and in the Noccaea genus. Tandem gene duplication and deregulated expression of the Zn transporter, HMA4, has previously been linked to Zn/Cd hyperaccumulation in A. halleri. Here, we tested the hypothesis that tandem duplication and deregulation of HMA4 expression also occurs in Noccaea.A Noccaea caerulescens genomic library was generated, containing 36,864 fosmid pCC1FOS™ clones with insert sizes ∼20-40 kbp, and screened with a PCR-generated HMA4 genomic probe. Gene copy number within the genome was estimated through DNA fingerprinting and pooled fosmid pyrosequencing. Gene copy numbers within individual clones was determined by PCR analyses with novel locus specific primers. Entire fosmids were then sequenced individually and reads equivalent to 20-fold coverage were assembled to generate complete whole contigs.Four tandem HMA4 repeats were identified in a contiguous sequence of 101,480 bp based on sequence overlap identities. These were flanked by regions syntenous with up and downstream regions of AtHMA4 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Promoter-reporter β-glucuronidase (GUS fusion analysis of a NcHMA4 in A. thaliana revealed deregulated expression in roots and shoots, analogous to AhHMA4 promoters, but distinct from AtHMA4 expression which localised to the root vascular tissue.This remarkable consistency in tandem duplication and deregulated expression of metal transport genes between N. caerulescens and A. halleri, which last shared a common ancestor >40 mya, provides intriguing evidence that parallel evolutionary pathways may underlie Zn/Cd hyperaccumulation in Brassicaceae.

  1. Lithium isotope behaviour during weathering in the Ganges Alluvial Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogge von Strandmann, Philip A. E.; Frings, Patrick J.; Murphy, Melissa J.

    2017-02-01

    The Ganges river system is responsible for the transportation of a large flux of dissolved materials derived from Himalayan weathering to the oceans. Silicate weathering-driven cooling resulting from uplift of the Himalayas has been proposed to be a key player in Cenozoic climate variation. This study has analysed Li isotope (δ7Li) ratios from over 50 Ganges river waters and sediments, in order to trace silicate weathering processes. Sediments have δ7Li of ∼0‰, identical to bulk continental crust, however suspended sediment depth profiles do not display variations associated with grain size that have been observed in other large river systems. Dissolved δ7Li are low (∼11‰) in the Ganges headwaters, but reach a constant value of 21 ± 1.6‰ within a relatively short distance downstream, which is then maintained for almost 2000 km to the Ganges mouth. Given that Li isotopes are controlled by the ratio of primary mineral dissolution to secondary mineral formation, this suggests that the Ganges floodplain is at steady-state in terms of these processes for most of its length. Low δ7Li in the mountainous regions suggest silicate weathering is therefore at its most congruent where uplift and fresh silicate exposure rates are high. However, there is no correlation between δ7Li and the silicate weathering rate in these rivers, suggesting that Li isotopes cannot be used as a weathering-rate tracer, although they do inform on weathering congruency and intensity. The close-to-constant δ7Li values for the final 2000 km of Ganges flow also suggest that once the size of the alluvial plain reached more than ∼500 km (the flow distance after which riverine δ7Li stops varying), the Ganges exerted little influence on the changing Cenozoic seawater δ7Li, because riverine δ7Li attained a near steady-state composition.

  2. Growth and Cadmium Phytoextraction by Swiss Chard, Maize, Rice, Noccaea caerulescens, and Alyssum murale in Ph Adjusted Biosolids Amended Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, C Leigh; Chaney, Rufus L; Davis, Allen P; Cox, Albert; Kumar, Kuldip; Reeves, Roger D; Green, Carrie E

    2015-01-01

    Past applications of biosolids to soils at some locations added higher Cd levels than presently permitted. Cadmium phytoextraction would alleviate current land use constraints. Unamended farm soil, and biosolids amended farm and mine soils were obtained from a Fulton Co., IL biosolids management facility. Soils contained 0.16, 22.8, 45.3 mg Cd kg(-1) and 43.1, 482, 812 mg Zn kg(-1) respectively with initial pH 6.0, 6.1, 6.4. In greenhouse studies, Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla), a Cd-accumulator maize (inbred B37 Zea mays) and a southern France Cd-hyperaccumulator genotype of Noccaea caerulescens were tested for Cd accumulation and phytoextraction. Soil pH was adjusted from ∼5.5-7.0. Additionally 100 rice (Oryza sativa) genotypes and the Ni-hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale were screened for potential phytoextraction use. Chard suffered phytotoxicity at low pH and accumulated up to 90 mg Cd kg(-1) on the biosolids amended mine soil. The maize inbred accumulated up to 45 mg Cd kg(-1) with only mild phytotoxicity symptoms during early growth at pH>6.0. N. caerulescens did not exhibit phytotoxicity symptoms at any pH, and accumulated up to 235 mg Cd kg(-1) in 3 months. Reharvested N. caerulescens accumulated up to 900 mg Cd kg(-1) after 10 months. Neither Alyssum nor 90% of rice genotypes survived acceptably. Both N. caerulescens and B37 maize show promise for Cd phytoextraction in IL and require field evaluation; both plants could be utilized for nearly continuous Cd removal. Other maize inbreds may offer higher Cd phytoextraction at lower pH, and mono-cross hybrids higher shoot biomass yields. Further, maize grown only for biomass Cd maximum removal could be double-cropped.

  3. Traumatic death from rival gang violence in Rivers State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seleye-Fubara, D; Bob-Yellowe, E

    2005-10-01

    A prospective autopsy study in Rivers State, Nigeria, was undertaken to evaluate the patterns of death as a result of rival gang clashes and to highlight the menace of rival gang violence. Between 1 January 1999 and 31 December 2003 medico-legally autopsied bodies in Rivers State, where death was the result of gang violence, were studied after being served with the coroner's form. In all cases, standard autopsy procedures were adopted and reports were issued. A total of 58 bodies were autopsied for the study. Three (5.2%) were females and 55 (94.8%) were males, giving a female to male ratio of 1:18.3. The age group of 10-29 years recorded the highest frequency of death (65.6%) with a peak in the age group 20-29 years (39.7%). Gang violence and politically motivated mob action were the most common precipitating factors (60.3% and 20.7% respectively). Firearms (41.4%) was the most common method applied for the killing. Death was more common in the rural areas of Rivers State. Gang clashes, volatile political rallies, illegal drug peddling and illegal oil bunkering should be banned and stringent laws be passed. Such laws should also cover gun handling and should be enforced.

  4. Hyperaccumulation of zinc by Noccaea caerulescens results in a cascade of stress responses and changes in the elemental profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughi, Siavash; Baker, Alan J M; Roessner, Ute; Johnson, Alexander A T; Bacic, Antony; Callahan, Damien L

    2014-09-01

    Noccaea caerulescens (J. & C. Presl) F. K. Meyer is a metal hyperaccumulating plant which can accumulate more than 2% zinc (Zn) dry tissue mass in its aerial tissues. At this concentration Zn is toxic to most plants due to inhibition of enzyme function, oxidative damage and mineral deficiencies. In this study the elemental and metabolite profiles of N. caerulescens plants grown in four different Zn concentrations were measured. This revealed broad changes in the metabolite and elemental profiles with the hyperaccumulation of Zn. The Zn treated plants exhibited no typical signs of stress such as chlorosis or reduced biomass, however, a range of metabolic stress responses, such as the modification of galactolipids and the major membrane lipids of plastids, and increases in oxylipins, which are precursors to the signalling molecules jasmonic and abscisic acids, as well as the increased synthesis of glucosinolates, was observed. Increases in particular organic acids and the ubiquitous metal cation chelator nicotianamine were also observed. The small molecule metabolite changes observed, however, did not account for the extreme Zn concentrations in the leaf tissue showing that the increase in nicotianamine production most likely negates Fe deficiency. The elemental analyses also revealed significant changes in other essential micronutrients, in particular, significantly lower Mn concentrations in the high Zn accumulating plants, yet higher Fe concentrations. This comprehensive elemental and metabolite analysis revealed novel metabolite responses to Zn and offers evidence against organic acids as metal-storage ligands in N. caerulescens.

  5. Understanding Gang Membership and Crime Victimization among Jail Inmates: Testing the Effects of Self-Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Kathleen A.; Lane, Jodi; Akers, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01

    Although previous research has examined factors related to gang membership and offending, research on the relationship between gangs and victimization is limited. The present study builds on previous research and examines gang membership, victimization, and self-control among 2,414 jail inmates. Results from self-report surveys indicate that gang…

  6. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Gang Involvement among Urban African American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Pack, Robert; Harris, Carole; Cottrell, Lesley; Burns, James

    2002-01-01

    Analyzed data about urban African American youth to explore whether differences in exposure to violence, resilience, and distress symptoms between gang members and nonmembers resulted from risk behaviors in which youths participated or from gang membership itself. Results indicated that gang membership itself related to increased risk and…

  7. Understanding Gang Membership and Crime Victimization among Jail Inmates: Testing the Effects of Self-Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Kathleen A.; Lane, Jodi; Akers, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01

    Although previous research has examined factors related to gang membership and offending, research on the relationship between gangs and victimization is limited. The present study builds on previous research and examines gang membership, victimization, and self-control among 2,414 jail inmates. Results from self-report surveys indicate that gang…

  8. Gender and Gang Membership: A Contrast of Rural and Urban Youth on Attitudes and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukes, Richard L.; Stein, Judith A.

    2003-01-01

    Investigated the relationships of gender and gang membership to latent variables of psychosocial characteristics, drug use, delinquency, weapons possession, and fear within rural and urban Colorado school districts. Surveys of 1,669 self-reported gang members and 1,742 non-gang members indicated that gender was related more strongly to the latent…

  9. The Core Ideals of the Mexican American Gang Living the Presentation of Defiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Current approaches to designing antigang policies overemphasize the notion that criminality is the defining characteristic of gangs and that solutions require a get-tough approach. As an ex-gang member, I conducted a five-year ethnographic study and a fourteen-year informal study of Mexican American street gangs in two Southwestern states to…

  10. 75 FR 65437 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Cargo Riding Gang Members (DFARS Case...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Cargo Riding Gang Members (DFARS Case 2007-D002) AGENCY: Defense... 3504 addresses requirements that apply to riding gang members and DoD- exempted individuals who perform.... 109-364). Section 3504 addresses requirements that apply to riding gang members and...

  11. Geographical influences of an emerging network of gang rivalries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegemann, Rachel A.; Smith, Laura M.; Barbaro, Alethea B. T.; Bertozzi, Andrea L.; Reid, Shannon E.; Tita, George E.

    2011-10-01

    We propose an agent-based model to simulate the creation of street gang rivalries. The movement dynamics of agents are coupled to an evolving network of gang rivalries, which is determined by previous interactions among agents in the system. Basic gang data, geographic information, and behavioral dynamics suggested by the criminology literature are integrated into the model. The major highways, rivers, and the locations of gangs’ centers of activity influence the agents’ motion. We use a policing division of the Los Angeles Police Department as a case study to test our model. We apply common metrics from graph theory to analyze our model, comparing networks produced by our simulations and an instance of a Geographical Threshold Graph to the existing network from the criminology literature.

  12. Discours de gangs afro-américains sur Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Goudet, Laura Gabrielle

    2015-01-01

    Cet article est une étude de cinquante-cinq pages de profils de membres autoproclamés de gangs (Bloods et Crips) sur Black Planet (BP), le plus important réseau social afro-américain. Ces profils partagent des caractéristiques communes, comme la représentation de son propre gang (« repping »), et l’insulte du gang rival (« dissing »). L’examen de la projection de leur page dans un écosystème plus important (en- et hors ligne, sur BP et d’autres plateformes) et une analyse sémiotique des éléme...

  13. Who Needs Enemies with Friends like These? The Importance of Place for Young People Living in Known Gang Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralphs, Robert; Medina, Juanjo; Aldridge, Judith

    2009-01-01

    Despite a growing concern about gangs in Britain, academic research that focuses on gangs remains scarce. Drawing on data from the ESRC-funded ethnographic research YOGEC (Youth Gangs in an English City) project, this paper explores the negotiation of space and place by young people living in inner-city areas affected by gangs. Using a combination…

  14. Who Needs Enemies with Friends like These? The Importance of Place for Young People Living in Known Gang Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralphs, Robert; Medina, Juanjo; Aldridge, Judith

    2009-01-01

    Despite a growing concern about gangs in Britain, academic research that focuses on gangs remains scarce. Drawing on data from the ESRC-funded ethnographic research YOGEC (Youth Gangs in an English City) project, this paper explores the negotiation of space and place by young people living in inner-city areas affected by gangs. Using a combination…

  15. Discipline and punish? Youth gangs' response to "zero-tolerance" policies in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Lirio Gutiérrez

    2010-01-01

    The response of youth gangs to "zero tolerance" policing in Honduras are examined with respect to territoriality. Focusing on two main gangs, the Mara Salvatrucha and the 18th Street Gang, the ways in which state authority is challenged are assessed from an analysis of body territoriality, the respatialisation of organisational structures across urban neighbourhoods, and the production of new enclosed spaces of gang territoriality. These redefinitions of group territoriality strengthen the emotional bonds and sense of belonging towards the gang, enabling the emergence of a transnational/imagined community.

  16. A Military Campaign Against Gangs: Internal Security Operations in the United States by Active Duty Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-14

    gangs sprouted as a direct result of the threat from the CRIPs . One of the more well known of these new gangs is the Bloods . Figure 2 - Spread Of The... CRIPs , red for BLOODs , etc. In addition gang members often associate themselves with designer athletic clothing. The gang’s colors are their uniform, much...associated violence and drugs are a real and growing threat to the security of the nation.’ One of the largest street gangs in the country is the CRIPs

  17. An integrated public health and criminal justice approach to gangs: What can research tell us?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Gebo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a call to better link public health and criminal justice approaches to best address crime problems generally, and youth and gang violence in particular. Importantly, there has yet to be a systematic examination of how criminal justice approaches can be integrated within a public health framework. This paper examines the strengths and challenges with mapping gang research and evidence-informed practices onto a public health approach. Conceptual examination reveals benefits to utilizing an integrated framework, but it also exposes core problems with identification and prediction of gang joining and gang membership. The gang label as a master status is called into question. It is argued that a public health framework can inform public policy approaches as to when the focus should be youth violence versus gangs and gang violence.

  18. The role of delinquency, proactive aggression, psychopathy and behavioral school engagement in reported youth gang membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Rebecca P; Huan, Vivien S; Chan, Wei Teng; Cheong, Siew Ann; Leaw, Jia Ning

    2015-06-01

    Given the robust positive association between gangs and crime, a better understanding of factors related to reported youth gang membership is critical and especially since youth in gangs are a universal concern. The present study investigated the role of delinquency, proactive aggression, psychopathy and behavioral school engagement in reported youth gang membership using a large sample of 1027 Singapore adolescents. Results from logistic regression showed that delinquency, proactive aggression, and behavioral school engagement were statistically significant risk factors for reported youth gang membership, and that psychopathy was not related to reported gang membership. Implications for prevention and intervention work with respect to youth gang membership were discussed. In particular, strengthening students' engagement with school and meaningful school-related activities and developing supportive teacher-student relationships are particularly important in working with young people with respect to prevention work. Additionally, the present study's theoretical and empirical contributions were also discussed.

  19. Motivations for Gang Membership in Lagos, Nigeria: Challenge and Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaam, Abeeb Olufemi

    2011-01-01

    The current study explores the major challenges (in the form of risk factors) that may influence unemployed youths' involvement in gang and criminal activity in Lagos, Nigeria. A combination of techniques (e.g., oral, in-depth interviews, and questionnaires) were used for the data collection. The computed outcomes establish some of the major…

  20. Predicting Early Adolescent Gang Involvement from Middle School Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishion, Thomas J.; Nelson, Sarah E.; Yasui, Miwa

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the role of adaptation in the first year of middle school (Grade 6, age 11) to affiliation with gangs by the last year of middle school (Grade 8, age 13). The sample consisted of 714 European American (EA) and African American (AA) boys and girls. Specifically, academic grades, reports of antisocial behavior, and peer relations…

  1. Mission Impossible? Social Work Practice with Black Urban Youth Gangs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jerry R.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the adaptation of social work practice skills to serve black urban youth gangs. Presents a model for practice which respects youths' right to self-determination and community needs. Model stages discussed include contact, rapport, setting goals, assigning roles, procuring resources, and evaluation. Model applicability is suggested. (NRB)

  2. Effect of zinc and glucosinolates on nutritional quality of Noccaea caerulescens and infestation by Aleyrodes proletella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad, Saeed Ahmad; Young, Scott D; West, Helen M

    2015-04-01

    The Zn hyperaccumulating plant, Noccaea caerulescens, was grown under controlled conditions at a range of Zn concentrations (0-1000 mg kg(-1) dwt. soil) to determine the effectiveness of hyperaccumulation in deterring the cabbage whitefly, Aleyrodes proletella, and to establish the relationship between levels of foliar Zn and glucosinolates (organic defence compounds). Two weeks after introducing A. proletella adults to the plants, next generation nymphs were quantified. This sucking insect caused minimal damage to plant tissue and did not affect foliar glucosinolate levels. Foliar Zn concentrations increased with increasing soil Zn application and reached a maximum of ~7000 mg kg(-1). More whitefly nymphs were observed on plants as the foliar Zn concentration increased (up to ~3000 mg kg(-1)) after which numbers declined. Zn was an explanatory variable in accumulated generalised linear regression after the variation in the data due to C/N ratio had been accounted for. Nymph numbers declined with increasing C/N ratio and increased with increasing N concentration. The highest glucosinolate concentrations were in shoots with the lowest Zn concentrations; this is consistent with the 'trade-off' hypothesis which states that elemental defence mechanisms allow for lowered organic defences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Expression of the ZNT1 Zinc Transporter from the Metal Hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens Confers Enhanced Zinc and Cadmium Tolerance and Accumulation to Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ya-Fen; Hassan, Zeshan; Talukdar, Sangita; Schat, Henk; Aarts, Mark G M

    2016-01-01

    Prompt regulation of transition metal transporters is crucial for plant zinc homeostasis. NcZNT1 is one of such transporters, found in the metal hyperaccumulator Brassicaceae species Noccaea caerulescens. It is orthologous to AtZIP4 from Arabidopsis thaliana, an important actor in Zn homeostasis. We examined if the NcZNT1 function contributes to the metal hyperaccumulation of N. caerulescens. NcZNT1 was found to be a plasma-membrane located metal transporter. Constitutive overexpression of NcZNT1 in A. thaliana conferred enhanced tolerance to exposure to excess Zn and Cd supply, as well as increased accumulation of Zn and Cd and induction of the Fe deficiency response, when compared to non-transformed wild-type plants. Promoters of both genes were induced by Zn deficiency in roots and shoots of A. thaliana. In A. thaliana, the AtZIP4 and NcZNT1 promoters were mainly active in cortex, endodermis and pericycle cells under Zn deficient conditions. In N. caerulescens, the promoters were active in the same tissues, though the activity of the NcZNT1 promoter was higher and not limited to Zn deficient conditions. Common cis elements were identified in both promoters by 5' deletion analysis. These correspond to the previously determined Zinc Deficiency Responsive Elements found in A. thaliana to interact with two redundantly acting transcription factors, bZIP19 and bZIP23, controlling the Zn deficiency response. In conclusion, these results suggest that NcZNT1 is an important factor in contributing to Zn and Cd hyperaccumulation in N. caerulescens. Differences in cis- and trans-regulators are likely to account for the differences in expression between A. thaliana and N. caerulescens. The high, constitutive NcZNT1 expression in the stele of N. caerulescens roots implicates its involvement in long distance root-to-shoot metal transport by maintaining a Zn/Cd influx into cells responsible for xylem loading.

  4. BULLYING BEHAVIOUR OF ADOLESCENTS BASED ON GENDER, GANG AND FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadek Ayu Erika

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bullying is a social problem which is part of aggressive violent behaviour done continuously and have negative impact to victims and its subject and happened at school. This study aimed to know the description of knowledge and adolescents behavior about bullying based on their age, gang, and family. Methods: This study used analytic descriptive design with number of sample was 246 adolescents from grade 1, 2, 3 of senior high school which used stratified random sampling. Instruments of this study were knowledge questioner, and modified of The Bullying Prevalence Questionnaire in guttman and likert scale. Data analysis used cross tabulation. Result: Data show that adolescents have a good knowledge (93.9% and less (6.1%. Bullying subjects were 93.9% and victims 94.7%. Forms of verbal bullying indicated the subjects (93.1% and victims (92.3%. Bullying subjects majority occurred in males (94.1% and women become victims (96.3%. Numbers of bullying subjects do not have a gang (94.5%, while those with gang as victims (95.2%. There were five adolescents who live in stepfamilies become subjects and victims of bullying. Conclusion: The majority of adolescents have good knowledge about bullying, bullying form the vast majority were verbal bullying with subjects and victims of bullying who occurs in all classes. The majority of bullying subjects do not have a gang, and as the majority of victims have a gang. Almost all adolescents with different family types become subjects and victims of bullying. Therefore, an intensive educational effort and spiritual needs to be done to change the behavior of adolescents to be adolescents with well character.

  5. "Deterrability" among Gang and Nongang Juvenile Offenders: Are Gang Members More (or Less) Deterrable than Other Juvenile Offenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxson, Cheryl L.; Matsuda, Kristy N.; Hennigan, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of the threat of legal sanctions on intentions to commit three types of offenses with a representative sample of 744 officially adjudicated youth with varying histories of offenses and gang involvement. In a departure from previous research, the authors find small severity effects for property crimes that are not…

  6. Convention Versus Deviance: Moral Agency in Adolescent Gang Members' Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Pacella, Maria; Broaddus, Michelle Renee; Quinn, Katherine; Galletly, Carol; Rivas, Justin

    2017-04-16

    Adolescent gang members are a source of concern due to their involvement in criminal activity, violence, substance use, and high-risk sexual behaviors. Adolescent gang theories hypothesize that social institutions, including the family and school, fail to meet the needs of adolescents who therefore feel less attachment to these institutions and find an unconventional institution (i.e. the gang) to meet these needs through the gang. In this paper, we will examine the extent to which social disorganization and social control theories, in particular the rejection of conventional norms and aspirations, match adolescents' subjective reasons for their decisions and their future aspirations. Between 2012 and 2013, we conducted in-depth interviews with 58 gang members between the ages of 14 to 19. Interviews were coded for key themes using the constant comparison method. Social disorganization and social control theories have both value and limitations in explaining reasons why adolescents join gangs and engage in criminal behaviors. Participants saw many of their aspirations blocked by negative school experiences and limited economic opportunities. Gangs provided a social organization in which to sell drugs. However, gang members did not reject conventional norms and aspirations. Rather, they view themselves as making decisions to survive in the present while recognizing that these strategies will not continue to work in the future. Gang members value education and aspire to obtain legal employment. Thus, interventions to help adolescent gang members with the immediate financial pressures that lead them to sell drugs may be particularly effective.

  7. Histidine promotes the loading of nickel and zinc, but not of cadmium, into the xylem in Noccaea caerulescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhevnikova, Anna D; Seregin, Ilya V; Verweij, Rudo; Schat, Henk

    2014-01-01

    Histidine is known to be involved in Ni hyperaccumulation. Recently, histidine-dependent xylem loading of Ni and Zn has been demonstrated in the Zn/Ni/Cd hyperaccumulator, Noccaea caerulescens. Here we tested the hypothesis whether Cd xylem loading is histidine-dependent, too. In contrast to that of Ni and Zn, the xylem loading of Cd was not affected by exogenous histidine. Histidine accumulation in root cells appears to facilitate the radial transport of Ni and Zn, but not Cd, across the roots. This may be due to the relatively high preference of Cd for coordination with sulfur over coordination with nitrogen, in comparison with Ni and Zn.

  8. Sexual risk, substance use, mental health, and trauma experiences of gang-involved homeless youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petering, Robin

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the associations of sexual risk behaviors, substance use, mental health, and trauma with varying levels of gang involvement in a sample of Los Angeles-based homeless youths. Data were collected from 505 homeless youths who self-reported various health information and whether they have ever identified as or been closely affiliated with a gang member. Multivariable logistic regression assessed associations of lifetime gang involvement with risk taking behaviors and negative health outcomes. Results revealed seventeen percent of youths have ever identified as a gang member and 46% as gang affiliated. Both gang members and affiliates were at greater risk of many negative behaviors than non-gang involved youths. Gang members and affiliates were more likely to report recent methamphetamine use, cocaine use, chronic marijuana use, having sex while intoxicated, and symptoms of depression, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. They were also more likely to have experienced childhood sexual abuse and witnessing family violence. Gang members were more likely to ever attempt suicide, experience recent partner violence, and report physical abuse during childhood. Results suggest that lifetime gang involvement is related to a trajectory of negative outcomes and amplified risk for youths experiencing homelessness. Additionally, being closely connected to a gang member appears to have just as much as an impact on risk as personally identifying as a gang member. Given the lack of knowledge regarding the intersection between youth homelessness and gang involvement, future research is needed to inform policies and programs that can address the specific needs of this population.

  9. Proteomics of Thlaspi caerulescens accessions and an inter-accession cross segregating for zinc accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomainen, Marjo; Tervahauta, Arja; Hassinen, Viivi; Schat, Henk; Koistinen, Kaisa M; Lehesranta, Satu; Rantalainen, Kimmo; Häyrinen, Jukka; Auriola, Seppo; Anttonen, Mikko; Kärenlampi, Sirpa

    2010-02-01

    Metal hyperaccumulator plants have previously been characterized by transcriptomics, but reports on other profiling techniques are scarce. Protein profiles of Thlaspi caerulescens accessions La Calamine (LC) and Lellingen (LE) and lines derived from an LCxLE cross were examined here to determine the co-segregation of protein expression with the level of zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulation. Although hydrophobic proteins such as membrane transporters are not disclosed, this approach has the potential to reveal other proteins important for the Zn hyperaccumulation trait. Plants were exposed to metals. Proteins were separated using two-dimensional electrophoresis and those showing differences among accessions, lines or metal exposures were subjected to mass-spectrometric analysis for identification. Crossing decreased the number of different proteins in the lines compared with the parents, more so in the shoots than in the roots, but the frequencies of Zn-responsive proteins were about the same in the accessions and the selection lines. This supports the finding that the Zn accumulation traits are mainly determined by the root and that Zn accumulation itself is not the reason for the co-segregation. This study demonstrates that crossing accessions with contrasting Zn accumulation traits is a potent tool to investigate the mechanisms behind metal hyperaccumulation. Four tentatively identified root proteins showed co-segregation with high or low Zn accumulation: manganese superoxide dismutase, glutathione S-transferase, S-formyl glutathione hydrolase, and translation elongation factor 5A-2. However, these proteins may not be the direct determinants of Zn accumulation. The role of these and other tentatively identified proteins in Zn accumulation and tolerance is discussed.

  10. Views on sex and sex education among gang-involved Latino youth in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassab, Veronica A; Acevedo-Polakovich, Ignacio D; Grzybowski, Megan M; Stout, Stacy; Richards, Allyn E; Barnett, Miya L; Guerra-Morales, Aileen; Bell, Katrina M; Crider, Elizabeth A; Beck, Kara L; Brookins-Fisher, Jodi; Alfaro, Mario; Saxena, Suchita R

    2014-05-01

    Although gang-involved Latino youth in the United States are uniquely at risk of adverse consequences from sexual behavior, little research is available that can guide those who wish to develop interventions to reduce sexual risk among these youth. To facilitate the development of effective interventions, we identified cultural and contextual factors that influence sexual behavior and sex education among gang-involved Latino youth in one U.S. community. By analyzing transcripts from interviews and focus groups with three different groups of key stakeholders--gang-experienced Latino youth, the parents of gang-experienced Latino youth, and the personnel of a program providing comprehensive human services for gang-involved Latino youth--we identified three domains to be considered in developing sexual risk-reduction interventions for gang-involved U.S. Latino youth. The focus of our discussion is on the implications of these findings for future development or adaptation of interventions.

  11. Gangs in El Salvador’s Public Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Rigoberto López Ramírez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This descriptive study focuses on the presence of criminal gangs (MS-13 and B-18 in El Salvador’s public schools while addressing it from four different perspectives: the reasons behind the penetration of gangs in schools, commission of criminal acts, the creationof social problems and finally control exercised within these schools. A series of experiences were collected from individuals involved, as well as official statistics and police reports. Finally, a general overview of the problem and its consequences for public security was concluded, which in turn ensued in a series of recommendations to treat the phenomenon as a security issue.Revista Policía y Seguridad Pública 5(1 2015: 247-298

  12. Central American Street Gangs: Their Role in Communities and Prisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Wolf

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available – Territories of Violence: State, Marginal Youth, and Public Security in Honduras, by Lirio Gutiérrez Rivera. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.– Adiós Niño: The Gangs of Guatemala City and the Politics of Death, by Deborah T. Levenson. Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2013.– The Rule of Law in Central America: Citizens’ Reactions to Crime and Punishment, by Mary Fran T. Malone. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2012.– Ver, oír, callar. En las profundidades de una pandilla salvadoreña, by Juan José Martínez D’Aubuisson. San Salvador: AURA Ediciones, 2013.– Gangsters Without Borders: An Ethnography of a Salvadoran Street Gang, by T. W. Ward. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.

  13. Expression differences for genes involved in lignin, glutathione and sulphate metabolism in response to cadmium in Arabidopsis thaliana and the related Zn/Cd-hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mortel, van de J.E.; Schat, H.; Moerland, P.D.; Loren van Themaat, Ver E.; Ent, van der S.; Blankestijn-de Vries, M.H.C.; Ghandilyan, A.; Tsiatsiani, S.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread, naturally occurring element present in soil, rock, water, plants and animals. Cd is a non-essential element for plants and is toxic at higher concentrations. Transcript profiles of roots of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) and Thlaspi caerulescens plants exposed to Cd

  14. Influence of the zinc hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens J. & C. Presl. and the nonmetal accumulator Trifolium pratense L. on soil microbial populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorme, T A; Gagliardi, J V; Angle, J S; Chaney, R L

    2001-08-01

    Metal hyperaccumulator plants like Thlaspi caerulescens J. & C. Presl. are used for phytoremediation of contaminated soils. Since little is known about the rhizosphere of hyperaccumulators, the influence of T. caerulescens was compared with the effects of Trifolium pratense L. on soil microbes. High- and low-metal soils were collected near a zinc smelter in Palmerton, Penn. Soil pH was adjusted to 5.8 and 6.8 by the addition of Ca(OH)2. Liming increased bacterial populations and decreased metal toxicity to levels allowing growth of both plants. The effects of the plants on total (culturable) bacteria, total fungi, as well as cadmium- and zinc-resistant populations were assessed in nonrhizosphere and rhizosphere soil. Both plants increased microbial populations in rhizosphere soil compared with nonrhizosphere soil. Microbial populations were higher in soils planted with T. pratense, but higher ratios of metal-resistant bacteria were found in the presence of T. caerulescens. We hypothesize that T. caerutescens acidifies its rhizosphere. Soil acidification in the rhizosphere of T. caerulescens would affect metal uptake by increasing available metals around the roots and consequently, increase the selection for metal-resistant bacteria. Soil acidification may be part of the hyperaccumulation process enhancing metal uptake from soil.

  15. Expression of the Znt1 zinc transporter from the metal hyperaccumulator noccaea caerulescens confers enhanced zinc and cadmium tolerance and accumulation to arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Ya Fen; Hassan, Zeshan; Talukdar, S.; Schat, Henk; Aarts, Mark G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Prompt regulation of transition metal transporters is crucial for plant zinc homeostasis. NcZNT1 is one of such transporters, found in the metal hyperaccumulator Brassicaceae species Noccaea caerulescens. It is orthologous to AtZIP4 from Arabidopsis thaliana, an important actor in Zn homeostasis.

  16. Tidens gang i tidens løb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    her se på tiden i tværfaglig og idéhistorisk belysning. Tidens gang i tidens løb er en cd-rom med masser af billeder, tekst, musik og video, der beskriver tidsbegrebet fra oldtiden og til nu. Der gøres rede for filosofier om og opfattelse af tidsdimensionen. Alt om ure lige fra solure til digitalure...

  17. Leaving Gangs Behind to Live Parables of Kinship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Mary Ann

    2016-07-01

    Fr. Gregory Boyle, SJ, founder and executive director of Homeboy Industries in Los Angeles, can move an audience to tears. He doesn't get that result with the distressing accounts of individuals whose gang activities sank them to harrowing depths. He does it with simple descriptions of how some of those men and women manage to climb rungs of unconditional love to return to their rightful place in the eyes of God.

  18. Construction of a genetic linkage map of Thlaspi caerulescens and quantitative trait loci analysis of zinc accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Ana G L; Pieper, Bjorn; Vromans, Jaap; Lindhout, Pim; Aarts, Mark G M; Schat, Henk

    2006-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulation seems to be a constitutive species-level trait in Thlaspi caerulescens. When compared under conditions of equal Zn availability, considerable variation in the degree of hyperaccumulation is observed among accessions originating from different soil types. This variation offers an excellent opportunity for further dissection of the genetics of this trait. A T. caerulescens intraspecific cross was made between a plant from a nonmetallicolous accession [Lellingen (LE)], characterized by relatively high Zn accumulation, and a plant from a calamine accession [La Calamine (LC)], characterized by relatively low Zn accumulation. Zinc accumulation in roots and shoots segregated in the F3 population. This population was used to construct an LE/LC amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP)-based genetic linkage map and to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for Zn accumulation. Two QTL were identified for root Zn accumulation, with the trait-enhancing alleles being derived from each of the parents, and explaining 21.7 and 16.6% of the phenotypic variation observed in the mapping population. Future development of more markers, based on Arabidopsis orthologous genes localized in the QTL regions, will allow fine-mapping and map-based cloning of the genes underlying the QTL.

  19. Response of antioxidative enzymes and apoplastic bypass transport in Thlaspi caerulescens and Raphanus sativus to cadmium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzarti, Saoussen; Hamdi, Helmi; Mohri, Shino; Ono, Yoshiro

    2010-01-01

    A hydroponics experiment using hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (alpine pennycress) and non-specific accumulator Raphanus sativus (common radish) was conducted to investigate the short-term effect of increasing Cd concentrations (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 microM) on metal uptake, chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzymes, and apoplastic bypass flow. As expected, T. caerulescens generally showed better resistance to metal stress, which was reflected by higher Cd accumulation within plant tissues with no signs of chlorosis, or wilt. Glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in fresh leaves were monitored as the plant metal-detoxifying response. In general, both plant species exhibited an increase trend of GR activity before declining at 100 microM likely due to excessive levels of phytotoxic Cd. SOD activity exhibited almost a similar variation pattern to GR and decreased also at 100 microM Cd. For both plant species, fluorescent PTS uptake (8-hydroxy-1,3,6-pyrenetrisulphonic acid) increased significantly with metal level in exposure solutions indicating that Cd has a comparable effect to drought or salinity in terms of the gain of relative importance in apoplastic bypass transport under such stress conditions.

  20. Hyperaccumulation of metals by Thlaspi caerulescens as affected by root development and Cd-Zn/Ca-Mg interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saison, Carine; Schwartz, Christophe; Morel, Jean-Louis

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study, in a rhizobox experiment, the phytoextraction of metals by the hyperaccumulator plant Thlaspi caerulescens in relation to the heterogeneity of metal pollution. Six treatments were designed with soils containing various levels of metals. Homogeneous soils and inclusions of soils in other soil matrices were prepared in order to vary metal concentration and localization. Growth parameters of the plant (rosette diameter and shoot biomass) and localization of roots and shoot uptake of Zn, Cd, Ca, and Mg were determined after 10 weeks of growth. The plants grown on the polluted industrial soils provided a larger biomass and had lower mortality rates than those grown on the agricultural soil. Moreover, these plants accumulated more Zn and Cd (up to 17,516 and 375 mg kg(-1) DM, respectively) than plants grown on the agricultural soil (up to 7300 mg Zn kg(-1) and 83 mg Cd kg(-1) DM). The roots preferentially explored metal-contaminated areas. The exploration of polluted soil inclusions by the roots was associated with a higher extraction of metals. Zinc and Cd in the shoots of Thlaspi caerulescens were negatively correlated with Ca and Mg concentrations; however, the soil supply for these two elements was identical. This suggests that there is competition for the uptake of these elements and that Zn is preferentially accumulated.

  1. Highlights of the 2012 National Youth Gang Survey. Juvenile Justice Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egley, Arlen, Jr.; Howell, James C.; Harris, Meena

    2014-01-01

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the nation's gang problem and summarizes findings from the 2012 survey. Of the 2,538 survey recipients, 2,199 (87 percent) responded to the survey. In 2012, there were an estimated 30,700 gangs (an increase from 29,900 in 2011) and 850,000 gang members (an increase from 782,500 in 2011) throughout 3,100…

  2. Gang membership and marijuana use among African American female adolescents in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsberg, Wendee M; Doherty, Irene A; Browne, Felicia A; Kline, Tracy L; Carry, Monique G; Raiford, Jerris L; Herbst, Jeffrey H

    2015-01-01

    The southeastern US sustains the highest high school dropout rates, and gangs persist in underserved communities. African American female adolescents who drop out of school and are gang members are at substantial risk of exposure to severe violence, physical abuse, and sexual exploitation. In this study of 237 female African American adolescents 16-19 years of age from North Carolina who dropped out or considered dropping out, 11% were current or past gang members. Adolescents who reported gang membership began smoking marijuana at a mean age of 13, whereas those who reported no gang membership began at a mean age of 15 years (Pgang members and non-gang members, respectively (P=0.04). Problem alcohol use was high in both groups: 40% and 65% for non-gang and gang members, respectively (P=0.02). Controlling for frequent marijuana use and problem alcohol use, adolescents who reported gang membership were more likely than non-gang members to experience sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR] =2.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.06, 6.40]), experience physical abuse (OR =7.33, 95% CI [2.90, 18.5]), report emotional abuse from their main partner (OR =3.55, 95% CI [1.44, 8.72]), run away from home (OR =4.65, 95% CI [1.90, 11.4]), get arrested (OR =2.61, 95% CI [1.05, 6.47]), and report violence in their neighborhood including murder (OR =3.27, 95% CI [1.35, 7.96]) and fights with weapons (OR =3.06, 95% CI [1.15, 8.11]). Gang members were less likely to receive emotional support (OR =0.89, 95% CI [0.81, 0.97]). These findings reinforce the urgent need to reach young African American women in disadvantaged communities affiliated with gangs to address the complexity of context and interconnected risk behaviors.

  3. Deportation of Gang Members: Sub-Optimal Solution for Both America and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    America and Mexico Gang Assessment, Annex 4: Southern and Northern Borders of Mexico Profile, p.1 11 all. Visible gang tattoos also deter...other for market share, control over various access lanes into the U.S., and freedom of action within their claimed territory. The cartels employ...Consequently, gangs view Mexico as a low risk location, and some gangsters migrate there to enjoy greater freedom of action. Currently

  4. Identifying risks for male street gang affiliation: a systematic review and narrative synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Raby, Carlotta; Jones, F.W.

    2016-01-01

    Gang violence has increased in recent years. Individuals are becoming gang affiliated younger, and many have suffered historic maltreatment. Subsequent exposure to violence can result in profound consequences, including acute psychological harm. This review aims to identify predictive risk factors for male street gang affiliation. A systematic literature search was conducted utilising PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, Medline, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Database of...

  5. Mangrove wetland ecosystems in Ganges-Brahmaputra delta in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shafi Noor ISLAM; Albrecht GNAUCK

    2008-01-01

    The Sundarbans is one of the productive man-grove wetland ecosystems in the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta in Bangladesh. The delta is undergoing rapid eco-logical changes due to human activity. In the present study, surface water salinity data from 13 rivers of the Sundarbans were collected in order to investigate the sal-ine water intrusion in the mangrove wetlands. Results demonstrate that saline water has penetrated the upstream area as river water salinity has increased signifi-cantly in 1976 compared to the year 1968. The soil and river water salinity data also shows that it has crossed the water salinity threshold line in most parts of the Sundarbans wetlands. These observations are due to the construction of Farakka Barrage in 1975, which reduced the water discharge of the Ganges River from 3700 m3/s in 1962 to 364 m3/s in 2006. The shortage of freshwater dis-charge to the deltaic area is trailing active ecosystems function, especially in the dry season in the south western region in Bangladesh. The objective of this study is to understand and analyze the present degraded mangrove wetland ecosystems and their negative impacts. The find-ings of this study would contribute to the formulation of the mangrove wetland ecosystems management plan inthe Ganges delta of Bangladesh.

  6. Monoamine oxidase A genotype is associated with gang membership and weapon use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Kevin M; DeLisi, Matt; Vaughn, Michael G; Barnes, J C

    2010-01-01

    A functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene has been found to be associated with a broad range of antisocial phenotypes, including physical violence. At the same time, it is well known that gang members represent some of the most serious violent offenders. Even so, no research has ever examined the association between MAOA and gang membership. The aim of this study is to examine the association between MAOA and gang membership and between MAOA and weapon use. We examined the effects of MAOA by using a molecular genetic association research design. A nonclinical sample was used in this study. Participants were drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1155 females, 1041 males). The outcome measures of this study are gang membership and weapon use. The low MAOA activity alleles conferred an increased risk of joining a gang and using a weapon in a fight for males but not for females. Moreover, among male gang members, those who used weapons in a fight were more likely to have a low MAOA activity allele when compared with male gang members who do not use weapons in a fight. Male carriers of low MAOA activity alleles are at risk for becoming a gang member and, once a gang member, are at risk for using weapons in a fight. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Arbovírus Ilheus em aves silvestres (Sporophila caerulescens e Molothrus bonariensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Luiz Eloy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar o isolamento do vírus Ilheus no Estado de São Paulo e avaliar o seu impacto para a saúde pública. MÉTODOS: O isolamento de vírus foi realizado em camundongos albinos Swiss, a partir de sangue de aves silvestres, capturadas com redes de espera tipo mist net, armadas no nível do solo, no Parque Ecológico do Tietê, São Paulo. A identificação das cepas isoladas foi feita pelos testes de inibição da hemaglutinação, fixação de complemento e neutralização em camundongos. Amostras de plasma de aves e de mamíferos silvestres foram submetidas à pesquisa sorológica para detecção de anticorpos inibidores de hemaglutinação. RESULTADOS: Foram isoladas duas cepas do vírus Ilheus em sangue de aves das espécies Sporophila caerulescens e Molothrus bonariensis e detectados anticorpos em aves das espécies Columbina talpacoti, Geopelia cuneata, Molothrus bonariensis e Sicalis flaveola, em sagüis das espécies Callithrix jacchus e Callithrix penicillata e no quati Nasua nasua. CONCLUSÕES: O isolamento do vírus Ilheus e a detecção de anticorpos específicos em aves residentes, migratórias e de cativeiro, em sagüis e quatis, comprovam a presença desse agente no Parque Ecológico do Tietê. O comportamento migratório de aves silvestres pode determinar a introdução do vírus em outras regiões. Considerando-se a patogenicidade para o homem e a confirmação da circulação desse agente viral em área urbana, freqüentada para atividade de lazer e de educação, o risco de ocorrência de infecção na população humana não pode ser descartado.

  8. Substance Abuse among Juvenile Delinquents and Gang Members. Prevention Research Update Number Six, Spring 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, John A.; Austin, Gregory A.

    There is a strong statistical correlation between delinquency activity level and the level of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use in adolescents. A strong association between drug use, drug trafficking, and youth gangs has also emerged. However, several important questions concerning the relationship of delinquency, gang membership, and AOD use…

  9. Gangkill: An Exploratory Empirical Assessment of Gang Membership, Homicide Offending, and Prison Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Alan J.; DeLisi, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Extant research indicates that inmates with street gang history are prone for prison misconduct but that inmates convicted of homicide offenses are less likely to be noncompliant. No research has explored the interaction between street gang history and homicide offending. Based on official infraction data from 1,005 inmates selected from the…

  10. Gangs, clubs, and alcohol: The effect of organizational membership on adolescent drinking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Chan S; Brashears, Matthew E; Genkin, Michael

    2016-07-01

    How does adolescent organizational membership in general, and simultaneous membership in distinct types of organizations in particular, impact drinking behavior? While past studies have focused either on the learning effect of involvement with gangs or on the constraining influence of conventional organizations on adolescent problem behavior, we explore the possibility that conventional school clubs can serve as socializing opportunities for existing gang members to engage in drinking behavior with non-gang club members. Using the Add Health data, we show that gang members drink more often, and engage in more binge drinking, than non-members. More importantly, individuals who are members of both gangs and school clubs drink alcohol at greater levels than those who are solely involved in gangs. In addition, non-gang adolescents who are co-members with gang members in the same school club are more likely to drink alcohol than non-members. This result has important implications for understanding the role of organizations in adolescent behavior and suggests that the study of delinquent behaviors would benefit from devoting more attention to individuals who bridge distinct types of organizations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Gang's All Here: Grammar Goes Global for Purdue, Unisa and Adelaide University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Andrea; Spangenberg, Brady; Carter, Susanna; Miller, Julia

    2010-01-01

    The University of South Australia and Purdue University (Indiana) launched the "Grammar Gang Blog" in June 2008, as a collaborative forum for talking about language. The blog reaches a far-flung community of learners from Australia to the United States, Brisbane to Bangalore and Ghana to Germany. The Grammar Gang--where Owls meet Possums--started…

  12. Canadian Female Gang Inmates: Risk, Needs, and the Potential for Prison Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Terri-Lynne; Ruddell, Rick

    2011-01-01

    A comparison of the characteristics of 337 Canadian adult female gang offenders with a matched sample of women offenders showed that they were more likely to have been sentenced for violent offenses, had a greater number of prior youth and criminal convictions, and served prior terms of incarceration. Gang members were also assessed as having…

  13. Affiliation to Youth Gangs during Adolescence: The Interaction between Childhood Psychopathic Tendencies and Neighborhood Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupere, Veronique; Lacourse, Eric; Willms, J. Douglas; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    Because youth gangs tend to cluster in disadvantaged neighborhoods, adolescents living in such neighborhoods are more likely to encounter opportunities to join youth gangs. However, in the face of these opportunities, not all adolescents respond in the same manner. Those with preexisting psychopathic tendencies might be especially likely to join.…

  14. Adolescent gang involvement: The role of individual, family, peer, and school factors in a multilevel perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, Michela; Sharkey, Jill; Vieno, Alessio; Mayworm, Ashley; Dougherty, Danielle; Nylund-Gibson, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Youth gang involvement is a serious public health challenge as adolescents involved in gangs are more likely than others to engage in violence and aggression. To better understand gang involvement, we examined the role of protective (empathy and parental support) and risk (peer deviance and lack of safety at school) factors, as well as their interactions, in predicting adolescent gang affiliation. The study involved a sample of 26,232 students (53.4% females; mean age = 14.62, SD = 1.69) participating in the California Healthy Kids Survey (CHKS), a survey investigating a wide range of youth health and risk behaviors administered in all California schools every 2 years. Using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM), findings indicated that high levels of empathy and parental support were associated with a lower likelihood of affiliating with a gang. Associating with deviant peers and perceiving the school as unsafe were positively correlated with gang membership. At the school level, lack of safety and type of school (special education, vocational, or alternative school vs. comprehensive schools) were associated with greater probability of gang membership. Empathy mitigated the association between deviant peers and gang membership.

  15. Brief Report: Do Delinquency and Community Violence Exposure Explain Internalizing Problems in Early Adolescent Gang Members?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent gang members are at higher risk for internalizing problems as well as exposure to community violence and delinquency. This study examined whether gang membership in early adolescence is associated with internalizing problems (depression, anxiety, and suicidal behavior) and whether these associations are mediated by delinquency and…

  16. Acculturative Stress and Gang Involvement among Latinos: U.S.-Born versus Immigrant Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Alice N.; Kuperminc, Gabriel P.; Lewis, Kelly M.

    2013-01-01

    Gang involvement is an increasing issue among Latino youth, yet nuanced research on its potential causes is scarce. Quantitative and qualitative data were used to explore links between acculturative stress and gang involvement among immigrant and U.S.-born Latino middle school students (N = 199). Regression analyses showed that U.S.-born youths…

  17. Gang Membership and Subsequent Engagement into a Drug Free Therapeutic Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widlitz, Michelle; Dermatis, Helen; Galanter, Marc; Bunt, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationship of history of gang involvement to engagement in Therapeutic Community (TC) treatment. Residents (N = 222) at two Daytop facilities completed a survey assessing sociodemographic characteristics, prior gang involvement and multiple aspects of TC functioning. Residents with prior gang…

  18. Cognitive and Social Influences on Gang Involvement among Delinquents in Three Chinese Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, Ngan-pun; Cheung, Chau-kiu; Ngai, Steven Sek-Yum

    2007-01-01

    Inasmuch as research has held the increase in youth gang activities responsible for the escalating level of crime and delinquency in Chinese societies, ascertaining risk or protective factors of gang involvement among Chinese youths is crucial. The factors include those associated with social control, social learning, and cognitive development. To…

  19. Alcohol and Drug Use among Gang Members: Experiences of Adolescents Who Attend School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swahn, Monica H.; Bossarte, Robert M.; West, Bethany; Topalli, Volkan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Problems related to gangs have been noted in large cities and in many schools across the United States. This study examined the patterns of alcohol, drug use, and related exposures among male and female high school students who were gang members. Methods: Analyses were based on the Youth Violence Survey, conducted in 2004, and…

  20. Life-Course Events, Social Networks, and the Emergence of Violence among Female Gang Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisher, Mark S.; Krienert, Jessie L.

    2004-01-01

    Using data gathered from a multi-year field study, this article identifies specific life-course events shared by gang-affiliated women. Gangs emerge as a cultural adaptation or pro-social community response to poverty and racial isolation. Through the use of a social-network approach, data show that violence dramatically increases in the period…

  1. Intervening in Children's Involvement in Gangs: Views of Cape Town's Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Catherine L.; Bakhuis, Karlijn

    2010-01-01

    Gangs have a long history in Cape Town and children tend to begin involvement around age 12. Children's views on causes of children's involvement in gangs and appropriate interventions, were sought for inclusion in policy recommendations. Thirty focus group discussions were held with in- and out-of-school youth in different communities.…

  2. Always Running. La Vida Loca: Gang Days in L.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Luis J.

    This autobiographical narrative describes the early life of Luis J. Rodriguez, a journalist and poet who was immersed in the youth gang culture of Los Angeles (California). Framed by the story of the pull of the gang life for the poet's son, it recounts his experiences from his childhood on the United States-Mexico border through his family's…

  3. Always Running. La Vida Loca: Gang Days in L.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Luis J.

    This autobiographical narrative describes the early life of Luis J. Rodriguez, a journalist and poet who was immersed in the youth gang culture of Los Angeles (California). Framed by the story of the pull of the gang life for the poet's son, it recounts his experiences from his childhood on the United States-Mexico border through his family's…

  4. Individual and Familial Characteristics of Youths Involved in Street Corner Gangs in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, C.; Sim, K.; Teoh, J.; Tian, C. S.; Ng, K. H.

    2003-01-01

    Study compares 36 youths involved in street corner gangs in Singapore with 91 age-matched controls on measures of self-esteem, aggression, dysfunctional parenting and parent-adolescent communication. Results revealed that gang youths had lower self-esteem and higher levels of aggression than controls. Findings diverge from anticipated familial…

  5. Individual and Familial Characteristics of Youths Involved in Street Corner Gangs in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, C.; Sim, K.; Teoh, J.; Tian, C. S.; Ng, K. H.

    2003-01-01

    Study compares 36 youths involved in street corner gangs in Singapore with 91 age-matched controls on measures of self-esteem, aggression, dysfunctional parenting and parent-adolescent communication. Results revealed that gang youths had lower self-esteem and higher levels of aggression than controls. Findings diverge from anticipated familial…

  6. Literacy and Advocacy in Adolescent Family, Gang, School, and Juvenile Court Communities: "Crip 4 Life"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Debra; Whitmore, Kathryn F.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this book is to encourage educators and researchers to understand the complexities of adolescent gang members' lives in order to rethink their assumptions about these students in school. The particular objective is to situate four gang members as literate, caring students from loving families whose identities and literacy keep them on…

  7. Understanding the Black Box of Gang Organization: Implications for Involvement in Violent Crime, Drug Sales, and Violent Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Scott H.; Katz, Charles M.; Webb, Vincent J.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the influence of gang organization on several behavioral measures. Using interview data from juvenile detention facilities in three Arizona sites, this article examines the relationship between gang organizational structure and involvement in violent crime, drug sales, victimization, and arrest. The gang literature suggests…

  8. A Critical Analysis of the Effectiveness of Administrative Rules for Gang-Related Activities in Middle and High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiprany, David Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse reported that 35 percent of middle school students and 45 percent of high school students say that there are students who are affiliated with gangs or who consider themselves to be affiliated with gangs in their schools (Arciaga, Sakamoto, & Jones, 2010). Gangs are increasingly violent and…

  9. Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment: Science and Operations Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotamarthi, VR

    2010-06-21

    The Ganges Valley region is one of the largest and most rapidly developing sections of the Indian subcontinent. The Ganges River, which provides the region with water needed for sustaining life, is fed primarily by snow and rainfall associated with Indian summer monsoons. Impacts of changes in precipitation patterns, temperature, and the flow of the snow-fed rivers can be immense. Recent satellite-based measurements have indicated that the upper Ganges Valley has some of the highest persistently observed aerosol optical depth values. The aerosol layer covers a vast region, extending across the Indo-Gangetic Plain to the Bay of Bengal during the winter and early spring of each year. The persistent winter fog in the region is already a cause of much concern, and several studies have been proposed to understand the economic, scientific, and societal dimensions of this problem. During the INDian Ocean EXperiment (INDOEX) field studies, aerosols from this region were shown to affect cloud formation and monsoon activity over the Indian Ocean. This is one of the few regions showing a trend toward increasing surface dimming and enhanced mid-tropospheric warming. Increasing air pollution over this region could modify the radiative balance through direct, indirect, and semi-indirect effects associated with aerosols. The consequences of aerosols and associated pollution for surface insolation over the Ganges Valley and monsoons, in particular, are not well understood. The proposed field study is designed for use of (1) the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to measure relevant radiative, cloud, convection, and aerosol optical characteristics over mainland India during an extended period of 9–12 months and (2) the G-1 aircraft and surface sites to measure relevant aerosol chemical, physical, and optical characteristics in the Ganges Valley during a period of 6–12 weeks. The aerosols in this region have complex sources, including burning of coal, biomass, and biofuels; automobile

  10. Reviving the "Ganges Water Machine": where and how much?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Muthuwatta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Surface runoff generated in the monsoon months in the upstream parts of the Ganges River Basin contributes substantially to downstream floods, while water shortages in the dry months affect agricultural production in the basin. This paper examines the parts (sub-basins of the Ganges that have the potential for augmenting subsurface storage (SSS, increase the availability of water for agriculture and other uses, and mitigate the floods in the downstream areas. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT is used to estimate sub-basin-wise water availability. The water availability estimated is then compared with the sub-basin-wise un-met water demand for agriculture. Hydrological analyses revealed that five sub-basins produced more than 10 billion cubic meters (B m3 of annual surface runoff consistently during the simulation period. In these sub-basins, less than 50 % of the annual surface runoff is sufficient to irrigate all irrigable land in both the \\textit{Rabi} (November to March and summer (April to May seasons. Further, for most of the sub-basins, there is sufficient water to meet the un-met water demand, provided that it is possible to capture the surface runoff during the wet season. It is estimated that the average flow to Bihar State from the upstream of the Ganges, a downstream basin location, is 277 ± 121 B m3, which is more than double the rainfall in the state alone. Strong relationships between outflows from the upstream sub-basins and the inflows to Bihar State suggested that flood inundation in the state could be reduced by capturing a portion of the upstream flows during the peak runoff periods.

  11. Expression of the ZNT1 Zinc Transporter from the Metal Hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens Confers Enhanced Zinc and Cadmium Tolerance and Accumulation to Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Fen Lin

    Full Text Available Prompt regulation of transition metal transporters is crucial for plant zinc homeostasis. NcZNT1 is one of such transporters, found in the metal hyperaccumulator Brassicaceae species Noccaea caerulescens. It is orthologous to AtZIP4 from Arabidopsis thaliana, an important actor in Zn homeostasis. We examined if the NcZNT1 function contributes to the metal hyperaccumulation of N. caerulescens. NcZNT1 was found to be a plasma-membrane located metal transporter. Constitutive overexpression of NcZNT1 in A. thaliana conferred enhanced tolerance to exposure to excess Zn and Cd supply, as well as increased accumulation of Zn and Cd and induction of the Fe deficiency response, when compared to non-transformed wild-type plants. Promoters of both genes were induced by Zn deficiency in roots and shoots of A. thaliana. In A. thaliana, the AtZIP4 and NcZNT1 promoters were mainly active in cortex, endodermis and pericycle cells under Zn deficient conditions. In N. caerulescens, the promoters were active in the same tissues, though the activity of the NcZNT1 promoter was higher and not limited to Zn deficient conditions. Common cis elements were identified in both promoters by 5' deletion analysis. These correspond to the previously determined Zinc Deficiency Responsive Elements found in A. thaliana to interact with two redundantly acting transcription factors, bZIP19 and bZIP23, controlling the Zn deficiency response. In conclusion, these results suggest that NcZNT1 is an important factor in contributing to Zn and Cd hyperaccumulation in N. caerulescens. Differences in cis- and trans-regulators are likely to account for the differences in expression between A. thaliana and N. caerulescens. The high, constitutive NcZNT1 expression in the stele of N. caerulescens roots implicates its involvement in long distance root-to-shoot metal transport by maintaining a Zn/Cd influx into cells responsible for xylem loading.

  12. Expression of the ZNT1 Zinc Transporter from the Metal Hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens Confers Enhanced Zinc and Cadmium Tolerance and Accumulation to Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schat, Henk; Aarts, Mark G. M.

    2016-01-01

    Prompt regulation of transition metal transporters is crucial for plant zinc homeostasis. NcZNT1 is one of such transporters, found in the metal hyperaccumulator Brassicaceae species Noccaea caerulescens. It is orthologous to AtZIP4 from Arabidopsis thaliana, an important actor in Zn homeostasis. We examined if the NcZNT1 function contributes to the metal hyperaccumulation of N. caerulescens. NcZNT1 was found to be a plasma-membrane located metal transporter. Constitutive overexpression of NcZNT1 in A. thaliana conferred enhanced tolerance to exposure to excess Zn and Cd supply, as well as increased accumulation of Zn and Cd and induction of the Fe deficiency response, when compared to non-transformed wild-type plants. Promoters of both genes were induced by Zn deficiency in roots and shoots of A. thaliana. In A. thaliana, the AtZIP4 and NcZNT1 promoters were mainly active in cortex, endodermis and pericycle cells under Zn deficient conditions. In N. caerulescens, the promoters were active in the same tissues, though the activity of the NcZNT1 promoter was higher and not limited to Zn deficient conditions. Common cis elements were identified in both promoters by 5’ deletion analysis. These correspond to the previously determined Zinc Deficiency Responsive Elements found in A. thaliana to interact with two redundantly acting transcription factors, bZIP19 and bZIP23, controlling the Zn deficiency response. In conclusion, these results suggest that NcZNT1 is an important factor in contributing to Zn and Cd hyperaccumulation in N. caerulescens. Differences in cis- and trans-regulators are likely to account for the differences in expression between A. thaliana and N. caerulescens. The high, constitutive NcZNT1 expression in the stele of N. caerulescens roots implicates its involvement in long distance root-to-shoot metal transport by maintaining a Zn/Cd influx into cells responsible for xylem loading. PMID:26930473

  13. The effects of exposure to gang violence on adolescent boys' mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sarah; Anderson, Debra; Hall, Lynne; Peden, Ann; Cerel, Julie

    2012-02-01

    Gang violence is a growing public health concern in the United States, and adolescents are influenced by exposure to gang violence. This study explored the influence of exposure to gang violence on adolescent boys' mental health using a multi-method design. A semi-structured interview guide and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children were used to collect data from adolescents. Parents, primary caregivers, and community center employees completed the Child Behavior Checklist or Teacher Report Form. Ten adolescent boys, their parents or primary caregivers, and six community center employees participated in the study. Exposure to gang violence was common among these adolescents and they had a variety of reactions. Parents, primary caregivers, and community center employees had differing perceptions of adolescents' exposure to violence and their mental health. Adolescent boys' exposure to gang violence in the community is alarming. These adolescents encountered situations with violence that influenced their mental health.

  14. Serious Delinquency and Gang Participation: Combining and Specializing in Drug Selling, Theft and Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Rachel A; Rowe, Hillary L; Pardini, Dustin; Loeber, Rolf; White, Helene Raskin; Farrington, David P

    2014-06-01

    Using Pittsburgh Youth Study data, we examined the extent to which over 600 gang members and non-gang involved young men specialized in drug selling, serious theft, or serious violence or engaged simultaneously in these serious delinquent behaviors, throughout the 1990s. We found that the increase in delinquency associated with gang membership was concentrated in two combinations: serious violence and drug selling; serious violence, drug selling, and serious theft. Several covariates were similarly associated with multi-type serious delinquency and gang membership (age, historical time, Black race, and residential mobility), suggesting that these behaviors may share common developmental, familial, and contextual risks. We encourage future research to further examine the association of gang membership with engagement in particular configurations of serious delinquency.

  15. Associations between Gun Violence Exposure, Gang Associations, and Youth Aggression: Implications for Prevention and Intervention Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Forster

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using cross-sectional data collected from three middle schools in Southeast Los Angeles, we assessed the association of neighborhood violence exposure, gang associations, and social self-control with past week aggression in a sample of minority youth (n=164. Results from Poisson and logistic regression models showed that direct exposure to gun violence, having friends in gangs, and low social self control were all positively associated with past week aggression. Among girls, having gang affiliated family members was positively associated with aggression, whereas among boys having friends in gangs was associated with past week aggression. Subjective expectations of engagement in future interpersonal violence were associated with being male, having friends in gangs, and fear of neighborhood gun violence. We recommend that youth violence prevention and intervention programs address the impact of family, peers, and gun violence on student coping and identify students with low social self-control who could benefit from social and emotional skills training.

  16. Roy Greenslade, Press Gang - How Newspapers Make Profits From Propaganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Millat

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Avec son titre Press Gang en rouge sur fond noir, la volumineuse étude de Roy Greenslade, au sous-titre accrocheur How Newspapers Make Profits From Propaganda, se présente davantage sous les dehors d’un roman policier que d’un ouvrage savant. Au terme d’une longue carrière de journaliste, l’auteur, ancien rédacteur en chef du Daily Mirror et qui a collaboré à neuf journaux nationaux, est devenu Professor of Journalism à la City University de Londres. Grâce à sa connaissance encyclopédique du ...

  17. Zinc hyperaccumulation substitutes for defense failures beyond salicylate and jasmonate signaling pathways of Alternaria brassicicola attack in Noccaea caerulescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Berta; Martos, Soledad; Cabot, Catalina; Barceló, Juan; Poschenrieder, Charlotte

    2017-04-01

    The hypothesis of metal defense as a substitute for a defective biotic stress signaling system in metal hyperaccumulators was tested using the pathosystem Alternaria brassicicola-Noccaea caerulescens under low (2 µM), medium (12 µM) and high (102 µM) Zn supply. Regardless the Zn supply, N. caerulescens responded to fungal attack with the activation of both HMA4 coding for a Zn transporter, and biotic stress signaling pathways. Salicylate, jasmonate, abscisic acid and indoleacetic acid concentrations, as well as biotic stress marker genes (PDF1.2, CHIB, LOX2, PR1 and BGL2) were activated 24 h upon inoculation. Based on the activation of defense genes 24 h after the inoculation an incompatible fungal-plant interaction could be predicted. Nonetheless, in the longer term (7 days) no effective protection against A. brassicicola was achieved in plants exposed to low and medium Zn supply. After 1 week the biotic stress markers were even further increased in these plants, and this compatible interaction was apparently not caused by a failure in the signaling of the fungal attack, but due to the lack of specificity in the type of the activated defense mechanisms. Only plants receiving high Zn exhibited an incompatible fungal interaction. High Zn accumulation in these plants, possibly in cooperation with high glucosinolate concentrations, substituted for the ineffective defense system and the interaction turned into incompatible. In a threshold-type response, these joint effects efficiently hampered fungal spread and, consequently decreased the biotic stress signaling. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  18. Rumination and the displacement of aggression in United Kingdom gang-affiliated youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Eduardo A; Osman, Sarah; Wood, Jane L

    2012-01-01

    The concept of gang aggression oftentimes elicits images of brutal intergang violence. In reality, gang-related aggression can vary widely, can have various motivations and causal factors, and includes interpersonal as well as intergroup aggression. This study examined the tendency of UK youth to engage in displaced aggression (aggression aimed at undeserving targets) and examined the relationship among gang affiliation, ruminative thought, and aggression levels. Students in three London schools were asked to complete a questionnaire that assessed levels of gang affiliation, rumination about aversive events, and a tendency to engage in displaced aggression. Our analyses found a three-way interaction between gang affiliation, rumination, and gender, such that males who were high in affiliation and rumination had the greatest tendency to displace aggression toward innocent others. Additionally, it was shown that rumination could account for a significant part of the correlation between gang affiliation and displaced aggression. Furthermore, regression analyses showed that even after controlling for trait aggression, anger, hostility, and irritability, rumination remained a significant predictor of displaced aggression. The implications for understanding gang-related aggression and for conducting future research in this area were discussed.

  19. Gang membership of California middle school students: behaviors and attitudes as mediators of school violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Joey Nuñez; Gilreath, Tamika D; Astor, Ron Avi; Benbenishty, Rami

    2013-08-01

    Empirical evidence examining how risk and protective behaviors may possibly mediate the association between gang membership and school violence is limited. This study utilizes a statewide representative sample of 152 023 Latino, Black and White seventh graders from California to examine a theoretical model of how school risk (e.g. truancy, school substance use and risky peer approval) and protective (e.g. connectedness, support and safety) behaviors and attitudes mediate the effects of gang membership on school violence behaviors. The dataset was collected in the 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 academic school years using the ongoing large-scale California Healthy Kids Survey conducted by WestEd for the State of California. Approximately 9.5% of the sample considered themselves to be a member of a gang. The findings indicate that school risk behaviors and attitudes mediate the association between gang membership and school violence behaviors. Although the direct negative association between gang membership and school violence perpetration is weak, the positive indirect effect mediated by school risks behaviors and attitudes is strong. This indicates that when gang members engage in school risk behaviors, they are much more likely to be school violence perpetrators. Implications for further research, theory and practice for both gang and school violence researchers are discussed.

  20. Beyond Gang Truces and Mano Dura Policies: Towards Substitutive Security Governance in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Schuberth

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With responses to urban violence receiving increasing academic attention, the literature on anti-gang efforts in Latin America has focused mainly on coercive 'mano dura' policies and cooperative gang truces. Yet, there remains a paucity of studies going beyond such carrots-and-sticks approaches towards gangs. To fill this gap, this study investigates the possibilities and limitations of substitutive security governance across Latin America and the Caribbean. More specifically, this article looks at Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR programmes in Medellín, Armed Violence Reduction and Prevention (AVRP efforts in Haiti and Security Sector Reform (SSR in Guatemala and Rio de Janeiro. It will be argued that communities are driven to support gangs against the oppressive state when they are indiscriminately targeted through muscular operations. Likewise, engaging gangs in dialogue grants them legitimacy and further weakens the position of the state. Therefore, the only sustainable solution lies in substitutive security governance, which aims to replace the functions gangs fulfil for their members, sponsors, and the community in which they are nested with a modern and accountable state that is bound by the rule of law. Still, substitutive strategies vis-à-vis gangs have their own limitations, which can only be overcome by way of an integrated and coordinated framework.

  1. Socio-economic factors threatening the survival of Ganges River Dolphin Platanista gangetica gangetica in the upper Ganges River, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bashir

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted along the upper Ganges River between Narora barrages and Anupshahar from January to June 2007. Community interviews were conducted in order to assess the socio-economic profile of the fishermen community, their level of dependence on the river and their attitude towards the conservation of Ganges River Dolphin Platanista gangetica gangetica. The estimated literacy rate from interviews was 45%, and average annual income per household was 27,000 INR (Indian National Rupee. The respondents were found to be well aware of the river biodiversity and believed excessive water extraction and pollution to be the responsible for any perceived decline in the dolphin population. About 55% of the fishermen were found to fish for commercial purposes, and a majority of them (71% used nylon gill-nets. A majority (94% of respondents that had boats of their own fished in the middle of the river, an activity often conducted in groups. 12% of respondents reported to have encountered dolphin carcasses. Excessive fishing and dolphin poaching were found to be interrelated; if fishing can be more effectively managed poaching may automatically decline. 41% of the fishermen interviewed were found to be willing to stop fishing providing adequate alternative livelihoods are provided by the government.

  2. Socio-economic factors threatening the survival of Ganges River Dolphin Platanista gangetica gangetica in the upper Ganges River, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bashir

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted along the upper Ganges River between Narora barrages and Anupshahar from January to June 2007. Community interviews were conducted in order to assess the socio-economic profile of the fishermen community, their level of dependence on the river and their attitude towards the conservation of Ganges River Dolphin Platanista gangetica gangetica. The estimated literacy rate from interviews was 45%, and average annual income per household was 27,000 INR (Indian National Rupee. The respondents were found to be well aware of the river biodiversity and believed excessive water extraction and pollution to be the responsible for any perceived decline in the dolphin population. About 55% of the fishermen were found to fish for commercial purposes, and a majority of them (71% used nylon gill-nets. A majority (94% of respondents that had boats of their own fished in the middle of the river, an activity often conducted in groups. 12% of respondents reported to have encountered dolphin carcasses. Excessive fishing and dolphin poaching were found to be interrelated; if fishing can be more effectively managed poaching may automatically decline. 41% of the fishermen interviewed were found to be willing to stop fishing providing adequate alternative livelihoods are provided by the government.

  3. Prisoners’ gang-related activity: the importance of bullying and moral disengagement

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Jane L.; Moir, Alice; James, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Gang-related activity can have a significant impact on the effective management of prisons in the UK, yet little is known about the characteristics of the prisoners involved. I it this study, 141 adult male prisoners' gang-related activity was examined in relation to their bullying behaviour and use of moral disengagement. Results showed that prisoners most involved in gang-related activity were likely to have spent a longer total time in the prison system, be perpetrators of bullying and hav...

  4. Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) Final Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotamarthi, VR [Argonne National Laboratory

    2013-12-01

    In general, the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) as well as the and the tropical monsoon climate is influenced by a wide range of factors. Under various climate change scenarios, temperatures over land and into the mid troposphere are expected to increase, intensifying the summer pressure gradient differential between land and ocean and thus strengthening the ISM. However, increasing aerosol concentration, air pollution, and deforestation result in changes to surface albedo and insolation, potentially leading to low monsoon rainfall. Clear evidence points to increasing aerosol concentrations over the Indian subcontinent with time, and several hypotheses regarding the effect on monsoons have been offered. The Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) field study aimed to provide critical data to address these hypotheses and contribute to developing better parameterizations for tropical clouds, convection, and aerosol-cloud interactions. The primary science questions for the mission were as follows:

  5. Epidemiological criminology: drug use among African American gang members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, Mark M; Pack, Robert P; Akers, Timothy A

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological methods and public health theories can be tied to theories of crime and delinquency and used to create evidence-based policy. Interdisciplinary theoretical approaches to existing, and emerging, public health and criminal justice problems hold great promise. Differential association theory postulates that close association with delinquent peers leads to an increase in deviant activities such as illicit drug use. Social cognitive theory postulates that health behavior change is driven by the interaction of (a) cognitive states that support a health outcome, (b) the social and contextual environment, (c) and individual action. Combined, these theories can be applied to drug eradication programs as well as other health and crime issues. Focus groups and interviews were performed to identify rates of illicit substance use among incarcerated African American adolescent male gang members and nongang members. The policy recommendations illustrate the convergence of criminological and epidemiological theory under the new paradigm of epidemiological criminology or ''EpiCrim.''

  6. The movement and implications of the Ganges-Bramhaputra runoff on entering the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.

    phases. The Ganges-Brahmaputra discharge appears to lead to cooler sea surface temperatures in the northern Bay and to a stronger coastal current along the West Coast of India, both during the northeast monsoon...

  7. Projective report on gangs in El Salvador and the prospects of its territorial expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Report that analyzes the operating structures of criminal gangs and their organizational nature, from where projections are made about possible internal conflicts and criminal developments for the foreseeable future, and the social consequences they could generate.

  8. Adolescents, gangs, and perceptions of safety, parental engagement, and peer pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sarah E; Anderson, Debra G

    2012-10-01

    Adolescents are exposed to various forms of gang violence, and such exposure has led them to feel unsafe in their neighborhood and have differing interactions with their parents and peers. This qualitative study explored adolescents', parents', and community center employees' perceptions of adolescents' interaction with their neighborhood, family, and peers. Three themes emerged from the data: Most adolescents reported that the community center provided a safe environment for them; parental engagement influenced adolescents' experiences with gangs; and adolescents were subjected to peer pressure in order to belong. Exposure to gang violence can leave an impression on adolescents and affect their mental health, but neighborhood safety and relationships with parents and peers can influence adolescents' exposure to gang violence. Recommendations regarding the use of health care professionals at community centers are proposed. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Analysing the geographies of the 'transnational' gangs of Central America: the changing spaces of violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa Winton

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to contribute to knowledge of 'transnational' youth gangs in the Central American region, through an analysis of the mutually constitutive processes of identity, space and place production. It is argued that insights into gangs gained through analyzing their spatial dynamics and practices, and discussing ways in which these dynamics and processes connect the local and global scales, offer useful knowledge concerning the functioning of these gangs in a field still lacking in–depth academic research. Drawing on over a decade of direct research with young people in the region, the paper finds that poor understanding of gangs inevitably leads to ineffective, counterproductive interventions, and demonstrates that the geographies of maras are a fundamental –and still neglected– aspect of their development and transformation.

  10. Differential Heating in the Indian Ocean Differentially Modulates Precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset provides an assessment of the differential heating in the Indian Ocean (IO) and the subsequent modulation of the Ganges and Brahmaputra precipitation....

  11. Street Gangs in Central America: Combating them with Intelligence Fusion Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Bruneau, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Street gangs – pandillas in Spanish – are a major security challenge in the three Northern Triangle countries of Central America – El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras.[1] They are also considered a threat in many US cities, with particular focus on the Mara Salvatrucha, MS-13. Domestic party politics in the three countries have resulted in the reliance of heavy hand (mano dura) responses to the gangs, which have mainly served to exacerbate the problem. The anomalous situation of ...

  12. A Dynamic Programming Algorithm on Project-Gang Investment Decision-Making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The investment decision-making of Project-Gang, the projects that are associated with one another on economy and technique, is studied. In order to find out the best Scheme that can make the maximum profit, a dynamic programming algorithm on the investment decision-making of Project-Gang is brought forward, and this algorithm can find out the best Scheme of distributing the m resources to the n Items in the time of O(m2n).

  13. The Problem with Templates: Learning from Organic Gang-Related Violence Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Rodgers

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article considers what demobilisation, disarmament, and reintegration (DDR programmes might learn from research on gangs and the problems associated with government-instituted ‘wars on gangs’ putatively aimed at reducing or fighting gang-related violence. It begins by considering interventions associated with the global war on gangs, and compares their underlying premises and practices with those of DDR programmes while highlighting how both are plagued with problems associated with drawing on de-contextualized templates. Drawing on long-term ethnographic research carried out in Nicaragua and South Africa, the article then goes on to explore why individuals leave gangs, focusing in particular on the more organic processes that deplete gangs of their members, as well as the consequences that the different possible occupational trajectories of ex-gang members can have for patterns of violence. These offer a number of potential lessons for DDR programmes, particularly with regard to reducing violence in a realistic and sustainable manner.

  14. Zinc tolerance and hyperaccumulation in F1 and F2 offspring from intra and interecotype crosses of Thlaspi caerulescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frérot, H; Lefèbvre, C; Petit, C; Collin, C; Dos Santos, A; Escarré, J

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between zinc (Zn) tolerance and hyperaccumulation in Thlaspi caerulescens was investigated from F1 and F2 crosses within and among metallicolous and nonmetallicolous Mediterranean populations. F1 offspring were grown on increasingly Zn-enriched soils to test Zn enrichment effects, and many families of F2 offspring were grown on a Zn-rich soil. Tolerance of F1 offspring depended on stress intensity. Tolerance of interecotype crosses was intermediate between that of the intraecotype crosses. No difference in Zn accumulation appeared among the F1 offspring from the three crosses involving metallicolous parents. Otherwise, none of these offspring exceeded the Zn hyperaccumulation threshold (10,000 mg kg(-1)), unlike the nonmetallicolous ones. The latter also showed the highest mortality. In some F2 families from interecotype crosses, hyperaccumulation values exceeded 15,000 mg kg(-1) in nontolerant offspring, whereas tolerant offspring displayed lower values (c. 10,000 mg kg(-1)). There was no difference between tolerant and nontolerant offspring when they showed low hyperaccumulation. Therefore, the relationship between tolerance and hyperaccumulation in F1 and F2 crosses depended on the hyperaccumulation level of plants.

  15. In vitro differentiation of fertile sperm from cryopreserved spermatogonia of the endangered endemic cyprinid honmoroko (Gnathopogon caerulescens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higaki, Shogo; Shimada, Manami; Kawamoto, Kazuaki; Todo, Takaaki; Kawasaki, Toshihiro; Tooyama, Ikuo; Fujioka, Yasuhiro; Sakai, Noriyoshi; Takada, Tatsuyuki

    2017-02-01

    Many endemic fish species are threatened with extinction. Conservation strategies and the restoration of endemic fish after extinction must therefore be investigated. Although sperm cryopreservation is indispensable for the conservation of endangered fishes, the limited number of mature fish and limited availability (volume and period) of sperm from small endemic fish hinders the optimization and practical use of this material. In this report, we demonstrate the in vitro differentiation of fertile sperm from cryopreserved spermatogonia of juveniles of the endangered small cyprinid honmoroko (Gnathopogon caerulescens), which is endemic to Lake Biwa in Japan. The entire process of spermatogenesis was recapitulated in vitro using cryopreserved spermatogonia of non-spawning adult and juvenile fish. The differentiation of sperm from spermatogonia was captured as a time-lapse video and confirmed by 5-ethynyl-2‧-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation into sperm. Fertility was demonstrated by artificial insemination. These results suggest that the combination of cryopreservation of spermatogonia and in vitro sperm differentiation will provide a new and promising strategy for the preservation of paternal genetic materials.

  16. The effect of nitrogen form on rhizosphere soil pH and zinc phytoextraction by Thlaspi caerulescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsant, A C; Tang, C; Baker, A J M

    2008-10-01

    The phytoextraction of Zn may be improved by applying N fertilizers to increase the biomass and Zn content of shoots. Rhizosphere-pH change from uptake of different N forms will affect Zn phyto-availability in the rhizosphere and Zn phytoextraction. This glasshouse study examined the effect of N form on Zn phytoextraction by Thlaspi caerulescens (Prayon). The plants were grown in a Zn-contaminated soil (total Zn 250 mg kg-1 soil; pHwater 5.7) and supplied with (NH4)2SO4, Ca(NO3)2 or urea [(NH2)2CO]. The form was maintained by applying the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide. A biodegradable chelator ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS) was included for comparison. The addition of N doubled the shoot biomass. The highest shoot Zn content occurred in the Ca(NO3)2 treatment and was associated with the highest rhizosphere pH. The lowest shoot dry weight occurred in the EDDS treatment. The Zn concentration in the shoots increased as the rhizosphere pH increased. A significant correlation occurred between Ca and Zn concentrations in the shoots. This study demonstrated that Ca(NO3)2 is a more effective treatment than , urea or EDDS for enhancing Zn phytoextraction in a mildly acidic soil.

  17. Gangs An approach to understanding them and strategic proposals for resolving the conflicts they generate from the perspective of Conflictology

    OpenAIRE

    Vinyamata, Eduard

    2010-01-01

    Peer reviewed Gangs, as such, are a contemporary phenomenon, with only a few years of history, appearing virulently in El Salvador at the end of the 1980s. In 2005, the city of Guayaquil, Ecuador, had some sixty thousand gang members; in El Salvador, around fifty thousand. At present, and including the United States, Mexico and Central American and South American countries, the population belonging to gangs may well surpass one million. Even though not all of them have a violent or crimina...

  18. Reviving the "Ganges Water Machine": where and how much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuwatta, Lal; Amarasinghe, Upali A.; Sood, Aditya; Surinaidu, Lagudu

    2017-05-01

    Runoff generated in the monsoon months in the upstream parts of the Ganges River basin (GRB) contributes substantially to downstream floods, while water shortages in the dry months affect agricultural production in the basin. This paper examines the potential for subsurface storage (SSS) in the Ganges basin to mitigate floods in the downstream areas and increase the availability of water during drier months. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is used to estimate sub-basin water availability. The water availability estimated is then compared with the sub-basin-wise unmet water demand for agriculture. Hydrological analysis reveals that some of the unmet water demand in the sub-basin can be met provided it is possible to capture the runoff in sub-surface storage during the monsoon season (June to September). Some of the groundwater recharge is returned to the stream as baseflow and has the potential to increase dry season river flows. To examine the impacts of groundwater recharge on flood inundation and flows in the dry season (October to May), two groundwater recharge scenarios are tested in the Ramganga sub-basin. Increasing groundwater recharge by 35 and 65 % of the current level would increase the baseflow during the dry season by 1.46 billion m3 (34.5 % of the baseline) and 3.01 billion m3 (71.3 % of the baseline), respectively. Analysis of pumping scenarios indicates that 80 000 to 112 000 ha of additional wheat area can be irrigated in the Ramganga sub-basin by additional SSS without reducing the current baseflow volumes. Augmenting SSS reduces the peak flow and flood inundated areas in Ramganga (by up to 13.0 % for the 65 % scenario compared to the baseline), indicating the effectiveness of SSS in reducing areas inundated under floods in the sub-basin. However, this may not be sufficient to effectively control the flood in the downstream areas of the GRB, such as in the state of Bihar (prone to floods), which receives a total flow of 277 billion m3

  19. Influência de temperatura, luz e giberelina na germinação de sementes de Thlaspi caerulescens J. Presl & C. Presl (Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Almeida Guimarães

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Thlaspi caerulescens é espécie hiperacumuladora de metais como Cd2+, Ni2+ e Zn2+, considerada como uma plantamodelo para estudar a acumulação e tolerância a metais pesados. No entanto, a baixa produção de sementes em nossas condições climáticas tornam necessária a determinação de condições que possam maximizar a germinação e o vigor de suas sementes. Para identificar as melhores condições para a germinação, sementes de T. caerulescens foram colocadas na presença (15 mmol.m-2.s-1, 8 h luz/16 h escuro ou ausência de luz nas temperaturas de 10, 15, 20 e 25 ºC, em papel germitest previamente umedecido com solução de ácido giberélico (GA3 a 0,05% ou água destilada. Foram avaliados a porcentagem de germinação (%G e o índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG. Maior porcentagem de germinação (66% foi observada nos tratamentos com GA3 e temperaturas de 15 e 20 ºC, na presença de luz. Maiores valores do IVG foram obtidos com a utilização de GA3 nas temperaturas de 15 e 20 ºC, tanto na presença quanto na ausência de luz. Maiores germinação e IVG de T. caerulescens foram observados com uso de GA3 na presença de luz nas temperaturas de 15 e 20 ºC.

  20. Abundancia estacional, fenología reproductiva y fidelidad al sitio del mulato (Melanotis caerulescens) en ambientes ribereños del suroeste de Jalisco

    OpenAIRE

    Luz de los Milagros Rodríguez-Parga; Sarahy Contreras-Martínez; Josep Rost; José Cruz Gómez-Lamas

    2012-01-01

    Este estudio describe la abundancia estacional, fenología reproductiva y fidelidad al sitio de Melanotis caerulescens, especie de ave endémica de México, localmente conocida como mulato y valorada por su canto. Se realizó un muestreo con el método de captura con redes de niebla durante 2 años en 3 sitios de la vegetación ribereña del río Ayuquila, Jalisco. Se caracterizó el hábitat mediante muestreos de los estratos arbóreo, arbustivo y herbáceo. Mediante modelos lineales generalizados se ana...

  1. STUDY ON GROWTH PROPERTIES OF CORTINARIUS CAERULESCENS SCHAEFF.)FR.%贺兰山蓝丝膜菌菌丝体生长特性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    峥嵘; 张功; 巴图

    1999-01-01

    对贺兰山蓝丝膜菌(Cortinarius caerulescens(Schaeff.)Fr.)菌丝体在纯培养条件下的生长特性进行了研究.结果表明,菌丝体最适生长温度为20~25℃,最适生长pH值为6,长势最好的培养基为PDA综合培养基,蛋白胨、葡萄糖为最佳氮碳源.

  2. Identification of Thlaspi caerulescens genes that may be involved in heavy metal hyperaccumulation and tolerance. Characterization of a novel heavy metal transporting ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoyan, Ashot; Kochian, Leon V

    2004-11-01

    Thlaspi caerulescens is a heavy metal hyperaccumulator plant species that is able to accumulate extremely high levels of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) in its shoots (30,000 microg g(-1) Zn and 10,000 microg g(-1) Cd), and has been the subject of intense research as a model plant to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms of heavy metal hyperaccumulation and tolerance and as a source of genes for developing plant species better suited for the phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soils. In this study, we report on the results of a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisae) complementation screen aimed at identifying candidate heavy metal tolerance genes in T. caerulescens. A number of Thlaspi genes that conferred Cd tolerance to yeast were identified, including possible metal-binding ligands from the metallothionein gene family, and a P-type ATPase that is a member of the P1B subfamily of purported heavy metal-translocating ATPases. A detailed characterization of the Thlaspi heavy metal ATPase, TcHMA4, demonstrated that it mediates yeast metal tolerance via active efflux of a number of different heavy metals (Cd, Zn, lead [Pb], and copper [Cu]) out of the cell. However, in T. caerulescens, based on differences in tissue-specific and metal-responsive expression of this transporter compared with its homolog in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), we suggest that it may not be involved in metal tolerance. Instead, we hypothesize that it may play a role in xylem loading of metals and thus could be a key player in the hyperaccumulation phenotype expressed in T. caerulescens. Additionally, evidence is presented showing that the C terminus of the TcHMA4 protein, which contains numerous possible heavy metal-binding His and Cys repeats residues, participates in heavy metal binding. When partial peptides from this C-terminal domain were expressed in yeast, they conferred an extremely high level of Cd tolerance and Cd hyperaccumulation. The possibilities for enhancing the metal

  3. Identification of Thlaspi caerulescens Genes That May Be Involved in Heavy Metal Hyperaccumulation and Tolerance. Characterization of a Novel Heavy Metal Transporting ATPase1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoyan, Ashot; Kochian, Leon V.

    2004-01-01

    Thlaspi caerulescens is a heavy metal hyperaccumulator plant species that is able to accumulate extremely high levels of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) in its shoots (30,000 μg g−1 Zn and 10,000 μg g−1 Cd), and has been the subject of intense research as a model plant to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms of heavy metal hyperaccumulation and tolerance and as a source of genes for developing plant species better suited for the phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soils. In this study, we report on the results of a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisae) complementation screen aimed at identifying candidate heavy metal tolerance genes in T. caerulescens. A number of Thlaspi genes that conferred Cd tolerance to yeast were identified, including possible metal-binding ligands from the metallothionein gene family, and a P-type ATPase that is a member of the P1B subfamily of purported heavy metal-translocating ATPases. A detailed characterization of the Thlaspi heavy metal ATPase, TcHMA4, demonstrated that it mediates yeast metal tolerance via active efflux of a number of different heavy metals (Cd, Zn, lead [Pb], and copper [Cu]) out of the cell. However, in T. caerulescens, based on differences in tissue-specific and metal-responsive expression of this transporter compared with its homolog in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), we suggest that it may not be involved in metal tolerance. Instead, we hypothesize that it may play a role in xylem loading of metals and thus could be a key player in the hyperaccumulation phenotype expressed in T. caerulescens. Additionally, evidence is presented showing that the C terminus of the TcHMA4 protein, which contains numerous possible heavy metal-binding His and Cys repeats residues, participates in heavy metal binding. When partial peptides from this C-terminal domain were expressed in yeast, they conferred an extremely high level of Cd tolerance and Cd hyperaccumulation. The possibilities for enhancing the metal tolerance

  4. Gang membership and marijuana use among African American female adolescents in North Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wechsberg WM

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Wendee M Wechsberg,1–4 Irene A Doherty,1 Felicia A Browne,1,5 Tracy L Kline,1 Monique G Carry,6 Jerris L Raiford,6 Jeffrey H Herbst6 1Substance Abuse Treatment Evaluations and Interventions Research Program, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, 2Gillings Global School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 3Psychology in the Public Interest, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, 4Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC, 5Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, 6Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA Abstract: The southeastern US sustains the highest high school dropout rates, and gangs persist in underserved communities. African American female adolescents who drop out of school and are gang members are at substantial risk of exposure to severe violence, physical abuse, and sexual exploitation. In this study of 237 female African American adolescents 16–19 years of age from North Carolina who dropped out or considered dropping out, 11% were current or past gang members. Adolescents who reported gang membership began smoking marijuana at a mean age of 13, whereas those who reported no gang membership began at a mean age of 15 years (P<0.001. The mean ages of first alcohol use were 14 years and 15 years for gang members and non-gang members, respectively (P=0.04. Problem alcohol use was high in both groups: 40% and 65% for non-gang and gang members, respectively (P=0.02. Controlling for frequent marijuana use and problem alcohol use, adolescents who reported gang membership were more likely than non-gang members to experience sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR] =2.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.06, 6.40], experience physical abuse (OR =7.33, 95% CI [2.90, 18.5], report emotional abuse from

  5. Division inside Barrio 18 gang in El Salvador: An anthropological view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Enrique Amaya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article’s general objective is to provide a prelimary examination and analysis of the process through which Barrio 18 split into “los Sureños” and “los Revolucionarios”.The methodology this study was based on, used specialized techniques such as documentreview and in-depth interviews. This work starts from a previous effort, in which, through a holistic vision, gangs or maras are understood from four different perspectives: 1 Their organizational structure; 2 Their composition; 3 The nature of their actions; and 4Their set of values and socio-cultural norms. The definition of gang as a key category as far as their identity is essential. The need to build a holistic definition of gang is meant to “tone down” gang member’s criminal activities, as well as to “over-criminalize” gangs.Revista Policía y Seguridad Pública 5(1 2015: 149-178

  6. Murder by structure: dominance relations and the social structure of gang homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachristos, Andrew V

    2009-07-01

    Most sociological theories consider murder an outcome of the differential distribution of individual, neighborhood, or social characteristics. And while such studies explain variation in aggregate homicide rates, they do not explain the social order of murder, that is, who kills whom, when, where, and for what reason. This article argues that gang murder is best understood not by searching for its individual determinants but by examining the social networks of action and reaction that create it. In short, the social structure of gang murder is defined by the manner in which social networks are constructed and by people's placement in them. The author uses a network approach and incident-level homicide records to recreate and analyze the structure of gang murders in Chicago. Findings demonstrate that individual murders between gangs create an institutionalized network of group conflict, net of any individual's participation or motive. Within this network, murders spread through an epidemic-like process of social contagion as gangs evaluate the highly visible actions of others in their local networks and negotiate dominance considerations that arise during violent incidents.

  7. A proteomics approach to investigate the process of Zn hyperaccumulation in Noccaea caerulescens (J & C. Presl) F.K. Meyer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Thomas; Persson, Daniel Pergament; Husted, Søren; Schellenberg, Maja; Gehrig, Peter; Lee, Youngsook; Martinoia, Enrico; Schjoerring, Jan K; Meyer, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential trace element in all living organisms, but is toxic in excess. Several plant species are able to accumulate Zn at extraordinarily high concentrations in the leaf epidermis without showing any toxicity symptoms. However, the molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon are still poorly understood. A state-of-the-art quantitative 2D liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (2D-LC-MS/MS) proteomics approach was used to investigate the abundance of proteins involved in Zn hyperaccumulation in leaf epidermal and mesophyll tissues of Noccaea caerulescens. Furthermore, the Zn speciation in planta was analyzed by a size-exclusion chromatography/inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (SEC-ICP-MS) method, in order to identify the Zn-binding ligands and mechanisms responsible for Zn hyperaccumulation. Epidermal cells have an increased capability to cope with the oxidative stress that results from excess Zn, as indicated by a higher abundance of glutathione S-transferase proteins. A Zn importer of the ZIP family was more abundant in the epidermal tissue than in the mesophyll tissue, but the vacuolar Zn transporter MTP1 was equally distributed. Almost all of the Zn located in the mesophyll was stored as Zn-nicotianamine complexes. In contrast, a much lower proportion of the Zn was found as Zn-nicotianamine complexes in the epidermis. However, these cells have higher concentrations of malate and citrate, and these organic acids are probably responsible for complexation of most epidermal Zn. Here we provide evidence for a cell type-specific adaptation to excess Zn conditions and an increased ability to transport Zn into the epidermal vacuoles. © 2012 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. The Socialization Process of Street Children in the Youth Gangs and Groups of Organized Crime in Local Community. Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Michel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article includes the research report on the socialization process of children in the street, youth gangs, and organized criminal groups in local communities. The author has analysed the signs and communication codes located on walls in local communities. This is very important to the socialization process of the youth street gangs.

  9. Evaluation and Evolution of the Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbensen, Finn-Aage; Peterson, Dana; Taylor, Terrance J.; Freng, Adrienne; Osgood, D. Wayne; Carson, Dena C.; Matsuda, Kristy N.

    2011-01-01

    The Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) program is a gang- and delinquency-prevention program delivered by law enforcement officers within a school setting. Originally designed in 1991 by Phoenix-area law enforcement agencies to address local needs, the program quickly spread across the United States. In this article, we describe…

  10. Drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents in a rural farming community in Baja California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkmann, Tyson; Fraga, Miguel A; Brodine, Stephanie K; Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Cepeda, Alice; Elder, John P; Garfein, Richard S; Viidai Team

    2013-01-01

    We examined drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents of a migrant farming community in rural Baja California, Mexico. In October 2010, 164 members of a single colonia (community) underwent an interviewer-administered survey to assess 'exposure to gang violence' and 'drug-scene familiarity', as well as other health indicators. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of exposure to gang violence. Overall, 20% of participants were male, the median age was 27 years, 24% spoke an indigenous language, 42% reported exposure to gang violence and 39% reported drug-scene familiarity. Factors independently associated with exposure to gang violence included being younger (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.80 per 5-year increase, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.67-0.96), living in the community longer (AOR=1.47 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.11-1.72), higher educational attainment (AOR=1.70 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.07-1.12) and drug-scene familiarity (AOR=5.10, 95% CI=2.39-10.89). Exposure to gang violence was very common in this community and was associated with drug-scene familiarity, suggesting a close relationship between drugs and gang violence in this rural community. In a region characterised by mass migration from poorer parts of Mexico, where drugs and gangs have not been previously reported, emerging social harms may affect these communities unless interventions are implemented.

  11. Brotherhood or Brothers in the "Hood"? Debunking the "Educated Gang" Thesis as Black Fraternity and Sorority Slander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughey, Matthew W.

    2008-01-01

    In this article the author explores the controversial thesis that African American Collegiate Fraternities and Sororities, also known as Black Greek Letter Organizations (BGLOs), are "educated gangs". First, the author examines this polemic as a "truth claim" and compares BGLOs and gangs through: (1) hazing; (2) rape and substance abuse; (3)…

  12. Navigating the Thin Line between Education and Incarceration: An Action Research Case Study on Gang-Associated Latino Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Victor M.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines data collected from an ethnographic research project conducted with 56 gang-associated Latino youths ages 15 to 21 from 2007 to 2009. The objectives of the study were to examine how poor Latino gang-associated youths perceived schooling and policing and to find out if the research process could promote educational aspirations…

  13. Gang Membership, School Violence, and the Mediating Effects of Risk and Protective Behaviors in California High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Joey Nuñez, Jr.; Gilreath, Tamika D.; Astor, Ron Avi; Benbenishty, Rami

    2014-01-01

    There is insufficient empirical evidence exploring associations between gang membership and school violence behaviors. Using a sample of 272,863 high school students, this study employs a structural equation model to examine how school risk and protective behaviors and attitudes mediate effects of gang members' involvement with school…

  14. Drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents in a rural farming community in Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkmann, Tyson; Fraga, Miguel A.; Brodine, Stephanie K.; Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Cepeda, Alice; Elder, John P.; Garfein, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    We examined drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents of a migrant farming community in rural Baja California, Mexico. In October 2010, 164 members of a single colonia (community) underwent an interviewer-administered survey to assess ‘exposure to gang violence’ and ‘drug-scene familiarity’, as well as other health indicators. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of exposure to gang violence. Overall, 20% of participants were male, the median age was 27 years, 24% spoke an indigenous language, 42% reported exposure to gang violence, and 39% reported drug-scene familiarity. Factors independently associated with exposure to gang violence included being younger (AOR=0.80 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=0.67–0.96), living in the community longer (AOR=1.47 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.11–1.72), higher educational attainment (AOR=1.70 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.07–1.12), and drug-scene familiarity (AOR=5.10, 95%CI=2.39–10.89). Exposure to gang violence was very common in this community and was associated with drug-scene familiarity, suggesting a close relationship between drugs and gang violence in this rural community. In a region characterised by mass migration from poorer parts of Mexico, where drugs and gangs have not been previously reported, emerging social harms may affect these communities unless interventions are implemented. PMID:23072623

  15. Gang Membership, School Violence, and the Mediating Effects of Risk and Protective Behaviors in California High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Joey Nuñez, Jr.; Gilreath, Tamika D.; Astor, Ron Avi; Benbenishty, Rami

    2014-01-01

    There is insufficient empirical evidence exploring associations between gang membership and school violence behaviors. Using a sample of 272,863 high school students, this study employs a structural equation model to examine how school risk and protective behaviors and attitudes mediate effects of gang members' involvement with school violence…

  16. The spatial distribution of arsenic contamination in fluvial sediment of the Ganges River: case study from Bihar, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donselaar, M.E.; Bhatt, A.G.; Bruining, J.; Bose, N.; Ghosh, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    Shallow aquifers in the Ganges River channel belt (Bihar, India) have high and spatially variable concentrations of arsenic contamination. The arsenic is of geogenic origin. Hydrated iron-arsenic-oxide coatings on quartz and clay minerals occur in the Ganges River deposits. The arsenic is

  17. The spatial distribution of arsenic contamination in fluvial sediment of the Ganges River: case study from Bihar, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donselaar, M.E.; Bhatt, A.G.; Bruining, J.; Bose, N.; Ghosh, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    Shallow aquifers in the Ganges River channel belt (Bihar, India) have high and spatially variable concentrations of arsenic contamination. The arsenic is of geogenic origin. Hydrated iron-arsenic-oxide coatings on quartz and clay minerals occur in the Ganges River deposits. The arsenic is subsequent

  18. Any of them will do: In-group identification, out-group entitativity, and gang membership as predictors of group-based retribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Eduardo A; Wenborne, Lisa; Peers, Madeline; Alleyne, Emma; Ellis, Kirsty

    2015-05-01

    In non-gang populations, the degree of identification with an in-group and perceptions of out-group entitativity, the perception of an out-group as bonded or unified, are important contributors to group-based aggression or vicarious retribution. The link between these factors and group-based aggression, however, has not been examined in the context of street gangs. The current study assessed the relationship among in-group identification, perceptions of out-group entitativity, and the willingness to retaliate against members of rival groups who did not themselves attack the in-group among juvenile gang and non-gang members in London. Our results showed the predicted membership (gang/non-gang) × in-group identification × entitativity interaction. Decomposition of the three-way interaction by membership revealed a significant identification × entitativity interaction for gang, but not for non-gang members. More specifically, gang members who identify more strongly with their gang and perceived a rival group as high on entitativity were more willing to retaliate against any of them. In addition, entitativity was a significant predictor of group-based aggression after controlling for gender, in-group identification, and gang membership. Our results are consistent with socio-psychological theories of group-based aggression and support the proposal that such theories are applicable for understanding gang-related violence. Aggr. Behav. 41:242-252, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Expression of HMA4 cDNAs of the zinc hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens from endogenous NcHMA4 promoters does not complement the zinc-deficiency phenotype of the Arabidopsis thaliana hma2hma4 double mutant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iqbal, M.; Nawaz, I.; Hassan, Z.; Hakvoort, H.W.J.; Bliek, M.; Aarts, M.G.M.; Schat, H.

    2013-01-01

    Noccaea caerulescens (Nc) exhibits a very high constitutive expression of the heavy metal transporting ATPase, HMA4, as compared to the non-hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis thaliana (At), due to copy number expansion and altered cis-regulation. We screened a BAC library for HMA4 and found that HMA4 is

  20. Thlaspi caerulescens (Brassicaceae) population genetics in western Switzerland: is the genetic structure affected by natural variation of soil heavy metal concentrations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnard, Guillaume; Basic, Nevena; Christin, Pascal-Antoine; Savova-Bianchi, Dessislava; Galland, Nicole

    2009-03-01

    Thlaspi caerulescens (Brassicaceae) is a promising plant model with which to study heavy metal hyperaccumulation. Population genetics studies are necessary for a better understanding of its history, which will be useful for further genomic studies on the evolution of heavy metal hyperaccumulation.The genetic structure of 24 natural Swiss locations was investigated using nuclear and plastid loci. Population genetics parameters were estimated and genetic pools were identified using Bayesian inference on eight putatively neutral nuclear loci.Finally, the effect of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) soil concentrations on genetic differentiation at loci located in genes putatively involved in heavy metal responses was examined using partial Mantel tests in Jura, western Switzerland.Four main genetic clusters were recognized based on nuclear and plastid loci,which gave mostly congruent signals. In Jura, genetic differentiation linked to heavy metal concentrations in soil was shown at some candidate loci, particularly for genes encoding metal transporters. This suggests that natural selection limits gene flow between metalliferous and non metalliferous locations at such loci.Strong historical factors explain the present genetic structure of Swiss T. caerulescens populations, which has to be considered in studies testing for relationships between environmental and genetic variations. Linking of genetic differentiation at candidate genes with soil characteristics offers new perspectives in the study of heavy metal hyperaccumulation.

  1. A modified predator-prey model for the interaction of police and gangs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sooknanan, J; Bhatt, B; Comissiong, D M G

    2016-09-01

    A modified predator-prey model with transmissible disease in both the predator and prey species is proposed and analysed, with infected prey being more vulnerable to predation and infected predators hunting at a reduced rate. Here, the predators are the police and the prey the gang members. In this system, we examine whether police control of gangs is possible. The system is analysed with the help of stability analyses and numerical simulations. The system has five steady states-four of which involve no core gang members and one in which all the populations coexist. Thresholds are identified which determine when the predator and prey populations survive and when the disease remains endemic. For parameter values where the spread of disease among the police officers is greater than the death of the police officers, the diseased predator population survives, when it would otherwise become extinct.

  2. A modified predator–prey model for the interaction of police and gangs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sooknanan, J.; Bhatt, B.

    2016-01-01

    A modified predator–prey model with transmissible disease in both the predator and prey species is proposed and analysed, with infected prey being more vulnerable to predation and infected predators hunting at a reduced rate. Here, the predators are the police and the prey the gang members. In this system, we examine whether police control of gangs is possible. The system is analysed with the help of stability analyses and numerical simulations. The system has five steady states—four of which involve no core gang members and one in which all the populations coexist. Thresholds are identified which determine when the predator and prey populations survive and when the disease remains endemic. For parameter values where the spread of disease among the police officers is greater than the death of the police officers, the diseased predator population survives, when it would otherwise become extinct. PMID:27703682

  3. Racism, Schooling, and the Streets: A Critical Analysis of Vietnamese American Youth Gang Formation in Southern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D. Lam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an analysis of the relationship between educational experiences, street life, and gang formation for Vietnamese American youth gang members in Southern California. I use critical narrative methodology to center the life and experiences of a Los Angeles area gang member. His narrative substantiates how racism in schools and on the streets works together to impact and inform gang formation. Schools were sites of inter-ethnic conflict and racialized tension, and streets were spaces for contentious interactions with the police. In addition, I place the Vietnamese American youth gang phenomenon in larger historical and political contexts such as California’s anti-youth legislation, representations of Asian American youth, and U.S. geo-politics and imperialism—factors that have serious material and ideological implications and consequences.

  4. Racism, Schooling, and the Streets: A Critical Analysis of Vietnamese American Youth Gang Formation in Southern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D. Lam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an analysis of the relationship between educational experiences, street life, and gang formation for Vietnamese American youth gang members in Southern California. I use critical narrative methodology to center the life and experiences of a Los Angeles area gang member. His narrative substantiates how racism in schools and on the streets works together to impact and inform gang formation. Schools were sites of inter-ethnic conflict and racialized tension, and streets were spaces for contentious interactions with the police. In addition, I place the Vietnamese American youth gang phenomenon in larger historical and political contexts such as Californias anti-youth legislation, representations of Asian American youth, and U.S. geo-politics and imperialismfactors that have serious material and ideological implications and consequences.

  5. Weapon carrying, physical fighting and gang membership among youth in Washington state military families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Sarah C; Bell, Janice F; Edwards, Todd C

    2014-10-01

    To examine associations between parental military service and school-based weapon carrying, school-based physical fighting and gang membership among youth. We used cross-sectional data from the 2008 Washington State Healthy Youth Survey collected in 8th, 10th, and 12th grades of public schools (n = 9,987). Parental military service was categorized as none (reference group), without combat zone deployment, or deployed to a combat zone. Multivariable logistic regression was used to test associations between parental military service and three outcomes: school-based weapon carrying, school-based physical fighting and gang membership. Standard errors were adjusted for the complex survey design. In 8th grade, parental deployment was associated with higher odds of reporting gang membership (OR = 1.8) among girls, and higher odds of physical fighting (OR = 1.6), and gang membership (OR = 1.9) among boys. In 10th/12th grade, parental deployment was associated with higher odds of reporting physical fighting (OR = 2.0) and gang membership (OR = 2.2) among girls, and physical fighting (OR = 2.0), carrying a weapon (OR = 2.3) among boys. Parental military deployment is associated with increased odds of reporting engagement in school-based physical fighting, school-based weapon carrying, and gang membership, particularly among older youth. Military, school, and public health professionals have a unique, collaborative opportunity to develop school- and community-based interventions to prevent violence-related behaviors among youth and, ultimately, improve the health and safety of youth in military families. Ideally, such programs would target families and youth before they enter eighth grade.

  6. Location-aware gang graffiti acquisition and browsing on a mobile device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Albert; Boutin, Mireille; Delp, Edward J.

    2012-02-01

    In this paper we describe a mobile-based system that allows first responders to identify and track gang graffiti by combining the use of image analysis and location-based-services. The gang graffiti image and metadata (geoposition, date and time) obtained automatically are transferred to a server and uploaded to a database of graffiti images. The database can then be queried with the matched results sent back to the mobile device where the user can then review the results and provide extra inputs to refine the information.

  7. Greenhouse evaluation of EDTA effectiveness at enhancing Cd, Cr, and Ni uptake in Helianthus annuus and Thlaspi caerulescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munn, J.; January, M.; Cutright, T.J. [Dept. Civil Engineering, The Univ. of Akron, OH (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Background, aims and scope. Phytoremediation is a promising means for the treatment of heavy metal contamination. Although several species have been identified as hyperaccumulators, most studies have been conducted with only one metal. Experiments were conducted to investigate the ability of Helianthus annuus and Thlaspi caerulescens to simultaneously uptake Cd, Cr and Ni. Materials and methods. The efficiency of plants grown in a sandy-loam soil was investigated. The ability of two EDTA concentrations (0.1 and 0.3 g kg{sup -1}) for enhancing the phytoremediation of Cd, Cr and Ni at two different metal concentrations (24.75 mg kg{sup -1} and 90 mg kg{sup -1}) was studied. Results. Thlaspi hyperaccumulated Ni with 0.1 g kg{sup -1} EDTA. When the EDTA dosage was increased to 0.3 g kg{sup -1}, Thlaspi was able to hyperaccumulate both Ni and Cr. Since Thlaspi is a low-biomass plant, it was considered insufficient for full-scale applications. Helianthus annuus hyperacummulated Cr (with 0.1 g kg{sup -1} EDTA) and Cd (0.3 g kg{sup -1} EDTA). Discussion. When the contamination was 8.25 mg kg{sup -1} per metal, the total metal uptake was 10-25% (1.35 to 2.12 mg) higher and had the same uptake selectivity (Cr>>Cd>Ni) for both EDTA levels. It was hypothesized that complexation with EDTA interfered with Ni translocation. For these experiments, the optimal results were obtained with the H. annuus-0.1 g kg{sup -1} EDTA combination. Conclusions. Although the use of EDTA did increase the amount of metal that could be extracted, care should be taken during in-situ field applications. Chelators can also increase the amount of metals that are leached past the root zone. Metal leaching and subsequent migration could lead to ground water contamination as well as lead to new soil contamination. Recommendations and perspectives. Additional research to identify the optimal EDTA dosage for field applications is warranted. This is necessary to ensure that the metals do not leach past the

  8. A Microbiological Water Quality Evaluation of Ganges River Deltaic Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerby, C. J.; Gragg, S. E.; Page, J.; Leavens, J.; Bhattacharya, P.; Harrington, J.; Datta, S.

    2014-12-01

    Substantial natural contamination from trace elements (like arsenic) and pathogens make Ganges Deltaic aquifers an area of utmost concern. Following millions of cases of chronic arsenic poisoning from the groundwaters of the region, numerous residents are still knowingly ingesting water from shallow to intermediate accessible depth drinking water wells. Added to the calamity of arsenic is the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in these waters. The increasing frequency of gastroenteritis signifies the need to quantify the magnitude and extensiveness of health degrading agents--bacterial pathogens (i.e. Salmonella) and non-pathogens (i.e. Enterobacteriaceae) --within the water supply in accessible Gangetic aquifers. To assess the dissolved microbiological quality in the region, present study sampling locations are along defined piezometer nests in an area in SE Asia (Bangladesh). Every nest contains samples from wells at varying depths covering shallow to deep aquifers. To date, 17 of the 76 water samples were analyzed for Salmonella, generic Escherichia coli (E. coli) and coliforms. Briefly, samples were plated in duplicate onto E. coli/Coliform petrifilm and incubated at 370C for 48 hours. Next, each sample was enriched in buffered peptone water and incubated at 370C for 18 hours. Bacterial DNA was extracted and amplified using a qPCR machine. Amplification plots were analyzed to determine presence/absence of microorganisms. All water samples (n=~76) are analyzed for Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria spp. and Shigella. Pathogen populations of PCR-positive water samples are enumerated using the agar direct plate method. Non-pathogenic bacterial indicator organisms (i.e. Enterobacteriaceae) will also be enumerated. Over the course of the experiment, we hypothesize that shallower wells will 1)have a higher pathogen prevalence and 2)harbor pathogens and nonpathogens at higher concentrations. While the 17 samples analyzed to date were negative for Salmonella

  9. Adaptation tot changing water resources in the Ganges basin, northern India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moors, E.J.; Groot, A.M.E.; Biemans, H.; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, C.T.H.M.; Siderius, C.; Stoffel, M.

    2011-01-01

    An ensemble of regional climate model (RCM) runs from the EU HighNoon project are used to project future air temperatures and precipitation on a 25 km grid for the Ganges basin in northern India, with a view to assessing impact of climate change on water resources and determining what multi-sector

  10. Adaptation tot changing water resources in the Ganges basin, northern India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moors, E.J.; Groot, A.M.E.; Biemans, H.; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, C.T.H.M.; Siderius, C.; Stoffel, M.

    2011-01-01

    An ensemble of regional climate model (RCM) runs from the EU HighNoon project are used to project future air temperatures and precipitation on a 25 km grid for the Ganges basin in northern India, with a view to assessing impact of climate change on water resources and determining what multi-sector a

  11. Public School Uniforms: Effect on Perceptions of Gang Presence, School Climate, and Student Self-Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Kathleen Kiley; Stafford, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the relationship between public school uniforms and student self-worth and student and staff perceptions of gang presence and school climate. Surveys of middle school students and teachers indicated that although students' perceptions did not vary across uniform policy, teachers from schools with uniform policies perceived lower levels of…

  12. Discursive National Discrimination——Critical Discourse Analysis on Luo Gang Event

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杨

    2008-01-01

    Discourse is constitutive and socially constituted.The existence of national discrimination is the result of discourses.Luo Gang Event sharply reflects thecontradiction between Japanese and Chinese,to which the discourse-historical approach is applied to analyrze its intertextuality of discourses with other field of discourses and the formation of the"othering",therefore the discursive national discrimination come into being

  13. The Little Village Project: A Community Approach to the Gang Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spergel, Irving A.; Grossman, Susan F.

    1997-01-01

    Reports preliminary evidence on an innovative approach to gang violence which relies on community mobilization, social intervention, suppression, opportunities provision, organizational development, and targeting. Describes program processes and outcomes. The project involved teams of community youth workers, tactical police officers, adult…

  14. Rehabilitation of Platanista gangetica (Lebeck, 1801) as the valid scientific name of the Ganges dolphin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kinze, C.C.

    2000-01-01

    The Dutch scientist Heinrich Julius Lebeck’s description of the Ganges dolphin is, based on a deduced latest date of publication 24 August 1801, given priority over William Roxburgh’s account of the same species, for which no precise date could be established. Although very similar to the work of

  15. Ethnic Identity and Offending Trajectories among Mexican American Juvenile Offenders: Gang Membership and Psychosocial Maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, George P.; Losoya, Sandra H.; Cho, Young Il; Chassin, Laurie; Williams, Joanna Lee; Cota-Robles, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    We examined the association of joint trajectories of ethnic identity and criminal offending to psychosocial maturity, gang membership, and Mexican American affiliation among 300 Mexican American male juvenile offenders from ages 14 to 22. There were two low-offending groups: one was the highest in ethnic identity and changing slightly with age and…

  16. An Adapted Brief Strategic Family Therapy for Gang-Affiliated Mexican American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Avelardo; Cepeda, Alice; Parrish, Danielle; Horowitz, Rosalind; Kaplan, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the effectiveness of an adapted Brief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT) intervention for gang-affiliated Mexican American adolescents and their parents. Methods: A total of 200 adolescents and their family caregivers were randomized to either a treatment or a control condition. Outcomes included adolescent substance…

  17. The Role of Professional School Counselors in Working with Students in Gangs: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Jennifer Cahoon

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to propose a grounded theory that contributed to the understanding of the professional school counselor's role at the secondary school level in working with students in gangs. The study explored the role of the professional school counselor from the first person perspective of the professional school counselor and…

  18. School Counselors' and Principals' Perceptions of Violence: Guns, Gangs and Drugs in Rural Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Rosemary; VanZommeren, Wayne; Young, Clark; Holtman, Paula

    2001-01-01

    Research investigating perceptions of guns, gangs, drugs, and violence in rural schools surveyed 266 principals and counselors in rural elementary, middle, and high schools in northern Missouri. Smaller schools and elementary schools had fewer problems than larger and middle/high schools. Community collaboration is essential to solving…

  19. Bullies, Gangs, Drugs, and School: Understanding the Overlap and the Role of Ethnicity and Urbanicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Goldweber, Asha; Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom

    2013-01-01

    Recent media attention has increased interest in behavioral, mental health, and academic correlates of involvement in bullying. Yet, there has not been much interest in investigating the co-occurrence of other health-risk behaviors, such as gang membership, weapon carrying, and substance use. The potential influence of contextual factors, such as…

  20. "American" Abjection: "Chicanos," Gangs, and Mexican/Migrant Transnationality in Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Genova, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    Crime and street violence often evoke racialized discourses about urban space. In this ethnographic research in Chicago, however, the disdain that many Mexican migrants articulated about street gangs principally concerned issues "internal" to the Mexican/Chicano community, notably a profound ambivalence about U.S.-born Mexicans and a highly…

  1. Rehabilitation of Platanista gangetica (Lebeck, 1801) as the valid scientific name of the Ganges dolphin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kinze, C.C.

    2000-01-01

    The Dutch scientist Heinrich Julius Lebeck’s description of the Ganges dolphin is, based on a deduced latest date of publication 24 August 1801, given priority over William Roxburgh’s account of the same species, for which no precise date could be established. Although very similar to the work of Ro

  2. Rehabilitation of Platanista gangetica (Lebeck, 1801) as the valid scientific name of the Ganges dolphin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kinze, C.C.

    2000-01-01

    The Dutch scientist Heinrich Julius Lebeck’s description of the Ganges dolphin is, based on a deduced latest date of publication 24 August 1801, given priority over William Roxburgh’s account of the same species, for which no precise date could be established. Although very similar to the work of Ro

  3. Gunshot wounds seen at a county hospital before and after a riot and gang truce: Part Two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordog, G J; Shoemaker, W; Wasserberger, J; Bishop, M

    1995-03-01

    An analysis was undertaken of the number of gunshot wound victims seen at a Los Angeles County hospital both before and after the Los Angeles riot. Since the LA riot the gang truce between the "Bloods" and the "Crips" resulted in a significant decrease in the number of gunshot wound victims seen at a level I trauma center in Los Angeles. Unfortunately, this lasted for only three months. The resurgence of shootings, mainly of the drive-by type (82%), to an occurrence rate higher than ever before, has negated any positive effect of the gang truce and indicates the need for additional measures to control gang violence.

  4. Phytochemical analysis of non-volatile fraction of Artemisia caerulescens subsp. densiflora (Viv.) (Asteraceae), an endemic species of La Maddalena Archipelago (Sardinia--Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornano, Luigi; Venditti, Alessandro; Donno, Yuri; Sanna, Cinzia; Ballero, Mauro; Bianco, Armandodoriano

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia caerulescens subsp. densiflora Viv. is a rare endemic species from Corsica and Sardinia. We studied a sample collected from Razzoli, an island of the La Maddalena Archipelago. The polar secondary metabolites content of this species was investigated for the first time in this study showing the presence of sesquiterpenoids, flavonoids, caffeoylquinic acids and a coumarin, with the presence of several compounds already recognised in this genus. The metabolites composition was analysed in two different phenological stages, post blooming and flowering. During the blooming stage, the plant showed a molecular pattern mainly represented by sesquiterpenes and sterols with a minor amount of phenolics, while in flowering stage the molecular pattern was more rich in flavonoids and phenylpropanoids.

  5. TcOPT3, a member of oligopeptide transporters from the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens, is a novel Fe/Zn/Cd/Cu transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yi Ting; Ming, Feng; Chen, Wei Wei; Yan, Jing Ying; Xu, Zheng Yu; Li, Gui Xin; Xu, Chun Yan; Yang, Jian Li; Zheng, Shao Jian

    2012-01-01

    Thlaspi caerulescens is a natural selected heavy metal hyperaccumulator that can not only tolerate but also accumulate extremely high levels of heavy metals in the shoots. Thus, to identify the transportors involved in metal long-distance transportation is very important for understanding the mechanism of heavy metal accumulation in this hyperaccumulator. We cloned and characterized a novel gene TcOPT3 of OPT family from T. caerulescens. TcOPT3 was pronouncedly expressed in aerial parts, including stem and leaf. Moreover, in situ hybridization analyses showed that TcOPT3 expressed in the plant vascular systems, especially in the pericycle cells that may be involved in the long-distance transportation. The expression of TcOPT3 was highly induced by iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) deficiency, especially in the stem and leaf. Sub-cellular localization showed that TcOPT3 was a plasma membrane-localized protein. Furthermore, heterogonous expression of TcOPT3 by mutant yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) complementation experiments demonstrated that TcOPT3 could transport Fe(2+) and Zn(2+). Moreover, expression of TcOPT3 in yeast increased metal (Fe, Zn, Cu and Cd) accumulation and resulted in an increased sensitivity to cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu). Our data demonstrated that TcOPT3 might encode an Fe/Zn/Cd/Cu influx transporter with broad-substrate. This is the first report showing that TcOPT3 may be involved in metal long-distance transportation and contribute to the heavy metal hyperaccumulation.

  6. TcOPT3, a Member of Oligopeptide Transporters from the Hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens, Is a Novel Fe/Zn/Cd/Cu Transporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yi Ting; Ming, Feng; Chen, Wei Wei; Yan, Jing Ying; Xu, Zheng Yu; Li, Gui Xin; Xu, Chun Yan; Yang, Jian Li; Zheng, Shao Jian

    2012-01-01

    Background Thlaspi caerulescens is a natural selected heavy metal hyperaccumulator that can not only tolerate but also accumulate extremely high levels of heavy metals in the shoots. Thus, to identify the transportors involved in metal long-distance transportation is very important for understanding the mechanism of heavy metal accumulation in this hyperaccumulator. Methodology/Principal Findings We cloned and characterized a novel gene TcOPT3 of OPT family from T. caerulescens. TcOPT3 was pronouncedly expressed in aerial parts, including stem and leaf. Moreover, in situ hybridization analyses showed that TcOPT3 expressed in the plant vascular systems, especially in the pericycle cells that may be involved in the long-distance transportation. The expression of TcOPT3 was highly induced by iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) deficiency, especially in the stem and leaf. Sub-cellular localization showed that TcOPT3 was a plasma membrane-localized protein. Furthermore, heterogonous expression of TcOPT3 by mutant yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) complementation experiments demonstrated that TcOPT3 could transport Fe2+ and Zn2+. Moreover, expression of TcOPT3 in yeast increased metal (Fe, Zn, Cu and Cd) accumulation and resulted in an increased sensitivity to cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu). Conclusions Our data demonstrated that TcOPT3 might encode an Fe/Zn/Cd/Cu influx transporter with broad-substrate. This is the first report showing that TcOPT3 may be involved in metal long-distance transportation and contribute to the heavy metal hyperaccumulation. PMID:22761683

  7. TcOPT3, a member of oligopeptide transporters from the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens, is a novel Fe/Zn/Cd/Cu transporter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ting Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thlaspi caerulescens is a natural selected heavy metal hyperaccumulator that can not only tolerate but also accumulate extremely high levels of heavy metals in the shoots. Thus, to identify the transportors involved in metal long-distance transportation is very important for understanding the mechanism of heavy metal accumulation in this hyperaccumulator. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We cloned and characterized a novel gene TcOPT3 of OPT family from T. caerulescens. TcOPT3 was pronouncedly expressed in aerial parts, including stem and leaf. Moreover, in situ hybridization analyses showed that TcOPT3 expressed in the plant vascular systems, especially in the pericycle cells that may be involved in the long-distance transportation. The expression of TcOPT3 was highly induced by iron (Fe and zinc (Zn deficiency, especially in the stem and leaf. Sub-cellular localization showed that TcOPT3 was a plasma membrane-localized protein. Furthermore, heterogonous expression of TcOPT3 by mutant yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae complementation experiments demonstrated that TcOPT3 could transport Fe(2+ and Zn(2+. Moreover, expression of TcOPT3 in yeast increased metal (Fe, Zn, Cu and Cd accumulation and resulted in an increased sensitivity to cadmium (Cd and copper (Cu. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrated that TcOPT3 might encode an Fe/Zn/Cd/Cu influx transporter with broad-substrate. This is the first report showing that TcOPT3 may be involved in metal long-distance transportation and contribute to the heavy metal hyperaccumulation.

  8. Characterization of the high affinity Zn transporter from Noccaea caerulescens, NcZNT1, and dissection of its promoter for its role in Zn uptake and hyperaccumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Matthew J; Craft, Eric; Yamaji, Naoki; Koyama, Emi; Ma, Jian Feng; Kochian, Leon V

    2012-07-01

    • In this paper, we conducted a detailed analysis of the ZIP family transporter, NcZNT1, in the zinc (Zn)/cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulating plant species, Noccaea caerulescens, formerly known as Thlaspi caerulescens. NcZNT1 was previously suggested to be the primary root Zn/Cd uptake transporter. Both a characterization of NcZNT1 transport function in planta and in heterologous systems, and an analysis of NcZNT1 gene expression and NcZNT1 protein localization were carried out. • We show that NcZNT1 is not only expressed in the root epidermis, but also is highly expressed in the root and shoot vasculature, suggesting a role in long-distance metal transport. Also, NcZNT1 was found to be a plasma membrane transporter that mediates Zn but not Cd, iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) or copper (Cu) uptake into plant cells. • Two novel regions of the NcZNT1 promoter were identified which may be involved in both the hyperexpression of NcZNT1 and its ability to be regulated by plant Zn status. • In conclusion, we demonstrate here that NcZNT1 plays a role in Zn and not Cd uptake from the soil, and based on its strong expression in the root and shoot vasculature, could be involved in long-distance transport of Zn from the root to the shoot via the xylem. No claim to original US government works. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Evaluating G.R.E.A.T.: A School-Based Gang Prevention Program. Research for Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbensen, Finn-Aage

    2004-01-01

    The Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) program differs from typical efforts to reduce gang involvement in that the G.R.E.A.T. program does not target at-risk youth but rather targets its classroom-based program at all middle school students. The three main objectives of the 9-hour curriculum taught by uniformed officers are to:…

  10. 2011 Workplace and Equal Opportunity Survey of Reserve Component Members: Qualitative Analysis on Extremist Groups, Hate Crimes, and Gangs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-15

    impact the members’ sense of safety for themselves and/or their family , subsequently effecting military readiness and well-being. As this information...against homosexuals .” —ARNG, male, junior enlisted, Hispanic 2011 Workplace and Equal Opportunity Survey of Reserve Component Members: Qualitative...which impacts feelings of safety for themselves and/or their family .  “There are several active Hispanic gangs ([GANG]) in the city I reside in

  11. Gangs in Catalonia. The approach from the Catalonia Government Police Troopers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Herrero Blanco

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In 2002, the presence of gangs was detected in Catalonia. The groups had their origins in bands from the American continent, with whom they maintained communication and dependency relationships. Since then, there has been steady increase both in the number of gangs and youth involved in them, as well as the level of criminal activity linked to these groups. The police corps have followed the evolution of these groups closely, although the social context is radically different and the levels of crime and violence are not comparable to the other side of the Atlantic. This article seeks to explain the Catalonia Government Troopers’ approach to this phenomenon during this time.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v1i2.1360

  12. Barcelona and Madrid: Two different realities in the phenomenon of the Latino gangs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel López Corral

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The Latino gangs that have come into existence in Spain represent a potential risk factor for citizens’ security and coexistence. That is the view of security forces and organisations, and it also seems to be the understanding reached by the administrations of the Autonomous Communities of Catalonia and Madrid, whose actions in the light of this phenomenon are assessed in this work. To this end, the author begins with an analysis of the significance of Latino gangs inSpain, from their origins to their introduction, and carries out a review of their current situation, including their organisation, recruitment, impact and risk for citizen security. Only with suchan analysis can one begin to comprehend the scenario of dangers that will appear in the future, and the police strategy that should be introduced to deal with the phenomenon.

  13. Cultivated plants in the diversified homegardens of local communities in Ganges Valley, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Syed Ajijur; Baldauf, Cristina; Mollee, Eefke Maria; Abdullah-Al-Pavel, Muha.; Abdullah-Al-Mamun, Md.; Toy, Mahmudul Mannan; Sunderland, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Homestead agroforestry, in the form of homegardens, has a long tradition in many developing countries. These systems are an intimate mix of diversified agricultural crops and multipurpose trees planted, maintained by members of the household. This paper aims to explore the species composition commonly found in the homestead agroforestry systems in the Ganges valley of northern Bangladesh and their contribution to local livelihoods. Three villages i.e., ‘Capasia’, ‘Chak Capasia’ and ‘Baduria’ ...

  14. Street Gangs: A Modeling Approach to Evaluating "At Risk" Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    because “13-year-old gang boys can be diverted more easily from illegal street activity than adult criminals in their early 20s can be” (Fleisher...gender specific due to the model including both boys and girls and not distinguishing between the two groups. This simply means that there is no...Wiley & Sons, Inc. Moore, J.W. (1991). Going down to the barrio : Homeboys and homegirls in change. Philadelphia: Temple University Press

  15. Drugs, Gangs, Transnational Organized Crime and Malgoverened Spaces in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    economies and social fabric were already decimated by long and bloody civil wars. In these countries, narcotraffickers found weak institutions...for drugs in the neighborhoods that they controlled, expanding the violence and social problems already tearing apart those areas apart.40 The...www.migrationpolicy.org/article/national-policies-and-rise-transnational-gangs/. 42. See, for example, Maria Ignacia Arriagada, “ Identidad violenta en los jóvenes

  16. Commitment language and homework completion in a behavioral employment program for gang-affiliated youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caitlin; Huey, Stanley J; McDaniel, Dawn D

    2015-05-01

    Research with substance-abusing samples suggests that eliciting commitment language during treatment may improve motivation to change, increase treatment engagement, and promote positive treatment outcomes. However, the relationship between in-session client language and treatment success is not well-understood for youth offender populations. This study evaluated the relationship between commitment language, treatment engagement (i.e., homework completion), and weekly employment outcomes for six gang-affiliated juvenile offenders participating in an employment counseling intervention. Weekly counseling sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded for commitment language strength. Multilevel models were fit to the data to examine the relationship between commitment language and counseling homework or employment outcomes within participants over time. Commitment language strength predicted subsequent homework completion but not weekly employment. These findings imply that gang-affiliated delinquent youth who express motivation to change during employment counseling will be more likely to comply with counselor-initiated homework. Further research on counselor techniques for promoting commitment language among juvenile gang offenders is needed.

  17. salvadoran gang weapons: analysis of lethality, firepower, and implications for security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herard Von Santos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Since they surfaced during the final phase of the Internal Conflict in El Salvador, gangs have always used the firearms that were available on the formal and illegal markets. Once the war concluded, and despite new regulations regarding possession of firearms, gang members were able to access them through two means: purchasing on the commercial market, and creating them themselves.This initial acquisition of firearms evolved to acquisition of heavier firepower; particularly assault rifles, and guns that are able to shoot shotgun shells, as well as traditional gauges (9x19 mm, .45, and .38. The cause of this could be directly linked to two factors. On the one hand, the war between two main gangs, the “MS” and the “Barrio 18” –as could be expected– increased the need for greater firepower. On the other hand, there was greater availability of firearms on the market, such as assault rifles, and machine guns, as a result of the war.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v4i1.1558

  18. Development of seasonal flow outlook model for Ganges-Brahmaputra Basins in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Sazzad; Haque Khan, Raihanul; Gautum, Dilip Kumar; Karmaker, Ripon; Hossain, Amirul

    2016-10-01

    Bangladesh is crisscrossed by the branches and tributaries of three main river systems, the Ganges, Bramaputra and Meghna (GBM). The temporal variation of water availability of those rivers has an impact on the different water usages such as irrigation, urban water supply, hydropower generation, navigation etc. Thus, seasonal flow outlook can play important role in various aspects of water management. The Flood Forecasting and Warning Center (FFWC) in Bangladesh provides short term and medium term flood forecast, and there is a wide demand from end-users about seasonal flow outlook for agricultural purposes. The objective of this study is to develop a seasonal flow outlook model in Bangladesh based on rainfall forecast. It uses European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) seasonal precipitation, temperature forecast to simulate HYDROMAD hydrological model. Present study is limited for Ganges and Brahmaputra River Basins. ARIMA correction is applied to correct the model error. The performance of the model is evaluated using coefficient of determination (R2) and Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE). The model result shows good performance with R2 value of 0.78 and NSE of 0.61 for the Brahmaputra River Basin, and R2 value of 0.72 and NSE of 0.59 for the Ganges River Basin for the period of May to July 2015. The result of the study indicates strong potential to make seasonal outlook to be operationalized.

  19. Contribution of Sediment Compaction/Loading to the Ganges-Bangladesh Delta Subsidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpytchev, Mikhail; Krien, Yann; Ballu, Valerie; Becker, Melanie; Calmant, Stephane; Spada, Giorgio; Guo, Junyi; Khan, Zahirul; Shum, Ck

    2016-04-01

    A pronounced spatial variability characterizes the subsidence/uplift rates in the Ganges-Bangladesh delta estimated from both sediment cores and modern geodetic techniques. The large variability of the subsidence rates suggests an interplay of different natural and anthropogenic processes including tectonics, sediment loading and sediment compaction, groundwater extaction among many others drivers of the delta vertical land movements.In this study, we focus on estimating the subsidence rates due to the sediments transported by the Ganges-Brahmaputra since the last 18 000 years. The delta subsidence induced by the sediment loading and the resulting sea level changes are modelled by the TABOO and SELEN software (Spada, 2003; Stocchi and Spada, 2007) in the framework of a gravitationally self-consistent Earth model. The loading history was obtained from available sediment cores and from the isopach map of Goodbread and Kuehl (2000). The results demonstrate that the delta loading enhanced by the Holocene sedimention can be responsable for a regular subsidence across the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta with an amplitude of 1-5 mm/yr along the Bengal coast. These estimates demonstrate that the contribution of the Holocene as well as modern sediment loading should be taken into account in climate change mitigation politicy for Bangladesh.

  20. Geomorphology of the Ganges fluvial system in the Himalayan foreland: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Sinha

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The Ganges is one of the largest fluvial systems in the world rising from the loftiest Himalaya and draining into the Bay of Bengal. Together with the Brahmaputra, it also constitutes the largest delta in the world before finally meeting the sea. The Ganges system passes through a variety of terrain from the rugged mountains through the flat alluvial plains and the sea margin, and also transects variable climatic zones. As a result, the processes, landforms and stratigraphy are strikingly different in different zones of the system. This paper attempts to provide an update on our understanding of this very large and diverse system. A global effort has been made in the last few decades, and the research has focused on a variety of themes. The mountainous catchments have attracted attention in view of the extent of glaciation and extensive erosional processes. The alluvial plains of the Ganges symbolizes the life line of one of the world's largest population. Consequently, a number of studies have been carried out on the morphology, hydrology including flooding history and sediment transport behaviour of the river system. The alluvial stratigraphy of the large valleys and the interfluves in the plains has provided insight about the sedimentation pattern and response to climate change. The deltaic plain is the final destination of this huge sediment dispersal system before it drains into the sea, and it also records the influence of sea level changes apart from the upstream catchment controls over a period of time.

  1. Seasonal variation of glacial melt proportion in the headwaters of the Ganges River: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Indra; Hemingway, Jordon; Sengupta, Deep; Sinha, Rajiv; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard; Chakraborty, Anirban

    2015-04-01

    The effect of global warming on Hindu Kush- Himalayan (HKH) glaciers is of global concern as they are the source of many large rivers in the Indian subcontinent such as the Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra. Questions and concerns have been raised about the melting of the Himalayan glaciers, and how this will impact downstream water supplies, hydropower generation, irrigation, and food security issues. Of all the HKH glaciers, the Gangotri glacier located in the Uttarkashi district of the Garhwal Himalaya, India has received special attention as it is receding at an alarming rate of 30 m/year. The Gangotri glacier feeds the Ganges River, which drains nearly 1 million square kilometers of land surface in India and Bangladesh, and provides water security to half a billion people. Based on remote sensing data it has been estimated that the overall area of Gangotri glacier has shrunk by 6% between 1952 and 2006, and that the glacial terminus has receded by more than 850 m over the past 25 years. However, ground observation data aimed at studying the changing influence of the Gangotri glacier on the discharge of the Ganges River are still limited. Here we report preliminary observations of physical (temperature and conductivity) and chemical (major ion and trace element concentrations, pH, and dissolved oxygen) parameters of water samples near glaciated Ganges headwaters for the pre-monsoon (May), monsoon (August), and post monsoon (November) periods corresponding to 2014. We have characterized the seasonal δ18O and δ2H variability of the Ganges headwaters. The pre-monsoonal δ18O varied between -15.1o and -9.3o whereas the monsoonal δ18O varied between -14.9o and -5.7o. The pre-monsoon δ2H varied between -105.4o and -61.5o, whereas the monsoonal δ2H varied between -103.8o and -47.2o. Our isotope-mixing model predicts significant seasonal (pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon) variability of glacial melt contributions to the total discharge. Water chemistry data also

  2. Homies with aspirations and positive peer network ties: associations with reduced frequent substance use among gang-affiliated Latino youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dommelen-Gonzalez, Evan; Deardorff, Julianna; Herd, Denise; Minnis, Alexandra M

    2015-04-01

    In marginalized urban neighborhoods across the USA, Latino youth are disproportionately represented among the growing number of youth gangs. Substance use among gang-involved youth poses both immediate and long-term health risks and can threaten educational engagement, future socioeconomic stability, and desistance. Conventional assessments of gang-affiliated youth and their peer network overlook the possibility that positive peer ties may exist and can foster health promoting behavior norms. Drawing on a positive deviance framework, in this study, we examine the relationship between positive peer network characteristics tied to post-secondary educational aspirations and frequent alcohol and marijuana use among Latino, gang-affiliated youth from a neighborhood in San Francisco. Using generalized estimating equations regression models across 72 peer network clusters (162 youth), we found that having close friends who plan to go to a 4-year college was associated with a lower odds of frequent marijuana and alcohol use (OR 0.27, p = 0.02; OR 0.29, p = 0.14, respectively) and that this association persisted when adjusting for risk characteristics (OR 0.19, p gang intervention efforts by identifying protective and risk factors associated with non-criminal health outcomes to inform participatory research approaches and asset-based interventions that contribute to building healthy communities.

  3. Assessing School-Based Gang Prevention Efforts in Urban Centers: Are These Programs Reaching Those Students Who May Benefit the Most?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Hector

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, schools have become a focal point for general delinquency and gang prevention programs for a variety of reasons. One premise behind this approach is that schools can serve as ideal settings for providing delinquency and intervention services because youths spend so much time there. School-based gang prevention efforts are supposed…

  4. Impact of a Comprehensive Whole Child Intervention and Prevention Program among Youths at Risk of Gang Involvement and Other Forms of Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffman, Stephen; Ray, Alice; Berg, Sarah; Covington, Larry; Albarran, Nadine M.; Vasquez, Max

    2009-01-01

    Youths in gang-ridden neighborhoods are at risk for trauma-related mental health disorders, which are early indicators of likely school failure and delinquency. Such youths rarely seek out services for these problems. The Juvenile Intervention and Prevention Program (JIPP), a school-based gang intervention and prevention program in Los Angeles,…

  5. Combating Gangs: Better Coordination and Performance Measurement Would Help Clarify Roles of Federal Agencies and Strengthen Assessment of Efforts. Report to the Ranking Member, Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives. GAO-09-708

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Government Accountability Office, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Justice (DOJ) estimates that the United States has about a million gang members. While state and local agencies have primary responsibility for combating gang crime, the federal government has key roles to enforce laws and help fund programs to provide alternatives to gang membership for at-risk youth. GAO was asked to examine…

  6. The Challenges of Gangs and Youth Violence in the Schools. Fourth CCBD Mini-Library Series: Addressing the Diverse Needs of Children and Youth with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders--Programs That Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Sharon H.; Van Acker, Richard

    Review of the current knowledge concerning youth violence and gang behavior considers risk factors for violence and gang formation, functions served by violence and gang membership, and strategies that have been empirically validated to be either beneficial or ineffective. Following an introductory chapter, the first chapter looks at the nature of…

  7. Youth Gangs and Streets in Surabaya, East Java: Growth, Movement and Places in the Context of Urban Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Carlo Alcano

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the nature of youth street gangs in the poor innercity neighborhood of kampung Malang, located in Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia. Specifically, it explores the relationship of youth street gangs with urban places and their transition to organized crime in the context of migration to South Bali. It focuses on notions of social cohesion, discipline and invulnerability while placing an emphasis on work and the quest for work against a background of uncertainty and precariousness. It introduces movement as a salient feature of life in the city and in the life of young gang members and it looks at how circuits of human mobility are configured for a particular group of people, to particular ends in a particular place.

  8. Differential heating in the Indian Ocean differentially modulates precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervez, Md Shahriar; Henebry, Geoffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Indo-Pacific sea surface temperature dynamics play a prominent role in Asian summer monsoon variability. Two interactive climate modes of the Indo-Pacific—the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean dipole mode—modulate the amount of precipitation over India, in addition to precipitation over Africa, Indonesia, and Australia. However, this modulation is not spatially uniform. The precipitation in southern India is strongly forced by the Indian Ocean dipole mode and ENSO. In contrast, across northern India, encompassing the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins, the climate mode influence on precipitation is much less. Understanding the forcing of precipitation in these river basins is vital for food security and ecosystem services for over half a billion people. Using 28 years of remote sensing observations, we demonstrate that (i) the tropical west-east differential heating in the Indian Ocean influences the Ganges precipitation and (ii) the north-south differential heating in the Indian Ocean influences the Brahmaputra precipitation. The El Niño phase induces warming in the warm pool of the Indian Ocean and exerts more influence on Ganges precipitation than Brahmaputra precipitation. The analyses indicate that both the magnitude and position of the sea surface temperature anomalies in the Indian Ocean are important drivers for precipitation dynamics that can be effectively summarized using two new indices, one tuned for each basin. These new indices have the potential to aid forecasting of drought and flooding, to contextualize land cover and land use change, and to assess the regional impacts of climate change.

  9. Differential Heating in the Indian Ocean Differentially Modulates Precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra Basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Shahriar Pervez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Indo-Pacific sea surface temperature dynamics play a prominent role in Asian summer monsoon variability. Two interactive climate modes of the Indo-Pacific—the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO and the Indian Ocean dipole mode—modulate the amount of precipitation over India, in addition to precipitation over Africa, Indonesia, and Australia. However, this modulation is not spatially uniform. The precipitation in southern India is strongly forced by the Indian Ocean dipole mode and ENSO. In contrast, across northern India, encompassing the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins, the climate mode influence on precipitation is much less. Understanding the forcing of precipitation in these river basins is vital for food security and ecosystem services for over half a billion people. Using 28 years of remote sensing observations, we demonstrate that (i the tropical west-east differential heating in the Indian Ocean influences the Ganges precipitation and (ii the north-south differential heating in the Indian Ocean influences the Brahmaputra precipitation. The El Niño phase induces warming in the warm pool of the Indian Ocean and exerts more influence on Ganges precipitation than Brahmaputra precipitation. The analyses indicate that both the magnitude and position of the sea surface temperature anomalies in the Indian Ocean are important drivers for precipitation dynamics that can be effectively summarized using two new indices, one tuned for each basin. These new indices have the potential to aid forecasting of drought and flooding, to contextualize land cover and land use change, and to assess the regional impacts of climate change.

  10. Flexible Strategies for Coping with Rainfall Variability: Seasonal Adjustments in Cropped Area in the Ganges Basin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Siderius

    Full Text Available One of the main manifestations of climate change will be increased rainfall variability. How to deal with this in agriculture will be a major societal challenge. In this paper we explore flexibility in land use, through deliberate seasonal adjustments in cropped area, as a specific strategy for coping with rainfall variability. Such adjustments are not incorporated in hydro-meteorological crop models commonly used for food security analyses. Our paper contributes to the literature by making a comprehensive model assessment of inter-annual variability in crop production, including both variations in crop yield and cropped area. The Ganges basin is used as a case study. First, we assessed the contribution of cropped area variability to overall variability in rice and wheat production by applying hierarchical partitioning on time-series of agricultural statistics. We then introduced cropped area as an endogenous decision variable in a hydro-economic optimization model (WaterWise, coupled to a hydrology-vegetation model (LPJmL, and analyzed to what extent its performance in the estimation of inter-annual variability in crop production improved. From the statistics, we found that in the period 1999-2009 seasonal adjustment in cropped area can explain almost 50% of variability in wheat production and 40% of variability in rice production in the Indian part of the Ganges basin. Our improved model was well capable of mimicking existing variability at different spatial aggregation levels, especially for wheat. The value of flexibility, i.e. the foregone costs of choosing not to crop in years when water is scarce, was quantified at 4% of gross margin of wheat in the Indian part of the Ganges basin and as high as 34% of gross margin of wheat in the drought-prone state of Rajasthan. We argue that flexibility in land use is an important coping strategy to rainfall variability in water stressed regions.

  11. Implications of agricultural land use change to ecosystem services in the Ganges delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, G M Tarekul; Islam, A K M Saiful; Shopan, Ahsan Azhar; Rahman, Md Munsur; Lázár, Attila N; Mukhopadhyay, Anirban

    2015-09-15

    Ecosystems provide the basis for human civilization and natural capital for green economy and sustainable development. Ecosystem services may range from crops, fish, freshwater to those that are harder to see such as erosion regulation, carbon sequestration, and pest control. Land use changes have been identified as the main sources of coastal and marine pollution in Bangladesh. This paper explores the temporal variation of agricultural land use change and its implications with ecosystem services in the Ganges delta. With time agricultural lands have been decreased and wetlands have been increased at a very high rate mainly due to the growing popularity of saltwater shrimp farming. In a span of 28 years, the agricultural lands have been reduced by approximately 50%, while the wetlands have been increased by over 500%. A large portion (nearly 40%) of the study area is covered by the Sundarbans which remained almost constant which can be attributed to the strict regulatory intervention to preserve the Sundarbans. The settlement & others land use type has also been increased to nearly 5%. There is a gradual uptrend of shrimp and fish production in the study area. The findings suggest that there are significant linkages between agricultural land use change and ecosystem services in the Ganges delta in Bangladesh. The continuous decline of agricultural land (due to salinization) and an increase of wetland have been attributed to the conversion of agricultural land into shrimp farming in the study area. Such land use change requires significant capital, therefore, only investors and wealthier land owners can get the higher profit from the land conversion while the poor people is left with the environmental consequences that affect their long-term lives and livelihood. An environmental management plan is proposed for sustainable land use in the Ganges delta in Bangladesh.

  12. The Likelihood of Collaboration Between Central American Transnational Gangs and Terrorist Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    RQT=309&VName=PQD (accessed September 8, 2006). 103 Will Weissert, "Guatemala Gangs: Guards Supplied Weapons," Associated Press Online , sec...Amiga’ Para La Formacion Del Adolescente," Tiwy.com, http://www.tiwy.com/noticias/2004/esp-10.phtml (accessed August 31, 2006). 71 Nicaragua has been... Online , sec. Europe, http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9805E3DF1131F933A1575A C0A9609C8B63 (accessed December 20, 2006). Ribando, Clare

  13. Benchmarking wide swath altimetry-based river discharge estimation algorithms for the Ganges river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnema, Matthew G.; Sikder, Safat; Hossain, Faisal; Durand, Michael; Gleason, Colin J.; Bjerklie, David M.

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the effectiveness of three algorithms that estimate discharge from remotely sensed observables (river width, water surface height, and water surface slope) in anticipation of the forthcoming NASA/CNES Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission. SWOT promises to provide these measurements simultaneously, and the river discharge algorithms included here are designed to work with these data. Two algorithms were built around Manning's equation, the Metropolis Manning (MetroMan) method, and the Mean Flow and Geomorphology (MFG) method, and one approach uses hydraulic geometry to estimate discharge, the at-many-stations hydraulic geometry (AMHG) method. A well-calibrated and ground-truthed hydrodynamic model of the Ganges river system (HEC-RAS) was used as reference for three rivers from the Ganges River Delta: the main stem of Ganges, the Arial-Khan, and the Mohananda Rivers. The high seasonal variability of these rivers due to the Monsoon presented a unique opportunity to thoroughly assess the discharge algorithms in light of typical monsoon regime rivers. It was found that the MFG method provides the most accurate discharge estimations in most cases, with an average relative root-mean-squared error (RRMSE) across all three reaches of 35.5%. It is followed closely by the Metropolis Manning algorithm, with an average RRMSE of 51.5%. However, the MFG method's reliance on knowledge of prior river discharge limits its application on ungauged rivers. In terms of input data requirement at ungauged regions with no prior records, the Metropolis Manning algorithm provides a more practical alternative over a region that is lacking in historical observations as the algorithm requires less ancillary data. The AMHG algorithm, while requiring the least prior river data, provided the least accurate discharge measurements with an average wet and dry season RRMSE of 79.8% and 119.1%, respectively, across all rivers studied. This poor

  14. Gangs and College Knowledge: An Examination of Latino Male Students Attending an Alternative School

    OpenAIRE

    Huerta, Adrian Hernandez

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to understand how 13 Latino male students acquire and make sense of gang and college knowledge in one alternative/continuation schools in Rock County School District. Less than 45 percent of Latino males graduate from public schools in that state of the study (Schott Foundation for Public Education, 2015). Using Bourdieu’s (1980, 1990) cultural capital and habitus and Coleman’s (1988, 1990) social capital theories serves as a combined lens to consider how L...

  15. Humanitarian Protection for Children Fleeing Gang-Based Violence in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Carlson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available By the end of 2011, the US Customs and Border Protection (CBP began to see a steady rise in the number of Unaccompanied Alien Children (UAC from Central America, particularly from the Northern Triangle countries—El Salvador, Honduras and Guatemala—arriving to the US-Mexico border. The number of children entering the United States from these countries more than doubled during fiscal year (FY 2012 and continued to grow through FY 2014. In FY 2013, CBP apprehended over 35,000 children. That number almost doubled to 66,127 in FY 2014, with Central American children outnumbering their Mexican counterparts for the first time. Research has identified high levels of violence perpetrated by gangs and drug cartels in the Northern Triangle countries and Mexico as a primary reason for this surge. Under the William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act (TVPRA passed with bi-partisan support in 2008, children from Central America cannot be immediately deported and must be given a court hearing.In contrast, unless there are indicia of trafficking, Mexican children are returned immediately to their country. Advocates have expressed concern that expedited removal of Mexican children places children with valid humanitarian claims at risk of being returned to harm, including forcible recruitment into drug cartels and trafficking rings. After the spike in arrivals in FY 2014, several members of Congress called for a change in the TVPRA, urging that Central American children be treated like Mexican children and undergo expedited procedures for their removal. Many of their constituents supported such measures. The Obama administration requested additional funds to strengthen border security, speed up deportation procedures and implement measures to address the humanitarian crisis in Central America. Groups and individuals across the country came together to provide shelter, medical and psychological care and legal representation to many

  16. Årets gang i ord og sang, med Axel, Anna og lille Camilla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Lise Charlotte Sanders; Lefmann, Else

    "Årets gang i ord og sang med Axel, Anna og lille Camilla" henvender sig til de 5-8 årige i skole, hjem eller daginstitution - og består af: En illustreret bog med: 14 historier, der følger en familie, bestående af far, mor og tre børn. Gennem et helt år, måned for måned, hører vi om deres liv......, deres oplevelser, glæder og skuffelser. 14 sange, der ligeledes følger familiens liv gennem årstidernes skiften. Til sangene er der såvel noder som becifringer En CD Her er sangene først fuldt arrangeret med musik, børne- og voksenstemmer. Dernæst kommer musikken alene, således at Cd'en også kan bruges...... som akkompagnement, når man synger sangene. Materialet kan bruges på mange måder: Rent pædagogisk kan det bruges til at lære om årets gang og månedernes navne og rækkefølge Som en oplagt mulighed for at lære nye børnevenlige årstids sange i forskellige genre Som samtalestof med gode...

  17. A decade of major vascular trauma: Lessons learned from gang and civilian warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdass, M J; Harnarayan, P

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Trinidad and Tobago is a trans-shipment point for the illegal trade of drugs, arms and ammunition and, as such, has a high incidence of gang-related warfare and drug-related crimes. This has led to a high incidence of gunshot and stab wounds, with associated major vascular injuries. We describe our management strategies learned from a decade of vascular trauma experience. METHODS A retrospective analysis of age, gender, type of trauma, vessel injured, procedure and outcome for all cases of vascular trauma between 2006 and 2015 at two surgical units in Trinidad and Tobago. RESULTS There were 198 vascular trauma cases (232 procedures), involving 159 (80%) males at a mean age of 33 years. Gunshots accounted for 103 (52%) cases, followed by stabs/chops (n=50; 25%) and lacerations (n=15; 8%). The most commonly injured vessels were the radial/ulnar arteries (n=39; 20%) and the superficial femoral artery (n=37; 19%). There were seven pseudoaneurysms and three traumatic arteriovenous fistulae. Repair techniques included primary (n=82; 35%), reversed vein (n=63; 27%), polytetrafluoroethylene (n=58; 25%), oversew (n=24; 10%) and endovascular (n=5; 2%) techniques. There were eight (4%) secondary amputations and eight (4%) deaths. CONCLUSIONS Major vascular trauma causes significant morbidity and mortality in Trinidad and Tobago, with the majority of cases due to gunshot injuries secondary to gang-related warfare and civilian violence. We compare our experience with that in the literature on the epidemiology and management of vascular trauma.

  18. Ganges Chasma Landing Site: Access to Sand Sheets, Wall Rock and Layered Mesa Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, James W., Jr.

    1999-06-01

    The floor of Ganges Chasma offers an ideal landing site for the MSP 2001 lander. This site is exquisite both in terms of engineering constraints and science objectives. The floor of Ganges Chasma is mantled with an extensive sand sheet. Sand sheets develop in conditions which are unfavorable for dune formation. These may include a high water table, periodic flooding, surface cementation, and coarse grained sands. The most extensive sand sheets on Earth are located in the eastern Sahara. These sheets have a relief of less than 1 m over wide areas and total thickness ranges from a few cm to 10 m. The surfaces of sand sheets are composed of granule to pebbly lag deposits. Sand sheets provide an extremely safe landing site and have very low relief. The safety concerns regarding slopes, rocks, and dust would be alleviated by the sand sheet. Furthermore, this vast sand sheet would allow the Marie Curie Rover to cover great distances. Rover navigability would be very easily compared to the tedious rock avoidance maneuvers that Sojourner had to accomplish. This exercise would be an important precursor test for the more capable Athena Rover which will execute longer traverses. Moreover, the Rover has already been "field tested" on sand at the JPL Mars sandbox. Dust should not be a problem: Thermal inertia is 7.7 to 8.9 cgs units. This site satisfies all engineering constraints.

  19. Hydropower Ambitions of South Asian Nations: Ganges and Brahmaputra River basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizanur Rahaman, Muhammad

    2010-05-01

    This paper analyses the current status of hydropower development in two major river basins in South Asia, the Ganges and the Brahmaputra. The total drainage area of the basins is about 1660,000 km2 shared by China, Nepal, India, Bhutan, and Bangladesh. The basins are blessed with ample water resources and huge hydropower potential. Hydropower development is strongly linked with the overall development framework of the region. The abundant hydropower potential of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra can help give riparian countries a safer energy future that is the key driving force behind the prospect of potential cooperation in the field of water. Based on four years research studies (2005-2009), this paper analyse the hydropower development plans and ambitions of riparian nations with special focus on China and India. The finding suggests that it is essential to develop an integrated hydropower development approach involving all riparian nations intended to foster regional development and overcome the prospect of severe conflict because of unilateral hydropower ambitions of China and India. The hydropower development cooperation between China and India could also become the positive turning point in the integration of South and South-East Asia.

  20. Monsoon sedimentation on the ‘abandoned' tide-influenced Ganges-Brahmaputra delta plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Kimberly G.; Goodbred, Steven L.; Mondal, Dhiman R.

    2013-10-01

    Annual sediment delivery by the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers to the Bengal margin has kept pace with sea level rise since the mid Holocene, sustaining subaerial growth of the delta. However, the Sundarbans region of the tidal delta is disconnected from major distributary sources of sediment and is often thought to be sediment starved, eroding, and susceptible to the meter of sea level rise predicted for the 21st century. Despite these assumptions, direct sedimentation measurements on the tidal delta plain reveal widespread mean annualized accretion rates of ˜1.1 cm yr-1, although heterogeneous depositional patterns indicate that topography and internal creek networks influence local sediment distribution. Short-lived radioisotope inventories (7Be: t1/2 = 53.3 days) measured on the freshly accumulated sediments indicate that about ½ of the mass deposited on the lower delta was sourced directly from the seasonal flood pulse of the river; the remaining ½ is derived from older (≥1 yr) reworked sediments. Net sedimentation on this part of the delta traps ˜10% of annual Ganges-Brahmaputra sediment load, with accretion rates roughly equivalent to the mean regional rate of relative sea-level rise (RSLR) of ˜1.0 cm yr-1. If these sedimentation rates are representative of longer-term trends and subsidence rates remain stable over the next century, the lower delta plain may continue to maintain its elevation and stability despite documented mangrove retreat around its seaward edges.

  1. Water resources management in the Ganges Basin: a comparison of three strategies for conjunctive use of groundwater and surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mahfuzur R.; Voss, Clifford I.; Yu, Winston; Michael, Holly A.

    2014-01-01

    The most difficult water resources management challenge in the Ganges Basin is the imbalance between water demand and seasonal availability. More than 80 % of the annual flow in the Ganges River occurs during the 4-month monsoon, resulting in widespread flooding. During the rest of the year, irrigation, navigation, and ecosystems suffer because of water scarcity. Storage of monsoonal flow for utilization during the dry season is one approach to mitigating these problems. Three conjunctive use management strategies involving subsurface water storage are evaluated in this study: Ganges Water Machine (GWM), Pumping Along Canals (PAC), and Distributed Pumping and Recharge (DPR). Numerical models are used to determine the efficacy of these strategies. Results for the Indian State of Uttar Pradesh (UP) indicate that these strategies create seasonal subsurface storage from 6 to 37 % of the yearly average monsoonal flow in the Ganges exiting UP over the considered range of conditions. This has clear implications for flood reduction, and each strategy has the potential to provide irrigation water and to reduce soil waterlogging. However, GWM and PAC require significant public investment in infrastructure and management, as well as major shifts in existing water use practices; these also involve spatially-concentrated pumping, which may induce land subsidence. DPR also requires investment and management, but the distributed pumping is less costly and can be more easily implemented via adaptation of existing water use practices in the basin.

  2. Dual Trajectories of Gang Affiliation and Delinquent Peer Association During Adolescence: An Examination of Long-Term Offending Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Beidi; Krohn, Marvin D

    2016-04-01

    Prior research has demonstrated that both adolescent gang affiliation and perceived delinquent peer association are important predictors of individual offending. A crucial question is whether and how youth gang affiliation contributes to a spectrum of criminal acts above and beyond the influence of associating with delinquent peers. Using 14 waves of data from the Rochester Youth Developmental Study, an ongoing longitudinal panel study aimed at understanding the causes and consequences of delinquency and drug use in an urban sample of adolescents, the current study employs a relatively new modeling technique-dual trajectory analysis-to illustrate the dynamic relationship between these two measures among 666 male youth. The results suggest that the two measures, while overlapping, may constitute distinct concepts that operate in different ways. The most convincing evidence of gang effects, above and beyond the influence of perceived peer delinquency, is for violent behavior and by extension police arrest. Our findings contribute to developmental research and provide information that informs future gang control efforts.

  3. Point bars as stratigraphic traps for arsenic contamination in groundwater: Case study of the Ganges River, Bihar, India (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donselaar, M.E.; Bhatt, A.G.; Bruining, J.; Bose, N.; Ghosh, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic-contaminated groundwater causes a wide-spread, serious health risk affecting millions of people worldwide. Focus of the research is the floodplain of the Ganges River in the State of Bihar (India) where groundwater is the principal source of drinking water and irrigation, and where the

  4. Point bars as stratigraphic traps for arsenic contamination in groundwater: Case study of the Ganges River, Bihar, India (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donselaar, M.E.; Bhatt, A.G.; Bruining, J.; Bose, N.; Ghosh, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic-contaminated groundwater causes a wide-spread, serious health risk affecting millions of people worldwide. Focus of the research is the floodplain of the Ganges River in the State of Bihar (India) where groundwater is the principal source of drinking water and irrigation, and where the level

  5. Incidence of gunshot wounds at a county hospital following the Los Angeles riot and a gang truce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordog, G J; Wasserberger, J; Ibanez, J; Bishop, M; Velayos, E; Balasubramanium, S; Shoemaker, W

    1993-06-01

    An analysis of the number of gunshot wound victims seen at a Los Angeles County Hospital both before and after the Los Angeles riot of 1992 was undertaken. Since the riot, the gang truce between the "Bloods" and the "Crips" has resulted in a significant decrease in the number of gunshot wound victims seen at a level I trauma center in Los Angeles.

  6. Chain Gang

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    6 August 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a chain of clustered and battered craters. These were formed by secondary impact. That is, somewhere to the south (beyond the bottom of this image), a large impact crater formed. When this occurred, material ejected from the crater was thrown tens to hundreds of kilometers away. This material then impacted the martian surface, forming clusters and chains of smaller craters. Location near: 15.8oN, 35.6oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Northern Spring

  7. Human group formation in online guilds and offline gangs driven by a common team dynamic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Neil F; Xu, Chen; Zhao, Zhenyuan; Ducheneaut, Nicolas; Yee, Nicholas; Tita, George; Hui, Pak Ming

    2009-06-01

    Quantifying human group dynamics represents a unique challenge. Unlike animals and other biological systems, humans form groups in both real (offline) and virtual (online) spaces-from potentially dangerous street gangs populated mostly by disaffected male youths to the massive global guilds in online role-playing games for which membership currently exceeds tens of millions of people from all possible backgrounds, age groups, and genders. We have compiled and analyzed data for these two seemingly unrelated offline and online human activities and have uncovered an unexpected quantitative link between them. Although their overall dynamics differ visibly, we find that a common team-based model can accurately reproduce the quantitative features of each simply by adjusting the average tolerance level and attribute range for each population. By contrast, we find no evidence to support a version of the model based on like-seeking-like (i.e., kinship or "homophily").

  8. Human group formation in online guilds and offline gangs driven by a common team dynamic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Neil F.; Xu, Chen; Zhao, Zhenyuan; Ducheneaut, Nicolas; Yee, Nicholas; Tita, George; Hui, Pak Ming

    2009-06-01

    Quantifying human group dynamics represents a unique challenge. Unlike animals and other biological systems, humans form groups in both real (offline) and virtual (online) spaces—from potentially dangerous street gangs populated mostly by disaffected male youths to the massive global guilds in online role-playing games for which membership currently exceeds tens of millions of people from all possible backgrounds, age groups, and genders. We have compiled and analyzed data for these two seemingly unrelated offline and online human activities and have uncovered an unexpected quantitative link between them. Although their overall dynamics differ visibly, we find that a common team-based model can accurately reproduce the quantitative features of each simply by adjusting the average tolerance level and attribute range for each population. By contrast, we find no evidence to support a version of the model based on like-seeking-like (i.e., kinship or “homophily”).

  9. Cultivated plants in the diversified homegardens of local communities in Ganges Valley, Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Syed Ajijur; Baldauf, Cristina; Mollee, Eefke Maria

    2013-01-01

    Homestead agroforestry, in the form of homegardens, has a long tradition in many developing countries. These systems are an intimate mix of diversified agricultural crops and multipurpose trees planted, maintained by members of the household. This paper aims to explore the species composition...... commonly found in the homestead agroforestry systems in the Ganges valley of northern Bangladesh and their contribution to local livelihoods. Three villages i.e., ‘Capasia’, ‘Chak Capasia’ and ‘Baduria’ were selected as the primary study area. Data were collected by (1) rapid rural appraisal, (2) direct...... observation, (3) informal and structured interviews with a purposive sample of 90 households. A total of 53 plant species under 32 families were identified from the study area and it was found that the relative density were highest for Areca catechu (areca palm), Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit...

  10. Stratigraphic evolution of the late Holocene Ganges Brahmaputra lower delta plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, M. A.; Khan, S. R.; Goodbred, S. L.; Kuehl, S. A.

    2003-02-01

    Sediment cores from the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta in Bangladesh were examined for sedimentological character, clay mineralogy, elemental trends (C, N, S), and 14C geochronology to develop a model for the sedimentary sequence resulting from lower delta plain progradation in the late Holocene. A widespread facies succession from Muddy Sand to Interbedded Mud records progradation of shoal-island complexes and the transition from subtidal to intertidal conditions. Mangrove-vegetated islands and peninsulas represent the final phase of progradation; a Mottled Mud that is deposited by penetration of turbid coastal water into the mangroves during high water events. Organic matter preservation is generally low (Holocene was influenced by regional subsidence patterns in the tectonically active Bengal Basin, which controlled distributary channel avulsion and migration, and the creation of accommodation space.

  11. Paradigm for Distributive & Procedural Justice in Equitable Apportionment of Transboundary Ganges Waters Under Changing Climate & Landuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, H.; Gosain, A. K.; Khosa, R.; Anand, J.

    2015-12-01

    Rivers have no regard for human demarcated boundaries. Besides, ever increasing demand-supply gap & vested riparian interests, fuel transboundary water conflicts. For resolving such disputes, appropriation doctrines advocating equity & fairness have received endorsement in the Helsinki Rules-1966 & UN Convention-1997. Thus, current study proposes the principle of equitable apportionment for sharing Ganges waters as it balances the interests & deservedness of all stakeholders, namely, India & its 11 states, Bangladesh, Nepal, & China. The study endeavors to derive a reasonable share of each co-basin state by operationalizing the vague concepts of fairness & equity through an objective & quantitative framework encompassing proportionality & egalitarianism for distributive & procedural justice. Equal weightage factors reflecting hydrology, geography & water use potential are chosen for fair share computation, wherein each contender ranks these factors to maximize his entitlement. If cumulative claims exceed the water availability, each claimant puts forth next ranked factor & this process continues till the claims match availability. Due to inter-annual variability in few factors, scenarios for Rabi & Kharif seasons are considered apart from cases for maximum, upper quartile, median, lower quartile & minimum. Possibility of spatial homogeneity & heterogeneity in factors is also recognized. Sometimes lack of technical information hinders transboundary dispute resolution via legal mechanisms. Hence, the study also attempts to bridge this gap between law & technology through GIS-based SWAT hydrologic model by estimating the Ganges water yield, & consequent share of each riparian for range of flows incorporating e-flows as well, under present & future climate & landuse scenarios. 82% of India's territory lies within interstate rivers, & therefore this research is very pertinent as it can facilitate the decision makers in effective interstate water conflict resolution.

  12. Evidence for extensive olivine-rich basalt bedrock outcrops in Ganges and Eos chasmas, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, C. S.; Christensen, P. R.; Hamilton, V. E.

    2008-11-01

    Several localized outcrops of olivine-enriched bedrock have been previously identified in the Ganges and Eos Chasma area on the eastern end of Valles Marineris with the Thermal Emission Imaging System multispectral images. These outcrops form a layer in the walls of Ganges Chasma and appear to be the remnants of a once continuous unit, which was mapped over ~100 km. In this study we further characterize the composition (forsterite content of ~0.68), olivine abundance (10 to >15%), thermal inertia (>600 JK-1 m-2 s-1/2, consistent with in-place rocky material), vertical dimension (~60 to ~220 m), extent (>1100 km laterally), volume (~9.9 × 104 km3), dip (~0.013°NE), and continuity of this layer utilizing Thermal Emission Spectrometer hyperspectral, Thermal Emission Imaging System multispectral, and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter elevation data. Morphologic data from high-resolution imagery display a relatively unmantled, rough, and pitted surface associated with the olivine-enriched material, consistent with thermal inertia data. Four possibilities for the origin of the olivine-enriched unit are (1) volcanism associated with tectonic rifting of the Valles Marineris system, (2) a volcaniclastic flow deposit, (3) an intrusive mafic sill, or (4) a discrete episode in Martian history during which flood lavas were erupted onto the surface. The most likely origin is an eruptive event consisting of compositionally uniform flood lavas originating from a primitive mantle source region, possibly associated with the initiation of Tharsis volcanism. This unit is one of the largest continuous compositional units found on Mars and is strikingly similar to other olivine-enriched deposits identified in previous studies where compositional, morphologic, and thermophysical similarities are observed. These similarities may indicate that there was a period in early Martian history, where compositionally uniform and extensive olivine-enriched flood basalts were erupted on the Martian

  13. Gender Norms and Age-Disparate Sexual Relationships as Predictors of Intimate Partner Violence, Sexual Violence, and Risky Sex among Adolescent Gang Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nydegger, Liesl A; DiFranceisco, Wayne; Quinn, Katherine; Dickson-Gomez, Julia

    2017-04-01

    Unequal gender norms and age-disparate sexual relationships can lead to power imbalances and are also associated with intimate partner violence (IPV), sexual coercion and violence, and sexual risk behaviors. The present study examined these variables from both victim and perpetrator perspectives among adolescent gang members. Age-disparate sexual relationships were defined as sex partners 5 or more years older among female participants and 5 or more years younger among male participants. Participants were recruited from a mid-sized Midwestern city and completed a 60-90-min audio computer-assisted self-interview in a community-based setting. Participants in this study included 107 female gang members (68 % African-American, 19 % Latina; mean age, 17.6) and 169 male gang members (62 % African-American, 28 % Latino; mean age, 17.7). As hypothesized, endorsing unequal gender norms toward women was significantly related to IPV victimization among female participants and perpetration among male participants, and engagement in group sex in the past month among both female and male participants (ps relationships were significantly more likely to have experienced more IPV and report being raped and males gang members who had age-disparate sexual relationships were significantly more likely to perpetrate IPV in the past year and perpetrate rape (ps relationships were also significantly related to being gang raped among female gang members and participating in a gang rape among male gang members, and engaging in group sex among both female and male gang members (ps relationships were more likely to have been pregnant (ps < 0.05). It is essential for researchers and public health practitioners to create programs for female adolescents to reduce or avoid risky situations, such as inability to negotiate condom use with older sex partners. Additionally, programs must be developed for both female and male gang members to help them understand and identify unequal gender

  14. Detecting Long-term Trend of Water Quality Indices of Dong-gang River, Taiwan Using Quantile Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, D.; Shiau, J.

    2013-12-01

    ABSTRACT BODY: Abstract Surface water quality is an essential issue in water-supply for human uses and sustaining healthy ecosystem of rivers. However, water quality of rivers is easily influenced by anthropogenic activities such as urban development and wastewater disposal. Long-term monitoring of water quality can assess whether water quality of rivers deteriorates or not. Taiwan is a population-dense area and heavily depends on surface water for domestic, industrial, and agricultural uses. Dong-gang River is one of major resources in southern Taiwan for agricultural requirements. The water-quality data of four monitoring stations of the Dong-gang River for the period of 2000-2012 are selected for trend analysis. The parameters used to characterize water quality of rivers include biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO), suspended solids (SS), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N). These four water-quality parameters are integrated into an index called river pollution index (RPI) to indicate the pollution level of rivers. Although widely used non-parametric Mann-Kendall test and linear regression exhibit computational efficiency to identify trends of water-quality indices, limitations of such approaches include sensitive to outliers and estimations of conditional mean only. Quantile regression, capable of identifying changes over time of any percentile values, is employed in this study to detect long-term trend of water-quality indices for the Dong-gang River located in southern Taiwan. The results show that Dong-gang River 4 stations from 2000 to 2012 monthly long-term trends in water quality.To analyze s Dong-gang River long-term water quality trends and pollution characteristics. The results showed that the bridge measuring ammonia Long-dong, BOD5 measure in that station on a downward trend, DO, and SS is on the rise, River Pollution Index (RPI) on a downward trend. The results form Chau-Jhou station also ahowed simialar trends .more and more near the

  15. The Case of Youth Gangs in the Mormon Cultural Region A Synthetic, Dialectical Theory of Social Problems: Bridging Social Constructionism and Objectivism

    OpenAIRE

    Higley, Ramona Avis Linville

    2003-01-01

    This dissertation uses the case of youth gangs in the Mormon Cultural Region to present a synthetic, dialectical theory of social problems, bridging the perspectives of social constructionism and objectivism. The primary assertion of this dissertation is that communities use social problems as tools to establish and maintain social boundaries and to protect the core values and beliefs of the established communal order. The case of youth gangs in Utah, core of the Mormon Cultural Region, de...

  16. The Organization Characteristic of Gang-related Crime of Old Shanghai%试论旧上海帮会犯罪的组织特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋晓云

    2012-01-01

    帮会犯罪在我国历史上曾经产生巨大危害,尤以旧上海的帮会犯罪为最,其余毒至今仍然对当代社会稳定构成威胁,因此,对帮会犯罪进行研究具有重要的现实意义。旧上海的帮会成分复杂,拟制家族是帮会犯罪的组织形式,帮会通过虚拟血缘实现组织功能,"道义"是帮会犯罪的纽带,而"道义"的本质是利益,"道义"的规则则为差序格局。%Gang-related crime has made great dangerous to our history especially in old Shanghai.It has damage the social stability,so it has realistic significance to do research on gang-related crime.Gang membership is complex and fiction family is the form of gang-related crime organization.Gang membership realizes the function through fictitious blood relationship and moral principle is the belt of gang-related crime.However,the essence of moral principle is interest and the rule is different framework.

  17. Clicking in shallow rivers: short-range echolocation of Irrawaddy and Ganges River dolphins in a shallow, acoustically complex habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Frants H; Rocco, Alice; Mansur, Rubaiyat M; Smith, Brian D; Janik, Vincent M; Madsen, Peter T

    2013-01-01

    Toothed whales (Cetacea, odontoceti) use biosonar to navigate their environment and to find and catch prey. All studied toothed whale species have evolved highly directional, high-amplitude ultrasonic clicks suited for long-range echolocation of prey in open water. Little is known about the biosonar signals of toothed whale species inhabiting freshwater habitats such as endangered river dolphins. To address the evolutionary pressures shaping the echolocation signal parameters of non-marine toothed whales, we investigated the biosonar source parameters of Ganges river dolphins (Platanista gangetica gangetica) and Irrawaddy dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris) within the river systems of the Sundarban mangrove forest. Both Ganges and Irrawaddy dolphins produced echolocation clicks with a high repetition rate and low source level compared to marine species. Irrawaddy dolphins, inhabiting coastal and riverine habitats, produced a mean source level of 195 dB (max 203 dB) re 1 µPapp whereas Ganges river dolphins, living exclusively upriver, produced a mean source level of 184 dB (max 191) re 1 µPapp. These source levels are 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than those of similar sized marine delphinids and may reflect an adaptation to a shallow, acoustically complex freshwater habitat with high reverberation and acoustic clutter. The centroid frequency of Ganges river dolphin clicks are an octave lower than predicted from scaling, but with an estimated beamwidth comparable to that of porpoises. The unique bony maxillary crests found in the Platanista forehead may help achieve a higher directionality than expected using clicks nearly an octave lower than similar sized odontocetes.

  18. Clicking in shallow rivers: short-range echolocation of Irrawaddy and Ganges River dolphins in a shallow, acoustically complex habitat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frants H Jensen

    Full Text Available Toothed whales (Cetacea, odontoceti use biosonar to navigate their environment and to find and catch prey. All studied toothed whale species have evolved highly directional, high-amplitude ultrasonic clicks suited for long-range echolocation of prey in open water. Little is known about the biosonar signals of toothed whale species inhabiting freshwater habitats such as endangered river dolphins. To address the evolutionary pressures shaping the echolocation signal parameters of non-marine toothed whales, we investigated the biosonar source parameters of Ganges river dolphins (Platanista gangetica gangetica and Irrawaddy dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris within the river systems of the Sundarban mangrove forest. Both Ganges and Irrawaddy dolphins produced echolocation clicks with a high repetition rate and low source level compared to marine species. Irrawaddy dolphins, inhabiting coastal and riverine habitats, produced a mean source level of 195 dB (max 203 dB re 1 µPapp whereas Ganges river dolphins, living exclusively upriver, produced a mean source level of 184 dB (max 191 re 1 µPapp. These source levels are 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than those of similar sized marine delphinids and may reflect an adaptation to a shallow, acoustically complex freshwater habitat with high reverberation and acoustic clutter. The centroid frequency of Ganges river dolphin clicks are an octave lower than predicted from scaling, but with an estimated beamwidth comparable to that of porpoises. The unique bony maxillary crests found in the Platanista forehead may help achieve a higher directionality than expected using clicks nearly an octave lower than similar sized odontocetes.

  19. Predicting sexual coercion in early adulthood: The transaction among maltreatment, gang affiliation, and adolescent socialization of coercive relationship norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Thao; Kim, Hanjoe; Christopher, Caroline; Caruthers, Allison; Dishion, Thomas J

    2016-08-01

    This study tested a transactional hypothesis predicting early adult sexual coercion from family maltreatment, early adolescent gang affiliation, and socialization of adolescent friendships that support coercive relationship norms. The longitudinal study of a community sample of 998 11-year-olds was intensively assessed in early and middle adolescence and followed to 23-24 years of age. At age 16-17 youth were videotaped with a friend, and their interactions were coded for coercive relationship talk. Structural equation modeling revealed that maltreatment predicted gang affiliation during early adolescence. Both maltreatment and gang affiliation strongly predicted adolescent sexual promiscuity and coercive relationship norms with friends at age 16-17 years. Adolescent sexual promiscuity, however, did not predict sexual coercion in early adulthood. In contrast, higher levels of observed coercive relationship talk with a friend predicted sexual coercion in early adulthood for both males and females. These findings suggest that peers have a socialization function in the development of norms prognostic of sexual coercion, and the need to consider peers in the promotion of healthy relationships.

  20. Chain Gang-The Chemistry of Polymers (edited by Mickey Sarquis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collard, David M.

    1999-01-01

    Science in Our World, Vol. 5. Mickey Sarquis, series editor. Terrific Science Press: Middletown, OH, 1995. xiv + 149 pp. ISBN 1-883822-13-0. Spiral-bound, $13.95. Our familiarity with plastics makes polymers ideal examples of chemicals for discussion in K-12 science classes. Most importantly, polymers can be used as examples of chemicals that are safe to handle and of obvious use to society. The structures of polymers are easily represented by a number of models. These simple models go a long way in explaining the familiar physical properties of plastics. However, the introduction of polymers in the classroom relies on the availability of teaching material, experiments, and demonstrations that illustrate concepts in the current science curriculum. Chain Gang-The Chemistry of Polymers, one of the Science in Our World series published by the Center for Chemical Education at Miami University-Middletown (Ohio), will serve as a great resource for teachers interested in providing their students with a series of activities that can be related to their everyday experiences with these ubiquitous chemicals. After a brief introduction to some basic concepts, the book presents a series of 23 experiments. The collection of experiments presented here spans illustrations of chemistry, physical properties, analysis, and processing. Each experiment is recommended as either a hands-on activity or demonstration for various grade levels. A guide for the teacher suggests how the experiment can be used to illustrate topics in the science curriculum. The materials required for each activity are listed in detail, with quantities and sources (all materials are available from Flinn Scientific or hardware stores). There are detailed instructions for preparation of each experiment and how to introduce the experiment to students, and step-by-step instructions for activity. Very importantly, safety and disposal issues are clearly presented. Suggestions for cross-curriculum integration are also

  1. Abundancia estacional, fenología reproductiva y fidelidad al sitio del mulato (Melanotis caerulescens en ambientes ribereños del suroeste de Jalisco Seasonal abundance, reproductive phenology and site fidelity in riparian environments of the Blue Mockingbird (Melanotis caerulescens in southwestern Jalisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz de los Milagros Rodríguez-Parga

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio describe la abundancia estacional, fenología reproductiva y fidelidad al sitio de Melanotis caerulescens, especie de ave endémica de México, localmente conocida como mulato y valorada por su canto. Se realizó un muestreo con el método de captura con redes de niebla durante 2 años en 3 sitios de la vegetación ribereña del río Ayuquila, Jalisco. Se caracterizó el hábitat mediante muestreos de los estratos arbóreo, arbustivo y herbáceo. Mediante modelos lineales generalizados se analizaron las diferencias de cobertura de los estratos entre los sitios y se identificó el efecto del sitio y el mes sobre la abundancia de la especie. La presencia de parche de incubación y protuberancia cloacal describe un periodo reproductor de abril a agosto. La abundancia del mulato se relacionó positivamente con sitios de mayor cobertura arbustiva y el análisis de fidelidad (por presencia-ausencia de 16 individuos mostró que 3 parejas reproductoras mantuvieron sus territorios. Estos resultados sugieren que mantener una adecuada densidad de sotobosque arbustivo en zonas ribereñas es importante para proveer alimento y áreas para la nidificación que requiere el mulato. El presente estudio es relevante por tratarse de los primeros datos al respecto que se publican sobre esta especie endémica.This study describes the seasonal abundance, reproductive phenology and site fidelity of the Blue Mockingbird (Melanotis caerulescens, an endemic species of Mexico noted for its singing capabilities. This species was sampled using mist-nets for 2 consecutive years at 3 sites of riparian vegetation in the Ayuquila River, Jalisco. Habitat characterization was carried out through sampling strata of trees, shrubs, and herbaceous ground cover. We used Generalized Linear Models to analyze the differences in coverage strata between the sites, and to identify the effect of site and month on the abundance of the species. The presence of a brood patch and

  2. River avulsions in the presence of tectonic tilting, and the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, M. D.; Steckler, M. S.; Paola, C.; Goodbred, S. L.; Petter, A. L.; Pickering, J.; Williams, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    In Bangladesh, the set of active rivers of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta overlie a landscape that is being continually modified by tectonics. The response of rivers to a surface being altered by tectonic tilting or other causes of spatially variable subsidence is generally understood to be a preferred path direction toward regions of higher subsidence. Quantifying the magnitude of the effect of variable subsidence on the timescale and path direction of channel avulsion remains, however, an open question. Recent experimental work has suggested an equilibrium-slope explanation for the timescale and conditions for avulsion, which provides a way forward on understanding how varied subsidence conditions would affect the avulsion process. Here we adapt this model for avulsion to the context of variable subsidence, developing a new framework to quantify its effect on channel avulsions. We find that variable subsidence results in two effects: differing timescales between avulsions on different parts of the delta, and differing frequencies of avulsion to these locations. Regions of higher subsidence both draw avulsions more frequently, and result in longer channel residence times in these locations. We also describe the effect of incision or aggradation due to sea level changes within this framework: incisional events lengthen avulsion timescales everywhere on the delta, while periods of sea-level rise drive the timescales back toward their minimum values. Finally, we apply this theory to the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta, where we use a map of regional variable subsidence that we derived from GPS and published stratigraphic data, to predict the variation in avulsion timescale and frequency for the Brahmaputra River due to this variable subsidence. We make estimates for two different tectonic history interpretations, and for the cases with or without the estimated incision from the most recent sea-level fall. Comparison between our predictions and our stratigraphy

  3. Assessment of Environmental Flows for the Rivers of Western Ganges Delta with Special Reference to Indian Sundarban

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadra, T.; Hazra, S.; Ghosh, S.; Barman, B. C.

    2016-12-01

    The Indian Sundarban, situated on the western tide-dominated part of the Ganges delta was formed by the sedimentation of the Ganges and its tributaries. Freshwater is a scarce resource in the Sundarban though it is traversed by rivers. Most of the rivers of Western Ganges Delta, which used to nourish the Sundarban, have become defunct with the passage of time. To ensure sustainable flow and to enhance the flow-dependent ecosystem services in this region, assessment of environmental flows within the system is required. A pilot assessment of environment flows, supported by IUCN has been carried out in some specific river reaches of Western Ganges Delta under the present study. The holistic Building Block Methodology (BBM) has been modified and used for the assessment of environmental flows. In the modified BBM, three distinctive blocks namely Hydro-Morphology, Ecology and Socio-Economy have been selected and indicators like Ganges Dolphin (Platanista gangetica), Sundari tree (Heritiera fomes) and Hilsa fish (Tenualosa ilisha) etc. have been determined to assess the environmental flows. As the discharge data of the selected rivers are restricted in the public domain, the SWAT model has been run to generate the discharge data of the classified rivers. The Hydraulic model, HEC-RAS has been calibrated in the selected River reaches to assess the habitat availability and its changes for indicator species under different flow condition. The study reveals that River Bhagirathi-Hugli requires 150-427 cumec additional water in monsoon and 850-1127 cumec additional water in post-monsoon months for Hilsa migration, whereas 327-486 cumec additional water in pre-monsoon and dry season and 227-386 cumec additional water in post-monsoon months are required for Dolphin movement. Flow requirement of river Ichhamati has also been estimated under the present study. The total required flow for the Sundarban ecosystem to reduce the salinity level from 30ppt to 14ppt during the dry and pre

  4. Model to assess the impacts of external drivers on the hydrology of the Ganges River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuwatta, L.; Sood, A.; Sharma, B.

    2014-09-01

    Impact of climate change on the hydrology of the Ganges River Basin (GRB) is simulated by using a hydrological model - Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Climate data from the GCM, Hadley Centre Coupled Model, version 3 (HadCM3) was downscaled with PRECIS for the GRB under A1B Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) scenarios. The annual average precipitation will increase by 2.2% and 14.1% by 2030 and 2050, respectively, compared to the baseline period (1981-2010). Spatial distribution of the future precipitation shows that in the substantial areas of the middle part of the GRB, the annual precipitation in 2030 and 2050 will be reduced compared to the baseline period. Simulations indicate that in 2050 the total groundwater recharge would increase by 12%, while the increase of evapotranspiration will be about 10% compared to the baseline period. The water yield is also expected to increase in the future (up to 40% by 2050 compared to baseline), especially during the wetter months. The model setup is available for free from IWMI's modelling inventory.

  5. Flood risk of natural and embanked landscapes on the Ganges-Brahmaputra tidal delta plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, L. W.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Mondal, D. R.; Wilson, C. A.; Ahmed, K. R.; Roy, K.; Steckler, M. S.; Small, C.; Gilligan, J. M.; Ackerly, B. A.

    2015-02-01

    The Ganges-Brahmaputra river delta, with 170 million people and a vast, low-lying coastal plain, is perceived to be at great risk of increased flooding and submergence from sea-level rise. However, human alteration of the landscape can create similar risks to sea-level rise. Here, we report that islands in southwest Bangladesh, enclosed by embankments in the 1960s, have lost 1.0-1.5 m of elevation, whereas the neighbouring Sundarban mangrove forest has remained comparatively stable. We attribute this elevation loss to interruption of sedimentation inside the embankments, combined with accelerated compaction, removal of forest biomass, and a regionally increased tidal range. One major consequence of this elevation loss occurred in 2009 when the embankments of several large islands failed during Cyclone Aila, leaving large areas of land tidally inundated for up to two years until embankments were repaired. Despite sustained human suffering during this time, the newly reconnected landscape received tens of centimetres of tidally deposited sediment, equivalent to decades’ worth of normal sedimentation. Although many areas still lie well below mean high water and remain at risk of severe flooding, we conclude that elevation recovery may be possible through controlled embankment breaches.

  6. Holocene stratigraphy-of the Lower Ganges-Brahmaputra River delta in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sirajur Rahman KHAN; Md Badrul ISLAM

    2008-01-01

    Major part of the Holocene Ganges-Brahma-putra delta occupies the southern and southwestern part of Bangladesh with a smaller part extending beyond the international boundary in the west. Five facies assemblages are documented in the lower deltaic plain in five different depositional environments: levee or levee complex, bil or depression, abandoned meander belt, interdistributary plain and estuarine plain. The thickness of the Holocene sediments ranges from 30 m to 70 m in the deltaic plain, usually floored by the Pleistocene stiff clays, with the excep-tion" of the abandoned meander belt deposit where Holocene channel sand deposited directly on thePleistocene sand. Radiocarbon dates indicate that low-rate sedimentation has occurred in the northern part, where 4-6 m thick sediments were deposited since the mid-Holocene, whereas 10-30 m thick sediments were deposited in the southern part during the same span of time. In addi-tion, significant coastal subsidence (3 mm/a on average), added by sea-level rise (1.5 mm/a, conservative rate) occurs in the study area, which serves as a negative factor in degrading the coastal plain of Bangladesh in the future, while taking into consideration the weaker sedimentation in the area.

  7. Inequalities in Human Well-Being in the Urban Ganges Brahmaputra Meghna Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Szabo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The recently endorsed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs agenda unanimously agrees on the need to focus on inclusive development, the importance of eradicating extreme poverty and managing often complex human well-being impacts of rapid urban growth. Sustainable and inclusive urbanisation will accelerate progress towards the SDGs and contribute to eradicating extreme poverty. In tropical delta regions, such as the Ganges Brahmaputra Meghna delta region, urban growth and resulting intra-urban inequalities are accelerated by the impact of environmental and climate change. In this context, the present study uses the 2010 Household Income and Expenditure Survey to analyse the extent of wealth-based inequalities in human well-being in the urban delta region and the determinants of selected welfare measures. The results suggest that the extent of intra-urban inequalities is greatest in educational attainment and access to postnatal healthcare and relatively low in the occurrence of gastric disease. The paper concludes by providing policy recommendations to reduce increasing wealth inequalities in urban areas, thus contributing to sustainable development of the region.

  8. Integrated assessment of social and environmental sustainability dynamics in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, R. J.; Hutton, C. W.; Lázár, A. N.; Allan, A.; Adger, W. N.; Adams, H.; Wolf, J.; Rahman, M.; Salehin, M.

    2016-12-01

    Deltas provide diverse ecosystem services and benefits for their populations. At the same time, deltas are also recognised as one of the most vulnerable coastal environments, with a range of drivers operating at multiple scales, from global climate change and sea-level rise to deltaic-scale subsidence and land cover change. These drivers threaten these ecosystem services, which often provide livelihoods for the poorest communities in these regions. The imperative to maintain ecosystem services presents a development challenge: how to develop deltaic areas in ways that are sustainable and benefit all residents including the most vulnerable. Here we present an integrated framework to analyse changing ecosystem services in deltas and the implications for human well-being, focussing in particular on the provisioning ecosystem services of agriculture, inland and offshore capture fisheries, aquaculture and mangroves that directly support livelihoods. The framework is applied to the world's most populated delta, the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta within Bangladesh. The framework adopts a systemic perspective to represent the principal biophysical and socio-ecological components and their interaction. A range of methods are integrated within a quantitative framework, including biophysical and socio-economic modelling and analyses of governance through scenario development. The approach is iterative, with learning both within the project team and with national policy-making stakeholders. The analysis is used to explore physical and social outcomes for the delta under different scenarios and policy choices. We consider how the approach is transferable to other deltas and potentially other coastal areas.

  9. Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs: Aspects of the One-Percenter Culture for Emergency Department Personnel to Consider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand N. Bosmia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMGs are an iconic element of the criminal landscape in the United States, the country of their origin. Members of OMGs may present to the emergency department (ED as a result of motor vehicle accidents or interpersonal violence. When one member of an OMG is injured, other members and associates are likely to arrive in the ED to support the injured member. The extant literature for ED personnel lacks an overview of the culture of OMGs, a culture that promotes the display of unique symbols and that holds certain paraphernalia as integral to an outlaw biker’s identity and pride. The objective of this manuscript is to discuss various aspects of the culture of OMGs so that ED personnel may better understand the mentality of the outlaw biker. Knowledge of their symbols, values, and hierarchy can be crucial to maintaining order in the ED when an injured outlaw biker presents to the ED. We used standard search engines to obtain reports from law enforcement agencies and studies in academic journals on OMGs. We present the observations of 1 author who has conducted ethnographic research on outlaw bikers since the 1980s.

  10. Salvadoran gangs and extortion. Challenges and priorities related to the extortion phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Andrade

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available During the last few years extortion has garnered a somber relevance for society as a whole, aside from the preponderance it already possessed from law enforcement agents and criminal investigators. The generation of income both in cash and in kind destined for criminal structures, particularly amongst gangs/maras, as well as its implications concerning danger levels and future potential, have made the agencies responsible of public security take a closer look at this crime and ensure there is a full comprehensive assessment made regarding the extortion phenomenon. The above, involved looking into this crime’s different forms of execution, existing enabling factors and the different criminal scenarios it fits into; reviewing how police and prosecutors address these offenses, all operative, investigative and legal implications, as well as the results achieved in the fight against it. Nonetheless, extortionremains a challenge, not only for the institutions involved (Police and the Prosecutor’s Office, but also for the key stakeholders and all those responsible of making strategic decisions for the country.Revista Policía y Seguridad Pública 5(1 2015: 103-148

  11. Zinc hyperaccumulation in Thlaspi caerulescens

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    The total land available to farm globally is only one quarter of the land available. With the current world population currently rising, standing at over 6.6 billion people in August 2008, a need to produce larger food quantities is an ever increasing pressure to scientists and farmers. The options available to support demands are to produce crops that have higher yields grown on land we currently have available, crops with increased tolerance to abiotic stresses, such as saline toxicity and ...

  12. Terrestrial gamma radiation dose measurement and health hazard along river Alaknanda and Ganges in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prerna Sharma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Direct measurement of absorbed dose rate in air due to exposure from outdoor terrestrial γ radiation and assessment of consequent public health hazard continues to be of environmental and public concern. Present study was aimed to establish a baseline data of annual effective dose and to assess the associated health risk from outdoor terrestrial γ radiation along the river Alaknanda and Ganges of India. Terrestrial γ radiation exposure doses (excluding cosmic radiation were measured using a Plastic Scintillation Counter. Absorbed dose rates in air were measured at eight designated locations from Nandprayag to Allahabad along the river. From the average absorbed dose rates, annual effective dose (AED and excess life time cancer risks (ELCR were calculated by standard method. Results showed that absorbed dose rates in air ranged between 81.33 ± 2.34 nSv.h−1 and 144 ± 5.77 nSv.h−1 and calculated AED ranged between 0.10 ± 0.012 mSv.y−1 to 0.18 ± 0.007 mSv.y−1 at the designated locations along these rivers. Calculated ELCR were found in the range of 0.375 × 10−3 to 0.662 × 10−3. Present study measured the outdoor γ radiation levels along the rivers. The calculated annual effective doses and life time cancer risk were found higher than the world average value at higher altitudes. But the measured doses and calculated risks at plains were close to that of reported average values.

  13. Comparing and contrasting observed adaptations in three deltas: the Ganges-Meghna-Brahmaputra, Mahanadi and Volta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, R. J.; Suckall, N.; Mensah, A.; Mondal, S.; Dey, S.; Hazra, S.

    2015-12-01

    In low and middle-income countries, many deltaic communities directly depend on the natural environment for income and well-being. Current environmental concerns that threaten deltaic communities, such as increasing salinity, sedimentation, erosion and subsidence are likely to be exacerbated by climate change and variability, for example sea-level rise, increased storminess and rising temperatures. Such changes, along with other social and environmental stressors, mean that communities must adapt. This paper outlines findings of a systematic review of the peer-reviewed and grey literature that examines observed adaptations in three deltas of differing sizes in various geographical contexts: the Ganges-Meghna-Brahmaputra in India and Bangladesh, the Mahanadi in India, and the Volta in Ghana. It compares and contrasts various elements of observed adaptations, including who is driving the adaptation, the beneficiaries, barriers to participation and evidence for maladaptation. The predominant drivers of adaptation vary from government (at state level in India and national level in Bangladesh) and NGOs (in Ghana). Autonomous adaptations are not widely reported in the literature from any of the deltas. In all three deltas there is a focus on supporting adaptation in farming rather than fishing; despite the fact that fisheries contribute to local food security as well as national economies. Lack of access to financial, natural, physical and human capital are common barriers to adaptation in all three deltas. Additionally the Indian literature in particular highlights the lack of coordination between different government departments, coupled with an excessively top-down (state-driven) approach to adaptation. Maladaptation is most commonly reported in the literature from Bangladesh, for example, loss of employment of inland fishermen in embanked areas. The paper concludes by highlighting some of the implications of these findings for adaptation policy in deltas.

  14. Optical Performance and Weight Estimation of a Heliostat with Ganged Facets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amsbeck, L.; Buck, R.; Pfahl, A.; Uhlig, R.

    2006-07-01

    In standard heliostat design the usual strategy of cost reduction is to increase the mirror area of the heliostats. This leads to a reduction of specific drive cost, but also to an increase of the torques caused by the wind loads, resulting in higher specific weight and higher specific drive power. The opposite strategy focuses on the reduction of the specific weight and driving power. Therefore the mirror area is decreased. In total the drive power is much lower then, but it has to be divided into more units which means a drawback for cost reduction. A combination of both strategies is to couple small heliostats so that they can be tracked by the same drive. At the Torque Tube Heliostat (TTH) the mirrors are mounted on torque tubes to simplify the coupling mechanism for the elevation angle. The optimal tracking speed of heliostats depends on the position in the field. In a heliostat with ganged facets all facets are tracked with the same speed. This leads to higher astigmatism losses compared to independently tracked mirrors. To reduce shading a certain space is foreseen between the facets of the TTH. To achieve a high mirror density and to avoid too long and therefore too flexible torque tubes this distance is limited. Thus the shading is higher than usually. Ray tracing calculations were done to obtain optimized heliostat configurations and to estimate the energy yield of a heliostat field built of 288 square meters TTHs. The results are compared to a conventional heliostat field. To get an idea of the weight reduction potential of the TTH the dimensions of the torque tube, the secondary axis tube and the mirror support structure were weight optimized via FEM. The layout criterion was a mean mirror error of 5 mrad under a wind load and gravity, which was calculated from the deviations of the FE model. (Author)

  15. Evolution of Ganges-Brahmaputra western delta plain: Clues from sedimentology and carbon isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, A.; Sengupta, S.; McArthur, J. M.; Ravenscroft, P.; Bera, M. K.; Bhushan, Ravi; Samanta, A.; Agrawal, S.

    2009-12-01

    Sedimentology, carbon isotope and sequence stratigraphic analysis of subsurface sediments from western part of Ganges-Brahmaputra (GB) delta plain shows that a Late Quaternary marine clay and fluvial channel-overbank sediments of MIS 5 and 3 highstands are traceable below the Holocene strata. During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) sea-level lowering of >100 m produced a regional unconformity (type 1), represented by palaeosols and incised valley. C4 vegetation expanded on exposed lowstand surface in an ambient dry glacial climate. At ˜9 ka transgression inundated the lowstand surface pushing the coastline and mangrove front ˜100 km inland. Simultaneous intensification of monsoon and very high sediment discharge (˜4-8 times than modern) caused a rapid aggradation of both floodplain and estuarine valley fill deposits between 8 and 7 ka. The Hoogli River remaining along its present drainage possibly acted as the main conduit for transgression and sediment discharge that was subsequently abandoned. C3 vegetation dominated the delta plain during this time. From 7 ka onward progradation of delta plain started and continued till recent. This period experienced a mixed C3-C4 vegetation with localized mangroves in the mid-Holocene to dominant return of C4 vegetation in the late Holocene period. The study indicates that while the initiation of western part of GB delta occurred at least 1 ka earlier than the global mean delta formation age, the progradation started at ˜7 ka, at least 2 ka earlier than thought before. The terrestrial vegetation change was modulated by changes in depositional environment, specific ecological niches and climate rather than pCO 2.

  16. Air Pollution Over the Ganges Basin and Northwest Bay of Bengal in the Early Postmonsoon Season Based on NASA MERRAero Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishcha, Pavel; Da Silva, Arlindo M.; Starobinets, Boris; Alpert, Pinhas

    2014-01-01

    The MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero) has been recently developed at NASA's Global Modeling Assimilation Office. This reanalysis is based on a version of the Goddard Earth Observing System-5 (GEOS-5) model radiatively coupled with Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport aerosols, and it includes assimilation of bias-corrected aerosol optical thickness (AOT) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on both Terra and Aqua satellites. In October over the period 2002-2009, MERRAero showed that AOT was lower over the east of the Ganges basin than over the northwest of the Ganges basin: this was despite the fact that the east of the Ganges basin should have produced higher anthropogenic aerosol emissions because of higher population density, increased industrial output, and transportation. This is evidence that higher aerosol emissions do not always correspond to higher AOT over the areas where the effects of meteorological factors on AOT dominate those of aerosol emissions. MODIS AOT assimilation was essential for correcting modeled AOT mainly over the northwest of the Ganges basin, where AOT increments were maximal. Over the east of the Ganges basin and northwest Bay of Bengal (BoB), AOT increments were low and MODIS AOT assimilation did not contribute significantly to modeled AOT. Our analysis showed that increasing AOT trends over northwest BoB (exceeding those over the east of the Ganges basin) were reproduced by GEOS-5, not because of MODIS AOT assimilation butmainly because of the model capability of reproducing meteorological factors contributing to AOT trends. Moreover, vertically integrated aerosol mass flux was sensitive to wind convergence causing aerosol accumulation over northwest BoB.

  17. CryoSat-2 altimetry for river level monitoring - Evaluation in the Ganges-Brahmaputra River basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Heidi; Andersen, Ole B.; Stenseng, Lars

    2015-01-01

    , the results from the method developed in this study involving virtual stations show that the CryoSat-2 data can indeed be used for such monitoring by utilizing the high spatial coverage and the sub-cycle period of 30 days. The results show that it is possible to capture the peak flow occurring during late...... larger differences. For five virtual stations in the Brahmaputra River, the mean difference between the obtained amplitudes is similar to 10 cm, whereas the mean phase difference is less than 2.7 days. A virtual station in the Ganges River shows a phase difference of around 5 days and a difference...

  18. Drug Sales, Gender, and Risk: Notions of Risk From the Perspective of Gang-Involved Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Molly; Hunt, Geoffrey; Joe-Laidler, Karen

    2015-05-01

    We examine gender and meanings of risk in interviews (2007-2010) with gang-involved young men and women (n = 253) engaged in illicit drug sales in San Francisco, California. The in-depth interviews from this NIDA-funded study were coded using the software NVivo to identify patterns and themes. We examine their interpretations of the risks of drug-selling and their narratives about gender differences in these risks. We find distinct discourses regarding the role of femininities and masculinities and male and female bodies in shaping risk as well as the nexus between gender, family, and risk for female drug sellers.

  19. Assessing regional climate simulations of the last 30 years (1982-2012) over Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandu; Awange, Joseph L.; Anyah, Richard; Kuhn, Michael; Fukuda, Yoichi

    2016-11-01

    The Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) River Basin presents a spatially diverse hydrological regime due to it's complex topography and escalating demand for freshwater resources. This presents a big challenge in applying the current state-of-the-art regional climate models (RCMs) for climate change impact studies in the GBM River Basin. In this study, several RCM simulations generated by RegCM4.4 and PRECIS are assessed for their seasonal and interannual variations, onset/withdrawal of the Indian monsoon, and long-term trends in precipitation and temperature from 1982 to 2012. The results indicate that in general, RegCM4.4 and PRECIS simulations appear to reasonably reproduce the mean seasonal distribution of precipitation and temperature across the GBM River Basin, although the two RCMs are integrated over a different domain size. On average, the RegCM4.4 simulations overestimate monsoon precipitation by {˜ }26 and {˜ }5% in the Ganges and Brahmaputra-Meghna River Basin, respectively, while PRECIS simulations underestimate (overestimate) the same by {˜ }7% ({˜ }16% ). Both RegCM4.4 and PRECIS simulations indicate an intense cold bias (up to 10°C) in the Himalayas, and are generally stronger in the RegCM4.4 simulations. Additionally, they tend to produce high precipitation between April and May in the Ganges (RegCM4.4 simulations) and Brahmaputra-Meghna (PRECIS simulations) River Basins, resulting in early onset of the Indian monsoon in the Ganges River Basin. PRECIS simulations exhibit a delayed monsoon withdrawal in the Brahmaputra-Meghna River Basin. Despite large spatial variations in onset and withdrawal periods across the GBM River Basin, the basin-averaged results agree reasonably well with the observed periods. Although global climate model (GCM) driven simulations are generally poor in representing the interannual variability of precipitation and winter temperature variations, they tend to agree well with observed precipitation anomalies when driven by

  20. Metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy of narrow-band distributed Bragg reflectors realized by GaN:Ge modulation doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Christoph; Lesnik, Andreas; Zettler, Thomas; Schmidt, Gordon; Veit, Peter; Dadgar, Armin; Bläsing, Jürgen; Christen, Jürgen; Strittmatter, André

    2016-04-01

    We report on metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) of distributed Bragg reflectors (DBR) applying a periodic modulation of the GaN doping concentration only. The doping modulation changes the refractive index of GaN via the Burstein-Moss-effect. MOVPE growth of highly doped GaN:Ge and modulation of the dopant concentration by at least two orders of magnitude within few nanometers is required to achieve a refractive index contrast of 2-3%. Such modulation characteristic is achieved despite the presence of Ge memory effects and incorporation delay. We realized DBRs with up to 100 layer pairs by combining GaN:Ge with a nominal doping concentration of 1.6×1020 cm-3 as low-refractive index material with unintentionally doped GaN as high-refractive index layer. Scanning transmission electron microscope images reveal DBR structures with abrupt interfaces and homogenous layer thicknesses in lateral and vertical direction. Reflectance measurements of DBRs designed for the blue and near UV-spectral region show a narrow stopband with a maximum reflectivity of 85% at 418 nm and even 95% at 370 nm. InGaN/GaN multi-quantum well structures grown on top of such DBRs exhibit narrow emission spectra with linewidths below 3 nm and significantly increased emission intensity.

  1. Low School Engagement and Sexual Behaviors among African American Youth: Examining the Influences of Gender, Peer Norms, and Gang Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, Dexter R; Neilands, Torsten B

    2010-01-01

    This research examined whether negative peer influences (i.e., norms favoring risky sex and drug use and gang involvement) mediated the relationship between school engagement (i.e., grade point averages [GPAs] obtained from school records and student-teacher connectedness) and sexual behaviors (i.e., sexual début, sex without condoms, group sex, and sex while using drugs) among African American high school adolescents, and whether these relationships varied by gender. Five hundred sixty-three high school adolescents (ages 13 to 19) completed self-administered questionnaires that assessed school engagement markers (GPAs obtained from student records, and student-teacher connectedness), peer influences, sexual début, and risky sex (sex without condoms, group sex, and sex while using drugs). Major findings for boys indicate that GPA was negatively associated with both sexual début and risky sex. Additionally, the relationship between student-teacher connectedness and risky sex was mediated by gang involvement. For girls, higher GPAs were associated with fewer norms favoring risky sex and drug use and such norms were associated with sexual début. Moreover, the relationship between GPA, sexual début and risky sex was mediated by risky peer norms. Intervention programs to delay sexual début and reduce risky sex among youths should attend to the gendered ways through which such behaviors occur.

  2. Qualitative analysis and quantitative simulation on Yin-Huang water salinization mechanism in Bei-Da-Gang Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wen-yu; WANG Qi-shan; WU Li-bo; ZHANG Bin; WANG Xiao-qin

    2005-01-01

    Yellow River water transfer for Tianjin is important in solving the water shortage in Tianjin, which facilitate economic development and social progress for many years. Fresh water drawn from Yellow River(i. e., Yin-Huang water) becomes saltier and saltier when being stored in the Bei-Da-Gang reservoir. We qualitatively analyze the water salinization mechanism based on mass transfer theory. The main factors are salinity transfer of saline soil, evaporation concentrating, and the agitation of wind. A simulative experimental pond and an evaporation pond were built beside the Bei-Da-Gang reservoir to quantitatively investigate the water salinization based on water and solute balance in the simulative pond. 80% of increased [Cl- ] is due to the salinity transfer of the saline soil and the other 20% is due to evaporation concentrating, so the former is the most important factor. We found that the salinization of Yin-Huang water can be described with a zero-dimension linear model.

  3. Public intervention on Latin American youth gangs: A few considerations based on immigration laws and their application in Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Moya Malapeira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Administrative intervention on young people from Latin American origins and who belong to youth gangs can be relatively complex, at least from a legal standpoint. On one hand, the young people in question may possess varying types of legal status (foreigners-nationals, youths-adults, regular or irregular which determine the type of administrative intervention that is applied. On the other hand, the resources and routes of administrative intervention that currently exist (intervention on minors deemed to be socially at risk, youth justice, prosecution for crimes, etc. should be modulated and adapted to the peculiarities of these groups, and of the young people themselves. This study is based on the premise that, with certain exceptions, the youth gangs that exist in our cities still do not possess a criminal structure or organisation comparable to the Maras of Central America or the “Latino gangs”, but rather that their proliferation is a symptom of the lack of social integration and the educational failure of these young people in our society. As a consequence, the article stresses that in addition to policing and legal initiatives aimed at fighting crime, there is a need to reinforce social and educational resources to prevent this phenomenon and, particularly, a need to enlarge and make more flexible the non-regulated education-training services that currently exist in order that they should serve as a bridge for these young people’s insertion into the labour market, and thus to prevent their social and legal exclusion.

  4. Food and Nutrition Security Trends, Determinants and Challenges in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, K.; van Soesbergen, A.; Matthews, Z.; Burgess, N.

    2016-12-01

    In the last 20 years many developing countries have made considerable progress towards improving food security and nutrition. However, progress across countries and dimensions of food security have been uneven. While challenges to food security in the context of environmental and climate changes have been studied widely, limited evidence exists for their implications for food and nutrition security in tropical deltaic regions. Delta areas are particularly vulnerable to food insecurity and malnutrition due the specific environmental, climatic and human development factors affecting agricultural production and fisheries. These include coastal flooding and storm surges, deforestation, changes to river flow patterns and water tables, increased soil salinity and water quality degradation. Due to the large number of people living in deltaic regions and their importance in regional food production, there is a pressing need for a better understanding on how environmental factors affect food security and malnutrition. This study explores the potential impacts and challenges posed by environmental and climate change on food and nutrition security in the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta. This delta is one of the world's largest delta's draining land from Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India and Nepal. The delta makes up around two thirds of the country of Bangladesh, a country facing high levels of child undernutrition, child mortality and a high number of people living under extreme poverty. By combining spatially explicit data from the 2007 and 2011 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) for Bangladesh with satellite remote sensing data (Normalised Difference Vegetation Index) for relevant growing seasons of rice, the strength of association between this climate related environmental variable and indicators of child nutrition (wasting and stunting) in the delta were evaluated. Our results show that NDVI for the growing season of rice can be used to determine trends in rice production

  5. Agricultural Land Cover Dynamics on the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta: 1988-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, D.; Chiu, S.; Mondal, D. R.; Small, C.

    2014-12-01

    We seek to understand spatiotemporal (ST) patterns of agricultural land cover dynamics on the lower Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (GBD). Recent availability of accurately coregistered, radiometrically intercalibrated Landsat TM, ETM+ and OLI imagery collected since 1988 allows for synoptic scale ST analyses of vegetation phenology. We use multitemporal spectral mixture analysis of exoatmospheric reflectance to represent land cover and water bodies as continuous fields of soil and sediment substrates (S), vegetation (V), and dark surfaces (D; water & shadow). This study analyses 61 cloud-free Landsat acquisitions across two geographic scenes to identify ST patterns of winter cropping and interconversion between agricultural fields and ponds used for aquaculture. We also use MODIS 16-day EVI composite time series post-2000 and high spatial resolution imagery to extend and vicariously validate the Landsat-derived observations. We use temporal moment spaces (derived from temporal mean, standard deviation, and skewness) and temporal feature spaces (derived from spatial Principal Components) to characterize the full range of phenological patterns observed at 30 m scales throughout the lower delta. For each year with sufficient cloud-free coverage, we distinguish between areas with a high likelihood of use for aquaculture versus areas with a high likelihood of use for agriculture based on a combination of reflectance and phenology. From changes in these patterns we infer changes in land use on seasonal to interannual timescales. Many of the phenological patterns we observe occur on the scale of individual polders, suggesting decision making at community scales. While there appears to be considerable loss of agricultural land to aquaculture in many areas of the lower delta, we also observe intensification of dry season cropping in other areas. MODIS reveals frequent instances of both gradual and abrupt decreases in seasonal peak EVI as well as many localized instances of abrupt

  6. Strategies for transdisciplinary research on peri-urban groundwater management in the Ganges delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Leon; Thissen, Wil; Gomes, Sharlene; Banerjee, Poulomi; Narain, Vishal; Salehin, Mashfiqus; Hasan, Rezaul; Barua, Anamika; Alam Khan, Shah; Bhattacharya, Samir; Kempers, Remi; Banerjee, Parthasarathi; Hossain, Zakir; Majumdar, Binoy; Hossain, Riad

    2016-04-01

    Transdisciplinary science transcends disciplinary boundaries. The reasons to engage in transdisciplinary science are many and include the desire to nurture a more direct relationship between science and society, as well as the desire to explain phenomena that cannot be explained by any of the existing disciplinary bodies of knowledge in isolation. Both reasons also reinforce each other, as reality often features a level of complexity that demands and inspires the combination of scientific knowledge from various disciplines. The challenge in transdisciplinary science, however, is not so much to cross disciplinary boundaries, but to ensure an effective connection between disciplines. This contribution reports on the strategy used in a transdisciplinary research project to address groundwater management in peri-urban areas in the Ganges delta. Groundwater management in peri-urban areas in rapidly urbanizing deltas is affected by diverse forces such as rapid population growth, increased economic activity and changing livelihood patterns, and other forces which result in a growing pressure on available groundwater resources. Understanding the intervention possibilities for a more sustainable groundwater management in these peri-urban areas requires an understanding of the dynamic interplay between various sub-systems, such as the physical groundwater system, the water using activities in households and livelihoods, and the institutional system of formal and informal rules that are used by various parties to access groundwater resources and to distribute the associated societal and economic costs and benefits. The ambition in the reported project is to contribute both new scientific knowledge, as well as build capacity with peri-urban stakeholders to improve the sustainability and equitability of local groundwater management. This is done by combining science and development activities, led by different organizations. The scientific component further consists of three

  7. Deducing Weathering Processes Using Silicon Isotopes in the Ganges Alluvial Plain, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frings, P.; De La Rocha, C. L.; Fontorbe, G.; Chakrapani, G.; Clymans, W.; Conley, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Ganges Alluvial Plain ('GAP') is the sedimentary infill of the foreland basin created during Himalayan orogeny. Freshly eroded material from the Himalaya and southern cratonic tributaries is deposited into a system with long water-sediment interaction times, creating potential for further generation of river weathering fluxes. To quantify weathering processes in the GAP, 51 sites including all major tributaries were sampled in a September 2013 campaign and analysed for major and minor ions, Ge/Si ratios and δ30Si, δ13C and δ18O. Net dissolved Si (DSi) and major cation yields are 2 to 5 times lower in the GAP than the Himalaya, and at a whole basin scale approximate the global average, indicating that the plain apparently moderates the efficiency of Himalayan weathering rates. Mainstem δ30Si spans 0.81 to 1.93‰ (see figure) and gives the impression of a system buffered to moderate DSi and δ30Si. Ge/Si ratios (µmol/mol) are higher than expected in the Himalaya (>3), reflecting input of Ge-enriched water from hot springs, and decline to ~1.4 in the GAP. For the Himalayan sourced rivers, δ30Si increases with distance from the Himalayan front, and can not be explained entirely by conservative mixing with higher δ30Si peninsular and GAP streams. To a first degree, the δ30Si data suggest incorporation of Si into secondary minerals as the key fractionating process, and that this occurs both in situ during initial weathering and progressively in the GAP. Partitioning of solutes between sources is complicated in the GAP. Consistent with previous work, carbonate weathering dominates the ion fluxes, but with substantial contributions from saline/alkaline soil salts, the chlorination of wastewater and highly variable rainfall chemistry. Due to these contributions, precisely inferring the input from silicate weathering is difficult. We introduce a novel method to infer silicate-weathering rates that exploits the fractionation of Si during clay formation to account

  8. A survey of perfluorinated compounds in surface water and biota including dolphins from the Ganges River and in other waterbodies in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Yeung, L.W.Y.; Yamashita, N.; Taniyasu, S.; Lam, P.K.S.; Sinha, R.K.; Borole, D.V.; Kannan, K.

    and biomagnifications factors of PFCs were estimated in the Ganges River basin food web. The highest concentration of PFOA, 23.1 ng L sup(-1), was found in untreated sewage samples. Overall, concentrations of PFCs of water and biological samples from India are lower...

  9. Associations Between Long-Term Gang Membership and Informal Social Control Processes, Drug Use, and Delinquent Behavior Among Mexican American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, Alice; Saint Onge, Jarron M; Nowotny, Kathryn M; Valdez, Avelardo

    2016-10-01

    Research has found that among juveniles weak ties to informal social control entities such as parents, school, and conventional peers increase the probability of the initiation and continuation of deviant behaviors such as drug use and crime. Given the weak ties of formal social control mechanisms in highly disadvantaged communities, informal social control mechanisms are often an important deterrent that reduce or moderate engagement in deviant behaviors among serious and persistent offenders. This analysis examines the association between long-term gang membership and adolescent informal social control processes, drug use, and delinquency. This research is based on data from a study of 160 Mexican American male gang members between the ages of 16 and 20. Findings suggest that among gang members in this context, commonly studied informal control mechanisms such as the family and schools do not function to deter long-term gang membership that is associated with serious criminal and violent behavior and drug use. The implications for future research on desistance or continuation of antisocial behavior across the life course are discussed.

  10. Relationships with Adults as Predictors of Substance Use, Gang Involvement, and Threats to Safety among Disadvantaged Urban High-School Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Linda G.; Miller-Loessi, Karen; Nieri, Tanya

    2007-01-01

    Using a resilience framework, the authors examined the protective effects of parental support, self-disclosure to parents, parent-initiated monitoring of adolescent behavior, and relationships with school personnel on three critical problems of adolescents: substance use, gang involvement, and perceived threats to safety at school. The sample…

  11. On the Relationship between Bonding Theory and Youth Gang Resistance in U.S. 8th Graders: Competing Structural Equation Models with Latent Structure Indirect Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Horst, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    In a study of 5285 8th graders from the Gang Resistance and Education Training (G.R.E.A.T.) research, this study applied Travis Hirschi's social bonding theory to examine the curriculum's efficacy in increasing conventional bonding (friends with positive peers, succeeding at education etc.) and decreasing non-conventional bonding (drug…

  12. The Lived Experiences of Single Hispanic Mothers Raising Gang-Affiliated Male Youth Released from Texas Juvenile Justice Department State Facilities: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Almendarez, Ruby

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study (Moustakas, 1994) was to describe the experiences that single Hispanic mothers of gang-affiliated male juveniles face during their sons' reentry process after being released from a Texas Juvenile Justice Department state facility. Methods: After an extensive…

  13. Predicting Gang Fight Participation in a General Youth Sample via the HEW Youth Development Model's Community Program Impact Scales, Age, and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truckenmiller, James L.

    The accurate prediction of violence has been in the spotlight of critical concern in recent years. To investigate the relative predictive power of peer pressure, youth perceived negative labeling, youth perceived access to educational and occupational roles, social alienation, self-esteem, sex, and age with regard to gang fight participation…

  14. Towards a National Gang Strategy: A Meta-Policy Analysis of Leadership, Learning, and Organizational Change within the Law Enforcement Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Maurice V.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the process of change within law enforcement, focusing on the leadership, learning, and organizational change required to reduce crime, violence, and social disruption caused by criminal street gangs. The study tests the viability, results, and implications of a new policing model, the trans-jurisdictional task force, through…

  15. The Lived Experiences of Single Hispanic Mothers Raising Gang-Affiliated Male Youth Released from Texas Juvenile Justice Department State Facilities: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Almendarez, Ruby

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study (Moustakas, 1994) was to describe the experiences that single Hispanic mothers of gang-affiliated male juveniles face during their sons' reentry process after being released from a Texas Juvenile Justice Department state facility. Methods: After an extensive review of…

  16. Towards a National Gang Strategy: A Meta-Policy Analysis of Leadership, Learning, and Organizational Change within the Law Enforcement Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Maurice V.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the process of change within law enforcement, focusing on the leadership, learning, and organizational change required to reduce crime, violence, and social disruption caused by criminal street gangs. The study tests the viability, results, and implications of a new policing model, the trans-jurisdictional task force, through…

  17. Precocious transitions and long-term heroin use outcomes: A longitudinal study of gang-affiliated Mexican-American males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, Alice; Nowotny, Kathryn M; Frankeberger, Jessica; Valdez, Avelardo

    2016-09-01

    A longitudinal study (15years) investigates heroin use patterns following precocious transition experiences for gang-affiliated Mexican-American males (n=119) in San Antonio, Texas. Five precocious transitions are examined: cohabitation, early nest leaving, school dropout, teenage parenthood, and unemployment (while not in school). Half of these men used heroin over the follow-up period for an average of under 4years. Findings from a zero-inflated Poisson model indicate that while these transitions do not have a significant effect on initiation of heroin use, they do have an important influence on individual's drug trajectories once they have initiated. Early-nest leaving and teenage parenthood are protective factors for continued heroin use while dropping out of high school and cohabiting during this same period are risk factors. Findings are discussed within the context of these disadvantaged and marginalized communities.

  18. Engineering Design of A Gang Drilling Machine Equipped with Jig and Fixtures to Make A Prototype Machine in Birdcage Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Widiyono

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dealing with the engineering design of a gang drilling machine with jig & fixtures to make a prototype machine. This effort has been done in order to solve the problem which aroused in small business enterprises producing birdcages. The problem was how to minimize the production time in making a lot of holes that have same distance and straightness. Hopefully, the prototype machine can help the small business enterprises to increase their production rate.The design engineering process has been carried out by variant approximation on dowel pin modular fixtures in order to simplify fixtures design. CAD CAM software has also been used as fixtures synthesized method including geometric analysis and three dimensional fixtures assembling. The resulting prototype machine can be well operated and based on the running test, it can be concluded that the greater the motor rotation the greater the power needed. As for teak wood, at 250 rpm motor rotation the power needed is 26.5 watt, and at 400 rpm the motor needs power of 43.6 watt while at 600 rpm the motor needs power of 600 watt. The power consumption is also depends on the type of material, the better the mechanical properties of the materials, the higher the power consumption. For cast iron, the 400 rpm motor rotation needs power as high as 569.7 watt. This prototype of gang drilling machine needs power of 350 watt to make five holes on teak wood while ordinary drilling machine needs total power of 1350 watt.

  19. Spatial gradients in freshwater fish diversity, abundance and current pattern in the Himalayan region of Upper Ganges Basin, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AJEY KUMAR PATHAK

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pathak AK, Sarkar UK, Singh SP. 2014. Spatial gradients in freshwater fish diversity, abundance and current pattern in the Himalayan region of Upper Ganges Basin, India. Biodiversitas 15: 186-194.The present study describes the analysis and mapping of the different measurements of freshwater fish biodiversity of the Upper Ganges basin in the Himalayan region using spatial interpolation methods of Geographical Information System. The diversity, richness and abundance of fishes for each sampling location were determined and Kriging interpolation was applied on each fisheries measurement to predict and produce semivariogram. The semivariogarms produced were cross validated and reclassified. The reclassified maps for richness, abundance and diversity of fishes, occurrence of cold water threatened fish and abundance of important genera like Tor, Schziothorax and species were produced. The result of the Kriging produced good results and overall error in the estimation process was found significant. The cross validation of semovariograms also provided a better result with the observed data sets. Moreover, weighted overlay analysis of the reclassified raster maps of richness and abundance of fishes produced the classified raster map at different evaluation scale (0-10 qualitatively describing the gradient of species richness and abundance compositely. Similarly, the classified raster map at same evaluation scale qualitatively describing the gradient of species abundance and diversity compositely was produced and published. Further, basin wise analysis between Alaknanda/Pindar and Ganga1 sub basins showed 0.745 disparities at 0.745 distances in 2 dimensional spaces. The richness, diversity and abundance of threatened fishes among the different sampling locations were not significant (p = 0.9.

  20. Reviving the Ganges Water Machine: Accelerating surface water and groundwater interactions in the Ramganga sub-basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surinaidu, L.; Muthuwatta, L.; Amarasinghe, U. A.; Jain, S. K.; Ghosh, N. C.; Kumar, Sudhir; Singh, Surjeet

    2016-09-01

    Reviving the Ganges Water Machine (GWM), coined 40 years ago, is the most opportune solution for mitigating the impacts of recurrent droughts and floods in the Ganges River Basin in South Asia. GWM create subsurface storage (SSS) by pumping more groundwater from the aquifers before the monsoon for irrigation and other uses and recharge it during the monsoon. The present study uses fully processed and physically based numerical models, MODFLOW and SWAT, in a semi-coupled modelling framework to examine the technical feasibility of recharging the SSS. The aquifer was simulated as a two-layer system using hydrogeological and groundwater data, model was calibrated from 1999 to 2005 and validated from 2006 to 2010. It assesses the impacts of gradual increase of SSS in 10 years from the base year 2010 under two scenarios (increased rainfall or controlled pumping and recharge) to meet a potential unmet demand of 1.68 billion cubic meters (Bm3) in the Ramganga sub-basin with an area of 18,668 km2. The results show that 3-4 m of subsurface storage can be created by groundwater pumping of 0.25 Bm3/year by 2020. Under the controlled pumping and recharge scenario, groundwater recharge and river seepage could increase by 14% (4.21-4.80 Bm3) and 31% (1.10-1.44 Bm3), respectively. However, baseflow will decrease by 30% (0.18-0.12 Bm3) over the same time period. The results also show that recharge increased 44% (4.21-6.05 Bm3) under an increased rainfall scenario. Simultaneously, river seepage and baseflows would increase 36% (1.10-1.14 Bm3) and 11% (0.18-0.20 Bm3), respectively. A well-designed managed aquifer recharge program is required to eliminate the negative impact of river flows in the low flow season.

  1. Stratigraphic Evolution of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Lower Delta Plain and its Relation to Groundwater Arsenic Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, M. G.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Gilligan, J. M.; Tasich, C. M.; Hossain, S.; Ahmed, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    Bangladesh is plagued by high concentrations of naturally occurring arsenic (As) in the shallow groundwater of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta (GBMD), leading to widespread poisoning of people in the region. Most of the 156 million people in Bangladesh obtain their drinking water through hand-pumped tube wells that often draw arsenic-contaminated water from shallow, Holocene-age aquifers of the delta. The distribution of arsenic within these aquifers is heterogeneous and linked with the complex stratigraphy of the GBMD through its controls on hydrogeology and aquifer biogeochemistry. This research investigates differences in the fluvio-deltaic deposits formed by the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers, as well as differences in the tectonic setting across the lower delta plain. Furthermore, we investigate how these overarching controls influence stratigraphic architecture and the resulting aquifer systems, and ultimately the distribution of As within the shallow aquifers of the lower delta plain. To accomplish this, a transect of 55 sediment cores spanning the entire lower delta plain of Bangladesh was drilled to a depth of 90 m. In addition to knowledge of the stratigraphic architecture gained from borehole lithologs, samples from these cores were analyzed for provenance and grain size to determine source of the sediments and the depositional history of the rivers. Relating delta stratigraphy to As distribution was accomplished by measuring groundwater As in 10-20 tubewells within a 1 km radius of each borehole. This data was combined with groundwater data from the Bangladesh Arsenic Mitigation Water Supply Project within 25 km of the transect. Statistical analysis of the groundwater data was then conducted using hierarchical regressions as well as a nearest neighbor algorithm. This study provides a better understanding of Holocene delta evolution and river behavior, as well as a more complete understanding of the geologic controls on As and the characteristics of

  2. Evaluation of WRF PBL parameterization schemes against direct observations during a dry event over the Ganges valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyanadh, Anusha; Prabha, Thara V.; Balaji, B.; Resmi, E. A.; Karipot, Anandakumar

    2017-09-01

    Accurate representations of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) are important in all weather forecast systems, especially in simulations of turbulence, wind and air quality in the lower atmosphere. In the present study, detailed observations from the Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement Experiment - Integrated Ground based Observational Campaign (CAIPEEX-IGOC) 2014 comprising of the complete surface energy budget and detailed boundary layer observations are used to validate Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model simulations over a diverse terrain over the Ganges valley region, Uttar Pradesh, India. A drying event in June 2014 associated with a heat wave is selected for validation.Six local and nonlocal PBL schemes from WRF at 1 km resolution are compared with hourly observations during the diurnal cycle. Near-surface observations of weather parameters, radiation components and eddy covariance fluxes from micrometeorological tower, and profiles of variables from microwave radiometer, and radiosonde observations are used for model evaluations. Models produce a warmer, drier surface layer with higher wind speed, sensible heat flux and temperature than observations. Layered boundary layer dynamics, including the residual layer structure as illustrated in the observations over the Ganges valley are missed in the model, which lead to deeper mixed layers and excessive drying.Although it is difficult to identify any single scheme as the best, the qualitative and quantitative analyses for the entire study period and overall reproducibility of the observations indicate that the MYNN2 simulations describe lower errors and more realistic simulation of spatio-temporal variations in the boundary layer height.

  3. Spatial and seasonal responses of precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra river basins to ENSO and Indian Ocean dipole modes: implications for flooding and drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Pervez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the spatial and temporal responses of precipitation in the basins as modulated by the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO and Indian Ocean (IO dipole modes using observed precipitation records at 43 stations across the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins from 1982 to 2010. Daily observed precipitation records were extracted from Global Surface Summary of the Day dataset and spatial and monthly anomalies were computed. The anomalies were averaged for the years influenced by climate modes combinations. Occurrences of El Niño alone significantly reduced (60% and 88% of baseline in the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins, respectively precipitation during the monsoon months in the northwestern and central Ganges basin and across the Brahmaputra basin. In contrast, co-occurrence of La Niña and a positive IO dipole mode significantly enhanced (135% and 160% of baseline, respectively precipitation across both basins. During the co-occurrence of neutral phases in both climate modes (occurring 13 out of 28 yr, precipitation remained below average to average in the agriculturally extensive areas of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, eastern Nepal, and the Rajshahi district in Bangladesh in the Ganges basin and northern Bangladesh, Meghalaya, Assam, and Arunachal Pradesh in the Brahmaputra basin. This pattern implies that a regular water deficit is likely in these areas with implications for the agriculture sector due to its reliance on consistent rainfall for successful production. Major flooding and drought occurred as a consequence of the interactive effects of the ENSO and IO dipole modes, with the sole exception of extreme precipitation and flooding during El Niño events. This observational analysis will facilitate well informed decision making in minimizing natural hazard risks and climate impacts on agriculture, and supports development of strategies ensuring optimized use of water resources in best management practice under changing climate.

  4. 包庇与纵容黑社会性质组织罪之犯罪构成比较%A Comparative Research of Shielding and Conniving the Organizing Crime with Gang Nature and Gangs Crime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁经顺; 牛忠志

    2012-01-01

    There exists big difference between shielding the organizing crime with Gang nature and conniving the organizing crime with Gang nature.On the object condition,the two crimes have different behavior premise,behavior method and the time of behaviors.On the subject of the crimes,the first crime always happens on national office staff without any limits.The second crime always happens on national office staff with certain obligation.On the object condition of the crimes,although the two crimes have the same main object conditions,the crimes have different secondary object condition.On the subject condition,the first crime can be viewed as direct and intentionally action and the second include direct intention and indirect intention,but have much indirect intention in practice.%包庇黑社会性质组织罪与纵容黑社会性质组织罪之犯罪构成存在较大的差异。在客观要件上,二罪的行为前提(负有特定职责)和行为方式截然不同,行为的发生时间也有着重大的区别;在犯罪主体方面,前者为国家机关工作人员,没有任何限制,而后者必须是负有特定义务的国家机关工作人员;在犯罪客体要件方面,尽管二罪的主要客体要件相同,但次要客体要件却是不同的;主观要件上,一般认为,前者仅限于直接故意,而后者包括直接故意和间接故意,但实践中以间接故意者居多。

  5. Salvadoran gangs and their criminal behavior: Foresight on their organizational structures and territorial expansion for the next decade, 2015-2025

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herard Von Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This analysis will address gangs as its focal point, including who their members are, their level of organization or their structure, the illegal activities they carry out, and their territorial control. Therefore, a Foresight with three estimated scenarios for the next decade shall be developed, as this situation currently represents the biggest challenge to the country´s public safety.But, how is the impact of gangs in a society measured? Some parameters might be: Measuring their extent and territorial expansion, their criminal activities in total, their willingness to break the established social order, their ability to displace and substitute state control, and their capability of ending the life of human beings.Likewise, this analysis shall shed light on the impact that external or internal organized crime groups have in order to influence these trends, as well as the policies and resources that the State has used to prevent or lessen the realization of such trends among the gangs. Furthermore, it will include a study of possible measures to be implemented to counter these criminal trends.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v4i2.1762

  6. Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta: Balance of Subsidence, Sea level and Sedimentation in a Tectonically-Active Delta (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckler, M. S.; Goodbred, S. L.; Akhter, S. H.; Seeber, L.; Reitz, M. D.; Paola, C.; Nooner, S. L.; DeWolf, S.; Ferguson, E. K.; Gale, J.; Hossain, S.; Howe, M.; Kim, W.; McHugh, C. M.; Mondal, D. R.; Petter, A. L.; Pickering, J.; Sincavage, R.; Williams, L. A.; Wilson, C.; Zumberge, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Bangladesh is vulnerable to a host of short and long-term natural hazards - widespread seasonal flooding, river erosion and channel avulsions, permanent land loss from sea level rise, natural groundwater arsenic, recurrent cyclones, landslides and huge earthquakes. These hazards derive from active fluvial processes related to the growth of the delta and the tectonics at the India-Burma-Tibet plate junctions. The Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers drain 3/4 of the Himalayas and carry ~1 GT/y of sediment, 6-8% of the total world flux. In Bangladesh, these two great rivers combine with the Meghna River to form the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta (GBMD). The seasonality of the rivers' water and sediment discharge is a major influence causing widespread flooding during the summer monsoon. The mass of the water is so great that it causes 5-6 cm of seasonal elastic deformation of the delta discerned by our GPS data. Over the longer-term, the rivers are also dynamic. Two centuries ago, the Brahmaputra River avulsed westward up to 100 km and has since captured other rivers. The primary mouth of the Ganges has shifted 100s of km eastward from the Hooghly River over the last 400y, finally joining the Brahmaputra in the 19th century. These avulsions are influenced by the tectonics of the delta. On the east side of Bangladesh, the >16 km thick GBMD is being overridden by the Burma Arc where the attempted subduction of such a thick sediment pile has created a huge accretionary prism. The foldbelt is up to 250-km wide and its front is buried beneath the delta. The main Himalayan thrust front is geologic research in Bangladesh is that the rapid sediment accumulation preserves a detailed structural and stratigraphic archive. We have been tapping into these records using the combination of a local, low-cost drilling method, resistivity imaging and MCS seismics, while GPS, seismology and other geophysical methods are helping to unravel GBMD dynamics. Five transects of >130 wells are

  7. Spatial and seasonal responses of precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra river basins to ENSO and Indian Ocean dipole modes: implications for flooding and drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervez, Md Shahriar; Henebry, Geoffry M.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the spatial and seasonal responses of precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins as modulated by the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) modes using Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) full data reanalysis of monthly global land-surface precipitation data from 1901 to 2010 with a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5°. The GPCC monthly total precipitation climatology targeting the period 1951–2000 was used to compute gridded monthly anomalies for the entire time period. The gridded monthly anomalies were averaged for the years influenced by combinations of climate modes. Occurrences of El Niño alone significantly reduce (88% of the long-term average (LTA)) precipitation during the monsoon months in the western and southeastern Ganges Basin. In contrast, occurrences of La Niña and co-occurrences of La Niña and negative IOD events significantly enhance (110 and 109% of LTA in the Ganges and Brahmaputra Basin, respectively) precipitation across both basins. When El Niño co-occurs with positive IOD events, the impacts of El Niño on the basins' precipitation diminishes. When there is no active ENSO or IOD events (occurring in 41 out of 110 years), precipitation remains below average (95% of LTA) in the agriculturally intensive areas of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Western Nepal in the Ganges Basin, whereas precipitation remains average to above average (104% of LTA) across the Brahmaputra Basin. This pattern implies that a regular water deficit is likely, especially in the Ganges Basin, with implications for the agriculture sector due to its reliance on consistent rainfall for successful production. Historically, major droughts occurred during El Niño and co-occurrences of El Niño and positive IOD events, while major flooding occurred during La Niña and co-occurrences of La Niña and negative IOD events in the basins. This observational analysis will facilitate well

  8. Recent trends in groundwater levels in a highly seasonal hydrological system: the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shamsudduha

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater levels in shallow aquifers underlying Asian mega-deltas are characterized by strong seasonal variations associated with monsoon rainfall. To resolve trend and seasonal components in weekly groundwater levels in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM Delta, we apply a nonparametric seasonal-trend decomposition procedure (STL to observations compiled from 1985–2005 in Bangladesh. Seasonality dominates observed variance in groundwater levels but declining groundwater levels (>1 m/yr are detected in urban and peri-urban areas around Dhaka as well as in north-central, northwestern, and southwestern parts of the country (0.1–0.5 m/yr where intensive abstraction of groundwater is conducted for dry-season rice cultivation. Rising groundwater levels (0.5–2.5 cm/yr are observed in the estuarine and southern coastal regions. This novel application of the STL procedure reveals, for the first time, the unsustainability of irrigation supplied by shallow aquifers in some areas (e.g., High Barind Tract of the GBM Delta and the hydrological impact of potential seawater intrusion of coastal aquifers associated with sea-level rise. Our findings provide important insight into the hydrological impacts of groundwater-fed irrigation and sea-level rise in other Asian mega-deltas where monitoring data are limited.

  9. Recent trends in groundwater levels in a highly seasonal hydrological system: the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shamsudduha

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater levels in shallow aquifers underlying Asian mega-deltas are characterized by strong seasonal variations associated with monsoon rainfall. To resolve trend and seasonal components in weekly groundwater levels in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM Delta, we apply a nonparametric seasonal-trend decomposition procedure (STL to observations compiled from 1985 to 2005 in Bangladesh. Seasonality dominates observed variance in groundwater levels but declining groundwater levels (>1 m/yr are detected in urban and peri-urban areas around Dhaka as well as in north-central, northwestern, and southwestern parts of the country (0.1 to 0.5 m/yr where intensive abstraction of groundwater is conducted for dry-season rice cultivation. Rising groundwater levels (0.5 to 2.5 cm/yr are observed in the estuarine and southern coastal regions. This novel application of the STL procedure reveals, for the first time, the unsustainability of irrigation supplied by shallow aquifers in some areas of the GBM Delta and the hydrological impact of seawater intrusion of coastal aquifers associated with sea-level rise. Our findings provide important insight into the hydrological impacts of groundwater-fed irrigation and sea-level rise in other Asian mega-deltas where monitoring data are limited.

  10. Violence Against Women: What’s Law Got to Do With It? A Reflection on Gang Rape in India

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    Richa Sharma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The brutal gang rape of a physiotherapy student in India in December 2012 drew the world’s attention to the problem of sexual violence against women in the country.  Protests and mass public reaction towards the case pressurized the government to respond to the crisis by changing the laws on sexual violence. However, these new laws have not led to a decrease in VAW. Is this the result of the failure of the rule of law? Or does it highlight the limitations of law in absence of social change? This paper addresses the need for using law as a key tool in addressing violence against women in India.  It recognizes that unless we address the structural and root causes of violence against women, our analysis will be limited. It is important to bridge the creation of new laws, with an analysis that speaks to the role of hypermasculinity, neoliberalism and culture in VAW. If unaddressed, what may result instead are quick fixes, symbolized by passing laws that act as token gestures, rather than leading to transformative action.

  11. Modeling complex flow dynamics of fluvial floods exacerbated by sea level rise in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeuchi, Hiroaki; Hirabayashi, Yukiko; Yamazaki, Dai; Kiguchi, Masashi; Koirala, Sujan; Nagano, Takanori; Kotera, Akihiko; Kanae, Shinjiro

    2015-12-01

    Global warming is likely to exacerbate future fluvial floods in the world’s mega-delta regions due to both changing climate and rising sea levels. However, the effects of sea level rise (SLR) on fluvial floods in such regions have not been taken into account in current global assessments of future flood risk, due to the difficulties in modeling channel bifurcation and the backwater effect. We used a state-of-the-art global river routing model to demonstrate how these complexities contribute to future flood hazard associated with changing climate and SLR in the world’s largest mega-delta region, the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta. The model demonstrated that flood water in the main channels flows into tributaries through bifurcation channels, which resulted in an increase in inundation depth in deltaic regions. We found that there were large areas that experienced an increase in inundation depth and period not directly from the SLR itself but from the backwater effect of SLR, and the effect propagated upstream to locations far from the river mouth. Projections under future climate scenarios as well as SLR indicated that exposure to fluvial floods will increase in the last part of the 21st century, and both SLR and channel bifurcation make meaningful contributions.

  12. To see or not to see: investigating detectability of Ganges River dolphins using a combined visual-acoustic survey.

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    Nadia I Richman

    Full Text Available Detection of animals during visual surveys is rarely perfect or constant, and failure to account for imperfect detectability affects the accuracy of abundance estimates. Freshwater cetaceans are among the most threatened group of mammals, and visual surveys are a commonly employed method for estimating population size despite concerns over imperfect and unquantified detectability. We used a combined visual-acoustic survey to estimate detectability of Ganges River dolphins (Platanista gangetica gangetica in four waterways of southern Bangladesh. The combined visual-acoustic survey resulted in consistently higher detectability than a single observer-team visual survey, thereby improving power to detect trends. Visual detectability was particularly low for dolphins close to meanders where these habitat features temporarily block the view of the preceding river surface. This systematic bias in detectability during visual-only surveys may lead researchers to underestimate the importance of heavily meandering river reaches. Although the benefits of acoustic surveys are increasingly recognised for marine cetaceans, they have not been widely used for monitoring abundance of freshwater cetaceans due to perceived costs and technical skill requirements. We show that acoustic surveys are in fact a relatively cost-effective approach for surveying freshwater cetaceans, once it is acknowledged that methods that do not account for imperfect detectability are of limited value for monitoring.

  13. To see or not to see: investigating detectability of Ganges River dolphins using a combined visual-acoustic survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Nadia I; Gibbons, James M; Turvey, Samuel T; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Ahmed, Benazir; Mahabub, Emile; Smith, Brian D; Jones, Julia P G

    2014-01-01

    Detection of animals during visual surveys is rarely perfect or constant, and failure to account for imperfect detectability affects the accuracy of abundance estimates. Freshwater cetaceans are among the most threatened group of mammals, and visual surveys are a commonly employed method for estimating population size despite concerns over imperfect and unquantified detectability. We used a combined visual-acoustic survey to estimate detectability of Ganges River dolphins (Platanista gangetica gangetica) in four waterways of southern Bangladesh. The combined visual-acoustic survey resulted in consistently higher detectability than a single observer-team visual survey, thereby improving power to detect trends. Visual detectability was particularly low for dolphins close to meanders where these habitat features temporarily block the view of the preceding river surface. This systematic bias in detectability during visual-only surveys may lead researchers to underestimate the importance of heavily meandering river reaches. Although the benefits of acoustic surveys are increasingly recognised for marine cetaceans, they have not been widely used for monitoring abundance of freshwater cetaceans due to perceived costs and technical skill requirements. We show that acoustic surveys are in fact a relatively cost-effective approach for surveying freshwater cetaceans, once it is acknowledged that methods that do not account for imperfect detectability are of limited value for monitoring.

  14. Variations in hydrostratigraphy and groundwater quality between major geomorphic units of the Western Ganges Delta plain, SW Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Md. Ilias; Sultana, Sarmin; Hasan, M. Aziz; Ahmed, Kazi Matin

    2017-06-01

    Relationships among geomorphology, hydrostratigraphy, and groundwater quality with special emphasis on arsenic and salinity have been analyzed in the Bangladesh part of the Western Ganges Delta (WGD). On the basis of the presence of characteristic geomorphic features, the study area is divided into two geomorphic units: fluvial deltaic plain (FDP) and fluvio-tidal deltaic plain (FTDP). Lithostratigraphic sections demonstrate that FDP is composed predominately of sandy material whereas FTDP is characterized by alternation of sand and clay/silty clay material. Hydrostratigraphically, FDP is characterized as a single aquifer system, whereas FTDP is a complex multi-aquifer system. Spatial distributions of arsenic concentrations in groundwater reveal that elevated arsenic (>0.01 mg/l) occurs mostly in the FDP. Occurrences of high arsenic in deeper part of the aquifer system (>100 m) in the FDP, particularly in the south-western part, is probably due to the absence of any prominent impermeable layer between the shallow and deeper part of the aquifer system. Distributions of chloride concentrations show an increasing trend in groundwater salinity from north to south, i.e., from FDP to FTDP.

  15. Biometrics of the rare fish Rhinomugil corsula (Hamilton, 1822) (Mugiliformes:Mugilidae) in the Ganges, Northwestern Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md Yeamin Hossain; Md Foyzul Hassan Fahad; Md Mosaddequr Rahman; Nipa Chaki; Saleha Jasmine; Zoarder Faruque Ahmed; Jun Ohtomi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate biometrics of the Rhinomugil corsula (Hamilton, 1822) (R. corsula), including length-weight relationships (LWRs), condition factors (Allometric, KA; Fulton’s, KF; Relative, KR; Relative weight, WR), and sex ratio and length-frequency distributions in the Ganges (Padma River), Northwestern Bangladesh. Methods: Monthly sampling was conducted using traditional fishing gears during June to August 2w0e1i2g.h Tt owtaals l emnegatshu wreads umseinasgu arend e tloe ctthreo nnieca breaslat n0c.0e1 wcmith u sing digital slide calipers, and total body using the expression: W= a 0.01 g accuracy. The LWR was calculated ×Lb, where the W is the body weight , L is the total length , a and b are the parameters of the regression. Results: A total of 350 specimens ranging from 8.59-15.71 cm in total length and 9.57-32.59 g in bfroodmy wtheei gehxt pweecrtee da nvaallyuzee do df u1r:i1n g(χ t2his study. The overall sex ratio was not significantly different =2.57, P>0.05), but there was significant difference in the length-frequency distributions between the sexes (P=0.03). The allometric coefficient b for the LWR indicated negative allometric growth (b≈3.00) in males, female and combined sexes. Results fmuertahne rW indicated that KF was not significantly different between the sexes (P=0.57). However, the R of R. corsula showed significant differences from 100 for males (P=0.03) and females (pPre

  16. Trace metals in Ganges soft-shell turtle (Aspideretes gangeticus) from two barrage: Baloki and Rasul, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Riffat Naseem; Ghaffar, Bushra; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar

    2013-11-01

    The concentration of nine metals was measured in liver, kidney, heart, muscle, plastron, and carapace of Aspideretes gangeticus from Rasul and Baloki barrages, Pakistan. The results indicated that metal concentration were significant different among tissues of Ganges soft-shell turtles. However, higher concentrations of Co (5.12 μg/g) and Ni (1.67 μg/g) in liver, Cd (0.41 μg/g) in heart, Fe (267.45 μg/g), Cd (2.12 μg/g) and Mn (2.47 μg/g) in kidney, Cd (0.23 μg/g), Cu (2.57 μg/g), Fe (370.25 μg/g), Mn (5.56 μg/g), and Pb (8.23 μg/g) in muscle of A. gangeticus were recorded at Baloki barrage than Rasul barrage. Whereas mean concentrations of Pb (3.33 μg/g) in liver, Co (1.63 μg/g), Cu (11.32 μg/g), Pb (4.8 μg/g) and Zn (144.69 μg/g) in heart, Co (4.12 μg/g) in muscle, Ni (1.31 μg/g), Pb (2.18 μg/g), and Zn (9.78 μg/g) in carapace were recorded higher at Rasul barrage than Baloki barrage. The metals followed the trend Fe>Zn>Ni>Cu>Mn>Pb>Cr>Co>Cd. Metals of toxicological concern such as Cr, Pb, and Cd were at that level which can cause harmful effects to turtles. The results provide baseline data of heavy metals on freshwater turtle species of Pakistan.

  17. Post-flood status of the Endangered Ganges River Dolphin Platanista gangetica gangetica (Cetartiodactyla: Platanistidae in the Koshi River, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.B. Khatri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The breach of the eastern embankment of the Koshi Barrage at Paschim Kusaha Village of Sunsari District on 18 August 2008, created havoc for wildlife and their habitats, as well as people’s livelihood and welfare. The Koshi River flowed through the breach for five months. Following the breach, a population assessment survey of the Endangered Ganges River Dolphin Platanista gangetica gangetica was made between March and November 2009 in the Koshi River main channel starting from Chatara to 2km south of Koshi Barrage to ascertain their status. A direct count survey was conducted by two teams of researchers simultaneously searching for animals by boat from Chatara to the Koshi Barrage including the Triyuga River and on foot along the river banks downstream of Koshi Barrage and along the Mariya River. Standard protocols were followed to record the number of sighted dolphins. A total of 11 dolphins were recorded in the entire 49-km river stretch with an encounter rate of 0.23 dolphins per km. The current result showed an encouraging population of dolphins in the Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and its buffer zone but the threats for conservation still remain challenging. Close monitoring of dolphins and their habitats involving local communities are required for long term conservation of the river dolphins in Nepal. The breach of the eastern embankment of the Koshi Barrage at Paschim Kusaha Village of Sunsari District on 18 August 2008, created havoc for wildlife and their habitats, as well as people’s livelihood and welfare. The Koshi River flowed through the breach for five months. Following the breach, a population assessment survey of the Endangered Ganges River Dolphin Platanista gangetica gangetica was made between March and November 2009 in the Koshi River main channel starting from Chatara to 2km south of Koshi Barrage to ascertain their status. A direct count survey was conducted by two teams of researchers simultaneously searching for

  18. Post-flood status of the Endangered Ganges River Dolphin Platanista gangetica gangetica (Cetartiodactyla: Platanistidae in the Koshi River, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.B. Khatri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The breach of the eastern embankment of the Koshi Barrage at Paschim Kusaha Village of Sunsari District on 18 August 2008, created havoc for wildlife and their habitats, as well as people’s livelihood and welfare. The Koshi River flowed through the breach for five months. Following the breach, a population assessment survey of the Endangered Ganges River Dolphin Platanista gangetica gangetica was made between March and November 2009 in the Koshi River main channel starting from Chatara to 2km south of Koshi Barrage to ascertain their status. A direct count survey was conducted by two teams of researchers simultaneously searching for animals by boat from Chatara to the Koshi Barrage including the Triyuga River and on foot along the river banks downstream of Koshi Barrage and along the Mariya River. Standard protocols were followed to record the number of sighted dolphins. A total of 11 dolphins were recorded in the entire 49-km river stretch with an encounter rate of 0.23 dolphins per km. The current result showed an encouraging population of dolphins in the Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and its buffer zone but the threats for conservation still remain challenging. Close monitoring of dolphins and their habitats involving local communities are required for long term conservation of the river dolphins in Nepal. The breach of the eastern embankment of the Koshi Barrage at Paschim Kusaha Village of Sunsari District on 18 August 2008, created havoc for wildlife and their habitats, as well as people’s livelihood and welfare. The Koshi River flowed through the breach for five months. Following the breach, a population assessment survey of the Endangered Ganges River Dolphin Platanista gangetica gangetica was made between March and November 2009 in the Koshi River main channel starting from Chatara to 2km south of Koshi Barrage to ascertain their status. A direct count survey was conducted by two teams of researchers simultaneously searching for

  19. EFFECT OF GANGES RIVER MORPHOLOGICAL DYNAMICS AND FARAKKA BARRAGE ON UPWARD MIGRATION AND CATCH OF INDIAN SHAD (TENUALOSA ILISHA) IN BANGLADESH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahsan, Dewan; Faruque, Hasan; Sarker, HM

    2016-01-01

    becoming a threatened species due to human intervention and climatic factors. This study is aimed to assess the impact of the Farakka barrage and the Ganges River morphological dynamics on the Indian shad migration and catch in Bangladesh. Results have indicated that the average water level...... because of the changes in width of the river, and the shifting of river bends is quite frequent over the period of time and is more diverse in the upstream region than downstream. The decreased water level and the frequent shifting of the river bends might force the Hilsa fish to restrict their migration...

  20. Evaluación de ácidos siálico y gangliósidos en leche y preparados infantiles

    OpenAIRE

    Lacomba Perales, Ramón

    2011-01-01

    La leche materna es el alimento idóneo para satisfacer las necesidades del lactante, durante las primeras etapas de la vida. No obstante, en algunas situaciones se recurre a la alimentación con preparados infantiles, cuya composición en macronutrientes y oligoelementos esenciales (vitaminas y minerales) tiende a ser semejante a la de la leche humana. El ácido siálico y los gangliósidos son componentes bioactivos, presentes en leche que desempeñan un papel fundamental en distintos procesos ...

  1. 'When you're boxing you don't think so much': Pugilism, transitional masculinities and criminal desistance among young Danish gang members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deuchar, Ross; Søgaard, Thomas Friis; Kolind, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    . The paper considers the potential that pugilism (the art and practice of boxing) may have on enabling young, disadvantaged minority male gang members to find avenues for alternative identity construction and to gain transitional experiences which trigger self-confessed desistance actions. Drawing upon...... an ethnographic study conducted in a boxing rehabilitation centre on the outskirts of Copenhagen, Denmark, the paper reports on data gleaned from participant observation and qualitative interviews with 22 ethnic minority young men. Findings suggest that the masculine context within the rehabilitation programme...

  2. Site response of the Ganges Basin inferred from re-evaluated macroseismic observations from the 1897 Shillong, 1905 Kangra and 1934 Nepal earthquakes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Susan E Hough; Roger Bilham

    2008-11-01

    We analyze previously published geodetic data and intensity values for the = 8.1 Shillong (1897), = 7.8 Kangra (1905), and = 8.2 Nepal/Bihar (1934) earthquakes to investigate the rupture zones of these earthquakes as well as the amplification of ground motions throughout the Punjab, Ganges and Brahmaputra valleys. For each earthquake we subtract the observed MSK intensities from a synthetic intensity derived from an inferred planar rupture model of the earthquake, combined with an attenuation function derived from instrumentally recorded earthquakes. The resulting residuals are contoured to identify regions of anomalous intensity caused primarily by local site effects. Observations indicative of liquefaction are treated separately from other indications of shaking severity lest they inflate inferred residual shaking estimates. Despite this precaution we find that intensites are 1–3 units higher near the major rivers, as well as at the edges of the Ganges basin. We find evidence for a post-critical Moho reflection from the 1897 and 1905 earthquakes that raises intensities 1–2 units at distances of the order of 150 km from the rupture zone, and we find that the 1905 earthquake triggered a substantial subsequent earthquake at Dehra Dun, at a distance of approximately 150 km. Four or more = 8 earthquakes are apparently overdue in the region based on seismic moment summation in the past 500 years. Results from the current study permit anticipated intensities in these future earthquakes to be refined to incorporate site effects derived from dense macroseismic data.

  3. Delta Morphodynamics Matters! Ecosystem Services, Poverty and Morphodynamic Change in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Mega-Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, R. J.; Adger, N.; Allan, A.; Darby, S. E.; Hutton, C.; Matthews, Z.; Rahman, M.; Whitehead, P. G.; Wolf, J.

    2013-12-01

    The world's deltas are probably the most vulnerable type of coastal environment, and they face multiple stresses in the coming decades. These stresses include, amongst others, local drivers due to land subsidence, population growth and urbanisation within the deltas, regional drivers due to changes in catchment management (e.g. upstream land use and dam construction), as well as global climate change impacts such as sea-level rise. At the same time, the ecosystem services of river deltas support high population densities, with around 14% of the global population inhabiting deltas. A large proportion of these people experience extremes of poverty and they are therefore severely exposed to vulnerability from environmental and ecological stress and degradation. In areas close to or below the poverty boundary, both subsistence and cash elements of the economy tend to rely disproportionately heavily on ecosystem services which underpin livelihoods. Therefore, to sustainably manage delta environments they must be viewed as complex social-environmental systems where change is only partially driven by physical drivers such as sea level rise and climate change, and human-induced development activities are also critical. Here we outline a new conceptual framework for the development of methods to understand and characterise the key drivers of change in ecosystem services that affect the environment and economic status of populous deltas, focusing specifically on the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) mega-delta. The GBM delta is characterised by densely populated coastal lowlands with significant poverty, with livelihoods supported to a large extent by natural ecosystems such as the Sunderbahns (the largest mangrove forest in the world). However, the GBM delta is under severe development pressure due to many growing cities. At present the importance of ecosystems services to poverty and livelihoods is poorly understood. This is due to due to the complexity of interactions

  4. Use of U-series nuclides to constrain sediments transfer-times in the alluvial plains: example of the Ganges and Bramaputra river system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabaux, François; Granet, Mathieu; Blaes, Estelle; Stille, Peter; France-Lanord, Christian; Dosseto, Antony

    2010-05-01

    U-series nuclides have the potential to bring important information on the transfer time of sediments in the alluvial plains. This is a consequence of the dual property of these nuclides 1) to be fractionated during physical denudation and chemical weathering processes and 2) to have radioactive decay periods of the same order of magnitude as the time-scales of these processes (e.g. Chabaux et al., 2003b, 2008). We have illustrated such a potential with the analysis of U-series disequilibria in sediments collected in the Ganges and Bramaputra river basin. The approach relies on the analysis of U-series in river sediments collected along the streams. Indeed, as illustrated in Granet et al. (2007), in large alluvial plains where sediments are only transferred and not affected by additional inputs of new weathering products from fresh rocks, the intensity of 238U-234U-230Th disequilibria in river sediments will only depend on two parameters: (a) the duration of the transfer including the time spent in soils and in the river, and (b) the nature and the intensity of U-Th fractionations occurring in sediments during their transfer into alluvial plains. Recovering time information from the variation of U-Th disequilibria in such sediments requires therefore the use of realistic models accounting for the U-Th fractionation of sediments during their transfers into the plain. From the data, it is proposed for the Ganges and Bramaputra river sediments, that the main U-Th fractionation process is connected with the sediment weathering during their transit and storage in the plain. In this case the U-Th variation in sediments along the two main rivers lead to quite long sediment transfer time in the alluvial plains, of 100-150 ky for Bramaputra plain and of 400 or 500 ky for the Ganges river. Chabaux F., Riotte J., Dequincey O. (2003) U-Th-Ra fractionation during weathering and river transport, Rev Mineral. Geochem. 52, 533-576. Chabaux, F., Bourdon, B., Riotte, J., 2008. U

  5. Gangs in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-27

    particularly active.15 For example, despite (or perhaps because) of its isolated and rural location, Petén had the second highest murder rate in Guatemala in...American Weekly Report, February 7, 2008; United Nations Development Program (UNDP), “Maras y Pandillas: Comunidad y Policia en Centroamérica

  6. Terrorist Gang Smashed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ Chinese authorities said recently they have broken up a terrorist ring headed by "Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement (ETIM)" sepamusts and captured more than 10 members,seizing their self-made explosives.

  7. Godt i gang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun Andersen, Kirsten; Bisgaard, Hanne; Carstensen, Susanne;

    Bogen er et materiale til undervisning af let øvede brugere - døvblevne, svært hørehæmmede og hørende - i tegnstøttet kommunikation. Materialet er en fortsættelse af ´Godt begyndt´, og gloseforrådet fra ´Godt begyndt´ forudsættes kendt...

  8. Gangs in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-17

    Citizen Security held in July 2008 indicated that Guatemala now has the second highest murder rate in Central America (roughly 45 per 100,000 people...training regional security forces.48 In recent years, the U.S. Southern Command has taken a leading role in discussing the problem of citizen security in...the results CRS-19 51 “Memo: The Merida Initiative and Citizen Security in Mexico and Central America,” Washington Office on Latin America, March 2008

  9. Late Pleistocene to Holocene soil development and environments in the Long Gang Volcanic Field area, Jilin Province, NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Daniela; Zhang, Xinrong; Knöbel, Jette; Maerker, Lutz

    2014-05-01

    Late Pleistocene to Holocene shifts of climate and vegetation in the Long Gang Volcanic Field in NE China have been reconstructed, e. g. by Steblich et al. (2009), based on Maar lake sediment cores. In this study, we investigated soil development during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene and linked it to the climate and vegetation reported in the literature. Three pedons were described and analyzed on a crater wall surrounding a maar. The lower part of the slope is covered by basic pyroclastics that are obviously younger than the maar itself. Pedon 1 is located on the upper slope, where the younger pyroclastics are not present; thus it developed over the entire Holocene and part of the Late Pleistocene. Pedon 2 is on the toe slope and developed from the young basic pyroclastics. Vegetation remains, charred by fire that was caused by the volcanic ash fall, were found in the lowermost part of the pyroclastics layer, on top of a paleosol. Charcoal fragments were dated to 18950-18830 cal BP (using INTCAL 09). Thus, pedon 2 developed since around 18.9 ka BP, whereas the development of the paleosol that was buried under the pyroclastics (pedon 3), was stopped at this time. Pedons 1 and 2 are Vitric Andosols, developed mainly from basic pyroclastics, as evidenced by the composition of rock fragments in the soils, comprising 78 / 81 mass % lapilli and 22 / 19 mass % gneiss fragments, respectively. Pedon 3 is a Cutanic Luvisol (Chromic) that developed entirely from gneiss fragments produced by the maar explosion. Lab data suggest increasing intensity of pedogenesis in the direction: Pedon 3 (paleosol) < Pedon 2 < Pedon 1, reflected e. g. in increasing Fed/Fet ratios, decreasing molar ratios of (Ca+K+Na)/Al, and decreasing pH. However, it needs to be considered that lapilli are more readily weatherable than gneiss fragments. The profile morphology of the paleosol, characterized by reddish-brown color (7.5YR), strong angular blocky structure and well-expressed illuvial clay

  10. [Preliminary textual research on Zhijintang Sanctum re-revised version of Jinling edition of Ben cao gang mu (Compendium of Materia Medica)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jinsheng

    2014-03-01

    The Zhijintang Sanctum version of the re-revised edition of Jinling edition of Ben cao gang mu (Compendium of Materia Medica)collected by Zhao Huiyuan of Baihe, Henan Province in 2008 was opted as one of the third batch of the National Directory of Rare Ancient Worksin 2010. On the second cover page (patent page), it is recorded as"Original Jiangxi version". However, it is investigated to find that most of its paper sheets were reprinted after the original Jinling version, only scores of paper sheets were supplemented block-printed, including the additional block-printed second preface and Li Jianyuan's submitted report of the Jiangxi version, the re-revised time of which should be after the Jiangxi edition, or 1603. The exact time can be determined only by checking it carefully against another Jinling re-revised version (the Sheyuantang Sanctum edition).

  11. Feasilbility of phytoextraction to remediate cadmium and zinc contaminated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, G.F.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.; Fokkema, M.J.; Song, J.; Luo, Y.M.; Japenga, J.; Zhao, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    A Cd and Zn contaminated soil was mixed and equilibrated with an uncontaminated, but otherwise similar soil to establish a gradient in soil contamination levels. Growth of Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges ecotype) significantly decreased the metal concentrations in soil solution. Plant uptake of Cd and

  12. 非法交易犯罪团伙的社会网络分析研究%Social Network Analysis for Exploratory Mining of Criminal Gangs Engaged in Illegal Transactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢秦川

    2014-01-01

    Social network theory is used to mathematically model massive transactions for aiding law enforcement agencies, in the status of art of increasing rate of gang crimes which are more dangerous than common crimes. Graph-based clustering algorithms are employed to mine out gangs of transactions, to analyze their structures and smartly identify gangs engaged in illegal transactions. Thereby, it provides for accurate crime clues for law enforcement agencies, and enhances initiative and efifciency to crack down on criminal offenses.%针对团伙犯罪的发案率不断升高,且其造成的社会危害性较大的社会现状,根据执法机构的数据分析需求,文章引入社会网络分析的相关理论与方法,对海量交易进行数学建模。采用图聚类算法挖掘出交易团伙,解析其内部结构,智能识别出从事非法交易的犯罪团伙,从而为执法机构提供准确的犯罪线索,增强打击刑事犯罪的主动性及效率。

  13. Impacts of climate change and socio-economic scenarios on flow and water quality of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna (GBM) river systems: low flow and flood statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, P G; Barbour, E; Futter, M N; Sarkar, S; Rodda, H; Caesar, J; Butterfield, D; Jin, L; Sinha, R; Nicholls, R; Salehin, M

    2015-06-01

    The potential impacts of climate change and socio-economic change on flow and water quality in rivers worldwide is a key area of interest. The Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) is one of the largest river basins in the world serving a population of over 650 million, and is of vital concern to India and Bangladesh as it provides fresh water for people, agriculture, industry, conservation and for the delta system downstream. This paper seeks to assess future changes in flow and water quality utilising a modelling approach as a means of assessment in a very complex system. The INCA-N model has been applied to the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna river systems to simulate flow and water quality along the rivers under a range of future climate conditions. Three model realisations of the Met Office Hadley Centre global and regional climate models were selected from 17 perturbed model runs to evaluate a range of potential futures in climate. In addition, the models have also been evaluated using socio-economic scenarios, comprising (1) a business as usual future, (2) a more sustainable future, and (3) a less sustainable future. Model results for the 2050s and the 2090s indicate a significant increase in monsoon flows under the future climates, with enhanced flood potential. Low flows are predicted to fall with extended drought periods, which could have impacts on water and sediment supply, irrigated agriculture and saline intrusion. In contrast, the socio-economic changes had relatively little impact on flows, except under the low flow regimes where increased irrigation could further reduce water availability. However, should large scale water transfers upstream of Bangladesh be constructed, these have the potential to reduce flows and divert water away from the delta region depending on the volume and timing of the transfers. This could have significant implications for the delta in terms of saline intrusion, water supply, agriculture and maintaining crucial ecosystems such

  14. Automatic 6-speed transmissions for passenger cars - a milestone in powertrain development; Automatische 6-Gang-Getriebe fuer Personenkraftwagen - ein Meilenstein in der Antriebstechnik-Entwicklung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, G. [ZF Getriebe GmbH, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    In order to respond to the demands made on passenger car power train systems regarding reduction of fuel consumption, pollutant and noise emissions, increased performance and drive comfort, corporate product identification and innovative products, an 6-speed automatic transmission for standard use with 8- and 12-cylinder engines was developed. The demands of customers as well as production aspects were taken into account in the development process. Compared with its predecessor, the ZF-6HP26 provides a higher torque capacity, is more compact and 13% lighter. As a result of consistent system and component optimization, the transmission has a reduced number of components, lower transmission losses and increased efficiency. At the same time, functionality regarding reduction of fuel consumption and increase in comfort has been expanded. Fuel consumption simulation for a vehicle with 8-cylinder Otto engine revealed that fuel consumption was cut by 5 to 6% while acceleration was improved by 4%. Consumption tests with prototype transmissions confirmed the computed results. The 6HP26 is worldwide the first 6-speed automatic transmission and a milestone in passenger car transmission technology. (orig.) [German] Um den zukuenftigen Anforderungen an den Pkw-Antrieb hinsichtlich der Reduzierung des Kraftstoffverbrauchs, der Schadstoff- und Geraeuschemissionen, einer Steigerung der Fahrleistung und Erhoehung des Fahrkomforts bei gleichzeitiger Differenzierung zum Wettbewerb durch innovative Produkte gerecht zu werden, wurde ein automatisches 6-Gang-Getriebe fuer den Einsatz im Standardantrieb mit 8- und 12-Zylindermotoren entwickelt. Im bisherigen Entwicklungsprozess fanden sowohl Kundenanforderungen als auch Fertigungsbelange Beruecksichtigung. Verglichen mit dem Vorgaengeraggregat ist das ZF-6HP26 bei gleichzeitig hoeherer Drehmomentkapazitaet kompakter, baut kleiner und ist etwa 13% leichter. Durch konsequente System- und Bauteiloptimierung ist es gelungen, die Anzahl der

  15. [Textual research on Guang dong xin yu (New Sayings of Guangdong) quoted in Ben cao gang mu shi yi (Supplements to Compendium of Materia Medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruixian; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jian; Liang, Fei

    2014-05-01

    Altogether 15 terms for Guang dong xin yu (New Sayings of Guangdong) were used in Ben cao gang mu shi yi (Supplements to Compendium of Materia Medica), including Yue yu (Cantonese sayings), Chong yu (Sayings from Insect Drug), Jie yu (Sayings from Crustacean Drug), Xin yu (New Sayings), Yue hai xiang yu (Fragrant Sayings from Cantonese Region), Yue zhi mu yu (Sayings from Plants in Cantonese Annals), Guang dong suo yu (Trivial Sayings from Guangdong), Yue shan lu (Records of Cantonese Mountains), Yue lu (Cantonese Records), Jiao guang lu (Joint Guangdong Records), Yue cao zhi (Records of Cantonese Grasses), Guang guo lu (Records of Guangdong Fruits), Nan yue suo ji (Trivial Records of Southern Canton), Guang zhi (Guangdong Records), Yue zhi (Cantonese Records) etc. dealing with 57 sorts of drugs (with individual overlapping ones), the author of Xin yu was Qu Dajun, a surviving fogy of the Ming Dynasty actively involved in the activities to restore the old dynasty and resist the Qing Dynasty, and was persecuted in the literary inquisition in which his works were burnt so that Zhao Xuemin, when quoting his texts, had to go in a roundabout way.

  16. Seasonal, Episodic and Periodic Changes in Terrestrial Water Storage Recorded By DEEP Piezometric Monitoring in the Ganges/Brahmaputra/Meghna DELTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, W. G.; Shamsudduha, M.; Taylor, R. G.; Ahmed, K. M.; Mukherjee, A.; Lapworth, D.; Zahid, A.

    2014-12-01

    Piezometric monitoring in vertical profile at sites across the southern and coastal floodplains of the Ganges/Brahmaputra/Meghna (GBM) delta confirms gravitational flow in sediments of the Bengal Aquifer System (BAS) to a depth of at least 320 m (the maximum depth of measurement). Individual and paired records of groundwater head indicate seasonal recovery and recession of water storage, periodic and episodic ground surface loading, and earth tide responses. Lunar periodicity in groundwater head fluctuation coincident with tide height at one coastal site is consistent with tidal surface loading/unloading. Diurnal tidal fluctuations in the same record change amplitude and shift phase with depth, also indicative of surface loading/unloading. Transience in the surface loading signals with depth is governed by the vertically integrated hydraulic properties of the thick BAS sedimentary sequence. Inland, earth tide responses of smaller amplitude and lacking phase shift with depth are ubiquitous in the background signal. Most records include clearly resolvable episodic deflections in the order of 0.1 m water head and up to 0.5 m water head, near simultaneous with depth, corresponding to individual episodes of rainfall. The episodic head deflections provide a record of change in terrestrial water storage (ΔTWS) comprising undifferentiated surface water flooding, soil moisture and shallow groundwater recharge - a direct land-based equivalent of satellite estimates of ΔTWS. Enigmatic short-term recession from individual deflection peaks may be related to elastic deformation and ground surface lowering under terrestrial water storage loading.

  17. On the Satirical Art inOur Gang%论《我们这一伙》的讽刺艺术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊宇

    2015-01-01

    In Our Gang, Philip Roth employs such figures of speech as parody, irony, hyperbole, caricature and parody of genre for his satirical skills to expose the hypocrisy of American politicians, the ugliness of politics, and the role of accomplice played by media for the government; to express standpoint of anti-war and try to deconstruct the authority of discourse that was maintained making use of media by American president.%在《我们这一伙》中,菲利普·罗斯利用戏拟、反讽、夸张、漫画式刻画、文类仿拟等修辞格作为其讽刺手法,揭露了美国政客的虚伪、政治的丑恶和媒体充当政府帮凶的角色,表达了其强烈的反战立场,同时力图解构美国总统利用媒体所建立的话语权威。

  18. Assessing empathy in Salvadoran high-risk and gang-involved adolescents and young adults: a Spanish validation of the basic empathy scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Olate, René; Vaughn, Michael G

    2013-11-01

    Empathy is considered a key construct in the empirical study of high-risk adolescent and young adult delinquency, crime, and violence. This study examined the psychometric properties and criterion-related validity of a Spanish adaptation of the Basic Empathy Scale (BES), which is an important measure designed to capture both affective and cognitive empathy that has been validated in multiple languages but not in Spanish. The study's sample consisted of 208 high-risk and gang-involved adolescents and young adults in the Greater San Salvador Metropolitan Area. The original BES was reduced from its 20-item design to a more culturally appropriate 7-item design. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis and criterion-related validity analysis indicate that the adapted BES is a valid and reliable multidimensional measure of empathy for high-risk Salvadoran adolescents and young adults. Consistent with previous findings, females reported lower levels of empathy than males and delinquent/violent respondents reported lower levels of empathy than their nonoffender counterparts.

  19. Rapid coastal subsidence in the central Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (Bangladesh) since the 17th century deduced from submerged salt-producing kilns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanebuth, T. J.; Kudrass, H.; Linstädter, J.; Islam, B.; Zander, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    The densely populated low lying Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta is highly vulnerable to the global sea-level rise. In order to estimate the subsidence of the delta over historical time scales, we examined submerged salt-producing kiln sites in the coastal Sundarbans. These kilns were built just above the previous winterly spring high-tide level, but are currently located ~155 × 15 cm below the corresponding modern level. According to optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating, the kilns were ultimately fired ~300 years ago (1705 × 35 AD) and salt production was terminated abruptly by a catastrophic event (major cyclone), which affected the kiln sites at different levels and locations. Two particular buried mangrove root horizons 80 cm below this kiln level also indicate catastrophic scenarios (probably subsidence events related to a regional earthquake). AMS-14C ages measured on the charcoal layers at the kiln's bases and on these associated mangrove stump horizons support the OSL dates. Based on the respective elevations of these kiln and mangrove palaeo-horizons and on the ages, the 300-year-average rate of sinking of the outer delta is 5.2 × 1.2 mm/a, which includes 0.8 mm/a of eustatic sea-level rise over this historical period. Expecting further acceleration of the eustatic sea-level rise of up to 7 mm/a, we calculate a rise in relative sea level of up to 8.9 × 3.3 mm/a for the next few decased, which will dramatically aggravate the already present problematic situation. Only a prudently-managed control of sediment accretion will keep southern Bangladesh above the sea level. (Hanebuth et al., Geology, Sept 2013, doi: 10.1130/G34646.1.)

  20. Climate Variability over India and Bangladesh from the Perturbed UK Met Office Hadley Model: Impacts on Flow and Nutrient Fluxes in the Ganges Delta System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, P. G.; Caesar, J.; Crossman, J.; Barbour, E.; Ledesma, J.; Futter, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    A semi-distributed flow and water quality model (INCA- Integrated Catchments Model) has been set up for the whole of the Ganges- Brahmaputra- Meghna (GBM) River system in India and Bangladesh. These massive rivers transport large fluxes of water and nutrients into the Bay of Bengal via the GBM Delta system in Bangladesh. Future climate change will impact these fluxes with changing rainfall, temperature, evapotranspiration and soil moisture deficits being altered in the catchment systems. In this study the INCA model has been used to assess potential impacts of climate change using the UK Met Office Hadley Centre GCM model linked to a regionally coupled model of South East Asia, covering India and Bangladesh. The Hadley Centre model has been pururbed by varying the parameters in the model to generate 17 realisations of future climates. Some of these reflect expected change but others capture the more extreme potential behaviour of future climate conditions. The 17 realisations have been used to drive the INCA Flow and Nitrogen model inorder to generate downstream times series of hydrology and nitrate- nitrogen. The variability of the climates on these fluxes are investigated and and their likley impact on the Bay of Begal Delta considered. Results indicate a slight shift in the monsoon season with increased wet season flows and increased temperatures which alter nutrient fluxes. Societal Importance to Stakeholders The GBM Delta supports one of the most densely populated regions of people living in poverty, who rely on ecosystem services provided by the Delta for survival. These ecosystem services are dependent upon fluxes of water and nutrients. Freshwater for urban, agriculture, and aquaculture requirements are essential to livelihoods. Nutrient loads stimulate estuarine ecosystems, supporting fishing stocks, which contribute significantly the economy of Bangladesh. Thus the societal importance of upstream climate driven change change in Bangladesh are very

  1. River flow forecasting with Artificial Neural Networks using satellite observed precipitation pre-processed with flow length and travel time information: case study of the Ganges river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Akhtar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the use of flow length and travel time as a pre-processing step for incorporating spatial precipitation information into Artificial Neural Network (ANN models used for river flow forecasting. Spatially distributed precipitation is commonly required when modelling large basins, and it is usually incorporated in distributed physically-based hydrological modelling approaches. However, these modelling approaches are recognised to be quite complex and expensive, especially due to the data collection of multiple inputs and parameters, which vary in space and time. On the other hand, ANN models for flow forecasting are frequently developed only with precipitation and discharge as inputs, usually without taking into consideration the spatial variability of precipitation. Full inclusion of spatially distributed inputs into ANN models still leads to a complex computational process that may not give acceptable results. Therefore, here we present an analysis of the flow length and travel time as a basis for pre-processing remotely sensed (satellite rainfall data. This pre-processed rainfall is used together with local stream flow measurements of previous days as input to ANN models. The case study for this modelling approach is the Ganges river basin. A comparative analysis of multiple ANN models with different hydrological pre-processing is presented. The ANN showed its ability to forecast discharges 3-days ahead with an acceptable accuracy. Within this forecast horizon, the influence of the pre-processed rainfall is marginal, because of dominant influence of strongly auto-correlated discharge inputs. For forecast horizons of 7 to 10 days, the influence of the pre-processed rainfall is noticeable, although the overall model performance deteriorates. The incorporation of remote sensing data of spatially distributed precipitation information as pre-processing step showed to be a promising alternative for the setting-up of ANN models for

  2. Hydrodynamic Properties of a Large Tidal Channel on the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta, Bangladesh, with Implications for Channel Morphology and Sediment Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, R. L.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Hale, R. P.; Reed, M. J.; Best, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta hosts a dense network of tidal channels extending inland as far as 100 kilometers from the coast. With semidiurnal tides up to 6.7 meters in amplitude, this setting is ideal for testing hypotheses related to tidal meander morphology, intertidal sediment transport, and channel-platform linkages. We present results from two field surveys in March and September 2015, corresponding to the dry and monsoon seasons, respectively. Comparing acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) data and pressure sensor measurements from the Sibsa River in southwest Bangladesh reveals a phase lag of as much as 1 hour between maximum discharge and mean water level. Variations in this phase lag at different points along the channel allow us to test an existing conceptual model of cuspate tidal meander formation. To address a related but separate question, we observe that the ratio of cumulative discharges Qin/Qout is approximately equal during both spring and neap tides at a strategically-placed ADCP transect south of the study area. In contrast, ADCP data obtained north of the study area shows that Qin/Qout=1.4 during spring tides and 0.85 during neap tides. We examine the degree to which this phenomenon is controlled by the establishment of a hydraulic gradient between the Sibsa and a parallel tidal channel, the Pussur, versus the exchange of water between the channel and the tidal flats during the ebb-flood cycle. These results have implications for identifying loci of sediment erosion and deposition within the network.

  3. 基于聚类分析检索团伙多起犯罪的迭代算法%Iterative Algorithm of Searching Gang Several Crimes Based on Clustering Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨静; 王靖

    2013-01-01

    The data mining technology is applied to the investigation of a crime process in the public security organs, considering the gang several crime cases is harm to the interests of the people, the paper proposes a kind of definite algorithm which is based on the theory of social network and the method of hierarchical clustering analysis to find out the association rules of the gang several crime cases, then uses iteratively expand set method to classify cases into a child set which has the relationship, it can match and find out the gang several crime cases and joint crime suspect in each subsets of cases. Compare to the old basic solution, the algorithms greatly improve work efficiency, reduce the running time of inquires.%将数据挖掘技术应用到公安机关侦查犯罪的过程当中,针对危害人民利益的团伙多起犯罪案件,提出一种确定性的算法,该算法基于社会网络理论和层次聚类方法,找出形成团伙多起犯罪的关联关系,用迭代拓展集合的方法将有关联关系的案件分类成一个个子集合,每个子集合中案件进行匹配查找,找出团伙多起犯罪的案件及共同犯罪嫌疑人.本文提出的这种算法相比之前的基本解决方案,大大提高工作效率,降低查询的运行时间.

  4. The Mighty Ganges and its Journey Through the Silk City: A Case Study of Water Quality and its Impact on Health in Bhagalpur, Bihar, India, using Machine Learning, GIS & Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, B.; Kumar, N.

    2016-12-01

    River Ganges with an approximate stretch of 2525 km serves about 40% of India's population across 11 states, one of which is Bihar. The district Bhagalpur is located in the eastern part of Bihar and extends between the north latitudes of 25°03'40" and 25°30'00" and east longitudes of 86°30'00" and 87°29'45" encompassing approximately 66 km stretch of the Ganges. It forms a part of the mid- Gangetic alluvium plain covering an area of 2570 km2. The total population of the district stands at 3.03 million with a population density of 743 per km2. Ganges is a life line of millions of people with utmost religious significance but its banks have become a dumping ground for untreated urban sewage, industrial waste, disposal of solid corpses etc. which has led to severe environmental issues and as reported by the Central Ground water Board, the southern part of the city is affected by arsenic contamination in ground water (> 50 mg/L as per WHO norm). The municipal corporation is trying to cope up. This study aims at a comprehensive analysis of water quality along the entire 66 km stretch of the river. The methodology would involve dividing the stretch into 1 km sub-study areas and collection of 10 water samples from each stretch. Samples will also be collected at disposal points from industries especially the silk manufacturing units, sewage disposal points, cremation grounds, pesticide disposal points. A high resolution remotely sensed imagery of the city would be used and the multi-class relevance vector machine (MCRVM) would be used to broadly classify the landuse/landcover and this synoptic view of the city would facilitate the understanding of the urban environment. In conjunction, a standard questionnaire on health along with GPS locations would be collected from sample population inhabiting the demarcated stretches. Analysis would include physical, chemical and bacteriological tests on water samples. The results would bring forth the water quality and check for

  5. 南钢无锡金鑫轧钢厂设备基座搬迁精密工程测量方法%The Precision Engineering Survey Method of NanGang Wuxi Jinxin Rolling Mill's Equipment Base Relocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚成武

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,NanGang Wuxi rolling mill equipment for the precision engineering measurement base,combined with measurement of the actual situation,with a focus on how to avoid and reduce the error of measurement of mechanical equipment for large-scale impact.%本文主要介绍了针对无锡轧钢厂设备基座的精密工程测量,并结合测量中的实际情况,重点提出如何避免和降低误差对大型机械设备测量的影响.

  6. 新港电动汽车充电站建设方案浅析%Superficial Analysis for Construction Scheme of Charging Stations for Electric Car in Xin'gang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹元; 张春欣

    2011-01-01

    This paper mainly introduces the construction,design scheme and technique keys of charging stations for electric cars according to the construction of Xin'gang charging station(the first station in Fuzhou),to provide reference for construction of charging stations.%以福州市第一座电动汽车充电站——新港充电站为例,介绍了电动汽车充电站的建设、设计方案和技术要点,对今后充电设施建设提供参考。

  7. El consumo de drogas como una práctica cultural dentro de las pandillas O uso de drogas como prática cultural dentro de gangues Drugs use as a cultural practice within gangs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rafael Guzmán-Facundo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente el fenómeno social del narcotráfico y la violencia relacionada a la drogas ha minimizado las implicaciones del consumo de drogas en pandillas. Este artículo se basa en entrevistas semi-estructuradas a profundidad de un estudio realizado con jóvenes de pandillas del área Metropolitana de Nuevo León, México, con el objetivo de reflexionar y analizar el consumo de drogas como práctica cultural dentro de las pandillas. En la búsqueda del significado, lo primero que se muestra es el inicio de los miembros de pandillas en el consumo de drogas, y se describe la forma en que las drogas le son presentadas por la familia y/o los amigos miembros de la pandilla. Posteriormente se describe el significado del uso de drogas en la vida cotidiana de las pandillas y se observa en qué medida su uso es aceptable y normalizado.O fenômeno social do narcotráfico e da violência, relacionada às drogas, tende, atualmente, a minimizar os envolvimentos do consumo de drogas em gangues. Esse artigo se baseia em entrevistas, aprofundadas, de estudo realizado com jovens de gangues, na área Metropolitana de Nuevo León, México, com o objetivo de refletir e analisar o consumo de drogas como prática cultural, dentro das gangues. Na busca do significado, a primeira coisa mostrada é o início dos membros de gangues no uso de drogas, e se descreve a forma em que as drogas são apresentadas pela família e pelos amigos, membros das gangues. Em seguida, descreve-se o significado do uso de drogas na vida cotidiana e mostra até que ponto sua utilização é aceitável e normal.Today, the social phenomenon of drugs trafficking and violence related to drugs has tended to minimize the implications of drugs consumption in gangs. This article is based on in-depth interviews in young gangs in the metropolitan area of Nuevo León, Mexico, with a view to reflecting on and analyzing the drug as a cultural practice within gangs. In the search for meaning, the first

  8. New insights on the subsidence of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta Plain by using 2D multichannel seismic data, gravity and flexural modeling, BanglaPIRE Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grall, C.; Pickering, J.; Steckler, M. S.; Spiess, V.; Seeber, L.; Paola, C.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Palamenghi, L.; Schwenk, T.

    2015-12-01

    Deltas can subside very fast, yet many deltas remain emergent over geologic time. A large sediment input is often enough to compensate for subsidence and rising sea level to keep many deltas at sea level. This implies a balance between subsidence and sedimentation, both of which may, however, be controlled by independent factors such as sediment supply, tectonic loads and sea-level change. We here examine the subsidence of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (GBD). Located in the NE boundary of the Indian-Eurasian collision zone, the GBD is surrounded by active uplifts (Indo-Burma Fold Belt and the Shillong Massif). The pattern of subsidence from these tectonic loads can strongly vary depending on both loads and lithospheric flexural rigidity, both of which can vary in space and time. Sediment cover changes both the lithostatic pressure and the thermal properties and thus the rigidity of the lithosphere. While sediments are deposited cold, they also insulate the lithosphere, acting as a thermal blanket to increase lower crustal temperatures. These effects are a function of sedimentation rates and may be more important where the lithosphere is thin. At the massive GBD the impact of sedimentation should be considered for properly constraining flexural subsidence. The flexural rigidity of the lithosphere is here modeled by using a yield-stress envelope based on a thermomechanic model that includes geothermal changes associated with sedimentation. Models are constrained by using two different data sets, multichannel seismic data correlated to borehole stratigraphy, and gravity data. This approach allows us to determine the Holocene regional distribution of subsidence from the Hinge Zone to the Bengal Fan and the mass-anomalies associated with the flexural loading. Different end-member scenarios are explored for reproducing the observed land tilting and gravity anomalies. For all scenarios considered, data can be reproduced only if we consider an extremely weak lithosphere and

  9. River Modeling in Large and Ungauged Basins: Experience of Setting up the HEC RAS Model over the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, F.; Maswood, M.

    2014-12-01

    River modeling is the processing of setting up a physically-based hydrodynamic model that can simulate the water flow dynamics of a stream network against time varying boundary conditions. Such river models are an important component of any flood forecasting system that forecasts river levels in flood prone regions. However, many large river basins in the developing world such as the Ganges, Brahmaputra, Meghna (GBM), Indus, Irrawaddy, Salween, Mekong and Niger are mostly ungauged. Such large basins lack the necessary in-situ measurements of river bed depth/slope, bathymetry (river cross section), floodplain mapping and boundary condition flows for forcing a river model. For such basins, proxy approaches relying mostly on remote sensing data from space platforms are the only alternative. In this study, we share our experience of setting up the widely-used 1-D river model over the entire GBM basin and its stream network. Good quality in-situ measurements of river hydraulics (cross section, slope, flow) was available only for the downstream and flood prone region of the basin, which comprises only 7% of the basin area. For the remaining 93% of the basin area, we resorted to the use of data from the following satellite sensors to build a workable river model: a) Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) for deriving bed slope; b) LANDSAT/MODIS for updating river network and flow direction generated by elevation data; c) radar altimetry data to build depth versus width relationship at river locations; d) satellite precipitation based hydrologic modeling of lateral flows into main stem rivers. In addition, we referred to an extensive body of literature to estimate the prevailing baseline hydraulics of rivers in the ungauged region. We measured success of our approach by systematically testing how well the basin-wide river model could simulate river level dynamics at two measured locations inside Bangladesh. Our experience of river modeling was replete with numerous

  10. Enhancing University Courses and Field Schools through Cross-cultural Exchange: Joint US-Bangladeshi Trips to the Ganges-Brahmaputra and Mississippi Deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckler, M. S.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Lowes, S.; Gilligan, J. M.; Ackerly, B.; Ahmed, K. M.; Akhter, S. H.; Sousa, D.; Wilson, C.; Datta, D. K.; Roy, K.; Mondal, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    As part of an NSF PIRE grant, we have led four field trips for undergraduate, MS and PhD students to large deltaic systems. Three trips took US students to the Ganges-Brahmaputra (GB) delta in Bangladesh and one brought Bangladeshi faculty and students to the Mississippi (Miss.) delta in the US. An essential component in the learning process and overall experience of each trip was that ~2/5 of the participants were students and professors from Bangladesh. In all cases, the involvement of a substantial international cohort greatly broadened perspectives on the topics being covered. For example, in GBD the local geologic and cultural knowledge of the Bangladeshis deepened the learning and engagement of the US students, an outcome that was almost universally noted in student reviews. The trips received similar feedback from Bangladeshi participants, as they had an enthusiastic and engaged audience of peers from the US. Even for the Miss. delta trip, the Bangladeshis added a unique perspective from a nation that faces similar environmental issues. These overwhelmingly positive contributions have been experienced in several different contexts. Three trips were associated with US courses and run over Spring Break. One matched sustainable development undergrads at Columbia U. with geology undergrads from Dhaka U., and two others matched a mixed group of graduate and undergrad students from Vanderbilt U. with cohorts from Bangladesh. The fourth trip was a stand-alone Field School for PhD students from 14 US universities and mostly MS students from 4 Bangladeshi universities. The focus of each trip ranged from broader surveys of tectonic, fluvial and coastal processes to investigations of geology and people affected by tropical storms. Of particular interest was the success of mixing undergrad and graduate students in the Vanderbilt course, which centered on the intersection of social sciences, physical sciences, and engineering. In this case, undergrads engaged in a

  11. Modelling the increased frequency of extreme sea levels in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta due to sea level rise and other effects of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, S; Caesar, J; Wolf, J; Bricheno, L; Nicholls, R J; Saiful Islam, A K M; Haque, A; Pardaens, A; Lowe, J A

    2015-07-01

    Coastal flooding due to storm surge and high tides is a serious risk for inhabitants of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) delta, as much of the land is close to sea level. Climate change could lead to large areas of land being subject to increased flooding, salinization and ultimate abandonment in West Bengal, India, and Bangladesh. IPCC 5th assessment modelling of sea level rise and estimates of subsidence rates from the EU IMPACT2C project suggest that sea level in the GBM delta region may rise by 0.63 to 0.88 m by 2090, with some studies suggesting this could be up to 0.5 m higher if potential substantial melting of the West Antarctic ice sheet is included. These sea level rise scenarios lead to increased frequency of high water coastal events. Any effect of climate change on the frequency and severity of storms can also have an effect on extreme sea levels. A shelf-sea model of the Bay of Bengal has been used to investigate how the combined effect of sea level rise and changes in other environmental conditions under climate change may alter the frequency of extreme sea level events for the period 1971 to 2099. The model was forced using atmospheric and oceanic boundary conditions derived from climate model projections and the future scenario increase in sea level was applied at its ocean boundary. The model results show an increased likelihood of extreme sea level events through the 21st century, with the frequency of events increasing greatly in the second half of the century: water levels that occurred at decadal time intervals under present-day model conditions occurred in most years by the middle of the 21st century and 3-15 times per year by 2100. The heights of the most extreme events tend to increase more in the first half of the century than the second. The modelled scenarios provide a case study of how sea level rise and other effects of climate change may combine to produce a greatly increased threat to life and property in the GBM delta by the end

  12. "It's Helped Me with My Anger and I'm Realising Where I Go in Life": The Impact of a Scottish Youth Work / Schools Intervention on Young People's Responses to Social Strain and Engagement with Anti-Social Behaviour and Gang Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuchar, Ross; Ellis, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Moral panics relating to anti-social youth have accelerated in recent years, and there has been an increasing recognition that preventing problematic behaviour is more effective than sanctions once it occurs. Drawing upon General Strain Theory, this paper explores the social pressures that might stimulate anti-social behaviour and gang culture. It…

  13. On the new factors and value in children's literature creation of Chang Xin-gang%常新港儿童文学创作中的新质素及价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海兵

    2013-01-01

      常新港从事儿童文学几十年来,先后获得“最受学生欢迎的十大好书”奖、宋庆龄儿童文学奖、庄重文文学奖、全国优秀儿童文学奖、“好书大家读”最佳奖(中国台湾地区)等多种奖项,与此同时,在美国、日本、韩国等多个国家,常新港的多篇作品都得到了翻译出版。常新港的儿童文学作品总是能够触及到少年儿童成长的最深处、人性的最底部,也是能够给少年儿童精神打底子、可以对他们的性格从根子上真正塑造的好书。本文首先概述了常新港及其儿童文学创作,其次,就常新港儿童文学创作中的新质素及价值展开了深入的探讨,提出了自己的建议和看法,具有一定的参考价值。%Chang Xin-gang is engaged in children's literature for decades, has won the "most popular with students of the ten book" award, Song Qing-ling prize for children's literature, Zhuang Chong-wen literary award, national excellent children's literature award, "best books we read" (China Taiwan) and other awards, at the same time, in the United States, Japan, South Korea and other countries, many works have been translated and published. Chang Xin-gang’s children literary works can always touch the bottom of most children's, growth of human nature, also can give the child mental foundation. This paper outlines the Chang Xin-gang and the creation of children's literature, secondly, discusses the new factors and value in children's literature creation of Chang Xin-gang, put forward his own proposals and views, with some reference value.

  14. Refugees from Central American gangs

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Elizabeth G.

    2013-01-01

    El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras are among the world’s mostfragile nations, yet they are largely ignored by refugee agencies whounderestimate transnational criminal organisations’ abuses andpowers of control, while overestimating national governments’ abilityand willingness to protect their citizens.

  15. Refugees from Central American gangs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth G Kennedy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras are among the world’s mostfragile nations, yet they are largely ignored by refugee agencies whounderestimate transnational criminal organisations’ abuses andpowers of control, while overestimating national governments’ abilityand willingness to protect their citizens.

  16. Gang på jord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Birgitte Holck

    Undervisningsmateriale til overbygningen i kristendomskundskab og medborgerskab. Tekster og opgaver der lægger op til overvejelser om, hvilke værdier, regler og love, der ligger til grund for at være menneske og medborger i forskellige fællesskaber....

  17. Hvad har de gang i?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels-Henrik Møller

    Denne rapport er et resultat af et samarbejdet mellem Holbæk Kommune, repræsenteret ved Ungdommens Hus, og Center for Ungdomsforskning, CeFU, ved Roskilde Universitetscenter. Rapporten præsenterer og beskriver resultaterne af henholdsvis en række fokusgruppeinterviews med udsatte unge i Holbæk sa...

  18. Tagboliger - kom godt i gang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Pingel, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Denne pjece er tænkt som en inspiration for alle der går med overvejelser om at etablere tagboliger, uanset om det er i ældre ejendomme med et uudnyttet loft eller på en ejendom med fladt tag, som trænger til udskiftning. Det kan være boligejere, eller andels- og ejerboligforeningsbestyrelser....

  19. Surface atmosphere exchange in dry and a wet regime over the Ganges valley: a comprehensive investigation with direct observations and numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyanadh, Anusha; Prabhakaran, Thara; Karipot, Anandakumar

    2017-04-01

    Land atmosphere interactions in the Ganges Valley basin is a topic of significant importance as it is most vulnerable region due to extreme weather, air pollution, etc. The complete energy balance observations over this region was conducted as part of the CAIPEEX-IGOC (Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement Experiment - Integrated Ground based Observational Campaign) experiment for an entire year. These observations give first insight into the partitioning of energy in this vulnerable environment during the dry and wet regimes, which are typically part of the intraseasonal oscillations during the Indian monsoon season. These transitions wet-dry and dry-wet are poorly represented in GCMs and is the motivation for the detailed investigation here. Observations conducted with micrometeorological tower instrumented with eddy covariance sensors, radiation balance, soil heat flux measurements, microwave radiometer, sodar, radiosonde data are used in the present study. A set of numerical investigations of different Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) schemes is also carried out to investigate features of the diurnal cycle during the wet and dry regimes. General behaviour of both local and nonlocal PBL schemes found from the investigation is to accomplish enhanced mixing, leading to a deeper PBL in the valley. However, observations give clear evidence of residual boundary layer characterised by a weak stratification, playing a key role in the exchange of PBL air mass with that of free atmosphere. Impact of changes in parameterization and controlling factors on the PBL height are investigated. Case studies for a dry phase during the incidence of a heat wave and a wet phase during a land depression are presented. Observed diurnal features of the surface meteorological parameters including the surface energy budget components were well captured by local and nonlocal PBL schemes during both the cases. Vertical profiles of temperature, mixing ratio and winds from

  20. A Tale of Two Deltas: Contrasting Perspectives on the State of Natural and Human-modified Regions of the Ganges-Brahmaputra River Delta (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodbred, S. L.; Wallace Auerbach, L.; Wilson, C.; Gilligan, J. M.; Roy, K.; Ahmed, K.; Steckler, M. S.; Seeber, L.; Akhter, S. H.; Hossain, S.

    2013-12-01

    Effective risk analysis and the management of complex coastal systems require that the scale of interest be well defined. Here we present recent research from the Ganges-Brahmaputra river delta (GBD) that highlights different, if not divergent, perspectives on the current status of this system and its potential response to future environmental change. The contrasts emerge from viewing the GBD at different temporal and spatial scales, raising the question of how scientists, stakeholders, and decision makers might most effectively develop a shared understanding of large, at-risk delta systems. Among the world's deltas, the GBD is often cited as being highly vulnerable to future sea-level rise and environmental change, owing to its vast low-lying landscape and large human population. Taking a broad perspective, however, it is not coincident that the GBD, the world's largest delta system, is fed by immense water and sediment discharge from the Asian monsoon and Himalayan orogen - simply, the size of the GBD reflects the robust processes that have constructed and maintained it. At the regional scale, the deltaplain itself is interconnected by a labyrinth of fluvial and tidal channels that effectively convey sediment to most areas of the landscape, through overbank flooding, distributaries, and tidal transport. Together, the sediment supply, water discharge, and dense channel network bless the GBD with potential basinwide accretion rates >5 mm/yr. More locally, modern sedimentation rates >10 mm/yr are observed in many areas of the tidal delta plain, which are sufficient to maintain land-surface elevations under a variety of sea-level rise scenarios, or at least to mitigate whatever effects do occur. The long-term stratigraphic record of the GBD also reflects a system in dynamic equilibrium, with major landforms persisting through changes in sea level, sediment loading, river avulsion, and delta lobe switching - together providing an encouraging outlook in the face of

  1. The outlook is G.R.E.A.T.: What educators say about school-based prevention and the Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Dana; Esbensen, Finn-Aage

    2004-06-01

    This article reports on a survey of administrators, counselors, and teachers from middle schools involved in the National Evaluation of the Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) program. This survey was part of a multisite evaluation that also elicited the responses of students, parents, and officers teaching the G.R.E.A.T. program. School personnel provide their views about important current issues, including their perceptions of school safety, the role of law enforcement officers in schools, and the role and effectiveness of school-based prevention programs in general and the G.R.E.A.T. program in particular. Results from this survey have important implications for the plethora of prevention programs currently located in American schools.

  2. A Discussion to the Role and Spirit of Ningbo Gang in the Librarianship%宁波帮参助中国图书馆事业的角色身份和精神内涵

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万湘容

    2011-01-01

    Ningbo Gang have huge contribution to the development of chinese librarianship,they are the conservators of Chinese civilization classics, the philanthropists Donating public welfare, the library experts engaging in the library practice and research work, the civilization angels promoting Chinese and foreign culture exchange.Their dedication guides and stimulates more and more social forces to attend in public welfare of Chinese library.%宁波帮对中国图书馆事业的发展贡献巨大,是中华文明典籍的传承者、捐赠公益事业的慈善家、图书馆研究实践工作的专家学者、推动中外交流的使者。他们的奉献精神有利于引导和激发更多社会力量投身图书馆事业。

  3. Functional characterisation of three zinc transporters in Thlaspi caerulescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talukdar, S.

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metal hyperaccumulation in plants is a poorly understood phenomenon. Transmembrane metal transporters are assumed to play a key role in this process. In the research described in this thesis, genes encoding Zn transporters of Thlaspi

  4. Cadmium Hyperaccumulation and Reproductive Traits in Natural Thlaspi caerulescens Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Basic, Nevena; Keller, Catherine; Fontanillas, Pierre; Vittoz, Pascal; Besnard, Guillaume; Galland, Nicole

    2006-01-01

    International audience; During the last decade, the metal hyperaccumulating plants have attracted considerable attention because of their potential use in decontamination of heavy metal contaminated soils. However, in most species, little is known regarding the function, the ecological and the evolutionary significances of hyperaccumulation. In our study, we investigated the parameters influencing the Cd concentration in plants as well as the biological implications of Cd hyperaccumulation in...

  5. Study on Underwater Tunnel Tube Positioning and Posture Monitoring of GANG-ZHU-AO Bridge%港珠澳大桥隧道沉管安装定位及姿态监测技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彦昌; 黄永军

    2012-01-01

    This paper mainly introduce the key points on underwater tunnel tube positioning and posture monitoring of GANG-ZHU-AO Bridge, a combining method of above water-level positioning technology RTK GPS and under watet posture-monitoring technology and real-time measuring of the deflection of surveying tower. By coordinates transformation, we carry out the precise positioning and posture-monitoring of tunnel tubes, and develop the visual simulation software to guide the underwater jointing of tubes. The paper also briefly introduce the key steps and key process control and accuracy anylasis during installation and positioning.%重点介绍了针对港珠澳大桥海底沉管对接过程中水下精密定位及姿态监测技术方法,采用了水上RTK定位与水下姿态监测技术相结合,并实时监测测量塔挠度,通过三维坐标转换实现了高精度的对接定位及姿态监测,开发可视化仿真模拟软件,指导沉管水下对接.简要介绍了安装定位过程的实施步骤、关键工序和定位精度分析.

  6. 团伙犯罪青少年人格、人际信任与应对方式的对照研究%Control study of personality,interpersonal trust and coping style of juveniles in criminal gangs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马慧; 王曼; 李秀影

    2012-01-01

    E维度与其应对方式的求助维度具有相关性( r=0.400,P<0.05).结论 非团伙犯罪、团伙犯罪和守法青少年的人格特征、人际信任以及应对方式存在差异,这些心理因素可能对青少年团伙犯罪行为产生一定的影响.%Objective To study the personality traits,interpersonal trust and coping style of juveniles in criminal gangs and their relationship. Methods 15 male juveniles who committed crimes without gangs ( group1 ),52 male juveniles who committed crimes by gangs( group2 ) and 40 male lawful freshmen( group3 ) were tested with Eysenck Personality Questionnaire ( EPQ),Trust Scale and Coping Style Questionnaire.The data were statistically analyzed by covariance analysis or Pearson relation analysis.Results After the covariant effect of education levels was removed,the levels of P and N in EPQ of group1 ( P:57.49 ± 2.62,N:59.35 ± 3.55 ) and group2 ( P:57.83 ± 1.24,N:59.60 ± 1.68 ) were higher than those of group3 ( P:43.88 ± 4.72,N:39.07 ±6.40) with statistical difference (P<0.05).The level of E of group1 (63.41 ±3.86) was higher than that of group2 (53.01 ± 1.83 ) with statistical difference (P < 0.05 ).The levels of P,D and F in Trust Scale of greup1 (P:24.68 ± 1.51,D:14.36 ±2.19,F:15.49 ±2.21) and group2(P:22.95 ±0.71,D:22.48 ± 1.04,F:23.09 ±1.05 ) were lower than those of group3 ( P:33.14 ± 2.72,D:40.22 ± 3.95,F:38.44 ± 3.99) with statistical difference (P < 0.01 ).The levels of self-accusation and fantasy in Coping Style Questionnaire of group1 ( 0.80 ±0.08,0.83 ± 0.06 respectively) and group2 (group2:0.59 ± 0.04,0.68 ± 0.03,respectively) were higher than those of group3 (0.39 ± 0.14,0.44 ± 0.11,respectively) with statistical difference (P< 0.05 or 0.01 ),while the levels of problem-solving of group1 ( 0.76 ± 0.06 ) and group2 ( 0.70 ± 0.03 ) were lower than that of group3 ( 0.95 ± 0.11 ) with statistical difference (P < 0.05 ).For the male juveniles who committed crimes by

  7. Research on Ned Kelly’s Identity in The True History of the Kelly Gang%《凯利帮真史》内德・凯利身份认同研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张计连

    2015-01-01

    The True History of the Kelly Gang won Peter Carey the second Booker Prize .In this novel ,the protagonist Ned Kelly ,who emerges as a terrifying “bushranger” all the time in the official records , this time is portrayed as an Irish hero , who has the nature of goodness against the colonial authorities under the pressure of life . Through the way in which the historical figures defend themselves , Peter Carey cleverly arranges the character to launch a struggle for the right of historical discourse . To the writer , Irish Australians are “the other”in white Austrians , and they challenge this official viewpoint— “Australia is white Australia” .%彼得・凯里第二次获布克奖的小说《凯利帮真史》将澳大利亚官方历史记载中面目狰狞的“丛林大盗”内德・凯利塑造成为一个本性良善但为生活所逼而反抗殖民当局的爱尔兰裔英雄。复活历史人物,让历史人物站出来为自己辩护,凯里巧妙地安排小说人物展开了一场历史话语权的争夺。在他看来,爱尔兰裔澳大利亚人是白澳内部的“他者”,他们挑战了澳官方宣称的“澳大利亚是白人的澳大利亚”的观点。

  8. 广州地铁嘉禾联锁区微机联锁故障下行车组织%Driving Organizational Methods of Guangzhou Metro JiaHe Wang Gang SICAS District Microcomputer SICAS Failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海荣; 郭勇; 潘浩华

    2013-01-01

      微机联锁故障是对地铁运营组织影响较大的一种信号故障,对于故障情况下及故障恢复后行车组织方法的研究具有积极意义。本文在分析SICAS计算机连锁原理及现象的基础上,研究了广州地铁2号线嘉禾望岗联锁区微机联锁故障时的行车组织方法。从行车中断时间、线路通过能力、对行车及客流的影响几个方面进行综合对比分析,选出较优方案。以便降低故障对地铁运营组织的不利影响,最大程度满足乘客出行需要。%  SICAS failure affecting a signal failure on the subway operator organizations, under fault conditions and fault recovery method for the study of the organization of train has positive significance. This paper analyzes the principle and the phenomenon of the SICAS computer chain, driving organizational methods of Guangzhou Metro Line 2 JiaHe Wang Gang SICAS District Microcomputer SICAS failure. From traffic interruption time, line by capacity, impact on traffic and passenger flow several comprehensive comparative analysis to elect the better programs.

  9. The Role of the Sports on Cultivating Teenagers'Healthy Personality---The Enlightenment of the Movie "Gridiron Gang"%体育运动在培养青少年健全人格中的作用--电影《重振球风》的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨峰

    2016-01-01

    电影《重振球风》就体育运动对青少年健全人格的培养提供了新的诠释。事实上,体育运动对青少年培养自身健全的人格不可或缺。重新剖析电影的内在意蕴,充分发挥体育运动在健全人格培养中的良好促进作用,努力促成当下家庭、学校、社会形成合力,以培养出更多具有自尊自信、意志顽强、情绪稳定、人际环境和谐的高素质青少年,值得认真研究。%The Movie "Gridiron Gang"gives us a new versionof for the sports'role on cultivating teenagers'healthy personality. In fact,the sports is very importment for cultivating teenagers'healthy.The anthor analysed the inner meaning of the movie "Gridiron Gang"and insisted that we should promote the sports'role on cultivating teenagers'healthy personality,faclitate the family,college and society to keep together to cultivate many high quality teenager with high self esteem and confidence,in-domitable will,emotional stability and harmonious interpersonal environment.

  10. Village Elder SHAN Gang:The Difficulties of Realizing Procedural Justice in Customary Society and the Causes%《被告山杠爷》:乡土社会程序正义实现的困境及成因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷怡

    2015-01-01

    In the movie Village Elder SHAN Gang,the dispute resolution“procedure”used by elder SHAN Gang was suitable for local villagers,which yet was a violation of the laws of the modern legal procedure. Relationship between villagers in a customary socie-ty is transforming from defamiliarization to rationalization,which is embodied in a dual-structure where the basic form of social ac-quaintances is still retained. Villagers still prefer no-litigation dispute resolutions mostly and the high cost of litigation to achieve proce-dural justice is an inherent defect,making procedural justice in the contemporary sense hard to penetrate into their daily lives.%电影《被告山杠爷》中,山杠爷解决纠纷的“程序”是适合乡土的,但却是违反现代法律的“程序”。乡土社会正在发生陌生化和理性化的改变,纠纷解决呈现双重空间结构,但是熟人社会的基本形态仍然保留,无讼的法律文化传统依旧存在,诉讼程序本身存在的高成本缺陷,使得现代意义上的程序正义难以渗入。

  11. THERAPEUTIC EFFECT OF STELLATE GANGLI ON BLOCK ON INSOMNIA%星状神经节阻滞治疗顽固性失眠症的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武春银; 柴小青

    2013-01-01

    Objective : To observe the therapeutic effect of stel ate ganglion block on patients th insomnia. Methods:Forty-six patients with insomnia were enrol ed in the observation.Al cases received stel ate ganglion block ( SGB) with 2% Lidocaine 5ml and Vit Bl2 0.5 mg every day and lasting for 15-20 days . Resuls : After one treatment ,89.1%patients were able to fal asleep sooner(Pgang1ion block,SGB)治疗顽固性失眠症的疗效。方法:对46例顽固性失眠症患者行双侧星状神经节交替阻滞(2%利多卡因4ml+维生素B120.5mg+生理盐水3ml共8ml),每日1次,10~15次为1疗程,采用治疗前后自身对照法。结果:1个疗程后89.1%的患者能在20分钟内入睡;89.1%的患者睡眠时间持续6h 以上;86.9%患者对自己睡眠改善评价满意。上述各项指标与治疗前相比,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论:星状神经节阻滞治疗顽固性失眠症是一种行之有效的方法。

  12. 一种联动可调的行为化战略控制系统构建方法研究%Research on the Construction Method with Ganged and of a Behavioral Strategic Control System Adjustable Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗彪; 王猛

    2012-01-01

    企业战略控制能力决定了战略执行的效率与效果。传统战略控制理论侧重于对控制方法的系统性研究,却对控制系统本身的执行效率问题缺乏关注。基于控制论的基本原理,在回顾传统战略控制理论的基础上,指出其在控制效度和控制载体上存在的问题,并根据三类经典控制工具,提出了一种具备联动可调功能的战略控制系统。通过嵌套使用平衡计分卡、财务模型与计划甘特图,企业的战略规划可不断转化为战略行动计划,并在实施过程中实现联动性调整。%The capability of enterprises' strategic control determines the efficiency and effects of strategy implemen- tation. The traditional strategic control theories placed great emphasis on the systematic research on the control meth- ods, however, little attention was paid to the issues about the execution efficiency of control system. Based on the basic principles of cybernetic system, this paper points out the problems existed in control validity and control carri- er of strategic control system on the basis of reviewing traditional strategic control theories, puts forward a strategic control system with ganged and adjustable function in combination with three kinds of classical control tools. Through the nested use of the balanced score card, financial model and planning Gantt chart, enterprises' strategy planning can be transformed into strategic action plans continuously and be able to achieve linkage adjustment in the process of implementation.

  13. 基于五品联动理论的品位效益优化决策研究%Study on the optimization and decision of grade benefits based on Five Grades Ganged theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵安林

    2014-01-01

    The correlation of exploration,mining,ore blending,processing and smelting sectors,which are considered to be series-coupled in mine engineering,is considered to be principal for mines. The corresponding geological grade,mining grade,milling grade,concen-trate grade,charged grade all plays an important role in the general economical benefits of mines. Based on Five Grades Ganged(FGG)theory,an economic effectiveness model for min-ing grade benefits was established. The proposed model obeys the principle of ore conservation and metal conservation. Grade-profit activity index was proposed and analyzed via an example. The grade of optimization of a certain metal mine was obtained and the proposed model would establish a foundation for further study of the management mode in mining enterprises.%本文以五品联动理论为研究背景,考虑到矿山工程中地质工程、采矿工程、配矿工程、选矿工程和冶炼工程5个工程是相互联系的串联耦合工程,是矿山企业活动的主体,而与其相对应的地质品位、采出品位、入选品位、精矿品位和入炉品位对于矿山整体经济效益起到关键的控制作用。本文运用并拓展了“质量守恒”原理,利用“矿量守恒”和“金属量守恒”建立了品位经济效益模型,提出了五品联动品位-效益活跃指数,通过实例计算与分析,获得了某铁矿的品位优化数值,为进一步研究矿山企业工程管理模式奠定了基础。

  14. PONTUS GANGS ACTIVITIES AND GOVERNMENT APPLICATIONS IN AND AROUND SAMSUN SAMSUN VE ÇEVRESİNDE PONTUS ÇETELERİNİN FAALİYETLERİ VE HÜKÜMETİN UYGULAMALARI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin İSKENDER KILIÇ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ottoman Empire has considerably struggled with the matter of minorities in the political area since the second half of the 19th century. Moreover, this matter has continued until Treaty of Lausanne. An artificial problem of Pontus was created in Ottoman Empire by influences of especially French Revolution and the great powers that had aspirations on Ottoman Empire. However, there is no relationship between the Pontus State in the history and the Pontus State which is put forth and desired to be carried out. In the 19th century, Ottoman Empire, which was multilateral, multi-religious and multicultural, had entered the duration of disintegration because of the effect of both internal and external forces due to the property of the age. While the minorities in the Ottoman Empire were gradually splitting from it by the supports of the big nations, the Greeks lived together with the Turks in the Anatolia for centuries started to imagine establishing a Pontus State ranging from the west of İnebolu to Batum. They chose Samsun as the capital city of the state. Therefore, they started to gang activities in and around Samsun. The religious men have active roles in provoking these gangs. Against all of these, by taking various precautions, Ottoman Empire tried to stop these destructive and cruel activities against the Muslim community Osmanlı Devleti, XIX. yüzyılın ikinci yarısından itibaren siyasî alanda azınlıklar meselesiyle oldukça meşgul olmuştur. Hatta bu konu Lozan Antlaşmasına kadar devam etmiştir. Bilhassa Fransız İhtilali’nin ve Osmanlı Devleti üzerinde emelleri olan büyük güçlerin etkisiyle Osmanlı içerisinde yapay bir Pontus meselesi ortaya çıkartılmıştır. Oysaki tarihteki Pontus Devleti ile ortaya atılan ve gerçekleştirilmek istenen Pontus Devleti arasında hiçbir bağlantı yoktur. XIX. yüzyıla gelindiğinde çok milletli, dinli ve kültürlü olan Osmanlı Devleti, çağın özelliği gereği gerek i

  15. Sportsmans Road/Gangs Bayou 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Measured fine-scale distributions of nekton on the vegetated marsh surface using drop samplers and utilized these patterns to estimate population size. Natant...

  16. Contract gangs: race, gender and vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Goodall

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available While violence directed at Indian students in Australian cities has been highlighted in the Indian and Australian press, far less attention has been paid to the violence directed at Indians in rural areas. This has most often involved Indians employed in contract labour in seasonal industries like fruit or vegetable picking. This article reviews various media accounts, both urban and rural, of violence directed at Indians from 2009 to 2012. It draws attention to the far longer history of labour exploitation which has taken place in rural and urban Australia in contract labour conditions and the particular invisibility of rural settings for such violence. Racial minorities, like Aboriginal and Chinese workers, and women in agriculture and domestic work, have seldom had adequate power to respond industrially or politically. This means that in the past, these groups been particularly vulnerable to such structural exploitation. The paper concludes by calling for greater attention not only to the particular vulnerability of Indians in rural settings but to the wider presence of racialised and gendered exploitation enabled by contract labour structures.

  17. En gang cruiser – altid cruiser?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Cruising er relateret til risikoadfærd, uanset om bilisten er 18 eller 23 år gammel. De bilister, der fortsætter med at cruise som 23-årige, udgør en særlig risikogruppe, idet de også udviser andre former for risikoadfærd som fx manglende selebrug og øget spirituskørsel....

  18. Youth Gangs: Experience from a Pilot Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salagaev, A. L.; Shashkin, A. V.

    2005-01-01

    The present article is based on the results of an expert survey and a survey of young people in the schools of two Russian cities, Moscow and Kazan (2003). The study focused on making the research problem more explicit and testing the set of instruments, which was developed with the authors' participation in the framework of the Eurogang research…

  19. "I virkeligheden lurer katastrofen hver gang"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmboe, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    artFREQ. – eller artFREQUENCY – som navnet lyder i sin helhed, har gennem de seneste 6 år stået for nogle af de mest spektakulære musikalske begivenheder på den københavnske scene. Seismograf/DMT har mødt kunstnerisk leder, Lars Top-Galia til en snak om kvalitet, intuition, radikal højkultur og om...

  20. Reviving the Ganges Water Machine: why?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. A. Amarasinghe

    2015-09-01

    Rabi and hot weather season irrigation to the entire irrigable area, and (ii to provide Rabi and hot weather season irrigation to the entire cropped area. This paper shows that SSS can enhance water supply, and provide benefits for irrigation and other water use sectors. In addition, it can buffer the inherent variability in water supply and mitigate extreme flooding, especially in the downstream parts of the basin. It can also increase river flow during low-flow months via baseflow or enable the re-allocation of irrigation canal water. Importantly, SSS can mitigate the negative effects of both flooding and water scarcity in the same year, which often affects the most vulnerable segments of society – women and children, the poor and other disadvantaged social groups.

  1. 当代中国道德传统接续与重构的理论自觉--从《新理学》到《新纲常》%On Theoretical Conscientiousness of Connecting and Reconstructing Contemporary Chinese Moral Tradition -From New Confucian to Xin Gang Chang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴兆国

    2014-01-01

    New Confucian by Feng Youlan is based on moral consciousness of reflection,with the conscien-tious responsibility of circulation.It is to discover the new path for China in calamity.The book of Xin Gang Chang also embodies the theoretical conscientiousness of connecting and reconstructing Chinese moral tradition.The theoretical creation from New Confucian to Xin Gang Chang is full of consciousness of theo-retical creation.This kind of theoretical conscientiousness is to pursue social moral base,introspect moral tradition,think dialectically of new moral and ethical characteristics,as well as inspect how to carry out the new moral path.%冯友兰的《新理学》以自觉的道德反思意识为出发点,肩负着贞下起元的自觉使命,试图为处在国难中的中国找寻新的发展方向。这种对传统道德接续与重构的理论自觉在何怀宏的《新纲常》中也有集中的体现。从《新理学》到《新纲常》的理论创作,均充满了自觉的理论创造意识。这种理论自觉既有对社会道德根基的寻求,也有对道德传统的反思,既有对新道德伦理特点的理性辩证,也有对如何实施新伦理路径的详细考量。

  2. Heavy metal tolerance and accumulation in Thlaspi caerulescens, a heavy metal hyperaccumulating plant species = Zware metalen tolerantie en accumulatie in Thlaspi caerulescens, een zware metalen hyperaccumulerende plantensoort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mortel, van de J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Minerals are essential for humans, plants and animals and have an important micronutrient role in physiological and metabolic processes of plants. Next to this essential role of minerals, they can also be very toxic when available to the plant in elevated amounts. Plants therefore need to keep very

  3. Heavy metal tolerance and accumulation in Thlaspi caerulescens, a heavy metal hyperaccumulating plant species = Zware metalen tolerantie en accumulatie in Thlaspi caerulescens, een zware metalen hyperaccumulerende plantensoort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mortel, van de J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Minerals are essential for humans, plants and animals and have an important micronutrient role in physiological and metabolic processes of plants. Next to this essential role of minerals, they can also be very toxic when available to the plant in elevated amounts. Plants therefore need to keep very

  4. Social adaptation of Latin American youth gangs in Spain: Gangs and street youth organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Soriano Gatica

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article carries out a brief summary of the evolution of the phenomenon of what are known as “Latino gangs” in Spain since the late 1990s. The upsurge of these new street youth organisations is closely linked with the mass arrival of thousands of young Latin Americans in Spain during the past decade, and the consequent integration challenges that this has brought for both the welcoming society and for the young newcomers. In the sphere of public policy inSpain, there have been two main approaches to the phenomenon: one which is more oriented towards repression than prevention, and the other, known as the “Barcelona model”, which has promoted a process of normalisation and integration of these groups into Spanish society. The second option makes it possible for different social actors to carry out coordinated actions, and may serve as a guideline for developing similar initiatives in different countries in Europe and Latin America.

  5. Correlation between syndrome characteristics of brain collateral damaged by internal toxin and blood pressure-temperature ganged fluctuation of acute cerebral infarction based on data mining*%基于数据挖掘的急性脑梗死血压、体温联动变化与毒损脑络证候特点相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志辰; 张允岭; 曹晓岚; 张玉莲; 赵建军; 陈志强; 常富业; 郑宏

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the change laws of blood pressure-temperature ganged fluctuation and TCM four examination information in the patients with acute cerebral infarction (ACI), and find out its syndrome characteristics. Methods The information of body temperature, blood pressure, TCM four examinations and NIHSS scores were collected dynamically from the patients. The correlation among the data was analysed, logistic regression equation and principal component analysis (PCP) were set up, and the score values of them were compared dynamically. The scores of comprehensive evaluation were counted. Results There was a correlation between blood pressure-temperature ganged fluctuation (increase of temperature and sudden changes of blood pressure) and NIHSS scores. The information of TCM four examinations in a group of symptoms (coma, dysphasia or aphasia and mucopurulent eye secretion) were closely related to the blood pressure-temperature ganged fluctuation. The results of PCP showed that the proportion of all principal components as follows: pricipal component 1 (coma,polypnea, bad breath, swift pulse and dull complexion) accounted for 34.655%, principal component 2 (aphasia, mucopurulent eye secretion and yellow sputum), 16.575%, and total proportion of component 1 and 2, 51.23%. The scores of comprehensive evaluation were counted according to the equation of (principal component 1 × 34.655% + principal component 2 × 16.575 ) ÷ 51.23%, and the result showed that the scores of comprehensive evaluation of principal components changed from negative value to positive value. The information of TCM four examinations changed most radically on the 3rd to 5th day of ACI with different endpoints. The changes of the information of TCM four examinations were different with sensitivity and specificity in this group of symptoms. Conclusion The information of TCM four examinations collected dynamically reflects the characteristics of fire-toxin syndrome of brain

  6. Isolation and identification of 4-a-rhamnosyloxy benzyl glucosinolate in Noccaea caerulescens showing intraspecific variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de R.M.; Krosse, S.; Swolfs, A.E.M.; Brinke, te E.; Prill, N.; Leimu, R.; Galen, van P.M.; Wang, Y.; Aarts, M.G.M.; Dam, van N.M.

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolates are secondary plant compounds typically found in members of the Brassicaceae and a few other plant families. Usually each plant species contains a specific subset of the ~130 different glucosinolates identified to date. However, intraspecific variation in glucosinolate profiles is com

  7. Functional analysis of zinc hyperaccumulation related genes of Noccaea (Thlaspi) caerulescens for phytoremediation purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassan, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) are toxic metals that can cause serious soil contamination when present in excess. Especially Cd exposure is a threat to human health. Plants can potentially be used to clean-up the Zn- and/or Cd-contaminated soils in a technology called “Phytoremediation”. Two

  8. Impact of metal pollution and Thlaspi caerulescens growth on soil microbial communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Epelde, L.; Becerril, J.M.; Kowalchuk, G.A.; Deng, Y.; Zhou, J.N.; Garbisu, C.

    2010-01-01

    Soil microorganisms drive critical functions in plant-soil systems. As such, various microbial properties have been proposed as indicators of soil functioning, making them potentially useful in evaluating the recovery of polluted soils via phytoremediation strategies. To evaluate microbial responses

  9. Thlaspi caerulescens, an attractive model species to study heavy metal hyperaccumulation in plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonçalves Leite de Assunção, A.; Schat, H.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Studying heavy metal hyperaccumulation is becoming more and more interesting for ecological, evolutionary, nutritional, and environmental reasons. One model species, especially in the era of high throughput genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics technologies, would be very

  10. Reciprocal Grafting Separates the Roles of the Root and Shoot in Zinc Hyperaccumulation in Thlaspi caerulescens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marcelo de A. Guimarães; Jeffery L. Gustin; David E. Salt

    2009-01-01

    The extreme phenotype of zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulation, which is found in several Brassicaceae species, is determined by mechanisms that promote elevated Zn tolerance and high Zn accumulation in shoots...

  11. Functional analysis of zinc hyperaccumulation related genes of Noccaea (Thlaspi) caerulescens for phytoremediation purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassan, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) are toxic metals that can cause serious soil contamination when present in excess. Especially Cd exposure is a threat to human health. Plants can potentially be used to clean-up the Zn- and/or Cd-contaminated soils in a technology called “Phytoremediation”. Two

  12. Isolation and identification of 4-a-rhamnosyloxy benzyl glucosinolate in Noccaea caerulescens showing intraspecific variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de R.M.; Krosse, S.; Swolfs, A.E.M.; Brinke, te E.; Prill, N.; Leimu, R.; Galen, van P.M.; Wang, Y.; Aarts, M.G.M.; Dam, van N.M.

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolates are secondary plant compounds typically found in members of the Brassicaceae and a few other plant families. Usually each plant species contains a specific subset of the ~130 different glucosinolates identified to date. However, intraspecific variation in glucosinolate profiles is

  13. Trastornos por consumo de alcohol (AUDIT en adolescentes y jovenes marginales de bandas juveniles de Mexico Transtornos por consumo de álcool (AUDIT em adolescentes e jovens marginais de bandos juvenis do México Alcohol consumption disorder (AUDIT for marginal adolescents and youth from juvenile gangs of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rafael Guzmán Facundo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Adolescentes y jóvenes que pertenecen a bandas juveniles con frecuencia son omitidos de las encuestas nacionales sobre consumo de alcohol y drogas. El objetivo del estudio fue conocer los trastornos por consumo de alcohol, y analizar el efecto de factores personales sobre estos, en 125 adolescentes y jóvenes margínales de bandas juveniles de Monterrey, NL. México. Los resultados indicaron que 70% mostró consumo excesivo, 62% se clasificó con consumo perjudicial y el 50% con dependencia. Los factores que más contribuyeron en la predicción del consumo excesivo fueron la edad, sexo y el bajo nivel educativo, para el consumo perjudicial fueron la edad y problemas de salud mental, y para el consumo dependiente fueron la edad, los años de escolaridad y los problemas de salud mental. Estos resultados posibilitarán la reflexión de la necesidad de diseñar programas adecuados dirigidos a la prevención en este grupo de jóvenes marginales.Adolescentes e jovens que pertencem a bandos juvenis com freqüência são omitidos dos estudos nacionais sobre consumo de álcool e drogas. O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi conhecer os transtornos por consumo de álcool e analisar o efeito de fatores pessoais sobre estes, em 125 adolescentes e jovens marginais de bandos juvenis do México. Os resultados mostraram que 70% têm consumo excessivo, 62% se classificou em um consumo prejudicial, e o 50% com dependência. Os fatores que maior contribuíram na predição do consumo excessivo foram a idade, sexo e o baixo nível educacional, para o consumo prejudicial foram a idade e os problemas de saúde mental, e para o consumo dependente foram a idade, os anos de escolaridade e os problemas de saúde mental. Estes resultados possibilitaram a reflexão da necessidade de elaboração de programas adequados direcionados à prevenção neste grupo de jovens.Adolescents and youngers who are involved in gangs, are frequently excluded from the national surveys about

  14. 论传统村落非遗与新型城镇化建设同行--以南宁市缸瓦窑村香火龙为例%Discusses the Jointly Promote New Urbanization Construction and Traditional Village’s Intangible Cultural Heritage--Taking Incense Dragon, Village of Gang Wajiao, Nanning City for Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁智才

    2015-01-01

    传统村落的非物质文化遗产浓缩了地域文化的精华,是地域特色文化鲜活的标本。新型城镇化建设给传统村落非遗保护带来挑战的同时,也孕育着文化传承维新的机遇。传统村落非遗保护与城镇化建设可以同行。利用村落非遗资源融入城市体系,推进特色城镇建设;营造村落文化社区,重建文化空间;重视整体保护,恢复文化生态;因地制宜发展文化产业,以文化资源的产业化推进就地城镇化的实现,从而达到村落非遗保护传承与新型城镇化的共赢。作为传统村落,南宁市缸瓦窑村地处城市新区建设核心地带,其自治区级非遗——香火龙的困境与际遇折射出新型城镇化建设中传统村落非遗保护传承的深层问题与可能路径。%Traditional village’s intangible cultural heritage concentrated essence of local culture, and it is a live specimen of geographical cultural features. On the one hand, the new urbanization brings challenges to the protection of traditional villages; on the other hand, the cultural heritage breeds restoration opportunities. We should make use of genetic resources into non-urban village system to promote characteristics towns, create a village cultural communities and rebuild cultural space, pay attention to the overall protection and restore the cultural ecology; and develop cultural industries according local conditions with cultural resources to promote industrialization, so as to achieve the win-win results ——protection of intangible cultural heritage and realization of new urbanization. As a traditional village, the Wa Gang Jiao is located in core area of Nanning New district, and its provincial level intangible cultural heritage, the dilemma and challenge of Incense Dragon, reflects deep issues and possible paths of the traditional intangible cultural heritage village in the construction of new urbanization .

  15. Gangs and Guerrillas: Ideas from Counterinsurgency and Counterterrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    them from others. This is as true in California as in Kenya. Sometimes this is physical appearance, built into facial structure, skin color, hair type...remain able to attract women - something that was never the case in traditional societies (and still isn’t the case many other places]. In the...absence of elders as a sufficient check on disruptive behavior, the ways in which young women reward young men, and which young men they favor, takes on

  16. Latino gangs: An approach of social recuperation in Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep M. Lahosa i Cañellas

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an approach of what have become known as “Latino gangs”, and has been carried out in Barcelona since this reality first came to light, in late 2002. The approach is based onone of the criteria that Barcelona City Council has defined as a basic element of its urban policy, that is, to develop interventions that facilitate the integration of new emerging urban realities, even those that may result in the generation of conflict in the city’s social and political life. Meanwhile, one sine qua non condition is the acceptance of the rule of common law, and of the very diversityof the city’s community life. In the case under study, the aim has been to encourage groups of young Latinos who have been “branded” as dangerous to commence processes of normalisation, by exploring the associational route as a democratic resource for functioning socially.

  17. Gangs in Honduras: A Threat to National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    accessed on November 13, 2011). 13 Elsa Falkenburger and Geoff Thale, Maras centroamericanas: Politicas Publicas y mejores practicas, (Revista CIDOB...Anual 2003: Capitulo II: Seguridad y Justicia.”. Annual report 2003: Chapter II: Security and Justice”. 67 United Nations, Human Rights reports

  18. Clans of the Street: Tribalism and Urban Street Gangs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Billie Nave

    The clan principle, the informal determination of human groups by totem characteristics, commonly accepted standards for self-definition, valued knowledge, and regulation of behavior, is a reality for American Indian and Native Alaskan cultures and for the mainstream urban, suburban, and industrial society as well. The tendency to group…

  19. Explaining miracles : growth regressions meet the Gang of Four

    OpenAIRE

    Easterly, William; DEC

    1994-01-01

    The authorexamines a range of cross-sectional variation in performance and policies for evidence on what distinguishes successes from failures. At about 6 percent, the growth rate of the Four Tigers - Hong Kong, the Republic of Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan (China) - are among the largest outliners in any study of growth. This is not surprising, says the author. The Four Tigers are Tigers because their growth rate was high. The Four generally have large positive residuals in growth regressions...

  20. Find Holger - også en anden gang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Vi fandt Holger! Solstrålehistorien om den 3-årige dreng, der gik sin vej og siden blev fundet igen, er gået verden rundt. Den gode nyhed giver anledning til at tænke over, hvorfor vi egentlig fandt Holger uskadt?...

  1. Going ballistic:dealing with guns, gangs and knives

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Murders involving knives and firearms never fail to grab the headlines, yet they are relatively rare. Gun crime represents only 0.4% of all recorded crime in England and Wales. The public are often sceptical, however, when they read figures such as this – and they have reason to be so. Going Ballistic's findings support four primary arguments: that official crime figures do not reflect the experiences of many communities in England and Wales; that information and intelligence sharing between ...

  2. Old Schoolhouse Gang: Some Guidelines for School Oral History Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew Consolidated School Corp., Columbus, IN.

    This booklet is presented as a guide for students undertaking oral history projects for a class assignment. The students were to search for people attending one-room schools or other early schools in Bartholomew County Indiana from the late 1800s to the 1950s. The suggestions given in the booklet are to help in developing questions and presenting…

  3. Mexico/USA. Magtkamp om muren er i gang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelardi, Maiken

    2017-01-01

    Trump skaber nervøsitet i Mexico. Men vil et svagere Mexico få uoverskuelige konsekvenser for USA?......Trump skaber nervøsitet i Mexico. Men vil et svagere Mexico få uoverskuelige konsekvenser for USA?...

  4. Science fiction (SF - wat is eintlik aan die gang?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. W. Venter

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available ’n Paar jaar gelede was daar ’n uitstalling in die Everard Read Galery in Johannesburg. Dit was ’n versameling kunswerke in die vorm van hologramme en apparaat wat ’n mens die geleentheid gegee het om rekenaargeskepte “skynwerklikhede” of “virtual realities” te ervaar. Die uitstaller was Don Searll en hy het die uitstalling “Haptics” genoem.

  5. The marine Element in the Fauna of the Ganges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annandale, N.; D.Sc.,

    1922-01-01

    In discussing the aquatic fauna of Europe we are accustomed to divide it into two sections, the marine fauna and that of fresh water. With a few exceptions, such as that of the Decapod Crustacean Palaemonetes varians in brackish water in Northern Europe (and in fresh water in the Mediterranean regio

  6. The marine Element in the Fauna of the Ganges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annandale, N.; D.Sc.,

    1922-01-01

    In discussing the aquatic fauna of Europe we are accustomed to divide it into two sections, the marine fauna and that of fresh water. With a few exceptions, such as that of the Decapod Crustacean Palaemonetes varians in brackish water in Northern Europe (and in fresh water in the Mediterranean

  7. Personal and interpersonal risk factors in the consumption of illicit drugs by marginal adolescents and young people from juvenile gangs Factores de riesgo personales e interpersonales en el consumo drogas ilícitas en adolescentes y jóvenes marginales de bandas juveniles Fatores de risco pessoais e interpessoais no consumo de drogas ilícitas em adolescentes e jovens marginais de bandos juvenis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rafael Guzmán Facundo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Marginal populations are groups which are known to present higher risks of drug consumption. It is possible to identify adolescents and young people from juvenile gangs that constitute this group. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of personal and interpersonal risk factors of drug consumption in 175 marginal adolescents and young people who belong to juvenile gangs in Mexico. Results showed a significant effect of personal factors on drug use, with an estimated variation of 26.1%. The factors that presented the highest rates were: gender, age and mental problems. The interpersonal factors (relationships with friends who have maladaptive behaviors and inappropriate relationships with parents showed an effect with an estimated variation of 15%. These results will allow for reflection and, in the future, the elaboration of adequate preventive programs aimed at this group of young people.Grupos reconocidos con mayor riesgo para consumir drogas, son los marginales, dentro de estos podemos localizar a los adolescentes y jóvenes de bandas juveniles. El objetivo del estudio fue analizar el efecto de los factores de riesgo personales e interpersonales sobre el consumo de drogas, en 175 adolescentes y jóvenes margínales de bandas juveniles de México. Los resultados mostraron efecto significativo de los factores personales sobre el consumo de drogas, con una varianza explicada del 26.1%, los factores que mostraron una mayor contribución fueron; el sexo, edad y problemas de salud mental. Los factores interpersonales (relación con amigos con conductas mal adaptadas y relación inapropiada con padres mostraron un efecto sobre el consumo de drogas, con una varianza explicada del 15%. Estos resultados posibilitarán la reflexión y en un futuro diseñar programas adecuados dirigidos a la prevención en este grupo de jóvenes.Grupos reconhecidos com maior risco para o consumo de drogas, são os de populações marginais, e, dentro destas

  8. An evolutionary perspective on differential regulation of zinc and cadmium homeostatis genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and Noccaea caerulescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Y.F.

    2014-01-01

    Some plants can tolerate and accumulate unusually high levels of toxic metals, and the analysis of such plants can provide insights into the ecology of environments that are polluted with heavy metals due to human industrial activities. The study of heavy metal hyperaccumulators such as Noccaea

  9. Large Expression Differences in Genes for Iron and Zinc Homeostasis, Stress Response, and Lignin Biosynthesis Distinguish Roots of Arabidopsis thaliana and the Related Metal Hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mortel, van de J.E.; Almar Villanueva, L.; Schat, H.; Kwekkeboom, J.; Coughlan, S.; Moerland, P.D.; Verloren van Themaat, E.; Koornneef, M.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    The micronutrient zinc has an essential role in physiological and metabolic processes in plants as a cofactor or structural element in 300 catalytic and noncatalytic proteins, but it is very toxic when available in elevated amounts. Plants tightly regulate their internal zinc concentrations in a

  10. Large Expression Differences in Genes for Iron and Zinc Homeostasis, Stress Response, and Lignin Biosynthesis Distinguish Roots of Arabidopsis thaliana and the Related Metal Hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mortel, van de J.E.; Almar Villanueva, L.; Schat, H.; Kwekkeboom, J.; Coughlan, S.; Moerland, P.D.; Verloren van Themaat, E.; Koornneef, M.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    The micronutrient zinc has an essential role in physiological and metabolic processes in plants as a cofactor or structural element in 300 catalytic and noncatalytic proteins, but it is very toxic when available in elevated amounts. Plants tightly regulate their internal zinc concentrations in a pro

  11. Geospatial approach towards enumerative analysis of suspended sediment concentration for Ganges-Brahmaputra Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Palak; Kunte, Pravin D.

    2016-10-01

    This study presents an easy, modular, user-friendly, and flexible software package for processing of Landsat 7 ETM and Landsat 8 OLI-TIRS data for estimating suspended particulate matter concentrations in the coastal waters. This package includes 1) algorithm developed using freely downloadable SCILAB package, 2) ERDAS Models for iterative processing of Landsat images and 3) ArcMAP tool for plotting and map making. Utilizing SCILAB package, a module is written for geometric corrections, radiometric corrections and obtaining normalized water-leaving reflectance by incorporating Landsat 8 OLI-TIRS and Landsat 7 ETM+ data. Using ERDAS models, a sequence of modules are developed for iterative processing of Landsat images and estimating suspended particulate matter concentrations. Processed images are used for preparing suspended sediment concentration maps. The applicability of this software package is demonstrated by estimating and plotting seasonal suspended sediment concentration maps off the Bengal delta. The software is flexible enough to accommodate other remotely sensed data like Ocean Color monitor (OCM) data, Indian Remote Sensing data (IRS), MODIS data etc. by replacing a few parameters in the algorithm, for estimating suspended sediment concentration in coastal waters.

  12. Drug Cartels and Gangs in Mexico and Central America: A View through the Lens of Counterinsurgency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    South America to the U.S.. Since Spanish colonization in the early sixteenth century, Central America and Mexico have endured civil wars, political...fundamental knowledge of the cultural and revolutionary events that shaped socio–political terrain in the region. From as early as the days of the Mayan ...empire, violence and conflict marked the Mesoamerican landscape. The Mayans , a conquering nation in their own right, imposed their rule of law on

  13. Creating Opportunities for Mutual Affiliation: Gang Prevention and Relational-Cultural Theory in Project YES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randell, Stacy T.; Smith, Amy E.; Steinman, Bernard A.

    2015-01-01

    American youth do not have equal access to academic success and life achievements. In particular, low-income male students of color are disproportionately failing in school, filling prisons, and enduring the consequences of low social capital and poor investment in their futures. Unfortunately, many young people cope with poverty and life in…

  14. Estrangement, Machismo, and Gang Violence. Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Papers 362-76.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlanger, Howard S.; Persily, Fred

    In considering whether subcultural values were associated with violence, it was critical to determine both the precise content of such values and the way in which the subculture interacts with structural forces to affect the level of violence. Based on interview and observational materials, this qualitative study examined the role of…

  15. State and Nonstate Associated Gangs: Credible ’Midwives of New Social Orders’

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    justicia en una sociedad violenta,” in Maria Victoria Llorente and Malcom Deas, Reconocer la Guerra para construir la paz , Bogota, Colombia: Ediciones...Arts Publishing House, 1999; and Jorge Verstrynge Rojas, La Guerra Periférica y el Islam Revolucionario: Orígines, Reglas, y Ética de la Guerra ...2005. 15. “War of all the people,” is a direct English translation of Chavez’s words—“ guerra de todo el pueblo.” A more common translation from

  16. Pathogenic functions of B cells in autoimmune diseases: IFN-γ production joins the criminal gang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillatreau, Simon

    2015-04-01

    B-cell depletion therapy has emerged as a powerful strategy to intercept the progression of T-cell-mediated autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, or relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. However, its mode of action remains incompletely defined, reflecting our incomplete understanding of the pathogenic functions of B cells in such pathologies. B cells can contribute to immune responses through the production of antibodies, presentation of antigen to T cells, and production of cytokines. In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology [Eur. J. Immunol. 2015. 45: 988-998], Olalekan et al. demonstrate that IFN-γ production by B cells is essential for the development of arthritis in mice. Lack of IFN-γ expression in B cells results in reduced autoimmune T-cell responses and autoantibody levels, impacting the arthritogenic reaction akin to that in B-cell depletion therapy. Together with other reports, the article by Olalekan et al. emphasizes the importance of cytokine-producing B cells in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. In this commentary, I discuss how these findings shed new light on the roles of B cells as drivers of autoimmune pathogenesis, and how they more generally contribute to our understanding of the role of B cells in immunity.

  17. Geospatial approach towards enumerative analysis of suspended sediment concentration for Ganges-Brahmaputra Bay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pandey, P.; Kunte, P.D.

    stream_size 47513 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Comput_Geosci_95_32a.pdf.txt stream_source_info Comput_Geosci_95_32a.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 1    Author Version...-dominated coastal waters, sophisticated algorithms are mainly needed to estimate accurately the suspended particulate concentrations from remotely sensed ocean color data (Robinson et al., 1998; Moore et al., 1999). Suspended sediment transport is a continuous...

  18. Delincuencia juvenil y pandillerismo: Hombre y sociedad/Juvenile delinquency and gang: Man and society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Barraza Pérez (México

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available La creciente descomposición social y la perdida de valores, han atrapado a un buen número de nuestros jóvenes en conductas delictivas altamente peligrosas, según detecté en las investigaciones de campo, la iniciación en grandes ciudades se puede dar desde los 8 años en adelante, porque en el primer plano el niño aprende de la conducta de sus padres, si desde esa instancia tenemos un ambiente de incertidumbre, donde están de por medio los gritos, los golpes físicos y morales, nuestros niños o jóvenes pierden el sentido del honor, el amor al trabajo la confianza, la seguridad en sí mismos, perdiendo la afectividad por los demás, siendo preocupante y necesaria la intervención del gobierno, pero mas aún los limites de conducta deben de imponerse en la familia. The growing of social decomposition and the loss of values, have caught a good number of our young people in highly dangerous criminal behavior, as I detected in field investigations, initiation in large cities can be from 8 years onwards, because in the foreground the child learns from the behavior of their parents, from that instance we have an atmosphere of uncertainty, where they are of through screams, mental and physical shock , our children or young people lose the sense of honor, love to work the confidence and security in themselves, losing the affection for others, still worrying and required the intervention of the Government, but more still limits of conduct should prevail in the family

  19. El Atila del Ganges en la ganadería colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Gallini

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available El artículo explora las lógicas y discursos que fueron instrumento para el proceso que, en las primeras tres décadasdel siglo XX, gestó el cambio genético de la ganadería colombiana, es decir, su “cebuización”. Se estudian en particularlas ideas que los discursos expertos expresaron acerca de la relación entre razas vacunas y medio ambiente, y los debatesacerca de las defensas de las razas criollas, europeas y cebuinas respectivamente.

  20. Analysing the geographies of the 'transnational' gangs of Central America: the changing spaces of violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailsa Winton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es dar a conocer nuevo conocimiento sobre las pandillas 'transnacionales' en la región de Centroamérica, a través del análisis de los procesos (mutuamente constitutivos de la producción de identidad, espacio y lugar. Se argumenta que el análisis de las dinámicas y prácticas espaciales, y la discusión de las diferentes maneras en que estas dinámicas y procesos se conectan a la escala local y global, nos proporcionan nuevo conocimiento 'útil' en este campo de investigación aún naciente. Basado sobre más de una década de investigación directa con jóvenes en la región, este trabajo argumenta que entendimientos pobres de las pandillas, resultan en intervenciones ineficaces y contraproducentes, y demuestra que las geografías de las maras representan un aspecto fundamental -y todavía bastante descuidado- de su desarrollo y transformación.