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Sample records for cadmium-induced testicular injury

  1. Testicular Injuries

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    ... your testicles might get hit or kicked, like football, hockey, soccer, or karate. An athletic supporter, or ... a Guy. How Can I Talk to My Female Doctor About Certain Things? Testicular Exams How to ...

  2. Effect of Physalis peruviana L. on cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in rats.

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    Othman, Mohamed S; Nada, Ahmed; Zaki, Hassan S; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2014-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species and causes tissue damage. We investigated here the protective effect of Physalis peruviana L. (family Solanaceae) against cadmium-induced testes toxicity in rats. Twenty-eight Wistar albino rats were used. They were divided into four groups (n=7). Group 1 was used as control. Group 2 was intraperitoneally injected with 6.5 mg/kg body weight (bwt) of cadmium chloride for 5 days. Group 3 was orally treated with 200 mg/kg bwt of methanolic extract of physalis (MEPh). Group 4 was pretreated with MEPh before cadmium for 5 days. Changes in body and testes weights were determined. Oxidative stress markers, antioxidant enzymes, and testosterone level were measured. Histopathological changes of testes were examined, and the immunohistochemical staining for the proapoptotic (caspase-3) protein was performed. The injection of cadmium caused a significant decrease in body weight, while a significant increase in testes weight and testes weight index was observed. Pretreatment with MEPh was associated with significant reduction in the toxic effects of Cd as shown by reduced testicular levels of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, and caspase-3 expression and increased glutathione content, and the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and testosterone were also increased. Testicular histopathology showed that Cd produced an extensive germ cell apoptosis, and the pretreatment of MEPh in Cd-treated rats significantly reduced Cd-induced testicular damage. On the basis of the above results, it can be hypothesized that P. peruviana L. has a protective effect against cadmium-induced testicular oxidative stress and apoptosis in the rat. PMID:24728876

  3. Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced acute liver injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in cadmium-induced liver injury. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that up-regulates cytoprotective genes in response to oxidative stress. To investigate the role of Nrf2 in cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity, Nrf2-null mice, wild-type mice, kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-knockdown (Keap1-KD) mice with enhanced Nrf2, and Keap1-hepatocyte knockout (Keap1-HKO) mice with maximum Nrf2 activation were treated with cadmium chloride (3.5 mg Cd/kg, i.p.). Blood and liver samples were collected 8 h thereafter. Cadmium increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, and caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in the Nrf2-null mice. In contrast, Nrf2-enhanced mice had lower serum ALT and LDH activities and less morphological alternations in the livers than wild-type mice. H2DCFDA (2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluoresein diacetate) staining of primary hepatocytes isolated from the four genotypes of mice indicated that oxidative stress was higher in Nrf2-null cells, and lower in Nrf2-enhanced cells than in wild-type cells. To further investigate the mechanism of the protective effect of Nrf2, mRNA of metallothionein (MT) and other cytoprotective genes were determined. Cadmium markedly induced MT-1 and MT-2 in livers of all four genotypes of mice. In contrast, genes involved in glutathione synthesis and reducing reactive oxygen species, including glutamate-cysteine ligase (Gclc), glutathione peroxidase-2 (Gpx2), and sulfiredoxin-1 (Srxn-1) were only induced in Nrf2-enhanced mice, but not in Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, the present study shows that Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced oxidative stress and liver injury through induction of genes involved in antioxidant defense rather than genes that scavenge Cd. -- Highlights: ► Cadmium caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in Nrf2-null mice. ► Keap1-KD and Keap1-HKO mice were

  4. Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced acute liver injury

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    Wu, Kai C. [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Liu, Jie J. [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: cklaasse@kumc.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in cadmium-induced liver injury. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that up-regulates cytoprotective genes in response to oxidative stress. To investigate the role of Nrf2 in cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity, Nrf2-null mice, wild-type mice, kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-knockdown (Keap1-KD) mice with enhanced Nrf2, and Keap1-hepatocyte knockout (Keap1-HKO) mice with maximum Nrf2 activation were treated with cadmium chloride (3.5 mg Cd/kg, i.p.). Blood and liver samples were collected 8 h thereafter. Cadmium increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, and caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in the Nrf2-null mice. In contrast, Nrf2-enhanced mice had lower serum ALT and LDH activities and less morphological alternations in the livers than wild-type mice. H{sub 2}DCFDA (2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluoresein diacetate) staining of primary hepatocytes isolated from the four genotypes of mice indicated that oxidative stress was higher in Nrf2-null cells, and lower in Nrf2-enhanced cells than in wild-type cells. To further investigate the mechanism of the protective effect of Nrf2, mRNA of metallothionein (MT) and other cytoprotective genes were determined. Cadmium markedly induced MT-1 and MT-2 in livers of all four genotypes of mice. In contrast, genes involved in glutathione synthesis and reducing reactive oxygen species, including glutamate-cysteine ligase (Gclc), glutathione peroxidase-2 (Gpx2), and sulfiredoxin-1 (Srxn-1) were only induced in Nrf2-enhanced mice, but not in Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, the present study shows that Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced oxidative stress and liver injury through induction of genes involved in antioxidant defense rather than genes that scavenge Cd. -- Highlights: ► Cadmium caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in Nrf2-null mice. ► Keap1-KD and Keap1-HKO mice

  5. Protective effect of an aphrodisiac herb Tribulus terrestris Linn on cadmium-induced testicular damage

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    B Rajendar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Tribulus terrestris Linn (TT could protect the cadmium (Cd-induced testicular tissue peroxidation in rats and to explore the underlying mechanism of the same. Materials and Methods : In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to know the protective effect of ethanolic extract of TT (eTT in Cd toxicity. In in vitro studies, total antioxidant and ferrous metal ion chelating activity of TT was studied. In vivo studies were conducted in rats. A total of 40 Wistar strain adult male rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 served as control, while group 2 to 4 received CdCl 2 (3 mg/kg b. wt. s/c once a week. In addition to Cd, group 3 and 4 rats also received eTT (5 mg/kg b.wt. daily as oral gavage and α-tocopherol (75 mg/kg daily by oral gavage, respectively. At the end of 6th week, all the rats were sacrificed and the separated testes were weighted and processed for estimation of tissue peroxidation markers, antioxidant markers, functional markers, and Cd concentration. The testes were also subjected to histopathological screening. Results : In in vitro studies, the percentage of metal ion chelating activity of 50 μg/ml of eTT and α-tocopherol were 2.76 and 9.39, respectively, and the antioxidant capacity of eTT was equivalent to 0.063 μg of α-tocopherol/μg of eTT. In in vivo studies, administration of Cd significantly reduced the absolute and relative testicular weight, antioxidant markers such as superoxide dismutase and glutathione, and functional markers such as LDH and ALP, along with significant increase in peroxidation markers such as malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls in testicular tissue. Testes of Cd only-treated group showed histological insults like necrotic changes in seminiferous tubules and interstitium, shrunken tubules with desquamated basal lamina, vacuolization and destruction of sertoli cells, and degenerating Leydig cells. This group also had higher Cd

  6. Protective effect of an aphrodisiac herb Tribulus terrestris Linn on cadmium-induced testicular damage

    OpenAIRE

    B Rajendar; Bharavi, K.; G.S.Rao; Kishore, P.V.S; Ravi Kumar, P.; C.S.V Satish Kumar; T Pankaj Patel

    2011-01-01

    Aim : The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Tribulus terrestris Linn (TT) could protect the cadmium (Cd)-induced testicular tissue peroxidation in rats and to explore the underlying mechanism of the same. Materials and Methods : In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to know the protective effect of ethanolic extract of TT (eTT) in Cd toxicity. In in vitro studies, total antioxidant and ferrous metal ion chelating activity of TT was studied. In vivo studies were conduct...

  7. Strain difference of cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in inbred Wistar-Imamichi and Fischer 344 rats

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    Shimada, Hideaki; Narumi, Rika [Kumamoto University, Faculty of Education, Kumamoto (Japan); Nagano, Masaaki; Yasutake, Akira [National Institute for Minamata Disease, Biochemistry Section, Kumamoto (Japan); Waalkes, Michael P. [National Cancer Institute at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Inorganic Carcinogenesis Section, Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Imamura, Yorishige [Kumamoto University, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    Previously, we reported that Wistar-Imamichi (WI) rats are highly resistant to cadmium (Cd)-induced lethality and hepatotoxicity compared to Fischer 344 (F344) rats. Since the testes are one of the most sensitive organs to acute Cd toxicity, we examined possible strain-related differences in Cd-induced testicular toxicity between inbred WI and F344 rats. Rats were treated with a single dose of 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg Cd/kg, as CdCl{sub 2}, sc and killed 24 h later. Cd at doses of 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg induced severe testicular hemorrhage, as assessed by pathological and testis hemoglobin content, in F344 rats, but not WI rats. After Cd treatment (2.0 mg/kg), the testicular Cd content was significantly lower in WI rats than in the F344 rats, indicating a toxiokinetic mechanism for the observed strain difference. Thus, the remarkable resistance to Cd-induced testicular toxicity in WI rats is associated, at least in part, with lower testicular accumulation of Cd. When zinc (Zn; 10 mg/kg, sc) was administered in combination with Cd (2.0 mg/kg) to F344 rats, the Cd-induced increase in testicular hemoglobin content, indicative of hemorrhage, was significantly reduced. Similarly, the testicular Cd content was significantly decreased with Zn co-treatment compared to Cd treatment alone. Thus, it can be concluded that the testicular Cd accumulation partly competes with Zn transport systems and that these systems may play an important role in the strain-related differences in Cd-induced testicular toxicity between WI and F344 rats. (orig.)

  8. Over-expression of human endosulfatase-1 exacerbates cadmium-induced injury to transformed human lung cells in vitro

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    Zhang, Huiying [Department of Molecular Biomedical Sciences, Center for Comparative Molecular Translational Research, College of Veterinary Medicine, NC State University, Raleigh, NC 27607 (United States); Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, NC State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Newman, Donna R. [Department of Molecular Biomedical Sciences, Center for Comparative Molecular Translational Research, College of Veterinary Medicine, NC State University, Raleigh, NC 27607 (United States); Bonner, James C. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, NC State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Sannes, Philip L., E-mail: philip_sannes@ncsu.edu [Department of Molecular Biomedical Sciences, Center for Comparative Molecular Translational Research, College of Veterinary Medicine, NC State University, Raleigh, NC 27607 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Environmental exposure to cadmium is known to cause damage to alveolar epithelial cells of the lung, impair their capacity to repair, and result in permanent structural alterations. Cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) can modulate cell responses to injury through their interactions with soluble effector molecules. These interactions are often sulfate specific, and the removal of sulfate groups from HS side chains could be expected to influence cellular injury, such as that caused by exposure to cadmium. The goal of this study was to define the role 6-O-sulfate plays in cellular responses to cadmium exposure in two pulmonary epithelial cancer cell lines (H292 and A549) and in normal human primary alveolar type II (hAT2) cells. Sulfate levels were modified by transduced transient over-expression of 6-O-endosulfatase (HSulf-1), a membrane-bound enzyme which specifically removes 6-O-sulfate groups from HSPG side chains. Results showed that cadmium decreased cell viability and activated apoptosis pathways at low concentrations in hAT2 cells but not in the cancer cells. HSulf-1 over-expression, on the contrary, decreased cell viability and activated apoptosis pathways in H292 and A549 cells but not in hAT2 cells. When combined with cadmium, HSulf-1 over-expression further decreased cell viability and exacerbated the activation of apoptosis pathways in the transformed cells but did not add to the toxicity in hAT2 cells. The finding that HSulf-1 sensitizes these cancer cells and intensifies the injury induced by cadmium suggests that 6-O-sulfate groups on HSPGs may play important roles in protection against certain environmental toxicants, such as heavy metals. -- Highlights: ► Primary human lung alveolar type 2 (hAT2) cells and H292 and A549 cells were used. ► Cadmium induced apoptosis in hAT2 cells but not in H292 or A549 cells. ► HSulf-1exacerbates apoptosis induced by cadmium in H292 and A549 but not hAT2 cells.

  9. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate attenuates cadmium-induced chronic renal injury and fibrosis.

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    Chen, Jinglou; Du, Lifen; Li, Jingjing; Song, Hongping

    2016-10-01

    Cadmium (Cd) pollution is a serious environmental problem. Kidney is a main target organ of Cd toxicity. This study was undertaken to investigate the potential protective effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) against chronic renal injury and fibrosis induced by CdCl2. Rat model was induced by exposing to 250 mg/L CdCl2 through drinking water. The renal function was evaluated by detecting the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (SCR). The oxidative stress was measured by detecting the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) and renal enzymatic antioxidant status. Additionally, the renal levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), Smad3, phosphorylation-Smad3 (pp-Smad3), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), vimentin and E-cadherin were measured by western blot assay. Renal levels of microRNA-21 (miR-21), miR-29a/b/c and miR-192 were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. It was found that EGCG ameliorated the CdCl2-induced renal injury, inhibited the level of oxidative stress, normalized renal enzymatic antioxidant status and E-cadherin level, as well as attenuated the over generation of TGF-β1, pp-Smad3, vimentin and α-SMA. EGCG also decreased the production of miR-21 and miR-192, and enhanced the levels of miR-29a/b/c. These results showed that EGCG could attenuate Cd induced chronic renal injury. PMID:27474435

  10. Expression of apoptotic nuclei by ultrastructural terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labeling and detection of FasL, caspases and PARP protein molecules in cadmium induced acute alveolar cell injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium causes cellular damage but the exact mechanism of apoptosis in cadmium induced acute lung injury is not clear. We investigated the sequential expression of apoptotic nuclei and detected related molecules in tissue of cadmium-induced acute lung injury. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were sacrificed at days 1, 3, 7 and 10 after intra-tracheal cadmium injection (2.5 mg/kg). Light microscopic, ultrastructural terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), and Western blot analysis for detection of FasL, Bid, cytochrome c, caspase 3 and PARP were carried out. Apoptosis occurred at day 1, and markedly decreased at days 3, 7 and 10 (11.8, 2.8, 0.9, 0.5%, respectively) determined by light microscopy and TUNEL assay. Ultrastructural TUNEL revealed two patterns of nuclear morphology according to the apoptotic stage. One pattern showed chromatin fragmentation and apoptotic nuclear body formation. The other pattern had bleb formation in the chromatin, budding with projection out to the nuclear membranes, fragmentation, segregation of chromatin clumps and apoptotic body formation. Western blot analysis showed prominent expression of FasL at days 1 and 3. Expression of Bid, cytochrome c and caspase 3 were prominent at day 1 compared to days 3, 7 and 10. PARP cleavage was prominent at day 1. In conclusion, intra-tracheal cadmium injection showed active alveolar cell apoptosis at day 1. Ultrastructural TUNEL showed various expressions according to the apoptotic nuclear stage. These studies suggest that cadmium-induced alveolar cell apoptosis is mediated by FasL and caspase-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis pathways

  11. Resveratrol and curcumin ameliorate di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate induced testicular injury in rats.

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    Abd El-Fattah, Amal Ahmed; Fahim, Atef Tadros; Sadik, Nermin Abdel Hamid; Ali, Bassam Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the protective role of resveratrol and curcumin on oxidative testicular damage induced by di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Male Wistar rats were divided into six groups; three groups received oral daily doses of DEHP (2g/kgBW) for 45days to induce testicular injury. Two of these groups received either resveratrol (80mg/kgBW) or curcumin (200mg/kgBW) orally for 30days before and 45days after DEHP administration. A vehicle-treated control group was also included. Another two groups of rats received either resveratrol or curcumin alone. Oxidative damage was observed by decreased levels of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and glutathione (GSH) and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the testes of DEHP-administered rats. Serum testosterone level as well as testicular marker enzymes activities; acid and alkaline phosphatases (ACP and ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) showed severe declines. DEHP administration caused significant increases in the testicular gene expression levels of Nrf2, HO-1, HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90 as well as a significant decrease in c-Kit protein when compared with the control group. Histopathological observations provided evidence for the biochemical and molecular analysis. These DEHP-induced pathological alterations were attenuated by pretreatment with resveratrol and curcumin. We conclude that DEHP-induced injuries in biochemical, molecular and histological structure of testis were recovered by pretreatment with resveratrol and curcumin. The chemoprotective effects of these compounds may be due to their intrinsic antioxidant properties along with boosting Nrf2, HSP 60, HSP 70 and HSP 90 gene expression levels and as such may be useful potential tools in combating DEHP-induced testicular dysfunction. PMID:26361869

  12. EFFECT OF CANNABINOIDS ON TESTICULAR ISCHEMIA-REPERFUSION INJURY IN RAT

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    H. Sepehri

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Anandamide is an endogenous ligand for cannabinoid receptors and has endothelial protective effect against ischemic preconditioning. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cannabinoids on reperfusion injury due to testicular torsion-detorsion (T/D. A total of 36 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 6 groups. Testicular ischemia was achieved by twisting the right testes 720◦ counters clockwise for 1 hour and reperfusion was allowed for 4 hours after detorsion. In baseline (normal group, bilateral orchiectomies performed after anesthesia. Sham operated group was served as a control group. Torsion/detorsion group underwent 1 hour testicular torsion and 4 hours of detorsion. Anandamide (cannabinoid agonist group received pretreatment with intraperitoneally anandamide 30 min before torsion. AM251 (CB1 antagonist group, received intraperitoneally injection of AM251 45 min before torsion. Anandamid/AM251 (An/AM group received administrations of AM251 45 min before torsion and anandamide 30 min before torsion. The ipsilateral malondialdehyde (MDA level in T/D group were significantly higher versus control and base line groups. Ipsilateral MDA values in anandamid group were significantly lower than T/D and An/AM groups. There were also significant decreases in catalase activity in T/D group compared with control and base line groups. These values were significantly higher in cannabinoid group versus T/D and An/AM groups. Anandamide increased ipsilateral intratesticular antioxidative markers and decreased free radicals formation during reperfusion phase after unilateral testicular torsion, which was reflected in lesser testicular MDA level. Furthermore, the effects of anandamide were mediated via cannabinoid receptors, since AM251 could abolish these effects.

  13. Effect of Curcumin on Some Heavy Metals Induced Renal And Testicular Injuries in Male Rats

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    Tamer, M. M. Saad

    2013-01-01

    Back ground Toxic heavy metals in water, air and soil are global problems that are a growing threat to humanity. Heavy metals are widely distributed in the environment and some of them occur in food, water, air and tissues even in the absence of occupational exposure. The antioxidant and protective influences of curcumin on a mixture of some heavy metals (Pb, Hg and Cd) induced renal and testicular injuries in male rats were detected. Curcumin, a yellow pigment from Curcuma longa, is a m...

  14. Sperm mRNA transcripts are indicators of sub-chronic low dose testicular injury in the Fischer 344 rat.

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    Sara E Pacheco

    Full Text Available Current human reproductive risk assessment methods rely on semen and serum hormone analyses, which are not easily comparable to the histopathological endpoints and mating studies used in animal testing. Because of these limitations, there is a need to develop universal evaluations that reliably reflect male reproductive function. We hypothesized that toxicant-induced testicular injury can be detected in sperm using mRNA transcripts as indicators of insult. To test this, we exposed adult male Fischer 344 rats to low doses of model testicular toxicants and classically characterized the testicular injury while simultaneously evaluating sperm mRNA transcripts from the same animals. Overall, this study aimed to: 1 identify sperm transcripts altered after exposure to the model testicular toxicant, 2,5-hexanedione (HD using microarrays; 2 expand on the HD-induced transcript changes in a comprehensive time course experiment using qRT-PCR arrays; and 3 test these injury indicators after exposure to another model testicular toxicant, carbendazim (CBZ. Microarray analysis of HD-treated adult Fischer 344 rats identified 128 altered sperm mRNA transcripts when compared to control using linear models of microarray analysis (q<0.05. All transcript alterations disappeared after 3 months of post-exposure recovery. In the time course experiment, time-dependent alterations were observed for 12 candidate transcripts selected from the microarray data based upon fold change and biological relevance, and 8 of these transcripts remained significantly altered after the 3-month recovery period (p<0.05. In the last experiment, 8 candidate transcripts changed after exposure to CBZ (p<0.05. The two testicular toxicants produced distinct molecular signatures with only 4 overlapping transcripts between them, each occurring in opposite directions. Overall, these results suggest that sperm mRNA transcripts are indicators of low dose toxicant-induced testicular injury in the rat.

  15. Cadmium-induced fetal toxicity in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium, a heavy metal environment contaminant, induces fetal death and placental necrosis in the Wistar rat. This study investigated fetal, maternal, and placental responses to cadmium intoxication. Subcutaneous injection of CdCl2 to dams on day 18 of pregnancy produced a high incidence of fetal death (75%) and placental necrosis. Death in the fetus was produced despite limited fetal accumulations of cadmium. Distribution studies using 109Cd-labeled CdCl2 demonstrated that less than 0.1% of the injected dose was associated with the fetus. To determine if fetuses were sensitive to these low levels of cadmium, direct injections of CdCl2 into fetuses were performed in utero. Direct injections produced fetal accumulations 8-fold greater than those following maternal injections. The 8-fold greater fetal accumulations following direct injection were associated with only a 12% fetal mortality compared to the 75% mortality following maternal injections. The data indicated that the fetal toxicity of cadmium following maternal injections was not the result of direct effects of cadmium on the fetus. In conclusion, cadmium-induced fetal death was not the result of direct effects of cadmium on the fetus but may have been induced by placental cellular injury resulting from high accumulations of cadmium in the placenta. A vascular response to placental injury, leading to decreased utero-placental bood flow and cadmium-induced alterations in trophoblastic function, resulted in fetal death

  16. Antioxidant effect of vitamin E treatment on some heavy metals-induced renal and testicular injuries in male mice

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    Al-Attar, Atef M.

    2010-01-01

    Toxic heavy metals in water, air and soil are global problems that are a growing threat to humanity. Heavy metals are widely distributed in the environment and some of them occur in food, water, air and tissues even in the absence of occupational exposure. The antioxidant and protective influences of vitamin E on a mixture of some heavy metals (Pb, Hg, Cd and Cu)-induced oxidative stress and renal and testicular injuries were evaluated in male mice. Exposure of mice to these heavy metals in d...

  17. Protective role of carnosine in mice with cadmium-induced acute hepatotoxicity.

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    Fouad, Amr A; Qureshi, Habib A; Yacoubi, Mohamed T; Al-Melhim, Walid N

    2009-11-01

    The hepatoprotective effect of carnosine was investigated against cadmium-induced acute liver injury in mice. Hepatotoxicity was induced by a single i.p. injection of cadmium chloride (6.5mg/kg). Carnosine treatment (10mg/kg/day, i.p.) was applied for three consecutive days, starting one day before cadmium administration. Carnosine significantly decreased the cadmium-induced elevations in serum aminotransferases. Carnosine suppressed lipid peroxidation and restored the deficits in the antioxidant defense mechanisms (reduced glutathione level, and catalase and superoxide dismutase activities) in liver tissue resulted from cadmium administration. Also, the reductions in hepatic nitric oxide and zinc ion levels, and the increases in hepatic cadmium ion concentration, and myeloperoxidase and caspase-3 activities following cadmium exposure were significantly attenuated by carnosine treatment. In addition, carnosine markedly ameliorated cadmium-induced liver tissue damage as evidenced by light and electron microscopic examinations. It was concluded that carnosine can be considered a potential candidate to protect the liver against the deleterious effect of acute cadmium intoxication. PMID:19748544

  18. Testicular cancer

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    ... health care provider if you have symptoms of testicular cancer. Prevention Performing a testicular self-examination (TSE) each month may help detect testicular cancer at an early stage, before it spreads. Finding ...

  19. Testicular Exams

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    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Testicular Exams KidsHealth > For Teens > Testicular Exams Print A A ... in the habit of regular testicular exams. The Exam Your doctor should examine your testicles at least ...

  20. Risk of simulated microgravity on testicular injury induced by high-LET carbon-ion beams in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the impact of simulated microgravity on acute injury induced by low doses of carbon ions in male reproductive organs of mice, and determined alterations in spermatogenic function and expression levels of apoptotic factors in mice following exposure to acute irradiation after 7 days of simulated microgravity. The results demonstrated that significant reductions in spermatozoa, primary spermatocytes and spermatogonia, and increased globular cells in seminiferous tubule and pro-apoptotic proteins were observed in the group exposed to over 0.4 Gy irradiation. Collectively, the data suggest that lesions inflicted by simulated microgravity are not markedly modified by lower doses of irradiation (0.2 Gy) in mouse testis compared to the control group. However, testicular impairments were markedly evident in the group exposed to higher doses of carbon ions plus simulated microgravity, which may be due at least in part to elevated apoptosis initiated by the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway in germ cells. (authors)

  1. Radiation-Induced Testicular Injury and Its Amelioration by Tinospora cordifolia (An Indian Medicinal Plant Extract

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    Priyanka Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this investigation is to determine the deleterious effects of sub lethal gamma radiation on testes and their possible inhibition by Tinospora cordifolia extract (TCE. For this purpose, one group of male Swiss albino mice was exposed to 7.5 Gy gamma radiation to serve as the irradiated control, while the other group received TCE (75 mg/kg b. wt./day orally for 5 consecutive days half an hr before irradiation to serve as experimental. Exposure of animals to 7.5 Gy gamma radiation resulted into significant decrease in body weight, tissue weight, testes- body weight ratio and tubular diameter up to 15 days of irradiation. Cent percent mortality was recorded by day 17th in irradiated control, whereas all animals survived in experimental group. TCE pretreatment rendered significant increase in body weight, tissue weight, testes- body weight ratio and tubular diameter at various intervals as compared to irradiated group. Radiation induced histological lesions in testicular architecture were observed more severe in irradiated control then the experimental. TCE administration before irradiation significantly ameliorated radiation induced elevation in lipid peroxidation and decline in glutathione concentration in testes. These observations indicate the radio- protective potential of Tinospora cordifolia root extract in testicular constituents against gamma irradiation in mice.

  2. Testicular self-exam

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    Screening - testicular cancer - self-exam; Testicular cancer - screening - self-exam ... A testicular self-exam is done to check for testicular cancer . Testicles have blood vessels and other structures that can make the exam ...

  3. Protective Effects of Rutin and Naringin in Testicular Ischemia-Reperfusion Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats

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    Akondi, Butchi Raju; Challa, Siva Reddy; Akula, Annapurna

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Testicular torsion and detorsion causes reperfusion injury which damages the testicular tissue and affects the quality of sperm. Deterioration in the quality of sperm worldwide is the recent scenario and one of its reasons is testicular ischemic/ reperfusion (IR) injury. Therefore the present study aims at producing new drugs for the treatment of testicular IR injury. Methods 42 animals were selected for the study and divided into 7 groups, each containing 6 rats. Bioflavonoids w...

  4. Altered expression profile of glycolytic enzymes during testicular ischemia reperfusion injury is associated with the p53/TIGAR pathway: effect of fructose 1,6-diphosphate

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    Renno, Waleed M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Testicular ischemia reperfusion injury (tIRI) is considered the mechanism underlying the pathology of testicular torsion and detorsion. Left untreated, tIRI can induce testis dysfunction, damage to spermatogenesis and possible infertility. In this study, we aimed to assess the activities and expression of glycolytic enzymes (GEs) in the testis and their possible modulation during tIRI. The effect of fructose 1,6-diphosphate (FDP), a glycolytic intermediate, on tIRI was also investigated. Methods. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: sham, unilateral tIRI, and tIRI + FDP (2 mg/kg). tIRI was induced by occlusion of the testicular artery for 1 h followed by 4 h of reperfusion. FDP was injected peritoneally 30 min prior to reperfusion. Histological and biochemical analyses were used to assess damage to spermatogenesis, activities of major GEs, and energy and oxidative stress markers. The relative mRNA expression of GEs was evaluated by real-time PCR. ELISA and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate the expression of p53 and TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR). Results. Histological analysis revealed tIRI-induced spermatogenic damage as represented by a significant decrease in the Johnsen biopsy score. In addition, tIRI reduced the activities of hexokinase 1, phosphofructokinase-1, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and lactate dehydrogenase C. However, mRNA expression downregulation was detected only for hexokinase 1, phosphoglycerate kinase 2, and lactate dehydrogenase C. ATP and NADPH depletion was also induced by tIRI and was accompanied by an increased Malondialdehyde concentration, reduced glutathione level, and reduced superoxide dismutase and catalase enzyme activities. The immunoexpression of p53 and TIGAR was markedly increased after tIRI. The above tIRI-induced alterations were attenuated by FDP treatment. Discussion. Our findings indicate that tIRI-induced spermatogenic damage is associated with

  5. Identification of genetic networks involved in the cell injury accompanying endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by bisphenol A in testicular Sertoli cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To identify detailed mechanisms by which bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine-disrupting chemical, induces cell injury in mouse testicular Sertoli TTE3 cells, we performed genome-wide microarray and computational gene network analyses. BPA (200 μM) significantly decreased cell viability and simultaneously induced an increase in mRNA levels of HSPA5 and DDIT3, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress marker genes. Of the 22,690 probe sets analyzed, BPA down-regulated 661 probe sets and up-regulated 604 probe sets by >2.0-fold. Hierarchical cluster analysis demonstrated nine gene clusters. In decreased gene clusters, two significant genetic networks were associated with cell growth and proliferation and the cell cycle. In increased gene clusters, two significant genetic networks including many basic-region leucine zipper transcription factors were associated with cell death and DNA replication, recombination, and repair. The present results will provide additional novel insights into the detailed molecular mechanisms of cell injury accompanying ER stress induced by BPA in Sertoli cells

  6. Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of skin behind the penis. You can get cancer in one or both testicles. Testicular cancer mainly affects young men between the ages of ... undescended testicle Have a family history of the cancer Symptoms include pain, swelling, or lumps in your ...

  7. Testicular microlithiasis and testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Malene Roland; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael; Møller, Henrik;

    2016-01-01

    2015. Relevant studies were selected by reading the title and abstract by two of the authors. Studies were included if TML was diagnosed by ultrasonography and a risk condition was reported. Studies were only eligible if the particular risk condition was reported in more than one article. RESULTS: In...... total, 282 abstracts in were identified. Based on title and abstract the eligibility was assessed and 31 studies were included. Five conditions in relation to TML and testicular cancer emerged: Down syndrome, McCune-Albright syndrome, cryptorchidism, infertility and familial disposition of testicular...

  8. Testicular lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Michael Boe; d'Amore, F; Christensen, Bjarne Egelund

    1994-01-01

    In a Danish population-based non-Hodgkin's lymphoma registry, 2687 newly diagnosed patients were registered from 1983 to 1992. 39 had testicular involvement (TL) (incidence 0.26/10(5)/year). Median age was 71 years. 24 cases had localised and 15 had disseminated disease. Histologically, all cases...... score (WHO 3-4). It is suggested that the treatment of stage IE/IIE TL should include early CCT and CNS prophylaxis....

  9. Testicular torsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Andersen, L; Kay, L; Wille-Jørgensen, P; Linnet, L; Egense, J

    1993-01-01

    Thirty-five patients were examined 6-11 years after operation for torsion of the testis. Loss of testicular tissue was significantly associated with long preoperative duration of symptoms and with low postoperative sperm counts. The sex hormones were normal in the majority of patients but there w...... the sperm count and concentration. Measurement of carnitine levels in seminal plasma, as a sign of vas deferens obstruction or dysfunction of epididymis, and of autoantibodies against spermatozoa revealed no significant findings....

  10. Cellular mechanisms of cadmium-induced toxicity: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Anju; Kumar, Anuj; Lal, Ankita; Pant, Manu

    2014-08-01

    Cadmium is a widespread toxic pollutant of occupational and environmental concern because of its diverse toxic effects: extremely protracted biological half-life (approximately 20-30 years in humans), low rate of excretion from the body and storage predominantly in soft tissues (primarily, liver and kidneys). It is an extremely toxic element of continuing concern because environmental levels have risen steadily due to continued worldwide anthropogenic mobilization. Cadmium is absorbed in significant quantities from cigarette smoke, food, water and air contamination and is known to have numerous undesirable effects in both humans and animals. Cadmium has a diversity of toxic effects including nephrotoxicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity and endocrine and reproductive toxicities. At the cellular level, cadmium affects cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and other cellular activities. Current evidence suggests that exposure to cadmium induces genomic instability through complex and multifactorial mechanisms. Most important seems to be cadmium interaction with DNA repair mechanism, generation of reactive oxygen species and induction of apoptosis. In this article, we have reviewed recent developments and findings on cadmium toxicology. PMID:24117228

  11. Cadmium-induced aggregation of iron regulatory protein-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron regulatory protein-1 (IRP-1) is central to regulation of iron homeostasis, and has been shown to be sensitive to Cd2+ in vitro. Although Cd2+ induces disulfide-bond formation in many proteins, the critical cysteine residues for iron binding in IRP-1 were shown not to be involved in Cd-induced IRP-1 aggregation in vitro. Here we show that Cd2+ causes polymerization and aggregation of IRP-1 in vitro and in vivo, and decreases in a dose-dependent manner both its RNA-binding and aconitase enzymatic activities, as well as its cytosolic expression. We have used two-dimensional electrophoresis to demonstrate thiol-dependent self-association of purified recombinant IRP-1 treated with Cd2+, as well as self-association in Cd2+-exposed mesangial cells. Circular dichroism spectra confirm significant conformational changes in the purified protein upon Cd2+ exposure. Following Cd2+ treatment, there is increased translocation of inactive IRP-1 to the actin cytoskeletal fraction, and this translocation is diminished by both antioxidant (BHA) treatment and inhibition of CaMK-II. These changes differ from those elicited by manipulation of iron levels. Cadmium-induced translocation of proteins to cellular compartments, and particularly to the cytoskeleton, is becoming a recognized event in Cd2+ toxicity. Polymer-dependent translocation of IRP-1 in Cd2+-exposed cells may underlie effects of Cd2+ on iron homeostasis

  12. Ternatin pretreatment attenuates testicular injury induced by torsion/detorsion in Wistar rats Pré-tratamento com ternatina atenua a lesão testicular induzida por torção/destorção em ratos Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Botelho Guimarães

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the possible protective role of the bioflavonoid ternatin (TTN when administered before induction of ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat testis. METHODS: Thirty-six Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n=12, divided in 2 subgroups (n=6. Saline 2.0ml (G-1, dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO 3% solution (G-2 or TTN 12 mg/kg/dose (G-3 was administered ip. to all rats, respectively, 21, 12 and 1 hour before torsion. Anesthetized rats were subjected to ischemia (3 hours induced by 720º torsion of the spermatic cord. Right testis and arterial blood samples were collected at the end of ischemia (T-0, and 3 hours later (T-3 for assessment of testis malonaldehyde (MDA, reduced glutathione (GSH, and plasma total antioxidant power (TAP. RESULTS: MDA decreased significantly (pOBJETIVO: Investigar o possível efeito protetor do bioflavonóide ternatina (TTN quando administrado antes da indução da lesão de isquemia/reperfusão testicular em ratos. MÉTODOS: Trinta e seis ratos Wistar, aleatoriamente distribuídos em três grupos (n=12 divididos em dois subgrupos (n=6 cada foram tratados com solução salina (G-1, dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO 3% (G-2 ou TTN 12 mg/kg/dose (G-3, administrados i.p. 21, 12 e 1 hora antes da torção. Ratos anestesiados foram submetidos à isquemia (3 horas induzida por torção (720º do cordão espermático direito. Amostras (testículo ipsilateral e 3,0 ml de sangue arterial foram coletadas ao final da isquemia (T-0, e 3 horas depois (T-3 para a avaliação das concentrações de malonaldeído (MDA, glutationa reduzida (GSH no testículo e capacidade antioxidante total (TAP no plasma. RESULTADOS: MDA diminuiu significativamente nos grupos G-2 e G-3 nos tempos T-0 e T-3. Houve diminuição adicional no G-3 após 3 horas. GSH aumentou significativamente nos grupos G-2 (p<0,001 e G-3 (p<0,05 no T-0 e T-3 no G-2. TAP permaneceu inalterada. CONCLUSÃO: Os achados fornecem evidências in vivo das propriedades

  13. Radiation and cadmium induced biochemical alterations in mouse kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present investigation radiation and cadmium induced biochemical changes in the kidney of Swiss albino mice have been studied. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, adult male Swiss albino mice (6-8 weeks old) were divided into four groups. Group I (sham-irradiated), Group II (treated with CdCl2 solution 20 ppm), Group III (irradiated with 1.25, 2.5 and 5.0 Gy gamma rays), Group IV (both irradiated with 1.25, 2.5 and 5.0 Gy gamma rays and treated with CdCl2 solution). The animals were autopsied after 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days of treatment. The kidney was taken out and different biochemical parameters, such as total proteins, glycogen, cholesterol, acid phosphatase activity, alkaline phosphatase activity, DNA and RNA were estimated. Results: In irradiated animals, the values of total proteins, glycogen, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase activity and RNA increased continuously up to day-7 and decreased thereafter up to day-28. The changes were dose dependent. In CdCl2 treated animals, the values of glycogen and total proteins decreased during the early intervals and increased thereafter whereas the values of acid and alkaline phosphatase activity and RNA increased during early Intervals and decreased thereafter, The values of cholesterol and DNA showed decrease in all the experimental groups (except group I) up to day-7 and increase thereafter up to day-28. After combined treatment also, the parameters followed the same pattern of increase and decrease, but the changes were more pronounced indicating their synergistic effect. The biochemical parameters showed highly significant values (P<0.001) as compared to normal ones. Conclusion: These results indicate that combined treatment of cadmium and gamma radiations causes synergistic or additive effect

  14. Cadmium induces neuronal cell death through reactive oxygen species activated by GADD153

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Seungwoo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cadmium(Cd, a heavy metal, which has a potent harmful effects, is a highly stress-inducible material that is robustly expressed following disruption of homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER (so-called ER stress. The mechanism Cd induced cell death of neuroblastoma cells complex, involving cellular signaling pathways as yet incompletely defined but, in part, involving the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Several studies have correlated GADD153 expression with cell death, but a mechanistic link between GADD153 and apoptosis has never been demonstrated. Results SH-SY5Y cells were treated Cd led to increase in intracellular ROS levels. ROS generation is not consistent with intracellular [Ca2+]. The exposure of neuroblastoma cells to Cd led to increase in intracellular GADD153 and Bak levels in a doses and time dependent manner. The induction of these genes by Cd was attenuated by NAC. Cd-induced apoptosis is decreased in GADD153 knockdown cells compared with normal cells. The effect of GADD153 on the binding of C/EBP to the Bak promoters were analyzed ChIP assay. Basal constitutive GADD153 recruitment to the –3,398/–3,380 region of the Bak promoter is observed in SH-SY5Y cells. Conclusions The exposure of SH-SY5Y cells to Cd led to increase in intracellular ROS levels in a doses and time dependent manner. The generation of ROS result in the induction of GADD153 is causative of cadmium-induced apoptosis. GADD153 regulates Bak expression by its binding to promoter region (between −3,398 and −3,380. Therefore, we conclude that GADD153 sensitizes cells to ROS through mechanisms that involve up-regulation of BAK and enhanced oxidant injury.

  15. Radiation and cadmium induced histological alteration in the mice liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    radiation and cadmium induced changes at histological level. Alterations in the histological changes were found dose dependent. More pronounced histopathological changes were registered after the combined exposure of cadmium chloride and gamma rays. (author)

  16. Bilateral Testicular Epidermoid Cysts

    OpenAIRE

    Norman Loberant; Shweta Bhatt; Edward Messing; Dogra, Vikram S.

    2011-01-01

    Testicular epidermoid cysts are the most common benign tumors of the testes, but account for only 1-2% of all testicular tumors. In a young man presenting with a testicular mass, a high index of suspicion must be maintained for the malignant testicular germ cell tumor, which is 50-times more common than testicular epidermoid cyst. Bilateral testicular epidermoid cysts are a very rare condition, with only a few reports in the literature. It is extremely important in this condition to make a co...

  17. Testicular germinal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is about diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of testicular germinal tumors. The presumed diagnosis is based in the anamnesis, clinical examination, testicular ultrasound and tumor markers. The definitive diagnosis is obtained through the inguinal radical orchidectomy

  18. Chemotherapy for Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chemotherapy and stem cell transplant for testicular cancer Chemotherapy for testicular cancer Chemotherapy (chemo) is the use ... Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects Cancer Facts & Statistics News About Cancer Expert Voices Blog Programs & Services ...

  19. Testicular trauma resulting in shock and systemic inflammatory response syndrome: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Okonkwo, Kingsley C.; Wong, Kristin G; Cho, Cheng T.; Gilmer, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Acute painful scrotum in children may be associated with torsion of the testis, hematocele, epididymitis and direct testicular injury with hematoma formation. More frequently, however, acute scrotum occurs without a precipitating factor. While most traumatic testicular injuries resolve with conservative management, many require surgical exploration and some are life-threatening. Case presentation A 13-year-old boy with a history of testicular trauma presented with severe scrotal ...

  20. Do We Know What Causes Testicular Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Do we know what causes testicular cancer? Can testicular cancer be prevented? Previous Topic What are the risk factors for testicular cancer? Next Topic Can testicular cancer be prevented? Do we know what causes testicular cancer? The ...

  1. The protective effect of Physalis peruviana L. against cadmium-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E; Bauomy, Amira A; Diab, Marwa M S; Shata, Mohamed Tarek M; Al-Olayan, Ebtesam M; El-Khadragy, Manal F

    2014-09-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the protective effect of Physalis peruviana L. (family Solanaceae) against cadmium-induced neurotoxicity in rats. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups. Group 1 was used as control. Group 2 was intraperitoneally injected with 6.5 mg/kg bwt of cadmium chloride for 5 days. Group 3 was treated with 200 mg/kg bwt of methanolic extract of Physalis (MEPh). Group 4 was pretreated with MEPh 1 h before cadmium for 5 days. Cadmium treatment induced marked disturbances in neurochemical parameters as indicating by significant (p Physalis has a beneficial effect in ameliorating the cadmium-induced oxidative neurotoxicity in the brain of rats. PMID:25022246

  2. Testicular toxicity and sperm quality following cadmium exposure in rats: Ameliorative potentials of Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serah F Ige

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of Allium cepa crude extract on cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 4 groups (n = 6. Group 1 was used as control, group 2 was administered 0.3 mg/kgBW of cadmium sulfate (CdSO 4 intraperitoneally for 3 days, group 3 was pretreated with 1 ml/100 g BW of Allium cepa (AcE for 8 weeks followed by intraperitoneal administration of 0.3 mg/kgBW of CdSO 4 in the last 3 days of experiment, and group 4 was administered 1 ml/100 g BW of AcE throughout the experiment. Testicular weight and semen analysis revealing the sperm count, sperm motility, and sperm morphology was carried out. Superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase activities, and lipid peroxidation status were also carried out in testes. Results: The study demonstrated that Allium cepa ameliorated CdSO 4 -induced alteration in testicular weight, sperm count, sperm motility, and sperm morphology. It also showed that Allium cepa attenuated the derangement of lipid peroxidation profile in testicular tissues caused by CdSO 4 exposure. Conclusions: The findings in the study showed that pre-treatment of rat model with Allium cepa extract prevented CdSO 4 -induced reproductive toxicity by improving sperm quality and enhancing testicular lipid peroxidation status.

  3. Therapeutic effects of Cassia angustifolia in a cadmium induced hepatotoxicity assay conducted in male albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Haidry, Muhammad Tahir; Malik, Arif

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the therapeutic effects of Senna plant (Cassia angustifolia L.) in a cadmium induced hepatotoxicity assay by evaluating the activity of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total protein (TP) in the albino rats’ serum. A total of 30 white albino rats were taken and divided into three groups; each group comprising ten rats. The group A was taken as a control group; group B was given cadmium chloride conce...

  4. Protective effects of Korean red ginseng extract on cadmium-induced hepatic toxicity in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sook Jahr; Lee, Jong Rok; Jo, Mi Jeong; Park, Sang Mi; Ku, Sae Kwang; Kim, Sang Chan

    2013-01-01

    Korean red ginseng is known to regulate the immune system and help the body struggle infection and disease. Cadmium is widely distributed in the environment due to its use in industry. Exposure to cadmium is problematic causing organ dysfunction. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of Korean red ginseng extract (RGE) against cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. In experiments, animals were orally administrated with RGE (25, 50 mg/kg) for 7 d and then intravenously in...

  5. Triptolide disrupts fatty acids and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) levels in male mice testes followed by testicular injury: A GC–MS based metabolomics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Heat map of hierarchical clustering of the testicular tissue samples (A) and serum samples (B) at the 2nd week. Red blocks indicate increased intensities whereas blue indicates decreased intensities. The above two columns represent model group and normal group. - Abstract: Triptolide is the major active ingredient of Tripterygium Glycosides (TG), a traditional Chinese medicine with very potent anti-inflammatory effects and has been used in China for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and many other inflammatory diseases. However, clinical application of triptolide is restricted due to its multiple side effects, especially male infertility. The mechanism of triptolide on reproduction toxicity remains unclear. In the present study, a GC–MS based metabolomic approach was employed to evaluate the mechanism of triptolide-induced reproductive toxicity as well as identify potential novel biomarkers for the early detection of spermatogenesis dysfunction. In brief, male mice were divided into two groups with or without triptolide intraperitoneal injection at 60 μg/kg/day for 2 weeks and toxic effect of triptolide on testicular tissues were examined by biochemical indicator analysis, testis histopathologic analysis, and sperm quantity analysis. Metabolomics technology was then performed to evaluate systematically the endogenous metabolites profiling. Our results demonstrated that triptolide suppressed the marker-enzymes of spermatogenesis and testosterone levels, decreased sperm counts, reduced the gonad index and destroyed the microstructure of testis. Multivariate data analysis revealed that mice with triptolide induced testicular toxicity could be distinctively differentiated from normal animals and 35 and 39 small molecule metabolites were changed significantly in testis and serum, respectively (Fold-changes >1.5, P < 0.05), in triptolide-treated mice. Abnormal level of fatty acids, an important energy source of sertoli cells with critical role

  6. Assessment of radio modulatory potential of emblica against radiation and cadmium induced biochemical changes in kidney of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation Induces cellular damage through direct ionization of DNA and other cellular targets and indirectly via reactive oxygen species which may include effects from epigenetic changes. It has been known since ancient times that Cadmium is virtually toxic to every organ of body including renal system. Radioprotectors are compounds that are designed to reduce the damage in normal tissue caused by radiation and cadmium. Emblica officinalis extract has been shown to possess high antioxidative, anticancer, lipid lowering, antisclerotic, hepatoprotective and anti-HIV potential. It is highly nutritious and important dietary source of vitamin. Emblica contains a polyphenols, especially tannins and other phenolic compounds. Considering antioxidant properties of Emblica, the aim of this study was to access the efficacy of Emblica in reducing radiation and cadmium induced changes in mouse kidney. For this purpose four male mice were randomly assigned into six treatment groups. The mice in the treatment groups II to VII treated respectively with cadmium chloride, radiation (7.0 Gy) combined treatment and drug treated groups. All biochemical parameters of the control groups were compared with the respective experimental groups. An increase in the value of total proteins, glycogen, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase activity and RNA was observed up to day-14 in the non drug treated group and day 7 in the Emblica treated groups. Thereafter value declined up to day-28 without reaching to normal. Whereas the value of cholesterol and DNA showed a decreasing trend up to day-14 in non drug treated groups and day-7 in Emblica treated groups. The biochemical findings indicated the drug treated section of the kidney showed slightly/no degenerative changes. The treated groups demonstrating the ability of Emblica to inhibit oxidative stress thus preventing renal injury. (author)

  7. Testicular self-examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exam URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003909.htm Testicular self-exam ... testicles (also called the testes) are the male reproductive organs that produce sperm and the hormone testosterone. They are located in ...

  8. Inguinal metastases from testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Gedske; Karas, Vladimir; Sommer, Peter

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of inguinal metastases in patients with testicular cancer and relapse after initial stage I disease.......To evaluate the incidence of inguinal metastases in patients with testicular cancer and relapse after initial stage I disease....

  9. Testicular calculus: A rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Sen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground:Testicular calculus is an extremely rare case with unknown etiology and pathogenesis. To our knowledge, here we report the third case of testicular calculus. A 31-year-old man was admitted to our clinic with painful solid mass in left testis. After diagnostic work-up for a possible testicular tumour, he underwent inguinal orchiectomy and histopathologic examination showed a testicular calculus.Case hypothesis:Solid testicular lesions in young adults generally correspond to testicular cancer. Differential diagnosis should be done carefully.Future implications:In young adults with painful and solid testicular mass with hyperechogenic appearance on scrotal ultrasonography, testicular calculus must be kept in mind in differential diagnosis. Further reports on this topic may let us do more clear recommendations about the etiology and treatment of this rare disease.

  10. Cadmium induces autophagy through ROS-dependent activation of the LKB1-AMPK signaling in skin epidermal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal which is environmentally and occupationally relevant. The mechanisms underlying cadmium-induced autophagy are not yet completely understood. The present study shows that cadmium induces autophagy, as demonstrated by the increase of LC3-II formation and the GFP-LC3 puncta cells. The induction of autophagosomes was directly visualized by electron microscopy in cadmium-exposed skin epidermal cells. Blockage of LKB1 or AMPK by siRNA transfection suppressed cadmium-induced autophagy. Cadmium-induced autophagy was inhibited in dominant-negative AMPK-transfected cells, whereas it was accelerated in cells transfected with the constitutively active form of AMPK. mTOR signaling, a negative regulator of autophagy, was downregulated in cadmium-exposed cells. In addition, cadmium generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) at relatively low levels, and caused poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP) activation and ATP depletion. Inhibition of PARP by pharmacological inhibitors or its siRNA transfection suppressed ATP reduction and autophagy in cadmium-exposed cells. Furthermore, cadmium-induced autophagy signaling was attenuated by either exogenous addition of catalase and superoxide dismutase, or by overexpression of these enzymes. Consequently, these results suggest that cadmium-mediated ROS generation causes PARP activation and energy depletion, and eventually induces autophagy through the activation of LKB1-AMPK signaling and the down-regulation of mTOR in skin epidermal cells. - Highlights: → Cadmium, a toxic heavy metal, induces autophagic cell death through ROS-dependent activation of the LKB1-AMPK signaling. → Cadmium generates intracellular ROS at low levels and this leads to severe DNA damage and PARP activation, resulting in ATP depletion, which are the upstream events of LKB1-AMPK-mediated autophagy. → This novel finding may contribute to further understanding of cadmium-mediated diseases.

  11. Testicular schistosomiasis mimicking tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Mortati Neto

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis or bilharziasis is a disease caused by Schistosoma. When infecting men the most common parasites are Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma japonicum and Schistosoma haematobium. The Schistosoma mansoni is the only endemic parasite in Brazil. We present a case of testicular schistosomiasis simulating malignancy. The case was treated successfully by excisional biopsy and praziquantel therapy. A review of the literature is discussed.

  12. Can Testicular Cancer Be Found Early?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... staged? Testicular cancer survival rates Previous Topic Can testicular cancer be prevented? Next Topic Signs and symptoms of testicular cancer ... 2016 Back to top » Guide Topics What Is Testicular ... Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Testicular Cancer ...

  13. Cadmium induces carcinogenesis in BEAS-2B cells through ROS-dependent activation of PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Son, Young-Ok; Wang, Lei; Poyil, Pratheeshkumar; Budhraja, Amit; Hitron, J. Andrew; Zhang, Zhuo; Lee, Jeong-Chae; Shi, Xianglin

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium has been widely used in industry and is known to be carcinogenic to humans. Although it is widely accepted that chronic exposure to cadmium increases the incidence of cancer, the mechanisms underlying cadmium-induced carcinogenesis are unclear. The main aim of this study was to investigate the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cadmium-induced carcinogenesis and the signal transduction pathways involved. Chronic exposure of human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells to cadmium ind...

  14. Testicular cancer and intellectual disability

    OpenAIRE

    Sasco, Annie,; Ah-Song, Roland; Nishi, Motoi; Culine, Stéphane; Réthoré, Marie-Odile; Satgé, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The frequency of testicular cancer in men with intellectual disabilities is not precisely known, with the exception of some genetic conditions such as Down syndrome, where it has increased. Objective: To review systematically the literature through Pubmed with a particular focus on epidemiological studies of testicular cancer in persons with intellectual disability. Method: Literature review. Results: Testicular cancer was more frequent in subjects with intellectual disability than in the gen...

  15. Testicular biopsy in prepubertal boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faure, Alice; Bouty, Aurore; O'Brien, Mike;

    2016-01-01

    No consensus exists regarding the precise role of testicular biopsy in prepubertal boys, although it is considered useful for assessing the potential consequences of undescended testes on fertility. Current scientific knowledge indicates that surgeons should broaden indications for this procedure...... preservation of fertility after gonadotoxic chemotherapy - even for prepubertal boys - are emerging. Cryopreservation of testicular tissue samples for the preservation of fertility - although still an experimental method at present - is appealing in this context. In our opinion, testicular biopsy in...

  16. Modulatory influence of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced hepatic lesions in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major objectives in radiobiology has been the development of agents that can mitigate the damage produced by ionizing radiation to normal tissues and thus reduces the side effects caused by radiation and improvement of cancer radiotherapy. The various agents have drawn attention of researchers as they provide wider acceptability and least side effects. The current study was aimed to investigate the protective effect of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced changes in the liver of Swiss albino mice. For the study healthy male Swiss albino mice (6 to 8 weeks old) were selected from an inbred colony and kept in polypropylene cages. They were provided with standard mice feed and tap water ad libitum. The animals were exposed to 3.0 and 6.0 Gy of gamma radiation with or without cadmium chloride treatment. The animals of experimental groups were administered Aloe vera juice seven days prior to irradiation or cadmium chloride treatment. The animals of each group were autopsied at each post treatment interval of 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days of treatment. The various biochemical parameters estimated were total proteins, glycogen, cholesterol, acid and alkaline phosphatase activities, DNA and RNA. After routine procedure, histopathological changes were also observed. The changes in various biochemical parameters were observed in the form of increase of decrease in values. The histopathological changes observed on day-1 after exposure to 3.0 Gy were distortion of hepatic architecture, intracellular oedema, narrower sinusoids, cytoplasmic degranulation, vacuolation and pycnotic nuclei. The changes were more marked on day-4 and continued up to day-14. But on day-28 the sign of recovery was observed. After exposure to a higher dose (6.0 Gy) similar changes were noticed but they were more pronounced and there was late manifestation of recovery. In the combined treatment of radiation and cadmium chloride synergistic effects were observed. The liver of Aloe vera treated

  17. Transverse testicular ectopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldız, Abdullah; Yiğiter, Murat; Oral, Akgün; Bakan, Vedat

    2014-02-01

    Described herein are six cases of transverse testicular ectopia. All patients who underwent orchidopexy at the one pediatric surgical unit between October 2001 and January 2008 were evaluated. The medical records of all patients diagnosed with transverse testicular ectopia were evaluated retrospectively. Five patients (84%) were admitted with a symptomatic right inguinal hernia and empty scrotum on the left side. Only one child (16%) had left-sided hernia and right non-palpable testis (age ranged from 1 month to 3 years). Four patients (66%) were diagnosed in the operating theatre and the last two (33%) on inguinal ultrasound preoperatively. Magnetic resonance imaging was also performed in the last patient. Herniorrhaphy with fixation of the ectopic gonad to the opposite hemiscrotum through a transseptal incision was performed in all patients. Postoperative complications were not observed. PMID:24548194

  18. Testicular neoplasm diagnosed by ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senay, B A; Stein, B S

    1986-06-01

    The diagnosis of testicular cancer is usually made by the findings of a testicular mass on physical examination. In rare cases a young man will present with retroperitoneal nodes and a normal testicular examination. In such cases a testicular ultrasound may localize the testis which harbors a subclinical neoplasm. In addition serum markers of B-HCG and AFP are essential. As a screening procedure a urine pregnancy test is helpful, since it can be obtained quickly while quantitative B-HCG and APF results are delayed. PMID:3523046

  19. Reversal of Cadmium-induced Oxidative Stress in Chicken by Herbal Adaptogens Withania Somnifera and Ocimum Sanctum

    OpenAIRE

    K Bharavi; Reddy, A. Gopala; G S Rao; Reddy, A. Rajasekhara; Rao, S. V. Rama

    2010-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the herbal adaptogens Withania somnifera and Ocimum sanctum on cadmium-induced oxidative toxicity in broiler chicken. Cadmium administration at the rate of 100 ppm orally along with feed up to 28 days produced peroxidative damage, as indicated by increase in TBARS, reduction in glutathione (GSH) concentration in liver and kidney, and increase in catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) of erythrocytes. Herbal adaptogens Withania somnifera roo...

  20. Mesotelioma Maligno Testicular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lara Torrico

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El mesotelioma maligno es un tumor adenomatoide de la línea de células no germinales, una neoplasia testicular muy rara, tan solo unos 100 casos han sido reportados en la literatura y la mayoría de los pacientes con este problema son mayores de 50 años. Más del 50% tienen el antecedente de exposición a los asbestos. Todos los pacientes con sospecha de un tumor maligno testicular deben someterse a una orquiectomía radical para evitarrecidivas. Presentamos el caso clínico de un paciente de sexo masculino de 69 años de edad que acudió a consulta con un cuadro de 6 meses de evolución con aumento de volumen del escroto izquierdo y drenaje de líquido serohemático a través de un orificio fistuloso. Al paciente se le realizó el tratamiento quirúrgico mediante orquiectomía radical más hemiescrotectomía izquierda y finalmente el examen histopatológico evidenció un mesotelioma maligno testicular mixto.

  1. Reduced cadmium-induced cytotoxicity in cultured liver cells following 5-azacytidine pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waalkes, M.P.; Wilson, M.J.; Poirier, L.A.

    1985-11-01

    Recent work indicated that administration of the pyrimidine analog 5-azacytidine (AZA), either to cells in culture or to rats, results in an enhancement of expression of the metallothionein (MT) gene. Since MT is thought to play a central role in the detoxification of cadmium, the present study was designed to assess the effect of AZA pretreatment on cadmium cytotoxicity. Cultured rat liver cells in log phase of growth were first exposed to AZA (8 microM). Forty-eight hours later, cadmium was added. A modest increase in MT amounts over control was detected after AZA treatment alone. Cadmium alone resulted in a 10-fold increase in MT concentrations. The combination of AZA pretreatment followed by cadmium exposure caused a 23-fold increase in MT concentrations over control. Treatment with the DNA synthesis inhibitor hydroxyurea (HU) eliminated the enhancing effect of AZA pretreatment on cadmium induction of MT, indicating that cell division is required. AZA-pretreated cells were also harvested and incubated in suspension with cadmium for 0 to 90 min. AZA-pretreated cells showed marked reductions in cadmium-induced cytotoxicity as reflected by reduced intracellular potassium loss, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase loss, and lipid peroxidation following cadmium exposure. Results suggest that AZA pretreatment induces tolerance to cadmium cytotoxicity which appears to be due to an increased capacity to synthesize MT rather than high quantities of preexisting MT at the time of cadmium exposure.

  2. Reduced cadmium-induced cytotoxicity in cultured liver cells following 5-azacytidine pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent work indicated that administration of the pyrimidine analog 5-azacytidine (AZA), either to cells in culture or to rats, results in an enhancement of expression of the metallothionein (MT) gene. Since MT is thought to play a central role in the detoxification of cadmium, the present study was designed to assess the effect of AZA pretreatment on cadmium cytotoxicity. Cultured rat liver cells in log phase of growth were first exposed to AZA (8 microM). Forty-eight hours later, cadmium was added. A modest increase in MT amounts over control was detected after AZA treatment alone. Cadmium alone resulted in a 10-fold increase in MT concentrations. The combination of AZA pretreatment followed by cadmium exposure caused a 23-fold increase in MT concentrations over control. Treatment with the DNA synthesis inhibitor hydroxyurea (HU) eliminated the enhancing effect of AZA pretreatment on cadmium induction of MT, indicating that cell division is required. AZA-pretreated cells were also harvested and incubated in suspension with cadmium for 0 to 90 min. AZA-pretreated cells showed marked reductions in cadmium-induced cytotoxicity as reflected by reduced intracellular potassium loss, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase loss, and lipid peroxidation following cadmium exposure. Results suggest that AZA pretreatment induces tolerance to cadmium cytotoxicity which appears to be due to an increased capacity to synthesize MT rather than high quantities of preexisting MT at the time of cadmium exposure

  3. The potential protective role of Physalis peruviana L. fruit in cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dkhil, Mohamed A; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Diab, Marwa M S; Othman, Mohamed S; Aref, Ahmed M; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the potential protective role of Physalis peruviana L. (family Solanaceae) against cadmium-induced hepatorenal toxicity in Wistar rats. Herein, cadmium chloride (CdCl2) (6.5 mg/kg bwt/day) was intraperitoneally injected for 5 days, and methanolic extract of physalis (MEPh) was pre-administered to a group of Cd-treated rats by an oral administration at a daily dose of 200 mg/kg bwt for 5 days. The findings revealed that CdCl2 injection induced significant decreases in kidney weight and kidney index. Cadmium intoxication increased the activities of liver enzymes and the bilirubin level, in addition to the levels of uric acid, urea and creatinine were increased in the serum. The pre-administration of MEPh alleviated hepatorenal toxicity in Cd-treated rats. Physalis was noted to play a good hepatorenal protective role, reducing lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, and enhancing enzymatic activities and non-enzymatic antioxidant molecule, glutathione, in hepatic and renal tissues of Cd-treated rats. Moreover, physalis treatment was able to reverse the histopathological changes in liver and kidney tissues and also increased the expression of Bcl-2 protein in liver and kidney of rats. Overall, the results showed that MEPh can induce antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects and also exerts beneficial effects for the treatment of Cd-induced hepatorenal toxicity. PMID:25265456

  4. Potentiated interaction between ineffective doses of budesonide and formoterol to control the inhaled cadmium-induced up-regulation of metalloproteinases and acute pulmonary inflammation in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhui Zhang

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory properties of glucocorticoids are well known but their protective effects exerted with a low potency against heavy metals-induced pulmonary inflammation remain unclear. In this study, a model of acute pulmonary inflammation induced by a single inhalation of cadmium in male Sprague-Dawley rats was used to investigate whether formoterol can improve the anti-inflammatory effects of budesonide. The cadmium-related inflammatory responses, including matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 activity, were evaluated. Compared to the values obtained in rats exposed to cadmium, pretreatment of inhaled budesonide (0.5 mg/15 ml elicited a significant decrease in total cell and neutrophil counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF associated with a significant reduction of MMP-9 activity which was highly correlated with the number of inflammatory cells in BALF. Additionally, cadmium-induced lung injuries characterized by inflammatory cell infiltration within alveoli and the interstitium were attenuated by the pre-treatment of budesonide. Though the low concentration of budesonide (0.25 mg/15 ml exerted a very limited inhibitory effects in the present rat model, its combination with an inefficient concentration of formoterol (0.5 mg/30 ml showed an enhanced inhibitory effect on neutrophil and total cell counts as well as on the histological lung injuries associated with a potentiation of inhibition on the MMP-9 activity. In conclusion, high concentration of budesonide alone could partially protect the lungs against cadmium exposure induced-acute neutrophilic pulmonary inflammation via the inhibition of MMP-9 activity. The combination with formoterol could enhance the protective effects of both drugs, suggesting a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of heavy metals-induced lung diseases.

  5. Testicular Feminization Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaneet Kour, Ajay Abrol

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Testicular feminization syndrome or androgen insensitivity syndrome is a rare disorder with anincidence of 1:20,000-64,000 male births. The individual with complete form of this syndrome (CIAShave female external genitalia while those with partial form (PIAS have variable ambiguity ofgenitalia and often need extensive reconsructive surgery. The diagonosis should be suspected infemale child with inguinal hernia or presenting with primary ammenorrohea and on examinationthere is no vagina with absent axillary or pubic hair. Awareness of this entity is important as withearly diagonosis such disorder can be managed appropriately and accurate information can begiven to parents regarding long term issues of harmone replacement therapy and fertility.

  6. Studies of testicular function after treatment for testicular tumor, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, the treatment for testicular tumor has improved. Preservation of testicular function in the treatment of testicular tumor is important, because the majority of the patients are young. We investigated the testicular function of patients with testicular tumor before, during and after treatment. As a part of this study, the fertility of patients with testicular tumor before and after treatment was evaluated. 1. Fourteen of 78 married patients (18 %) showed sterility for two or more years before treatment. 2. When semen was examined in 31 patients before treatment, only seven patients (23 %) showed normal sperm counts of more than 40 x 106/ml, and 19 (61.3 %) showed oligospermia or azoospermia with sperm counts of less than 10 x 106/ml. 3. Of 20 patients who underwent retroperitoneal lymphnode dissection, 15 developed ejaculation deficiency. Four other patients also developed ejaculation deficiency but recovered, and three of them rendered their wives pregnant. 4. Of 23 patients given radiotherapy, nine produced children both before and after treatment, nine produced children before treatment but showed sterility after treatment, and five showed sterility both before and after treatment. 5. Examination of semen was performed in 17 patients given radiotherapy and in five given chemotherapy. Many patients developed oligospermia or azoospermia after the treatments, but revealed a tendency to recover with time. Based on the results mentioned above, it is inferred that the ability to produce sperm in patients with testicular tumor after treatment decreases but the decrease tends to recover to normal with time. (author)

  7. Higher sensitivity to cadmium induced cell death of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons: A cholinesterase dependent mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium is an environmental pollutant, which is a cause of concern because it can be greatly concentrated in the organism causing severe damage to a variety of organs including the nervous system which is one of the most affected. Cadmium has been reported to produce learning and memory dysfunctions and Alzheimer like symptoms, though the mechanism is unknown. On the other hand, cholinergic system in central nervous system (CNS) is implicated on learning and memory regulation, and it has been reported that cadmium can affect cholinergic transmission and it can also induce selective toxicity on cholinergic system at peripheral level, producing cholinergic neurons loss, which may explain cadmium effects on learning and memory processes if produced on central level. The present study is aimed at researching the selective neurotoxicity induced by cadmium on cholinergic system in CNS. For this purpose we evaluated, in basal forebrain region, the cadmium toxic effects on neuronal viability and the cholinergic mechanisms related to it on NS56 cholinergic mourine septal cell line. This study proves that cadmium induces a more pronounced, but not selective, cell death on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) on cholinergic neurons. Moreover, MTT and LDH assays showed a dose dependent decrease of cell viability in NS56 cells. The ACh treatment of SN56 cells did not revert cell viability reduction induced by cadmium, but siRNA transfection against AChE partially reduced it. Our present results provide new understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the harmful effects of cadmium on the function and viability of neurons, and the possible relevance of cadmium in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases

  8. Cadmium-Induced Toxicity and the Hepatoprotective Potentials of Aqueous Extract of Jessiaea Nervosa Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ama Udu Ibiam

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Hepatoprotective potentials of Jussiaea nervosa leaf extract against Cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity were investigated. Methods: Forty albino rats were randomly assigned into groups A-G with 4 rats in each of the groups A-F. Group A served as control and were given feed only while rats in groups B-F were orally exposed to varying concentrations of cadmium for six weeks. Effects of cadmium were most significant at 12 mg/Kg body weight (BW, and this dose was used for subsequent test involving oral administration of Jussiaea nervosa leaf extracts. In this segment, group G (n= 16 was sub-divided into four: G1-G4, with each sub-group containing four rats. Rats in sub-group G1 were given cadmium and feed only and served as positive control. Rats in sub-groups G2, G3, and G4 were given cadmium and 20, 50 and 100g/kg BW of Jussiaea nervosa extract, respectively, for six weeks. Blood and liver were analysed using standard laboratory techniques and methods. Results: Liver function parameters (ALT, AST, ALP, bilirubin were significantly (p<0.05 elevated in exposed rats in comparison to the controls, except for total protein and albumin, which were significantly decreased. Histopathological assessment reveals renal pathology in exposed rats in sharp contrast with the controls. Jussiaea nervosa extract however lowered the values of liver function parameters with 100mg/Kg BW dose producing the highest ameliorative effects. Similarly, the serum albumin and total protein significantly (p<0.05 improved with normal liver architecture. Conclusion: The results show the hepatoprotective potentials of Jussiaea nervosa extract against Cd toxicity.

  9. Nrf2/p62 signaling in apoptosis resistance and its role in cadmium-induced carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Young-Ok; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Roy, Ram Vinod; Hitron, John Andrew; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Zhuo; Shi, Xianglin

    2014-10-10

    The cadmium-transformed human lung bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells exhibit a property of apoptosis resistance as compared with normal non-transformed BEAS-2B cells. The level of basal reactive oxygen species (ROS) is extremely low in transformed cells in correlation with elevated expressions of both antioxidant enzymes (catalase, SOD1, and SOD2) and antiapoptotic proteins (Bcl-2/Bcl-xL). Moreover, Nrf2 and p62 are highly expressed in these transformed cells. The knockdown of Nrf2 or p62 by siRNA enhances ROS levels and cadmium-induced apoptosis. The binding activities of Nrf2 on the antioxidant response element promoter regions of p62/Bcl-2/Bcl-xL were dramatically increased in the cadmium-exposed transformed cells. Cadmium exposure increased the formation of LC3-II and the frequency of GFP-LC3 punctal cells in non-transformed BEAS-2B cells, whereas these increases are not shown in transformed cells, an indication of autophagy deficiency of transformed cells. Furthermore, the expression levels of Nrf2 and p62 are dramatically increased during chronic long term exposure to cadmium in the BEAS-2B cells as well as antiapoptotic proteins and antioxidant enzymes. These proteins are overexpressed in the tumor tissues derived from xenograft mouse models. Moreover, the colony growth is significantly attenuated in the transformed cells by siRNA transfection specific for Nrf2 or p62. Taken together, this study demonstrates that cadmium-transformed cells have acquired autophagy deficiency, leading to constitutive p62 and Nrf2 overexpression. These overexpressions up-regulate the antioxidant proteins catalase and SOD and the antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. The final consequences are decrease in ROS generation, apoptotic resistance, and increased cell survival, proliferation, and tumorigenesis. PMID:25157103

  10. Iodine-oxygen and cadmium-induced stress corrosion cracking of Zr-4 cladding tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of iodine-induced stress corrosion cracking (SCC) experiments the authors did before, iodine-oxygen and cadmium-induced SCC was studied on Zr-4 cladding tube. Specimens used in experiments are cladding tubes of a reactor fuel element made by Institute of Nonferrous Metal of China. The tube which has a length of 145 mm and an outside diameter of 15.3 mm and an inside diameter of 14.9 mm was annealed at 620 K for two hours, and then it had a fine, stress-relieved microstructure. Two end-caps were welded on the cladding tube. There was a hole of 0.8 mm diameter in a protruding melting-welding platform on one end-cap of the specimen. Before welding the end-caps, a glass ampoule filled with a certain amount of oxygen and a piece of Zr-4 material which can dash the glass ampoule were put into the cladding tube. After plug-hole welding in high pressure argon, the cladding tube was shaken in order to make the piece of Zr-4 material dash the ampoule and the oxygen fill up the space inside the cladding tube. A certain amount of iodine was charged into the cladding tube from the hole before the plug-hole welding. The plug-hole welding in high pressure argon was performed on a specially prepared equipment within 0.1-0.5 second. At a certain temperature, the pressure of argon determines the mechanical load (stress). The SCC experiments were controlled within +-3 degree C by a thermocouple welded on the specimen. The cracking of the specimen or the leak of gas was sensitively supervised and timed by vacuum alarm system. Under various conditions of stress, the experiments for 28 specimens of iodine-oxygen agent and 5 specimens of cadmium agent were undertaken

  11. Prevention of radiation and cadmium induced haematological alternations in the Swiss albino mice by Aloe Vera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of effective radio protectors and radio recovery drugs is of great importance in view of their potential application during both planned (i.e., radiotherapy) and unplanned radiation exposure (i.e., in the nuclear industry and natural background radiation). The combined effect of radiation and cadmium further increases the causation of damages to organs and tissues. Aloe vera has enjoyed a reputation as a healer for millennia, based primarily on anecdotal evidence. For the last 40 years concerted efforts by the scientific research community has brought Aloe vera out of the realm of folk medicine, providing it solid medical and scientific foundation. Haematopoietic organs are among the most radiosensitive cells in the living organisms. Therefore, present study was carried out to study the modulatory influence of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced hematological changes in the Swiss albino mice. For the study, six to eight weeks old male Swiss albino mice were procured and kept in polypropylene cages.The animals were exposed 3.5 Gy and 7.0 Gy of gamma radiation with or without cadmium chloride treatment. The Aloe vera was administered seven days prior to irradiation or cadmium chloride treatment. Five animals from each group were autopsied by cervical dislocation at each post treatment interval of 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days. Blood was collected in heparinized tubes to estimate various haematological parameters viz. RBC, WBC, PCV, Haemoglobin and MCV. Radiation exposure resulted in a significant decline in RBC, WBC, PCV, Haemoglobin and MCV up to day-14 in peripheral blood, thereafter it increased up to day-28 without reaching to normal. After combined treatment of radiation and cadmium chloride the more severe changes were noticed showing synergistic or additive effect. An early and fast recovery was seen in Aloe vera pretreatment groups. Thus, it may be concluded from above observation that Aloe vera has the potential of combating the

  12. Protective role of aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced biochemical changes in the jejunum of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The extensive use of atomic energy now a days in various branches of natural economy, science and technology, radio diagnosis, radiotherapy, industries, agriculture, nuclear research etc. has made radiation injury an urgent problem attracting the attention not only of specialists in a variety of clinical disciplines but also of a vast army of theoretical scientists. Metals like cadmium have always been intrinsic components of earth crust with the continuing trends towards and increasing human activities involving man may become exposed to concentration of toxic metals presenting a potential threat for survival. The severity of the damage can be modulated by treating the animals with antioxidants. In view of the potential for practical application, a variety of compounds are being tested for their radio protective activities. Among these, Aloe vera hold a great promise. Aloe vera juice was obtained from Millennium Agro Company, Goregaon (W) Mumbai. It is a herbal drug and known to contain well over 100 separate ingredients or constituents between those found in the leaf and mucilaginous gel inside the leaf. In light of the above, the present study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced biochemical changes in the jejunum Swiss albino mice. For this purpose, healthy adult male Swiss albino mice were divided into seven groups. Group I included sham-irradiated normal mice. Group II was administered CdCl2 at the dose of 20ppm, while Group III was exposed to 5.0 Gy of gamma radiation. Animals of Group IV were treated with both CdCl2 and 5.0 Gy of gamma rays. The animals of Group V and VI were treated with CdCl2 + Aloe vera and 5.0Gy + Aloe vera respectively, whereas Group VII was treated with CdCl2 +5.0Gy+ Aloe vera. In the groups V, VI and VII the Aloe vera was given seven days prior to the treatment of CdCl2 or gamma rays. Three animals from all the experimental groups were sacrificed by cervical

  13. Testicular cytology in azoospermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Prasad

    2015-06-01

    Results: The commonest group with infertility were in the age group 21-30 years. The testicular size was normal in 87.17% of subjects and 12.82% had small testis. Out of 39 subjects with azoospermia 38.46% subjects had varicocele. Varicocele was commonly associated with duct obstruction. The commonest causes observed in cases with azoospermia were; hypospermatogenesis with maturation arrest (4/39,10.25%, duct obstruction (12/39,30.76%, maturation arrest (7/39,17.94%, testicular atrophy (10/39,25.64% and sertoli cell only syndrome (2/39,5.12%. In the present study diagnostic accuracy was 89.18%. Conclusions: Fine needle aspiration cytology is as informative as biopsy and can be done as a routine procedure. It helps us in ruling out obstructive and non-obstructive causes for azoospermia. In cases where FNAC shows normal spermatogenesis with azoospermia, biopsy and Doppler study is indicated to rule out duct obstruction which can be corrected surgically. It is a simple and cost effective. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(3.000: 647-652

  14. TESTICULAR FEMINISING SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Testicular feminization syndrome is a form of pseudohermaphroditism where phenotypic female has male gonads and is genotypically male. Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS, also known as testicular feminization, encompasses a wide range of phenotypes that are caused by numerous different mutations in the androgen receptor gene. AIS is an X-linked recessive disorder that is classified as complete, partial based on the phenotypic presentation. The clinical findings include a female type of external genitalia, 46-XY karyotype, absence of Mullerian structures, presence of Wolffian structures to various degrees, and normal to high testosterone and gonadotropin levels. The syndrome is illustrated by a 24-year-old phenotypic female who presented with a primary amenorrhea, female-type external genitalia, an absent uterus and ovaries, and bilateral testes at the level of the internal inguinal ring. Management includes counseling, gonadectomy to prevent primary malignancy in undescended gonad, and hormone replacement. The karyotyping of family members is advocated because of known familial tendencies.

  15. Potential role of reactive oxygen species on testicular pathology associated with infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I.T.Koksal; M.Usta; I.Orhan; S.Abbasoglu; A.Kadioglu

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), a direct indicator of lipid peroxidation-induced injury by reactive oxygen species (ROS), in testicular biopsy specimens from infertile patients. Methods: Levels of MDA were measured in testicular biopsy specimens from 29 consequent-randomized infertile men, aged 29.58±4.76(21-45) years. All patients were evaluated by a complete medical and reproductive history, physical examination,semen analysis (at least two), serum follicle-stimulating hormone and free testosterone levels, testicular biopsy and contact imprint. Scrotal colour Doppler ultrasonography was used to confirm suspected varicocele. The testicular MDA level was measured using the thiobarbituric acid test and the results were expressed per unit tissue weight.Results: As a causal factor in infertility, varicocele was identified in 17 (58.6 %) patients, and idiopathic infertility,testicular failure and obstruction in 4 (13.8 %) patients each. The testicular MDA level was 13.56 (6.01), 49.56(24.04), 58.53 (48.07), and 32.64 (21.51), 32.72 (13.61), 23.07 (7.82), 42,12 (34.76) pmol/mg tissue in the normal spermatogenesis (control), late maturation arrest, Sertoli cell only (SCO) and hypospermatogenesis (mild, moderete,severe) groups, respectively. The elevation of MDA levels was significant in the testicular tissue from SCO and maturation arrest groups compared with the controls (P<0.05). In addition, the elevation in testicular MDA levels between the SCO and the moderete hypospermatogenesis, and the moderate hypospermatogenesis and the maturation arrest groups was significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: Severe pathologic changes in the testicular tissue are associated with a high level of lipid peroxidation. These findings suggest that overproduction of ROS may play a role in the mechanism of testicular degeneration associated with infertility. ( Asian J Androl 2003 Jun; 5:95-99 )

  16. Traumatic bilateral testicular dislocation associated with an anterior posterior compression fracture of the pelvis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher S; Rosenbaum, Corey S; Harris, A Michael

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic dislocation of a single testicle is an exceedingly rare event and bilateral dislocation is even less common. Traumatic testicular dislocation occurs by the mechanism of direct pressure exerted on the scrotum. Motorcycle collisions are the most frequent causative mechanism, usually related to deceleration straddle injuries. Since traumatic testicular dislocation is associated with other severe injuries, it is usually a late finding, leading to delayed diagnosis and treatment. This report describes a rare case of a patient involved in a motorcycle crash who sustained bilateral testicular dislocation associated with an anterior posterior compression pelvic fracture. To date, there are no reported cases involving management of bilateral testicular dislocation discovered during open reduction and internal fixation of the pelvis. Because the orthopaedic traumatologist may be the first to assess patients with pelvic fracture requiring surgery, the authors feel it is important to raise awareness of this injury. PMID:23199946

  17. What's New in Testicular Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources for testicular cancer What’s new in testicular cancer research and treatment? Important research into testicular cancer is ... Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Testicular Cancer Research? Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics ...

  18. Treatment Option Overview (Testicular Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and nonseminomas . These 2 types grow and spread differently and are treated differently. Nonseminomas tend to grow and spread more quickly ... trials is available from the NCI website . To Learn More About Testicular Cancer For more information from ...

  19. How Is Testicular Cancer Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... proteins called tumor markers , such as alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). When these tumor ... that there is a testicular tumor. Rises in AFP or HCG can also help doctors tell which ...

  20. General Information about Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are used to detect testicular cancer: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG). Tumor marker ... places in the body, and blood levels of AFP, β-hCG, and LDH). Type of cancer. Size ...

  1. Restorative Effects of Zinc and Selenium on Cadmium-induced Kidney Oxidative Damage in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    To investigate whether cadmium-induced oxidative stress in the kidney is influenced by zinc and selenium. Methods Five groups of rats were maintained: (A) Cd (CdCl2,400 μg@kg-1 day-1 intraperitoneal injection); (B) Cd+Zn (ZnC12, 20mg kg-1.day-1 hypodermic injection); (C) Cd+Se (Na2SeO3, 350 μg.kg-1.day-1 via a stomach tube); (D) Cd+Zn+Se; (E)treated with physiological saline as a sham-handled control. The rats were given treatmenl for a period of 4 weeks. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GH-Px), catalase (CAT), and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the kidney tissue were measured to assess the oxidative stress. Urinary lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was used as an indicator of tubular cell damage caused by lipid peroxidation. Results In group C and D, activities of SOD (110.5 ± 5.2, 126.8 ± 7.0; P < 0.05) and GSH-Px (85.7 ± 4.9,94.6 ± 7.3; P < 0.05) were higher than those in group A(84.7 ± 3.3; 56.9 ± 3.8); and in group B, only the activity of GSH-Px (80.0 + 4.3, P < 0.01) increased in comparison with that in group A (56.9 ± 3.8). Significant increase of MDA (P < 0.05) was seen in group B (31.1 ± 4.7) and C (35.0 + 4.1) when compared with control values (17.2 ± 1.8). No difference was found in the level of MDA between group D (18.9 ± 2.6) and control. The activity of LDH in urine of control group (0.06 ± 0.02) was lower than that of group A (0.46 ± 0.19, P<0.05), B (0.10± 0.05, P<0.05) and C (0.14 ± 0.07, P<0.05), and there was no significant change between control (0.06 + 0.02) and group D (0.08 ± 0.02). Conclusion Zinc or selenium could partially alleviate the oxidative stress induced by cadmium in kidney, but administration cadmium in combination with zinc and selenium efficiently protects kidney from cadmiuminduced oxidative damage.

  2. Cadmium toxicity to ringed seals (Phoca hispida): an epidemiological study of possible cadmium-induced nephropathy and osteodystrophy in ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from Qaanaaq in Northwest Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne-Hansen, C; Dietz, R; Leifsson, P S;

    2002-01-01

    the skeleton nor to the cadmium concentrations. Furthermore, the degree of mineralisation of the skeleton was not correlated with the cadmium concentration, age or sex. It can therefore be concluded that despite high levels of cadmium, none of the ringed seals showed any signs of cadmium......-induced nephropathy or osteodystrophy. This might be explained by the composition of the ringed seals diet, which contains high levels of vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, selenium and protein. These elements are all likely to counteract cadmium-induced damage. It is speculated that ringed seal are not...

  3. Association between testicular microlithiasis, testicular cancer, cryptorchidism and history of ascending testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatiou Konstantinos

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To prospectively determine the prevalence of testicular microlithiasis in symptomatic patients who were referred for scrotal ultrasound examination and to evaluate the possible association of testicular microlithiasis with testicular cancer and other conditions such as cryptorchidism or history of ascending testis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 391 men who were referred to our institutions between July 2002 and May 2005 for any type of symptoms from the testicles, underwent physical and scrotal ultrasound examination. The presence of testicular microlithiasis, the number of lesions and the involvement of both testicles in relation to the symptoms as well as the coexistence of other lesions were studied. RESULTS: Eighteen (4.6% of 391 men enrolled into the study had testicular microlithiasis. Two out of the eighteen patients (11% had concomitant testicular cancer, which was confirmed by pathological evaluation of the orchidectomy specimen. One of the patients with testicular microlithiasis presented a rising in biochemical tumor markers (LDH, and HCG and underwent orchidectomy one year later. Five of the remaining 373 (1.3% patients without microlithiasis were diagnosed with testicular cancer. Thirty six men reported having a history of ascending testis, but none of them was found with testicular cancer. Two cases of testicular torsion in a cryptorchid position had testicular microlithiasis, but the orchidectomy specimen (after surgery was negative for testicular cancer. The correlation between testicular cancer and testicular microlithiasis found in our study was statistically significant (p < 0.05. CONCLUSION: There seems to be an association between testicular microlithiasis and testicular cancer.

  4. Studies of testicular function after treatment for testicular tumor, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is important to preserve the testicular function of patients with testicular tumor after treatment. Testicular function after radiotherapy was endocrinologically investigated in the present study. 1. The levels of LH, FSH and testosterone in the blood were sequentially determined in patients with testicular tumor before, during and after radiotherapy. The blood levels of LH and FSH were high after therapy in the majority of the cases, but the levels decrease concomitantly with time. Blood levels of testosterone remained within the normal range. 2. The Gn-RH stimulation test after radiotherapy revealed an abnormally high response and a delayed normalization of the LH level within three years after therapy. However, these changes showed a tendancy to normalize in the patients after therapy for three years or longer. 3. The hCG stimulation test was performed after radiotherapy. The reaction rate of hCG was low in patients within three years on therapy, whereas it tended to return to normal pattern after three or more years on therapy. The results lead the conclusion as follows. 1. Spermatogenesis was damaged in the majority of testicular tumor after radiotherapy. However, it was recovered to a normal spermatogenesis after cessation of the therapy. 2. From the high basal level of serum LH and the response to Gn-RH and hCG stimulation tests after radiotherapy, it is presumed that the reserve function of Leydig cell was impaired by radiotherapy, although it returns to normal status after three years on the therapy. (author)

  5. Radiotherapy of testicular tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, M.

    1980-01-01

    In the first part of the paper, the general pathological, diagnostical and therapeutical measures against seminomas and teratomas are dealt with. In the second part, the results obtained by the radiotherapeutical division of the University Clinics of Freiburg 1964-1977 in the treatment of seminomas and teratomas are described. The average age of the 59 seminoma patients was 36 years, the average age of the 28 teratoma patients was 26. The 5-years-total survival rate of the seminoma patients was 80.8%, for teratoma patients it was 30.5%. In the individual phases, of all seminoma patients in stage I, 93.1% were still alive after 5 years, in stage II 95.9%, in stage III 12.5%. The 5-years survival rate of the teratoma patients in stage I was around 100%, in stage II around 36.8% and in stage III around 20.5%. In the discussion, the problems of the histological and pathological classification for testicular tumours are talked about and the treatment methods used at the Freiburg university clinics are described. The results obtained in the Freiburg university clinics are compared with those of other authors.

  6. Primary Testicular B-cell Lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Aykut Buğra Şentürk; Musa Ekici; Hamit Ersoy

    2015-01-01

    Primary testicular lymphoma constitutes only 1-7% of all testicular neoplasms and less than 1% of all non-Hodgkin lymphoma. We report a 69-year-old man who presented with a painful right testicular mass. Treatment modalities consist of surgical excision, chemotherapy and radiation therapy, however there are no standardized treatment options.

  7. Primary Testicular B-cell Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aykut Buğra Şentürk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary testicular lymphoma constitutes only 1-7% of all testicular neoplasms and less than 1% of all non-Hodgkin lymphoma. We report a 69-year-old man who presented with a painful right testicular mass. Treatment modalities consist of surgical excision, chemotherapy and radiation therapy, however there are no standardized treatment options.

  8. 21 CFR 876.3750 - Testicular prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testicular prosthesis. 876.3750 Section 876.3750...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 876.3750 Testicular prosthesis. (a) Identification. A testicular prosthesis is an implanted device that consists of a solid or gel-filled...

  9. Comparative study of natural antioxidants - curcumin, resveratrol and melatonin - in cadmium-induced oxidative damage in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was designed to examine the antioxidative effect of curcumin, resveratrol and melatonin pre-treatment on cadmium-induced oxidative damage and cadmium distribution in an experimental model in mice. Male CD mice were treated once daily for 3 days with curcumin (50 mg/kg b.w., p.o.), resveratrol (20 mg/kg b.w., p.o.) or melatonin (12 mg/kg, p.o.), dispersed in 0.5% methylcellulose. One hour after the last dose of antioxidants cadmium chloride was administered (7 mg/kg b.w., s.c.) to pre-treated animals and control animals receiving methylcellulose. At 24th h after Cd administration the lipid peroxidation (LP - expressed as malondialdehyde production), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were estimated in liver homogenates. Cadmium concentration was measured in the liver, kidneys, testes and brain by AAS. Cadmium chloride administration to mice induced hepatic lipid peroxidation (to 133%, p < 0.001), decreased GSH content (to 65%, p < 0.001) and inhibited catalase (to 68%, p < 0.001) and GPx activity (to 60%, p < 0.001) in the liver. Curcumin, resveratrol and melatonin oral pre-treatment completely prevented the Cd-induced lipid peroxidation and Cd-induced inhibition of GPx hepatic activity. Resveratrol was effective against Cd-induced inhibition of catalase activity (p < 0.001). The decrease in hepatic GSH level was not prevented by curcumin, resveratrol or melatonin pre-treatment. In mice treated with antioxidants alone the level of LP, GSH, GPx or CAT was not different from control levels. The pre-treatment with antioxidants did not affect cadmium distribution in the tissues of Cd-intoxicated mice. The results demonstrate that curcumin, resveratrol and melatonin pre-treatment effectively protect against cadmium-induced lipid peroxidation and ameliorate the adverse effect of cadmium on antioxidant status without any reduction in tissue Cd burden

  10. Cadmium-induced bone effect is not mediated via low serum 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium is a widespread environmental pollutant, which is associated with increased risk of osteoporosis. It has been proposed that cadmium's toxic effect on bone is exerted via impaired activation of vitamin D, secondary to the kidney effects. To test this, we assessed the association of cadmium-induced bone and kidney effects with serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D); measured by enzyme immunoassay. For the assessment, we selected 85 postmenopausal women, based on low (0.14-0.39 μg/L) or high (0.66-2.1 μg/L) urinary cadmium, within a cross-sectional population-based women's health survey in Southern Sweden. We also measured 25-hydroxy vitamin D, cadmium in blood, bone mineral density and several markers of bone remodeling and kidney effects. Although there were clear differences in both kidney and bone effect markers between women with low and high cadmium exposure, the 1,25(OH)2D concentrations were not significantly different (median, 111 pmol/L (5-95th percentile, 67-170 pmol/L) in low- and 125 pmol/L (66-200 pmol/L) in high-cadmium groups; p=0.08). Also, there was no association between 1,25(OH)2D and markers of bone or kidney effects. It is concluded that the low levels of cadmium exposure present in the studied women, although high enough to be associated with lower bone mineral density and increased bone resorption, were not associated with lower serum concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D. Hence, decreased circulating levels of 1,25(OH)2D are unlikely to be the proposed link between cadmium-induced effects on kidney and bone

  11. Histological evidence of testicular dysgenesis in contralateral biopsies from 218 patients with testicular germ cell cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Holm, Mette; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa;

    2003-01-01

    This study was prompted by a hypothesis that testicular germ cell cancer may be aetiologically linked to other male reproductive abnormalities as a part of the so-called 'testicular dysgenesis syndrome' (TDS). To corroborate the hypothesis of a common association of germ cell cancer with testicular...... presenting with testicular germ cell neoplasms of the adolescent and young type. The findings therefore support the hypothesis that this cancer is part of a testicular dysgenesis syndrome. The presence of contralateral carcinoma in situ was higher in the present study than previously reported....... dysgenesis, microscopic dysgenetic features were quantified in contralateral testicular biopsies in patients with a testicular germ cell tumour. Two hundred and eighty consecutive contralateral testicular biopsies from Danish patients with testicular cancer diagnosed in 1998-2001 were evaluated...

  12. Histological evidence of testicular dysgenesis in contralateral biopsies from 218 patients with testicular germ cell cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Holm, Mette; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Skakkebæk, Niels Erik

    2003-01-01

    This study was prompted by a hypothesis that testicular germ cell cancer may be aetiologically linked to other male reproductive abnormalities as a part of the so-called 'testicular dysgenesis syndrome' (TDS). To corroborate the hypothesis of a common association of germ cell cancer with testicular...... dysgenesis, microscopic dysgenetic features were quantified in contralateral testicular biopsies in patients with a testicular germ cell tumour. Two hundred and eighty consecutive contralateral testicular biopsies from Danish patients with testicular cancer diagnosed in 1998-2001 were evaluated...... presenting with testicular germ cell neoplasms of the adolescent and young type. The findings therefore support the hypothesis that this cancer is part of a testicular dysgenesis syndrome. The presence of contralateral carcinoma in situ was higher in the present study than previously reported....

  13. Testicular biopsy: clinical practice and interpretation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gert R Dohle; Saad Elzanaty; Niels J van Casteren

    2012-01-01

    Testicular biopsy was considered the cornerstone of male infertility diagnosis for many years in men with unexplained infertility and azoospermia.Recent guidelines for male infertility have limited the indications for a diagnostic testicular biopsy to the confirmation ofobstructive azoospermia in men with normal size testes and normal reproductive hormones.Nowadays,testicular biopsies are mainly performed for sperm harvesting in men with non-obstructive azoospermia,to be used for intracytoplasmic sperm injection.Testicular biopsy is also performed in men with risk factors for testicular malignancy.In a subgroup of infertile men,there is an increased risk for carcinoma in situ of the testis,especially in men with a history of cryptorchidism and testicular malignancy and in men with testicular atrophy.Ultrasonographic abnormalities,such as testicular microlithiasis,inhomogeneous parenchyma and lesions of the testes,further increase the risk of carcinoma in situ (CIS) in these men.For an accurate histological classification,proper tissue handling,fixation,preparation of the specimen and evaluation are needed.A standardized approach to testicular biopsy is recommended.In addition,approaches to the detection of CIS of the testis testicular immunohistochemistry are mandatory.In this mini-review,we describe the current indications for testicular biopsies in the diagnosis and management of male infertility.

  14. Cadmium-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in the testes of frog Rana limnocharis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Cd can cause vacuoles and deformity of the spermatogenic cells in the frog testes. ► Cd can result in oxidative stress in the frog testes. ► Cd can induce significantly increase of ROS contents triggered DNA damages in the frog testes. ► Cd can cause apoptosis in the testes of male R. limnocharis. ► Apoptosis by Cd in the frog testes is related to Caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2 genes. - Abstract: This study explored the genetic damage induced by cadmium exposure in the testes of Rana limnocharis. Healthy adult frogs were exposed to 2.5, 5, 7.5, or 10 mg/L of cadmium solution for 14 days. The results showed that exposure to these concentrations increased the levels of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde content in the testes, clearly indicating a dose–effect relationship. Moreover, the same dosages of Cd2+ solution increased glutathione (reduced) content, with the values being significantly different from those observed in the control group (P < 0.01). The comet assay results demonstrated that the DNA damage rate, tail length, and tail moment of samples obtained from frogs exposed to 2.5–7.5 mg/L of cadmium solution significantly increased compared with those of samples obtained from the control group (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that cadmium can induce free radical generation, followed by lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. Ultrastructural observation revealed vacuoles in the spermatogenic cells, cell dispersion, incomplete cell structures, and deformed nucleoli. Moreover, cadmium exposure induced significant down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression and up-regulation of Bax and caspase-3 expressions. Taken together, these data indicate that cadmium can induce testicular cell apoptosis in R. limnocharis. Exploring the effects of cadmium on the mechanism of reproductive toxicity in amphibians will help provide a scientific basis accounting for the global population decline in amphibian species.

  15. Polygenic susceptibility to testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litchfield, Kevin; Mitchell, Jonathan S; Shipley, Janet;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of testicular germ cell tumour (TGCT) combined with its strong heritable basis suggests that stratified screening for the early detection of TGCT may be clinically useful. We modelled the efficiency of such a personalised screening approach, based on genetic r...

  16. Drugs Approved for Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for testicular cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  17. Chrysin alleviates testicular dysfunction in adjuvant arthritic rats via suppression of inflammation and apoptosis: Comparison with celecoxib

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darwish, Hebatallah A. [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo 11562 (Egypt); Arab, Hany H., E-mail: hany.arab@pharma.cu.edu.eg [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo 11562 (Egypt); Abdelsalam, Rania M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo 11562 (Egypt)

    2014-09-01

    Long standing rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with testicular dysfunction and subfertility. Few studies have addressed the pathogenesis of testicular injury in RA and its modulation by effective agents. Thus, the current study aimed at evaluating the effects of two testosterone boosting agents; chrysin, a natural flavone and celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, in testicular impairment in rats with adjuvant arthritis, an experimental model of RA. Chrysin (25 and 50 mg/kg) and celecoxib (5 mg/kg) were orally administered to Wistar rats once daily for 21 days starting 1 h before arthritis induction. Chrysin suppressed paw edema with comparable efficacy to celecoxib. More important, chrysin, dose-dependently and celecoxib attenuated the testicular injury via reversing lowered gonadosomatic index and histopathologic alterations with preservation of spermatogenesis. Both agents upregulated steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) mRNA expression and serum testosterone with concomitant restoration of LH and FSH. Furthermore, they suppressed inflammation via abrogation of myeloperoxidase, TNF-α and protein expression of COX-2 and iNOS besides elevation of IL-10. Alleviation of the testicular impairment was accompanied with suppression of oxidative stress via lowering testicular lipid peroxides and nitric oxide. With respect to apoptosis, both agents downregulated FasL mRNA expression and caspase-3 activity in favor of cell survival. For the first time, these findings highlight the protective effects of chrysin and celecoxib against testicular dysfunction in experimental RA which were mediated via boosting testosterone in addition to attenuation of testicular inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Generally, the 50 mg/kg dose of chrysin exerted comparable protective actions to celecoxib. - Highlights: • Chrysin and celecoxib alleviated testicular suppression in adjuvant arthritis. • They attenuated histopathological damage and preserved spermatogenesis

  18. Cadmium induces carcinogenesis in BEAS-2B cells through ROS-dependent activation of PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Young-Ok; Wang, Lei; Poyil, Pratheeshkumar; Budhraja, Amit; Hitron, J. Andrew; Zhang, Zhuo [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Lee, Jeong-Chae [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); School of Dentistry and Institute of Oral Biosciences (BK21 program), Research Center of Bioactive Materials, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Shi, Xianglin, E-mail: xshi5@email.uky.edu [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Cadmium has been widely used in industry and is known to be carcinogenic to humans. Although it is widely accepted that chronic exposure to cadmium increases the incidence of cancer, the mechanisms underlying cadmium-induced carcinogenesis are unclear. The main aim of this study was to investigate the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cadmium-induced carcinogenesis and the signal transduction pathways involved. Chronic exposure of human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells to cadmium induced cell transformation, as evidenced by anchorage-independent growth in soft agar and clonogenic assays. Chronic cadmium treatment also increased the potential of these cells to invade and migrate. Injection of cadmium-stimulated cells into nude mice resulted in the formation of tumors. In contrast, the cadmium-mediated increases in colony formation, cell invasion and migration were prevented by transfection with catalase, superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1), or SOD2. In particular, chronic cadmium exposure led to activation of signaling cascades involving PI3K, AKT, GSK-3β, and β-catenin and transfection with each of the above antioxidant enzymes markedly inhibited cadmium-mediated activation of these signaling proteins. Inhibitors specific for AKT or β-catenin almost completely suppressed the cadmium-mediated increase in total and active β-catenin proteins and colony formation. Moreover, there was a marked induction of AKT, GSK-3β, β-catenin, and carcinogenic markers in tumor tissues formed in mice after injection with cadmium-stimulated cells. Collectively, our findings suggest a direct involvement of ROS in cadmium-induced carcinogenesis and implicate a role of AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling in this process. -- Highlights: ► Chronic exposure to cadmium induces carcinogenic properties in BEAS-2B cells. ► ROS involved in cadmium-induced tumorigenicity of BEAS-2B cells. ► Cadmium activates ROS-dependent AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin-mediated signaling. ► ROS

  19. Cadmium induces carcinogenesis in BEAS-2B cells through ROS-dependent activation of PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium has been widely used in industry and is known to be carcinogenic to humans. Although it is widely accepted that chronic exposure to cadmium increases the incidence of cancer, the mechanisms underlying cadmium-induced carcinogenesis are unclear. The main aim of this study was to investigate the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cadmium-induced carcinogenesis and the signal transduction pathways involved. Chronic exposure of human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells to cadmium induced cell transformation, as evidenced by anchorage-independent growth in soft agar and clonogenic assays. Chronic cadmium treatment also increased the potential of these cells to invade and migrate. Injection of cadmium-stimulated cells into nude mice resulted in the formation of tumors. In contrast, the cadmium-mediated increases in colony formation, cell invasion and migration were prevented by transfection with catalase, superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1), or SOD2. In particular, chronic cadmium exposure led to activation of signaling cascades involving PI3K, AKT, GSK-3β, and β-catenin and transfection with each of the above antioxidant enzymes markedly inhibited cadmium-mediated activation of these signaling proteins. Inhibitors specific for AKT or β-catenin almost completely suppressed the cadmium-mediated increase in total and active β-catenin proteins and colony formation. Moreover, there was a marked induction of AKT, GSK-3β, β-catenin, and carcinogenic markers in tumor tissues formed in mice after injection with cadmium-stimulated cells. Collectively, our findings suggest a direct involvement of ROS in cadmium-induced carcinogenesis and implicate a role of AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling in this process. -- Highlights: ► Chronic exposure to cadmium induces carcinogenic properties in BEAS-2B cells. ► ROS involved in cadmium-induced tumorigenicity of BEAS-2B cells. ► Cadmium activates ROS-dependent AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin-mediated signaling. ► ROS

  20. Cadmium-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in the testes of frog Rana limnocharis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Hangjun; Cai Chenchen; Shi Cailei; Cao Hui; Han Ziliu [Department of Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Xuelin Road 16, Xiasha Gaojiao Dongqu, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, 310036 (China); Jia Xiuying, E-mail: hznujiaxiuying@126.com [Department of Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Xuelin Road 16, Xiasha Gaojiao Dongqu, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, 310036 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd can cause vacuoles and deformity of the spermatogenic cells in the frog testes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd can result in oxidative stress in the frog testes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd can induce significantly increase of ROS contents triggered DNA damages in the frog testes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd can cause apoptosis in the testes of male R. limnocharis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Apoptosis by Cd in the frog testes is related to Caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2 genes. - Abstract: This study explored the genetic damage induced by cadmium exposure in the testes of Rana limnocharis. Healthy adult frogs were exposed to 2.5, 5, 7.5, or 10 mg/L of cadmium solution for 14 days. The results showed that exposure to these concentrations increased the levels of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde content in the testes, clearly indicating a dose-effect relationship. Moreover, the same dosages of Cd{sup 2+} solution increased glutathione (reduced) content, with the values being significantly different from those observed in the control group (P < 0.01). The comet assay results demonstrated that the DNA damage rate, tail length, and tail moment of samples obtained from frogs exposed to 2.5-7.5 mg/L of cadmium solution significantly increased compared with those of samples obtained from the control group (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that cadmium can induce free radical generation, followed by lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. Ultrastructural observation revealed vacuoles in the spermatogenic cells, cell dispersion, incomplete cell structures, and deformed nucleoli. Moreover, cadmium exposure induced significant down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression and up-regulation of Bax and caspase-3 expressions. Taken together, these data indicate that cadmium can induce testicular cell apoptosis in R. limnocharis. Exploring the effects of cadmium on the mechanism of reproductive toxicity in amphibians will help provide a

  1. Impalpable Testicular Seminoma Identified on Sonoelastography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M. Ghiraldi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of sonoelastography in diagnosing cancerous masses has increased since the advent of elastography as an ultrasound modality. Its ability to display differences in the mechanical properties of cancerous masses compared to normal surrounding tissue has shown benefit in increasing the accuracy of diagnosing malignant breast and thyroid masses and has shown early potential in accomplishing better targeted prostate biopsies. To date, the literature is limited in the number of studies describing the use of sonoelastography for testicular masses. We describe a 34-year-old man who presented with an incidental finding of an impalpable hypoechoic testicular mass on grayscale ultrasound during an infertility work-up. Sonoelastography was performed displaying intermediate testicular elastic properties. Upon frozen section of the mass during surgical exploration, classic testicular seminoma was diagnosed and subsequent radical orchiectomy was performed. We would like to use this atypical presentation of testicular seminoma to review the potential role of elastography for diagnosing testicular cancer.

  2. Testicular Pain Associated With Minocycline Use

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Kucherov; William Hulbert; Guan Wu

    2015-01-01

    Two males ages 16 and 23 years presented with new testicular pain while taking minocycline. Both patients experienced resolution of their symptoms only after minocycline discontinuation. Testicular pain with minocycline use has been previously described, however only in the setting of systemic autoimmune reactions (which were absent here). These cases represent probable rare adverse reactions to minocycline. For patients taking minocycline who experience otherwise unexplained testicular pain,...

  3. Testicular Pain Associated With Minocycline Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Kucherov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Two males ages 16 and 23 years presented with new testicular pain while taking minocycline. Both patients experienced resolution of their symptoms only after minocycline discontinuation. Testicular pain with minocycline use has been previously described, however only in the setting of systemic autoimmune reactions (which were absent here. These cases represent probable rare adverse reactions to minocycline. For patients taking minocycline who experience otherwise unexplained testicular pain, a trial discontinuation of this medication should be considered.

  4. Microdissection testicular sperm extraction: an update

    OpenAIRE

    Dabaja, Ali A; Schlegel, Peter N.

    2012-01-01

    Patients with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) were once considered to be infertile with few treatment options due to the absence of sperm in the ejaculate. In the last two decades, the advent of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and the application of various testicular sperm retrieval techniques, including fine needle aspiration (FNA), conventional testicular sperm extraction (TESE) and microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) have revolutionized treatment in this gr...

  5. Testicular biopsy: clinical practice and interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Dohle, Gert R; Elzanaty, Saad; van Casteren, Niels J

    2011-01-01

    Testicular biopsy was considered the cornerstone of male infertility diagnosis for many years in men with unexplained infertility and azoospermia. Recent guidelines for male infertility have limited the indications for a diagnostic testicular biopsy to the confirmation of obstructive azoospermia in men with normal size testes and normal reproductive hormones. Nowadays, testicular biopsies are mainly performed for sperm harvesting in men with non-obstructive azoospermia, to be used for intracy...

  6. Protective role of Liv.52 against radiation and cadmium induced haematological changes in the Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aim to evaluate protective role of Liv.52 against radiation and cadmium induced haematological changes in the Swiss Albino Mice. The animals were exposed with 3.0 and 6.0 Gy of gamma rays with or without Cadmium Chloride treatment. In the drug treated groups. The liv-52 was given seven days prior to irradiation or Cadmium Chloride treatment The animals from the entire experimental group were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at post treatment intervals of 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days. The value of red blood cells (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), Haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), mean cell volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), different leucocytes counts (DLC), SGOT and SGPT were estimated. The values of RBC, WBC, Hb and PCV were found to decrease in all the groups as compared to normal group, but the decrease in these values was lesser in Liv.52 treated groups (V to VII) as compared to non-drug treated groups (II to IV). The values of MCV were also found to decrease but the difference from normal value was significant at previous intervals and it was significant on later intervals. The values of MCH increased in all the groups as compared with normal group after 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days of post-treatment intervals. The increase in the values of MCH was lesser in Liv.52 treated groups (V to VII) as compared to non-drug treated groups (II to IV). Besides this values of MCHC increased in all the groups at various intervals but the values were lower in the Liv.52 treated groups (V to VII) as compared to non-drug treated groups (II to IV). The difference from the normal was non-significant in all the groups. The values of lymphocytes declined up to day-14 in non-drug treated groups and day-7 in the Liv.52 treated groups. Similarly the values of monocytes and granulocytes percentage increased up to day-14 in the non-drug treated animals and day-7 in the drug treated animals thereafter; a

  7. Concomitant bilateral testicular epidermoid cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidermoid cyst of the testis is a rare benign germ tumor, comprising 1-2% of all resected benign testicular masses. Approximately 300 cases have been reported to date. Unilateral involvement has often been reported in the English literature. However, bilateral occurrence is very rare and to the best of our knowledge, there only 3 previous reports of bilateral testicular epidermoid cysts. The fact that they are completely benign makes them amenable to treatment by local excision, thereby saving patient from orchidectomy. Recognition of their characteristic ulatrsonographic features is very important to avoid unnecessary intervention. We present here, a case of bilateral epidermoid cyst in which characteristic ultrasound (US) findings allowed testis-sparing enucleation instead of radical orchiectomy. (author)

  8. Cadmium Induced Cell Apoptosis, DNA Damage, Decreased DNA Repair Capacity, and Genomic Instability during Malignant Transformation of Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Zhiheng; Wang, Caixia; Liu, Haibai; Huang, Qinhai; Wang, Min; Lei, Yixiong

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium and its compounds are well-known human carcinogens, but the mechanisms underlying the carcinogenesis are not entirely understood. Our study was designed to elucidate the mechanisms of DNA damage in cadmium-induced malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells. We analyzed cell cycle, apoptosis, DNA damage, gene expression, genomic instability, and the sequence of exons in DNA repair genes in several kinds of cells. These cells consisted of untreated control cells, cells...

  9. TESTICULAR CAPILLARY HEMANGIOMA: DESCRIPTION OF A CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Markova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a clinical case of testicular capillary hemangioma in a 24-year-old man undergone a partial resection of the testis with the intraoperative morphological examination. Testicular capillary hemangioma is a rare benign tumor of a vascular origin, which can be similar to malignant testicular tumors on the clinical presentation, as well as on the imaging methods, in particular to seminoma. The intraoperative histological study can assist in avoiding organ-removing surgical interventions in diagnostically ambiguous cases if a benign testicular tumor is diagnosed.

  10. Molecular responses during cadmium-induced stress in Daphnia magna: Integration of differential gene expression with higher-level effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DNA microarrays offer great potential in revealing insight into mechanistic toxicity of contaminants. The aim of the present study was (i) to gain insight in concentration- and time-dependent cadmium-induced molecular responses by using a customized Daphnia magna microarray, and (ii) to compare the gene expression profiles with effects at higher levels of biological organization (e.g. total energy budget and growth). Daphnids were exposed to three cadmium concentrations (nominal value of 10, 50, 100 μg/l) for two time intervals (48 and 96 h). In general, dynamic expression patterns were obtained with a clear increase of gene expression changes at higher concentrations and longer exposure duration. Microarray analysis revealed cadmium affected molecular pathways associated with processes such as digestion, oxygen transport, cuticula metabolism and embryo development. These effects were compared with higher-level effects (energy budgets and growth). For instance, next to reduced energy budgets due to a decline in lipid, carbohydrate and protein content, we found an up-regulated expression of genes related to digestive processes (e.g. α-esterase, cellulase, α-amylase). Furthermore, cadmium affected the expression of genes coding for proteins involved in molecular pathways associated with immune response, stress response, cell adhesion, visual perception and signal transduction in the present study

  11. Protective efficacy of Emblica officinalis Linn. against radiation and cadmium induced biochemical alterations in the liver of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All organisms living on earth are being perpetually exposed to some amount of radiation originating from a variety of sources. Radiation causes deleterious effects in all forms of life due to increasing utilization and production of modern technology, a simultaneous exposure of organisms to heavy metals is also unavoidable. These heavy metals become toxic when present in large quantities, with increasing the industrial revolution and industrial waste, the emission of cadmium has increased into the environment. Thus concomitant exposure to cadmium chloride and ionizing radiation might produce deleterious effect upon biological system. The total environmental burden of toxicants may have greater effect as against their individual impact as expected by their nature. So interaction between radiation and other toxicants represents a field of great potential importance. In the recent years, immense interest has been developed in the field of chemoprotection against radiation and heavy metals induced changes. In view of the potential for practical application, a variety of compounds are being tested for their radioprotective activities. Among these, Emblica holds a great promise. In light of the above, the present study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of Emblica against radiation and cadmium induced biochemical alterations in the liver of Swiss albino mice. The animals were exposed to 6.0 Gy of gamma rays with or without cadmium chloride treatment. The Emblica was administered seven days prior to irradiation or cadmium chloride treatment

  12. Protective role of Liv.52 against radiation and cadmium induce haematological changes in the Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present investigation, the protective efficacy of Liv.52 against radiation and cadmium induced haematological changes in Swiss albino mice has been studied. For the purpose, the animals were exposed to 3.0 and 6.0 Gy gamma rays with or without cadmium chloride treatment. The Liv.52 was administered at the dose of 0.01 ml/animal/day seven days prior to radiation, cadmium or combined treatment. The various haematological changes viz. RBC, WBC, Hb, PCV, MCR, MCHC, TLC, SGPT and SGOT were observed in the form of increase or decrease. The values of RBC, WBC, Hb, PCV and MCV were found to decrease in all the groups as compared to normal group. The values of MCR and MCHC increased in all the groups as compared to normal group after 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days of post-treatment intervals. The values of SGOT and SGPT elevated up to day-14 in the non drug treated groups and day 7 in the Liv.52 treated groups, thereafter a fall in the value was seen up to day-28. After combined treatment of radiation and cadmium the changes were more severe and there was late manifestation of recovery showing synergistic or additive effect. In the Liv.52 treated animals the changes were less severe and early recovery was also observed showing protection provided by the drug. (author)

  13. Protective efficacy of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced haematological changes in the Swiss Albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced haematological changes in the Swiss albino mice; 6-8 weeks old animals from each of the experimental groups were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at each post treatment intervals of 1,2,4,7,14 and 28 day. After sacrificing the animals, the blood was collected by cardiac puncture in heparinized tubes for various haematological studies. The values of RBC, WBC, Haemoglobin and PCV were found to decrease up to day-14 in non drug treated groups (II,III and IV), thereafter they increased on day-28. Whereas the values decreased upto day-7 in Aloe vera treated groups (V,VI,VlI) thereafter increased tip to day-28. On the other hand, the value of MCV increased upto day- 14 in non-drug treated groups (II, III, IV) and tip to day-7 in drug treated groups (V, VI, VII), thereafter it decreased tip to day-28. After combined treatment of radiation and cadmium chloride synergistic effects were observed. The Aloe vera treated animals exhibited less severe damage as compared to non-drug treated animals at all the corresponding intervals. An early and fast recovery was noticed in Aloe vera pretreated animals. Thus, it appears that Aloe vera is potent enough to check cadmium and radiation induced haematological changes in the Swiss albino mice. (author)

  14. Intra-Abdominal Testicular Seminoma in a Woman with Testicular Feminization Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshana D. Rasalkar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of intra-abdominal testicular tumor in a 36-year-old married lady presenting with chief complaints of primary amenorrhea. The patient was later diagnosed with testicular feminization syndrome, a form of male pseudohermaphroditism. This testicular tumor was histologically proven as seminoma. Due to rarity, imaging findings in patients with testicular feminization syndrome and intraabdominal testicular tumor have been poorly documented. So far, only one case report had described the combined role of CT and MR imaging in intraabdominal testicular sex-cord stromal tumor. To our knowledge, this case is first to document USG and MR imaging in addition to MR spectroscopy features in intraabdominal testicular seminoma.

  15. Phthalate excretion pattern and testicular function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Ulla Nordström; Frederiksen, Hanne; Jensen, Martin Blomberg; Lauritsen, Mette Petri; Olesen, Inge Ahlmann; Lassen, Tina Harmer; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Jørgensen, Niels

    2012-01-01

    In animals, some phthalates impair male reproductive development and function. Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent evidence of associations between phthalates and markers of human testicular function.......In animals, some phthalates impair male reproductive development and function. Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent evidence of associations between phthalates and markers of human testicular function....

  16. Angiography of the testicular artery. IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnification angiography of the testis with selective injection into the testicular artery has been performed in patients with different lesions in the scrotum, either real or suggested. Characteristic angiographic appearances were found in epididymitis, testicular torsion, tumor, hematoma and hydrocele. (Auth.)

  17. Primary testicular lymphoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Demir

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary testicular lymphomas are rare malignancy. We discussed the patient who had referred with mass into left testis at 73 years old diagnosis as diffuse large B-cell testicular lymphoma. Systemic chemotherapy (R-CHOP was given to the patient. Prophylactic radiotherapy was performed for the contralateral testis and central nervous system. Complete remission was achieved in the patient.

  18. What Are the Risk Factors for Testicular Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Do we know what causes testicular cancer? Can testicular cancer be prevented? Previous Topic What are the key statistics about ... 2016 Back to top » Guide Topics What Is Testicular Cancer? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Testicular Cancer ...

  19. From gonocytes to testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajpert-de Meyts, Ewa; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E

    2007-01-01

    , which demonstrated a close similarity of CIS to primordial germ cells and gonocytes with many features of embryonic stem cells. The arrest of germ-cell differentiation is thus the key first event, which may be followed by malignant transformation and overt germ-cell cancer in young adult age, usually......Testicular germ-cell tumors occur primarily in young individuals, and the tumors in this age group (seminomas or nonseminomas) are derived from a preinvasive precursor cell called carcinoma in situ (CIS) or intratubular germ-cell neoplasia. These tumors have been a growing problem, especially in...

  20. Cadmium-induced glutathionylation of actin occurs through a ROS-independent mechanism: Implications for cytoskeletal integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium disrupts the actin cytoskeleton in rat mesangial cells, and we have previously shown that this involves a complex interplay involving activation of kinase signaling, protein translocation, and disruption of focal adhesions. Here we investigate the role that glutathionylation of actin plays in Cd2+-associated cytoskeletal reorganization. Low concentrations of Cd2+ (0.5–2 μM) caused an increase in actin glutathionylation by 6 h, whereas at higher concentrations glutathionylation remained at basal levels. Although oxidation with diamide increased glutathionylation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were not involved in the Cd2+-dependent effect, as only Cd2+ concentrations above 2 μM were sufficient to increase ROS. However, low [Cd2+] increased total glutathione levels without affecting the ratio of reduced/oxidized glutathione, and inhibition of glutathione synthesis suppressed actin glutathionylation. Cadmium increased the activity of the enzyme glutaredoxin, which influences the equilibrium between glutathionylated and deglutathionylated proteins and thus may influence levels of glutathionylated actin. Together these observations show that cadmium-dependent effects on actin glutathionylation are affected by glutathione metabolism and not by direct effects of ROS on thiol chemistry. In vitro polymerization assays with glutathionylated actin show a decreased rate of polymerization. In contrast, immunofluorescence of cytoskeletal structure in intact cells suggests that increases in actin glutathionylation accompanying increased glutathione levels occurring under low Cd2+ exposure are protective in vivo, with cytoskeletal disruption ensuing only when higher Cd2+ concentrations increase ROS levels and prevent an increase in actin–glutathione conjugates. - Highlights: • Cadmium disrupts the actin cytoskeleton in mesangial cells. • Cadmium induces glutathionylation of actin at low concentrations. • Glutathionylation requires glutathione synthesis but is

  1. Cadmium-induced glutathionylation of actin occurs through a ROS-independent mechanism: Implications for cytoskeletal integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choong, Grace; Liu, Ying; Xiao, Weiqun; Templeton, Douglas M., E-mail: doug.templeton@utoronto.ca

    2013-10-15

    Cadmium disrupts the actin cytoskeleton in rat mesangial cells, and we have previously shown that this involves a complex interplay involving activation of kinase signaling, protein translocation, and disruption of focal adhesions. Here we investigate the role that glutathionylation of actin plays in Cd{sup 2+}-associated cytoskeletal reorganization. Low concentrations of Cd{sup 2+} (0.5–2 μM) caused an increase in actin glutathionylation by 6 h, whereas at higher concentrations glutathionylation remained at basal levels. Although oxidation with diamide increased glutathionylation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were not involved in the Cd{sup 2+}-dependent effect, as only Cd{sup 2+} concentrations above 2 μM were sufficient to increase ROS. However, low [Cd{sup 2+}] increased total glutathione levels without affecting the ratio of reduced/oxidized glutathione, and inhibition of glutathione synthesis suppressed actin glutathionylation. Cadmium increased the activity of the enzyme glutaredoxin, which influences the equilibrium between glutathionylated and deglutathionylated proteins and thus may influence levels of glutathionylated actin. Together these observations show that cadmium-dependent effects on actin glutathionylation are affected by glutathione metabolism and not by direct effects of ROS on thiol chemistry. In vitro polymerization assays with glutathionylated actin show a decreased rate of polymerization. In contrast, immunofluorescence of cytoskeletal structure in intact cells suggests that increases in actin glutathionylation accompanying increased glutathione levels occurring under low Cd{sup 2+} exposure are protective in vivo, with cytoskeletal disruption ensuing only when higher Cd{sup 2+} concentrations increase ROS levels and prevent an increase in actin–glutathione conjugates. - Highlights: • Cadmium disrupts the actin cytoskeleton in mesangial cells. • Cadmium induces glutathionylation of actin at low concentrations.

  2. Cadmium-induced ultramorphological and physiological changes in leaves of two transgenic cotton cultivars and their wild relative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daud, M.K. [Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Kohat University of Science and Technology (KUST), Kohat 26000 (Pakistan); Variath, M.T.; Ali, Shafaqat; Najeeb, U. [Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Jamil, Muhammad [Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Kohat University of Science and Technology (KUST), Kohat 26000 (Pakistan); Hayat, Y. [Institute of Bioinformatics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Dawood, M. [Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Khan, Muhammad Imran [Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Environment and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Zaffar, M. [Department of Soil Science, College of Environment and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Cheema, Sardar Alam [Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Environment and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Tong, X.H. [Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Zhu Shuijin, E-mail: shjzhu@zju.edu.cn [Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)

    2009-09-15

    The present study describes cadmium-induced alterations in the leaves as well as at the whole plant level in two transgenic cotton cultivars (BR001 and GK30) and their wild relative (Coker 312) using both ultramorphological and physiological indices. With elevated levels of Cd (i.e. 10, 100, 1000 {mu}M), the mean lengths of root, stem and leaf and leaf width as well as their fresh and dry biomasses linearly decreased over their respective controls. Moreover, root, stem and leaf water absorption capacities progressively stimulated, which were high in leaves followed by roots and stems. BR001 accumulated more cadmium followed by GK30 and Coker 312. Root and shoot cadmium uptakes were significantly and directly correlated with each other as well as with leaf, stem and root water absorption capacities. The ultrastructural modifications in leaf mesophyll cells were triggered with increase in Cd stress regime. They were more obvious in BR001 followed by GK30 and Coker 312. Changes in morphology of chloroplast, increase in number and size of starch grains as well as increase in number of plastoglobuli were the noticed qualitative effects of Cd on photosynthetic organ. Cd in the form of electron dense granules could be seen inside the vacuoles and attached to the cell walls in all these cultivars. From the present experiment, it can be well established that both apoplastic and symplastic bindings are involved in Cd detoxification in these cultivars. Absence of tonoplast invagination reveals that Cd toxic levels did not cause water stress in any cultivars. Additionally, these cultivars possess differential capabilities towards Cd accumulation and its sequestration.

  3. G9a-mediated histone methylation regulates cadmium-induced male fertility damage in pubertal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Liu, Chuan; Yang, Lingling; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Chunhai; He, Mindi; Lu, Yonghui; Feng, Wei; Pi, Huifeng; Zhang, Yanwen; Zhong, Min; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Zhou

    2016-06-11

    Increasing evidence suggests that cadmium (Cd) is associated with male fertility damage. However, the effects of histone modification on Cd-induced male fertility damage remain obscure. This study aims to evaluate the roles of histone methylation mediated by euchromatin histone methyltransferase (EHMT2/G9a) in regulating Cd-induced male fertility damage. We exposed 4-week-old male C57BL/6J mice to Cd by intraperitoneal injection at 2mg/kg for 1, 3 and 5days. Our data showed that Cd exposure decreased the numbers of impregnated females and litter sizes, which was concomitant with sperm count reduction, histological changes in the cauda epididymal ducts and seminiferous epithelium, and testicular cell apoptosis as evaluated by terminal dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay and immunoblotting with increased levels of cleaved caspase 3, PARP and Bax and a decreased level of Bcl-2. Cd-induced male fertility damage was accompanied by enhanced G9a activity followed by increased histone H3 lysine 9 monomethylation (H3K9me1) and dimethylation (H3K9me2) in testes. Furthermore, inhibition of G9a by BIX-01294 normalized H3K9me1 and H3K9me2 to basal levels and prevented Cd-induced male fertility damage and testicular cell apoptosis. Our present study revealed that G9a-mediated histone methylation plays a critical role in Cd-induced male fertility damage and testicular cell apoptosis. PMID:27060504

  4. [Fertility in testicular cancer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Takeshi; Miyata, Akane; Arai, Gaku; Okada, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    Testicular cancer(TC)is the most common and curable cancer affecting men of reproductive age. Successful treatment approaches have resulted in longer life expectancy in TC survivors. The most frequently used treatment for TC is a combination of inguinal orchiectomy, and either radiotherapy or cisplatin-based chemotherapy. In many TC patients, sperm quality is already abnormal and there may even be a lack of viable spermatozoa at the time of diagnosis. Therefore, the effect of cancer treatment on fertility is a potentially significant issue. Fertility preservation in these men has become essential and needs to be discussed prior to the start of cancer treatment. The only currently established fertility preservation method is the cryopreservation of sperm before therapy. For most patients seeking cryopreservation, the semen sample is collected via masturbation. If the patient is unable to ejaculate for any reason, other techniques such as vibratory stimulation and electroejaculation can be performed. In azoospermic or severely oligozoospermic patients, testicular sperm extraction at the time of the inguinal orchiectomy is a useful technique for obtaining spermatozoa before cytotoxic therapy. We herein present an overview of the current topics on fertility in TC patients, including the effects of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. We also describe the strategy for fertility preservation in these patients. PMID:25812494

  5. [Verification of testicular cancer guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonomura, Norio; Azuma, Haruhito

    2012-12-01

    Testicular cancer is a rare disease that affects 1-2 in 100,000 people in Japan ; however, it is a very significant disease in that it has a high prevalence amongst young adults aged in their 20s and 30s and it brings about metastasis from a relatively early stage. The 2009 edition of the Testicular Cancer Clinical Practice Guidelines sets out a detailed summary of 32 clinical questions (CQ) considered necessary in routine clinical practice across the fields of epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, etc, in the form of recommendations and commentary. These CQs are considered extremely important in understanding the foundation of future testicular cancer treatment guidelines. In this symposium, five doctors gave lectures consisting of the following contents in which they validated the guidelines and gave concrete clinical practice examples through cases they had experienced themselves with regards to the treatment strategies for (1) stage I patients, (2) patients with advanced cancer and (3) patients with extragonadal germ cell tumors. (1) Stage I patients : In seminoma cases, the doctors focused on the relapse prevention effect provided by single-agent carboplatin adjuvant chemotherapy. In non-seminoma cases, treatment options were considered according to risk based on the presence or absence of vascular invasion, a prognostic factor. (2) Patients with advanced cancer : 30% of testicular cancers are metastatic and progress to advanced cancer. In refractory cases resistant to bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin therapy, etoposide ifosfamide, and cisplatin therapy and vinblastine, ifosfamide and cisplatin therapy have been used, but without satisfactory results and the development of new salvage chemotherapy is an important issue. The therapeutic strategies against advanced testicular cancer were narrowed down to (2) -1) therapeutic effects from ultra-high-dose chemotherapy, (2) -2) salvage chemotherapy in cases where residual tumors are observed in induction

  6. Testicular cancer: addressing the psychosexual issues.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moore, Annamarie

    2012-01-31

    Testicular cancer is the most common malignancy in men aged 15-35 years and predominantly occurs at a time in a man\\'s life when important decisions about marriage, starting a family and a professional career are being made. While treatments for testicular cancer are very successful, they can have a major impact on the person\\'s sexuality and sense of self. The focus of this article is on exploring the impact of cancer treatments for testicular cancer on men\\'s sexuality and how nurses can respond to their concerns in a sensitive and informed manner.

  7. Educating young men about testicular cancer: support for a comprehensive testicular cancer campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanzer, Melissa Bekelja; Foster, S Catherine; Servoss, Timothy; LaBelle, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of testicular cancer among men 15-39 years of age, little has been done to increase awareness of this disease or educate males about its prevention. To fill this gap, the Standard Model of Health Communication was incorporated to design and implement a comprehensive testicular cancer campaign among male college students. To test the effectiveness of these messages, college students (N = 220) completed measures before and after the campaign. In addition, the authors obtained a control group of male college students (N = 52) who were not exposed to the messages. Survey items assessed awareness of testicular cancer and behaviors related to testicular cancer. Participants' knowledge of testicular cancer and likelihood of conducting a testicular self-exam increased significantly after being exposed to the campaign information. Men who were exposed to testicular cancer messages were more knowledgeable about testicular cancer and were more likely to conduct testicular self-examinations than were men in the control group. PMID:24117344

  8. Treatment Options by Stage (Testicular Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and nonseminomas . These 2 types grow and spread differently and are treated differently. Nonseminomas tend to grow and spread more quickly ... trials is available from the NCI website . To Learn More About Testicular Cancer For more information from ...

  9. Cadmium-induced apoptosis and necrosis in human osteoblasts: role of caspases and mitogen-activated protein kinases pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brama, M; Politi, L; Santini, P; Migliaccio, S; Scandurra, R

    2012-02-01

    Cadmium is a widespread environmental pollutant which induces severe toxic alterations, including osteomalacia and osteoporosis, likely by estrogen receptor-dependent mechanisms. Indeed, cadmium has been described to act as an endocrine disruptor and its toxicity is exerted both in vivo and in vitro through induction of apoptosis and/or necrosis by not fully clarified intracellular mechanism(s) of action. Aim of the present study was to further investigate the molecular mechanism by which cadmium might alter homeostasis of estrogen target cells, such as osteoblast homeostasis, inducing cell apoptosis and/or necrosis. Human osteoblastic cells (hFOB 1.19) in culture were used as an in vitro model to characterize the intracellular mechanisms induced by this heavy metal. Cells were incubated in the presence/ absence of 10-50 μM cadmium chloride at different times and DNA fragmentation and activation of procaspases- 8 and -3 were induced upon CdCl(2) treatment triggering apoptotic and necrotic pathways. Addition of caspase-8 and -3 inhibitors (Z-IETD-FMK and Z-DQMD-FMK) partially blocked these effects. No activation of procaspase-9 was observed. To determine the role of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) in these events, we investigated c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2) phosphorylation which were activated by 10 μM CdCl(2). Chemical inhibitors of JNK, p38, and ERK1/2, SP600125, SB202190, and PD98059, significantly reduced the phosphorylation of the kinases and blunted apoptosis. In contrast, caspase inhibitors did not reduce the cadmium-induced MAPK phosphorylation, suggesting an independent activation of these pathways. In conclusion, at least 2 pathways appear activated by cadmium in osteoblasts: a direct induction of caspase-8 followed by activation of caspase-3 and an indirect induction by phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38, and JNK MAPK triggering activation of caspase-8 and -3. PMID:21697648

  10. Modulation of cadmium-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and volume changes by temperature in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onukwufor, John O. [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE, Canada C1A 4P3 (Canada); Kibenge, Fred [Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE, Canada C1A 4P3 (Canada); Stevens, Don [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE, Canada C1A 4P3 (Canada); Kamunde, Collins, E-mail: ckamunde@upei.ca [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE, Canada C1A 4P3 (Canada)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Interactions of Cd and temperature exacerbate mitochondrial dysfunction and enhance Cd accumulation. • Cd uptake by mitochondria occurs through the Ca uniporter. • Temperature exacerbates Cd-induced mitochondrial volume changes. • Low concentrations of Cd inhibit mitochondrial swelling. - Abstract: We investigated how temperature modulates cadmium (Cd)-induced mitochondrial bioenergetic disturbances, metal accumulation and volume changes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In the first set of experiments, rainbow trout liver mitochondrial function and Cd content were measured in the presence of complex I substrates, malate and glutamate, following exposure to Cd (0–100 μM) at three (5, 13 and 25 °C) temperatures. The second set of experiments assessed the effect of temperature on Cd-induced mitochondrial volume changes, including the underlying mechanisms, at 15 and 25 °C. Although temperature stimulated both state 3 and 4 rates of respiration, the coupling efficiency was reduced at temperature extremes due to greater inhibition of state 3 at low temperature and greater stimulation of state 4 at the high temperature. Cadmium exposure reduced the stimulatory effect of temperature on state 3 respiration but increased that on state 4, consequently exacerbating mitochondrial uncoupling. The interaction of Cd and temperature yielded different responses on thermal sensitivity of state 3 and 4 respiration; the Q{sub 10} values for state 3 respiration increased at low temperature (5–13 °C) while those for state 4 increased at high temperature (13–25 °C). Importantly, the mitochondria accumulated more Cd at high temperature suggesting that the observed greater impairment of oxidative phosphorylation with temperature was due, at least in part, to a higher metal burden. Cadmium-induced mitochondrial volume changes were characterized by an early phase of contraction followed by swelling, with temperature changing the kinetics and

  11. Modulation of cadmium-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and volume changes by temperature in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Interactions of Cd and temperature exacerbate mitochondrial dysfunction and enhance Cd accumulation. • Cd uptake by mitochondria occurs through the Ca uniporter. • Temperature exacerbates Cd-induced mitochondrial volume changes. • Low concentrations of Cd inhibit mitochondrial swelling. - Abstract: We investigated how temperature modulates cadmium (Cd)-induced mitochondrial bioenergetic disturbances, metal accumulation and volume changes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In the first set of experiments, rainbow trout liver mitochondrial function and Cd content were measured in the presence of complex I substrates, malate and glutamate, following exposure to Cd (0–100 μM) at three (5, 13 and 25 °C) temperatures. The second set of experiments assessed the effect of temperature on Cd-induced mitochondrial volume changes, including the underlying mechanisms, at 15 and 25 °C. Although temperature stimulated both state 3 and 4 rates of respiration, the coupling efficiency was reduced at temperature extremes due to greater inhibition of state 3 at low temperature and greater stimulation of state 4 at the high temperature. Cadmium exposure reduced the stimulatory effect of temperature on state 3 respiration but increased that on state 4, consequently exacerbating mitochondrial uncoupling. The interaction of Cd and temperature yielded different responses on thermal sensitivity of state 3 and 4 respiration; the Q10 values for state 3 respiration increased at low temperature (5–13 °C) while those for state 4 increased at high temperature (13–25 °C). Importantly, the mitochondria accumulated more Cd at high temperature suggesting that the observed greater impairment of oxidative phosphorylation with temperature was due, at least in part, to a higher metal burden. Cadmium-induced mitochondrial volume changes were characterized by an early phase of contraction followed by swelling, with temperature changing the kinetics and intensifying the

  12. Protective efficacy of Emblica officinalis Linn. against radiation and cadmium induced biochemical alterations in the brain of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major problems faced in the modern world today is that of pollution caused due to radioactive material and emission of gamma radiation from various sources either in terms of background radiation sources, accidental leak from nuclear reactors or intentional convert attack by terrorists to achieve the malefic goals. In view of such perceived risks and threats associated with plausible radiological and nuclear incidents. It is pertained to develop potential drugs for the mitigation of deleterious effects of ionizing radiation and heavy metals. In recent years, immense interest has been developed in the field of chemoprotection against radiation and heavy metal induced changes. In light of above the present study was aimed to evaluate the protective efficacy of Emblica officinalis against Radiation and cadmium induced biochemical alteration in the Brain of Swiss Albino mice. The animals were exposed to 3.0 Gy of gamma rays with or without cadmium chloride treatment. The Emblica extract was administered seven days prior to irradiation or cadmium chloride treatment. The animals from all the experimental groups were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at each post-treatment interval of 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days. After sacrificing the animals, mid brains (cerebral hemisphere) were taken out and kept at -20 deg C for different biochemical parameters. It was The values of total proteins, cholesterol and DNA decreased up to day-14 in non drug treated groups and day-7 in the Emblica treated groups thereafter it increased on day-28, whereas the value of glycogen, Acid phosphatase activity, Alkaline phosphatase activity and RNA increased up to day-14 in non drug treated groups and day-7 in drug treated groups, thereafter it decreased on day-28 in all the groups. In the combined treatment groups the biochemical changes were more prominent showing synergistic or additive effect. In the Emblica pretreated animals the changes were less severe and an early and fast

  13. Cetuximab intensifies cisplatin-induced testicular toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Mattan; Popovtzer, Aron; Tzabari, Moran; Mizrachi, Aviram; Savion, Naphtali; Stemmer, Salomon M; Shalgi, Ruth; Ben-Aharon, Irit

    2016-07-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has proliferative properties in the testis. Cetuximab, an anti-EGFR, is administered together with chemotherapy to patients with various types of cancer. This studies aim was to investigate the effect of cetuximab on testicular function. Adult male mice were injected with cetuximab (10 mg/kg), cisplatin (8 mg/kg) or a combination of both, and killed one week or one month later. The doses were chosen by human equivalent dose calculation. Testicular function was evaluated by epididymal-spermatozoa total motile count and sperm motility, weights of testes and epididymides, and the level of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in the serum. Immunohistochemistry was performed to examine germ cell proliferation (Ki-67), apoptosis (Terminal transferase-mediated deoxyuridine 5-triphosphate nick-end labelling), reserve (DAZL-Deleted in azoospermia-like, Promyelocytic leukaemia zinc-finger), blood vessels (CD34) and Sertoli cells (GATA-4). Administration of cetuximab alone increased testicular apoptosis and decreased epididymal-spermatozoa total motile count over time. When added to cisplatin, cetuximab exacerbated most of the recorded testicular parameters, compared with the effect of cisplatin alone, including testis and epididymis weights, epididymal-spermatozoa total motile count, AMH concentration, meiosis and apoptosis. In conclusion, cetuximab has only a mild effect on testicular reserve, but when added to cisplatin, it exacerbates cisplatin-induced testicular toxicity. PMID:27184186

  14. Occupational Causes of Testicular Cancer in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Fritschi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Testicular cancer is one of the commonest cancers in men of working age, and is increasing in incidence in Europe and North America. One suggested mechanism of causation is that there is impaired differentiation of germ cells in the pre- or perinatal period, followed by malignant transformation in later life, possibly by a hormonal mechanism. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs have been a major focus of interest for etiological research into testicular cancer because they interact with various hormonal pathways. Several EDCs including bisphenol A, phthalates, metals, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorines have been investigated, but there are few studies and those that exist have not been able to assess exposure well. In addition, several studies, particularly those with better exposure assessment, have suggested that workers in electrical occupations have increased risks of testicular cancer. Electromagnetic radiation may have subthermal effects or may disrupt hormone release. Chronodisruption such as due to shift-work could potentially increase the risk of testicular cancer via disruption of hormonal cycles, but only one study has so far investigated this possibility. Lastly, solvent exposure, particularly to dimethylformamide, has been suggested to be associated with testicular cancer, but almost all these studies are based on job title only, with no specific assessment of solvent exposure. In conclusion, there is little evidence available on which to base definitive statements about occupational causes of testicular cancer. Future studies need to improve exposure assessment and develop ways to adjust for possible prenatal factors.

  15. Dexrazoxane exacerbates doxorubicin-induced testicular toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Mattan; Tzabari, Moran; Savion, Naphtali; Stemmer, Salomon M; Shalgi, Ruth; Ben-Aharon, Irit

    2015-10-01

    Infertility induced by anti-cancer treatments pose a major concern for cancer survivors. Doxorubicin (DXR) has been previously shown to exert toxic effects on the testicular germinal epithelium. Based upon the cardioprotective traits of dexrazoxane (DEX), we studied its potential effect in reducing DXR-induced testicular toxicity. Male mice were injected with 5  mg/kg DXR, 100  mg/kg DEX, combination of both or saline (control) and sacrificed either 1, 3 or 6 months later. Testes were excised and further processed. Glutathione and apoptosis assays were performed to determine oxidative stress. Immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy were used to study the effects of the drugs on testicular histology and on spermatogonial reserve. DXR and the combined treatment induced a striking decline in testicular weight. DEX prevented DXR-induced oxidative stress, but enhanced DXR-induced apoptosis within the testes. Furthermore, the combined treatment depleted the spermatogonial reserve after 1 month, with impaired recovery at 3 and 6 months post-treatment. This resulted in compromised sperm parameters, testicular and epididymal weights as well as significantly reduced sperm motility, all of which were more severe than those observed in DXR-treated mice. The activity of DEX in the testis may differ from its activity in cardiomyocytes. Adding DEX to DXR exacerbates DXR-induced testicular toxicity. PMID:26329125

  16. [Epidemiology and risk factors of testicular tumours].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowski, Piotr; Starosławska, Elżbieta; Szumiło, Justyna; Jankiewicz, Małgorzata; Kozłowska, Magdalena; Burdan, Franciszek

    2016-04-01

    Testicular tumours are rare neoplasms, which most commonly affects men aged 25 to 35 years. Among young adult males it is the most common cause of testicular swelling. In recent decades, the number of cases of testicular tumours has greatly increased. The most significant predisposing factors are cryptorchidism and some endocrine disorders, especially increased levels of gonadotropins and female sex hormones. Testicular trauma, inguinal hernia, extreme values of body mass index (BMI), high-calorie diet rich in dairy products as well as high social status are also regarded as risk factors. Furthermore, some chromosomal abnormalities like increased number of chromosomes 7, 8. 12, 21 and X, loss of chromosomes 4, 5, 11, 13, 18, or Y, mutation in the gene Xq27; as well as multiplied copy of the gene i(12p) are associated with tumor development. It has been proven that high testosterone levels and regular physical activity may prevent testicular tumours. Since one of the first sign the lesion is often a lump or swelling of the testis and the appearance of abnormal structure in the scrotum routine testicular self-examination seems to be important in early detection. In all suspected cases an immediate ultrasound examination of both testicles is highly recommended. It is also advised to conduct a computerized tomography (CT) and a positron emission tomography (PET) scan for staging of the tumor to select the best mode of treatment. PMID:27137819

  17. Some bioactive potentials of two biflavanols isolated from Garcinia kola on cadmium-induced alterations of raw U937 cells and U937-derived macrophages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tebekeme Okoko; Diepreye Ere

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the abilities of two flavonoids - Garcinia biflavanol-1 (GB-1) and Garcinia biflavanol-2 (GB-2) from Garcinia kola (G. kola) in reducing cadmium-induced effects on raw U937 cells and U937-derived macrophages. Methods: Macrophage U937 cells were incubated with cadmium followed by treatment with the flavonoids and cell viability assessed via trypan blue staining. In the other experiment, the U937 cells were transformed to the macrophage form and treated with cadmium in order to activate them. The cells were later incubated with the flavonoids and finally the supernatant of each cell culture was analysed for the secretion of nitric oxide, catalyse activity, and the release of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 and interleukin-2 as indices of macrophage activation. Quercetin (a flavonol) was used as the reference flavonoid in all experiments. Results: It revealed that the flavonoids significantly increased the viability of the cells and also reduced the cadmium-induced activation of the macrophage cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The flavanols GB-1 and GB-2 possessed higher activities than quercetin in all cases (P<0.05). Garcinia biflavanol-2 possessed a higher bioactivity than GB-1 significantly (P<0.05). Conclusions: In addition to corroborating the several reported importance of G. kola as a potential neutraceutical and pharmacological condiment, the study also clearly indicates the role hydroxylation especially at the 3´- position of polyphenols could play in enhancing bioactivities of flavonoids.

  18. Prepubertal exposure to genistein alleviates di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate induced testicular oxidative stress in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lian-Dong; Li, He-Cheng; Chong, Tie; Gao, Ming; Yin, Jian; Fu, De-Lai; Deng, Qian; Wang, Zi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is the most widely used plastizer in the world and can suppress testosterone production via activation of oxidative stress. Genistein (GEN) is one of the isoflavones ingredients exhibiting weak estrogenic and potentially antioxidative effects. However, study on reproductive effects following prepubertal multiple endocrine disrupters exposure has been lacking. In this study, DEHP and GEN were administrated to prepubertal male Sprague-Dawley rats by gavage from postnatal day 22 (PND22) to PND35 with vehicle control, GEN at 50 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day (G), DEHP at 50, 150, 450 mg/kg bw/day (D50, D150, D450) and their mixture (G + D50, G + D150, G + D450). On PND90, general morphometry (body weight, AGD, organ weight, and organ coefficient), testicular redox state, and testicular histology were studied. Our results indicated that DEHP could significantly decrease sex organs weight, organ coefficient, and testicular antioxidative ability, which largely depended on the dose of DEHP. However, coadministration of GEN could partially alleviate DEHP-induced reproductive injuries via enhancement of testicular antioxidative enzymes activities, which indicates that GEN has protective effects on DEHP-induced male reproductive system damage after prepubertal exposure and GEN may have promising future in its curative antioxidative role for reproductive disorders caused by other environmental endocrine disruptors. PMID:25530965

  19. Testicular cancer trends as 'whistle blowers' of testicular developmental problems in populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skakkebaek, N E; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Jørgensen, N; Main, K M; Leffers, H; Andersson, A-M; Juul, A; Jensen, T K; Toppari, J

    2007-01-01

    Recently a worldwide rise in the incidence of testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC) has been repeatedly reported. The changing disease pattern may signal that other testicular problems may also be increasing. We have reviewed recent research progress, in particular evidence gathered in the Nordic...... countries, which shows strong associations between testicular cancer, undescended testis, hypospadias, poor testicular development and function, and male infertility. These studies have led us to suggest the existence of a testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS), of which TGCC, undescended testis, hypospadias...... trends in TGCC rates of a population may be 'whistle blowers' of other reproductive health problems. As cancer registries are often of excellent quality - in contrast to registries for congenital abnormalities - health authorities should consider an increase in TGCC as a warning that other reproductive...

  20. Public awareness of testicular cancer and testicular self-examination in academic environments: a lost opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry A. A. Ugboma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although testicular cancer is the most common cancer among 18- to 50-year-old males, healthcare providers seldom teach testicular self-examination techniques to clients, thus potentially missing opportunities for early detection. This form of cancer is easily diagnosable by testicular self-examination and is 96% curable if detected early. Periodic self-examination must be performed for early detection. Knowledge deficits and sociocultural norms contribute to low levels of health-related knowledge in most patients, resulting in undue delays before seeking medical advice. OBJECTIVE: Our aim is to assess the level of awareness of testicular cancer and the prevalence of the practice of testicular self-examination in academic environments to enable appropriate interventions. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey was administered to 750 consecutive males aged 18-50 years in three tertiary institutions in Port Harcourt from October 2008 to April 2009. RESULT: Knowledge or awareness of testicular cancer was poor. Almost all of the respondents were unaware that testicular lumps may be signs of cancer. A lump was typically construed as a benign carbuncle or something that could resolve spontaneously. The main factor contributing to respondents' lack of knowledge of testicular cancer was that few reported that they were "ever taught about testicular self-examination." CONCLUSION: Young adult men are unaware of their risk for testicular cancer, which is the most common neoplasm in this age group. Healthcare providers are not informing them of this risk, nor are they teaching them the simple early detection technique of self-examination of the testes.

  1. Relationship between testicular volume and testicular function: comparison of the Prader orchidometric and ultrasonographic measurements in patients with infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hideo Sakamoto; Yoshio Ogawa; Hideki Yoshida

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the relationship between testicular function and testicular volume measured by using Prader orchidometry and ultrasonography (US) to determine the critical testicular volume indicating normal testicular func-tion by each method. Methods: Total testicular volume (right plus left testicular volume) was measured in 794 testes in 397 men with infertility (mean age, 35.6 years) using a Prader orchidometer and also by ultrasonography.Ultrasonographic testicular volumes were calculated as length×width×height×0.71. To evaluate volume-function relationships, patients were divided into 10 groups representing 5-mL increments of total testicular volume by each method from below 10 mL to 50 mL or more. Results: Mean total testicular volume based on Prader orchidometry and US were 36.8 mL and 26.3 mL, respectively. Semen volume, sperm density, total sperm count, total motile sperm count, and serum FSH, LH, and testosterone all correlated significantly with total testicular volume measured by either method. Mean sperm density was in the oligozoospermic range in patients with total testicular volume below 35 mL by orchidometry or below 20 mL by ultrasonography. Mean total sperm count was subnormal in patients with total testicular volume below 30 mL by orchidometry or under 20 mL by ultrasonography. Conclusion: Testicular volume measured by either ultrasonography or Prader orchidometry correlated significantly with testicular function.However, critical total testicular volume indicating normal or nearly normal testicular function was 30 mL to 35 mL using Prader orchidometer and 20 mL using ultrasonography. Prader orchidometry morphometrically and function-ally overestimated the testicular volume in comparison to US.

  2. Epigenetic: a molecular link between testicular cancer and environmental exposures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DavidHVOLLE

    2012-11-01

    Here we will review chromatin modifications which can affect testicular physiology leading to the development of testicular cancer; and highlight potential molecular pathways involved in these alterations in the context of environmental exposures.

  3. Testicular defense systems: immune privilege and innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shutao; Zhu, Weiwei; Xue, Shepu; Han, Daishu

    2014-09-01

    The mammalian testis possesses a special immunological environment because of its properties of remarkable immune privilege and effective local innate immunity. Testicular immune privilege protects immunogenic germ cells from systemic immune attack, and local innate immunity is important in preventing testicular microbial infections. The breakdown of local testicular immune homeostasis may lead to orchitis, an etiological factor of male infertility. The mechanisms underlying testicular immune privilege have been investigated for a long time. Increasing evidence shows that both a local immunosuppressive milieu and systemic immune tolerance are involved in maintaining testicular immune privilege status. The mechanisms underlying testicular innate immunity are emerging based on the investigation of the pattern recognition receptor-mediated innate immune response in testicular cells. This review summarizes our current understanding of testicular defense mechanisms and identifies topics that merit further investigation. PMID:24954222

  4. Testicular seminoma metastasis to duodenum. Misdiagnosed as primary duodenal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Hashim Al Ani

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: High index of suspicion for testicular seminoma must be raised when treating young males with GIT complications like hemorrhage. Testicular seminoma is the most common solid tumor at this age. Sometimes it is the cause behind this complication.

  5. Testicular defense systems: immune privilege and innate immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Shutao; Zhu, Weiwei; Xue, Shepu; Han, Daishu

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian testis possesses a special immunological environment because of its properties of remarkable immune privilege and effective local innate immunity. Testicular immune privilege protects immunogenic germ cells from systemic immune attack, and local innate immunity is important in preventing testicular microbial infections. The breakdown of local testicular immune homeostasis may lead to orchitis, an etiological factor of male infertility. The mechanisms underlying testicular immune...

  6. Surgical therapy for testicular cancer metastatic to the liver

    OpenAIRE

    Maluccio, Mary; Einhorn, Lawrence H.; Goulet, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years improved cure rates have been achieved for testicular cancer. A better understanding of the biology of subtypes of testicular cancer and the introduction of surgical intervention has contributed greatly to how we currently approach a young man with testicular cancer. We describe here experience at our institution of the treatment, results and prognostic factors for testicular cancer metastases to the liver. Careful diagnostic work-up and planning of the therapy are required, i...

  7. Segmental testicular infarction in a young man simulating a testicular tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Goske, Marilyn J; Bove, Kevin E; Minovich, Eugene

    2009-04-01

    A 19-year-old boy presented with a 48-hour history of acute onset severe right scrotal pain with minimal scrotal swelling. High-frequency US including color Doppler demonstrated a wedge-shaped, heterogeneous, avascular testicular mass diagnosed preoperatively as a segmental testicular infarction (STI). This was proved at surgery and subsequent histology. The preoperative diagnosis of STI was suggested based on the young man's presentation of severe pain and the sonographic appearance of the mass. Entertaining the preoperative diagnosis of STI from a testicular tumor is important for testis-sparing surgery even though STI in the pediatric age group is extremely rare. PMID:19214495

  8. Testicular and Paratesticular Neoplasms in Old Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseer D. Choudhary,S.Manzoor Kadri ,Reyaz A Tasleem, Ruby Reshi,Syed Besina, Quarrat A Choudhary

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Testicular and Para testicular tumours from 27 patients aged 60-85 yrs. were assessed with respectto histological types. The tumours ofgerm cell origin were 15 in number (55.5% and non germ celltumours were 12 in number (44.5%. There were 13 cases of seminoma and 2 cases ofmixed genncell tumour. Among non germ cell type, 7 were Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, 2 were leiomyosarcoma,2 were metastatic deposits of adenocarcinoma and 1 was of adenomatoid tumour of epididymis.

  9. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome and Leydig cell function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, U.N.; Jorgensen, N.; Rajpert-De, Meyts E.;

    2008-01-01

    Fertility among human beings appear to be on the decline in many Western countries, and part of the explanation may be decreasing male fecundity. A hypothesis has been put forward that decreasing semen quality may be associated with a testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS), a spectrum of disorders...... originating in early foetal life. TDS comprises various aspects of impaired gonadal development and function, including testicular cancer. A growing body of evidence, including animal models and research in human beings, points to lifestyle factors and endocrine disrupters as risk factors for TDS. We present...

  10. Antidepressants and testicular cancer: cause versus association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2014-03-01

    A data mining study that examined associations between 105 drugs and 55 cancer sites found significant associations between 2 selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (fluoxetine and paroxetine) and testicular cancer. The study suggested several reasons why these associations merited further investigation. A later study tested specific relationships between 12 antidepressant drugs and testicular cancer and subtypes thereof; whereas significant relationships were again found, these disappeared after adjusting for confounding variables. These 2 studies are educative because they illustrate how false-positive results can easily arise in exploratory research and how confounding may be responsible for statistically significant relationships in study designs that are not randomized controlled trials. PMID:24717391

  11. Probability to retrieve testicular spermatozoa in azoospermic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.-J.Glander; L.-C.Horn; W.Dorschner; U.Paasch; J.Kratzsch

    2000-01-01

    Aim: The degree of probability to retrieve spermatozoa from testicular tissue for intracytoplasmic sperm injection into oocytes is of interest for counselling of infertility patients. We investigated the relation of sperm retrieval to clinical data and histological pattern in testicular biopsies from azoospermic patients. Methods: In 264 testicular biopsies from 142 azoospermic patients, the testicular tissue was shredded to separate the spermatozoa, histological semi - thin sections of which were then evaluated using Johnsen score. Results: The retrieval of spermatozoa correlated significantly ( P 18 U/L, testicular volume < 5 mL, mean Johnsen score<5, and maximum Johnsen score < 7.

  12. Tumores testiculares na infância Testicular tumors in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roni Leonardo Teixeira

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Testicular and paratesticular prepuberal tumors are rare. They represent around 1% of the total of tumors of infancy. They subdivide in 2 groups: germ cells tumors and non germ cells tumors, being able to occur in all the ages, and about 75% are malignant, and about 19% of these they present metastasis. The tumors of germ cells tumors represent 60 75% of the tumors testiculars in infancy, having as main example the yolk sac tumor (65% of the neoplasms, followed for teratomas (14%; although some works to exist where teratoma, if presents as most common .The non germ cells tumors include the Leydig cell tumor and Sertoli cell tumor. The Leydig cell tumor, are most frequent between the non germ cells tumors testicular. This review article on epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of to testicular and to paratesticular tumors in child.

  13. Testicular function in boys after chemotherapy and/or testicular irradiation for acute leukemia and malignant lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testicular function was investigated by testicular biopsy, testicular volume, testosterone and LH-RH test in 16 prepubertal boys with 15 cases of acute leukemia and one case of malignant lymphoma after chemotherapy and/or testicular irradiation. One of 2 cases who had infiltrated in testes received irradiation at onset. With another 2 cases, testis was resected at testicular relapse and irradiated on opposite side. All continued complete remission for 1-9 years after cessation of chemotherapy. Basal levels of serum testosterone, FSH and LH were normal in 13 cases of unirradiated group recently but spermatogonia in testicular biopsy specimen decreased on cessation of chemotherapy in 8 cases. Primary gonadal dysfunction was detected in 3 cases of irradiated group. And so testicular irradiation induced damage of tubular system and Leydig cell function. It is necessary to follow up about sexual maturation. (author)

  14. Quality of Life of Testicular Cancer Survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleer, Joke

    2006-01-01

    Men who are diagnosed with testicular cancer are generally young. As a consequence of the treatment they receive nowadays, they are likely to cure from the disease, even when they have metastases. This means that they have to live with possible short- and long-term sequel of diagnosis and treatment

  15. Is Sedentary Lifestyle Associated With Testicular Function?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priskorn, Lærke; Jensen, Tina Kold; Bang, Anne Kirstine;

    2016-01-01

    Based on cross-sectional data on 1,210 healthy young Danish men, we investigated whether sedentary lifestyle was associated with testicular function (semen quality and reproductive hormones) independent of physical activity. The men were invited to participate in the study between 2008 and 2012, ...

  16. Simultaneous acute appendicitis with right testicular torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanveer Akhtar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a child with both acute appendicitis and torsion of the right testis presenting at the same time. Testicular torsion possibly occurring due to vomiting in acute appendicitis so far has not been reported in the literature.

  17. Microdissection testicular sperm extraction: an update

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali A Dabaja; Peter N Schlegel

    2013-01-01

    Patients with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) were once considered to be infertile with few treatment options due to the absence of sperm in the ejaculate.In the last two decades,the advent of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI),and the application of various testicular sperm retrieval techniques,including fine needle aspiration (FNA),conventional testicular sperm extraction (TESE) and microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) have revolutionized treatment in this group of men.Because most men with NOA will have isolated regions of spermatogenesis within the testis,studies have illustrated that sperm can be retrieved in most men with NOA,including Klinefelter's syndrome (KS),prior history of chemotherapy and cryptorchidism.Micro-TESE,when compared with conventional TESE has a higher sperm retrieval rate (SRR) with fewer postoperative complications and negative effects on testicular function.In this article,we will compare the efficacy of the different procedures of sperm extraction,discuss the medical treatment and the role of testosterone optimization in men with NOA and describe the micro-TESE surgical technique.Furthermore,we will update our overall experience to allow counseling on the prognosis of sperm retrieval for the specific subsets of NOA.

  18. Surveillance in stage I testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Gedske; Petersen, Peter Meidahl; Rørth, Mikael

    2003-01-01

    Treatment results on 695 stage I testicular cancer patients followed with surveillance are described. Seminoma (SGCT) was present in 394 patients and nonseminoma (NSGCT) in 301 patients. Relapses were detected in 155 patients (22%), in 69 patients with SGCT (17%) and 86 with NSGCT (29%). In...

  19. TREATMENT FOR STAGE I TESTICULAR SEMINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Burova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Overall survival is about 100% in patients with stage I germinogenic testicular tumors after orchifuniculectomy, which is achieved, by applying alternative adjuvant approaches. The use of approaches, such as a follow-up, chemo- and radiotherapy, may be recommended in seminoma. The paper shows the advantages and disadvantages of these methods.

  20. Aesthetic plastic correction of incomplete testicular feminization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinderer, U T

    1979-12-01

    Surgery was performed for feminization of ambiguous (male) external genitalia in 1973 on a patient with incomplete testicular feminization (familial male hermaphroditism of mixed variety). Rhinoplasty and augmentation of the chin, the malar region, the breasts were also performed not only to improve the patient's sexual role but to enhance the aesthetic appearance, as an aid in better phychosocial adaptation. PMID:24173991

  1. The Correlation between Ultrasound Testicular Volume and Conventional Semen Parameters in Albanian Subfertile Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Kristo

    2014-09-01

    CONCLUSION: Testicular volume has a direct correlation with semen parameters and the critical total testicular volume indicating normal testicular function is approximately 26.6 ml (the mean testicular volume 13.3 ml. The measurement of testicular volume can be helpful for assessing fertility at the initial physical examination.

  2. Differentiation of testicular diseases via dynamic MRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aimed at resolving whether dynamic MRT can improve diagnostic relevance in diseases of the testes compared with conventional spin echo images. The testes of 20 healthy volunteers and of 16 patients of the Department of Urology of the University of Bonn were examined by means of MR tomography. Within 12 hours after MR tomography the patients were surgically explored, biopsied and if necessary orchiectomised. Results obtained with the volunteers were uniform and well reproducible, independent of external influences. On comparing the maximal enhancement curves of the examined various testicular tumors with the standard values established by examining the healthy volunteers, the curves obtained with the malignant testicular tumors were always clearly above the chosen confidence range of 3 standard deviations so that malignancy diagnosis was easy. However, the degree of maximal enhancement did not enable us to arrive at a conclusion in respect of the tumor type or the degree of malignancy. The greatest enhancement occurred with the tumor of Sertoli's cell which could thus be clearly differentiated against the other malignant testicular tumors. Due to masking of the gadolinium effect by haemosiderin deposits, haemorrhagica in the tumor tissue should be excluded by means of T2-weighted spin echo sequences before following up a suspicion of malignant testicular tomor. Benign intratesticular changes could be safely separated from malignant findings by means of the maximal enhancement curve lying in the normal range or below the curve of the volunteers. As with other organs, dynamic MR tomography yields definitely more and better information than conventional MR tomography also in the diagnosis of testicular tumours. However, these ''pros'' do not offset the ''cons'' of high costs of such examinations. (orig.)

  3. Epidemiology of prolonged testicular infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, M Daniel; Riddell, Kay P; Edmondson, Misty A; Walz, Paul H; Gard, Julie A; Zhang, Yijing; Galik, Patricia K; Brodersen, Bruce W; Carson, Robert L; Stringfellow, David A

    2009-10-20

    Previously, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) had been found in prolonged testicular infections following acute infection of immunocompetent bulls. The primary purpose of this research was to evaluate the production and maintenance of prolonged testicular infections after exposure to BVDV of seronegative bulls in varying circumstances. The secondary objective was to initiate assessment of the potential for transmission of BVDV via semen of bulls exhibiting a prolonged testicular infection. In total, 10 research trials were conducted. The first trial examined the duration of detectable virus in semen after intranasal inoculation of peri-pubertal bulls. The second to fifth trials examined the potential for prolonged testicular infections resulting from natural exposure of seronegative bulls to persistently infected heifers. In the last five trials, the potential for viral transmission from bulls exhibiting prolonged testicular infections to a small number of exposed animals (n=28) was evaluated. Results of this research demonstrated that prolonged testicular infections could result in detection of viral RNA in semen for 2.75 years with infectious virus grown from testicular tissue 12.5 months after viral exposure. A type 1b strain of BVDV caused prolonged testicular infection after natural exposure of seronegative bulls to a persistently infected heifer. However, transmission of BVDV to susceptible animals was not detected in the final five trials of this research. In conclusion, BVDV can persist in testicular tissue after acute infection for several years, but the potential for viral transmission from these prolonged testicular infections appears to be low. PMID:19473788

  4. Taser-Related Testicular Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theisen, Katherine; Slater, Rick; Hale, Nathan

    2016-02-01

    The Thomas A. Swift's Electric Rifle (Taser) is an electrical weapon designed as a nonlethal means to subdue violent or fleeing subjects. Several reports have been published on the safety and efficacy of, as well as injury profile from, police Tasers. Documented urologic involvement is rare. The sequela of an electrical current from a Taser gun to the testis in regard to both short- and long-term functions is unknown. Herein we present a case of penetrating trauma to the scrotum from a Taser dart. PMID:26592466

  5. Role of Nrf2 antioxidant defense in mitigating cadmium-induced oxidative stress in the olfactory system of zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to trace metals can disrupt olfactory function in fish leading to a loss of behaviors critical to survival. Cadmium (Cd) is an olfactory toxicant that elicits cellular oxidative stress as a mechanism of toxicity while also inducing protective cellular antioxidant genes via activation of the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) pathway. However, the molecular mechanisms of Cd-induced olfactory injury have not been characterized. In the present study, we investigated the role of the Nrf2-mediated antioxidant defense pathway in protecting against Cd-induced olfactory injury in zebrafish. A dose-dependent induction of Nrf2-regulated antioxidant genes associated with cellular responses to oxidative stress was observed in the olfactory system of adult zebrafish following 24 h Cd exposure. Zebrafish larvae exposed to Cd for 3 h showed increased glutathione S-transferase pi (gst pi), glutamate–cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (gclc), heme oxygenase 1 (hmox1) and peroxiredoxin 1 (prdx1) mRNA levels indicative of Nrf2 activation, and which were blocked by morpholino-mediated Nrf2 knockdown. The inhibition of antioxidant gene induction in Cd-exposed Nrf2 morphants was associated with disruption of olfactory driven behaviors, increased cell death and loss of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). Nrf2 morphants also exhibited a downregulation of OSN-specific genes after Cd exposure. Pre-incubation of embryos with sulforaphane (SFN) partially protected against Cd-induced olfactory tissue damage. Collectively, our results indicate that oxidative stress is an important mechanism of Cd-mediated injury in the zebrafish olfactory system. Moreover, the Nrf2 pathway plays a protective role against cellular oxidative damage and is important in maintaining zebrafish olfactory function. -- Highlights: ► Oxidative stress is an important mechanism of Cd-mediated olfactory injury. ► Cd induces antioxidant gene expression in the zebrafish olfactory system. ► The

  6. Role of Nrf2 antioxidant defense in mitigating cadmium-induced oxidative stress in the olfactory system of zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lu; Gallagher, Evan P., E-mail: evang3@uw.edu

    2013-01-15

    Exposure to trace metals can disrupt olfactory function in fish leading to a loss of behaviors critical to survival. Cadmium (Cd) is an olfactory toxicant that elicits cellular oxidative stress as a mechanism of toxicity while also inducing protective cellular antioxidant genes via activation of the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) pathway. However, the molecular mechanisms of Cd-induced olfactory injury have not been characterized. In the present study, we investigated the role of the Nrf2-mediated antioxidant defense pathway in protecting against Cd-induced olfactory injury in zebrafish. A dose-dependent induction of Nrf2-regulated antioxidant genes associated with cellular responses to oxidative stress was observed in the olfactory system of adult zebrafish following 24 h Cd exposure. Zebrafish larvae exposed to Cd for 3 h showed increased glutathione S-transferase pi (gst pi), glutamate–cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (gclc), heme oxygenase 1 (hmox1) and peroxiredoxin 1 (prdx1) mRNA levels indicative of Nrf2 activation, and which were blocked by morpholino-mediated Nrf2 knockdown. The inhibition of antioxidant gene induction in Cd-exposed Nrf2 morphants was associated with disruption of olfactory driven behaviors, increased cell death and loss of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). Nrf2 morphants also exhibited a downregulation of OSN-specific genes after Cd exposure. Pre-incubation of embryos with sulforaphane (SFN) partially protected against Cd-induced olfactory tissue damage. Collectively, our results indicate that oxidative stress is an important mechanism of Cd-mediated injury in the zebrafish olfactory system. Moreover, the Nrf2 pathway plays a protective role against cellular oxidative damage and is important in maintaining zebrafish olfactory function. -- Highlights: ► Oxidative stress is an important mechanism of Cd-mediated olfactory injury. ► Cd induces antioxidant gene expression in the zebrafish olfactory system. ► The

  7. A novel method for orthotopic testicular transplantation in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei-xing; TAN Fu-qing; WANG Jia-xiang; CHEN Zhao-dian; ZHENG Shu

    2005-01-01

    @@ Rat testis transplantation with a segment of donor abdominal aorta end-to-side anastomosed to recipient's abdominal aorta was first reported by Lee.1 But thrombus was formed in the donor abdominal aorta segment. Goldsein2 and Lee3 improved this technique using end-to-side anastomosis of an aortic patch with the testicular artery to the recipient's aorta and the testicular vein was anastomosed to the vena cava of the recipient. With this method, the animal with the testicular artery and vein paralleling and originating no more than 4 mm apart is considered a suitable donor, which is scarce because of the variability of testicular vessels. This problem limits the wide use of testicular transplantation in rats. Based on these findings, we established a novel testicular transplantation model which was recreated as closely as possible to the normal vascular anatomy of the testis in rats. The functional activities of these transplants were also presented.

  8. Post-fertilization effect of bilateral primary testicular damage induced by unilateral cryptorchidism in the rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsounapi, P; Honda, M; Dimitriadis, F; Shimizu, S; Hikita, K; Muraoka, K; Sejima, T; Saito, M; Tomita, S; Sofikitis, N; Takenaka, A

    2016-03-01

    Cryptorchidism, a common anomaly of the male genitalia, affects 2-4% of male infants. The post-fertilization effects of unilateral cryptorchidism model in the rat and the effects of antioxidant treatment were investigated. Six-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly separated into four groups. Unilateral cryptorchidism was induced in the right testis of three groups. One group was treated with saline intraperitoneally (i.p.) (Crypto), one group was treated with taurine (500 mg/kg, i.p.; Tau), and another group was treated with sivelestat (15 mg/kg i.p.; Siv). The control group was treated with saline i.p. The treatment was daily for 8 weeks. Five days before sacrifice, mating studies were performed. Body, testicular, and epididymal weights were recorded. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the seminal vesicular fluid (SVF) were measured. Testicular levels of MDA and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were determined bilaterally. TUNEL assay was used to examine DNA fragmentation bilaterally. Histological examination and the Johnsen score were used to evaluate morphological testicular alterations. The Crypto group demonstrated significantly lower right testicular and epididymal weights, significantly increased SVF-MDA levels, testicular MDA and 8-OHdG levels, and the apoptotic score bilaterally compared to the controls. Furthermore, histological evaluation revealed significantly reduced spermatogenesis and mild injury to the cryptorchid testes compared to the control. Treatment with both taurine and sivelestat significantly reduced SVF-MDA levels, testicular MDA, 8-OHdG, and apoptosis bilaterally compared to the Crypto group. Antioxidant treatment was unable to ameliorate spermatogenesis. Newborns delivered by females that mated with Crypto-males had significantly lower body weight compared with the respective animals from the control, Tau and Siv groups. The present study demonstrated that unilateral cryptorchidism-induced testicular damage can significantly affect

  9. Ultrasonographic findings of testicular tumors: Correlation with pathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Joo; Koh, Byung Hee; Oh, Jae Cheon; Kim, Bong Soo; Kim, Yong Soo; Rhim, Hyen Chul; Cho, On Koo; Hahm, Chang Kok; Park, Hae Young; Lee, Jung Dal [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-15

    Scrotal sonography is a valuable tool for assessing the testis and surrounding structures, and has become the imaging modality of choice for evaluation of the scrotum. Scrotal sonography is also helpful for differentiating cystic from slid mass and testicular from extratesticular mass, but is sometimes difficult in differentiating malignant tumor from various benign conditions such as epidermoid cyst, focal orchitis, testicular hematoma, and abscess. We demonstrate the sonographic findings of the various testicular mass, and correlation with pathologic findings.

  10. Testicular chloroma in a nonleukemic infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Michael B; Nafiu, Olubukola O; Valdez, Riccardo; Park, John M; Williams, James A; Wechsler, Daniel S

    2005-07-01

    Extramedullary myeloid cell tumors (EMCT) are localized collections of immature myeloid cells that occur outside of the bone marrow. Usually observed concurrently with bone marrow disease, EMCT also may occur in the absence of overt marrow leukemia. In this report, we describe an infant with a testicular mass that was identified as an EMCT after orchiectomy. Unlike the only previously reported case of infantile testicular chloroma, this patient did not exhibit bone marrow disease at diagnosis. Because systemic chemotherapy is considered to be superior to local control (surgery, radiation therapy), the patient was treated with intensively timed induction chemotherapy followed by 3 cycles of maintenance treatment (according to CCG protocol #2891) but no radiation therapy. The patient remains disease-free 18 months after diagnosis. PMID:16012331

  11. [Relationship between phthalates and testicular dysgenesis syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guo-Rong; Dong, Lei; Ge, Ren-Shan; Hardy, Matthew P

    2007-03-01

    Recent epidemiological evidence demonstrates that boys born to women exposed to phthalates during pregnancy have an increased incidence of cryptorchidism, hypospadias, testicular cancer and spermatogenic dysfunction, which are collectively referred to as testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). TDS may be attributed to the dysfunction of Leydig cells and Sertoli cells during their differentiation after exposure to phthalates in utero. Fox example, Leydig cell functions are significantly affected by phthalates, leading to the decrease of two Leydig cell products--insulin-like growth factor 3 (INSL3) and testosterone, which are critical factors for testis descent. The disorientation of Leydig cells and Sertoli cells in the adult testis may be the cause of spermatogenic dysfunction. PMID:17393778

  12. A Rare Complication of Brucellosis: Testicular Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Gul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonosis caused by Brucella species. Brucella epididymo-orchitis had been reported in up to 20% of patients with brucellosis. This case was a male patient who developed Brucella epidiymo-orchitis and testicular abscess. He had fever, arthralgia and his right epididymis and right testicle were enlarged and tender. Ultrasound evaluation showed hypertrophy of the right epididymis and testis and moreover hypoechoic area within the testis. Brucella serology was positive and the patient did not respond completely to treatment with streptomycin, doxycycline, and rifampicina. Unilateral orchidectomy was decided. In areas where brucella infection is endemic brucella epididymo-orchitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Effective and rapid treatment is important. It should be noted that these patients may develop testicular abscess.

  13. A Rare Cause of Testicular Metastasis: Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manav, Alper Nesip; Kazan, Ercan; Ertek, Mehmet Şirin; Amasyalı, Akın Soner; Çulhacı, Nil; Erol, Haluk

    2014-01-01

    Metastatic testicular cancers are rare. Primary tumor sources are prostate, lung, and gastrointestinal tract for metastatic testicular cancers. Metastasis of urothelial carcinoma (UC) to the testis is extremely rare. Two-thirds of upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is of invasive stage at diagnosis and metastatic sites are the pelvic lymph nodes, liver, lung, and bone. We report a rare case of metastatic UTUC to the testis which has not been reported before, except one case in the literature. Testicular metastasis of UC should be considered in patients with hematuria and testicular swelling. PMID:25120937

  14. Comet assay on mice testicular cells

    OpenAIRE

    Anoop Kumar Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Heritable mutations may result in a variety of adverse outcomes including genetic disease in the offspring. In recent years the focus on germ cell mutagenicity has increased and the “Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)” has published classification criteria for germ cell mutagens (Speit et al., 2009). The in vivo Comet assay is considered a useful tool for investigating germ cell genotoxicity. In the present study DNA strand breaks in testicular cel...

  15. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome and Leydig cell function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Ulla Nordström; Jørgensen, Niels; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Skakkebaek, Niels Erik

    2008-01-01

    Fertility among human beings appear to be on the decline in many Western countries, and part of the explanation may be decreasing male fecundity. A hypothesis has been put forward that decreasing semen quality may be associated with a testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS), a spectrum of disorders ...... our view of the emerging role of Leydig cell dysfunction with subsequent decreased testosterone levels in the pathogenesis of TDS....

  16. Testicular Compromise due to Inguinal Hernia

    OpenAIRE

    eutermoser, morgan p; Nordenholz, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    A 34-year-old male presented to the emergency department with a 3-hour complaint of pain in the rightlower quadrant and right testicle. He stated that his pain began suddenly while standing at work. Onphysical examination, he had a small, firm, unreducible bulge in his right inguinal canal and an enlargedright scrotum. The patient was placed in trendelenburg position; intravenous fentanyl, valium, anddilaudid were administered; and surgery consult was obtained. A testicular ultrasonogram (Fig...

  17. Prenatal and familial associations of testicular cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Swerdlow, A J; Huttly, S. R.; Smith, P.G.

    1987-01-01

    In a case-control study of testis cancer 259 cases with testicular cancer, 238 controls treated at radiotherapy centres and 251 non-radiotherapy hospital in-patient controls were interviewed about some possible prenatal and familial risk factors for the tumour. For firstborn men, the risk of testis cancer increased significantly according to maternal age at the subject's birth, and this effect was most marked for seminoma. The association with maternal age was not apparent for cases other tha...

  18. Polyorchidism with presumed contralateral intrauterine testicular torsion

    OpenAIRE

    Leodoro, B.M.; Beasley, S. W.; Stringer, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Polyorchidism was first described by Blasius in 16701 during a routine autopsy. We report a child with unilateral polyorchidism and a contralateral absent testis, a combination not reported previously. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 2-year-old boy was referred to the outpatient clinic with an impalpable left testis. At laparoscopy, the left vas deferens and testicular vessels ended blindly proximal to a closed internal ring. No gonadal tissue was identified. On the right side, a sin...

  19. Cryopreservation of canine ovarian and testicular fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Il-Jeoung; Leibo, S P; Songsasen, Nucharin; Dresser, Betsy L; Kim, In-Shik

    2009-01-01

    To derive a practical procedure to store canine somatic cells, fibroblasts isolated from testicular or ovarian tissues were cryopreserved in 1.2 M ethylene glycol or in 1.2 M dimethylsulfoxide prepared in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium as cryoprotectants, and were frozen either in plastic straws or vials. Thawed cells were cultured for 24 hr at 38.5 degree C in a humidified atmosphere of 5 percent CO2 95 percent air, and then their membrane integrity was assayed with a double fluorescent stain, Fertilight. In addition, frozen-thawed fibroblasts were cultured for 4 days, and then their functional survival was measured after staining small colonies with trypan blue. After freezing and thawing, membrane integrity of testicular fibroblasts was 55-70 percent and functional survival ranged from 20-40 percent. With frozen-thawed ovarian cells, the average membrane integrity was 55-75 percent and the average functional survival was 35-40 percent. When frozen in ethylene glycol, functional survival of ovarian fibroblasts was significantly higher than that of testicular cells (P less than 0.05). These methods should prove useful to preserve cells collected from canids in the wild. PMID:19750243

  20. Comet assay on mice testicular cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Kumar Sharma

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Heritable mutations may result in a variety of adverse outcomes including genetic disease in the offspring. In recent years the focus on germ cell mutagenicity has increased and the “Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS” has published classification criteria for germ cell mutagens (Speit et al., 2009. The in vivo Comet assay is considered a useful tool for investigating germ cell genotoxicity. In the present study DNA strand breaks in testicular cells of mice were investigated. Different classes of chemicals were tested in order to evaluate the sensitivity of the comet assay in testicular cells. The chemicals included environmentally relevant substances such as Bisphenol A, PFOS and Tetrabrombisphenol A. Statistical power calculations will be presented to aid in the design of future Comet assay studies on testicular cells. Power curves were provided with different fold changes in % tail DNA, different number of cells scored and different number of gels (Hansen et al., 2014. An example is shown in Figure 1. A high throughput version of the Comet assay was used. Samples were scored with a fully automatic comet assay scoring system that provided faster scoring of randomly selected cells.

  1. Testicular Histomorphometric Evaluation of Zebu Bull Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Antônio Terrabuio Andreussi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the quantitative histology and testicular biometrics in zebu bulls of different breeds. Testicular fragments of Nelore (n=10, Polled Nelore (n=6, Gir (n=5, Guzerat (n=5 and Tabapuã bulls (n=5 were used. The fragments were perfusion-fixed in Karnovsky solution, embedded in glycol methacrylate and stained with toluidine blue-1% sodium borate. The Nelore animals had a higher tubular volumetric proportion (85.2% and greater height of the seminiferous epithelium (73.2 µm than the Gir, Guzerat and Tabapuã breeds. The Nelore animals also had a higher volumetric proportion of Leydig cells (5.2% than the Guzerat and Tabapuã breeds. There was no significant difference for any of these parameters between the Nelore and Polled Nelore breeds. The gonadosomatic index, seminiferous tubule diameter, cross-sectional area of the seminiferous tubule and tubule length (total length and length per gram of testicular parenchyma did not vary among the breeds studied. The morphometric parameters evaluated suggested that the genetic selection applied to the Nelore and Polled Nelore breeds improved the efficiency of spermatogenesis in these breeders.

  2. Testicular self-examination and testicular cancer: a cost-utility analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberger, Michael; Wilson, Bradley; Holzbeierlein, Jeffrey M; Griebling, Tomas L; Nangia, Ajay K

    2014-12-01

    The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) has recommended against testicular self-examinations (TSE) or clinical examination for testicular cancer screening. However, in this recommendation there was no consideration of the significant fiscal cost of treating advanced disease versus evaluation of benign disease. In this study, a cost-utility validation for TSE was performed. The cost of treatment for an advanced-stage testicular tumor (both seminomatous and nonseminomatous) was compared to the cost of six other scenarios involving the clinical assessment of a testicular mass felt during self-examination (four benign and two early-stage malignant). Medicare reimbursements were used as an estimate for a national cost standard. The total treatment cost for an advanced-stage seminoma ($48,877) or nonseminoma ($51,592) equaled the cost of 313-330 benign office visits ($156); 180-190 office visits with scrotal ultrasound ($272); 79-83 office visits with serial scrotal ultrasounds and labs ($621); 6-7 office visits resulting in radical inguinal orchiectomy for benign pathology ($7,686) or 2-3 office visits resulting in treatment and surveillance of an early-stage testicular cancer ($17,283: seminoma, $26,190: nonseminoma). A large number of clinical evaluations based on the TSE for benign disease can be made compared to the cost of one missed advanced-stage tumor. An average of 2.4 to 1 cost benefit ratio was demonstrated for early detected testicular cancer versus advanced-stage disease. PMID:25103095

  3. Aspects of the testicular toxicity of phthalate esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) produced seminiferous tubular atrophy and reductions in seminal vesicle and prostate weight in 4-week-old, but not in 15 -week-old rats. Di-n-pentyl phthalate (DPP) did produce atrophy in the older rats but this developed more slowly than in young animals. Coadministration of testosterone or gonadotrophins did not protect against phthalate-induced testicular toxicity but did partly reverse the depression of seminal vesicle and prostate weight. Secretion of seminiferous tubule fluid and androgen binding protein by the Sertoli cells was markedly suppressed within 1 hr of a dose of DPP or mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) in immature rats. This occurred less rapidly in mature rats. [14C]mono-n-pentyl phthalate and [14C]MEHP penetrated the blood testis barrier only to a very limited extent. These findings and the early morphological changes in the Sertoli cells produced by DPP suggest that phthalate esters may act initially to cause Sertoli cell injury, the subsequent loss of germ cells occurring as a consequence of this

  4. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome: mechanistic insights and potential new downstream effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharpe, R.M.; Skakkebæk, Niels Erik

    Reproductive disorders of newborn (cryptorchidism, hypospadias) and young adult males (low sperm counts, testicular germ cell cancer) are common and/or increasing in incidence. It has been hypothesized that these disorders may comprise a testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS) with a common origin in...

  5. Sexual dysfunctions in men treated for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendal, Susanne; Kristensen, Ellids; Giraldi, Annamaria G E

    2008-01-01

    Patients treated for testicular cancer have increased risk of ejaculatory, orgasmic and erectile dysfunction compared with healthy men. The underlying relations are unclear. This review describes sexual dysfunctions that are associated with various treatment modalities. One meta-analysis and 11...... understanding sexual dysfunctions in patients with testicular cancer....

  6. Primary testicular mucinous cystadenoma: Case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Mário Maciel; de Lima, Mário Maciel; Granja, Fabiana

    2015-01-01

    Testicular mucinous cystadenomas are rare in urological practice, and their histogenesis, course and management are debated. We report a primary testicular mucinous cystadenoma in a 54-year old male who presented with left testicular swelling and pain. He denied having a history of cryptorchidism, testicular trauma, infections, urinary complaints, or febrile illnesses. He did not have diabetes, but was on treatment for hypertension. The patient underwent a left inguinal radical orchiectomy, and histological examination of the resected tumour confirmed a primary testicular mucinous cystadenoma. The patient had an uneventful recovery, and is being followed up. Conclusively, urologists need to maintain a high index of suspicion of these tumours and their differentiation from metastatic tumours to ensure optimal therapeutic outcomes. PMID:26600891

  7. Development and clinical application of a new testicular prosthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Ning; Zhikang Cai; Huixing Chen; Ping Ping; Peng Li; Zhong Wang; Zheng Li

    2011-01-01

    A new type of testicular prosthesis made of silastic with an elliptical shape to mimic a normal testis was developed by our team and submitted for patenting in China.The prosthesis was produced in different sizes to imitate the normal testis of the patient.To investigate the effects and safety of the testicular prosthesis,20 patients receiving testicular prosthesis implantation were recruited for this study.Follow-up after 6 months revealed no complications in the patients.All the patients answered that they were satisfied with their body image and the position of the implants,19 patients were satisfied with the size and 16 patients were satisfied with the weight.These results show that the testicular prosthesis used in this study can meet patient's expectations.Patients undergoing orchiectomy should be offered the option to receive a testicular prosthesis implantation.The dimensions and weight of the available prosthetic implants should be further addressed to improve patient satisfaction.

  8. Radiotherapy Treatment Planning for Testicular Seminoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilder, Richard B., E-mail: richardbwilder@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL (United States); Buyyounouski, Mark K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Efstathiou, Jason A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Beard, Clair J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Virtually all patients with Stage I testicular seminoma are cured regardless of postorchiectomy management. For patients treated with adjuvant radiotherapy, late toxicity is a major concern. However, toxicity may be limited by radiotherapy techniques that minimize radiation exposure of healthy normal tissues. This article is an evidence-based review that provides radiotherapy treatment planning recommendations for testicular seminoma. The minority of Stage I patients who choose adjuvant treatment over surveillance may be considered for (1) para-aortic irradiation to 20 Gy in 10 fractions, or (2) carboplatin chemotherapy consisting of area under the curve, AUC = 7 Multiplication-Sign 1-2 cycles. Two-dimensional radiotherapy based on bony anatomy is a simple and effective treatment for Stage IIA or IIB testicular seminoma. Centers with expertise in vascular and nodal anatomy may consider use of anteroposterior-posteroanterior fields based on three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy instead. For modified dog-leg fields delivering 20 Gy in 10 fractions, clinical studies support placement of the inferior border at the top of the acetabulum. Clinical and nodal mapping studies support placement of the superior border of all radiotherapy fields at the top of the T12 vertebral body. For Stage IIA and IIB patients, an anteroposterior-posteroanterior boost is then delivered to the adenopathy with a 2-cm margin to the block edge. The boost dose consists of 10 Gy in 5 fractions for Stage IIA and 16 Gy in 8 fractions for Stage IIB. Alternatively, bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin chemotherapy for 3 cycles or etoposide and cisplatin chemotherapy for 4 cycles may be delivered to Stage IIA or IIB patients (e.g., if they have a horseshoe kidney, inflammatory bowel disease, or a history of radiotherapy).

  9. Nursing supports neonatal porcine testicular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, K M; Lovich, J E; Lam, C; Camp, M E; Wiley, A A; Bartol, F F; Bagnell, C A

    2014-07-01

    The lactocrine hypothesis suggests a mechanism whereby milk-borne bioactive factors delivered to nursing offspring affect development of neonatal tissues. The objective of this study was to assess whether nursing affects testicular development in neonatal boars as reflected by: (1) Sertoli cell number and proliferation measured by GATA-4 expression and proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunostaining patterns; (2) Leydig cell development and steroidogenic activity as reflected by insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3), and P450 side chain cleavage (scc) enzyme expression; and (3) expression of estrogen receptor-alpha (ESR1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) A, and relaxin family peptide receptor (RXFP) 1. At birth, boars were randomly assigned (n = 6-7/group) to nurse ad libitum or to be pan fed porcine milk replacer for 48 h. Testes were collected from boars at birth, before nursing and from nursed and replacer-fed boars at 50 h on postnatal day (PND) 2. Sertoli cell proliferating cell nuclear antigen labeling index increased (P relaxin family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1) levels increased (P < 0.01) with age and were greater in replacer-fed boars on PND 2. Results suggest that nursing supports neonatal porcine testicular development and provide additional evidence for the importance of lactocrine signaling in pigs. PMID:24906933

  10. Growth of subcutaneous chicken testicular transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silversides, F G; Robertson, M C; Liu, J

    2013-07-01

    Avian genetic resources have declined dramatically over the past half century, partly because the poultry community has been slow to adopt cryoconservation of avian germplasm. Techniques for gonadal cryopreservation and functional recovery have recently been developed but only some have been optimized. Chicks were castrated at 2 or 6 d and testicles were autotransplanted subcutaneously in one piece after disruption of the tunica membranes to optimize transplantation procedures without the complication of tissue rejection or immunosuppression. At 22 wk of age, the roosters were euthanized and growth of the testicular tissue was evaluated. Mortality with castration at 2 d was high but was much reduced with castration at 6 d. Transplantation of whole testicles subcutaneously on the back of chicks, without complete removal of the tunica membranes, yielded good growth of tissue with transplantation at 2 or 6 d of age. These results will contribute to the use of testicular cryopreservation and transplantation as an effective conservation strategy for avian germplasm. Further definition of the age of treatment will improve the overall efficiency. PMID:23776280

  11. Radiation treatment of testicular relapse in acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten patients with testicular relapse among 128 cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia are reported. At the time of the initial diagnosis of leukemia all patients with later testicular relapse showed one or more risk factors as predictive for leukemic infiltration of the testicles. All patients except one, who underwent orchiectomy and died 11 weeks after surgical intervention, received radiation therapy with doses ranging from 12 to 20 Gy and chemotherapy. The local control was excellent. Average survival time from testicular relapse to death was 68 weeks in 8 of 9 patients treated by irradiation and chemotherapy. One patient is still alive without signs of disease after 6 years. (orig.)

  12. Testicular tumors: correlation between radiological findings and pathology results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to review the main imaging findings and the pathological and clinical features seen on patients with testicular tumors in order to define characteristics that may help in the differential diagnosis of the most frequent lesions. We performed a retrospective study of 51 patients with diagnosis of testicular tumors submitted to ultrasound and computed tomography between July 2003 to March 2004 that were referred to the Diagnostic Department of Sao Paulo University, Sao Paulo Hospital, Brazil. We concluded that a basic knowledge of the key imaging findings and pathological and clinical features of testicular tumor sis very helpful for an accurate diagnosis of this condition.(author)

  13. Undetectable inhibin B serum levels in men after testicular irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, P M; Andersson, A M; Rørth, M; Daugaard, G; Skakkebaek, N E

    1999-01-01

    A group of men treated with testicular irradiation for carcinoma in situ in the remaining testis after orchidectomy for unilateral testicular germ cell cancer was used as a model to study of the effect of selective eradication of germ cells on the levels of serum inhibin B in the human male....... Thirteen men with verified spermatogenesis and detectable preirradiation levels of serum inhibin B (median, 55; range, 23-193 pg/mL) were investigated before and after testicular irradiation (14-20 Gy). All patients had undetectable levels of inhibin B 2-12 months (median, 5 months) after radiotherapy (...

  14. Elevated metallothionein level in mice liver after cadmium chloride administration does not protect against combined radiation and thermal injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of metallothionein (MT) preinduction by cadmium chloride on the resistance to combined injury such as whole body γ-irradiation at the dose of 7 Gy + thermal burn are investigated in (CBAxC57BL/6)F1 mice. Normal level of MT markedly increases in mice liver but not in bone marrow cells if cadmium chloride is given subcutaneously - 1 mg/kg - prior to combined injury. However, preinduction of M did not reduce the lethal effects and bone marrow devastation caused by combined radiation injury. No differences in the leukopenia degree are observed between control and MT-induced mice. So, cadmium-induced MT elevation in mice liver does not protect against the toxic and lethal effects caused by combined radiation injury

  15. Testicular tumors: correlation between radiological findings and pathology results; Neoplasias testiculares: aspectos ultra-sonograficos com correlacao anatomopatologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Luis Ronan Marques Ferreira de; Szejnfeld, Denis; Abud, Thiago G.; Szejnfeld, Jacob [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: luisronan@gmail.com; Takano, Daniela Mayumi [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Anatomia Patologica; Goldman, Suzan Menasce [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Setor de Geniturinario

    2005-10-15

    The aim of this study is to review the main imaging findings and the pathological and clinical features seen on patients with testicular tumors in order to define characteristics that may help in the differential diagnosis of the most frequent lesions. We performed a retrospective study of 51 patients with diagnosis of testicular tumors submitted to ultrasound and computed tomography between July 2003 to March 2004 that were referred to the Diagnostic Department of Sao Paulo University, Sao Paulo Hospital, Brazil. We concluded that a basic knowledge of the key imaging findings and pathological and clinical features of testicular tumor sis very helpful for an accurate diagnosis of this condition.(author)

  16. Multiple vascular anomalies involving testicular, suprarenal arteries and lumbar veins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Jyothsna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Testicular arteries arise from the abdominal aorta and the inferior suprarenal artery from the renal artery. There are reports about variant origin and course of these arteries. Accessory testicular artery is also a common finding but its providing origin to inferior suprarenal artery is an important observation. During a routine dissection of abdomen of approximately 55-year-old male cadaver, unique vascular abnormality was observed. On the left side, a common arterial trunk originating from abdominal aorta immediately branched to give rise to superior testicular and inferior suprarenal arteries, the former after a short course hooked by the left suprarenal vein. In addition, the left suprarenal vein, second left lumbar vein, and left testicular vein joined to form a common trunk which drained into the left renal vein. A sound knowledge of vascular variations in relation to the kidney and suprarenal gland is important to surgeons dissecting the abdominal cavity.

  17. Left testicular artery arching over the ipsilateral renal vein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Munekazu Naito; Hayato Terayama; Yoichi Nakamura; Shogo Hayashi; Takayoshi Miyaki; Masahiro Itoh

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To report two cases of the left testicular artery arching over the left renal vein (LRV) before running downward to the testis. Methods: The subjects were obtained from two Japanese cadavers. During the student course of gross-anatomical dissection, the anatomical relationship between the testicular vessels and the renal vein was specifically observed. Results: The arching left testicular artery arose from the aorta below the LRV and made a loop around the LRV, which appeared to be mildly compressed between the arching artery and the psoas major muscle.Conclusion: Clinically, compression of the LRV between the abdominal aorta and the superior mesenteric artery occasionally induces LRV hypertension, resulting in varicocele, orthostatic protenuria and hematuria. Considering that the incidence of a left arching testicular artery is higher than that of a right one, an arching left artery could be an additional cause of LRV hypertension.

  18. Transverse testicular ectopia, a case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslemi, Mohammad Kazem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Crossed testicular ectopia (CTE/transverse testicular ectopia (TTE is a rare but well known congenital anomaly, in which both gonads migrate toward the same hemiscrotum. It is usually associated with other abnormalities such as persistent Mullerian duct syndrome, true hermaphroditism, inguinal hernia, hypospadias, pseudohermaphroditism, and scrotal anomalies. About 100 cases of transverse testicular ectopia have been reported in published studies. We report a case of transverse testicular ectopia in an 8-month-old boy who presented with right inguinal hernia and nonpalpable left testis. On exploration, both testes were present in the right inguinal region. Bilateral orchiopexy was performed by crossing the left testis in the extra-peritoneal space and ipsilateral scrotal orchiopexy. The diagnosis could not be made preoperatively in most of reported cases.

  19. Testicular descent: INSL3, testosterone, genes and the intrauterine milieu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Katrine; Main, Katharina M; Toppari, Jorma; Skakkebæk, Niels E

    2011-01-01

    risk of infertility and testicular cancer in adulthood. Although some cases of isolated cryptorchidism in humans can be ascribed to known genetic defects, such as mutations in INSL3 or RXFP2, the cause of cryptorchidism remains unknown in most patients. Several animal and human studies are currently......Complete testicular descent is a sign of, and a prerequisite for, normal testicular function in adult life. The process of testis descent is dependent on gubernacular growth and reorganization, which is regulated by the Leydig cell hormones insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) and testosterone....... Investigation of the role of INSL3 and its receptor, relaxin-family peptide receptor 2 (RXFP2), has contributed substantially to our understanding of the hormonal control of testicular descent. Cryptorchidism is a common congenital malformation, which is seen in 2-9% of newborn boys, and confers an increased...

  20. Metachronous bilateral testicular germ cell tumors: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Francis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Metachronous bilateral testicular germ cell tumors is a rare known problem. However, no report of metachronus bilateralism was identified in the PubMed database published from India so far, where testicular cancer is relatively rare. We report the cases of two gentlemen. One had stage 1 nonseminomatous germ cell tumor (NSGCT at the age of 32 in 1990 and developed marker relapse on surveillance and had chemotherapy using cisplatin and etoposide for four cycles. He developed contralateral seminoma in the testis 13 years later. Another patient had left orchidectomy in 2003 for NSGCT, had adjuvant BEP for two cycles, and developed a contralateral testicular tumor 5 years later, which was also seminoma. As more patients with germ cell tumors are cured with chemotherapy, long-term problems become important. Contralateral testicular tumor is one of them. As it can be very late, many years of continued follow-up examination and patients′ awareness are necessary.

  1. Characterization of the cadmium complex of peptide 49-61: a putative nucleation center for cadmium-induced folding in rabbit liver metallothionein IIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, A; Laib, F; Petering, D H; Shaw, C F

    1999-08-01

    The synthetic peptide fragment containing residues 49-61 of rabbit liver metallothionein II (MT-II) (Ac-Ile-Cys-Lys-Gly-Ala-Ser-Asp-Lys-Cys-Ser-Cys-Cys-Ala-COOH), which includes the only sequential four cysteines bound to the same metal ion in Cd7MT, forms a stable, monomeric Cd-peptide complex with 1:1 stoichiometry (Cd:peptide) via Cd-thiolate interactions. This represents the first synthesis of a single metal-binding site of MT independent of the domains. The 111Cd NMR chemical shift at 716 ppm indicates that the 111Cd2+ in the metal site is terminally coordinated to four side-chain thiolates of the cysteine residues. The pH of half dissociation for this Cd-peptide derivative, approximately 3.3, demonstrates an affinity similar to that for Cd7MT. Molecular mechanics calculations show that the thermodynamically most stable folding for this isolated Cd2+ center has the same counterclockwise chirality (lambda or S) observed in the native holo-protein. These properties are consistent with its proposed role as a nucleation center for cadmium-induced protein folding. However, the kinetic reactivity of the CdS4 structure toward 5,5'-dithiobis(5-nitrobenzoate) (DTNB) and EDTA is greatly increased compared to the complete cluster (a-domain or holo-protein). The rate law for the reaction with DTNB is rate = (k(uf) + k(1,f) + k(2,f) [DTNB])[peptide], where k(uf) = 0.15 s(-1), k(1,f)= 2.59x10(-3) s(-1), and k(2,f) = 0.88 M(-1) s(-1). The ultrafast step (uf), observable only by stopped-flow measurement, is unprecedented for mammalian (M7MT) and crustacean (M6MT) holo-proteins or the isolated domains. The accommodation of other metal ions by the peptide indicates a rich coordination chemistry, including stoichiometries of M-peptide for Hg2+, Cd2+, and Zn2+, M2-peptide for Hg2+ and Au+, and (Et3PAu)2-peptide. PMID:10555583

  2. Ontogenesis of testicular function in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GaĂŤlle Angenard

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The two major functions of the testis, steroidogenesis and gametogenesis, take place during fetal life. These two functions have been extensively studied in rodents and adult humans. However, their onset during fetal life is poorly documented in humans. In the first part of this work we presented both our experimental data and some data of literature concerning the development of the human fetal testis. In the second part of this article, using the organ culture system we previously developed, we have investigated the regulations or perturbations of fetal testis development both in rodent and human models. Our findings provide important insight into the potential role of exposure to environmental pollutants (physical factors, in particular ionizing radiation, cadmium and endocrine disruptors such as phthalates during fetal testicular development and their potential deleterious effects on male fertility in adulthood. Our results highlight the specificity of the human model compared with rodent models.

  3. Molecular biology of testicular germ cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Exposito, R; Merino, M; Aguayo, C

    2016-06-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are the most common solid tumors in young adult men. They constitute a unique pathology because of their embryonic and germ origin and their special behavior. Genetic predisposition, environmental factors involved in their development and genetic aberrations have been under study in many works throughout the last years trying to explain the susceptibility and the transformation mechanism of TGCTs. Despite the high rate of cure in this type of tumors because its particular sensitivity to cisplatin, there are tumors resistant to chemotherapy for which it is needed to find new therapies. In the present work, it has been carried out a literature review on the most important molecular aspects involved in the onset and development of such tumors, as well as a review of the major developments regarding prognostic factors, new prognostic biomarkers and the possibility of new targeted therapies. PMID:26482724

  4. Origin of INSL3-mediated testicular descent in therian mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jae-Il; Semyonov, Jenia; Chang, Chia Lin; Yi, Wei; Warren, Wesley; Hsu, Sheau Yu Teddy

    2008-01-01

    Testicular descent is a unique physiological adaptation found in therian mammals allowing optimal spermatogenesis below core body temperature. Recent studies show that INSL3, produced by Leydig cells, and its receptor LGR8 (RXFP2) are essential for mediating the transabdominal phase of testicular descent during early development. However, the origin and genetic basis for this physiological adaptation is not clear. Using syntenic mapping and the functional characterization of contemporary and ...

  5. Adverse testicular effects of Botox® in mature rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breikaa, Randa M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Mosli, Hisham A. [Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Nagy, Ayman A. [Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta (Egypt); Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B., E-mail: abnaim.pharma@gmail.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-03-01

    Botox® injections are taking a consistently increasing place in urology. Intracremasteric injections, particularly, have been applied for cryptorchidism and painful testicular spasms. Studies outlining their safety for this use are, however, scanty. Thus, the present study aimed at evaluating possible testicular toxicity of Botox® injections and their effect on male fertility. Mature rats were given intracremasteric Botox® injections (10, 20 and 40 U/kg) three times in a two-week interval. Changes in body and testes weights were examined and gonadosomatic index compared to control group. Semen quality, sperm parameters, fructose, protein, cholesterol and triglycerides contents were assessed. Effects on normal testicular function were investigated by measuring testosterone levels and changes in enzyme activities (lactate dehydrogenase-X and acid phosphatase). To draw a complete picture, changes in oxidative and inflammatory states were examined, in addition to the extent of connective tissue deposition between seminiferous tubules. In an attempt to have more accurate information about possible spermatotoxic effects of Botox®, flowcytometric analysis and histopathological examination were carried out. Botox®-injected rats showed altered testicular physiology and function. Seminiferous tubules were separated by dense fibers, especially with the highest dose. Flowcytometric analysis showed a decrease in mature sperms and histopathology confirmed the findings. The oxidative state was, however, comparable to control group. This study is the first to show that intracremasteric injections of Botox® induce adverse testicular effects evidenced by inhibited spermatogenesis and initiation of histopathological changes. In conclusion, decreased fertility may be a serious problem Botox® injections could cause. - Highlights: • Botox® injections are the trend nowadays, for both medical and non-medical uses. • They were recently suggested for cryptorchidism and

  6. The Role of Androgens in Testicular Development and Dysgenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Hayley M.

    2007-01-01

    Disorders of male reproductive health which manifest at birth (cryptorchidism, hypospadias) or in young adulthood (testicular germ cell cancer and low sperm counts), are common and may be increasing in incidence. These disorders have a common fetal origin and share risk factors; consequently they are hypothesized to comprise a testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). TDS arises when maldevelopment (dysgenesis) of the fetal testis results in hormonal malfunctions and abnormal de...

  7. Retroperitoneal fibrosis following radiotherapy for stage I testicular seminoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moul, J W

    1992-01-01

    Retroperitoneal fibrosis, proved by surgical exploration and pathology, was discovered in a patient 13 years after 3,000 rad external beam cobalt retroperitoneal radiation therapy for stage I testicular seminoma. Ureteral obstruction resulted in the loss of 1 kidney, necessitating ipsilateral nephrectomy and contralateral ureterolysis. To my knowledge this is the first reported case of retroperitoneal fibrosis occurring after radiotherapy for testicular cancer. PMID:1729501

  8. Phthalate-induced testicular dysgenesis syndrome: Leydig cell influence

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Guo-xin; Lian, Qing-quan; GE, REN-SHAN; Hardy, Dianne O; Li, Xiao-Kun

    2009-01-01

    Phthalates, the most abundantly produced plasticizers, leach out from polyvinyl chloride plastics and disrupt androgen action. Male rats that are exposed to phthalates in utero develop symptoms characteristic of the human condition referred to as testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). Environmental influences have been suspected to contribute to the increasing incidence of TDS in humans (i.e. cryptorchidism and hypospadias in newborn boys and testicular cancer and reduced sperm quality in adul...

  9. Adolescent milk, dairy product and fruit consumption and testicular cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, T. W.; Palmer, C. R.; Ruja, E.; Lipscombe, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    There is an association between dairy product consumption and the incidence of testicular cancer in different countries. To test the hypothesis that milk and dairy products are risk factors, a case-control study was performed in East Anglia, UK. All the cases were men with testicular cancer and for each of the 200 cases there were four controls, two cancer controls and two population controls. The response rate of those eligible subjects who received a questionnaire was: cases 73%, cancer con...

  10. Effects of testicular transfixation on seminiferous tubule morphology and sperm parameters of prepubertal, pubertal, and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Carina T; De Souza, Diogo B; Costa, Waldemar S; Pereira-Sampaio, Marco A; Sampaio, Francisco J B

    2015-10-15

    Orchiopexy is performed as part of cryptorchidism and testicular torsion treatment. The inflammation caused by the needle and suture penetration has been suggested to be one of the possible causes of subfertility after parenchymal transfixation of the testicles. The purpose of the present study was to investigate testicular alterations after parenchymal transfixation sutures at different ages in rats. Prepubertal, pubertal, and adult rats were submitted to parenchymal suturing (without tying the knots, thus avoiding local ischemic injury) of the right testicle, which was maintained for 4 hours. All animals were subjected to euthanasia on completion of 14 weeks of life. The right testicles were studied as the sutured testicles, whereas the left organs were studied as contralateral. One age-matched control group of rats that was not submitted to any procedure was used for comparison. During euthanasia, sperm were collected from the tail of the epididymal and evaluated for concentration, motility, and viability. Samples from testicular tissue were collected for morphologic analysis. Sperm analysis indicated that only the adult operated animals presented reductions in motility (38.2% of adult vs. 54.1% of control; P = 0.02) and viability (16.6% of adult vs. 24.6% of control; P = 0.003). Several morphologic alterations were noted both in sutured and in contralateral testes at all ages. For instance, the seminiferous epithelium volumetric density of right testicles was reduced from 50.4% in controls to 32.3% in prepubertal operated animals, 45.3% in pubertal operated animals, and 39.4% in adult operated animals (P < 0.05). The seminiferous epithelium volumetric density was also reduced to 39.9% and 39.0% in contralateral testicles of animals operated before and after puberty, respectively (P < 0.05). The animals operated on before puberty and in adulthood showed more testicular morphologic alterations, as seminiferous tubule volumetric density, seminiferous tubule length

  11. Testicular and vascular changes in children and adults with varicocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadziselimovic, F; Herzog, B; Liebundgut, B; Jenny, P; Buser, M

    1989-08-01

    We analyzed bilateral testicular biopsies of 188 infertile patients with idiopathic left varicocele. The left side had significant pathological tubular testicular changes compared to the right side, whereas in only 7 per cent of the patients tubular damage was more pronounced on the right side. The Leydig cell pathological score was identical in both testes in 95 per cent of the patients. However, the lower the Leydig cell pathological score the better the testicular histology, suggesting an association between Leydig cell score and testicular function. Of the 188 patients 11 boys and 8 adults were randomly selected, and they displayed clear endothelial proliferative lesions of the capillaries at the ultrastructural level. Proliferative endothelial lesions in the patients with varicocele preceded the testicular changes. This, together with the prevalence of tubular damage at the site of the varicocele and the reversibility of these changes postoperatively, emphasizes the deleterious effects of varicocele as a cause of infertility in these patients. Early surgery for boys in whom the first signs of testicular atrophy occur is highly recommended. PMID:2746782

  12. Arterial glomerulus at the hilum of the right kidney and the abnormal course of the right testicular artery: a case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badagabettu Satheesha Nayak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Variations in the origin of arteries in the abdomen are very common. With the invention of new operative techniques within the abdomen cavity, the anatomy of abdominal vessels has assumed a great deal of clinical importance. We report here a rare case of formation of an "arterial glomerulus" at the hilum of the right kidney by the branches of right renal artery. There were 2 renal veins; a superficial and a deep. The deep vein had a peculiar course through the arterial glomerulus. The right testicular vein drained into the deep renal vein. We also observed a variant origin and course of right testicular artery. Prior knowledge of unusual branching pattern of renal vessels is necessary in the surgical interventions which require hilar dissection. Similarly, abnormal origin or course of testicular artery becomes apparent during surgical procedures like varicocele and undescended testes. Therefore, knowledge of such an anomaly in the testicular artery helps to avoid iatrogenic injuries during radiological or surgical procedures.

  13. Fluoride-elicited developmental testicular toxicity in rats: Roles of endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammatory response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shun [Department of Environmental Health and MOE Key Lab of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Hangkong Road 13, Wuhan 430030, Hubei (China); Jiang, Chunyang [Department of Environmental Health and MOE Key Lab of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Hangkong Road 13, Wuhan 430030, Hubei (China); Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tianjin Union Medicine Centre, 190 Jieyuan Road, Hongqiao District, Tianjin 300121, Tianjin (China); Liu, Hongliang [Tianjin Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Huayue Road 6, Hedong Region, Tianjin 300011, Tianjin (China); Guan, Zhizhong [Department of Pathology, Guiyang Medical College, Guiyang 550004, Guizhou (China); Zeng, Qiang [Tianjin Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Huayue Road 6, Hedong Region, Tianjin 300011, Tianjin (China); Zhang, Cheng; Lei, Rongrong; Xia, Tao; Gao, Hui; Yang, Lu; Chen, Yihu; Wu, Xue; Zhang, Xiaofei [Department of Environmental Health and MOE Key Lab of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Hangkong Road 13, Wuhan 430030, Hubei (China); Cui, Yushan; Yu, Linyu [Tianjin Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Huayue Road 6, Hedong Region, Tianjin 300011, Tianjin (China); Wang, Zhenglun [Department of Environmental Health and MOE Key Lab of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Hangkong Road 13, Wuhan 430030, Hubei (China); Wang, Aiguo, E-mail: wangaiguo@mails.tjmu.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Health and MOE Key Lab of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Hangkong Road 13, Wuhan 430030, Hubei (China)

    2013-09-01

    Long-term excessive fluoride intake is known to be toxic and can damage a variety of organs and tissues in the human body. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying fluoride-induced male reproductive toxicity are not well understood. In this study, we used a rat model to simulate the situations of human exposure and aimed to evaluate the roles of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammatory response in fluoride-induced testicular injury. Sprague–Dawley rats were administered with sodium fluoride (NaF) at 25, 50 and 100 mg/L via drinking water from pre-pregnancy to gestation, birth and finally to post-puberty. And then the testes of male offspring were studied at 8 weeks of age. Our results demonstrated that fluoride treatment increased MDA accumulation, decreased SOD activity, and enhanced germ cell apoptosis. In addition, fluoride elevated mRNA and protein levels of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), inositol requiring ER-to-nucleus signal kinase 1 (IRE1), and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), indicating activation of ER stress signaling. Furthermore, fluoride also induced testicular inflammation, as manifested by gene up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), in a nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-dependent manner. These were associated with marked histopathological lesions including injury of spermatogonia, decrease of spermatocytes and absence of elongated spermatids, as well as severe ultrastructural abnormalities in testes. Taken together, our results provide compelling evidence that ER stress and inflammation would be novel and significant mechanisms responsible for fluoride-induced disturbance of spermatogenesis and germ cell loss in addition to oxidative stress. - Highlights: • We used a rat model to simulate the situations of human fluoride (F) exposure. • Developmental F exposure induces testicular damage related with oxidative stress.

  14. Fluoride-elicited developmental testicular toxicity in rats: Roles of endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammatory response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term excessive fluoride intake is known to be toxic and can damage a variety of organs and tissues in the human body. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying fluoride-induced male reproductive toxicity are not well understood. In this study, we used a rat model to simulate the situations of human exposure and aimed to evaluate the roles of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammatory response in fluoride-induced testicular injury. Sprague–Dawley rats were administered with sodium fluoride (NaF) at 25, 50 and 100 mg/L via drinking water from pre-pregnancy to gestation, birth and finally to post-puberty. And then the testes of male offspring were studied at 8 weeks of age. Our results demonstrated that fluoride treatment increased MDA accumulation, decreased SOD activity, and enhanced germ cell apoptosis. In addition, fluoride elevated mRNA and protein levels of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), inositol requiring ER-to-nucleus signal kinase 1 (IRE1), and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), indicating activation of ER stress signaling. Furthermore, fluoride also induced testicular inflammation, as manifested by gene up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), in a nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-dependent manner. These were associated with marked histopathological lesions including injury of spermatogonia, decrease of spermatocytes and absence of elongated spermatids, as well as severe ultrastructural abnormalities in testes. Taken together, our results provide compelling evidence that ER stress and inflammation would be novel and significant mechanisms responsible for fluoride-induced disturbance of spermatogenesis and germ cell loss in addition to oxidative stress. - Highlights: • We used a rat model to simulate the situations of human fluoride (F) exposure. • Developmental F exposure induces testicular damage related with oxidative stress.

  15. Cancer in first-degree relatives and risk of testicular cancer in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Nordsborg, Rikke Baastrup; Meliker, Jaymie R.; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Familial aggregation of testicular cancer has been reported consistently, but it is less clear if there is any association between risk of testicular cancer and other cancers in the family. We conducted a population based case-control study to examine the relationship between risk of testicular cancer and 22 different cancers in first-degree relatives. We included 3297 cases of testicular cancer notified to the Danish Cancer Registry between 1991 and 2003. 6594 matched controls were selected ...

  16. Pattern of testicular biopies as seen in a tertiary institution in Nnewi, Southeast Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidi-Kingsley Oranusi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Testicular biopsy is an acknowledged method of examination of the testes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. We describe the pattern of testicular histologies in our environment. Materials and Methods: We carried out a retrospective review of testicular histology results from the Pathology Department of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH, Nnewi, over a 5-year period, January 2008 to December 2012. Results: During the period, 285 testicular histologies were reported. Eighty-one (28.4% specimens were pathological specimens, while 204 (71.6% were nonpathological specimens. Thirty-seven (13.0% of the histology reports were for diagnostic purpose while 248 (87.0% were for therapeutic purpose. Based on the results, indications could also be categorized into three, benign testicular pathology, malignant testicular pathology, and testicular biopsy for male factor infertility. Thirty-seven cases (13.0% were due to male factor infertility with complete spermatogenic arrest as the most common histological finding in 21 (56.8% of the cases. Malignant testicular diseases accounted for 16 (5.6% of the indications for testicular biopsies. Benign testicular diseases accounted for 28 (9.8% of the indications for testicular biopsies. Hemorrhagic infarction from testicular torsion represented the commonest histology in 12 (42.9% cases, followed by inflammations of the testes. Conclusion: Indications for testicular biopsy can be diagnostic and therapeutic. They can also be categorized into benign testicular diseases, malignant testicular diseases, and male infertility. Investigation for male factor infertility was the only diagnostic indication for testicular biopsy. The high incidence of locally and metastatic prostate cancer in males explains why therapeutic removal of the testis is common.

  17. Paternity after irradiation for testicular cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the Medical Birth Registry (MBR) of Norway, 69 of about 430 patients irradiated for testicular cancer (stage I+II) during 1966-1978 fathered at least one child after radiation therapy (median observation time 136 months, range 36-191 months). A total of 95 children were born. Between 10 and 122 months elapsed between discontinuation of irradiation and the birth of the first child born after radiation therapy. Though the total doses to the abdominal irradiation field were higher in patients irradiated by a linear accelerator (1971-1978), than in those treated by a betatron (1966-1970), the gonadal doses were generally lower in the former group due to better gonadal shielding. In the children, the sex ratio and the median weight and length at birth were comparable to those values seen in a control group from the MBR. No increased frequency of malformations was observed. It is concluded that modern radiation therapy techniques allow post-irradiation fathership in a significant number of patients without risk of neonatal problems or malformations in the children. (orig.)

  18. Testicular tumors: oncologic imaging and diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extreme radiosensitivity of testicular seminomas plus recent advances in chemotherapy for nonseminomatous tumors and for advanced seminomas have made long term survival possible in the large majority of patients with testis cancer. Since choice of therapy is determined by tumor histology and extent of disease, accurate clinical staging is critical. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and chest is the imaging procedure of choice for staging testis cancer. Clinical staging accuracy of 80 to 90% can be achieved using CT in combination with radio-immunoassays for β-HCG and AFP. Ultrasonography (US), while less sensitive and specific than CT for determining nodal status, may be useful in thin patients with sparse retroperitoneal fat. Lymphangiography should be reserved for Stage I patients in whom elective treatment of the retroperitoneum is not planned. Follow-up should include serial radioimmunoassays for serum AFP and β-HCG and periodic CT examinations of the abdomen and chest. In addition, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging and radionuclide imaging following injection of radioactively labelled antibodies to AFP and β-HCG are new techniques which offer great promise for the future

  19. mTOR expression in human testicular seminoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaba, A; Bozkurt, E R; Demir, N

    2016-08-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (TOR) has been implicated in the control of different stressors, growth factors, nutrients and hormones, participating in the control of key cellular functions. Controlling this many pathways poses mTOR signalling as a potential new target in new treatment strategies for multiple cancer types. mTOR components could potentially mislocated in tumour cells, which could lead to activation of signalling pathway that should not be active. Therefore, we aimed to show localisation of mTOR signal proteins in testicular seminoma. Tumoural testicular tissues were obtained from 10 patients with unilateral classic seminoma undergoing to therapeutic orchidectomy and compared with control human testicular tissues. Upon immunohistochemical evaluation, we detected mTOR and p-mTOR (serine 2448), P70S6K, p-P70S6K, PKCalpha and p-PKCalpha, CD36 and MAPLC3 proteins in the cytoplasm of Sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubules. We also showed cytoplasmic perinuclear staining in seminoma cells. This study demonstrated the interaction of mTOR signalling pathway and testicular seminoma by showing intense cytoplasmic mTOR pathway proteins immunoreactivity in the seminoma, for the first time in humans. Therefore, we suggested that mTOR signalling components could create new clinical targets for treatment of testicular seminoma patients and male infertility in the future. PMID:26648340

  20. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome and the origin of carcinoma in situ testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Si Brask; Kristensen, David Møbjerg; Novotny, Guy W;

    2008-01-01

    Recent increases in male reproductive disorders have been linked to exposure to environmental factors leading to the testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). Testicular cancer is the most severe condition in TDS and studies have shown a clear correlation between risk of testicular cancer and other c...

  1. Study on the incidence of testicular and epididymal appendages in patients with cryptorchidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favorito Luciano A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the incidence of testicular and epididymal appendages in patients with cryptorchidism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 65 patients with cryptorchidism, totalizing 83 testes and 40 patients who had prostate adenocarcinoma and hydrocele (control group, totalizing 55 testes. The following situations were analyzed: I absence of testicular and epididymal appendages, II presence of testicular appendage only, III presence of epididymal appendage, IV presence of testicular and epididymal appendage, V presence of 2 epididymal appendages and 1 testicular appendage and VI presence of paradidymis or vas aberrans of Haller. RESULTS: In patients with cryptorchidism we found testicular appendages in 23 cases (41.8%, epididymal appendages in 9 (16.3%, testicular and epididymal appendage in 8 (14.5%, 2 epididymal appendages and 1 testicular in 1 (1.8% and absence of appendages in 14 (25.4%. In the control group, we found testicular appendages in 29 (34.9%, epididymal appendages in 19 (22.8%, testicular and epididymal appendage in 7 (8.4%, and absence of appendages in 28 (33.7%, we did not find 2 epididymal appendages in this group, and none of the patients in the 2 groups presented paradidymis or vas aberrans of Haller. CONCLUSION: The occurrence of testicular and epididymal appendages is quite variable. There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence and distribution of the testicular and epididymal appendages between patients with cryptorchidism and those from the control group.

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  8. File list: Pol.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Gonad Testicular somat...ic cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  9. File list: Unc.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells mm9 Unclassified Gonad Testicular germ cells... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells.bed ...

  10. Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen muscles Achilles tendon injuries Pain along the shin bone Rotator cuff injuries Fractures Dislocations If you get hurt, stop playing. Continuing ...

  11. Studies on the influence of radiation and chemotherapy on pituitary-testicular axis in patients with testicular tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation and chemotherapy have been known as the highly effective treatment of patients with testicular tumor. To evaluate the influences of the therapies on pituitary-testicular axis, plasma FSH, LH and testosterone were determined by radioimmunoassay in 60 patients with testicular tumor before and after 1 to 102 months in the completion of radiation and chemotherapy. The results were summarized as follows: 1) In 10 out of 24 patients, plasma FSH and LH levels significantly increased within 20 months after 2,100 - 4,500 rad/3 - 6 weeks of radiation therapy. 2) In combination chromotherapy popularly used for testicular tumor, plasma FSH and LH in 8 of 22 patients markedly elevated within 20 months after the treatment. 3) The elevated gonadotropins returned to normal levels in approximately 50 months in patients received radiation or chemotherapy. 4) Plasma testosterone revealed normal levels in any therapeutic programs employed in the present study. 5) From the results of Gn-RH test, the pituitary gland seemed to have normal function. 6) Plasma testosterone showed incomplete response to hCG stimulation after 1 to 35 months of radiation or chemotherapy. Therefore, it was suggested that radiation and chemotherapy for the treatment of testicular tumor may impair not only seminiferous tubules but also Leydig cell for a couple of years. (author)

  12. Testicular torsion and the acute scrotum: current emergency management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Anthony; D'Arcy, Frank T; Hoag, Nathan; D'Arcy, John P; Lawrentschuk, Nathan

    2016-06-01

    The acute scrotum is a challenging condition for the treating emergency physician requiring consideration of a number of possible diagnoses including testicular torsion. Prompt recognition of torsion and exclusion of other causes may lead to organ salvage, avoiding the devastating functional and psychological issues of testicular loss and minimizing unnecessary exploratory surgeries. This review aims to familiarize the reader with the latest management strategies for the acute scrotum, discusses key points in diagnosis and management and evaluates the strengths and drawbacks of history and clinical examination from an emergency perspective. It outlines the types and mechanisms of testicular torsion, and examines the current and possible future roles of labwork and radiological imaging in diagnosis. Emergency departments should be wary of younger males presenting with the acute scrotum. PMID:26267075

  13. Fetal radiation exposure induces testicular cancer in genetically susceptible mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunapala Shetty

    Full Text Available The prevalence of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT, a common solid tissue malignancy in young men, has been annually increasing at an alarming rate of 3%. Since the majority of testicular cancers are derived from germ cells at the stage of transformation of primordial germ cell (PGC into gonocytes, the increase has been attributed to maternal/fetal exposures to environmental factors. We examined the effects of an estrogen (diethylstilbestrol, DES, an antiandrogen (flutamide, or radiation on the incidence of testicular germ cell tumors in genetically predisposed 129.MOLF-L1 (L1 congenic mice by exposing them to these agents on days 10.5 and 11.5 of pregnancy. Neither flutamide nor DES produced noticeable increases in testis cancer incidence at 4 weeks of age. In contrast, two doses of 0.8-Gy radiation increased the incidence of TGCT from 45% to 100% in the offspring. The percentage of mice with bilateral tumors, weights of testes with TGCT, and the percentage of tumors that were clearly teratomas were higher in the irradiated mice than in controls, indicating that irradiation induced more aggressive tumors and/or more foci of initiation sites in each testis. This radiation dose did not disrupt spermatogenesis, which was qualitatively normal in tumor-free testes although they were reduced in size. This is the first proof of induction of testicular cancer by an environmental agent and suggests that the male fetus of women exposed to radiation at about 5-6 weeks of pregnancy might have an increased risk of developing testicular cancer. Furthermore, it provides a novel tool for studying the molecular and cellular events of testicular cancer pathogenesis.

  14. Lonidamine affects testicular steroid hormones in immature mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects on the hypothalamus-pituitary-testicular axis of the well-known antispermatogenic drug lonidamine (LND) has not been elucidated so far. In the present study, the possible changes of the testicular steroid hormones were evaluated in immature mice for a better characterization of the LND adverse effects both in its use as antitumoral agent and male contraceptive. Male CD1 mice were orally treated on postnatal day 28 (PND28) with LND single doses (0 or 100 mg/kg b.w.) and euthanized every 24 h from PND29 to PND32, on PND35 and on PND42 (1 and 2 weeks after the administration, respectively). Severe testicular effects were evidenced in the LND treated groups, including: a) significant testis weight increase, 24 h and 48 h after dosing; b) sperm head counts decrease (more than 50% of the control) on PND29-32; c) damage of the tubule morphology primarily on the Sertoli cell structure and germ cell exfoliation. All these reproductive endpoints were recovered on PND42. At the same time, a significant impairment of the testicular steroid balance was observed in the treated mice, as evidenced by the decrease of testosterone (T) and androstenedione (ADIONE) and the increase of 17OH-progesterone (17OH-P4) on the first days after dosing, while the testicular content of 17β-estradiol (E2) was unchanged. The hormonal balance was not completely restored afterwards, as levels of T, ADIONE and 17OH-P4 tended to be higher in the treated mice than in the controls, on PND35 and PND42. These data showed for the first time that LND affects intratesticular steroids in experimental animals. However further data are needed both to elucidate the mechanism responsible for the impairment of these metabolic pathways and to understand if the androgens decrease observed after LND administration could be partially involved in the testicular damage

  15. Role of magnetic resonance in testicular and paratesticular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analyze and describe the most relevant diagnostic findings in testicular and paratesticular disease by Magnetic Resonance. A total of 78 patients chosen by ultrasound, in whom testicular or paratesticular disease was observed and in whom there was clinical suspicion of disease and non-conclusive ultrasonography, were analyzed. A Magnetic Resonance (MR) unit of 0.5 T (Gyros can T5. Philips) was used with a surface coil fixed on a sheet that covered the testicular region. Pre- and post contrast T1-weighted spin echo sequences (TR/TE: 572/20, Field of View (FOV): 180 mm, thickness: 6 mm, gap: 0.6 mm and matrix: 256 x 256). T2 fast-spin echo (TR/TE: 3257/120) and and STIR were used. In every case, the final diagnosis was reached by anatomopathological results or follow-up. The T2 weighted sequences assess the testicular parenchyma as it has a high signal, differentiating the epididymus by its low signal intensity. In the acute scrotum, the MR reaches sensitivity, specificity and Kappa Index of 100%. In the tumors, better diagnostic performance than the ultrasonography was not found except in the Leydig tumor, which showed a significant importance after the contrast administration. The multiplanar capacity had special importance in the intra or extra testicular localization of the lesions. Although the ultrasonography represents the first diagnostic technique in scrotal diseases, we have to consider MR as a technique that not only is used as a support in those cases that are not conclusive, but also one that has having special importance in entities such as acute scrotum and especially in cases of testicular torsion. (Author) 27 refs

  16. Imatinib Mesylate in Treating Patients With Progressive, Refractory, or Recurrent Stage II or Stage III Testicular or Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Ovarian Dysgerminoma; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Testicular Seminoma

  17. Testicular Feminization: Report of Three Cases in a Family

    OpenAIRE

    H Moayyeri

    2002-01-01

    Case of the complete syndrome of testicular feminization were reported early in the 19th century, but it was in 1950 that Lawson recognized the etiology in a patient with amenorrhea and failing pubic and axillary hair, which was unresponsive to testosterone therapy. The prevalence of androgen resistance is estimated to be between 1:20.000 and 1:64.000 men and the complete form is the 3rd most common cause of primary amenorrhea. Testicular feminization is transmitted as X-linked recessive trai...

  18. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome: possible role of endocrine disrupters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Katrine; Asklund, Camilla; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2006-01-01

    The testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS) hypothesis proposes that the four conditions cryptorchidism, hypospadias, impaired spermatogenesis and testis cancer may all be manifestations of disturbed prenatal testicular development. The TDS hypothesis is based on epidemiological, clinical and....... Clinically, the most common manifestation of TDS is probably a reduced sperm concentration, whereas the more severe form may include a high risk of testis cancer. Clinicians should be aware of the interconnection between the different features of TDS, and inclusion of a programme for early detection of...... testis cancer in the management of infertile men with poor semen quality is recommended....

  19. Gynecomastia Following Cytotoxic Therapy in a Patient with Testicular Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış Akıncı

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Gynecomastia is the development of abnormal breast tissue in men. Relatively increased estrogen action on tissue level is believed to play a main role in the pathogenesis of the entity. Here, we describe a patient with painless gynecomastia presenting after cytotoxic chemotherapy for testicular cancer. Further investigations showed no evidence of disease progression, recurrence, or metastasis. We suggest that the clinicians should be aware that gynecomastia may follow cytotoxic chemotherapy for testicular cancer and does not reflect the return of malignancy. Turk Jem 2008; 12: 86-7

  20. Testicular Synovial Sarcoma: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports a case of testicular synovial sarcoma with molecular genetic analysis. A 24-year-old male presented with painless scrotal mass. Ultrasonography showed a heterogeneous mass of 66 mm × 34 mm in size involving the inguinal region. Histological examination of a surgical biopsy showed a grade III monophasic growth pattern of spindle cell proliferation. Immunohistochemical analyses indicated positive staining for pancytokeratine and epithelial membrane antigen. Cytogenetic analysis showed the presence of CYT-SSX1 mutation, and CT scan showed non-specific pleural micro-nodules with a size of 7.5 mm. The patient had an extended left orchidectomy but was lost to follow-up for 1 year. A local recurrent scrotal mass of 32 mm × 25 mm, multiple inguinal lymph nodes, and increased pleural nodules, which were confirmed by histological examination, were treated with three cycles of adriamycine and ifosfamide chemotherapy, surgical resection, and radiotherapy with complete response. After 3 months, the patient developed local recurrence and pulmonary metastases that did not respond to second-line chemotherapy based on gemcitabine and paclitaxel. The patient had dyspnea at the time of this writing and chest pain, and is under third-line chemotherapy based on Deticene after 30 months of following up. This patient died on November 16, 2012 after a resperatory failure and malignant pelural effusion. Synovial sarcoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of soft tissue tumor and it should be aggressively treated to improve prognosis. Although our patient has shown numerous factors of bad prognosis, he has had a relatively long survival time

  1. Torsión testicular in útero: reporte de un caso Intra-uterine testicular torsion: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Álvarez J; Carmen Sandoval C; Mario Zapata M

    2003-01-01

    La torsión testicular puede producirse en la vida fetal o en el recién nacido siendo una patología poco frecuente. Objetivo: Dada la baja frecuencia de la torsión testicular in útero y la escasez de publicaciones en nuestro medio, consideramos importante mostrar nuestra experiencia. Caso clínico:recién nacido de término, de 41 semanas, adecuado para la edad gestacional; al examen físico post parto se encuentra un testículo izquierdo de consistencia pétrea e hidrocele derecho. Se le realizó ec...

  2. A Primary Testicular Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma Belonging to the Germinal Center B-cell-like Group

    OpenAIRE

    Mlika, Mona; Chelly, Ines; Benrhouma, Mohamed; Haouet, Slim; Horchani, Ali; Zitouna, Mohamed Moncef; Kchir, Nidham

    2010-01-01

    Testicular lymphoma was first reported by Malassez and Curling in 1866. Primary testicular lymphoma constitutes only 1 - 7% of all testicular neoplasms and less than 1% of all non Hodgkin lymphoma. The authors report a new case of primary testicular lymphoma and highlight its diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We report the case of a 26-year old man without a particular past medical history, who presented with a painful right testicular swelling that he has noticed for several weeks. Radio...

  3. The effect of the melatonin on cryopreserved mouse testicular cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Saki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: After improvements in various cancer treatments, life expectancy has been raised, but success in treatment causes loss of fertility in many of the survived young men. Cryopreservation of immature testicular tissues or cells introduced as the only way to preserve fertility. However, freezing has some harmful effects. Melatonin, a pineal gland hormone, has receptors in reproductive systems of different species. It is assumed that melatonin has free radical scavenger properties. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of melatonin on the cryopreserved testicular cells in mouse. Materials and Methods: Cells from 7- 10 days old NMRI mice testes were isolated using two step enzymatic digestion. The testicular cells were divided into two groups randomly and cryopreserved in two different freezing media with and without the addition of 100 μm melatonin. Finally, apoptosis of the cells was assayed by flow cytometry. Also, lactate dehydrogenase activity test was performed to assess the cytotoxicity. Results: The results of lactate dehydrogenase showed the nearly cytotoxic effect of melatonin. The results of flow cytometry showed increase in apoptosis in the cryopreserved cells in the media containing melatonin compared to the control group. Conclusion: The present study shows that melatonin has an apoptotic effect on cryopreserved mouse testicular cells.

  4. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome: foetal origin of adult reproductive problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Main, Katharina M; Skakkebaek, Niels Erik

    2009-01-01

    that maternal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals may contribute to the pathogenesis of TDS. Animal experiments have shown that all TDS symptoms, except testicular cancer, can be induced by foetal exposure to anti-androgenic chemicals. However, the cause of TDS in humans remains to be determined....

  5. Testicular lactate content is compromised in men with Klinefelter Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Marco G; Martins, Ana D; Jarak, Ivana; Barros, Alberto; Silva, Joaquina; Sousa, Mário; Oliveira, Pedro F

    2016-03-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is the most common genetic cause of human infertility, but the mechanism(s) responsible for its phenotype remain largely unknown. KS is associated with alterations in body composition and with a higher risk of developing metabolic diseases. We therefore hypothesized that KS men seeking fertility treatment possess an altered testicular metabolism profile that may hamper the nutritional support of spermatogenesis. Testicular biopsies from control (46, XY) (n = 6) and KS (47, XXY) (n = 6) individuals were collected and analyzed by proton high-resolution magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The mRNA and protein expression of crucial glycolysis-associated enzymes and transporters were evaluated in parallel by quantitative PCR and Western blot, respectively. Our data revealed altered regulation of glucose transporters (GLUT1 and GLUT3); phosphofructokinase 1, liver isoform (PFKL); and lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) expression in the testis of KS patients. Moreover, we detected a severe reduction in lactate and creatine accumulation within testicular tissue from KS men. The aberrant levels of the biomarkers detected in testicular biopsies of KS men may therefore be associated with the infertility phenotypes presented by these men. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 83: 208-216, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26676340

  6. Testicular damage and farming environments - An integrative ecotoxicological link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parelho, Carolina; Bernardo, Filipe; Camarinho, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Armindo Santos; Garcia, Patrícia

    2016-07-01

    The exposure to agrochemicals during farming activities affects the function of the reproductive system, as revealed by the increasing worldwide evidence of male infertility amongst farmers. The main objective of this study was to untangle the link between agricultural practices and male reproductive impairment due to chronic exposure to xenobiotics (such as agrochemicals) in conventional and organic farming environments. For this purpose, male wild mice (Mus musculus) populations from sites representing two distinct farming practices (conventional and organic farming systems) were used as bioindicators for observable effects of testicular damage, namely on a set of histological and cellular parameters: (i) relative volumetric density of different spermatogenic cells and interstitial space; (ii) damage in the seminiferous tubules and (iii) apoptotic cells in the germinal epithelium. Results showed that mice from the conventional farming site bioaccumulated higher Pb hepatic loads, while mice from the organic farming site tend to bioaccumulate higher Cd hepatic loads. In general, for the analyzed testicular damage related parameters, mice from the organic farming site showed a similar performance than mice from the reference site. Mice from the conventional farming site stood out not only by underperforming in most studied parameters, while displaying an association between Pb hepatic loads and the observed testicular structural and functional disruption, but also by the increased stress index (Integrated Biomarker Response value). This study highlights the potential damaging effects of conventional farming practices on testicular structure and function, under natural conditions, raising concern about ensuing fertility risks for farmers. PMID:27108371

  7. Many Men Ignore Testicular Cancer Symptoms for Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Raman said. About 9,000 new cases of testicular cancer are diagnosed each year in the United States, according to Raman. Risk factors include being white and having a testicle that didn't descend when younger. Since these risk factors are not preventable, the best thing to do is be aware ...

  8. DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF METACHRONOUS TESTICULAR CANCER: A CLINICAL CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kalpinsky

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of bilateral testicular cancer is 5% in the total cohort of patients. Synchronous and metachronous testicular cancers are detected in 1-2 and 3% of cases, respectively. The standard treatment for testicular cancer is orchifuniculectomy and that for synchronous or metachronous cancer is organ-saving treatment, testectomy.The paper describes a clinical case of multiple primary metachronous testicular cancer. A 24-year-old patient underwent surgery (orchifuniculectomy and received 4 courses of BEP polychemotherapy for embryonal carcinoma of the left testicle at the P.A. Herzen Moscow Oncology Research Institute. After 55 months, a dynamic control examination diagnosed a 9-mm tumor in his single right testis that was thereafter resected. Its histological examination revealed embryonal carcinoma with solitary structures in the immature teratoma. Following 22 months, a control examination showed a recurrence of the disease, for which orchifuniculectomy of the single right testis, followed by hormone replacement therapy, was performed. The follow-up period was 80 months; no recurrence is now observed.

  9. Transverse testicular ectopia with disorders of sex development

    OpenAIRE

    Aoki, Katsuya; KUWADA, MASAOMI; Fujimoto, Kiyohide; Hirao, Yoshihiko

    2012-01-01

    Transverse testicular ectopia (TTE) is a rare congenital anomaly. Although TTE often coexists with abnormalities such as inguinal hernia and persistent Mullerian duct syndrome, disorders of sex development (DSD) in combination with TTE is extremely rare. We report a case of DSD with sex chromosomal abnormality in combination with TTE. To our knowledge, this case report is a first presentation of such anomaly.

  10. A simple vitrification method for cryobanking avian testicular tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Cheng, K M; Purdy, P H; Silversides, F G

    2012-12-01

    Cryopreservation of testicular tissue is a promising method of preserving male reproductive potential for avian species. This study was conducted to assess whether a vitrification method can be used to preserve avian testicular tissue, using the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) as a model. A simple vitrification method that included dimethyl sulphoxide, ethylene glycol, and sucrose as cryoprotective agents, and allowed the storage of tissue in a sealed macrotube was applied to the testicular tissue from 1-wk-old Japanese quail. The vitrified tissue was warmed at room temperature or at 40°C. After warming, tissue was implanted onto the chorioallantoic membrane of 8- to 9-d-old chicken embryos and the vascularization of the grafts was evaluated. When compared with fresh tissue, the tissue that had been warmed at 40°C showed no difference in vascularization. The tissue that had been warmed at room temperature was significantly less vascularized than the fresh tissue. Vitrification of testicular tissue and storage in macrotubes provide a promising model for preservation and recovery of male germplasm of avian species. PMID:23155032

  11. Radioprotection by Tinospora cordifolia root extract against gamma radiation induced testicular toxicity in mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was performed to evaluate the deleterious effects of gamma radiation on testicular tissue and their possible inhibition by Tinospora cordifolia root extract (TCE). For this purpose, Swiss albino male mice were selected from an inbred colony and divided into four groups. Group I (normal) was administered double distilled water volume equal to TCE (75 mg/kg.b.wt/animal) by oral gavage. Group II was supplemented TCE as 75 mg/kg.b.wt once daily for 5 consecutive days. Group III (irradiated control) divided into three sub groups a, b and c, received DDW orally equivalent to TCE for 5 days then exposed to 2.5, 5 and 7.5 Gy gamma radiation, respectively. Group IV (irradiated experimental) was administered TCE and exposed to gamma radiation (as in group III). Animals from all the above mentioned groups were necropsied at various post-treatment intervals between 12 hrs and 30 days. Following radiation exposure, the spermatogonial population and spermatid counts decreased incessantly in a dose-dependent manner (2.5<5.0<7.5 Gy) from 12 hrs to 7th day post-irradiation but thereafter a statically significant increase in the number of spermatogonia was recorded however but the normal counts could not be obtained even by the last autopsy interval. In contrast, TCE pre-treatment resulted in the increased counts of all the types of spermatogenic cells as well as spermatids as compared to the irradiated controls, but the normal score could not be achieved in none of the group except that irradiated to 2.5 Gy gamma rays. Furthermore, these animals showed a significant restoration in radiation-induced elevated level of LPO, glutathione and catalase activity in testes at all the dose levels. These observations indicate that the TCE can be use as an efficient radio-protector against radiation mediated testicular injuries in mammals. (author)

  12. Mini-incision microdissection testicular sperm extraction: a useful technique for men with cryptozoospermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrabeeah, K; Witmer, J; Ruiz, S; AlMalki, A; Phillips, S; Zini, A

    2016-03-01

    Microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) was developed to minimize the testicular injury associated with multiple open TESEs. We sought to evaluate a mini-incision micro-TESE in men with cryptozoospermia and non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA). We conducted a retrospective study of 26 consecutive men with NOA and cryptozoospermia who underwent a primary (first) micro-TESE between March 2015 and August 2015. Final assessment of sperm recovery (reported on the day of intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)) was recorded as (i) successful (available spermatozoa for ICSI) or (ii) unsuccessful (no spermatozoa for ICSI). The decision to perform a mini-incision micro-TESE (with limited unilateral micro-dissection) or standard/extensive (with unilateral or bilateral micro-dissection) was guided by the intra-operative identification of sperm recovery (≥5 spermatozoa) from the first testicle. Overall, sperm recovery was successful in 77% (20/26) of the men. In 37% of the men (8/26), the mini-incision micro-TESE was successful (positive sperm recovery). The remaining 18 men required a standard (extensive) microdissection: 61% (11/18) underwent a unilateral and 39% (7/18) a bilateral micro-TESE. We found that 90% (9/10) of the men with cryptozoospermia and 63% (10/16) of the men with NOA underwent a unilateral (mini or standard micro-TESE). The mini-incision micro-TESE allowed for successful sperm recovery in 60% (6/10) of the men with cryptozoospermia and 13% (2/16) of the men with NOA. The data demonstrate that a mini-incision micro-TESE together with rapid intra-operative assessment and identification of spermatozoa recovery can be useful in men undergoing microTESE, particularly, men with cryptozoospermia. PMID:26743017

  13. Comparison of efficacy of two techniques for testicular sperm retrieval in nonobstructive azoospermia: multifocal testicular sperm extraction versus multifocal testicular sperm aspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Ron; Yogev, Leah; Paz, Gedalia; Yavetz, Haim; Azem, Fuad; Lessing, Joseph B; Botchan, Amnon

    2006-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of 2 sperm-retrieval procedures, testicular sperm extraction (TESE) and testicular sperm aspiration (TESA), during the same procedure using the same subjects as their own controls. The presence of mature testicular sperm cells and motility were evaluated in 87 men with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) by means of multifocal TESE and multifocal TESA, which were performed during the same procedure using the same subjects as their own controls. Sperm cells were recovered by TESE in 54 cases, but by TESA in only 36 cases. There were significantly more cases (n = 20) in which sperm cells were recovered by TESE only, compared with 2 cases in whom cells were recovered by TESA only (McNemar's test, P < .001). The mean number of locations in each testis in which sperm cells were detected was significantly higher in the TESE group. In significantly more cases (n = 27), motility was observed in TESE material only, compared with 3 cases in which motility was present in material extracted by TESA only (McNemar's test, P < .001). Mean number of locations in each testis with motile sperm cells was significantly higher in the TESE group. The TESE procedure yielded significantly more sperm cells, as was also reflected by the difference in number of straws with cryopreserved sperm. This comparative prospective clinical study revealed that multifocal TESE is more efficient than multifocal TESA for sperm detection and recovery in men with NOA and should be the procedure of choice for sperm retrieval for them. PMID:16400074

  14. Lymphovascular invasion in testicular germ cell tumors: clinicopathological correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaron Ehrlich

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We assessed clinical–pathological correlates of lymphovascular invasion in testicular germ–cell tumors.Material and methods. Archived pathology specimens from 145 patients treated by radical orchiectomy for testicular germ cell tumors at our institution in 1995–2006 were reanalyzed by a dedicated urologic pathologist, and the corresponding medical records were reviewed. The association of lymphovascular invasion with clinical and pathological parameters was tested using stepwise logistic regression analysis.Results. Lymphovascular invasion was identified in 38 (26% patients and was associated with younger age, testicular pain at presentation, elevated serum tumor markers, nonseminoma histology, and advanced clinical stage. Orchalgia was indicated as the impetus for referral in 67 (46% patients and characterized as a dull aching sensation, persistent or intermittent in nature. Among the 98 men diagnosed with clinical stage I, those presenting with testicular pain had a 1.8X–higher likelihood of lymphovascular invasion than those without pain (95% CI 1.13–14.9, p = 0.02, and patients with elevated serum tumor markers had an 8.5–fold increased probability of lymphovascular invasion than those presenting with normal tumor markers (CI 1.1–54.2, p = 0.05. Among men with nonseminoma histology, elevated tumor markers was the strongest predictor of lymphovascular invasion in both univariate and multivariate analyses (OR 5.05, 95% CI 1.16–21.8, p = 0.03.Conclusion. Providing pathologists with information on pre–orchiectomy tumor marker levels and, possibly, testicular pain at presentation may increase their vigilance in searching for lymphovascular invasion, potentially improving their diagnostic accuracy. Whether it may also translate into improved oncological outcomes needs further evaluation.

  15. The International Testicular Cancer Linkage Consortium : A clinicopathologic descriptive analysis of 461 familial malignant testicular germ cell tumor kindred

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mai, Phuong L.; Friedlander, Michael; Tucker, Kathy; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Hogg, David; Jewett, Michael A. S.; Lohynska, Radka; Daugaard, Gedske; Richard, Stephane; Bonaiti-Pellie, Catherine; Heidenreich, Axel; Albers, Peter; Bodrogi, Istvan; Geczi, Lajos; Olah, Edith; Daly, Peter A.; Guilford, Parry; Fossa, Sophie D.; Heimdal, Ketil; Liubchenko, Ludmila; Tjulandin, Sergei A.; Stoll, Hans; Weber, Walter; Easton, Douglas F.; Dudakia, Darshna; Huddart, Robert; Stratton, Michael R.; Einhorn, Lawrence; Korde, Larissa; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Bishop, Timothy; Rapley, Elizabeth A.; Greene, Mark H.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Familial aggregation of testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) has been reported, but it is unclear if familial TGCT represents a unique entity with distinct clinicopathologic characteristics. Here we describe a collection of familial TGCT cases from an international consortium, in an effort

  16. Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aid: Falls First Aid: Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries Getting Help: Know the Numbers Concussions Stay Safe: ... Tips: Inline Skating Safety Tips: Skateboarding Dealing With Sports Injuries Concussions: What to Do Contact Us Print Resources ...

  17. Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...

  18. Injury Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data Consumer Opinion Surveys Home / Research & Statistics Injury Statistics This is the statistic reports page for scientific ... Home Appliances, Maintenance and Construction Injury Statistics Injury Statistics September 30, 2012 Submersions Related to Non-Pool ...

  19. Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  20. Virtual azoospermia and cryptozoospermia--fresh/frozen testicular or ejaculate sperm for better IVF outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Ron; Bibi, Guy; Yogev, Leah; Carmon, Ariella; Azem, Foad; Botchan, Amnon; Yavetz, Haim; Klieman, Sandra E; Lehavi, Ofer; Amit, Ami; Ben-Yosef, Dalit

    2011-01-01

    Men diagnosed as having azoospermia occasionally have a few mature sperm cells in other ejaculates. Other men may have constant, yet very low quality and quantity of sperm cells in their ejaculates, resulting in poor intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcome. It has not been conclusively established which source of sperm cells is preferable for ICSI when both ejaculate and testicular (fresh or frozen) sperm cells are available. It is also unclear whether there is any advantage of fresh over frozen sperm if testicular sperm is to be used. We used ejaculate, testicular (fresh or frozen) sperm cells, or both for ICSI in 13 couples. Five of these couples initially underwent ICSI by testicular sperm extraction, because the males had total azoospermia, and in later cycles with ejaculate sperm cells. Ejaculate sperm cells were initially used for ICSI in the other 8 patients, and later with testicular sperm cells. The fertilization rate was significantly higher when fresh or frozen-thawed testicular sperm cells were used than when ejaculated sperm cells were used. Likewise, the quality of the embryos from testicular (fresh and frozen) sperm was higher than from ejaculated sperm (65.3% vs 53.2%, respectively, P < .05). The use of fresh testicular sperm yielded better implantation rates than both frozen testicular sperm and ejaculate. Therefore, fresh testicular sperm should be considered first for ICSI in patients with virtual azoospermia or cryptozoospermia because of their superior fertility. PMID:21164144

  1. Testicular torsion and weather conditions: analysis of 21,289 cases in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Korkes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The hypothesis of association between testicular torsion and hyperactive cremasteric reflex, worsened by cold weather, has not been proved. Thirteen studies in the literature evaluated this issue, with inconclusive results. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the seasonality of testicular torsion in a large subset of patients surgically treated in Brazil, and additionally to estimate the incidence of testicular torsion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Brazilian Public Health System Database was assessed from 1992-2010 to evaluate hospital admissions associated with treatment of testicular torsion. Average monthly temperature between 1992-2010 was calculated for each region. RESULTS: We identified 21,289 hospital admissions for treatment of testicular torsion. There was a higher number of testicular torsions during colder months (p = 0.002. To estimate the incidence of testicular torsion, we have related our findings to data from the last Brazilian census (2010. In 2010, testicular torsion occurred in 1.4:100,000 men in Brazil. CONCLUSIONS:Testicular torsion occurred at an annual incidence of approximately 1.4:100,000 men in Brazil in 2010. Seasonal variations do occur, with a significant increase of events during winter. Our findings support the theory of etiological role of cold weather to the occurrence of testicular torsion. Strategies to prevent these events can be based on these findings.

  2. Testicular neoplasia in undescended testes of cryptorchid boys-does surgical strategy have an impact on the risk of invasive testicular neoplasia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Petersen, Bodil Laub

    2004-01-01

    We investigated whether or not surgical strategy has an impact on the risk of invasive testicular neoplasia in cases of cryptorchidism. We made a database study of the incidence of testicular neoplasia at surgery for cryptorchidism in childhood, and evaluated if such abnormalities were found in s...

  3. Sperm Concentration, Testicular Volume and Age Predict Risk of Carcinoma In Situ in Contralateral Testis of Men with Testicular Germ Cell Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rud, Camilla Nymann; Daugaard, Gedske; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Skakkebæk, Niels Erik; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Jørgensen, Niels

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether semen quality or some easily attainable clinical parameters might be used to estimate the risk of contralateral carcinoma in situ in patients with unilateral testicular germ cell tumors.......We investigated whether semen quality or some easily attainable clinical parameters might be used to estimate the risk of contralateral carcinoma in situ in patients with unilateral testicular germ cell tumors....

  4. Mechanism of Platinum Derivatives Induced Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei YAN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Platinum derivatives are the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents to treat solid tumors including ovarian, head and neck, and testicular germ cell tumors, lung cancer, and colorectal cancer. Two major problems exist, however, in the clinic use of platinum derivatives. One is the development of tumor resistance to the drug during therapy, leading to treatment failure. The other is the drug’s toxicity such as the cisplatin’s nephrotoxicity, which limits the dose that can be administered. This paper describes the mechanism of platinum derivatives induced kidney injury.

  5. [Mechanism of Platinum Derivatives Induced Kidney Injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Feifei; Duan, Jianchun; Wang, Jie

    2015-09-20

    Platinum derivatives are the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents to treat solid tumors including ovarian, head and neck, and testicular germ cell tumors, lung cancer, and colorectal cancer. Two major problems exist, however, in the clinic use of platinum derivatives. One is the development of tumor resistance to the drug during therapy, leading to treatment failure. The other is the drug's toxicity such as the cisplatin's nephrotoxicity, which limits the dose that can be administered. This paper describes the mechanism of platinum derivatives induced kidney injury. PMID:26383983

  6. Mono-(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate (MEHP) Promotes Invasion and Migration of Human Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma Cells1

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Pei-Li; Lin, Yi-Chen; Richburg, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Testicular dysgenesis syndrome refers to a collection of diseases in men, including testicular cancer, that arise as a result of abnormal testicular development. Phthalates are a class of chemicals used widely in the production of plastic products and other consumer goods. Unfortunately, phthalate exposure has been linked to reproductive dysfunction and has been shown to adversely affect normal germ cell development. In this study, we show that mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) induces mat...

  7. Involvement of epigenetic modifiers in the pathogenesis of testicular dysgenesis and germ cell cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawaetz, Andreas C.; Almstrup, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    cell is a fetal germ cell that has been arrested during development due to testicular dysgenesis. CIS cells retain a fetal and open chromatin structure, and recently several epigenetic modifiers have been suggested to be involved in testicular dysgenesis in mice. We here review the possible involvement...... of epigenetic modifiers with a focus on jumonji C enzymes in the development of testicular dysgenesis and germ cell cancer in men....

  8. A rare case of leaking abdominal aneurysm presenting as isolated right testicular pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufi, P A

    2007-03-01

    An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is not usually considered in the differential diagnosis of isolated right testicular pain. We describe a patient who did present with isolated acute right testicular pain as the sentinel feature of a leaking AAA. In the patient group with right testicular pain, consideration of a leaking AAA should be added to the differential diagnosis. An adverse outcome can be avoided by timely diagnosis and intervention. PMID:17391586

  9. Testicular Cycle of Colisa fasciatus (Bl. and Schn.) under Hexavalent Chromium Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Anuradha Shukla; J.P. Shukla

    2013-01-01

    Healthy specimens of Colisa fasciatus exposed to sub lethal concentration of hexavalent chromium (4.8 mg/L) for 15 days revealed no significant alterations in any testicular architecture during its different phases. However, 30 days exposure revealed distarded shape of lobule and lobular wall, scattered interstitial leydig cells during preparatory phase of testicular cycle where as during spawning phase of testicular cycle, dissolution of germinal epithelium, reduced intra lobular spaces and ...

  10. Testicular Infarction and Rupture After Blunt Trauma — Use of Diagnostic Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair Pace

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 23-year-old male who suffered localised testicular infarction and rupture following blunt trauma. This pathology is rare after blunt trauma and has not been previously described in literature. The appearance on ultrasound resembled malignancy, necessitating orchidectomy. An overview of the pathology of testicular trauma as well as its management is given with particular emphasis on the use diagnostic ultrasound in testicular trauma.

  11. Testicular self-examination: validation of a training strategy for early cancer detection.

    OpenAIRE

    Friman, P C; Finney, J W; Glasscock, S G; Weigel, J W; Christophersen, E R

    1986-01-01

    Testicular self-examination (TSE) can lead to early diagnosis and treatment of testicular cancer, the third leading cause of death in young men. We evaluated the effectiveness of a brief and specific checklist for teaching TSE skills. Ten men were videotaped while performing testicular self-examinations before and after training. The TSE training resulted in large and significant increases in the number of TSE steps completed and duration of the TSE. Two urological validation measures support...

  12. A laboratory modification to testicular sperm preparation technique improves spermatogenic cell yield

    OpenAIRE

    Sinan Ozkavukcu; Ebru Ibis; Sule Kizil; Suheyla Isbacar; Kaan Aydos

    2014-01-01

    Testicular sperm extraction is a common procedure used to find spermatogenic cells in men with nonobstructive azoospermia. The laboratory processing of biopsied testicular tissues needs to be performed meticulously to acquire a high yield of cells. In this study, the effectiveness of mincing the tissues after testicular biopsy was assessed using histological evaluation, as was the possible adverse effect of residual tissue on the migration of spermatogenic cells during density gradient centri...

  13. Expression of IGF-II mRNA-binding proteins (IMPs) in gonads and testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Niels A; Hansen, Thomas v O; Byskov, Anne Grete; Rajpert-De Meyts, Eva; Grøndahl, Marie Louise; Bredkjaer, Helle E; Wewer, Ulla M; Christiansen, Jan; Nielsen, Finn C

    2005-01-01

    prompted us to examine their possible involvement in testicular neoplasia. IMPs were detected primarily in germ-cell neoplasms, including preinvasive testicular carcinoma in situ, classical and spermatocytic seminoma, and nonseminomas, with particularly high expression in undifferentiated embryonal...... carcinoma. The relative expression of IMP1, IMP2 and IMP3 varied among tumor types and only IMP1 was detected in all carcinoma in situ cells. Thus IMPs, and in particular IMP1, may be useful auxiliary markers of testicular neoplasia....

  14. Morphological variations of intra-testicular arterial vasculature in bovine testis - a corrosion casting study

    OpenAIRE

    Polguj, Michał; Wysiadecki, Grzegorz; Podgórski, Michał; Szymański, Jacek; Olbrych, Katarzyna; Olewnik, Łukasz; Topol, Mirosław

    2015-01-01

    Background Proper blood supply is necessary for the physiological function of every internal organ. The article offers the first classification of the bovine intra-testicular arteries. A corrosive study focused on the intra-testicular arterial vasculature was performed on 40 bovine testes. The vessels were analyzed accurately using MultiScanBase v.18.02 software. Methods A corrosive study focused on the intra-testicular arteries was performed on 40 bovine testes. The vessels were analyzed acc...

  15. Cycling injuries.

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, G. C.

    1993-01-01

    Bicycle-related injuries have increased as cycling has become more popular. Most injuries to recreational riders are associated with overuse or improper fit of the bicycle. Injuries to racers often result from high speeds, which predispose riders to muscle strains, collisions, and falls. Cyclists contact bicycles at the pedals, seat, and handlebars. Each is associated with particular cycling injuries.

  16. Back Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pelvis. Back injuries can result from sports injuries, work around the house or in the garden, or a sudden jolt such as a car accident. The lower back is the most common site of back injuries and back pain. Common back injuries include Sprains and strains Herniated ...

  17. Catalytic properties of testicular hyaluronidase after gamma-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, P.K.; Gupta, G.S.

    1986-08-01

    The effect of gamma-irradiation on ovine testicular hyaluronidase was studied in aqueous solution. Following irradiation, hyaluronidase is inhibited, and the kinetics of inhibition follow a pattern in which Ksub(m) and Vsub(max) decline as radiation dose is increased. It was indicated that the binding affinity of the residual activity of hyaluronidase with substrate is enhanced and depends upon radiation damage. Effects of various agents such as pH, salts, PCMB and glutathione on irradiated hyaluronidase have been compared with non-irradiated enzyme. The irradiated hyaluronidase was more sensitive to inhibition by CuSO/sub 4/ than the non-irradiated enzyme. The residual activity after irradiation is less refractory to FeCl/sub 3/ inhibition and less sensitive to NaCl stimulation compared to non-irradiated hyaluronidase. pH response curves of ovine testicular hyaluronidase show two maxima which become more evident after irradiation.

  18. Environment, testicular dysgenesis and carcinoma in situ testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Inge A; Sonne, Si Brask; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E;

    2007-01-01

    The testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS) hypothesis proposes that a proportion of the male reproductive disorders-cryptorchidism, hypospadias, infertility and testicular cancer-may be symptoms of one underlying developmental disease, TDS, which is most likely a result of disturbed gonadal...... development in the embryo. TDS may be caused by genetic factors, environmental/life-style factors, or a combination of both. Some rare disorders of sex development of genetic origin are among the best-known examples of severe TDS. Among the environmental and life-style factors that are suspected to influence...... the hormonal milieu of the developing gonad are the endocrine disrupters. A prenatal exposure to commonly used chemicals, e.g. phthalates, may result in a TDS-like phenotype in rats. Currently, this animal model is the best model for TDS. In humans the situation is much more complex, and TDS exists in a wide...

  19. Testicular germ cell tumors: Molecular genetic and clinicomorphological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Nemtsova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Testicular tumors are the most common form of solid cancer in young men. According to the 2004 WHO classification, testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT may present with different histological types. Embryonic cells of varying grade may be a source of TGCT and the occurrence of this type of tumors is directly related to the formation of a pool of male sex cells and gametogenesis. The paper gives information on mo- lecular stages for the process of formation of male sex cells in health, as well as ways of their impairments leading to TGCT. An investigation of the profiles of gene expression and the spectrum of molecular damages revealed genes responsible for a predisposition to the sporadic and hereditary forms of TGCT. The paper presents the current molecular genetic and clinicomorphological characteristics of TGCT. 

  20. Testicular histology in cryptorchid boys - aspects of fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina; Thorup, jørgen; Petersen, BL

    2007-01-01

    main proliferative activity of the Sertoli cells takes place during the first 2-3 months of life (3). The transformation from gonocytes to the adult reservoir of germ stem cells, the Ad Spermatogonia starts in the third trimester, to be completed after the 6th month of life (1, 10). In cryptorchidism...... testicular biopsy simultaneously with surgery for cryptorchidism. The histological findings may be helpful when deciding whether a cryptorchid boy older than 15 months may be offered supplementary hormonal treatment in order to stimulate germ cell proliferation after surgery. Key words: cryptorchidism...... the transformation is defective, and the gonocytes may persist until about 1.5 years of age. In cases of no gonocyte transformation, no Spermatogonia A dark appear, and later on germ cells lack in testicular biopsies (1). The germ cell proliferation and transformation may also later in childhood be...

  1. Gynecomastia caused by testicular irradiation. A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gynecomastia in a 20-years-old male is reported. At the age of 2, the patients had contracted acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), at which time irradiation for the testicular ALL invasion was performed. This irradiation induced atrophy of the testis. Obesity was first noted when he was 12 years old, after which enlargement of the bilateral breasts occurred at 14 years of age. When he turned 19, supplementary testosterone therapy was initiated to counter the gynecomastia, but it proved ineffective. Thus, a total mastectomy was performed with free nipple grafting. Pathologically, inspected mammary tissue specimens revealed mammary ducts in a fibrous stroma that had encompassed lobules of adipose tissue. The findings in this case suggest that the testicular irradiation had induced primary hypogonadism and that this had resulted in gynecomastia and obesity. (author)

  2. Phthalate-induced testicular dysgenesis syndrome: Leydig cell influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guo-Xin; Lian, Qing-Quan; Ge, Ren-Shan; Hardy, Dianne O; Li, Xiao-Kun

    2009-04-01

    Phthalates, the most abundantly produced plasticizers, leach out from polyvinyl chloride plastics and disrupt androgen action. Male rats that are exposed to phthalates in utero develop symptoms characteristic of the human condition referred to as testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). Environmental influences have been suspected to contribute to the increasing incidence of TDS in humans (i.e. cryptorchidism and hypospadias in newborn boys and testicular cancer and reduced sperm quality in adult males). In this review, we discuss the recent findings that prenatal exposure to phthalates affects Leydig cell function in the postnatal testis. This review also focuses on the recent progress in our understanding of how Leydig cell factors contribute to phthalate-mediated TDS. PMID:19278865

  3. A survey of etiologic hypotheses among testicular cancer researchers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, A; Trabert, B; Rusner, C;

    2015-01-01

    Basic research results can provide new ideas and hypotheses to be examined in epidemiological studies. We conducted a survey among testicular cancer researchers on hypotheses concerning the etiology of this malignancy. All researchers on the mailing list of Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshops and...... plausibility of the suggested etiologic hypotheses on a scale of 1 (very implausible) to 10 (very plausible). This report describes the methodology of the survey, the score distributions by individual hypotheses, hypothesis group, and the participants' major research fields, and discuss the hypotheses that...... etiologic hypotheses that include factors related to endocrine disruption, DNA damage, inflammation, and nutrition during pregnancy. The survey results may stimulate a multidisciplinary discussion about new etiologic hypotheses of testicular cancer....

  4. Frequent complaints of testicular lumps by young prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Kailash C

    2008-05-01

    The definition of the age of young offenders was changed by an Act of Parliament (The Crime and Disorder Act 1998), which was implemented by the Home Office on 1 April 2000. This Act brought down the upper-age limit of young offenders from 20 to 17. Our objective was to investigate the sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among this redefined group of young offenders. Among various types of STIs, we observed that a significant number of young prisoners had complaints of testicular lumps (35%), which were not reported in the past. We tried to find out the reason for this common complaint and believe that this was due to extra vigilance, and testicular self-examination in conjunction with sex and relationship programmes which ran alongside other programmes developed as a joint venture by Prisoner Learning and Skills Unit, Prison Health Policy Unit and Sex Education Forum. PMID:18482964

  5. Effect of testicular capsulotomy on fertility of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-Nian QIN; Mary A. Lung

    2001-01-01

    To demonstrate the effect of capsulotomy on the fertility of male rats. Methods: Testicular capsulotomy was carried out in immature (21 days) and adult (60 days) male rats. The fertility of them was assessed by cohabitation with proestrus females overnight and 20 days later, the females were examined for impregnation. Morphological changes at the site of the capsulotomy were observed under light microscope. Results: In rats capsulotomized at Day 60, the fertility was gradually depressed and all the rats completely lost their fertility 2 months post - operation. At that time, a partial regeneration of the capsule at the site of capsulotomy was observed. Immature rats capsulotomized at Day 21 were found to possess normal fertility at maturity. The capsulotomy site was almost completely recovered 60days post-operation. Conclusion: In male rats, testicular capsulotomy at the age of Day 60 will damage fertility.However, when capsulotomy is performed at Day 21, fertility is preserve.

  6. Catalytic properties of testicular hyaluronidase after gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma-irradiation on ovine testicular hyaluronidase was studied in aqueous solution. Following irradiation, hyaluronidase is inhibited, and the kinetics of inhibition follow a pattern in which Ksub(m) and Vsub(max) decline as radiation dose is increased. It was indicated that the binding affinity of the residual activity of hyaluronidase with substrate is enhanced and depends upon radiation damage. Effects of various agents such as pH, salts, PCMB and glutathione on irradiated hyaluronidase have been compared with non-irradiated enzyme. The irradiated hyaluronidase was more sensitive to inhibition by CuSO4 than the non-irradiated enzyme. The residual activity after irradiation is less refractory to FeCl3 inhibition and less sensitive to NaCl stimulation compared to non-irradiated hyaluronidase. pH response curves of ovine testicular hyaluronidase show two maxima which become more evident after irradiation. (orig.)

  7. Paratesticular liposarcoma-masquerading as a testicular tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinayagam, Kalaivani; Hosamath, Vijayakumar; Honnappa, Sridhar; Rau, Aarathi Ranga

    2014-02-01

    Paratesticular liposarcomas are rare tumours which account for 12% of all liposarcomas. Probably there are about 186 cases which have been reported till date. They must be differentiated from tumours of testicular origin which have extension to the spermatic cord. We are reporting a case of a 50-year-old male who had presented with a painless swelling in the right hemiscrotum, which was of 20 years' duration. Inititally, a clinical diagnosis of testicular tumour was made; however, CT of the scrotum revealed paratesticular tumour? liposarcoma and testis being normal and displaced postero-inferiorly. Metastatic work-up, which included CT of the abdomen and pelvis, thorax and whole body scan, did not reveal any distant metastasis. Patient underwent high orchidectomy, hemiscrotectomy. Histopathological studies confirmed the diagnosis of well-differentiated liposarcoma (atypical lipomatous tumour of sclerosing type). PMID:24701520

  8. An unusual case of intra-abdominal testicular torsion: Role of laparoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Papparella

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors report a case of intra-abdominal testicular torsion, where laparoscopy has been useful for diagnosis and surgical management. A boy was presented with a left impalpable testis. Laparoscopy revealed a twisted spermatic cord at the inlet pelvis, which ended in a testicular remnant located in the sub-umbilical area. After orchiectomy, the pathologist confirmed testicular atrophy. Diagnosis of intra-abdominal testicular torsion should be considered in patients with impalpable testis and abdominal pain, but could not be excluded in those with no symptoms.

  9. Cytomegalovirus infection of murine testicular interstitial Leydig cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Baskar, J F; Stanat, S C; Huang, E S

    1983-01-01

    We studied the susceptibility of mouse testicular interstitial Leydig cells to cytomegalovirus both in vivo and in vitro. The in vivo studies included intratesticular and intraperitoneal infection of 6-week-old mice with murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV); the in vitro studies involved an MCMV-Leydig cell interaction using a Leydig tumor cell line (I-10). MCMV-specific antigens were detected in interstitial Leydig cells in sections of MCMV-inoculated testes by an indirect immunofluorescence test. ...

  10. Transverse testicular ectopia: a rare association with inguinal hernia

    OpenAIRE

    Dahal, Prakash; Koirala, Rabin; Subedi, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    Transverse testicular ectopia (TTE) is a rare anomaly that is commonly associated with inguinal hernia. Most of the reported cases are in children with very few reported cases in adults. We report a case of 42 years, fertile male, who presented with left reducible inguinal hernia. During surgery, he was found to have a left indirect inguinal hernia with TTE with both testes on the left side. Hernioplasty and bilateral orchidopexy were performed. He had an uneventful recovery. Most of these ca...

  11. Effects of Lipoic Acid on Acrylamide Induced Testicular Damage

    OpenAIRE

    Lebda, Mohamed; Gad, Shereen; Gaafar, Hossam

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Acrylamide is very toxic to various organs and associated with significant increase of oxidative stress and depletion of antioxidants. Alpha-lipoic acid enhances cellular antioxidant defense capacity, thereby protecting cells from oxidative stress. Aim of the study: This study aimed to evaluate the protective role of alpha-lipoic acid on the oxidative damage induced by acrylamide in testicular and epididymal tissues. Material and methods: Forty adult male rats were divided into ...

  12. Syndesmosis injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis commonly result from high-energy ankle injuries. They can occur as isolated ligamentous injuries and can be associated with ankle fractures. Syndesmotic injuries can create a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for musculoskeletal physicians. Recent literature has added considerably to the body of knowledge pertaining to injury mechanics and treatment outcomes, but there remain a number of controversies regarding diagnostic tests, imp...

  13. Multiple vascular anomalies involving renal, testicular and suprarenal arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Rao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of variations of blood vessels of the abdomen is important during operative, diagnostic and endovascular pro- cedures. During routine dissection of the abdominal cavity, we came across multiple vascular anomalies involving renal, suprarenal and testicular arteries. The left kidney was supplied by two renal arteries originating together from the abdomi- nal aorta, and the right kidney was supplied by two accessory renal arteries, one of which was arising from the right renal artery and the other one from the aorta (about 2 inches below the origin of the renal artery. Accessory renal veins were present on both sides. The right testicular artery was arising from the lower accessory renal artery. The left testicular artery was looping around the inferior tributary of the left renal vein, whereby forming a sharp kink. The left middle suprarenal artery was diving into three small branches; the upper two branches were supplying the left suprarenal gland, whereas the lower branch was supplying the left kidney. Furthermore, detailed literature and the clinical and surgical importance of the case are discussed. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2015; 4(3.000: 168-171

  14. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes with cryopreserved testicular sperm aspiration samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, M; Valle, M; Marques, F; Sampaio, M; Geber, S

    2016-04-01

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) may be performed with testicular frozen-thawed spermatozoa in patients with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA). Sperm retrieval can be performed in advance of oocyte aspiration, as it may avoid the possibility of no recovery of spermatozoa on the day of oocyte pickup. There are few studies available in the literature concerning the use of frozen-thawed spermatozoa obtained from testicular sperm aspiration (TESA). To evaluate the effects and the outcomes of ICSI with frozen-thawed spermatozoa obtained by TESA, we performed a retrospective analysis of 43 ICSI cycles using frozen-thawed TESA. We obtained acceptable results with a fertilisation rate of 67.9%, an implantation rate (IR) of 17.1%, and clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates of 41.9% and 37.2% respectively. The results of this study suggest that performing ICSI using cryopreserved frozen-thawed testicular spermatozoa with TESA as a first option is a viable, safe, economic and effective method for patients with NOA. PMID:25998234

  15. Compromised Rat Testicular Antioxidant Defence System by Hypothyroidism before Puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak K. Sahoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Altered thyroid function during early stages of development is known to affect adversely testicular growth, physiology, and antioxidant defence status at adulthood. The objective of the present study is to investigate the modulation of antioxidant defence status in neonatal persistent hypothyroid rats before their sexual maturation and also to identify the specific testicular cell populations vulnerable to degeneration during neonatal hypothyroidism in immature rats. Hypothyroidism was induced in neonates by feeding the lactating mother with 0.05% 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU through the drinking water. From the day of parturition till weaning (25 day postpartum, the pups received PTU through mother's milk (or drinking water and then directly from drinking water containing PTU for the remaining period of experimentation. On the 31st day postpartum, the animals were sacrificed for the study. An altered antioxidant defence system marked by elevated SOD, CAT, and GR activities, with decreased GPx and GST activities were observed along with increased protein carbonylation, disturbed redox status in hypothyroid immature rat testis. This compromised testicular antioxidant status might have contributed to poor growth and development by affecting the spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in rats before puberty as indicated by reduced germ cell number, complete absence of round spermatids, decreased seminiferous tubule diameter, and decreased testosterone level.

  16. Testicular choriocarcinoma: diagnosed on cervical lymph node biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Nadeem Zia; Zahur, Zainab; Sheikh, Abdul Samad; Khan, Amjad Aziz; Ahmed, Fayyaz; Memon, Khalid Hussain; Ali, Furqan; Jeilani, Asif; Fatima, Tetheer; Khan, Kamran; Gul, Attia

    2013-12-01

    Choriocarcinoma is a very rare germinal testicular tumour and in literature its incidence has been reported to be 0.3% of all germinal testicular tumours. An important tumour marker is serum beta-hCG which not only helps in establishing diagnosis but also in assessing response to chemotherapy. In this study we present a case of testicular choriocarcinoma, who presented with abdominal pain, cough, generalized weakness and left sided cervical mass. Incisional biopsy of cervical mass was performed. Histopathology revealed metastatic choriocarcinoma. Serum beta-hCG levels were 1227 ng/mL. Patient received intravenous cycles of PEB (cisPlatin, Etoposide, Bleomycin) chemotherapy but he had progressive disease both radiologically and on tumour marker monitoring. He was planned for salvage chemotherapy but was lost to follow up there after. It is concluded that in males, choriocarcinoma carries a very dismal prognosis and a very poor response to chemotherapy and radiotherapy; surgery has no role in the management. PMID:24397105

  17. Stage 1 testicular seminoma; Seminomes testiculaire de stade 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, E.; Champetier, C.; Zaccariotto, A.; Duberge, T. [Departement de radiotherapie, hopital de la Timone, 13 - Marseille (France); Pointreau, Y. [Service de radiotherapie, centre regional universitaire de cancerologie Henry-S.-Kaplan CHU de Tours, Hpital Bretonneau, 37 - Tours (France); Chauvet, B. [Institut Sainte-Catherine, 84 - Avignon (France)

    2010-07-01

    Testicular cancer is rare, representing only 1 % of malignant tumors, but the most common cancer in young men, 15 to 35 years. Adjuvant radiotherapy after orchidectomy in testicular seminoma stage I, reduces risk of relapse. It aims to eradicate micro-metastatic disease in lymph drainage territories. In the case of adjuvant radiotherapy, the relapse-free survival of 96 % with an overall survival of 98 % at 5 years. The irradiation volume is made up of lymph nodes paraaortic which it is possible to add the ipsilateral renal hilum to the testicular lesion. The current recommended dose is 20 Gy in 10 fractions and 2 weeks, usually delivered by two antero-posterior beams. The acute toxicities, mainly represented by nausea and diarrhea are usually quickly resolved to the end of irradiation. Regarding toxicities long-term, preservation of semen should be considered after surgery because of fear of infertility post-treatment. The risk of second cancer associated with exposure to ionizing radiation, albeit small, is especially important to consider these patients to significant life expectancy. Nevertheless, developments in radiotherapy techniques and lower doses and irradiated volumes can probably reduce this risk further. (authors)

  18. Uropathogenic E. coli Induce Different Immune Response in Testicular and Peritoneal Macrophages: Implications for Testicular Immune Privilege

    OpenAIRE

    Bhushan, Sudhanshu; Hossain, Hamid; Lu, Yongning; Geisler, Andreas; Tchatalbachev, Svetlin; Mikulski, Zbigniew; Schuler, Gerhard; Klug, Jörg; Pilatz, Adrian; Wagenlehner, Florian; Chakraborty, Trinad; Meinhardt, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Infertility affects one in seven couples and ascending bacterial infections of the male genitourinary tract by Escherichia coli are an important cause of male factor infertility. Thus understanding mechanisms by which immunocompetent cells such as testicular macrophages (TM) respond to infection and how bacterial pathogens manipulate defense pathways is of importance. Whole genome expression profiling of TM and peritoneal macrophages (PM) infected with uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) revealed ma...

  19. Lisfranc injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welck, M J; Zinchenko, R; Rudge, B

    2015-04-01

    Lisfranc injuries are commonly asked about in FRCS Orthopaedic trauma vivas. The term "Lisfranc injury" strictly refers to an injury where one or more of the metatarsals are displaced from the tarsus. The term is more commonly used to describe an injury to the midfoot centred on the 2nd tarsometatarsal joint. The injury is named after Jacques Lisfranc de St. Martin (1790-1847), a French surgeon and gynaecologist who first described the injury in 1815. 'Lisfranc injury' encompasses a broad spectrum of injuries, which can be purely ligamentous or involve the osseous and articular structures. They are often difficult to diagnose and treat, but if not detected and appropriately managed they can cause long-term disability. This review outlines the anatomy, epidemiology, classification, investigation and current evidence on management of this injury. PMID:25543185

  20. Cancer in first-degree relatives and risk of testicular cancer in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordsborg, Rikke Baastrup; Meliker, Jaymie R; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2011-11-15

    Familial aggregation of testicular cancer has been reported consistently, but it is less clear if there is any association between risk of testicular cancer and other cancers in the family. We conducted a population-based case-control study to examine the relationship between risk of testicular cancer and 22 different cancers in first-degree relatives. We included 3,297 cases of testicular cancer notified to the Danish Cancer Registry between 1991 and 2003. A total of 6,594 matched controls were selected from the Danish Civil Registration System, which also provided the identity of 40,104 first-degree relatives of case and controls. Familial cancer was identified by linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry, and we used conditional logistic regression to analyze whether cancer among first-degree relatives was associated with higher risk of testicular cancer. Rate ratio for testicular cancer was 4.63 (95% CI: 2.41-8.87) when a father, 8.30 (95% CI: 3.81-18.10) when a brother and 5.23 (95% CI: 1.35-20.26) when a son had testicular cancer compared to no familial testicular cancer. Results were similar when analyses were stratified by histologic subtypes of testicular cancer. Familial non-Hodgkin lymphoma and esophageal cancer were associated with testicular cancer; however, these may be chance findings. The familial aggregation of testicular and possibly other cancers may be explained by shared genes and/or shared environmental factors, but the mutual importance of each of these is difficult to determine. PMID:21207375

  1. Effects of losartan on experimental varicocele-induced testicular germ cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolat, D; Oltulu, F; Uysal, A; Kose, T; Gunlusoy, B; Yigitturk, G; Turk, N S; Turan, T

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the potential protective effects of losartan on varicocele-induced germ cell apoptosis, 24 adult male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups: a sham operation was performed in SHAM group, and experimental left varicocele was created in VAR and VAR + LOS groups. Additionally, in VAR + LOS group, losartan was administered for 30 days starting on the day of surgery. At the end of 30 days, all animals were sacrificed and left orchiectomy was performed. Testicular injury and spermatogenesis were evaluated according to Johnsen scoring system. To assess the nitrosative stress, immunohistochemical staining for endothelial nitric oxide synthase was used and evaluated by H-score and apoptotic index (AI) of germ cells was analysed by TUNEL method. A significant decrease in the mean Johnsen score (JS) was observed in VAR group compared with SHAM (p AI were significantly higher in VAR group compared with SHAM (p AI were significantly decreased compared with VAR group (p < .001 and .01, respectively). Findings of this suggest that losartan acts as a potent protective agent against varicocele-induced germ cell apoptosis. PMID:27373273

  2. Clinical case: Testicular cancer with metastases (Caso clínico: Cáncer testicular con metástasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valderrama-Gómez Ricardo Alfredo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Testicular cancer is the most common malignancy in men aged15-45 years. As a result of therapeutic advances in recent decadesand the integration of multimodal treatment, testicular cancer isnowadays one of the most curable malignancies. Non-seminomaGerminal cells tumor type includes embryonic carcinoma, choriocarcinoma,teratoma and yolk sac tumor. Despite of the long-termsurvival is favorable, multimodal treatment of NSGCT is constantlyevolving and incorporating new paradigms.It is described a patient in working age and fertile, who presents aclinical picture of +/- 2 years of evolution, presenting a left testicularpainless mass, the which increased progressively associated toweight lost. He presented abdominal pain without fever or historyof irritative urinary symptoms. This pathology is rare in our context,seen 3-4 cases per year in Viedma Hospital, with an incidenceof 0,8 per 100000 inhabitants/year in Bolivia, so it is important topresent it, so it can be diagnosed in less advanced stages. -RESUMEN: El cáncer testicular es la patología maligna más común en los hombresentre 15-45 años. Como resultado de los adelantos terapéuticosen las últimas décadas y la integración del tratamiento multimodal,el cáncer testicular es ahora una de las neoplasias más curables. ElTumor de Células Germinales de tipo No Seminoma (NSGCT, porsus siglas en ingles incluye el carcinoma embrionario, el coriocarcinoma,el teratoma y el tumor del saco vitelino. A pesar de ser favorablela supervivencia a largo plazo, el diagnóstico generalmentees un estadio tardio, por su presentación inicial asintomática.Ahora describimos a un paciente en edad laboral y fértil, el cualse caracterizo por un cuadro clínico de +/- 2 años de evolución,presentando una masa testicular izquierda, no dolorosa, que aumentóde volumen progresivamente asociada a pérdida de peso, dolorabdominal, sin alzas térmicas, ni antecedentes de sintomatologíairritativa urinaria

  3. File list: InP.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 Input control Gonad Testicular somati...c cells SRX591728,SRX591716 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  4. File list: NoD.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells mm9 No description Gonad Testicular germ cel...ls http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells.bed ...

  5. TB or not TB?: a case of isolated testicular TB with scrotal involvement.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bhargava, A

    2009-06-01

    Despite the genitourinary tract being the most common site affected by extrapulmonary TB, isolated testicular TB remains a rare clinical entity. In patients with co-morbidities such as hepatic impairment, treatment proves a challenge, as first-line hepatotoxic pharmaceuticals are contraindicated. Here, we report a case of isolated testicular TB with scrotal involvement, on a background of hepatic dysfunction.

  6. Testicular carcinoma in situ associated with rhabdomyosarcoma of the spermatic cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nistal, M; Fachal, C; Paniagua, R

    1989-08-01

    A 12-year-old boy had an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma in the distal portion of the spermatic cord. The tumor partially surrounded the testis, infiltrated the testicular tunics and formed an intratesticular nodule near the rete testis. The unaffected testicular parenchyma exhibited the characteristic germ cells of carcinoma in situ. We describe an association between these 2 types of tumors. PMID:2746753

  7. Screening for Y microdeletions in men with testicular cancer and undescended testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bor, Pinar; Hindkjaer, Johnny; Kølvraa, Steen;

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate a possible association between testicular cancer or undescended testis and Y microdeletions. METHODS: It was designed as a retrospective clinical study. A total of 225 men with testicular cancer or undescended testis were included to study. Fertile men (n = 200) were inves...

  8. Prevalence of testicular microlithiasis in males aged 0 to 18 years referred for scrotal sonography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, J.; Hofman, H.A.; Wagenvoort, A.M.; Pierik, F.H.; Hack, W.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Testicular microlithiasis (TM) is a relatively uncommon and usually asymptomatic condition that is characterized by multiple 1-3 mm nonshadowing echogenic foci within the parenchyma of the testis. Objectives: The prevalence of testicular microlithiasis was assessed retrospectively in mal

  9. A rare diagnosis: testicular dysgenesis with carcinoma in situ detected in a patient with ultrasonic microlithiasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Sommer, Peter; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa;

    2005-01-01

    testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS): a dysgenetic left testicle with CIS, a mild left-sided cryptorchidism (high positioned scrotal hypotrophic testis) and a slightly reduced semen quality. Therefore, it should be kept in mind that a patient with one TDS symptom may harbour the other, even CIS or testicular...

  10. Human papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus in the etiology of testicular germ cell tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Hørding, U; Nielsen, H W;

    1994-01-01

    Epidemiological features suggest that the risk of testicular cancer may be related to exposure to unknown infectious agents, including viruses. Therefore a series of twenty specimens of testicular germ cell tumours, including preinvasive carcinoma in-situ, were tested for the presence of DNA sequ...

  11. Quality of life of survivors of testicular germ cell cancer : a review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleer, J; Hoekstra, HJ; Sleijfer, DT; Hoekstra-Weebers, JEHM

    2004-01-01

    Goals of work. Testicular cancer (TC) affects young men in the prime of life. The excellent prognosis and an increasing incidence have led to a growing number of testicular cancer survivors (TCSs). The aim of this review was to summarize and discuss research findings on the quality of life (QOL) of

  12. Sexual functioning after treatment for testicular cancer - Comparison of treatment modalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JonkerPool, G; vanBasten, JP; Hoekstra, HJ; vanDriel, MF; Sleijfer, DT; vandeWiel, HBM; Schraffordt Koops, H.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND. This retrospective study evaluates changes in sexual functioning after treatment for testicular cancer and investigates whether there is a relationship with different treatment modalities. METHODS. A self-reported questionnaire was sent to 337 men who had been treated for testicular canc

  13. Immunoreactive neuron-specific enolase (NSE) is expressed in testicular carcinoma-in-situ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kang, J L; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Skakkebaek, N E

    1996-01-01

    Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) is a well-known marker of tumours that have neuroendocrine origin. High levels of NSE have also been described in various types of testicular germ cell neoplasms, particularly in seminomas. To evaluate the presence of NSE in testicular carcinoma-in situ (CIS), a...

  14. Injury Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Traumatic Brain Injury School sports Injuries can land students in the ER. Text Messaging: Emergency Physicians ... For You American College of Emergency Phycisians Copyright © American College of Emergency ...

  15. Inhalation Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Coşkun Araz; Arash Pirat

    2011-01-01

    Despite significant advances in wound care of patients with burn injuries, inhalation injury remains as an important contributor to morbidity and mortality in these patients. Unfortunately, there are limited studies that have focused on the diagnosis, grading, pathophysiology, and therapy of inhalation injury, therefore a widely accepted consensus is lacking on these topics. Inhalation injury is generally defined as the inhalation of thermal or chemical irritants and can be divided into three...

  16. Expression patterns of DLK1 and INSL3 identify stages of Leydig cell differentiation during normal development and in testicular pathologies, including testicular cancer and Klinefelter syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lottrup, G; Nielsen, J E; Maroun, L L;

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: What is the differentiation stage of human testicular interstitial cells, in particular Leydig cells (LC), within micronodules found in patients with infertility, testicular cancer and Klinefelter syndrome? SUMMARY ANSWER: The Leydig- and peritubular-cell populations in testes with......, are impaired in adult men with testicular pathologies including testis cancer and Klinefelter syndrome. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS: This work was funded by Rigshospitalet's research funds, the Danish Cancer Society and Kirsten and Freddy Johansen's foundation. The authors have no conflicts of...... specimens and in 58 adult testis samples from patients with testicular germ cell tumours, including precursor carcinoma in situ (CIS), infertility or Klinefelter syndrome. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: The expression patterns of DLK1, INSL3, chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription...

  17. Testicular parenchymal abnormalities in Klinefelter syndrome: a question of cancer? Examination of 40 consecutive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Accardo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Klinefelter syndrome (KS is a hypergonadotropic hypogonadism characterized by a 47, XXY karyotype. The risk of testicular cancer in KS is of interest in relation to theories about testicular cancer etiology generally; nevertheless it seems to be low. We evaluated the need for imaging and serum tumor markers for testicular cancer screening in KS. Participants were 40 consecutive KS patients, enrolled from December 2009 to January 2013. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, and beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin subunit (β-HCG serum levels assays and testicular ultrasound (US with color Doppler, were carried out at study entry, after 6 months and every year for 3 years. Abdominal magnetic resonance (MR was performed in KS when testicular US showed micro-calcifications, testicular nodules and cysts. Nearly 62% of the KS had regular testicular echotexture, 37.5% showed an irregular echotexture and 17.5% had micro-calcifications and cysts. Eighty seven percent of KS had a regular vascular pattern, 12.5% varicocele, 12.5% nodules 1 cm. MR ruled out the diagnosis of cancer in all KS with testicular micro calcifications, nodules and cysts. No significant variations in LDH, AFP, and β-HCG levels and in US pattern have been detected during follow-up. We compared serum tumor markers and US pattern between KS with and without cryptorchidism and no statistical differences were found. We did not find testicular cancer in KS, and testicular US, tumor markers and MR were, in selected cases, useful tools for correctly discriminating benign from malignant lesions.

  18. Refined testicular dosimetry and radiobiology in radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The full text of the publication follows. The testes are one of the most radiosensitive organs. They constitute an important critical target tissue both for external and internal exposure during diagnostic or therapeutic use of radionuclides. The testis consists of an egg-shaped tissue containing a large number of lobules. These are occupied by one to four seminiferous tubules, where the spermatogenesis takes place, i.e. the complex process where germ cells proliferate and transform into spermatozoa. The testicular cells have different sensitivity to radiation with the highest sensitivity of the undifferentiated spermatogonia close of the basal cell layer, and lowest sensitivity of the more mature sperm cells migrating towards the lumen. Exposure of the testis may occur due to radiopharmaceutical administration in patients either for therapy or diagnostic purposes, which may result in considerable high absorbed dose to the testis and may harm the testicular germ cells. In general the mean absorbed dose to the whole testis is estimated, which has been reported for different radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals in the literature. However, due to the difference in radiosensitivity of the germ cells the absorbed doses to each type of cells in the seminiferous epithelium is of importance for a radiobiological interpretation. Testicular dosimetry on the cellular level is a complex matter and has not yet been addressed. The aim of this project was to design a small-scale anatomy model for calculation of S-factors (Gy MBq-1) for different source-target combinations, i.e. the interstitial tissue and different germ cells of the seminiferous epithelium. Based on this small-scale anatomy model it should be possible to estimate radiobiological effects based on radioactivity distribution determined by autoradiography, calculated differentiated absorbed doses, and known radiosensitivity of the different germ cells. The novel small-scale anatomy model will be presented and its

  19. TESTICULAR CANCER – THE SUCCESS OF MULTIMODAL THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Miron

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Testicular neoplasia constitutes a chapter of particular interest in oncology, given its increased curability in comparison with most solid tumors. Early diagnosis is important because it allows the patients to be treated in the first stages of the disease, in which morbidity associated with therapy is minimal, and increased survival represents certitude. The medical staff, as well as the general population, must be advised upon suggestive signs and symptoms, and also on the imaging characteristics of such cancers (ultrasound and CAT scans being in the spotlight, so that the period of time until confirmation of the diagnosis (by pathology exam – which in turn influences therapy decision – is obtained may be as short as possible. Surgery represents a very important component of multimodal therapeutic strategy for patients diagnosed with testicular cancer, both for low/volume tumors and for the more advanced stages of disease. Surgical interventions (orchiectomy, retroperitoneal lymph node resection with or without sympathic nerve preservation, resection of singular metastases contribute decisively to the high percentage of long term cures, and can play a role in increasing the survival of patients with chemoresistant metastatic disease. Chemotherapy is mandatory in the treatment of locally advanced and metastasis seminomatous germ cell tumors (GCT. This may be seen also as an option to annihilate possible pathology diagnostic errors (mostly due to lack of tumour marker dosing which determine a non-seminomatous GCT to be treated as a seminoma, thus greatly diminishing therapeutic efficacy. There are several chemotherapeutic agents with extremely efficient activity on seminomatous testicular tumours, but the etoposide/cisplatin protocol remains still the gold standard. Non-seminomatous GCTs have a lesser response to chemotherapy and therefore a higher relapse rate and a poorer prognosis.

  20. Head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hureibi, K A; McLatchie, G R

    2010-05-01

    Head injury is one of the commonest injuries in sport. Most are mild but some can have serious outcomes. Sports medicine doctors should be able to recognise the clinical features and evaluate athletes with head injury. It is necessary during field assessment to recognise signs and symptoms that help in assessing the severity of injury and making a decision to return-to-play. Prevention of primary head injury should be the aim. This includes protective equipment like helmets and possible rule changes. PMID:20533694

  1. Technical relapsed testicular irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testicular irradiation in children suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukemia presents difficulties in relation to daily positioning, dosimetry for dose homogenization of complex geometry and volume change during irradiation thereof. This can lead to significant deviations from the prescribed doses. In addition, the usual techniques often associated with unnecessary irradiation of pelvic simphysis, anus and perineum. This, in the case of pediatric patients, is of great importance, since doses in the vicinity of 20 Gy are associated with a deviation of bone growth, low testosterone levels around 24 Gy and high rates of generation of second tumors. To overcome these problems we propose a special restraint in prone and non-coplanar irradiation.

  2. ERα and ERβ in mouse testicular cells and sperm

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dostálová, Pavla; Děd, Lukáš; Pěknicová, Jana

    Praha : Biotechnologický ústav, 2013 - (Pěknicová, J.). s. 22-23 [XIX. Symposium imunologie a biologie reprodukce s mezinárodní účastí. 23.05.2013-25.05.2013, Třešť] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/12/1834 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Estrogen receptor α β * Estrogen receptor β * Testicular cells * Spermatogenesis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  3. Staging of testicular carcinoma: comparison of CT and lymphangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical staging by computed tomography (CT) and lymphangiography was compared in 27 patients with pathologically staged testicular carcinoma, primarily nonseminomatous tumors. The overall accuracy of CT was 89%; the sensitivity, 90%; and the specificity, 83%. The accuracy of lymphangiography for detecting nodal abnormalities was 70%; the sensitivity, 71%; and the specificity, 67%. In 48% of cases, CT provided better delineation of tumor margins. Also, CT detected retrocrural nodal enlargement in 14% of patients and hepatic metastasis in 5%. The usefulness and limitations of both methods are discussed along with their clinical implications

  4. Medical image of the week: metastatic testicular cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debo M

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A 30 year-old man with metastatic embryonal testicular cancer was admitted to the hospital with severe abdominal pain. A contrast enhanced CT of the abdomen demonstrated large metastatic burden throughout the liver and the left adrenal gland (Figures 1 and 2. The mass arising from the left adrenal gland caused significant mass effect. The left kidney was compressed, though without hydronephrosis, and the spleen was displaced laterally. Renal and hepatic functions were preserved. His pain was controlled with opioids and oral steroids with significant improvement.

  5. Transverse testicular ectopia: a rare association with inguinal hernia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, Prakash; Koirala, Rabin; Subedi, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    Transverse testicular ectopia (TTE) is a rare anomaly that is commonly associated with inguinal hernia. Most of the reported cases are in children with very few reported cases in adults. We report a case of 42 years, fertile male, who presented with left reducible inguinal hernia. During surgery, he was found to have a left indirect inguinal hernia with TTE with both testes on the left side. Hernioplasty and bilateral orchidopexy were performed. He had an uneventful recovery. Most of these cases are diagnosed intraoperatively, but imaging (ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging) has emerged as a promising tool for preoperative diagnosis although ultrasound missed it in this case. PMID:25287117

  6. Effect of Endo G over-expression on cadmium induced apoptosis of HEK-293 cells%Endo G基因过表达对镉诱导HEK-293细胞凋亡影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周凤云; 潘杨滨; 何志娟; 毛伟平; 李文秀; 刘宣宣; 徐翀

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察细胞凋亡因子核酸内切酶G( endonuclease G,Endo G)基因过表达在镉诱导人胚胎肾细胞HEK-293凋亡中的影响.方法 从人肝癌细胞系(human hepatocarcinoma cells,HepG 2)中提取RNA,经逆转录获取互补DNA cDNA),通过聚合酶链反应(PCR)扩增Endo G基因,与pcDNA 3.0相连,构建pcDNA 3.0-Endo G真核表达载体,转染HEK-293细胞,并结合不同浓度氯化镉处理细胞;通过蛋白印迹实验(Western blot)验证基因过表达,吖啶橙/溴乙锭(AO/EB)双染法及流式细胞术(FCM)检测Endo G基因过表达对镉诱导HEK-293细胞凋亡的影响,噻唑蓝法(MTT)检测细胞存活率.结果 成功构建pcDNA 3.0-EndoG真核表达载体,Endo G基因扩增片段大小约1 100 bp;该载体转染细胞后,Endo G成功过表达,使HEK-293细胞凋亡率>37%,且随氯化镉浓度增加,Endo G表达量先上升后下降.结论 Endo G以诱导细胞早期凋亡和晚期凋亡为主要形式.%Objective To examine the effects of over-expression of endonuclease G(Endo G) gene on cadmium-induced apoptosis of embryonic kidney cell HEK-293 in vitro. Methods Total RNA was obtained from human hepato-carcinoma cell line( HepG 2) and cDNA was obtained by reverse transcription. The Endo G gene was amplified by PCR. The Endo G was inserted reversely into pcDNA 3. 0,and the recombinant plasmid pcDNA 3. 0-Endo G was selected and then transferred into DH5a strain. The pcDNA 3. 0-Endo G was transfected into HEK-293 cells. Western blot was used to confirm the expression of Endo G gene in HEK-293 cells. Acridine orange/ethidium bromide(AO/EB) and flow cytom-etry were used to determine the effect of Endo G gene on cadmium-induced apoptosis of HEK-293 cells. The cell proliferation was detected by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium(MTT) method. Results The size of Endo G gene fragment is about 1100 bp. The eukaryotic expressing plasmid of pcDNA 3. 0-Endo G was constructed successfully. The expression of Endo G was first increased and then

  7. The diagnosis of unilateral testicular obstruction in subfertile males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, W F; Parslow, J M; Stedronska, J; Wallace, D M

    1982-12-01

    Thirty-two subfertile males with sperms in the ejaculate and unilateral testicular obstruction are reported: the diagnosis was established by exploration of scrotum in 26, clinically in 2, 3 had had previous partially successful epididymovasostomies, and 1 had had an epispadias repair. The past medical history gave relevant information in 27 (84%), and useful findings were made on clinical examination in a further 3 cases. Fifteen patients had sperm counts over 20 million per ml, and 15 were less than 10 million per ml. Twenty-six (81%) had serum antisperm antibodies detected by tray agglutination test (TAT), 21 (81%) of whom had evidence of head-to-head (HH) agglutinins in pure or mixed form. Comparison with 162 vasectomised males and 160 naturally infertile males with antisperm antibodies showed that 55% of the former and 24% of the latter had HH agglutinins on TAT, differences that were highly significant on statistical analysis. Evidence of obstruction was found in 14 (37%) of 38 naturally infertile males with antisperm antibodies and HH or mixed agglutination, but only in 12 (10%) of 122 with TT agglutinins: this difference was also highly significant. Clinical history, physical examination and serum antisperm antibodies, especially if HH agglutinins are present, can suggest the possibility of unilateral testicular obstruction, but confirmation of the diagnosis requires exploration of scrotum. PMID:7150940

  8. Post orchiectomy management in stage II testicular seminoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty eight patients with stage II A and twenty patients with stage II B testicular seminoma were treated at this institute between January 1982 and December 1988. The three year crude survival observed in this retrospective analysis was 82% and 75% respectively. Post orchiectomy infradiaphragmatic radiotherapy was the mainstay of the treatment. In stage II A, 4 patients were administered adjuvant chemotherapy as well. Prophylactic mediastinal irradiation (PMI) was not employed as a routine in this subgroup. Eight patients (28%) relapsed (mediastinal nodes - 4, pulmonary - 3, scrotal - 1). In stage II B, twelve patients were treated with primary abdominal radiotherapy and of them 4 were delivered PMI as well. Induction chemotherapy was administered in remaining 8 patients. Seven patients (35%) relapsed (pulmonary-4, mediastinal nodes-3). Mediastinal recurrence was noted only in those who were treated with abdominal radiotherapy alone. Though salvage chemotherapy proved successful in 5 of the seven patients (70%) with nodal relapse, none of the patients with extranodal relapse responded to subsequent chemotherapy. For stage II A abdominal radiotherapy alone is recommended and for stage II B induction chemotherapy is advised keeping radiotherapy reserved for residual mass. PMI as a routine in stage II testicular seminoma is not advocated as no survival benefit is observed. (author) 15 refs., 6 tabs

  9. Testicular and spermatozoan parameters in the pukeko (Porphyrio porphyrio melanotus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, M R; Champion, Z; Casey, M E; Teal, P; Casey, P J

    2008-12-01

    The pukeko (Porphyrio porphyrio melanotus) is widespread in New Zealand, and is the closest living relative to the endangered takahe (Porphyrio mantelli), which has a relatively high rate of infertility. In this study, sperm collected from a number of pukeko was analysed in order to model the reproductive physiology of the male takahe. In addition, testicular parameters were measured. To ascertain the best method of sperm collection five techniques for harvesting sperm were used on two occasions during the breeding season. All five techniques resulted in the successful recovery of sperm. However, the float-out technique produced the best quality samples. Following collection, the morphometry of unstained sperm was assessed. Our findings suggest that pukeko sperm is non-motile in the male reproductive tract. We found the mean sperm head length in the pukeko is 16.9mum, but sperm head length varied significantly between birds. Testicular weight and length was significantly correlated with bird weight (P<0.05). Within each bird, testes weights were asymmetric. However, testes length was significantly correlated (P<0.05). There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in testes length between birds. The methodologies presented for obtaining and analysing pukeko sperm morphometry can be used to assist opportunistic studies of the reproductive biology of other New Zealand native birds. PMID:18162336

  10. Testicular touch preparation cytology in the evaluation of male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isil Z Yildiz-Aktas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Male infertility is traditionally evaluated by tissue core biopsies of the testes. Touch preparations (TP of these biopsies have been infrequently used. The aim of this study is to report our experience with using testicular biopsy TP for the evaluation of male infertility. Materials and Methods: A retrospective search was performed for cases of testes biopsies with concurrent TP. These cases were evaluated for clinical information, specimen adequacy, and cytological-histological correlation. Results: A total of 39 cases were identified from men with a mean age of 34 years (range 23 to 50 years. TP slides were satisfactory for evaluation in 31 (89% cases, and less than optimal in four due to low cellularity, obscuring blood or air drying artifact. Cytopathology showed concordance with the biopsy in almost all cases. In one discordant case where the biopsies showed no active spermatogenesis, a rare sperm were identified on the TP. Conclusions: TP of the testis is a helpful adjunct to biopsy because of its ability to clearly evaluate all stages of spermatogenesis. These data demonstrate that TP cytopathology of the testes in our experience has an excellent correlation with both normal testicular biopsies and those showing pathological spermatogenesis, and in rare cases may provide added benefit in evaluating the presence of spermatogenesis for male infertility. Albeit uncommon, cytopathologists may be required to identify and evaluate spermatogenic elements in cytology specimens being submitted from men with infertility.

  11. Yolk sac tumor in a patient with transverse testicular ectopia

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    Zhu Yi-Ping

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transverse testicular ectopia (TTE is a rare anomaly in which both testes descend through a single inguinal canal. We report a case of yolk sac tumor in the ectopic testis of a patient with TTE. A 24-year-old man presented to our hospital with a left inguinal-mass, right cryptorchidism and elevated alpha-fetoprotein (AFP. A left herniotomy 3 years earlier demonstrated both testes in the left scrotum, one above another positionally. Four months ago, a left scrotal mass appeared and radical orchiectomy of both testes revealed testicular yolk sac tumor of the ectopic testis. An enlarging left inguinal-mass appeared 2 months ago and he was referred to our hospital. Laboratory data showed an elevation of AFP (245.5 ng/ml and a 46 XY karyotype. He underwent bilateral retroperitoneal lymph node dissection and simultaneous left inguinal mass dissection. Histopathologic examination revealed a diagnosis of recurrent yolk sac tumor in the left inguinal mass. The retroperitoneal lymph node was not enlarged and, on histopathology, was not involved. The patient has now been followed up for 8 months without evidence of biochemical or radiological recurrence.

  12. Testicular structure and germ cells morphology in salamanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, Mari Carmen; Mejía-Roa, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    Testes of salamanders or urodeles are paired elongated organs that are attached to the dorsal wall of the body by a mesorchium. The testes are composed of one or several lobes. Each lobe is morphologically and functionally a similar testicular unit. The lobes of the testis are joined by cords covered by a single peritoneal epithelium and subjacent connective tissue. The cords contain spermatogonia. Spermatogonia associate with Sertoli cells to form spermatocysts or cysts. The spermatogenic cells in a cyst undergo their development through spermatogenesis synchronously. The distribution of cysts displays the cephalo-caudal gradient in respect to the stage of spermatogenesis. The formation of cysts at cephalic end of the testis causes their migration along the lobules to the caudal end. Consequently, the disposition in cephalo-caudal regions of spermatogenesis can be observed in longitudinal sections of the testis. The germ cells are spermatogonia, diploid cells with mitotic activity; primary and second spermatocytes characterized by meiotic divisions that develop haploid spermatids; during spermiogenesis the spermatids differentiate to spermatozoa. During spermiation the cysts open and spermatozoa leave the testicular lobules. After spermiation occurs the development of Leydig cells into glandular tissue. This glandular tissue regressed at the end of the reproductive cycle. PMID:26413406

  13. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Injury Psychological Issues After Spinal Cord Injury Psychological Health After Spinal Cord Injury Psychological Health After Spinal Cord Injury The Psychologist's Role After ...

  14. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Psychological Realities After Spinal Cord Injury Psychology of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Psychology of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation How Psychologists Help ...

  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Psychological Realities after Spinal Cord Injury Psychology of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Psychology of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation How Psychologists Help ...

  16. Individual variation related to testicular biometry and semen characteristics in collared peccaries (Tayassu Tajacu Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, G C X; Silva, M A; Castelo, T S; Silva, A M; Bezerra, J A B; Souza, A L P; Oliveira, M F; Silva, A R

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this research was to study the individual variation with regard to the morphometry of the testes evaluated by ultrasonography and semen characteristics and to verify the existence of relationship between these variables in collared peccaries. In addition, the testes of the animals were evaluated by histology in order to determine the proportion occupied by the seminiferous tubules. A total of 52 ejaculates were obtained from ten adult specimens that had been restrained by anesthesia. The testicular measurements (length, height, and width) were performed by ultrasonography, and the testicular volume was calculated according to Lambert's formula. The scrotal circumference was measured by encircling the thickest portion of the testicle with a graduated nylon tape. The semen was collected by electroejaculation. Testicular fragments were analyzed through classic histology for the determination of the area occupied by the seminiferous tubules. The results show a great amount of individual variation with regard to testicular morphometry and semen characteristics. No significant correlations were obtained between testicular measurements and semen characteristics. The histometric analysis revealed that 67.8% of the testes are occupied by seminiferous tubules. Results show that the measurement of testicular dimensions does not serve as an indicator of the quality of semen obtained by electroejaculation in collared peccaries, as there is no correlation between testicular morphometry and semen characteristics in this species that presents large variations among individuals. PMID:22964034

  17. Leydig cell function in boys following treatment for testicular relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current practice for achieving local control of testicular relapse in males with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) includes the use of 2,400-rad testicular radiation. Although this therapy is known to cause germ cell depletion, it has been assumed that it does not alter testicular secretion of testosterone. To test this assumption, the authors measured gonadotropin and testosterone levels in seven boys with ALL who had been treated with radiation for clinically apparent testicular relapse. In four of seven boys, testicular relapse was bilateral with overt involvement of one testicle and microscopic involvement of the other. Three of these four boys demonstrated delayed sexual maturation, and in addition to elevated follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations, testosterone levels were low and luteinizing hormone levels were elevated compared with controls. These data indicate that boys with overt testicular leukemia who are treated with 2,400-rad testicular radiation are at risk for Leydig cell dysfunction. However, the relative contributions of radiation, prior chemotherapy, and leukemic infiltration to this dysfunction remain to be clarified

  18. Corporal and testicular biometry in wild boar from birth to 12 months of age

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    Danillo Velloso Ferreira Murta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this tudy was to evaluate corporal and testicular development in wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa from birth to 12 months of age, evaluating body weight, biometric testicular parameters, and gonadosomatic index. Thirty-nine male wild boars from a commercial farm licensed by IBAMA were used in the study. The animals were weighed and assigned to 13 experimental groups. The testes were recovered through unilateral orchiectomy, weighed on an analytical balance and measured for length, width and thickness. Body weight and testicular measures increased with the age, up to 12 months, and were more accelerated in the first and ninth months. Initially the testicular growth pattern, between zero and nine months, followed the body growth, and the gonadosomatic index varied from 0.07 to 0.09%. Between 9 and 11 months, the testicular growth was superior to the body growth, and the gonadosomatic index varied from 0.09 to 0.16%. Finally, after 11 months of age, testicular and body growth had a similar behavior. In conclusion, body weight, testicular biometry, and gonadosomatic index development accelerated in the ninth month.

  19. The role of apparent diffusion coefficient values in detecting testicular intraepithelial neoplasia: Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsili, Athina C., E-mail: a_tsili@yahoo.gr [Department of Radiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Ntorkou, Alexandra, E-mail: alexdorkou@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Baltogiannis, Dimitrios, E-mail: Greece.dbaltog@cc.uoi.gr [Department of Urology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Goussia, Anna, E-mail: agoussia@uoi.gr [Department of Pathology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Astrakas, Loukas G., E-mail: astrakas@uoi.gr [Department of Medical Physics, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Malamou-Mitsi, Vasiliki, E-mail: vmalamou@cc.uoi.gr [Department of Pathology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Sofikitis, Nikolaos, E-mail: akrosnin@hotmail.com [Department of Urology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Argyropoulou, Maria I., E-mail: margyrop@cc.uoi.gr [Department of Radiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • ADC values proved useful in the discrimination between TGCNs and normal testis. • Testicular intraepithelial neoplasia represents the precursor of most TGCNs. • ADC values cannot be used to detect testicular intraepithelial neoplasia. - Abstract: Introduction: The aim of this study is to improve detection of testicular intraepithelial neoplasia (TIN) by measurement of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. Materials and methods: Fifty-six MRI examinations of the scrotum, including 26 histologically proven testicular germ cell neoplasms were retrospectively evaluated. DWI was performed using a single shot, multi-slice spin-echo planar diffusion pulse sequence and b-values of 0 and 900 s mm{sup −2}. ADC measurements were classified into three groups according to their location: group 1 (n = 19), non-tumoral part, adjacent to testicular carcinoma, where the possible location of TIN was; group 2 (n = 26), testicular carcinoma; and group 3 (n = 60), normal testicular parenchyma. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by post hoc analysis (Dunnett T3) was used for statistical purposes. Results: The mean ± s.d. of ADC values (×10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s) of different groups were: group 1, 1.08 ± 0.20; group 2, 0.72 ± 0.27; and group 3, 1.11 ± 0.14. ANOVA revealed differences of mean ADC between groups (F = 38.859, P < 0.001). Post hoc analysis showed differences between groups 2 and 3 (P < 0.001), groups 2 and 1 (P < 0.001), but not between groups 3 and 1 (P = 0.87). Conclusions: Based on our preliminary results, ADC values do not provide a reliable differentiation between TIN and testicular carcinoma or normal testicular parenchyma.

  20. The role of apparent diffusion coefficient values in detecting testicular intraepithelial neoplasia: Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • ADC values proved useful in the discrimination between TGCNs and normal testis. • Testicular intraepithelial neoplasia represents the precursor of most TGCNs. • ADC values cannot be used to detect testicular intraepithelial neoplasia. - Abstract: Introduction: The aim of this study is to improve detection of testicular intraepithelial neoplasia (TIN) by measurement of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. Materials and methods: Fifty-six MRI examinations of the scrotum, including 26 histologically proven testicular germ cell neoplasms were retrospectively evaluated. DWI was performed using a single shot, multi-slice spin-echo planar diffusion pulse sequence and b-values of 0 and 900 s mm−2. ADC measurements were classified into three groups according to their location: group 1 (n = 19), non-tumoral part, adjacent to testicular carcinoma, where the possible location of TIN was; group 2 (n = 26), testicular carcinoma; and group 3 (n = 60), normal testicular parenchyma. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by post hoc analysis (Dunnett T3) was used for statistical purposes. Results: The mean ± s.d. of ADC values (×10−3 mm2/s) of different groups were: group 1, 1.08 ± 0.20; group 2, 0.72 ± 0.27; and group 3, 1.11 ± 0.14. ANOVA revealed differences of mean ADC between groups (F = 38.859, P < 0.001). Post hoc analysis showed differences between groups 2 and 3 (P < 0.001), groups 2 and 1 (P < 0.001), but not between groups 3 and 1 (P = 0.87). Conclusions: Based on our preliminary results, ADC values do not provide a reliable differentiation between TIN and testicular carcinoma or normal testicular parenchyma

  1. Effects of Cinnamon (C. zeylanicum) Bark Oil Against Taxanes-Induced Damages in Sperm Quality, Testicular and Epididymal Oxidant/Antioxidant Balance, Testicular Apoptosis, and Sperm DNA Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariözkan, Serpil; Türk, Gaffari; Güvenç, Mehmet; Yüce, Abdurrauf; Özdamar, Saim; Cantürk, Fazile; Yay, Arzu Hanım

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether cinnamon bark oil (CBO) has protective effect on taxanes-induced adverse changes in sperm quality, testicular and epididymal oxidant/antioxidant balance, testicular apoptosis, and sperm DNA integrity. For this purpose, 88 adult male rats were equally divided into 8 groups: control, CBO, docetaxel (DTX), paclitaxel (PTX), DTX+PTX, DTX+CBO, PTX+CBO, and DTX+PTX+CBO. CBO was given by gavage daily for 10 weeks at the dose of 100 mg/kg. DTX and PTX were administered by intraperitoneal injection at the doses of 5 and 4 mg/kg/week, respectively, for 10 weeks. DTX+PTX and DTX+PTX+CBO groups were treated with DTX during first 5 weeks and PTX during next 5 weeks. DTX, PTX, and their mixed administrations caused significant decreases in absolute and relative weights of all reproductive organs, testosterone level, sperm motility, concentration, glutathione level, and catalase activity in testicular and epididymal tissues. They also significantly increased abnormal sperm rate, testicular and epididymal malondialdehyde level, apoptotic germ cell number, and sperm DNA fragmentation and significantly damaged the histological structure of testes. CBO consumption by DTX-, PTX-, and DTX+PTX-treated rats provided significant ameliorations in decreased relative weights of reproductive organs, decreased testosterone, decreased sperm quality, imbalanced oxidant/antioxidant system, increased apoptotic germ cell number, rate of sperm with fragmented DNA, and severity of testicular histopathological lesions induced by taxanes. In conclusion, taxanes cause impairments in sperm quality, testicular and epididymal oxidant/antioxidant balance, testicular histopathological structure, and sperm DNA integrity, and long-term CBO consumption protects male reproductive system of rats. PMID:27008095

  2. The effects of microwave radiation on expressions of pCREB, CREM, and CBP in the testicular tissue of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-yu CHEN

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effects and ascertain the significance of microwave radiation on the expression of phosphorylated cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP-response element-binding protein (pCREB, cAMP-responsive element modulator (CREM, and CREB-binding protein (CBP in the testicular tissue of rats. Methods Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group (n=5 and radiation group (n=25. Five rats in the radiation group were sacrificed at 6h, 1, 3, 7, and 14d, respectively, after exposure to microwave radiation for 5min, with an average power density of 30mW/cm2. Rats in the control group were sacrificed within 1d without receiving microwave radiation. Expressions and dynamic changes in pCREB, CREM, and CBP in the testicular tissues were examined by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Results pCREB, CREM, and CBP were mainly expressed in the sperm nuclei of the seminiferous tubule in the rat testis. pCREB and CBP protein expressions were downregulated from 6h to14d (except for pCREB at 1d after exposure to microwave radiation (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01. The expression of CREM was also weakened significantly from 6h to 7d after radiation (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01. Conclusion The downregulation of pCREB, CREM, and CBP expression may play an important role in the injury of spermatogenic cells caused by microwave radiation.

  3. Percutaneous Revision of a Testicular Prosthesis is Safe, Cost-effective, and Provides Good Patient Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene B. Cone

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Office-based percutaneous revision of a testicular prosthesis has never been reported. A patient received a testicular prosthesis but was dissatisfied with the firmness of the implant. In an office setting, the prosthesis was inflated with additional fluid via a percutaneous approach. Evaluated outcomes included patient satisfaction, prosthesis size, recovery time, and cost savings. The patient was satisfied, with no infection, leak, or complication after more than 1 year of follow-up, at significantly less cost than revision surgery. Percutaneous adjustment of testicular prosthesis fill-volume can be safe, inexpensive, and result in good patient satisfaction.

  4. Angiography of testicular artery with special reference to the blood supply of the testis in camel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The right and left testicular arteries in camel arose independently from the ventrolateral aspect of abdominal aorta at the level of fourth of fifth lumbar vertebra. Both arteries although had different relations and course inside the abdominal cavity had similar inguinal and post inguinal course. The artery described a great number of convolutions in close apposition to each other, thus formed an elongated vascular cone with its apex at the superficial inguinal ring and the base on the caputal extremity of the testis. As testicular artery reached caputal extremity of testis it showed 2 patterns in its course. The intratesticular arborization of testicular artery consideted of centripetal and centrifugal arteries

  5. Seminoma in a Man with Russell-Silver Syndrome Presenting with Testicular Torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Funada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Russell-Silver syndrome (RSS is a type of primordial dwarfism. Only one case of testicular cancer in RSS has been reported, the pathology of which was nonseminoma. Here, we report a case of seminoma in a 36-year-old man who was diagnosed with RSS at birth. The seminoma was diagnosed when the patient presented with testicular torsion. This is the first report of testicular seminoma in an RSS patient in the literature. We also discussed the correlation between seminoma and RSS.

  6. Inhalation Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coşkun Araz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant advances in wound care of patients with burn injuries, inhalation injury remains as an important contributor to morbidity and mortality in these patients. Unfortunately, there are limited studies that have focused on the diagnosis, grading, pathophysiology, and therapy of inhalation injury, therefore a widely accepted consensus is lacking on these topics. Inhalation injury is generally defined as the inhalation of thermal or chemical irritants and can be divided into three types of injury: thermal injury, which is mostly restricted to the upper airway; chemical injury, which affects tracheobronchial tree; and systemic toxicity owing to toxic gases such as carbon monoxide. Inhalation injury increases the burn injury associated morbidity and mortality by causing airway problems and respiratory failure during the early phase and by contributing to the development of pneumonia and atelectasis during the late phase. Additionally, systemic effects of toxic gases such as carbon monoxide may also adversely affect the early and long-term outcome in burn victims. The early diagnosis and therapy of these problems plays a key role in improving the outcome of burn patients. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 37-45

  7. Evaluation of the effectiveness of testicular cancer and testicular self-examination training for patient care personnel: intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, Serife Zehra; Bebiş, Hatice

    2014-12-01

    Testicular cancer (TC) is the most common malignancy among men aged 15-35 years. Testicular self-examination (TSE) is an important tool for preventing late-stage TC diagnoses. This study aimed to assess health beliefs and knowledge related to TC and TSE and the effectiveness of TC and TSE training for patient care staff in a hospital. This was a prospective, randomized, controlled intervention study. The study included 96 patient care staff divided into two groups of 48 participants each: Group I, the interactive education group, and Group II, the pamphlet education group. The results demonstrated that TSE practice and TC knowledge significantly increased in both Group I and Group II. Significant differences were observed between the groups pre and post education. TSE and TC knowledge levels were higher for participants in Group I than those in Group II. There was a significant difference in the performance of TSEs between groups: the rates were 83.3% in Group I and 54.2% in Group II. Perceived confidence and perceived barriers increased significantly for both groups. Interactive education sessions should be used to train men at risk for TC to perform TSEs. PMID:25248831

  8. Assisted reproduction technology in men with ejaculatory dysfunction with special reference to spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Hultling, Claes

    1998-01-01

    Background: Men afflicted by spinal cord injury (SCI), myelomcningocele (MMC) and testicular cancer (TC) with retroperitoneal Iymph node dissection (RPLND) share the problem of infertility due mainly, but not exclusively, to neurologic impairment. This problem has historically been neglected, partly due to lack of effective treatment, partly due to lack of appreciation of the importance of sexual and procreational issues for rehabilitation outcomes and quality of life. Wi...

  9. Pediatric Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ballesteros, M. F., Sleet, D. A. (2008). CDC childhood injury report: patterns of unintentional injuries among 0-19 ... American Academy of Pediatrics. (2008). Management of pediatric trauma. Pediatrics, 121 , 849–854. [top] How many people are ... may slightly increase childhood risk of neurological impairment, NIH study suggests All ...

  10. Radiation-Induced Testicular Injury and Its Amelioration by Tinospora cordifolia (An Indian Medicinal Plant) Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Goyal, P. K.; Preeti Verma; Jyoti Parmar; Priyanka Sharma

    2011-01-01

    The primary objective of this investigation is to determine the deleterious effects of sub lethal gamma radiation on testes and their possible inhibition by Tinospora cordifolia extract (TCE). For this purpose, one group of male Swiss albino mice was exposed to 7.5 Gy gamma radiation to serve as the irradiated control, while the other group received TCE (75 mg/kg b. wt./day) orally for 5 consecutive days half an hr before irradiation to serve as experimental. Exposure of animals to 7.5 Gy gam...

  11. Testis-sparing surgery in the benign testicular tumors in boys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Testicular neoplasm in boys are rare. In despite of the adult testicular, neoplasm in children non-seminoma germ cell tumors are seen much more frequent, also in 30-70% of cases benign lesions exist and those tumors do not require chemo- and radiotherapy. Recently there is a great enthusiasm for testis sparing surgery. Objectives. Authors would like to present six boys with testicular mass operated with testis sparing surgery for benign tumors. Material and Methods. Between 1995 and 2004 in Department of Pediatric Surgery and Urology 33 boys were operated because of testicular malignances. In six cases in age from 1 to 17 years after histological (interoperation) confirmation of the benign origin of the tumor testis sparing surgery were performed. Results. In all six operated boys follow up is from 2 to 5 year and all are free from disease's symptoms. Ultrasound view of the operated testes are normal. (authors)

  12. Semen quality and reproductive hormones before orchiectomy in men with testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, P M; Skakkebaek, N E; Vistisen, K; Rørth, M; Giwercman, A

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: To obtain information about preorchiectomy gonadal function in patients with testicular germ cell cancer to improve the clinical management of fertility and other andrologic aspects in these men. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In group 1, a group of 83 consecutive patients with testicular germ cell......-existing Leydig cell dysfunction is present in men with testicular cancer could not be answered in this study because the tumor seems to have a direct effect on the Leydig cells. Men with testicular cancer had low LH values as compared with controls. We speculate that increased intratesticular level of hCG also...... in men without measurable serum hCG may play a role by exerting LH-like effects on the Leydig cells, causing increased testosterone and estrogen levels and low LH values in the blood....

  13. Teaching Breast and Testicular Self-Exams: Evaluation of a High School Curriculum Pilot Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Stephen L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A high school curriculum project was developed to teach students about the importance of breast and testicular self-examination. Questionnaires were used to evaluate the project. Results are discussed. (DF)

  14. TESTICULAR GROWTH DURING PUBERTY IN BOYS WITH AND WITHOUT A HISTORY OF CONGENITAL CRYPTORCHIDISM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadov, Sergey; Koskenniemi, Jaakko J; Virtanen, Helena E;

    2016-01-01

    -control study. SETTING: Andrological Research Center, University of Turku. PARTICIPANTS: Altogether 119 boys participated: 51 cases with a history of congenital cryptorchidism and 65 controls fulfilled the inclusion criteria. INTERVENTION: None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Testicular volume by an orchidometer (m...

  15. Electronic Surveillance of Testicular Cancer: Understanding Patient Perspectives on Access to Electronic Medical Records

    OpenAIRE

    Groll, Ryan J.; Leonard, Kevin J.; Eakin, Joan; Warde, Padraig; Bender, Jackie; Jewett, Michael A.S

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the basis for providing effective access to electronic medical record data as a reference source for patients with early-stage testicular cancer undergoing surveillance follow-up programs.

  16. Cervical mature teratoma 17 years after initial treatment of testicular teratocarcinoma: report of a late relapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alavion Mina

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Late relapses of testicular germ cell tumor are uncommon. We report a case of cervical mature teratoma appeared 17 years after treatment of testicular teratocarcinoma. Case presentation A 20- year- old patient underwent left sided orchiectomy followed by systemic therapy and retroperitoneal residual mass resection in 1989. He remained in complete remission for 200 months. In 2005 a huge left supraclavicular neck mass with extension to anterior mediastinum appeared. Radical surgical resection of the mass was performed and pathologic examination revealed mature teratoma. Conclusion This is one of the longest long-term reported intervals of a mature teratoma after treatment of a testicular nonseminoma germ cell tumor. This case emphasizes the necessity for follow up of testicular cancer throughout the patient's life.

  17. Novel tumor markers in the serum of testicular germ cell cancer patients: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syring I

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Isabella Syring, Stefan C Müller, Jörg Ellinger Department for Urology and Pediatric Urology, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany Abstract: Serum tumor markers have an important role in the management of patients with testicular cancer. They are useful for diagnosis, staging and risk assessment, follow-up, evaluation of response, and early detection of relapse. Alpha-fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, and lactate dehydrogenase are established serum markers in testicular cancer, but they have a limited sensitivity. Ongoing research may lead to the identification of novel biomarkers. Therefore, we review the experimental analyses for nucleic acids, circulating tumor cells, and proteins as potential biomarkers in the serum of testicular germ cell cancer patients. Keywords: biomarker, serum, testicular germ cell cancer

  18. "Mixed germ cell testicular tumor" in an adult female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udasimath Shivakumarswamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The androgen insensitivity (testicular feminization syndrome was described by Morris in phenotypic females with 46XY karyotype, presenting with primary amenorrhea, adequate breast development, and absent or scanty pubic or axillary hair. Gonads consist usually of seminiferous tubules without spermatogenesis. These patients have a 5-10% risk of developing germ cell tumors, usually after the complete development of secondary female sexual characteristics. We hereby report a case considered as a female with married life of 15 years, who was operated for severe abdominal pain. Phenotype characters were that of female. Microscopic examination of the tumor from the abdomen revealed germinoma and yolk sac tumor with adjacent seminiferous tubules. Karyotyping showed 46XY. Final diagnosis of malignant mixed germ cell tumor in androgen insensitivity syndrome was made. Surveillance may be the most appropriate option when these conditions are initially diagnosed in adulthood to prevent development of germ cell tumors.

  19. Testicular germ cell tumours and parental occupational exposure to pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Cornet, Charlotte; Fervers, Béatrice; Oksbjerg Dalton, Susanne;

    2015-01-01

    controls per case were randomly selected from the general national populations, matched on year of birth. Information on parental occupation was collected through censuses or Pension Fund information and converted into a pesticide exposure index based on the Finnish National Job-Exposure Matrix. RESULTS......OBJECTIVES: A potential impact of exposure to endocrine disruptors, including pesticides, during intrauterine life, has been hypothesised in testicular germ cell tumour (TGCT) aetiology, but exposure assessment is challenging. This large-scale registry-based case-control study aimed to investigate...... the association between parental occupational exposure to pesticides and TGCT risk in their sons. METHODS: Cases born in 1960 or onwards, aged between 14 and 49 years, and diagnosed between 1978 and 2013 in Denmark, Finland, Norway or Sweden, were identified from the respective nationwide cancer registries. Four...

  20. Prevalence of testicular microlithiasis in 382 non vasectomized, azoospermic men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedder, J.

    2015-01-01

    borderline TM (bTM) with about 5 (3 to 7) TM elements in one or both testicles. Representative testicular biopsies were taken in 300 men using a TruCut needle, Ch.14 (Angiotech, USA). Frequencies of Carcinoma In Situ (CIS) testis/malignancy in men with different categories of TM were compared to men without...... found, e.g. 10 (23%) of the 44 men with KS and 4 (20%) of the 20 men with Y microdeletions had a history of cryptorchidism. Of the men with KS, 5 had extensive TM, 3 (7%) uTM and 2 (5%) pTM, while 14 (32%) showed bTM. Of 101 men with a history of cryptorchidism, 3 (3%) had uTM, 4 (4%) pTM, and 13 (13...

  1. Effect of zearalenone on expression of testicular genes in vivo

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žatecká, Eva; Děd, Lukáš; Dvořáková, Eva; Dorosh, Andriy; Elzeinová, Fatima; Pěknicová, Jana

    Praha: Biotechnologický ústav v. v. i. AV ČR, 2012 - (Pěknicová, J.). s. 44-44 [XVIII. symposium českých reprodukčních imunologů s mezinárodní účastí. 25.05.2012-26.05.2012, Žďár nad Sázavou] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA523/09/1793; GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/12/1834 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : zearalenone * testicular gene * gene expression * endocrine disruptor * PCR Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality

  2. Tumor canceroso testicular: Seminoma clásico

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    Campuzano J. Sandra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El tumor canceroso tipo seminoma es el cáncer testicular más frecuente, afecta con mayor frecuencia a las personasde una edad media de 50 años. El seminoma presenta factores de riesgo como criptorquidia, infertilidad y antecedentes familiares de primer grado con cáncer. La estadificación determina la extensión de la invasión hacia órganos vecinos; TNM (Tumor, Nódulo, Metástasis. El diagnóstico se realiza por la clínica, se observa una masa crecientede gran volumen, pero también se usa Marcadores Tumorales; como la Alfa feto proteína, la cual es negativa siempre para seminoma y B Gonadotrofina Coriónica Humana, la cual con muy poca frecuencia está elevada. Entre los métodos de imagen que se usan están la Radiografía de tórax, Tomografía de abdomen y pelvis para descartar metástasis. Se presenta un caso de un paciente de 52 años de edad, con una masa voluminosa testicular- indolora, de unos 7 años de evolución que desde hace 2 meses presenta puntos de hemorragia externa. Al examen físico presenta una masa de 18 por 15 cm, con un punto de hemorragia en la región escrotal y secreción purulenta en el prepucio, posteriormente se procede al tratamiento adecuado.

  3. Structural analysis of testicular appendices in patients with cryptorchidism

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    Guilherme D. Tostes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Report the incidence and structure of testicular appendices (TAs in patients with cryptorchidism, comparing their incidence with epididymal anomalies (EA and patency of the vaginal process (PVP and analyzes the structure of TAs. Material and Methods We studied 72 testes of patients with cryptorchidism (average of 6 years, and 8 testes from patients with hydroceles (average of 9 years. We analyzed the relations among the testis, epididymis and PVP and prevalence and histology of the TAs. The appendices of 10 patients with cryptorchidism and 8 with hydrocele were dissected and embedded in paraffin and stained with Masson trichrome; Weigert and Picro-Sirius Red with polarization and immunohistochemistry analysis of the collagen type III fibers to observe collagen. The stereological analysis was done with the software Image Pro and Image J, using a grid to determine volumetric densities (Vv. Means were statistically compared using the ANOVA and unpaired T test (p < 0.05. Results Of the 72 testes with cryptorchidism, 20 (27.77% presented EA, 41 (56.9% had PVP and 44 (61.1% had TAs. Of the 44 testes with cryptorchidism and appendices, 30 (68.18% presented PVP and 11 (25% presented EA. There was no alteration of the epithelium in the appendices of patients in both groups. Stereological analysis documented the prevalence of ESFs (mean of 1.48%, prevalence of veins (mean of 10.11% and decrease (p = 0.14 of SMCs in the TAs of patients with cryptorchidism (mean = 4.93%. Collagen III prevailed in the TAs of patients with cryptorchidism. Conclusion The testicular appendices presented significant structural alteration in the patients with cryptorchidism, indicating that TAs present a structural remodeling.

  4. Endogenous DNA Damage and Risk of Testicular Germ Cell Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, M B; Sigurdson, A J; Jones, I M; Thomas, C B; Graubard, B I; Korde, L; Greene, M H; McGlynn, K A

    2008-01-18

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are comprised of two histologic groups, seminomas and nonseminomas. We postulated that the possible divergent pathogeneses of these histologies may be partially explained by variable endogenous DNA damage. To assess our hypothesis, we conducted a case-case analysis of seminomas and nonseminomas using the alkaline comet assay to quantify single-strand DNA breaks and alkali-labile sites. The Familial Testicular Cancer study and the U.S. Radiologic Technologists cohort provided 112 TGCT cases (51 seminomas & 61 nonseminomas). A lymphoblastoid cell line was cultured for each patient and the alkaline comet assay was used to determine four parameters: tail DNA, tail length, comet distributed moment (CDM) and Olive tail moment (OTM). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated using logistic regression. Values for tail length, tail DNA, CDM and OTM were modeled as categorical variables using the 50th and 75th percentiles of the seminoma group. Tail DNA was significantly associated with nonseminoma compared to seminoma (OR{sub 50th percentile} = 3.31, 95%CI: 1.00, 10.98; OR{sub 75th percentile} = 3.71, 95%CI: 1.04, 13.20; p for trend=0.039). OTM exhibited similar, albeit statistically non-significant, risk estimates (OR{sub 50th percentile} = 2.27, 95%CI: 0.75, 6.87; OR{sub 75th percentile} = 2.40, 95%CI: 0.75, 7.71; p for trend=0.12) whereas tail length and CDM showed no association. In conclusion, the results for tail DNA and OTM indicate that endogenous DNA damage levels are higher in patients who develop nonseminoma compared with seminoma. This may partly explain the more aggressive biology and younger age-of-onset of this histologic subgroup compared with the relatively less aggressive, later-onset seminoma.

  5. Impact of Bep or Carboplatin Chemotherapy on Testicular Function and Sperm Nucleus of Subjects with Testicular Germ Cell Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezzi, Marco; Berretta, Massimiliano; Bottacin, Alberto; Palego, Pierfrancesco; Sartini, Barbara; Cosci, Ilaria; Finos, Livio; Selice, Riccardo; Foresta, Carlo; Garolla, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Young males have testicular germ cells tumors (TGCT) as the most common malignancy and its incidence is increasing in several countries. Besides unilateral orchiectomy (UO), the treatment of TGCT may include surveillance, radiotherapy, or chemotherapy (CT), basing on tumor histology and stage of disease. It is well known that both radio and CT may have negative effects on testicular function, affecting spermatogenesis, and sex hormones. Many reports investigated these aspects in patients treated with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP), after UO. In contrast no data are available on the side effects of carboplatin treatment in these patients. We included in this study 212 consecutive subjects who undergone to sperm banking at our Andrology and Human Reproduction Unit after UO for TGCT. Hundred subjects were further treated with one or more BEP cycles (BEP-group), 54 with carboplatin (CARB group), and 58 were just surveilled (S-group). All patients were evaluated for seminal parameters, sperm aneuploidy, sperm DNA, sex hormones, volume of the residual testis at baseline (T0) and after 12 (T1) and 24 months (T2) from UO or end of CT. Seminal parameters, sperm aneuploidies, DNA status, gonadic hormones, and testicular volume at baseline were not different between groups. At T1, we observed a significant reduction of sperm concentration and sperm count in the BEP group versus baseline and versus both Carb and S-group. A significant increase of sperm aneuploidies was present at T1 in the BEP group. Similarly, the same group at 1 had altered sperm DNA integrity and fragmentation compared with baseline, S-group and Carb group. These alterations were persistent after 2 years from the end of BEP treatment. Despite a slight improvement at T2, the BEP group had still higher percentages of sperm aneuploidies than other groups. No impairment of sperm aneuploidies and DNA status were observed in the Carb group both after 1 and 2 years from the end of treatment. Despite

  6. Impact of Bep or Carboplatin Chemotherapy on Testicular Function and Sperm Nucleus of Subjects with Testicular Germ Cell Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezzi, Marco; Berretta, Massimiliano; Bottacin, Alberto; Palego, Pierfrancesco; Sartini, Barbara; Cosci, Ilaria; Finos, Livio; Selice, Riccardo; Foresta, Carlo; Garolla, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Young males have testicular germ cells tumors (TGCT) as the most common malignancy and its incidence is increasing in several countries. Besides unilateral orchiectomy (UO), the treatment of TGCT may include surveillance, radiotherapy, or chemotherapy (CT), basing on tumor histology and stage of disease. It is well known that both radio and CT may have negative effects on testicular function, affecting spermatogenesis, and sex hormones. Many reports investigated these aspects in patients treated with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP), after UO. In contrast no data are available on the side effects of carboplatin treatment in these patients. We included in this study 212 consecutive subjects who undergone to sperm banking at our Andrology and Human Reproduction Unit after UO for TGCT. Hundred subjects were further treated with one or more BEP cycles (BEP-group), 54 with carboplatin (CARB group), and 58 were just surveilled (S-group). All patients were evaluated for seminal parameters, sperm aneuploidy, sperm DNA, sex hormones, volume of the residual testis at baseline (T0) and after 12 (T1) and 24 months (T2) from UO or end of CT. Seminal parameters, sperm aneuploidies, DNA status, gonadic hormones, and testicular volume at baseline were not different between groups. At T1, we observed a significant reduction of sperm concentration and sperm count in the BEP group versus baseline and versus both Carb and S-group. A significant increase of sperm aneuploidies was present at T1 in the BEP group. Similarly, the same group at 1 had altered sperm DNA integrity and fragmentation compared with baseline, S-group and Carb group. These alterations were persistent after 2 years from the end of BEP treatment. Despite a slight improvement at T2, the BEP group had still higher percentages of sperm aneuploidies than other groups. No impairment of sperm aneuploidies and DNA status were observed in the Carb group both after 1 and 2 years from the end of treatment. Despite

  7. IMPACT OF BEP OR CARBOPLATIN CHEMOTHERAPY ON TESTICULAR FUNCTION AND SPERM NUCLEUS OF SUBJECTS WITH TESTICULAR GERM CELL TUMOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eGhezzi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Young males have testicular germ cells tumours (TGCT as the most common malignancy and its incidence is increasing in several countries. Besides unilateral orchiectomy (UO, the treatment of TGCT may include surveillance, radiotherapy or chemotherapy (CT, basing on tumour histology and stage of disease. It is well known that both radio and CT may have negative effects on testicular function, affecting spermatogenesis and sex hormones. Many reports investigated these aspects in patients treated with bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP, after UO. In contrast no data are available on the side effects of carboplatin treatment in these patients. We included in this study 212 consecutive subjects who undergone to sperm banking at our Andrology and Human Reproduction Unit after UO for TGCT. Hundred subjects were further treated with one or more BEP cycles (BEP-group, 54 with carboplatin (Carb group and 58 were just surveilled (S-group. All patients were evaluated for seminal parameters, sperm aneuploidy, sperm DNA, sex hormones, volume of the residual testis at baseline (T0 and after 12 (T1 and 24 months (T2 from UO or end of CT. Seminal parameters, sperm aneuploidies, DNA status, gonadic hormones and testicular volume at baseline were not different between groups. At T1 we observed a significant reduction of sperm concentration and sperm count in the BEP group versus baseline and versus both Carb and S- group. A significant increase of sperm aneuploidies was present at T1 in the BEP group. Similarly, the same group at 1 had altered sperm DNA integrity and fragmentation compared with baseline, S group and Carb group. These alterations were persistent after two years from the end of BEP treatment. Despite a slight improvement at T2, the BEP group had still higher percentages of sperm aneuploidies than other groups. No impairment of sperm aneuploidies and DNA status were observed in the Carb group both after one and two years from the end of treatment

  8. Effect of different cryoprotectant agents on spermatogenesis efficiency in cryopreserved and grafted neonatal mouse testicular tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Yildiz, Cengiz; Mullen, Brendan; Jarvi, Keith; McKerlie, Colin; Lo, Kirk C.

    2013-01-01

    Restoration of male fertility associated with use of the cryopreserved testicular tissue would be a significant advance in human and animal assisted reproductive technology. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of four different cryoprotectant agents (CPA) on spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in cryopreserved and allotransplanted neonatal mouse testicular tissue. Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) with 5% fetal bovine serum including either 0.7 M dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), 0....

  9. The Effects of Adjuvants on Autoimmune Responses Against Testicular Antigens in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    MUSHA, Muhetaerjiang; Hirai, Shuichi; Naito, Munekazu; Terayama, Hayato; Qu, Ning; Hatayama, Naoyuki; Itoh, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) is a model of immunologic male infertility and pathologically characterized by lymphocytic inflammation, which causes breakdown of the testicular immune privilege with spermatogenic disturbance. Generally, murine EAO is induced by immunization with testicular homogenate (TH) from the testes of donor mice + complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) + Bordetella pertussigens (BP), and it has been considered that treatment with these two adjuvants is requir...

  10. FDG-PET probe-guided surgery for recurrent retroperitoneal testicular tumor recurrences

    OpenAIRE

    Jong, J.S. de; van Ginkel, R.J.; Slart, R.H.J.A.; Lemstra, C.L.; Paans, A.M.J.; Mulder, N. H.; Hoekstra, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Aim Tumor marker based recurrences of previously treated testicular cancer are generally detected with CT-scan. They sometimes cannot be visualized with conventional morphologic imaging. FDG-PET has the ability to detect these recurrences. PET probe-guided surgery, may facilitate the extent of surgery and optimize the surgical resection. Methods Three patient with resectable 2nd or 3rd recurrent testicular cancer based on elevated tumor mar...

  11. Cytogenetic Follow-Up in Testicular Seminoma Patients Exposed to Adjuvant Radiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Gamulin, Marija; Kopjar , Nevenka; Grgić, Mislav; Ramić, Snježana; Viculin, Tomislav; Petković, Marija; Garaj-Vrhovac, Verica

    2010-01-01

    Early stage testicular seminoma is a radiosensitive tumor. Its incidence has significantly increased during the last decade especially in the young population. Although the therapy for testicular seminoma gives very satisfying results, the evaluation of genome damage caused by the therapy is of a great importance in order to recognize possible related health risks. The present study was performed on ten patients diagnosed with seminoma stage I; pT1/2N0M0S0, treated with adjuvant radiotherapy ...

  12. Ultrasonographic Pattern of Testicular Metastasis of Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma with Pathological Correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Libert, Florent; Cabri-Wiltzer, Mathieu; Dardenne, Emmanuel; Draguet, Anne-Philippe; Puttemans, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Two cases of testicular metastases of a clear cell renal cell carcinoma sharing a very similar ultrasonographic pattern are reported. The observed pattern – masses containing multiple tiny cyst-like areas – is very similar to that of a previously described ovarian metastasis of clear cell renal parenchymal tumor and can be explained by histopathologic features. Despite the small number of cases, this ultrasonographic pattern of testicular mass may be specific for metastasis of clear cell rena...

  13. The effect of varicocele on the right testicular blood flow in patients with left varicocele

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    Oktay Üçer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There are many theories about the mechanism how varicocele causes infertility. One of these theories is about the negative effect of varicocele on testicular blood flow. We aimed to compare the measurements of testicular blood flow in right and left testes in patients with left varicocele and normal right testes. Methods: Forty-one patients with left varicocele were enrolled in the study. All participants were performed color Doppler sonography to assess testicular blood flow of the both testes. Blood flow parameters such as peak systolic velocity (PSV, end diastolic velocity (EDV, resistive index (RI, pulsatility index (PI were measured in testicular, capsular and intratesticular arteries. Semen parameters were also assessed in the participants. Testicular blood flow parameters were compared between the two testes. Results: Mean age of the patients was 25,95±5,27(16-37. The mean semen parameters of the patients; sperm count (million/ml was 31.56±19.05, motility (% was 51.21±22.27, normal morphology (% was 12.75±2.97 and total motile sperm count (million/ml was 54.92±47.46. There were no statistically significant differences between the testicular blood flow parameters of both testes which are PSV, EDV, RI and PI values in the testicular artery and its branches (capsular and intratesticular arteries(p>0.05. Conclusion: The fact that there were no differences between the blood flows in both testes may depend on the study group who had normal sperm parameters. We suggest that testicular blood flow may be evaluated in patients with left varicocele and impaired sperm parameters.

  14. A case of testicular infarction from the complications of Klebsiella oxytoca induced acute epididymitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonae; Park, Heeyoon; Lee, Gilho

    2016-04-01

    Herein, we reported a case of testicular infarction in a patient with Klebsiella oxytoca induced acute epididymitis. Acute left epididymitis progressed into testicular infarction requiring orchiectomy in spite of antibiotics treatment. Ordinary urine cultures did not reveal any specific organism, suggesting viable but noncultureable state. We amplified a bacterial 16S ribosomal subunit gene from the urine and orchiectomized samples, and we found K. oxytoca infections from both of them. PMID:26643901

  15. Recovery of spermatogenesis after microsurgical subinguinal varicocele repair in azoospermic men based on testicular histology

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    Sandro C. Esteves

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Analyze whether testicular histologic patterns from a group of azoospermic men with varicocele is predictive of treatment outcome after subinguinal microsurgical varicocele repair. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventeen azoospermic men underwent bilateral open single testis biopsy and microsurgical subinguinal repair of clinical varicoceles. RESULTS: Histopathology of testicular biopsies revealed hypospermatogenesis (HYPO in 6 men, maturation arrest (MA in 5, and Sertoli cell-only (SCO in 6. Overall, presence of spermatozoa in the ejaculates was achieved in 47% (8/17 of men after varicocele repair, but only 35% (6/17 of them had motile sperm in their ejaculates. Only men with testicular histology revealing HYPO (5/6 or maturation arrest (3/5 had improvement after surgery. Median (25% - 75% percentile postoperative motile sperm count for both groups were 0.9 X 106/mL (0.1-1.8 X 106/mL and 0.7 X 106/mL (0.1-1.1, respectively (p = 0.87. The mean time for appearance of spermatozoa in the ejaculates was 5 months (3 to 9 months. One (HYPO of 8 (12.5% men who improved after surgery contributed to an unassisted pregnancy. Postoperative testicular biopsies obtained from patients who had no improvement after surgery revealed that testicular histology diagnosis remained unchanged. Successful testicular sperm retrieval for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI was achieved in 4 of 9 (44.4% individuals who did not improve after surgery, including 1 man with testicular histology exhibiting SCO. CONCLUSION: Microsurgical varicocele repair in nonobstructive azoospermic men with clinical varicoceles can result in sperm appearance in the ejaculate when hypospermatogenesis or maturation arrest is found on testicular histology diagnosis.

  16. Clinical Application of {sup 18}F-FDG PET in Testicular Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Joon Kee [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    {sup 18}F-FDG PET has a higher diagnostic accuracy than CT in initial staging of testicular cancer. In seminoma, it can discriminate residual tumor from necrosis/fibrosis or mature teratoma. {sup 18}F-FDG PET is also useful for the response evaluation of chemotherapy. However, there's no clinical evidence for the use of {sup 18}F-FDG PET in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of testicular cancer.

  17. Testicular Self-Examination: Are Primary Care Physicians Teaching This Preventive Measure?

    OpenAIRE

    Diotallevi, Mark

    1989-01-01

    The author polled 118 family physicians about their screening procedures for testicular cancer in males at risk. Fewer physicians (63%) teach testicular self-examination (TSE) than teach breast self-examination (100%) as part of a periodic health examination. Physicians who examine their own testes or breasts regularly are more likely to examine their patients' testes during a periodic examination and to teach TSE to males at risk. Female physicians are more likely (75%) than male physicians ...

  18. Very Late Relapse of Testicular Tumour in Combination with Renal Cancer and Their Retroperitoneoscopic Removal

    OpenAIRE

    Tibor Flaskó; Mátyás Benyó; Béla Tállai; Morshed Ali Salah (1965-) (urológus); Mihály Murányi

    2011-01-01

    Late relapse of a testicular cancer is an uncommon occurrence. We report a case of late relapse of a testicular tumour combined with a renal cancer and their successful removal with retroperitoneoscopy. The 36-year-old patient underwent left orchiectomy, retroperitoneal lymph node dissection, and chemotherapy, because of mixed tumor including teratoma and embryonal carcinoma. 18 years after the successful primary therapy elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein level had been confirmed, then MRI and ...

  19. Nonfreezing Tissue Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wrist Extensor Stretch Additional Content Medical News Nonfreezing Tissue Injuries By Daniel F. Danzl, MD NOTE: This ... Cold Injuries Overview of Cold Injuries Hypothermia Nonfreezing Tissue Injuries Frostbite In nonfreezing tissue injuries, parts of ...

  20. Repetitive Stress Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Repetitive Stress Injuries KidsHealth > For Teens > Repetitive Stress Injuries Print ... t had any problems since. What Are Repetitive Stress Injuries? Repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) are injuries that ...

  1. Corporal and testicular biometry in wild boar from birth to 12 months of age Biometria corporal e testicular de javalis do nascimento aos 12 meses de idade

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    Danillo Velloso Ferreira Murta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this tudy was to evaluate corporal and testicular development in wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa from birth to 12 months of age, evaluating body weight, biometric testicular parameters, and gonadosomatic index. Thirty-nine male wild boars from a commercial farm licensed by IBAMA were used in the study. The animals were weighed and assigned to 13 experimental groups. The testes were recovered through unilateral orchiectomy, weighed on an analytical balance and measured for length, width and thickness. Body weight and testicular measures increased with the age, up to 12 months, and were more accelerated in the first and ninth months. Initially the testicular growth pattern, between zero and nine months, followed the body growth, and the gonadosomatic index varied from 0.07 to 0.09%. Between 9 and 11 months, the testicular growth was superior to the body growth, and the gonadosomatic index varied from 0.09 to 0.16%. Finally, after 11 months of age, testicular and body growth had a similar behavior. In conclusion, body weight, testicular biometry, and gonadosomatic index development accelerated in the ninth month.Objetivou-se, com esta pesquisa, investigar o desenvolvimento testicular e corporal de javalis (Sus scrofa scrofa, do nascimento aos 12 meses de idade, avaliando-se, em cada faixa etária, o peso corporal, o desenvolvimento biométrico dos testículos e o índice gonadossomático (IGS. Utilizaram-se 52 javalis machos, provenientes de um criatório comercial, devidamente regulamentado pelo IBAMA. Os animais foram pesados e divididos em 13 grupos experimentais; os testículos foram coletados por orquiectomia unilateral e, em seguida, pesados em balança analítica e mensurados comprimento, largura e espessura. Os valores de peso corporal e as medidas testiculares foram crescentes, após o nascimento, sendo sua variação mais acelerada no primeiro mês e aos nove meses. Inicialmente, o padrão de crescimento testicular, do nascimento

  2. Carcinoma in situ of contralateral testis in patients with testicular germ cell cancer: study of 27 cases in 500 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von der Maase, H; Rørth, M; Walbom-Jørgensen, S; Sørensen, B L; Christophersen, I S; Hald, T; Jacobsen, G K; Berthelsen, J G; Skakkebaek, N E

    1986-01-01

    Carcinoma in situ in the contralateral testis was diagnosed in 27 of 500 patients (5.4%) with unilateral testicular germ cell cancer. Eight of the 27 patients received intensive chemotherapy for spread of their initial testicular cancer. Follow up biopsy studies did not detect changes of carcinoma...... in situ in any of these patients, and none developed a contralateral testicular tumour (observation time 12-88 months). Of the remaining 19 patients with carcinoma in situ, seven developed contralateral testicular cancer. The estimated risk of developing invasive growth was 40% within three years and...... 50% within five years. None of the 473 patients without carcinoma in situ detected by screening biopsy developed contralateral testicular cancer (observation time 12-96 months). No serious complications arose from the biopsy procedures. All patients with unilateral testicular germ cell cancer should...

  3. Testicular Metabolic Reprogramming in Neonatal Streptozotocin-Induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats Impairs Glycolytic Flux and Promotes Glycogen Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rato, L; Alves, M G; Dias, T R; Cavaco, J E; Oliveira, Pedro F

    2015-01-01

    Defects in testicular metabolism are directly implicated with male infertility, but most of the mechanisms associated with type 2 diabetes- (T2DM) induced male infertility remain unknown. We aimed to evaluate the effects of T2DM on testicular glucose metabolism by using a neonatal-streptozotocin- (n-STZ) T2DM animal model. Plasma and testicular hormonal levels were evaluated using specific kits. mRNA and protein expression levels were assessed by real-time PCR and Western Blot, respectively. Testicular metabolic profile was assessed by (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. T2DM rats showed increased glycemic levels, impaired glucose tolerance and hyperinsulinemia. Both testicular and serum testosterone levels were decreased, whereas those of 17β-estradiol were not altered. Testicular glycolytic flux was not favored in testicles of T2DM rats, since, despite the increased expression of both glucose transporters 1 and 3 and the enzyme phosphofructokinase 1, lactate dehydrogenase activity was severely decreased contributing to lower testicular lactate content. However, T2DM enhanced testicular glycogen accumulation, by modulating the availability of the precursors for its synthesis. T2DM also affected the reproductive sperm parameters. Taken together these results indicate that T2DM is able to reprogram testicular metabolism by enhancing alternative metabolic pathways, particularly glycogen synthesis, and such alterations are associated with impaired sperm parameters. PMID:26064993

  4. Testicular Metabolic Reprogramming in Neonatal Streptozotocin-Induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats Impairs Glycolytic Flux and Promotes Glycogen Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rato

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Defects in testicular metabolism are directly implicated with male infertility, but most of the mechanisms associated with type 2 diabetes- (T2DM induced male infertility remain unknown. We aimed to evaluate the effects of T2DM on testicular glucose metabolism by using a neonatal-streptozotocin- (n-STZ T2DM animal model. Plasma and testicular hormonal levels were evaluated using specific kits. mRNA and protein expression levels were assessed by real-time PCR and Western Blot, respectively. Testicular metabolic profile was assessed by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. T2DM rats showed increased glycemic levels, impaired glucose tolerance and hyperinsulinemia. Both testicular and serum testosterone levels were decreased, whereas those of 17β-estradiol were not altered. Testicular glycolytic flux was not favored in testicles of T2DM rats, since, despite the increased expression of both glucose transporters 1 and 3 and the enzyme phosphofructokinase 1, lactate dehydrogenase activity was severely decreased contributing to lower testicular lactate content. However, T2DM enhanced testicular glycogen accumulation, by modulating the availability of the precursors for its synthesis. T2DM also affected the reproductive sperm parameters. Taken together these results indicate that T2DM is able to reprogram testicular metabolism by enhancing alternative metabolic pathways, particularly glycogen synthesis, and such alterations are associated with impaired sperm parameters.

  5. The evolutionary ecology of testicular function: size isn't everything.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramm, Steven A; Schärer, Lukas

    2014-11-01

    Larger testes are considered the quintessential adaptation to sperm competition. However, the strong focus on testis size in evolutionary research risks ignoring other potentially adaptive features of testicular function, many of which will also be shaped by post-mating sexual selection. Here we advocate a more integrated research programme that simultaneously takes into account the developmental machinery of spermatogenesis and the various selection pressures that act on this machinery and its products. The testis is a complex organ, and so we begin by outlining how we can think about the evolution of testicular function both in terms of the composition and spatial organisation of the testis ('testicular histology'), as well as in terms of the logical organisation of cell division during spermatogenesis ('testicular architecture'). We then apply these concepts to ask which aspects of testicular function we can expect to be shaped by post-mating sexual selection. We first assess the impact of selection on those traits most strongly associated with sperm competition, namely the number and kind of sperm produced. A broad range of studies now support our contention that post-mating sexual selection affects many aspects of testicular function besides gross testis size, for example, to maximise spermatogenic efficiency or to enable the production of particular sperm morphologies. We then broaden our focus to ask how testicular function is affected by fluctuation in sperm demand. Such fluctuation can occur over an individual's lifetime (for example due to seasonality in reproduction) and may select for particular types of testicular histology and architecture depending on the particular reproductive ecology of the species in question. Fluctuation in sperm demand also occurs over evolutionary time, due to shifts in the mating system, and this may have various consequences for testicular function, for example on rates of proliferation-induced mutation and for dealing with

  6. Rowing Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Hosea, Timothy M.; Hannafin, Jo A.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Rowing is one of the original modern Olympic sports and was one of the most popular spectator sports in the United States. Its popularity has been increasing since the enactment of Title IX. The injury patterns in this sport are unique because of the stress applied during the rowing stroke. Evidence Acquisition: This review summarizes the existing literature describing the biomechanics of the rowing stroke and rowing-related injury patterns. Data were obtained from previously publish...

  7. Spontaneous regression of testicular germ cell tumors: an analysis of 42 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzer, Bonnie L; Ulbright, Thomas M

    2006-07-01

    Spontaneous regression of testicular germ cell tumors (GCTs) is a well-recognized phenomenon but has been incompletely characterized. Many pathologists are not familiar with the findings that support a diagnosis of a "burnt-out" primary in a patient with metastatic GCT. We therefore report the clinical, gross, and histologic findings in 42 cases of testicular GCT that showed either complete (26) or greater than 50% scarring (16). Thirty-seven patients (88%) had either known GCT metastasis or some residual testicular GCT, and none had treatment before orchiectomy. The patients were 17 to 67 years old, with a median of 32. Thirty presented with symptoms of metastasis, 7 with a testicular mass, 2 with elevated human chronic gonadotropin, and 1 with testicular pain. In 2 patients the presentation was unknown. Two patients had prior orchiopexy; another had an intraabdominal testis, and 2 others had prior contralateral seminoma (20 and 42 years previously). Gross descriptions in 37 cases identified white to tan scars, 0.6 to 2.4 cm, in 33. These were circumscribed in 16, with 15 of these having nodular or multinodular configurations and 1 a band-like appearance. In 9 cases the scar was ill defined or stellate, and in 8 cases no further details concerning the scar configuration were available. In 4 cases no scar was apparent; 2 of these had received intraoperative biopsy. Microscopically, all cases showed circumscribed to irregular foci of scarring, distinct from the adjacent parenchyma, in association with widespread testicular atrophy. Other common features were lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates in the scars (37/42) and "ghost" tubules in scars (31/42). Less common features in the scars included angiomatous foci (22/42), siderophages (15/42), and coarse intratubular calcifications (6/42); in the surrounding testis they included intratubular germ cell neoplasia, unclassified (IGCNU) (22/42), Leydig cell prominence (18/42), and necrosis (5/42). Tubular microliths occurred in

  8. Effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) bark oil on heat stress-induced changes in sperm production, testicular lipid peroxidation, testicular apoptosis, and androgenic receptor density in developing Japanese quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türk, Gaffari; Şimşek, Ülkü G; Çeribaşı, Ali O; Çeribaşı, Songül; Özer Kaya, Şeyma; Güvenç, Mehmet; Çiftçi, Mehmet; Sönmez, Mustafa; Yüce, Abdurrauf; Bayrakdar, Ali; Yaman, Mine; Tonbak, Fadime

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cinnamon bark oil (CBO) on heat stress (HS)-induced changes in sperm production, testicular lipid peroxidation, testicular apoptosis, and androgenic receptor (AR) density in developing Japanese quails. Fifteen-day-old 90 male chicks were assigned to two main groups. The first group (45 chicks) was kept in a thermoneutral room at 22 °C for 24 h/day. The second group (45 chicks) was kept in a room with high ambient temperature at 34 °C for 8 h/day (from 9 AM-5 PM) and at 22 °C for 16 h/day. Each of these two main groups was then divided into three subgroups (CBO groups 0, 250, 500 ppm) consisting of 15 chicks (six treatment groups in 2 × 3 factorial order). Each of subgroups was replicated for three times and each replicate included five chicks. Heat stress caused significant decreases in body weight, spermatid and testicular sperm numbers, the density of testicular Bcl-2 (antiapoptotic marker) and AR immunopositivity, and significant increases in testicular lipid peroxidation level, the density of testicular Bax (apoptotic marker) immunopositivity, and a Bax/Bcl-2 ratio along with some histopathologic damages. However, 250 and 500 ppm CBO supplementation provided significant improvements in HS-induced increased level of testicular lipid peroxidation, decreased number of spermatid and testicular sperm, decreased densities of Bcl-2 and AR immunopositivity, and some deteriorated testicular histopathologic lesions. In addition, although HS did not significantly affect the testicular glutathione level, addition of both 250 and 500 ppm CBO to diet of quails reared in both HS and thermoneutral conditions caused a significant increase when compared with quails without any consumption of CBO. In conclusion, HS-induced lipid peroxidation causes testicular damage in developing male Japanese quails and, consumption of CBO, which has antiperoxidative effect, protects their testes against HS. PMID:25913274

  9. Functional testicular evaluation using PET/CT with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PET/CT using 18F-FDG is a well-established diagnostic examination in oncology, cardiology and neurology. The clinical significance of nontumoral testicular uptake of FDG is unknown. Functional testicular imaging may have important clinical applications in the diagnosis and prognosis of male infertility. The aim of this study was to determine the andrological value of a FDG PET/CT in analysing testicular function, by correlating the PET/CT data with the sperm parameters. Retrospective analysis of FDG PET/CT in 20 consecutive cancer patients without testicular pathology in whom two semen samples had been obtained for analysis before any chemotherapy. FDG PET/CT parameters were the mean standardized uptake value (SUVmean), used for measuring the intensity of uptake, and the functional testicular volume (FV). For statistical analysis, a Spearman's rank correlation test and a Mann-Whitney test were used. Of 20 patients (mean age 22 years), 18 had provided two sperm samples for cryopreservation. Sperm concentration was above 20 x 106/ml in 55% of the patients. The intensity of uptake and the FV were correlated with the total sperm count, the sperm concentration and motility (p < 0.05). The difference in SUVmean between the two testes showed an inverse correlation with sperm concentration (p = 0.036). Normospermic and oligospermic men had significant differences in: (1) mean SUVmean, (2) mean FV, and (3) the difference in intensity of uptake between the testes (p < 0.05). This is the first report on the andrological value of FDG PET/CT in analysing nontumoral testicular function. This pilot study showed a significant correlation between intensity of uptake of FDG and testicular FV with the main sperm parameters. PET/CT with FDG could become a useful new tool in assisted reproductive technologies and other andrological or urological applications. (orig.)

  10. Therapeutic Potential of Date Palm Pollen for Testicular Dysfunction Induced by Thyroid Disorders in Male Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram M El-Kashlan

    Full Text Available Hyper- or hypothyroidism can impair testicular function leading to infertility. The present study was designed to examine the protective effect of date palm pollen (DPP extract on thyroid disorder-induced testicular dysfunction. Rats were divided into six groups. Group I was normal control. Group II received oral DPP extract (150 mg kg(-1, group III (hyperthyroid group received intraperitoneal injection of L-thyroxine (L-T4, 300 μg kg(-1; i.p., group IV received L-T4 plus DPP extract, group V (hypothyroid group received propylthiouracil (PTU, 10 mg kg(-1; i.p. and group VI received PTU plus DPP extract. All treatments were given every day for 56 days. L-T4 or PTU lowered genital sex organs weight, sperm count and motility, serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and testosterone (T, testicular function markers and activities of testicular 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD. Moreover, L-T4 or PTU increased estradiol (E2 serum level, testicular oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptotic markers. Morphometric and histopathologic studies backed these observations. Treatment with DPP extract prevented LT4- or PTU induced changes. In addition, supplementation of DPP extract to normal rats augmented sperm count and motility, serum levels of LH, T and E2 paralleled with increased activities of 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD as well as testicular antioxidant status. These results provide evidence that DPP extract may have potential protective effects on testicular dysfunction induced by altered thyroid hormones.

  11. Functional testicular evaluation using PET/CT with {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierickx, Lawrence Oliver; Zerdoud, Slimane; Filleron, Thomas; Brillouet, Severine [Institut Claudius Regaud, Service of Nuclear Medicine, Toulouse (France); Huyghe, Eric; Delauney, Boris; Bujan, Louis; Plante, Pierre [CHU Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Nogueira, Daniela; Montagut, Jacques [I.F.R.E.A.R.E.S., Toulouse (France); Courbon, Frederic [Institut Claudius Regaud, Service of Nuclear Medicine, Toulouse (France); CHU Toulouse, Toulouse (France)

    2012-01-15

    PET/CT using {sup 18}F-FDG is a well-established diagnostic examination in oncology, cardiology and neurology. The clinical significance of nontumoral testicular uptake of FDG is unknown. Functional testicular imaging may have important clinical applications in the diagnosis and prognosis of male infertility. The aim of this study was to determine the andrological value of a FDG PET/CT in analysing testicular function, by correlating the PET/CT data with the sperm parameters. Retrospective analysis of FDG PET/CT in 20 consecutive cancer patients without testicular pathology in whom two semen samples had been obtained for analysis before any chemotherapy. FDG PET/CT parameters were the mean standardized uptake value (SUVmean), used for measuring the intensity of uptake, and the functional testicular volume (FV). For statistical analysis, a Spearman's rank correlation test and a Mann-Whitney test were used. Of 20 patients (mean age 22 years), 18 had provided two sperm samples for cryopreservation. Sperm concentration was above 20 x 10{sup 6}/ml in 55% of the patients. The intensity of uptake and the FV were correlated with the total sperm count, the sperm concentration and motility (p < 0.05). The difference in SUVmean between the two testes showed an inverse correlation with sperm concentration (p = 0.036). Normospermic and oligospermic men had significant differences in: (1) mean SUVmean, (2) mean FV, and (3) the difference in intensity of uptake between the testes (p < 0.05). This is the first report on the andrological value of FDG PET/CT in analysing nontumoral testicular function. This pilot study showed a significant correlation between intensity of uptake of FDG and testicular FV with the main sperm parameters. PET/CT with FDG could become a useful new tool in assisted reproductive technologies and other andrological or urological applications. (orig.)

  12. Testicular Doses in Image-Guided Radiotherapy of Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate testicular doses contributed by kilovoltage cone-beam computed tomography (kVCBCT) during image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) of prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: An EGS4 Monte Carlo code was used to calculate three-dimensional dose distributions from kVCBCT on 3 prostate cancer patients. Absorbed doses to various organs were compared between intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatments and kVCBCT scans. The impact of CBCT scanning mode, kilovoltage peak energy (kVp), and CBCT field span on dose deposition to testes and other organs was investigated. Results: In comparison with one 10-MV IMRT treatment, a 125-kV half-fan CBCT scan delivered 3.4, 3.8, 4.1, and 5.7 cGy to the prostate, rectum, bladder, and femoral heads, respectively, accounting for 1.7%, 3.2%, 3.2%, and 8.4% of megavoltage photon dose contributions. However, the testes received 2.9 cGy from the same CBCT scan, a threefold increase as compared with 0.7 cGy received during IMRT. With the same kVp, full-fan mode deposited much less dose to organs than half-fan mode, ranging from 9% less for prostate to 69% less for testes, except for rectum, where full-fan mode delivered 34% more dose. As photon beam energy increased from 60 to 125 kV, kVCBCT-contributed doses increased exponentially for all organs, irrespective of scanning mode. Reducing CBCT field span from 30 to 10 cm in the superior–inferior direction cut testicular doses from 5.7 to 0.2 cGy in half-fan mode and from 1.5 to 0.1 cGy in full-fan mode. Conclusions: Compared with IMRT, kVCBCT-contributed doses to the prostate, rectum, bladder, and femoral heads are clinically insignificant, whereas dose to the testes is threefold more. Full-fan CBCT usually deposits much less dose to organs (except for rectum) than half-fan mode in prostate patients. Kilovoltage CBCT–contributed doses increase exponentially with photon beam energy. Reducing CBCT field significantly cuts doses to testes and other organs.

  13. Testicular Doses in Image-Guided Radiotherapy of Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Jun, E-mail: jun.deng@yale.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Chen Zhe; Yu, James B.; Roberts, Kenneth B.; Peschel, Richard E.; Nath, Ravinder [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate testicular doses contributed by kilovoltage cone-beam computed tomography (kVCBCT) during image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) of prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: An EGS4 Monte Carlo code was used to calculate three-dimensional dose distributions from kVCBCT on 3 prostate cancer patients. Absorbed doses to various organs were compared between intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatments and kVCBCT scans. The impact of CBCT scanning mode, kilovoltage peak energy (kVp), and CBCT field span on dose deposition to testes and other organs was investigated. Results: In comparison with one 10-MV IMRT treatment, a 125-kV half-fan CBCT scan delivered 3.4, 3.8, 4.1, and 5.7 cGy to the prostate, rectum, bladder, and femoral heads, respectively, accounting for 1.7%, 3.2%, 3.2%, and 8.4% of megavoltage photon dose contributions. However, the testes received 2.9 cGy from the same CBCT scan, a threefold increase as compared with 0.7 cGy received during IMRT. With the same kVp, full-fan mode deposited much less dose to organs than half-fan mode, ranging from 9% less for prostate to 69% less for testes, except for rectum, where full-fan mode delivered 34% more dose. As photon beam energy increased from 60 to 125 kV, kVCBCT-contributed doses increased exponentially for all organs, irrespective of scanning mode. Reducing CBCT field span from 30 to 10 cm in the superior-inferior direction cut testicular doses from 5.7 to 0.2 cGy in half-fan mode and from 1.5 to 0.1 cGy in full-fan mode. Conclusions: Compared with IMRT, kVCBCT-contributed doses to the prostate, rectum, bladder, and femoral heads are clinically insignificant, whereas dose to the testes is threefold more. Full-fan CBCT usually deposits much less dose to organs (except for rectum) than half-fan mode in prostate patients. Kilovoltage CBCT-contributed doses increase exponentially with photon beam energy. Reducing CBCT field significantly cuts doses to testes and other organs.

  14. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Preventing Pressure Sores Transition from ...

  15. The association risk of male subfertility and testicular cancer: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Peng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An association between male subfertility and an increased risk of testicular cancer has been proposed, but conflicting results of research on this topic have rendered this theory equivocal. To more precisely assess the association between subfertility and the risk of testicular cancer, we performed a systematic review of international epidemiologic evidence. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We searched the Medline database for records from January 1966 to March 2008 complemented with manual searches of the literature and then identified studies that met our inclusion criteria. Study design, sample size, exposure to subfertility and risk estimates of testicular cancer incidence were abstracted. Summary relative risks (RRs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated using the DerSimonian and Laird model. All statistical tests were two-sided. We identified seven case-control studies and two cohort studies published between 1987 and 2005. Analysis of the seven case-control studies that included 4,954 participants revealed an overall statistically significant association between subfertility and increased risk of testicular cancer (summary RR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.22 to 2.31, without heterogeneity between studies (Q = 8.46, P heterogeneity = 0.21, I(2 statistics = 0.29. The association between subfertility and testicular cancer was somewhat stronger in the United States (summary RR = 1.75, 95% CI: 1.01 to 3.02 than it was in Europe (summary RR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.22 to 1.92. The source of the control subjects had a statistically significant effect on the magnitude of the association (population-based summary-RR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.11 to 4.17; hospital-based summary--RR = 1.56, 95% CI: 0.93 to 2.61. After excluding possible cryptorchidism, an important confounding factor, we also found a positive association between subfertility and increased risk of testicular cancer (summary RR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.28 to 1.98. These results were consistent between

  16. Potential role of punicalagin against oxidative stress induced testicular damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiza Rao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Punicalagin is isolated from pomegranate and widely used for the treatment of different diseases in Chinese traditional medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Punicalagin (purity ≥98% on oxidative stress induced testicular damage and its effect on fertility. We detected the antioxidant potential of punicalagin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS induced oxidative stress damage in testes, also tried to uncover the boosting fertility effect of Punicalagin (PU against oxidative stress-induced infertility. Results demonstrated that 9 mg kg−1 for 7 days treatment significantly decreases LPS induced oxidative damage in testes and nitric oxide production. The administration of oxidative stress resulted in a significant reduction in testes antioxidants GSH, T-SOD, and CAT raised LPO, but treatment with punicalagin for 7 days increased antioxidant defense GSH, T-SOD, and CAT by the end of the experiment and reduced LPO level as well. PU also significantly activates Nrf2, which is involved in regulation of antioxidant defense systems. Hence, the present research categorically elucidates the protective effect of punicalagin against LPS induced oxidative stress induced perturbation in the process of spermatogenesis and significantly increased sperm health and number. Moreover, fertility success significantly decreased in LPS-injected mice compared to controls. Mice injected with LPS had fertility indices of 12.5%, while others treated with a combination of PU + LPS exhibited 75% indices. By promoting fertility and eliminating oxidative stress and inflammation, PU may be a useful nutrient for the treatment of infertility.

  17. Significance of DNA quantification in testicular germ cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codesal, J; Paniagua, R; Regadera, J; Fachal, C; Nistal, M

    1991-01-01

    A cytophotometric quantification of DNA in tumor cells was performed in histological sections of orchidectomy specimens from 36 men with testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT), 7 of them showing more than one tumor type. Among the variants of seminoma (classic and spermatocytic) the lowest DNA content were in spermatocytic seminoma. With respect to non-seminomatous tumors (yolk sac tumor, embryonal carcinoma, teratoma, and choriocarcinoma), choriocarcinomas showed the highest DNA content, and the lowest value was found in teratomas. No significant differences were found between the average DNA content of seminomas (all types) and non-seminomatous tumors (all types). Both embryonal carcinoma and yolk sac tumor showed similar DNA content when they were the sole tumor and when they were found associated with other tumors. In this study, except for the 4 cases of teratoma and the case of spermatocytic seminoma, all TGCT examined did not show modal values of DNA content in the diploid range. Such an elevated frequency of aneuploidism in these tumors may be helpful for their diagnosis. PMID:1666273

  18. Increased stomach cancer risk following radiotherapy for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauptmann, M; Fossa, S D; Stovall, M;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abdominal radiotherapy for testicular cancer (TC) increases risk for second stomach cancer, although data on the radiation dose-response relationship are sparse. METHODS: In a cohort of 22,269 5-year TC survivors diagnosed during 1959-1987, doses to stomach subsites were estimated for...... 92 patients who developed stomach cancer and 180 matched controls. Chemotherapy details were recorded. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Cumulative incidence of second primary stomach cancer was 1.45% at 30 years after TC diagnosis. The TC survivors who received...... radiotherapy (87 (95%) cases, 151 (84%) controls) had a 5.9-fold (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-20.7) increased risk of stomach cancer. Risk increased with increasing stomach dose (P-trend<0.001), with an OR of 20.5 (3.7-114.3) for ⩾50.0 Gy compared with <10 Gy. Radiation-related risks remained elevated ⩾20...

  19. Testicular acid phosphatase induces odontoblast differentiation and mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hwajung; Kim, Tak-Heun; Yun, Chi-Young; Kim, Jung-Wook; Cho, Eui-Sic

    2016-04-01

    Odontoblasts differentiate from dental mesenchyme during dentin formation and mineralization. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling odontoblast differentiation remain poorly understood. Here, we show that expression of testicular acid phosphatase (ACPT) is restricted in the early stage of odontoblast differentiation in proliferating dental mesenchymal cells and secretory odontoblasts. ACPT is expressed earlier than tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) and partly overlaps with TNAP in differentiating odontoblasts. In MDPC-23 odontoblastic cells, expression of ACPT appears simultaneously with a decrease in β-catenin activity and is abolished with the expression of Phex and Dsp. Knockdown of ACPT in MDPC-23 cells stimulates cell proliferation together with an increase in active β-catenin and cyclin D1. In contrast, the overexpression of ACPT suppresses cell proliferation with a decrease in active β-catenin and cyclin D1. Expression of TNAP, Osx, Phex and Dsp is reduced by knockdown of ACPT but is enhanced by ACPT overexpression. When ACPT is blocked with IgG, alkaline phosphatase activity is inhibited but cell proliferation is unchanged regardless of ACPT expression. These findings suggest that ACPT inhibits cell proliferation through β-catenin-mediated signaling in dental mesenchyme but elicits odontoblast differentiation and mineralization by supplying phosphate during dentin formation. Thus, ACPT might be a novel candidate for inducing odontoblast differentiation and mineralization for dentin regeneration. PMID:26547858

  20. Management of germ cell testicular cancer with pulmonary metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty eight patients with germ cell testicular pulmonary metastases received primary chemotherapy including bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin. Complete response (CR) was achieved in 21 (75%) patients, in 11 of them CR was achieved following chemotherapy alone. Post-chemotherapy surgery of residual mass performed in 12 (42.9%) patients with normalized serum tumor markers. Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection was performed in one patient, pulmonary surgery in four, and both post-chemotherapy treatments in 7 patients. Overall cure rate was 89.3%, 26 (92.9%) patients are still alive at a mean follow-up of 19.7+ months (range, 3-34+ months) after the treatment start. Two (7.1%) died: one of them due to disease progression during chemotherapy, and the second one due to postoperative complication (acute respiratory failure). Relapse of disease was observed in one patient 21 months following CR achievement, and sequential chemotherapy was introduced. Authors recommend surgical remove of all radiologically detected residual deposits, because the available imaging methods are not adequate for determining the histologic composition of residual mass, which is decisive for further therapy and has prognostic value. (author)

  1. TESTICULAR CANCER – CRITICAL APPRAISAL OF THE PATHOLOGY PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marinca

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Testicular cancer (TC may originate in the structure of the seminiferous tubule or the interstitial tissue, but the vast majority (> 95% arise from the germinal epithelium. Germ cell tumors (GCT are classified as seminomas (S, 50% of TC, non-seminomas (NS, 40%, and tumors composed of several cell lines (mixed-type tumors, MT, 10%. We reevaluated the available specimens for 39 cases of GCT (15 S, 12 NS, 12 MT. The major distinction to be made was between pure S and NS (including MT, but additional data were obtained in order to assess and quantify several other histological features of potential interest (share of different tumor subtypes, cytoplasm staining, intratumoral necrosis, lymphocytic infiltration, invasion of tunica albuginea and rete testis, tumor emboli, spermatogenesis not evaluated during the initial (diagnostic examination. Their impact on disease-free (DFS and overall survival (OS was also evaluated. Mean follow-up duration was 47.11 months (range 4.73-104.0 months. We found the vascular component of the tumor (p=0,034 to be linked to DFS of NS and only the lymphocytic infiltrate (p=0,0001 to both DFS and OS in S. The pathology exam can be considered as an independent prognostic factor of utmost importance in TC, and might need to include additional information about these two aspects and possibly others, but research on a larger number of patients is needed.

  2. Combined therapy pathospermia patients after endovascular sclerotherapy of testicular veins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Zhukov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We examined 44 patients with varicocele and pathospermia as asthenia and 30 patients experienced oligozoospermia and 14 patients in the control group. Of these, the marriage of the 21 patients (16 – experimental, 5 – control. Total of 43 patients were operated on both groups. The patients of the experimental group comprised 29 people, one patient withdrew from the trial group because of changing of place of living. There were 14 patients in the control group. Among the patients of both groups with subclinical varicocele operated 6 patients, with stage I – 10 patients, with stage II – 18, with stage III – 9. Age of the patients operated on experimental and control groups were comparable and reached 34.1 ± 7.2 years, and 31.2 ± 4.6 years, respectively. All patients underwent endovascular sclerotherapy of testicular veins, of which the 3rd patients underwent both sides. AndroDoz complex in less time helps restore semen parameters, improving the morphology, increasing the concentration and progressive motility. AndroDoz can be used in support of post-operative medical therapy in patients after varicocelectomy, especially in patients older than 35 years with bilateral varicocele.

  3. Combined therapy pathospermia patients after endovascular sclerotherapy of testicular veins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Zhukov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined 44 patients with varicocele and pathospermia as asthenia and 30 patients experienced oligozoospermia and 14 patients in the control group. Of these, the marriage of the 21 patients (16 – experimental, 5 – control. Total of 43 patients were operated on both groups. The patients of the experimental group comprised 29 people, one patient withdrew from the trial group because of changing of place of living. There were 14 patients in the control group. Among the patients of both groups with subclinical varicocele operated 6 patients, with stage I – 10 patients, with stage II – 18, with stage III – 9. Age of the patients operated on experimental and control groups were comparable and reached 34.1 ± 7.2 years, and 31.2 ± 4.6 years, respectively. All patients underwent endovascular sclerotherapy of testicular veins, of which the 3rd patients underwent both sides. AndroDoz complex in less time helps restore semen parameters, improving the morphology, increasing the concentration and progressive motility. AndroDoz can be used in support of post-operative medical therapy in patients after varicocelectomy, especially in patients older than 35 years with bilateral varicocele.

  4. Clinical features of testicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Focus on treatment strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testicular primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is said to account for about 5% of all testicular tumors and about 2% of extranodular lymphoma. From a clinical standpoint, we reviewed testicular NHL of stage IE treated at our department over the past 18 years. Among the 865 cases of NHL, 19 (2,2%) were primary testicular NHL, stage IE. The 19 patients had a median age of 62 years (range 48-77 years), all had diffuse B-cell lymphoma. Of the 19 patients, 8 were treated with radiotherapy after high inguinal orchiectomy (Group I), 4 received both postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy (Group II), and 7 received additional phophylactic intrathecal chemotherapy (Group III). The 5-year survival rates for Groups I, II and III were 37,5%, 50%, and 100%, respectively. None of the patients receiving prophylactic intrathecal chemotherapy had relapse in the central nervous system and all of them are alive and disease-free. Primary testicular NHL is relatively common among elderly persons, and many patients die as a result of central nervous system recurrence. These results suggest that preventive measures for central nervous system recurrence such as intrathecal injection of anticancer agents should be taken into consideration as early as a the induction of remission. (orig.)

  5. Cellular changes in the hamster testicular interstitium with ageing and after exposure to short photoperiod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Frutos, E; Seco-Rovira, V; Ferrer, C; Madrid, J F; Sáez, F J; Canteras, M; Pastor, L M

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cellular changes that occur in the hamster testicular interstitium in two very different physiological situations involving testicular involution: ageing and exposure to a short photoperiod. The animals were divided into an 'age group' with three subgroups - young, adult and old animals - and a 'regressed group' with animals subjected to a short photoperiod. The testicular interstitium was characterised by light and electron microscopy. Interstitial cells were studied histochemically with regard to their proliferation, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP in situ nick end labelling (TUNEL+) and testosterone synthetic activity. We identified two types of Leydig cell: Type A cells showed a normal morphology, while Type B cells appeared necrotic. With ageing, pericyte proliferation decreased but there was no variation in the index of TUNEL-positive Leydig cells. In the regressed group, pericyte proliferation was greater and TUNEL-positive cells were not observed in the interstitium. The testicular interstitium suffered few ultrastructural changes during ageing and necrotic Leydig cells were observed. In contrast, an ultrastructural involution of Leydig cells with no necrosis was observed in the regressed group. In conclusion, the testicular interstitium of Mesocricetus auratus showed different cellular changes in the two groups (age and regressed), probably due to the irreversible nature of ageing and the reversible character of changes induced by short photoperiod. PMID:25437143

  6. Efficacy of naringenin against permethrin-induced testicular toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Heba El-Sayed; Abd El-Baset, Samia A; Kattaia, Asmaa A A; Zidan, Rania A; Al Sadek, Mona M A

    2016-02-01

    Permethrin (PM), a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, has broad toxicity spectra. We aimed to investigate the effects of PM on the testes of adult albino rats, examine the recovery response and evaluate the efficacy of naringenin (NG) supplementation. Adult male albino rats were randomly assigned to five groups of six each: control, NG (50 mg/kg), PM (70 mg/kg), recovery (after subsequent withdrawal of PM) and NG-PM group. All treatments were given by oral gavage for 6 weeks and another 3 weeks for the recovery group. At the time of sacrifice, each testis was weighed. Biochemical analysis of epididymal sperm count and serum testosterone level was performed. Testes were processed for histological, ultrastructural and c-Kit immunohistochemical study. PM toxicity was evidenced by a highly significant decrease in testicular weight, epididymal sperm count and serum testosterone level compared to control. Furthermore, testicular structure abnormalities and reduced c-Kit immunoreactions were observed. Stoppage of PM in the recovery group partially reversed PM-induced changes. There was a mild decrease in testicular weight and biochemical parameters compared to control. The structure of seminiferous tubules was partially retained. The NG-PM group showed an overall improvement in testicular weight and biochemical alterations which were confirmed by light and electron microscopic examination. In conclusion, PM induced testicular toxicity, which was ameliorated by NG co-administration. However, stoppage of PM exposure was associated with partial recovery. PMID:26867500

  7. Effects of aescin on testicular repairment in rats with experimentally induced varicocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, R H; Ma, M; Zhu, Y; Yang, S; Wang, Z Q; Zhang, Z S; Wan, C F; Li, P; Liu, Y F; Wang, J L; Liu, Y; Yang, H; Zhang, Z Z; Liu, L H; Gong, Y H; Li, F H; Hu, H L; He, Z P; Huang, Y R; Li, Z

    2014-06-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of aescin treatment in a rodent model treated with an experimentally induced varicocele. Experimental varicocele was induced by partial ligation of the left renal vein of rats. Aescin administration was performed daily for 4 weeks after the varicocele induction. Seven weeks later, a contrast-enhanced ultrasound was performed of the rats' testis to assess testicular blood flow. The animals were sacrificed, and H&E staining was then used to evaluate testicular pathological changes and polymorphonuclear leucocytes density. Cauda epididymal sperm counts and motility were evaluated. Blood was collected for the measurement of follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinising hormone and testosterone. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound showed that there were significant decreases in testicular blood flow in the aescin-treated groups compared with those in control varicocele group. Testicular oedema was detected in those rats treated with a varicocele but without aescin, while no oedema was found in the experimental group. H&E staining showed dysfunctional spermatogenesis in both cohorts; however, polymorphonuclear leucocytes density was significantly reduced in aescin-treated groups. There was an increase in sperm counts of the aescin-treated groups. Our study demonstrated that aescin could exert therapeutical effects on reversal of testicular lesions in varicocele rats. PMID:23682825

  8. Barriers and facilitators for oncology nurses discussing sexual issues with men diagnosed with testicular cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moore, Annamarie

    2013-01-02

    PURPOSE: Testicular cancer occurs at a time in a man\\'s life when major social life changes are occurring and when body image, fertility, sexual desire and performance can be central issues. Oncology nurses, as members of the multidisciplinary team, are in an ideal position to address men\\'s concerns. The aim of this study was to investigate oncology nurses\\' self-perceived knowledge and comfort in relation to discussing sexuality concerns with men diagnosed with testicular cancer and to identify the barriers and facilitators to such discussions. METHODS: This study employed a self-completion, anonymous survey design with a sample of registered nurses working in five, randomly chosen, oncology centres in Ireland. RESULTS: In total, 89 questionnaires (45% response rate) were included for analysis. Findings suggest that although nurses were open to addressing concerns, few informed patients they were available to discuss sexual concerns. Nurses reported lacking knowledge of, and discomfort in, discussing the more intimate aspects of sexuality, including: ejaculatory difficulties, erectile dysfunction, impotence, prosthesis options and testicular self examination. CONCLUSIONS: Findings reinforce the need for more comprehensive education on sexuality issues and testicular cancer. Nurses need to take a more proactive approach to sexuality care, as opposed to the \\'passive waiting stance\\' that permeates the current culture of care. Education programmes need to include specific information on sexual issues associated with testicular cancer, and oncology nurses must subsume sexuality as an essential aspect of their role through changes in policies and nursing care planning.

  9. A laboratory modification to testicular sperm preparation technique improves spermatogenic cell yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Ozkavukcu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Testicular sperm extraction is a common procedure used to find spermatogenic cells in men with nonobstructive azoospermia. The laboratory processing of biopsied testicular tissues needs to be performed meticulously to acquire a high yield of cells. In this study, the effectiveness of mincing the tissues after testicular biopsy was assessed using histological evaluation, as was the possible adverse effect of residual tissue on the migration of spermatogenic cells during density gradient centrifugation. Our results indicate that testicular residual tissue, when laid on the density gradient medium along with the sperm wash, hinders the spermatogenic cells' forming a pellet during centrifugation, and therefore impairs the intracytoplasmic sperm injection procedure. Whereas the mean number of recovered cells from the sperm wash medium (SWM with residual tissue is 39.435 ± 24.849, it was notably higher (60.189 ± 28.214 cells in the SWM without minced tissues. The remaining tissue contained no functional seminiferous tubules or spermatogenic cells in histological sections. In conclusion, the remaining residual tissue after mincing biopsied testicular tissue does not add any functional or cellular contribution to spermatogenic cell retrieval; in fact, it may block the cellular elements in the accompanying cell suspension from migrating through the gradient layers to form a pellet during centrifugation and cause loss of spermatogenic cells.

  10. A laboratory modification to testicular sperm preparation technique improves spermatogenic cell yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkavukcu, Sinan; Ibis, Ebru; Kizil, Sule; Isbacar, Suheyla; Aydos, Kaan

    2014-01-01

    Testicular sperm extraction is a common procedure used to find spermatogenic cells in men with nonobstructive azoospermia. The laboratory processing of biopsied testicular tissues needs to be performed meticulously to acquire a high yield of cells. In this study, the effectiveness of mincing the tissues after testicular biopsy was assessed using histological evaluation, as was the possible adverse effect of residual tissue on the migration of spermatogenic cells during density gradient centrifugation. Our results indicate that testicular residual tissue, when laid on the density gradient medium along with the sperm wash, hinders the spermatogenic cells' forming a pellet during centrifugation, and therefore impairs the intracytoplasmic sperm injection procedure. Whereas the mean number of recovered cells from the sperm wash medium (SWM) with residual tissue is 39.435 ± 24.849, it was notably higher (60.189 ± 28.214 cells) in the SWM without minced tissues. The remaining tissue contained no functional seminiferous tubules or spermatogenic cells in histological sections. In conclusion, the remaining residual tissue after mincing biopsied testicular tissue does not add any functional or cellular contribution to spermatogenic cell retrieval; in fact, it may block the cellular elements in the accompanying cell suspension from migrating through the gradient layers to form a pellet during centrifugation and cause loss of spermatogenic cells. PMID:25038178

  11. Involvement of Fibroblast Growth Factors and Their Receptors in Epididymo-Testicular Descent and Maldescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadziselimovic, Faruk

    2016-02-01

    Maldescent of the epididymo-testicular unit can occur as an isolated event or as a component of various syndromes. When part of a syndrome, crypto-epididymis is usually accompanied by other genital and/or extragenital features. Epididymis development is primarily regulated by androgens, and successful epididymo-testicular unit development and descent requires an intact hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. The developing gonadotropin-releasing hormone system is essential for epididymo-testicular descent and is highly sensitive to reduced fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling. Our understanding of the impact of FGFR1 in the process of epididymo-testicular descent has recently improved. At later stages of embryonic development, the undifferentiated epididymal mesenchyme is a specific domain for FGFR1 expression. The majority of individuals with syndromic crypto-epididymis, as well as individuals with isolated maldescent of the epididymo-testicular unit, exhibit some disturbance of FGF, FGFR1 and/or genes involved in hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis regulation. However, the mechanisms underlying FGF dysregulation may differ between various syndromes. PMID:27022326

  12. Testicular cancer risk associated with occupational radiation exposure: a systematic literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousif, Lamya; Blettner, Maria; Hammer, Gael P; Zeeb, Hajo, E-mail: yousif@imbei.uni-mainz.d [Department of Epidemiology, Institute of Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics (IMBEI), University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Obere Zahlbacher Strasse 69, 55131 Mainz (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    Testicular cancer is a rare disease, affecting mainly young men aged 15-49. There have been some recent reports that it might be associated with radiation exposure. We have systematically reviewed this topic. English-language articles published between 1990 and 2008 studying the relationship between occupational radiation exposure and testicular cancer were included. Risk of bias was assessed using a modified version of the EPHPP checklist. For ionising radiation we subdivided study populations into occupational groups. No pooled analysis was performed due to the heterogeneity of studies. Seven case-control and 30 cohort studies were included in the review. For radiation workers, one incidence study showed a significant increase and four showed no effect. Eight mortality studies did not indicate an effect while four showed a non-significant increase. Incidence among persons with military exposure was not increased in two studies and non-significantly increased in another two. Among aircrew studies, one showed no effect against five with slight increases. Medical exposure studies showed no increases. For EMF exposure, three studies showed no effect, two reported a significant and four a non-significant increase in incidence. Overall, there was very limited evidence for associations between occupational ionising radiation and testicular cancer, while there were some positive associations for EMF. Testicular cancer mortality is generally low and was not associated with radiation. New incidence studies are recommended to investigate the association between radiation exposure and testicular cancer where exposure is better specified and individually estimated. (review)

  13. Testicular cancer risk associated with occupational radiation exposure: a systematic literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testicular cancer is a rare disease, affecting mainly young men aged 15-49. There have been some recent reports that it might be associated with radiation exposure. We have systematically reviewed this topic. English-language articles published between 1990 and 2008 studying the relationship between occupational radiation exposure and testicular cancer were included. Risk of bias was assessed using a modified version of the EPHPP checklist. For ionising radiation we subdivided study populations into occupational groups. No pooled analysis was performed due to the heterogeneity of studies. Seven case-control and 30 cohort studies were included in the review. For radiation workers, one incidence study showed a significant increase and four showed no effect. Eight mortality studies did not indicate an effect while four showed a non-significant increase. Incidence among persons with military exposure was not increased in two studies and non-significantly increased in another two. Among aircrew studies, one showed no effect against five with slight increases. Medical exposure studies showed no increases. For EMF exposure, three studies showed no effect, two reported a significant and four a non-significant increase in incidence. Overall, there was very limited evidence for associations between occupational ionising radiation and testicular cancer, while there were some positive associations for EMF. Testicular cancer mortality is generally low and was not associated with radiation. New incidence studies are recommended to investigate the association between radiation exposure and testicular cancer where exposure is better specified and individually estimated. (review)

  14. [Novel methods for studies of testicular development and spermatogenesis: From 2D to 3D culture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lian-dong; Li, He-cheng; Zhang, Tong-dian; Wang, Zi-ming

    2016-03-01

    The two-dimensional model of cell culture is an important method in the study of testicular development and spermatogenesis but can not effectively mimic and regulate the testicular microenvironment and the whole process of spermatogenesis due to the lack of relevant cell factors and the disruption of a three-dimensional spatial structure. In the past 20 years, the development and optimization of the in vitro model such as testis organotypic culture and in vivo model such as testis transplantation achieved a transformation from two- to three-dimension. The maintenance and optimization of the testicular niche structure could mimic the testicular microenvironment and cell types including Leydig, Sertoli and germ cells, which showed similar biological behaviors to those in vivo. Besides, the cell suspension or tissue fragment floats in the gas-liquid interface so that the development of somatic and germ cells is well maintained in vitro whilst the feedback linkage between grafted testis tissue and hypothalamus-pituitary of the host rebuilt in the in vitro model provides an endocrinological basis for spermatogenesis, which serves as an effective methodology to better understand the organogenesis and development of the testis as well as testicular function regulation, advancing the concept of treatment of male infertility. Al- though each of the methods may have its limitations, the progress in the processing, freezing, thawing, and transplantation of cells and tissues will surely promote their clinical application and present their value in translational medicine. PMID:27172668

  15. Trampoline injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Paul W

    2003-04-01

    As the popularity of trampolines has increased during the past 10 years, so has the number of injuries sustained using them. Whether there is an actual increase in the risk associated with the use of a trampoline for the same number of exposure hours is not known. The marked increase in emergency room visits related to trampoline injuries might reflect only the increased number of trampolines now available for recreational use or the creative manner in which they are being used. The complex factors related to trampolines, their use, and the possible injuries will be discussed. A liberal use of Internet references will be used because this is where much of the advertising and information available to the public regarding trampolines currently is disseminated. PMID:12671484

  16. Differential expression of non-coding RNAs and continuous evolution of the X chromosome in testicular transcriptome of two mouse species

    OpenAIRE

    Homolka, D. (David); Ivánek, R.; Forejt, J.; Jansa, P

    2011-01-01

    Background Tight regulation of testicular gene expression is a prerequisite for male reproductive success, while differentiation of gene activity in spermatogenesis is important during speciation. Thus, comparison of testicular transcriptomes between closely related species can reveal unique regulatory patterns and shed light on evolutionary constraints separating the species. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we compared testicular transcriptomes of two closely related mouse species, Mus ...

  17. Facial Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Facial Sports Injuries Facial Sports Injuries Patient Health Information News media ... should receive immediate medical attention. Prevention Of Facial Sports Injuries The best way to treat facial sports injuries ...

  18. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury 101 Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Preventing Pressure Sores Transition ...

  19. Eye Injuries at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask an Ophthalmologist Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating ... Safety Sports Eye Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Eye Injuries at Work Edited by: Shirley Dang Feb. ...

  20. Preventing Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ophthalmologist Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating ... Sports Eye Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Preventing Eye Injuries Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. ...

  1. Quality of life and stress response symptoms in long-term and recent spouses of testicular cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinman, MA; Fleer, J; Hoekstra, HJ; Sleijfer, DT; Hoekstra-Weebers, JEHM

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into the quality of life (QoL) and stress response of female spouses of men cured of testicular cancer in the long-term. Time since treatment completion varied from 0.5 to 23.8 years. Two hundred and fifty nine testicular cancer survivors and their spouses c

  2. Disorders of Sex Development with Testicular Differentiation in SRY-Negative 46,XX Individuals: Clinical and Genetic Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinspon, Romina P; Rey, Rodolfo A

    2016-01-01

    Virilisation of the XX foetus is the result of androgen excess, resulting most frequently from congenital adrenal hyperplasia in individuals with typical ovarian differentiation. In rare cases, 46,XX gonads may differentiate into testes, a condition known as 46,XX testicular disorders of sex development (DSD), or give rise to the coexistence of ovarian and testicular tissue, a condition known as 46,XX ovotesticular DSD. Testicular tissue differentiation may be due to the translocation of SRY to the X chromosome or an autosome. In the absence of SRY, overexpression of other pro-testis genes, e.g. SOX family genes, or failure of pro-ovarian/anti-testis genes, such as WNT4 and RSPO1, may underlie the development of testicular tissue. Recent experimental and clinical evidence giving insight into SRY-negative 46,XX testicular or ovotesticular DSD is discussed. PMID:27055195

  3. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Experts \\ Spinal Cord Injury 101 Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation ... in countries outside the US ? A spinal cord injury affects the entire family FacingDisability is designed to ...

  4. Suppurative appendicitis presenting as acute scrotum confounded by a testicular appendage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumon, Syed; Bennett, John; Lawson, Geoffrey; Small, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Patients presenting with testicular pain and swelling mandate an urgent urology review and scrotal exploration to prevent testicle loss due to torsion. Other pathology masquerading as torsion is extremely rare but can occur. We present one such case. A 14-year-old male presented with a 1-day history of right testicular swelling and tenderness. He was apyrexial and denied any other symptoms. Blood tests demonstrated raised inflammatory markers. He had lower left-sided abdominal tenderness with a swollen, erythematous right hemiscrotum. During an urgent scrotal exploration for testicular torsion, a purulent hydrocele with a patent process vaginalis was noted, but no torsion. Post-operative abdominal pain mandated a general surgical review and subsequent appendicectomy. The patient made a full recovery. Acute suppurative appendicitis presenting as a urological emergency is extremely rare. To make a correct diagnosis and prevent multiple surgeries, a joint urological and general surgical assessment with a high index of suspicion is required. PMID:26966225

  5. Human testicular insulin-like factor 3: in relation to development, reproductive hormones and andrological disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, K; Andersson, A-M

    2011-01-01

    the endocrine regulation of this process. INSL3 is, along with testosterone, a major secretory product of testicular Leydig cells. In addition to its crucial function in testicular descent, INSL3 is suggested to play a paracrine role in germ cell survival and an endocrine role in bone metabolism. INSL3......, steroidogenic effects of LH, which for example is an important factor in the regulation of testosterone. Clinically, serum INSL3 levels can turn out to be a usable tool to monitor basal Leydig cell function in patients with various disorders affecting Leydig cell function. According to animal studies, foetal...... INSL3 production is, directly or indirectly, sensitive to oestrogenic or anti-androgenic compounds. This provides important insight into the mechanism by which maternal exposure to endocrine disrupters can result in cryptorchidism in the next generation. Conclusively, INSL3 is an interesting testicular...

  6. A rare case report of bilateral testicular masses as an initial manifestation of systemic sarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiren Patel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is an idiopathic, systemic disease that rarely involves the genitourinary tract. Here, we present a case of a 40-year-old male presented with bilateral scrotal swelling. The scrotal ultrasound showed multiple echogenic masses bilaterally ranging between 3 mm and 15 mm involving both testicles. Enlarged retroperitoneal lymph nodes were detected on the abdominal computed tomography (CT. Surgical exploration of the testes with a frozen section analysis of the left testicular mass was carried out, and it revealed noncaseating granulomas. CT scan of the chest revealed the classic bilateral hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy with reticulonodular infiltrates. The final pathological diagnosis was systemic sarcoidosis with bilateral testicular involvement. Treatment with high-dose corticosteroids resulted in complete resolution of the testicular mass and a significant decrease in the size of the hilar, mediastinal, and retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy.

  7. Canine testicular tumours: a retrospective investigation in Abruzzo and Molise, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rita D’Angelo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Canine testicular tumours frequently occur and share relevant features with their human counterparts, thus being a putative model in comparative oncology. The authors present data on canine testicular tumours submitted to the Istituto G. Caporale over the last 12 years. In total, 183 testicular neoplasms were diagnosed: 108 seminomas, 37 Sertoli cell tumours, 18 interstitial Leydig cell tumours, 10 mixed tumours, 9 other primary tumours and one metastatic neoplasm. A systematic and more detailed collection of data (signalling, history, clinical signs and follow-up enables a better evaluation of clinical and biological features of animal tumours, as well as a clear assessment of the real impact, if any, of specific intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors.

  8. Improved gene expression signature of testicular carcinoma in situ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almstrup, Kristian; Leffers, Henrik; Lothe, Ragnhild A;

    2007-01-01

    global gene expression in testicular CIS have been previously published. We have merged the two data sets on CIS samples (n = 6) and identified the shared gene expression signature in relation to expression in normal testis. Among the top-20 highest expressed genes, one-third was transcription factors...... 'embryonic development' were significantly altered and could collectively affect cellular pathways like the WNT signalling cascade, which thus may be disrupted in testicular CIS. The merged CIS data from two different microarray platforms, to our knowledge, provide the most precise CIS gene expression......The carcinoma in situ (CIS) stage is the common precursor of testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs) that arise in young adults. Within the past decade genome wide gene expression tools have been developed and have greatly advanced the insight into the biology of TGCTs. Two independent data sets on...

  9. A Rare Case: Isolated Testicular and Epidural Abscess Associated with Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugce Kalayci

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Coincidence of isolated testicular abscess and epidural-paravertebral abscess is a rare complication of brucellosis. A 24-year-old male patient was admitted to our clinic with 2 months ongoing back pain, night sweats and left scrotal pain. Septal cystic lesion with dense content in the left testis was considered to isolated testicular abscess in scrotal Doppler examination. Multiple spinal epidural and right paraspinal abscess were detected in the spinal magnetic resonance imaging. The patient was treated with drainage of abscess and oral antibiotics. The rare combination of spinal epidural and testicular abscess should be kept in the mind if a patient presented with low back pain and scrotal pain in regions where brucellosis was endemic.

  10. A 18 years study of testicular tumours in Jodhpur, western Rajasthan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deotra A

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study based on WHO histologic typing of testicular tumours deals with 100 cases recorded in the files of the Department of Pathology from 1969 to 1987. These tumours accounted for 2.57% malignancies of male genital system. Maximum number of tumours were recorded in the third and fourth decades. Right testis was affected in 60% cases. Scrotal swelling was the predominant presenting feature, followed by pain. Five cases of testicular tumours were observed in undescended testis. Germ cell tumour of one histologic type constituted 76% of testicular tumors. Germ cell tumors of more than one histologic type were 23%. One case (1% belonged to lymphoid and haemopoietic system and was of large cell lymphocytic lymphoma. Amongst the germ cell tumors with one histologic type, seminoma (34% and embryonal carcinoma (28% were predominant while teratocarcinoma was a predominant tumour in combination group.

  11. Musculoskeletal injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation is about musculoskeletal injuries and the diagnosis of osseous tumors. The use of the radiology, bone scintigraphy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance contribute to detect the localization of the osseous lesions as well as the density (lytic, sclerotic, mixed) and the benign and malignant tumors.

  12. Inhalation Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increase mortality 30% to 40% when patients with cutaneous burns and inhalation injury are compared with patients ... nasal hairs • Facial burns • Burns around the mouth • Mineral spirits – 104º F – paint thinner, brush cleaner. • Redness, ...

  13. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome and the development and occurrence of male reproductive disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with 45,X0/46XY karyotype often present with intersex phenotype and testicular dysgenesis. These patients may also have undescended testes (cryptorchidism), hypospadias and their spermatogenesis is severely disrupted. They have a high risk for testicular cancer. These patients have the most severe form of testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). We have hypothesized that testicular cancer, cryptorchidism, hypospadias and poor spermatogenesis are all signs of a developmental disturbance that was named as testicular dysgenesis syndrome. The hypothesis is based on clinical and epidemiological findings and on biological and experimental evidence. Signs of TDS share several risk factors, such as small birth weight (particularly being small for gestational age), and they are risk factors for each other. All of them have background in fetal development. They show strong epidemiological links so that countries with high incidence of testicular cancer, such as Denmark, tend to also have high prevalence rates of cryptorchidism and hypospadias and poor semen quality. Vice versa, in countries with good male reproductive health, e.g., in Finland, all these aspects are better than in Denmark. Although genetic abnormalities can cause these disorders, in the majority of cases, the reasons remain unclear. Adverse trends in the incidence of male reproductive disorders suggest that environmental and life style factors contribute to the problem. Endocrine disrupters are considered as prime candidates for environmental influence. Fetal exposure to high doses of dibutyl phthalate was shown to cause a TDS-like phenotype in the rats. Studies are underway to assess whether there is any exposure-outcome relation with selected chemicals (persistent organic pollutants, pesticides, phthalates) and cryptorchidism

  14. A Diagnostic Dilemma: Metastatic Testicular Cancer and Systemic Sarcoidosis – A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gupta

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease that most commonly involves the lungs and the lymph nodes, but with genitourinary tract involvement, can easily mimic testicular cancer with metastasis to the lungs. We describe the case of a 30-year-old African-American male who presented with complaints of a headache, skin lesions, and a scrotal mass. A computed tomography scan of the head showed lesions in the frontotemporal and pons region, causing obstructive hydrocephalus. An ultrasound of the scrotum showed an enlarged epididymis bilaterally as well as a solid hypoechoic ill-defined mass on the right side, separate from the intact testis. Given the high suspicion for testicular malignancy with brain metastasis, a right orchiectomy was completed. The pathology revealed non-caseating necrotizing granulomas that stained negative for tubercular and fungal organisms, which was consistent with sarcoidosis. Additionally, the patient’s skin and central nervous system (CNS lesions improved on steroids that had been started for cerebral edema. Given the predilection of testicular cancer for CNS metastasis, neurosarcoidosis can also be mistaken for testicular cancer metastasis to the CNS, as seen in our case. Differentiating testicular cancer from genitourinary sarcoidosis is difficult but can be clarified using a combination of clinical presentation, epidemiology, serum markers (ACE, AFP, B-HCG, biopsies from skin/lymph nodes, and sometimes imaging. It is critical to differentiate genitourinary sarcoidosis from malignancy, as a misdiagnosis can lead to unnecessary surgical interventions, which have important implications for future fertility. There can also be a coexistence of as well as an association between testicular cancer and sarcoidosis, which should be recognized by health care providers. Both authors contributed equally to the manuscript.

  15. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE INCIDENCE RATES OF TESTICULAR AND PROSTATIC CANCERS AND FOOD CONSUMPTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李湘鸣; 刘秀梵; 佐藤·章夫

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relationships between the incidence rates of testicular and prostatic cancers and food consumptions in order to study the etiologic cause and the mechanism of the development of male genital organ cancer. Methods: The incidence rates of testicular and prostatic cancers in 42 countries (region) were correlated with the dietary practices in these countries. These data came from the cancer rate database (1988-1992) and the food supply database (1961-1990) provided by the Department of Environmental Health, Medical University of Yamanashi, Japan. Results: The incidence rates of testicular and prostatic cancers varied greatly from country to country but in China the rates of the both malignancies were lower than that of USA and Japan. This may be due to the difference in lifestyle, especially in dietary practices. Among the food items weexamined, cheese was most closely correlated with the incidence of testicular cancer at ages 20-39, followed by animal fats and milk. The correlation coefficient (r) was the highest (r= 0.804) when calculated for cheese consumed during the period of 1961-1965 (maternal or prepubertal consumption). Stepwise- multiple-regression analysis revealed that cheese (1961-1965) made a significant contribution to the incidence of testicular cancer. Multiple coefficient ( r) is 0.920. As far as prostatic cancer was concerned, milk was most closely correlated (r=0.711) with its incidence, followed by meat and coffee. Stepwise-multiple-regression analysis identified milk, meat, butter and coffee as significant factors contributing to the incidence of prostatic cancer (R=0.993).The results of our study suggest a role of milk and dairy practices in the development of testicular and prostatic cancers.

  16. A survey of Sertoli cell differentiation in men after gonadotropin suppression and in testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarulli, Gerard A; Stanton, Peter G; Loveland, Kate L;

    2013-01-01

    It is widely held that the somatic cell population that is responsible for sperm development and output (Sertoli cells) is terminally differentiated and unmodifiable in adults. It is postulated, with little evidence, that Sertoli cells are not terminally differentiated in some phenotypes of...... infertility and testicular cancer. This study sought to compare markers of Sertoli cell differentiation in normospermic men, oligospermic men (undergoing gonadotropin suppression) and testicular carcinoma in situ (CIS) and seminoma samples. Confocal microscopy was used to assess the expression of markers of...

  17. Importancia de la enfermera escolar en la detección de la neoplasia testicular

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Sabater, A.; Sancho Cantus, D.; Martínez Puig, C.

    2011-01-01

    En este artículo planteamos una revisión de la literatura en diferentes bases de datos (CINAHL, CUIDEN, MEDLINE) con el fin de valorar la importancia de la neoplasia testicular en la adolescencia y el papel fundamental del profesional de enfermería, concretamente de la enfermera escolar, en la detección precoz de esta patología. Una vez analizado el tema y tras tomar conciencia de la importancia de enseñar prácticas de autoexploración testicular correctas, se ha concluido que la enfermera esc...

  18. Testicular involvement in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Consequences of radiotherapy and chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauner, R.; Czernichow, P.; Rappaport, R.; Schaison, G.

    1986-06-05

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia has a higher mortality rate in boys as a result of possible testicular involvement; indeed, the testicle is the site of initial relapse in 6% of cases and is involved in 15% of all cases. Clinical diagnosis of testicular involvement is usually readily established. Treatment is delivery of 24 grays to both testicles and intensification of chemotherapy. In children who recover from their leukemia, this irradiation produces not only destruction of germ cells but also endocrine impairment which should be looked for and treated; replacement therapy with slow-action testosterone will be combined with the other hormonal treatments which pituitary deficiencies secondary to cranial irradiation may require.

  19. Testicular involvement in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Consequences of radiotherapy and chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia has a higher mortality rate in boys as a result of possible testicular involvement; indeed, the testicle is the site of initial relapse in 6% of cases and is involved in 15% of all cases. Clinical diagnosis of testicular involvement is usually readily established. Treatment is delivery of 24 grays to both testicles and intensification of chemotherapy. In children who recover from their leukemia, this irradiation produces not only destruction of germ cells but also endocrine impairment which should be looked for and treated; replacement therapy with slow-action testosterone will be combined with the other hormonal treatments which pituitary deficiencies secondary to cranial irradiation may require

  20. Screening for carcinoma in situ of the contralateral testis in patients with germinal testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, J G; Skakkebaek, N E; von der Maase, H;

    1982-01-01

    Two hundred and fifty biopsy specimens from the contralateral testis in patients with unilateral germinal testicular cancer were analysed by light microscopy for carcinoma-in-situ changes. Changes were found in 13 (5.2%) patients. One-third of patients with an atrophic contralateral testis (volume...... cryptorchidism or both had been screened. Since the natural course of carcinoma in situ in the contralateral testis of patients with germinal testicular cancer has not been established, the patients are being re-evaluated frequently. To date two patients with carcinoma in situ have developed a second cancer....

  1. A rare case of a man who has lived with a testicular graft for 26 years

    OpenAIRE

    M. I. Davidov; V. B. Veretennikov; A. D. Malkov

    2014-01-01

    A left testicular graft was removed in a 51-year-old man who had complained of testicular pain Orthotopical allotransplantation of the cadaveric testis had been performed 26 years before when the man was 25 years old. Within 15 years after surgery, there had been a good result with preserved libido and erection; the patient had led a sex life. The removed testicle was 3 × 2.5 × 2.5 cm and of stony density. Calcification of the graft with necrosis in its center was histologically found.

  2. A rare case of a man who has lived with a testicular graft for 26 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Davidov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A left testicular graft was removed in a 51-year-old man who had complained of testicular pain Orthotopical allotransplantation of the cadaveric testis had been performed 26 years before when the man was 25 years old. Within 15 years after surgery, there had been a good result with preserved libido and erection; the patient had led a sex life. The removed testicle was 3 × 2.5 × 2.5 cm and of stony density. Calcification of the graft with necrosis in its center was histologically found.

  3. Testicular microlithiasis in a 2-year-old boy with pseudoxanthoma elasticum

    OpenAIRE

    De Goede, J.; Hack, W. W. M.; Sijstermans, K; Pierik, F. H.

    2008-01-01

    Pseudoxantoma elasticum (PXE) is a rare chromosomal disorder that results in mineralization of elastic fibers, especially in the skin, eye, and cardiovascular system. Recently, PXE has been associated with testicular microlithiasis (TM),1 which itself might be associated with testicular malignancy.2 Here we report on a 9-year-old boy with PXE who already had TM at 2 years. To our knowledge, this is the youngest patient with PXE in whom TM is documented. © 2008 by the American Institute of Ult...

  4. In vitro-metabolism of 3H-progesterone in human testicular tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androgen biosynthesis in the male gonads may be analysed by means of in vitro incubation of minor testicular biopsy specimens with radiolabelled steroid precursors. In vitro-metabolism of 3H-progesterone has been investigated in testicular tissue of adult human males (I) and prepubertal and adolescent boys (II). Certain defects in the intratesticular adrogen biogenetic system may lead to significant impairment of the gonadal function. Males with extremely high and low levels of gonadotrophic hormones in the peripheral circulation have been investigated (III), as well as the effects of long-term gonadotrophin treatment of 4 patients, one of them 47, XYY-male(IV). (E.G.)

  5. Computed tomography in the diagnosis of lymph nodes metastases of testicular tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    40 patients with malignant testicular tumors were studied by lymphography and computed tomography in order to detect metastatic lymph nodes. With a 100% specifity and 88% sensitivity CT offered better results than lymphangiography (95% specifity and 55% sensitivity). Most false-negatives in lymphangiogram were caused by failure of contrast medium to reach the higher lumbar levels. Therefore we consider CT a better suited method for the evaluation of lymph nodes in malignant testicular tumors. If CT is normal, lymphangiography should be performed in order to rule out small metastases, which cannot be detected by CT. (orig.)

  6. Effects of different cryoprotectants on the cryopreservation of cattle testicular tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, S.; Zhu, Q.-C.; Han, C.; Zhang, X. -G.; Song, B. Y.; Xie, D.-Q.; Wei, S.-Y.; Hu, J.-H.

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation of testicular tissue is a new option in fertility preservation for prepubertal male animals. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of different cryoprotectant agents (CPAs) at various concentrations on testes after the cryopreservation of calf testicular tissue. These experiments selected dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), glycerol, propylene glycol (PrOH), and sucrose as CPAs in varying doses (2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5, and 20 %; v/v) in 8-mont...

  7. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for the detection of testicular ischemia in experimental induced testicular torsion of rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) in detecting experimentally induced testicular ischemia. Methods: Thirty healthy male New Zealand rabbits were randomly assigned into 6 groups. There were 5 rabbits in each of the following experimental groups: (1) Normal control, (2) Sham-operated, (3) ischemia of 3 h group, (4) ischemia of 6 h group, (5) ischemia of 12 h group, (6) ischemia of 24 h group. In all experiment groups, the right testis served as the internal control while the left testis served as the experimental side. DCE-MRI for each animal lasts about 10 minutes. Signal enhanced ratios (SERs) of ROI for both sides of each group were calculated by a computer, and parameters of SERs of 30 s, 75 s, 120 s and maximal SER were used for statistical analysis. Time intensity curves (TICs) were made for two sides of each group via Excel 2003 software and classified into 4 types. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the differences of SERs between left and right testis by two independent Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Results: In group 1 and 2, significant enhancement was observed on both testes of 10 rabbits. The enhancement decreased gradually with the elongation of ischemia in torsion groups. Three cases of type Ⅰ and 2 cases of type Ⅱ were observed in group 1, 5 cases of type Ⅰ in group two, 2 cases of type Ⅰ and 3 cases of type Ⅱ b in group three, 2 cases of type Ⅰ and 2 cases of type Ⅱ b in group four, 5 cases of type b in group five and 5 cases of type Ⅲ in group six were noticed in the left testes. And in TICs of right testes, all cases showed TICs of type Ⅰ except 2 cases of type Ⅱ a in group six. In four torsion groups, the values for SER75 of the left side were 0.084%, 0.076%, 0.164% and 0.065%, while the right side were 0.255%, 0.410%, 0.586% and 0.302% (P120 in group three, five and six were 0.221%, 0.158% and 0.059% for the left side, and 0.405%, 0.522% and 0.207% for the right side (P<0.05). The values

  8. Stingray injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, R.J.; Davies, R S

    1996-01-01

    A case of stingray injury is reported. Local symptoms and signs include intense pain, oedema around the wound, erythema and petechiae. Systemic symptoms and signs include nausea and vomiting, muscle cramps, diaphoresis, syncope, headache, muscle fasciculations, and cardiac arrhythmias. Treatment aims to reverse local and systemic effects of the venom, alleviate pain, and prevent infection. Antitetanus prophylaxis is important. Treatment for anaphylaxis may be necessary.

  9. Testicular morphometry and stereology of adult rats treated with cyclophosphamide incorporated to the liposome
    Morfometria e estereologia testicular de ratos adultos tratados com ciclofosfamida incorporada ao lipossoma

    OpenAIRE

    Suzana de Fátima Paccola Mesquita; Fernando Frei; Ana Paula Alves Favareto; Davi Abeid Pontes; Lázaro Cícero Nogueira; Isabel Cristina Cherici Camargo

    2006-01-01

    Liposomes represent a useful drug carrier system which is utilized in clinical studies to act as a non-toxic vehicle, reducing side effects and increasing the efficacy of antitumor agents. The aim of this study is to investigate, by means of morphometric and stereologic parameters, the effects of the cyclophosphamide, incorporated to liposomes, in testis of adult rats. As a result, the incorporation of the oncolytic agent to the liposomes showed, in the first place, increase of the testicular...

  10. Noninvasive assessment of testicular torsion in rabbits using frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy: prospects for pediatric urology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallacoglu, Bertan; Matulewicz, Richard S.; Paltiel, Harriet J.; Padua, Horacio; Gargollo, Patricio; Cannon, Glenn; Alomari, Ahmad; Sassaroli, Angelo; Fantini, Sergio

    2009-09-01

    We present a quantitative near-IR spectroscopy study of the absolute values of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin before and after surgically induced testicular torsion in adult rabbits. Unilateral testicular torsions (0, 540, or 720 deg) on experimental testes and contralateral sham surgery on control testes are performed in four adult rabbits. A specially designed optical probe for measurements at multiple source-detector distances and a commercial frequency-domain tissue spectrometer are used to measure absolute values of testicular hemoglobin saturation. Our results show: (1) a consistent baseline absolute tissue hemoglobin saturation value of 78+/-5%, (2) a comparable tissue hemoglobin saturation of 77+/-6% after sham surgery, and (3) a significantly lower tissue hemoglobin saturation of 36+/-2% after 540- and 720-deg testicular torsion surgery. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of performing frequency-domain, multidistance near-IR spectroscopy for absolute testicular oximetry in the assessment of testicular torsion. We conclude that near-IR spectroscopy has potential to serve as a clinical diagnostic and monitoring tool for the assessment of absolute testicular hemoglobin desaturation caused by torsion, with the possibility of serving as a complement to conventional color and spectral Doppler ultrasonography.

  11. Affective associations and cognitive beliefs relate to individuals' decisions to perform testicular or breast self-exams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Kramer, Carolyn R; Kiviniemi, Marc T

    2015-08-01

    Affective associations with behavioral practices play an important role in individuals' uptake of a variety of health behaviors. Most work has looked at individual behavioral practices with a direct impact on health; because screening behaviors are conceptually distinct from such behaviors, it is important to examine the interplay of affect and cognition in screening decision making. The current research explored affective and cognitive predictors of testicular and breast self-examination behavior. Young adult participants (N = 184) reported cognitive beliefs and affective associations with testicular self-exam behavior (male participants) and breast self-exam behavior (female participants) and reported their own current screening behavior. In univariable models, affective associations were related to screening behavior for both testicular self-exams and breast self-exams. When examining affective associations and cognitive beliefs as simultaneous predictors, affective associations (but not cognitive beliefs) predicted testicular self-exams, and neither affective associations nor cognitive beliefs were uniquely related to breast self-exams. Moreover, for testicular self-exams, affective associations mediated the relation between cognitive beliefs and screening behavior; no mediation was present for breast self-exam behavior. These findings suggest three potential outcomes: first, that greater consideration of affective associations in testicular self-exam screening decisions may be warranted; second, that breast and testicular self-exams may have different antecedents; and third, that incorporation of affective factors in intervention design might have merit for increasing engagement in some cancer screening behaviors. PMID:25851610

  12. Cytoplasmic p21 expression levels determine cisplatin resistance in human testicular cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Roelof; di Pietro, Alessandra; Timmer-Bosscha, Hetty; Gibcus, Johan H.; van den Berg, Anke; Suurmeijer, Albert J.; Bischoff, Rainer; Gietema, Jourik A.; de Jong, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Platinum-based chemotherapies such as cisplatin are used as first-line treatment for many cancers. Although there is often a high initial responsiveness, the majority of patients eventually relapse with platinum-resistant disease. For example, a subset of testicular cancer patients still die even th

  13. Experimental testicular tissue banking to generate spermatogenesis in the future: A multidisciplinary team approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadri-Ardekani, Hooman; McLean, Thomas W; Kogan, Stanley; Sirintrapun, Joseph; Crowell, Kathryn; Yousif, Mustafa Q; Hodges, Steve J; Petty, John; Pranikoff, Thomas; Sieren, Leah; Zeller, Kristen; Atala, Anthony

    2016-04-15

    Spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) loss due to cancer treatment, developmental disorder or genetic abnormality may cause permanent infertility. Cryopreservation of ejaculated sperm is an effective method of fertility preservation in adult males at risk of infertility. However this is not an option in pre-pubertal boys because spermatogenesis has not yet started, and it is difficult in adolescents who are not sexually mature. Therefore testicular tissue cryopreservation to preserve SSCs for future generation of spermatogenesis, either in vivo or in vitro, could be an option for these groups of patients. Although SSC transplantation has been successful in several species including non-human primates, it is still experimental in humans. There are several remaining concerns which need to be addressed before initiating trials of human SSC autotransplantation. Establishment of a testicular tissue banking system is a fundamental step towards using SSC technology as a fertility preservation method. It is important to understand the consultation, harvesting the testicular tissue, histological evaluation, cryopreservation, and long term storage aspects. We describe here a multidisciplinary approach to establish testicular tissue banking for males at risk of infertility. PMID:26917042

  14. Follow-up of children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection with epididymal and testicular spermatozoa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yi-hong; DONG Rui-na; SU Ying-chun; LI Jing; ZHANG Ya-jie; SUN Ying-pu

    2013-01-01

    Background To evaluate the safety of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with epididymal or testicular sperm,this study compared children born after ICSI treatment with epididymal or testicular sperm with children conceived after ICSI with ejaculated sperm.Methods This retrospective study included 317 children born after ICSI with percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA),103 children born after ICSI with testicular sperm aspiration (TESA),and a control group of 1008 children born after ICSI with ejaculated sperm.All of the patients received their assisted reproductive treatment in the Reproductive Medicine Center of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from January 2004 to December 2011.Data,such as the rate of stillbirths,perinatal mortality,gestational age,birth weight,and the rate of congenital malformations of the three groups,were compared.Results PESA and TESA children were not different from ICSI children in the rate of stillbirths,perinatal mortality,infant mortality rate,gestational age,the rate of prematurity,and the rate of malformations (P>0.05).A slight increase in birth defects was reported in the TESA group compared with those in the control group,but there was no significant difference between the groups (P>0.05).Conclusion ICSI with epididymal or testicular sperm does not lead to more stillbirths or congenital malformations compared with ICSI using ejaculated sperm.

  15. Influence of Tribulus terrestris on testicular enzyme in fresh water ornamental fish Poecilia latipinna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, P; Subramanian, P

    2011-12-01

    The influence of Tribulus terrestris on the activities of testicular enzyme in Poecilia latipinna was assessed in lieu of reproductive manipulation. Different concentrations of (100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 mg) Tribulus terrestris extract and of a control were tested for testicular activity of enzymes in Poecilia latipinna for 2 months. The testis and liver were homogenized separately in 0.1 mol/l potassium phosphate buffer (0.1 mol/l, pH 7.2). The crude homogenate was centrifuged, and supernatant obtained was used as an enzyme extract for determination of activities. The activities of testicular functional enzyme ALP, ACP, SDH, LDH, and G6PDH levels were changed to different extent in treated groups compared with that of the control. The total body weight and testis weight were increased with the Tribulus terrestris-treated fish (Poecilia latipinna). These results suggest that Tribulus terrestris induced the testicular enzyme activity that may aid in the male reproductive functions. It is discernible from the present study that Tribulus terrestris has the inducing effect on reproductive system of Poecilia latipinna. PMID:21424528

  16. Mechanism of testicular protection of carvedilol in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie M Ramzy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Male sub-fertility and infertility are major complications of diabetes mellitus. The non-selective β-blocker carvedilol has been reported to have favorable effects on some of the diabetic complications based on its antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects. This study aims to evaluate the possible testicular protective effect of carvedilol in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rat model and its possible mechanisms. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by a single i.p. dose of 65 mg/kg of STZ. In parallel groups of diabetic rats, carvedilol in low and high doses (1 and 10 mg/kg/day orally were administered for 4 weeks. Oxidative stress markers as reduced glutathione (GSH and the product of lipid peroxidation; malondialdehyde (MDA were evaluated in testicular homogenate. The level of expression of the apoptotic marker; caspase 3, was assessed using western blot, followed by densitometric analysis. Results: Induction of diabetes caused distortion of histological normal testicular structure, with decrease (P < 0.05 in GSH and increase (P < 0.05 in MDA, as well as induction of caspase 3 expression. Carvedilol in low or high doses reverted diabetes-induced histological damage, restored antioxidant activity and ameliorated caspase 3 expression. Conclusion: Carvedilol confers testicular protection against diabetes-induced damage through antioxidant and anti-apoptotic mechanisms.

  17. Inutero exposure to diisononyl phthalate caused testicular dysgenesis of rat fetal testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linxi; Bu, Tiao; Su, Huina; Chen, Zhichuan; Liang, Yuyuan; Zhang, Gaolong; Zhu, Danyan; Shan, Yuanyuan; Xu, Renai; Hu, Yuanyuan; Li, Junwei; Hu, Guoxin; Lian, Qingquan; Ge, Ren-Shan

    2015-01-22

    Diisononyl phthalate (DINP) is a synthetic material that has been widely used as a substitute for other plasticizers prohibited due to reproductive toxicity in consumer products. Some phthalates have been associated with testicular dysgenesis syndrome in male fetus when female pregnant dams were exposed to them. The present study investigated effects of DINP on fetal Leydig cell function and testis development. Female pregnant Sprague Dawley rats received control vehicle (corn oil) or DINP (10, 100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) by oral gavage from gestational day (GD) 12 to 21. At GD 21.5, testicular testosterone production, fetal Leydig cell numbers and distribution, testicular gene and protein expression levels were examined. DINP showed dose-dependent increase of fetal Leydig cell aggregation with the low observed adverse-effect level (LOAEL) of 10 mg/kg and multinucleated gonocyte with LOAEL of 100 mg/kg. At 10 mg/kg, DINP also significantly increased fetal Leydig cell size, but inhibited insulin-like 3 and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase gene expression and protein levels. DINP inhibited testicular testosterone levels at 1000 mg/kg. The results indicate that in utero exposure to DINP affects the expression levels of some fetal Leydig cell steroidogenic genes, gonocyte multinucleation and Leydig cell aggregation. PMID:25445723

  18. Effects of biogenic amines on the testicular development in mud crabs Scylla serrata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Haihui; HUANG Huiyang; LI Shaojing; WANG Guizhong; LI Qifu

    2006-01-01

    The regulation of three biogenic amines over the reproductive neuroendocrine activity of the male Scylla serrata was investigated by in vivo injection and in vitro incubation. The testicular index, the ratio of the mature sections in testes, and the ratio of Type B cells in androgenic gland were taken as the quantitative indexes. The in vivo injections indicated that: 5-HT can significantly promote the testicular development and the secretion of the androgenic gland in S. serrata; DA can inhibit the testicular development, but no influence on the secretion of the androgenic gland was found; no significant difference was observed between the OA-injected group and the concurrent control group. In vitro incubations showed that: 5-HT can stimulate the secretion of the brain and the thoracic ganglia, thus accelerating that of the androgenic gland; however, neither OA nor DA showed any significant influence on the secretion of the brain and the thoracic ganglionic mass. As to the optic ganglia, the three biogenic amines hardly have any effect on its secretion. It is the first time to report the regulation of biogenic amines over the reproductive neuroendocrine of male crustaceans through vitro experiments.Results corroborate that 5-HT activates the brain and the thoracic ganglia to secret GSH first, then promote the testicular development through the activity of the androgenic gland.

  19. Mass-Mediated Information Effects on Testicular Self-Examination among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Craig W.

    2004-01-01

    The author assessed the effects of a youth-targeted national cable broadcast that promoted testicular self-examination (TSE). A telephone survey of 524 college men included variables from the theory of reasoned action, as well as measures of self-exam compliance, message exposure, knowledge, attention, and the effects of humor and fear. Exposure…

  20. Isolated testicular relapse in acute lymphoblastic leukemia - Effective treatment with the modified CCG-112 protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shama Goyal

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The testes have been considered a sanctuary site for leukemic cells and testicular relapses used to account for a major proportion of the poor outcome of boys with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. With use of aggressive chemotherapy which includes intermediate or high dose methotrexate, the incidence of testicular relapses has declined. However once these patients have received cranial irradiation as a part of the front line protocol, high dose methotrexate needs to be avoided because of risk of developing leucoencephalopathy. AIM: To study the use of non cross resistant chemotherapeutic agents along with a regimen containing lower doses of methotrexate in patients of isolated testicular relapse (ITR. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of 12 consecutive patients with ITR treated with modified version of the CCG-112 protocol which consists of intensive systemic chemotherapy, cranial chemoprophylaxis along with testicular irradiation. RESULTS: One patient died of regimen related toxicity. Two patients relapsed in the bone marrow during maintenance. Of the nine patients who completed treatment, eight are alive and in remission. One patient had a bone marrow relapse two months after completing treatment. The Kaplan Meier estimates give us an Event Free Survival (EFS of 66.7% at 10 yrs. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, though the incidence is very low, patients with ITR should be treated aggressively since they have an excellent chance of achieving a long term EFS.

  1. PSYCHOSEXUAL FUNCTIONING IN WOMEN WITH COMPLETE TESTICULAR FEMINIZATION - IS ANDROGEN REPLACEMENT THERAPY PREFERABLE TO ESTROGEN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SLOB, AK; TENBOSCH, JJ; VANHALL, EV; DEJONG, FH; SCHULTZ, WCMW; EIKELBOOM, FA

    1993-01-01

    Effects of oral testosterone undecanoate (Andriol) on blood hormone levels, moods, sociosexual functioning and self-image of the body were studied in four gonadectomized patients with complete testicular feminization. In a double-blind cross-over experiment, patients were treated with oral testoster

  2. Effects of testicular irradiation with 60Co in guinea pigs CAVIA PORCELLUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improvements were made in restaint systems and in the technique of electroejaculation in guinea pigs, emphasizing safety, effectiveness and repetition. Arrangements for simultaneous testicular irradiation with 60Co in 5 animals and a phantom to test dose levels in the target region and scattering were also made. Effects of single and fractionated exposures on sperm were studied. A collimated point-shaped 60Co-machine calibrated to 7 R/min was used as radiation source. Groups of five 12 month aged male guinea pigs were exposed to either single testicular irradiation of 50, 100, 200 and 400 R or fractionated weekly testicular irradiation of 2, 5, 10 and 20 R, during 10 weeks. A last group was exposed to 4 fractionated testicular irradiations of 20 R at time intervals of 21 days and a group of 8 animals was used as control. Semen samples evaluations were made during 5 weeks before irradiation and in the subsequent 11 weeks. Abnormalities in sperm morphology were studied by William's method and phase contrast microscopy. Mean percentages of semen normal espermatzoons and spermatic abnormalities are shown in figures and photomicrographs. Marked differences on concentration, sperm motility and sperm abnormalities were found, but not on volume, in favour of 100 and 200 R single doses levels, as compared to fractionated 10 and 20 R. (Author)

  3. Testicular Self Examination--Knowledge of Men Attending a Large Genito Urinary Medicine Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy, Pauline; Sankar, K. Nathan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To elicit the level of knowledge, training and preferences of men in relation to Testicular Self Examination (TSE). Setting: The Genito Urinary Medicine (GUM) department of a large teaching hospital in the North East of England. The open access clinic serves patients from Newcastle upon Tyne, Northumberland, Gateshead and surrounding…

  4. Objective and subjective predictors of cancer-related stress symptoms in testicular cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleer, Joke; Sleijfer, Dirk; Hoekstra, Harald; Tuinman, Marrit; Klip, Ed; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette

    2006-01-01

    Objective: (1) To investigate cancer-related stress symptoms among testicular cancer survivors (TCSs), (2) to gain insight into the relationship Of sociodemographic and cancer-related variables with cancer-related stress symptoms and (3) to assess whether objective and subjective aspects of cancer d

  5. Acute effects of TCDD administration:special emphasis on testicular and sperm mitochondrial function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paula C Mota; Renata S Tavares; Marlia Cordeiro; Susana P Pereira; Stephen J Publicover; Paulo J Oliveira; Joo Ramalho-Santos

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to verify if 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) could have any effect on male germ cells mitochondria and in this way add new insights in how male reproductive alterations observed in other studies occur. Methods:In vivo and in vitro approaches using rat testis and human sperm as models were employed to evaluate TCDD effects on testicular and sperm mitochondria after 24 h of exposure. Results:Testicular mitochondria from TCDD-treated rats presented no differences in the bioenergetic parameters monitored except for a significantly higher electric membrane potential in the presence of ADP, corroborated when TCDD was directly added to testicular mitochondria from untreated rats. Nevertheless, sperm mitochondrial membrane potential, motility, viability, capacitation and acrosomal integrity did not change after TCDD treatment. Moreover, only few sperm cells exposed to TCDD increased their intracellular Ca2+concentration. Conlusions:TCDD can interact directly with rat testicular mitochondria inducing small changes. This effect, however, does not seem to occur in human sperm or it may be insufficient to induce significant alterations as observed by the maintenance of sperm function.

  6. Effect of lindane on testicular antioxidant system and steroidogenic enzymes in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. Sujatha; K.C. Chitin; C. Latchoumycandane; P.P. Mathur

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To find out the effect of lindane on testicular antioxidant system and testicular steroidogenesis in adult male rats. Methods: Adult male rats were orally administered with lindane at a dose of 5.0 mg/kg body weight per day for 30 days. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment the rats were killed using anesthetic ether. Testes, epididymis,seminal vesicles and ventral prostate were removed and weighed. A 10% testicular homogenate was prepared and cen trifuged at 4°C. The supematant was used for various biochemical estimations. Results: The body weight and the weights of testes, epididymis, seminal vesicles and ventral prostate were reduced in lindane-treated rars. There was asignificant decline in the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione reduc tase while an increase in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation was observed. The specific activities of testicular steroidogenic enzymes 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase were decreased. The levels of DNA, RNA and protein were also decreased in lindane-treated rats. Conclusion: Lindane induces oxida tive stress and decreases antioxidant enzymes in adult male rats.

  7. Testosterone deficiency in testicular cancer survivors - a systematic review and meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandak, M; Jørgensen, N; Juul, A;

    2016-01-01

    Results concerning treatment of Testicular Germ Cell Cancer (TGCC) and subsequent risk of testosterone deficiency are conflicting. To systematically evaluate and estimate the risk of testosterone deficiency (TD) in TGCC-patients according to treatment to optimize follow-up and for prevention of...

  8. Work ability of survivors of breast, prostate, and testicular cancer in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindbohm, M-L; Taskila, T; Kuosma, E;

    2012-01-01

    Cancer can cause adverse effects on survivors' work ability. We compared the self-assessed work ability of breast, testicular, and prostate cancer survivors to that of people without cancer. We also investigated the association of disease-related and socio-demographic factors and job...

  9. Analysis of the DNDI gene in men with sporadic and familial testicular germ cell tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linger, Rachel; Dudakia, Darshna; Huddart, Robert; Tucker, Kathy; Friedlander, Michael; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Hogg, David; Jewett, Michael A. S.; Lohynska, Radka; Daugaard, Gedske; Richard, Stephane; Chompret, Agnes; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Bonaiti-Pellie, Catherine; Heidenreich, Axel; Albers, Peter; Olah, Edith; Geczi, Lajos; Bodrogi, Istvan; Daly, Peter A.; Guilford, Parry; Fossi, Sophie D.; Heimdal, Ketil; Tjulandin, Sergei A.; Liubchenko, Ludmila; Stoll, Hans; Weber, Walter; Einhorn, Lawrence; McMaster, Mary; Korde, Larissa; Greene, Mark H.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Cortessis, Victoria; Easton, Douglas F.; Bishop, D. Timothy; Stratton, Michael R.; Rapley, Elizabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    A base substitution in the mouse DndI gene resulting in a truncated Dnd protein has been shown to be responsible for germ cell loss and the development of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) in the 129 strain of mice. We investigated the human orthologue of this gene in 263 patients (165 with a famil

  10. Carcinoma in situ testis, the progenitor of testicular germ cell tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoei-Hansen, C E; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Daugaard, G;

    2005-01-01

    Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT), including seminomas, embryonal carcinomas, teratomas and yolk sac tumours, have a common precursor, the carcinoma in situ (CIS) cell. Recent gene expression studies displaying close similarity of CIS cells to embryonic stem cells support the longstanding theory...

  11. Comparison of the chromosomal pattern of primary testicular nonseminomas and residual mature teratomas after chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Echten, J; van der Vloedt, W S; van de Pol, M; Dam, A; te Meerman, G J; Schraffordt Koops, H; Sleijfer, D T; Oosterhuis, J W; de Jong, B

    1997-01-01

    About 70 to 75% of patients with nonseminomatous testicular germ cell tumors (NSs) present with metastases. When these metastases are treated with chemotherapy, often residual mature teratoma (RMT) is left. RMT is composed of fully differentiated somatic tissue. Untreated metastases of NSs rarely co

  12. Etiology and early pathogenesis of malignant testicular germ cell tumors: Towards possibilities for preinvasive diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. Elzinga-Tinke; G.R. Dohle (Gert); L.H.J. Looijenga (Leendert)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractMalignant testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are the most frequent cancers in Caucasian males (20-40 years) with an 70% increasing incidence the last 20 years, probably due to combined action of (epi)genetic and (micro)environmental factors. It is expected that TGCT have carcinoma in sit

  13. Testicular germ cell cancer incidence in an immigration perspective, Denmark, 1978 to 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiedel, Sven; Schüz, Joachim; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Johansen, Christoffer

    2010-01-01

    The incidence rate of testicular germ cell cancer in Denmark increased up to the 1990s to become among the highest in the world. Since recently rate stabilization was suggested, we determined whether it is due to an increasing number of immigrants at lower risk for this cancer....

  14. Handling and reporting of biopsy and surgical specimens of testicular cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winstanley, A.M.; Mikuz, G.; Debruyne, F.M.J.; Schulman, C.C.; Parkinson, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper is the result of a meeting of the European Association of Pathologists, Uropathology Division in Florence 2003. The aims of this meeting were to establish: guidelines for specimen handling by urologists and minimum requirements for data accompanying testicular specimens submitted to patho

  15. Incarcerated Inguinal Hernia Mesh Repair: Effect on Testicular Blood Flow and Sperm Autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krnić, Dragan; Družijanić, Nikica; Štula, Ivana; Čapkun, Vesna; Krnić, Duška

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The aim of our study was to determine an influence of incarcerated inguinal hernia mesh repair on testicular circulation and to investigate consequent sperm autoimmunity as a possible reason for infertility. MATERIAL AND METHODS This prospective study was performed over a 3-year period, and 50 male patients were included; 25 of these patients underwent elective open mesh hernia repair (Group I). Group II consisted of 25 patients who had surgery for incarcerated inguinal hernia. Doppler ultrasound evaluation of the testicular blood flow and blood samplings for antisperm antibodies (ASA) was performed in all patients before the surgery, on the second day, and 5 months after. Main outcome ultrasound measures were resistive index (RI) and pulsative index (PI), as their values are inversely proportional to testicular blood flow. RESULTS In Group I, RI, and PI temporarily increased after surgery and then returned to basal values in the late postoperative period. Friedman analysis showed a significant difference in RI and PI for all measurements in Group II (peffect on testicular flow and immunologic response in both groups of patients. PMID:27149257

  16. Expression of proteins correlated with the unique cisplatin-sensitivity of testicular cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, Trude; de Jong, Steven; deVries, EGE; Mulder, NH

    1997-01-01

    Cisplatin (CDDP) has a curative effect in approximately 80% of patients with testicular cancer, in contrast to the frequent development of resistance in patients with small cell lung cancer and ovarian cancer, and to the natural resistance of colon cancer. At present it is unknown which factors expl

  17. CYTOGENETICS, PLOIDY AND DIFFERENTIATION OF HUMAN TESTICULAR, OVARIAN AND EXTRAGONADAL GERM-CELL TUMORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OOSTERHUIS, JW; CASTEDO, SMMJ; DEJONG, B

    1990-01-01

    Data from cytogenetics of testicular, ovarian and extragonadal germ cell tumours indicate that the group of germ cell tumours for which Skakkebaek proposed the name gonocytoma (seminoma, dysgerminoma and germinoma) is characterized by the presence of isochromosome 12p. The (dysplastic) gonocytes fro

  18. Production of live offspring from testicular tissue cryopreserved by vitrification procedures in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianan; Cheng, Kimberly M; Silversides, Frederick G

    2013-05-01

    Cryopreservation of testicular tissue can be used for ex situ conservation of male germplasm of avian species. The possibility of using vitrification and transplantation of testicular tissue for fertility preservation and recovery was tested in Japanese quail. Testes were removed from 1-wk-old Japanese quail; transfixed on acupuncture needles; equilibrated with dimethyl sulphoxide, ethylene glycol, and sucrose; plunged into liquid nitrogen; and stored in 2-ml straws. Cryopreserved tissue was warmed in sucrose solution at room temperature or at 40°C. Fresh and cryopreserved tissue were transplanted subcutaneously into castrated, 1-wk-old recipients. Twenty of 21 recipients survived the surgery, and 18 had viable transplants at maturity, with no difference in transplantation success between fresh and cryopreserved tissue. Fluid extrusion from 11 of the transplants was collected and inseminated surgically into the magnum of 22 quail hens, and 10 inseminations included foam from the proctodeal gland of the same recipients. Egg production in the 2 wk after insemination was reduced, and none of the hens inseminated with foam produced fertile eggs. Five hens inseminated without foam produced a total of eight live offspring; four of these hens had been inseminated with fluid extrusion from cryopreserved tissue. Histological examination showed spermatogenesis in the transplants, and the tubules, lumens, and epithelium of the seminiferous tubules were of comparable size to those of testicular tissue from intact males. These results demonstrate that testicular tissue of Japanese quail can be preserved using vitrification procedures and recovered through transplantation. PMID:23575148

  19. Low-level laser therapy to recovery testicular degeneration in rams: effects on seminal characteristics, scrotal temperature, plasma testosterone concentration, and testes histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Maíra Bianchi Rodrigues; de Arruda, Rubens Paes; Batissaco, Leonardo; Florez-Rodriguez, Shirley Andrea; de Oliveira, Bruna Marcele Martins; Torres, Mariana Andrade; Ravagnani, Gisele Mouro; Lançoni, Renata; de Almeida, Tamie Guibu; Storillo, Vanessa Martins; Vellone, Vinicius Silva; Franci, Celso Rodrigues; Thomé, Helder Esteves; Canella, Carolina Luz; De Andrade, André Furugen Cesar; Celeghini, Eneiva Carla Carvalho

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) to recovery testicular degeneration in rams. In the first study, rams were induced to testicular degeneration by scrotal insulation, and then, they were treated using LLLT at 28 J/cm(2) (INS28) or 56 J/cm(2) (INS56) energy densities. Sperm kinetics, morphology, and membranes integrity as well as proportion of lumen area in seminiferous tubule were assessed. In the second study, rams were submitted or not to scrotal insulation and treated or not by the best protocol of LLLT defined by experiment 1 (INS28). In this study were evaluated sperm kinetics, morphology, membranes integrity, ROS production, and DNA integrity. Testosterone serum concentration and proportion of lumen area in seminiferous tubule were also analyzed. Insulation was effective in promoting sperm injuries in both experiments. Biostimulatory effect was observed in experiment 1: INS28 presented smaller proportion of lumen area (P = 0.0001) and less degeneration degree (P = 0.0002). However, in experiment 2, there was no difference between the groups (P = 0.17). In addition, LLLT did not improve sperm quality, and there was a decreasing for total and progressive motility (P = 0.02) and integrity of sperm membranes (P = 0.01) in LLLT-treated groups. Moreover, testosterone concentration was not improved by LLLT (P = 0.37). Stimulation of aerobic phosphorylation by LLLT may have led to a deregulated increase in ROS leading to sperm damages. Thus, LLLT at energy of 28 J/cm(2) (808 nm of wavelength and 30 mW of power output) can induce sperm damages and increase the quantity of cells in seminiferous tubule in rams. PMID:26914685

  20. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Coping with a New Injury Coping with a New Injury Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair ... after an injury? What are the most promising new treatments for spinal cord injuries? What are the ...

  1. Testicular Metabolic Reprogramming in Neonatal Streptozotocin-Induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats Impairs Glycolytic Flux and Promotes Glycogen Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Rato, L; M. G. Alves; T. R. Dias; J. E. Cavaco; Oliveira, Pedro F.

    2015-01-01

    Defects in testicular metabolism are directly implicated with male infertility, but most of the mechanisms associated with type 2 diabetes- (T2DM) induced male infertility remain unknown. We aimed to evaluate the effects of T2DM on testicular glucose metabolism by using a neonatal-streptozotocin- (n-STZ) T2DM animal model. Plasma and testicular hormonal levels were evaluated using specific kits. mRNA and protein expression levels were assessed by real-time PCR and Western Blot, respectively. ...

  2. Primary testicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with atrial mass as an initial presentation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The association between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the increased incidence of testicular tumors is a recent well-organized phenomenon. Testicular tumors in the setting of HIV infection are most frequently of germ cell origin, less commonly lymphomas. We are presenting a unique case of testicular non-Hodgkin's B-cell lymphoma with associated atrial mass and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. The patient was not known to be HIV positive at the time of presentation. The initial clinical, radiological and gross pathologic impression was that of seminoma. Discussion of the differential diagnosis and appropriate work up is presented. (author)

  3. Polymorphic variation in the androgen receptor gene: association with risk of testicular germ cell cancer and metastatic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Västermark, Åke; Giwercman, Yvonne Lundberg; Hagströmer, Oskar; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Eberhard, Jakob; Ståhl, Olof; Cedermark, Gabriella Cohn; Rastkhani, Hamideh; Daugaard, Gedske; Arver, Stefan; Giwercman, Aleksander

    2011-01-01

    Increasing incidence of testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC) is most probably related to environment and lifestyle. However, an underlying genetic predisposition may play a role and since sex steroids are assumed to be important for the rise and progression of TGCC, a study of androgen receptor (AR...... endocrine disruptors. From a biological point of view, our findings strengthen the hypothesis of the importance of androgen action in the aetiology and pathogenesis of testicular malignancy. Future studies should focus on the impact of sex hormones on foetal germ cell development and the interaction between...... environmental factors and androgen receptor variants in relation to the risk of testicular malignancy....

  4. Anchoring ethinylestradiol induced gene expression changes with testicular morphology and reproductive function in the medaka.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary D Miller

    Full Text Available Environmental estrogens are ubiquitous in the environment and can cause detrimental effects on male reproduction. In fish, a multitude of effects from environmental estrogens have been observed including altered courting behavior and fertility, sex reversal, and gonadal histopathology. However, few studies in fish assess the impacts of estrogenic exposure on a physiological endpoint, such as reproduction, as well as the associated morphologic response and underlying global gene expression changes. This study assessed the implications of a 14 day sub-chronic exposure of ethinylestradiol (EE2; 1.0 or 10.0 µg/L EE2 on male medaka fertility, testicular histology and testicular gene expression. The findings demonstrate that a 14 day exposure to EE2 induced impaired male reproductive capacity and time- and dose-dependent alterations in testicular morphology and gene expression. The average fertilization rate/day following the exposure for control, 1.0 and 10.0 µg/L EE2 was 91.3% (±4.4, 62.8% (±8.3 and 28.8% (±5.8, respectively. The testicular morphologic alterations included increased germ cell apoptosis, decreased germinal epithelium and thickening of the interstitium. These changes were highly associated with testicular gene expression changes using a medaka-specific microarray. A pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes emphasized genes and pathways associated with apoptosis, cell cycle and proliferation, collagen production/extracellular matrix organization, hormone signaling, male reproduction and protein ubiquitination among others. These findings highlight the importance of anchoring global gonadal gene expression changes with morphology and ultimately with tissue/organ function.

  5. Primary Testicular NK/T-Cell Lymphoma: A Study of Two Cases and Review of Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Lin; Dan Li; Peng Xie; Can Mi; Qing Lin

    2010-01-01

    Primary testicular NK/T-cell lymphoma is an extremely rare entity progressed rapidly.The aim of this study was to examine clinical and pathological features of primary testicular NK/T-cell lymphoma and to investigate the effective diagnosis and prognosis.In this paper,the two cases of primary testicular NK/T-cell lymphoma were observed by light microscopy,immunohistochemistry and examined by in situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr Virus(EBV)DNA and the literatures were reviewed.The two patients respectively present with bilateral and right-side painless testicular enlargement.The morphology of neoplastic cells of case 1 were small to medium,tumor cells of case 2 were small,medium and large mixed.The tumor cells grew diffusely with irregular and distort nuclear,destructed the organizational structure of the normal testis,and damaged blood vessels,meanwhile,coagulation necrosis was exist.Immunohistochemical staining of neoplastic cells showed positive for CD45,CD2,CD56,CD3ε(cytoplasm staining pattern),CD45RO and Granzyme B,and negative for CD57,CD20,CD79α,CD30,CK,MPO,TdT,Bcl-2 and PLAP were negative.In addition,the EBV DNA was detected in the lymphoma by In situ hybridization.In conclusion,the expression of CD56,CD3ε,and Granzyme B associated proteins and EBV examination by in situ hybridization play a vital role in diagnosis and differential diagnosis of primary testicular NK/T-cell lymphoma.

  6. Primary Testicular NK/T-Cell Lymphoma: A Study of Two Cases and Review of Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Lin; Dan Li; Peng Xie; Can Mi; Qing Lin

    2011-01-01

    Primary testicular NK/T-cell lymphoma is an extremely rare entity progressed rapidly.The aim of this study was to examine clinical and pathological features of primary testicular NK/T-cell lymphoma and to investigate the effective diagnosis and prognosis.In this paper,the two cases of primary testicular NK/T-cell lymphoma were observed by light microscopy,immunohistochemistry and examined by in situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) DNA and the literatures were reviewed.The two patients respectively present with bilateral and right-side painless testicular enlargement.The morphology of neoplastic cells of case 1 were small to medium,tumor cells of case 2 were small,medium and large mixed.The tumor cells grew diffusely with irregular and distort nuclear,destructed the organizational structure of the normal testis,and damaged blood vessels,meanwhile,coagulation necrosis was exist.Immunohistochemical staining of neoplastic cells showed positive for CD45,CD2,CD56,CD3s (cytoplasm staining pattern),CD45RO and Granzyme B,and negative for CD57,CD20,CD79a,CD30,CK,MPO,TdT,Bcl-2 and PLAP were negative.In addition,the EBV DNA was detected in the lymphoma by In situ hybridization.In conclusion,the expression of CD56,CD3e,and Granzyme B associated proteins and EBV examination by in situ hybridization play a vital role in diagnosis and differential diagnosis of primary testicularNK/T-cell lymphoma.

  7. Eye Injuries at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Eye Injuries at Home Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. 01, ... chore is being done. Preventing Eye Injuries at Home Wearing protective eyewear will prevent 90 percent of ...

  8. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... injury? What is the "Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems" program? ... family FacingDisability is designed to provide Internet-based information and support for people with spinal cord injuries ...

  9. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Social Life in a Wheelchair Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury How Family ...

  10. Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) happens when a bump, blow, jolt, or other head injury causes damage to the brain. Every year, millions of people in the U.S. suffer brain injuries. More than half are bad enough that ...

  11. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Empowering the Patient After Spinal ...

  12. Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) happens when a bump, blow, jolt, or other head injury causes damage to the brain. Every year, millions of people in the U.S. suffer brain injuries. More than half are bad enough that people ...

  13. Acute fibrinous and organising pneumonia: a rare histopathological variant of chemotherapy-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arjun; Sen, Shiraj; Naina, Harris

    2016-01-01

    Bleomycin-induced lung injury is the most common chemotherapy-associated lung disease, and is linked with several histopathological patterns. Acute fibrinous and organising pneumonia (AFOP) is a relatively new and rare histological pattern of diffuse lung injury. We report the first known case of bleomycin-induced AFOP. A 36-year-old man with metastatic testicular cancer received three cycles of bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin, before being transitioned to paclitaxel, ifosfamide and cisplatin. He subsequently presented with exertional dyspnoea, cough and pleuritic chest pain. CT of the chest demonstrated bilateral ground glass opacities with peribronchovascular distribution and pulmonary function tests demonstrated a restrictive pattern of lung disease with impaired diffusion. Transbronchial biopsy revealed intra-alveolar fibrin deposits with organising pneumonia, consisting of intraluminal loose connective tissue consistent with AFOP. The patient received high-dose corticosteroids with symptomatic and radiographic improvement. AFOP should be recognised as a histopathological variant of bleomycin-induced lung injury. PMID:27053543

  14. An unusual rugby injury

    OpenAIRE

    Croft, S J; Brenchley, J; Badhe, S P; Cresswell, T. R.

    2006-01-01

    We describe an unusual sports injury in a young man, a combination of obturator hip dislocation with an ipsilateral anterior cruciate ligament injury. Traumatic non‐prosthetic hip dislocations, particularly obturator hip dislocations, are extremely rare sports injuries and have not previously been reported in conjunction with a knee ligament injury. The severe pain and obvious deformity from the hip injury can distract from other injuries, particularly to the ipsilateral knee. This case reinf...

  15. Clinical importance and prevalence of testicular microlithiasis in pediatric patients Importância clínica e prevalência de microlititíase testicular em pacientes pediátricos

    OpenAIRE

    Robson Azevedo Dutra; Adriana Cartafina Perez-Bóscollo; Edilaine Cristian Melo; João Celso Cruvinel

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence of testicular microlithiasis among pediatric patients with inguinoscrotal affections. METHODS: Between January 2005 and January 2010, we evaluated, prospectively 1504 children ranging from 1 to 15 years with inguinoscrotal affections with a high-frequency ultrasound system, which employs a 10-MHz transducer. RESULTS: Testicular microlithiasis was identified in 20 testes of eleven children (0.71% of 1504 patients evaluated), through an ultrasound scan. Testi...

  16. Laparoscopic and open postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in patients with advanced testicular cancer – a single center analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busch Jonas

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The open approach represents the gold standard for postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (O-PCLND in patients with residual testicular cancer. We analyzed laparoscopic postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (L-PCLND and O-PCLND at our institution. Methods Patients underwent either L-PCLND (n = 43 or O-PCLND (n = 24. Categorical and continuous variables were compared using the Fisher exact test and Mann–Whitney U test respectively. Overall survival was evaluated with the log-rank test. Results Primary histology was embryonal cell carcinomas (18 patients, pure seminoma (2 cases and mixed NSGCTs (47 patients. According to the IGCCCG patients were categorized into “good”, “intermediate” and “poor prognosis” disease in 55.2%, 14.9% and 20.8%, respectively. Median operative time for L-PCLND was 212 min and 232 min for O-PCLND (p = 0.256. Median postoperative duration of drainage and hospital stay was shorter after L-PCLND (0.0 vs. 3.5 days; p 500 ml was almost equally distributed (8.6% vs. 14.2%: p = 0.076. No significant differences were observed for injuries of major vessels and postoperative complications (p = 0.758; p = 0.370. Tumor recurrence occurred in 8.6% following L-PCLND and in 14.2% following O-PCLND with a mean disease-free survival of 76.6 and 89.2 months, respectively. Overall survival was 83.3 and 95.0 months for L-PCNLD and O-PCLND, respectively (p = 0.447. Conclusions L-PCLND represents a safe surgical option for well selected patients at an experienced center.

  17. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Workers Help Transitions How Social Workers Help Transitions Occupational Therapy After Spinal Cord Injury Occupational Therapy After Spinal Cord Injury How Occupational Therapists Work ...

  18. Desenvolvimento testicular, espermatogênese e concentrações hormonais em touros Angus Testicular development, spermatogenesis and hormonal concentrations in Angus bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyselle Viana Aguiar

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado com a finalidade de avaliar a evolução das secreções hormonais e do epitélio seminífero em touros da raça Angus de 10 a 38 semanas de idade. Foram castrados 1 a 5 animais em intervalos de quatro semanas (total de 25 touros para coleta de amostras do parênquima testicular e do plasma sanguíneo. As variáveis relacionadas ao crescimento testicular, aos aspectos quantitativos da espermatogênese e aos níveis hormonais foram transformadas em logaritmo e avaliadas por meio de análise de variância. O diâmetro dos testículos e túbulos seminíferos e o peso testicular apresentaram variações mais acentuadas após 26 semanas de idade. A porcentagem do parênquima testicular ocupado pelos túbulos seminíferos aumentou de 49,3 para 75,2% durante o experimento. A maioria dos túbulos (>90% apresentou-se com células de Sertoli somente entre 10 e 14 semanas, mas na 18ª (13,8±1,7% e 22ª semanas (19±1%, o número de túbulos com gonócitos e espermatogônias aumentou em relação às semanas iniciais. Espermatogônias intermediárias e B predominaram na 26ª semana (24,5±8,2% e a porcentagem de túbulos com espermatócitos foi mais elevada na 30ª semana (42,3±9,9%. Espermátides arredondadas foram detectadas partir da 26ª semana e, na 38ª semana, 62,3±1,5% dos túbulos seminíferos continham espermátides alongadas ou maduras. As variações mais acentuadas no crescimento testicular e, principalmente, no peso testicular após as 26 semanas coincidiram com o estabelecimento da meiose, com as alterações morfológicas do núcleo e nucléolo das células de Sertoli (indicativos do processo de diferenciação das mesmas, com os níveis reduzidos de androstenediona e os incrementos significativos de testosterona e estradiol 17beta. As associações entre o crescimento testicular e os níveis de FSH e LH na circulação periférica foram menos evidentes.This study aimed to evaluate changes in hormone secretion

  19. Diffuse Muscular Pain, Skin Tightening, and Nodular Regenerative Hyperplasia Revealing Paraneoplastic Amyopathic Dermatomyositis due to Testicular Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Norrenberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraneoplastic dermatomyositis (DM associated with testicular cancer is extremely rare. We report the case of a patient with skin tightening, polymyalgia, hypereosinophilia, and nodular regenerative hyperplasia revealing seminoma and associated paraneoplastic DM.

  20. Primary testicular lymphoma with cardiac involvement in an immunocompetent patient: case report and a concise review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Steingart

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary testicular lymphoma (PTL is a rare testicular tumor representing less than 9% of all testicular cancers. PTL usually tends to spread to or relapse at nodal structures or extra-nodal sites such as contralateral testes, central nervous system, skin, lung, pleura, waldeyer’s ring and soft tissues. We present a case of PTL with huge left atrial mass, an extremely unusual site of involvement. Early disease usually carries a good prognosis, whereas advanced stage carries an extremely poor prognosis. Herein, we report the complete remission to date in a patient with advanced stage PTL with huge left atrial mass, treated with systemic rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone and intrathecal methotrexate. A brief review of literature focusing on various aspects of management of primary testicular lymphoma and lymphomatous involvement of heart is also discussed.