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Sample records for cadmium toxicity cross

  1. Adaptive and cross-protective responses against cadmium and zinc toxicity in cadmium-resistant bacterium isolated from a zinc mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjaphorn Prapagdee

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is a major environmental hazard, which usually is detected in its ionic form of Cd2+. It also causes adverse toxic effects on human health and other living organisms. Cd-resistant bacteria were isolated from Cd-contaminated soils. One isolate, TAK1, was highly resistance level to Cd toxicity. TAK1 was isolated from soil contaminated with a high Cd concentration (204.1 mg.kg-1. The result of 16S rDNA sequence analysis found that the TAK1 showed the similarity to Ralstonia sp. Physiological adaptive and cross-protective responses to Cd and Zn killing were investigated in Ralstonia sp.TAK1. Exposure to a low concentration of Cd induced adaptive resistance to higher concentrations of Cd. In addition, pretreatment of Ralstonia sp.TAK1 with an inducing concentration of Cd conferred cross-protective response against subsequent exposure to the lethal concentrations of Zn. The induced adaptive and cross-protective response Ralstonia sp.TAK1 required newly synthesized protein(s. Cd-induced adaptive and cross-protective responses against Cd and Zn toxicity are the important mechanisms used by Ralstonia sp.TAK1 to survive in the heavy metal contaminated environments. These findings might lead to the use of Ralstonia sp.TAK1 for microbial based remediation in Cd and Zn-contaminated soils.

  2. Molecular basis of cadmium toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nath, R; Prasad, R; Palinal, V K; Chopra, R K

    1984-01-01

    Cadmium has been shown to manifest its toxicity in human and animals by mainly accumulating in almost all of the organs. The kidney is the main target organ where it is concentrated mainly in the cortex. Environmental exposure of cadmium occurs via food, occupational industries, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem. At molecular level, cadmium interferes with the utilization of essential metals e.g. Ca, Zn, Se, Cr and Fe and deficiencies of these essential metals including protein and vitamins, exaggerate cadmium toxicity, due to its increased absorption through the gut and greater retention in different organs as metallothionein (Cd-Mt). Cadmium transport, across the intestinal and renal brush border membrane vesicles, is carrier mediated and it competes with zinc and calcium. It has been postulated that cadmium shares the same transport system. Cadmium inhibits protein synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism and drug metabolizing enzymes in liver of animals. Chronic environmental exposure of cadmium produces hypertension in experimental animals. Functional changes accompanying cadmium nephropathy include low molecular weight proteinuria which is of tubular origin associated with excess excretion of proteins such as beta 2 microglobulin, metallothionein and high molecular weight proteinuria of glomerular origin (excretion of proteins such as albumin IgG, transferrin etc.). Recent data has shown that metallothionein is more nephrotoxic to animals. Cadmium is also toxic to central nervous system. It causes an alterations of cellular functions in lungs. Cadmium affects both humoral and cell mediated immune response in animals. Cadmium induces metallothionein in liver and kidney but under certain nutritional deficiencies like protein-calorie malnutrition and calcium deficiency, enhanced induction and greater accumulation of cadmium metallothionein has been observed.

  3. Biological indicators of cadmium exposure and toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaikh, Z A; Smith, L M

    1986-01-01

    The increasing environmental and occupational exposure of populations to cadmium creates the need for biological indicators of cadmium exposure and toxicity. The advantages and disadvantages of monitoring blood cadmium, urinary, fecal, hair, and tissue cadmium, serum creatine, beta 2-microglobulin, alpha 1-anti-trypsin and other proteins, and urinary amino acids, enzymes, total proteins, glucose, beta 2-microglobulin, retinol-binding protein, lysozyme, and metallothionein are discussed. It is concluded that urinary cadmium, metallothionein and beta 2-microglubulin may be used together to assess cadmium exposure and toxicity. 66 references.

  4. Genetic variability and cadmium metabolism and toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Rentschler, Gerda

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) is ubiquitous in the environment. Human exposure in non-smokers occurs mainly via intake of healthy food like vegetables, cereals, and shellfish. Adverse health effects on kidney and bone at low-level environmental Cd exposure are well-documented in adults. There is considerable inter-individual variation in both metabolism (toxicokinetics) and toxicity (toxicodynamics) of Cd. This may be due to genetic factors. The aim of this thesis was to identify genetic fact...

  5. Effect of surfactant in mitigating cadmium oxide nanoparticle toxicity: Implications for mitigating cadmium toxicity in environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balmuri, Sricharani Rao [Department of Bioengineering, School of Chemical & Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613401 (India); Selvaraj, Uthra [Department of Biotechnology, School of Chemical & Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613401 (India); Kumar, Vadivel Vinod [Department of Chemistry, School of Chemical & Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613401 (India); Anthony, Savarimuthu Philip, E-mail: philip@biotech.sastra.edu [Department of Chemistry, School of Chemical & Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613401 (India); Tsatsakis, Aristides Michael [Department of Forensic Sciences and Toxicology, Medical School, University of Crete, Heraklion 71003 (Greece); Scientific Educational Center of Nanotechnology, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok 690990 (Russian Federation); Golokhvast, Kirill Sergeevich [Scientific Educational Center of Nanotechnology, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok 690990 (Russian Federation); Raman, Thiagarajan, E-mail: raman@biotech.sastra.edu [Department of Bioengineering, School of Chemical & Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613401 (India); Centre for Research in Infectious Diseases (CRID), School of Chemical & Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613401 (India)

    2017-01-15

    Cadmium (Cd), classified as human carcinogen, is an extremely toxic heavy metal pollutant, and there is an increasing environmental concern for cadmium exposure through anthropogenic sources including cigarette smoke. Though Cd based nanoparticles such as cadmium oxide (CdO) are being widely used in a variety of clinical and industrial applications, the toxicity of CdO nanoparticles has not been well characterized. Herein we report the toxicity of CdO nanoparticles employing zebrafish as a model. Two different CdO nanoparticles were prepared, calcination of Cd(OH){sub 2} without any organic molecule (CdO-1) and calcination of Cd-citrate coordination polymer (CdO-2), to evaluate and compare the toxicity of these two different CdO nanoparticles. Results show that zebrafish exposed to CdO-2 nanoparticles expressed reduced toxicity as judged by lower oxidative stress levels, rescue of liver carboxylesterases and reduction in metallothionein activity compared to CdO-1 nanoparticles. Histopathological observations also support our contention that CdO-1 nanoparticles showed higher toxicity relative to CdO-2 nanoparticles. The organic unit of Cd-citrate coordination polymer might have converted into carbon during calcination that might have covered the surface of CdO nanoparticles. This carbon surface coverage can control the release of Cd{sup 2+} ions in CdO-2 compared to non-covered CdO-1 nanoparticles and hence mitigate the toxicity in the case of CdO-2. This was supported by atomic absorption spectrophotometer analyses of Cd{sup 2+} ions release from CdO-1 and CdO-2 nanoparticles. Thus the present study clearly demonstrates the toxicity of CdO nanoparticles in an aquatic animal and also indicates that the toxicity could be substantially reduced by carbon coverage. This could have important implications in terms of anthropogenic release and environmental pollution caused by Cd and human exposure to Cd{sup 2+} from sources such as cigarette smoke. - Highlights:

  6. Effect of surfactant in mitigating cadmium oxide nanoparticle toxicity: Implications for mitigating cadmium toxicity in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmuri, Sricharani Rao; Selvaraj, Uthra; Kumar, Vadivel Vinod; Anthony, Savarimuthu Philip; Tsatsakis, Aristides Michael; Golokhvast, Kirill Sergeevich; Raman, Thiagarajan

    2017-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd), classified as human carcinogen, is an extremely toxic heavy metal pollutant, and there is an increasing environmental concern for cadmium exposure through anthropogenic sources including cigarette smoke. Though Cd based nanoparticles such as cadmium oxide (CdO) are being widely used in a variety of clinical and industrial applications, the toxicity of CdO nanoparticles has not been well characterized. Herein we report the toxicity of CdO nanoparticles employing zebrafish as a model. Two different CdO nanoparticles were prepared, calcination of Cd(OH) 2 without any organic molecule (CdO-1) and calcination of Cd-citrate coordination polymer (CdO-2), to evaluate and compare the toxicity of these two different CdO nanoparticles. Results show that zebrafish exposed to CdO-2 nanoparticles expressed reduced toxicity as judged by lower oxidative stress levels, rescue of liver carboxylesterases and reduction in metallothionein activity compared to CdO-1 nanoparticles. Histopathological observations also support our contention that CdO-1 nanoparticles showed higher toxicity relative to CdO-2 nanoparticles. The organic unit of Cd-citrate coordination polymer might have converted into carbon during calcination that might have covered the surface of CdO nanoparticles. This carbon surface coverage can control the release of Cd 2+ ions in CdO-2 compared to non-covered CdO-1 nanoparticles and hence mitigate the toxicity in the case of CdO-2. This was supported by atomic absorption spectrophotometer analyses of Cd 2+ ions release from CdO-1 and CdO-2 nanoparticles. Thus the present study clearly demonstrates the toxicity of CdO nanoparticles in an aquatic animal and also indicates that the toxicity could be substantially reduced by carbon coverage. This could have important implications in terms of anthropogenic release and environmental pollution caused by Cd and human exposure to Cd 2+ from sources such as cigarette smoke. - Highlights: • Toxicity of Cd

  7. Gut as a target for cadmium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkov, Alexey A; Gritsenko, Viktor A; Skalnaya, Margarita G; Cherkasov, Sergey V; Aaseth, Jan; Skalny, Anatoly V

    2018-04-01

    The primary objective of the present study was to review the impact of Cd exposure on gut microbiota and intestinal physiology, as well as to estimate whether gut may be considered as the target for Cd toxicity. The review is based on literature search in available databases. The existing data demonstrate that the impact of Cd on gut physiology is two-sided. First, Cd exposure induces a significant alteration of bacterial populations and their relative abundance in gut (increased Bacteroidetes-to-Firmicutes ratio), accompanied by increased lipopolysaccharide (LPS) production, reflecting changed metabolic activity of the intestinal microbiome. Second, in intestinal wall Cd exposure induces inflammatory response and cell damage including disruption of tight junctions, ultimately leading to increased gut permeability. Together with increased LPS production, impaired barrier function causes endotoxinemia and systemic inflammation. Hypothetically, Cd-induced increase gut permeability may also result in increased bacterial translocation. On the one hand, bacteriolysis may be associated with aggravation of endotoxemia. At the same time, together with Cd-induced impairment of macrophage inflammatory response, increased bacterial translocation may result in increased susceptibility to infections. Such a supposition is generally in agreement with the finding of higher susceptibility of Cd-exposed mice to infections. The changed microbiome metabolic activity and LPS-induced systemic inflammation may have a significant impact on target organs. The efficiency of probiotics in at least partial prevention of the local (intestinal) and systemic toxic effects of cadmium confirms the role of altered gut physiology in Cd toxicity. Therefore, probiotic treatment may be considered as the one of the strategies for prevention of Cd toxicity in parallel with chelation, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory therapy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of diethyldithiocarbamate on cadmium and copper toxicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    Abstract. Toxic effects of two heavy metals, cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu), and a fungicide, .... mining 50% morbid concentrations (MC50) and 50% inhibition .... WHITTON B and SHEHATA F (1982) Influence of cobalt, nickel, copper.

  9. Cadmium-induced fetal toxicity in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    Cadmium, a heavy metal environment contaminant, induces fetal death and placental necrosis in the Wistar rat. This study investigated fetal, maternal, and placental responses to cadmium intoxication. Subcutaneous injection of CdCl 2 to dams on day 18 of pregnancy produced a high incidence of fetal death (75%) and placental necrosis. Death in the fetus was produced despite limited fetal accumulations of cadmium. Distribution studies using 109 Cd-labeled CdCl 2 demonstrated that less than 0.1% of the injected dose was associated with the fetus. To determine if fetuses were sensitive to these low levels of cadmium, direct injections of CdCl 2 into fetuses were performed in utero. Direct injections produced fetal accumulations 8-fold greater than those following maternal injections. The 8-fold greater fetal accumulations following direct injection were associated with only a 12% fetal mortality compared to the 75% mortality following maternal injections. The data indicated that the fetal toxicity of cadmium following maternal injections was not the result of direct effects of cadmium on the fetus. In conclusion, cadmium-induced fetal death was not the result of direct effects of cadmium on the fetus but may have been induced by placental cellular injury resulting from high accumulations of cadmium in the placenta. A vascular response to placental injury, leading to decreased utero-placental bood flow and cadmium-induced alterations in trophoblastic function, resulted in fetal death

  10. Mobility, bioavailability, and toxic effects of cadmium in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokop, Z.; Cupr, P.; Zlevorova-Zlamalikova V.; Komarek, J.; Dusek, L.; Holoubek, I.

    2003-01-01

    Total concentration is not a reliable indicator of metal mobility or bioavailability in soils. The physicochemical form determines the behavior of metals in soils and hence the toxicity toward terrestrial biota. The main objectives of this study were the application and comparison of three approaches for the evaluation of cadmium behavior in soil samples. The mobility and bioavailability of cadmium in five selected soil samples were evaluated using equilibrium speciation (Windermere humic aqueous mode (WHAM)), extraction procedures (Milli-Q water, DMSO, and DTPA), and a number of bioassays (Microtox, growth inhibition test, contact toxicity test, and respiration). The mobility, represented by the water-extractable fraction corresponded well with the amount of cadmium in the soil solution, calculate using the WHAM (r 2 =0.96, P<0.001). The results of the ecotoxicologica evaluation, which represent the bioavailable fraction of cadmium, correlated well with DTPA extractability and also with the concentration of free cadmium ion, which is recognized as the most bioavailable metal form. The results of the WHAM as well as the results of extraction experiments showed a strong binding of cadmium to organic matter and a weak sorption of cadmium to clay minerals

  11. Cadmium, ATPase-P, yeast. From transport to toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardarin, Aurelie

    2007-01-01

    Two projects has been developed during my PhD. One consisting in the functional study of CadA, the Cd 2+ -ATPase from Listeria monocytogenes, the other one was focused on the toxicity of cadmium and the associated response of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This two studies used a a phenotype of sensitivity to cadmium induced by CadA expression in yeast. This phenotype was used as a screening tool to identify essential amino acids of Cd transport by CadA and to study cadmium toxicity and the corresponding yeast cellular response. CadA actively transports Cd using ATP hydrolysis as energy source. Directed mutagenesis of the membranous polar, sulphur and charged amino-acids revealed that Cd transport pathway implied four transmembrane segments (Tm) and more precisely the cysteine C 354 , C 356 and proline P 355 of the CPC motif located in Tm6, aspartate D 692 in Tm8, glutamate E 164 in Tm4 and methionine M 149 in Tm5. From our studies, 2 Cd ions would be translocated for each hydrolysis ATP. Expression of CadA in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae induces an hypersensitivity to Cd. A wild type cell can grow up to 100 μm cadmium whereas CadA expressing yeast cannot grow with 1 μm cadmium in the culture medium. This cadmium sensitivity was due to the localisation of CadA in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Transport of cadmium in this compartment produces an accumulation of mis-folded proteins that induces the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). As UPR also occurs in a wild type yeast exposed to low Cd concentration, one can point out endoplasmic reticulum as a extremely sensitive cellular compartment. UPR also appears as an early response to Cd as it happens far before any visible signs of toxicity. (author) [fr

  12. Selenium reduces cadmium uptake and mitigates cadmium toxicity in rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Li; Zhou, Weihui; Dai, Huaxin; Cao, Fangbin; Zhang, Guoping [Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 (China); Wu, Feibo, E-mail: wufeibo@zju.edu.cn [Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Se alleviated Cd-toxicity, reduced Cd content and O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, MDA in rice plants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Se counteracted Cd-induced alterations of antioxidant enzymes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Se suppressed Cd-induced increase in SOD, APX, but elevated depressed CAT activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Se markedly increased H{sup +}-ATPase, Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase activities in roots under Cd exposure. - Abstract: Hydroponic experiments were performed to investigate physiological mechanisms of selenium (Se) mitigation of Cd toxicity in rice. Exogenous Se markedly reduced Cd concentration in leaves, roots, and stems. Addition or pretreatment of 3 {mu}M Se in 50 {mu}M Cd solution significantly addressed Cd-induced growth inhibition, recovered root cell viability, and dramatically depressed O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, and malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation. Supplemental Se counteracted 50 {mu}M Cd-induced alterations of certain antioxidant enzymes, and uptake of nutrients, e.g. depressed Cd-induced increase in leaf and root superoxide dismutase (SOD) and leaf peroxidase (POD) activities, but elevated depressed catalase (CAT) activity; decreased Cd-induced high S and Cu concentrations in both leaves and roots. External Se counteracted the pattern of alterations in ATPase activities induced by Cd, e.g. significantly elevated the depressed root H{sup +}- and Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase activities, but decreased the ascent root Na{sup +}K{sup +}-ATP activity. Results indicate that alleviated Cd toxicity by Se application is related to reduced Cd uptake and ROS accumulation, balanced nutrients, and increased H{sup +}- and Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase activities in rice.

  13. Photosynthetic and cellular toxicity of cadmium in Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou-Yang, Hui-Ling; Kong, Xiang-Zhen; Lavoie, Michel; He, Wei; Qin, Ning; He, Qi-Shuang; Yang, Bin; Wang, Rong; Xu, Fu-Liu

    2013-12-01

    The toxic effects of cadmium (Cd) on the green alga Chlorella vulgaris were investigated by following the response to Cd of various toxicity endpoints (cell growth, cell size, photochemical efficiency of PSII in the light or Φ(PSII), maximal photochemical efficiency or Fv/Fm, chlorophyll a fluorescence, esterase activity, and cell viability). These toxicity endpoints were studied in laboratory batch cultures of C. vulgaris over a long-term 96-h exposure to different Cd concentrations using flow cytometry and pulse amplitude modulated fluorometry. The sequence of sensitivity of these toxicity endpoints was: cell yield > Φ(PSII) ≈ esterase activity > Fv/Fm > chlorophyll a fluorescence ≈ cell viability. It is shown that cell apoptosis or cell death only accounted for a minor part of the reduction in cell yield even at very high algistatic free Cd²⁺ concentrations, and other mechanisms such as blocked cell divisions are major contributors to cell yield inhibition. Furthermore, cadmium may affect both the electron donors and acceptors of the electron transport chain at high free Cd²⁺ concentration. Finally, the resistance of cells to cell death was size-dependent; medium-sized cells had the highest toxicity threshold. The present study brings new insights into the toxicity mechanisms of Cd in C. vulgaris and provides a detailed comparison of the sensitivity of various Cd toxicity endpoints. © 2013 SETAC.

  14. Neurobehavioral toxicity of cadmium sulfate to the planarian Dugesia dorotocephala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grebe, E.; Schaeffer, D.J. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (United States))

    1991-05-01

    The authors are developing bioassays which use planarians (free-living platyhelminthes) for the rapid determination of various types of toxicity, including acute mortality, tumorigenicity, and short-term neurobehavioral responses. Their motivation for using these animals is due to their importance as components of the aquatic ecology of unpolluted streams their sensitivity to low concentrations of environmental toxicants and the presence of a sensitive neurological system with a true brain which allows for complex social behavior. A previous paper described the results of a neurobehavioral bioassay using phenol in a crossover study. This paper reports a similar crossover study using cadmium sulfate.

  15. DNA repair systems as targets of cadmium toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giaginis, Constantinos; Gatzidou, Elisavet; Theocharis, Stamatios

    2006-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal and a potent carcinogen implicated in tumor development through occupational and environmental exposure. Recent evidence suggests that proteins participating in the DNA repair systems, especially in excision and mismatch repair, are sensitive targets of Cd toxicity. Cd by interfering and inhibiting these DNA repair processes might contribute to increased risk for tumor formation in humans. In the present review, the information available on the interference of Cd with DNA repair systems and their inhibition is summarized. These actions could possibly explain the indirect contribution of Cd to mutagenic effects and/or carcinogenicity

  16. Influence of protein deficiency on cadmium toxicity in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewari, P C; Jain, V K; Ashquin, M; Tandon, S K

    1986-07-01

    The effects of a low protein diet on the body uptake and retention of cadmium, levels of essential trace elements, and cadmium-induced biochemical alterations in liver and kidneys of the rat were investigated. Low dietary protein disturbs cadmium induced alterations in carbohydrate metabolism, essential trace elements metabolism and offsets the hepatic and renal process of cadmium detoxification. Protein malnutrition enhances the susceptibility to cadmium intoxication.

  17. Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor as the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in human melanocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chantarawong, Wipa; Takeda, Kazuhisa; Sangartit, Weerapon; Yoshizawa, Miki; Pradermwong, Kantimanee; Shibahara, Shigeki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • In human melanocytes, cadmium decreases the expression of MITF-M and tyrosinase and their mRNAs. • In human melanoma cells, cadmium decreases the expression of MITF-M protein and tyrosinase mRNA. • Expression of MITF-H is less sensitive to cadmium toxicity in melanocyte-linage cells. • Cadmium does not decrease the expression of MITF-H in retinal pigment epithelial cells. • MITF-M is the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in melanocytes. - Abstract: Dietary intake of cadmium is inevitable, causing age-related increase in cadmium accumulation in many organs, including hair, choroid and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Cadmium has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hearing loss and macular degeneration. The functions of cochlea and retina are maintained by melanocytes and RPE, respectively, and the differentiation of these pigment cells is regulated by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). In the present study, we explored the potential toxicity of cadmium in the cochlea and retina by using cultured human melanocytes and human RPE cell lines. MITF consists of multiple isoforms, including melanocyte-specific MITF-M and widely expressed MITF-H. Levels of MITF-M protein and its mRNA in human epidermal melanocytes and HMV-II melanoma cells were decreased significantly by cadmium. In parallel with the MITF reduction, mRNA levels of tyrosinase, the key enzyme of melanin biosynthesis that is regulated by MITF-M, were also decreased. In RPE cells, however, the levels of total MITF protein, constituting mainly MITF-H, were not decreased by cadmium. We thus identify MITF-M as the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in melanocytes, thereby accounting for the increased risk of disability from melanocyte malfunction, such as hearing and vision loss among people with elevated cadmium exposure

  18. Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor as the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in human melanocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chantarawong, Wipa [Department of Molecular Biology and Applied Physiology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Inter Departmental Multidisciplinary Graduate Program in Bioscience, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok (Thailand); Takeda, Kazuhisa; Sangartit, Weerapon; Yoshizawa, Miki [Department of Molecular Biology and Applied Physiology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Pradermwong, Kantimanee [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok (Thailand); Shibahara, Shigeki, E-mail: shibahar@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Biology and Applied Physiology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: • In human melanocytes, cadmium decreases the expression of MITF-M and tyrosinase and their mRNAs. • In human melanoma cells, cadmium decreases the expression of MITF-M protein and tyrosinase mRNA. • Expression of MITF-H is less sensitive to cadmium toxicity in melanocyte-linage cells. • Cadmium does not decrease the expression of MITF-H in retinal pigment epithelial cells. • MITF-M is the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in melanocytes. - Abstract: Dietary intake of cadmium is inevitable, causing age-related increase in cadmium accumulation in many organs, including hair, choroid and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Cadmium has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hearing loss and macular degeneration. The functions of cochlea and retina are maintained by melanocytes and RPE, respectively, and the differentiation of these pigment cells is regulated by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). In the present study, we explored the potential toxicity of cadmium in the cochlea and retina by using cultured human melanocytes and human RPE cell lines. MITF consists of multiple isoforms, including melanocyte-specific MITF-M and widely expressed MITF-H. Levels of MITF-M protein and its mRNA in human epidermal melanocytes and HMV-II melanoma cells were decreased significantly by cadmium. In parallel with the MITF reduction, mRNA levels of tyrosinase, the key enzyme of melanin biosynthesis that is regulated by MITF-M, were also decreased. In RPE cells, however, the levels of total MITF protein, constituting mainly MITF-H, were not decreased by cadmium. We thus identify MITF-M as the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in melanocytes, thereby accounting for the increased risk of disability from melanocyte malfunction, such as hearing and vision loss among people with elevated cadmium exposure.

  19. Contribution of attendant anions on cadmium toxicity to soil enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Haixia; Kong, Long; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; He, Wenxiang

    2017-11-01

    Sorption and desorption are critical processes to control the mobility and biotoxicity of cadmium (Cd) in soils. It is known that attendant anion species of heavy metals could affect metal adsorption on soils and might further alter their biotoxicity. However, for Cd, the influence of attendant anions on its sorption in soils and subsequent toxicity on soil enzymes are still unknown. In this work, four Cd compounds with different salt anions (SO 4 2- , NO 3 - , Cl - , and Ac - ) were selected to investigate their impact of on the sorption, soil dehydrogenase activity (DHA) and alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP). Thus, a series of simulated Cd pollution batch experiments including measuring adsorption-desorption behavior of Cd on soils and soil enzyme activities were carried out. Results showed that CdSO 4 exhibited highest sorption capacity among the tested soils except in Hunan soil. The Cd sorption with NO 3 - displayed a similar behavior with Cl - on all tested soils. Compared with soil properties, all four kinds of anions on Cd sorption played a more significant role affecting Cd ecological toxicity to soil DHA and ALP. Cd in acetate or nitrate form appears more sensitive towards DHA than sulphate and chloride, while the later pair is more toxic towards ALP than the former. These results have important implications for evaluation of Cd contamination using soil enzyme as bioindicator. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Vaccinium corymbosum L. (blueberry) extracts exhibit protective action against cadmium toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprea, Eliza; Ruta, Lavinia L; Nicolau, Ioana; Popa, Claudia V; Neagoe, Aurora D; Farcasanu, Ileana C

    2014-01-01

    Blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) are a rich source of antioxidants and their consumption is believed to contribute to food-related protection against oxidative stress. In the present study, the chemoprotective action of blueberry extracts against cadmium toxicity was investigated using a cadmium-hypersensitive strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Four varieties of blueberries were used in the study, and it was found that the extracts with high content of total anthocyanidins exhibited significant protective effect against the toxicity of cadmium and H2O2. Both the blueberry extracts and pure cyanidin exhibited protective effects against cadmium in a dose-dependent manner, but without significantly interfering with the cadmium accumulation by the yeast cells. The results imply that the blueberry extracts might be a potentially valuable food supplement for individuals exposed to high cadmium. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cytoprotective effects of dietary flavonoids against cadmium-induced toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Jiang, Xinwei; Sun, Jianxia; Zhu, Cuijuan; Li, Xiaoling; Tian, Lingmin; Liu, Liu; Bai, Weibin

    2017-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) damages the liver, kidney, bones, reproductive system, and other organs. Flavonoids, such as anthocyanins and flavonols, which are commonly found in plant foods, have shown protective effects against Cd-induced damage. The cytoprotective effects of flavonoids against Cd-induced diseases are mainly attributable to three mechanisms. First, flavonoids clear reactive oxygen species, thereby reducing lipid peroxide production and improving the activity of antioxidation enzymes. Second, flavonoids chelate Cd, thus reducing the accumulation of Cd and altering the levels of other essential metal ions in vivo. Third, flavonoids reduce DNA damage and inhibit apoptosis. In addition, flavonoids were found to inhibit inflammation and fibrosis and improve glycometabolism and the secretion of reproductive hormones. We introduce the daily dosage and absorption rate of flavonoids and then focus on their bioactive effects against Cd-induced toxicity and reveal the underlying metabolic pathway, which provides a basis for further study of the nutritional prevention of Cd-induced injury. In particular, a better understanding is needed of the structure-activity relationship of flavonoids against Cd toxicity, which has not yet been reported. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. Role of oxidative stress in cadmium toxicity and carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jie; Qu Wei; Kadiiska, Maria B.

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal, targeting the lung, liver, kidney, and testes following acute intoxication, and causing nephrotoxicity, immunotoxicity, osteotoxicity and tumors after prolonged exposures. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are often implicated in Cd toxicology. This minireview focused on direct evidence for the generation of free radicals in intact animals following acute Cd overload and discussed the association of ROS in chronic Cd toxicity and carcinogenesis. Cd-generated superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radicals in vivo have been detected by the electron spin resonance spectra, which are often accompanied by activation of redox sensitive transcription factors (e.g., NF-κB, AP-1 and Nrf2) and alteration of ROS-related gene expression. It is generally agreed upon that oxidative stress plays important roles in acute Cd poisoning. However, following long-term Cd exposure at environmentally-relevant low levels, direct evidence for oxidative stress is often obscure. Alterations in ROS-related gene expression during chronic exposures are also less significant compared to acute Cd poisoning. This is probably due to induced adaptation mechanisms (e.g., metallothionein and glutathione) following chronic Cd exposures, which in turn diminish Cd-induced oxidative stress. In chronic Cd-transformed cells, less ROS signals are detected with fluorescence probes. Acquired apoptotic tolerance renders damaged cells to proliferate with inherent oxidative DNA lesions, potentially leading to tumorigenesis. Thus, ROS are generated following acute Cd overload and play important roles in tissue damage. Adaptation to chronic Cd exposure reduces ROS production, but acquired Cd tolerance with aberrant gene expression plays important roles in chronic Cd toxicity and carcinogenesis.

  3. Acute Toxicity of a Heavy Metal Cadmium to an Anuran, the Indian Skipper Frog Rana cyanophlyctis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai Kumar Srivastav

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been increasing awareness throughout the world regarding the remarkable decrease in amphibian population. For such amphibian population decline several causes have been given. Cadmium, a heavy metal is released both from natural sources (leaching of cadmium rich soils and anthropogenic activities to the aquatic and terrestrial environments. This study evaluated the toxicity of heavy metal cadmium to Indian skipper frog Rana cyanophlyctis. Methods: For the determination of LC50 values for cadmium, four-day static renewal acute toxicity test was used. Five replicates each containing ten frogs were subjected to each concentration of cadmium chloride (15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 mg/L. At different exposure periods (24, 48, 72 and 96 h, the mortality of the frog was subjected to Probit analysis with the POLO-PC software (LeOra Software to calculate the LC50 and 95% confidence level. Results: The LC50 values of cadmium chloride for the frog R. cyanophlyctis at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h are 32.586, 29.994, 27.219 and 23.048 mg/L, respectively. The results have been discussed with the toxicity reported for other aquatic vertebrate --fish. Conclusion: Cadmium caused mortality to the frog and this could be one of the reasons for population decline of frogs which inhabit water contaminated with heavy metals.

  4. Removal of cadmium by Lactobacillus kefir as a protective tool against toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbino, Esteban; Carasi, Paula; Tymczyszyn, E Elizabeth; Gómez-Zavaglia, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the capacity of Lactobacillus kefir strains to remove cadmium cations and protect eukaryotic cells from cadmium toxicity. Lb. kefir CIDCA 8348 and JCM 5818 were grown in a 1/2 dilution of MRS broth supplemented with Cd(NO3)2 ranging 0 to 1 mM. Growth kinetics were followed during 76 h at 30 °C by registering optical density at 600 nm every 4-10 h. The accumulated concentration of cadmium was determined on cultures in the stationary phase by atomic absorption. The viability of a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) upon exposure to (a) free cadmium and (b) cadmium previously incubated with Lb. kefir strains was evaluated by determining the mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity. Lb. kefir strains were able to grow and tolerate concentrations of cadmium cations up to 1 mM. The addition of cadmium to the culture medium increased the lag time in all the concentrations used. However, a decrease of the total biomass (maximum Absorbance) was observed only at concentrations above 0.0012 and 0.0011 mM for strains CIDCA 8348 and JCM 5818, respectively. Shorter and rounder lactobacilli were observed in both strains upon microscopic observations. Moreover, dark precipitates compatible with intracellular precipitation of cadmium were observed in the cytoplasm of both strains. The ability of Lb. kefir to protect eukaryotic cells cultures from cadmium toxicity was analysed using HepG2 cells lines. Concentrations of cadmium greater than 3×10(-3) mM strongly decreased the viability of HepG2 cells. However, when the eukaryotic cells were exposed to cadmium pre-incubated 1 h with Lb. kefir the toxicity of cadmium was considerably lower, Lb. kefir JCM 5818 being more efficient. The high tolerance and binding capacity of Lb. kefir strains to cadmium concentrations largely exceeding the tolerated weekly intake (TWI) of cadmium for food (2.5 μg per kg of body weight) and water (3 μg/l) addressed to human consumption, is an important added value when

  5. 28-Homobrassinolide protects chickpea (Cicer arietinum) from cadmium toxicity by stimulating antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, S.A.; Hayat, S.; Ali, B.; Ahmad, A.

    2008-01-01

    In the present experiment the seeds of Cicer arietinum (L.) cv. Uday were inoculated with specific Rhizobium grown in sandy loam soil and were allowed to grow for 15 days. At this stage, the seedlings were supplied with 0, 50, 100 or 150 μM of cadmium in the form of cadmium chloride and sprayed with 0.01 μM of 28-homobrassinolide (HBL) at 30-day stage. The data indicated that plant fresh and dry mass, number of nodules, their fresh and dry mass, leghemoglobin content, nitrogen and carbohydrate content in the nodules, leaf chlorophyll content, nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase activities decreased proportionately with the increasing concentrations of cadmium but the content of proline and the activities of catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase increased. The ill effect, generated by cadmium, was overcome if the stressed plants were sprayed with HBL. - The cadmium toxicity can be overcome by the foliar application of 28-homobrassinolide

  6. Sulphate, more than a nutrient, protects the microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii from cadmium toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mera, Roi; Torres, Enrique, E-mail: torres@udc.es; Abalde, Julio

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Sulphate effect on cadmium toxicity in the microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii Gerloff. • Cadmium increases the sulphur requirements in Chlamydomonas moewusii. • Kinetic coefficients for sulphate utilization and cadmium effect on them. • Sulphate and cadmium influence on the biosynthesis of low-molecular mass thiols. • Cadmium toxicity reduction by sulphate due to higher biosynthesis of thiols. - Abstract: Sulphur is an essential macroelement that plays important roles in living organisms. The thiol rich sulphur compounds, such as cysteine, γ-Glu–Cys, glutathione and phytochelatins participate in the tolerance mechanisms against cadmium toxicity. Plants, algae, yeasts and most prokaryotes cover their demand for reduced sulphur by reduction of inorganic sulphate. The aim of this study was to investigate, using a bifactorial experimental design, the effect of different sulphate concentrations in the nutrient solution on cadmium toxicity in the freshwater microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii. Cell growth, kinetic parameters of sulphate utilization and intracellular concentrations of low-molecular mass thiol compounds were determined. A mathematical model to describe the growth of this microalga based on the effects of sulphate and cadmium was obtained. An ANOVA revealed an interaction between them, 16% of the effect sizes was explained by this interaction. A higher amount of sulphate in the culture medium allowed a higher cadmium tolerance due to an increase in the thiol compound biosynthesis. The amount of low-molecular mass thiol compounds, mainly phytochelatins, synthesized by this microalga was significantly dependent on the sulphate and cadmium concentrations; the higher phytochelatin content was obtained in cultures with 4 mg Cd/L and 1 mM sulphate. The maximum EC{sub 50} value (based on nominal cadmium concentration) reached for this microalga was 4.46 ± 0.42 mg Cd/L when the sulphate concentration added to the culture medium was also 1 m

  7. Gene networks and toxicity pathways induced by acute cadmium exposure in adult largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehinto, Alvine C; Prucha, Melinda S; Colli-Dula, Reyna C; Kroll, Kevin J; Lavelle, Candice M; Barber, David S; Vulpe, Christopher D; Denslow, Nancy D

    2014-07-01

    Cadmium is a heavy metal that can accumulate to toxic levels in the environment leading to detrimental effects in animals and humans including kidney, liver and lung injuries. Using a transcriptomics approach, genes and cellular pathways affected by a low dose of cadmium were investigated. Adult largemouth bass were intraperitoneally injected with 20μg/kg of cadmium chloride (mean exposure level - 2.6μg of cadmium per fish) and microarray analyses were conducted in the liver and testis 48h after injection. Transcriptomic profiles identified in response to cadmium exposure were tissue-specific with the most differential expression changes found in the liver tissues, which also contained much higher levels of cadmium than the testis. Acute exposure to a low dose of cadmium induced oxidative stress response and oxidative damage pathways in the liver. The mRNA levels of antioxidants such as catalase increased and numerous transcripts related to DNA damage and DNA repair were significantly altered. Hepatic mRNA levels of metallothionein, a molecular marker of metal exposure, did not increase significantly after 48h exposure. Carbohydrate metabolic pathways were also disrupted with hepatic transcripts such as UDP-glucose, pyrophosphorylase 2, and sorbitol dehydrogenase highly induced. Both tissues exhibited a disruption of steroid signaling pathways. In the testis, estrogen receptor beta and transcripts linked to cholesterol metabolism were suppressed. On the contrary, genes involved in cholesterol metabolism were highly increased in the liver including genes encoding for the rate limiting steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and the catalytic enzyme 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase. Integration of the transcriptomic data using functional enrichment analyses revealed a number of enriched gene networks associated with previously reported adverse outcomes of cadmium exposure such as liver toxicity and impaired reproduction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  8. Role of diet in absorption and toxicity of oral cadmium- A review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of diet or its components in the absorption, distribution and toxicity of cadmium (Cd) has received attention in recent times. Experimental evidence in literature strongly suggests that the absorption of Cd is dependent on factors such as age, pH, diet and intestinal metallothionein (MT) production. The chemical forms ...

  9. Lethal body concentrations and accumulation patterns determine time-dependent toxicity of cadmium in soil arthropods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crommentuijn, T.; Doodeman, C.J.A.M.; Doornekamp, A.; Pol, J.J.C. van der; Bedaux, J.J.M.; Gestel, C.A.M. van (Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1994-11-01

    Time-dependent toxicity in bioassays is usually explained in terms of uptake and elimination kinetics of the toxicant. By comparing different species with essentially different accumulation kinetics, a firm test of this concept may be made. This article compares the sensitivity of six soil arthropods, the collembolans Orchesella cincta and Tomocerus minor, the oribatid mite Platynothrus peltifer, the isopods Porcellio scaber and Oniscus asellus, and the diplopod Cylindroiulus britannicus, when exposed to cadmium in the food. Survival was determined at various time intervals; accumulation of cadmium in the animals was measured at one time interval. Kinetic-based toxicity models were fitted to the data, and estimates were obtained for lethal body concentration, uptake rate constant, elimination rate constant, and ultimate LC50. Two different accumulation patterns could be discerned; these were correlated with time-survival relationships. One, species that have the possibility to eliminate cadmium will reach an equilibrium for the internal concentration and also an ultimate LC50. Two, species that are unable to eliminate cadmium but store it in the body will have an ultimate LC50 equal to zero. For these species the time in which the lethal body concentration is reached is more important. Taxonomically related species appeared to have comparable accumulation patterns, but lethal body concentrations differed. It is concluded that knowledge of the accumulation pattern is indispensable for the evaluation of species' sensitivities to toxicants.

  10. Aspects on the toxicity of cadmium and its compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, R

    1970-01-01

    The following literature review is concerned with certain questions relevant to occurrence, biochemical and toxicological effects of cadmium and its compounds. Emphasis has been laid on chronic effects which are of greatest importance from the view-point of environmental toxicology and ecology. The author is well aware of the difficulties when trying to give a well balanced picture of the complex subject involved, and has no ambition to present a complete work. 150 references.

  11. Gene networks and toxicity pathways induced by acute cadmium exposure in adult largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehinto, Alvine C.; Prucha, Melinda S.; Colli-Dula, Reyna C.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Lavelle, Candice M.; Barber, David S.; Vulpe, Christopher D.; Denslow, Nancy D.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Low-level acute cadmium exposure elicited tissue-specific gene expression changes. • Molecular initiating events included oxidative stress and disruption of DNA repair. • Metallothionein, a marker of metal exposure, was not significantly affected. • We report effects of cadmium on cholesterol metabolism and steroid synthesis. • Diabetic complications and impaired reproduction are potential adverse outcomes. - Abstract: Cadmium is a heavy metal that can accumulate to toxic levels in the environment leading to detrimental effects in animals and humans including kidney, liver and lung injuries. Using a transcriptomics approach, genes and cellular pathways affected by a low dose of cadmium were investigated. Adult largemouth bass were intraperitoneally injected with 20 μg/kg of cadmium chloride (mean exposure level – 2.6 μg of cadmium per fish) and microarray analyses were conducted in the liver and testis 48 h after injection. Transcriptomic profiles identified in response to cadmium exposure were tissue-specific with the most differential expression changes found in the liver tissues, which also contained much higher levels of cadmium than the testis. Acute exposure to a low dose of cadmium induced oxidative stress response and oxidative damage pathways in the liver. The mRNA levels of antioxidants such as catalase increased and numerous transcripts related to DNA damage and DNA repair were significantly altered. Hepatic mRNA levels of metallothionein, a molecular marker of metal exposure, did not increase significantly after 48 h exposure. Carbohydrate metabolic pathways were also disrupted with hepatic transcripts such as UDP-glucose, pyrophosphorylase 2, and sorbitol dehydrogenase highly induced. Both tissues exhibited a disruption of steroid signaling pathways. In the testis, estrogen receptor beta and transcripts linked to cholesterol metabolism were suppressed. On the contrary, genes involved in cholesterol metabolism were highly

  12. Gene networks and toxicity pathways induced by acute cadmium exposure in adult largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehinto, Alvine C., E-mail: alvinam@sccwrp.org [Southern California Coastal Water Research Project, Costa Mesa, CA 92626 (United States); Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Prucha, Melinda S. [Department of Human Genetics, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Colli-Dula, Reyna C.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Lavelle, Candice M.; Barber, David S. [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Vulpe, Christopher D. [Department of Nutritional Sciences and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Denslow, Nancy D. [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Low-level acute cadmium exposure elicited tissue-specific gene expression changes. • Molecular initiating events included oxidative stress and disruption of DNA repair. • Metallothionein, a marker of metal exposure, was not significantly affected. • We report effects of cadmium on cholesterol metabolism and steroid synthesis. • Diabetic complications and impaired reproduction are potential adverse outcomes. - Abstract: Cadmium is a heavy metal that can accumulate to toxic levels in the environment leading to detrimental effects in animals and humans including kidney, liver and lung injuries. Using a transcriptomics approach, genes and cellular pathways affected by a low dose of cadmium were investigated. Adult largemouth bass were intraperitoneally injected with 20 μg/kg of cadmium chloride (mean exposure level – 2.6 μg of cadmium per fish) and microarray analyses were conducted in the liver and testis 48 h after injection. Transcriptomic profiles identified in response to cadmium exposure were tissue-specific with the most differential expression changes found in the liver tissues, which also contained much higher levels of cadmium than the testis. Acute exposure to a low dose of cadmium induced oxidative stress response and oxidative damage pathways in the liver. The mRNA levels of antioxidants such as catalase increased and numerous transcripts related to DNA damage and DNA repair were significantly altered. Hepatic mRNA levels of metallothionein, a molecular marker of metal exposure, did not increase significantly after 48 h exposure. Carbohydrate metabolic pathways were also disrupted with hepatic transcripts such as UDP-glucose, pyrophosphorylase 2, and sorbitol dehydrogenase highly induced. Both tissues exhibited a disruption of steroid signaling pathways. In the testis, estrogen receptor beta and transcripts linked to cholesterol metabolism were suppressed. On the contrary, genes involved in cholesterol metabolism were highly

  13. Cadmium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbelt, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Together with zinc and mercury, cadmium belongs to group IIb of the periodic table. It can be found in rocks, soil, water, coal, zinc ore, lead ore, and copper ore. In the environment, cadmium is present predominantly as the oxide or as the chloride, sulfide, or sulfate salt. It has no recognizable

  14. Effect of Physalis peruviana L. on cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Mohamed S; Nada, Ahmed; Zaki, Hassan S; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2014-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species and causes tissue damage. We investigated here the protective effect of Physalis peruviana L. (family Solanaceae) against cadmium-induced testes toxicity in rats. Twenty-eight Wistar albino rats were used. They were divided into four groups (n=7). Group 1 was used as control. Group 2 was intraperitoneally injected with 6.5 mg/kg body weight (bwt) of cadmium chloride for 5 days. Group 3 was orally treated with 200 mg/kg bwt of methanolic extract of physalis (MEPh). Group 4 was pretreated with MEPh before cadmium for 5 days. Changes in body and testes weights were determined. Oxidative stress markers, antioxidant enzymes, and testosterone level were measured. Histopathological changes of testes were examined, and the immunohistochemical staining for the proapoptotic (caspase-3) protein was performed. The injection of cadmium caused a significant decrease in body weight, while a significant increase in testes weight and testes weight index was observed. Pretreatment with MEPh was associated with significant reduction in the toxic effects of Cd as shown by reduced testicular levels of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, and caspase-3 expression and increased glutathione content, and the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and testosterone were also increased. Testicular histopathology showed that Cd produced an extensive germ cell apoptosis, and the pretreatment of MEPh in Cd-treated rats significantly reduced Cd-induced testicular damage. On the basis of the above results, it can be hypothesized that P. peruviana L. has a protective effect against cadmium-induced testicular oxidative stress and apoptosis in the rat.

  15. Comparison of arsenate and cadmium toxicity in a freshwater amphipod (Gammarus pulex)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vellinger, Céline; Parant, Marc; Rousselle, Philippe; Immel, Françoise

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium is largely documented on freshwater organisms while arsenic, especially arsenate, is rarely studied. The kinetic of the LC50s values for both metals was realized on Gammarus pulex. Physiological [i.e. metal concentration in body tissues, bioconcentration factor (BCF)] effects and behavioural responses (via pleopods beats) were investigated after 240-h exposure. Arsenate LC50 value was 100 fold higher than Cd-LC50 value after 240-h exposure, while concentrations in gammarids were similar for both metals at their respective LC50s. BCF decreased with increasing cadmium concentration while BCF remained stable with increasing arsenate concentration. Moreover, BCF was between 148 and 344 times lower for arsenate than cadmium. A significant hypoventilation was observed for cadmium concentrations exceeding or close to the 240h-LC50 Cd , while gammarids hyperventilated for the lowest arsenate concentrations and hypoventilated for the highest arsenate concentrations. We discussed the relationships between potential action mechanisms of these two metals and observed results. - Highlights: ► First study of arsenate toxicity in a Crustacean gammarid. ► Specific toxicological and behavioural responses to AsV and Cd contamination. ► Each metal led to specific-action mechanisms. ► Different energetic reallocation could explain specific behavioural responses. - This study brings to light the potential relationship between toxicological effects and behavioural responses of G. pulex exposed at both Cadmium and Arsenate.

  16. Lead and Cadmium Toxicity in Tile Manufacturing Workers in Assiut, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragaa M Abd Elmaaboud

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Occupational lead and cadmium exposure are important health issues in developing countries. This study aimed to detect toxic metal contents in raw materials used to make tiles and to assess exposure health impacts on workers. The study sample consisted of 74 tile workers, having a mean age of 35.2 years, in the Industrial City of Arab El Awamer, Assiut (Egypt. Elemental analysis of the raw materials was performed by using scanning electron microscopy. The data collection questionnaire was divided into two parts; the first included demographic data, symptoms attributed to toxic elements and possible sources of exposure to metals. The second part was designated to assess heavy metal exposure health impacts through clinical examination and biological  investigations. Many toxic elements were identified in the raw materials used to make tiles, and the most abundant were lead and cadmium. Analysis of the clinical data revealed that 66% of the workers suffered from headache, constipation (8%, abdominal colic (33.8% and 30% suffered from a variety of respiratory problems such as dyspnea (60%, cough (13% and chest tightness (27%. Fifty percent of the workers complained of weak grip, 33.8% of foot drop, and 54% had tremors. Burton’s line in gums was present in 28% of workers and 28.2% were diagnosed with constrictive lung diseases. Of the 74 workers, 90.5 % showed toxic lead levels and 80% had toxic cadmium levels. 10.8% had abnormal alpha glutathione levels with a positive strong linear correlation between lead and cadmium levels and years of work. It is mandatory to develop and implement measures to prevent these hazardous exposure effects among tile industry workers.

  17. Exposing to cadmium stress cause profound toxic effect on microbiota of the mice intestinal tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehao Liu

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd, one of the heavy metals, is an important environmental pollutant and a potent toxicant to organism. It poses a severe threat to the growth of the organism, and also has been recognized as a human carcinogen. However, the toxicity of cadmium and its influences on microbiota in mammal's intestine are still unclear. In our experiment, the changes of intestinal microbiota in two groups of mice were investigated, which were supplied with 20 and 100 mg kg(-1 cadmium chloride respectively for 3 weeks. The control group was treated with water free from cadmium chloride only. This study demonstrated that Cd accumulated in some tissues of mice after Cd administration and the gut barrier was impaired. Cd exposure also significantly elevated the colonic level of TNF-α. On the other hand, Cd-treatment could slow down the growth of gut microbiota and reduced the abundance of total intestinal bacteria of the mice. Among them, the growth of Bacteroidetes was significantly suppressed while Firmicutes growth was not. The probiotics including Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium were notably inhibited. We also observed that the copies of key genes involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates to short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs were lower in Cd-treated groups than control. As a result, the levels of short-chain fatty acids in colonic decreased significantly. In summary, this study provides valuable insight into the effects of Cd intake on mice gut microbiota.

  18. Ribosomal genes as early targets of cadmium-induced toxicity in Chironomus riparius larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planello, R.; Martinez-Guitarte, J.L.; Morcillo, G.

    2007-01-01

    Cadmium is a widespread environmental pollutant that causes severe impacts in organisms. Although the effects of cadmium on aquatic insects have been studied in terms of their toxicity and changes in developmental parameters, little is known about its molecular and genetic effects. We have investigated the alterations in the pattern of gene expression provoked by acute exposure to cadmium in Chironomus riparius Mg. (Diptera, Chironomidae), a sentinel organism widely used in aquatic toxicity testing. The early cytotoxic effects were evaluated using immunocytochemistry and specific fluorescent probes in fourth instar larvae after 12 h of 10 mM cadmium treatments; under these conditions no significant effect on larvae mortality was detected until after 36 h of exposure. The changes in the pattern of gene expression were analysed by means of DNA/RNA hybrid antibodies in the polytene chromosomes from salivary gland cells. A decrease in the activity of the nucleolus is especially remarkable, accompanied by a significant reduction in size and the modification in nucleolar architecture, as shown by FISH. The inhibition of rDNA transcription was further evaluated by Northern blot analysis, which showed a marked decrease in the level of preribosomal rRNA (54% 45S 12 h). However, the BR genes, whose products are the giant polypeptides that constitute the silk-like secretion for constructing housing tubes, remain active. Simultaneously, decondensation and activation take place at some chromosomal regions, especially at the centromeres. The changes observed in the pattern of gene expression do not resemble those found after heat shock or other cell stressors. These data provide the first evidence that cadmium interacts with ribosomal genes and results in a drastic impairment of the functional activity of the nucleolus, an essential organelle for cellular survival. Therefore, the depletion of ribosomes would be a long-term effect of Cd-induced cellular damage. These findings may

  19. Ribosomal genes as early targets of cadmium-induced toxicity in Chironomus riparius larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planello, R. [Biologia Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Senda del Rey 9, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Martinez-Guitarte, J.L. [Biologia Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Senda del Rey 9, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Morcillo, G. [Biologia Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Senda del Rey 9, 28040, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: gmorcillo@ccia.uned.es

    2007-02-01

    Cadmium is a widespread environmental pollutant that causes severe impacts in organisms. Although the effects of cadmium on aquatic insects have been studied in terms of their toxicity and changes in developmental parameters, little is known about its molecular and genetic effects. We have investigated the alterations in the pattern of gene expression provoked by acute exposure to cadmium in Chironomus riparius Mg. (Diptera, Chironomidae), a sentinel organism widely used in aquatic toxicity testing. The early cytotoxic effects were evaluated using immunocytochemistry and specific fluorescent probes in fourth instar larvae after 12 h of 10 mM cadmium treatments; under these conditions no significant effect on larvae mortality was detected until after 36 h of exposure. The changes in the pattern of gene expression were analysed by means of DNA/RNA hybrid antibodies in the polytene chromosomes from salivary gland cells. A decrease in the activity of the nucleolus is especially remarkable, accompanied by a significant reduction in size and the modification in nucleolar architecture, as shown by FISH. The inhibition of rDNA transcription was further evaluated by Northern blot analysis, which showed a marked decrease in the level of preribosomal rRNA (54% 45S 12 h). However, the BR genes, whose products are the giant polypeptides that constitute the silk-like secretion for constructing housing tubes, remain active. Simultaneously, decondensation and activation take place at some chromosomal regions, especially at the centromeres. The changes observed in the pattern of gene expression do not resemble those found after heat shock or other cell stressors. These data provide the first evidence that cadmium interacts with ribosomal genes and results in a drastic impairment of the functional activity of the nucleolus, an essential organelle for cellular survival. Therefore, the depletion of ribosomes would be a long-term effect of Cd-induced cellular damage. These findings may

  20. Cadmium Toxicity Affects Phytochemicals and Nutrient Elements Composition of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Jibril, Sani Ahmad; Hassan, Siti Aishah; Ishak, Che Fauziah; Megat Wahab, Puteri Edaroyati

    2017-01-01

    Lettuce varieties Bombilasta BBL and Italian 167 were treated with different concentrations of cadmium (0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 mg/L) in a nutrient film technique (NFT) system to study its toxicity on phytochemicals and nutrient elements. Antioxidants analysis which employed DPPH and FRAP, flavonoids, phenolic, vitamin C, malondialdehyde (MDA), and proline indicated significant effects of Cd treatment on the varieties tested. Different concentration levels of Cd lead to positive interactions in FR...

  1. Protective effect of zinc against cadmium toxicity on pregnant rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ZINO

    2013-04-17

    Apr 17, 2013 ... fetuses were used to isolate a total RNA for quantification of Msx1, Cx43, Bcl2 and Bax genes. The results show the toxic effect ... caspase-mitochondria pathways (Li et al., 2000), indicating that apoptosis could .... RNA isolation and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Total RNA was ...

  2. Cadmium toxicity to two marine phytoplankton under different nutrient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, A.-J.; Wang, W.-X.

    2006-01-01

    Cd accumulation and toxicity in two marine phytoplankton (diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii and dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum) under different nutrient conditions (nutrient-enriched, N- and P-starved conditions) were examined in this study. Strong interactions between the nutrients and Cd uptake by the two algal species were found. Cd accumulation as well as N and P starvation themselves inhibited the assimilation of N, P, and Si by the phytoplankton. Conversely, N starvation strongly inhibited Cd accumulation but no influence was observed under P starvation. However, the Cd accumulation difference between nutrient-enriched and N-starved cells was smaller when [Cd 2+ ] was increased in the medium, indicating that net Cd accumulation was less dependent on the N-containing ligands at high-Cd levels. As for the subcellular distribution of the accumulated Cd, most was distributed in the insoluble fraction of T. weissflogii while it was evenly distributed in the soluble and insoluble fractions of P. minimum at low-Cd levels. A small percentage of cellular Cd ( 2+ ], which increased when the [Cd 2+ ] increased. Cd toxicity in phytoplankton was quantified as depression of growth and maximal photosynthetic system II quantum yield, and was correlated with the [Cd 2+ ], intracellular Cd concentration, and Cd concentrations in the cell-surface-adsorbed, soluble, and insoluble fractions. According to the estimated median inhibition concentration (IC50) based on the different types of Cd concentration, the toxicity difference among the different nutrient-conditioned cells was the smallest when the Cd concentration in the soluble fraction was used, suggesting that it may be the best predictor of Cd toxicity under different nutrient conditions

  3. Comparison of toxicity and disposition of cadmium chloride and cadmium-metallothionein in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groten, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    In Chapter 1 of this thesis a general introduction is presented with a survey of the literature. It gives a brief overview of the factors involved in the absorption, metabolism and toxicity of Cd after oral intake.

    In short, the main source of

  4. Toxicity of cadmium and lead on tropical midge larvae, Chironomus kiiensis Tokunaga and Chironomus javanus Kieffer (Diptera: Chironomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebau, Warrin; Rawi, Che Salmah Md; Din, Zubir; Al-Shami, Salman Abdo

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the acute toxicity of cadmium and lead on larvae of two tropical Chironomid species, Chironomus kiiensis (C. kiiensis) Tokunaga and Chironomus javanus (C. javanus) Kieffer. Methods Different larval instars (first-fourth) were exposed using a static non-replacement testing procedures to various concentrations of cadmium and lead. Results In general, younger larvae (first and second instars) of both species were more sensitive to both metals than older larvae (third and forth instars). The toxic effects of the metals on C. kiiensis and C. javanus were influenced by the age of the larvae (first to fourth instars), types of metals (cadmium or lead) and duration of larval exposure (24, 48, 72 and 96 h) to the metals. Conclusions Cadmium was more toxic to the chironomids than lead and C. javanus was significantly more sensitive to both metals than C. kiiensis (P<0.05). PMID:23569984

  5. NADPH oxidases differentially regulate ROS metabolism and nutrient uptake under cadmium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, D K; Pena, L B; Romero-Puertas, M C; Hernández, A; Inouhe, M; Sandalio, L M

    2017-04-01

    The role of NADPH oxidases under cadmium (Cd) toxicity was studied using Arabidopsis thaliana mutants AtrbohC, AtrbohD and AtrbohF, which were grown under hydroponic conditions with 25 and 100 μM Cd for 1 and 5 days. Cadmium reduced the growth of leaves in WT, AtrbohC and D, but not in AtrbohF. A time-dependent increase in H 2 O 2 and lipid peroxidation was observed in all genotypes, with AtrbohC showing the smallest increase. An opposite behaviour was observed with NO accumulation. Cadmium increased catalase activity in WT plants and decreased it in Atrboh mutants, while glutathione reductase and glycolate oxidase activities increased in Atrboh mutants, and superoxide dismutases were down-regulated in AtrbohC. The GSH/GSSG and ASA/DHA couples were also affected by the treatment, principally in AtrbohC and AtrbohF, respectively. Cadmium translocation to the leaves was severely reduced in Atrboh mutants after 1 day of treatment and even after 5 days in AtrbohF. Similar results were observed for S, P, Ca, Zn and Fe accumulation, while an opposite trend was observed for K accumulation, except in AtrbohF. Thus, under Cd stress, RBOHs differentially regulate ROS metabolism, redox homeostasis and nutrient balance and could be of potential interest in biotechnology for the phytoremediation of polluted soils. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Toxicity of lead and cadmium to tropical marine phytoplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Susanne Dal; Panutrakul, Suwanna; Nyholm, Niels

    2000-01-01

    Toxicity of Pb and Cd to three tropical, marine phytoplankton species isolated from the Andaman Sea off Phuket Thailand were determined. The phytoplankton species included one diatom, Chaetoceros calcitrans, one green alga, Chlorella sp., and one chrysophyte, Dunaliella tertiolecta. The test method...... white fluorescent light of a 10 to 12 klux intensity, and a 48 h test duration. Concentrations resulting in 50 percent reduced growth rate (EC50) were for C. calcitrans, Chlorella sp. and D. tertiolecta, respectively: Cd in artificial seawater: 3.28, 0.74, and 25.6 mg /L, and in natural seawater: 3.......02, 0.32, and 34.6 mg /L . EC50 values for Pb in artificial seawater were 1.4, 0.12, and 5.25 mg/L d and in natural seawater 0.18, 0.4 and 6.77 mg/L. Pb was consistently more toxic to the algae than Cd, and Chlorella sp was generally most sensitive followed by C. calcitrans while D. teriolecta...

  7. Effects of benzoic acid and cadmium toxicity on wheat seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Yadav

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Benzoic acid (BA and Cd exhibit cumulative effects on plants due to their accumulation in the soil. The present study reports the effects of BA an allelochemical, Cd and their combinations on seed germination, seedling growth, biochemical parameters, and response of antioxidant enzymes in Triticum aestivum L. The experiment was conducted in sand supplemented with Hoagland nutrient solution. Benzoic acid was applied at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mM with or without Cd (7 mg L-1 to observe effects of allelochemical and Cd alone and in combination on wheat. Both stresses exhibited inhibitory effect on growth and metabolism of wheat seedlings. The allelochemical in single and combined treatments with Cd decreased seedling growth as compared to Cd stress. The two stresses significantly enhanced malondialdehyde content of wheat seedlings. The activity of other antioxidant enzymes, viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, and guaiacol peroxidase (POX were also recorded. SOD increased in seedlings under the two stresses. CAT more prominently ameliorates the toxic effects of H2O2 as compared with APX and POX and protected wheat seedlings from oxidative stress. Allelochemical buttressed the toxic effect of Cd on wheat seedlings.

  8. Acute toxicity profile of cadmium revealed by proteomics in brain tissue of Paralichthys olivaceus: Potential role of transferrin in cadmium toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jinyong; Huang Heqing; Bao Xiaodong; Lin Qingmei; Cai Zongwei

    2006-01-01

    An analytical approach using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) separated proteins from the brain tissue of the fish Paralichthys olivaceus. Approximately 600 protein spots were detected from the brain sample when applying 600 μg protein to a 2D-PAGE gel in the pH range 3.5-10.0. Compared to a control sample, significant changes of 24 protein spots were observed in the fish tissue exposed to acute toxicity of seawater cadmium (SCAT) at 10 ppm for 24 h. Among these spots, nine were down-regulated, nine were up-regulated, two showed high expression, and four showed low expression. The collected spots were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) and database search, and they were further classified by LOCtree, a hierarchical system of support vector machines which predict their sub-cellular localization. The amount of transferrin expression in brain cells decreased linearly with the increase of SCAT concentration in seawater. Among the 24 proteins identified on a 2D-PAGE gel, 9 demonstrated a synchronous response to acute cadmium, suggesting that they might represent a biomarker profile. Based on their variable levels and trends on the 2D-PAGE gel this protein (likely to be transferrin) suggesting they might be utilized as biomarkers to investigate cadmium pollution levels in seawater and halobios survival, as well as to evaluate the degree of risk of human fatalities. The results indicate that the application of multiple biomarkers has an advantage over a single biomarker for monitoring levels of environmental contamination

  9. Protective effects of synbiotic diets of Bacillus coagulans, Lactobacillus plantarum and inulin against acute cadmium toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarpour, Dornoush; Shekarforoush, Seyed Shahram; Ghaisari, Hamid Reza; Nazifi, Saeed; Sajedianfard, Javad; Eskandari, Mohammad Hadi

    2017-06-05

    Cadmium is a heavy metal that causes oxidative stress and has toxic effects in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of two probiotics along with a prebiotic in preventing the toxic effects of cadmium in rats. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups namely control, cadmium only, cadmium along with Lactobacillus plantarum (1 × 109 CFU/day) and inulin (5% of feedstuff) and cadmium along with Bacillus coagulans (1 × 109 spore/day) and inulin (5% of feedstuff). Cadmium treated groups received 200 μg/rat/day CdCl2 administered by gavage. During the 42-day experimental period, they were weighed weekly. For evaluation of changes in oxidative stress, the levels of some biochemicals and enzymes of serum including SOD, GPX, MDA, AST, ALT, total bilirubin, BUN and creatinine, and also SOD level of livers were measured at day 21 and 42 of treatment. The cadmium content of kidney and liver was determined by using atomic absorption mass spectrophotometry. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Duncan's post hoc test. Treatment of cadmium induced rats with synbiotic diets significantly improved the liver enzymes and biochemical parameters that decreased AST, ALT, total bilirubin, BUN and metal accumulation in the liver and kidney and increased body weight, serum and liver SOD values in comparison with the cadmium-treated group. No significant differences were observed with MDA and GP X values between all groups (p > 0.05). This study showed that synbiotic diets containing probiotics (L. plantarum and B. coagulans) in combination with the prebiotic (inulin) can reduce the level of cadmium in the liver and kidney, preventing their damage and recover antioxidant enzymes in acute cadmium poisoning in rat.

  10. Field and laboratory tests on acute toxicity of cadmium to freshwater crayfish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-09-01

    Environmental regulatory standards for cadmium (EPA 1980), like those for most pollutants, are based on acute, laboratory toxicity tests of single species. Such tests can be conducted rapidly and inexpensively in comparison to acute or chronic field studies, but their validity has often been questioned. Laboratory-based criteria are subject to two criticisms: (1) chemical and physical conditions differ greatly in degree and variability from laboratory to field, and (2) species are not isolated, but live in an ecosystem of interacting taxa and biofeedback. To investigate the validity of basing field toxicity standards on laboratory data, the authors subjected the freshwater crayfish Orconectes immunis for 96 h to various levels of cadmium in laboratory aquaria and experimental ponds. The study was designed to evaluate in part the first criticism of lab-based criteria. The studies were conducted concurrently with similar short-term experiments on the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, and coincided with studies of chronic cadmium stress on fathead minnows in experimental ponds.

  11. Toxicity of quantum dots and cadmium to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss in early ontogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živilė Cibulskaitė

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate toxic effects of CdSe/ZnS-COOH quantum dots (QD and cadmium (Cd on biological parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhychus mykiss in its early stages of development (embryos and larvae. It was found that short-term (24-, 96-hour exposure to sublethal concentrations of QD and Cd increased mortality of embryos and larvae, disturbed function of the cardio-respiratory system (gill ventilation frequency, heart rate and affected behavioural responses (individuals making nests in rainbow trout larvae. The results indicated that toxic effects of QD and Cd on rainbow trout larvae depended on the type of chemical substance, affected stage of development and exposure duration. Comparative studies of the effects of QD and Cd on rainbow trout in early stages of development showed that larvae were more sensitive to Cd and QD as compared to embryos. It was suggested that the chorion envelopes of eggs surround and protect the embryo from QD and Cd. Cadmium was more toxic to larvae than QD. Longer exposure (96-hour of QD and Cd induced more remarkable changes in test-parameters. This original study requires more investigations evaluating the mechanism of toxicity of QD to fish.

  12. In vivo detection of the toxic heavy elements, lead and cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, B.J.; Thomas, B.W.; Davey, J.F.; Baddeley, H.; Summers, V.; Craswell, P.

    1986-01-01

    Portable systems for the in vivo measurement of the toxic heavy elements, cadmium and lead are described. The cadmium concentration in either the liver or left kidney is determined using a technique of thermal neutron capture gamma-ray analysis. X-ray fluorescence analysis is used to measure lead within the bone of the second phalanx of the index finger. Each of the measurements is used as an index of long term exposure to the element and applied to screening of exposed industrial workers. The results of these industrial health applications are presented. Clinical application of the measurements to the study of the involvement of these elements in renal disease is described in brief. (author)

  13. Cadmium-Induced Toxicity and the Hepatoprotective Potentials of Aqueous Extract of Jessiaea Nervosa Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ama Udu Ibiam

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Hepatoprotective potentials of Jussiaea nervosa leaf extract against Cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity were investigated. Methods: Forty albino rats were randomly assigned into groups A-G with 4 rats in each of the groups A-F. Group A served as control and were given feed only while rats in groups B-F were orally exposed to varying concentrations of cadmium for six weeks. Effects of cadmium were most significant at 12 mg/Kg body weight (BW, and this dose was used for subsequent test involving oral administration of Jussiaea nervosa leaf extracts. In this segment, group G (n= 16 was sub-divided into four: G1-G4, with each sub-group containing four rats. Rats in sub-group G1 were given cadmium and feed only and served as positive control. Rats in sub-groups G2, G3, and G4 were given cadmium and 20, 50 and 100g/kg BW of Jussiaea nervosa extract, respectively, for six weeks. Blood and liver were analysed using standard laboratory techniques and methods. Results: Liver function parameters (ALT, AST, ALP, bilirubin were significantly (p<0.05 elevated in exposed rats in comparison to the controls, except for total protein and albumin, which were significantly decreased. Histopathological assessment reveals renal pathology in exposed rats in sharp contrast with the controls. Jussiaea nervosa extract however lowered the values of liver function parameters with 100mg/Kg BW dose producing the highest ameliorative effects. Similarly, the serum albumin and total protein significantly (p<0.05 improved with normal liver architecture. Conclusion: The results show the hepatoprotective potentials of Jussiaea nervosa extract against Cd toxicity.

  14. Cadmium toxicity in Maize (Zea mays L.): consequences on antioxidative systems, reactive oxygen species and cadmium accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Shakeel Ahmad; Tanveer, Mohsin; Hussain, Saddam; Bao, Mingchen; Wang, Longchang; Khan, Imran; Ullah, Ehsan; Tung, Shahbaz Atta; Samad, Rana Abdul; Shahzad, Babar

    2015-11-01

    Increased cadmium (Cd) accumulation in soils has led to tremendous environmental problems, with pronounced effects on agricultural productivity. Present study investigated the effects of Cd stress imposed at various concentrations (0, 75, 150, 225, 300, 375 μM) on antioxidant activities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), Cd accumulation, and productivity of two maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars viz., Run Nong 35 and Wan Dan 13. Considerable variations in Cd accumulation and in behavior of antioxidants and ROS were observed under Cd stress in both maize cultivars, and such variations governed by Cd were concentration dependent. Exposure of plant to Cd stress considerably increased Cd concentration in all plant parts particularly in roots. Wan Dan 13 accumulated relatively higher Cd in root, stem, and leaves than Run Nong 35; however, in seeds, Run Nong 35 recorded higher Cd accumulation. All the Cd toxicity levels starting from 75 μM enhanced H2O2 and MDA concentrations and triggered electrolyte leakage in leaves of both cultivars, and such an increment was more in Run Nong 35. The ROS were scavenged by the enhanced activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione peroxidase in response to Cd stress, and these antioxidant activities were higher in Wan Dan 13 compared with Run Nong 35 at all Cd toxicity levels. The grain yield of maize was considerably reduced particularly for Run Nong 35 under different Cd toxicity levels as compared with control. The Wan Dan 13 was better able to alleviate Cd-induced oxidative damage which was attributed to more Cd accumulation in roots and higher antioxidant activities in this cultivar, suggesting that manipulation of these antioxidants and enhancing Cd accumulation in roots may lead to improvement in Cd stress tolerance.

  15. Cadmium Handling, Toxicity and Molecular Targets Involved during Pregnancy: Lessons from Experimental Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Jacobo-Estrada

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Even decades after the discovery of Cadmium (Cd toxicity, research on this heavy metal is still a hot topic in scientific literature: as we wrote this review, more than 1440 scientific articles had been published and listed by the PubMed.gov website during 2017. Cadmium is one of the most common and harmful heavy metals present in our environment. Since pregnancy is a very particular physiological condition that could impact and modify essential pathways involved in the handling of Cd, the prenatal life is a critical stage for exposure to this non-essential element. To give the reader an overview of the possible mechanisms involved in the multiple organ toxic effects in fetuses after the exposure to Cd during pregnancy, we decided to compile some of the most relevant experimental studies performed in experimental models and to summarize the advances in this field such as the Cd distribution and the factors that could alter it (diet, binding-proteins and membrane transporters, the Cd-induced toxicity in dams (preeclampsia, fertility, kidney injury, alteration in essential element homeostasis and bone mineralization, in placenta and in fetus (teratogenicity, central nervous system, liver and kidney.

  16. Evaluation on joint toxicity of chlorinated anilines and cadmium to Photobacterium phosphoreum and QSAR analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Hao, E-mail: realking163@163.com [School of Life and Chemistry, Jiangsu Second Normal University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210013 (China); Wang, Chao; Shi, Jiaqi [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210023 (China); Chen, Lei [School of Life and Chemistry, Jiangsu Second Normal University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210013 (China)

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • Cd has different effects on joint toxicity when in different concentrations. • The toxicity of most binary mixtures decreases when Cd concentration rises. • Different QSAR models are developed to predict the joint toxicity. • Descriptors in QSARs can help to elucidate the joint toxicity mechanism. • Van der Waals’ force or complexation may reduce the toxicity of mixtures. - Abstract: The individual IC{sub 50} (the concentrations causing a 50% inhibition of bioluminescence after 15 min exposure) of cadmium ion (Cd) and nine chlorinated anilines to Photobacterium phosphoreum (P. phosphoreum) were determined. In order to evaluate the combined effects of the nine chlorinated anilines and Cd, the toxicities of chlorinated anilines combined with different concentrations of Cd were determined, respectively. The results showed that the number of chlorinated anilines manifesting synergy with Cd decreased with the increasing Cd concentration, and the number manifesting antagonism decreased firstly and then increased. The joint toxicity of mixtures at low Cd concentration was weaker than that of most binary mixtures when combined with Cd at medium and high concentrations as indicated by TU{sub Total}. QSAR analysis showed that the single toxicity of chlorinated anilines was related to the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (E{sub LUMO}). When combined with different concentrations of Cd, the toxicity was related to the energy difference (E{sub HOMO} − E{sub LUMO}) with different coefficients. Van der Waals’ force or the complexation between chlorinated anilines and Cd had an impact on the toxicity of combined systems, which could account for QSAR models with different physico-chemical descriptors.

  17. Cadmium Toxicity Induced Alterations in the Root Proteome of Green Gram in Contrasting Response towards Iron Supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowbiya Muneer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium signifies a severe threat to crop productivity and green gram is a notably iron sensitive plant which shows considerable variation towards cadmium stress. A gel-based proteomics analysis was performed with the roots of green gram exposed to iron and cadmium combined treatments. The resulting data show that twenty three proteins were down-regulated in iron-deprived roots either in the absence (−Fe/−Cd or presence (−Fe/+Cd of cadmium. These down-regulated proteins were however well expressed in roots under iron sufficient conditions, even in the presence of cadmium (+Fe/+Cd. The functional classification of these proteins determined that 21% of the proteins are associated with nutrient metabolism. The other proteins in higher quantities are involved in either transcription or translation regulation, and the rest are involved in biosynthesis metabolism, antioxidant pathways, molecular chaperones and stress response. On the other hand, several protein spots were also absent in roots in response to iron deprivation either in absence (−Fe/−Cd or presence (−Fe/+Cd of cadmium but were well expressed in the presence of iron (+Fe/+Cd. Results suggest that green gram plants exposed to cadmium stress are able to change the nutrient metabolic balance in roots, but in the mean time regulate cadmium toxicity through iron supplements.

  18. Studies on the toxicity of cadmium to the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascoe, D.; Mattey, D.L.

    1977-08-01

    Cadmium was found to be lethal to sticklebacks at all concentrations from 100.0 to 0.001 mg Cd l/sup -1/, in water of 103-111 mg l/sup -1/ hardness as CaCO/sub 3/. The pattern of mortality as shown by the time-concentration curve suggests that toxicity is not due to a single mechanism but changes with concentration. Fish were found to accumulate cadmium, the whole body levels incrasing from 0.90 ..mu..g/g fresh weight at 0.001 mg Cd l/sup -1/ exposure concentration to 51.0 ..mu..g/g at 100 mg Cd l/sup -1/. The concentration factor was shown to decrease with increasing exposure concentration from 0.51 at 100 mg Cd l/sup -1/ to 511 at 0.001 mg Cd l/sup -1/. The plerocercoid parasite Schistocephalus solidus in the host's perivisceral cavity contained less cadmium than the tissues of its host.

  19. Prevention of hepato-renal toxicity of radiation and cadmium by Aloe vera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrawarti, Aruna; Bhati, Sharvan Lal; Ojha, Shikha; Purkharam; Issran, Rakesh; Agarwal, Manisha; Purohit, R.K.

    2014-01-01

    Prevention, control and treatment of cancer remain challenge to the medical world. Development of effective and versatile drugs for cancer treatment is an integral part of the ongoing cancer research. The anti stress, hepato-protective, antioxidant and immune modulating properties of Aloe vera make it an ideal drug for developing anti-tumor drugs. Ionizing radiation has always been a part of the human environment. Along with natural radioactive sources present in the earth crust and cosmic radiation, special medical procedures (radiation therapy) also contribute to our continuous exposure to ionizing radiation. Radiation damage, is to a large extent, caused by the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including superoxide anion (O 2 - ), hydroxyl radical (OH) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), that overwhelm the levels of antioxidants, resulting in oxidative stress and cellular damage. Efficient defense and repair mechanisms exist in living cells to protect against oxidant species. Humans are subjected to exposure of cadmium pollution through contaminated air, water, food, manufactured goods and occupational hazards. Cadmium stimulates free radical production, resulting in oxidative deterioration of lipids, proteins DNA and initiating various pathological conditions in human and animals once observed, Cadmium is rapidly cleared from the blood and concentrates in various tissues mainly in the liver and kidney causing many metabolic and histological changes. So it was of particular interest to investigate whether Aloe vera administration to mice would decrease the toxicity associated with oxidative stress and thereby reducing the damage induced by cadmium and gamma radiation exposure. For this purpose, six to eight weeks old mice were selected and divided into seven groups on the basis of radiation, cadmium, combined treatment and drug treated. All biochemical parameters of the control groups were compared with respective experimental groups. Value of total

  20. Joint toxicity of sediment-associated permethrin and cadmium to Chironomus dilutus: The role of bioavailability and enzymatic activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xin; Li, Huizhen; You, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides and metals commonly co-occurred in sediment and caused toxicity to benthic organisms jointly. To improve accuracy in assessing risk of the sediments contaminated by insecticides and metals, it is of great importance to understand interaction between the contaminants and reasons for the interaction. In the current study, permethrin and cadmium were chosen as representative contaminants to study joint toxicity of pyrethroids and metals to a benthic invertebrate Chironomus dilutus. A median effect/combination index-isobologram was applied to evaluate the interaction between sediment-bound permethrin and cadmium at three dose ratios. Antagonistic interaction was observed in the midges for all treatments. Comparatively, cadmium-dominated group (the ratio of toxicity contribution from permethrin and cadmium was 1:3) showed stronger antagonism than equitoxicity (1:1) and permethrin-dominated groups (3:1). The reasons for the observed antagonism were elucidated from two aspects, including bioavailability and enzymatic activity. The bioavailability of permethrin, expressed as the freely dissolved concentrations in sediment porewater and measured by solid phase microextraction, was not altered by the addition of cadmium, suggesting the change in permethrin bioavailability was not the reason for the antagonism. On the other hand, the activities of metabolic enzymes, glutathione S-transferase and carboxylesterase in the midges which were exposed to mixtures of permethrin and cadmium were significantly higher than those in the midges exposed to permethrin solely. Cadmium considerably enhanced the detoxifying processes of permethrin in the midges, which largely explained the observed antagonistic interaction between permethrin and cadmium. - Highlights: • Sediment-bound permethrin and cadmium acted antagonistically to Chironomus dilutus. • Antagonism of permethrin and cadmium to the midges was noted at various dose ratios. • Addition of cadmium did

  1. Alleviation of cadmium toxicity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings by the application of selenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, H.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Wei, T.; Wang, G.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the role of selenium in cadmium toxicity was investigated in cucumber seedlings by hydroponic experiments. The application of Se for cucumber exposed to Cd significantly reduced Cd accumulation in all tissues, elevated Cd-depressed chlorophyll content, and improved photosynthetic performance. External Se significantly reduced ·OH, H2O2 and malondialdehyde content. Exogenous Se balanced Cd-depressed elements (e.g., Se enhanced Cd-induced decreases in root Zn, leaf/stem/root Mn concentrations) and carbohydrate contents. External Se also significantly decreased the Cd-induced increases in Na+K+-, Ca2+Mg2+- and total ATPase activities, which recovered almost to control level. Results indicate that application of Se can alleviate Cd toxicity in cucumber seedlings by reducing Cd uptake and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, moreover protecting photosynthetic machinery from damaging, balancing elements and carbohydrate contents, and improving ATPase activities in cucumber.

  2. Indications of selenium protection against cadmium and lead toxicity in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilin Wu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the beneficial role of selenium (Se in protecting oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. plants from cadmium (Cd+2 and lead (Pb+2 toxicity. Exogenous Se markedly reduced Cd and Pb concentration in both roots and shoots. Supplementation of the medium with Se (5, 10 and 15 mg kg-1 alleviated the negative effect of Cd and Pb on growth and led to a decrease in oxidative damages caused by Cd and Pb. Furthermore, Se enhanced superoxide free radicals (O2-, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and lipid peroxidation, as indicated by malondialdehyde (MDA accumulation, but decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities. Meanwhile, the presence of Cd and Pb in the medium affected Se speciation in shoots. The results suggest that Se could alleviate Cd and Pb toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in oilseed rape plant.

  3. Alleviation of cadmium toxicity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings by the application of selenium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, H.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Wei, T.; Wang, G.

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, the role of selenium in cadmium toxicity was investigated in cucumber seedlings by hydroponic experiments. The application of Se for cucumber exposed to Cd significantly reduced Cd accumulation in all tissues, elevated Cd-depressed chlorophyll content, and improved photosynthetic performance. External Se significantly reduced ·OH, H2O2 and malondialdehyde content. Exogenous Se balanced Cd-depressed elements (e.g., Se enhanced Cd-induced decreases in root Zn, leaf/stem/root Mn concentrations) and carbohydrate contents. External Se also significantly decreased the Cd-induced increases in Na+K+-, Ca2+Mg2+- and total ATPase activities, which recovered almost to control level. Results indicate that application of Se can alleviate Cd toxicity in cucumber seedlings by reducing Cd uptake and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, moreover protecting photosynthetic machinery from damaging, balancing elements and carbohydrate contents, and improving ATPase activities in cucumber.

  4. Cadmium Toxicity Affects Phytochemicals and Nutrient Elements Composition of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sani Ahmad Jibril

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce varieties Bombilasta BBL and Italian 167 were treated with different concentrations of cadmium (0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 mg/L in a nutrient film technique (NFT system to study its toxicity on phytochemicals and nutrient elements. Antioxidants analysis which employed DPPH and FRAP, flavonoids, phenolic, vitamin C, malondialdehyde (MDA, and proline indicated significant effects of Cd treatment on the varieties tested. Different concentration levels of Cd lead to positive interactions in FRAP, phenolic, and MDA but no significant effect in flavonoids, vitamin C, and proline. Contents of macro- and microelements in the varieties were significantly affected with increase in the toxicity levels of Cd in all nutrient elements tested with interactions exhibited for iron, manganese, and zinc.

  5. Effect of parasitism on the toxicity of cadmium to the three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascoe, D.; Cram, P.

    1977-03-25

    The toxicity of cadmium to sticklebacks was determined over a wide range of concentrations. The 96 h LC50 was found to be 6.5 mg Cd 1/sup -1/. The shape of the time-concentration curve suggests that cadmium may have two toxic mechanisms. The median period of survival for fish infected with the plerocercoids of the cestode, Schistocephalus solidus, was found to be considerably shorter than for non-parasitized fish. This observation is considered in the light of the known effects of S. solidus on its host.

  6. Acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium to different life history stages of the freshwater crustacean Asellus aquaticus (L)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.J.; Williams, K.A.; Pascoe, D.

    1986-09-01

    Different life-history stages of the freshwater isopod crustacean Asellus aquaticus were exposed to a range of cadmium concentrations using a semi-static toxicity testing procedure. Median lethal concentrations (96-hr LC50) ranged from 80 ..mu..g Cd/L for juveniles to > 2000 ..mu..g Cd/L for embryos. Pre-treatment of eggs with cadmium did not increase their tolerance to the metal as juveniles. The responses of each stage are discussed in relation to the use of macroinvertebrate toxicity test data in predicting the hazardous effects of pollutants.

  7. Fate, toxicity and bioconcentration of cadmium on Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Lemna minor in mid-term single tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Bernard; Lamonica, Dominique

    2018-03-01

    In the frame of a project which consists in modeling a laboratory microcosm under cadmium pressure, we initiated this study on the fate and effects of cadmium in the presence of either the microalga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata or the duckweed Lemna minor, two organisms of the microcosm. For each organism, growth inhibition tests on a duration of 2-3 weeks were carried out with the objective of linking effects with total dissolved, ionic and internalized forms of cadmium. Numbers of organisms (algal cells or duckweed fronds) in 2-L beakers filled with synthetic nutritive medium containing EDTA were counted during the course of assays, while cadmium concentrations in the water and in the organisms were measured. Free cadmium fraction was calculated using PHREEQC, a computer program for chemical speciation. Results showed that cadmium toxicity to microalgae could be correlated to the free divalent fraction of this metal, limited by the presence of EDTA, and to its concentration in the organisms. Bioconcentration factors for our medium were suggested for P. subcapitata (111,000 on the basis of free cadmium concentration) and L. minor (17,812 on the basis of total dissolved concentration). No effect concentrations were roughly estimated around 400 µg/g for Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and 200-300 µg/g for Lemna minor. This study is a first step towards a fate model based on chemical speciation for a better understanding of microcosm results.

  8. Assessment of cadmium accumulation, toxicity, and tolerance in Brassicaceae and Fabaceae plants--implications for phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Naser A; Umar, Shahid; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2014-09-01

    This study, based on a greenhouse pot culture experiment conducted with 15-day-old rapeseed (Brassica campestris L. cv. Pusa Gold; family Brassicaceae) and moong bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek cv. Pusa Ratna; family Fabaceae) plants treated with cadmium (Cd) concentrations (0, 50, and 100 mg kg(-1) soil), investigates their potential for Cd accumulation and tolerance, and dissects the underlying basic physiological/biochemical mechanisms. In both species, plant dry mass decreased, while Cd concentration of both root and shoot increased with increase in soil Cd. Roots harbored a higher amount of Cd (vs. shoot) in B. campestris, while the reverse applied to V. radiata. By comparison, root Cd concentration was higher in B. campestris than in V. radiata. The high Cd concentrations in B. campestris roots and V. radiata shoots led to significant elevation in oxidative indices, as measured in terms of electrolyte leakage, H2O2 content, and lipid peroxidation. Both plants displayed differential adaptation strategies to counteract the Cd burden-caused anomalies in their roots and shoots. In B. campestris, increasing Cd burden led to a significantly decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) content but a significant increase in activities of GSH reductase (GR), GSH peroxidase (GPX), and GSH sulfotransferase (GST). However, in V. radiata, increasing Cd burden caused significant increase in GSH content and GR activity, but a significant decline in activities of GPX and GST. Cross talks on Cd burden of tissues and the adapted Cd tolerance strategies against Cd burden-accrued toxicity indicated that B. campestris and V. radiata are good Cd stabilizer and Cd extractor, respectively, wherein a fine tuning among the major components (GR, GPX, GST, GSH) of the GSH redox system helped the plants to counteract differentially the Cd load-induced anomalies in tissues. On the whole, the physiological/biochemical characterization of the B. campestris and V. radiata responses to varying Cd

  9. Arsenic, lead, mercury and cadmium: Toxicity, levels in breast milk and the risks for breastfed infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebelo, Fernanda Maciel [Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency, University of Brasilia, 70910-900 Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Caldas, Eloisa Dutra, E-mail: eloisa@unb.br [Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Pharmacy, University of Brasilia, 70910-900 Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2016-11-15

    Metals are ubiquitous in nature, being found in all environmental compartments, and have a variety of applications in human activities. Metals are transferred by maternal blood to the fetus via the placenta, and exposure continues throughout life. For the general population, exposure comes mainly from water and food consumption, including breast milk. In this paper, we reviewed studies on the toxicity of arsenic, lead, mercury and cadmium, the toxic metals of most concern to human health, focusing on the potential risks to newborns and infants. A total of 75 studies published since 2000 reporting the levels of these metals in breast milk were reviewed. Lead was the metal most investigated in breast milk (43 studies), and for which the highest levels were reported (up to 1515 µg/L). Arsenic was the least investigated (18 studies), with higher levels reported for breast milk (up to 149 µg/L) collected in regions with high arsenic concentrations in water (>10 µg/L). Data from 34 studies on mercury showed that levels in breast milk were generally higher in populations with high fish consumption, where it may be present mainly as MeHg. Cadmium levels in breast milk were the lowest, with means <2 µg/L in most of the 29 studies reviewed. Results of risk assessments indicated that the intake of arsenic, lead and mercury by infants through breastfeeding can be considered a health concern in most regions of the world. Although the potential risks to infants are mostly outweighed by the benefits of breast milk consumption, it is essential that contaminants be continuously monitored, especially in the most critical regions, and that measures be implemented by health authorities to reduce exposure of newborns and infants to these metals, and thus avoid unnecessary health risks. - Highlights: • Review of 75 studies that analyzed arsenic, lead, mercury and/or cadmium levels. • Higher levels of arsenic found in India; of mercury found in Brazil. • Lead was the most

  10. Arsenic, lead, mercury and cadmium: Toxicity, levels in breast milk and the risks for breastfed infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebelo, Fernanda Maciel; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2016-01-01

    Metals are ubiquitous in nature, being found in all environmental compartments, and have a variety of applications in human activities. Metals are transferred by maternal blood to the fetus via the placenta, and exposure continues throughout life. For the general population, exposure comes mainly from water and food consumption, including breast milk. In this paper, we reviewed studies on the toxicity of arsenic, lead, mercury and cadmium, the toxic metals of most concern to human health, focusing on the potential risks to newborns and infants. A total of 75 studies published since 2000 reporting the levels of these metals in breast milk were reviewed. Lead was the metal most investigated in breast milk (43 studies), and for which the highest levels were reported (up to 1515 µg/L). Arsenic was the least investigated (18 studies), with higher levels reported for breast milk (up to 149 µg/L) collected in regions with high arsenic concentrations in water (>10 µg/L). Data from 34 studies on mercury showed that levels in breast milk were generally higher in populations with high fish consumption, where it may be present mainly as MeHg. Cadmium levels in breast milk were the lowest, with means <2 µg/L in most of the 29 studies reviewed. Results of risk assessments indicated that the intake of arsenic, lead and mercury by infants through breastfeeding can be considered a health concern in most regions of the world. Although the potential risks to infants are mostly outweighed by the benefits of breast milk consumption, it is essential that contaminants be continuously monitored, especially in the most critical regions, and that measures be implemented by health authorities to reduce exposure of newborns and infants to these metals, and thus avoid unnecessary health risks. - Highlights: • Review of 75 studies that analyzed arsenic, lead, mercury and/or cadmium levels. • Higher levels of arsenic found in India; of mercury found in Brazil. • Lead was the most

  11. Imprinted Genes and the Environment: Links to the Toxic Metals Arsenic, Cadmium and Lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Smeester

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Imprinted genes defy rules of Mendelian genetics with their expression tied to the parent from whom each allele was inherited. They are known to play a role in various diseases/disorders including fetal growth disruption, lower birth weight, obesity, and cancer. There is increasing interest in understanding their influence on environmentally-induced disease. The environment can be thought of broadly as including chemicals present in air, water and soil, as well as food. According to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR, some of the highest ranking environmental chemicals of concern include metals/metalloids such as arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury. The complex relationships between toxic metal exposure, imprinted gene regulation/expression and health outcomes are understudied. Herein we examine trends in imprinted gene biology, including an assessment of the imprinted genes and their known functional roles in the cell, particularly as they relate to toxic metals exposure and disease. The data highlight that many of the imprinted genes have known associations to developmental diseases and are enriched for their role in the TP53 and AhR pathways. Assessment of the promoter regions of the imprinted genes resulted in the identification of an enrichment of binding sites for two transcription factor families, namely the zinc finger family II and PLAG transcription factors. Taken together these data contribute insight into the complex relationships between toxic metals in the environment and imprinted gene biology.

  12. Imprinted Genes and the Environment: Links to the Toxic Metals Arsenic, Cadmium and Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeester, Lisa; Yosim, Andrew E.; Nye, Monica D.; Hoyo, Cathrine; Murphy, Susan K.; Fry, Rebecca C.

    2014-01-01

    Imprinted genes defy rules of Mendelian genetics with their expression tied to the parent from whom each allele was inherited. They are known to play a role in various diseases/disorders including fetal growth disruption, lower birth weight, obesity, and cancer. There is increasing interest in understanding their influence on environmentally-induced disease. The environment can be thought of broadly as including chemicals present in air, water and soil, as well as food. According to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), some of the highest ranking environmental chemicals of concern include metals/metalloids such as arsenic, cadmium, and lead. The complex relationships between toxic metal exposure, imprinted gene regulation/expression and health outcomes are understudied. Herein we examine trends in imprinted gene biology, including an assessment of the imprinted genes and their known functional roles in the cell, particularly as they relate to toxic metals exposure and disease. The data highlight that many of the imprinted genes have known associations to developmental diseases and are enriched for their role in the TP53 and AhR pathways. Assessment of the promoter regions of the imprinted genes resulted in the identification of an enrichment of binding sites for two transcription factor families, namely the zinc finger family II and PLAG transcription factors. Taken together these data contribute insight into the complex relationships between toxic metals in the environment and imprinted gene biology. PMID:24921406

  13. Imprinted genes and the environment: links to the toxic metals arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeester, Lisa; Yosim, Andrew E; Nye, Monica D; Hoyo, Cathrine; Murphy, Susan K; Fry, Rebecca C

    2014-06-11

    Imprinted genes defy rules of Mendelian genetics with their expression tied to the parent from whom each allele was inherited. They are known to play a role in various diseases/disorders including fetal growth disruption, lower birth weight, obesity, and cancer. There is increasing interest in understanding their influence on environmentally-induced disease. The environment can be thought of broadly as including chemicals present in air, water and soil, as well as food. According to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), some of the highest ranking environmental chemicals of concern include metals/metalloids such as arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury. The complex relationships between toxic metal exposure, imprinted gene regulation/expression and health outcomes are understudied. Herein we examine trends in imprinted gene biology, including an assessment of the imprinted genes and their known functional roles in the cell, particularly as they relate to toxic metals exposure and disease. The data highlight that many of the imprinted genes have known associations to developmental diseases and are enriched for their role in the TP53 and AhR pathways. Assessment of the promoter regions of the imprinted genes resulted in the identification of an enrichment of binding sites for two transcription factor families, namely the zinc finger family II and PLAG transcription factors. Taken together these data contribute insight into the complex relationships between toxic metals in the environment and imprinted gene biology.

  14. Molecular mechanisms of the epithelial transport of toxic metal ions, particularly mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic, zinc, and copper. Comprehensive progress report, October 1, 1975--December 31, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasserman, R.H.

    1978-10-01

    Investigations were undertaken to elucidate the mode of transepithelial transport of potentially toxic metal ions across the gastrointestinal tract, with primary attention given to cadmium, zinc, and arsenic. In addition, the toxic effects of cadmium on the metabolism of vitamin D and calcium have been investigated in some detail. Several approaches have been taken, including studies on the localization of heavy metals in the intestinal mucosa, the effects of cadmium on various parameters of calcium metabolism, the modes of intestinal absorption of cadmium, arsenate, and zinc, and the interactions of heavy metals with each other and with calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D. Details of these experiments are attached in the Comprehensive Progress Report

  15. Molecular mechanisms of the epithelial transport of toxic metal ions, particularly mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic, zinc, and copper. Comprehensive progress report, October 1, 1975--December 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserman, R. H.

    1978-10-01

    Investigations were undertaken to elucidate the mode of transepithelial transport of potentially toxic metal ions across the gastrointestinal tract, with primary attention given to cadmium, zinc, and arsenic. In addition, the toxic effects of cadmium on the metabolism of vitamin D and calcium have been investigated in some detail. Several approaches have been taken, including studies on the localization of heavy metals in the intestinal mucosa, the effects of cadmium on various parameters of calcium metabolism, the modes of intestinal absorption of cadmium, arsenate, and zinc, and the interactions of heavy metals with each other and with calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D. Details of these experiments are attached in the Comprehensive Progress Report.

  16. Toxicity of cadmium and protective effect of bee honey, vitamins C and B complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, I; Elhabiby, M I; Ashour, A A

    2013-04-01

    The present work aimed to study the toxic effect of cadmium (Cd) on rabbits' blood indices, as well as the therapeutic effect of the antioxidant agents, vitamins C and B complex and bee honey on Cd intoxicated rabbits. Cadmium chloride (CdCl2) was injected subcutaneously at a dose of 3 mg/kg of body weight. The results showed a significant increase in serum glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, globulin, urea and creatinine, compared to the control group. In addition, CdCl2 intoxication increased the levels of uric acid, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin. Concerning haematological parameters, the more obvious changes were an increase in mean corpuscular volume and a decrease in white blood cells count, platelets, lymphocytes, heamatocrit, haemoglobin and red blood cells count. Treatment of CdCl2-intoxicated animals with vitamins C and B complex and bee honey showed a decrease in the harmful effects of Cd by restoring haematological and biochemical changes. Bee honey treatment was the most effective in providing recoveries in the altered blood parameters.

  17. Hepatoprotective effect of Arctium lappa root extract on cadmium toxicity in adult Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Predes, Fabricia; da Silva Diamante, Maria Aparecida; Foglio, Mary Ann; Camargo, Camila de Andrade; Camargo, Camila Almeida; Aoyama, Hiroshi; Miranda, Silvio Cesar; Cruz, Bread; Gomes Marcondes, Maria Cristina Cintra; Dolder, Heidi

    2014-08-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of Arctium lappa (Al) to protect against cadmium damage in the rat liver. Male rats received a single i.p. dose of CdCl2 (1.2 mg/kg body weight (BW)) with or without Al extract administered daily by gavage (300 mg/kg BW) for 7 or 56 days. After 7 days, Al caused plasma transaminase activity to diminish in groups Al (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT)) and CdAl (GPT). After 56 days, GOT and GPT plasma activities were reduced in the Cd group. No alteration in plasma levels of creatinine, total bilirubin, and total protein were observed. GOT liver activity increased in the Cd group. No alteration was observed in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and malondialdehyde (MDA) dosage. In the Cd group, hepatocyte proportion decreased and sinusoid capillary proportion increased. In the Al and CdAl groups, the nuclear proportion increased and the cytoplasmic proportion decreased. The hepatocyte nucleus density reduced in Cd and increased in the Al group. After 56 days, there was no alteration in the Cd group. In Al and CdAl groups, the nuclear proportion increased without cytoplasmic proportion variation, but the sinusoid capillary proportion was reduced. The hepatocyte nucleus density decreased in the Cd group and increased in the Al and CdAl groups. In conclusion, the liver function indicators showed that A. lappa protected the liver against cadmium toxicity damage.

  18. In vivo toxicity assessment of non-cadmium quantum dots in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guimiao; Ouyang, Qingling; Hu, Rui; Ding, Zhangchi; Tian, Jinglin; Yin, Feng; Xu, Gaixia; Chen, Qiang; Wang, Xiaomei; Yong, Ken-Tye

    2015-02-01

    Along with widespread usage of QDs in electronic and biomedical industries, the likelihood of QDs exposure to the environment and humans is deemed to occur when the QD products are degraded or handled as waste for processing. To date, there are very few toxicological reports available in the literature for non-cadmium QDs in animal models. In this work, we studied the long term in vivo toxicity of InP/ZnS QDs in BALB/c mice. The biodistribution, body weight, hematology, blood biochemistry, and organ histology were determined at a very high dosage (25 mg/kg) of InP/ZnS QDs over 84 days period. Our results manifested that the QDs formulation did not result in observable toxicity in vivo within the evaluation period, thereby suggesting that the InP/ZnS QDs can be utilized as optical probes or nanocarrier for selected in vivo biological applications when an optimized dosage is employed. This study investigated the toxicity of quantum dots in BALB/c mice, and concluded that no organotoxicity was detectable despite of using high concentration of InP/ZnS quantum dots with prolonged exposure of 3 months. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Copper and Cadmium Toxicity to Marine Phytoplankton, Chaetoceros gracilis and Isochrysis sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suratno Suratno

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In Copper (Cu based antifouling (AF paints Cu was largely used as booster biocide after organotin was banned. Cu is micronutrient which is important in photosynthesis process because Cu is an essential metal as component of enzyme and electron transport chain. But in certain dosage, Cu could be toxic to marine organism. Chaetoceros gracilis and Isochrysis sp. are dominant microalgae in aquatic ecosystem. In this study the effect of Cu and Cadmium (Cd on two marine microalgae, C. gracilis and Isochrysis sp. were compared. Toxicity test was based on American Standard for Testing Material (ASTM. IC50-96 h of Cd as reference toxicant was 2,370 mg.L-1 for C. gracilis and 490 mg.L-1 for Isochrysis sp. IC50-96 h of Cu to growth of C. gracilis was 63.75 mg.L-1 and Isochrysis sp. was 31.80 mg.L-1. Both Cd and Cu were inhibited growth of microalgae. Based on IC50-96 h value, it could be concluded that Cu was more toxic than Cd. Toxicity of Cu was 37 times stronger than Cd for C. gracilis and 15 times for Isochrysis sp. It was estimated that at concentration 10 mg.L-1 Cu does not show observable effect (NOEC to C. gracilis and 5 mg.L-1 to Isochrysis sp. The lowest observable effect of Cu (LOEC to C. gracilis was at concentration 17 mg.L-1 and 10 mg.L-1 for Isochrysis sp.

  20. The Protective Roles of Zinc and Magnesium in Cadmium-Induced Renal Toxicity in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Babaknejad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cadmium (Cd is a heavy metal that has widespread use. It enters the food chain in different ways, including soil and water. Cadmium can cause dysfunction of different body organs. Zinc (Zn and magnesium (Mg supplementation can have protective effects against cadmium toxicity due to their antagonistic and antioxidants properties. This study examines the influence of supplemental Zn and Mg on Cd renal toxicity. Methods: Young male Wistar rats were divided into six groups of five. The Cd group received 1 mg Cd/kg and the control group received 0.5 mg/kg normal saline (i.p.. The other four groups were administered 1 mg/kg Cd+0.5 mg/kg Zn, 1 mg/kg Cd+1.5 mg/kg Zn, 1 mg/kg Cd+ 0.5 mg/kg Mg, and 1 mg/kg Cd+ 1.5 mg/kg Mg (i.p. for 21 days. Then, serum sodium, potassium, urea, creatinine, and protein levels were measured. Results: The results indicated that creatinine and protein levels decreased while urea, sodium, and potassium levels increased as a result of Cd exposure. Co-administered Cd and Zn and Mg decreased urea and increased sodium serum level in comparison to the cadmium group. Treatment by Mg, contrary to co-administered Cd and Zn, reduced serum protein level compared to the cadmium group. Compared to the cadmium treated group, Zn and Mg treatment enhanced serum creatinine level and reduced serum potassium level. Conclusion: The findings seem to suggest that zinc and magnesium compounds, due to their antagonistic and antioxidant activities, can protect Cd renal toxic effects in a dose-dependent manner.

  1. Inhibition of autophagy contributes to the toxicity of cadmium telluride quantum dots in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan J

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Junpeng Fan,1–4 Ming Shao,1–4 Lu Lai,3–5 Yi Liu,3–5 Zhixiong Xie1–4,6 1College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, 2Hubei Provincial Cooperative Innovation Center of Industrial Fermentation,3State Key Laboratory of Virology, 4Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (MOE, 5College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 6School of Life Science and Technology, Hubei Engineering University, Xiaogan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs are used as near-infrared probes in biologic and medical applications, but their cytological effects and mechanism of potential toxicity are still unclear. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of CdTe QDs of different sizes and investigated their mechanism of toxicity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A growth inhibition assay revealed that orange-emitting CdTe (O-CdTe QDs (half inhibitory concentration [IC50] =59.44±12.02 nmol/L were more toxic than green-emitting CdTe QDs (IC50 =186.61±19.74 nmol/L to S. cerevisiae. Further studies on toxicity mechanisms using a transmission electron microscope and green fluorescent protein tagged Atg8 processing assay revealed that O-CdTe QDs could partially inhibit autophagy at a late stage, which differs from the results reported in mammalian cells. Moreover, autophagy inhibited at a late stage by O-CdTe QDs could be partially recovered by enhancing autophagy with rapamycin (an autophagy activator, combined with an increased number of living cells. These results indicate that inhibition of autophagy acts as a toxicity mechanism of CdTe QDs in S. cerevisiae. This work reports a novel toxicity mechanism of CdTe QDs in yeast and provides valuable information on the effect of CdTe QDs on the processes of living cells. Keywords: CdTe quantum dots, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, toxicity, autophagy

  2. Improved phytoaccumulation of cadmium by genetically modified tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L.). Physiological and biochemical response of the transformants to cadmium toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorinova, N.; Nedkovska, M.; Todorovska, E.; Simova-Stoilova, L.; Stoyanova, Z.; Georgieva, K.; Demirevska-Kepova, K.; Atanassov, A.; Herzig, R.

    2007-01-01

    The response of tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L.)-non-transformed and transformed with a metallothionein gene MThis from Silene vulgaris L. - to increase cadmium supply in the nutrient solution was compared. The transgenic plants accumulated significantly more Cd both in the roots and the leaves. Visual toxicity symptoms and disturbance in water balance were correlated with Cd tissue content. Treatment with 300 μM CdCl 2 resulted in inhibition of photosynthesis and mobilization of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle. Treatment with 500 μM CdCl 2 led to irreversible damage of photosynthesis and oxidative stress. An appearance of a new peroxidase isoform and changes in the leaf polypeptide pattern were observed at the highest Cd concentration. The level of non-protein thiols gradually increased following the Cd treatment both in transgenic and non-transformed plants. - Genetic transformation of Nicotiana tabacum L. by metallothionein gene improved phytoaccumulation of cadmium

  3. Proteomic analysis of secreted proteins by human bronchial epithelial cells in response to cadmium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, De-Ju; Xu, Yan-Ming; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Dong-Yang; Wong, Wing-Yan; Tai, William Chi-Shing; Cho, Yong-Yeon; Lau, Andy T Y

    2015-09-01

    For years, many studies have been conducted to investigate the intracellular response of cells challenged with toxic metal(s), yet, the corresponding secretome responses, especially in human lung cells, are largely unexplored. Here, we provide a secretome analysis of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) treated with cadmium chloride (CdCl2 ), with the aim of identifying secreted proteins in response to Cd toxicity. Proteins from control and spent media were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis and visualized by silver staining. Differentially-secreted proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS analysis and database searching. We characterized, for the first time, the extracellular proteome changes of BEAS-2B dosed with Cd. Our results unveiled that Cd treatment led to the marked upregulation of molecular chaperones, antioxidant enzymes, enzymes associated with glutathione metabolic process, proteins involved in cellular energy metabolism, as well as tumor-suppressors. Pretreatment of cells with the thiol antioxidant glutathione before Cd treatment effectively abrogated the secretion of these proteins and prevented cell death. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Cd causes oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity; and the differentially-secreted protein signatures could be considered as targets for potential use as extracellular biomarkers upon Cd exposure. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Selenium alleviates cadmium toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Issam; Chtourou, Yacine; Djebali, Wahbi

    2014-03-01

    The present study investigated the possible mediatory role of selenium (Se) in protecting plants from cadmium (Cd) toxicity. The exposure of sunflower seedlings to 20μM Cd inhibited biomass production, decreased chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations and strongly increased accumulation of Cd in both roots and shoots. Similarly, Cd enhanced hydrogen peroxides content and lipid peroxidation as indicated by malondialdehyde accumulation. Pre-soaking seeds with Se (5, 10 and 20μM) alleviated the negative effect of Cd on growth and led to a decrease in oxidative injuries caused by Cd. Furthermore, Se enhanced the activities of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase, but lowered that of superoxide dismutase and guaiacol peroxidase. As important antioxidants, ascorbate and glutathione contents in sunflower leaves exposed to Cd were significantly decreased by Se treatment. The data suggest that the beneficial effect of Se during an earlier growth period could be related to avoidance of cumulative damage upon exposure to Cd, thus reducing the negative consequences of oxidative stress caused by heavy metal toxicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Cadmium carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waalkes, Michael P.

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium is a heavy metal of considerable environmental and occupational concern. Cadmium compounds are classified as human carcinogens by several regulatory agencies. The most convincing data that cadmium is carcinogenic in humans comes from studies indicating occupational cadmium exposure is associated with lung cancer. Cadmium exposure has also been linked to human prostate and renal cancer, although this linkage is weaker than for lung cancer. Other target sites of cadmium carcinogenesis in humans, such as liver, pancreas and stomach, are considered equivocal. In animals, cadmium effectively induces cancers at multiple sites and by various routes. Cadmium inhalation in rats induces pulmonary adenocarcinomas, in accord with its role in human lung cancer. Cadmium can induce tumors and/or preneoplastic lesions within the rat prostate after ingestion or injection. At relatively high doses, cadmium induces benign testicular tumors in rats, but these appear to be due to early toxic lesions and loss of testicular function, rather than from a specific carcinogenic effect of cadmium. Like many other metals, cadmium salts will induce mesenchymal tumors at the site of subcutaneous (s.c.) or intramuscular (i.m.) injections, but the human relevance of these is dubious. Other targets of cadmium in rodents include the liver, adrenal, pancreas, pituitary, and hematopoietic system. With the exception of testicular tumors in rodents, the mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis are poorly defined. Cadmium can cause any number of molecular lesions that would be relevant to oncogenesis in various cellular model systems. Most studies indicate cadmium is poorly mutagenic and probably acts through indirect or epigenetic mechanisms, potentially including aberrant activation of oncogenes and suppression of apoptosis

  6. Cadmium carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waalkes, Michael P

    2003-12-10

    Cadmium is a heavy metal of considerable environmental and occupational concern. Cadmium compounds are classified as human carcinogens by several regulatory agencies. The most convincing data that cadmium is carcinogenic in humans comes from studies indicating occupational cadmium exposure is associated with lung cancer. Cadmium exposure has also been linked to human prostate and renal cancer, although this linkage is weaker than for lung cancer. Other target sites of cadmium carcinogenesis in humans, such as liver, pancreas and stomach, are considered equivocal. In animals, cadmium effectively induces cancers at multiple sites and by various routes. Cadmium inhalation in rats induces pulmonary adenocarcinomas, in accord with its role in human lung cancer. Cadmium can induce tumors and/or preneoplastic lesions within the rat prostate after ingestion or injection. At relatively high doses, cadmium induces benign testicular tumors in rats, but these appear to be due to early toxic lesions and loss of testicular function, rather than from a specific carcinogenic effect of cadmium. Like many other metals, cadmium salts will induce mesenchymal tumors at the site of subcutaneous (s.c.) or intramuscular (i.m.) injections, but the human relevance of these is dubious. Other targets of cadmium in rodents include the liver, adrenal, pancreas, pituitary, and hematopoietic system. With the exception of testicular tumors in rodents, the mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis are poorly defined. Cadmium can cause any number of molecular lesions that would be relevant to oncogenesis in various cellular model systems. Most studies indicate cadmium is poorly mutagenic and probably acts through indirect or epigenetic mechanisms, potentially including aberrant activation of oncogenes and suppression of apoptosis.

  7. The Effect of Endurance Swimming Exercise Training on Structural Remodeling and Apoptotic Index of Adrenal Cortex in Pregnant Rats Exposed to Cadmium Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Dabagh Nikukheslat

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Exercise training in determined intensity increased the structural and morphological complications of cadmium toxicity in the adrenal gland of pregnant rats. So, pregnant mothers are advised to use low-intensity exercises and trainings.

  8. Effects of nanomolar cadmium concentrations on water plants - comparison of biochemical and biophysical mechanisms of toxicity under environmentally relevant conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Andresen, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, the effects of the highly toxic heavy metal cadmium (Cd) on the rootless aquatic model plant Ceratophyllum demersum are investigated on the biochemical and biophysical level. The experiments were carried out using environmentally relevant conditions, i.e. light and temperature followed a sinusoidal cycle, a low biomass to water ratio resembled the situation in oligotrophic lakes and a continuous exchange of the defined nutrient solution ensured that metal uptake into the plant...

  9. Target or barrier? The cell wall of early- and later- diverging plants vs cadmium toxicity: differences in the response mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi eParrotta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing industrialization and urbanization result in emission of pollutants in the environment including toxic heavy metals, as cadmium and lead. Among the different heavy metals contaminating the environment, cadmium raises great concern, as it is ecotoxic and as such can heavily impact ecosystems. The cell wall is the first structure of plant cells to come in contact with heavy metals. Its composition, characterized by proteins, polysaccharides and in some instances lignin and other phenolic compounds, confers the ability to bind non-covalently and/or covalently heavy metals via functional groups. A strong body of evidence in the literature has shown the role of the cell wall in heavy metal response: it sequesters heavy metals, but at the same time its synthesis and composition can be severely affected. The present review analyzes the dual property of plant cell walls, i.e. barrier and target of heavy metals, by taking Cd toxicity as example. Following a summary of the known physiological and biochemical responses of plants to Cd, the review compares the wall-related mechanisms in early- and later-diverging land plants, by considering the diversity in cell wall composition. By doing so, common as well as unique response mechanisms to metal/cadmium toxicity are identified among plant phyla and discussed. After discussing the role of hyperaccumulators’ cell walls as a particular case, the review concludes by considering important aspects for plant engineering.

  10. Assessing the impact of waterborne and dietborne cadmium toxicity on susceptibility risk for rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Chung-Min; Ju, Yun-Ru; Chen, Wei-Yu; Chen, Bo-Ching

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a risk-based integrated-scale toxicological model to examine the impact of waterborne and dietborne cadmium (Cd) toxicity on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) susceptibility appraised with recent published data. A probabilistic assessment model was performed to estimate Cd susceptibility risk. The dose-response models were constructed based on two endpoints of % Cd in metabolically active pool (MAP) and susceptibility time that causes 50% effect (ST50). We further constructed an elimination-detoxification-recovery scheme to enhance the model predictive ability. We found a 95% probability of % Cd in gill and liver MAP exceeding 47-49% and it was likely (70% probability) to have exceeded 52-55%, but it was unlikely (30% probability) to have exceeded 56-60%. In contrast to gill and liver, gut had a relative lower Cd susceptibility risk (15-17% Cd in MAP) with a longer ST50. We suggested that the proposed probabilistic risk assessment framework can incorporate the elimination-detoxification-recovery scheme to help government based biomonitoring and bioassessment programs to prevent potential aquatic ecosystems and human health consequences. - Research Highlights: → An integrated-scale toxicological model was used to examine the impact of Cd on rainbow trout. → A probabilistic assessment model was performed to estimate Cd susceptibility risk. → An elimination-detoxification-recovery scheme was constructed to enhance the model predictive ability. → Gut had a relative lower Cd susceptibility risk than that in gill and liver.

  11. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) mediate cadmium toxicity to an emergent wetland species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhenhua; Rengel, Zed; Meney, Kathy; Pantelic, Ljiljana; Tomanovic, Radmila

    2011-01-01

    Growth and pollutant removal by emergent wetland plants may be influenced by interactions among mixed pollutants in constructed wetlands. A glasshouse experiment was conducted to investigate interactive effects of cadmium (Cd) x polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) x plant treatments on growth of Juncus subsecundus, Cd and PAH removal from soil and the total number of microorganisms in soil. Growth and biomass of J. subsecundus were significantly influenced by interaction of Cd and PAHs, significantly decreasing with either Cd or PAH additions, but with the effect of Cd on plant growth being stronger than that of PAHs. The mixture of low Cd and low PAH lessened Cd toxicity to plants, resulting in improved plant growth and increased Cd accumulation in plant tissues, thus enhancing Cd removal by plants. The dissipation of PAHs in soils was significantly influenced by interactions of Cd, PAH and plant presence or absence. The total number of microorganisms in soils was significantly increased by the PAH additions. The interactive effect of Cd and PAHs on plant growth may be linked to the changes in the abundance of microorganisms in the rhizosphere, probably via a positive effect of PAH metabolites and/or phytohormones produced by microorganisms on plant growth.

  12. Joint Toxicity of Cadmium and Ionizing Radiation on Zooplankton Carbon Incorporation, Growth and Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Francisco J A; Svendsen, Claus; Bradshaw, Clare

    2016-02-02

    The risk of exposure to radioactive elements is seldom assessed considering mixture toxicity, potentially over- or underestimating biological and ecological effects on ecosystems. This study investigated how three end points, carbon transfer between phytoplankton and Daphnia magna, D. magna mobility and growth, responded to exposure to γ-radiation in combination with the heavy metal cadmium (Cd), using the MIXTOX approach. Observed effects were compared with mixture effects predicted by concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA) models and with deviations for synergistic/antagonistic (S/A), dose-level (DL), and dose-ratio (DR) dependency interactions. Several patterns of response were observed depending on the end point tested. DL-dependent deviation from the IA model was observed for carbon incorporation with antagonism switching to synergism at higher doses, while the CA model indicated synergism, mainly driven by effects at high doses of γ-radiation. CA detected antagonism regarding acute immobilization, while IA predicted DR-dependency. Both CA and IA also identified antagonism for daphnid growth. In general, effects of combinations of γ-radiation and Cd seem to be antagonistic at lower doses, but synergistic at the higher range of the doses tested. Our results highlight the importance of investigating the effects of exposure to γ-radiation in a multistressor context.

  13. Curcumin inhibits adenosine deaminase and arginase activities in cadmium-induced renal toxicity in rat kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodele Jacob Akinyemi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of enzymes involved in degradation of renal adenosine and l-arginine was investigated in rats exposed to cadmium (Cd and treated with curcumin, the principal active phytochemical in turmeric rhizome. Animals were divided into six groups (n = 6: saline/vehicle, saline/curcumin 12.5 mg/kg, saline/curcumin 25 mg/kg, Cd/vehicle, Cd/curcumin 12.5 mg/kg, and Cd/curcumin 25 mg/kg. The results of this study revealed that the activities of renal adenosine deaminase and arginase were significantly increased in Cd-treated rats when compared with the control (p < 0.05. However, co-treatment with curcumin inhibits the activities of these enzymes compared with Cd-treated rats. Furthermore, Cd intoxication increased the levels of some renal biomarkers (serum urea, creatinine, and electrolytes and malondialdehyde level with a concomitant decrease in functional sulfhydryl group and nitric oxide (NO. However, co-treatment with curcumin at 12.5 mg/kg and 25 mg/kg, respectively, increases the nonenzymatic antioxidant status and NO in the kidney, with a concomitant decrease in the levels of malondialdehyde and renal biomarkers. Therefore, our results reinforce the importance of adenosine deaminase and arginase activities in Cd poisoning conditions and suggest some possible mechanisms of action by which curcumin prevent Cd-induced renal toxicity in rats.

  14. Alleviation of cadmium toxicity in Lemna minor by exogenous salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qianqian; Zhang, Tingting; Zhang, Wei; Su, Chunlei; Yang, Yaru; Hu, Dan; Xu, Qinsong

    2018-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a significant environmental pollutant in the aquatic environment. Salicylic acid (SA) is a ubiquitous phenolic compound. The goal of this study was to assess the morphological, physiological and biochemical changes in duckweed (L. minor) upon exposure to 10μM CdCl 2 , 10μM CdCl 2 plus 50μM SA, or 50μM SA for 7 days. Reversing the effects of Cd, SA decreased Cd accumulation in plants, improved accumulation of minerals (Ca, Mg, Fe, B, Mo) absorption, increased endogenous SA concentration, and phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) activity. Chlorosis-associated symptoms, the reduction in chlorophyll content, and the overproduction of reactive oxygen species induced by Cd exposure were largely reversed by SA. SA significantly decreased the toxic effects of Cd on the activities of the superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase in the fronds of L. minor. Furthermore, SA reversed the detrimental effects of Cd on total ascorbate, glutathione, the ascorbic acid/oxidized dehydroascorbate and glutathione/glutathione disulphide ratios, lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde concentration, lipoxygenase activity, and the accumulation of proline. SA induced the up-regulation of heat shock proteins (Hsp70) and attenuated the adverse effects of Cd on cell viability. These results suggest that SA confers tolerance to Cd stress in L. minor through different mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessing the impact of waterborne and dietborne cadmium toxicity on susceptibility risk for rainbow trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Chung-Min, E-mail: cmliao@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China); Ju, Yun-Ru; Chen, Wei-Yu [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China); Chen, Bo-Ching [Department of Post-Modern Agriculture, Mingdao University, Changhua, 52345, Taiwan (China)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a risk-based integrated-scale toxicological model to examine the impact of waterborne and dietborne cadmium (Cd) toxicity on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) susceptibility appraised with recent published data. A probabilistic assessment model was performed to estimate Cd susceptibility risk. The dose-response models were constructed based on two endpoints of % Cd in metabolically active pool (MAP) and susceptibility time that causes 50% effect (ST50). We further constructed an elimination-detoxification-recovery scheme to enhance the model predictive ability. We found a 95% probability of % Cd in gill and liver MAP exceeding 47-49% and it was likely (70% probability) to have exceeded 52-55%, but it was unlikely (30% probability) to have exceeded 56-60%. In contrast to gill and liver, gut had a relative lower Cd susceptibility risk (15-17% Cd in MAP) with a longer ST50. We suggested that the proposed probabilistic risk assessment framework can incorporate the elimination-detoxification-recovery scheme to help government based biomonitoring and bioassessment programs to prevent potential aquatic ecosystems and human health consequences. - Research Highlights: {yields} An integrated-scale toxicological model was used to examine the impact of Cd on rainbow trout. {yields} A probabilistic assessment model was performed to estimate Cd susceptibility risk. {yields} An elimination-detoxification-recovery scheme was constructed to enhance the model predictive ability. {yields} Gut had a relative lower Cd susceptibility risk than that in gill and liver.

  16. Cadmium Accumulation and Its Toxicity in Brittle Culm 1 (bc1, a Fragile Rice Mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-sheng SHAO

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd accumulation and toxicity in rice plants were characterized and identified by using brittle culm 1 (bc1, a fragile rice mutant and its wild type (Shuangkezao, an indica rice as materials by hydroponics. The low Cd level didn't obviously affect the growth parameters in both rice genotypes, but under high Cd levels (1.0 and 5.0 μmol/L, the growth of both rice plants were substantially inhibited. Moreover, bc1 tended to suffer more seriously from Cd toxicity than Shuangkezao. Cd accumulation in both rice plants increased with the increase of Cd levels. There was a significant difference in Cd accumulation between the two rice genotypes with constantly higher Cd concentration in bc1, which also accumulated more Cd at 0, 0.1, and 1.0 μmol/L Cd levels. The same case was found in the two rice plants grown on Cd-contaminated soil. This suggested that cell wall might play an important role in Cd accumulation in rice plants by the physiological mechanisms. The malondialdehyde (MDA content, superoxide dismutase (SOD and peroxidase (POD activities in rice plants were affected differently under Cd treatments, and which implied that POD might play the main role in detoxifying active oxygen free radical. A significant difference in antioxidative system between the two rice genotypes was found with constantly higher MDA content, SOD and POD activities in bc1. In summary, bc1 accumulated more Cd and appeared to be more sensitive to Cd stress compared with its wild type.

  17. Alleviation of cadmium toxicity in Medicago sativa by hydrogen-rich water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Weiti; Gao, Cunyi; Fang, Peng [College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Lin, Guoqing [Laboratory Center of Life Sciences, Co. Laboratory of Nanjing Agricultural University and Carl Zeiss Far East, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Shen, Wenbiao, E-mail: wbshenh@njau.edu.cn [College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • HRW can alleviate Cd-induced alfalfa seedling growth inhibition and DNA laddering. • HRW alleviates Cd-induced oxidative stress by activating antioxidant enzymes. • Cd uptake in alfalfa seedling roots was decreased by HRW. • HRW can re-establish glutathione homeostasis under Cd stress. -- Abstract: Hydrogen gas (H{sub 2}) induces plant tolerance to several abiotic stresses, including salinity and paraquat exposure. However, the role of H{sub 2} in cadmium (Cd)-induced stress amelioration is largely unknown. Here, pretreatment with hydrogen-rich water (HRW) was used to characterize physiological roles and molecular mechanisms of H{sub 2} in the alleviation of Cd toxicity in alfalfa plants. Our results showed that the addition of HRW at 10% saturation significantly decreased contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) caused by Cd, and inhibited the appearance of Cd toxicity symptoms, including the improvement of root elongation and seedling growth. These responses were related to a significant increase in the total or isozymatic activities of representative antioxidant enzymes, or their corresponding transcripts. In vivo imaging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the detection of lipid peroxidation and the loss of plasma membrane integrity provided further evidence for the ability of HRW to improve Cd tolerance significantly, which was consistent with a significant enhancement of the ratio of reduced/oxidized (homo)glutathione ((h)GSH). Additionally, plants pretreated with HRW accumulated less amounts of Cd. Together, this study suggested that the usage of HRW could be an effective approach for Cd detoxification and could be explored in agricultural production systems.

  18. Alleviation of cadmium toxicity in Medicago sativa by hydrogen-rich water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Weiti; Gao, Cunyi; Fang, Peng; Lin, Guoqing; Shen, Wenbiao

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • HRW can alleviate Cd-induced alfalfa seedling growth inhibition and DNA laddering. • HRW alleviates Cd-induced oxidative stress by activating antioxidant enzymes. • Cd uptake in alfalfa seedling roots was decreased by HRW. • HRW can re-establish glutathione homeostasis under Cd stress. -- Abstract: Hydrogen gas (H 2 ) induces plant tolerance to several abiotic stresses, including salinity and paraquat exposure. However, the role of H 2 in cadmium (Cd)-induced stress amelioration is largely unknown. Here, pretreatment with hydrogen-rich water (HRW) was used to characterize physiological roles and molecular mechanisms of H 2 in the alleviation of Cd toxicity in alfalfa plants. Our results showed that the addition of HRW at 10% saturation significantly decreased contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) caused by Cd, and inhibited the appearance of Cd toxicity symptoms, including the improvement of root elongation and seedling growth. These responses were related to a significant increase in the total or isozymatic activities of representative antioxidant enzymes, or their corresponding transcripts. In vivo imaging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the detection of lipid peroxidation and the loss of plasma membrane integrity provided further evidence for the ability of HRW to improve Cd tolerance significantly, which was consistent with a significant enhancement of the ratio of reduced/oxidized (homo)glutathione ((h)GSH). Additionally, plants pretreated with HRW accumulated less amounts of Cd. Together, this study suggested that the usage of HRW could be an effective approach for Cd detoxification and could be explored in agricultural production systems

  19. In Vitro Assessment of Cadmium Bioavailability in Chinese Cabbage Grown on Different Soils and Its Toxic Effects on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukhsanda Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The minimum concentration of cadmium (Cd, by Chinese cabbage grown on Cd contaminated soils that can initiate toxicity in human liver cells using in vitro digestion coupled with Caco-2/HL-7702 cell models was studied. Cadmium bioaccessibility in the gastric phase for yellow soil (YS cabbage (40.84% and calcareous soil (CS cabbage (21.54% was significantly higher than small intestinal phase with the corresponding values of 21.2% and 11.11%, respectively. Cadmium bioavailability was higher in YS cabbage (5.27%–14.66% than in CS cabbage (1.12%–9.64%. Cadmium concentrations (>0.74 μg transported from YS and CS cabbage were able to induce oxidative (MDA, H2O2 stress by inhibiting antioxidant (SOD, GPx enzyme activities in human liver cells (HL-7702. Additionally the study revealed that the ingestion of Cd contaminated Chinese cabbage grown in acidic soil (yellow soil weakened the antioxidant defense system under all levels of contamination (2, 6, and 9 mg·kg−1 which ultimately escalated the oxidative stress in liver cells; however, in case of CS cabbage, a marked oxidative stress was observed only at 9 mg kg−1 Cd level of soil. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor Cd concentrations in leafy vegetables grown on acidic soils to minimize human health risk.

  20. In Vitro Assessment of Cadmium Bioavailability in Chinese Cabbage Grown on Different Soils and Its Toxic Effects on Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq; He, Zhenli; Sun, Kewang; Xiaoe, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The minimum concentration of cadmium (Cd), by Chinese cabbage grown on Cd contaminated soils that can initiate toxicity in human liver cells using in vitro digestion coupled with Caco-2/HL-7702 cell models was studied. Cadmium bioaccessibility in the gastric phase for yellow soil (YS) cabbage (40.84%) and calcareous soil (CS) cabbage (21.54%) was significantly higher than small intestinal phase with the corresponding values of 21.2% and 11.11%, respectively. Cadmium bioavailability was higher in YS cabbage (5.27%–14.66%) than in CS cabbage (1.12%–9.64%). Cadmium concentrations (>0.74 μg) transported from YS and CS cabbage were able to induce oxidative (MDA, H2O2) stress by inhibiting antioxidant (SOD, GPx) enzyme activities in human liver cells (HL-7702). Additionally the study revealed that the ingestion of Cd contaminated Chinese cabbage grown in acidic soil (yellow soil) weakened the antioxidant defense system under all levels of contamination (2, 6, and 9 mg·kg−1) which ultimately escalated the oxidative stress in liver cells; however, in case of CS cabbage, a marked oxidative stress was observed only at 9 mg kg−1 Cd level of soil. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor Cd concentrations in leafy vegetables grown on acidic soils to minimize human health risk. PMID:26167479

  1. Cadmium toxicity studies under long term-low level exposure (LLE) conditions. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbioni, E.; Marafante, E.; Amantini, L.; Ubertalli, L.; Pietra, R.

    1978-01-01

    A long term-low level exposure (LLE) experiment was conducted on rats to determine the metabolic patterns for realistic dietary levels of cadmium. Male rats fed with 61 ppb of cadmium ad libitum, 50 labelled with 109 Cd radiotracer as cadmium chloride via drinking mineral water and 11 unlabelled via food for 2 years. The diet was characterized in its metal content by neutron activation analysis to obtain the total dietary intake of different elements. The kidney was found to be the tissue with the major concentration of cadmium which accumulated continuously during the experiment. The variation of the accumulation pattern of Cd concentration in the liver and intestine indicated an initial rapid increase of Cd during the first 100 days. After this period an apparent equilibrium was attained in both these tissues until the end of the study. The intracellular distribution of cadmium in kidneys, liver, intestine and pancreas were similar, the cytosol fractions containing about 80% of the cellular cadmium. Dialysis experiments indicated that significant amounts of cadmium were able to be associated with cellular organelles, the mitochondria representing the most important organelle capable of binding cadmium. The cytoplasmatic Cd-profiles obtained at various stages of the experiment showed that the metal was only bound to a low-molecular-weight component, cadmium-binding protein (CdBP), which represents the specific cellular-binding component for cadmium under the long term-low level exposure (LLE) conditions. No significant variations in the concentrations of the elements in different organs were observed in animals supplemented with 109 Cd in respect to 109 Cd untreated controls. (Auth.)

  2. Effect of cadmium on genetic toxicity and protection of cortex acanthopanasia radicis against genetic damage induced by cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Bing; Pang Huimin; Chen Minyi

    1999-01-01

    Objective and Methods: The test of sperm aberration and micronucleus of bone marrow cells in mice were used to detect the mutagenicity of cadmium and anti-mutagenicity of Cortex Acanthopanasia Radicis (CAR) on germ cell and somatic cell. Kunming mice were divided randomly into four groups: normal saline control group (NS): MMC control group (MMC 1.0 mg/kg); Cd-mutate group (1/5 LD 50 ), 17.6 mg/kg); CAR anti-mutate group (CAR 1,2,4 g/kg + Cd). Ridit test and x 2 were used to evaluate the statistical significance of the date. Results: The experiment demonstrated that Chinese medicine CAR can significantly decrease sperm aberration and micronuclei frequencies induced by Cd (P<0.01). Conclusion: As an anti-mutagen CAR has practical value in occupational protection against genetic damage induced by Cd

  3. Effect of zinc fertilization on cadmium toxicity in durum and bread wheat grown in zinc-deficient soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeleli, Nurcan; Eker, Selim; Cakmak, Ismail

    2004-01-01

    The effect of increasing application of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) on shoot dry weight and shoot concentrations of Zn and Cd was studied in bread and durum wheat cultivars. Plants were grown in severely Zn-deficient calcareous soil treated with increasing Zn (0 and 10 mg kg -1 soil) and Cd (0, 10 and 25 mg kg -1 soil) and harvested after 35 and 65 days of growth under greenhouse conditions. Growing plants without Zn fertilization caused severe depression in shoot growth, especially in durum wheat and at high Cd treatment. Cadmium treatments resulted in rapid development of necrotic patches on the base and sheath parts of the oldest leaves of both wheat cultivars, but symptoms were more severe in durum wheat and under Zn deficiency. Decreases in shoot dry weight from increasing Cd application were more severe in Zn-deficient plants. Severity of Cd toxicity symptoms in durum and bread wheat at different Zn treatments did not show any relation to the Cd concentrations in shoot. Increasing Cd application to Zn-deficient plants tended to decrease Zn concentrations in Zn-deficient plants, whereas in plants with adequate Zn, concentrations of Zn were either not affected or increased by Cd. The results show that durum wheat was more sensitive to both Zn deficiency and Cd toxicity as compared to bread wheat. Cadmium toxicity in the shoot was alleviated by Zn treatment, but this was not accompanied by a corresponding decrease in shoot concentrations of Cd. Our results are compatible with the hypothesis that Zn protects plants from Cd toxicity by improving plant defense against Cd-induced oxidative stress and by competing with Cd for binding to critical cell constituents such as enzymes and membrane protein and lipids

  4. Associations between cadmium exposure and neurocognitive test scores in a cross-sectional study of US adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ciesielski, Timothy; Bellinger, David C.; Schwartz, Joel David; Hauser, Russ B.; Wright, Robert O.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Low-level environmental cadmium exposure and neurotoxicity has not been well studied in adults. Our goal was to evaluate associations between neurocognitive exam scores and a biomarker of cumulative cadmium exposure among adults in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Methods: NHANES III is a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of the U.S. population conducted between 1988 and 1994. We analyzed data from a subset of participants, ag...

  5. Temperature dependence of long-term cadmium toxicity in the zebrafish is not explained by liver oxidative stress: Evidence from transcript expression to physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergauwen, Lucia; Hagenaars, An; Blust, Ronny; Knapen, Dries

    2013-01-01

    Standard ecotoxicity tests are performed at species’ specific standard temperatures, but temperature is known to affect chemical toxicity. A temperature increase has been shown to increase cadmium toxicity in several aquatic species but information in fish is scarce. Based on literature we hypothesize that with increasing temperature, cadmium accumulation and oxidative stress increase, resulting in increased toxicity. In this study zebrafish acclimated to 12, 18, 26 (standard temperature) or 34 °C for one month, were exposed to 5 μM cadmium for 4 or 28 days at the respective acclimation temperature. Cadmium toxicity (mortality) increased with increasing temperature. PCA showed that the high mortality at 34 °C was closely correlated to an increasing tissue cadmium accumulation with increasing temperature, but not to liver oxidative damage under the form of protein carbonyl content or lipid peroxidation (measured as malondialdehyde levels) or liver antioxidative potential. Instead, acclimation to 12 °C induced the highest oxidative damage to liver proteins and lipids, and transcript levels of glucose-6P-dehydrogenase, 6P-gluconate-dehydrogenase and glutathione peroxidase were particularly good markers of cold-induced oxidative stress. At this low temperature there was no interaction with cadmium exposure and there was no sign of cadmium sensitivity. Contrastingly, the combined effect of high temperature and cadmium exposure on mortality proved synergistic. Therefore we conclude that interactions between temperature and cadmium toxicity increased with increasing temperature and that this probably played part in increasing cadmium sensitivity. Increased cadmium compartmentalization and protein carbonyl content in liver of zebrafish acclimated to the standard temperature of 26 °C probably played part in increased sensitivity towards the same cadmium body burden compared to lower temperatures. On the one hand we recognize and this study even confirms the

  6. Associations between cadmium exposure and neurocognitive test scores in a cross-sectional study of US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, Timothy; Bellinger, David C; Schwartz, Joel; Hauser, Russ; Wright, Robert O

    2013-02-05

    Low-level environmental cadmium exposure and neurotoxicity has not been well studied in adults. Our goal was to evaluate associations between neurocognitive exam scores and a biomarker of cumulative cadmium exposure among adults in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). NHANES III is a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of the U.S. population conducted between 1988 and 1994. We analyzed data from a subset of participants, age 20-59, who participated in a computer-based neurocognitive evaluation. There were four outcome measures: the Simple Reaction Time Test (SRTT: visual motor speed), the Symbol Digit Substitution Test (SDST: attention/perception), the Serial Digit Learning Test (SDLT) trials-to-criterion, and the SDLT total-error-score (SDLT-tests: learning recall/short-term memory). We fit multivariable-adjusted models to estimate associations between urinary cadmium concentrations and test scores. 5662 participants underwent neurocognitive screening, and 5572 (98%) of these had a urinary cadmium level available. Prior to multivariable-adjustment, higher urinary cadmium concentration was associated with worse performance in each of the 4 outcomes. After multivariable-adjustment most of these relationships were not significant, and age was the most influential variable in reducing the association magnitudes. However among never-smokers with no known occupational cadmium exposure the relationship between urinary cadmium and SDST score (attention/perception) was significant: a 1 μg/L increase in urinary cadmium corresponded to a 1.93% (95%CI: 0.05, 3.81) decrement in performance. These results suggest that higher cumulative cadmium exposure in adults may be related to subtly decreased performance in tasks requiring attention and perception, particularly among those adults whose cadmium exposure is primarily though diet (no smoking or work based cadmium exposure). This association was observed among exposure levels

  7. Toxicity assessment of simulated urban runoff containing polycyclic musks and cadmium in Carassius auratus using oxidative stress biomarkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Fang; Gao Jie; Zhou Qixing

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess potential toxic effects of simulated urban runoff on Carassius auratus using oxidative stress biomarkers. The activity of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver of C. auratus were analyzed after a 7-, 14- and 21-day exposure to simulated urban runoff containing galaxolide (HHCB) and cadmium (Cd). The results showed that the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the content of MDA increased significantly exposed to the simulated urban runoff containing HHCB alone or mixture of HHCB and Cd. The activity of the investigated enzymes and the content of MDA then returned to the blank level over a longer period of exposure. The oxidative stress could be obviously caused in the liver of C. auratus under the experimental conditions. This could provide useful information for toxic risk assessment of urban runoff. - Highlights: ► We assessed potential toxicity of urban runoff containing HHCB and Cd. ► Exposure of simulated urban runoff can caused oxidative stress in C. auratus liver. ► SOD and CAT are more sensitive than POD and more suitable for indicating the toxicity of urban runoff. ► The present study using oxidative stress biomarkers could provide useful information for toxic risk assessment of urban runoff. - Simulated urban runoff containing HHCB and Cd could cause oxidative stress on the liver of Carassius auratus, which could provide useful information for toxic risk assessment of urban runoff.

  8. Exposure of cultured human proximal tubular cells to cadmium, mercury, zinc and bismuth: toxicity and metallothionein induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodilla, V; Miles, A T; Jenner, W; Hawksworth, G M

    1998-08-14

    The kidney, in particular the proximal convoluted tubule, is a major target site for the toxic effects of various metals. However, little is known about the early effects of these metals after acute exposure in man. In the present study we have evaluated the toxicity of several inorganic metal compounds (CdCl2, HgCl2, ZnCl2, and Bi(NO3)3) and the induction of metallothionein by these compounds in cultured human proximal tubular (HPT) cells for up to 4 days. The results showed that bismuth was not toxic even at the highest dose (100 microM) used, while zinc, cadmium and mercury exhibited varying degrees of toxicity, zinc being the least toxic and mercury the most potent. A significant degree of interindividual variation between the different isolates used in these experiments was also observed. All metals used in the present study induced MT, as revealed by immunocytochemistry. All metals showed maximal induction between 1 and 3 days after treatment. Although a certain amount of constitutive MT was present in the cultures, the intensity of the staining varied with time in culture and between the different isolates studied. No correlation could be made between the intensity of the staining in control cultures (indicating total amount of constitutive MT) and the susceptibility of a given isolate to metal toxicity. Furthermore, no correlation could be made between metal-induced MT and the susceptibility of a given isolate to that particular metal.

  9. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Colonization Alters Subcellular Distribution and Chemical Forms of Cadmium in Medicago sativa L. and Resists Cadmium Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanzheng

    2012-01-01

    Some plants can tolerate and even detoxify soils contaminated with heavy metals. This detoxification ability may depend on what chemical forms of metals are taken up by plants and how the plants distribute the toxins in their tissues. This, in turn, may have an important impact on phytoremediation. We investigated the impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, Glomus intraradices, on the subcellular distribution and chemical forms of cadmium (Cd) in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) that were grown in Cd-added soils. The fungus significantly colonized alfalfa roots by day 25 after planting. Colonization of alfalfa by G. intraradices in soils contaminated with Cd ranged from 17% to 69% after 25–60 days and then decreased to 43%. The biomass of plant shoots with AM fungi showed significant 1.7-fold increases compared to no AM fungi addition under the treatment of 20 mg·kg−1 Cd. Concentrations of Cd in the shoots of alfalfa under 0.5, 5, and 20 mg·kg−1 Cd without AM fungal inoculation are 1.87, 2.92, and 2.38 times higher, respectively, than those of fungi-inoculated plants. Fungal inoculation increased Cd (37.2–80.5%) in the cell walls of roots and shoots and decreased in membranes after 80 days of incubation compared to untreated plants. The proportion of the inactive forms of Cd in roots was higher in fungi-treated plants than in controls. Furthermore, although fungi-treated plants had less overall Cd in subcellular fragments in shoots, they had more inactive Cd in shoots than did control plants. These results provide a basis for further research on plant-microbe symbioses in soils contaminated with heavy metals, which may potentially help us develop management regimes for phytoremediation. PMID:23139811

  10. Genetic and Histopathological Responses to Cadmium Toxicity in Rabbit's Kidney and Liver: Protection by Ginger (Zingiber officinale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiomy, Ahmed A; Mansour, Ahmed A

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the protective effects of ginger (G) on the genetic response induced by cadmium (Cd) and immunohistochemical expression of Caspase3 and MKI67 in the kidney and liver of rabbits. Male rabbits were divided into three groups; each group contains 10 animals: group (C) received basic diet and tap water for 12 weeks, the second group (Cd) received 200 mg/kg b.w CdCl2 in water for 12 weeks, group (Cd + G) was given 200 mg/kg b.w CdCl2 in water and 400 mg ginger/kg b.w in food for 12 weeks. Cd administration increased the activity of mRNA expression of the examined apoptotic (Caspase3), proliferation (MKI67), proto-oncogene (C-fos), and antioxidant (GST), while decreased the expression of anti-apoptotic (Bcl2). Ginger counteracted the effects of Cd in (Cd + G) group and downregulated the previously upregulated genes under Cd administration appeared in (Cd) group. The immunohistochemical expression of Caspase3 and MKI67 in the liver and kidney cells of the (C) group was shown very faint to negative reactions, strong staining in hepatocytes and the tubular epithelium in cadmium-treated group, while slight staining in some hepatocytes and tubular epithelium in co-administration with ginger in (Cd + G) group. In conclusion, ginger administration showed a protective effect against cadmium toxicity.

  11. Grafting of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus cv. Mahbubi) onto different squash rootstocks as a means to minimize cadmium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirani Bidabadi, Siamak; Abolghasemi, Reza; Zheng, Si-Jun

    2018-06-07

    To test the possibility that using appropriate rootstocks could improve the tolerance of watermelon to cadmium (Cd) toxicity, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine growth and antioxidant activities of watermelons, either nongrafted or grafted onto summer squash and winter squash. We provided nutrient solutions having four levels (0, 50, 100, and 200 μM) of cadmium to treat the plants. Shoot and root biomass reduction were significantly lower in summer squash rootstock-grafted watermelon than winter squash rootstock-grafted and nongrafted watermelons. Cadmium induced a smaller decrease in leaf area index in grafted watermelons compared with nongrafted plants. The Cd- related reductions in chlorophyll content and efficiency of photosynthesis were more severe in nongrafted watermelons compared with dose grafted onto summer squash. Cd accumulation in shoot at the highest dose (200 µM) of CdCl 2 was significantly lower (19.76 mg/kg) in summer squash rootstock-grafted watermelon compared with winter squash rootstock-grafted (37.58 mg/kg) and nongrafted watermelon (72.12 mg/kg). H 2 O 2 , MDA production and electrolyte leakage of summer squash rootstock-grafted watermelon showed less increase, which was associated with a significant increase in the activities of antioxidant. The improved crop performance of grafted watermelons was attributed to their strong capacity to inhibit Cd accumulation in the aerial parts.

  12. An omics based assessment of cadmium toxicity in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamers, An; Blust, Ronny; De Coen, Wim [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Griffin, Julian L. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, 80 Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 2QA (United Kingdom); Jones, Oliver A.H., E-mail: oliver.jones@rmit.edu.au [School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, GPO Box 2476, Melbourne, VIC 3001 (Australia)

    2013-01-15

    The effects of cadmium were assessed in the freshwater alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Algae were exposed to concentrations of 0, 8.1 or 114.8 {mu}M of cadmium and growth rates, gene transcription and metabolite profiles were examined after 48 and 72 h of exposure. In algae exposed to 8.1 {mu}M Cd, several genes were differentially transcribed after 48 h but no adverse growth related effects were detected. A transient effect on both gene transcription patterns and metabolite profiles could be discerned after 48 h of exposure but the majority of these changes disappeared after 72 h. In contrast, all effects were more pronounced at the 114.8 {mu}M cadmium exposure. Here growth was clearly reduced and transcription of a large number of genes involved in oxidative stress defense mechanisms was differentially increased. Metabolites involved in the glutathione synthesis pathway (an important antioxidant defense) were also affected but the effects of cadmium were found to be more pronounced at the transcript level than in the metabolome, suggesting that the former exhibits greater sensitivity toward cadmium exposure.

  13. Effect of cadmium toxicity on nitrogen metabolism in leaves of Solanum nigrum L. as a newly found cadmium hyperaccumulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lin; Zhou Qixing; Ding Lingling; Sun Yuebing

    2008-01-01

    Hyperaccumulators are ideal plant species used for phytoremediation of soils contaminated by heavy metals. A full understanding of metal tolerance mechanisms of hyperaccumulators will facilitate enhancing their phytoremediation efficiency. However, how Cd affects N metabolism and which role plays the response of N metabolism to Cd toxicity in the tolerance of hyperaccumulators are still unknown. To clarify these questions, this study investigated the effects of various soil Cd levels on the concentrations of N forms and the activity of key enzymes involved in N metabolism in leaves of the Cd hyperaccumulator, Solanum nigrum L. The results showed that its growth and all N metabolism indicators were normal at low Cd exposure (≤12 mg kg -1 ). At 24 mg Cd kg -1 soil, nitrate assimilation indicators (nitrate concentration and activity of nitrate reductase) were reduced significantly, whereas most ammonia assimilation indicators (ammonium concentration and activity of glutamine synthetase) remained normal. However, when exposed to a higher Cd level (48 mg kg -1 ), growth and most N metabolism indicators were reduced significantly. Therefore, N metabolism in leaves of S. nigrum could be tolerant of Cd toxicity to a certain extent (soil Cd concentration ≤12 mg kg -1 ), and this might be involved in the Cd-tolerance of this Cd-hyperaccumulator

  14. Cadmium Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    carcinogenic, leachable Trivalent and non- chrome passivates generally struggle with conductivity Major Differences in Trivalent vs. Hexavalent Passivates...for Change Cadmium passivated with hexavalent chromium has been in use for many decades Cadmium is toxic, and is classified as a priority...Executive Orders 13514 & 13423 DoD initiatives – Young memo (April 2009) DFAR restricting use of hexavalent chromium Allows the use of hexavalent

  15. Hormesis and stage specific toxicity induced by cadmium in an insect model, the queen blowfly, Phormia regina Meig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascarella, Marc A.; Stoffolano, John G.; Stanek, Edward J.; Kostecki, Paul T.; Calabrese, Edward J

    2003-07-01

    This is the first report of a heavy metal displaying a hormetic-like biphasic response for early developmental success, while at the same time displaying stage-specific toxicity at a later developmental stage. - Hormesis is an adaptive response, commonly characterized by a biphasic dose-response that can be either directly induced, or the result of compensatory biological processes following an initial disruption in homeostasis [Calabrese and Baldwin, Hum. Exp. Toxicol., 21 (2002), 91]. Low and environmentally relevant levels of dietary cadmium significantly enhanced the pupation rate of blowfly larvae, while higher doses inhibited pupation success. However, dietary cadmium at all exposure levels adversely affected the emergence of the adult fly from the pupal case. Such findings represent the first report of a heavy metal displaying a hormetic-like biphasic response for pupation success, while at the same time displaying stage-specific toxicity at a later developmental period. These conclusions are based on substantial experimentation of over 1750 blowflies, in seven replicate experiments, involving 10 concentrations per experiment. These findings indicate the need to assess the impact of environmental stressors over a broad range of potential exposures as well as throughout the entire life cycle.

  16. Hormesis and stage specific toxicity induced by cadmium in an insect model, the queen blowfly, Phormia regina Meig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascarella, Marc A.; Stoffolano, John G.; Stanek, Edward J.; Kostecki, Paul T.; Calabrese, Edward J.

    2003-01-01

    This is the first report of a heavy metal displaying a hormetic-like biphasic response for early developmental success, while at the same time displaying stage-specific toxicity at a later developmental stage. - Hormesis is an adaptive response, commonly characterized by a biphasic dose-response that can be either directly induced, or the result of compensatory biological processes following an initial disruption in homeostasis [Calabrese and Baldwin, Hum. Exp. Toxicol., 21 (2002), 91]. Low and environmentally relevant levels of dietary cadmium significantly enhanced the pupation rate of blowfly larvae, while higher doses inhibited pupation success. However, dietary cadmium at all exposure levels adversely affected the emergence of the adult fly from the pupal case. Such findings represent the first report of a heavy metal displaying a hormetic-like biphasic response for pupation success, while at the same time displaying stage-specific toxicity at a later developmental period. These conclusions are based on substantial experimentation of over 1750 blowflies, in seven replicate experiments, involving 10 concentrations per experiment. These findings indicate the need to assess the impact of environmental stressors over a broad range of potential exposures as well as throughout the entire life cycle

  17. Role of L-carnitine in Ameliorating the Cadmium Chloride and/or Irradiation-Induced Testicular Toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, L.A.

    2003-01-01

    The role of oxidative stress in chronic administration of CdCl2 and/or irradiation toxicity and its prevention by pretreatment with L-carnitine was investigated. Adult male rats were administered with CdCl2 (3 mg/kg S.C. three times a week for three weeks) and /or irradiated at (2 Gy) dose level of gamma radiation. CdCl2 administration and/or irradiation induced cellular damage was indicated by significant decrease in lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme (LDH-X), glutathione level (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity (GSH-PX) as well as significant increase in malonaldehyde (MDA) in testicular tissues. Administration of L-carnitine (200 mg/kg I.P.) 1 hr before CdCl2 and/or irradiation, ameliorated the decrease in LDH-X, GSH and GSH-PX and the increase in MDA induced by CdCl2 and/or irradiation indicating the prophylactic action of L-carnitine on CdCl2 and /or irradiation toxicity. Various studies have indicated that cadmium is a potent heavy metal carcinogen in experimental animals (Poirier et al., 1983 and Waalkes et al..,1988) and is possibly carcinogenic in human populations exposed either occupationally or environmentally (Bako et al., 1982). Target sites for cadmium carcinogenesis in rodents have been shown to include testes after parenteral exposure (Poirier et al., 1983 and Waalkes et al., 1988) and lung after chronic inhalation (Takenaka et al., 1983)

  18. Cadmium toxicity investigated at the physiological and biophysical levels under environmentally relevant conditions using the aquatic model plant Ceratophyllum demersum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Elisa; Kappel, Sophie; Stärk, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an important environmental pollutant and is poisonous to most organisms. We aimed to unravel the mechanisms of Cd toxicity in the model water plant Ceratophyllum demersum exposed to low (nM) concentrations of Cd as are present in nature. Experiments were conducted under environmen......Cadmium (Cd) is an important environmental pollutant and is poisonous to most organisms. We aimed to unravel the mechanisms of Cd toxicity in the model water plant Ceratophyllum demersum exposed to low (nM) concentrations of Cd as are present in nature. Experiments were conducted under...... environmentally relevant conditions, including nature-like light and temperature cycles, and a low biomass to water ratio. We measured chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence kinetics, oxygen exchange, the concentrations of reactive oxygen species and pigments, metal binding to proteins, and the accumulation of starch...... and metals. The inhibition threshold concentration for most parameters was 20 nM. Below this concentration, hardly any stress symptoms were observed. The first site of inhibition was photosynthetic light reactions (the maximal quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) reaction centre measured as Fv /Fm , light...

  19. Time-dependent toxicity of cadmium telluride quantum dots on liver and kidneys in mice: histopathological changes with elevated free cadmium ions and hydroxyl radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang M

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mengmeng Wang,1,2,* Jilong Wang,1,2,* Hubo Sun,1,2 Sihai Han,3 Shuai Feng,1 Lu Shi,1 Peijun Meng,1,2 Jiayi Li,1,2 Peili Huang,1,2 Zhiwei Sun1,2 1Department of Toxicology and Sanitary Chemistry, School of Public Health, Capital Medical University, 2Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 3College of Food and Bioengineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: A complete understanding of the toxicological behavior of quantum dots (QDs in vivo is of great importance and a prerequisite for their application in humans. In contrast with the numerous cytotoxicity studies investigating QDs, only a few in vivo studies of QDs have been reported, and the issue remains controversial. Our study aimed to understand QD-mediated toxicity across different time points and to explore the roles of free cadmium ions (Cd2+ and hydroxyl radicals (·OH in tissue damage. Male ICR mice were administered a single intravenous dose (1.5 µmol/kg of CdTe QDs, and liver and kidney function and morphology were subsequently examined at 1, 7, 14, and 28 days. Furthermore, ·OH production in the tissue was quantified by trapping ·OH with salicylic acid (SA as 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA and detecting it using a high-performance liquid chromatography fluorescence method. We used the induction of tissue metallothionein levels and 2,3-DHBA:SA ratios as markers for elevated Cd2+ from the degradation of QDs and ·OH generation in the tissue, respectively. Our experimental results revealed that the QD-induced histopathological changes were time-dependent with elevated Cd2+ and ·OH, and could recover after a period of time. The Cd2+ and ·OH exhibited delayed effects in terms of histopathological abnormalities. Histological assessments performed at multiple time points might facilitate the evaluation of the biological safety of

  20. Localization and toxic effects of cadmium, copper, and uranium in Azolla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sela, M.; Tel-Or, E.; Fritz, E.; Huttermann, A.

    1988-01-01

    The storage and distribution of copper, cadmium, and uranium and their effects on ionic contents in roots and shoots of Azolla filiculoides has been studied by x-ray microanalysis. The relative content of copper was eightfold higher in the root than in the shoot, suggesting low mobility of this metal in Azolla plant. Cadmium relative content in the shoot was similar to its content in the root, hence its mobility was relatively high. The absence of significant uranium quantities in the shoot and its relative high content in the root suggest the immobility of this metal from Azolla root. Cadmium formed precipitates with phosphate and calcium in xylem cells of the shoot bundle and caused a two- to threefold increase in the content of phosphate in the root. Uranium in roots and cadmium in shoots were associated with calcium. All three treatments caused losses of potassium, chloride, and magnesium from Azolla roots. Accumulation of heavy metals in Azolla and their mobility from the root to the shoot can be correlated with damage caused by the loss of essential nutrients

  1. Localization and toxic effects of cadmium, copper, and uranium in azolla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sela, M; Tel-Or, E; Fritz, E; Huttermann, A

    1988-09-01

    The storage and distribution of copper, cadmium, and uranium and their effects on ionic contents in roots and shoots of Azolla filiculoides has been studied by x-ray microanalysis. The relative content of copper was eightfold higher in the root than in the shoot, suggesting low mobility of this metal in Azolla plant. Cadmium relative content in the shoot was similar to its content in the root, hence its mobility was relatively high. The absence of significant uranium quantities in the shoot and its relative high content in the root suggest the immobility of this metal from Azolla root. Cadmium formed precipitates with phosphate and calcium in xylem cells of the shoot bundle and caused a two- to threefold increase in the content of phosphate in the root. Uranium in roots and cadmium in shoots were associated with calcium. All three treatments caused losses of potassium, chloride, and magnesium from Azolla roots. Accumulation of heavy metals in Azolla and their mobility from the root to the shoot can be correlated with damage caused by the loss of essential nutrients.

  2. Localization and Toxic Effects of Cadmium, Copper, and Uranium in Azolla1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sela, Mordechai; Tel-Or, Elisha; Fritz, Eberhardt; Huttermann, Aloys

    1988-01-01

    The storage and distribution of copper, cadmium, and uranium and their effects on ionic contents in roots and shoots of Azolla filiculoides has been studied by x-ray microanalysis. The relative content of copper was eightfold higher in the root than in the shoot, suggesting low mobility of this metal in Azolla plant. Cadmium relative content in the shoot was similar to its content in the root, hence its mobility was relatively high. The absence of significant uranium quantities in the shoot and its relative high content in the root suggest the immobility of this metal from Azolla root. Cadmium formed precipitates with phosphate and calcium in xylem cells of the shoot bundle and caused a two- to threefold increase in the content of phosphate in the root. Uranium in roots and cadmium in shoots were associated with calcium. All three treatments caused losses of potassium, chloride, and magnesium from Azolla roots. Accumulation of heavy metals in Azolla and their mobility from the root to the shoot can be correlated with damage caused by the loss of essential nutrients. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 5 Fig. 7 PMID:16666274

  3. Effect of taurine supplementation on hepatic metabolism and alleviation of cadmium toxicity and bioaccumulation in a marine teleost, red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hano, Takeshi; Ito, Katsutoshi; Kono, Kumiko; Ito, Mana; Ohkubo, Nobuyuki; Mochida, Kazuhiko

    2017-02-01

    This study was performed to unravel the mechanism of the beneficial action of taurine on marine teleost fish, red sea bream (Pagrus major), by analyzing the hepatic metabolism. Moreover, the ameliorative effects of the nutrient against cadmium toxicity and bioaccumulation were further evaluated. The fish were fed a diet containing 0 % (TAU0 %), 0.5 % (TAU0.5 %), or 5.0 % (TAU5.0 %) taurine for 40-55 days (d) and subjected to cadmium acute toxicity and bioaccumulation tests. Taurine deficiency in feed severely affected growth and the hepatic metabolic profiles of the fish, including a remarkable increase in myo-inositol, aspartate, and ß-alanine in the TAU0 % group, which indicates a complementary physiological response to taurine deficiency. For the acute toxicity test, fish were fed the test diets for 55 d and were then exposed to different dose of cadmium ranging from 0 to 5.6 mg/L for 96 h. Fish fed taurine had a higher tolerance to cadmium than those not fed taurine. For the bioaccumulation test, fish were fed the test diets for 40 d and then were chronically exposed to 0.2 mg/L of cadmium for 28 d followed by depuration for 21 d. Cadmium concentrations in the liver and muscle of fish fed TAU5.0 % were significantly lower than those of fish fed TAU0 % for the first 7 d of exposure and the first 7 d of elimination. Our findings suggest a possible mechanism for the beneficial role played by taurine and that the inclusion of taurine in fish aquaculture feed may reduce cadmium contamination of fish intended for human consumption.

  4. Evaluation of the toxic effects of arsenite, chromate, cadmium, and copper using a battery of four bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Kyung-Seok; Lee, Pyeong-Koo [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Geologic Environment Div.; Kong, In Chul [Yeungnam Univ., Kyungbuk (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Environmental Engineering

    2012-09-15

    The sensitivities of four different kinds of bioassays to the toxicities of arsenite, chromate, cadmium, and copper were compared. The different bioassays exhibited different sensitivities, i.e., they responded to different levels of toxicity of each of the different metals. However, with the exception of the {alpha}-glucosidase enzyme activity, arsenite was the most toxic compound towards all the tested organisms, exhibiting the highest toxic effect on the seeds of Lactuca, with an EC{sub 50} value of 0.63 mg/L. The sensitivities of Lactuca and Raphanus were greater than the sensitivities of two other kinds of seeds tested. Therefore, these were the seeds appropriate for use in a seed germination assay. A high revertant mutagenic ratio (5:1) of Salmonella typhimurium was observed with an arsenite concentration of 0.1 {mu}g/plate, indicative of a high possibility of mutagenicity. These different results suggested that a battery of bioassays, rather than one bioassay alone, is needed as a more accurate and better tool for the bioassessment of environmental pollutants. (orig.)

  5. Some considerations concerning the theory of combined toxicity: a case study of subchronic experimental intoxication with cadmium and lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varaksin, Anatoly N; Katsnelson, Boris A; Panov, Vladimir G; Privalova, Larisa I; Kireyeva, Ekaterina P; Valamina, Irene E; Beresneva, Olga Yu

    2014-02-01

    Rats were exposed intraperitoneally (3 times a week up to 20 injections) to either Cadmium and Lead salts in doses equivalent to their 0.05 LD50 separately or combined in the same or halved doses. Toxic effects were assessed by more than 40 functional, biochemical and morphometric indices. We analysed the results obtained aiming at determination of the type of combined toxicity using either common sense considerations based on descriptive statistics or two mathematical models based (a) on ANOVA and (b) on Mathematical Theory of Experimental Design, which correspond, respectively, to the widely recognised paradigms of effect additivity and dose additivity. Nevertheless, these approaches have led us unanimously to the following conclusions: (1) The above paradigms are virtually interchangeable and should be regarded as different methods of modelling the combined toxicity rather than as reflecting fundamentally differing processes. (2) Within both models there exist not merely three traditionally used types of combined toxicity (additivity, subadditivity and superadditivity) but at least 10 variants of it depending on exactly which effect is considered and on its level, as well as on the dose levels and their ratio. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Enrofloxacin at environmentally relevant concentrations enhances uptake and toxicity of cadmium in the earthworm Eisenia fetida in farm soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yinsheng, E-mail: yinshengli@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Tang, Hao; Hu, Yingxiu; Wang, Xiuhong; Ai, Xiaojie; Tang, Li [School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Matthew, Cory [Institute of Agriculture & Environment, Massey University, Private Bag 11-222, Palmerston North 4442 (New Zealand); Cavanagh, Jo [Landcare Research, PO Box 40, Lincoln 7640 (New Zealand); Qiu, Jiangping [School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • Enrofloxacin (EF) and cadmium (Cd) were independently adsorbed in soils. • EF accelerated and increased Cd bioaccumulation in earthworms. • At high concentration EF (10 mg kg{sup −1}) was toxic to earthworms. • EF enhanced Cd induced oxidative stress, and increased burrowing and respiration. • EF did not affect the Cd induced increase in metallothionein in earthworms. - Abstract: Individual and combined effects of enrofloxacin (EF) and cadmium (Cd) on the earthworm Eisenia fetida at environmentally relevant concentrations were investigated. EF is a veterinary antibiotic; Cd is an impurity in phosphatic fertiliser. For both, residues may accumulate in farm soils. In laboratory tests, over 98% of spiked EF was adsorbed by farm soils, with a half-life >8 weeks. However, earthworms absorbed less than 20% of spiked EF. Earthworms in soil with EF concentration 10 mg kg{sup −1} soil experienced transient oxidative stress and exhibited reduced burrowing activity and respiration after an 8-week exposure; EF at 0.1 and 1.0 mg kg{sup −1} soil did not elicit toxicity symptoms. When both were added, Cd did not affect EF uptake, but each increment of spiked EF increased Cd bioaccumulation and associated oxidative stress of earthworms, and also caused decreased burrow length and CO{sub 2} production. However, metallothionein induction was not affected. The enhanced toxicity of Cd to earthworms in the presence of EF at low environmental concentrations may have implications for the health and reproductive success of earthworm populations and highlights the importance of understanding effects of antibiotic contamination of farm soils, and of awareness of environmental effects from interaction between multiple contaminants.

  7. Enrofloxacin at environmentally relevant concentrations enhances uptake and toxicity of cadmium in the earthworm Eisenia fetida in farm soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yinsheng; Tang, Hao; Hu, Yingxiu; Wang, Xiuhong; Ai, Xiaojie; Tang, Li; Matthew, Cory; Cavanagh, Jo; Qiu, Jiangping

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Enrofloxacin (EF) and cadmium (Cd) were independently adsorbed in soils. • EF accelerated and increased Cd bioaccumulation in earthworms. • At high concentration EF (10 mg kg"−"1) was toxic to earthworms. • EF enhanced Cd induced oxidative stress, and increased burrowing and respiration. • EF did not affect the Cd induced increase in metallothionein in earthworms. - Abstract: Individual and combined effects of enrofloxacin (EF) and cadmium (Cd) on the earthworm Eisenia fetida at environmentally relevant concentrations were investigated. EF is a veterinary antibiotic; Cd is an impurity in phosphatic fertiliser. For both, residues may accumulate in farm soils. In laboratory tests, over 98% of spiked EF was adsorbed by farm soils, with a half-life >8 weeks. However, earthworms absorbed less than 20% of spiked EF. Earthworms in soil with EF concentration 10 mg kg"−"1 soil experienced transient oxidative stress and exhibited reduced burrowing activity and respiration after an 8-week exposure; EF at 0.1 and 1.0 mg kg"−"1 soil did not elicit toxicity symptoms. When both were added, Cd did not affect EF uptake, but each increment of spiked EF increased Cd bioaccumulation and associated oxidative stress of earthworms, and also caused decreased burrow length and CO_2 production. However, metallothionein induction was not affected. The enhanced toxicity of Cd to earthworms in the presence of EF at low environmental concentrations may have implications for the health and reproductive success of earthworm populations and highlights the importance of understanding effects of antibiotic contamination of farm soils, and of awareness of environmental effects from interaction between multiple contaminants.

  8. Influence of water temperature and waterborne cadmium toxicity on growth performance and metallothionein-cadmium distribution in different organs of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Tawwab, Mohsen; Wafeek, Mohammed

    2014-10-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is believed to be one of the most abundant and ubiquitously distributed toxins in the aquatic system. This metal is released to the aquatic environment from both anthropogenic sources, such as industrial, agricultural and urban effluents as well as natural sources, such as rocks and soils. Otherwise, the temperature increase of water bodies, which has been observed due to global climatic changes, has been shown to increase Cd toxicity for several aquatic animal species including fish. In the present study, Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), (26.0 ± 0.38 g) were reared at 20, 24, 28, or 32 °C and exposed to 0.0 or 0.5mg Cd/L for 8 weeks to investigate effects of water temperature, Cd toxicity and their interaction on fish performance as well as metallothionein (MT) and Cd distribution in different fish organs. It was found that fish reared in Cd-free group at 28 °C showed the optimum growth and feed intake, while Cd-exposed fish showed low growth and feed intake irrespective to water temperature. A synergetic relationship between water temperature and Cd toxicity was observed where Cd toxicity increased as water temperature increased and the worse growth was obtained in Cd-exposed fish reared at 32 °C. Additionally, the highest Cd residues in different fish organs were detected in Cd-exposed fish reared at 32 °C. Similarly, MT concentrations in different fish organs increased as water temperature increased especially in Cd-exposed fish groups. A high positive correlation between MT and Cd concentrations in fish organs was detected. The distribution of MT and Cd levels was in the order of liver>kidney>gills>muscles. The present study revealed that the optimum water temperature suitable for Nile tilapia growth is 28 °C. Additionally, Cd exposure had a deteriorate effect on the growth and health of Nile tilapia. This hazardous effect increased as water temperature increased. Further, liver and kidney were the prime sites of Cd accumulation

  9. Time-dependent toxicity of cadmium telluride quantum dots on liver and kidneys in mice: histopathological changes with elevated free cadmium ions and hydroxyl radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengmeng; Wang, Jilong; Sun, Hubo; Han, Sihai; Feng, Shuai; Shi, Lu; Meng, Peijun; Li, Jiayi; Huang, Peili; Sun, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    A complete understanding of the toxicological behavior of quantum dots (QDs) in vivo is of great importance and a prerequisite for their application in humans. In contrast with the numerous cytotoxicity studies investigating QDs, only a few in vivo studies of QDs have been reported, and the issue remains controversial. Our study aimed to understand QD-mediated toxicity across different time points and to explore the roles of free cadmium ions (Cd(2+)) and hydroxyl radicals (·OH) in tissue damage. Male ICR mice were administered a single intravenous dose (1.5 µmol/kg) of CdTe QDs, and liver and kidney function and morphology were subsequently examined at 1, 7, 14, and 28 days. Furthermore, ·OH production in the tissue was quantified by trapping · OH with salicylic acid (SA) as 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) and detecting it using a high-performance liquid chromatography fluorescence method. We used the induction of tissue metallothionein levels and 2,3-DHBA:SA ratios as markers for elevated Cd(2+) from the degradation of QDs and ·OH generation in the tissue, respectively. Our experimental results revealed that the QD-induced histopathological changes were time-dependent with elevated Cd(2+) and ·OH, and could recover after a period of time. The Cd(2+) and ·OH exhibited delayed effects in terms of histopathological abnormalities. Histological assessments performed at multiple time points might facilitate the evaluation of the biological safety of QDs.

  10. Cadmium, an environmental poison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard, A K

    1974-04-15

    In recent years, industrial employment of cadmium has increased considerably. Cadmium is now present in the environment and has caused acute and chronic poisoning. Inhalation of cadmium vapor or dust causes pulmonary damage while the kidney is the critical organ in absorption of cadmium. The element accumulates in the kidney and causes tubular damage or 200 ppm in the renal cortex. In animal experiments, cadmium may cause raised blood pressure, sterility and malignant tumors. On account of the pronounced tendency of cadmium to accumulate and its toxicity, it is important to trace sources and to reduce exposure of the population. 62 references.

  11. Cadmium toxicity induced contrasting patterns of concentrations of free sarcosine, specific amino acids and selected microelements in two Noccaea species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemanová, Veronika; Pavlík, Milan; Pavlíková, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) toxicity affects numerous metabolic processes in plants. In the presence of Cd, plants accumulate specific amino acids which may be beneficial to developing Cd tolerance. Our study aimed to characterize the changes in the metabolism of selected free amino acids that are associated with Cd tolerance, and investigate the levels of selected microelements in order to relate these changes to the adaptation strategies of two metallophytes-Noccaea caerulescens (Redlschlag, Austria) and Noccaea praecox (Mežica, Slovenia). The plants were exposed to Cd contamination (90 mg Cd/kg soil) for 120 days in a pot experiment. Our results showed higher Cd accumulation in N. praecox compared to N. caerulescens. Cadmium contamination reduced the zinc and nickel levels in both species and a mixed effect was determined for copper and manganese content. Differences in free amino acid metabolism were observed between the two metallophytes growing under Cd-free and Cd-loaded conditions. Under Cd-free conditions, aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine, tryptophan and tyrosine) and branched-chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine and valine) were accumulated more in the leaves of N. praecox than in N. caerulescens. Cd stress increased the content of these amino acids in both species but this increase was significant only in N. caerulescens leaves. Marked differences in the responses of the two species to Cd stress were shown for alanine, phenylalanine, threonine and sarcosine. Cadmium contamination also induced an increase of threonine as alanine and sarcosine decrease, which was larger in N. caerulescens than in N. praecox. All these factors contribute to the higher adaptation of N. praecox to Cd stress.

  12. Metallothionein and Hsp70 trade-off against one another in Daphnia magna cross-tolerance to cadmium and heat stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haap, Timo, E-mail: timo.haap@gmx.de; Schwarz, Simon; Köhler, Heinz-R.

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Cadmium acclimation of two Daphnia magna clones which differed in Cd sensitivity and Hsp70 levels. • Two distinct metal-handling strategies regarding Hsp70 and MT expression were observed. • High Hsp70 levels did not confer an increase in Cd and heat stress tolerance. • Our results indicate a trade-off between Hsp70 and MT. - Abstract: The association between the insensitivity of adapted ecotypes of invertebrates to environmental stress, such as heavy metal pollution, and overall low Hsp levels characterizing these organisms has been attracting attention in various studies. The present study seeks to induce and examine this phenomenon in Daphnia magna by multigenerational acclimation to cadmium in a controlled laboratory setting. In this experiment, interclonal variation was examined: two clones of D. magna that have previously been characterized to diverge regarding their cadmium resistance and levels of the stress protein Hsp70, were continuously exposed to a sublethal concentration of Cd over four generations to study the effects of acclimation on Hsp70, metallothionein (MT), reproduction and cross-tolerance to heat stress. The two clones differed in all the measured parameters in a characteristic way, clone T displaying Cd and heat resistance, lower Hsp70 levels and offspring numbers on the one hand and higher MT expression on the other hand, clone S the opposite for all these parameters. We observed only slight acclimation-induced changes in constitutive Hsp70 levels and reproductive output. The differences in MT expression between clones as well as between acclimated organisms and controls give evidence for MT accounting for the higher Cd tolerance of clone T. Overall high Hsp70 levels of clone S did not confer cross tolerance to heat stress, contrary to common expectations. Our results suggest a trade-off between the efforts to limit the proteotoxic symptoms of Cd toxicity by Hsp70 induction and those to sequester and detoxify Cd by

  13. Determination of toxic elements (mercury, cadmium, lead, tin and arsenic) in fish and shellfish samples. Risk assessment for the consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, P; Pla, A; Hernández, A F; Barbier, F; Ayouni, L; Gil, F

    2013-09-01

    Although fish intake has potential health benefits, the presence of metal contamination in seafood has raised public health concerns. In this study, levels of mercury, cadmium, lead, tin and arsenic have been determined in fresh, canned and frozen fish and shellfish products and compared with the maximum levels currently in force. In a further step, potential human health risks for the consumers were assessed. A total of 485 samples of the 43 most frequently consumed fish and shellfish species in Andalusia (Southern Spain) were analyzed for their toxic elements content. High mercury concentrations were found in some predatory species (blue shark, cat shark, swordfish and tuna), although they were below the regulatory maximum levels. In the case of cadmium, bivalve mollusks such as canned clams and mussels presented higher concentrations than fish, but almost none of the samples analyzed exceeded the maximum levels. Lead concentrations were almost negligible with the exception of frozen common sole, which showed median levels above the legal limit. Tin levels in canned products were far below the maximum regulatory limit, indicating that no significant tin was transferred from the can. Arsenic concentrations were higher in crustaceans such as fresh and frozen shrimps. The risk assessment performed indicated that fish and shellfish products were safe for the average consumer, although a potential risk cannot be dismissed for regular or excessive consumers of particular fish species, such as tuna, swordfish, blue shark and cat shark (for mercury) and common sole (for lead). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Investigation of the toxic effect of cadmium on Candida humicola and Bacillus subtilis using a microcalorimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Haiyan; Yao Jun; Zhou Yong; Chen Huilun; Wang Fei; Gai Nan; Zhuang Rensheng; Ceccanti, Brunello; Maskow, Thomas; Zaray, Gyula

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the technique of microcalorimetry based on heat-output by aerobic bacterial respiration was explored to evaluate the toxic effect of cadmium on Candida humicola, Bacillus subtilis, singularly or in a mixture of both. Power-time curves of the growth metabolism of C. humicola and B. subtilis and the effect of Cd 2+ were studied using the TAM III (the third generation thermal activity monitor) multi-channel microcalorimetric system, isothermal mode, at 28 deg. C. The differences in shape of the power-time curves and the thermodynamic and kinetic characteristics of microorganisms growth were compared. The effect of cadmium added into microorganism would significantly reduce the life cycle and change the thermal effect of microbial metabolic process with different concentrations of Cd 2+ . The experimental results revealed that at the same concentration, the sequence of inhibitory ratio (I) and maximum thermal power (P max ) of the Cd 2+ was: mixed microorganisms > C. humicola > B. subtilis. The sequence of total thermal effect (Q total ) and growth rate constant (k) is mixed microorganisms > B. subtilis > C. humicola. These results are important to further studies of the physiology and pharmacology of C. humicola and B. subtilis and may support the theory of restoring contaminated soil

  15. Cross section measurement of alpha particle induced nuclear reactions on natural cadmium up to 52 MeV

    OpenAIRE

    Ditrói, F.; Takács, S.; Haba, H.; Komori, Y.; Aikawa, M.

    2016-01-01

    Cross sections of alpha particle induced nuclear reactions have been measured on thin natural cadmium targets foils in the energy range from 11 to 51.2 MeV. This work was a part of our systematic study on excitation functions of light ion induced nuclear reactions on different target materials. Regarding the cross sections, the alpha induced reactions are not deeply enough investigated. Some of the produced isotopes are of medical interest, others have application in research and industry. Th...

  16. Ex-vivo assessment of chronic toxicity of low levels of cadmium on testicular meiotic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geoffroy-Siraudin, Cendrine [Aix-Marseille Univ, UMR CNRS IMBE 7263, FR 3098 ECCOREV, 13005, Marseille (France); Laboratoire de Biologie de la Reproduction, AP-HM, Hôpital de la Conception, 147, Boulevard Baille, 13385 Marseille cedex 5 (France); Perrard, Marie-Hélène [Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle de Lyon, UMR 5242 CNRS INRA Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon 1, 46 allée d' Italie, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France); Ghalamoun-Slaimi, Rahma [Aix-Marseille Univ, UMR CNRS IMBE 7263, FR 3098 ECCOREV, 13005, Marseille (France); Laboratoire de Biologie de la Reproduction, AP-HM, Hôpital de la Conception, 147, Boulevard Baille, 13385 Marseille cedex 5 (France); Ali, Sazan [Aix-Marseille Univ, UMR CNRS IMBE 7263, FR 3098 ECCOREV, 13005, Marseille (France); Chaspoul, Florence [Aix-Marseille Univ, UMR CNRS IMBE 7263, FR 3098 ECCOREV, 13005, Marseille (France); Unité de Chimie-Physique, Faculté de Pharmacie 13005, Marseille (France); Lanteaume, André [Aix-Marseille Univ, UMR CNRS IMBE 7263, FR 3098 ECCOREV, 13005, Marseille (France); Achard, Vincent [Laboratoire de Biologie de la Reproduction, AP-HM, Hôpital de la Conception, 147, Boulevard Baille, 13385 Marseille cedex 5 (France); Gallice, Philippe [Aix-Marseille Univ, UMR CNRS IMBE 7263, FR 3098 ECCOREV, 13005, Marseille (France); Unité de Chimie-Physique, Faculté de Pharmacie 13005, Marseille (France); Durand, Philippe [Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle de Lyon, UMR 5242 CNRS INRA Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon 1, 46 allée d' Italie, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France); and others

    2012-08-01

    Using a validated model of culture of rat seminiferous tubules, we assessed the effects of 0.1, 1 and 10 μg/L cadmium (Cd) on spermatogenic cells over a 2‐week culture period. With concentrations of 1 and 10 μg/L in the culture medium, the Cd concentration in the cells, determined by ICP-MS, increased with concentration in the medium and the day of culture. Flow cytometric analysis enabled us to evaluate changes in the number of Sertoli cells and germ cells during the culture period. The number of Sertoli cells did not appear to be affected by Cd. By contrast, spermatogonia and meiotic cells were decreased by 1 and 10 μg/L Cd in a time and dose dependent manner. Stage distribution of the meiotic prophase I and qualitative study of the synaptonemal complexes (SC) at the pachytene stage were performed by immunocytochemistry with an anti SCP3 antibody. Cd caused a time-and-dose-dependent increase of total abnormalities, of fragmented SC and of asynapsis from concentration of 0.1 μg/L. Additionally, we observed a new SC abnormality, the “motheaten” SC. This abnormality is frequently associated with asynapsis and SC widening which increased with both the Cd concentration and the duration of exposure. This abnormality suggests that Cd disrupts the structure and function of proteins involved in pairing and/or meiotic recombination. These results show that Cd induces dose-and-time-dependent alterations of the meiotic process of spermatogenesis ex-vivo, and that the lowest metal concentration, which induces an adverse effect, may vary with the cell parameter studied. -- Highlights: ► Cadmium induces ex-vivo severe time- and dose-dependent germ cell abnormalities. ► Cadmium at very low concentration (0.1 µg/l) induces synaptonemal complex abnormalities. ► The lowest concentration inducing adverse effect varied with the cell parameter studied. ► Cadmium alters proteins involved in pairing and recombination. ► Cadmium leads to achiasmate univalents and

  17. Cadmium toxicity to ringed seals (Phoca hispida): an epidemiological study of possible cadmium-induced nephropathy and osteodystrophy in ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from Qaanaaq in Northwest Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne-Hansen, C; Dietz, R; Leifsson, P S

    2002-01-01

    The Greenland marine food chains contain high levels of cadmium, mercury and selenium. Concentrations of cadmium in the kidney of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the municipalities of Qaanaaq and Upernavik (Northwest Greenland) are among the highest recorded in the Arctic. The purpose of the st......The Greenland marine food chains contain high levels of cadmium, mercury and selenium. Concentrations of cadmium in the kidney of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the municipalities of Qaanaaq and Upernavik (Northwest Greenland) are among the highest recorded in the Arctic. The purpose...... of the study was to determine whether cadmium-induced damage in the kidneys and the skeletal system could be detected among 100 ringed seals from Northwest Greenland. The cadmium concentrations in the kidney cortex ranged from 0 to 248 microg/g wet weight (mean=44.5, N=100) in the 99 kidneys examined....... Experience from cadmium-poisoned humans and laboratory mammals indicates that concentrations above 50-200 microg/g wet wt. may induce histopathological changes. Overall, 31 of the ringed seals had cadmium concentrations in the kidney cortex above 50 microg/g wet wt., 11 had concentrations above 100 and one...

  18. Toxicity of cadmium in Japanese quail: Evaluation of body weight, hepatic and renal function, and cellular immune response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sant'Ana, M.G.; Moraes, R.; Bernardi, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental pollutant that is able to alter the immune function. Previous studies have shown that, in mammals, chronic exposure to Cd decreases the release of macrophagic cytokines such as IL1 and TNα and decreases phagocytosis activity. On the other hand contradictory results showed an increase in the humoral response. The cellular response could be decreased by exposure to Cd. These alterations were observed in mammals. The present study aimed to investigate some of the toxic effects of Cd exposure in birds. In particular, the main objective of this work was to elucidate the effects of exposure to this pollutant on the cellular immune function of the Japanese quail as a model for the study of toxicity in animals exposed in nature. The animals were exposed to the metal (100 ppm, per os) during development, i.e., from 1 to 28 days old. Body weight, biochemical parameters, and cellular immune response were measured during and at the end of treatment. The results showed that the exposure to Cd for 28 days significantly reduced the body weight and induced hepatic toxicity. The kidney function and cellular immune response were not affected by the Cd exposure

  19. Transcriptome assembly and expression profiling of molecular responses to cadmium toxicity in hepatopancreas of the freshwater crab Sinopotamon henanense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Min; Ting Li, Yi; Liu, Yang; Chin Lee, Shao; Wang, Lan

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) pollution is a serious global problem, which causes irreversible toxic effects on animals. Freshwater crab, Sinopotamon henanense, is a useful environmental indicator since it is widely distributed in benthic habitats whereby it tends to accumulate Cd and other toxicants. However, its molecular responses to Cd toxicity remain unclear. In this study, we performed transcriptome sequencing and gene expression analyses of its hepatopancreas with and without Cd treatments. A total of 7.78 G clean reads were obtained from the pooled samples, and 68,648 unigenes with an average size of 622 bp were assembled, in which 5,436 were metabolism-associated and 2,728 were stimulus response-associated that include 380 immunity-related unigenes. Expression profile analysis demonstrated that most genes involved in macromolecular metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, detoxification and anti-oxidant defense were up-regulated by Cd exposure, whereas immunity-related genes were down-regulated, except the genes involved in phagocytosis were up-regulated. The current data indicate that Cd exposure alters gene expressions in a concentration-dependent manner. Therefore, our results provide the first comprehensive S.henanense transcriptome dataset, which is useful for biological and ecotoxicological studies on this crab and its related species at molecular level, and some key Cd-responsive genes may provide candidate biomarkers for monitoring aquatic pollution by heavy metals.

  20. Investigation of activation cross-sections of alpha-induced nuclear reactions on natural cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Kim, Kwangsoo [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Manwoo [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Research Center, Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Busan 619-953 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Guinyun, E-mail: gnkim@knu.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    We measured production cross-sections of Sn, In, and Cd radionuclides from alpha-induced reactions on {sup nat}Cd from their respective threshold to 45 MeV by using a stacked-foil activation technique at the MC-50 cyclotron of the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. The results were compared with the earlier measurements as well as with the theoretical values obtained from the TENDL-2012 library based on the TALYS 1.4 code. Our measurements for the {sup 110,113g,117m}Sn, {sup 108m,108g,109g,110m,110g,111g,113m,114m,115m,116m,117m,117g}In, and {sup 111m,115g}Cd radionuclides in the energy region from the threshold energy to 45 MeV are in general good agreement with the other experimental data and calculated results. The integral yields for thick target were also deduced using the measured cross-sections and the stopping power of natural cadmium target and found in agreement with the directly measured yields available in the literature. The measured cross-sections find importance in various practical applications including nuclear medicine and improvement of nuclear model calculations.

  1. Temperature and irradiance influences on cadmium and zinc uptake and toxicity in a freshwater cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Jin; Wang Wenxiong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → This study is the first to study the influences of temperature and light irradiance, two critical factors for the occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms, on metal uptake, subcellular distribution, and toxicity in a freshwater cyanobacterium commonly blooming in eutrophic lakes. → With increasing metal exposure, both cellular growth rate and photosynthesis became more sensitive to metal toxicity under elevated irradiance and temperature, primarily as a result of increased uptake and accumulation. → Cd in the metal rich granule faction increased under Cd exposure, suggesting that MRG may partially detoxify Cd in the cyanobacterial cells. → This study implies that temperature and irradiance may influence the chemical cycling of metals during cyanobacterial blooming in eutrophic freshwater ecosystems. - Abstract: Temperature and light irradiance are important factors affecting the occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms. In this study, we examined the influences of different temperatures (15, 24, and 30 ° C ) and irradiances (18, 32, and 55 μmol photons m -2 s -1 ) on the uptake and toxicity of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) in a freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. The subcellular distribution of Cd and Zn was analyzed. Enhanced growth rates were observed for the cyanobacterial cells incubated at higher temperature or irradiance conditions with lower metal concentrations. With increasing ambient Cd or Zn concentrations, both cellular growth rate and photosynthesis were significantly inhibited at elevated irradiance conditions. The observed increase in Cd and Zn toxicity might be attributed to the enhanced metal uptake and accumulation in Microcystis. Based on the intracellular Cd concentration, the 50% inhibition concentration (IC 50 ) values were higher at the higher temperature or irradiance treatment. The subcellular distribution demonstrated that Cd in the metal rich granule (MRG) faction increased with elevated [Cd 2+ ] concentration

  2. Cadmium-induced oxidative damage and protective effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine against cadmium toxicity in Solanum nigrum L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Xiaopeng; Xia Yan; Hu Wei; Zhang Hongxiao; Shen Zhenguo

    2010-01-01

    The effects of cadmium (Cd) on the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and antioxidant enzyme activities in roots of Solanum nigrum L. and the role of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) as a cysteine (Cys) donor against Cd toxicity were investigated. Cd at 50 and 200 μM significantly increased the contents of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), the production of H 2 O 2 and superoxide anion (O 2 · - ), and the activities of catalase, guaiacol peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase, and superoxide dismutase. Experiments with diphenylene iodonium as an inhibitor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase and NaN 3 as an inhibitor of peroxidase showed that the major source of Cd-induced reactive oxygen species in the roots may include plasma membrane-bound NADPH oxidase and peroxidase. In addition, the effects of NAC on plant growth, antioxidant enzyme activity, and non-protein thiol content were analyzed. Under Cd stress, the addition of 500 μM NAC decreased the contents of TBARS and production of H 2 O 2 and O 2 · - , but increased levels of Cys and reduced glutathione (GSH), phytochelatins, and activity of GSH-Px in roots. These results suggest that NAC could protect plants from oxidative stress damage, and this protection seems to be performed via increased GSH biosynthesis. Furthermore, NAC treatment also increased the contents of protein thiols in S. nigrum roots. By using size-exclusion chromatography, we found involvement of NAC in the Cd tolerance mechanism through increased biosynthesis of Cd-binding proteins.

  3. Cadmium-induced oxidative damage and protective effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine against cadmium toxicity in Solanum nigrum L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Xiaopeng; Xia Yan; Hu Wei [College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Weigang 1, Nanjing 210095 (China); Zhang Hongxiao, E-mail: hxzhang@njau.edu.cn [College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Weigang 1, Nanjing 210095 (China); Shen Zhenguo, E-mail: zgshen@njau.edu.cn [College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Weigang 1, Nanjing 210095 (China)

    2010-08-15

    The effects of cadmium (Cd) on the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and antioxidant enzyme activities in roots of Solanum nigrum L. and the role of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) as a cysteine (Cys) donor against Cd toxicity were investigated. Cd at 50 and 200 {mu}M significantly increased the contents of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), the production of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -}), and the activities of catalase, guaiacol peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase, and superoxide dismutase. Experiments with diphenylene iodonium as an inhibitor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase and NaN{sub 3} as an inhibitor of peroxidase showed that the major source of Cd-induced reactive oxygen species in the roots may include plasma membrane-bound NADPH oxidase and peroxidase. In addition, the effects of NAC on plant growth, antioxidant enzyme activity, and non-protein thiol content were analyzed. Under Cd stress, the addition of 500 {mu}M NAC decreased the contents of TBARS and production of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -}, but increased levels of Cys and reduced glutathione (GSH), phytochelatins, and activity of GSH-Px in roots. These results suggest that NAC could protect plants from oxidative stress damage, and this protection seems to be performed via increased GSH biosynthesis. Furthermore, NAC treatment also increased the contents of protein thiols in S. nigrum roots. By using size-exclusion chromatography, we found involvement of NAC in the Cd tolerance mechanism through increased biosynthesis of Cd-binding proteins.

  4. Exogenous auxin alleviates cadmium toxicity in Arabidopsis thaliana by stimulating synthesis of hemicellulose 1 and increasing the cadmium fixation capacity of root cell walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiao Fang [Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Wang, Zhi Wei [Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Dong, Fang; Lei, Gui Jie [State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Shi, Yuan Zhi [The Key Laboratory of Tea Chemical Engineering, Ministry of Agriculture, Yunqi Road 1, Hangzhou 310008 (China); Li, Gui Xin, E-mail: guixinli@zju.edu.cn [College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zheng, Shao Jian [Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Cd reduces endogenous auxin levels in Arabidopsis. • Exogenous applied auxin NAA increases Cd accumulation in the roots but decreases in the shoots. • NAA increases cell wall hemicellulose 1 content. • Hemicellulose 1 retains Cd and makes it difficult to be translocated to shoots. • NAA rescues Cd-induced chlorosis. -- Abstract: Auxin is involved in not only plant physiological and developmental processes but also plant responses to abiotic stresses. In this study, cadmium (Cd{sup 2+}) stress decreased the endogenous auxin level, whereas exogenous auxin (α-naphthaleneacetic acid, NAA, a permeable auxin analog) reduced shoot Cd{sup 2+} concentration and rescued Cd{sup 2+}-induced chlorosis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Under Cd{sup 2+} stress conditions, NAA increased Cd{sup 2+} retention in the roots and most Cd{sup 2+} in the roots was fixed in hemicellulose 1 of the cell wall. NAA treatment did not affect pectin content and its binding capacity for Cd{sup 2+}, whereas it significantly increased the content of hemicellulose 1 and the amount of Cd{sup 2+} retained in it. There were highly significant correlations between Cd{sup 2+} concentrations in the root, cell wall and hemicellulose 1 when the plants were subjected to Cd{sup 2+} or NAA + Cd{sup 2+} treatment for 1 to 7 d, suggesting that the increase in hemicellulose 1 contributes greatly to the fixation of Cd{sup 2+} in the cell wall. Taken together, these results demonstrate that auxin-induced alleviation of Cd{sup 2+} toxicity in Arabidopsis is mediated through increasing hemicellulose 1 content and Cd{sup 2+} fixation in the root, thus reducing the translocation of Cd{sup 2+} from roots to shoots.

  5. Exogenous auxin alleviates cadmium toxicity in Arabidopsis thaliana by stimulating synthesis of hemicellulose 1 and increasing the cadmium fixation capacity of root cell walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xiao Fang; Wang, Zhi Wei; Dong, Fang; Lei, Gui Jie; Shi, Yuan Zhi; Li, Gui Xin; Zheng, Shao Jian

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Cd reduces endogenous auxin levels in Arabidopsis. • Exogenous applied auxin NAA increases Cd accumulation in the roots but decreases in the shoots. • NAA increases cell wall hemicellulose 1 content. • Hemicellulose 1 retains Cd and makes it difficult to be translocated to shoots. • NAA rescues Cd-induced chlorosis. -- Abstract: Auxin is involved in not only plant physiological and developmental processes but also plant responses to abiotic stresses. In this study, cadmium (Cd 2+ ) stress decreased the endogenous auxin level, whereas exogenous auxin (α-naphthaleneacetic acid, NAA, a permeable auxin analog) reduced shoot Cd 2+ concentration and rescued Cd 2+ -induced chlorosis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Under Cd 2+ stress conditions, NAA increased Cd 2+ retention in the roots and most Cd 2+ in the roots was fixed in hemicellulose 1 of the cell wall. NAA treatment did not affect pectin content and its binding capacity for Cd 2+ , whereas it significantly increased the content of hemicellulose 1 and the amount of Cd 2+ retained in it. There were highly significant correlations between Cd 2+ concentrations in the root, cell wall and hemicellulose 1 when the plants were subjected to Cd 2+ or NAA + Cd 2+ treatment for 1 to 7 d, suggesting that the increase in hemicellulose 1 contributes greatly to the fixation of Cd 2+ in the cell wall. Taken together, these results demonstrate that auxin-induced alleviation of Cd 2+ toxicity in Arabidopsis is mediated through increasing hemicellulose 1 content and Cd 2+ fixation in the root, thus reducing the translocation of Cd 2+ from roots to shoots

  6. Strain difference of cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in inbred Wistar-Imamichi and Fischer 344 rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Hideaki; Narumi, Rika [Kumamoto University, Faculty of Education, Kumamoto (Japan); Nagano, Masaaki; Yasutake, Akira [National Institute for Minamata Disease, Biochemistry Section, Kumamoto (Japan); Waalkes, Michael P. [National Cancer Institute at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Inorganic Carcinogenesis Section, Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Imamura, Yorishige [Kumamoto University, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    Previously, we reported that Wistar-Imamichi (WI) rats are highly resistant to cadmium (Cd)-induced lethality and hepatotoxicity compared to Fischer 344 (F344) rats. Since the testes are one of the most sensitive organs to acute Cd toxicity, we examined possible strain-related differences in Cd-induced testicular toxicity between inbred WI and F344 rats. Rats were treated with a single dose of 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg Cd/kg, as CdCl{sub 2}, sc and killed 24 h later. Cd at doses of 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg induced severe testicular hemorrhage, as assessed by pathological and testis hemoglobin content, in F344 rats, but not WI rats. After Cd treatment (2.0 mg/kg), the testicular Cd content was significantly lower in WI rats than in the F344 rats, indicating a toxiokinetic mechanism for the observed strain difference. Thus, the remarkable resistance to Cd-induced testicular toxicity in WI rats is associated, at least in part, with lower testicular accumulation of Cd. When zinc (Zn; 10 mg/kg, sc) was administered in combination with Cd (2.0 mg/kg) to F344 rats, the Cd-induced increase in testicular hemoglobin content, indicative of hemorrhage, was significantly reduced. Similarly, the testicular Cd content was significantly decreased with Zn co-treatment compared to Cd treatment alone. Thus, it can be concluded that the testicular Cd accumulation partly competes with Zn transport systems and that these systems may play an important role in the strain-related differences in Cd-induced testicular toxicity between WI and F344 rats. (orig.)

  7. Copper, but not cadmium, is acutely toxic for trout hepatocytes: short-term effects on energetics and ion homeostasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzl, Claudia; Ebner, Hannes; Koeck, Guenter; Dallinger, Reinhard; Krumschnabel, Gerhard

    2003-01-01

    The toxic effects of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) on cellular energy metabolism and ion homeostasis were investigated in hepatocytes from the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. The metal content of cells did not increase during incubation with Cu, whereas a dose-dependent increase was seen with Cd. Cell viability was unaffected in the presence of 100 μM Cd and 10 μM Cu but was significantly reduced after 30 min of exposure to 100 μM Cu, both in the presence and absence of extracellular calcium. Oxygen consumption (VO 2 ) was not affected by 100 μM Cd or 10 μM Cu, whereas 100 μM Cu caused a significant and calcium-dependent increase of VO 2 . Lactate production and basal glucose release were not altered by either of the metals. However, the epinephrine-stimulated rate of glucose release was significantly reduced after 2 h of incubation with 100 μM Cu. Hepatocytes exposed to Cd showed only a marginal increase of intracellular free calcium (Ca i 2+ ), whereas with Cu a pronounced and dose-dependent increase of Ca i 2+ was induced after a delay of 10 to 15 min, the calcium being of extracellular origin. Intracellular pH was not altered by Cd but decreased significantly in the presence of Cu. Overall our data demonstrate that Cu, but not Cd, is acutely toxic for trout hepatocytes. Since Cu does not enter the cells in the short term it appears to exert its acutely toxic effects at the cell membrane. Although Cu toxicity is associated with an uptake of calcium from extracellular space, leading to an elevation of cellular respiration, cytotoxicity does not appear to be dependent on the presence of extracellular calcium

  8. Cadmium toxicity affects chlorophyll a and b content, antioxidant enzyme activities and mineral nutrient accumulation in strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhad Muradoglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cadmium (Cd is well known as one of the most toxic metals affecting the environment and can severely restrict plant growth and development. In this study, Cd toxicities were studied in strawberry cv. Camarosa using pot experiment. Chlorophyll and malondialdehyde (MDA contents, catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, ascorbate peroxidase (APX activities and mineral nutrient concentrations were investigated in both roots and leaves of strawberry plant after exposure Cd. RESULTS: Cd content in both roots and leaves was increased with the application of increasing concentrations of Cd. We found higher Cd concentration in roots rather than in leaves. Chlorophyll a and b was decreased in leaves but MDA significantly increased under increased Cd concentration treatments in both roots and leaves. SOD and CAT activities was also increased with the increase Cd concentrations. K, Mn and Mg concentrations were found higher in leaves than roots under Cd stress. In general, increased Cd treatments increased K, Mg, Fe, Ca, Cu and Zn concentration in both roots and leaves. Excessive Cd treatments reduced chlorophyll contents, increased antioxidant enzyme activities and changes in plant nutrition concentrations in both roots and leaves. CONCLUSION: The results presented in this work suggested that Cd treatments have negative effect on chlorophyll content and nearly decreased 30% of plant growth in strawberry. Strawberry roots accumulated higher Cd than leaves. We found that MDA and antioxidant enzyme (CAT, SOD and APX contents may have considered a good indicator in determining Cd tolerance in strawberry plant.

  9. Toxic effects of cadmium on flatworm stem cell dynamics: A transcriptomic and ultrastructural elucidation of underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plusquin, Michelle; De Mulder, Katrien; Van Belleghem, Frank; DeGheselle, Olivier; Pirotte, Nicky; Willems, Maxime; Cuypers, Ann; Salvenmoser, Willi; Ladurner, Peter; Artois, Tom; Smeets, Karen

    2016-10-01

    Stem cells or undifferentiated cells can cope more easily with external stresses. To evaluate the impact of toxic compounds on stem cell dynamics in vivo, in relation to other biological responses, we use the carcinogenic element cadmium and the regenerating model organism Macrostomum lignano. Through both BrdU and anti-histone H3 immunostainings, cadmium-induced effects were investigated at different stages of the stem cell cycle. A 24-h exposure to 100 and 250 μM CdCl2 significantly decreased the number of stem cells (neoblasts) in mitosis, whereas the number of cells in the S phase remained unchanged. After this short-term exposure, the ultrastructure of the neoblasts was minimally affected in contrast to the epidermal tissues. These results were supported by gene expression data: transcripts of cdc2 and pig3 were significantly upregulated during all treatments. Both genes are involved in the cell cycle progression and are transcribed in the gonadal region, where stem cells are highly represented. Based on a substantial increase in gene expression of heat shock proteins (HSP) and their high activity in the gonadal region, we hypothesize that these proteins are key players in the protection of stem cells against external stresses. Apart from the strong HSP induction, other protective processes including cell division, apoptosis and anti-oxidative defence, were also activated. We, therefore, conclude that the protection of stem cells against external stressors may be based on the interplay between stem cell maintenance, i.e. repair and recovery through division, on one hand and apoptosis on the other hand. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1217-1228, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Calcium enhances cadmium tolerance and decreases cadmium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We aimed at characterizing mechanisms controlling cadmium accumulation in lettuce, which is a food crop showing one of the highest capacities to accumulate this toxic compound. In this study, plants from three lettuce varieties were grown for eight days on media supplemented or not with cadmium (15 μM CdCl2) and ...

  11. Biofabrication of morphology improved cadmium sulfide nanoparticles using Shewanella oneidensis bacterial cells and ionic liquid: For toxicity against brain cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Chen, Siyuan; Ding, Yiming; Zhu, Qiang; Zhang, Nijia; Yu, Shuqing

    2018-01-01

    The present work determines the anticancer activity of bio-mediated synthesized cadmium sulfide nanoparticles using the ionic liquid and bacterial cells (Shewanella oneidensis). Bacterial cells have been exposed to be important resources that hold huge potential as ecofriendly, cost-effective, evading toxic of dangerous chemicals and the alternative of conventional physiochemical synthesis. The Shewanella oneidensis is an important kind of metal reducing bacterium, known as its special anaerobic respiratory and sulfate reducing capacity. The crystalline nature, phase purity and surface morphology of biosynthesized cadmium sulfide nanoparticles were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Field emission scanning electron microscopy, Energy dispersive spectroscopy and Transmission electron microscopy. The use of imidazolium based ionic liquids as soft templating agent for controlling self-assembly and crystal growth direction of metal sulfide nanoparticles has also advanced as an important method. The microscopic techniques showed that the nanoparticles are designed on the nano form and have an excellent spherical morphology, due to the self-assembled mechanism of ionic liquid assistance. The antitumor efficiency of the cadmium sulfide nanoparticles was investigated against brain cancer cell lines using rat glioma cell lines. The effectively improved nano-crystalline and morphological structure of CdS nanoparticles in the presence of IL exhibit excellent cytotoxicity and dispersion ability on the cell shape is completely spread out showing a nice toxic environment against cancer cells. The cytotoxicity effect of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles was discussed with a diagrammatic representation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Gibberellic acid alleviates cadmium toxicity by reducing nitric oxide accumulation and expression of IRT1 in Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xiao Fang; Jiang, Tao; Wang, Zhi Wei; Lei, Gui Jie; Shi, Yuan Zhi; Li, Gui Xin; Zheng, Shao Jian

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cd reduces endogenous GA levels in Arabidopsis. ► GA exogenous applied decreases Cd accumulation in plant. ► GA suppresses the Cd-induced accumulation of NO. ► Decreased NO level downregulates the expression of IRT1. ► Suppressed IRT1 expression reduces Cd transport across plasma membrane. - Abstract: Gibberellic acid (GA) is involved in not only plant growth and development but also plant responses to abiotic stresses. Here it was found that treating the plants with GA concentrations from 0.1 to 5 μM for 24 h had no obvious effect on root elongation in the absence of cadmium (Cd), whereas in the presence of Cd 2+ , GA at 5 μM improved root growth, reduced Cd content and lipid peroxidation in the roots, indicating that GA can partially alleviate Cd toxicity. Cd 2+ increased nitric oxide (NO) accumulation in the roots, but GA remarkably reduced it, and suppressed the up-regulation of the expression of IRT1. In contrary, the beneficial effect of GA on alleviating Cd toxicity was not observed in an IRT1 knock-out mutant irt1, suggesting the involvement of IRT1 in Cd 2+ absorption. Furthermore, the GA-induced reduction of NO and Cd content can also be partially reversed by the application of a NO donor (S-nitrosoglutathione [GSNO]). Taken all these together, the results showed that GA-alleviated Cd toxicity is mediated through the reduction of the Cd-dependent NO accumulation and expression of Cd 2+ uptake related gene-IRT1 in Arabidopsis.

  13. Gibberellic acid alleviates cadmium toxicity by reducing nitric oxide accumulation and expression of IRT1 in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiao Fang [State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Jiang, Tao [Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Wang, Zhi Wei [State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Lei, Gui Jie [Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Shi, Yuan Zhi [The Key Laboratory of Tea Chemical Engineering, Ministry of Agriculture, Yunqi Road 1, Hangzhou 310008 (China); Li, Gui Xin, E-mail: guixinli@zju.edu.cn [College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zheng, Shao Jian [State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd reduces endogenous GA levels in Arabidopsis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GA exogenous applied decreases Cd accumulation in plant. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GA suppresses the Cd-induced accumulation of NO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decreased NO level downregulates the expression of IRT1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Suppressed IRT1 expression reduces Cd transport across plasma membrane. - Abstract: Gibberellic acid (GA) is involved in not only plant growth and development but also plant responses to abiotic stresses. Here it was found that treating the plants with GA concentrations from 0.1 to 5 {mu}M for 24 h had no obvious effect on root elongation in the absence of cadmium (Cd), whereas in the presence of Cd{sup 2+}, GA at 5 {mu}M improved root growth, reduced Cd content and lipid peroxidation in the roots, indicating that GA can partially alleviate Cd toxicity. Cd{sup 2+} increased nitric oxide (NO) accumulation in the roots, but GA remarkably reduced it, and suppressed the up-regulation of the expression of IRT1. In contrary, the beneficial effect of GA on alleviating Cd toxicity was not observed in an IRT1 knock-out mutant irt1, suggesting the involvement of IRT1 in Cd{sup 2+} absorption. Furthermore, the GA-induced reduction of NO and Cd content can also be partially reversed by the application of a NO donor (S-nitrosoglutathione [GSNO]). Taken all these together, the results showed that GA-alleviated Cd toxicity is mediated through the reduction of the Cd-dependent NO accumulation and expression of Cd{sup 2+} uptake related gene-IRT1 in Arabidopsis.

  14. Toxic effects of cadmium on Morus alba L. and Bombyx moril L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, K.R.; Gong, H.; Wang, Y.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.

    2004-01-01

    A 3-year micro-plot experiment of mulberry cultivation with Cd-polluted soil and silkworm breeding experiments by feeding with exogenous or endogenous ¿Cd-polluted mulberry leaves were conducted to evaluate the toxic effects of Cd on mulberry and silkworms. There was no apparent harmful effect on

  15. Single and combined toxicity of copper and cadmium to H. vulgare growth and heavy metal bioaccumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žaltauskaitė J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The single and combined effects of copper (Cu and cadmium (Cd (0.1-10 mg L−1 in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. plants grown in hydroponics are investigated. The aim of the study was to investigate the interactive effect of the binary mixture of Cu and Cd to the growth of H. vulgare and accumulation of these metals by the plants. Single and combined metal treatment led to major effects in the growth of roots and shoots and dry weight of barley. Exposure to metals altered the content of photosynthetic pigments and caused lipid peroxidation. It was observed that combined effects of heavy metals to plants are endpoint and concentration depending. The binary mixture Cu+Cd exhibited additive or less than additive interaction for dry weight, root length and shoot height. Analysis of tissue metal concentrations showed that Cu and Cd were mainly accumulated in the roots and the combination of Cu+Cd had less than additive response of metal bioaccumulation in the leaves and roots.

  16. Experimental toxicity and bioaccumulation of cadmium in freshwater periphytic diatoms in relation with biofilm maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duong, Thi Thuy; Morin, Soizic; Coste, Michel; Herlory, Olivier; Feurtet-Mazel, Agnes; Boudou, Alain

    2010-01-01

    A study was undertaken to examine cadmium accumulation in freshwater biofilm, its effects on biofilm development and on diatom community structure in laboratory experimental conditions. A suspension of a biofilm originated from the Riou-Mort River (South West France) was inoculated into three experimental units containing clean glass substrates under laboratory conditions. Settling and already developed biofilms were exposed to a Cd concentration of 100 μg L -1 . Metal accumulation (total and intracellular metal content) in biofilms, dry weight and ash-free dry mass, diatom cell density and diatom community composition were analyzed. Both total and intracellular Cd accumulated by the biofilm throughout the experiment increased with duration of metal exposure. Biofilms in the course of maturation were showed higher Cd content and less effective development than settled biofilms. However diatom communities in younger biofilms exposed to Cd increased their tolerance to Cd by a highly significant development of Nitzschia palea. In contrast, Cd exposure had different effect in installed biofilm and taxonomic composition. These results indicate that mature biofilm may limit Cd accumulation into its architecture and protect diatom communities from the effects of metals.

  17. Acute toxicities of copper, cadmium and Cu: Cd mixture to larvae of the shrimp Penaeus Penicillatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munshi, A. B.; Su, Yong-Quan; Li, Shao-Jing

    1996-06-01

    This study showed lethal concentrations (LC) of copper for Peneaus penicillatus at various stages of its life cycle were 1000 μg/L for nauplii, 1000 μg/L for Zoea I, 2000 vg/L for Zoea II, 2500 μg/L for Zoea III, 3000 μg/L for Mysis I, II and III and that for almost 100% mortality for postlarvae was 3000 μg/L. For cadmium LC were 100 μg/L for nauplii, 500 μg/L for Zoea I, 1000 μg/L for Zoea II, 2000 μg/L for Zoea III, 2500 μg/L for Mysis I and 3500 μg/L for Mysis II, III and postlarvae. For mixture of both metals, LC were 400 μg/L for nauplii, 1000 μg/L for Zoea I, 2000 μg/L for Zoea II and 3000 μg/L for Mysis I, II, III and post larvae.

  18. Flavocoxid, a Natural Antioxidant, Protects Mouse Kidney from Cadmium-Induced Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Micali

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cadmium (Cd, a diffused environmental pollutant, has adverse effects on urinary apparatus. The role of flavocoxid, a natural flavonoid with antioxidant activity, on the morphological and biochemical changes induced in vivo by Cd in mice kidney was evaluated. Methods. C57 BL/6J mice received 0.9% NaCl alone, flavocoxid (20 mg/kg/day i.p. alone, Cd chloride (CdCl2 (2 mg/kg/day i.p. alone, or CdCl2 plus flavocoxid (2 mg/kg/day i.p. plus 20 mg/kg/day i.p. for 14 days. The kidneys were processed for biochemical, structural, ultrastructural, and morphometric evaluation. Results. Cd treatment alone significantly increased urea nitrogen and creatinine, iNOS, MMP-9, and pERK 1/2 expression and protein carbonyl; reduced GSH, GR, and GPx; and induced structural and ultrastructural changes in the glomeruli and in the tubular epithelium. After 14 days of treatment, flavocoxid administration reduced urea nitrogen and creatinine, iNOS, MMP-9, and pERK 1/2 expression and protein carbonyl; increased GSH, GR, and GPx; and showed an evident preservation of the glomerular and tubular structure and ultrastructure. Conclusions. A protective role of flavocoxid against Cd-induced oxidative damages in mouse kidney was demonstrated for the first time. Flavocoxid may have a promising antioxidant role against environmental Cd harmful effects on glomerular and tubular lesions.

  19. Cadmium toxicity to Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806 and its microcystin-lacking mutant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Huang

    Full Text Available The adverse effects of microcystin (MC produced by cyanobacteria have drawn considerable attention from the public. Yet it remains unclear whether MC confers any benefits to the cyanobacteria themselves. One suggested function of MC is complexation, which may influence the bioaccumulation and toxicity of trace metals. To test this hypothesis, we examined Cd toxicity to wild-type Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806 (WT and its MC-lacking mutant (MT under nutrient-enriched (+NP, phosphorus-limited (-P, and nitrogen-limited (-N conditions. The accumulation of Cd and the biochemical parameters associated with its detoxification [total phosphorus (TP, inorganic polyphosphate (Poly-P, and glutathione (GSH in the cells as well as intra- and extra-cellular carbohydrates] were quantified. Although the -P cyanobacteria accumulated less Cd than their +NP and -N counterparts, the different nutrient-conditioned cyanobacteria were similarly inhibited by similar free ion concentration of Cd in the medium ([Cd2+]F. Such good toxicity predictability of [Cd2+]F was ascribed to the synchronous decrease in the intracellular concentrations of Cd and TP. Nevertheless, Cd toxicity was still determined by the intracellular Cd to phosphorus ratio (Cd/P, in accordance with what has been reported in the literature. On the other hand, the concentrations of TP, Poly-P, and carbohydrates went up, but GSH concentration dropped down with the enhancement of [Cd2+]F, indicating their association with Cd detoxification. Although the inactivation of MC peptide synthetase gene had some nutrient and Cd concentration dependent effects on the parameters above, both cyanobacterial strains showed the same Cd accumulation ability and displayed similar Cd sensitivity. These results suggest that MC cannot affect metal toxicity either by regulating metal accumulation or by altering the detoxification ability of the cyanobacteria. Other possible functions of MC need to be further investigated.

  20. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of Weissella cibaria and Lactobacillus plantarum for their protective effect against cadmium and lead toxicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojekunle, O; Banwo, K; Sanni, A I

    2017-05-01

    Thirty-two lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolates were obtained from fermenting cassava mash and wara (African soft cheese) and screened for their resistance to cadmium and lead toxicities at 550-1050 mg l -1 and probiotic potentials. Four LAB strains that tolerated the heavy metals at 1050 mg l -1 were selected for antioxidative capacities, tolerance to acid, bile salts and simulated gastric and intestinal tract and safety status. The results revealed that Weissella cibaria WD2 and Lactobacillus plantarum CaD1 exhibited comparatively higher antioxidative capacities, survived in simulated gastric and intestinal transit, tolerated acid and bile salt and possessed safety status. The two strains were employed for the in vivo studies, which was monitored in male albino Wistar rats using skim milk as a carrier for the cultures over a period of 28 days. The rats given the cultures of W. cibaria WD2 and L. plantarum CaD1 in addition with the administration of heavy metals had improved renal and hepatic impairment, while damage was observed in rats fed with cadmium and lead only. Weissella cibaria WD2 and L. plantarum CaD1 demonstrated probiotic potentials and safety status. These strains can be used to effectively amend hepatic and renal histopathological alterations in rats caused by ingestion of cadmium and lead. This present study highlights the presence of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from traditional fermented foods that were cadmium and lead resistant and possessed probiotic potentials. Weissella cibaria WD2 and Lactobacillus plantarum CaD1 selected for the in vivo studies ameliorated the build-up of cadmium and lead in the organs of the animals. This indicated that good cadmium and lead binding and probiotic lactic acid bacteria can be used to prevent exposure to these heavy metals. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Reproductive toxicity of bisphenol A and cadmium in Potamopyrgus antipodarum and modulation of bisphenol A effects by different test temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sieratowicz, Agnes; Stange, Daniela; Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike; Oehlmann, Joerg

    2011-01-01

    An OECD initiative for the development of mollusc-based toxicity tests for endocrine disrupters and other chemicals has recommended three test species with respective test designs for further standardisation. Preparing a subsequent pre-validation study we performed a reproduction test with Potamopyrgus antipodarum, determining the concentration range of the selected test substances, bisphenol A (BPA) and cadmium (Cd). At 16 deg. C, the recommended test temperature, the number of embryos in the brood pouch was increased by BPA and decreased by Cd (NOEC: 20 μg BPA/L and 1 μg Cd/L). Coinstantaneous BPA tests at 7 deg. C and 25 deg. C demonstrated a temperature dependency of the response, resulting in lower NOECs (5 μg/L respectively). As expected, reproduction in control groups significantly varied depending on temperature. Additional observations of the brood stock showed seasonal fluctuations in reproduction under constant laboratory conditions. The recommended temperature range and test conditions have to be further investigated. - Highlights: → We performed a reproduction test with the mollusc Potamopyrgus antipodarum. → We defined the test substance concentration range for a pre-validation study. → The bisphenol A effect (increased reproduction) depends on the test temperature. → Reproduction of control groups significantly varies depending on temperature. → The brood stock shows seasonal fluctuations in reproduction at constant conditions. - A reproduction test with Potamopyrgus antipodarum with 2 substances for subsequent pre-validation is presented and bisphenol A effects show a temperature dependency.

  2. Interactions of zinc and cadmium toxicity in their effects on growth and in antioxidative systems in tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaouhra Cherif; Chamseddine Mediouni; Wided Ben Ammar; Fatma Jemal

    2011-01-01

    The interaction between zinc and cadmium was investigated in tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum).Ten-day-old seedlings were treated with 10 μmol/L CdCl2 associated to different concentrations of ZnCl2 (10, 50, 100, and 150 μmol/L).Zn supply clearly reduced Cd accumulation in leaves and simultaneously increased Zn concentration.Cd induced oxidative stress in leaves as indicated by an increase in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) level and chlorophyll breakdown.Furthermore, compared with control, Cdtreated plants had significantly higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), whereas, catalase (CAT, EC 1.111.1.6),ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) activities were significantly suppressed by Cd addition.Zn supplementation, at low level, restored and enhanced the functional activity of these enzymes (SOD, CAT, APX and GR) as compared to Cd-alone-treated plants.The beneficial effect of adequate Zn level on Cd toxicity was confirmed by a significant decrease in TBARS level and restoration of chlorophyll content.However, when Zn was added at high level in combination with Cd there was an accumulation of oxidative stress, which was higher than that for Cd or excess Zn alone treatments.These results suggested that higher Zn concentrations and Cd are synergistic in their effect on plant growth parameters and oxidative stress.

  3. Developing acute-to-chronic toxicity ratios for lead, cadmium, and zinc using rainbow trout, a mayfly, and a midge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebane, C.A.; Hennessy, D.P.; Dillon, F.S.

    2008-01-01

    In order to estimate acute-to-chronic toxicity ratios (ACRs) relevant to a coldwater stream community, we exposed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in 96-h acute and 60+ day early-life stage (ELS) exposures. We also tested the acute and sublethal responses of a mayfly (Baetis tricaudatus) and a midge (Chironomus dilutus, formerly C. tentans) with Pb. We examine the statistical interpretation of test endpoints and the acute-to-chronic ratio concept. Increasing the number of control replicates by 2 to 3x decreased the minimum detectable differences by almost half. Pb ACR estimates mostly increased with increasing acute resistance of the organisms (rainbow trout ACRs

  4. Toxic metals in breast milk samples from Ankara, Turkey: assessment of lead, cadmium, nickel, and arsenic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürbay, Aylin; Charehsaz, Mohammad; Eken, Ayşe; Sayal, Ahmet; Girgin, Gözde; Yurdakök, Murat; Yiğit, Şule; Erol, Dilek Demir; Şahin, Gönül; Aydın, Ahmet

    2012-10-01

    Toxic metals are one of the significant groups of chemical contaminants that humans are exposed to by oral, inhalation, and dermal routes. Exposure to these chemicals begins with intrauterine life and continues during lactation period at the first years of life. Breastfeeding has a much more special place than other nutrition options for infants. However, when possibility of contaminant transfer by breast milk is considered, its safety and quality is essential. Regarding infant and mother health and limited number of information on this field in Turkey, measuring contamination levels in breast milk is important. Therefore, in the present study, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), and arsenic (As) levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry in 64 breast milk samples obtained from mothers from Ankara, Turkey. Pb and Ni levels in breast milk samples were found to be 391.45±269.01 μg/l and 43.94±33.82 μg/l (mean ± SD), respectively. Cd was found only in one of 64 samples, and the level was 4.62 μg/l. As level was below the limit of quantification (LOQ, 7.6 μg/l) in all samples. These findings will accurately direct strategies and solutions of protection against contaminants in order to reduce their levels in biological fluids.

  5. Histopathological and biochemical evidence of hepatopancreatic toxicity caused by cadmium in white shrimp, Palaemonetes argentinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodi Boudet, L N; Polizzi, P; Romero, M B; Robles, A; Marcovecchio, J E; Gerpe, M S

    2015-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most common pollutants in the environment and induces a range of tissue changes or damages and organ dysfunction. The histopathological effects of Cd and lipid peroxidation (LPO) on hepatopancreas of the freshwater shrimp, Palaemonetes argentinus, were studied. Shrimp were obtained from two lagoons with contrasting environmental quality, De los Padres (LP, impacted site) and Nahuel Rucá (NR, reference site), and were exposed to 3.06 and 12.24µgCdL(-1) for 3, 7, 10 and 15 days. The health status of both populations was also evaluated by histological analysis of control individuals. After exposure, shrimp were transferred to clean water for 28 days to evaluate the recuperation capacity of hepatopancreas. Control shrimp from NR exhibited a normal hepatopancreas structure; unlike control shrimp from LP which showed several alterations. These results were attributed to the different environmental quality of lagoons. The exposure to Cd resulted in several alterations in the histological structure of the hepatopancreas of both populations. The observed alterations included haemocytic and connective infiltrations in the intertubular space, erosioned microvilli, ripple of basal lamina, atrophied epithelium and necrosis, however, the latter was only observed in shrimp from LP. The exposure also caused an increase of LPO levels in both populations. P. argentinus was able to repair the hepatopancreas structure from the damage caused by Cd, evidenced by the histopathological results and LPO levels. Obtained results are indicating that the histological analysis of the hepatopancreas proved to be a highly sensitive method for evaluating water quality, in both environmental and laboratory conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Toxicity of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles against Escherichia coli and HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, Sk Tofajjen; Mukherjee, Samir Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Toxic effect of CdS NPs on the growth and cell division in E. coli was studied. • CdS NPs affected cell surface topology and cell division. • Downregulation of both FtsZ and FtsQ was observed due to NPs exposure. • CdS NPs affected HeLa cell morphology with fragmented nuclei. • All such effects might be due to elevated oxidative stress. -- Abstract: The present study endeavours to assess the toxic effect of synthesized CdS nanoparticles (NPs) on Escherichia coli and HeLa cells. The CdS NPs were characterized by DLS, XRD, TEM and AFM studies and the average size of NPs was revealed as ∼3 nm. On CdS NPs exposure bacterial cells changed morphological features to filamentous form and damage of the cell surface was found by AFM study. The expression of two conserved cell division components namely ftsZ and ftsQ in E. coli was decreased both at transcriptional and translational levels upon CdS NPs exposure. CdS NPs inhibited proper cell septum formation without affecting the nucleoid segregation. Viability of HeLa cells declined with increasing concentration of CdS NPs and the IC 50 value was found to be 4 μg/mL. NPs treated HeLa cells showed changed morphology with condensed and fragmented nuclei. Increased level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was found both in E. coli and HeLa cells on CdS NPs exposure. The inverse correlation between declined cell viabilities and elevated ROS level suggested that oxidative stress seems to be the key event by which NPs induce toxicity both in E. coli and HeLa cells

  7. Influence of Cadmium(II Ions and Brewery Sludge on Metallothionein Level in Earthworms (Eisenia fetida – Bio- transforming of Toxic Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Metallothioneins belong to a group of intracellular, high molecular andcysteine-rich proteins whose content in an organism increase with increasing concentrationof a heavy metal. The aim of this work was to apply the electrochemical analysis for theanalysis of metallothioneins in earthworms exposed to cadmium ions and brewery sludge.Here we utilized adsorptive transfer technique coupled with differential pulse voltammetryBrdicka reaction to determine metallothionein in different biological samples. By meansthis very sensitive technique it was possible to analyze metallothionein in concentrationsbelow 1 μmol.l-1 with the standard deviation of 4-5%. We found out that the average MTlevel in the non-treated earthworms oscillated between 19 and 48 μmol.l-1. When weanalysed samples of earthworms treated by cadmium, we observed that the MT contentincreased with the exposition length and increase dose of cadmium ions. Finally, weattempted to study and compare the toxicity of the raw sludge and its leach by using ofearthworms. The raw brewery sludge caused the death of the earthworms quickly.Earthworms held in the presence of leach from brewery sludge increased their weight of147 % of their original weight because they ingested the nutrients from the sludge. Themetallothionein level changes markedly with increasing time of exposition and applieddose of toxic compound. It clearly follows from the obtained results that the MT synthesisis insufficient in the first hours of the exposition and increases after more than 24 h.

  8. Alleviation of cadmium toxicity in Brassica juncea L. (Czern. & Coss. by calcium application involves various physiological and biochemical strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaiz Ahmad

    Full Text Available Calcium (Ca plays important role in plant development and response to various environmental stresses. However, its involvement in mitigation of heavy metal stress in plants remains elusive. In this study, we examined the effect of Ca (50 mM in controlling cadmium (Cd uptake in mustard (Brassica juncea L. plants exposed to toxic levels of Cd (200 mg L(-1 and 300 mg L(-1. The Cd treatment showed substantial decrease in plant height, root length, dry weight, pigments and protein content. Application of Ca improved the growth and biomass yield of the Cd-stressed mustard seedlings. More importantly, the oil content of mustard seeds of Cd-stressed plants was also enhanced with Ca treatment. Proline was significantly increased in mustard plants under Cd stress, and exogenously sprayed Ca was found to have a positive impact on proline content in Cd-stressed plants. Different concentrations of Cd increased lipid peroxidation but the application of Ca minimized it to appreciable level in Cd-treated plants. Excessive Cd treatment enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase, which were further enhanced by the addition of Ca. Additionally, Cd stress caused reduced uptake of essential elements and increased Cd accumulation in roots and shoots. However, application of Ca enhanced the concentration of essential elements and decreased Cd accumulation in Cd-stressed plants. Our results indicated that application of Ca enables mustard plant to withstand the deleterious effect of Cd, resulting in improved growth and seed quality of mustard plants.

  9. Three Toxic Heavy Metals in Open-Angle Glaucoma with Low-Teen and High-Teen Intraocular Pressure: A Cross-Sectional Study from South Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Hyung Lee

    Full Text Available To investigate the association between heavy metal levels and open-angle glaucoma (OAG with low- and high-teen baseline intraocular pressure (IOP using a population-based study design.This cross-sectional study included 5,198 participants older than 19 years of age who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES from 2008 to 2012 and had blood heavy metal levels available. The OAG with normal baseline IOP (IOP ≤ 21 mmHg subjects were stratified into low-teen OAG (baseline IOP ≤ 15 mmHg and high-teen OAG (15 mmHg < baseline IOP ≤ 21 mmHg, and the association between blood lead, mercury, and cadmium levels and glaucoma prevalence was assessed for low- and high-teen OAG.The adjusted geometric mean of blood cadmium levels was significantly higher in subjects with low-teen OAG than that of the non-glaucomatous group (P = 0.028, whereas there were no significant differences in blood lead and mercury levels. After adjusting for potential confounders, the low-teen OAG was positively associated with log-transformed blood cadmium levels (OR, 1.41; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.03-1.93; P = 0.026. For high-teen OAG, log-transformed blood levels of the three heavy metals were not associated with disease prevalence. The association between log-transformed blood cadmium levels and low-teen OAG was significant only in men (OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.10-2.48; P = 0.016, and not in women (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.66-1.85; P = 0.709.The results of this study suggest that cadmium toxicity could play a role in glaucoma pathogenesis, particularly in men and in OAG with low-teen baseline IOP.

  10. Co-exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles does not affect cadmium toxicity in radish seeds (Raphanus sativus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manesh, R Roshan; Grassi, G; Bergami, E; Marques-Santos, L F; Faleri, C; Liberatori, G; Corsi, I

    2018-02-01

    Recent developments on environmental fate models indicate that as nano waste, engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) could reach terrestrial ecosystems thus potentially affecting environmental and human health. Plants can be therefore exposed to ENMs but controversial data in terms of fate and toxicity are currently available. Furthermore, there is a current lack of information on complex interactions/transformations to which ENMs undergo in the natural environment as for instance interacting with existing toxic compounds. The aim of the present study was to assess the behavior and biological effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (n-TiO 2 ) (Aeroxide P25, Degussa Evonik) and its interaction with cadmium (CdCl 2 ) in plants using radish seeds (Raphanus sativus L. Parvus) as model species. Radish seeds were exposed to n-TiO 2 (1-1000mg/L) and CdCl 2 (1-250mg/L) alone and in combination using a seed germination and seedling growth toxicity test OECD 208. Percentage of seed germination, germination index (GI) and root elongation were calculated. Cell morphology and oxidative stress parameters as glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase activities (CAT) were measured in radish seeds after 5 days of exposure. Z-Average, PdI and Z-potential of n-TiO 2 in Milli-Q water as exposure medium were also determined. DLS analysis showed small aggregates of n-TiO 2 , negative Z-potential and stable PdI in seed's exposure media. Germination percentage, GI and root length resulted affected by n-TiO 2 exposure compared to controls. In particular, n-TiO 2 at 1mg/L and 100mg/L did not affect radish seeds germination (100%) while at concentration of 10mg/L, 200mg/L, 500mg/L, and 1000mg/L a slight but not significant decrease of germination % was observed. Similarly root length and GI resulted significantly higher in seeds exposed to 10mg/L and 200mg/L compared to 1mg/L, 100mg/L, 500mg/L, 1000mg/L and control (p germination % and GI compared to control seeds and a concentration dependent

  11. Reciprocal enhancement of uptake and toxicity of cadmium and calcium in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver mitochondria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adiele, Reginald C.; Stevens, Don; Kamunde, Collins

    2010-01-01

    The interactive effects of cadmium (Cd) and calcium (Ca) on energy metabolism in rainbow trout liver mitochondria were studied to test the prediction that Ca would protect against Cd-induced mitochondrial liability. Isolated rainbow trout liver mitochondria were energized with malate and glutamate and exposed to increasing concentrations (5-100 μM) of Cd and Ca singly and in combination at 15 o C. Accumulation of Cd and Ca in the mitochondria and mitochondrial respiration (oxygen consumption) rates were measured. Additionally, un-energized mitochondria were incubated with low doses (1 μM) of Cd and Ca singly and in combination, with time-course measurements of cation accumulation/binding and oxygen consumption rates. In energized actively phosphorylating mitochondria, the uptake rates of both Cd and Ca were dose-dependent and enhanced when administered concurrently. Upon low-dose incubation, Cd accumulation was rapid and peaked in 5 min, while no appreciable uptake of Ca occurred. Functionally, the resting (state 4, ADP-limited) respiration rate was not affected in the dose-response exposure, but it decreased remarkably on low-dose incubation. Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-stimulated respiration (state 3) rate was impaired dose-dependently with maximal inhibitions (at the highest dose, 100 μM) of 32, 64 and 73% for Ca, Cd, and combined exposures, respectively. The combined effects of Ca and Cd suggested synergistic (more than additive) action and partial additivity of effects at low and higher doses of the two cations, respectively. Moreover, on a molar basis, Cd was twice as toxic as Ca to rainbow trout liver mitochondria and when combined, approximately 90% of the effects were attributable to Cd. The coupling efficiency, as measured by respiratory control ratio (RCR) and phosphorylation efficiency, measured as ADP/O ratio, both decreased as the exposure dosage and duration increased. In addition, Cd and Ca exposure decreased mitochondrial proton leak (state 4

  12. Biochemical biomarker responses of green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus, to acute and subchronic waterborne cadmium toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandurvelan, Rathishri, E-mail: rch118@uclive.ac.nz [School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Marsden, Islay D., E-mail: islay.marsden@canterbury.ac.nz [School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Gaw, Sally, E-mail: sally.gaw@canterbury.ac.nz [Department of Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Glover, Chris N., E-mail: chris.glover@canterbury.ac.nz [School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •Biochemical biomarkers were measured to assess effects of Cd on Perna canaliculus. •Biochemical responses varied between acute and subchronic exposure to Cd. •MTLP induction correlated strongly with Cd accumulation. •Alkaline phosphatase and glycogen levels decreased during subchronic Cd exposure. •Duration of Cd exposure influenced biochemical biomarker responses in mussels. -- Abstract: The biochemical responses of the green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus, to waterborne cadmium (Cd) were investigated in order to delineate toxic mechanisms, and the impacts of exposure dose and duration, of this important toxicant in a potential sentinel species. Mussels were exposed for either 96 h (acute: 0, 2000, 4000 μg L{sup −1} Cd) or for 28 d (subchronic: 0, 200, 2000 μg L{sup −1} Cd), and the digestive gland, gill and haemolymph were examined for impacts. Biochemical responses measured included those associated with metal detoxification (metallothionein-like protein; MTLP), oxidative stress (catalase, lipid peroxidation), cellular homeostasis (alkaline phosphatase, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}-ATPase; NKA), and energy utilisation (glycogen, haemolymph protein). Following acute exposure, digestive gland glycogen and gill NKA activity were significantly altered by Cd exposure relative to levels in mussels exposed to Cd-free seawater. Subchronic Cd exposure resulted in a significant increase in MTLP levels in both the gill and the digestive gland. This increase was correlated strongly with the levels of Cd accumulation measured in these tissues (R = 0.957 for gill, 0.964 for digestive gland). Catalase activity followed a similar pattern, although the correlation with tissue Cd accumulation was not as strong (R = 0.907 for gill, 0.708 for digestive gland) as that for MTLP. Lipid peroxidation increased in the digestive gland at Days 7 and 14 at both subchronic Cd levels tested, but this effect had largely dissipated by Days 21 and 28 (with the exception of

  13. Cadmium toxicity in cultured tomato cells - Role of ethylene, proteases and oxidative stress in cell death signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iakimova, E.T.; Woltering, E.J.; Kapchina-Toteva, V.M.; Harren, F.J.M.; Cristescu, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the ability of cadmium to induce programmed cell death in tomato suspension cells and to determine the involvement of proteolysis, oxidative stress and ethylene. Tomato suspension cells were exposed to treatments with CdSO4 and cell death was calculated after fluorescein

  14. Toxicity testing of heavy metals with the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis: high sensitivity to cadmium and arsenic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, H.; Bode-Kirchhoff, A.; Madeheim, A.; Wetzel, A. [Marburg Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Biologie

    1998-07-01

    We present data that the formation of nodules (nodulation) may serve for ecotoxicological evaluation of heavy metals in different binding states. Tests were performed in petri dishes with alfalfa (lucerne) seedlings inoculated with Rhizobium meliloti. Cultivation took place in growth cabinets with carefully standardized and documented growth conditions. Data from stressed plants was recorded after 14 days of cultivation on contaminated substrate. A dose responsive decrease in nodulation was found after application of cadmium acetate, cadmium iodide, cadmium chloride, sodium salts of arsenate and arsenite, arsenic pentoxide, and lead nitrate, whereas lead acetate showed no effect up to a concentration of 3 {mu}M. The dose response curves were used to calculate EC10, EC50 and EC90 values. EC50 values for cadmium compounds range from 1.5 to 9.5 {mu}M. Testing different arsenic compounds results in EC50 from 2.6 to 20.1 {mu}M. EC50 of lead nitrate is 2.2 {mu}M. The sensitivity, reproducibility and reliability of this test system is discussed compared to established biotests. (orig./MG)

  15. Silicon-enhanced resistance to cadmium toxicity in Brassica chinensis L. is attributed to Si-suppressed cadmium uptake and transport and Si-enhanced antioxidant defense capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Alin [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Li Zhaojun [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Crop Nutrition and Fertilization, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang Jie [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Xue Gaofeng; Fan Fenliang [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Crop Nutrition and Fertilization, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Liang Yongchao, E-mail: ycliang@caas.ac.cn [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Crop Nutrition and Fertilization, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Key Laboratory of Oasis Eco-Agriculture, College of Agriculture, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832003 (China)

    2009-12-15

    A series of hydroponics experiments were performed to investigate roles of silicon (Si) in enhancing cadmium (Cd) tolerance in two pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.) cultivars: i.e. cv. Shanghaiqing, a Cd-sensitive cultivar, and cv. Hangyoudong, a Cd-tolerant cultivar. Plants were grown under 0.5 and 5 mg Cd L{sup -1} Cd stress without or with 1.5 mM Si. Plant growth of the Cd-tolerant cultivar was stimulated at the lower Cd level, but was decreased at the higher Cd level when plants were treated with Cd for one week. However, Plant growth was severely inhibited at both Cd levels as stress duration lasted for up to three weeks. Plant growth of the Cd-sensitive cultivar was severely inhibited at both Cd levels irrespective of Cd stress duration. Addition of Si increased shoot and root biomass of both cultivars at both Cd levels and decreased Cd uptake and root-to-shoot transport. Superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities decreased, but malondialdehyde and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrations increased at the higher Cd level, which were counteracted by Si added. Ascorbic acid, glutathione and non-protein thiols concentrations increased at the higher Cd level, which were further intensified by addition of Si. The effects of Si and Cd on the antioxidant enzyme activity were further verified by isoenzyme analysis. Silicon was more effective in enhancing Cd tolerance in the Cd-tolerant cultivar than in the Cd-sensitive cultivar. It can be concluded that Si-enhanced Cd tolerance in B. chinensis is attributed mainly to Si-suppressed Cd uptake and root-to-shoot Cd transport and Si-enhanced antioxidant defense activity.

  16. Silicon-enhanced resistance to cadmium toxicity in Brassica chinensis L. is attributed to Si-suppressed cadmium uptake and transport and Si-enhanced antioxidant defense capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Alin; Li Zhaojun; Zhang Jie; Xue Gaofeng; Fan Fenliang; Liang Yongchao

    2009-01-01

    A series of hydroponics experiments were performed to investigate roles of silicon (Si) in enhancing cadmium (Cd) tolerance in two pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.) cultivars: i.e. cv. Shanghaiqing, a Cd-sensitive cultivar, and cv. Hangyoudong, a Cd-tolerant cultivar. Plants were grown under 0.5 and 5 mg Cd L -1 Cd stress without or with 1.5 mM Si. Plant growth of the Cd-tolerant cultivar was stimulated at the lower Cd level, but was decreased at the higher Cd level when plants were treated with Cd for one week. However, Plant growth was severely inhibited at both Cd levels as stress duration lasted for up to three weeks. Plant growth of the Cd-sensitive cultivar was severely inhibited at both Cd levels irrespective of Cd stress duration. Addition of Si increased shoot and root biomass of both cultivars at both Cd levels and decreased Cd uptake and root-to-shoot transport. Superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities decreased, but malondialdehyde and H 2 O 2 concentrations increased at the higher Cd level, which were counteracted by Si added. Ascorbic acid, glutathione and non-protein thiols concentrations increased at the higher Cd level, which were further intensified by addition of Si. The effects of Si and Cd on the antioxidant enzyme activity were further verified by isoenzyme analysis. Silicon was more effective in enhancing Cd tolerance in the Cd-tolerant cultivar than in the Cd-sensitive cultivar. It can be concluded that Si-enhanced Cd tolerance in B. chinensis is attributed mainly to Si-suppressed Cd uptake and root-to-shoot Cd transport and Si-enhanced antioxidant defense activity.

  17. Biosorption of Cadmium by Non-Toxic Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS Synthesized by Bacteria from Marine Intertidal Biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Camacho-Chab

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a major heavy metal found in polluted aquatic environments, mainly derived from industrial production processes. We evaluated the biosorption of solubilized Cd2+ using the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS produced by Bacillus sp. MC3B-22 and Microbacterium sp. MC3B-10 (Microbactan; these bacteria were originally isolated from intertidal biofilms off the coast of Campeche, Mexico. EPS were incubated with different concentrations of cadmium in ultrapure water. Residual Cd2+ concentrations were determined by Inductive Coupled Plasma-Optic Emission Spectrometry and the maximum sorption capacity (Qmax was calculated according to the Langmuir model. EPS were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS before and after sorption. The Qmax of Cd2+ was 97 mg g−1 for Microbactan and 141 mg g−1 for MC3B-22 EPS, these adsorption levels being significantly higher than previously reported for other microbial EPS. In addition, XPS analysis revealed changes in structure of EPS after biosorption and showed that amino functional groups contributed to the binding of Cd2+, unlike other studies that show the carbohydrate fraction is responsible for this activity. This work expands the current view of bacterial species capable of synthesizing EPS with biosorbent potential for cadmium and provides evidence that different chemical moieties, other than carbohydrates, participate in this process.

  18. Study on the protective role of selenium against cadmium toxicity in lactic acid bacteria: An advanced application of ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero Arauz, Iris Liliana; Afton, Scott; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Caruso, Joseph A.; Gutierrez Corona, J. Felix; Wrobel, Katarzyna

    2008-01-01

    In this work, Lactobacillus casei rhamnosus were obtained from the commercial product of fermented milk and possible antagonistic effect of selenium (as sodium selenite) against cadmium toxicity was studied. The bacteria capability to incorporate Se was demonstrated: after 1 week exposure to Se(IV), its total concentration in the freeze-dried biomass was 405 ± 28 μg/g (7.4 ± 0.8 μg/g in control). In the presence of Se(IV) and Cd(II), the bacterial growth and cell viability were improved and lipid peroxidation less marked with respect to bacteria exposed to Cd(II) alone. The distribution of Se and Cd in molecular mass fractions of bacteria extracts was investigated by size exclusion chromatography with diode array and ICP-MS detection. The results obtained suggest that the antagonistic effect of Se is due to lower incorporation of cadmium at a high molecular mass (MM < 600 kDa). Slightly different distribution of elements in the fractions of MM < 40 kDa suggests the formation of new chemical species involving Cd and Se in bacteria exposed to Cd(II) + Se(IV) as compared to those exposed to Cd(II) alone. The study illustrates the high utility of atomic spectrometry to critically inform molecular questions that could be important in the industrial processes based on bacterial activity

  19. Study on the protective role of selenium against cadmium toxicity in lactic acid bacteria: An advanced application of ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero Arauz, Iris Liliana [Instituto de Investigaciones Cientificas, Universidad de Guanajuato, L. de Retana No. 5, 36000 Guanajuato (Mexico); Afton, Scott [Department of Chemistry, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0172 (United States); Wrobel, Kazimierz [Instituto de Investigaciones Cientificas, Universidad de Guanajuato, L. de Retana No. 5, 36000 Guanajuato (Mexico); University of Cincinnati Metallomics Center of the Ameritas, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Caruso, Joseph A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0172 (United States); University of Cincinnati Metallomics Center of the Ameritas, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Gutierrez Corona, J. Felix [Instituto de Investigacion en Biologia Experimental, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de Guanajuato, L de Retana No. 5, 36000 Guanajuato (Mexico); Wrobel, Katarzyna [Instituto de Investigaciones Cientificas, Universidad de Guanajuato, L. de Retana No. 5, 36000 Guanajuato (Mexico); University of Cincinnati Metallomics Center of the Ameritas, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States)], E-mail: katarzyn@quijote.ugto.mx

    2008-05-30

    In this work, Lactobacillus casei rhamnosus were obtained from the commercial product of fermented milk and possible antagonistic effect of selenium (as sodium selenite) against cadmium toxicity was studied. The bacteria capability to incorporate Se was demonstrated: after 1 week exposure to Se(IV), its total concentration in the freeze-dried biomass was 405 {+-} 28 {mu}g/g (7.4 {+-} 0.8 {mu}g/g in control). In the presence of Se(IV) and Cd(II), the bacterial growth and cell viability were improved and lipid peroxidation less marked with respect to bacteria exposed to Cd(II) alone. The distribution of Se and Cd in molecular mass fractions of bacteria extracts was investigated by size exclusion chromatography with diode array and ICP-MS detection. The results obtained suggest that the antagonistic effect of Se is due to lower incorporation of cadmium at a high molecular mass (MM < 600 kDa). Slightly different distribution of elements in the fractions of MM < 40 kDa suggests the formation of new chemical species involving Cd and Se in bacteria exposed to Cd(II) + Se(IV) as compared to those exposed to Cd(II) alone. The study illustrates the high utility of atomic spectrometry to critically inform molecular questions that could be important in the industrial processes based on bacterial activity.

  20. Calcium enhances cadmium tolerance and decreases cadmium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-26

    Apr 26, 2012 ... concentrations alleviated the toxic effect of cadmium on the growth and water status of lettuce plants. The three lettuce varieties ... electroplating, in batteries, in electrical conductors, in the manufacture of alloys ..... Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals, Third edition, Salt Lake City, UT: Acad. Press. Österås ...

  1. Determinants of serum cadmium levels in a Northern Italy community: A cross-sectional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippini, Tommaso; Michalke, Bernhard; Malagoli, Carlotta; Grill, Peter; Bottecchi, Ilaria; Malavolti, Marcella; Vescovi, Luciano; Sieri, Sabina; Krogh, Vittorio; Cherubini, Andrea; Maffeis, Giuseppe; Modenesi, Marina; Castiglia, Paolo; Vinceti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal and a serious environmental hazard to humans. Some uncertainties still exist about major sources of Cd exposure in non-occupationally exposed subjects in addition to cigarette smoking, such as diet and outdoor air pollution. We sought to determine the influence of these sources on a biomarker of exposure, serum Cd concentration. Methods: We recruited 51 randomly selected residents from an Italian urban community, from whom we obtained detailed information about dietary habits and smoking habits, and a blood sample for serum Cd determination. We also assessed outdoor air Cd exposure, by modeling outdoor air levels of particulate matter ≤10 µm (PM 10 ) from motorized traffic at geocoded subjects’ residence. Results: In crude analysis, regression beta coefficients for dietary Cd, smoking and PM10 on serum Cd levels were 0.03 (95% CI -0.83 to 0.88), 6.96 (95% CI -0.02 to 13.95) and 0.62 (95% CI -0.19 to 1.43), respectively. In the adjusted analysis, regression beta coefficients were -0.34 (95% CI -1-40 to 0.71), 5.81 (95% CI -1.43 to 13.04) and 0.47 (95% CI -0.35 to 1.29), respectively. Conclusion: Cigarette smoking was the most important factor influencing serum Cd in our non-occupationally exposed population, as expected, while dietary Cd was not associated with this biomarker. Outdoor air pollution, as assessed through exposure to particulate matter generated by motorized traffic, was an additional source of Cd exposure. - Highlights: • Smoking markedly increases serum Cd levels in non-occupationally exposed individuals. • Overall dietary Cd intake shows little association with serum Cd levels. • Air pollution from motorized traffic increases serum Cd levels.

  2. Determinants of serum cadmium levels in a Northern Italy community: A cross-sectional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippini, Tommaso [CREAGEN, Environmental, Genetic and Nutritional Epidemiology Research Center, Section of Public Health - Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 287, 41125 Modena (Italy); Michalke, Bernhard [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Malagoli, Carlotta [CREAGEN, Environmental, Genetic and Nutritional Epidemiology Research Center, Section of Public Health - Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 287, 41125 Modena (Italy); Grill, Peter [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Bottecchi, Ilaria; Malavolti, Marcella [CREAGEN, Environmental, Genetic and Nutritional Epidemiology Research Center, Section of Public Health - Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 287, 41125 Modena (Italy); Vescovi, Luciano [IREN, Reggio Emilia and Piacenza (Italy); Sieri, Sabina; Krogh, Vittorio [Epidemiology and Prevention Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Via Venezia 1, 20133 Milan (Italy); Cherubini, Andrea; Maffeis, Giuseppe [TerrAria s.r.l., Via Melchiorre Gioia 132, 20125 Milan (Italy); Modenesi, Marina [Local Health Unit of Modena, Modena (Italy); Castiglia, Paolo [Hygiene and Preventive Medicine, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sassari, Sassari (Italy); Vinceti, Marco, E-mail: marco.vinceti@unimore.it [CREAGEN, Environmental, Genetic and Nutritional Epidemiology Research Center, Section of Public Health - Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 287, 41125 Modena (Italy)

    2016-10-15

    Introduction: Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal and a serious environmental hazard to humans. Some uncertainties still exist about major sources of Cd exposure in non-occupationally exposed subjects in addition to cigarette smoking, such as diet and outdoor air pollution. We sought to determine the influence of these sources on a biomarker of exposure, serum Cd concentration. Methods: We recruited 51 randomly selected residents from an Italian urban community, from whom we obtained detailed information about dietary habits and smoking habits, and a blood sample for serum Cd determination. We also assessed outdoor air Cd exposure, by modeling outdoor air levels of particulate matter ≤10 µm (PM{sub 10}) from motorized traffic at geocoded subjects’ residence. Results: In crude analysis, regression beta coefficients for dietary Cd, smoking and PM10 on serum Cd levels were 0.03 (95% CI -0.83 to 0.88), 6.96 (95% CI -0.02 to 13.95) and 0.62 (95% CI -0.19 to 1.43), respectively. In the adjusted analysis, regression beta coefficients were -0.34 (95% CI -1-40 to 0.71), 5.81 (95% CI -1.43 to 13.04) and 0.47 (95% CI -0.35 to 1.29), respectively. Conclusion: Cigarette smoking was the most important factor influencing serum Cd in our non-occupationally exposed population, as expected, while dietary Cd was not associated with this biomarker. Outdoor air pollution, as assessed through exposure to particulate matter generated by motorized traffic, was an additional source of Cd exposure. - Highlights: • Smoking markedly increases serum Cd levels in non-occupationally exposed individuals. • Overall dietary Cd intake shows little association with serum Cd levels. • Air pollution from motorized traffic increases serum Cd levels.

  3. Cross section measurement of alpha particle induced nuclear reactions on natural cadmium up to 52MeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Haba, H; Komori, Y; Aikawa, M

    2016-12-01

    Cross sections of alpha particle induced nuclear reactions have been measured on thin natural cadmium targets foils in the energy range from 11 to 51.2MeV. This work was a part of our systematic study on excitation functions of light ion induced nuclear reactions on different target materials. Regarding the cross sections, the alpha induced reactions are not deeply enough investigated. Some of the produced isotopes are of medical interest, others have application in research and industry. The radioisotope 117m Sn is a very important theranostic (therapeutic + diagnostic) radioisotope, so special care was taken to the results for that isotope. The well-established stacked foil technique followed by gamma-spectrometry with HPGe gamma spectrometers were used. The target and monitor foils in the stack were commercial high purity metal foils. From the irradiated targets 117m Sn, 113 Sn, 110 Sn, 117m,g In, 116m In, 115m In, 114m In, 113m In, 111 In, 110m,g In, 109m In, 108m,g In, 115g Cd and 111m Cd were identified and their excitation functions were derived. The results were compared with the data of the previous measurements from the literature and with the results of the theoretical nuclear reaction model code calculations TALYS 1.8 (TENDL-2015) and EMPIRE 3.2 (Malta). From the cross section curves thick target yields were calculated and compared with the available literature data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Recombinant heat shock protein 27 (HSP27/HSPB1) protects against cadmium-induced oxidative stress and toxicity in human cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Olmedo, Daiana G; Biaggio, Veronica S; Koumbadinga, Geremy A; Gómez, Nidia N; Shi, Chunhua; Ciocca, Daniel R; Batulan, Zarah; Fanelli, Mariel A; O'Brien, Edward R

    2017-05-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a carcinogen with several well-described toxicological effects in humans, but its molecular mechanisms are still not fully understood. Overexpression of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27/HSPB1)-a multifunctional protein chaperone-has been shown to protect cells from oxidative damage and apoptosis triggered by Cd exposure. The aims of this work were to investigate the potential use of extracellular recombinant HSP27 to prevent/counteract Cd-induced cellular toxicity and to evaluate if peroxynitrite was involved in the development of Cd-induced toxicity. Here, we report that the harmful effects of Cd correlated with changes in oxidative stress markers: upregulation of reactive oxygen species, reduction in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, increment in lipid peroxidation, peroxynitrite (PN), and protein nitration; intracellular HSP27 was reduced. Treatments with Cd (100 μM) for 24 h or with the peroxynitrite donor, SIN-1, decreased HSP27 levels (~50%), suggesting that PN formation is responsible for the reduction of HSP27. Pre-treatments of the cells either with Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) (a pharmacological inhibitor of NO synthase) or with recombinant HSP27 (rHSP27) attenuated the disruption of the cellular metabolism induced by Cd, increasing in a 55 and 52%, respectively, the cell viability measured by CCK-8. Cd induced necrotic cell death pathways, although apoptosis was also activated; pre-treatment with L-NAME or rHSP27 mitigated cell death. Our findings show for the first time a direct relationship between Cd-induced toxicity and PN production and a role for rHSP27 as a potential therapeutic agent that may counteract Cd toxicity.

  5. The use of mrp1-deficient (Danio rerio) zebrafish embryos to investigate the role of Mrp1 in the toxicity of cadmium chloride and benzo[a]pyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Jingjing; Hu, Jia; Chen, Mingli; Yin, Huancai; Miao, Peng; Bai, Pengli; Yin, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies in our lab have revealed that both P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and multi-resistance associated protein (Mrp) 1 played important roles in the detoxification of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in zebrafish embryos. This paper aims to extend this research by using mrp1-deficient model to illustrate the individual function of Mrp1. In this respect, CRISPR/Cas9 system was employed to generate a frameshift mutation in zebrafish mrp1 causing premature translational stops in Mrp1. Significant reduction on the efflux function of Mrps was found in mutant zebrafish embryos, which correlated well with the significantly enhanced accumulation and toxicity of cadmium chloride (CdCl_2) and benzo[a]pyrene (BαP), indicating the protective role of the corresponding protein. The different alteration on the accumulation and toxicity of Cd"2"+ and BαP could be attributed to the fact that Cd"2"+ and its metabolites were mainly excreted by Mrp1, while BαP was primarily pumped out by Pgp. More importantly, the compensation mechanism for the absence of Mrp1, including elevated glutathione (GSH) level and up-regulated expression of pgp and mrp2 were also found. Thus, mrp1-deficient zebrafish embryo could be a useful tool in the investigation of Mrp1 functions in the early life stages of aquatic organisms. However, compensation mechanism should be taken into consideration in the interpretation of results obtained with mrp1-deficient fish.

  6. Studies on the protective effect of the artichoke (Cynara scolymus) leaf extract against cadmium toxicity-induced oxidative stress, hepatorenal damage, and immunosuppressive and hematological disorders in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Boshy, Mohamed; Ashshi, Ahmad; Gaith, Mazen; Qusty, Naeem; Bokhary, Thalat; AlTaweel, Nagwa; Abdelhady, Mohamed

    2017-05-01

    Our objective was to explore the protective effect of artichoke leaf extract (ALE) against cadmium (Cd) toxicity-induced oxidative organ damage in rats. Male albino Wistar rats were divided into four equal groups of eight animals each. The first group was assigned as a control. Groups 2-4 were orally administered with ALE (300 mg/kg bw), Cd (CdCl 2 , 100 mg/L drinking water), and ALE plus Cd, respectively, daily for 4 weeks. After treatment with Cd, the liver and kidney malondialdehyde (MDA) increased significantly compared with the control rats. The sera interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), and IL-10, liver transaminase, urea, creatinine, and peripheral neutrophil count were significantly increased in Cd-exposed rats compared to the control group. The reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) decreased in the liver and kidney in Cd-exposed group. In combination treatment, Cd and ALE significantly improved immune response, an antioxidant system, and hepatorenal function with a significant decline in MDA. In conclusion, ALE ameliorates the immunosuppressive and hepatorenal oxidative injury stimulated by Cd in rats. These results suggest that artichoke has shown promising effects against adverse effects of Cd toxicity.

  7. Effects of individual and combined toxicity of bisphenol A, dibutyl phthalate and cadmium on oxidative stress and genotoxicity in HepG 2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohui; Yin, Pinghe; Zhao, Ling

    2017-07-01

    Bisphenol A, dibutyl phthalate and cadmium can be found in environment simultaneously. Several studies suggested that they had genotoxic effect. In this study, mono-exposure and co-exposure treatments, designed by 3 × 3 full factorial, were established to determine the individual toxicity and binary mixtures' combined effects on the oxidative stress and genotoxicity in HepG 2 cells. The highest oxidative damage was observed in the Cd treatments groups. Compared with control groups, the maximum level of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde were ∼1.4 fold and ∼2.22 fold respectively. And a minimum level of superoxide dismutase activity was found with the decrease of 43%. The mechanism that excessive oxidative stress led to the DNA damage was inferred. However, cells treated with BPA showed the worst DNA damage rather than Cd, which may because Cd mainly damages DNA repairing mechanism. For the joint effect, different interactions can be found in different biological endpoints for different combinations since different mechanisms have been clarified in mixture toxicity studies. It is sure that the co-exposure groups enhanced cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and genotoxicity compared to the mono-exposures. Synergistic and additive interactions were considered, which means greater threat to organisms when exposed to multiple estrogenic endocrine disruptors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The use of mrp1-deficient (Danio rerio) zebrafish embryos to investigate the role of Mrp1 in the toxicity of cadmium chloride and benzo[a]pyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Jingjing [CAS Key Lab of Bio-Medical Diagnostics, Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215163 (China); Hu, Jia [School of Biology & Basic Medical Sciences, Medical College, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, Jiangsu (China); Chen, Mingli [CAS Key Lab of Bio-Medical Diagnostics, Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215163 (China); Yin, Huancai [CAS Key Lab of Bio-Medical Diagnostics, Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215163 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Miao, Peng; Bai, Pengli [CAS Key Lab of Bio-Medical Diagnostics, Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215163 (China); Yin, Jian, E-mail: yinj@sibet.ac.cn [CAS Key Lab of Bio-Medical Diagnostics, Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215163 (China)

    2017-05-15

    Previous studies in our lab have revealed that both P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and multi-resistance associated protein (Mrp) 1 played important roles in the detoxification of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in zebrafish embryos. This paper aims to extend this research by using mrp1-deficient model to illustrate the individual function of Mrp1. In this respect, CRISPR/Cas9 system was employed to generate a frameshift mutation in zebrafish mrp1 causing premature translational stops in Mrp1. Significant reduction on the efflux function of Mrps was found in mutant zebrafish embryos, which correlated well with the significantly enhanced accumulation and toxicity of cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}) and benzo[a]pyrene (BαP), indicating the protective role of the corresponding protein. The different alteration on the accumulation and toxicity of Cd{sup 2+} and BαP could be attributed to the fact that Cd{sup 2+} and its metabolites were mainly excreted by Mrp1, while BαP was primarily pumped out by Pgp. More importantly, the compensation mechanism for the absence of Mrp1, including elevated glutathione (GSH) level and up-regulated expression of pgp and mrp2 were also found. Thus, mrp1-deficient zebrafish embryo could be a useful tool in the investigation of Mrp1 functions in the early life stages of aquatic organisms. However, compensation mechanism should be taken into consideration in the interpretation of results obtained with mrp1-deficient fish.

  9. The effect of soil composition and hydration on the bioavailability and toxicity of cadmium to hibernating juvenile American toads (Bufo americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Stacy M.; Little, Edward E.; Semlitsch, Raymond D.

    2004-01-01

    The soil ecotoxicology literature has focused primarily on a few major taxa, to the neglect of other fossorial organisms such as amphibians. We selected cadmium (Cd) and the American toad (Bufo americanus) as a model contaminant and biological species to assess the impact of soil contamination on amphibian hibernation survival and post-hibernation condition. Soil sand composition (50, 70, 90%) and hydration (100, 150% water holding capacity (WHC)) were manipulated in addition to Cd concentration (0, 56, 165, 483 μg/g) to determine whether these soil properties affect toxicity. Soil Cd concentration significantly reduced survival and locomotor performance, and was correlated negatively with percent mass loss and positively with whole body Cd concentration. Higher sand content resulted in less mass loss and greater Cd uptake. Toads that were hibernated in 50% sand hydrated to 100% WHC had higher survival, less mass loss, and better sprint performance than those hibernated in 50% sand, 150% WHC. This study demonstrates that concentrations of Cd found in soil at highly contaminated sites can be bioaccumulated by hibernating amphibians and may reduce fitness. Differences in microhabitat use may cause species to vary in their exposure and susceptibility to soil contamination. The toxicity of Cd to amphibians could be greater in natural systems where there are multiple stressors and fluctuations in environmental variables.

  10. Autophagy regulated by prolyl isomerase Pin1 and phospho-Ser-GSK3αβ involved in protection of oral squamous cell carcinoma against cadmium toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, Keum-Young [Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine College of Dentistry, Chosun University, 309 Pilmundaero, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sang-Gun [Department of Pathology, College of Dentistry, Chosun University, 309 Pilmundaero, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Seon-Hee, E-mail: seonh@chosun.ac.kr [Department of Premedicine, School of Medicine, College of Dentistry, Chosun University, 309 Pilmundaero, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-23

    Prolyl isomerase Pin1 plays an important role in cell proliferation and is overexpressed in many human tumors. However, its role in autophagy induction remains undefined. Here we show that Pin1 regulates cell survival via autophagy in cadmium (Cd)-exposed oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). OSCC exposure to Cd induced autophagy, as demonstrated by the formation of green fluorescent punctae in transfected cells expressing GFP-conjugated microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) and by LC3 flux in the presence of autophagy inhibitors. Suppression of Atg5 enhanced Cd-induced apoptosis, indicating that autophagy is involved in cell protection. In dose–response experiments, cleavage of procaspase-3, PARP-1, and LC3-II was induced by Cd with an IC{sub 50} of 45 μM. Expression of Pin1 was decreased at or above the Cd IC{sub 50} value and was inversely correlated with the level of phospho(p)-Ser-GSK3αβ. Genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of Pin1 suppressed Cd-induced autophagy, but increased p-Akt-mediated p-Ser-GSK3αβ; this was reversed by overexpression of Pin1. However, suppression of GSK3αβ inhibited Cd-induced autophagy and induced apoptosis, which could be reversed by overexpression of GSK3β. The PI3K inhibitor Ly294002 blocked p-Akt-mediated increases in p-Ser-GSK3αβ and autophagy and induced apoptosis. Therefore, p-Ser-GSK3αβ can directly regulate Cd-induced autophagy, although its function is suppressed by Pin1. Collectively, the present results indicate that targeting Pin1 and GSK3αβ at the same time could be an effective therapeutic tool for Cd-induced carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Pin1 regulated autophagy to protect cells from cadmium toxicity. • Pin1 suppression inhibited cadmium-induced autophagy and induced apoptosis. • Pin1 inhibited the function of p-Ser-GSK3αβ in autophagy regulation. • p-Ser-GSK3αβ regulated autophagy independently of Pin1.

  11. Toxic effects of two sources of dietborne cadmium on the juvenile cobia, Rachycentron canadum L. and tissue-specific accumulation of related minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kang; Chi, Shuyan; Liu, Hongyu; Dong, Xiaohui; Yang, Qihui; Zhang, Shuang; Tan, Beiping

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, juvenile cobia, Rachycentron canadum L. were fed diets contaminated by two different sources of cadmium: squid viscera meal (SVM-Cd, organic form) and cadmium chloride (CdCl2-Cd, inorganic form). The Cd concentrations in fish diet were approximate 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0mg Cd kg(-1) for both inorganic and organic forms. In the control diet (0.312mg Cd kg(-1) diet, Cd mainly come from fish meal), no cadmium was added. The experiment lasted for 16 weeks and a statistically significant inverse relationship was observed between specific growth rate (SGR) and the concentration of dietary Cd. The SGR of cobia fed a diet with SVM-Cd increased at the lowest doses and decreased with the increasing level of dietary SVM. Fish fed diet contaminated SVM-Cd had significantly higher SGR than those fed diets contaminated CdCl2-Cd among the high Cd level diets treatments. The dietary Cd levels also significantly affected the survival rate of the fish. Among the hematological characteristics and plasma constituents, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase activities and alkaline phosphatase activities in serum and liver increased and hepatic superoxide dismutase activity decreased with the increasing dietary Cd levels. The cobia fed diet contaminated by high level of CdCl2-Cd had significantly higher ALP activity than cobia fed diet contaminated by high level of SVM-Cd. The results from these studies indicate no differences in toxicity response to dietborne SVM-Cd and CdCl2-Cd at a low level of Cd. However, at a higher level, cobia was more sensitive to dietborne CdCl2-Cd than SVM-Cd. Based on quadratic regression of SGR, The Cd concentrations was 3.617mg kg(-1) in the optimal diet, Cd source was SVM (126mg Cd kg(-1) in SVM) which stimulate the growth of cobia and the added level was determined to be 26.7g kg(-1) diet in the present study. Cd accumulations in the kidney of cobia fed both types of Cd were higher than other tissues, and the order of Cd accumulation in tissues

  12. Autophagy regulated by prolyl isomerase Pin1 and phospho-Ser-GSK3αβ involved in protection of oral squamous cell carcinoma against cadmium toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So, Keum-Young; Ahn, Sang-Gun; Oh, Seon-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Prolyl isomerase Pin1 plays an important role in cell proliferation and is overexpressed in many human tumors. However, its role in autophagy induction remains undefined. Here we show that Pin1 regulates cell survival via autophagy in cadmium (Cd)-exposed oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). OSCC exposure to Cd induced autophagy, as demonstrated by the formation of green fluorescent punctae in transfected cells expressing GFP-conjugated microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) and by LC3 flux in the presence of autophagy inhibitors. Suppression of Atg5 enhanced Cd-induced apoptosis, indicating that autophagy is involved in cell protection. In dose–response experiments, cleavage of procaspase-3, PARP-1, and LC3-II was induced by Cd with an IC_5_0 of 45 μM. Expression of Pin1 was decreased at or above the Cd IC_5_0 value and was inversely correlated with the level of phospho(p)-Ser-GSK3αβ. Genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of Pin1 suppressed Cd-induced autophagy, but increased p-Akt-mediated p-Ser-GSK3αβ; this was reversed by overexpression of Pin1. However, suppression of GSK3αβ inhibited Cd-induced autophagy and induced apoptosis, which could be reversed by overexpression of GSK3β. The PI3K inhibitor Ly294002 blocked p-Akt-mediated increases in p-Ser-GSK3αβ and autophagy and induced apoptosis. Therefore, p-Ser-GSK3αβ can directly regulate Cd-induced autophagy, although its function is suppressed by Pin1. Collectively, the present results indicate that targeting Pin1 and GSK3αβ at the same time could be an effective therapeutic tool for Cd-induced carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Pin1 regulated autophagy to protect cells from cadmium toxicity. • Pin1 suppression inhibited cadmium-induced autophagy and induced apoptosis. • Pin1 inhibited the function of p-Ser-GSK3αβ in autophagy regulation. • p-Ser-GSK3αβ regulated autophagy independently of Pin1.

  13. Effects of soil organic matter content on cadmium toxicity in Eisenia fetida: implications for the use of biomarkers and standard toxicity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irizar, A; Rodríguez, M P; Izquierdo, A; Cancio, I; Marigómez, I; Soto, M

    2015-01-01

    Bioavailability is affected by soil physicochemical characteristics such as pH and organic matter (OM) content. In addition, OM constitutes the energy source of Eisenia fetida, a well established model species for soil toxicity assessment. The present work aimed at assessing the effects of changes in OM content on the toxicity of Cd in E. fetida through the measurement of neutral red uptake (NRU) and mortality, growth, and reproduction (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] Nos. 207 and 222). Complementarily, metallothionein (MT) and catalase transcription levels were measured. To decrease variability inherent to natural soils, artificial soils (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development 1984) with different OM content (6, 10, and 14%) and spiked with Cd solutions at increasing concentrations were used. Low OM in soil decreased soil ingestion and Cd bioaccumulation but also increased Cd toxicity causing lower NRU of coelomocytes, 100 % mortality, and stronger reproduction impairment, probably due to the lack of energy to maintain protection mechanisms (production of MT).Cd bioaccumulation did not reflect toxicity, and OM played a pivotal role in Cd toxicity. Thus, OM content should be taken into account when using E. fetida in in vivo exposures for soil health assessment.

  14. Comparative toxicity in earthworms Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus terrestris exposed to cadmium nitrate using artificial soil and filter paper protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, L.C.; Goven, A.J. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States); Muratti-Ortiz, J.F. [City of Denton Water/Wastewater Laboratory, TX (United States); Venables, B.J. [TRAC Laboratories Inc., Denton, TX (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Earthworms are ideal soil organisms for use in terrestrial ecotoxicology. As such, several earthworm protocols have been developed for testing toxic potential of chemicals and contaminated soils. Of these, the 48-h filter paper contact (FP) and the 14-d artificial soil exposure (AS) protocols, using mortality (LC50) as the toxic endpoint and Eisenia fetida as the test species, have received the most attention, with the latter being adopted by both OECD and EEC in Europe and the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in the United States. Although the FP technique, adopted by EEC, provides for inexpensive reproducible toxicity screening for chemicals (i.e. establishing relative toxicities), it has been criticized for lacking the ecotoxicological relevance of the AS protocol. Choice of earthworm species for laboratory testing also has been controversial. The manure worm, E. fetida, is criticized for not being sufficiently sensitive to chemicals or representative of {open_quotes}typical{close_quotes} earthworms. Lumbricus terrestris and Apporectodea caliginosa have been suggested as more sensitive and ecologically relevant earthworms by Dean-Ross and Martin, respectively. This paper compares the AS and FP protocols in assessing toxicity of cadminum to L. terrestris and E. fetida using LC50s and LC50s. 19 refs., 2 tabs.

  15. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B; Svendsen, P

    1988-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) is known to alleviate acute toxicity due to injection of cadmium salts. However, when cadmium chloride was administered by the oral route, DDC enhanced rather than alleviated the acute toxicity; both oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of DDC had this effect...

  16. Cadmium toxicity investigated at the physiological and biophysical levels under environmentally relevant conditions using the aquatic model plant Ceratophyllum demersum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Andresen, Elisa; Kappel, S.; Stärk, H.-J.; Riegger, U.; Borovec, Jakub; Mattusch, J.; Heinz, A.; Schmelzer, C.E.H.; Matoušková, Šárka; Dickinson, B.; Küpper, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 210, č. 4 (2016), s. 1244-1258 ISSN 0028-646X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:67985831 Keywords : Ceratophyllum demersum * Environmentally relevant * Light-harvesting complexes (LHCs) * Toxic metals Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry; DD - Geochemistry (GLU-S) Impact factor: 7.330, year: 2016

  17. Toxic effects of two sources of dietborne cadmium on the juvenile cobia, Rachycentron canadum L. and tissue-specific accumulation of related minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Kang; Chi, Shuyan; Liu, Hongyu; Dong, Xiaohui; Yang, Qihui; Zhang, Shuang; Tan, Beiping

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CdCl 2 –Cd showed a higher toxicity than SVM-Cd for cobia. • Cd accumulation in cobia fed diets contaminated SVM-Cd was higher than in cobia fed diets contaminated CdCl 2 –Cd. • Cd accumulation in tissues of cobia fed both types of Cd was kidney > liver > intestine > gill muscle. • Dietborne Cd decreased the Fe concentration in kidney and liver, Ca concentrations in vertebra and scale. - Abstract: In the present study, juvenile cobia, Rachycentron canadum L. were fed diets contaminated by two different sources of cadmium: squid viscera meal (SVM-Cd, organic form) and cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 –Cd, inorganic form). The Cd concentrations in fish diet were approximate 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg Cd kg −1 for both inorganic and organic forms. In the control diet (0.312 mg Cd kg −1 diet, Cd mainly come from fish meal), no cadmium was added. The experiment lasted for 16 weeks and a statistically significant inverse relationship was observed between specific growth rate (SGR) and the concentration of dietary Cd. The SGR of cobia fed a diet with SVM-Cd increased at the lowest doses and decreased with the increasing level of dietary SVM. Fish fed diet contaminated SVM-Cd had significantly higher SGR than those fed diets contaminated CdCl 2 –Cd among the high Cd level diets treatments. The dietary Cd levels also significantly affected the survival rate of the fish. Among the hematological characteristics and plasma constituents, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase activities and alkaline phosphatase activities in serum and liver increased and hepatic superoxide dismutase activity decreased with the increasing dietary Cd levels. The cobia fed diet contaminated by high level of CdCl 2 –Cd had significantly higher ALP activity than cobia fed diet contaminated by high level of SVM-Cd. The results from these studies indicate no differences in toxicity response to dietborne SVM-Cd and CdCl 2 –Cd at a low level of Cd. However, at a higher level, cobia was

  18. Toxic effects of two sources of dietborne cadmium on the juvenile cobia, Rachycentron canadum L. and tissue-specific accumulation of related minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Kang [Laboratory of Aquatic Animal Nutrition and Feed, College of Fisheries, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang, Guangdong (China); Guangdong Yuehai Feed Group Co., Ltd., Zhanjiang, Guangdong (China); Chi, Shuyan; Liu, Hongyu; Dong, Xiaohui; Yang, Qihui; Zhang, Shuang [Laboratory of Aquatic Animal Nutrition and Feed, College of Fisheries, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang, Guangdong (China); Tan, Beiping, E-mail: bptan@126.com [Laboratory of Aquatic Animal Nutrition and Feed, College of Fisheries, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang, Guangdong (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • CdCl{sub 2}–Cd showed a higher toxicity than SVM-Cd for cobia. • Cd accumulation in cobia fed diets contaminated SVM-Cd was higher than in cobia fed diets contaminated CdCl{sub 2}–Cd. • Cd accumulation in tissues of cobia fed both types of Cd was kidney > liver > intestine > gill muscle. • Dietborne Cd decreased the Fe concentration in kidney and liver, Ca concentrations in vertebra and scale. - Abstract: In the present study, juvenile cobia, Rachycentron canadum L. were fed diets contaminated by two different sources of cadmium: squid viscera meal (SVM-Cd, organic form) and cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}–Cd, inorganic form). The Cd concentrations in fish diet were approximate 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg Cd kg{sup −1} for both inorganic and organic forms. In the control diet (0.312 mg Cd kg{sup −1} diet, Cd mainly come from fish meal), no cadmium was added. The experiment lasted for 16 weeks and a statistically significant inverse relationship was observed between specific growth rate (SGR) and the concentration of dietary Cd. The SGR of cobia fed a diet with SVM-Cd increased at the lowest doses and decreased with the increasing level of dietary SVM. Fish fed diet contaminated SVM-Cd had significantly higher SGR than those fed diets contaminated CdCl{sub 2}–Cd among the high Cd level diets treatments. The dietary Cd levels also significantly affected the survival rate of the fish. Among the hematological characteristics and plasma constituents, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase activities and alkaline phosphatase activities in serum and liver increased and hepatic superoxide dismutase activity decreased with the increasing dietary Cd levels. The cobia fed diet contaminated by high level of CdCl{sub 2}–Cd had significantly higher ALP activity than cobia fed diet contaminated by high level of SVM-Cd. The results from these studies indicate no differences in toxicity response to dietborne SVM-Cd and CdCl{sub 2}–Cd at a low level of Cd

  19. Phytoavailability of cadmium (Cd) to Pak choi (Brassica chinensis L.) grown in Chinese soils: a model to evaluate the impact of soil Cd pollution on potential dietary toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq; Aziz, Rukhsanda; Yang, Xiaoe; Xiao, Wendan; Stoffella, Peter J; Saghir, Aamir; Azam, Muhammad; Li, Tingqiang

    2014-01-01

    Food chain contamination by soil cadmium (Cd) through vegetable consumption poses a threat to human health. Therefore, an understanding is needed on the relationship between the phytoavailability of Cd in soils and its uptake in edible tissues of vegetables. The purpose of this study was to establish soil Cd thresholds of representative Chinese soils based on dietary toxicity to humans and develop a model to evaluate the phytoavailability of Cd to Pak choi (Brassica chinensis L.) based on soil properties. Mehlich-3 extractable Cd thresholds were more suitable for Stagnic Anthrosols, Calcareous, Ustic Cambosols, Typic Haplustalfs, Udic Ferrisols and Periudic Argosols with values of 0.30, 0.25, 0.18, 0.16, 0.15 and 0.03 mg kg-1, respectively, while total Cd is adequate threshold for Mollisols with a value of 0.86 mg kg-1. A stepwise regression model indicated that Cd phytoavailability to Pak choi was significantly influenced by soil pH, organic matter, total Zinc and Cd concentrations in soil. Therefore, since Cd accumulation in Pak choi varied with soil characteristics, they should be considered while assessing the environmental quality of soils to ensure the hygienically safe food production.

  20. Phytoavailability of Cadmium (Cd) to Pak Choi (Brassica chinensis L.) Grown in Chinese Soils: A Model to Evaluate the Impact of Soil Cd Pollution on Potential Dietary Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoe; Xiao, Wendan; Stoffella, Peter J.; Saghir, Aamir; Azam, Muhammad; Li, Tingqiang

    2014-01-01

    Food chain contamination by soil cadmium (Cd) through vegetable consumption poses a threat to human health. Therefore, an understanding is needed on the relationship between the phytoavailability of Cd in soils and its uptake in edible tissues of vegetables. The purpose of this study was to establish soil Cd thresholds of representative Chinese soils based on dietary toxicity to humans and develop a model to evaluate the phytoavailability of Cd to Pak choi (Brassica chinensis L.) based on soil properties. Mehlich-3 extractable Cd thresholds were more suitable for Stagnic Anthrosols, Calcareous, Ustic Cambosols, Typic Haplustalfs, Udic Ferrisols and Periudic Argosols with values of 0.30, 0.25, 0.18, 0.16, 0.15 and 0.03 mg kg−1, respectively, while total Cd is adequate threshold for Mollisols with a value of 0.86 mg kg−1. A stepwise regression model indicated that Cd phytoavailability to Pak choi was significantly influenced by soil pH, organic matter, total Zinc and Cd concentrations in soil. Therefore, since Cd accumulation in Pak choi varied with soil characteristics, they should be considered while assessing the environmental quality of soils to ensure the hygienically safe food production. PMID:25386790

  1. Phytoavailability of cadmium (Cd to Pak choi (Brassica chinensis L. grown in Chinese soils: a model to evaluate the impact of soil Cd pollution on potential dietary toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tariq Rafiq

    Full Text Available Food chain contamination by soil cadmium (Cd through vegetable consumption poses a threat to human health. Therefore, an understanding is needed on the relationship between the phytoavailability of Cd in soils and its uptake in edible tissues of vegetables. The purpose of this study was to establish soil Cd thresholds of representative Chinese soils based on dietary toxicity to humans and develop a model to evaluate the phytoavailability of Cd to Pak choi (Brassica chinensis L. based on soil properties. Mehlich-3 extractable Cd thresholds were more suitable for Stagnic Anthrosols, Calcareous, Ustic Cambosols, Typic Haplustalfs, Udic Ferrisols and Periudic Argosols with values of 0.30, 0.25, 0.18, 0.16, 0.15 and 0.03 mg kg-1, respectively, while total Cd is adequate threshold for Mollisols with a value of 0.86 mg kg-1. A stepwise regression model indicated that Cd phytoavailability to Pak choi was significantly influenced by soil pH, organic matter, total Zinc and Cd concentrations in soil. Therefore, since Cd accumulation in Pak choi varied with soil characteristics, they should be considered while assessing the environmental quality of soils to ensure the hygienically safe food production.

  2. Prediction of acute toxicity of cadmium and lead to zebrafish larvae by using a refined toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yongfei; Feng, Jianfeng, E-mail: fengjf@nankai.edu.cn; Zhu, Lin, E-mail: zhulin@nankai.edu.cn

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • We developed a BLM-aided TK-TD model that considers the effects of H{sup +}. • The time-course metal concentration in larvae was well described by the TK model. • The time-course survival of zebrafish larvae was well simulated by the TD model. - Abstract: The biotic ligand model (BLM) and the toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic (TK-TD) model are essential in predicting the acute toxicity of metals in various species and exposure conditions; however, these models are usually separately utilized. In this study, a mechanistic TK-TD model was developed to predict the acute toxicity of 10{sup −6} M Cd and 10{sup −6} M Pb to zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. The novel approach links the BLM with relevant TK processes to simulate the bioaccumulation processes of Cd or Pb as a function of the maximum uptake rate of each metal, the affinity constants, and the concentrations of free metal ions and H{sup +} in test solutions. Results showed that the refined TK-TD model can accurately predict the accumulation and acute toxicity of Cd and Pb to zebrafish larvae at pH 5.5, 6.5, and 7.0.

  3. Prediction of acute toxicity of cadmium and lead to zebrafish larvae by using a refined toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Yongfei; Feng, Jianfeng; Zhu, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed a BLM-aided TK-TD model that considers the effects of H"+. • The time-course metal concentration in larvae was well described by the TK model. • The time-course survival of zebrafish larvae was well simulated by the TD model. - Abstract: The biotic ligand model (BLM) and the toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic (TK-TD) model are essential in predicting the acute toxicity of metals in various species and exposure conditions; however, these models are usually separately utilized. In this study, a mechanistic TK-TD model was developed to predict the acute toxicity of 10"−"6 M Cd and 10"−"6 M Pb to zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. The novel approach links the BLM with relevant TK processes to simulate the bioaccumulation processes of Cd or Pb as a function of the maximum uptake rate of each metal, the affinity constants, and the concentrations of free metal ions and H"+ in test solutions. Results showed that the refined TK-TD model can accurately predict the accumulation and acute toxicity of Cd and Pb to zebrafish larvae at pH 5.5, 6.5, and 7.0.

  4. Cadmium Profiles in Dental Calculus: a Cross-Sectional Population-Based Study in Hunan Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Tan, Xiaodan; Zhang, Kunlun

    2018-01-24

    We aimed to investigate whether the cadmium concentrations differ in human dental calculus obtained from the residents with no smoking living in the contaminated area and those with no smoking living in noncontaminated area. In total, there were 260 samples of dental calculus from the adults (n = 50) with no smoking living in contaminated area, the adults (n = 60) with no smoking living in mountainous area, and the adults (n = 150) with no smoking living in low altitude area in Hunan province of China. All samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for cadmium levels. The cadmium levels in dental calculus were significantly higher in the adults with no smoking living in contaminated area than those living in mountainous area and in low altitude area (p dental calculus were also higher in the adults with no smoking living in low altitude area than those living in mountainous region (p dental calculus may be a useful noninvasive method for analysis of environmental exposure to cadmium in the human oral cavity. The low altitude region may have an area contaminated with cadmium in Hunan province of China.

  5. Health hazards of environmental cadmium pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordberg, G F

    1974-01-01

    Cadmium, a metal widely used in industrial processes, has been recognized to be a highly toxic and dangerous environmental pollutant. In this study the author describes the sources and occurrence of cadmium, and the intake by human beings. He states that present standards for daily intake do not allow sufficient safety margins. The fate and known effects of cadmium in human beings are summarized; some effects associated with cadmium are renal (kidney) damage, anemia, hypertension, and liver damage. Cadmium was identified as the main cause of the Itai-Itai disease in Japan, and epidemiological studies from various areas of Japan are presented. 64 references, 9 figures, 5 tables.

  6. Toxic Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Shakibazadeh, Shahram; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Food is considered the main source of toxic element (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) exposure to humans, and they can cause major public health effects. In this chapter, we discuss the most important sources for toxic element in food and the foodstuffs which are significant contributors to h...

  7. Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkman, H; Iverfeldt, Aa [Swedish Environmental Research Inst. (Sweden); Borg, H; Lithner, G [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Inst. for Applied Environmental Research

    1998-03-01

    This report aims at assessing possible effects of cadmium in the Swedish environment. Swedish soils and soft freshwater systems are, due to a generally poor buffering capacity, severely affected by acidification. In addition, the low salinity in the Baltic Sea imply a naturally poor organism structure, with some important organisms living close to their limit of physiological tolerance. Cadmium in soils is mobilized at low pH, and the availability and toxicity of cadmium in marine systems are enhanced at low salinity. The Swedish environment is therefore extra vulnerable to cadmium pollution. The average concentrations of cadmium in the forest mor layers, agricultural soils, and fresh-waters in Sweden are enhanced compared to `back-ground concentrations`, with a general increasing trend from the north to the south-west, indicating strong impact of atmospheric deposition of cadmium originating from the central parts of Europe. In Swedish sea water, total cadmium concentrations, and the fraction of bio-available `free` cadmium, generally increases with decreasing salinity. Decreased emissions of cadmium to the environment have led to decreasing atmospheric deposition during the last decade. The net accumulation of cadmium in the forest mor layer has stopped, and even started to decrease. In northern Sweden, this is due to the decreased deposition, but in southern Sweden the main reason is increased leakage of cadmium from the topsoil as a consequence of acidification. As a result, cadmium in the Swedish environments is undergoing an extended redistribution between different soil compartments, and from the soils to the aquatic systems. 90 refs, 23 figs, 2 tabs. With 3 page summary in Swedish

  8. Toxicity and sorption kinetics of dissolved cadmium and chromium III on tropical freshwater phytoperiphyton in laboratory mesocosm experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bere, Taurai; Tundisi, Jose Galizia

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the interactive effects of Cd and Cr III on tropical phytoperiphyton community growth, metal sorption kinetics, as well as Cd and Cr mixtures toxicity to diatom assemblages in laboratory mesocosm experiments. A natural phytoperiphyton community sampled from the Monjolinho River (South of Brazil) was inoculated into seven experimental systems containing clean glass substrates for phytoperiphyton colonization. The communities were exposed to mixtures of dissolved Cd and Cr concentrations of 0.01 and 0.1 mg.L -1 Cd and 0.05 and 0.2 mg.L -1 Cr. Phytoperiphyton chlorophyll a, ash-free dry mass, growth rate, diatom cell density and diatom community composition were analyzed on samples collected after 1, 2 and 3 weeks of colonization. High Cd concentration (0.1 mg.L -1 ) affects phytoperiphyton growth while high concentration of Cr (0.2 mg.L -1 ) decreased the toxic effects of Cd on phytoperiphyton growth demonstrating the importance of studying metal mixtures in field studies. Shifts in species composition (development of more resistant species like Achnanthidium minutissimum (Kuetzing) Czarnecki, and Nitzschia palea (Kuetzing) Smith and reduction of sensitive ones like Fragilaria capucina Desmazieres, Navicula cryptocephala (Grunow) Cleve, Encyonema silesiacum (Bleisch) Mann, Eunotia bilunaris (Ehrenberg) Mills and Gomphonema parvulum (Kuetzing) Kuetzing), of phytoperiphyton communities with increasing Cd and Cr concentrations and exposure duration have been demonstrated in this study making phytoperiphyton communities appropriate monitors of metal mixtures in aquatic systems. Good Cd and Cr accumulation capacity by phytoperiphyton was demonstrated with total and intracellular metal content in phytoperiphyton reflecting the effects of dissolved concentrations of metal in the culture media and exposure duration. Increase in both Cd and Cr reduced sequestration of each other, with generally more Cd being sequestered compared to Cr

  9. Toxicity and sorption kinetics of dissolved cadmium and chromium III on tropical freshwater phytoperiphyton in laboratory mesocosm experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bere, Taurai, E-mail: taubere@yahoo.com [Instituto Internacional de Ecologia, Rua Bento Carlos, 750, Centro, Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Univeridade Federal De Sao Carlos, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ecologia e Recursos Naturais, Rodovia Washington Luis, km 235, SP-310, Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Tundisi, Jose Galizia [Instituto Internacional de Ecologia, Rua Bento Carlos, 750, Centro, Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-10-15

    The objective of this study was to assess the interactive effects of Cd and Cr III on tropical phytoperiphyton community growth, metal sorption kinetics, as well as Cd and Cr mixtures toxicity to diatom assemblages in laboratory mesocosm experiments. A natural phytoperiphyton community sampled from the Monjolinho River (South of Brazil) was inoculated into seven experimental systems containing clean glass substrates for phytoperiphyton colonization. The communities were exposed to mixtures of dissolved Cd and Cr concentrations of 0.01 and 0.1 mg.L{sup -1} Cd and 0.05 and 0.2 mg.L{sup -1} Cr. Phytoperiphyton chlorophyll a, ash-free dry mass, growth rate, diatom cell density and diatom community composition were analyzed on samples collected after 1, 2 and 3 weeks of colonization. High Cd concentration (0.1 mg.L{sup -1}) affects phytoperiphyton growth while high concentration of Cr (0.2 mg.L{sup -1}) decreased the toxic effects of Cd on phytoperiphyton growth demonstrating the importance of studying metal mixtures in field studies. Shifts in species composition (development of more resistant species like Achnanthidium minutissimum (Kuetzing) Czarnecki, and Nitzschia palea (Kuetzing) Smith and reduction of sensitive ones like Fragilaria capucina Desmazieres, Navicula cryptocephala (Grunow) Cleve, Encyonema silesiacum (Bleisch) Mann, Eunotia bilunaris (Ehrenberg) Mills and Gomphonema parvulum (Kuetzing) Kuetzing), of phytoperiphyton communities with increasing Cd and Cr concentrations and exposure duration have been demonstrated in this study making phytoperiphyton communities appropriate monitors of metal mixtures in aquatic systems. Good Cd and Cr accumulation capacity by phytoperiphyton was demonstrated with total and intracellular metal content in phytoperiphyton reflecting the effects of dissolved concentrations of metal in the culture media and exposure duration. Increase in both Cd and Cr reduced sequestration of each other, with generally more Cd being

  10. Effects of acclimation on the toxicity of stream water contaminated with zinc and cadmium to juvenile cutthroat trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, D.D.; Farag, A.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the influence of acclimation on results of in situ bioassays with cutthroat trout in metal-contaminated streams. Cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki) were held for 21 days (1) in live containers at a reference or "clean" site having dissolved metals near detection limits (0.01 ??g/L cadmium [Cd] and 2.8 ??g/L zinc [Zn]; hardness 32 mg/L as CaCO3) and (2) at a site in a mining-impacted watershed having moderately increased metals (0.07 ??g/L Cd and 38 to 40 ??g/L Zn; hardness 50 mg/L as CaCO3). The 96-hour survival of each treatment group was then tested in situ at five sites from September 5 to 9, 2002, and each group exhibited a range of metal concentrations (0.44 to 39 ??g/L arsenic [As], 0.01 to 2.2 ??g/L Cd, and 0.49 to 856 ??g/L Zn). Survival was 100% at three sites for both treatments. However, a higher percentage of metal-acclimated fish survived at the site with the second highest concentrations of Cd and Zn (0.90 and 238 ??g/L, respectively) compared with fish acclimated at the reference site (100% vs. 55%, respectively). Survival was 65% for acclimated fish and 0% for metal-nai??ve fish at the site with the largest metal concentrations (2.2 ??g/L Cd and 856 ??g/L Zn). Water collected from the site with the largest concentrations of dissolved metals (on October 30, 2002) was used in a laboratory serial dilution to determine 96-hour LC50 values. The 96-hour LC50 estimates of nai??ve fish during the in situ and laboratory experiments were similar (0.60 ??g Cd/L and 226 ??g Zn/L for in situ and 0.64 ??g Cd/L and 201 ??g Zn/L for laboratory serial dilutions). However, mortality of nai??ve cutthroat trout tested under laboratory conditions was more rapid in dilutions of 100%, 75%, and 38% site water than in situ experiments. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  11. The toxic effects of l-Cysteine-capped cadmium sulfide nanoparticles on the aquatic plant Spirodela polyrrhiza

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khataee, Alireza; Movafeghi, Ali; Nazari, Fatemeh; Vafaei, Fatemeh; Dadpour, Mohammad Reza; Hanifehpour, Younes; Joo, Sang Woo

    2014-01-01

    Plants play an important role in the fate of nanoparticles in the environment through their uptake, bioaccumulation, and transfer to trophic chains. However, the impacts of nanoparticles on plants as essential components of all ecosystems are not well documented. In the present study, the toxic effects of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles on Spirodela polyrrhiza as an aquatic higher plant species were studied. l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles were synthesized using hydrothermal method and their characteristics were determined by XRD, SEM, HR-TEM, and FT-IR techniques. The diameter of majority of synthesized nanoparticles was about 15–20 nm. Subsequently, the uptake of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles by the plant species was confirmed using epifluorescence microscopy. The activity of peroxidase and superoxide dismutase as antioxidant enzymes was assayed and the relative frond number was calculated in the presence of different concentrations of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles. The obtained results revealed the toxic effects of the synthesized nanoparticles on S. polyrrhiza, leading to growth reduction and significant changes in antioxidant enzymes’ activity.Graphical Abstract

  12. The toxic effects of l-Cysteine-capped cadmium sulfide nanoparticles on the aquatic plant Spirodela polyrrhiza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khataee, Alireza, E-mail: ar_khataee@yahoo.com [University of Tabriz, Research Laboratory of Advanced Water and Wastewater Treatment Processes, Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Movafeghi, Ali [University of Tabriz, Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nazari, Fatemeh [University of Tabriz, Research Laboratory of Advanced Water and Wastewater Treatment Processes, Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vafaei, Fatemeh [University of Tabriz, Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dadpour, Mohammad Reza [University of Tabriz, Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hanifehpour, Younes; Joo, Sang Woo, E-mail: swjoo@yu.ac.kr [Yeungnam University, School of Mechanical Engineering (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Plants play an important role in the fate of nanoparticles in the environment through their uptake, bioaccumulation, and transfer to trophic chains. However, the impacts of nanoparticles on plants as essential components of all ecosystems are not well documented. In the present study, the toxic effects of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles on Spirodela polyrrhiza as an aquatic higher plant species were studied. l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles were synthesized using hydrothermal method and their characteristics were determined by XRD, SEM, HR-TEM, and FT-IR techniques. The diameter of majority of synthesized nanoparticles was about 15–20 nm. Subsequently, the uptake of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles by the plant species was confirmed using epifluorescence microscopy. The activity of peroxidase and superoxide dismutase as antioxidant enzymes was assayed and the relative frond number was calculated in the presence of different concentrations of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles. The obtained results revealed the toxic effects of the synthesized nanoparticles on S. polyrrhiza, leading to growth reduction and significant changes in antioxidant enzymes’ activity.Graphical Abstract.

  13. Ecological risk assessment on a cadmium contaminated soil landfill-a preliminary evaluation based on toxicity tests on local species and site-specific information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.-M.; Liu, M.-C.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, methodology of ecological risk assessment has been developed and applied frequently for addressing various circumstances where ecological impacts are suspected or have occurred due to environmental contamination; however, its practice is very limited in Taiwan. In 1982, brown rice from rice paddy fields in Da-Tan, Tau-Yuan, was found to be contaminated with Cd and Pb due to illegal discharges of wastewater, known as the 'Cd rice' incidence. Cadmium laden soil was transferred to a constructed landfill in an industrial park 15 years after the incident. Possible leakage of the landfill was suspected by committee members of a supervising board for the remediation process, and a preliminary ecological risk evaluation was requested. A possible risk scenario was that groundwater contamination due to the leachate containing Cd and Pb from the landfill could result in pollution of coastal water, and subsequently produce toxic effects to aquatic organisms. Chemical dissipation in groundwater systems was simulated and short-term chronic toxicity tests on larvae of three local aquatic species were also performed to determine the no-observed adverse-effect concentrations (NOAECs), as well as the predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs), of the two metals in the organisms tested. The hazard quotient (HQ), the ratio of predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) to PNECs, was used for risk characterization. A worst-case-scenario calculation showed that the maximum Cd concentration at 60 m and farther downstream from the site in the groundwater system would be 0.0028 mg l -1 with a maximum initial concentration of 0.65 mg l -1 in the leachate, while for Pb, the highest concentration of 0.044 mg l -1 would be reached at a distance of 40 m and farther, which was based on an initial concentration of 4.4 mg l -1 in the leachate; however, both cases would only occur 80 years after the initiation of leakage. A presumed dilution factor of 100 was used to calculate

  14. Cadmium and Cadmium/Zinc Ratios and Tobacco-Related Morbidities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Patricia; Faroon, Obaid; Pappas, R. Steven

    2017-01-01

    Metals are one of five major categories of carcinogenic or toxic constituents in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Cadmium is highly volatile and a higher percentage of the total tobacco cadmium content is efficiently transferred to mainstream tobacco smoke than many other toxic metals in tobacco. Inhaled cadmium bioaccumulates in the lungs and is distributed beyond the lungs to other tissues, with a total body biological half-life of one to two decades. Chronic cadmium exposure through tobacco use elevates blood and urine cadmium concentrations. Cadmium is a carcinogen, and an inducer of proinflammatory immune responses. Elevated exposure to cadmium is associated with reduced pulmonary function, obstructive lung disease, bronchogenic carcinoma, cardiovascular diseases including myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, pancreatic cancer, and various oral pathologies. Cadmium and zinc have a toxicologically inverse relationship. Zinc is an essential element and is reportedly antagonistic to some manifestations of cadmium toxicity. This review summarizes associations between blood, urine, and tissue cadmium concentrations with emphasis on cadmium exposure due to tobacco use and several disease states. Available data about zinc and cadmium/zinc ratios and tobacco-related diseases is summarized from studies reporting smoking status. Collectively, data suggest that blood, urine, and tissue cadmium and cadmium/zinc ratios are often significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers and they are also different in smokers for several diseases and cancers. Additional biomonitoring data such as blood or serum and urine zinc and cadmium levels and cadmium/zinc ratios in smokers may provide further insight into the development and progression of diseases of the lung, cardiovascular system, and possibly other organs. PMID:28961214

  15. Cadmium and Cadmium/Zinc Ratios and Tobacco-Related Morbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Patricia; Faroon, Obaid; Pappas, R Steven

    2017-09-29

    Metals are one of five major categories of carcinogenic or toxic constituents in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Cadmium is highly volatile and a higher percentage of the total tobacco cadmium content is efficiently transferred to mainstream tobacco smoke than many other toxic metals in tobacco. Inhaled cadmium bioaccumulates in the lungs and is distributed beyond the lungs to other tissues, with a total body biological half-life of one to two decades. Chronic cadmium exposure through tobacco use elevates blood and urine cadmium concentrations. Cadmium is a carcinogen, and an inducer of proinflammatory immune responses. Elevated exposure to cadmium is associated with reduced pulmonary function, obstructive lung disease, bronchogenic carcinoma, cardiovascular diseases including myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, pancreatic cancer, and various oral pathologies. Cadmium and zinc have a toxicologically inverse relationship. Zinc is an essential element and is reportedly antagonistic to some manifestations of cadmium toxicity. This review summarizes associations between blood, urine, and tissue cadmium concentrations with emphasis on cadmium exposure due to tobacco use and several disease states. Available data about zinc and cadmium/zinc ratios and tobacco-related diseases is summarized from studies reporting smoking status. Collectively, data suggest that blood, urine, and tissue cadmium and cadmium/zinc ratios are often significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers and they are also different in smokers for several diseases and cancers. Additional biomonitoring data such as blood or serum and urine zinc and cadmium levels and cadmium/zinc ratios in smokers may provide further insight into the development and progression of diseases of the lung, cardiovascular system, and possibly other organs.

  16. Single and double metallothionein knockout in the nematode C. elegans reveals cadmium dependent and independent toxic effects on life history traits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, Sam; Stuerzenbaum, Stephen R.

    2007-01-01

    The genome of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans contains two metallothionein genes, both involved in metal homeostasis and/or detoxification. Single metallothionein knockout mutants have been created and now, for the first time, a double mutant has been isolated. Life history studies in the presence or absence of cadmium showed that all metallothionein mutants are viable. Although cadmium did not influence longevity, a dose dependent reduction in total brood size and volumetric growth was observed in wild type animals, which was magnified in single knockouts and further exacerbated in the double knockout. However, the metallothionein deletion caused two effects that are independent of cadmium exposure, namely all knockout strains displayed a reduced total brood size and the deletion of both metallothionein loci caused a significant reduction in volumetric growth. In summary, metallothionein is undoubtedly an important player in cadmium detoxification, but evidently also an important factor in cadmium independent pathways. - Metallothionein is a modifier of life-history parameters

  17. Single and double metallothionein knockout in the nematode C. elegans reveals cadmium dependent and independent toxic effects on life history traits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Sam [School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Main Building, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3TL (United Kingdom); School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Division, King' s College London, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NH (United Kingdom); Stuerzenbaum, Stephen R. [School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Main Building, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3TL (United Kingdom) and School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Division, King' s College London, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: stephen.sturzenbaum@kcl.ac.uk

    2007-01-15

    The genome of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans contains two metallothionein genes, both involved in metal homeostasis and/or detoxification. Single metallothionein knockout mutants have been created and now, for the first time, a double mutant has been isolated. Life history studies in the presence or absence of cadmium showed that all metallothionein mutants are viable. Although cadmium did not influence longevity, a dose dependent reduction in total brood size and volumetric growth was observed in wild type animals, which was magnified in single knockouts and further exacerbated in the double knockout. However, the metallothionein deletion caused two effects that are independent of cadmium exposure, namely all knockout strains displayed a reduced total brood size and the deletion of both metallothionein loci caused a significant reduction in volumetric growth. In summary, metallothionein is undoubtedly an important player in cadmium detoxification, but evidently also an important factor in cadmium independent pathways. - Metallothionein is a modifier of life-history parameters.

  18. Comparison between two clones of Daphnia magna: effects of multigenerational cadmium exposure on toxicity, individual fitness, and biokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Rui; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2006-03-10

    We investigated the effects of genotype (two different clones) and multigenerational Cd-exposure history on Cd toxicity, individual fitness, and biokinetics in populations of a freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna. The adults of the tolerant (T) clone had longer mean-survival-time than the sensitive (S) clone in both control groups (without Cd-exposure) and continuous Cd-exposure groups, but the two clones showed comparable resistances to acute Cd stress in the recovery groups. The body concentration of metallothionein (MT) played a critical role in handling Cd stress, which mainly accounted for the significant difference between the two clones in terms of survival distribution. High comparability of these two clones in individual fitness parameters and biokinetics suggested that these parameters are unlikely driven by genetic variation. For each specific clone, continuous Cd-exposure inhibited the animal growth, elevated the MT induction, and increased the Cd uptake rate (ingestion rate, assimilation efficiency from dietary phase, and uptake rate from dissolved phase), all of which enhanced the weight-specific Cd accumulation in daphnids' bodies. The strong dependence of biokinetic parameters on environmental factors (e.g., food concentrations, pH, dissolved or dietary metal concentration, and metal exposure histories) rather than on genotypes implied the great potential of using biokinetics in inter-lab comparisons and environmental risk assessments.

  19. Comparison between two clones of Daphnia magna: Effects of multigenerational cadmium exposure on toxicity, individual fitness, and biokinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Rui; Wang Wenxiong

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effects of genotype (two different clones) and multigenerational Cd-exposure history on Cd toxicity, individual fitness, and biokinetics in populations of a freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna. The adults of the tolerant (T) clone had longer mean-survival-time than the sensitive (S) clone in both control groups (without Cd-exposure) and continuous Cd-exposure groups, but the two clones showed comparable resistances to acute Cd stress in the recovery groups. The body concentration of metallothionein (MT) played a critical role in handling Cd stress, which mainly accounted for the significant difference between the two clones in terms of survival distribution. High comparability of these two clones in individual fitness parameters and biokinetics suggested that these parameters are unlikely driven by genetic variation. For each specific clone, continuous Cd-exposure inhibited the animal growth, elevated the MT induction, and increased the Cd uptake rate (ingestion rate, assimilation efficiency from dietary phase, and uptake rate from dissolved phase), all of which enhanced the weight-specific Cd accumulation in daphnids' bodies. The strong dependence of biokinetic parameters on environmental factors (e.g., food concentrations, pH, dissolved or dietary metal concentration, and metal exposure histories) rather than on genotypes implied the great potential of using biokinetics in inter-lab comparisons and environmental risk assessments

  20. Quantitative analysis of toxic metals lead and cadmium in water jet by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheri, M. Sadegh; Tavassoli, S. H.

    2011-03-20

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been applied to the analysis of toxic metals Pb and Cd in Pb(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and Cd(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O aqueous solutions, respectively. The plasma is generated by focusing a nanosecond Nd:YAG ({lambda}=1064 nm) laser on the surface of liquid in the homemade liquid jet configuration. With an assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), calibration curves of Pb and Cd were obtained at different delay times between 1 to 5 {mu}s. The temporal behavior of limit of detections (LOD) was investigated and it is shown that the minimum LODs for Pb and Cd are 4 and 68 parts in 10{sup 6} (ppm), respectively. In order to demonstrate the correctness of the LTE assumption, plasma parameters including plasma temperature and electron density are evaluated, and it is shown that the LTE condition is satisfied at all delay times.

  1. Role of ARF6 in internalization of metal-binding proteins, metallothionein and transferrin, and cadmium-metallothionein toxicity in kidney proximal tubule cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, Natascha A.; Lee, Wing-Kee; Abouhamed, Marouan; Thevenod, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Filtered metal-protein complexes, such as cadmium-metallothionein-1 (CdMT-1) or transferrin (Tf) are apically endocytosed partly via megalin/cubilin by kidney proximal tubule (PT) cells where CdMT-1 internalization causes apoptosis. Small GTPase ARF (ADP-ribosylation factor) proteins regulate endocytosis and vesicular trafficking. We investigated roles of ARF6, which has been shown to be involved in internalization of ligands and endocytic trafficking in PT cells, following MT-1/CdMT-1 and Tf uptake by PT cells. WKPT-0293 Cl.2 cells derived from rat PT S1 segment were transfected with hemagglutinin-tagged wild-type (ARF6-WT) or dominant negative (ARF6-T27N) forms of ARF6. Using immunofluorescence, endogenous ARF6 was associated with the plasma membrane (PM) as well as juxtanuclear and co-localized with Rab5a and Rab11 involved in early and recycling endosomal trafficking. Immunofluorescence staining of megalin showed reduced surface labelling in ARF6 dominant negative (ARF6-DN) cells. Intracellular Alexa Fluor 546-conjugated MT-1 uptake was reduced in ARF6-DN cells and CdMT-1 (14.8 μM for 24 h) toxicity was significantly attenuated from 27.3 ± 3.9% in ARF6-WT to 11.1 ± 4.0% in ARF6-DN cells (n = 6, P < 0.02). Moreover, reduced Alexa Fluor 546-conjugated Tf uptake was observed in ARF-DN cells (75.0 ± 4.6% versus 3.9 ± 3.9% of ARF6-WT cells, n = 3, P < 0.01) and/or remained near the PM (89.3 ± 5. 6% versus 45.2 ± 14.3% of ARF6-WT cells, n = 3, P < 0.05). In conclusion, the data support roles for ARF6 in receptor-mediated endocytosis and trafficking of MT-1/Tf to endosomes/lysosomes and CdMT-1 toxicity of PT cells

  2. Fission neutron spectrum averaged cross sections of some threshold reactions on cadmium: production feasibility of no-carrier-added 103Pd in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, I.A.; Subhani, M.S.; Zaidi, J.H.; Arif, M.

    2006-01-01

    Systematic studies on fission neutron spectrum averaged cross sections of some threshold reactions like (n, p) and (n, α) on cadmium were carried out using the activation technique in combination with radiochemical separations and high-resolution γ-ray spectroscopy. Special attention was paid to the formation of 103 Pd via the 106 Cd(n,a α) 103 Pd reaction since it is an important therapeutic radionuclide. At a fast flux neutron density of 7.5 x 10 13 cm 2 s -1 and an irradiation time of 120 h, using 100% enriched 106 Cd target 340 MBq of no-carrier-added 103 Pd per batch could be produced. The method is thus suitable for medium-scale production of this radionuclide. (orig.)

  3. Cross-Linked Hyaluronan Gel Reduces the Acute Rectal Toxicity of Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilder, Richard B.; Barme, Greg A.; Gilbert, Ronald F.; Holevas, Richard E.; Kobashi, Luis I.; Reed, Richard R.; Solomon, Ronald S.; Walter, Nancy L.; Chittenden, Lucy; Mesa, Albert V.; Agustin, Jeffrey; Lizarde, Jessica; Macedo, Jorge; Ravera, John; Tokita, Kenneth M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively analyze whether cross-linked hyaluronan gel reduces the mean rectal dose and acute rectal toxicity of radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between September 2008 and March 2009, we transperitoneally injected 9mL of cross-linked hyaluronan gel (Hylaform; Genzyme Corporation, Cambridge, MA) into the anterior perirectal fat of 10 early-stage prostate cancer patients to increase the separation between the prostate and rectum by 8 to 18mm at the start of radiotherapy. Patients then underwent high-dose rate brachytherapy to 2,200cGy followed by intensity-modulated radiation therapy to 5,040cGy. We assessed acute rectal toxicity using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 grading scheme. Results: Median follow-up was 3 months. The anteroposterior dimensions of Hylaform at the start and end of radiotherapy were 13 ± 3mm (mean ± SD) and 10 ± 4mm, respectively. At the start of intensity-modulated radiation therapy, daily mean rectal doses were 73 ± 13cGy with Hylaform vs. 106 ± 20cGy without Hylaform (p = 0.005). There was a 0% incidence of National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 Grade 1, 2, or 3 acute diarrhea in 10 patients who received Hylaform vs. a 29.7% incidence (n = 71) in 239 historical controls who did not receive Hylaform (p = 0.04). Conclusions: By increasing the separation between the prostate and rectum, Hylaform decreased the mean rectal dose. This led to a significant reduction in the acute rectal toxicity of radiotherapy for prostate cancer.

  4. PCB 126 toxicity is modulated by cross-talk between caveolae and Nrf2 signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petriello, Michael C. [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); University of Kentucky Superfund Research Center, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Han, Sung Gu [University of Kentucky Superfund Research Center, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resources, College of Animal Bioscience and Technology, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Newsome, Bradley J. [University of Kentucky Superfund Research Center, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Chemistry, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Hennig, Bernhard [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); University of Kentucky Superfund Research Center, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Animal and Food Sciences, College of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Kentucky, KY 40506 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Environmental toxicants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been implicated in the promotion of multiple inflammatory disorders including cardiovascular disease, but information regarding mechanisms of toxicity and cross-talk between relevant cell signaling pathways is lacking. To examine the hypothesis that cross-talk between membrane domains called caveolae and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) pathways alters PCB-induced inflammation, caveolin-1 was silenced in vascular endothelial cells, resulting in a decreased PCB-induced inflammatory response. Cav-1 silencing (siRNA treatment) also increased levels of Nrf2-ARE transcriptional binding, resulting in higher mRNA levels of the antioxidant genes glutathione s-transferase and NADPH dehydrogenase quinone-1 in both vehicle and PCB-treated systems. Along with this upregulated antioxidant response, Cav-1 siRNA treated cells exhibited decreased mRNA levels of the Nrf2 inhibitory protein Keap1 in both vehicle and PCB-treated samples. Silencing Cav-1 also decreased protein levels of Nrf2 inhibitory proteins Keap1 and Fyn kinase, especially in PCB-treated cells. Further, endothelial cells from wildtype and Cav-1 −/− mice were isolated and treated with PCB to better elucidate the role of functional caveolae in PCB-induced endothelial inflammation. Cav-1 −/− endothelial cells were protected from PCB-induced cellular dysfunction as evidenced by decreased vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) protein induction. Compared to wildtype cells, Cav-1 −/− endothelial cells also allowed for a more effective antioxidant response, as observed by higher levels of the antioxidant genes. These data demonstrate novel cross-talk mechanisms between Cav-1 and Nrf2 and implicate the reduction of Cav-1 as a protective mechanism for PCB-induced cellular dysfunction and inflammation. - Highlights: • Reduction of caveolin-1 protein protects against polychlorinated biphenyl toxicity. • Decreasing

  5. Mechanisms of cadmium induced genomic instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filipic, Metka, E-mail: metka.filipic@nib.si [National Institute of Biology, Department for Genetic Toxicology and Cancer Biology, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2012-05-01

    Cadmium is an ubiquitous environmental contaminant that represents hazard to humans and wildlife. It is found in the air, soil and water and, due to its extremely long half-life, accumulates in plants and animals. The main source of cadmium exposure for non-smoking human population is food. Cadmium is primarily toxic to the kidney, but has been also classified as carcinogenic to humans by several regulatory agencies. Current evidence suggests that exposure to cadmium induces genomic instability through complex and multifactorial mechanisms. Cadmium dose not induce direct DNA damage, however it induces increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which in turn induce DNA damage and can also interfere with cell signalling. More important seems to be cadmium interaction with DNA repair mechanisms, cell cycle checkpoints and apoptosis as well as with epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression control. Cadmium mediated inhibition of DNA repair mechanisms and apoptosis leads to accumulation of cells with unrepaired DNA damage, which in turn increases the mutation rate and thus genomic instability. This increases the probability of developing not only cancer but also other diseases associated with genomic instability. In the in vitro experiments cadmium induced effects leading to genomic instability have been observed at low concentrations that were comparable to those observed in target organs and tissues of humans that were non-occupationally exposed to cadmium. Therefore, further studies aiming to clarify the relevance of these observations for human health risks due to cadmium exposure are needed.

  6. Mechanisms of cadmium induced genomic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipič, Metka

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium is an ubiquitous environmental contaminant that represents hazard to humans and wildlife. It is found in the air, soil and water and, due to its extremely long half-life, accumulates in plants and animals. The main source of cadmium exposure for non-smoking human population is food. Cadmium is primarily toxic to the kidney, but has been also classified as carcinogenic to humans by several regulatory agencies. Current evidence suggests that exposure to cadmium induces genomic instability through complex and multifactorial mechanisms. Cadmium dose not induce direct DNA damage, however it induces increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which in turn induce DNA damage and can also interfere with cell signalling. More important seems to be cadmium interaction with DNA repair mechanisms, cell cycle checkpoints and apoptosis as well as with epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression control. Cadmium mediated inhibition of DNA repair mechanisms and apoptosis leads to accumulation of cells with unrepaired DNA damage, which in turn increases the mutation rate and thus genomic instability. This increases the probability of developing not only cancer but also other diseases associated with genomic instability. In the in vitro experiments cadmium induced effects leading to genomic instability have been observed at low concentrations that were comparable to those observed in target organs and tissues of humans that were non-occupationally exposed to cadmium. Therefore, further studies aiming to clarify the relevance of these observations for human health risks due to cadmium exposure are needed.

  7. Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cadmium stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Luciana Mara Costa; Ribeiro, Frederico Haddad; Neves, Maria Jose; Porto, Barbara Abranches Araujo; Amaral, Angela M.; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C.; Rosa, Carlos Augusto

    2009-01-01

    The intensification of industrial activity has been greatly contributing with the increase of heavy metals in the environment. Among these heavy metals, cadmium becomes a serious pervasive environmental pollutant. The cadmium is a heavy metal with no biological function, very toxic and carcinogenic at low concentrations. The toxicity of cadmium and several other metals can be mainly attributed to the multiplicity of coordination complexes and clusters that they can form. Some aspects of the cellular response to cadmium were extensively investigated in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The primary site of interaction between many toxic metals and microbial cells is the plasma membrane. Plasma-membrane permeabilisation has been reported in a variety of microorganisms following cadmium exposure, and is considered one mechanism of cadmium toxicity in the yeast. In this work, using the yeast strain S. cerevisiae W303-WT, we have investigated the relationships between Cd uptake and release of cellular metal ions (K + and Na + ) using neutron activation technique. The neutron activation was an easy, rapid and suitable technique for doing these metal determinations on yeast cells; was observed the change in morphology of the strains during the process of Cd accumulation, these alterations were observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) during incorporation of cadmium. (author)

  8. Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cadmium stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Luciana Mara Costa; Ribeiro, Frederico Haddad; Neves, Maria Jose [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia], e-mail: luamatu@uol.com.br; Porto, Barbara Abranches Araujo; Amaral, Angela M.; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Ativacao Neutronica], e-mail: menezes@cdtn.br; Rosa, Carlos Augusto [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia], e-mail: carlrosa@icb.ufmg

    2009-07-01

    The intensification of industrial activity has been greatly contributing with the increase of heavy metals in the environment. Among these heavy metals, cadmium becomes a serious pervasive environmental pollutant. The cadmium is a heavy metal with no biological function, very toxic and carcinogenic at low concentrations. The toxicity of cadmium and several other metals can be mainly attributed to the multiplicity of coordination complexes and clusters that they can form. Some aspects of the cellular response to cadmium were extensively investigated in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The primary site of interaction between many toxic metals and microbial cells is the plasma membrane. Plasma-membrane permeabilisation has been reported in a variety of microorganisms following cadmium exposure, and is considered one mechanism of cadmium toxicity in the yeast. In this work, using the yeast strain S. cerevisiae W303-WT, we have investigated the relationships between Cd uptake and release of cellular metal ions (K{sup +} and Na{sup +}) using neutron activation technique. The neutron activation was an easy, rapid and suitable technique for doing these metal determinations on yeast cells; was observed the change in morphology of the strains during the process of Cd accumulation, these alterations were observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) during incorporation of cadmium. (author)

  9. Bioaccumulation and toxic effects of cadmium on feeding and growth of an Indian pond snail Lymnaea luteola L. under laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Sangita; Khangarot, B.S.

    2010-01-01

    Effects of dissolved cadmium exposure on the survival, feeding, growth rates and accumulation in Indian pond snails Lymnaea luteola L. were examined for a period of 7 weeks. The concentrations of cadmium tested were 0, 10, 32, 100, 320, 560, and 1000 μg l -1 . Cadmium exposure significantly inhibited the feeding and growth rates. At higher Cd concentrations snails refused to consume food offered as plant Marsilia sp. leaves. Cadmium mainly accumulated in soft tissues in a dose-dependent manner. After 4 and 7 weeks of exposure, the no observed effect concentration (NOEC) of Cd was 10 μg l -1 and the lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) was 32 μg l -1 . Reduction of growth (decrease in wet weight) was noticed followed by a high mortality in higher Cd concentrations. Significant reduction in food consumption and growth rates was found at 32 μg l -1 and above Cd concentration. A significant relationship between Cd exposure and growth and feeding rates was noticed. The results obtained with these key aquatic organisms in the food chains complement those obtained with other aquatic organisms and gastropod snails. The findings of the present study and those of earlier studies suggested that Indian pond snail L. luteola are useful test organisms for ecotoxicology bioassays.

  10. Behavioural differentiation induced by environmental variation when crossing a toxic zone in an amoeba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunita, Itsuki; Kuroda, Shigeru; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki; Ueda, Kei-Ichi; Akita, Dai

    2017-01-01

    Organisms choose from among various courses of action in response to a wide variety of environmental conditions and the mechanism by which various behaviours are induced is an open question. Interesting behaviour was recently reported: that a unicellular organism of slime mold Physarum polycephalum known as an amoeba had multiple responses (crossing, returning, etc) when the amoeba encounters a zone with toxic levels of quinine, even under carefully controlled conditions. We here examined this elegant example in more detail to obtain insight into behavioural differentiation. We found that the statistical distribution of passage times across a quinine zone switch from unimodal to bimodal (with peaks corresponding to fast crossing and no crossing) when a periodic light stimulation to modulate a biorhythm in amoeba is applied homogeneously across the space, even under the same level of chemical stimuli. Based on a mathematical model for cell movement in amoeba, we successfully reproduced the stimulation-induced differentiation, which was observed experimentally. These dynamics may be explained by a saddle structure around a canard solution. Our results imply that the differentiation of behavioural types in amoeba is modified step-by-step via the compounding of stimulation inputs. The complex behaviour like the differentiation in amoeba may provide a basis for understanding the mechanism of behaviour selection in higher animals from an ethological perspective. (paper)

  11. Behavioural differentiation induced by environmental variation when crossing a toxic zone in an amoeba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunita, Itsuki; Ueda, Kei-Ichi; Akita, Dai; Kuroda, Shigeru; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    2017-09-01

    Organisms choose from among various courses of action in response to a wide variety of environmental conditions and the mechanism by which various behaviours are induced is an open question. Interesting behaviour was recently reported: that a unicellular organism of slime mold Physarum polycephalum known as an amoeba had multiple responses (crossing, returning, etc) when the amoeba encounters a zone with toxic levels of quinine, even under carefully controlled conditions. We here examined this elegant example in more detail to obtain insight into behavioural differentiation. We found that the statistical distribution of passage times across a quinine zone switch from unimodal to bimodal (with peaks corresponding to fast crossing and no crossing) when a periodic light stimulation to modulate a biorhythm in amoeba is applied homogeneously across the space, even under the same level of chemical stimuli. Based on a mathematical model for cell movement in amoeba, we successfully reproduced the stimulation-induced differentiation, which was observed experimentally. These dynamics may be explained by a saddle structure around a canard solution. Our results imply that the differentiation of behavioural types in amoeba is modified step-by-step via the compounding of stimulation inputs. The complex behaviour like the differentiation in amoeba may provide a basis for understanding the mechanism of behaviour selection in higher animals from an ethological perspective.

  12. Improvement of cadmium phytoremediation after soil inoculation with a cadmium-resistant Micrococcus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangthong, Chirawee; Setkit, Kunchaya; Prapagdee, Benjaphorn

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium-resistant Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221, a plant growth-promoting bacterium, has stimulatory effects on the root lengths of Zea mays L. seedlings under toxic cadmium conditions compared to uninoculated seedlings. The performance of Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221 on promoting growth and cadmium accumulation in Z. mays L. was investigated in a pot experiment. The results indicated that Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221significantly promoted the root length, shoot length, and dry biomass of Z. mays L. transplanted in both uncontaminated and cadmium-contaminated soils. Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221 significantly increased cadmium accumulation in the roots and shoots of Z. mays L. compared to uninoculated plants. At the beginning of the planting period, cadmium accumulated mainly in the shoots. With a prolonged duration of cultivation, cadmium content increased in the roots. As expected, little cadmium was found in maize grains. Soil cadmium was significantly reduced with time, and the highest percentage of cadmium removal was found in the bacterial-inoculated Z. mays L. after transplantation for 6 weeks. We conclude that Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221 is a potent bioaugmenting agent, facilitating cadmium phytoextraction in Z. mays L.

  13. Effects of diethyldithiocarbamate on the toxicokinetics of cadmium chloride in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B

    1989-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) efficiently alleviates the acute toxicity of injected cadmium chloride, but enhances the acute toxicity of orally administered cadmium chloride. Further, DDC induces extensive changes in organ distribution of cadmium, and mobilizes aged cadmium depots. The present study...... investigates effects of DDC on the toxicokinetics of cadmium at lower doses of cadmium than those used in previous studies. During single exposure to subtoxic oral doses of cadmium chloride DDC enhanced intestinal cadmium absorption, both after intraperitoneal and oral administration of DDC. In such acute...... exposure experiments orally administered DDC only slightly changed the relative organ distribution of absorbed cadmium, while intraperitoneal administration of DDC induced extensive changes in organ preference of absorbed cadmium. The relative hepatic and testicular deposition was reduced, while...

  14. Cadmium Exposure is Associated with the Prevalence of Dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhou; Lu, Yong-Hui; Pi, Hui-Feng; Gao, Peng; Li, Min; Zhang, Lei; Pei, Li-Ping; Mei, Xiang; Liu, Lin; Zhao, Qi; Qin, Qi-Zhong; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Yue-Ming; Zhang, Zhao-Hui; Yu, Zheng-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium is a widespread environmental and occupational pollutant that accumulates in human body with a biological half-life exceeding 10 years. Cadmium exposure has been demonstrated to increase rates of cardiovascular diseases. Whether occupational cadmium exposure is associated with the increase in the prevalence of dyslipidemia and hence contributes to the risk of cardiovascular diseases is still equivocal. To test the hypothesis that exposure to cadmium is related to the prevalence of dyslipidemia, we examined the associations between blood cadmium concentration and the prevalence of dyslipidemia in workers occupationally exposed to cadmium in China. A cross-sectional survey on demographic data, blood cadmium level and lipid profile in cadmium exposed workers from seven cadmium smelting factories in central and southwestern China was conducted. We measured blood cadmium concentration and lipid components of 1489 cadmium exposed workers. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was compared across blood cadmium quartiles. Associations between the blood cadmium concentrations and the prevalence of dyslipidemia were assessed using confounder adjusted linear and logistic regressions. The blood cadmium concentration was 3.61±0.84µg/L ( mean ±SD). The prevalence of dyslipidemia in this occupational population was 66.3%. Mean blood cadmium concentration of workers with dyslipedemia was significantly higher than that of workers without dyslipidemia (p dyslipidemia increased dose-dependently with elevations in blood cadmium concentrations (p for trend dyslipidemia across the increasing blood cadmium quartiles were 1.21(1.16-1.55), 1.56(1.11-1.87), 1.79(1.26-2.25) respectively (referencing to 1.00; p for trend dyslipidemia remained unchanged (all p for trend dyslipidemia. Cadmium exposure could alter lipid metabolism in humans. It is imperative to control cadmium exposure of occupational population in cadmium related industries and reduce adverse health effects. © 2016 The

  15. Cadmium and zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safaya, N.M.; McLean, J.E.; Halverson, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Cadmium and zinc are naturally occurring trace metals that are often considered together because of their close geochemical association and similarities in chemical reactivity. The loss of two electrons from an atom of Cd or Zn imparts to each an electron configuration with completely filled d orbitals; this results in a highly stable 2/sup +/ oxidation state. But Cd and Zn differ greatly in their significance to biological systems. Whereas Zn is an essential nutrient for plants, animals, and humans, Cd is best known for its toxicity to plants and as a causative agent of several disease syndromes in animals and humans

  16. Cadmium-induced bone effect is not mediated via low serum 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engstroem, Annette; Skerving, Staffan; Lidfeldt, Jonas; Burgaz, Ann; Lundh, Thomas; Samsioe, Goeran; Vahter, Marie; Akesson, Agneta

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium is a widespread environmental pollutant, which is associated with increased risk of osteoporosis. It has been proposed that cadmium's toxic effect on bone is exerted via impaired activation of vitamin D, secondary to the kidney effects. To test this, we assessed the association of cadmium-induced bone and kidney effects with serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH) 2 D); measured by enzyme immunoassay. For the assessment, we selected 85 postmenopausal women, based on low (0.14-0.39 μg/L) or high (0.66-2.1 μg/L) urinary cadmium, within a cross-sectional population-based women's health survey in Southern Sweden. We also measured 25-hydroxy vitamin D, cadmium in blood, bone mineral density and several markers of bone remodeling and kidney effects. Although there were clear differences in both kidney and bone effect markers between women with low and high cadmium exposure, the 1,25(OH) 2 D concentrations were not significantly different (median, 111 pmol/L (5-95th percentile, 67-170 pmol/L) in low- and 125 pmol/L (66-200 pmol/L) in high-cadmium groups; p=0.08). Also, there was no association between 1,25(OH) 2 D and markers of bone or kidney effects. It is concluded that the low levels of cadmium exposure present in the studied women, although high enough to be associated with lower bone mineral density and increased bone resorption, were not associated with lower serum concentrations of 1,25(OH) 2 D. Hence, decreased circulating levels of 1,25(OH) 2 D are unlikely to be the proposed link between cadmium-induced effects on kidney and bone

  17. Cadmium Exposure is Associated with the Prevalence of Dyslipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Zhou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cadmium is a widespread environmental and occupational pollutant that accumulates in human body with a biological half-life exceeding 10 years. Cadmium exposure has been demonstrated to increase rates of cardiovascular diseases. Whether occupational cadmium exposure is associated with the increase in the prevalence of dyslipidemia and hence contributes to the risk of cardiovascular diseases is still equivocal. To test the hypothesis that exposure to cadmium is related to the prevalence of dyslipidemia, we examined the associations between blood cadmium concentration and the prevalence of dyslipidemia in workers occupationally exposed to cadmium in China. Methods: A cross-sectional survey on demographic data, blood cadmium level and lipid profile in cadmium exposed workers from seven cadmium smelting factories in central and southwestern China was conducted. We measured blood cadmium concentration and lipid components of 1489 cadmium exposed workers. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was compared across blood cadmium quartiles. Associations between the blood cadmium concentrations and the prevalence of dyslipidemia were assessed using confounder adjusted linear and logistic regressions. Results: The blood cadmium concentration was 3.61±0.84µg/L ( mean ±SD. The prevalence of dyslipidemia in this occupational population was 66.3%. Mean blood cadmium concentration of workers with dyslipedemia was significantly higher than that of workers without dyslipidemia (p Conclusion: Elevated blood cadmium concentration is associated with prevalence of dyslipidemia. Cadmium exposure could alter lipid metabolism in humans. It is imperative to control cadmium exposure of occupational population in cadmium related industries and reduce adverse health effects.

  18. Cadmium removal by Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Devaleena; Majumder, Arunabha; Misra, Amal K; Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the ability of two genus of duckweed (Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza) to phytoremediate cadmium from aqueous solution. Duckweed was exposed to six different cadmium concentrations, such as, 0.5,1.0,1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 mg/L and the experiment was continued for 22 days. Water samples were collected periodically for estimation of residual cadmium content in aqueous solution. At the end of treatment period plant samples were collected and accumulated cadmium content was measured. Cadmium toxicity was observed through relative growth factor and changes in chlorophyll content Experimental results showed that Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza were capable of removing 42-78% and 52-75% cadmium from media depending upon initial cadmium concentrations. Cadmium was removed following pseudo second order kinetic model Maximum cadmium accumulation in Lemna minor was 4734.56 mg/kg at 2 mg/L initial cadmium concentration and 7711.00 mg/kg in Spirodela polyrhiza at 3 mg/L initial cadmium concentration at the end of treatment period. Conversely in both cases maximum bioconcentration factor obtained at lowest initial cadmium concentrations, i.e., 0.5 mg/L, were 3295.61 and 4752.00 for Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza respectively. The present study revealed that both Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza was potential cadmium accumulator.

  19. Cadmium exposure is associated with soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor, a circulating marker of inflammation and future cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagerberg, Björn; Borné, Yan; Barregard, Lars; Sallsten, Gerd; Forsgard, Niklas; Hedblad, Bo; Persson, Margaretha; Engström, Gunnar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Diet and smoking are the main sources of cadmium exposure in the general population. Cadmium increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases, and experimental studies show that it induces inflammation. Blood cadmium levels are associated with macrophages in human atherosclerotic plaques. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is an emerging biomarker for cardiovascular events related to inflammation and atherosclerotic plaques. The aim was to examine whether blood cadmium levels are associated with circulating suPAR and other markers of inflammation. Methods: A population sample of 4648 Swedish middle-aged women and men was examined cross-sectionally in 1991–1994. Plasma suPAR was assessed by ELISA, leukocytes were measured by standard methods, and blood cadmium was analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Prevalent cardiovascular disease, ultrasound-assessed carotid plaque occurrence, and several possible confounding factors were recorded. Results: After full adjustment for risk factors and confounding variables, a 3-fold increase in blood cadmium was associated with an 10.9% increase in suPAR concentration (p<0.001). In never-smokers, a 3-fold increase in blood cadmium was associated with a 3.7% increase in suPAR concentration (p<0.01) after full adjustment. Blood cadmium was not associated with C-reactive protein, white blood cell count and Lp-PLA2 but with neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio in one of two statistical models. Conclusions: Exposure to cadmium was associated with increased plasma suPAR in the general population, independently of smoking and cardiovascular disease. These results imply that cadmium is a possible cause for raised levels of this inflammatory marker. - Highlights: • Cadmium is a toxic proinflammatory, proatherosclerotic metal. • Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in plasma is a promising proinflammatory marker of atherosclerosis. • Blood cadmium and plasma su

  20. Cadmium exposure is associated with soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor, a circulating marker of inflammation and future cardiovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagerberg, Björn, E-mail: bjorn.fagerberg@wlab.gu.se [Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Wallenberg Laboratory for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, SE-413 45 Gothenburg (Sweden); Borné, Yan [Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, CRC, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, SE-205 02 Malmö (Sweden); Barregard, Lars; Sallsten, Gerd [Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg, SE-413 45 Gothenburg (Sweden); Forsgard, Niklas [Department of Clinical Chemistry, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, SE-413 45 Gothenburg (Sweden); Hedblad, Bo; Persson, Margaretha; Engström, Gunnar [Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, CRC, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, SE-205 02 Malmö (Sweden)

    2017-01-15

    Background: Diet and smoking are the main sources of cadmium exposure in the general population. Cadmium increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases, and experimental studies show that it induces inflammation. Blood cadmium levels are associated with macrophages in human atherosclerotic plaques. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is an emerging biomarker for cardiovascular events related to inflammation and atherosclerotic plaques. The aim was to examine whether blood cadmium levels are associated with circulating suPAR and other markers of inflammation. Methods: A population sample of 4648 Swedish middle-aged women and men was examined cross-sectionally in 1991–1994. Plasma suPAR was assessed by ELISA, leukocytes were measured by standard methods, and blood cadmium was analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Prevalent cardiovascular disease, ultrasound-assessed carotid plaque occurrence, and several possible confounding factors were recorded. Results: After full adjustment for risk factors and confounding variables, a 3-fold increase in blood cadmium was associated with an 10.9% increase in suPAR concentration (p<0.001). In never-smokers, a 3-fold increase in blood cadmium was associated with a 3.7% increase in suPAR concentration (p<0.01) after full adjustment. Blood cadmium was not associated with C-reactive protein, white blood cell count and Lp-PLA2 but with neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio in one of two statistical models. Conclusions: Exposure to cadmium was associated with increased plasma suPAR in the general population, independently of smoking and cardiovascular disease. These results imply that cadmium is a possible cause for raised levels of this inflammatory marker. - Highlights: • Cadmium is a toxic proinflammatory, proatherosclerotic metal. • Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in plasma is a promising proinflammatory marker of atherosclerosis. • Blood cadmium and plasma su

  1. Reviews of the environmental effects of pollutants: IV. Cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammons, A.S.; Huff, J.E.; Braunstein, H.M.; Drury, J.S.; Shriner, C.R.; Lewis, E.B.; Whitfield, B.L.; Towill, L.E.

    1978-06-01

    This report is a comprehensive, multidisciplinary review of the health and environmental effects of cadmium and specific cadmium derivatives. More than 500 references are cited. The cadmium body burden in animals and humans results mainly from the diet. In the United States, the normal intake of cadmium for adult humans is estimated at about 50 ..mu..g per day. Tobacco smoke is a significant additional source of cadmium exposure. The kidneys and liver together contain about 50% of the total cadmium body burden. Acute cadmium poisoning is primarily an occupational problem, generally from inhalation of cadmium fumes or dusts. In the general population, incidents of acute poisoning by inhaled or ingested cadmium or its compounds are relatively rare. The kidney is the primary target organ for toxicity from prolonged low-level exposure to cadmium. No causal relationship has been established between cadmium exposure and human cancer, although a possible link between cadmium and prostate cancer has been indicated. Cadmium has been shown to be teratogenic in rats, hamsters, and mice, but no such effects have been proven in humans. Cadmium has been reported to increase the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells and in human peripheral leukocytes. The major concern about environmental cadmium is the potential effects on the general population. There is no substantial evidence of hazard from current levels of cadmium in air, water, or food. However, because cadmium is a cumulative poison and because present intake provides a relatively small safety margin, there are adequate reasons for concern over possible future increases in background levels.

  2. Reviews of the environmental effects of pollutants: IV. Cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammons, A.S.; Huff, J.E.; Braunstein, H.M.; Drury, J.S.; Shriner, C.R.; Lewis, E.B.; Whitfield, B.L.; Towill, L.E.

    1978-06-01

    This report is a comprehensive, multidisciplinary review of the health and environmental effects of cadmium and specific cadmium derivatives. More than 500 references are cited. The cadmium body burden in animals and humans results mainly from the diet. In the United States, the normal intake of cadmium for adult humans is estimated at about 50 μg per day. Tobacco smoke is a significant additional source of cadmium exposure. The kidneys and liver together contain about 50% of the total cadmium body burden. Acute cadmium poisoning is primarily an occupational problem, generally from inhalation of cadmium fumes or dusts. In the general population, incidents of acute poisoning by inhaled or ingested cadmium or its compounds are relatively rare. The kidney is the primary target organ for toxicity from prolonged low-level exposure to cadmium. No causal relationship has been established between cadmium exposure and human cancer, although a possible link between cadmium and prostate cancer has been indicated. Cadmium has been shown to be teratogenic in rats, hamsters, and mice, but no such effects have been proven in humans. Cadmium has been reported to increase the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells and in human peripheral leukocytes. The major concern about environmental cadmium is the potential effects on the general population. There is no substantial evidence of hazard from current levels of cadmium in air, water, or food. However, because cadmium is a cumulative poison and because present intake provides a relatively small safety margin, there are adequate reasons for concern over possible future increases in background levels

  3. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice: Effects of penicillamine, dimercaptosuccinic acid and related compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, O.; Nielsen, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    The antidotal efficacies of chelators during acute cadmium intoxication has previously been examined in experiments where both a soluble cadmium salt and the chelator were administered parenterally. In the present study, PA, DMSA and related compounds were studied as oral antidotes during oral CdCl 2 intoxication. According to the antagonistic effects noted on mortality, peristaltic toxicity and intestinal cadmium uptake, the relative efficacies of the compounds tested were: DMSA>PAD>DMPS>MSA>PA>NAPA. None of the chelators induced major changes in the organ distribution of absorbed cadmium, in particular no increased cerebral deposition of cadmium. This study indicates that, in oral cadmium intoxication in humans, orally administered DMSA would be likely to offer protection against the local toxicity of cadmium in the gastrointestinal tract as well as to reduce the risk of systemic toxicity of absorbed cadmium. (author)

  4. Cadmium - a case of mistaken identity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, D

    1984-05-01

    New evidence is presented which describes the impact of cadmium in the environment. Cadmium is a persistent material, although its compounds may undergo a range of chemical changes in the environment. In soluble form cadmium and its compounds are toxic at relatively low concentrations to aquatic animals although their bioconcentrations in such animals is in general low, and there is no evidence of biomagnification. In insoluble form cadmium and its compounds are relatively non-toxic to aquatic animals and are unlikely to be bioconcentrated. As such, cadmium is similar to most other heavy metals. Recent studies indicate that cadmium is not implicated in Itai-Itai disease and does not appear to cause hypertension or cancer. In addition, the accepted critical level in the kidney may have been underestimated. Thus, the hazard to man appears to be considerably less than the original estimates. In view of these data, there seems little justification in treating cadmium in any way differently from the other metals and hence no reason for retaining it on the Black List of the international conventions. 19 references.

  5. Cadmium poisoning. Knowledge of the risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltier, A.; Demange, M.; Carton, M.B.

    1979-01-01

    This data sheet provides an up-to-date summary of information on cadmium poisoning. The following points are examined: - the problem of increasing pollution of soil, water and the food chain; - physical and chemical properties, manufacture, industrial applications; - the toxic action of cadmium and its derivatives; - methods and apparatus for taking and analysis samples from the atmosphere and from body fluids; - existing French regulations; - technical control and medical surveillance [fr

  6. Murine strain differences and the effects of zinc on cadmium concentrations in tissues after acute cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, L.M. [ARS USDA, Germplasm and Gamete Physiology Lab., Beltsville, MD (United States); Anderson, M.B. [Dept. of Anatomy, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); Sikka, S.C. [Dept. of Urology, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); George, W.J. [Dept. of Pharmacology, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1998-10-01

    The role of strain differences in cadmium tissue distribution was studied using sensitive (129/J) and resistant (A/J) mice. These murine strains have previously been shown to differ in their susceptibility to cadmium-induced testicular toxicity. Cadmium concentration was measured in testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, liver, and kidney at 24 h after cadmium chloride exposure (4, 10, and 20 {mu}mol/kg CdCl{sub 2}). The 129/J mice exhibited a significant increase in cadmium concentration in testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle at all cadmium doses used, compared to A/J mice. However, cadmium concentrations in liver and kidney were not different between the strains, at any dose, indicating that cadmium uptake is similar in these organs at 24 h. These murine strains demonstrate similar hepatic and renal cadmium uptake but significantly different cadmium accumulation in the reproductive organs at 24 h. The mechanism of the protective effect of zinc on cadmium toxicity was studied by assessing the impact of zinc acetate (ZnAc) treatment on cadmium concentrations in 129/J mice after 24 h. Zinc pretreatment (250 {mu}mol/kg ZnAc), given 24 h prior to 20 {mu}mol/kg CdCl{sub 2} administration, significantly decreased the amount of cadmium in the testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle of 129/J mice, and significantly increased the cadmium content of the liver after 24 h. Cadmium levels in the kidney were unaffected at this time. Zinc pretreatment also prevented the cadmium-induced decrease in testicular sperm concentration and epididymal sperm motility seen in 129/J mice. These findings suggest that the differences in the two murine strains may be attributed partly to the differential accumulation of cadmium in murine gonads. This may be caused by strain differences in the specificity of cadmium transport mechanisms. The protective role of zinc in cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in the sensitive strain may be due to an interference in the cadmium uptake by susceptible

  7. Stark effect investigations of excited cadmium, ytterbium, and thulium I-levels using the methods of double resonance and level crossing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinkleff, R.H.

    1977-01-01

    Using the method of optical double resonance, the 5s5p 3 P 1 level tensor polarizability of Cadmium has been measured. For this state, various authors have published different results, using different experimental methods. The experimental result presented here is in excellent agreement with the value of Happer, based on level crossing investigations, and agrees well with the theoretical result of Robinson based on a modified Sternheimer approximation, and so gives a reliable value for the tensor polarizability. Furthermore the tensor polarizability of the 6s6p 3 P 1 - level of the even Ytterbium isotopes and the odd Ytterbium 171 nucleus have been measured with the optical double resonance method, and the Stark constant has been calculated based on a given theory and oscillator strengths. Using the methods of optical double resonance and level crossing, the tensor polarizability of 5 excited levels of the Thulium configurations 4f 13 6s6p + 4f 12 5d6s 2 have been measured. From the experimental Stark constants and the angular coefficients of the eigenfunctions calculated by Camus, the radial integrals I(5d, 5p) and I(6p, 5d) are calculated for electric dipole transitions between levels of the configurations 4f 12 5d6s 2 + 4f 13 6s6p and levels of the 4f 12 6p6s 2 + 4f 13 6s5d configurations. The tensor polarizability calculated with these radial integrals show very good agreement with the experimental values. (orig./LH) [de

  8. Cadmium in the bioenergy system - a synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlfont, K.

    1997-12-01

    Cadmium is a toxic metal without any known positive biological effects. Both emissions and atmospheric deposition of cadmium have decreased radically in Sweden during recent years. In Sweden, about 150 tonnes of cadmium was supplied to the technosphere in 1990, mostly originating from NiCd batteries. More than 100 tonnes of cadmium accumulated in the technosphere. Mankind takes up cadmium from water, food and particulate atmospheric pollution. Even small amounts may be injurious in the long-term since the half-life in the kidneys is 30 years. Cadmium in biofuel and ashes are generally a cause of discussion. Ashes from biofuel constitute a nutrient resource that should be returned to the soil. A possible risk with spreading ashes is the spreading of heavy metals, and then foremost cadmium, which is among the heavy metals that forest soils are considered to tolerate the least. Several studies on cadmium in the bioenergy system have been made, both within the Research Programme for Recycling of Wood-ash, and within Vattenfall's Bioenergy Project. The present report is intended to provide a picture of the current state of knowledge and to review plans for the future With a 3 page summary in English. 51 refs, 1 fig, 3 tabs

  9. Dynamic of cadmium accumulation in the internal organs of rats after exposure to cadmium chloride and cadmium sulphide nanoparticules of various sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apykhtina O.L.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of study of cadmium accumulation in the internal organs of Wistar rats after prolonged intraperitoneal administration of cadmium chloride and cadmium sulphide nanoparticles of 4-6 nm and 9-11 nm in size in a dose of 0.08 mg /kg/day calculated as cadmium. Toxic effects were evaluated after 30 injections (1.5 months, 60 injections (3 months, and 1.5 months after the exposure has been ceased. The results of the study showed that the most intensive accumulation of cadmium was observed in the kidneys and liver of experimental animals, which is due to the peculiarities of the toxicokinetics and the route of administration of cadmium compounds. In the kidneys, spleen and thymus of animals exposed to cadmium sulphide nanoparticles, a greater concentration of cadmium than in the organs of animals exposed to cadmium chloride was found. Cadmium accumulated more intensively in the spleen after exposure to larger nanoparticles, than in the kidneys and thymus. In the liver, heart, aorta and brain significant accumulation was observed after cadmium chloride exposure.

  10. Systematic review and meta-analysis links autism and toxic metals and highlights the impact of country development status: Higher blood and erythrocyte levels for mercury and lead, and higher hair antimony, cadmium, lead, and mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghazadeh, Amene; Rezaei, Nima

    2017-10-03

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder that affects cognitive and higher cognitive functions. Increasing prevalence of ASD and high rates of related comorbidities has caused serious health loss and placed an onerous burden on the supporting families, caregivers, and health care services. Heavy metals are among environmental factors that may contribute to ASD. However, due to inconsistencies across studies, it is still hard to explain the association between ASD and toxic metals. Therefore the objective of this study was to investigate the difference in heavy metal measures between patients with ASD and control subjects. We included observational studies that measured levels of toxic metals (antimony, arsenic, cadmium, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, silver, and thallium) in different specimens (whole blood, plasma, serum, red cells, hair and urine) for patients with ASD and for controls. The main electronic medical database (PubMed and Scopus) were searched from inception through October 2016. 52 studies were eligible to be included in the present systematic review, of which 48 studies were included in the meta-analyses. The hair concentrations of antimony (standardized mean difference (SMD)=0.24; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03 to 0.45) and lead (SMD=0.60; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.17 to 1.03) in ASD patients were significantly higher than those of control subjects. ASD patients had higher erythrocyte levels of lead (SMD=1.55, CI: 0.2 to 2.89) and mercury (SMD=1.56, CI: 0.42 to 2.70). There were significantly higher blood lead levels in ASD patients (SMD=0.43, CI: 0.02 to 0.85). Sensitivity analyses showed that ASD patients in developed but not in developing countries have lower hair concentrations of cadmium (SMD=-0.29, CI: -0.46 to -0.12). Also, such analyses indicated that ASD patients in developing but not in developed lands have higher hair concentrations of lead (SMD=1.58, CI: 0.80 to 2.36) and mercury (SMD=0

  11. Toxicity of ammonia, cadmium, and nitrobenzene to four local fishes in the Liao River, China and the derivation of site-specific water quality criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhihong; Li, Xiaojun; Tai, Peidong; Sun, Lizong; Yuan, Honghong; Yang, Xiaonan

    2018-01-01

    Water quality criteria (WQC) are considered to be an effective management tool for protecting aquatic environments. To derive site-specific WQC for an area, local data based on local species are essential to improve the applicability of WQC derived. Due to the paucity of local fish data available for the development of site-specific WQC for the Liao River, China, four local and widespread fishes (Pseudorasbora parva, Abbottina liaoningensis, Ctenogobius giurinus, and Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) were chosen to test their sensitivities to ammonia, cadmium and nitrobenzene. These compounds are common and regularly-measured pollutants in Chinese rivers. In addition to the published data for species resident in the Liao River, site-specific WQC for the three chemicals were derived using both a log-logistic species sensitivity distribution (SSD) and the method recommended by the USEPA, in line with current best practice, which were then compared with Chinese national WQC. It was found that A. liaoningensis was the most sensitive, followed, in order, by P. parva, C. giurinus and M. anguillicaudatus was the least sensitive, and this trend was the same to all three chemicals tested. When comparing the SSD derived solely from previously-published data with that including our data on local fish, there were significant differences identified among parameters describing the SSD curves for ammonia and nitrobenzene and significant differences were detected for site-specific WQC derived for all of the three chemicals. Based on the dataset with local fish data taxa, site-specific WQC of Liao River for ammonia, cadmium, and nitrobenzene were derived to be 20.53mg/L (at a pH of 7.0 and temperature of 20°C), 3.76μg/L (at a hardness of 100mg/L CaCO 3 ), and 0.49mg/L, respectively. Using the same deriving method for each chemical, the national Chinese WQC were higher than site-specific WQC derived in this study for ammonia (national WQC of 25.16mg/L) and nitrobenzene (national WQC

  12. Effect of silicon on reducing cadmium toxicity in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. cv. Claudio W.) grown in a soil with aged contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Meunier, Jean-Dominique; Miche, Hélène; Keller, Catherine

    2012-03-30

    Agricultural soil contamination and subsequently crops still require alternative solutions to reduce associated environmental risks. The effects of silica application on alleviating cadmium (Cd) phytotoxicity in wheat plants were investigated in a 71-day pot experiment conducted with a historically contaminated agricultural soil. We used amorphous silica (ASi) that had been extracted from a diatomite mine for Si distribution at 0, 1, 10 and 15 ton ASi ha(-1). ASi applications increased plant biomass and plant Si concentrations, reduced the available Cd in the soil and the Cd translocation to shoots, while Cd was more efficiently sequestrated in roots. But ASi is limiting for Si uptake by plants. We conclude that significant plant-available Si in soil contributes to decreased Cd concentrations in wheat shoots and could be implemented in a general scheme aiming at controlling Cd concentrations in wheat. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. "Incorporating epigenetic data into the risk assessment process for the toxic metals arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury: strategies and challenges."

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eRay

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to toxic metals poses a serious human health hazard based on ubiquitous environmental presence, the extent of exposure, and the toxicity and disease states associated with exposure. This global health issue warrants accurate and reliable models derived from the risk assessment process to predict disease risk in populations. There has been considerable interest recently in the impact of environmental toxicants such as toxic metals on the epigenome. Epigenetic modifications are somatically inherited alterations to an individual’s genome without a change in the DNA sequence, and include, but are not limited to, three commonly studied alterations: DNA methylation, histone modification, and non-coding RNA expression. Given the role of epigenetic alterations in regulating gene and thus protein expression, there is the potential for the integration of toxic metal-induced epigenetic alterations as informative factors in the risk assessment process. In the present review, epigenetic alterations induced by five high priority toxic metals/metalloids are prioritized for analysis and their possible inclusion into the risk assessment process is discussed.

  14. Exposure dose response relationships of the freshwater bivalve Hyridella australis to cadmium spiked sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marasinghe Wadige, Chamani P.M.; Maher, William A.; Taylor, Anne M.; Krikowa, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The exposure–dose–response approach was used to assess cadmium exposure and toxicity. • Accumulated cadmium in H. australis reflected the sediment cadmium exposure. • Spill over of cadmium into the biologically active pool was observed. • Increased cadmium resulted in measurable biological effects. • H. australis has the potential to be a cadmium biomonitor in freshwater environments. - Abstract: To understand how benthic biota may respond to the additive or antagonistic effects of metal mixtures in the environment it is first necessary to examine their responses to the individual metals. In this context, laboratory controlled single metal-spiked sediment toxicity tests are useful to assess this. The exposure–dose–response relationships of Hyridella australis to cadmium-spiked sediments were, therefore, investigated in laboratory microcosms. H. australis was exposed to individual cadmium spiked sediments (<0.05 (control), 4 ± 0.3 (low) and 15 ± 1 (high) μg/g dry mass) for 28 days. Dose was measured as cadmium accumulation in whole soft body and individual tissues at weekly intervals over the exposure period. Dose was further examined as sub-cellular localisation of cadmium in hepatopancreas tissues. The biological responses in terms of enzymatic and cellular biomarkers were measured in hepatopancreas tissues at day 28. H. australis accumulated cadmium from spiked sediments with an 8-fold (low exposure organisms) and 16-fold (high exposure organisms) increase at day 28 compared to control organisms. The accumulated tissue cadmium concentrations reflected the sediment cadmium exposure at day 28. Cadmium accumulation in high exposure organisms was inversely related to the tissue calcium concentrations. Gills of H. australis showed significantly higher cadmium accumulation than the other tissues. Accumulated cadmium in biologically active and biologically detoxified metal pools was not significantly different in cadmium exposed

  15. Molecular and cellular mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waisberg, Michael; Joseph, Pius; Hale, Beverley; Beyersmann, Detmar

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium is a heavy metal, which is widely used in industry, affecting human health through occupational and environmental exposure. In mammals, it exerts multiple toxic effects and has been classified as a human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Cadmium affects cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and other cellular activities. Cd 2+ does not catalyze Fenton-type reactions because it does not accept or donate electrons under physiological conditions, and it is only weakly genotoxic. Hence, indirect mechanisms are implicated in the carcinogenicity of cadmium. In this review multiple mechanisms are discussed, such as modulation of gene expression and signal transduction, interference with enzymes of the cellular antioxidant system and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inhibition of DNA repair and DNA methylation, role in apoptosis and disruption of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion. Cadmium affects both gene transcription and translation. The major mechanisms of gene induction by cadmium known so far are modulation of cellular signal transduction pathways by enhancement of protein phosphorylation and activation of transcription and translation factors. Cadmium interferes with antioxidant defense mechanisms and stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species, which may act as signaling molecules in the induction of gene expression and apoptosis. The inhibition of DNA repair processes by cadmium represents a mechanism by which cadmium enhances the genotoxicity of other agents and may contribute to the tumor initiation by this metal. The disruption of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion by cadmium probably further stimulates the development of tumors. It becomes clear that there exist multiple mechanisms which contribute to the carcinogenicity of cadmium, although the relative weights of these contributions are difficult to estimate

  16. Cadmium and the kidney.

    OpenAIRE

    Friberg, L

    1984-01-01

    The paper is a review of certain aspects of importance of cadmium and the kidney regarding the assessment of risks and understanding of mechanisms of action. The review discusses the following topics: history and etiology of cadmium-induced kidney dysfunction and related disorders; cadmium metabolism, metallothionein and kidney dysfunction; cadmium in urine as indicator of body burden, exposure and kidney dysfunction; cadmium levels in kidney and liver as indicators of kidney dysfunction; cha...

  17. A comparative investigation of DNA strand breaks, sister chromatid exchanges and K-ras gene mutations induced by cadmium salts in cultured human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouron, Silvana Andrea; Grillo, Claudia Alejandra; Dulout, Fernando Noel; Golijow, Carlos Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal of continuing occupational and environmental concern with a wide variety of adverse effects. Several studies have shown that cadmium produces DNA strand breaks, DNA-protein cross-links, oxidative DNA damage, chromosomal aberrations, dysregulation of gene expression resulting in enhanced proliferation, depressed apoptosis and/or altered DNA repair. This study was undertaken to investigate the ability of cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ) and cadmium sulphate (CdSO 4 ) to induce point mutations in codon 12 of the K-ras protooncogene assessed by polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphisms (PCR-SSCP) and RFLP-enriched PCR methods. Also their genotoxic effects were analyzed by the comet assay and sister chromatid exchanges test. The human lung fibroblast cell line MRC-5 was used for the experiments. Sister chromatid exchanges assay (SCEs) frequencies were significantly increased in cells exposed to cadmium salts in relation to controls (p < 0.001). Despite the slow increment observed in the three comet parameters considered when cells were treated with cadmium chloride, significant differences between groups were only found in the variable comet moment (CM) (p < 0.005). On the other hand, when cells were exposed to cadmium sulphate, the Kruskal-Wallis test showed highly significant differences between groups for migration, tail moment and comet moment parameters (p < 0.001). Nevertheless, a null or weak point mutation induction in K-ras protooncogene was detected using polymerase chain reaction-low ionic strength-single strand conformation polymorphisms (PCR-LIS-SSCP) and RFLP-enriched PCR methods when cells were treated with cadmium salts. Thus, inorganic cadmium produces genotoxicity in human lung fibroblast MRC-5 cells, in the absence of significant point mutation of the K-ras gene

  18. Extension of activation cross-section data of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on cadmium up to 50 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanne, A., E-mail: aherman@vub.ac.be [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S.; Ditrói, F. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2016-10-15

    The excitation functions for {sup 109,110g,111m+g,113m,114m,115m}In, {sup 107,109,115m,115g}Cd and {sup 105g,106m,110g,111}Ag are presented for stacked foil irradiations on {sup nat}Cd targets in the 49–33 MeV deuteron energy domain. Reduced uncertainty is obtained by determining incident particle flux and energy scale relative to re-measured monitor reactions {sup nat}Al(d,x){sup 22,24}Na. The results were compared to our earlier studies on {sup nat}Cd and on enriched {sup 112}Cd targets. The merit of the values predicted by the TALYS 1.6 code (resulting from a weighted combination of reaction cross-section data on all stable Cd isotopes as available in the on-line libraries TENDL-2014 and TENDL-2015) is discussed. Influence on optimal production routes for several radionuclides with practical applications ({sup 111}In, {sup 114m}In, {sup 115}Cd, {sup 109,107}Cd….) is reviewed.

  19. Novel Cadmium Resistance Determinant in Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Cameron; Lee, Sangmi; Jayeola, Victor; Kathariou, Sophia

    2017-03-01

    tolerate toxic compounds, such as heavy metals. Here, we characterized a novel determinant that was recently identified on a larger mobile genetic island through whole-genome sequencing. This gene ( cadA4 ) was found to be responsible for cadmium detoxification and to be a divergent member of the Cad family of cadmium efflux pumps. Virulence assessments in a Galleria mellonella model suggested that cadA4 may suppress virulence. Additionally, cadA4 may be involved in the ability of Listeria to form biofilms. Beyond the role in cadmium detoxification, the involvement of cadA4 in other cellular functions potentially explains its retention and wide distribution in L. monocytogenes . Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  20. Association of urinary cadmium and myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everett, Charles J.; Frithsen, Ivar L.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of individuals 45-79 years old in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (1988-1994) (NHANES III). Myocardial infarction was determined by electrocardiogram (ECG). Our sample included 4912 participants, which when weighted represented 52,234,055 Americans. We performed adjusted logistic regressions with the Framingham risk score, pack-years of smoking, race-ethnicity, and family history of heart attack, and diabetes as covariates. Urinary cadmium ≥0.88 μg/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.86 (95% CI 1.26-2.75) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 μg/g creatinine. This result supports the hypothesis that cadmium is associated with coronary heart disease. When logistic regressions were done by gender, women, but not men, showed a significant association of urinary cadmium with myocardial infarction. Women with urinary cadmium ≥0.88 μg/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.80 (95% CI 1.06-3.04) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 μg/g creatinine. When the analysis was restricted to never smokers (N=2187) urinary cadmium ≥0.88 μg/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.85 (95% CI 1.10-3.14) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 μg/g creatinine

  1. Cadmium action in synapses in the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, Akira; Takeda, Atsushi; Nishibaba, Daisuke; Tekefuta, Sachiyo; Oku, Naoto [Department of Radiobiochemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2001-05-01

    Chronic exposure to cadmium causes central nervous system disorders, e.g., olfactory dysfunction. To clarify cadmium toxicity in synaptic neurotransmission in the brain, the movement and action of cadmium in the synapses was examined using in vivo microdialysis. One and 24 h after injection of {sup 109}CdCl{sub 2} into the amygdala of rats, {sup 109}Cd release into the extracellular space was facilitated by stimulation with high K{sup +}, suggesting that cadmium taken up in amygdalar neurons is released into the synaptic clefts in a calcium- and impulse-dependent manner. To examine the action of cadmium in the synapses, the amygdala was perfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid containing 10-30 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2}. The release of excitatory neurotransmitters, i.e., glutamate and aspartate, into the extracellular space was decreased during perfusion with cadmium, while the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters, i.e., glycine and {gamma}-amino butyric acid (GABA), into the extracellular space was increased during the period. These results suggest that cadmium released from the amygdalar neuron terminals affects the degree and balance of excitation-inhibition in synaptic neurotransmission. (author)

  2. Cadmium action in synapses in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Akira; Takeda, Atsushi; Nishibaba, Daisuke; Tekefuta, Sachiyo; Oku, Naoto

    2001-01-01

    Chronic exposure to cadmium causes central nervous system disorders, e.g., olfactory dysfunction. To clarify cadmium toxicity in synaptic neurotransmission in the brain, the movement and action of cadmium in the synapses was examined using in vivo microdialysis. One and 24 h after injection of 109 CdCl 2 into the amygdala of rats, 109 Cd release into the extracellular space was facilitated by stimulation with high K + , suggesting that cadmium taken up in amygdalar neurons is released into the synaptic clefts in a calcium- and impulse-dependent manner. To examine the action of cadmium in the synapses, the amygdala was perfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid containing 10-30 μM CdCl 2 . The release of excitatory neurotransmitters, i.e., glutamate and aspartate, into the extracellular space was decreased during perfusion with cadmium, while the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters, i.e., glycine and γ-amino butyric acid (GABA), into the extracellular space was increased during the period. These results suggest that cadmium released from the amygdalar neuron terminals affects the degree and balance of excitation-inhibition in synaptic neurotransmission. (author)

  3. Remediation of cadmium by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) from cadmium contaminated soil: a phytoextraction study

    OpenAIRE

    Rajeev Kumar Bhadkariya; VK Jain; GPS Chak; SK Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium is a toxic metal for living organisms and an environmental contaminant. Soils in many parts of the world are slightly too moderately contaminated by Cd due to long term use and disposal of Cd-contaminated wastes. Cost effective technologies are needed to remove cadmium from the contaminated sites. Soil phytoextraction is engineering based, low cost and socially accepted developing technology that uses plants to clean up contaminants in soils. This technology can be adopted as a remedi...

  4. Effect of silicon on reducing cadmium toxicity in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. cv. Claudio W.) grown in a soil with aged contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Meunier, Jean-Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Metal stress alleviation in wheat supplemented with amorphous Si (ASi). ► Pot experiment with a metal-contaminated soil and increased doses of ASi. ► Effects are observed both at the soil and the plant levels. ► ASi increases plant biomass and Cd content in roots and decreases Cd in shoots. ► ASi decreases soil-available Cd but is limiting for Si uptake. - Abstract: Agricultural soil contamination and subsequently crops still require alternative solutions to reduce associated environmental risks. The effects of silica application on alleviating cadmium (Cd) phytotoxicity in wheat plants were investigated in a 71-day pot experiment conducted with a historically contaminated agricultural soil. We used amorphous silica (ASi) that had been extracted from a diatomite mine for Si distribution at 0, 1, 10 and 15 ton ASi ha −1 . ASi applications increased plant biomass and plant Si concentrations, reduced the available Cd in the soil and the Cd translocation to shoots, while Cd was more efficiently sequestrated in roots. But ASi is limiting for Si uptake by plants. We conclude that significant plant-available Si in soil contributes to decreased Cd concentrations in wheat shoots and could be implemented in a general scheme aiming at controlling Cd concentrations in wheat.

  5. The removal of toxic metals from liquid effluents by ion exchange resins. Part II: cadmium(II/ sulphate/Lewatit TP260

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alguacil, F. J.

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of cadmium (II, from aqueous sulphate solutions, on Lewatit TP260 resin has been investigated in batch equilibrium experiments. The influence of pH and temperature on metal adsorption capacity have also been examined. The kinetic performance of the resin has been assesed and the results have been correlated by the pore diffusion model. The resin has been used in mini-columns to study its performance under dynamics conditions. The desorption of metal ion is achieved using sulphuric acid (0.25M and 0.5M.

    Se estudia la adsorción de cadmio(II, de disoluciones en medio sulfato, sobre la resina Lewatit TP260. La adsorción del metal se ha investigado en función del pH, la temperatura y el tiempo de contacto con la resina. Los estudios cinéticos permiten correlacionar el proceso de intercambio iónico con el modelo de difusión en poro. Se ha empleado el sistema en mini columnas para evaluar el comportamiento de la resina bajo condiciones dinámicas. La desorción del metal se lleva a cabo con disoluciones de ácido sulfúrico (0,25M y 0,5M.

  6. Arsenic, cadmium, and manganese levels in shellfish from Map Ta Phut, an industrial area in Thailand, and the potential toxic effects on human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangkadilok, Nuchanart; Siripriwon, Pantaree; Nookabkaew, Sumontha; Suriyo, Tawit; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2015-01-01

    Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate is a major industrial area in Thailand for both petrochemical and heavy industries. The release of hazardous wastes and other pollutants from these industries increases the potential for contamination in foods in the surrounding area, especially farmed shellfish. This study determined the arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and manganese (Mn) concentrations in the edible flesh of farmed shellfish, including Perna viridis, Meretrix meretrix, and Scapharca inaequivalvis, around the Map Ta Phut area using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results showed that shellfish samples contained high levels of total As [1.84-6.42 mg kg(-1) wet weight (ww)]. High Mn concentrations were found in P. viridis and M. meretrix, whereas S. inaequivalis contained the highest Cd. Arsenobetaine (AsB) was found to be the major As species in shellfish (>45% of total As). The in vitro cytotoxicity of these elements was evaluated using human cancer cells (T47D, A549, and Jurkat cells). An observed decrease in cell viability in T47D and Jurkat cells was mainly caused by exposure to inorganic As (iAs) or Mn but not to AsB or Cd. The combined elements (AsB+Mn+Cd) at concentrations predicted to result from the estimated daily intake of shellfish flesh by the local people showed significant cytotoxicity in T47D and Jurkat cells.

  7. Effect of silicon on reducing cadmium toxicity in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. cv. Claudio W.) grown in a soil with aged contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizwan, Muhammad, E-mail: rizwan@cerege.fr [Aix-Marseille Universite, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut pour la Recherche et le Developpement, College de France, CEREGE (Centre Europeen de Recherche et d' Enseignement en Geosciences de l' Environnement), Europole mediterraneen de l' Arbois, BP 80, 13454 Aix-en-Provence, Cedex 4 (France); Meunier, Jean-Dominique, E-mail: meunier@cerege.fr [Aix-Marseille Universite, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut pour la Recherche et le Developpement, College de France, CEREGE (Centre Europeen de Recherche et d' Enseignement en Geosciences de l' Environnement), Europole mediterraneen de l' Arbois, BP 80, 13454 Aix-en-Provence, Cedex 4 (France); and others

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metal stress alleviation in wheat supplemented with amorphous Si (ASi). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pot experiment with a metal-contaminated soil and increased doses of ASi. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects are observed both at the soil and the plant levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ASi increases plant biomass and Cd content in roots and decreases Cd in shoots. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ASi decreases soil-available Cd but is limiting for Si uptake. - Abstract: Agricultural soil contamination and subsequently crops still require alternative solutions to reduce associated environmental risks. The effects of silica application on alleviating cadmium (Cd) phytotoxicity in wheat plants were investigated in a 71-day pot experiment conducted with a historically contaminated agricultural soil. We used amorphous silica (ASi) that had been extracted from a diatomite mine for Si distribution at 0, 1, 10 and 15 ton ASi ha{sup -1}. ASi applications increased plant biomass and plant Si concentrations, reduced the available Cd in the soil and the Cd translocation to shoots, while Cd was more efficiently sequestrated in roots. But ASi is limiting for Si uptake by plants. We conclude that significant plant-available Si in soil contributes to decreased Cd concentrations in wheat shoots and could be implemented in a general scheme aiming at controlling Cd concentrations in wheat.

  8. Interaction effects on uptake and toxicity of perfluoroalkyl substances and cadmium in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rapeseed (Brassica campestris L.) from co-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuyan; Fan, Ziyan; Sun, Lihui; Zhou, Tao; Xing, Yuliang; Liu, Lifen

    2017-03-01

    A vegetation study was conducted to investigate the interactive effects of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and Cadmium (Cd) on soil enzyme activities, phytotoxicity and bioaccumulation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rapeseed (Brassica campestris L.) from co-contaminated soil. Soil urease activities were inhibited significantly but catalase activities were promoted significantly by interaction of PFASs and Cd which had few effects on sucrase activities. Joint stress with PFASs and Cd decreased the biomass of plants and chlorophyll (Chl) content in both wheat and rapeseed, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities were increased in wheat but inhibited in rapeseed compared with single treatments. The bioconcentration abilities of PFASs in wheat and rapeseed were decreased, and the translocation factor of PFASs was decreased in wheat but increased in rapeseed with Cd addition. The bioaccumulation and translocation abilities of Cd were increased significantly in both wheat and rapeseed with PFASs addition. These findings suggested important evidence that the co-existence of PFASs and Cd reduced the bioavailability of PFASs while enhanced the bioavailability of Cd in soil, which increased the associated environmental risk for Cd but decreased for PFASs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A biosensor for cadmium based on bioconvective patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noever, David A.; Matsos, Helen C.

    1990-01-01

    An 'in vitro' method for monitoring cadmium, one of the most lethal bivalent heavy metals, can detect biologically active levels. The effects of cadmium tend to concentrate in protozoa far above natural levels and therein begin transferring through freshwater food chains to animals and humans. In a small sample volume (approximately 5 ml) the method uses the toxic response to the protozoa, Tetrahymena pyriformis, to cadmium. The assay relies on macroscopic bioconvective patterns to measure the toxic response, giving a sensitivity better than 1 micro-g/1 and a toxicity threshold to 7 micro-g/1 for Cd(2+). Cadmium hinders pattern formation in a dose-dependent manner. Arrested organism growth arises from slowed division and mutation to non-dividing classes. Unlike previous efforts, this method can be performed in a shallow flow device and does not require electronic or chemical analyses to monitor toxicity.

  10. Re-evaluation of blood mercury, lead and cadmium concentrations in the Inuit population of Nunavik (Québec): a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Julie; Dewailly, Éric; Benedetti, Jean-Louis; Pereg, Daria; Ayotte, Pierre; Déry, Serge

    2008-01-01

    Background Arctic populations are exposed to mercury, lead and cadmium through their traditional diet. Studies have however shown that cadmium exposure is most often attributable to tobacco smoking. The aim of this study is to examine the trends in mercury, lead and cadmium exposure between 1992 and 2004 in the Inuit population of Nunavik (Northern Québec, Canada) using the data obtained from two broad scale health surveys, and to identify sources of exposure in 2004. Methods In 2004, 917 adults aged between 18 and 74 were recruited in the 14 communities of Nunavik to participate to a broad scale health survey. Blood samples were collected and analysed for metals by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and dietary and life-style characteristics were documented by questionnaires. Results were compared with data obtained in 1992, where 492 people were recruited for a similar survey in the same population. Results Mean blood concentration of mercury was 51.2 nmol/L, which represent a 32% decrease (p < 0.001) between 1992 and 2004. Mercury blood concentrations were mainly explained by age (partial r2 = 0.20; p < 0.0001), and the most important source of exposure to mercury was marine mammal meat consumption (partial r2 = 0.04; p < 0.0001). In 2004, mean blood concentration of lead was 0.19 μmol/L and showed a 55% decrease since 1992. No strong associations were observed with any dietary source, and lead concentrations were mainly explained by age (partial r2 = 0.20.; p < 0.001). Blood cadmium concentrations showed a 22% decrease (p < 0.001) between 1992 and 2004. Once stratified according to tobacco use, means varied between 5.3 nmol/L in never-smokers and 40.4 nmol/L in smokers. Blood cadmium concentrations were mainly associated with tobacco smoking (partial r2 = 0.56; p < 0.0001), while consumption of caribou liver and kidney remain a minor source of cadmium exposure among never-smokers. Conclusion Important decreases in mercury, lead and cadmium exposure

  11. Molecular mechanisms of the epithelial transport of toxic metal ions, particularly mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic, zinc and copper. Progress report, January 1, 1980-December 31, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasserman, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    Investigations were continued to elucidate the mode of transepithelial transport of toxic metal ions across the gastrointestinal tract, as well as their interactions with biological processes and other metal ions. All experimental details that are either published, submitted for publication or in press during this report period are included in the Appendix. Primary attention for this report has been given to the intestinal absorption of lead and its interaction with other biological moieties

  12. Phytoremediation of cadmium and nickel by Spirodela polyrhiza

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, Devaleena; Goswami, Chandrima; Chatterjee, Sumon; Majumder, Arunabha; Mishra, A.K.; Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik

    2011-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution in surface and groundwater has considerably increased in the last few years. It is essential to have an effective removal mechanism of these toxic metals. Current research includes the need to develop environment friendly and cost effective technologies for removing heavy metals from water. In several studies cadmium and nickel have been considerably removed using phytoremediation. The removal efficiency of cadmium and nickel by Spirodela polyrhiza, common duckweed has been examined in the present study for 3 different concentrations of cadmium (1, 2 and 3 mg/L) and nickel (4, 5 and 6 mg/L). Two sets of experiments for cadmium and nickel were conducted separately. Effect of metal toxicity on Spirodela polyrhiza was evaluated in terms of relative growth factor and cadmium was found to be more toxic than nickel. Under experimental condition BCF value for cadmium removal was more than >1000 in all the 3 concentrations of cadmium. But the BCF value was found to be more than > 1000 only when input nickel concentration was 4 mg/L during phytoremediation process. Experimental results suggest that Spirodela polyrhiza has the potential of accumulating cadmium and nickel from aqueous solution at lower metal concentration. (author)

  13. Cytoprotective effects of Glycyrrhizae radix extract and its active component liquiritigenin against cadmium-induced toxicity (effects on bad translocation and cytochrome c-mediated PARP cleavage)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Chan; Byun, Sung Hui; Yang, Chae Ha; Kim, Chul Young; Kim, Jin Woong; Kim, Sang Geon

    2004-01-01

    Glycyrrhizae radix has been popularly used as one of the oldest and most frequently employed botanicals in herbal medicine in Asian countries, and currently occupies an important place in food products. Cadmium (Cd) induces both apoptotic and non-apoptotic cell death, in which alterations in cellular sulfhydryls participate. In the present study, we determined the effects of G. radix extract (GRE) and its representative active components on cell death induced by Cd and explored the mechanistic basis of cytoprotective effects of G. radix. Incubation of H4IIE cells with GRE inhibited cell death induced by 10 μM Cd. Also, GRE effectively blocked Cd (1 μM)-induced cell death potentiated by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) without restoration of cellular GSH. GRE prevented both apoptotic and non-apoptotic cell injury induced by Cd (10 μM) or Cd (0.3-1 μM) + BSO. Inhibition of Cd-induced cell injury by pretreatment of cells with GRE suggested that the cytoprotective effect result from alterations in the levels of the protein(s) responsible for cell viability. GRE inhibited mitochondrial Bad translocation by Cd or Cd+BSO, and caused restoration of mitochondrial Bcl xL and cytochrome c levels. Cd-induced poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase cleavage in control cells or in cells deprived of sulfhydryls was prevented by GRE treatment. Among the major components present in GRE, liquiritigenin, but not liquiritin, isoliquiritigenin or glycyrrhizin, exerted cytoprotective effect. These results demonstrated that GRE blocked Cd-induced cell death by inhibiting the apoptotic processes involving translocation of Bad into mitochondria, decreases in mitochondrial Bcl xL and cytochrome c, and poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase cleavage

  14. Determination of cadmium in soil by atomic absorption spectrophotometry after extraction with 4-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-phenyl-5-thiazoleacetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, N.; Chaudhri, S.A.; Saeed, M.M.; Ahmed, J.

    1997-01-01

    Toxic elements are generally present in soil at trace levels and their uptake through food materials may induced hazardous effects to human being. The determination of toxic metal at trace levels is very essential in order to assess the extent of pollution. In the present study an effective, simple and rapid analytical method has been studied for the determination of cadmium in soil using 4-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-phenyl-5-thiazoleacetic acid (HCPTA). The cadmium was extracted with HCPTA in n-butyl acetate and cadmium was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometric technique using air-acetylene flame. The quantitative extraction was observed at pH 8.4. The stoichiometric composition of the complex was found to be Cd(CPTA)2. The extraction constant was determined to be log K/sub ex/ = -10.44 plus minus 0.11. Under the optimal experimental conditions the influence of high concentration of various anions and cations on the extraction of cadmium has also been studied, which shows that EDTA masked the extraction completely whereas the presence of palladium decreased the extraction by 24 %. The reliability of the method was cross checked by analyzing IAEA Standard reference Material, Soil-7, for its cadmium contents. (author)

  15. PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF CADMIUM MOBILITY IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    ABSTRACT. Cadmium is a toxic metal often found with a strong enrichment factor in coastal sediments. ... into the food chain, which could result in a wide variety of adverse effects in animals and ... Sampling scheme and sample conservation ..... of Cd with Fe and Mn oxides has also been reported in others studies [38, 39].

  16. Cadmium in the aquatic environment. Volume 19. Advances in environmental science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nriagu, J.O.; Sprague, J.B. (eds.)

    1987-01-01

    This book addresses the biogeochemistry of cadmium in the marine and freshwater aquatic environment and comprises 10 chapters on: distribution and cycling of cadmium in the environment; evidence for anthropogenic modification of global transport of cadmium; cadmium in fresh water: The Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River; cadmium associations in freshwater and marine sediment; biological cycling of cadmium in fresh water; toxicity of cadmium to freshwater microorganisms, phytoplankton, and invertebrates; effects of cadmium on freshwater fish; effects of cadmium on marine biota; biological cycling of cadmium in marine environment; and methods of cadmium detection. Although there is some overlap of chapter topics, the major compartments of the aquatic system are addressed: atmosphere, water, sediment, phytoplankton, macrophytes, zooplankton, and fish. These chapters are well written and critically review the available data in each area. The research cited is heavily dominated by studies of the Great Lakes and Western European rivers such as the Rhine, but this reflects the degree of cadmium contamination of these important water bodies and the environmental concerns they have raised. Many of the chapters strive to critically address the problems of data quality, which are a result of the great difficulty in detecting cadmium at the ng/L or ..mu..g/kg levels at which cadmium contamination occurs.

  17. Cadmium affects retinogenesis during zebrafish embryonic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hen Chow, Elly Suk; Yu Hui, Michelle Nga; Cheng, Chi Wa; Cheng, Shuk Han

    2009-01-01

    Ocular malformations are commonly observed in embryos of aquatic species after exposure to toxicants. Using zebrafish embryos as the model organism, we showed that cadmium exposure from sphere stage (4 hpf) to end of segmentation stage (24 hpf) induced microphthalmia in cadmium-treated embryos. Embryos with eye defects were then assessed for visual abilities. Cadmium-exposed embryos were behaviorally blind, showing hyperpigmentation and loss of camouflage response to light. We investigated the cellular basis of the formation of the small eyes phenotype and the induction of blindness by studying retina development and retinotectal projections. Retinal progenitors were found in cadmium-treated embryos albeit in smaller numbers. The number of retinal ganglion cells (RGC), the first class of retinal cells to differentiate during retinogenesis, was reduced, while photoreceptor cells, the last batch of retinal neurons to differentiate, were absent. Cadmium also affected the propagation of neurons in neurogenic waves. The neurons remained in the ventronasal area and failed to spread across the retina. Drastically reduced RGC axons and disrupted optic stalk showed that the optic nerves did not extend from the retina beyond the chiasm into the tectum. Our data suggested that impairment in neuronal differentiation of the retina, disruption in RGC axon formation and absence of cone photoreceptors were the causes of microphthalmia and visual impairment in cadmium-treated embryos

  18. Cadmium exposure induces hematuria in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seung Seok [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myounghee, E-mail: dkkim73@gmail.com [Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Eulji University, Gyeonggi-do 461-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su Mi [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Pyo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sejoong [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Kwon Wook [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chun Soo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    Introduction: Toxic heavy metals have adverse effects on human health. However, the risk of hematuria caused by heavy metal exposure has not been evaluated. Methods: Data from 4701 Korean adults were obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008–2010). Blood levels of the toxic heavy metals cadmium, lead, and mercury were measured. Hematuria was defined as a result of ≥+1 on a urine dipstick test. The odds ratios (ORs) for hematuria were measured according to the blood heavy metal levels after adjusting for multiple variables. Results: Individuals with blood cadmium levels in the 3rd and 4th quartiles had a greater OR for hematuria than those in the 1st quartile group: 3rd quartile, 1.35 (1.019–1.777; P=0.037); 4th quartile, 1.52 (1.140–2.017; P=0.004). When blood cadmium was considered as a log-transformed continuous variable, the correlation between blood cadmium and hematuria was significant: OR, 1.97 (1.224–3.160; P{sub trend}=0.005). In contrast, no significant correlations between hematuria and blood lead or mercury were found in the multivariate analyses. Discussion: The present study shows that high cadmium exposure is associated with a risk of hematuria. -- Highlights: • A high level of blood cadmium is associated with a high risk of hematuria. • This correlation is independent of several confounding factors. • Blood levels of lead and mercury are not associated with risk of hematuria. • This is the first study on the correlation between cadmium exposure and hematuria risk.

  19. Associations between Urinary Excretion of Cadmium and Renal Biomarkers in Nonsmoking Females: A Cross-Sectional Study in Rural Areas of South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-rui Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the relationship between urinary excretion of cadmium (U-Cd and biomarkers of renal dysfunction. Methods: One hundred eighty five non-smoking female farmers (aged from 44 to 71 years were recruited from two rural areas with different cadmium levels of exposure in southern China. Morning spot urine samples were collected for detecting U-Cd, urinary creatinine (U-cre, β2-microglobulin (β2-MG, α1-microglobulin (α1-MG, metallothionein (MT, retinol binding protein (RBP, albumin (AB, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1. Spearman’s rank correlation was carried out to assess pairwise bivariate associations between continuous variables. Three different models of multiple linear regression (the cre-corrected, un-corrected and cre-adjusted model were used to model the dose-response relationships between U-Cd and nine urine markers. Results: Spearman’s rank correlation showed that NAG, ALP, RBP, β2-MG and MT were significantly associated with U-Cd for both cre-corrected and observed data. Generally, NAG correlated best with U-Cd among the nine biomarkers studied, followed by ALP and MT. In the un-corrected model and cre-adjusted model, the regression coefficients and R2 of nine biomarkers were larger than the corresponding values in the cre-corrected model, indicating that the use of observed data was better for investigating the relationship between biomarkers and U-Cd than cre-corrected data. Conclusions: Our results suggest that NAG, MT and ALP in urine were better biomarkers for long-term environmental cadmium exposure assessment among the nine biomarkers studied. Further, data without normalization with creatinine show better relationships between cadmium exposure and renal dysfunction.

  20. Cadmium ban spurs interest in zinc-nickel coating for corrosive aerospace environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, J. (Pure Coatings Inc., West Palm Beach, FL (United States))

    1994-02-01

    OSHA recently reduced the permissible exposure level for cadmium. The new standard virtually outlaws cadmium production and use, except in the most cost-insensitive applications. Aerospace manufacturers, which use cadmium extensively in coatings applications because of the material's corrosion resistance, are searching for substitutes. The most promising alternative found to date is a zinc-nickel alloy. Tests show that the alloy outperforms cadmium without generating associated toxicity issues. As a result, several major manufacturing and standards organizations have adopted the zinc-nickel compound as a standard cadmium replacement. The basis for revising the cadmium PEL -- which applies to occupational exposure in industrial, agricultural and maritime occupations -- is an official OSHA determination that employees exposed to cadmium under the existing PEL face significant health risks from lung cancer and kidney damage. In one of its principal uses, cadmium is electroplated to steel, where it acts as an anticorrosive agent.

  1. Cadmium and renal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'yasova, Dora; Schwartz, Gary G.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Rates of renal cancer have increased steadily during the past two decades, and these increases are not explicable solely by advances in imaging modalities. Cadmium, a widespread environmental pollutant, is a carcinogen that accumulates in the kidney cortex and is a cause of end-stage renal disease. Several observations suggest that cadmium may be a cause of renal cancer. Methods: We performed a systematic review of the literature on cadmium and renal cancer using MEDLINE for the years 1966-2003. We reviewed seven epidemiological and eleven clinical studies. Results: Despite different methodologies, three large epidemiologic studies indicate that occupational exposure to cadmium is associated with increased risk renal cancer, with odds ratios varying from 1.2 to 5.0. Six of seven studies that compared the cadmium content of kidneys from patients with kidney cancer to that of patients without kidney cancer found lower concentrations of cadmium in renal cancer tissues. Conclusions: Exposure to cadmium appears to be associated with renal cancer, although this conclusion is tempered by the inability of studies to assess cumulative cadmium exposure from all sources including smoking and diet. The paradoxical findings of lower cadmium content in kidney tissues from patients with renal cancer may be caused by dilution of cadmium in rapidly dividing cells. This and other methodological problems limit the interpretation of studies of cadmium in clinical samples. Whether cadmium is a cause of renal cancer may be answered more definitively by future studies that employ biomarkers of cadmium exposure, such as cadmium levels in blood and urine

  2. Cadmium versus copper toxicity: Insights from an integrated dissection of protein synthesis pathway in the digestive glands of mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pytharopoulou, S.; Kournoutou, G.G. [Laboratory of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Leotsinidis, M. [Laboratory of Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Georgiou, C.D. [Department of Biology, Section of Genetics, Cell Biology and Development, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Kalpaxis, D.L., E-mail: dimkal@med.upatras.gr [Laboratory of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Cu{sup 2+}-exposure of mussels results in genotoxicity, without affecting MTs production. •Cd{sup 2+}-exposure of mussels causes low genotoxicity, but induces MTs production. • Both metals induce oxidative stress in mussels, with Cd being the strongest inducer. • Translation is suppressed by both metals, mainly at the initiation and elongation steps. • MTs abrogate translational defects caused by Cd{sup 2+}, by trapping the toxic metal. -- Abstract: The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of metal-mediated stress on the protein-synthesis pathway in mussels. To this end, mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) underwent a 15 days exposure to 100 μg/L Cu{sup 2+} or Cd{sup 2+}. Both metals, in particular Cd{sup 2+}, accumulated in mussel digestive glands and generated a specific status of oxidative-stress. Exposure of mussels to each metal resulted in 40% decrease of the tRNA-aminoacylation efficiency, at the end of exposure. Cu{sup 2+} also caused a progressive loss in the capability of 40S-ribosomal subunits to form 48S pre-initiation complex, which reached 34% of the control at the end of exposure. Other steps of translation underwent less pronounced, but measurable damages. Mussels exposed to Cd{sup 2+} for 5 days presented a similar pattern of translational dysfunctions in digestive glands, but during the following days of exposure the ribosomal efficiency was gradually restored. Meanwhile, metallothionein levels significantly increased, suggesting that upon Cd{sup 2+}-mediated stress the protein-synthesizing activity was reorganized both quantitatively and qualitatively. Conclusively, Cd{sup 2+} and Cu{sup 2+} affect translation at several levels. However, the pattern of translational responses differs, largely depending on the capability of each metal to affect cytotoxic pathways in the tissues, such as induction of antioxidant defense and specific repair mechanisms.

  3. Environmental cadmium and lead concentrations in the Bahía Blanca Estuary (Argentina. Potential toxic effects of Cd and Pb on crab larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ferrer

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bahía Blanca Estuary includes a large tidal plain with an area close to 1150 km2. Mud is predominant in its sediments, where a significant population of the crab Chasmagnathus granulata lives during the whole year. Moreover, there are important urban and industrial discharges into this environment. Cd and Pb concentrations were determined in samples of water (for both dissolved and suspended particulate matter and surface sediments (total and 63 µm fractions. Organic matter was analysed in the sediments, while temperature, salinity, pH and dissolved oxygen were measured in the estuarine water. The metal concentrations determined in this study were: 1.47 ± 1.08 µg Cd g–1 and 14.68 ± 4.31 µg Pb g–1 in surface sediments; 2.21 ± 1.33 µg Cd g–1 and 25.70 ± 7.09 µg Pb g–1 in the –1 and below the analytical detection limit of Pb in suspended particulate matter. Furthermore, dissolved Cd and Pb were lower than the norms for marine and estuarine waters (2 µg dm–3 for Cd and 5 µg dm–3 for Pb, E.P.A.. Simultaneously, the effects of Cd and Pb were studied on recently hatched larvae of Ch. granulata, through 96-hour semi-static acute assays. Viability was the criterion assessed in the assays. LC50 (96 h for Cd was 46.43 µg dm–3 (36.92 - 56.34 µg dm–3, whilst that for Pb was 1.00 mg m–3 (0.79 - 1.23 mg dm–3, which demonstrates that Cd is more toxic towards larvae. Finally, both LC50 values determined for Cd and Pb were higher than the corresponding metal concentrations measured in the Bahía Blanca environment.

  4. Acidic leaching of potentially toxic metals cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc from two Zn smelting slag materials incubated in an acidic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Taoze; Li, Feili; Jin, Zhisheng; Yang, Yuangen

    2018-07-01

    A column leaching study, coupled with acid deposition simulation, was conducted to investigate the leaching of potentially toxic metals (PTM) from zinc smelting slag materials (SSM) after being incubated in an acid Alfisol for 120 days at room temperature. Two SSMs (SSM-A: acidic, 10 yrs exposure with moderate high PTM concentrations versus SSM-B: alkaline, 2 yrs exposure with extremely high PTM concentrations), were used for the incubation at 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 wt% amendment ratios in triplicate. Five leaching events were conducted at day 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28, and the leaching of PTMs mainly occurred in the first three leaching events, with the highest PTM concentrations in leachate measured from 5 wt% SSM amendments. After leaching, 2.5, 12, 5.5, 14, 11, and 9 wt% of M3 extractable Pb, Zn, Cd, Co, Cr, and Ni could be released from 5 wt% SSM-A amended soils, being respectively 25, 12, 4, 2, 2, and 2 times more than those from 5 wt% SSM-B amended soils. In the leachates, the concentrations of PTMs were mostly affected by leachant pH and were closely correlated to the concentrations of Fe, Al, Ca, Mg and P with Cd, Pb, and Zn showing the most environmental concern. Visual MINTEQ 3.1 modeling suggested metallic ions and sulfate forms as the common chemical species of PTMs in the leachates; whereas, organic bound species showed importance for Cd, Pb, Cu, and Ni, and CdCl + was observed for Cd. Aluminum hydroxy, phosphate, and sulfate minerals prevailed as the saturated minerals, followed by chloropyromorphite (Pb 5 (PO 4 ) 3 Cl) and plumbogummite (PbAl 3 (PO 4 ) 2 (OH) 5 ·H 2 O) in the leachates. This study suggested that incubation of SSMs in acidic soil for a long term can enhance the release of PTMs as the forms of metallic ions and sulfate when subjected to acid deposition leaching. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Isolation, identification and cadmium adsorption of a high cadmium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-27

    Sep 27, 2010 ... 1School of Minerals Processing and Bioengineering, Central South University, Changsha, ... Cadmium is a non-essential ... (1994) reported that cadmium might interact ... uptake of cadmium, lead and mercury (Svecova et al.,.

  6. Comparative investigations of sodium arsenite, arsenic trioxide and cadmium sulphate in combination with gamma-radiation on apoptosis, micronuclei induction and DNA damage in a human lymphoblastoid cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornhardt, Sabine; Gomolka, Maria; Walsh, Linda; Jung, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    In the field of radiation protection the combined exposure to radiation and other toxic agents is recognised as an important research area. To elucidate the basic mechanisms of simultaneous exposure, the interaction of the carcinogens and environmental toxicants cadmium and two arsenic compounds, arsenite and arsenic trioxide, in combination with gamma-radiation in human lymphoblastoid cells (TK6) were investigated. Gamma-radiation induced significant genotoxic effects such as micronuclei formation, DNA damage and apoptosis, whereas arsenic and cadmium had no significant effect on these indicators of cellular damage at non-toxic concentrations. However, in combination with gamma-radiation arsenic trioxide induced a more than additive apoptotic rate compared to the sum of the single effects. Here, the level of apoptotic cells was increased, in a dose-dependent way, up to two-fold compared to the irradiated control cells. Arsenite did not induce a significant additive effect at any of the concentrations or radiation doses tested. On the other hand, arsenic trioxide was less effective than arsenite in the induction of DNA protein cross-links. These data indicate that the two arsenic compounds interact through different pathways in the cell. Cadmium sulphate, like arsenite, had no significant effect on apoptosis in combination with gamma-radiation at low concentrations and, at high concentrations, even reduced the radiation-induced apoptosis. An additive effect on micronuclei induction was observed with 1 μM cadmium sulphate with an increase of up to 80% compared to the irradiated control cells. Toxic concentrations of cadmium and arsenic trioxide seemed to reduce micronuclei induction. The results presented here indicate that relatively low concentrations of arsenic and cadmium, close to those occurring in nature, may interfere with radiation effects. Differences in action of the two arsenic compounds were identified

  7. Modulation of protein fermentation does not affect fecal water toxicity: a randomized cross-over study in healthy subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Windey

    Full Text Available Protein fermentation results in production of metabolites such as ammonia, amines and indolic, phenolic and sulfur-containing compounds. In vitro studies suggest that these metabolites might be toxic. However, human and animal studies do not consistently support these findings. We modified protein fermentation in healthy subjects to assess the effects on colonic metabolism and parameters of gut health, and to identify metabolites associated with toxicity.After a 2-week run-in period with normal protein intake (NP, 20 healthy subjects followed an isocaloric high protein (HP and low protein (LP diet for 2 weeks in a cross-over design. Protein fermentation was estimated from urinary p-cresol excretion. Fecal metabolite profiles were analyzed using GC-MS and compared using cluster analysis. DGGE was used to analyze microbiota composition. Fecal water genotoxicity and cytotoxicity were determined using the Comet assay and the WST-1-assay, respectively, and were related to the metabolite profiles.Dietary protein intake was significantly higher during the HP diet compared to the NP and LP diet. Urinary p-cresol excretion correlated positively with protein intake. Fecal water cytotoxicity correlated negatively with protein fermentation, while fecal water genotoxicity was not correlated with protein fermentation. Heptanal, 3-methyl-2-butanone, dimethyl disulfide and 2-propenyl ester of acetic acid are associated with genotoxicity and indole, 1-octanol, heptanal, 2,4-dithiapentane, allyl-isothiocyanate, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl-benzene, propionic acid, octanoic acid, nonanoic acid and decanoic acid with cytotoxicity.This study does not support a role of protein fermentation in gut toxicity. The identified metabolites can provide new insight into colonic health.ClinicalTrial.gov NCT01280513.

  8. Effects of cadmium accumulation from suspended sediments and phytoplankton on the Oyster Saccostrea glomerata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, Helena A.; Maher, William A., E-mail: bill.maher@canberra.edu.au; Taylor, Anne M.; Krikowa, Frank

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Saccostrea glomerata accumulated cadmium from sediments and phytoplankton. • Effects were similar for both pathways. • Antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation and lysosomal destabilisation were affected. • Clear exposure–dose–response relationships were demonstrated. - Abstract: Metals are accumulated by filter feeding organisms via water, ingestion of suspended sediments or food. The uptake pathway can affect metal toxicity. Saccostrea glomerata were exposed to cadmium through cadmium-spiked suspended sediments (19 and 93 μg/g dry mass) and cadmium-enriched phytoplankton (1.6–3 μg/g dry mass) and cadmium uptake and effects measured. Oysters accumulated appreciable amounts of cadmium from both low and high cadmium spiked suspended sediment treatments (5.9 ± 0.4 μg/g and 23 ± 2 μg/g respectively compared to controls 0.97 ± 0.05 μg/g dry mass). Only a small amount of cadmium was accumulated by ingestion of cadmium-enriched phytoplankton (1.9 ± 0.1 μg/g compared to controls 1.2 ± 0.1 μg/g). In the cadmium spiked suspended sediment experiments, most cadmium was desorbed from sediments and cadmium concentrations in S. glomerata were significantly related to dissolved cadmium concentrations (4–21 μg/L) in the overlying water. In the phytoplankton feeding experiment cadmium concentrations in overlying water were <0.01 μg/L. In both exposure experiments, cadmium-exposed oysters showed a significant reduction in total antioxidant capacity and significantly increased lipid peroxidation and percentage of destabilised lysosomes. Destabilised lysosomes in the suspended sediments experiments also resulted from stress of exposure to the suspended sediments. The study demonstrated that exposure to cadmium via suspended sediments and to low concentrations of cadmium through the ingestion of phytoplankton, can cause sublethal stress to S. glomerata.

  9. Effect of cadmium chloride on hepatic lipid peroxidation in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H R; Andersen, O

    1988-01-01

    Intraperitoneal administration of cadmium chloride to 8-12 weeks old CBA-mice enhanced hepatic lipid peroxidation. A positive correlation between cadmium chloride dose and level of peroxidation was observed in both male and female mice. A sex-related difference in mortality was not observed...... but at a dose of 25 mumol CdCl2/kg the level of hepatic lipid peroxidation was higher in male mice than in female mice. The hepatic lipid peroxidation was not increased above the control level in 3 weeks old mice, while 6 weeks old mice responded with increased peroxidation as did 8-12 weeks old mice....... The mortality after an acute toxic dose of cadmium chloride was the same in the three age groups. Pretreatment of mice with several low intraperitoneal doses of cadmium chloride alleviated cadmium induced mortality and lipid peroxidation. The results demonstrate both age dependency and a protective effect...

  10. Effect of cadmium on lung lysosomal enzymes in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giri, S.N.; Hollinger, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Labilization of lysosomal enzymes is often associated with the general process of inflammation. The present study investigated the effect of the pneumotoxin cadmium on the release and activity of two lung lysosomal enzymes. Incubation of rat lung lysosomes with cadmium resulted in the release of β-glucuronidase but not acid phosphatase. The failure to ''release'' acid phosphatase appears to be the result of a direct inhibitory effect of cadmium on this enzyme. The K I for cadmium was determined to be 26.3 μM. The differential effect of cadmium on these two lysosomal enzymes suggests that caution should be exercised in selecting the appropriate enzyme marker for assessing lysosomal fragility in the presence of this toxicant. Furthermore, the differential basal release rate of the two enzymes from lung lysosomes may reflect the cellular heterogeneity of the lung. (orig.)

  11. Human health effects of exposure to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallenbeck, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    The health effects of human exposure to cadmium are discussed with emphases on intake, absorption, body burden, and excretion; osteomalacia in Japan; hypertension; and proteinuria, emphysema, osteomalacia, and cancer in workers. Elevated blood pressure has not been observed as a result of excessive exposures to cadmium in Japan or the workplace. Renal tubular dysfunction and consequent proteinuria is generally accepted as the main effect following long-term, low-level exposure to cadmium. Studies of workers show that proteinuria may develop after the first year of exposure or many years after the last exposure. Proteinuria and deterioration of renal function may continue even after cessation of exposure. The immediate health significance of low-level proteinuria is still under debate. However, there is evidence that long-term renal tubular dysfunction may lead to abnormalities of calcium metabolism and osteomalacia. The few autopsy and cross-sectional studies of workers do not permit conclusions to be drawn regarding the relationship between cadmium exposure and emphysema. Retrospective and historical-prospective studies are needed to settle this important question. No conclusive evidence has been published regarding cadmium-induced cancer in humans. However, there is sufficient evidence to regard cadmium as a suspect renal and prostate carcinogen. Because of equivocal results and the absence of dose-response relationships, the studies reviewed should be used with caution in making regulatory decisions and low-dose risk assessments. 62 references.

  12. Human health effects of exposure to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallenbeck, W.H.

    1984-02-15

    The health effects of human exposure to cadmium are discussed with emphasis on intake, absorption, body burden, and excretion; osteomalacia in Japan; hypertension; and proteinuria, emphysema, osteomalacia, and cancer in workers. Elevated blood pressure has not been observed as a result of excessive exposures to cadmium in Japan or the workplace. Renal tubular dysfunction and consequent proteinuria is generally accepted as the main effect following long-term, low-level exposure to cadmium. Studies of workers show that proteinuria may develop after the first year of exposure or many years after the last exposure. Proteinuria and deterioration of renal function may continue even after cessation of exposure. The immediate health significance of low-level proteinuria is still under debate. However, there is evidence that long-term renal tubular dysfunction may lead to abnormalities of calcium metabolism and osteomalacia. The few autopsy and cross-sectional studies of workers do not permit conclusions to be drawn regarding the relationship between cadmium exposure and emphysema. Retrospective and historical-prospective studies are needed to settle this important question. No conclusive evidence has been published regarding cadmium-induced cancer in humans. However, there is sufficient evidence to regard cadmium as a suspect renal and prostate carcinogen. Because of equivocal results and the absence of dose-response relationships, the studies reviewed should be used with caution in making regulatory decisions and low-dose risk assessments.

  13. Cadmium uptake by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghiri, F.

    1973-01-01

    Absorption of /sup 115m/Cd by soybean (Gylcine max l.) plants via foliar and root systems and translocation into the seed was determined. The uptake of /sup 115m/Cd by soybeans via the root system was more efficient than that of the foliar placement. Growth and Cd concentrations of soybean and wheat (Triticum aestivum l.) tops were influenced by soil-applied Cd. In both crops, the Cd concentration of plant tops increased while yield decreased with increasing levels of applied Cd. Cadmium toxicitiy began to occur in both crops at the lowest level of soil applied Cd (2.5 ppM). With soybean plants, Cd toxicity symptoms resembled fe chlorosis. For wheat plants there were no visual symptoms other than the studied growth. The relative concentration of Cd found in several vegetable crops varied depending on the plant species. The relative Cd concentration in descending order for various vegetables was lettuce (Lactuca sativa l.) > radish top (Raphanus sativus l.) > celery stalk (Apium graveolens l.) > celery leaves greater than or equal to green pepper (Capsicum frutescens l.) > radish roots.

  14. Cadmium exposure and health risks: Recent findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elinder, C.G. [Huddinge Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Renal Medicine; Jaerup, L. [Stockholm City Council (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Health

    1996-08-01

    Environmental and/or occupational exposure to cadmium give rise to a tubular kidney dysfunction which may proceed to more generalized renal damage and bone disease if exposure has been high and prolonged. Recent scientific work shows that early renal effects develop at lower levels of exposure than previously anticipated. Previous risk assessments for cadmium were mainly based on studies on healthy male workers. The general population, however, also include particularly susceptible groups such as elderly and individuals with illnesses (e.g. diabetes) that may predispose to cadmium-induced health effects. A significant proportion of the general population displays early signs of toxicity already at urinary cadmium concentrations around 3 nmol mmol{sup -1} creatinine. In addition to early tubular effects, cadmium may exert direct or indirect effects on mineral metabolism and the mineralization of the skeleton at relatively low levels of exposure. This may have important health implications, as poor and easily fractured bone is a major problem among the elderly in all industrialized countries. 41 refs, 4 figs

  15. Remediation of cadmium by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. from cadmium contaminated soil: a phytoextraction study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Kumar Bhadkariya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a toxic metal for living organisms and an environmental contaminant. Soils in many parts of the world are slightly too moderately contaminated by Cd due to long term use and disposal of Cd-contaminated wastes. Cost effective technologies are needed to remove cadmium from the contaminated sites. Soil phytoextraction is engineering based, low cost and socially accepted developing technology that uses plants to clean up contaminants in soils. This technology can be adopted as a remediation of cadmium from Cd-contaminated soils with the help of Brassica juncea plant. The objective of this work was to evaluate the cadmium (Cd accumulate and the tolerance of Brassica juncea. The Cd accumulates in all parts of plants (roots, stems and leaves. It was found that accumulating efficiency increased with the increase in the concentration of applied cadmium metal solution. Maximum accumulation of cadmium was found in roots than stem and leaves. Phytoextraction coefficient and translocation factor were highest to show the validity of the Brassica juncea species for hyperaccumulation of the Cd metal. These results suggested that Brassica juncea has a high ability to tolerate and accumulate Cd, so it might be a promising plant to be used for phytoextraction of Cd contaminated soil. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i2.10533 International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2 2014: 229-237

  16. Elevated blood lead and cadmium levels associated with chronic infections among non-smokers in a cross-sectional analysis of NHANES data

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Experimental animal studies, in vitro experiments, and clinical assessments have shown that metal toxicity can impair immune responses. We analyzed data from a United States representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to explore associatio...

  17. Metal metabolism and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Larsen, R.P.; Whelton, B.D.; Moretti, E.S.; Peterson, D.P.; Oldham, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    This research focuses on the role of pregnancy and lactation in susceptibility to the toxic effects of cadmium and lead. Responses under investigation include lead-induced changes in pathways for vitamin D and calcium metabolism and cadmium-induced alterations in kidney function and skeletal structure. The second area focuses on the gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium and other actinide elements. Studies currently being conducted in nonhuman primates to develop a procedure to determine GI absorption values of uranium and plutonium that does not require sacrifice of the animal. 6 refs

  18. Effects of Different Dietary Cadmium Levels on Growth and Tissue Cadmium Content in Juvenile Parrotfish,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okorie E. Okorie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This feeding trial was carried out to evaluate the effects of different dietary cadmium levels on growth and tissue cadmium content in juvenile parrotfish, Oplegnathus fasciatus, using cadmium chloride (CdCl2 as the cadmium source. Fifteen fish averaging 5.5±0.06 g (mean±SD were randomly distributed into each of twenty one rectangular fiber tanks of 30 L capacity. Each tank was then randomly assigned to one of three replicates of seven diets containing 0.30 (C0, 21.0 (C21, 40.7 (C41, 83.5 (C83, 162 (C162, 1,387 (C1,387 and 2,743 (C2,743 mg cadmium/kg diet. At the end of sixteen weeks of feeding trial, weight gain (WG, specific growth rate (SGR and feed efficiency (FE of fish fed C21 were significantly higher than those of fish fed C83, C162, C1,387 and C2,743 (p<0.05. Weight gain, SGR and FE of fish fed C0, C21 and C41 were significantly higher than those of fish fed C162, C1,387 and C2,743. Protein efficiency ratio of fish fed C0, C21 and C41 were significantly higher than those of fish fed C1,387 and C2,743. Average survival of fish fed C0, C21, C41 and C162 were significantly higher than that of fish fed C2,743. Tissue cadmium concentrations increased with cadmium content of diets. Cadmium accumulated the most in liver, followed by gill and then muscle. Muscle, gill and liver cadmium concentrations of fish fed C0, C21, C41 and C83 were significantly lower than those of fish fed C162, C1,387 and C2,743. Based on the ANOVA results of growth performance and tissue cadmium concentrations the safe dietary cadmium level could be lower than 40.7 mg Cd/kg diet while the toxic level could be higher than 162 mg Cd/kg diet.

  19. Effects of Nano-zinc on Biochemical Parameters in Cadmium-Exposed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazy, Marzie; Koohi, Mohammad Kazem

    2017-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic environmental and occupational pollutant with reported toxic effects on the kidneys, liver, lungs, bones, and the immunity system. Based on its physicochemical similarity to cadmium, zinc (Zn) shows protective effects against cadmium toxicity and cadmium accumulation in the body. Nano-zinc and nano-zinc oxide (ZnO), recently used in foods and pharmaceutical products, can release a great amount of Zn 2+ in their environment. This research was carried out to investigate the more potent properties of the metal zinc among sub-acute cadmium intoxicated rats. Seventy-five male Wistar rats were caged in 15 groups. Cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ) was used in drinking water to induce cadmium toxicity. Different sizes (15, 20, and 30 nm) and doses of nano-zinc particles (3, 10, 100 mg/kg body weight [bw]) were administered solely and simultaneously with CdCl 2 (2-5 mg/kg bw) for 28 days. The experimental animals were decapitated, and the biochemical biomarkers (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) were determined in their serum after oral exposure to nano-zinc and cadmium. Statistical analysis was carried out with a one-way ANOVA and t test. P zinc-treated rats. AST, ALT, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL, and free fatty acids increased significantly in the cadmium- and nano-zinc-treated rats compared with the controls. However, albumin, total protein, and HDLc significantly decreased in the cadmium- and nano-zinc-treated rats compared with the controls (P zinc, the smaller sizes with low doses and the larger sizes with high doses are more toxic than metallic zinc. In a few cases, an inverse dose-dependent relationship was seen as well. This research showed that in spite of larger sizes of zinc, smaller sizes of nano-zinc particles are not suitable for protection against cadmium intoxication.

  20. antioxidants, cadmium-induced toxicity, serum biochemical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel Owu

    Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences 24 (2): 177 -185 ©Physiological Society of Nigeria, 2009. Available ... time-dependent destruction of the histology of the liver, kidney and testes. ... shown to inhibit the activities of various pancreatic proteases (Hideaki ..... endocrine organs hence damage to the tissue will result in ...

  1. Zinc and cadmium monosalicylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharitonov, Yu.Ya.; Tujebakhova, Z.K.

    1984-01-01

    Zinc and cadmium monosalicylates of the composition MSal, where M-Zn or Cd, Sal - twice deprotonated residue of salicylic acid O-HOC 6 H 4 COOH (H 2 Sal), are singled out and characterized. When studying thermograms, thermogravigrams, IR absorption spectra, roentgenograms of cadmium salicylate compounds (Cd(OC 6 H 4 COO) and products of their thepmal transformations, the processes of thermal decomposition of the compounds have been characterized. The process of cadmium monosalicylate decomposition takes place in one stage. Complete loss of salicylate acido group occurs in the range of 320-460 deg. At this decomposition stage cadmium oxide is formed. A supposition is made that cadmium complex has tetrahedral configuration, at that, each salicylate group plays the role of tetradentate-bridge ligand. The compound evidently has a polymer structure

  2. Kinetics of cadmium accumulation and elimination in carp Cyprinus carpio tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conto Cinier, C. de; Petit-Ramel, M.; Faure, R.; Garin, D.; Bouvet, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Carp (Cyprinus carpio) were tested for cadmium accumulation and elimination during and after a simulated pollution exposure. Fish were distributed in two 1000-l indoor concrete aquaria supplied with a continuous flow (8 l min -1 ) of well water. The cadmium concentration was maintained at 53 μg l -1 in one aquarium and 443 μg l -1 in the other aquarium for 127 days. The exposure phase was followed by a 43-day depuration period. The cadmium accumulation in liver, kidney and muscle was measured by means of ICP-MS. The data showed that cadmium exposure produces significant cadmium uptake in tissues. Cadmium concentrations increased sharply in kidney and liver, whereas the pollutant level in muscle was only significant after 106 days. After 127 days of Cd exposure (53 μg l -1 ), the cadmium concentration in kidney was 4-fold higher than in liver and 50-fold higher than in muscle for a toxic level of 53 μg l -1 . At a Cd of 443 μg l -1 , kidney cadmium content was 2-fold higher than in liver and 100-fold higher than in muscle. In kidney and liver, the toxic concentration increased as the concentration of pollutant in water increased. During the 43 depuration days, the loss of accumulated cadmium was rapid and immediate in muscle. Conversely, no loss of cadmium was observed in kidney and liver. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  3. LcMKK, a MAPK kinase from Lycium chinense, confers cadmium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic element to plants. Ethylene is an ..... 1 mM DTT, 0.1 mM Na3VO4) at room temperature for. 30 min ..... a time-dependent manner following exposure to Cu and .... copper and cadmium. .... signaling mechanisms.

  4. An Assessment of Dietary Exposure to Cadmium in Residents of Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Liu, Yungang; Liu, Yufei; Liang, Boheng; Zhou, Hongwei; Li, Yingyue; Zhang, Yuhua; Huang, Jie; Yu, Chao; Chen, Kuncai

    2018-03-20

    Cadmium and its compounds are human carcinogens with severe organ toxicity, and their contamination of agricultural soil in China has been frequently reported; however, the dietary exposure to cadmium in residents and the relevant health risk have seldom been reported. In this study, the concentration of cadmium in various types of food collected from 2013 to 2015 were analyzed using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, and the dietary exposure to cadmium assessed based on a dietary survey in 2976 Guangzhou residents. In total, 3074 out of 4039 food samples had cadmium levels above the limit of detection. The mean ± standard deviation (50th, 95th percentile) cadmium content in all samples was 159.0 ± 112.7 (8.6, 392.4) μg/kg, with levels ranging from 1.0 to 7830 μg/kg. Using the mean cadmium concentrations, the average monthly dietary exposure of Guangzhou residents to cadmium was 14.4 (μg/kg body weight (BW), accounting for 57.6% of the provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI). Rice, laver, vegetables, and live aquatic products were the main sources of cadmium intake, on average accounting for 89% of the total value. The dietary cadmium exposure in high consumers (95th percentile food consumption) was 41.0 μg/kg·BW/month, accounting for 163% of the PTMI. Additionally, dietary cadmium exposure at mean consumption but high cadmium food concentration (95th percentile) was 32.3 μg/kg·BW/month, corresponding to 129% of the PTMI. The level of dietary exposure to cadmium in most Guangzhou residents was within the safety limit, thus increased health risk from dietary cadmium exposure is low at present. However, continued efforts by local governments to monitor the levels of cadmium in the four main food categories contributing to exposure are necessary.

  5. An Assessment of Dietary Exposure to Cadmium in Residents of Guangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium and its compounds are human carcinogens with severe organ toxicity, and their contamination of agricultural soil in China has been frequently reported; however, the dietary exposure to cadmium in residents and the relevant health risk have seldom been reported. In this study, the concentration of cadmium in various types of food collected from 2013 to 2015 were analyzed using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, and the dietary exposure to cadmium assessed based on a dietary survey in 2976 Guangzhou residents. In total, 3074 out of 4039 food samples had cadmium levels above the limit of detection. The mean ± standard deviation (50th, 95th percentile cadmium content in all samples was 159.0 ± 112.7 (8.6, 392.4 μg/kg, with levels ranging from 1.0 to 7830 μg/kg. Using the mean cadmium concentrations, the average monthly dietary exposure of Guangzhou residents to cadmium was 14.4 (μg/kg body weight (BW, accounting for 57.6% of the provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI. Rice, laver, vegetables, and live aquatic products were the main sources of cadmium intake, on average accounting for 89% of the total value. The dietary cadmium exposure in high consumers (95th percentile food consumption was 41.0 μg/kg·BW/month, accounting for 163% of the PTMI. Additionally, dietary cadmium exposure at mean consumption but high cadmium food concentration (95th percentile was 32.3 μg/kg·BW/month, corresponding to 129% of the PTMI. The level of dietary exposure to cadmium in most Guangzhou residents was within the safety limit, thus increased health risk from dietary cadmium exposure is low at present. However, continued efforts by local governments to monitor the levels of cadmium in the four main food categories contributing to exposure are necessary.

  6. Thin-film cadmium telluride photovoltaics: ES and H issues, solutions, and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweibel, K.; Moskowitz, P.; Fthenakis, V.

    1998-02-01

    Photovoltaics (PV) is a growing business worldwide, with new technologies evolving towards potentially large-volume production. PV use produces no emissions, thus offsetting many potential environmental problems. However, the new PV technologies also bring unfamiliar environment, safety, and health (ES and H) challenges that require innovative solutions. This is a summary of the issues, solutions, and perspectives associated with the use of cadmium in one of the new and important PV technologies: thin-film, cadmium telluride (CdTe) PV, which is being developed and commercialized by several companies including Solar Cells Inc. (Toledo, Ohio), BP Solar (Fairfield, California), and Matsushita (Japan). The principal ES and H issue for thin-film cadmium telluride PV is the potential introduction of cadmium--a toxic heavy metal--into the air or water. The amount of cadmium in thin-film PV, however, is quite small--one nickel cadmium flashlight battery has about as much cadmium (7 g) as a square meter of PV module using current technology--and a typical cordless power tool will have 5--10 batteries. CdTe modules are also very well sealed, limiting the chance of release. Nonetheless, minimizing the amount of cadmium in cadmium telluride modules and preventing the introduction of that cadmium into the environment is a top priority for National Renewable Energy Laboratory researchers and cadmium telluride PV manufacturers

  7. Biosensors paving the way to understanding the interaction between cadmium and the estrogen receptor alpha.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fechner

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal ubiquitously present in the environment and subsequently in the human diet. Cadmium has been proposed to disrupt the endocrine system, targeting in particular the estrogen signaling pathway already at environmentally relevant concentrations. Thus far, the reports on the binding affinity of cadmium towards human estrogen receptor alpha (hERα have been contradicting, as have been the reports on the in vivo estrogenicity of cadmium. Hence, the mode of interaction between cadmium and the receptor remains unclear. Here, we investigated the interaction between cadmium and hERα on a molecular level by applying a novel, label-free biosensor technique based on reflectometric interference spectroscopy (RIfS. We studied the binding of cadmium to hERα, and the conformation of the receptor following cadmium treatment. Our data reveals that cadmium interacts with the ligand binding domain (LBD of the ERα and affects the conformation of the receptor. However, the binding event, as well as the induced conformation change, greatly depends on the accessibility of the cysteine tails in the LBD. As the LBD cysteine residues have been reported as targets of post-translational modifications in vivo, we present a hypothesis according to which different cellular pools of ERα respond to cadmium differently. Our proposed theory could help to explain some of the previously contradicting results regarding estrogen-like activity of cadmium.

  8. Determination of cadmium selenide nonstoichiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brezhnev, V.Yu.; Kharif, Ya.L.; Kovtunenko, P.V.

    1986-01-01

    Physicochemical method of determination of cadmium selenide nonstoichiometry is developed. The method nature consists in the fact, that under definite conditions dissolved cadmium is extracted from crystals to a vapor phase and then is determined in it using the photocolorimetric method. Cadmium solubility in CdSe crystal is calculated from known CdSe mass and amount of separated cadmium. The lower boundary of determined contents constitutes 1x10 -5 % mol at sample of cadmium selenide 10 g

  9. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of cadmium chloride, cadmium bromide, cadmium iodide, cadmium nitrate, and cadmium sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apelblat, Alexander; Korin, Eli

    2007-01-01

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of cadmium salts (chloride, bromide, iodide, nitrate, and sulphate) were determined over the temperature range 280 K to 322 K and compared with the literature data. The vapour pressures determined were used to obtain the water activities, osmotic coefficients and the molar enthalpies of vaporization in the (cadmium salt + water) systems

  10. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of cadmium chloride, cadmium bromide, cadmium iodide, cadmium nitrate, and cadmium sulphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apelblat, Alexander [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)]. E-mail: apelblat@bgu.ac.il; Korin, Eli [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2007-07-15

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of cadmium salts (chloride, bromide, iodide, nitrate, and sulphate) were determined over the temperature range 280 K to 322 K and compared with the literature data. The vapour pressures determined were used to obtain the water activities, osmotic coefficients and the molar enthalpies of vaporization in the (cadmium salt + water) systems.

  11. Stage-dependency of apoptosis and the blood-testis barrier in the dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias): cadmium-induced changes as assessed by vital fluorescence techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClusky, Leon M

    2006-09-01

    Naturally occurring heavy metals and synthetic compounds are potentially harmful for testicular function but evidence linking heavy metal exposure to reduced semen parameters is inconclusive. Elucidation of the exact stage at which the toxicant interferes with spermatogenesis is difficult because the various germ cell stages may have different sensitivities to any given toxicant, germ cell development is influenced by supporting testicular somatic cells and the presence of inter-Sertoli cell tight junctions create a blood-testis barrier, sequestering meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells in a special microenvironment. Sharks such as Squalus acanthias provide a suitable model for studying aspects of vertebrate spermatogenosis because of their unique features: spermatogenesis takes place within spermatocysts and relies mainly on Sertoli cells for somatic cell support; spermatocysts are linearly arranged in a maturational order across the diameter of the elongated testis; spermatocysts containing germ cells at different stages of development are topographically separated, resulting in visible zonation in testicular cross sections. We have used the vital dye acridine orange and a novel fluorescence staining technique to study this model to determine (1) the efficacy of these methods in assays of apoptosis and blood-testis barrier function, (2) the sensitivity of the various spermatogonial generations in Squalus to cadmium (as an illustrative spermatotoxicant) and (3) the way that cadmium might affect more mature spermatogenic stages and other physiological processes in the testis. Our results show that cadmium targets early spermatogenic stages, where it specifically activates a cell death program in susceptible (mature) spermatogonial clones, and negatively affects blood-testis barrier function. Since other parameters are relatively unaffected by cadmium, the effects of this toxicant on apoptosis are presumably process-specific and not attributable to general toxicity.

  12. Maternal Cadmium, Iron and Zinc Levels, DNA Methylation and Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND:Cadmium (Cd) is a ubiquitous and environmentally persistent toxic metal that has been implicated in neurotoxicity, carcinogenesis and obesity and essential metals including zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) may alter these outcomes. However mechanisms underlying these relationsh...

  13. Effects of cadmium, zinc, lead, and mercury on respiration and fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grafl, H J; Schwantes, H O

    1983-01-01

    Zinc and lead did not affect the rate of respiration and fermentation. Concentrations of cadmium higher than 10/sup -7/ M and concentrations of mercury higher than 5 x 10/sup -5/ M significantly reduced the O/sub 2/ consumption and the CO/sub 2/ production. 10/sup -2/ M cadmium and 10/sup -3/ M mercury completely inhibited respiration and fermentation. Low concentrations of mercury inhibited respiration irreversibly and fermentation reversibly. High concentrations of zinc reduced the toxicity of low concentrations of cadmium but they enhanced the effects of high concentrations of cadmium and mercury. No interactions between lead and the other tested heavy metals were observed.

  14. Ion exchange of Cobalt and Cadmium in Zeolite X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nava M, I.

    1994-01-01

    The growing development in the industry has an important contribution to the environmental damage, where the natural effluents are each day more contaminated by toxic elements, such as: mercury, chromium, lead and cadmium. So as to separate such elements it has sorbent must have enough stability, and have a sharp capacity of sorption. In this work it was studied the sorption behavior of cobalt and on the other hand, cadmium in aqueous solutions, which along with sodic form of the Zeolite X, undergoes a phenomenon of ionic interchange. Such interchange was verify to different concentration of cadmium, cobalt and hydronium ion. The content of cobalt and sodium in the interchanged samples was detected through the neutronic activation analysis. The results disclose a higher selectivity for cadmium than cobalt. (Author)

  15. Cadmium induced radioadaptive response via an ATM-independent H2S/cystathionine γ-lyase modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Yan; Yuan Dexiao; Zhang Jianghong; Shao Chunlin

    2011-01-01

    The combined exposure to environmental toxicants such as heavy metals and radiation is an important research area in health protection. Here we explored cadmium induced radioadaptive response (RAR) and investigated the role of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) and ATM kinase in this response. Our data showed that the cadmium ions with a sub-lethal concentration could induce RAR in Chang liver cells towards subsequent γ-irradiation and this response could be abrogated by DL-propargylglycine (PPG), the endogenous H 2 S synthetase inhibitor of cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), but not by aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA), the inhibitor of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS). Moreover, the pretreatment of cells with NaHS also stimulated cellular adaptive response to radiation. Both cadmium treatment and irradiation up-regulated the expression of CSE protein in a time-dependent manner but had no influence on the expression of CBS protein. In the primed cells, the time course of CBS expression showed no significant difference with the cells treated with 2Gy irradiation alone, however, the CSE expression was easier to reach the maximum level, indicating a more efficient H 2 S production by CSE. Moreover, the cadmium-induced RAR was totally suppressed by KU-55933, a specific ATM inhibitor that did not change the CSE expression after radiation. However, exogenous H 2 S decreased the phosphorylation level of radiation-induced ATM. In conclusion, the present results demonstrate firstly that H 2 S is involved in the cadmium induced cross-adaptive response to challenging radiation. CSE, rather than CBS, may mainly responsible for the H 2 S production during this RAR which may also be mediated by ATM pathway. However, the activation of CSE is independent of ATM but could negatively regulate the phosphorylation of ATM.

  16. Sublethal effects of cadmium, manganese, lead, zinc and iron on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The toxicological evaluations of cadmium, iron, manganese, lead and zinc were carried out against albino mice model, Mus musculus. On the basis of 96 hrLC50 value, cadmium (0.47 mM) was found to be the most toxic followed by zinc (2.40 mM), lead (2.42 mM), iron (4.25 mM) and manganese (5.70 mM) was least toxic.

  17. Cadmium-binding proteins in midgut gland of freshwater crayfish Procambarus clarkii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Ramo, J.; Pastor, A.; Torreblanca, A.; Medina, J.; Diza-Mayans, J.

    1989-02-01

    Metallothioneins, metal binding proteins, were originally isolated and characterized by Margoshes and Vallee. These proteins have a high affinity for various heavy metals, particularly cadmium and mercury and have extensively been studied in mammals. Metal binding proteins have been observed in a variety of marine invertebrates; however, there is very little information available on metal binding proteins in freshwater invertebrates, and particularly in freshwater crustaceans. Cadmium is an ubiquitous non essential element which possesses high toxicity to aquatic organisms. Cadmium binding proteins observed in invertebrates have similar characteristics to mammalian metallothioneins. In 1978, the American red crayfish appeared in Albufera Lake and the surrounding rice fields (Valencia, Spain). Albufera Lake and the surrounding rice fields waters are subjected to very heavy loads of sewage and toxic industrial residues (including heavy metals) from the many urban and wastewaters in this area. In previous reports the authors studied the toxicity and accumulation of cadmium on Procambarus clarkii of Albufera Lake. This crayfish shows a high resistance to cadmium and a great accumulation rate of this metal in several tissues, including midgut gland. Since Procambarus clarkii shows a high resistance to cadmium, the presence of cadmium binding proteins (Cd-BP) in midgut gland of these crayfish would be expected. This report describes results on the characterization of Cd-BPs obtained from cadmium exposed crayfish Procambarus clarkii, demonstrating their presence in this freshwater crayfish.

  18. Haematological changes in Bufo maculatus treated with sublethal concentrations of Cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Ikechukwu Ezemonye

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Adult Bufo maculatus was exposed to sublethal cadmium concentrations of 0.25, 0.50, 1.00 and 2.00 mg/L. The toxicant from which the cadmium concentrations were prepared was cadmium chloride (CdCl2.H2O. There were three replicate tanks per treatment and three individuals per tank including control groups. The hematologic alterations based on the examination of blood indices during the 28 days of exposure showed that total erythrocyte count (TEC, hematocrit (Hct and hemoglobin (Hb concentration decreased (P<0.05 relative to controls. The decline was concentration- dependent as concentration of cadmium increased. The decline in hemoglobin and hematocrit in the experimental organism could be due to a decrease in the synthesis or release of erythrocytes into the circulation or an increase in the rate of erythrocyte destruction inflicted by cadmium toxicity. There was significant (P<0.05 elevation in total leuko- leukocyte count (TLC with increase in the concen- cyte concentration of cadmium. The increase in total leukocyte count observed in this study could be attributed to a stimulation of the immune system in response to tissue damage caused by cadmium toxicity. The study has shown that the exposure of the Bufo maculatus toad to cadmium can inflict alterations in the hematologic indices, which could induce unfavorable physiological changes in the amphibian, which may lead to death. There is, therefore, the need to protect amphibians in order to sustain the biodiversity in the Nigerian Niger Delta ecological zone.

  19. Raman spectra and cross sections of ammonia, chlorine, hydrogen sulfide, phosgene, and sulfur dioxide toxic gases in the fingerprint region 400 1400 cm 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-24

    Raman spectra and cross sections of ammonia, chlorine, hydrogen sulfide, phosgene, and sulfur dioxide toxic gases in the fingerprint region 400...1400 cm‐1 R. L. Aggarwal, L. W. Farrar, S. Di Cecca, and T. H. Jeys MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Lexington, MA 02420‐9108 Raman spectra of...region 400‐1400 cm‐1. A relatively compact (< 2’x2’x2’), sensitive, 532 nm 10 W CW Raman system with double‐pass

  20. Raman Spectra and Cross Sections of Ammonia, Chlorine, Hydrogen Sulfide, Phosgene, and Sulfur Dioxide Toxic Gases in the Fingerprint Region 400-1400 cm-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-14

    Raman spectra and cross sections of ammonia, chlorine, hydrogen sulfide, phosgene, and sulfur dioxide toxic gases in the fingerprint region 400...1400 cm‐1 R. L. Aggarwal, L. W. Farrar, S. Di Cecca, and T. H. Jeys MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Lexington, MA 02420‐9108 Raman spectra of...region 400‐1400 cm‐1. A relatively compact (< 2’x2’x2’), sensitive, 532 nm 10 W CW Raman system with double‐pass

  1. Simultaneous determination of oxygen and cadmium in cadmium and cadmium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaeda, K.; Kuriki, T.; Ohsawa, K.; Ishii, Y.

    1977-01-01

    Cadmium and its compounds were analysed for oxygen and cadmium by a modification of the Schutze-Unterzaucher method. Oxygen in some compounds such as cadmium oxide, nitrate and sulphate could not be determined by the usual method. The method of adding carbon was employed for the determination of total oxygen. Total oxygen could be determined by the addition of 5 mg of carbon to a sample boat and heating at 950 0 . The determination was also carried out by addition of naphthalene (2 mg). It was found that the cadmium powder and cadmium flake used contained ca. 1 and 0.15% oxygen, respectively. Oxygen and cadmium in cadmium and its compounds were simultaneously determined by the addition of 2 mg of naphthalene. Cadmium was determined colorimetrically by use of glyoxal-bis-(2-hydroxyanil). Oxygen and cadmium in the samples could be determined simultaneously with an average error of -0.02 and -0.22%, respectively. (author)

  2. Investigation into the combined effects of ethanol and cadmium on rat liver and kidneys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopf, G.; Boecker, R.; Bischoff, J.; Werner, M.G.; Estler, C.J. (Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Pharmakologie und Toxikologie)

    1990-08-01

    To examine the combined hepatoxic and nephrotoxic effects of cadmium and ethanol, rats maintained on an ethanol containing liquid diet (5% w/w) were given cadmium either acutely (3 x 1 mg/kg IP) or subacutely (about 14 mg/kg/day PO for 6 weeks). Parameters tested were cadmium, zinc and copper contents of blood and various organs, metallothionein (MT) contents, polysome profile of liver and kidneys, serum SDH and GPT levels and creatinine clearnace. Ethanol reduced the hepatic MT contents without altering the polysome profile and the zinc and copper contents. Cadmium on the other hand raised the MT contents in liver and kidneys. This effect of cadmium predominated in the combined treatment. Morphological examination and functional tests (SDH, GPT, creatinine clearance) indicate that cadmium does not enhance the toxic effects of ethanol, and vice versa. (orig.).

  3. Effects of Humic Acid on the Germination Traits of Pumpkin Seeds under Cadmium Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maasoumeh ASADI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study tackled the effect of humic acid and cadmium concentrations on the pumpkin seed germination characteristics throughout were studied. Treatments were cadmium concentrations on three levels: 0, 100 and 200 ppm and humic acid concentration of 0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg lit-1. Results showed that interaction of humic acid and cadmium was not significant on germination traits, but there was a significant effect on seedling growth indexes. Radicle and plumule length increased by 86 and 192% in comparison with control, of the mixture of 200 ppm cadmium and 300 mg lit-1 of humic acid. Cadmium had stimulatory effect on radicle and cotyledon dry weight and the highest values obtained with 200 ppm in mixture with 200 mg lit-1 of humic acid. Also, maximum plumule dry weight was recorded in 200 ppm cadmium and 300 mg lit-1 of humic acid. The highest of indexes were observed of 200 ppm cadmium and 400 mg lit-1 humic acid. In conclusion, the humic acid had detoxifying effect on cadmium stress in the culture and responded antagonistically against cadmium, but it seems that these concentrations of cadmium are low for the pumpkin seed and can be increased in order to reach the toxicity level.

  4. Oxidative stress biomarkers and aggressive behavior in fish exposed to aquatic cadmium contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeane A. Almeida

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the possible link between cadmium exposure, hepatic markers of oxidative stress and aggressive behavior in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Fish were first exposed to 0.75 mg/L CdCl2 for 15 days (12 isolated fish for each group and afterward a behavioral test was performed. Fish from the control and cadmium-exposed groups were paired for 1 h (6 pairs of fish per group for determination of aggressiveness parameters. Immediately after the behavioral test, the animals were sacrificed and the liver was used to determine biochemical parameters. Cadmium decreased aggression in Nile tilapia. Subordinate animals exposed to cadmium showed decreased glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activity compared to dominant ones. No alterations were observed in selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase Se-GSH-P and Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase activities, but total superoxide dismutase activity was increased in subordinate animals exposed to cadmium compared to subordinate control. Catalase activity was increased in cadmium-exposed fish. Lipoperoxide concentrations also increased in cadmium exposed fish indicating that cadmium toxicity may affect oxidative stress biomarkers in Nile tilapia. Social stress induced lipoperoxidation in Nile tilapia, and subordinate animals exposed to cadmium responded with lower activities of liver antioxidant enzymes compared to dominant fish. The present study shows that cadmium exposure is capable of inducing changes in the social status and oxidative stress parameters in this species.

  5. Cadmium and zinc accumulation in soybean: A threat to food safety?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shute, Tracy; Macfie, Sheila M.

    2006-01-01

    .2 mg/kg set by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. This was surprising given that cadmium in the soil was only 1 mg/kg well below the maximum allowable amount for agricultural soil. While it is possible that more cadmium was accumulated by plants in this study than that which might occur under agricultural field conditions, these results reinforce the need to monitor concentrations of toxic metals in food crops

  6. Phytoremediation of cadmium contaminated soils by tuberose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramana, S.; Biswas, A.K.; Singh, A.B.; Ajay; Ahirwar, N.K.; Behera, S.K.; Subba Rao, A.; Naveen Kumar, P.

    2012-01-01

    The potential of three varieties of tuberose (Prajwal, Shringar and Mexican single) for phytoremediation of soil contaminated with cadmium was evaluated by subjecting the plants to five levels of Cd (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg kg -1 soil). Applied Cd did not produce any toxic symptoms in all the three varieties of tuberose except marginal reduction in the photosynthesis rate and total dry weight beyond 50 mg Cd kg -1 soil. The study showed that tuberose possessed the typical ability of Cd hyper accumulator characterized by (1) accumulation of Cd in the shoots of the plant exceeding the critical judging standard i.e., 100 μg g -1 DW and (2) ratio of Cd in the shoots to bulbs >1. It was concluded that tuberose may be an effective accumulator plant for phytoremediation of cadmium polluted soils. (author)

  7. Effects of Cadmium Stress on Seed Germination, Seedling Growth and Seed Amylase Activities in Rice (Oryza sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-yu HE

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Two rice varieties, Xiushui 110 with high cadmium (Cd tolerance and Xiushui 11 with low Cd tolerance were used to study the effects of Cd stress on seed germination, seedling growth and amylase activities. The low cadmium concentration had little effect on seed germination rate. However, cadmium stress could significantly inhibit plumule and radicle growth, especially for radicle growth. Germination index, vigour index, radicle length and amylase activities of Xiushui 11 decreased more significantly with the increasing cadmium level compared with Xiushui 110. The cadmium content in seedlings of Xiushui 11 was higher than that in Xiushui 110 when the cadmium concentration exceeded 5 μmol/L, which caused lower mitotic index in root tips and amylase activities, and more serious cadmium toxicity in Xiushui 11.

  8. Flux of Cadmium through Euphausiids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benayoun, G.; Fowler, S.W.; Oregioni, B.

    1976-01-01

    Flux of the heavy metal cadmium through the euphausiid Meganyctiphanes norvegica was examined. Radiotracer experiments showed that cadmium can be accumulated either directly from water or through the food chain. When comparing equilibrium cadmium concentration factors based on stable element measurements with those obtained from radiotracer experiments, it is evident that exchange between cadmium in the water and that in euphausiid tissue is a relatively slow process, indicating that, in the long term, ingestion of cadmium will probably be the more important route for the accumulation of this metal. Approximately 10% of cadmium ingested by euphausiids was incorporated into internal tissues when the food source was radioactive Artemia. After 1 month cadmium, accumulated directly from water, was found to be most concentrated in the viscera with lesser amounts in eyes, exoskeleton and muscle, respectively. Use of a simple model, based on the assumption that cadmium taken in by the organism must equal cadmium released plus that accumulated in tissue, allowed assessment of the relative importance of various metabolic parameters in controlling the cadmium flux through euphausiids. Fecal pellets, due to their relatively high rate of production and high cadmium content, accounted for 84% of the total cadmium flux through M. norvegica. Comparisons of stable cadmium concentrations in natural euphausiid food and the organism's resultant fecal pellets indicate that the cadmium concentration in ingested material was increased nearly 5-fold during its passage through the euphausiid. From comparisons of all routes by which cadmium can be released from M. norvegica to the water column, it is concluded that fecal pellet deposition represents the principal mechanism effecting the downward vertical transport of cadmium by this species. (author)

  9. Blood cadmium concentration and lipid profile in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kisok [Department of Public Health, Keimyung University, 1000 Shindang-dong, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure induces alterations in lipid profiles, no epidemiological study of this relationship has been performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between blood cadmium concentration and blood lipid levels in Korean adults. A cross-sectional study comprising participants (n=3903) aged 20 years or older from the 2005, 2008, and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted. Demographic characteristics and dietary intake were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and cadmium and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors, blood concentration of cadmium was positively associated with the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner (p for trend <0.001). In addition, the odds ratios (ORs) of a high triglyceride to HDL-C ratio was significantly increased in the high blood cadmium groups [OR=1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.79 for fourth quintile and OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.07-1.86 for fifth quintile] compared with the lowest quintile group. However, high blood cadmium was not associated with a risk of high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high triglycerides. These data suggest that an increased cadmium body burden increases the risk of dyslipidemia, mainly due to the increased risk of low HDL-C and the high ratio of triglycerides to HDL-C.

  10. The Effects of Temperature and Hydrostatic Pressure on Metal Toxicity: Insights into Toxicity in the Deep Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alastair; Thatje, Sven; Hauton, Chris

    2017-09-05

    Mineral prospecting in the deep sea is increasing, promoting concern regarding potential ecotoxicological impacts on deep-sea fauna. Technological difficulties in assessing toxicity in deep-sea species has promoted interest in developing shallow-water ecotoxicological proxy species. However, it is unclear how the low temperature and high hydrostatic pressure prevalent in the deep sea affect toxicity, and whether adaptation to deep-sea environmental conditions moderates any effects of these factors. To address these uncertainties we assessed the effects of temperature and hydrostatic pressure on lethal and sublethal (respiration rate, antioxidant enzyme activity) toxicity in acute (96 h) copper and cadmium exposures, using the shallow-water ecophysiological model organism Palaemon varians. Low temperature reduced toxicity in both metals, but reduced cadmium toxicity significantly more. In contrast, elevated hydrostatic pressure increased copper toxicity, but did not affect cadmium toxicity. The synergistic interaction between copper and cadmium was not affected by low temperature, but high hydrostatic pressure significantly enhanced the synergism. Differential environmental effects on toxicity suggest different mechanisms of action for copper and cadmium, and highlight that mechanistic understanding of toxicity is fundamental to predicting environmental effects on toxicity. Although results infer that sensitivity to toxicants differs across biogeographic ranges, shallow-water species may be suitable ecotoxicological proxies for deep-sea species, dependent on adaptation to habitats with similar environmental variability.

  11. Cadmium interacts with the transport of essential micronutrients in the mammary gland-A study in rural Bangladeshi women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kippler, Maria; Loennerdal, Bo; Goessler, Walter; Ekstroem, Eva-Charlotte; El Arifeen, Shams; Vahter, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Although the concentrations of the toxic metal cadmium in breast milk are generally low ( s = 0.56; p s = 0.55; p s = -0.17; p = 0.05), indicating that cadmium inhibits the transport of calcium to breast milk. In conclusion, the present study may indicate that cadmium shares common transporters with iron and manganese for transfer to breast milk, but inhibits secretion of calcium to breast milk

  12. Sources of cadmium exposure among healthy premenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Scott V.; Newcomb, Polly A.; Shafer, Martin M.; Atkinson, Charlotte; Bowles, Erin J. Aiello; Newton, Katherine M.; Lampe, Johanna W.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Cadmium, a persistent and widespread environmental pollutant, has been associated with kidney function impairment and several diseases. Cigarettes are the dominant source of cadmium exposure among smokers; the primary source of cadmium in non-smokers is food. We investigated sources of cadmium exposure in a sample of healthy women. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 191 premenopausal women completed a health questionnaire and a food frequency questionnaire. The cadmium content of spot urine samples was measured with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and normalized to urine creatinine content. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the strength of association between smoking habits and, among non-smokers, usual foods consumed and urinary cadmium, adjusted for age, race, multivitamin and supplement use, education, estimated total energy intake, and parity. Results: Geometric mean urine creatinine-normalized cadmium concentration (uCd) of women with any history of cigarette smoking was 0.43 μg/g (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38-0.48 μg/g) and 0.30 μg/g (0.27-0.33 μg/g) among never-smokers, and increased with pack-years of smoking. Analysis of dietary data among women with no reported history of smoking suggested that regular consumption of eggs, hot cereals, organ meats, tofu, vegetable soups, leafy greens, green salad, and yams was associated with uCd. Consumption of tofu products showed the most robust association with uCd; each weekly serving of tofu was associated with a 22% (95% CI: 11-33%) increase in uCd. Thus, uCd was estimated to be 0.11 μg/g (95% CI: 0.06-0.15 μg/g) higher among women who consumed any tofu than among those who consumed none. Conclusions: Cigarette smoking is likely the most important source of cadmium exposure among smokers. Among non-smokers, consumption of specific foods, notably tofu, is associated with increased urine cadmium concentration. - Research highlights: →Urine cadmium, usual

  13. Sources of cadmium exposure among healthy premenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Scott V., E-mail: sadams@fhcrc.org [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Newcomb, Polly A. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Shafer, Martin M. [Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, University of Wisconsin and Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, Madison, WI (United States); Atkinson, Charlotte [Department of Oral and Dental Science, Bristol Dental School, Bristol (United Kingdom); Bowles, Erin J. Aiello [Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA (United States); Newton, Katherine M. [Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA (United States); Lampe, Johanna W. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Background: Cadmium, a persistent and widespread environmental pollutant, has been associated with kidney function impairment and several diseases. Cigarettes are the dominant source of cadmium exposure among smokers; the primary source of cadmium in non-smokers is food. We investigated sources of cadmium exposure in a sample of healthy women. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 191 premenopausal women completed a health questionnaire and a food frequency questionnaire. The cadmium content of spot urine samples was measured with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and normalized to urine creatinine content. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the strength of association between smoking habits and, among non-smokers, usual foods consumed and urinary cadmium, adjusted for age, race, multivitamin and supplement use, education, estimated total energy intake, and parity. Results: Geometric mean urine creatinine-normalized cadmium concentration (uCd) of women with any history of cigarette smoking was 0.43 {mu}g/g (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38-0.48 {mu}g/g) and 0.30 {mu}g/g (0.27-0.33 {mu}g/g) among never-smokers, and increased with pack-years of smoking. Analysis of dietary data among women with no reported history of smoking suggested that regular consumption of eggs, hot cereals, organ meats, tofu, vegetable soups, leafy greens, green salad, and yams was associated with uCd. Consumption of tofu products showed the most robust association with uCd; each weekly serving of tofu was associated with a 22% (95% CI: 11-33%) increase in uCd. Thus, uCd was estimated to be 0.11 {mu}g/g (95% CI: 0.06-0.15 {mu}g/g) higher among women who consumed any tofu than among those who consumed none. Conclusions: Cigarette smoking is likely the most important source of cadmium exposure among smokers. Among non-smokers, consumption of specific foods, notably tofu, is associated with increased urine cadmium concentration. - Research highlights: {yields

  14. Organic compounds and cadmium in the tributaries to the Elizabeth River in New Jersey, October 2008 to November 2008: Phase II of the New Jersey Toxics Reduction Workplan for New York-New Jersey Harbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    Samples of surface water and suspended sediment were collected from the two branches that make up the Elizabeth River in New Jersey - the West Branch and the Main Stem - from October to November 2008 to determine the concentrations of selected chlorinated organic and inorganic constituents. The sampling and analyses were conducted as part of Phase II of the New York-New Jersey Harbor Estuary Plan-Contaminant Assessment and Reduction Program (CARP), which is overseen by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. Phase II of the New Jersey Workplan was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey to define upstream tributary and point sources of contaminants in those rivers sampled during Phase I work, with special emphasis on the Passaic and Elizabeth Rivers. This portion of the Phase II study was conducted on the two branches of the Elizabeth River, which were previously sampled during July and August of 2003 at low-flow conditions. Samples were collected during 2008 from the West Branch and Main Stem of the Elizabeth River just upstream from their confluence at Hillside, N.J. Both tributaries were sampled once during low-flow discharge conditions and once during high-flow discharge conditions using the protocols and analytical methods that were used in the initial part of Phase II of the Workplan. Grab samples of streamwater also were collected at each site and were analyzed for cadmium, suspended sediment, and particulate organic carbon. The measured concentrations, along with available historical suspended-sediment and stream-discharge data were used to estimate average annual loads of suspended sediment and organic compounds in the two branches of the Elizabeth River. Total suspended-sediment loads for 1975 to 2000 were estimated using rating curves developed from historical U.S. Geological Survey suspended-sediment and discharge data, where available. Concentrations of suspended-sediment-bound polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Main Stem and the

  15. Measured Copper Toxicity to Cnesterodon decemmaculatus (Pisces: Poeciliidae and Predicted by Biotic Ligand Model in Pilcomayo River Water: A Step for a Cross-Fish-Species Extrapolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victoria Casares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine copper toxicity (LC50 to a local species (Cnesterodon decemmaculatus in the South American Pilcomayo River water and evaluate a cross-fish-species extrapolation of Biotic Ligand Model, a 96 h acute copper toxicity test was performed. The dissolved copper concentrations tested were 0.05, 0.19, 0.39, 0.61, 0.73, 1.01, and 1.42 mg Cu L-1. The 96 h Cu LC50 calculated was 0.655 mg L-1 (0.823-0.488. 96-h Cu LC50 predicted by BLM for Pimephales promelas was 0.722 mg L-1. Analysis of the inter-seasonal variation of the main water quality parameters indicates that a higher protective effect of calcium, magnesium, sodium, sulphate, and chloride is expected during the dry season. The very high load of total suspended solids in this river might be a key factor in determining copper distribution between solid and solution phases. A cross-fish-species extrapolation of copper BLM is valid within the water quality parameters and experimental conditions of this toxicity test.

  16. Diazinon and Cadmium Neurotoxicity in Rats after an Experimental Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbert Toman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the changes in cholinesterase activity in separate doses and after coadministration of cadmium and diazinon intraperitoneally and to assess toxicity and interactions of diazinon and cadmium on the nervous system in male rats. 40 male rats were randomly divided into three experimental and one control group (10 rats in each group. Blood analyzes were performed 36 hours after an intraperitoneal administration of observed compounds. The statistical evaluation of the results showed significantly (P < 0.01 reduced activity of cholinesterase in all experimental groups. The enzyme activity decreased from the control value 3.69 μkat/L to 1.81 μkat/L (diazinon group, 1.83 μkat/L (cadmium group and 1.35 μkat/L (cadmium+diazinon group. These results indicate that both cadmium and diazinon are potent to manifest the neurotoxic effects. Moreover, a synergistic effect of the co-administered cadmium and diazinon in the nervous system has been observed.

  17. Chlorination leaching of cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lach, E.; Pajak, I.; Bojanowska, A.

    1978-01-01

    The results of the investigations on chlorination leaching of cadmium from dust coming from dry dust collector of sinter belt, that is leaching with water saturated with gaseous chlorine and leaching with solutions of ammonium chloride and sodium chloride were given. The optimum conditions for these processes were established. It was found, that the method of leaching in the presence of gaseous chlorine is more effective, as it allows to report into the solution over 90% cadmium contained in dust. Owing to technical difficulties, environmental protection and safety conditions more advantageous seems to be the use as leaching agent of the ammonium chloride solutions. When applying 20% NH 4 Cl and temperature of 60 0 C, the time of 2 hours and the ratio of solid to liquid of 1:5, 70% cadmium contained in the dust can be reported into the solution. (auth.)

  18. Toxicity of some heavy metals to copepods Acartia spinicauda and Tortanus forcipatus

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhupratap, M.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; Nair, S.R.S.

    Copper was most toxic to the species tested followed by cadmium and zinc The estuarine species Acartia spinicauda was more sensitive to the toxicants that the marine species Tortanus forcipatus The 48 hr LC50 values are presented....

  19. Interaction of chelating agents with cadmium in mice and rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eybl, V.; Sykora, J.; Koutensky, J.; Caisova, D.; Schwartz, A.; Mertl, F.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of several chelating agents (CaDTPA, ZnDTPA, CaEDTA, ZnEDTA, DMSA, D-penicillamine and DMPS, DMP and DDC) on the acute toxicity of CdCl 2 and on the whole body retention and tissue distribution of cadmium after the IV application of /sup 115mCdCl 2 was compared in mice. The chelating agents were applied immediately after the application of cadmium. CaDTPA, ZnDTPA and DMSA appeared to be the most effective antidotes. However, DMSA increased the amount of cadmium retained in kidneys. The treatement of cadmium-poisoned mice with the combination of DMSA (IP) and ZnDTPA (SC) (all the compounds were injected in equimolar dose) decreased the toxicity of cadmium more than treatment with one chelating agents (given in a 2:1 dose). However, by studying the effect of these chelating agents and their combination application of the antidotes showed little or no improvement over the results obtained with the most effective of the individual components. In the urine of rats injected with CdCl 2 and treated with the chelating agents (CaDTPA, ZnDTPA, DMSA), the presence of cadmium complexes was demonstrated. The formation of mixed ligand chelates in vivo was not proved. Experiments in mice given a single injection of /sup 115m/Cd-labeled Cd complexes of DMPS, DMSA and DTPA showed a high retention of cadmium in the organisms after the IV application of CdDMPS and CdDMSA complexes

  20. Interaction of chelating agents with cadmium in mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eybl, V; Sýkora, J; Koutenský, J; Caisová, D; Schwartz, A; Mertl, F

    1984-01-01

    The influence of several chelating agents (CaDTPA, ZnDTPA, CaEDTA, ZnEDTA, DMSA, D-penicillamine and DMPS, DMP and DDC) on the acute toxicity of CdCl2 and on the whole body retention and tissue distribution of cadmium after the IV application of 115mCdCl2 was compared in mice. The chelating agents were applied immediately after the application of cadmium. CaDTPA, ZnDTPA and DMSA appeared to be the most effective antidotes. However, DMSA increased the amount of cadmium retained in kidneys. The treatment of cadmium-poisoned mice with the combination of DMSA (IP) and ZnDTPA (SC) (all the compounds were injected in equimolar dose) decreased the toxicity of cadmium more than treatment with one chelating agents (given in a 2:1 dose). However, by studying the effect of these chelating agents and their combination of the retention and distribution of Cd in mice, it was demonstrated that the combined application of the antidotes showed little or no improvement over the results obtained with the most effective of the individual components. In the urine of rats injected with CdCl2 and treated with the chelating agents (CaDTPA, ZnDTPA, DMSA), the presence of cadmium complexes was demonstrated. The formation of mixed ligand chelates in vivo was not proved. Experiments in mice given a single injection of 115mCd-labeled Cd complexes of DMPS, DMSA and DTPA showed a high retention of cadmium in the organisms after the IV application of CdDMPS and CdDMSA complexes. PMID:6734561

  1. Environmental exposure to cadmium and renal function of elderly women living in cadmium-polluted areas of West-Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewers, U.; Brockhaus, A.; Dolgner, R.; Freier, I.; Jermann, E.; Hahn, R.; Schlipkoeter, H.W.; Bernard, A.

    1985-12-01

    An epidemiological study was carried out to assess whether or not environmental pollution by cadmium as found in cadmium-polluted areas of the Federal Republic auf Germany is associated with an increased prevalence of biological signs of kidney dysfunction in population groups non-occupationally exposed to heavy metals. The study was run in two industrial areas known to be highly polluted by cadmium and other toxic heavy metals, viz. Stolberg and Duisburg. Duesseldorf was selected as a reference area. As a study population we selected 65- and 66-year-old women who had spent the major part of their lives in one of these areas. The average levels of cadmium in blood and urine showed significant differences in exposure to cadmium in the order Stolberg > Duisburg > Duesseldorf. Serum creatinine levels were, on average, significantly higher in the Stolberg group than in the Duisburg and Duesseldorf groups. With respect to other biological findings (total proteinuria, tubular proteinuria, albuminuria, aminoaciduria, phosphaturia, serum complement) no significant differences between the study populations were noted. It cannot be excluded, however, that in the Stolberg group there is a synergism of ageing and cadmium with respect to the age related decline of the glomerular filtration rate.

  2. Toxicity of simple mixtures to the nematode Caenhorhabditis elegans in relation to soil sorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, M.J.; Sweijen, R.A.J.C.; Kammenga, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    Single and combined toxicity of copper-zinc, copper-cadmium, cadmium-lead, copper-carbendazim, and copper-carbendazimiprodione to the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans in soil was studied. The one-week population increase was estimated as the toxicity endpoint. The aim was to study the relationship

  3. Cadmium Chloride Induces DNA Damage and Apoptosis of Human Liver Carcinoma Cells via Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Skipper

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a heavy metal that has been shown to cause its toxicity in humans and animals. Many documented studies have shown that cadmium produces various genotoxic effects such as DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations. Ailments such as bone disease, renal damage, and several forms of cancer are attributed to overexposure to cadmium.  Although there have been numerous studies examining the effects of cadmium in animal models and a few case studies involving communities where cadmium contamination has occurred, its molecular mechanisms of action are not fully elucidated. In this research, we hypothesized that oxidative stress plays a key role in cadmium chloride-induced toxicity, DNA damage, and apoptosis of human liver carcinoma (HepG2 cells. To test our hypothesis, cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Lipid hydroperoxide content stress was estimated by lipid peroxidation assay. Genotoxic damage was tested by the means of alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet assay. Cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry assessment (Annexin-V/PI assay. The result of MTT assay indicated that cadmium chloride induces toxicity to HepG2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, showing a 48 hr-LD50 of 3.6 µg/mL. Data generated from lipid peroxidation assay resulted in a significant (p < 0.05 increase of hydroperoxide production, specifically at the highest concentration tested. Data obtained from the Comet assay indicated that cadmium chloride causes DNA damage in HepG2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. A strong concentration-response relationship (p < 0.05 was recorded between annexin V positive cells and cadmium chloride exposure. In summary, these in vitro studies provide clear evidence that cadmium chloride induces oxidative stress, DNA damage, and programmed cell death in human liver carcinoma (HepG2 cells.

  4. Air toxics exposure from vehicle emissions at a U.S. border crossing: Buffalo Peace Bridge Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spengler, John; Lwebuga-Mukasa, Jamson; Vallarino, Jose; Melly, Steve; Chillrud, Steve; Baker, Joel; Minegishi, Taeko

    2011-07-01

    The Peace Bridge in Buffalo, New York, which spans the Niagara River at the east end of Lake Erie, is one of the busiest U.S. border crossings. The Peace Bridge plaza on the U.S. side is a complex of roads, customs inspection areas, passport control areas, and duty-free shops. On average 5000 heavy-duty diesel trucks and 20,000 passenger cars traverse the border daily, making the plaza area a potential "hot spot" for emissions from mobile sources. In a series of winter and summer field campaigns, we measured air pollutants, including many compounds considered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA*) as mobile-source air toxics (MSATs), at three fixed sampling sites: on the shore of Lake Erie, approximately 500 m upwind (under predominant wind conditions) of the Peace Bridge plaza; immediately downwind of (adjacent to) the plaza; and 500 m farther downwind, into the community of west Buffalo. Pollutants sampled were particulate matter (PM) days. Other metals (beryllium, sodium, magnesium, potassium, titanium, manganese, cobalt, strontium, tin, cesium, and lanthanum) showed significant increases downwind as well. Sulfur, arsenic, selenium, and a few other elements appeared to be markers for regional transport as their upwind and downwind concentrations were correlated, with ratios near unity. Using positive matrix factorization (PMF), we identified the sources for PAHs at the three fixed sampling sites as regional, diesel, general vehicle, and asphalt volatilization. Diesel exhaust at the Peace Bridge plaza accounted for approximately 30% of the PAHs. The NPAH sources were identified as nitrate (NO3) radical reactions, diesel, and mixed sources. Diesel exhaust at the Peace Bridge plaza accounted for 18% of the NPAHs. Further evidence for the impact of the Peace Bridge plaza on local air quality was found when the differences in 10-minute average UFP counts and pPAH concentrations were calculated between pairs of sites and displayed by wind direction. With

  5. Impacts of warming on aquatic decomposers along a gradient of cadmium stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, D.; Pascoal, C.; Cássio, F.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of cadmium and temperature on plant-litter decomposition by examining diversity and activity of aquatic fungi and leaf consumption by Limnephilus sp., a typical invertebrate shredder of Iberian streams. Freshly fallen leaves were immersed in a stream to allow microbial colonization, and were exposed in microcosms to a gradient of cadmium (≤11 levels, ≤35 mg L −1 ). Microcosms were kept at 15 °C, a temperature typically found in Iberian streams in autumn, and at 21 °C to simulate a warming scenario. The increase in temperature stimulated leaf decomposition by microbes, fungal reproduction and leaf consumption by the shredder. Conversely, increased cadmium concentrations inhibited fungal reproduction and diversity, and leaf consumption by the invertebrate. Cadmium concentration inhibiting 50% of fungal reproduction, microbial decomposition and leaf consumption by the shredder was higher at 15 °C than at 21 °C, suggesting that higher temperatures can lead to increased metal toxicity to aquatic decomposers. - Highlights: ► We examined the effects of temperature and cadmium on aquatic detritus food-webs. ► Effects were assessed on plant-litter decomposition, fungi and invertebrate shredders. ► Results suggest that warming may increase cadmium toxicity to freshwater decomposers. - Global warming may increase cadmium toxicity to freshwater decomposers with implications to ecosystem processes.

  6. Toxicological studies of cadmium and zinc on the crayfish Orconectes virilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirenda, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The acute toxicities of cadmium and of zinc to the crayfish Oronectes virilis were determined. Adult, intermolt crayfish were exposed to a series of concentrations of either cadmium or zinc for a two week period. Cadmium was found to be a cumulative poison to the crayfish; LC50 values decreased from 6.1 mg Cd/I for 96 hours to 0.7 mg Cd/I for two weeks. An incipient LC50 was also estimated to be 0.0604 mg Cd/I. Zinc was found to have a relatively low toxicity to O. virilis under the present exposure conditions. Whole animal and tissue analyses for cadmium or zinc were performed on the crayfish used in the acute toxicity tests. Whole animals concentrations both for cadmium and for zinc exhibited a linear relationship to exposure concentrations (r = 0.85 and 0.87, respectively). The gills had the highest concentrations (r = 0.85 and 0.87, respectively). The gills had the highest concentrations of cadmium and zinc, and displayed a linear relationship to exposure concentrations (r = 0.82 and 0.87 respectively). The hepatopancreas displayed a plateau in metal concentrations and is probably the main storage site for both metals in the crayfish. The relationship of cadmium concentration to exposure concentration in the antennal glands also showed linearity (r = 0.65), while zinc levels reached a steady state level. All the remaining tissues analyzed exhibited a plateau in metal concentration

  7. Bioassay-guided isolation of active principles from Nigerian medicinal plants identifies new trypanocides with low toxicity and no cross-resistance to diamidines and arsenicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebiloma, Godwin Unekwuojo; Igoli, John Ogbaji; Katsoulis, Evangelos; Donachie, Anne-Marie; Eze, Anthonius; Gray, Alexander Ian; de Koning, Harry P

    2017-04-18

    Leaves from the plant species studied herein are traditionally used in northern Nigeria against various protozoan infections. However, none of these herbal preparations have been standardized, nor have their toxicity to mammalian cells been investigated. In search of improved and non-toxic active antiprotozoal principles that are not cross-resistant with current anti-parasitics, we here report the results of the in vitro screening of extracts from seven selected medicinal plant species (Centrosema pubescens, Moringa oleifera, Tridax procumbens, Polyalthia longifolia, Newbouldia laevis, Eucalyptus maculate, Jathropha tanjorensis), used traditionally to treat kinetoplastid infections in Nigeria, and the isolation of their bioactive principles. To investigate the efficacies of medicinal plant extracts, and of compounds isolated therefrom, against kinetoplastid parasites, assess cross-resistance to existing chemotherapy, and assay their toxicity against mammalian cells in vitro. Plants were extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Active principles were isolated by bioassay-led fractionation, testing for trypanocidal activity, and identified using NMR and mass spectrometry. EC 50 values for their activity against wild-type and multi-drug resistant Trypanosoma brucei were obtained using the viability indicator dye resazurin. Seven medicinal plants were evaluated for activity against selected kinetoplastid parasites. The result shows that crude extracts and isolated active compounds from Polyalthia longifolia and Eucalyptus maculata, in particular, display promising activity against drug-sensitive and multi-drug resistant Trypanosoma brucei. The EC 50 value of a clerodane (16α-hydroxy-cleroda-3,13(14)-Z-dien-15,16-olide) isolated from Polyalthia longifolia was as low as 0.38µg/mL, while a triterpenoid (3β,13β-dihydroxy-urs-11-en-28-oic acid) isolated from Eucalyptus maculata displayed an EC 50 of 1.58µg/mL. None of the isolated compounds displayed toxicity

  8. Estimating cadmium concentration in the edible part of Capsicum annuum using hyperspectral models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Wei, Hong; Zhou, Cui; Gu, Yanwen; Li, Rui; Chen, Hongchun; Ma, Wenchao

    2017-10-09

    Hyperspectral remote sensing can be applied to the rapid and nondestructive monitoring of heavy-metal pollution in crops. To realize the rapid and real-time detection of cadmium in the edible part (fruit) of Capsicum annuum, the leaf spectral reflectance of plants exposed to different levels of cadmium stress was measured using hyperspectral remote sensing during four growth stages. The spectral indices or bands sensitive to cadmium stress were determined by correlation analysis, and hyperspectral estimation models for predicting the cadmium content in the fruit of C. annuum during the mature growth stage were established. The models were cross validated by taking the sensitive spectral indices in the bud stage and the sensitive spectral bands in the flowering stage as the input variables. The results indicated that cadmium accumulated in the leaves and fruit of C. annuum and leaf cadmium content in the three early growth stages were correlated with the cadmium content of the pepper in the mature stage. Leaf spectral reflectance was sensitive to cadmium stress, and the first derivative of the original spectral reflectance was strongly correlated with leaf cadmium content during all growth stages. Among the established models, the multiple regression model based on the sensitive spectral bands in the flowering stage was optimal for predicting fruit cadmium content of the pepper. This model provides a promising method to ensure food safety during the early growth stage of the plant.

  9. Curcumin regulates airway epithelial cell cytokine responses to the pollutant cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rennolds, Jessica; Malireddy, Smitha; Hassan, Fatemat; Tridandapani, Susheela; Parinandi, Narasimham; Boyaka, Prosper N.; Cormet-Boyaka, Estelle

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cadmium induces secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 by two distinct pathways. ► Cadmium increases NAPDH oxidase activity leading to Erk activation and IL-8 secretion. ► Curcumin prevents cadmium-induced secretion of both IL-6 and IL-8 by airway cells. ► Curcumin could be use to suppress lung inflammation due to cadmium inhalation. -- Abstract: Cadmium is a toxic metal present in the environment and its inhalation can lead to pulmonary disease such as lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These lung diseases are characterized by chronic inflammation. Here we show that exposure of human airway epithelial cells to cadmium promotes a polarized apical secretion of IL-6 and IL-8, two pivotal pro-inflammatory cytokines known to play an important role in pulmonary inflammation. We also determined that two distinct pathways controlled secretion of these proinflammatory cytokines by human airway epithelial cells as cadmium-induced IL-6 secretion occurs via an NF-κB dependent pathway, whereas IL-8 secretion involves the Erk1/2 signaling pathway. Interestingly, the natural antioxidant curcumin could prevent both cadmium-induced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion by human airway epithelial cells. In conclusion, curcumin could be used to prevent airway inflammation due to cadmium inhalation.

  10. Effects of cadmium on aneuploidy and hemocyte parameters in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouilly, Karine; Gagnaire, Beatrice; Bonnard, Marc; Thomas-Guyon, Helene; Renault, Tristan; Miramand, Pierre; Lapegue, Sylvie

    2006-01-01

    Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, are commonly reared in estuaries where they are exposed to anthropogenic pollution. Much research has been made on the toxicity of cadmium to aquatic organisms because the compound recurrently contaminates their environment. Our study examined the influence of cadmium on aneuploidy level (lowered chromosome number in a percentage of somatic cells) and hemocyte parameters in C. gigas at different stages of life. Adults and juveniles were exposed to two different concentrations of cadmium. The first concentration applied was equivalent to a peak value found in Marennes-Oleron bay (Charente-Maritime, France; 50 ng L -1 ) and the second was 10 times higher (500 ng L -1 ). Exposure to 50 ng L -1 cadmium caused a significant decrease in the survival time of C. gigas, but exposure to 500 ng L -1 surprisingly affected the survival time positively. Significant differences in aneuploidy level were observed between the cadmium treatments and the control in adults but not in juveniles or the offspring of the adult groups. The effects of cadmium on hemocyte parameters were analyzed by flow cytometry. Several hemocyte parameters increased significantly after 21 days of cadmium exposure and subsequently decreased. Phenoloxidase-like activity, evaluated by spectrophotometry, varied over the time of the experiment and increased after 66 days of contact with 500 ng L -1 cadmium. Taken together, cadmium at environmentally relevant concentrations seems to have only moderate effects on aneuploidy and hemocyte parameters

  11. Curcumin regulates airway epithelial cell cytokine responses to the pollutant cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rennolds, Jessica; Malireddy, Smitha; Hassan, Fatemat; Tridandapani, Susheela; Parinandi, Narasimham [Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Boyaka, Prosper N. [Department of Veterinary Biosciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Cormet-Boyaka, Estelle, E-mail: Estelle.boyaka@osumc.edu [Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cadmium induces secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 by two distinct pathways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cadmium increases NAPDH oxidase activity leading to Erk activation and IL-8 secretion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Curcumin prevents cadmium-induced secretion of both IL-6 and IL-8 by airway cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Curcumin could be use to suppress lung inflammation due to cadmium inhalation. -- Abstract: Cadmium is a toxic metal present in the environment and its inhalation can lead to pulmonary disease such as lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These lung diseases are characterized by chronic inflammation. Here we show that exposure of human airway epithelial cells to cadmium promotes a polarized apical secretion of IL-6 and IL-8, two pivotal pro-inflammatory cytokines known to play an important role in pulmonary inflammation. We also determined that two distinct pathways controlled secretion of these proinflammatory cytokines by human airway epithelial cells as cadmium-induced IL-6 secretion occurs via an NF-{kappa}B dependent pathway, whereas IL-8 secretion involves the Erk1/2 signaling pathway. Interestingly, the natural antioxidant curcumin could prevent both cadmium-induced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion by human airway epithelial cells. In conclusion, curcumin could be used to prevent airway inflammation due to cadmium inhalation.

  12. Cadmium plating replacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, M.J.; Groshart, E.C.

    1995-03-01

    The Boeing Company has been searching for replacements to cadmium plate. Two alloy plating systems seem close to meeting the needs of a cadmium replacement. The two alloys, zinc-nickel and tin-zinc are from alloy plating baths; both baths are neutral pH. The alloys meet the requirements for salt fog corrosion resistance, and both alloys excel as a paint base. Currently, tests are being performed on standard fasteners to compare zinc-nickel and tin-zinc on threaded hardware where cadmium is heavily used. The Hydrogen embrittlement propensity of the zinc-nickel bath has been tested, and just beginning for the tin-zinc bath. Another area of interest is the electrical properties on aluminum for tin-zinc and will be discussed. The zinc-nickel alloy plating bath is in production in Boeing Commercial Airplane Group for non-critical low strength steels. The outlook is promising that these two coatings will help The Boeing Company significantly reduce its dependence on cadmium plating.

  13. Cadmium: The deformed metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbs, R L [Cadmium Association, London (UK)

    1979-03-01

    The paper, which is a somewhat abridged version of the introductory paper of the 2nd International Cadmium Conference in Cannes on February 6 to 8, 1979, outlines the present trends in production, reserves, consumption, world trade, prices, and cost. Due to the lack of statistics on the USSR and other socialist countries, the review is limited to the non-socialist world.

  14. zinc, chromium, cadmium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-30

    Jun 30, 2016 ... Cadmium also causes destruction of the immune system, thus, predisposes the consumer to infectious diseases like tuberculosis (Khan et al., 2008). ... years, sputum specimens positive for acid-fast bacilli by microscopy and clinical and radiographic abnormalities consistent with pulmonary tuberculosis.

  15. Principles for prevention of toxic effects from metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landrigan, Philip J.; Kotelchuk, David; Grandjean, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    of the Toxic Effects of Metals Aluminum Antimony Arsenic Barium Beryllium Bismuth Cadmium Chromium Cobalt Copper Gallium and Semiconductor Compounds Germanium Indium Iron Lead Manganese Mercury Molybdenum Nickel Palladium Platinum Selenium Silver Tellurium Thallium Tin Titanium Tungsten Uranium Vanadium Zinc...

  16. Soil ecotoxicity assessment using cadmium sensitive plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Youn-Joo

    2004-01-01

    The crop plants, sorghum and cucumber, can be used as indicator species to assess ecotoxicity of soils contaminated by cadmium. - Four crop plant species (sweet corn, Zea may; wheat, Triticum aestivum; cucumber, Cucumis sativus; and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor) were tested to assess an ecotoxicity in cadmium-amended soils. The measurement endpoints used were seed germination and seedling growth (shoot and root). The presence of cadmium decreased the seedling growth. The medium effective concentration values (EC50) for shoot or root growth were calculated by the Trimmed Spearman-Karber method. Due to the greater accumulation of Cd to the roots, root growth was a more sensitive endpoint than shoot growth. Bioavailability and transport of Cd within plant were related to concentration and species. The ratio of bioaccumulation factor (BAF) in the shoots to the roots indicated high immobilization of Cd in the roots. Seed germination was insensitive to Cd toxicity, and is not recommended for a suitable assay. Among the test plants and test endpoints, root growth of sorghum and cucumber appears to be a good protocol to assess ecotoxicity of soils contaminated by Cd.

  17. Soil ecotoxicity assessment using cadmium sensitive plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Youn-Joo

    2004-01-01

    The crop plants, sorghum and cucumber, can be used as indicator species to assess ecotoxicity of soils contaminated by cadmium. - Four crop plant species (sweet corn, Zea may; wheat, Triticum aestivum; cucumber, Cucumis sativus; and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor) were tested to assess an ecotoxicity in cadmium-amended soils. The measurement endpoints used were seed germination and seedling growth (shoot and root). The presence of cadmium decreased the seedling growth. The medium effective concentration values (EC50) for shoot or root growth were calculated by the Trimmed Spearman-Karber method. Due to the greater accumulation of Cd to the roots, root growth was a more sensitive endpoint than shoot growth. Bioavailability and transport of Cd within plant were related to concentration and species. The ratio of bioaccumulation factor (BAF) in the shoots to the roots indicated high immobilization of Cd in the roots. Seed germination was insensitive to Cd toxicity, and is not recommended for a suitable assay. Among the test plants and test endpoints, root growth of sorghum and cucumber appears to be a good protocol to assess ecotoxicity of soils contaminated by Cd

  18. Fast-neutron scattering from elemental cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.

    1982-07-01

    Neutron differential-elastic-scattering cross sections of elemental cadmium are measured from approx. = 1.5 to 4.0 MeV at incident-neutron energy intervals of 50 to 200 keV and at 10 to 20 scattering angles distributed between approx. = 20 and 160 degrees. Concurrently, lumped-level neutron inelastic-excitation cross sections are measured. The experimental results are used to deduce parameters of an optical-statistical model that is descriptive of the observables and are compared with corresponding quantities given in ENDF/B-V

  19. Ranking the in vivo toxicity of nanomaterials in Drosophila melanogaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vecchio, G.; Galeone, A.; Malvindi, M. A. [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), Center for Bio-Molecular Nanotechnologies-UniLe (Italy); Cingolani, R. [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), Central Research Laboratories (Italy); Pompa, P. P., E-mail: pierpaolo.pompa@iit.it [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), Center for Bio-Molecular Nanotechnologies-UniLe (Italy)

    2013-09-15

    In this work, we propose a quantitative assessment of nanoparticles toxicity in vivo. We show a quantitative ranking of several types of nanoparticles (AuNPs, AgNPs, cadmium-based QDs, cadmium-free QDs, and iron oxide NPs, with different coating and/or surface chemistries), providing a categorization of their toxicity outcomes. This strategy may offer an innovative high-throughput screening tool of nanomaterials, of potential and broad interest to the nanoscience community.

  20. Ranking the in vivo toxicity of nanomaterials in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vecchio, G.; Galeone, A.; Malvindi, M. A.; Cingolani, R.; Pompa, P. P.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we propose a quantitative assessment of nanoparticles toxicity in vivo. We show a quantitative ranking of several types of nanoparticles (AuNPs, AgNPs, cadmium-based QDs, cadmium-free QDs, and iron oxide NPs, with different coating and/or surface chemistries), providing a categorization of their toxicity outcomes. This strategy may offer an innovative high-throughput screening tool of nanomaterials, of potential and broad interest to the nanoscience community

  1. Ranking the in vivo toxicity of nanomaterials in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchio, G.; Galeone, A.; Malvindi, M. A.; Cingolani, R.; Pompa, P. P.

    2013-09-01

    In this work, we propose a quantitative assessment of nanoparticles toxicity in vivo. We show a quantitative ranking of several types of nanoparticles (AuNPs, AgNPs, cadmium-based QDs, cadmium-free QDs, and iron oxide NPs, with different coating and/or surface chemistries), providing a categorization of their toxicity outcomes. This strategy may offer an innovative high-throughput screening tool of nanomaterials, of potential and broad interest to the nanoscience community.

  2. Bio-prospectus of cadmium bioadsorption by lactic acid bacteria to mitigate health and environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Narendra; Kumari, Vandna; Ram, Chand; Thakur, Kiran; Tomar, Sudhir Kumar

    2018-02-01

    Foodstuffs and water are the key sources of cadmium biomagnifiaction. The available strategies to mitigate this problem are unproductive and expensive for practical large-scale use. Biological decontamination of metals through environmental microbes has been known since long time, whereas lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have not been extensively studied for this purpose. The LAB are known for maintaining homeostasis and suppression of pathogens in humans and animals. They also play a vital role in bioremediation of certain heavy metals. Recently in-vivo research findings strongly complement the in-vitro results in relation to decreased total body cadmium burden in animal model. This review summarizes the currently available information on impact of toxic metal (Cd) on human and animal health as well as cadmium sequestration through microbes placed broadly, whereas preeminent attention grabbed on LAB-cadmium interaction to explore their possible role in bioremediation of cadmium from foods and environment to safeguard human as well as environment health.

  3. Effect of cadmium on plants of oilseed rape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesko, M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of some production parameters of hydroponically grown plants of new Czech species of oilseed rape Opponent by cadmium and determine the amount of cadmium accumulated in plant organs. Studying the effect of cadmium on plants of new Czech species of oilseed rape Opponent confirmed that application of metal reduced the length and also fresh and dry weight of plant organs, while the inhibitory effect of Cd with increasing concentration of metal in solution increased. Plant roots responded to toxic effect of Cd more responsive. As a result of Cd applications occurred a significant decrease of content of assimilation pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoids) in plant leaves. Species of rape Opponent is a significant Cd battery, and for these plants is characterized by a high rate of translocation of this metal into the shoots.

  4. Selection and breeding of plant cultivars to minimize cadmium accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, C.A. [AAFC Brandon Research Centre, Box 1000A, R.R. 3, Brandon, MB, R7A 5Y3 (Canada)], E-mail: cgrant@agr.gc.ca; Clarke, J.M. [AAFC Semiarid Prairie Agricultural Research Centre, Swift Current, SK, S9H 3X2 (Canada); Duguid, S. [AAFC Morden Research Station, Morden, MB, R6M 1Y5 (Canada); Chaney, R.L. [USDA, ARS, Animal Manure and Byproducts Laboratory, Room 013, Building 007, BARC-West, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705-2350 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    Natural variation occurs in the uptake and distribution of essential and nonessential trace elements among crop species and among cultivars within species. Such variation can be responsible for trace element deficiencies and toxicities, which in turn can affect the quality of food. Plant breeding can be an important tool to both increase the concentration of desirable trace elements and reduce that of potentially harmful trace elements such as cadmium (Cd). Selection programs for a low-Cd content of various crops, including durum wheat, sunflower, rice and soybean have been established and low-Cd durum wheat cultivars and sunflower hybrids have been developed. In durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum), low-Cd concentration is controlled by a single dominant gene. The trait is highly heritable, and incorporation of the low-Cd allele can help to reduce the average grain Cd to levels below proposed international limits. The allele for low-Cd concentration does not appear to affect major economic traits and should not cause problems when incorporated into durum cultivars. The cost of Cd selection in a breeding program is initially large both in terms of Cd determination and reduced progress towards development of other economic traits, but declines as more breeding lines in the program carry the low-Cd trait and are utilized in new crosses. Production of low-Cd crop cultivars can be used as a tool to reduce the risk of movement of Cd into the human diet.

  5. The use of vegetables in the biomonitoring of cadmium and lead pollution in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczygłowska, Marzena; Bodnar, Małgorzata; Namieśnik, Jacek; Konieczka, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Lead and cadmium emitted from various anthropogenic sources have the ability to accumulate in tissues of living organisms. The phenomenon of accumulation of metals in the body is harmful and undesirable. The ability of plants to accumulate heavy metals from the individual elements of the environment has been used in biomonitoring of pollution. Leaves and roots of vegetables have particular predisposition for accumulating toxic metals such as lead and cadmium and therefore can be used for biomonitoring of the environment, mainly as a tool for assessing the extent of soil contamination. The article discusses information in the literature on entry paths of lead and cadmium into the body, toxic effects of lead and cadmium on the human organism, and the use of vegetables as a tool in the biomonitoring of heavy metals in different elements of the environment.

  6. Higher sensitivity to cadmium induced cell death of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons: A cholinesterase dependent mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Pino, Javier; Zeballos, Garbriela; Anadon, María José; Capo, Miguel Andrés; Díaz, María Jesús; García, Jimena; Frejo, María Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium is an environmental pollutant, which is a cause of concern because it can be greatly concentrated in the organism causing severe damage to a variety of organs including the nervous system which is one of the most affected. Cadmium has been reported to produce learning and memory dysfunctions and Alzheimer like symptoms, though the mechanism is unknown. On the other hand, cholinergic system in central nervous system (CNS) is implicated on learning and memory regulation, and it has been reported that cadmium can affect cholinergic transmission and it can also induce selective toxicity on cholinergic system at peripheral level, producing cholinergic neurons loss, which may explain cadmium effects on learning and memory processes if produced on central level. The present study is aimed at researching the selective neurotoxicity induced by cadmium on cholinergic system in CNS. For this purpose we evaluated, in basal forebrain region, the cadmium toxic effects on neuronal viability and the cholinergic mechanisms related to it on NS56 cholinergic mourine septal cell line. This study proves that cadmium induces a more pronounced, but not selective, cell death on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) on cholinergic neurons. Moreover, MTT and LDH assays showed a dose dependent decrease of cell viability in NS56 cells. The ACh treatment of SN56 cells did not revert cell viability reduction induced by cadmium, but siRNA transfection against AChE partially reduced it. Our present results provide new understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the harmful effects of cadmium on the function and viability of neurons, and the possible relevance of cadmium in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases

  7. Current status of cadmium as an environmental health problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaerup, Lars; Akesson, Agneta

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium is a toxic metal occurring in the environment naturally and as a pollutant emanating from industrial and agricultural sources. Food is the main source of cadmium intake in the non-smoking population. The bioavailability, retention and toxicity are affected by several factors including nutritional status such as low iron status. Cadmium is efficiently retained in the kidney (half-time 10-30 years) and the concentration is proportional to that in urine (U-Cd). Cadmium is nephrotoxic, initially causing kidney tubular damage. Cadmium can also cause bone damage, either via a direct effect on bone tissue or indirectly as a result of renal dysfunction. After prolonged and/or high exposure the tubular injury may progress to glomerular damage with decreased glomerular filtration rate, and eventually to renal failure. Furthermore, recent data also suggest increased cancer risks and increased mortality in environmentally exposed populations. Dose-response assessment using a variety of early markers of kidney damage has identified U-Cd points of departure for early kidney effects between 0.5 and 3 μg Cd/g creatinine, similar to the points of departure for effects on bone. It can be anticipated that a considerable proportion of the non-smoking adult population has urinary cadmium concentrations of 0.5 μg/g creatinine or higher in non-exposed areas. For smokers this proportion is considerably higher. This implies no margin of safety between the point of departure and the exposure levels in the general population. Therefore, measures should be put in place to reduce exposure to a minimum, and the tolerably daily intake should be set in accordance with recent findings.

  8. Cadmium (II) removal mechanisms in microbial electrolysis cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colantonio, Natalie; Kim, Younggy, E-mail: younggy@mcmaster.ca

    2016-07-05

    Highlights: • Rapid removal of Cd(II) was achieved in 24 h using microbial electrolysis cells. • Cathodic reduction (electrodeposition) of Cd(II) cannot explain the rapid removal. • H{sub 2} evolution in microbial electrolysis cells increases local pH near the cathode. • High local pH induces Cd(OH){sub 2} and CdCO{sub 3} precipitation only with electric current. • Neutral pH caused by low current and depleted substrate dissolves the precipitated Cd. - Abstract: Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal, causing serious environmental and human health problems. Conventional methods for removing cadmium from wastewater are expensive and inefficient for low concentrations. Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) can simultaneously treat wastewater, produce hydrogen gas, and remove heavy metals with low energy requirements. Lab-scale MECs were operated to remove cadmium under various electric conditions: applied voltages of 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 V; and a fixed cathode potential of −1.0 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Regardless of the electric condition, rapid removal of cadmium was demonstrated (50–67% in 24 h); however, cadmium concentration in solution increased after the electric current dropped with depleted organic substrate under applied voltage conditions. For the fixed cathode potential, the electric current was maintained even after substrate depletion and thus cadmium concentration did not increase. These results can be explained by three different removal mechanisms: cathodic reduction; Cd(OH){sub 2} precipitation; and CdCO{sub 3} precipitation. When the current decreased with depleted substrates, local pH at the cathode was no longer high due to slowed hydrogen evolution reaction (2H{sup +} + 2e{sup −} → H{sub 2}); thus, the precipitated Cd(OH){sub 2} and CdCO{sub 3} started dissolving. To prevent their dissolution, sufficient organic substrates should be provided when MECs are used for cadmium removal.

  9. Interaction between cadmium and iron. Accumulation and distribution of metals and changes in growth parameters of Phaseolus vulgaris L. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Siedlecka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between cadmium, one of the most toxic heavy metals, and iron, an essential plant nutritional element, was investigated in Phaseolus vulgaris L. (cv. Słowianka seedlings. The interaction was externally induced by changing the content of both metals in the nutrient medium. Under iron deficiency conditions (0 and 0.5 of normal dose of this element, the toxic effects of cadmium on plant growth parameters, like fresh and dry weight accumulation, primary leaves area, etc., were generally much more pronounced than under normal iron supply. At normal and excess iron supply (1, 2 and 4 doses cadmium diminished iron accumulation in roots and primary leaves, but on the other hand excess iron decreased cadmium level, preventing plants from extreme toxicity of very high cadmium concentrations in the growth environment. It is to be noted that iron is classified also as a heavy metal, and its excess may become toxic, e.g. decreasing root dry weight or diminishing leaf area, especially at the highest dose. The detoxication role of iron against cadmium, and possibly other toxic metals is, however, limited to concentrations of this element in the nutrient solution which themselves are not toxic for the organism.

  10. Cadmium: The deformed metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubbs, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    The paper, which is a somewhat abridged version of the introductory paper of the 2nd International Cadmium Conference in Cannes on February 6 to 8, 1979, outlines the present trends in production, reserves, consumption, world trade, prices, and cost. Due to the lack of statistics on the USSR and other socialist countries, the review is limited to the non-socialist world. (orig./IHOE) [de

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF CADMIUM CHLORIDE ON FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF HIGH AQUATIC PLANTS FROM ANGARA RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirichenko K.A.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of the fatty acid content in Myriophyllum spicatum L. and Elodea canadensis Michx. has been carried out during 24 hours of the treatment with 0,05 M cadmium chloride. Changes in a fatty acids composition in response to toxic influence have been shown. The differences in change dynamics of the fatty acids content under the treatment with cadmium chloride have been detected in investigated species.

  12. Striking association between urinary cadmium level and albuminuria among Torres Strait Islander people with diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haswell-Elkins, Melissa; Satarug, Soisungwan; O'Rourke, Peter; Moore, Michael; Ng, Jack; McGrath, Victor; Walmby, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Indigenous people of the Torres Strait (Australia) have greater potential for cadmium exposure and renal damage than other Australians due to high cadmium in some traditional seafood and a high prevalence of Type 2 diabetes, hypertension, smoking, and obesity. This study explored associations between albuminuria and an index of cadmium exposure (urinary cadmium excretion) in the presence and absence of Type 2 diabetes. Research design and methods: Two population-based, cross-sectional studies were undertaken in the Torres Strait to obtain data on body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, chronic disease, smoking, urinary cadmium, and albumin creatinine ratio (ACR). Results: Age- and BMI-adjusted urinary cadmium levels were significantly higher (p<0.01) among people with diabetes and albuminuria (n=22, geometric mean (GM) 1.91 μg Cd/g creatinine) compared to those with diabetes and normal ACR (n=21, GM 0.74 μg Cd/g creatinine). Urinary cadmium was also strongly associated (p<0.001) with ACR among people with diabetes in regression models and remained significant after controlling for age, sex, BMI, smoking status, and hypertension (or continuous systolic and diastolic measurements). Conclusions: While the study has methodological limitations and the nature of the association is unclear, the striking dose-dependent links between markers of cadmium exposure and of Type 2 diabetic nephropathy highlight the need for further definitive research on the health effects of cadmium in the presence of diabetes

  13. Kidney function and blood pressure in preschool-aged children exposed to cadmium and arsenic - potential alleviation by selenium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skröder, Helena [Unit of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Hawkesworth, Sophie [Medical Research Council (MRC), International Nutrition Group, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK. (United Kingdom); Kippler, Maria [Unit of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); El Arifeen, Shams [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), Dhaka (Bangladesh); Wagatsuma, Yukiko [Department of Clinical Trial and Clinical Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan. (Japan); Moore, Sophie E. [MRC Human Nutrition Research, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Vahter, Marie, E-mail: marie.vahter@ki.se [Unit of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-07-15

    Background: Early-life exposure to toxic compounds may cause long-lasting health effects, but few studies have investigated effects of childhood exposure to nephrotoxic metals on kidney and cardiovascular function. Objectives: To assess effects of exposure to arsenic and cadmium on kidney function and blood pressure in pre-school-aged children, and potential protection by selenium. Methods: This cross-sectional study was part of the 4.5 years of age (range: 4.4–5.4 years) follow-up of the children from a supplementation trial in pregnancy (MINIMat) in rural Bangladesh, and nested studies on early-life metal exposures. Exposure to arsenic, cadmium and selenium from food and drinking water was assessed by concentrations in children's urine, measured by ICP-MS. Kidney function was assessed by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, n=1106), calculated from serum cystatin C, and by kidney volume, measured by ultrasound (n=375). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was measured (n=1356) after five minutes rest. Results: Multivariable-adjusted regression analyzes showed that exposure to cadmium, but not arsenic, was inversely associated with eGFR, particularly in girls. A 0.5 µg/L increase in urinary cadmium among the girls (above spline knot at 0.12) was associated with a decrease in eGFR of 2.6 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2}, corresponding to 0.2SD (p=0.022). A slightly weaker inverse association with cadmium was also indicated for kidney volume, but no significant associations were found with blood pressure. Stratifying on children's urinary selenium (below or above median of 12.6 µg/L) showed a three times stronger inverse association of U-Cd with eGFR (all children) in the lower selenium stratum (B=−2.8; 95% CI: −5.5, −0.20; p=0.035), compared to those with higher selenium (B=−0.79; 95% CI: −3.0, 1.4; p=0.49). Conclusions: Childhood cadmium exposure seems to adversely affect kidney function, but not blood pressure, in this population of young

  14. Kidney function and blood pressure in preschool-aged children exposed to cadmium and arsenic - potential alleviation by selenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skröder, Helena; Hawkesworth, Sophie; Kippler, Maria; El Arifeen, Shams; Wagatsuma, Yukiko; Moore, Sophie E.; Vahter, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early-life exposure to toxic compounds may cause long-lasting health effects, but few studies have investigated effects of childhood exposure to nephrotoxic metals on kidney and cardiovascular function. Objectives: To assess effects of exposure to arsenic and cadmium on kidney function and blood pressure in pre-school-aged children, and potential protection by selenium. Methods: This cross-sectional study was part of the 4.5 years of age (range: 4.4–5.4 years) follow-up of the children from a supplementation trial in pregnancy (MINIMat) in rural Bangladesh, and nested studies on early-life metal exposures. Exposure to arsenic, cadmium and selenium from food and drinking water was assessed by concentrations in children's urine, measured by ICP-MS. Kidney function was assessed by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, n=1106), calculated from serum cystatin C, and by kidney volume, measured by ultrasound (n=375). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was measured (n=1356) after five minutes rest. Results: Multivariable-adjusted regression analyzes showed that exposure to cadmium, but not arsenic, was inversely associated with eGFR, particularly in girls. A 0.5 µg/L increase in urinary cadmium among the girls (above spline knot at 0.12) was associated with a decrease in eGFR of 2.6 ml/min/1.73 m 2 , corresponding to 0.2SD (p=0.022). A slightly weaker inverse association with cadmium was also indicated for kidney volume, but no significant associations were found with blood pressure. Stratifying on children's urinary selenium (below or above median of 12.6 µg/L) showed a three times stronger inverse association of U-Cd with eGFR (all children) in the lower selenium stratum (B=−2.8; 95% CI: −5.5, −0.20; p=0.035), compared to those with higher selenium (B=−0.79; 95% CI: −3.0, 1.4; p=0.49). Conclusions: Childhood cadmium exposure seems to adversely affect kidney function, but not blood pressure, in this population of young

  15. Aequorin chimeras as valuable tool in the measurement of Ca2+ concentration during cadmium injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagioli, M.; Pinton, P.; Scudiero, R.; Ragghianti, M.; Bucci, S.; Rizzuto, R.

    2005-01-01

    The ability of cadmium to disrupt calcium homeostasis has been known since a long time, but the precise cellular targets of its toxic action are still debated. A great problem in the interpretation of data has been associated with the ability of cadmium to strongly bind traditional calcium probes. Aequorin, the well-characterized calcium-sensitive photoprotein, was used as intracellular calcium indicator during cadmium injury in NIH 3T3 murine fibroblasts. NIH 3T3 cells were transfected with a cDNA construct containing aequorin fused to a truncated glutamate receptor, which directs the probe to the outer surface of intracellular membranes. At first, we tested if different cadmium concentrations were able to modify the rate of light emission by aequorin showing that cadmium concentrations 2+ /Ca 2+ interference. To directly investigate the role of Cd 2+ in Ca 2+ homeostasis, we have started to selectively measure the free Ca 2+ concentration in different cell compartments. Here, we report that cadmium reduces the transient free calcium signal after stimulation of cells with bradykinin. Further studies are in progress to clarify the role of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum in cadmium-induced alterations of Ca 2+ homeostasis in order to link signal transduction modifications with the onset of apoptosis induced by cadmium exposure

  16. Cadmium analysis using field deployable nano-band electrode system and its removal using electrocoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttula, Mallikarjuna Murthy

    Cadmium (Cd) is an extremely toxic metal commonly found in industrial workplaces. Major industrial releases of Cd stem from waste streams, leaching of landfills, and from a variety of operations that involve cadmium or zinc. Particularly, cadmium can be released to drinking water from the corrosion of some galvanized plumbing and water main pipe materials. The United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has set the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for cadmium at 5 ppb. Long term exposure of cadmium above the MCL results in kidney, liver, bone and blood damage. An accurate and rapid measurement of cadmium in the field remains a technical challenge. In this work, a relatively new method of a Nano-Band Electrode system using anodic stripping voltammetry was optimized by changing deposition potential, electrolyte, and plating time. We efficiently used Electrocoagulation remove cadmium from wastewater and obtained a removal efficiency of +/-99%. Removal mechanism of cadmium in electrocoagulation was also proposed with the help of X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Attenuated Total Reflection - Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (SEM-EDS).

  17. Process for removing and detoxifying cadmium from scrap metal including mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Cadmium-bearing scrap from nuclear applications, such as neutron shielding and reactor control and safety rods, must usually be handled as mixed waste since it is radioactive and the cadmium in it is both leachable and highly toxic. Removing the cadmium from this scrap, and converting it to a nonleachable and minimally radioactive form, would greatly simplify disposal or recycling. A process now under development will do this by shredding the scrap; leaching it with reagents which selectively dissolve out the cadmium; reprecipitating the cadmium as its highly insoluble sulfide; then fusing the sulfide into a glassy matrix to bring its leachability below EPA limits before disposal. Alternatively, the cadmium may be recovered for reuse. A particular advantage of the process is that all reagents (except the glass frit) can easily be recovered and reused in a nearly closed cycle, minimizing the risk of radioactive release. The process does not harm common metals such as aluminum, iron and stainless steel, and is also applicable to non-nuclear cadmium-bearing scrap such as nickel-cadmium batteries

  18. Mechanisms of cadmium-caused eye hypoplasia and hypopigmentation in zebrafish embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ting; Zhou, Xin-Ying; Ma, Xu-Fa; Liu, Jing-Xia

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: Using high-throughput in situ hybridization screening, we found that genes labeling the neural crest and its derivative pigment cells were sensitive to cadmium toxicity during zebrafish organogenesis, which might contribute to the molecular mechanisms underlying the phenotype defects of head and eye hypoplasia and hypopigmentation in cadmium-exposed embryos. Based on neural crest markers, we identified the doses and times of cadmium exposure that cause damage to the zebrafish organogenesis, and we also found that compounds BIO or RA could neutralize the toxic effects of cadmium. - Abstract: Cadmium-caused head and eye hypoplasia and hypopigmentation has been recognized for a long time, but knowledge of the underlying mechanisms is limited. In this study, we found that high mortality occurred in exposed embryos after 24 hpf, when cadmium (Cd) dosage was above 17.8 μM. Using high-throughput in situ hybridization screening, we found that genes labelling the neural crest and its derivative pigment cells exhibited obviously reduced expression in Cd-exposed embryos from 24 hpf, 2 days earlier than head and eye hypoplasia and hypopigmentation occurred. Moreover, based on expression of crestin, a neural crest marker, we found that embryos before the gastrula stage were more sensitive to cadmium toxicity and that damage caused by Cd on embryogenesis was dosage dependent. In addition, by phenotype observation and detection of neural crest and pigment cell markers, we found that BIO and retinoic acid (RA) could neutralize the toxic effects of Cd on zebrafish embryogenesis. In this study, we first determined that Cd blocked the formation of the neural crest and inhibited specification of pigment cells, which might contribute to the molecular mechanisms underlying the phenotype defects of head and eye hypoplasia and hypopigmentation in Cd-exposed embryos. Moreover, we found that compounds BIO or RA could neutralize the toxic effects of Cd.

  19. Mechanisms of cadmium-caused eye hypoplasia and hypopigmentation in zebrafish embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ting, E-mail: zting@webmail.hzau.edu.cn; Zhou, Xin-Ying, E-mail: 290356082@qq.com; Ma, Xu-Fa, E-mail: xufama@mail.hzau.edu.cn; Liu, Jing-Xia, E-mail: ichliu@mail.hzau.edu.cn

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: Using high-throughput in situ hybridization screening, we found that genes labeling the neural crest and its derivative pigment cells were sensitive to cadmium toxicity during zebrafish organogenesis, which might contribute to the molecular mechanisms underlying the phenotype defects of head and eye hypoplasia and hypopigmentation in cadmium-exposed embryos. Based on neural crest markers, we identified the doses and times of cadmium exposure that cause damage to the zebrafish organogenesis, and we also found that compounds BIO or RA could neutralize the toxic effects of cadmium. - Abstract: Cadmium-caused head and eye hypoplasia and hypopigmentation has been recognized for a long time, but knowledge of the underlying mechanisms is limited. In this study, we found that high mortality occurred in exposed embryos after 24 hpf, when cadmium (Cd) dosage was above 17.8 μM. Using high-throughput in situ hybridization screening, we found that genes labelling the neural crest and its derivative pigment cells exhibited obviously reduced expression in Cd-exposed embryos from 24 hpf, 2 days earlier than head and eye hypoplasia and hypopigmentation occurred. Moreover, based on expression of crestin, a neural crest marker, we found that embryos before the gastrula stage were more sensitive to cadmium toxicity and that damage caused by Cd on embryogenesis was dosage dependent. In addition, by phenotype observation and detection of neural crest and pigment cell markers, we found that BIO and retinoic acid (RA) could neutralize the toxic effects of Cd on zebrafish embryogenesis. In this study, we first determined that Cd blocked the formation of the neural crest and inhibited specification of pigment cells, which might contribute to the molecular mechanisms underlying the phenotype defects of head and eye hypoplasia and hypopigmentation in Cd-exposed embryos. Moreover, we found that compounds BIO or RA could neutralize the toxic effects of Cd.

  20. Experimental study, in rat wistar, of cadmium distribution and elimination as a function of administration route. Cadmium 109 maximum permissible concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valero, Marc.

    1979-01-01

    The absorption and the elimination of cadmium have been investigated in rats wistar after oral administration or after inhalation. Before studying gastro-intestinal absorption, it appeared necessary to precise acute toxicity of orally administred cadmium. The distribution of cadmium within organes was determined following a single or multiple oral doses, and we specially studied retention of a Cd dose ingested after several weeks of treatment with Cd-Acetate. Pulmonary and gastro-intestinal absorption of cadmium after ihalation of Cd-microparticles were studied. Data obtained from these studies on rats and extrapolated to man were used to calculate mximum permissible concentration (M.P.C.) of Cd-109 in water and in air [fr

  1. Availability of treatment resources for the management of acute toxic exposures and poisonings in emergency departments among various types of hospitals in Palestine: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Bali, Yara I; Al-Sayed, Afnan M; Sweileh, Waleed M; Awang, Rahmat

    2014-02-21

    Poisoning exposures continue to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The lack of facilities, treatment resources, and antidotes in hospitals may affect the treatments provided and outcomes. This study aimed to determine the availability of gastrointestinal (GI) decontamination, stabilisation, elimination enhancement resources, and antidotes for the management of acute toxic exposures and poisonings in emergency departments (EDs) among various types of governmental and private hospitals in Palestine. A cross-sectional study using semi-structured questionnaire was performed. Data were collected based on hospital resources; GI decontamination, stabilisation, elimination enhancement resources and antidotes from Palestinian hospitals. Eighteen hospitals (94.7%) have responded. Among them, paracetamol poisoning was the most frequently reported cases by EDs (mean frequency score = 7.6 ± 2.1), followed by bee stings (mean = 6.9 ± 2.7) and organophosphate poisoning (mean = 6.7 ± 2.7). The availabilities of most resources related to GI decontamination items varied substantially with hospital type, but these differences were not statistical significant. The availability of stabilisation resources was not significantly different between hospitals types. For the availability of techniques used to enhance the elimination of toxic substances, there were variations between the hospitals types. However, these differences were not statistical significant, except for haemodialysis (p = 0.003) which was more available in governmental hospitals. For the availability of antidotes, none of the hospitals had sufficient stock of all antidotes listed. In relation to hospital type, there was variability in the availability of antidotes, but this did not reach statistical significance, except for deferoxamine (p management of acute toxic exposure and poisoning. The implementation of a minimum list of antidotes and treatment resources would be useful to increase the

  2. Cross talk between poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 methylation and oxidative stress involved in the toxic effect of anatase titanium dioxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Wenlin; Chen, Yujiao; Gao, Ai

    2015-01-01

    Given the tremendous growth in the application of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TNPs), concerns about the potential health hazards of TNPs to humans have been raised. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1), a highly conserved DNA-binding protein, is involved in many molecular and cellular processes. Limited data demonstrated that certain nanomaterials induced the aberrant hypermethylation of PARP-1. However, the mechanism involved in TNP-induced PARP-1 abnormal methylation has not been studied. A549 cells were incubated with anatase TNPs (22.1 nm) for 24 hours pretreatment with or without methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger α-lipoic acid to assess the possible role of methylation and ROS in the toxic effect of TNPs. After TNPs characterization, a battery of assays was performed to evaluate the toxic effect of TNPs, PARP-1 methylation status, and oxidative damage. Results showed that TNPs decreased the cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, in accordance with the increase of lactate dehydrogenase activity, which indicated membrane damage of cells. Similar to the high level of PARP-1 methylation, the generation of ROS was significantly increased after exposure to TNPs for 24 hours. Furthermore, α-lipoic acid decreased TNP-induced ROS generation and then attenuated TNP-triggered PARP-1 hypermethylation. Meanwhile, 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine simultaneously decreased the ROS generation induced by TNPs, resulting in the decline of PARP-1 methylation. In summary, TNPs triggered the aberrant hypermethylation of the PARP-1 promoter and there was a cross talk between oxidative stress and PARP-1 methylation in the toxic effect of TNPs. PMID:26366077

  3. Cadmium in blood and hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eum, Ki-Do; Lee, Mi-Sun; Paek, Domyung

    2008-01-01

    Objectives:: This study is to examine the effect of cadmium exposure on blood pressure in Korean general population. Methods:: The study population consisted of 958 men and 944 women who participated in the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), in which blood pressure and blood cadmium were measured from each participant. Results:: The mean blood cadmium level was 1.67 μg/L (median level 1.55). The prevalence of hypertension was 26.2%. The blood cadmium level was significantly higher among those subjects with hypertension than those without (mean level 1.77 versus 1.64 μg/dL). After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratio of hypertension comparing the highest to the lowest tertile of cadmium in blood was 1.51 (95% confidence interval 1.13 to 2.05), and a dose-response relationship was observed. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure were all positively associated with blood cadmium level, and this effect of cadmium on blood pressure was markedly stronger when the kidney function was reduced. Conclusions:: Cadmium exposures at the current level may have increased the blood pressure of Korean general population

  4. Cadmium in blood and hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eum, Ki-Do; Lee, Mi-Sun [Department of Environmental Health, Graduate School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paek, Domyung [Department of Environmental Health, Graduate School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: paekdm@snu.ac.kr

    2008-12-15

    Objectives:: This study is to examine the effect of cadmium exposure on blood pressure in Korean general population. Methods:: The study population consisted of 958 men and 944 women who participated in the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), in which blood pressure and blood cadmium were measured from each participant. Results:: The mean blood cadmium level was 1.67 {mu}g/L (median level 1.55). The prevalence of hypertension was 26.2%. The blood cadmium level was significantly higher among those subjects with hypertension than those without (mean level 1.77 versus 1.64 {mu}g/dL). After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratio of hypertension comparing the highest to the lowest tertile of cadmium in blood was 1.51 (95% confidence interval 1.13 to 2.05), and a dose-response relationship was observed. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure were all positively associated with blood cadmium level, and this effect of cadmium on blood pressure was markedly stronger when the kidney function was reduced. Conclusions:: Cadmium exposures at the current level may have increased the blood pressure of Korean general population.

  5. A case report of central toxic keratopathy in a patient post TransPRK (followed by corneal collagen cross-linking).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Nicholas; Aslanides, Ioannis M; Selimis, Vasilis

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to report a case of central toxic keratopathy in a patient post transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (TransPRK), followed immediately by corneal collagen cross-linking. This article describes the case of a 26-year-old male after bilateral aberration-free, TransPRK laser (Schwind Amaris 750S). The procedure was performed for compound myopic astigmatism in November 2015, followed immediately by accelerated corneal collagen cross-linking for early keratoconus. From day 3 post-op, tear film debris underneath both contact lenses with corneal haze and early, progressive central anterior stromal opacity formation only in the left eye were noted. At 2 weeks post-op, the left eye was noted to have a significant hyperopic shift with central corneal thinning in the anterior stroma. A central anterior stromal dense opacity had formed in the left eye with the surrounding superficial stromal haze. As of month 2, the opacity gradually started to improve in size and density. The hyperopic shift peaked at 2 months and continued to improve, largely due to epithelial compensation with a gradual recovery of stromal thickness. The question remains as to what provokes the typical central corneal necrosis/thinning in central toxic keratopathy. We hypothesize that the space between the contact lens and the corneal surface post TransPRK is prone to a "pseudo-interface pathology" that could mimic diffuse lamellar keratitis-like pathology. Suboptimal lid hygiene, resulting in tear film combinations of bacteria, inflammatory cells, matrix metalloproteinases and other proteolytic enzymes, contributes to the degradation of vulnerable, exposed collagen stromal tissue post TransPRK or any surface corneal ablation. Refractive surgeons should maintain a healthy lid margin and tear film, especially in contact lens wearers, to prevent potential complications in refractive surgery procedures.

  6. Impact of different feedstocks derived biochar amendment with cadmium low uptake affinity cultivar of pak choi (Brassica rapa ssb. chinensis L.) on phytoavoidation of Cd to reduce potential dietary toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmin Khan, Kiran; Ali, Barkat; Cui, Xiaoqiang; Feng, Ying; Yang, Xiaoe; Joseph Stoffella, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Biochar has become eco-friendly amendment used for phytoavoidation with low cadmium (Cd) accumulating cultivars of crops to ensure food safety in Cd contaminated soils. In this study, biochar with different waste feedstock material were evaluated for their effectiveness on essential trace metals mobility, Cd bioavailability and its accumulation in two contrasting Cd accumulating cultivars of pak choi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis L.) grown in Cd contaminated Mollisol soil. A greenhouse experiment was conducted with plants grown in Cd contaminated soil that had been amended with biochar derived from barley straw, tomato green waste, chicken manure, duck manure and swine manure at application rate of 0%, 2.5% and 5.0% (w/w). The results showed that soil pH was significantly increased by all treatments. Biochar increased plant dry biomass, micronutrients bioavailability with significant differences in the Cd sorption capacity, with the effectiveness higher with increasing biochar application rate. However, tomato green waste (TGW) and chicken manure (CM) derived biochar were more effective than the other biochar in reducing Cd mobilization in soil by 35-54% and 26-43% and reduced its accumulation in shoots of pak choi cultivars by 34-76% and 33-72% in low Cd accumulator cultivar and 64-85% and 55-80% in high Cd accumulator cultivar than the control. Overall, results indicate that TGW and CM biochar can efficiently immobilize Cd, thereby reducing bioavailability in Cd contaminated Mollisol soil to ensure food safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Valence electron momentum distributions in cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, L.; Weigold, E.; Mitroy, J.

    1982-08-01

    The valence 5s and 4d electron momentum distributions in cadmium have been measured using noncoplanar symmetric (e, 2e) electron coincidence spectroscopy at a total energy of 1200eV. They are in close agreement with Hartree-Fock momentum distributions both in shape and relative magnitudes. Some satellite lines of very low intensity have been detected. A CI calculation of the Cd ground state and several Cd + ion states has been carried out to predict cross reactions for the ground state and various satellite transitions. The predictions are in agreement with the data

  8. Effect of cadmium on protein synthesis in gill tissue of marine mollusc Mytilus edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veldhuizen-Tsoerkan, M.B.; Mast, C.A. van der; Zandee, D.I.

    1988-01-01

    Mussels have a high capacity to accumulate cadmium and other heavy metals without notable toxic effects. However, they have recently found that cadmium is toxic to M. edulis at a relatively low concentration, as anoxic survival time of the animals was significantly shortened after two weeks of exposure to 50 ppb Cd. Based on this finding, a research was started to study the toxic effects of cadmium at a macromolecular level (proteins, RNA). Mussels were exposed to 250 ppb Cd for short periods. Then excised gills were incubated with 35 s-methionine for 4 hours. In the gill tissue of 7 and 15 days Cd-exposed animals, a significantly decrease in the incorporation rate of the introduced label was found of 30 and 37%, respectively. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the de novo synthesized gill tissue proteins

  9. Cadmium exposure in the Swedish environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report gives a thorough description of cadmium in the Swedish environment. It comprises three parts: Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks;, Cadmium in goods - contribution to environmental exposure;, and Cadmium in fertilizers, soil, crops and foods - the Swedish situation. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all three parts

  10. Blood cadmium concentration and lipid profile in Korean adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kisok

    2012-01-01

    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure induces alterations in lipid profiles, no epidemiological study of this relationship has been performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between blood cadmium concentration and blood lipid levels in Korean adults. A cross-sectional study comprising participants (n=3903) aged 20 years or older from the 2005, 2008, and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted. Demographic characteristics and dietary intake were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and cadmium and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors, blood concentration of cadmium was positively associated with the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner (p for trend <0.001). In addition, the odds ratios (ORs) of a high triglyceride to HDL-C ratio was significantly increased in the high blood cadmium groups [OR=1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03–1.79 for fourth quintile and OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.07–1.86 for fifth quintile] compared with the lowest quintile group. However, high blood cadmium was not associated with a risk of high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high triglycerides. These data suggest that an increased cadmium body burden increases the risk of dyslipidemia, mainly due to the increased risk of low HDL-C and the high ratio of triglycerides to HDL-C.

  11. A case report of central toxic keratopathy in a patient post TransPRK (followed by corneal collagen cross-linking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davey N

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nicholas Davey, Ioannis M Aslanides, Vasilis Selimis Emmetropia Mediterranean Eye Institute, Heraklion, Crete, Greece Purpose: The purpose of this article is to report a case of central toxic keratopathy in a patient post transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (TransPRK, followed immediately by corneal collagen cross-linking.Methods: This article describes the case of a 26-year-old male after bilateral aberration-free, TransPRK laser (Schwind Amaris 750S. The procedure was performed for compound myopic astigmatism in November 2015, followed immediately by accelerated corneal collagen cross-linking for early keratoconus.Results: From day 3 post-op, tear film debris underneath both contact lenses with corneal haze and early, progressive central anterior stromal opacity formation only in the left eye were noted. At 2 weeks post-op, the left eye was noted to have a significant hyperopic shift with central corneal thinning in the anterior stroma. A central anterior stromal dense opacity had formed in the left eye with the surrounding superficial stromal haze. As of month 2, the opacity gradually started to improve in size and density. The hyperopic shift peaked at 2 months and continued to improve, largely due to epithelial compensation with a gradual recovery of stromal thickness.Conclusion: The question remains as to what provokes the typical central corneal necrosis/thinning in central toxic keratopathy. We hypothesize that the space between the contact lens and the corneal surface post TransPRK is prone to a “pseudo-interface pathology” that could mimic diffuse lamellar keratitis-like pathology. Suboptimal lid hygiene, resulting in tear film combinations of bacteria, inflammatory cells, matrix metalloproteinases and other proteolytic enzymes, contributes to the degradation of vulnerable, exposed collagen stromal tissue post TransPRK or any surface corneal ablation. Refractive surgeons should maintain a healthy lid margin and tear

  12. Acquired tolerance in cadmium-adapted lung epithelial cells: Roles of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathway and basal level of metallothionein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Andy T.Y.; Zhang Jian; Chiu, J.-F.

    2006-01-01

    Cadmium-resistant cells were developed in our laboratory with rat lung epithelial cells (LECs) by stepwise exposure of LECs to cadmium chloride from 1 μM to 20 μM after 20 passages. To investigate the Cd-resistant phenotype in a long-term perspective, cadmium-resistant cells adapted to 20 μM cadmium (Cd R ) were then cultured in the absence of cadmium for various passages [Cd R (-n)]. All these adapted cells were significantly protected from cadmium toxicity as compared to parental cadmium-sensitive LECs (Cd S ). The cadmium-resistant phenotype of adapted cells was relatively stable in the absence of cadmium for as long as 40 passages. Basal mRNA level of metallothionein-1 (MT-1) was dramatically higher in Cd R than in Cd R (-), which may account for the higher Cd-resistance of Cd R than Cd R (-). MT-1 mRNA level decreased drastically in Cd R after cadmium removal, suggesting that the high basal level of MT-1 in Cd R may be only partially responsible for cadmium-resistance. Treatment of cells with high levels of cadmium resulted in decreased phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK1/2) in adapted cells than in sensitive cells and this cadmium-induced JNK activity was blocked by JNK inhibitor II, SP600125. Ro318220, a strong activator of JNK, reverted cadmium-sensitive phenotype in adapted cells. Taken together, our results suggest that during cadmium adaptation, cells develop tolerance to cell death, generally due to perturbation of the JNK signaling pathway and the nonresponsiveness of JNK phosphorylation is critical for the Cd-tolerance in these cells

  13. Discovery of human scFvs that cross-neutralize the toxic effects of B. jararacussu and C. d. terrificus venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luciano C; Pucca, Manuela B; Pessenda, Gabriela; Campos, Lucas B; Martinez, Edson Z; Cerni, Felipe A; Barbosa, José E

    2018-01-01

    Accidents involving venomous snakes are a public health problem worldwide, causing a large number of deaths per year. In Brazil, the majority of accidents are caused by the Bothrops and Crotalus genera, which are responsible for approximately 80% of severe envenoming cases. The cross-neutralization of snake venoms by antibodies is an important issue for development of more effective treatments. Our group has previously reported the construction of human monoclonal antibody fragments towards Bothrops jararacussu and Crotalus durissus terrificus' venoms. This study aimed to select human single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) that recognize both bothropic and crotalic crude venoms following venoms neutralizing capacity in vitro and in vivo. The cross-reactivity of Cro-Bothrumabs were demonstrated by ELISA and in vitro and in vivo experiments showed that a combination of scFvs neutralizes in vitro toxic activities (e.g. indirect hemolysis and plasma-clotting) of crotalic and bothropic venoms as well as prolonged survival time of envenomed animals. Our results may contribute to the development of the first human polyvalent antivenom against Bothrops jararacussu and Crotalus durissus terrificus venoms, overcoming some undesirable effects caused by conventional serotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Efeitos do cádmio sobre o crescimento das leveduras Saccharomyces cerevisiae PE-2 e Saccharomyces cerevisiae IZ-1904, e a capacidade da vinhaça em atenuar a toxicidade Effect of cadmium on the growth of two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, and the vinasse capacity to atenuate the toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Mariano-da-Silva

    2004-03-01

    , minimizando os efeitos deletérios do metal.The present study was carried out in order to evaluate the capability of different cadmium concentration (0; 0,05, 0,10 and 0,50mM to affect the growth of two S. cerevisiae strains (PE-2 and IZ-1904 in YED (yeast extract 1% and dextrose 2% medium, and to evaluate the three vinasse concentration capability (0,15 and 30% to attenuate the two cadmium concentration toxicity (0,1 and 0,5mM, using S. cerevisiae PE-2 strain in YED medium. In the first assay, the medium was inoculated in aseptic conditions with 1mL of 1% yeast suspension (PE-2 or IZ-1904 and incubated at 30ºC, 70 RPM for 18 hours. During anaerobic growth (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 and 18 hours, portions of cell suspension were taken out and biomass concentration was determined. At the end of fermentation, yeast viability, budding rate and bacterial contamination were determined. Both, initial and final trehalose, was measured. In the second assay, the medium was inoculated in aseptic conditions with 2mL of 1% PE-2 suspension and incubated at 30ºC, 120 rpm for 18 hours. During the anaerobic growth (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12,14, 16 and 18 hours portions of cell suspension were taken out and biomass concentration was determined. At the end of fermentation, alcohol production, yeast viability, budding rate and bacterial contamination were determined. Both, initial and final trehalose, was measured. The increase of cadmium levels showed a reduction on yeast growth and cell viability. Vinasse showed low toxicity, but protected yeast cells very effectively against the toxic effects of cadmium.

  15. [Estimation of maximum acceptable concentration of lead and cadmium in plants and their medicinal preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitkevicius, Virgilijus; Savickiene, Nijole; Abdrachmanovas, Olegas; Ryselis, Stanislovas; Masteiková, Rūta; Chalupova, Zuzana; Dagilyte, Audrone; Baranauskas, Algirdas

    2003-01-01

    Heavy metals (lead, cadmium) are possible dashes which quantity is defined by the limiting acceptable contents. Different drugs preparations: infusions, decoctions, tinctures, extracts, etc. are produced using medicinal plants. The objective of this research was to study the impurities of heavy metals (lead, cadmium) in medicinal plants and some drug preparations. We investigated liquid extracts of fruits Crataegus monogyna Jacq. and herbs of Echinacea purpurea Moench., tinctures--of herbs Leonurus cardiaca L. The raw materials were imported from Poland. Investigations were carried out in cooperation with the Laboratory of Antropogenic Factors of the Institute for Biomedical Research. Amounts of lead and cadmium were established after "dry" mineralisation using "Perkin-Elmer Zeeman/3030" model electrothermic atomic absorption spectrophotometer (ETG AAS/Zeeman). It was established that lead is absorbed most efficiently after estimation of absorption capacity of cellular fibers. About 10.73% of lead crosses tinctures and extracts, better cadmium--49.63%. Herbs of Leonurus cardiaca L. are the best in holding back lead and cadmium. About 14.5% of lead and cadmium crosses the tincture of herbs Leonurus cardiaca L. We estimated the factors of heavy metals (lead, cadmium) in the liquid extracts of Crataegus monogyna Jacq. and Echinacea purpurea Moench., tincture of Leonurus cardiaca L. after investigations of heavy metals (lead, cadmium) in drugs and preparations of it. The amounts of heavy metals (lead, cadmium) don't exceed the allowable norms in fruits of Crataegus monogyna Jacq., herbs of Leonurus cardiaca L. and Echinacea purpurea Moench. after estimation of lead and cadmium extraction factors, the maximum of acceptable daily intake and the quantity of drugs consumption in day.

  16. Investigation of Acorn fruit Ash Efficiency in Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Solutions: Adsorption Isotherm and Kinetic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Zarei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heavy metals are known as significant pollutants because of toxicity and nonbiodegradable characteristics. Cadmium is one of the heavy metals that have carcinogen potential. So, this study carried out in order to investigate the acorn fruit ash efficiency in cadmium removal from aqueous solutions. Methods: This study was done in the batch laboratory conditions. In this study, the effect of different parameters including pH, contact time, adsorbent dose, and initial cadmium concentration were evaluated. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models were used for analysis of the equilibrium isotherm. Adsorption kinetics of cadmium by different models were also investigated. The measurement of residual cadmium in the samples was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry at 228.8 nm. The SPSS-16 software was used for analysis of data. Results: According to the results, the maximum adsorption capacity of cadmium was 9.29 mg/g at pH=7 and 8 g/L adsorbent dose. The removal efficiency was increased with increasing contact time and decreased with increasing of cadmium initial concentration. Investigation of achieving data showed that the adsorption process followed better by Freundlich isotherm and the pseudo-second order kinetic. Conclusions: According to the results of this study, it could be concluded that the acorn fruit ash had high ability in cadmium adsorption and could be used as a cheap adsorbent in the removal of cadmium.

  17. Cadmium immobilization by hydroxyapatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smičiklas Ivana D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of air, soil and water by cadmium is a great environmental problem. If cadmium occurs in nature in ionic form, soluble in water, it easily enters into the food chain. Hydroxyapatite (HAP, Ca-o(POAe(OH2 is a sparingly soluble salt and an excellent matrix for the removal of heavy metals from solutions. Considerable research attention has been paid to the bond between Cc/2+ ions and synthetic hydroxyapatite of known composition. The sorption mechanism is complex. The dominant process is ion exchange, but surface adsorption, surface complexation and coprecipitation can also contribute to the overall mechanism. The sorption capacity depends on the characteristics of hydroxyapatite itself and on the experimental conditions. Under optimum conditions a maximum capacity of 0.8 mol Cd2+/mol HAP can be achieved. HAP is a potential sorbent for the remediation of contaminated water and soil, for industrial waste treatment, and it is also referenced as a material that can be used as a barrier around waste depositories.

  18. Cadmium colours: composition and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulus, J.; Knuutinen, U.

    2004-01-01

    The composition and the properties of cadmium aquarelle colours are discussed. The examined colours were 24 different aquarelle cadmium colours from six different manufacturers. The colours ranged from light, bright yellows to dark, deep-red tones. The aim of this research was to find out if the pigments contain cadmium salts: sulphides and/or selenides. This information will help in choosing watercolours in conservation processes. Today, aquarelle colours not containing cadmium pigments are being sold as cadmium colours; thus their properties might be different from actual cadmium colours. The aim of the research was to verify that the colour samples contained cadmium pigments and to estimate their compositions and ageing properties. Element analyses were performed from colour samples using micro-chemical tests and X-ray fluorescence measurements. Thin-layer chromatography was used for analysing gum Arabic as a possible binding medium in the chosen colour samples. Through ageing tests, the resistance of the colour samples to the exposure to light, heat and humidity was studied. Visible-light spectroscopy was used in determining the hues and hue changes of the aquarelle colour samples. The spectrophotometer used the CIE L * a * b * tone colour measuring system. From the colour measurements the changes in the lightness/darkness, the redness, the yellowness and the saturation of the samples were examined. (orig.)

  19. Cadmium in the biofuel system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aabyhammar, T.; Fahlin, M.; Holmroos, S.

    1993-12-01

    Removal of biofuel depletes the soil of important nutrients. Investigations are being made of possibilities to return most of these nutrients by spreading the ashes remaining after combustion in the forest or on field. Return of ashes implies that both beneficial and harmful substances are returned. This study has been conducted to illustrate that the return of cadmium implies the greatest risk for negative influences. The occurrence, utilization, emissions and effects of cadmium are discussed. The behaviour of cadmium in soil is discussed in detail. Flows and quantities of cadmium in Swedish society are reviewed. Flows and quantities of both total and plant available cadmium in the entire forest and arable areas of Sweden are given. A scenario for a bioenergy system of max 100 TWh is discussed. The cadmium flow in different biofuels and forest raw products, and anticipated amounts of ashes and cadmium concentrations, are calculated. Power production from biofuels is surveyed. Possibilities to clean ashes have been examined in laboratory experiments. Ashes and trace elements occurring as a result of the gasification of biofuels are reviewed. Strategies for handling ashes are discussed. Proposals on continued inputs in both the biological and technical sciences are made. 146 refs, 23 figs, 38 tabs

  20. Engineering sodium alginate-based cross-linked beads with high removal ability of toxic metal ions and cationic dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zi-Jian; Huang, Xue-Lian; Yang, Fan; Zhao, Wei-Feng; Zhou, Xin-Zhi; Zhao, Chang-Sheng

    2018-05-01

    Sodium alginate (SA) beads with ultrahigh adsorption capacity were prepared via hydrogen bonds between SA and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropa-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS), and the AMPS was then post-cross-linked to manufacture SA/PAMPS beads. The equilibrium adsorption capacities of methylene blue (MB) and Pb 2+ for the SA/PAMPS10 beads were 2977 and 2042 mg/g, respectively. Although the SA beads exhibited higher equilibrium adsorption capacities of MB and Pb 2+ than those of the SA/PAMPS10 beads, the SA/PAMPS10 beads had better mechanical property and higher stability. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm described the adsorption processes of the SA/PAMPS10 beads for MB well. In addition, the SA/PAMPS10 beads could be reused with stable adsorption capacity for at least three cycles. The beads also had excellent performances on absorbing methylene violet and other heavy metal ions (Cu 2+ , Cd 2+ and Ni 2+ ). Therefore, the SA-based beads with high adsorption capacity might be good candidates for industrial pollutant treatments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of the swimming velocity of cadmium-stressed Daphnia magna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baillieul, M.; Blust, R.

    1999-01-01

    The swimming velocity of the waterflea Daphnia magna is dependent on its body size. Therefore, environmental factors like toxic stress that influence growth also influence swimming velocity. An experiment was set up to test whether exposure to cadmium would reduce only growth, with a concomitant decrease in velocity, or whether it would reduce velocity below the swimming velocity of similarly-sized control animals. Daphnids were exposed for 10 days to free cadmium ion concentrations ranging from 1x10 -8 to 1x10 -7 M Cd 2+ , and body size and swimming velocity were measured every 2 days. The results showed that cadmium decreased both growth and velocity, i.e. exposed daphnids swam slower than similarly-sized control daphnids. Swimming velocity provided no indication of successful acclimation in any cadmium treatment. Food consumption and assimilation were reduced by exposure to cadmium. This reduced food intake may have, at least partially, caused the decreased growth rates. However, since reduced food intake does not affect swimming velocity, the reduced swimming velocity must be attributed to toxic effects of cadmium, other than those on food intake. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  2. Study of optimizing the process of Cadmium adsorption by synthesized silver nanoparticles using Chlorella vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Sajadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Cadmium (Cd is one of the most toxic heavy metals in water that mostly enters the water cycle through industrial waste water. Silver nanoparticles have the capacity to remove heavy metals from the water resources through the mechanism of adsorption. The present study aimed at producing  silver bio-nanoparticles and optimizing . Cd removal from aquatic solutions. Materials and Methods: Silver bio-nanoparticles were extracted via a micro-algae Chlorella vulgaris extract and silver nitrate synthesis. Then, the characteristics of the particles were  determined using FT-IR, XRD, SEM devices. In order to optimize Cadmium adsorption by means of silver nanoparticles, parameters including pH, reaction time, initial concentration of Cd and concentrations of nanoparticles were studied under different conditions. Results: The resulting nanoparticles were spherical, single and crystalline, whose sizes were 10-45 nm.  Under the condition of PH = 8, the initial concentration of cadmium 0.5 mg/L, adsorbent dosage of 0.5 mg, reaction time of 10 min, temperature of 300C and mixing speed of 200 rpm, 99% of cadmium was removed. Isotherm of Cadmium-ion adsorption followed Langmuir (R2> 0/96 (and Freundlich (R2> 0/94 models. Conclusion: Under optimal conditions, silver bio-nanoparticles had the capacity of quick and effective adsorption of cadmium. Thus, with a cheap, non-toxic and environmentally friendly method  can remove heavy metals in a short time.

  3. Cadmium determination in Lentinus edodes mushroom species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Akiko Maihara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have drawn attention to the occurrence and concentration of toxic elements found in the fruiting body of mushrooms. Some edible mushroom species are known to accumulate high levels of inorganic contaminants, mainly cadmium, mercury, and lead. There are about 2,000 known edible mushroom species, but only 25 of them are cultivated and used as food. In Brazil, the most marketed and consumed mushroom species are Agaricus bisporus, known as Paris champignon, Lentinus edodes, or Shitake and Pleurotus sp, also called Shimeji or Hiratake. In this study, the concentration of cadmium was determined in Lentinus edodes mushrooms from different cities in São Paulo state and some samples imported from Japan and China. The analyses were performed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after HNO3-H2O2 digestion. The results showed a lower concentration of Cd in the mushrooms cultivated in São Paulo (0.0079 to 0.023 mg.kg-1 in natura than that of the mushrooms cultivated abroad (0.125 to 0.212 mg.kg-1 in natura. Although there is no tolerance limit for Cd in mushrooms in Brazil, the results show that Lentinus edodes mushrooms can be safely consumed.

  4. Role of Bioadsorbents in Reducing Toxic Metals

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, Blessy Baby; Jaishankar, Monisha; Biju, Vinai George; Krishnamurthy Nideghatta Beeregowda

    2016-01-01

    Industrialization and urbanization have led to the release of increasing amounts of heavy metals into the environment. Metal ion contamination of drinking water and waste water is a serious ongoing problem especially with high toxic metals such as lead and cadmium and less toxic metals such as copper and zinc. Several biological materials have attracted many researchers and scientists as they offer both cheap and effective removal of heavy metals from waste water. Therefore it is urgent to st...

  5. Influence of sodium, calcium, magnesium, and ammonium in the sorption of cadmium in a zeolite rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teutli S, E.A.

    2007-01-01

    The cadmium is one of the more toxic heavy metals and the water pollution by this metal, is originated by industries whose turn is the production of batteries, electroplating processes, the production of pigments and in the refinement process of others metals. The objective of this work was to evaluate the ion exchange of cadmium using natural zeolite, obtained from the Arroyo zone, La Haciendita Municipality, in the State of Chihuahua. The parameters considered in this investigation were: the sorption time, the pH, the initial concentration of cadmium and the influence of sodium, calcium, magnesium and ammonium on the sorption of cadmium in the natural zeolite. Also, the theoretical pattern for kinetics and isotherm that better it is adjusted to those experimental results it was determined. The experimentation results allowed to establish the following conclusions: the sorption of the cadmium doesn't depend on the pH in an interval between 4 and 6; the pattern that better it describes the kinetics it is that of Pseudo-second order of Ho and Mc Kay; the Langmuir-Freundlich pattern is the one that better it describes the sorption isotherm and the calcium is the component that interferes in an important manner in the sorption of cadmium. The carried out investigation contributes to the definition of some of the parameters that should be considered in the development of ion exchangers for the cadmium removal. (Author)

  6. Review of cadmium transfers from soil to humans and its health effects and Jamaican environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalor, Gerald C.

    2008-01-01

    Concerns about the effects of cadmium on human health have led to numerous guidelines and regulations limiting its concentrations in soils and food and allowable human intakes. These have socio-economic consequences in terms of land use and the marketing of food. The bauxite soils in Jamaica, which are both aluminium ores and agricultural soils contain orders of magnitude higher than world normal concentrations of cadmium resulting in elevated Cd concentrations in several foodstuffs and significant transfers to humans, which would seem to represent a risk factor for increased mortality and/or morbidity in the local populations. But, as in Shipham and other examples, there is no evidence of cadmium-related human distress. Macro-indicators like life expectancy and median ages of death do not show cadmium related geographical distributions. The present review focuses on the soils and foods and illnesses of high incidence especially cancers and renal disease that have been traditionally associated with cadmium. In view of the remarkable concentrations of cadmium involved in Jamaica, and often contradictory reports in the literature, it appears that much remains to be learned about certain details of cadmium toxicity

  7. Uptake of Cadmium by Lemna minor, a (hyper?- accumulator plant involved in phytoremediation applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianconi D.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Metal pollution in waters and soils is a major environmental and human health problem. Cadmium (Cd2+ is a heavy metal displaying toxic effects in plants. In this work we studied the potentiality of Lemna minor, a monocotyledonous aquatic macrophyte, to phytoremediate cadmium-polluted waters. The plants were exposed to different cadmium concentrations 0, 13, 22 and 46μM CdSO4 for a period of 24, 48 and 72 hours. Relative growth rates (RGR, bioconcentration factor (BCF, tolerance index (Ti, cadmium uptake in whole plant and maximum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm were measured under controlled climate conditions. RGR, Ti and Fv/Fm declined with increasing exposure time and cadmium concentrations, while the BCF and cadmium uptake showed an opposite behavior. Data analysis of RGR, BCF, Tiand FV/FM indicates that L. minor maintains a good capacity of growth, metal bioconcentration, tolerance and efficiency of PSII up to 48h in plants exposed to 13 and 22μM CdSO4. Our results exhibited that L. minor is a good cadmium accumulator and is able to remediate Cd-polluted waters, especially at low Cd concentrations.

  8. γ-Oryzanol protects against acute cadmium-induced oxidative damage in mice testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiazzi, Cristiano C; Manfredini, Vanusa; Barcellos da Silva, Fabiana E; Flores, Erico M M; Izaguirry, Aryele P; Vargas, Laura M; Soares, Melina B; Santos, Francielli W

    2013-05-01

    Cadmium is a non-essential heavy metal that is present at low levels mainly in food and water and also in cigar smoke. The present study evaluated the testicular damage caused by acute cadmium exposure and verified the protective role of γ-oryzanol (ORY). Mice were administrated with a single dose of 2.5mg/kg of CdCl2, and then treated with ORY (50mM in canola oil, 5mL/kg). Testes were removed after 24h and tested for lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein carbonylation, DNA breakage, ascorbic acid, cadmium and non-proteic thiols contents, and for the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and δ-aminolevulic acid dehydratase (δ-ALA-D). Cadmium presented a significant alteration in all parameters, except GPx and CAT activities. Therapy reduced in a slight degree cadmium concentration in testes (around 23%). ORY restored SOD and GST activities as well as TBARS production to the control levels. Furthermore, ORY partially recovered δ-ALA-D activity inhibited by cadmium. This study provides the first evidence on the therapeutic properties of ORY in protecting against cadmium-induced testicular toxicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Protective Effect of Cleistocalyx nervosum var. paniala Fruit Extract against Oxidative Renal Damage Caused by Cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warut Poontawee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium nephrotoxicity is a serious environmental health problem as it will eventually end up with end stage renal disease. The pathobiochemical mechanism of this toxic heavy metal is related to oxidative stress. This study investigated whether Cleistocalyx nervosum var. paniala fruit extract (CNFE could protect the kidney against oxidative injury caused by cadmium. Initial analysis of the extract revealed antioxidant abilities and high levels of polyphenols, particularly catechin. Its potential renal benefits was further explored in rats treated with vehicle, CNFE, cadmium (2 mg/kg, and cadmium plus CNFE (0.5, 1, 2 g/kg for four weeks. Oxidative renal injury was developed after cadmium exposure as evidenced by blood urea nitrogen and creatinine retention, glomerular filtration reduction, renal structural damage, together with increased nitric oxide and malondialdehyde, but decreased antioxidant thiols, superoxide dismutase, and catalase in renal tissues. Cadmium-induced nephrotoxicity was diminished in rats supplemented with CNFE, particularly at the doses of 1 and 2 g/kg. It is concluded that CNFE is able to protect against the progression of cadmium nephrotoxicity, mostly via its antioxidant power. The results also point towards a promising role for this naturally-occurring antioxidant to combat other human disorders elicited by disruption of redox homeostasis.

  10. Select toxic metals status of pregnant women with history of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxic metals are part of the most important groups of environmental pollutants that can bind to vital cellular components and interfere with their functions via inhalation, foods, water etc. The serum levels of toxic metals (lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic) in pregnant women with history of pregnancy complications, ...

  11. Geostatistical validation and cross-validation of magnetometric measurements of soil pollution with Potentially Toxic Elements in problematic areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabijańczyk, Piotr; Zawadzki, Jarosław

    2016-04-01

    Field magnetometry is fast method that was previously effectively used to assess the potential soil pollution. One of the most popular devices that are used to measure the soil magnetic susceptibility on the soil surface is a MS2D Bartington. Single reading using MS2D device of soil magnetic susceptibility is low time-consuming but often characterized by considerable errors related to the instrument or environmental and lithogenic factors. In this connection, measured values of soil magnetic susceptibility have to be usually validated using more precise, but also much more expensive, chemical measurements. The goal of this study was to analyze validation methods of magnetometric measurements using chemical analyses of a concentration of elements in soil. Additionally, validation of surface measurements of soil magnetic susceptibility was performed using selected parameters of a distribution of magnetic susceptibility in a soil profile. Validation was performed using selected geostatistical measures of cross-correlation. The geostatistical approach was compared with validation performed using the classic statistics. Measurements were performed at selected areas located in the Upper Silesian Industrial Area in Poland, and in the selected parts of Norway. In these areas soil magnetic susceptibility was measured on the soil surface using a MS2D Bartington device and in the soil profile using MS2C Bartington device. Additionally, soil samples were taken in order to perform chemical measurements. Acknowledgment The research leading to these results has received funding from the Polish-Norwegian Research Programme operated by the National Centre for Research and Development under the Norwegian Financial Mechanism 2009-2014 in the frame of Project IMPACT - Contract No Pol-Nor/199338/45/2013.

  12. [Effect of cigarette smoking on coexistence of cadmium and zinc in retained wisdom teeth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malara, Piotr; Kwapuliński, Jerzy; Drugacz, Jan; Malara, Beata

    2005-01-01

    The change in coexistence pattern of elements (antagonism-synergism) in conditions of excessive level of toxic element is observed in many biological samples. The aim of this study was to establish the cadmium and zinc content in hard tissues of retained wisdom teeth of smokers and non-smokers and to find out if active exposure to cigarette smoke has an influence on coexistence of both metals in these tissues. Material consisted of 127 retained wisdom teeth (65 from smokers and 62 from non-smokers). Cadmium and zinc contents were determined by means of atomic absorption spectrometry. We found out that retained wisdom tooth from smokers exhibited higher cadmium and zinc contents compared to non-smokers' teeth. Moreover, coexistence pattern of cadmium and zinc in teeth depends on exposure to heavy metals and exhibits strong synergism in smokers.

  13. Ecotoxicological tests with cadmium and chromium using postlarvae of silverside Odontesthes (Austromenidia regia regia Hildebrand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Vera

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the mean effective concentrations (EC50% of cadmium (Cd+2 and chromium (Cr+6 using postlarvae of the silverside fish Odontesthes (Austromenidia regia regia were determined. The postlarvae were exposed to different concentrations of the metals, between 0,142 and 1,208 mg.L–1 of cadmium and between 0,53 and 33,74 mg.L–1 of chromium. The mean effective concentrations (EC50% obtained were 0,648 mg.L–1 of cadmium (at 96 h and 2,68 mg.L–1 of chromium (at 96 h. Comparatively, cadmium is more toxic than chromium, and silverside is more tolerant than other organisms.

  14. [Effect of cadmium sulphate on the metabolism of carbohydrates in organism of rats of different ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepel'ova, I A; Derkach, Ie A; Mel'nykova, N M

    2007-01-01

    The influence of cadmium sulfate on concentration of glucose, lactate, piruvate, alpha-ketoglutarate, malate, oxaloacetate in blood of 3-, 6- and 18-month-old poisoned rats was established the results of our researches. It was found, that poisoning of rats by cadmium sulfate causes the rise of concentration of glucose, metabolites of citric acid cycle and glycolysis in blood of animals of all age groups explored. The research results prove that in blood of 3-month-old poisoned rats the level of glycolysis and citric acid cycle activation is considerably higher in comparison with that of 6- and 18-month-old animals. As a result, a comparison of age-specific dynamics of changes of carbohydrate metabolism indices in the blood of rats, poisoned by cadmium showed that the organism of 3-month-old rats is more sensitive to toxic influence of cadmium.

  15. CADMIUM IN OCTOPUS VULGARIS: AN INPUT TO ASSESS HUMAN HEALTH RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ceci

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium concentrations has been evaluated in Octopus vulgaris sampled from two sites of Apulian coast (South Italy and compared with import cephalopods to estimate if maximum levels of cadmium established for these organisms by the European Commission were exceed. In all local samples mean cadmium concentrations were higher in hepatopancreas than in flesh, this is an important evaluation if consider the traditional and unusual consumption in certain population of Mediterranean region of raw and whole cephalopods. The cadmium estimated weekly intake for whole cephalopods between 2,25 and 2,84 g Kg -1 of body weight underlines the necessity to determine the real risk and implications for public health through a correct assessment of contribution made by this specie among certain consumers group to the TWI set by the EFSA. A particular attention from competent authorities to prevent human toxicity is required.

  16. 'Man and biosphere' - studies of the Sikkim Himalayas. Pt. 5. Acute toxicity of selected heavy metals on the tadpoles of Rana hexadactyla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khangarot, B S; Sehgal, A; Bhasin, M K

    1985-01-01

    The toxicity of different heavy metals as mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic and zinc was tested on tadpoles of Rana hexadactyla. The rank order of the toxicity was determined. The results are briefly discussed.

  17. Cadmium-containing waste and recycling possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegand, V.; Rauhut, A.

    1981-01-01

    To begin with, the processes of cadmium production from zinc ores in smelting plants or from intermediates of other metal works are described. A considerable amount of the cadmium is obtained in the recycling process in zinc, lead, and copper works. The way of the cadmium-containing intermediaries, processing, enrichment, and disposal of cadmium waste are described. Uses of cadmium and its compounds are mentioned, and cadmium consumption in the years 1973-1977 in West Germany is presented in a table. Further chapters discuss the production and the way of waste during production and processing of cadmium-containing products, the problem of cadmium in household refuse and waste incineration plants, and the problem of cadmium emissions. (IHOE) [de

  18. Assessment of Toxic Metals and feed habits of the snail Pomacea specie from the Amatitlan Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesch Palomo, R.R.

    1998-01-01

    In the present thesis an assesment of cadmium, cooper, cromium VI, and lead was made in samples of snail pomacea specie from the Amatitlan Lake. We conclude that the comsuption of this mollusk is toxic for human health. The concentration of heavy metals like cadmium, cooper shows that are not recomended for human comsuption according to Spanish and FAO/PAHO standards

  19. Occupational exposure to unburnt tobacco and potential risk of toxic optic neuropathy: A cross-sectional study among beedi rollers in selected rural areas of coastal Karnataka, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soujanya Kaup

    Full Text Available Beedi also known as poor man's cigarette is manufactured in almost all major states of India. Beedi workers are exposed to various health risks. There is an increased risk of systemic absorption of tobacco through skin and mucous membrane. The optic nerve is susceptible to damage from several toxic substances including tobacco. This group of disorders is known as toxic optic neuropathy (TON. The association of TON with occupational exposure to unburnt tobacco in beedi rollers has not been explored.Among the beedi rollers in Mangaluru and Bantwal talukas of Dakshina Kannada District, Karnataka, India: to assess the magnitude of potential TON utilizing colour vision and contrast sensitivity as screening tools and to identify the demographic, biological and occupational factors associated with potential TON.A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from April-Sept 2016 in Mangaluru and Bantwal talukas, of Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka. Beedi rollers from twelve villages (six from each taluka were included. In each of the selected villages, the investigators identified beedi collection centres and all the eligible beedi rollers were included in the study till the required number of beedi rollers for that village was achieved. Participants were screened at the study site for visual acuity, colour vision and contrast sensitivity and those with abnormal colour and contrast sensitivity in the presence of good visual acuity were considered to have potential TON.A total of 377 beedi rollers were approached; of which 365 consented to take part in the study (response rate: 96.81%. Women constituted the majority of the participants (n = 338, 92.6%. Based on the screening criteria, the prevalence of potential TON was 17.5% (n = 64, 95% CI: 13.5-21.9. On multiple logistic regression analysis, duration of beedi rolling (Adj OR: 1.061; 95% CI 1.015-1.109, p = 0.009, advancing age (Adj OR: 1.096; 95% CI 1.058-1.136, p<0.001 and presence of

  20. Discovery of the cadmium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, S.; Thoennessen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-seven cadmium isotopes have been observed so far and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  1. The toxicokinetics of cadmium in carp under normoxic and hypoxic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattink, Jasper; Boeck, Gudrun De; Blust, Ronny

    2005-01-01

    Temporal depletion of oxygen, i.e. hypoxic events, frequently occurs in natural waters. It has been suggested that accumulation of micro-pollutants increases in aquatic animals as a result of an increased ventilation rate during such occasions. The observed increased toxicity under hypoxia of micro-pollutants may support this hypothesis, but for heavy metals the available uptake studies are contradictory. The present study tests whether accumulation of cadmium in common carp, Cyprinus carpio (L.) is increased under hypoxia and if the toxicokinetics are altered. A cadmium toxicity study was performed in which the cadmium uptake rates were determined using the radiotracer 109 Cd under hypoxia and normoxia. The cadmium toxicokinetics were studied with radiotracer experiments at 100% air saturation, 50%, and 25% saturation from 6.5 nmol/L Cd at 25 deg C. We could confirm the higher sensitivity of carp to cadmium under hypoxia. Hypoxic conditions did not influence the uptake rates or the accumulation dynamics. Therefore, the increased sensitivity of carp for Cd under hypoxia cannot be explained by a higher Cd body burden, initiated by a higher uptake rate or lower elimination rate under hypoxia. Additional, possible indirect effects, such as internal anoxia due to gill damage, could play a role in Cd toxicity under hypoxia

  2. The toxicokinetics of cadmium in carp under normoxic and hypoxic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattink, Jasper [University of Antwerp, Department of Biology, Laboratory of Ecophysiology, Biochemistry, and Toxicology, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium)]. E-mail: jasper.hattink@ua.ac.be; Boeck, Gudrun De [University of Antwerp, Department of Biology, Laboratory of Ecophysiology, Biochemistry, and Toxicology, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Blust, Ronny [University of Antwerp, Department of Biology, Laboratory of Ecophysiology, Biochemistry, and Toxicology, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2005-10-05

    Temporal depletion of oxygen, i.e. hypoxic events, frequently occurs in natural waters. It has been suggested that accumulation of micro-pollutants increases in aquatic animals as a result of an increased ventilation rate during such occasions. The observed increased toxicity under hypoxia of micro-pollutants may support this hypothesis, but for heavy metals the available uptake studies are contradictory. The present study tests whether accumulation of cadmium in common carp, Cyprinus carpio (L.) is increased under hypoxia and if the toxicokinetics are altered. A cadmium toxicity study was performed in which the cadmium uptake rates were determined using the radiotracer {sup 109}Cd under hypoxia and normoxia. The cadmium toxicokinetics were studied with radiotracer experiments at 100% air saturation, 50%, and 25% saturation from 6.5 nmol/L Cd at 25 deg C. We could confirm the higher sensitivity of carp to cadmium under hypoxia. Hypoxic conditions did not influence the uptake rates or the accumulation dynamics. Therefore, the increased sensitivity of carp for Cd under hypoxia cannot be explained by a higher Cd body burden, initiated by a higher uptake rate or lower elimination rate under hypoxia. Additional, possible indirect effects, such as internal anoxia due to gill damage, could play a role in Cd toxicity under hypoxia.

  3. Cadmium Exposure as a Putative Risk Factor for the Development of Pancreatic Cancer: Three Different Lines of Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Buha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although profoundly studied, etiology of pancreatic cancer (PC is still rather scant. Exposure to cadmium (Cd, a ubiquitous metal associated with well-established toxic and carcinogenic properties, has been hypothesized to one putative cause of PC. Hence, we analyzed recently published observational studies, meta-analyses, and experimental animal and in vitro studies with the aim of summarizing the evidence of Cd involvement in PC development and describing the possible mechanisms. Consolidation of epidemiological data on PC and exposure to Cd indicated a significant association with an elevated risk of PC among general population exposed to Cd. Cadmium exposure of laboratory animals was showed to cause PC supporting the findings suggested by human studies. The concordance with human and animal studies is buttressed by in vitro studies, although in vitro data interpretation is problematic. In most instances, only significant effects are reported, and the concentrations of Cd are excessive, which would skew interpretation. Previous reports suggest that oxidative stress, apoptotic changes, and DNA cross-linking and hypermethylation are involved in Cd-mediated carcinogenesis. Undoubtedly, a significant amount of work is still needed to achieve a better understanding of the Cd involvement in pancreatic cancer which could facilitate prevention, diagnosis, and therapy of this fatal disease.

  4. A Survey on Lead and Cadmium Content in Bread Produced in Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Hajimohammadi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to such complications of absorbing lead and cadmium heavy metals as kidney and liver dysfunction, vascular and heart diseases, anemia, digestive complications, nervous and skeletal problems and due to importance of bread as one of the most important food diets in Iran, especially in Yazd, the amount of lead and cadmium was evaluated in a variety of breads in Yazd. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in 2013. Out of 69 bakeries, random probability proportionate sampling was applied in order to measure the heavy metals (lead and cadmium content in samples by ash and atomic absorption equipped with grafiti furnace(ETAAS with correction of background time. The study data were analyzed using SPSS (v.17 considering p-value of less than 0.05 as significant. Results: The average amounts of lead and cadmium were 99.05 and 7.49 mg/kg respectively. The amount of lead in Sangak bread was higher than that of other types of breads, whereas lead amounts of fantasy bread was reported less than those of other breads. Cadmium content demonstrated no significant differences among breads. Lead amount was higher in direct heat breads. Whereas, cadmium amount showed no significant differences between direct and indirect heat breads. It is worth mentioning that lead and cadmium content were reported lower than allowable levels in all samples. Conclusions: As the study results revealed and considering per capita consumption of bread in Iran (about 160 kg, it seems that weekly intake of lead and cadmium in Yazd is at an acceptable level, though possible risk of heavy metals(lead and cadmium need to decrease in order to prevent the probable risks of lead and cadmium heavy metals.

  5. Lead, mercury, and cadmium in breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Yurdakök

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Toxic heavy metals are the major source of environmental pollution in this new millennium. Lead, mercury, and cadmium are the most common toxic heavy metals in the environment. There is no known function of these toxic heavy metals in the human body. In females, toxic heavy metals can be accumulated in maternal body before pregnancy and may be transferred to fetus through placenta and later, via breast milk. Lead previously accumulated in maternal bones can be mobilized along with calcium in order to meet increased calcium needs of the fetus in pregnant women and for the calcium needs in human milk during lactation. Human fetus and infants are susceptible to heavy metal toxicity passing through placenta and breastmilk due to rapid growth and development of organs and tissues, especially central nervous system. However most of the damage is already done by the time the infant is born. Intrauterine lead exposure can cause growth retardation, cognitive dysfunction, low IQ scores on ability tests, and low performance in school. Biological samples, such as umbilical cord blood and breast milk, and less commonly infant hair, are used for biomonitoring of intra-uterine exposure to these toxic chemicals. Although toxic metals and other pollutants may be excreted into breast milk, their effects are unknown and this topic is subject of a growing body of research. Despite the possibility of harm from environmental contaminants in breast milk, breastfeeding is still recommended as the best infant feeding method. In fact, the species-specific components present in breast milk protect infants against infections; promote immune and neurologic system development; and may decrease the risk of disease, including allergies, obesity, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, inflammatory bowel disease, and sudden infant death syndrome. Breastfeeding also facilitates maternal-infant attachment. The potential risk of environmental contaminants that can be transferred from

  6. Integrative characterization of the venom of the coral snake Micrurus dumerilii (Elapidae) from Colombia: Proteome, toxicity, and cross-neutralization by antivenom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Suárez, Paola; Núñez, Vitelbina; Fernández, Julián; Lomonte, Bruno

    2016-03-16

    In Colombia, nearly 2.8% of the 4200 snakebite accidents recorded annually are inflicted by coral snakes (genus Micrurus). Micrurus dumerilii has a broad distribution in this country, especially in densely populated areas. The proteomic profile of its venom was here studied by a bottom-up approach combining RP-HPLC, SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF/TOF. Venom proteins were assigned to eleven families, the most abundant being phospholipases A2 (PLA2; 52.0%) and three-finger toxins (3FTx; 28.1%). This compositional profile shows that M. dumerilii venom belongs to the 'PLA2-rich' phenotype, in the recently proposed dichotomy for Micrurus venoms. Enzymatic and toxic venom activities correlated with protein family abundances. Whole venom induced a conspicuous myotoxic, cytotoxic and anticoagulant effect, and was mildly edematogenic and proteolytic, whereas it lacked hemorrhagic activity. Some 3FTxs and PLA2s reproduced the lethal effect of venom. A coral snake antivenom to Micrurus nigrocinctus demonstrated significant cross-recognition of M. dumerilii venom proteins, and accordingly, ability to neutralize its lethal effect. The combined compositional, functional, and immunological data here reported for M. dumerilii venom may contribute to a better understanding of these envenomings, and support the possible use of anti-M. nigrocinctus coral snake antivenom in their treatment. Coral snakes represent a highly diversified group of elapids in the New World, with nearly 70 species within the genus Micrurus. Owing to their scarce yields, the biochemical composition and toxic activities of coral snake venoms have been less well characterized than those of viperid species. In this work, an integrative view of the venom of M. dumerilii, a medically relevant coral snake from Colombia, was obtained by a combined proteomic, functional, and immunological approach. The venom contains proteins from at least eleven families, with a predominance of phospholipases A2 (PLA2), followed by three

  7. Multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins mediate cellular transport of cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hong; Guo, Dong; Obianom, Obinna N.; Su, Tong; Polli, James E.; Shu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmentally prevalent toxicant posing increasing risk to human health worldwide. As compared to the extensive research in Cd tissue accumulation, little was known about the elimination of Cd, particularly its toxic form, Cd ion (Cd 2+ ). In this study, we aimed to examine whether Cd 2+ is a substrate of multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATEs) that are important in renal xenobiotic elimination. HEK-293 cells overexpressing the human MATE1 (HEK-hMATE1), human MATE2-K (HEK-hMATE2-K) and mouse Mate1 (HEK-mMate1) were used to study the cellular transport and toxicity of Cd 2+ . The cells overexpressing MATEs showed a 2–4 fold increase of Cd 2+ uptake that could be blocked by the MATE inhibitor cimetidine. A saturable transport profile was observed with the Michaelis-Menten constant (K m ) of 130 ± 15.8 μM for HEK-hMATE1; 139 ± 21.3 μM for HEK-hMATE2-K; and 88.7 ± 13.5 μM for HEK-mMate1, respectively. Cd 2+ could inhibit the uptake of metformin, a substrate of MATE transporters, with the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) of 97.5 ± 6.0 μM, 20.2 ± 2.6 μM, and 49.9 ± 6.9 μM in HEK-hMATE1, HEK-hMATE2-K, and HEK-mMate1 cells, respectively. In addition, hMATE1 could transport preloaded Cd 2+ out of the HEK-hMATE1 cells, thus resulting in a significant decrease of Cd 2+ -induced cytotoxicity. The present study has provided the first evidence supporting that MATEs transport Cd 2+ and may function as cellular elimination machinery in Cd intoxication. - Highlights: • Cadmium is an environmentally prevalent toxicant. • Little was known regarding the elimination and detoxification of cadmium. • Cadmium ion is here demonstrated as a substrate of MATE transporters. • MATEs may function as cellular elimination machinery in cadmium detoxification.

  8. Multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins mediate cellular transport of cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hong; Guo, Dong; Obianom, Obinna N. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland at Baltimore, MD (United States); Su, Tong [Department of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital, Xiangya Medical School, Central South University, Hunan 410007 (China); Polli, James E. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland at Baltimore, MD (United States); Shu, Yan, E-mail: yshu@rx.umaryland.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland at Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmentally prevalent toxicant posing increasing risk to human health worldwide. As compared to the extensive research in Cd tissue accumulation, little was known about the elimination of Cd, particularly its toxic form, Cd ion (Cd{sup 2+}). In this study, we aimed to examine whether Cd{sup 2+} is a substrate of multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATEs) that are important in renal xenobiotic elimination. HEK-293 cells overexpressing the human MATE1 (HEK-hMATE1), human MATE2-K (HEK-hMATE2-K) and mouse Mate1 (HEK-mMate1) were used to study the cellular transport and toxicity of Cd{sup 2+}. The cells overexpressing MATEs showed a 2–4 fold increase of Cd{sup 2+} uptake that could be blocked by the MATE inhibitor cimetidine. A saturable transport profile was observed with the Michaelis-Menten constant (K{sub m}) of 130 ± 15.8 μM for HEK-hMATE1; 139 ± 21.3 μM for HEK-hMATE2-K; and 88.7 ± 13.5 μM for HEK-mMate1, respectively. Cd{sup 2+} could inhibit the uptake of metformin, a substrate of MATE transporters, with the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC{sub 50}) of 97.5 ± 6.0 μM, 20.2 ± 2.6 μM, and 49.9 ± 6.9 μM in HEK-hMATE1, HEK-hMATE2-K, and HEK-mMate1 cells, respectively. In addition, hMATE1 could transport preloaded Cd{sup 2+} out of the HEK-hMATE1 cells, thus resulting in a significant decrease of Cd{sup 2+}-induced cytotoxicity. The present study has provided the first evidence supporting that MATEs transport Cd{sup 2+} and may function as cellular elimination machinery in Cd intoxication. - Highlights: • Cadmium is an environmentally prevalent toxicant. • Little was known regarding the elimination and detoxification of cadmium. • Cadmium ion is here demonstrated as a substrate of MATE transporters. • MATEs may function as cellular elimination machinery in cadmium detoxification.

  9. The Graphene/l-Cysteine/Gold-Modified Electrode for the Differential Pulse Stripping Voltammetry Detection of Trace Levels of Cadmium

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Song; Chao Bian; Jianhua Tong; Yang Li; Shanghong Xia

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium(II) is a common water pollutant with high toxicity. It is of significant importance for detecting aqueous contaminants accurately, as these contaminants are harmful to human health and environment. This paper describes the fabrication, characterization, and application of an environment-friendly graphene (Gr)/l-cysteine/gold electrode to detect trace levels of cadmium (Cd) by differential pulse stripping voltammetry (DPSV). The influence of hydrogen overflow was decreased and the curr...

  10. Dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake modifies the effect of cadmium exposure on markers of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colacino, Justin A.; Arthur, Anna E.; Ferguson, Kelly K.; Rozek, Laura S., E-mail: rozekl@umich.edu

    2014-05-01

    Chronic cadmium exposure may cause disease through induction of systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. Factors that mitigate cadmium toxicity and could serve as interventions in exposed populations have not been well characterized. We used data from the 2003–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to quantify diet's role in modifying associations between cadmium exposure and oxidative stress and inflammation. We created a composite antioxidant and anti-inflammatory diet score (ADS) by ranking participants by quintile of intake across a panel of 19 nutrients. We identified associations and effect modification between ADS, urinary cadmium, and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation by multiple linear regression. An interquartile range increase in urinary cadmium was associated with a 47.5%, 8.8%, and 3.7% increase in C-reactive protein (CRP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), respectively. An interquartile range increase in ADS was associated with an 7.4%, 3.3%, 5.2%, and 2.5% decrease in CRP, GGT, ALP, and total white blood cell count respectively, and a 3.0% increase in serum bilirubin. ADS significantly attenuated the association between cadmium exposure, CRP and ALP. Dietary interventions may provide a route to reduce the impact of cadmium toxicity on the population level. - Highlights: • Cadmium may cause chronic disease through oxidative stress or inflammation. • We developed a score to quantify dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake. • Cadmium was associated with markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. • Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake mitigated the effects of cadmium exposure. • Dietary interventions may be effective against chronic cadmium toxicity.

  11. Dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake modifies the effect of cadmium exposure on markers of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colacino, Justin A.; Arthur, Anna E.; Ferguson, Kelly K.; Rozek, Laura S.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic cadmium exposure may cause disease through induction of systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. Factors that mitigate cadmium toxicity and could serve as interventions in exposed populations have not been well characterized. We used data from the 2003–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to quantify diet's role in modifying associations between cadmium exposure and oxidative stress and inflammation. We created a composite antioxidant and anti-inflammatory diet score (ADS) by ranking participants by quintile of intake across a panel of 19 nutrients. We identified associations and effect modification between ADS, urinary cadmium, and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation by multiple linear regression. An interquartile range increase in urinary cadmium was associated with a 47.5%, 8.8%, and 3.7% increase in C-reactive protein (CRP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), respectively. An interquartile range increase in ADS was associated with an 7.4%, 3.3%, 5.2%, and 2.5% decrease in CRP, GGT, ALP, and total white blood cell count respectively, and a 3.0% increase in serum bilirubin. ADS significantly attenuated the association between cadmium exposure, CRP and ALP. Dietary interventions may provide a route to reduce the impact of cadmium toxicity on the population level. - Highlights: • Cadmium may cause chronic disease through oxidative stress or inflammation. • We developed a score to quantify dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake. • Cadmium was associated with markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. • Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake mitigated the effects of cadmium exposure. • Dietary interventions may be effective against chronic cadmium toxicity

  12. Evaluation of levels of select toxic metals in commonly used herbal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even at low concentrations or levels of exposure, toxic metals have also been reported to pose health risks to man. Aim: To ... Materials/Methods :Herbal medicines (n=8) were purchased from on-the-street vendors and evaluated for levels of five toxic metals (Lead, Nickel, Mercury, Cadmium and Arsenic).Analysis of toxic ...

  13. Practice insights on patient care-management overview for chemoradiation toxic mucositis-guidelines, guideline-supported therapies and high potency polymerized cross-linked sucralfate (ProThelial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Ricky W

    2018-01-01

    Aim To offer a practice insight for the management of chemoradiation toxic mucositis. Method Review chemoradiation toxic mucositis, its pathobiology and breadth of symptom presentation. Review mucositis guidelines and guideline-supported anti-mucositis therapies. Offer guidance on guidelines and an abbreviated review of high potency cross-linked sucralfate for management of chemoradiation toxic mucositis. Result There are six major mucositis guidelines but only one that is current and regularly updated. Guidelines from the Multinational Association Supportive Cancer Care suggest 14 interventions gleaned from controlled trials, 12 of which are off-label uses of therapies that offer statistically significant but incrementally beneficial outcomes. Several evidence-based limitations of guidelines are discussed. Data on high potency polymerized cross-linked sucralfate confirming complete prevention and rapid (2-3 days) elimination, sustained throughout cancer treatment is verified as high quality evidence in accordance to standards adopted by Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. A 96-97% reduction in mucositis duration qualifies as a positive Glasziou treatment effect, which is discussed as an additional measure of evidence-based medicine. Conclusion Statistically significant but fractional treatment effects of guideline-supported interventions are not likely to substantially alter the course of mucositis when it occurs nor completely prevent its onset. Complete prevention and rapid sustained elimination should be the goal, therefore high potency polymerized cross-linked sucralfate may be useful. Where guidelines fail, institution-based protocols led by oncology pharmacists could succeed. In an effort to eliminate toxic mucositis, enhance compliance to chemoradiation regimens, and improve survival, such protocols for practice may verify pharmacoeconomic benefits, if any, in using high potency polymerized cross-linked sucralfate to manage toxic mucositis.

  14. An examination of the association of selected toxic metals with total and central obesity indices: NHANES 99-02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Miguel A; Elobeid, Mai; Ruden, Douglas M; Allison, David B

    2010-09-01

    It is conceivable that toxic metals contribute to obesity by influencing various aspects of metabolism, such as by substituting for essential micronutrients and vital metals, or by inducing oxidative stress. Deficiency of the essential metal zinc decreases adiposity in humans and rodent models, whereas deficiencies of chromium, copper, iron, and magnesium increases adiposity. This study utilized the NHANES 99-02 data to explore the association between waist circumference and body mass index with the body burdens of selected toxic metals (barium, cadmium, cobalt, cesium, molybdenum, lead, antimony, thallium, and tungsten). Some of the associations were significant direct relationships (barium and thallium), and some of the associations were significant inverse relationships (cadmium, cobalt, cesium, and lead). Molybdenum, antimony, and tungsten had mostly insignificant associations with waist circumference and body mass index. This is novel result for most of the toxic metals studied, and a surprising result for lead because high stored lead levels have been shown to correlate with higher rates of diabetes, and obesity may be a key risk factor for developing diabetes. These associations suggest the possibility that environmental exposure to metals may contribute to variations in human weight gain/loss. Future research, such as prospective studies rather than the cross-sectional studies presented here, is warranted to confirm these findings.

  15. An Examination of the Association of Selected Toxic Metals with Total and Central Obesity Indices: NHANES 99-02

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas M. Ruden

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available It is conceivable that toxic metals contribute to obesity by influencing various aspects of metabolism, such as by substituting for essential micronutrients and vital metals, or by inducing oxidative stress. Deficiency of the essential metal zinc decreases adiposity in humans and rodent models, whereas deficiencies of chromium, copper, iron, and magnesium increases adiposity. This study utilized the NHANES 99-02 data to explore the association between waist circumference and body mass index with the body burdens of selected toxic metals (barium, cadmium, cobalt, cesium, molybdenum, lead, antimony, thallium, and tungsten. Some of the associations were significant direct relationships (barium and thallium, and some of the associations were significant inverse relationships (cadmium, cobalt, cesium, and lead. Molybdenum, antimony, and tungsten had mostly insignificant associations with waist circumference and body mass index. This is novel result for most of the toxic metals studied, and a surprising result for lead because high stored lead levels have been shown to correlate with higher rates of diabetes, and obesity may be a key risk factor for developing diabetes. These associations suggest the possibility that environmental exposure to metals may contribute to variations in human weight gain/loss. Future research, such as prospective studies rather than the cross-sectional studies presented here, is warranted to confirm these findings.

  16. Enhancement of cadmium ion sorption capacity of lignocellulosic bio-sorbent by sulfonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun W. Shin; James S. Han; Roger M. Rowell; Soo-Hong Min; James O. Peterson

    2003-01-01

    Water contaminated by heavy metals remains a serious environmental and public health problem. Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal that not only causes choking, abdominal pain, anemia, renal dysfunction, and diarrhea, but also has been listed as a carcinogen by the EPA (Gaballah and Kibertus, 1998). Among current technologies used to reduce the amount of heavy metals in...

  17. Combined protective effect of vitamins C and E on cadmium induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uwerhiavwe

    cadmium toxicity also causes an oxidative stress through lipid peroxidation ... lines for Animal Care and approved by the Ethics Committee of our. Institution. ... enzyme activity was calculated by using an extinction coefficient of. 0.043 mM -1 cm ...

  18. Uptake and distribution of cadmium in corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peel, J.W.; Vetter, R.J.; Christian, J.E.; Kessler, W.V.; McFee, W.W.

    1978-01-01

    The uptake and distribution of cadmium in corn (Zea mays) treated at various time intervals after planting and sampled at various times after treatment were measured. Cadmium was found to accumulate in all parts sampled. As shown in field studies, stems and leaves generally concentrated more cadmium than did husks, cobs, kernels, silks, or tassels. Samples of stems and leaves from corn treated 23 days after planting and sampled 5 days later exhibited higher concentrations of cadmium than samples taken 25, 45, 65, or 85 days after treatment. Concentrations generally decreased with time. Greenhouse studies showed that corn exposed to cadmium for the longest period of time accumulated the greatest total cadmium. The highest cadmium concentrations were found in the base or lowest leaves sampled 45 days after planting; this suggests a useful technique for quick screening corn crops for cadmium pollution

  19. Zinc-induced protection against cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Early, J.L.; Schnell, R.C.

    1978-02-01

    Pretreatment of male rats with cadmium acetate potentiates the duration of hexobarbital hypnosis and inhibits the rate of hepatic microsomal drug metabolism. Pretreatment of rats with zinc acetate protects against these alterations in drug action elicited by cadmium.

  20. 2D-DIGE and MALDI TOF/TOF MS analysis reveal that small GTPase signaling pathways may play an important role in cadmium-induced colon cell malignant transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Jian; Zhou, Zhongping; Zheng, Jianzhou; Zhang, Zhuyi; Lu, Rongzhu; Liu, Hanqing; Shi, Haifeng; Tu, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal present in the environment and in industrial materials. Cadmium has demonstrated carcinogenic activity that induces cell transformation, but how this occurs is unclear. We used 2D-DIGE and MALDI TOF/TOF MS combined with bioinformatics and immunoblotting to investigate the molecular mechanism of cadmium transformation. We found that small GTPases were critical for transformation. Additionally, proteins involved in mitochondrial transcription, DNA repair, and translation also had altered expression patterns in cadmium treated cells. Collectively, our results suggest that activation of small GTPases contributes to cadmium-induced transformation of colon cells. - Highlights: • Colon epithelial cell line is firstly successfully transformed by cadmium. • 2D-DIGE is applied to visualize the differentially expressed proteins. • RhoA plays an important role in cadmium induced malignant transformation. • Bioinformatic and experimental methods are combined to explore new mechanisms.

  1. 2D-DIGE and MALDI TOF/TOF MS analysis reveal that small GTPase signaling pathways may play an important role in cadmium-induced colon cell malignant transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jian, E-mail: lujian@ujs.edu.cn [School of Medicine, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Institute of Life Sciences, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Zhou, Zhongping [School of Medicine, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Institute of Life Sciences, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Zheng, Jianzhou [Department of Respiration Medicine, Changzhou No.2 People' s Hospital, Changzhou 213003 (China); Zhang, Zhuyi [School of Medicine, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Institute of Life Sciences, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Lu, Rongzhu [School of Medicine, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Liu, Hanqing [School of Pharmacy, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Shi, Haifeng [Institute of Life Sciences, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Tu, Zhigang, E-mail: tuzg_ujs@ujs.edu.cn [Institute of Life Sciences, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2015-10-01

    Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal present in the environment and in industrial materials. Cadmium has demonstrated carcinogenic activity that induces cell transformation, but how this occurs is unclear. We used 2D-DIGE and MALDI TOF/TOF MS combined with bioinformatics and immunoblotting to investigate the molecular mechanism of cadmium transformation. We found that small GTPases were critical for transformation. Additionally, proteins involved in mitochondrial transcription, DNA repair, and translation also had altered expression patterns in cadmium treated cells. Collectively, our results suggest that activation of small GTPases contributes to cadmium-induced transformation of colon cells. - Highlights: • Colon epithelial cell line is firstly successfully transformed by cadmium. • 2D-DIGE is applied to visualize the differentially expressed proteins. • RhoA plays an important role in cadmium induced malignant transformation. • Bioinformatic and experimental methods are combined to explore new mechanisms.

  2. The Potential of Indigenous Bacteria for Removing Cadmium from Industrial Wastewater in Lawang, East Java

    OpenAIRE

    Agung Pambudiono; Endang Suarsini; Mohamad Amin

    2018-01-01

    Heavy metals have been used in various areas around the world especially in the industrial sector. Heavy metals contamination is very dangerous for ecosystem because of its toxicity for some organisms. Cadmium (Cd) is a dangerous metal pollutant that can cause remarkable diverse of toxic effects, in particular for humans and animals. The use of bacteria as bioremediation agents has been widely studied because more efficient, less cost, and environmentally friendly strategy. This present study...

  3. Hair Toxic Metal Concentrations and Autism Spectrum Disorder Severity in Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa K. Sykes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found a higher body-burden of toxic metals, particularly mercury (Hg, among subjects diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD in comparison to neurotypical controls. Moreover, Hg body-burden was associated with ASD severity. This cross-sectional study examined the potential correlation between hair toxic metal concentrations and ASD severity in a prospective cohort of participants diagnosed with moderate to severe ASD. The Institutional Review Board at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas (Dallas, TX approved the present study. Qualifying study participants (n = 18 were evaluated for ASD severity using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS and quantitatively for arsenic, Hg, cadmium, lead, chromium, cobalt, nickel, aluminum, tin, uranium, and manganese using hair toxic element testing by Doctor’s Data (a CLIA-approved laboratory. CARS scoring and hair toxic element testing were blinded to one another. Increasing hair Hg concentrations significantly correlated with increased ASD severity. In contrast, no significant correlations were observed between any other of the hair toxic metals examined and ASD severity. This study helps to provide additional mechanistic support for Hg in the etiology of ASD severity, and is supported by an increasing number of recent critical reviews that provide biological plausibility for the role of Hg exposure in the pathogenesis of ASDs.

  4. Low serum zinc is associated with elevated risk of cadmium nephrotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yu-Sheng, E-mail: Lin.Yu-Sheng@epa.gov [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Ho, Wen-Chao [Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Caffrey, James L. [Integrative Physiology and Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX (United States); Sonawane, Babasaheb [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Background: Despite animal evidence suggests that zinc modulates cadmium nephrotoxicity, limited human data are available. Objective: To test the hypothesis that low serum zinc concentrations may increase the risk of cadmium-mediated renal dysfunction in humans. Methods: Data from 1545 subjects aged 20 or older in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2011–2012 were analyzed. Renal function was defined as impaired when estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) fell below 60 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2} and/or the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio surpassed 2.5 in men and 3.5 mg/mmol in women. Results: Within the study cohort, 117 subjects had reduced eGFR and 214 had elevated urinary albumin. After adjusting for potential confounders, subjects with elevated blood cadmium (>0.53 μg/L) were more likely to have a reduced eGFR (odds ratio [OR]=2.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09–4.50) and a higher urinary albumin (OR=2.04, 95% CI: 1.13–3.69) than their low cadmium (<0.18 μg/L) peers. In addition, for any given cadmium exposure, low serum zinc is associated with elevated risk of reduced eGFR (OR=3.38, 95% CI: 1.39–8.28). A similar increase in the odds ratio was observed between declining serum zinc and albuminuria but failed to reach statistical significance. Those with lower serum zinc/blood cadmium ratios were likewise at a greater risk of renal dysfunction (p<0.01). Conclusions: This study results suggest that low serum zinc concentrations are associated with an increased risk of cadmium