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Sample records for cadmium toxicity cross

  1. Adaptive and cross-protective responses against cadmium and zinc toxicity in cadmium-resistant bacterium isolated from a zinc mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjaphorn Prapagdee

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is a major environmental hazard, which usually is detected in its ionic form of Cd2+. It also causes adverse toxic effects on human health and other living organisms. Cd-resistant bacteria were isolated from Cd-contaminated soils. One isolate, TAK1, was highly resistance level to Cd toxicity. TAK1 was isolated from soil contaminated with a high Cd concentration (204.1 mg.kg-1. The result of 16S rDNA sequence analysis found that the TAK1 showed the similarity to Ralstonia sp. Physiological adaptive and cross-protective responses to Cd and Zn killing were investigated in Ralstonia sp.TAK1. Exposure to a low concentration of Cd induced adaptive resistance to higher concentrations of Cd. In addition, pretreatment of Ralstonia sp.TAK1 with an inducing concentration of Cd conferred cross-protective response against subsequent exposure to the lethal concentrations of Zn. The induced adaptive and cross-protective response Ralstonia sp.TAK1 required newly synthesized protein(s. Cd-induced adaptive and cross-protective responses against Cd and Zn toxicity are the important mechanisms used by Ralstonia sp.TAK1 to survive in the heavy metal contaminated environments. These findings might lead to the use of Ralstonia sp.TAK1 for microbial based remediation in Cd and Zn-contaminated soils.

  2. Adaptive and cross-protective responses against cadmium and zinc toxicity in cadmium-resistant bacterium isolated from a zinc mine

    OpenAIRE

    Benjaphorn Prapagdee; Anchulee Watcharamusik

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a major environmental hazard, which usually is detected in its ionic form of Cd2+. It also causes adverse toxic effects on human health and other living organisms. Cd-resistant bacteria were isolated from Cd-contaminated soils. One isolate, TAK1, was highly resistance level to Cd toxicity. TAK1 was isolated from soil contaminated with a high Cd concentration (204.1 mg.kg-1). The result of 16S rDNA sequence analysis found that the TAK1 showed the similarity to Ralstonia sp. Phy...

  3. Cadmium Toxicity to Ringed Seals (Phoca hispida)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, R.; Riget, F. F.;

    Cadmium concentrations in kidneys from ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from North West Greenland (Qaanaaq) are high. Concentrations range at level known to induce renal toxic effects (mainly tubulopathy) and demineralisation (osteopenia) of the skeletal system (Fanconi's Syndrome) in humans as well...... the absence of toxic effects of cadmium in ringed seal...

  4. Metallothionein protection of cadmium toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovery of the cadmium (Cd)-binding protein from horse kidney in 1957 marked the birth of research on this low-molecular weight, cysteine-rich protein called metallothionein (MT) in Cd toxicology. MT plays minimal roles in the gastrointestinal absorption of Cd, but MT plays important roles in Cd retention in tissues and dramatically decreases biliary excretion of Cd. Cd-bound to MT is responsible for Cd accumulation in tissues and the long biological half-life of Cd in the body. Induction of MT protects against acute Cd-induced lethality, as well as acute toxicity to the liver and lung. Intracellular MT also plays important roles in ameliorating Cd toxicity following prolonged exposures, particularly chronic Cd-induced nephrotoxicity, osteotoxicity, and toxicity to the lung, liver, and immune system. There is an association between human and rodent Cd exposure and prostate cancers, especially in the portions where MT is poorly expressed. MT expression in Cd-induced tumors varies depending on the type and the stage of tumor development. For instance, high levels of MT are detected in Cd-induced sarcomas at the injection site, whereas the sarcoma metastases are devoid of MT. The use of MT-transgenic and MT-null mice has greatly helped define the role of MT in Cd toxicology, with the MT-null mice being hypersensitive and MT-transgenic mice resistant to Cd toxicity. Thus, MT is critical for protecting human health from Cd toxicity. There are large individual variations in MT expression, which might in turn predispose some people to Cd toxicity.

  5. Cadmium potentiates toxicity of cypermethrin in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ye; Ye, Xiaoqing; He, Buyuan; Liu, Jing

    2016-02-01

    Co-occurrence of pesticides such as synthetic pyrethroids and metals in aquatic ecosystems raises concerns over their combined ecological effects. Cypermethrin, 1 of the top 5 synthetic pyrethroids in use, has been extensively detected in surface water. Cadmium (Cd) has been recognized as 1 of the most toxic metals and is a common contaminant in the aquatic system. However, little information is available regarding their joint toxicity. In the present study, combined toxicity of cypermethrin and Cd and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. Zebrafish embryos and adults were exposed to the individual contaminant or binary mixtures. Co-exposure to cypermethrin and Cd produced synergistic effects on the occurrence of crooked body, pericardial edema, and noninflation of swim bladder. The addition of Cd significantly potentiated cypermethrin-induced spasms and caused more oxidative stress in zebrafish larvae. Cypermethrin-mediated induction of transcription levels and catalytic activities of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme were significantly down-regulated by Cd in both zebrafish larvae and adults. Chemical analytical data showed that in vitro elimination of cypermethrin by CYP1A1 was inhibited by Cd. The addition of Cd caused an elevation of in vivo cypermethrin residue levels in the mixture-exposed adult zebrafish. These results suggest that the enhanced toxicity of cypermethrin in the presence of Cd results from the inhibitory effects of Cd on CYP-mediated biotransformation of this pesticide. The authors' findings provide a deeper understanding of the mechanistic basis accounting for the joint toxicity of cypermethrin and Cd. PMID:26267556

  6. Cellular mechanisms of cadmium-induced toxicity: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Anju; Kumar, Anuj; Lal, Ankita; Pant, Manu

    2014-08-01

    Cadmium is a widespread toxic pollutant of occupational and environmental concern because of its diverse toxic effects: extremely protracted biological half-life (approximately 20-30 years in humans), low rate of excretion from the body and storage predominantly in soft tissues (primarily, liver and kidneys). It is an extremely toxic element of continuing concern because environmental levels have risen steadily due to continued worldwide anthropogenic mobilization. Cadmium is absorbed in significant quantities from cigarette smoke, food, water and air contamination and is known to have numerous undesirable effects in both humans and animals. Cadmium has a diversity of toxic effects including nephrotoxicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity and endocrine and reproductive toxicities. At the cellular level, cadmium affects cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and other cellular activities. Current evidence suggests that exposure to cadmium induces genomic instability through complex and multifactorial mechanisms. Most important seems to be cadmium interaction with DNA repair mechanism, generation of reactive oxygen species and induction of apoptosis. In this article, we have reviewed recent developments and findings on cadmium toxicology. PMID:24117228

  7. Cadmium-induced fetal toxicity in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium, a heavy metal environment contaminant, induces fetal death and placental necrosis in the Wistar rat. This study investigated fetal, maternal, and placental responses to cadmium intoxication. Subcutaneous injection of CdCl2 to dams on day 18 of pregnancy produced a high incidence of fetal death (75%) and placental necrosis. Death in the fetus was produced despite limited fetal accumulations of cadmium. Distribution studies using 109Cd-labeled CdCl2 demonstrated that less than 0.1% of the injected dose was associated with the fetus. To determine if fetuses were sensitive to these low levels of cadmium, direct injections of CdCl2 into fetuses were performed in utero. Direct injections produced fetal accumulations 8-fold greater than those following maternal injections. The 8-fold greater fetal accumulations following direct injection were associated with only a 12% fetal mortality compared to the 75% mortality following maternal injections. The data indicated that the fetal toxicity of cadmium following maternal injections was not the result of direct effects of cadmium on the fetus. In conclusion, cadmium-induced fetal death was not the result of direct effects of cadmium on the fetus but may have been induced by placental cellular injury resulting from high accumulations of cadmium in the placenta. A vascular response to placental injury, leading to decreased utero-placental bood flow and cadmium-induced alterations in trophoblastic function, resulted in fetal death

  8. Mobility, bioavailability, and toxic effects of cadmium in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total concentration is not a reliable indicator of metal mobility or bioavailability in soils. The physicochemical form determines the behavior of metals in soils and hence the toxicity toward terrestrial biota. The main objectives of this study were the application and comparison of three approaches for the evaluation of cadmium behavior in soil samples. The mobility and bioavailability of cadmium in five selected soil samples were evaluated using equilibrium speciation (Windermere humic aqueous mode (WHAM)), extraction procedures (Milli-Q water, DMSO, and DTPA), and a number of bioassays (Microtox, growth inhibition test, contact toxicity test, and respiration). The mobility, represented by the water-extractable fraction corresponded well with the amount of cadmium in the soil solution, calculate using the WHAM (r2=0.96, P<0.001). The results of the ecotoxicologica evaluation, which represent the bioavailable fraction of cadmium, correlated well with DTPA extractability and also with the concentration of free cadmium ion, which is recognized as the most bioavailable metal form. The results of the WHAM as well as the results of extraction experiments showed a strong binding of cadmium to organic matter and a weak sorption of cadmium to clay minerals

  9. Hepatoprotective activity of Moringa oleifera against cadmium toxicity in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Reetu Toppo; Birendra Kumar Roy; Ravuri Halley Gora; Sushma Lalita Baxla; Prabhat Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present investigation has been conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Moringa oleifera against cadmium-induced toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: For this study, 18 Wistar albino rats were taken. Control group, Group I rats were given cadmium chloride @ 200 ppm per kg and Group II rats were treated with M. oleifera extract @ 500 mg/kg along with cadmium chloride @ 200 ppm per kg (daily oral for 28 days). On 29th day, animals were slaughtered and various paramete...

  10. Effect of anions on Toxicity of Cadmium Applied to MIcrobial Biomass in Red Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.S.KHAN; XIEZHENGMIAO; 等

    1997-01-01

    A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted to elucidat the effects of associated anions on toxicity of cadmium applied to microbial biomass in the red soil. Cadmium was applied at six different levels,i.e.,O(background),5,15,30,60 and 100μg g-1 soil in the form of either cadmium acetate or cadmium chloride. Application of cadmium as cadmium acetate markedly reduced the soil microbial biomass carbon compared to cadmium applied as cadmium chlorde at all the tested levels.Similarly,organic carbon to biomass carbon ration in the soil was markedly increased by increasing the level of the cadmium in the soil as cadmium acetate,while the change wa much smaller in the case of cadmium chloride at the same cadmium levels.The results suggested that due consideration should be given to the source of cadmium while deciding the cadmium levles in experiments.

  11. Cadmium, ATPase-P, yeast. From transport to toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two projects has been developed during my PhD. One consisting in the functional study of CadA, the Cd2+-ATPase from Listeria monocytogenes, the other one was focused on the toxicity of cadmium and the associated response of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This two studies used a a phenotype of sensitivity to cadmium induced by CadA expression in yeast. This phenotype was used as a screening tool to identify essential amino acids of Cd transport by CadA and to study cadmium toxicity and the corresponding yeast cellular response. CadA actively transports Cd using ATP hydrolysis as energy source. Directed mutagenesis of the membranous polar, sulphur and charged amino-acids revealed that Cd transport pathway implied four transmembrane segments (Tm) and more precisely the cysteine C354, C356 and proline P355 of the CPC motif located in Tm6, aspartate D692 in Tm8, glutamate E164 in Tm4 and methionine M149 in Tm5. From our studies, 2 Cd ions would be translocated for each hydrolysis ATP. Expression of CadA in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae induces an hypersensitivity to Cd. A wild type cell can grow up to 100 μm cadmium whereas CadA expressing yeast cannot grow with 1 μm cadmium in the culture medium. This cadmium sensitivity was due to the localisation of CadA in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Transport of cadmium in this compartment produces an accumulation of mis-folded proteins that induces the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). As UPR also occurs in a wild type yeast exposed to low Cd concentration, one can point out endoplasmic reticulum as a extremely sensitive cellular compartment. UPR also appears as an early response to Cd as it happens far before any visible signs of toxicity. (author)

  12. Selenium reduces cadmium uptake and mitigates cadmium toxicity in rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Li; Zhou, Weihui; Dai, Huaxin; Cao, Fangbin; Zhang, Guoping [Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 (China); Wu, Feibo, E-mail: wufeibo@zju.edu.cn [Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Se alleviated Cd-toxicity, reduced Cd content and O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, MDA in rice plants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Se counteracted Cd-induced alterations of antioxidant enzymes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Se suppressed Cd-induced increase in SOD, APX, but elevated depressed CAT activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Se markedly increased H{sup +}-ATPase, Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase activities in roots under Cd exposure. - Abstract: Hydroponic experiments were performed to investigate physiological mechanisms of selenium (Se) mitigation of Cd toxicity in rice. Exogenous Se markedly reduced Cd concentration in leaves, roots, and stems. Addition or pretreatment of 3 {mu}M Se in 50 {mu}M Cd solution significantly addressed Cd-induced growth inhibition, recovered root cell viability, and dramatically depressed O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, and malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation. Supplemental Se counteracted 50 {mu}M Cd-induced alterations of certain antioxidant enzymes, and uptake of nutrients, e.g. depressed Cd-induced increase in leaf and root superoxide dismutase (SOD) and leaf peroxidase (POD) activities, but elevated depressed catalase (CAT) activity; decreased Cd-induced high S and Cu concentrations in both leaves and roots. External Se counteracted the pattern of alterations in ATPase activities induced by Cd, e.g. significantly elevated the depressed root H{sup +}- and Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase activities, but decreased the ascent root Na{sup +}K{sup +}-ATP activity. Results indicate that alleviated Cd toxicity by Se application is related to reduced Cd uptake and ROS accumulation, balanced nutrients, and increased H{sup +}- and Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase activities in rice.

  13. Oxidative Stress in Lead and Cadmium Toxicity and Its Amelioration

    OpenAIRE

    R. C. Patra; Amiya K. Rautray; D. Swarup

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated to play a role, at least in part, in pathogenesis of many disease conditions and toxicities in animals. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species and free radicals beyond the cells intrinsic capacity to neutralize following xenobiotics exposure leads to a state of oxidative stress and resultant damages of lipids, protein, and DNA. Lead and cadmium are the common environmental heavy metal pollutants and have widespread distribution. Both natural and anthrop...

  14. OXIDATIVE STRESS IN SHEEP INDUCED BY CADMIUM CHLORIDE TOXICITY, WITH THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF ALPHA LIPOIC ACID

    OpenAIRE

    Hussien Ali NAJI; Mohammad Mushgil ZENAD

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy toxic metal, with harmful effects on animals and public health. Recently the risk of cadmium toxicity is substantially regarded; the environmental pollution is increased due to multi- uses of this element in various industries. This study was performed to clarify the effects of acute cadmium toxicity in sheep with trail of using alpha lipoic acid as an antioxidant therapeutic substance. Fifteen male lambs aged from 5-to-7 months were divided equally in to three groups,...

  15. Toxicity of cadmium and zinc to encystment and in vitro excystment of Parorchis acanthus (Digenea: Philophthalmidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Morley, N.J.; Crane, M.; Lewis, J W

    2001-01-01

    The toxicity of cadmium, zinc and cadmium}zinc mixtures at concentrations ranging from 1000 to 50000 lg}l were investigated against cercariae and metacercariae of Parorchis acanthus obtained from the dog whelk Nucella lapillus. Cercarial encystment at concentrations of 25000 lg}l or higher was signi®cantly impaired by all test metals; however, at lower concentrations only zinc demonstrated toxicity. Mixtures of cadmium and zinc had a synergistic effect compared with single metal toxicity but ...

  16. Ecological toxicity of reactive X-3B red dye and cadmium acting on wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Ecological toxicity of reactive X-3B red dye and cadmium in both their single form and their combined form on wheat was studied using the experimental method of seed and root exposure. The single-factor exposure indicated that the inhibitory rate of wheat root elongation was significantly increased with the increase in the concentration of the dye in the cultural solution, although seed germination of wheat was not sensitive to the dye. The toxicity of cadmium was greatly higher than that of the dye, but low concentration cadmium (< 40 mg/L) could promote the germination of wheat seed. Interactive effects of the dye and cadmium on wheat were complicated. There was no significant correlation between the inhibitory rate of seed germination and the concentrations of the dye and cadmium. Low concentration cadmium could strengthen the toxicity of the dye acting on root elongation. On the contrary, high concentration cadmium could weaken the toxicity of the dye acting on root elongation.

  17. Oxidative Stress in Lead and Cadmium Toxicity and Its Amelioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Patra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been implicated to play a role, at least in part, in pathogenesis of many disease conditions and toxicities in animals. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species and free radicals beyond the cells intrinsic capacity to neutralize following xenobiotics exposure leads to a state of oxidative stress and resultant damages of lipids, protein, and DNA. Lead and cadmium are the common environmental heavy metal pollutants and have widespread distribution. Both natural and anthropogenic sources including mining, smelting, and other industrial processes are responsible for human and animal exposure. These pollutants, many a times, are copollutants leading to concurrent exposure to living beings and resultant synergistic deleterious health effects. Several mechanisms have been explained for the damaging effects on the body system. Of late, oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of the lead- and cadmium-induced pathotoxicity. Several ameliorative measures to counteract the oxidative damage to the body system aftermath or during exposure to these toxicants have been assessed with the use of antioxidants. The present review focuses on mechanism of lead- and cadmium-induced oxidate damages and the ameliorative measures to counteract the oxidative damage and pathotoxicity with the use of supplemented antioxidants for their beneficial effects.

  18. Joint toxicity of methamidophos and cadmium acting on Abelmoschus manihot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-fei; ZHOU Qi-xing

    2005-01-01

    Joint toxicity of methamidophos and cadmium(Cd) on the ornamental Abelmoschus manihot was firstly examined and compared with single-factor effects of the two pollutants using ecotoxicological indexes including the inhibitory rate of seed germination, root elongation and inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50). The results indicated that methamidophos and Cd had unobvious( p > 0.05) effects on seed germination of the ornamental. There were significant( p < 0.05) inhibitory effects of Cd on root elongation of the tested plant. When the concentration of added Cd was low( < 20 mg/L), significant antagonistic effects on root elongation were observed. And synergic effects were observed when Cd was added in high dose( > 20 mg/L). However, the analysis of joint effects indicated that there were antagonistic effects between Cd and methamidophos under all the treatments. At the high concentration of Cd, joint toxicity of methamidophos and Cd was more dependent on concentration of Cd.

  19. Cadmium and Chromium Toxicity to Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Microcystis aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzelei Rodgher

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity of cadmium and chromium to Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Microcystis aeruginosa was evaluated through algal growth rate during 96h exposure bioassays. Free metal ion concentrations were obtained using MINEQL+ 4.61 and used for IC50 determination. Metal accumulations by the microorganisms were determined and they were found to be dependent on the concentration of Cd2+ and Cr6+. IC50 for P. subcapitata were 0.60 µmol L-1 free Cd2+ and 20 µmol L-1 free Cr6+, while the IC50 values for M. aeruginosa were 0.01 µmol L-1 Cd2+ and 11.07 µmol L-1 Cr6+ . P. subcapitata accumulated higher metal concentrations (0.001 -0.05 µmol Cd mg-1 dry wt. and 0.001 -0.04 µmol Cr mg-1 dry wt than the cyanobacteria (0.001 -0.01 µmol Cd mg-1 dry wt and 0.001 -0.02 µmol Cr mg-1 dry wt. Cadmium was more toxic than chromium to both the microorganisms.

  20. Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor as the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in human melanocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chantarawong, Wipa [Department of Molecular Biology and Applied Physiology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Inter Departmental Multidisciplinary Graduate Program in Bioscience, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok (Thailand); Takeda, Kazuhisa; Sangartit, Weerapon; Yoshizawa, Miki [Department of Molecular Biology and Applied Physiology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Pradermwong, Kantimanee [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok (Thailand); Shibahara, Shigeki, E-mail: shibahar@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Biology and Applied Physiology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: • In human melanocytes, cadmium decreases the expression of MITF-M and tyrosinase and their mRNAs. • In human melanoma cells, cadmium decreases the expression of MITF-M protein and tyrosinase mRNA. • Expression of MITF-H is less sensitive to cadmium toxicity in melanocyte-linage cells. • Cadmium does not decrease the expression of MITF-H in retinal pigment epithelial cells. • MITF-M is the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in melanocytes. - Abstract: Dietary intake of cadmium is inevitable, causing age-related increase in cadmium accumulation in many organs, including hair, choroid and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Cadmium has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hearing loss and macular degeneration. The functions of cochlea and retina are maintained by melanocytes and RPE, respectively, and the differentiation of these pigment cells is regulated by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). In the present study, we explored the potential toxicity of cadmium in the cochlea and retina by using cultured human melanocytes and human RPE cell lines. MITF consists of multiple isoforms, including melanocyte-specific MITF-M and widely expressed MITF-H. Levels of MITF-M protein and its mRNA in human epidermal melanocytes and HMV-II melanoma cells were decreased significantly by cadmium. In parallel with the MITF reduction, mRNA levels of tyrosinase, the key enzyme of melanin biosynthesis that is regulated by MITF-M, were also decreased. In RPE cells, however, the levels of total MITF protein, constituting mainly MITF-H, were not decreased by cadmium. We thus identify MITF-M as the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in melanocytes, thereby accounting for the increased risk of disability from melanocyte malfunction, such as hearing and vision loss among people with elevated cadmium exposure.

  1. Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor as the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in human melanocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • In human melanocytes, cadmium decreases the expression of MITF-M and tyrosinase and their mRNAs. • In human melanoma cells, cadmium decreases the expression of MITF-M protein and tyrosinase mRNA. • Expression of MITF-H is less sensitive to cadmium toxicity in melanocyte-linage cells. • Cadmium does not decrease the expression of MITF-H in retinal pigment epithelial cells. • MITF-M is the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in melanocytes. - Abstract: Dietary intake of cadmium is inevitable, causing age-related increase in cadmium accumulation in many organs, including hair, choroid and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Cadmium has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hearing loss and macular degeneration. The functions of cochlea and retina are maintained by melanocytes and RPE, respectively, and the differentiation of these pigment cells is regulated by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). In the present study, we explored the potential toxicity of cadmium in the cochlea and retina by using cultured human melanocytes and human RPE cell lines. MITF consists of multiple isoforms, including melanocyte-specific MITF-M and widely expressed MITF-H. Levels of MITF-M protein and its mRNA in human epidermal melanocytes and HMV-II melanoma cells were decreased significantly by cadmium. In parallel with the MITF reduction, mRNA levels of tyrosinase, the key enzyme of melanin biosynthesis that is regulated by MITF-M, were also decreased. In RPE cells, however, the levels of total MITF protein, constituting mainly MITF-H, were not decreased by cadmium. We thus identify MITF-M as the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in melanocytes, thereby accounting for the increased risk of disability from melanocyte malfunction, such as hearing and vision loss among people with elevated cadmium exposure

  2. Adsorbent Potential of Tea Waste to Control Cadmium Toxicity on

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Perveen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of industrial wastage without proper treatment is responsible for the lowering of crop productivity with the accumulation of essential and non essential trace metals in the land. The present research was designed to evaluate Cadmium toxicity on plant growth and to describe the remedial effect of tea wastage against Cd(II toxicity with reference to the growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.Application of Cd2+ decreased the wheat seedling growth along with alleviated concentration. It was dose-dependent, and significant at higher concentration of CdCl2. The result showed the inhibitory effect of Cd2+ ion on plant growth which includes reduction in shoot and root length, plant fresh and dry biomass and soluble carbohydrate and significant increase in total phenol contents as defense biomolecule against external stress. Adsorption is a promising alternative method to treat industrial effluents. Mainly because of its low cost and high metal binding capacity tea waste is one of the low cost and easily available adsorbent having strong adsorptivity towards heavy metals. The consumed tea leaves were found to be able to remove substantial amounts of Cd+2ions from aqueous solution. Thus it can be inferred that the addition of tea waste at appropriate rate may be useful approach to enhance the plant growth and to immobilize Cd2+ by depressing its bioavailability.

  3. Occupational and Community Exposures to Toxic Metals: Lead, Cadmium, Mercury and Arsenic

    OpenAIRE

    Landrigan, Philip J.

    1982-01-01

    Lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic are widely dispersed in the environment. Adults are primarily exposed to these contaminants in the workplace. Children may be exposed to toxic metals from numerous sources, including contaminated air, water, soil and food.

  4. Role of oxidative stress in cadmium toxicity and carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal, targeting the lung, liver, kidney, and testes following acute intoxication, and causing nephrotoxicity, immunotoxicity, osteotoxicity and tumors after prolonged exposures. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are often implicated in Cd toxicology. This minireview focused on direct evidence for the generation of free radicals in intact animals following acute Cd overload and discussed the association of ROS in chronic Cd toxicity and carcinogenesis. Cd-generated superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radicals in vivo have been detected by the electron spin resonance spectra, which are often accompanied by activation of redox sensitive transcription factors (e.g., NF-κB, AP-1 and Nrf2) and alteration of ROS-related gene expression. It is generally agreed upon that oxidative stress plays important roles in acute Cd poisoning. However, following long-term Cd exposure at environmentally-relevant low levels, direct evidence for oxidative stress is often obscure. Alterations in ROS-related gene expression during chronic exposures are also less significant compared to acute Cd poisoning. This is probably due to induced adaptation mechanisms (e.g., metallothionein and glutathione) following chronic Cd exposures, which in turn diminish Cd-induced oxidative stress. In chronic Cd-transformed cells, less ROS signals are detected with fluorescence probes. Acquired apoptotic tolerance renders damaged cells to proliferate with inherent oxidative DNA lesions, potentially leading to tumorigenesis. Thus, ROS are generated following acute Cd overload and play important roles in tissue damage. Adaptation to chronic Cd exposure reduces ROS production, but acquired Cd tolerance with aberrant gene expression plays important roles in chronic Cd toxicity and carcinogenesis.

  5. Cadmium toxicity revisited: focus on oxidative stress induction and interactions with zinc and magnesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discovered in late 1817, cadmium is currently one of the most important occupational and environmental pollutants. It is associated with renal, neurological, skeletal and other toxic effects, including reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity. There is still much to find out about its mechanisms of action, bio markers of critical effects, and ways to reduce health risks. At present, there is no clinically efficient agent to treat cadmium poisoning due to predominantly intracellular location of cadmium ions. This article gives a brief review of cadmium-induced oxidative stress and its interactions with essential elements zinc and magnesium as relevant mechanisms of cadmium toxicity. It draws on available literature data and our own results, which indicate that dietary supplementation of either essential element has beneficial effect under condition of cadmium exposure. We have also tackled the reasons why magnesium addition prevails over zinc and discussed the protective role of magnesium during cadmium exposure. These findings could help to solve the problem of prophylaxis and therapy of increased cadmium body burden. (authors)

  6. Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor as the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in human melanocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantarawong, Wipa; Takeda, Kazuhisa; Sangartit, Weerapon; Yoshizawa, Miki; Pradermwong, Kantimanee; Shibahara, Shigeki

    2014-11-28

    Dietary intake of cadmium is inevitable, causing age-related increase in cadmium accumulation in many organs, including hair, choroid and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Cadmium has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hearing loss and macular degeneration. The functions of cochlea and retina are maintained by melanocytes and RPE, respectively, and the differentiation of these pigment cells is regulated by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). In the present study, we explored the potential toxicity of cadmium in the cochlea and retina by using cultured human melanocytes and human RPE cell lines. MITF consists of multiple isoforms, including melanocyte-specific MITF-M and widely expressed MITF-H. Levels of MITF-M protein and its mRNA in human epidermal melanocytes and HMV-II melanoma cells were decreased significantly by cadmium. In parallel with the MITF reduction, mRNA levels of tyrosinase, the key enzyme of melanin biosynthesis that is regulated by MITF-M, were also decreased. In RPE cells, however, the levels of total MITF protein, constituting mainly MITF-H, were not decreased by cadmium. We thus identify MITF-M as the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in melanocytes, thereby accounting for the increased risk of disability from melanocyte malfunction, such as hearing and vision loss among people with elevated cadmium exposure. PMID:25449283

  7. Mechanism of acute cadmium toxicity in the testis of the rat: a cellular and molecular inquiry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The more sensitive Sertoli cells were chosen as a model to investigate a molecular mechanism of toxicity. Primary rat Sertoli cells were exposed to sublethal concentrations of cadmium and the changes in [32P]-orthophosphate-labelled phosphoproteins using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were examined. Resultant autoradiograms showed a delayed dose- and time-dependent increase in intensity of two acidic proteins having identical molecular weights. These changes were most probably a result of increased synthesis of the proteins. Pretreatment of the cells with zinc, a cadmium antagonist, partially reduced the effect of cadmium. This research concludes that Sertoli cells are relatively more sensitive to the effects of cadmium than interstitial cells. A time- and dose dependent increase in [32P]-associated activity to two small Sertoli cell phosphoproteins was consistently seen after cadmium exposure, whereas no effect could be seen using essential, non-toxic metals. This response may be an early indicator in the disruption of cellular homeostasis by cadmium, and will hopefully contribute positive evidence in the search for a molecular mechanism of cadmium toxicity

  8. Removal of cadmium by Lactobacillus kefir as a protective tool against toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbino, Esteban; Carasi, Paula; Tymczyszyn, E Elizabeth; Gómez-Zavaglia, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the capacity of Lactobacillus kefir strains to remove cadmium cations and protect eukaryotic cells from cadmium toxicity. Lb. kefir CIDCA 8348 and JCM 5818 were grown in a 1/2 dilution of MRS broth supplemented with Cd(NO3)2 ranging 0 to 1 mM. Growth kinetics were followed during 76 h at 30 °C by registering optical density at 600 nm every 4-10 h. The accumulated concentration of cadmium was determined on cultures in the stationary phase by atomic absorption. The viability of a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) upon exposure to (a) free cadmium and (b) cadmium previously incubated with Lb. kefir strains was evaluated by determining the mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity. Lb. kefir strains were able to grow and tolerate concentrations of cadmium cations up to 1 mM. The addition of cadmium to the culture medium increased the lag time in all the concentrations used. However, a decrease of the total biomass (maximum Absorbance) was observed only at concentrations above 0.0012 and 0.0011 mM for strains CIDCA 8348 and JCM 5818, respectively. Shorter and rounder lactobacilli were observed in both strains upon microscopic observations. Moreover, dark precipitates compatible with intracellular precipitation of cadmium were observed in the cytoplasm of both strains. The ability of Lb. kefir to protect eukaryotic cells cultures from cadmium toxicity was analysed using HepG2 cells lines. Concentrations of cadmium greater than 3×10(-3) mM strongly decreased the viability of HepG2 cells. However, when the eukaryotic cells were exposed to cadmium pre-incubated 1 h with Lb. kefir the toxicity of cadmium was considerably lower, Lb. kefir JCM 5818 being more efficient. The high tolerance and binding capacity of Lb. kefir strains to cadmium concentrations largely exceeding the tolerated weekly intake (TWI) of cadmium for food (2.5 μg per kg of body weight) and water (3 μg/l) addressed to human consumption, is an important added value when

  9. Protective effects of proline against cadmium toxicity in micropropagated hyperaccumulator, Solanum nigrum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin; Yin, HengXia; Li, Xia

    2009-02-01

    Solanum nigrum is a newly discovered Cd-hyperaccumulator. In the present study, the protective effects of proline against cadmium toxicity of callus and regenerated shoots of S. nigrum are investigated based on a high frequency in vitro shoot regeneration system. Proline pretreatment reduces the reactive oxygen species levels and protects the plasma membrane integrity of callus under cadmium stress, and therefore improves the cadmium tolerance in S. nigrum. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy analysis shows that exogenous proline increases the cadmium accumulation in callus and regenerated shoots of S. nigrum. Further analysis indicates that the improvement of cadmium tolerance caused by proline pretreatment is correlated with an increase of superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and intracellular total glutathione content. The interaction between proline and enzymic or non-enzymic antioxidants is discussed. PMID:19043719

  10. Alleviation of Cadmium Toxicity in Pisum sativum L. Seedlings by Calcium Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam S. EL-BELTAGI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out to study the role of calcium chloride in enhancing tolerance and reducing cadmium toxicity in pea seedlings. Some treatment with 1 and 5 mM CaCl2 mitigated cadmium stress by increasing antioxidant enzyme activities: catalase (CAT, peroxidase (POD and polyphenol oxidase (PPO, as well as by elevating contents of ascorbic acid (ASA, tocopherol and carotenoids. On the other hand, total carbohydrate and total soluble proteins decreased with increasing cadmium concentrations in comparison with control plants. However, total phenol, total free amino acids, proline and lipid peroxidation increased with increasing concentrations of cadmium acetate. Electrophoretic studies of protein revealed that cadmium treatments alone or in combination with calcium chloride were associated with the disappearance of some bands or appearance of new bands in pea seedlings. Electrophoretic studies of α-esterase, β-esterase and acid phosphatase isozymes showed wide variations in their intensities and densities.

  11. 28-Homobrassinolide protects chickpea (Cicer arietinum) from cadmium toxicity by stimulating antioxidants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, S.A. [Plant Physiology Section, Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, U.P. (India); Hayat, S. [Plant Physiology Section, Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, U.P. (India)], E-mail: shayat@lycos.com; Ali, B.; Ahmad, A. [Plant Physiology Section, Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, U.P. (India)

    2008-01-15

    In the present experiment the seeds of Cicer arietinum (L.) cv. Uday were inoculated with specific Rhizobium grown in sandy loam soil and were allowed to grow for 15 days. At this stage, the seedlings were supplied with 0, 50, 100 or 150 {mu}M of cadmium in the form of cadmium chloride and sprayed with 0.01 {mu}M of 28-homobrassinolide (HBL) at 30-day stage. The data indicated that plant fresh and dry mass, number of nodules, their fresh and dry mass, leghemoglobin content, nitrogen and carbohydrate content in the nodules, leaf chlorophyll content, nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase activities decreased proportionately with the increasing concentrations of cadmium but the content of proline and the activities of catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase increased. The ill effect, generated by cadmium, was overcome if the stressed plants were sprayed with HBL. - The cadmium toxicity can be overcome by the foliar application of 28-homobrassinolide.

  12. On the mechanism of cadmium toxicity: Suppression of mitochondrial respiration by an organic complex of cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korotkov, S.M.; Rozengart, E.V.; Suvorov, A.A.; Nesterov, V.P.; Khovanskikh, A.E. [Setchenow Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1994-09-01

    Mitochondria are the main targets of the deleterious effect of cadmium. It was found that 94% of cadmium in mitochondria exists as a soluble complex with low-molecular-weight proteins, i.e., metallothioneins. The remaining 6% of cadmium is bound to protein structures of the mitochondrial matrix and, thereby cause the dysfunction of subcellular organelles in vivo. The mechanism of direct interaction of cadmium with the target protein is unknown; however, it is evident that the incorporation of cadmium into a complex with an organic ligand can significantly affect this process and eventually affect the interaction of cadmium with matrix proteins. It was of interest to compare the effects of an inorganic cadmium salt (hydrated Cd{sup 2+} cation) and an organic complex of cadmium [Cd(II)-1,3-bis-(chlorobenzylidenamino)guanidine, CBG] on rat liver mitochondrial respiration. This complex was earlier shown to display a wide range of biological activities. Particularly, it appeared to be more potent than Cd{sup 2+} in inhibiting monoamine oxidase.

  13. Cadmium toxicity: Effects on cytoskeleton, vesicular trafficking and cell wall construction

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Lichuan; Zhang, Haiyan

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium is a well-known environmental pollutant with distinctly toxic effects on plants. It can displace certain essential metals from a wealth of metalloproteins, and thus disturb many normal physiological processes and cause severe developmental aberrant. The harmful effects of cadmium stress include, but are not limited to: reactive oxygen species overproduction, higher lipid hydroperoxide contents, and chloroplast structure change, which may lead to cell death. Plants have developed diver...

  14. Changes of porcine growth hormone and pituitary nitrogen monoxide production as a response to cadmium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xin-Yan; Huang, Qi-Chun; Liu, Bo-Jing; Xu, Zi-Rong; Wang, Yi-Zhen

    2007-11-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of various cadmium concentrations on porcine growth hormone (GH) secretion in serum and cultured pituitary cells and to explore the possible mechanisms of cadmium toxicity. In feeding trial, 192 barrows (Duroc x Landrace x Yorkshire), with similar initial body weights, were randomly divided into four different treatment groups with three replicates for each treatment. The diets were supplemented for 83 days with 0, 0.5, 5.0, and 10.0 mg/kg cadmium (as CdCl2). For the cell culture trial, dispersed pituitary cells were incubated with graded doses of cadmium (0, 5, 10, 15, or 20 microM) for 24 h. Pigs treated with 10 mg/kg cadmium had significantly decreased serum GH content. 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay showed that Cd toxicity was dose-dependent. Cell viability was reduced to 50% at 15 microM concentration. Administration of cadmium significantly reduced GH secretion, whereas cellular NO content and inducible nitric oxide synthase activity increased to a certain extent. These findings suggest that the decrease of GH might be related to NO production and to a change of NO signal pathway caused by cadmium. PMID:17916936

  15. Sulphate, more than a nutrient, protects the microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii from cadmium toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mera, Roi; Torres, Enrique, E-mail: torres@udc.es; Abalde, Julio

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Sulphate effect on cadmium toxicity in the microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii Gerloff. • Cadmium increases the sulphur requirements in Chlamydomonas moewusii. • Kinetic coefficients for sulphate utilization and cadmium effect on them. • Sulphate and cadmium influence on the biosynthesis of low-molecular mass thiols. • Cadmium toxicity reduction by sulphate due to higher biosynthesis of thiols. - Abstract: Sulphur is an essential macroelement that plays important roles in living organisms. The thiol rich sulphur compounds, such as cysteine, γ-Glu–Cys, glutathione and phytochelatins participate in the tolerance mechanisms against cadmium toxicity. Plants, algae, yeasts and most prokaryotes cover their demand for reduced sulphur by reduction of inorganic sulphate. The aim of this study was to investigate, using a bifactorial experimental design, the effect of different sulphate concentrations in the nutrient solution on cadmium toxicity in the freshwater microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii. Cell growth, kinetic parameters of sulphate utilization and intracellular concentrations of low-molecular mass thiol compounds were determined. A mathematical model to describe the growth of this microalga based on the effects of sulphate and cadmium was obtained. An ANOVA revealed an interaction between them, 16% of the effect sizes was explained by this interaction. A higher amount of sulphate in the culture medium allowed a higher cadmium tolerance due to an increase in the thiol compound biosynthesis. The amount of low-molecular mass thiol compounds, mainly phytochelatins, synthesized by this microalga was significantly dependent on the sulphate and cadmium concentrations; the higher phytochelatin content was obtained in cultures with 4 mg Cd/L and 1 mM sulphate. The maximum EC{sub 50} value (based on nominal cadmium concentration) reached for this microalga was 4.46 ± 0.42 mg Cd/L when the sulphate concentration added to the culture medium was also 1 m

  16. Influence of sulphate on the reduction of cadmium toxicity in the microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mera, Roi; Torres, Enrique; Abalde, Julio

    2016-06-01

    Cadmium is considered as one of the most hazardous metals for living organism and ecosystems. Environmental factors play an important role since they alter the toxicity of metals by varying the bioavailability of these elements for the organisms. The aim of the present study was to investigate, using the freshwater microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii, the existence of an interaction between cadmium and sulphate as a factor that varied the toxicity of this metal. Different cell parameters such as cell growth, content of chlorophylls and biosynthesis of phytochelatins (PCs) were determined. A two-way ANOVA showed that the interaction had a significant effect size of 21% (pcadmium on the growth and on the content of chlorophylls was observed. In addition, the increase of sulphate concentration allowed the biosynthesis of a higher amount of PCs and/or PCs with higher chain length. This higher biosynthesis was responsible for the reduction of the toxic effect of cadmium and explained the interaction. PMID:26963118

  17. Complex interactions between climate change and toxicants: evidence that temperature variability increases sensitivity to cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberly, David A; Salice, Christopher J

    2014-07-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects that global climate change will have significant impacts on environmental conditions including potential effects on sensitivity of organisms to environmental contaminants. The objective of this study was to test the climate-induced toxicant sensitivity (CITS) hypothesis in which acclimation to altered climate parameters increases toxicant sensitivity. Adult Physa pomilia snails were acclimated to a near optimal 22 °C or a high-normal 28 °C for 28 days. After 28 days, snails from each temperature group were challenged with either low (150 μg/L) or high (300 μg/L) cadmium at each temperature (28 or 22 °C). In contrast to the CITS hypothesis, we found that acclimation temperature did not have a strong influence on cadmium sensitivity except at the high cadmium test concentration where snails acclimated to 28 °C were more cadmium tolerant. However, snails that experienced a switch in temperature for the cadmium challenge, regardless of the switch direction, were the most sensitive to cadmium. Within the snails that were switched between temperatures, snails acclimated at 28 °C and then exposed to high cadmium at 22 °C exhibited significantly greater mortality than those snails acclimated to 22 °C and then exposed to cadmium at 28 °C. Our results point to the importance of temperature variability in increasing toxicant sensitivity but also suggest a potentially complex cost of temperature acclimation. Broadly, the type of temporal stressor exposures we simulated may reduce overall plasticity in responses to stress ultimately rendering populations more vulnerable to adverse effects. PMID:24623389

  18. Cadmium toxicity on seed germination and seedling growth of wheat Triticum aestivum

    OpenAIRE

    Maria de Fátima Souza Guilherme; Habyhabanne Maia Oliveira; Edevaldo da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium toxicity in seed germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum, var. IAC-370) is assessed. The ecotoxicological effects of six experimental concentrations of cadmium (0.03; 0.06; 0.12; 0.6; 1.2; 2.4; 4.8 mM), and control were evaluated. All assays were performed in quadruplicates with 25 seeds per replication in Petri dishes. Responses for toxic effect comprised the variables germination percentage, index of velocity of germination (IVG), length of aerial section and roo...

  19. Neuroprotective effect of grape seed extract against cadmium toxicity in male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tarras, Adel El-Sayed; Attia, Hossam Fouad; Soliman, Mohammed Mohamed; El Awady, Mohammed Abdelhamid; Amin, Adnan Abelghani

    2016-09-01

    Cadmium toxicity can disturb brain chemistry leading to depression, anxiety, and weakened immunity. Cadmium disturbs the neurotransmitter dopamine, resulting in low energy, lack of motivation, and depression, which are predisposing factors for violence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ameliorative effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on the brain of 40 male albino rats after exposure to cadmium chloride (Cd) toxicity. The rats were separated into either the control group, the Cd group, the GSE group, or the GSE and Cd mixture (treated) group. The cerebrum showed evidence of degeneration of some nerve fibers and cells. Fibrosis, vacuolations, and congestion in the blood vessels were demonstrated. Satelletosis was located in the capsular cells. Immunohistochemical expression of Bax was strongly positive in the Cd group and decreased in the treated group. These histopathological changes were decreased in the brain tissue of the treated group, but a few blood vessels still had evidence of congestion. Cadmium administration increased the level of MDA and decreased MAO-A, acetylcholinesterase, and glutathione reductase (GR), while the treatment with GSE affected the alterations in these parameters. In addition, cadmium downregulated the mRNA expression levels of GST and GPx, while GSE treatment normalized the transcript levels. The expression of both dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter was downregulated in the rats administered cadmium and the addition of GSE normalized the expression of these aggression associated genes. PMID:27271977

  20. Inter-annual depth-dependent toxicity and bioaccumulation of cadmium in marine benthic protist communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Ruiz-Álvarez

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity and bioaccumulation of cadmium in a marine benthic protist community were examined at different depths within the sediment. For this purpose, sediment-water microcosms with 1000 µg Cd dm-3 of the pollutant were used in two assays. The addition of cadmium caused a significant reduction in protist density, number of species and biomass. There was also a decrease in these three parameters with depth. During the treatment the density of protist groups was strongly depth-dependent. The dominant groups of protists at the different depths during the assay were also considered. The most dominant protist group in terms of density were the heterotrophic flagellates, both in the control and in the treatment with cadmium. In the treatments with cadmium,these were followed by ciliates and by dinoflagellates in both assays. In the control, all protist groups were present during the assay, whereas in the treatments with cadmium, autotrophic flagellates, diatoms and sarcodines were found in reduced proportion or not at all. Cadmium bioaccumulation increased towards the end of the assay. At any time during the assay, the proportionof cadmium bioaccumulated was an increasing function of depth.

  1. Cadmium toxicity and its effect on the testes of an Australian marsupial (Trichosurus vulpecula)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, R.W.; Swain, R.; Whitten, W.K.

    1981-02-01

    The selective toxic effects of cadmium on the testes of eutherian mammals have been well documented. A single subcutaneous or intraperitoneal injection of cadmium (as CdCl/sub 2/) results in testicular necrosis in most eutherian species. Some comparative work has also been carried out on other vertebrate groups, but studies of the effects of cadmium salts on the testes of non-eutherian mammals (monotremes and marsupials) are limited to two brief reports. The present paper reports the results following the injection of cadmium into another marsupial, the common Australian brush-tail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). Sperm are found throughout the year in this species but breeding is mainly limited to the winter months with secondary peak in spring.

  2. Cadmium toxicity on seed germination and seedling growth of wheat Triticum aestivum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Souza Guilherme

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium toxicity in seed germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum, var. IAC-370 is assessed. The ecotoxicological effects of six experimental concentrations of cadmium (0.03; 0.06; 0.12; 0.6; 1.2; 2.4; 4.8 mM, and control were evaluated. All assays were performed in quadruplicates with 25 seeds per replication in Petri dishes. Responses for toxic effect comprised the variables germination percentage, index of velocity of germination (IVG, length of aerial section and root of the seedlings, green and dry mass of the seedlings. Results showed that T. aestivum seeds exposed to cadmium decreased their normal germination percentage as from 0.03 mM concentration, with a 31% reduction of germination percentage and a 20% decrease in IVG. Cadmium´s inhibition effect on initial growth of seedlings influenced growth of roots and aerial part as from concentration 0.12 mM and reduced the production of green and dry mass of seedlings as from 0.06 mM. The presence and accumulation of cadmium in the soil cultivated with T. aestivum may trigger liabilities in productivity and/or viability caused by its toxicity as from 0.03mM concentrations absorbed by the plant roots.

  3. Gene networks and toxicity pathways induced by acute cadmium exposure in adult largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehinto, Alvine C., E-mail: alvinam@sccwrp.org [Southern California Coastal Water Research Project, Costa Mesa, CA 92626 (United States); Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Prucha, Melinda S. [Department of Human Genetics, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Colli-Dula, Reyna C.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Lavelle, Candice M.; Barber, David S. [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Vulpe, Christopher D. [Department of Nutritional Sciences and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Denslow, Nancy D. [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Low-level acute cadmium exposure elicited tissue-specific gene expression changes. • Molecular initiating events included oxidative stress and disruption of DNA repair. • Metallothionein, a marker of metal exposure, was not significantly affected. • We report effects of cadmium on cholesterol metabolism and steroid synthesis. • Diabetic complications and impaired reproduction are potential adverse outcomes. - Abstract: Cadmium is a heavy metal that can accumulate to toxic levels in the environment leading to detrimental effects in animals and humans including kidney, liver and lung injuries. Using a transcriptomics approach, genes and cellular pathways affected by a low dose of cadmium were investigated. Adult largemouth bass were intraperitoneally injected with 20 μg/kg of cadmium chloride (mean exposure level – 2.6 μg of cadmium per fish) and microarray analyses were conducted in the liver and testis 48 h after injection. Transcriptomic profiles identified in response to cadmium exposure were tissue-specific with the most differential expression changes found in the liver tissues, which also contained much higher levels of cadmium than the testis. Acute exposure to a low dose of cadmium induced oxidative stress response and oxidative damage pathways in the liver. The mRNA levels of antioxidants such as catalase increased and numerous transcripts related to DNA damage and DNA repair were significantly altered. Hepatic mRNA levels of metallothionein, a molecular marker of metal exposure, did not increase significantly after 48 h exposure. Carbohydrate metabolic pathways were also disrupted with hepatic transcripts such as UDP-glucose, pyrophosphorylase 2, and sorbitol dehydrogenase highly induced. Both tissues exhibited a disruption of steroid signaling pathways. In the testis, estrogen receptor beta and transcripts linked to cholesterol metabolism were suppressed. On the contrary, genes involved in cholesterol metabolism were highly

  4. Gene networks and toxicity pathways induced by acute cadmium exposure in adult largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Low-level acute cadmium exposure elicited tissue-specific gene expression changes. • Molecular initiating events included oxidative stress and disruption of DNA repair. • Metallothionein, a marker of metal exposure, was not significantly affected. • We report effects of cadmium on cholesterol metabolism and steroid synthesis. • Diabetic complications and impaired reproduction are potential adverse outcomes. - Abstract: Cadmium is a heavy metal that can accumulate to toxic levels in the environment leading to detrimental effects in animals and humans including kidney, liver and lung injuries. Using a transcriptomics approach, genes and cellular pathways affected by a low dose of cadmium were investigated. Adult largemouth bass were intraperitoneally injected with 20 μg/kg of cadmium chloride (mean exposure level – 2.6 μg of cadmium per fish) and microarray analyses were conducted in the liver and testis 48 h after injection. Transcriptomic profiles identified in response to cadmium exposure were tissue-specific with the most differential expression changes found in the liver tissues, which also contained much higher levels of cadmium than the testis. Acute exposure to a low dose of cadmium induced oxidative stress response and oxidative damage pathways in the liver. The mRNA levels of antioxidants such as catalase increased and numerous transcripts related to DNA damage and DNA repair were significantly altered. Hepatic mRNA levels of metallothionein, a molecular marker of metal exposure, did not increase significantly after 48 h exposure. Carbohydrate metabolic pathways were also disrupted with hepatic transcripts such as UDP-glucose, pyrophosphorylase 2, and sorbitol dehydrogenase highly induced. Both tissues exhibited a disruption of steroid signaling pathways. In the testis, estrogen receptor beta and transcripts linked to cholesterol metabolism were suppressed. On the contrary, genes involved in cholesterol metabolism were highly

  5. Toxicity prediction of binary combinations of cadmium, carbendazim and low dissolved oxygen on Daphnia magna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental contamination is often characterised by a combination of stress factors of various sources (biological, physical and chemical). The predictability of their joint effects is an important stage in environmental risk assessment procedures. In this study, the two main conceptual models for mixture evaluation based on the effect of individual compounds, concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA) and deviations to synergism/antagonism, 'dose ratio' and 'dose level' dependency were used. The single and combined effects of cadmium, carbendazim and low dissolved oxygen levels were assayed for life-cycle parameters (survival and feeding) of the water flea Daphnia magna Straus. The results of single exposures revealed an increase of acute and chronic toxicity as concentrations of cadmium and carbendazim increases. At low dissolved oxygen levels both survival and feeding parameters were significantly affected (P ≤ 0.05). In the acute mixture exposure of cadmium and carbendazim a 'dose ratio' dependency was observed with a higher toxicity when cadmium was dominant whereas at high concentrations of carbendazim a lower effect on survival was observed. At chronic exposures an antagonistic deviation from IA model was observed for this mixture. The IA model showed to be adequate for toxicity prediction on acute exposure combinations with low DO levels where a synergistic behaviour was observed. However, at sublethal exposures IA and CA models failed by underestimation. Validation from toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic modelling studies should be made in the future as a way to understand toxicological pathways involved in complex mixture/combination exposures

  6. Response of phytochelatins and their relationship with cadmium toxicity in a floating macrophyte Pistia stratiotes L. at environmentally relevant concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Wang, L Y; Sun, Q

    2010-02-01

    An indoor experiment was undertaken to investigate the response of phytochelatins and their relationship to cadmium toxicity in Pistia stratiotes L., a free-floating macrophyte, exposed to low concentrations of cadmium typically found in realistic environments. Cadmium concentrations of 0.01 to 0.08 microM had no toxic effects on the growth of this plant, as indicated by no significant changes in the fresh weights of leaves and roots and the slight induction of phytochelatins in plant tissues, whereas cadmium concentrations of 0.16 to 1 microM were toxic, and cadmium toxicity increased with the increase of cadmium concentrations in solutions, accompanied by the dramatic production of phytochelatins in plant tissues, especially in roots. There was a positive correction between root phytochelatin levels and cadmium toxicity, as measured by the growth inhibition rate of the root fresh weight. The results suggested that phytochelatins in aquatic macrophytes can serve as sensitive biomarkers for heavy metal toxicity in a moderately polluted water environment. PMID:20183981

  7. Effect of Physalis peruviana L. on cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Mohamed S; Nada, Ahmed; Zaki, Hassan S; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2014-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species and causes tissue damage. We investigated here the protective effect of Physalis peruviana L. (family Solanaceae) against cadmium-induced testes toxicity in rats. Twenty-eight Wistar albino rats were used. They were divided into four groups (n=7). Group 1 was used as control. Group 2 was intraperitoneally injected with 6.5 mg/kg body weight (bwt) of cadmium chloride for 5 days. Group 3 was orally treated with 200 mg/kg bwt of methanolic extract of physalis (MEPh). Group 4 was pretreated with MEPh before cadmium for 5 days. Changes in body and testes weights were determined. Oxidative stress markers, antioxidant enzymes, and testosterone level were measured. Histopathological changes of testes were examined, and the immunohistochemical staining for the proapoptotic (caspase-3) protein was performed. The injection of cadmium caused a significant decrease in body weight, while a significant increase in testes weight and testes weight index was observed. Pretreatment with MEPh was associated with significant reduction in the toxic effects of Cd as shown by reduced testicular levels of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, and caspase-3 expression and increased glutathione content, and the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and testosterone were also increased. Testicular histopathology showed that Cd produced an extensive germ cell apoptosis, and the pretreatment of MEPh in Cd-treated rats significantly reduced Cd-induced testicular damage. On the basis of the above results, it can be hypothesized that P. peruviana L. has a protective effect against cadmium-induced testicular oxidative stress and apoptosis in the rat. PMID:24728876

  8. Photoionization cross section of atomic cadmium using the multi-configuration Tamm-Dancoff approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, G. B.; Jose, J.; Radojević, V.; Manson, S. T.; Deshmukh, P. C.

    2009-11-01

    The Multiconfiguration Tamm-Dancoff approximation (MCTD) is used to calculate the photoionization cross section of cadmium. Results are compared with available experimental data and also with earlier computations of the cross-section. We find that while earlier computations overestimated the photoionization cross section compared to experiment, the present MCTD computation underestimates the same.

  9. Photoionization cross section of atomic cadmium using the multi-configuration Tamm-Dancoff approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Multiconfiguration Tamm-Dancoff approximation (MCTD) is used to calculate the photoionization cross section of cadmium. Results are compared with available experimental data and also with earlier computations of the cross-section. We find that while earlier computations overestimated the photoionization cross section compared to experiment, the present MCTD computation underestimates the same.

  10. Thyroid toxicity due to subchronic exposure to a complex mixture of 16 organochlorines, lead, and cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Michael G; Parent, Sophie; Finnson, Kenneth W; Foster, Warren; Younglai, Edward; McMahon, Avril; Cyr, Daniel G; Hughes, Claude

    2002-06-01

    The human population in the industrialized world is ubiquitously exposed to complex mixtures of persistent pollutants that contaminate food, water, and air. A large number of these contaminants have been shown to cause significant toxicity to the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis in laboratory animal studies, through a variety of mechanisms, although these effects occur at levels of exposure greatly in excess of common human exposure. While many of the mechanisms of thyroid toxicity of these substances are potentially complementary, little is known of the degree of interaction of common persistent contaminants on responses of the HPT axis. To investigate the potential effects of a complex, environmentally relevant mixture on the HPT axis, sexually mature male rats were administered a mixture of 16 common organochlorines (dichlorodiphenoxytrichloroethane [DDT], p,p'-dichlorodiphenoxydichloroethylene [p,p'-DDE], hexachlorobenzene [HCB], tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin [TCDD], polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], methoxychlor, endosulfan, heptachlor, hexachlorocyclohexane, dieldrin, aldrin, mirex, and several chlorinated benzenes, and metal contaminants [lead, cadmium]). The doses of the mixture that were administered were related to minimum risk levels or tolerable daily intakes of these substances, as derived by risk assessment with the 1x, 10x, 100x, and 1000x groups receiving mixture components at doses equivalent to 1x, 10x, 100x, or 1000x the minimum risk level (or tolerable daily intake, reference dose), respectively. After 70 daily treatments by gavage, endpoints related to circulating thyroid hormone (serum thyroxine [T(4)], triiodothyronine [T(3)], thyroid stimulating hormone [TSH], and serum T(3) uptake [T(3)-up]), thyroid gland histomorphology (thyroid follicle cross sectional area, epithelial height, follicle roundness or aspect ratio, colloid/epithelial ratio) and hepatic metabolism of thyroid hormone (UDP-glucuronyl transferase [UGT] and outer

  11. Comparison of arsenate and cadmium toxicity in a freshwater amphipod (Gammarus pulex)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium is largely documented on freshwater organisms while arsenic, especially arsenate, is rarely studied. The kinetic of the LC50s values for both metals was realized on Gammarus pulex. Physiological [i.e. metal concentration in body tissues, bioconcentration factor (BCF)] effects and behavioural responses (via pleopods beats) were investigated after 240-h exposure. Arsenate LC50 value was 100 fold higher than Cd-LC50 value after 240-h exposure, while concentrations in gammarids were similar for both metals at their respective LC50s. BCF decreased with increasing cadmium concentration while BCF remained stable with increasing arsenate concentration. Moreover, BCF was between 148 and 344 times lower for arsenate than cadmium. A significant hypoventilation was observed for cadmium concentrations exceeding or close to the 240h-LC50Cd, while gammarids hyperventilated for the lowest arsenate concentrations and hypoventilated for the highest arsenate concentrations. We discussed the relationships between potential action mechanisms of these two metals and observed results. - Highlights: ► First study of arsenate toxicity in a Crustacean gammarid. ► Specific toxicological and behavioural responses to AsV and Cd contamination. ► Each metal led to specific-action mechanisms. ► Different energetic reallocation could explain specific behavioural responses. - This study brings to light the potential relationship between toxicological effects and behavioural responses of G. pulex exposed at both Cadmium and Arsenate.

  12. Exposing to cadmium stress cause profound toxic effect on microbiota of the mice intestinal tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehao Liu

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd, one of the heavy metals, is an important environmental pollutant and a potent toxicant to organism. It poses a severe threat to the growth of the organism, and also has been recognized as a human carcinogen. However, the toxicity of cadmium and its influences on microbiota in mammal's intestine are still unclear. In our experiment, the changes of intestinal microbiota in two groups of mice were investigated, which were supplied with 20 and 100 mg kg(-1 cadmium chloride respectively for 3 weeks. The control group was treated with water free from cadmium chloride only. This study demonstrated that Cd accumulated in some tissues of mice after Cd administration and the gut barrier was impaired. Cd exposure also significantly elevated the colonic level of TNF-α. On the other hand, Cd-treatment could slow down the growth of gut microbiota and reduced the abundance of total intestinal bacteria of the mice. Among them, the growth of Bacteroidetes was significantly suppressed while Firmicutes growth was not. The probiotics including Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium were notably inhibited. We also observed that the copies of key genes involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates to short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs were lower in Cd-treated groups than control. As a result, the levels of short-chain fatty acids in colonic decreased significantly. In summary, this study provides valuable insight into the effects of Cd intake on mice gut microbiota.

  13. Toxic effects of cadmium and zinc on the transmission of Echinoparyphium recurvatum cercariae

    OpenAIRE

    Morley, Neil; Crane, M.; Lewis, J W

    2002-01-01

    The toxicity of cadmium, zinc and Cd/Zn mixtures to the transmission of Echinoparyphium recurvatum (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) cercariae into the snail second intermediate hosts was investigated at concentrations ranging from 100mg l21 to 10 000mg l21 in both soft and hard water. A differential response in the infectivity of metal-exposed cercariae into Lymnaea peregra and Physa fontinalis was demonstrated which was dependent on the snail species being infected. Exposure of L. peregra, P. ...

  14. Mitochondrial Toxicity of Cadmium Telluride Quantum Dot Nanoparticles in Mammalian Hepatocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Kathy C; Rippstein, Peter; Tayabali, Azam F.; Willmore, William G.

    2015-01-01

    There are an increasing number of studies indicating that mitochondria are relevant targets in nanomaterial-induced toxicity. However, the underlying mechanisms by which nanoparticles (NPs) interact with these organelles and affect their functions are unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cadmium telluride quantum dot (CdTe-QD) NPs on mitochondria in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. CdTe-QD treatment resulted in the enlargement of mitochondria as examined...

  15. Ribosomal genes as early targets of cadmium-induced toxicity in Chironomus riparius larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium is a widespread environmental pollutant that causes severe impacts in organisms. Although the effects of cadmium on aquatic insects have been studied in terms of their toxicity and changes in developmental parameters, little is known about its molecular and genetic effects. We have investigated the alterations in the pattern of gene expression provoked by acute exposure to cadmium in Chironomus riparius Mg. (Diptera, Chironomidae), a sentinel organism widely used in aquatic toxicity testing. The early cytotoxic effects were evaluated using immunocytochemistry and specific fluorescent probes in fourth instar larvae after 12 h of 10 mM cadmium treatments; under these conditions no significant effect on larvae mortality was detected until after 36 h of exposure. The changes in the pattern of gene expression were analysed by means of DNA/RNA hybrid antibodies in the polytene chromosomes from salivary gland cells. A decrease in the activity of the nucleolus is especially remarkable, accompanied by a significant reduction in size and the modification in nucleolar architecture, as shown by FISH. The inhibition of rDNA transcription was further evaluated by Northern blot analysis, which showed a marked decrease in the level of preribosomal rRNA (54% 45S 12 h). However, the BR genes, whose products are the giant polypeptides that constitute the silk-like secretion for constructing housing tubes, remain active. Simultaneously, decondensation and activation take place at some chromosomal regions, especially at the centromeres. The changes observed in the pattern of gene expression do not resemble those found after heat shock or other cell stressors. These data provide the first evidence that cadmium interacts with ribosomal genes and results in a drastic impairment of the functional activity of the nucleolus, an essential organelle for cellular survival. Therefore, the depletion of ribosomes would be a long-term effect of Cd-induced cellular damage. These findings may

  16. Ribosomal genes as early targets of cadmium-induced toxicity in Chironomus riparius larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planello, R. [Biologia Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Senda del Rey 9, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Martinez-Guitarte, J.L. [Biologia Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Senda del Rey 9, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Morcillo, G. [Biologia Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Senda del Rey 9, 28040, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: gmorcillo@ccia.uned.es

    2007-02-01

    Cadmium is a widespread environmental pollutant that causes severe impacts in organisms. Although the effects of cadmium on aquatic insects have been studied in terms of their toxicity and changes in developmental parameters, little is known about its molecular and genetic effects. We have investigated the alterations in the pattern of gene expression provoked by acute exposure to cadmium in Chironomus riparius Mg. (Diptera, Chironomidae), a sentinel organism widely used in aquatic toxicity testing. The early cytotoxic effects were evaluated using immunocytochemistry and specific fluorescent probes in fourth instar larvae after 12 h of 10 mM cadmium treatments; under these conditions no significant effect on larvae mortality was detected until after 36 h of exposure. The changes in the pattern of gene expression were analysed by means of DNA/RNA hybrid antibodies in the polytene chromosomes from salivary gland cells. A decrease in the activity of the nucleolus is especially remarkable, accompanied by a significant reduction in size and the modification in nucleolar architecture, as shown by FISH. The inhibition of rDNA transcription was further evaluated by Northern blot analysis, which showed a marked decrease in the level of preribosomal rRNA (54% 45S 12 h). However, the BR genes, whose products are the giant polypeptides that constitute the silk-like secretion for constructing housing tubes, remain active. Simultaneously, decondensation and activation take place at some chromosomal regions, especially at the centromeres. The changes observed in the pattern of gene expression do not resemble those found after heat shock or other cell stressors. These data provide the first evidence that cadmium interacts with ribosomal genes and results in a drastic impairment of the functional activity of the nucleolus, an essential organelle for cellular survival. Therefore, the depletion of ribosomes would be a long-term effect of Cd-induced cellular damage. These findings may

  17. Toxicity of lead and cadmium to tropical marine phytoplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Susanne Dal; Panutrakul, Suwanna; Nyholm, Niels

    2000-01-01

    Toxicity of Pb and Cd to three tropical, marine phytoplankton species isolated from the Andaman Sea off Phuket Thailand were determined. The phytoplankton species included one diatom, Chaetoceros calcitrans, one green alga, Chlorella sp., and one chrysophyte, Dunaliella tertiolecta. The test method...

  18. The Role of Exopolymers in Protection of Ralstonia sp., a Cadmium-resistant Bacterium, from Cadmium Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anchulee Watcharamusik

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Production of exopolymers is one of heavy metal resistance mechanisms in bacteria. Ralstonia sp. TAK1, a cadmium-resistant bacterium, was isolated from a high cadmium (Cd contaminated soil at the zinc mine, Tak province, Thailand. The bacterium was cultivated in LB broth and its growth was monitored. The yields of exopolymers were measured by the phenol-sulfuric method at different growth phases. The levels of Cd resistance were quantitatively determined by survival cell assay. The highest amount of exopolymers (0.69 mg glucose equivalent/ mg dry weight was found at the stationary phase and sharply decreased at the late-stationary phase. In addition to high production of exopolymers at the stationary phase, Ralstonia sp. TAK1 was more resistant to Cd than that of exponential phase cells. These results suggested that the resistance to Cd toxicity in Ralstonia sp. TAK1 at the stationary phase is mediated by exopolymer production. Contradictorily, there was no correlation between Cd resistance level and exopolymer production of cells at exponential phase indicating that other mechanism(s is responsible for Cd resistance of exponential phase cells. In addition, 0.4 mM CdCl2 was able to induce the increasing of exopolymers at the mid-exponential phases compared to uninduced cells. Exopolymer production of Cd-induced cells was constant from the mid-stationary to late-stationary phase. However, the highest exopolymers was found in uninduced cells at the stationary phase.

  19. Toxicity of cadmium and lead on tropical midge larvae, Chironomus kiiensis Tokunaga and Chironomus javanus Kieffer (Diptera:Chironomidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Warrin Ebau; Che Salmah Md Rawi; Zubir Din; Salman Abdo Al-Shami

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the acute toxicity of cadmium and lead on larvae of two tropical Chironomid species, Chironomus kiiensis (C. kiiensis) Tokunaga and Chironomus javanus (C. javanus) Kieffer. Methods: Different larval instars (first-fourth) were exposed using a static non-replacement testing procedures to various concentrations of cadmium and lead. Results:In general, younger larvae (first and second instars) of both species were more sensitive to both metals than older larvae (third and forth instars). The toxic effects of the metals on C. kiiensis and C. javanus were influenced by the age of the larvae (first to fourth instars), types of metals (cadmium or lead) and duration of larval exposure (24, 48, 72 and 96 h) to the metals. Conclusions: Cadmium was more toxic to the chironomids than lead and C. javanus was significantly more sensitive to both metals than C. kiiensis (P<0.05).

  20. OXIDATIVE STRESS IN SHEEP INDUCED BY CADMIUM CHLORIDE TOXICITY, WITH THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF ALPHA LIPOIC ACID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussien Ali NAJI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is a heavy toxic metal, with harmful effects on animals and public health. Recently the risk of cadmium toxicity is substantially regarded; the environmental pollution is increased due to multi- uses of this element in various industries. This study was performed to clarify the effects of acute cadmium toxicity in sheep with trail of using alpha lipoic acid as an antioxidant therapeutic substance. Fifteen male lambs aged from 5-to-7 months were divided equally in to three groups, they were supplied with ordinary diet and provided with water ad-lib, the first group 1 was administered a single dose of CdCl2 3 mg/kg.bw subcutaneously (S/C, the second group 2 was injected with the same dose of CdCl2 and by the same route, and then simultaneously administered an alpha lipoic acid 50 mg/kg.bw intramuscularly, the later drug was repeated after 12 hours via the same route. The third group 3 was left as control and given normal saline (S/C. All animals were daily monitored and the clinical signs were recorded. The signs of cadmium toxicity appeared 18 hours post CdCl2 administration in the group 1; the signs were gradually increased in severity and multiple systems were involved included: digestive disturbances, cardiovascular and neurological dysfunctions, and locomotors abnormalities. Significant elevations in the body temperature, respiratory and heart rates were observed, deaths of 2 lambs were recorded 96 hours post CdCl2 injection. The group 2 showed mild clinical signs, and no death was occurred, moreover insignificant variations between clinical parameters in both groups 2 and 3 were recorded. Serum biochemical analysis revealed significant (P<0.05 increased of malondialdehyde (5.41 ± 0.282 μmol/L and glutathione (10.68 ± 0.38 μmol/L concentrations and marked elevation of serum catalase activity (103.85 ± 3.93 u/L was also observed in group I, whereas the last three parameters showed no significant differences between groups 2

  1. Toxicity prediction of binary combinations of cadmium, carbendazim and low dissolved oxygen on Daphnia magna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Abel L.G. [Department of Biology and CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)], E-mail: abel@ua.pt; Loureiro, Susana; Soares, Amadeu M.V.M. [Department of Biology and CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2008-08-11

    Environmental contamination is often characterised by a combination of stress factors of various sources (biological, physical and chemical). The predictability of their joint effects is an important stage in environmental risk assessment procedures. In this study, the two main conceptual models for mixture evaluation based on the effect of individual compounds, concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA) and deviations to synergism/antagonism, 'dose ratio' and 'dose level' dependency were used. The single and combined effects of cadmium, carbendazim and low dissolved oxygen levels were assayed for life-cycle parameters (survival and feeding) of the water flea Daphnia magna Straus. The results of single exposures revealed an increase of acute and chronic toxicity as concentrations of cadmium and carbendazim increases. At low dissolved oxygen levels both survival and feeding parameters were significantly affected (P {<=} 0.05). In the acute mixture exposure of cadmium and carbendazim a 'dose ratio' dependency was observed with a higher toxicity when cadmium was dominant whereas at high concentrations of carbendazim a lower effect on survival was observed. At chronic exposures an antagonistic deviation from IA model was observed for this mixture. The IA model showed to be adequate for toxicity prediction on acute exposure combinations with low DO levels where a synergistic behaviour was observed. However, at sublethal exposures IA and CA models failed by underestimation. Validation from toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic modelling studies should be made in the future as a way to understand toxicological pathways involved in complex mixture/combination exposures.

  2. Effects of benzoic acid and cadmium toxicity on wheat seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Yadav

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Benzoic acid (BA and Cd exhibit cumulative effects on plants due to their accumulation in the soil. The present study reports the effects of BA an allelochemical, Cd and their combinations on seed germination, seedling growth, biochemical parameters, and response of antioxidant enzymes in Triticum aestivum L. The experiment was conducted in sand supplemented with Hoagland nutrient solution. Benzoic acid was applied at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mM with or without Cd (7 mg L-1 to observe effects of allelochemical and Cd alone and in combination on wheat. Both stresses exhibited inhibitory effect on growth and metabolism of wheat seedlings. The allelochemical in single and combined treatments with Cd decreased seedling growth as compared to Cd stress. The two stresses significantly enhanced malondialdehyde content of wheat seedlings. The activity of other antioxidant enzymes, viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, and guaiacol peroxidase (POX were also recorded. SOD increased in seedlings under the two stresses. CAT more prominently ameliorates the toxic effects of H2O2 as compared with APX and POX and protected wheat seedlings from oxidative stress. Allelochemical buttressed the toxic effect of Cd on wheat seedlings.

  3. Microbial toxicity of ionic species leached from the II-VI semiconductor materials, cadmium telluride (CdTe) and cadmium selenide (CdSe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Ruiz, Adriana; Zeng, Chao; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Teixeira, Luiz H; Field, Jim A

    2016-11-01

    This work investigated the microbial toxicity of soluble species that can potentially be leached from the II-VI semiconductor materials, cadmium telluride and cadmium selenide. The soluble ions tested included: cadmium, selenite, selenate, tellurite, and tellurate. Their toxicity towards the acetoclastic and hydrogen-consuming trophic groups in a methanogenic consortium as well as towards a bioluminescent marine bacterium, Aliivibrio fischeri (Microtox(®) test), was assessed. The acetoclastic methanogenic activity was the most affected as evidenced by the low 50% inhibiting concentrations (IC50) values obtained of 8.6 mg L(-1) for both cadmium and tellurite, 10.2 mg L(-1) for tellurate, and 24.1 mg L(-1) for selenite. Both tellurium oxyanions caused a strong inhibition of acetoclastic methanogenesis at low concentrations, each additional increment in concentration provided progressively less inhibition increase. In the case of the hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, cadmium followed by selenite caused the greatest inhibition with IC50 values of 2.9 and 18.0 mg L(-1), respectively. Tellurite caused a moderate effect as evidenced by a 36.8% inhibition of the methanogenic activity at the highest concentration tested, and a very mild effect of tellurate was observed. Microtox(®) analyses showed a noteworthy inhibition of cadmium, selenite, and tellurite with 50% loss in bioluminescence after 30 min of exposure of 5.5, 171.1, and 458.6 mg L(-1), respectively. These results suggest that the leaching of cadmium, tellurium and selenium ions from semiconductor materials can potentially cause microbial toxicity. PMID:27494313

  4. Acute toxicity profile of cadmium revealed by proteomics in brain tissue of Paralichthys olivaceus: Potential role of transferrin in cadmium toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical approach using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) separated proteins from the brain tissue of the fish Paralichthys olivaceus. Approximately 600 protein spots were detected from the brain sample when applying 600 μg protein to a 2D-PAGE gel in the pH range 3.5-10.0. Compared to a control sample, significant changes of 24 protein spots were observed in the fish tissue exposed to acute toxicity of seawater cadmium (SCAT) at 10 ppm for 24 h. Among these spots, nine were down-regulated, nine were up-regulated, two showed high expression, and four showed low expression. The collected spots were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) and database search, and they were further classified by LOCtree, a hierarchical system of support vector machines which predict their sub-cellular localization. The amount of transferrin expression in brain cells decreased linearly with the increase of SCAT concentration in seawater. Among the 24 proteins identified on a 2D-PAGE gel, 9 demonstrated a synchronous response to acute cadmium, suggesting that they might represent a biomarker profile. Based on their variable levels and trends on the 2D-PAGE gel this protein (likely to be transferrin) suggesting they might be utilized as biomarkers to investigate cadmium pollution levels in seawater and halobios survival, as well as to evaluate the degree of risk of human fatalities. The results indicate that the application of multiple biomarkers has an advantage over a single biomarker for monitoring levels of environmental contamination

  5. Acute toxicity profile of cadmium revealed by proteomics in brain tissue of Paralichthys olivaceus: Potential role of transferrin in cadmium toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Jinyong [Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surface, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Huang Heqing [Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China) and State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China) and State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surface, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)]. E-mail: hqhuang@xmu.edu.cn; Bao Xiaodong [Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Lin Qingmei [Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Cai Zongwei [Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)

    2006-06-15

    An analytical approach using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) separated proteins from the brain tissue of the fish Paralichthys olivaceus. Approximately 600 protein spots were detected from the brain sample when applying 600 {mu}g protein to a 2D-PAGE gel in the pH range 3.5-10.0. Compared to a control sample, significant changes of 24 protein spots were observed in the fish tissue exposed to acute toxicity of seawater cadmium (SCAT) at 10 ppm for 24 h. Among these spots, nine were down-regulated, nine were up-regulated, two showed high expression, and four showed low expression. The collected spots were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) and database search, and they were further classified by LOCtree, a hierarchical system of support vector machines which predict their sub-cellular localization. The amount of transferrin expression in brain cells decreased linearly with the increase of SCAT concentration in seawater. Among the 24 proteins identified on a 2D-PAGE gel, 9 demonstrated a synchronous response to acute cadmium, suggesting that they might represent a biomarker profile. Based on their variable levels and trends on the 2D-PAGE gel this protein (likely to be transferrin) suggesting they might be utilized as biomarkers to investigate cadmium pollution levels in seawater and halobios survival, as well as to evaluate the degree of risk of human fatalities. The results indicate that the application of multiple biomarkers has an advantage over a single biomarker for monitoring levels of environmental contamination.

  6. Field and laboratory tests on acute toxicity of cadmium to freshwater crayfish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-09-01

    Environmental regulatory standards for cadmium (EPA 1980), like those for most pollutants, are based on acute, laboratory toxicity tests of single species. Such tests can be conducted rapidly and inexpensively in comparison to acute or chronic field studies, but their validity has often been questioned. Laboratory-based criteria are subject to two criticisms: (1) chemical and physical conditions differ greatly in degree and variability from laboratory to field, and (2) species are not isolated, but live in an ecosystem of interacting taxa and biofeedback. To investigate the validity of basing field toxicity standards on laboratory data, the authors subjected the freshwater crayfish Orconectes immunis for 96 h to various levels of cadmium in laboratory aquaria and experimental ponds. The study was designed to evaluate in part the first criticism of lab-based criteria. The studies were conducted concurrently with similar short-term experiments on the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, and coincided with studies of chronic cadmium stress on fathead minnows in experimental ponds.

  7. Evaluation of Toxic Effects and Bioaccumulation of Cadmium and Copper in Spring Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jūratė Žaltauskaitė

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the analysis of toxic effects of cadmium and copper on the growth of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cultivated in hydroponics. The seedlings of barley were treated with four different concentrations of cadmium and copper, ranging from 0.1 to 10 mg L-1. The aim of the study was to assess toxic effects of cadmium (Cd and copper (Cu on the growth of spring barley, and to determine metal accumulation in above-ground and underground parts of the plant. The impact of Cu and Cd on photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b, the content of malondialdehyde (MDA, and the essential micronutrients (Mn, Fe were examined. Metal treatment reduced the growth of roots (by 60%, shoots (Cd – 48 %, Cu – 57% and dry weight (Cd – 47 %, Cu – 52% of barley. Exposure to metals altered the content of photosynthetic pigments and caused lipid peroxidation. Regression analysis revealed that there was significant negative relationship between MDA content and biomass of barley treated with Cu (r=-0.99, p=0.01. The examined heavy metals were accumulated mainly in the roots and bioconcentration of Cu there was higher than that of Cd, indicating that roots tended to accumulate higher amounts of Cu than Cd. Though translocation of Cd from roots to above-ground tissues was higher, higher levels of Cd were observed in leaves.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.64.2.1951

  8. Toxicity of quantum dots and cadmium to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss in early ontogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živilė Cibulskaitė

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate toxic effects of CdSe/ZnS-COOH quantum dots (QD and cadmium (Cd on biological parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhychus mykiss in its early stages of development (embryos and larvae. It was found that short-term (24-, 96-hour exposure to sublethal concentrations of QD and Cd increased mortality of embryos and larvae, disturbed function of the cardio-respiratory system (gill ventilation frequency, heart rate and affected behavioural responses (individuals making nests in rainbow trout larvae. The results indicated that toxic effects of QD and Cd on rainbow trout larvae depended on the type of chemical substance, affected stage of development and exposure duration. Comparative studies of the effects of QD and Cd on rainbow trout in early stages of development showed that larvae were more sensitive to Cd and QD as compared to embryos. It was suggested that the chorion envelopes of eggs surround and protect the embryo from QD and Cd. Cadmium was more toxic to larvae than QD. Longer exposure (96-hour of QD and Cd induced more remarkable changes in test-parameters. This original study requires more investigations evaluating the mechanism of toxicity of QD to fish.

  9. Glucose alleviates cadmium toxicity by increasing cadmium fixation in root cell wall and sequestration into vacuole in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-Zhi Shi; Xiao-Fang Zhu; Jiang-Xue Wan; Gui-Xin Li; Shao-Jian Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Glucose (Glu) is involved in not only plant physiological and developmental events but also plant responses to abiotic stresses. Here, we found that the exogenous Glu improved root and shoot growth, reduced shoot cadmium (Cd) concentration, and rescued Cd-induced chlorosis in Arabidopsis thaliana (Columbia ecotype, Col-0) under Cd stressed conditions. Glucose increased Cd retained in the roots, thus reducing its translocation from root to shoot significantly. The most Cd retained in the roots was found in the hemicellulose 1. Glucose combined with Cd (Glu þ Cd) treatment did not affect the content of pectin and its binding capacity of Cd while it increased the content of hemicelluloses 1 and the amount of Cd retained in it significantly. Furthermore, Leadmium Green staining indicated that more Cd was compartmented into vacuoles in Glu þ Cd treatment compared with Cd treatment alone, which was in accordance with the significant upregulation of the expression of tonoplast-localized metal transporter genes, suggesting that com-partmentation of Cd into vacuoles also contributes to the Glu-alleviated Cd toxicity. Taken together, we demonstrated that Glu-alleviated Cd toxicity is mediated through increas-ing Cd fixation in the root cell wall and sequestration into the vacuoles.

  10. Synthesis and spectroscopic and structural studies of a new cadmium(II)-citrate aqueous complex. Potential relevance to cadmium(II)-citrate speciation and links to cadmium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakanali, M; Kefalas, E T; Raptopoulou, C P; Terzis, A; Mavromoustakos, T; Salifoglou, A

    2003-04-21

    The presence of cadmium in the environment undoubtedly contributes to an increased risk of exposure and ultimate toxic influence on humans. In an effort to comprehend the chemical and biological interactions of Cd(II) with physiological ligands, like citric acid, we explored the requisite aqueous chemistry, which afforded the first aqueous Cd(II)-citrate complex [Cd(C(6)H(6)O(7))(H(2)O)](n)() (1). Compound 1 was characterized by elemental analysis, and spectroscopically by FT-IR and (113)Cd MAS NMR. Compound 1 crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with a = 6.166(2) A, b = 10.508(3) A, c = 13.599(5) A, V = 881.2(5) A(3), and Z = 4. The X-ray structure of 1 reveals the presence of octahedral Cd(II) ions bound to citrate ligands in a molecular crystal lattice. Citrate acts as a tridentate binder promoting coordination to one Cd(II) through the central alcoholic moiety, one terminal carboxylate group, and the central carboxylate group. In addition, the central carboxylate binds to three Cd(II) ions. Specifically, one of the oxygens of the central carboxylate serves as a bridge to two neighboring Cd(II) ions, while the other oxygen binds to a third Cd(II). A bound water molecule completes the coordination requirements of Cd(II). (113)Cd MAS NMR studies project the spectroscopic signature of the nature of the coordination environment around Cd(II) in 1, thus corroborating the X-ray findings. Collectively, the data at hand are in line with past solution studies. The latter predict that other similar low molecular mass Cd(II)-citrate complexes may exist in the acidic pH region, thus influencing the uptake of cadmium by living (micro)organisms, their ability to metabolize organic substrates, and possibly Cd(II) toxicity. PMID:12691558

  11. Cadmium-Induced Toxicity and the Hepatoprotective Potentials of Aqueous Extract of Jessiaea Nervosa Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ama Udu Ibiam

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Hepatoprotective potentials of Jussiaea nervosa leaf extract against Cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity were investigated. Methods: Forty albino rats were randomly assigned into groups A-G with 4 rats in each of the groups A-F. Group A served as control and were given feed only while rats in groups B-F were orally exposed to varying concentrations of cadmium for six weeks. Effects of cadmium were most significant at 12 mg/Kg body weight (BW, and this dose was used for subsequent test involving oral administration of Jussiaea nervosa leaf extracts. In this segment, group G (n= 16 was sub-divided into four: G1-G4, with each sub-group containing four rats. Rats in sub-group G1 were given cadmium and feed only and served as positive control. Rats in sub-groups G2, G3, and G4 were given cadmium and 20, 50 and 100g/kg BW of Jussiaea nervosa extract, respectively, for six weeks. Blood and liver were analysed using standard laboratory techniques and methods. Results: Liver function parameters (ALT, AST, ALP, bilirubin were significantly (p<0.05 elevated in exposed rats in comparison to the controls, except for total protein and albumin, which were significantly decreased. Histopathological assessment reveals renal pathology in exposed rats in sharp contrast with the controls. Jussiaea nervosa extract however lowered the values of liver function parameters with 100mg/Kg BW dose producing the highest ameliorative effects. Similarly, the serum albumin and total protein significantly (p<0.05 improved with normal liver architecture. Conclusion: The results show the hepatoprotective potentials of Jussiaea nervosa extract against Cd toxicity.

  12. Toxicity of cadmium to Schistosoma mansoni cercariae: effects on vitality and developmental ability in white mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holliman, R.B. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg); Esham, L.P.

    1977-09-29

    Time-until-death studies were run on cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni in 8 concentrations of cadmium (from cadmium sulfate) ranging from 100 ppM to 0.0001 ppM. All concentrations used were found to be toxic, and at 10 ppM all cercariae were dead within 4 hours, which coincides with their period of maximum infectability following emergence from the snail host. At 2 ppM, all cercariae died within 8 hours, and at 1 ppM all died within 16 hours. In addition, groups of cercariae were exposed to cadmium concentrations of 10, 1, and 0.1 ppM for periods of 30, 20, and 10 minutes. Thereafter, cercariae from these groups were allowed to penetrate the tails of white mice or were injected subcutaneously into mice. After 8 weeks, these mice were autopsied and the adult worms collected by perfusion. Maturation of cercariae from both methods of invasion was seriously impaired. Statistical analysis using a 3 x 4 x 2 factoral design for analysis of variance showed both time of exposure and concentration of cadmium ion to be significant factors in determining number of worms developing at p = 0.01. A significant interaction between time of exposure and concentration was found to exist. The two methods of infection did not have a significant effect on the number of worms recovered. Therefore, it appears that those toxicant-exposed cercariae capable of maturing do not need assistance in transversing the skin barrier but can penetrate and migrate to reach the mesenteric venules for maturation.

  13. Inhibition of autophagy contributes to the toxicity of cadmium telluride quantum dots in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Junpeng; Shao, Ming; Lai, Lu; Liu, Yi; Xie, Zhixiong

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs) are used as near-infrared probes in biologic and medical applications, but their cytological effects and mechanism of potential toxicity are still unclear. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of CdTe QDs of different sizes and investigated their mechanism of toxicity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A growth inhibition assay revealed that orange-emitting CdTe (O-CdTe) QDs (half inhibitory concentration [IC50] =59.44±12.02 nmol/L) were more toxic than green-emitting CdTe QDs (IC50 =186.61±19.74 nmol/L) to S. cerevisiae. Further studies on toxicity mechanisms using a transmission electron microscope and green fluorescent protein tagged Atg8 processing assay revealed that O-CdTe QDs could partially inhibit autophagy at a late stage, which differs from the results reported in mammalian cells. Moreover, autophagy inhibited at a late stage by O-CdTe QDs could be partially recovered by enhancing autophagy with rapamycin (an autophagy activator), combined with an increased number of living cells. These results indicate that inhibition of autophagy acts as a toxicity mechanism of CdTe QDs in S. cerevisiae. This work reports a novel toxicity mechanism of CdTe QDs in yeast and provides valuable information on the effect of CdTe QDs on the processes of living cells. PMID:27524895

  14. Evaluation on joint toxicity of chlorinated anilines and cadmium to Photobacterium phosphoreum and QSAR analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Hao, E-mail: realking163@163.com [School of Life and Chemistry, Jiangsu Second Normal University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210013 (China); Wang, Chao; Shi, Jiaqi [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210023 (China); Chen, Lei [School of Life and Chemistry, Jiangsu Second Normal University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210013 (China)

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • Cd has different effects on joint toxicity when in different concentrations. • The toxicity of most binary mixtures decreases when Cd concentration rises. • Different QSAR models are developed to predict the joint toxicity. • Descriptors in QSARs can help to elucidate the joint toxicity mechanism. • Van der Waals’ force or complexation may reduce the toxicity of mixtures. - Abstract: The individual IC{sub 50} (the concentrations causing a 50% inhibition of bioluminescence after 15 min exposure) of cadmium ion (Cd) and nine chlorinated anilines to Photobacterium phosphoreum (P. phosphoreum) were determined. In order to evaluate the combined effects of the nine chlorinated anilines and Cd, the toxicities of chlorinated anilines combined with different concentrations of Cd were determined, respectively. The results showed that the number of chlorinated anilines manifesting synergy with Cd decreased with the increasing Cd concentration, and the number manifesting antagonism decreased firstly and then increased. The joint toxicity of mixtures at low Cd concentration was weaker than that of most binary mixtures when combined with Cd at medium and high concentrations as indicated by TU{sub Total}. QSAR analysis showed that the single toxicity of chlorinated anilines was related to the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (E{sub LUMO}). When combined with different concentrations of Cd, the toxicity was related to the energy difference (E{sub HOMO} − E{sub LUMO}) with different coefficients. Van der Waals’ force or the complexation between chlorinated anilines and Cd had an impact on the toxicity of combined systems, which could account for QSAR models with different physico-chemical descriptors.

  15. Cadmium Toxicity Induced Alterations in the Root Proteome of Green Gram in Contrasting Response towards Iron Supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowbiya Muneer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium signifies a severe threat to crop productivity and green gram is a notably iron sensitive plant which shows considerable variation towards cadmium stress. A gel-based proteomics analysis was performed with the roots of green gram exposed to iron and cadmium combined treatments. The resulting data show that twenty three proteins were down-regulated in iron-deprived roots either in the absence (−Fe/−Cd or presence (−Fe/+Cd of cadmium. These down-regulated proteins were however well expressed in roots under iron sufficient conditions, even in the presence of cadmium (+Fe/+Cd. The functional classification of these proteins determined that 21% of the proteins are associated with nutrient metabolism. The other proteins in higher quantities are involved in either transcription or translation regulation, and the rest are involved in biosynthesis metabolism, antioxidant pathways, molecular chaperones and stress response. On the other hand, several protein spots were also absent in roots in response to iron deprivation either in absence (−Fe/−Cd or presence (−Fe/+Cd of cadmium but were well expressed in the presence of iron (+Fe/+Cd. Results suggest that green gram plants exposed to cadmium stress are able to change the nutrient metabolic balance in roots, but in the mean time regulate cadmium toxicity through iron supplements.

  16. A meta-analysis of literature data relating to the relationships between cadmium intake and toxicity indicators in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the study was to determine the relationship between cadmium (Cd) intake and cadmium toxicity indicators by meta-analysis of literature data, in particular β2-microglobulin (β2MC), and to compare the results with the current Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) set by FAO/WHO. The literature survey identified 79 feeding trials involving 27,537 people that were suitable for extraction of cadmium intake, levels in blood and urine and β2-microglobulin in urine. There was an exponential increase in β2-microglobulin with increases in cadmium intake above 302 μg/day, which corresponds to a PTWI of 3.02 μg/kg of body weight, when a safety margin of 10 is included. This compares with the current level set by FAO/WHO of 7 μg/kg of body weight. Cadmium in blood and urine were also positively related to cadmium intake and participants' age. There were two principal components of variation in the data set, first: cadmium intake, concentrations of cadmium in blood, urine and β2-microglobulin in urine, and second: duration and age of exposure

  17. Prevention of hepato-renal toxicity of radiation and cadmium by Aloe vera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevention, control and treatment of cancer remain challenge to the medical world. Development of effective and versatile drugs for cancer treatment is an integral part of the ongoing cancer research. The anti stress, hepato-protective, antioxidant and immune modulating properties of Aloe vera make it an ideal drug for developing anti-tumor drugs. Ionizing radiation has always been a part of the human environment. Along with natural radioactive sources present in the earth crust and cosmic radiation, special medical procedures (radiation therapy) also contribute to our continuous exposure to ionizing radiation. Radiation damage, is to a large extent, caused by the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including superoxide anion (O2-), hydroxyl radical (OH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), that overwhelm the levels of antioxidants, resulting in oxidative stress and cellular damage. Efficient defense and repair mechanisms exist in living cells to protect against oxidant species. Humans are subjected to exposure of cadmium pollution through contaminated air, water, food, manufactured goods and occupational hazards. Cadmium stimulates free radical production, resulting in oxidative deterioration of lipids, proteins DNA and initiating various pathological conditions in human and animals once observed, Cadmium is rapidly cleared from the blood and concentrates in various tissues mainly in the liver and kidney causing many metabolic and histological changes. So it was of particular interest to investigate whether Aloe vera administration to mice would decrease the toxicity associated with oxidative stress and thereby reducing the damage induced by cadmium and gamma radiation exposure. For this purpose, six to eight weeks old mice were selected and divided into seven groups on the basis of radiation, cadmium, combined treatment and drug treated. All biochemical parameters of the control groups were compared with respective experimental groups. Value of total

  18. Influence of poultry litter on the toxicity of cadmium to aquatic organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosal, T.K.; Kaviraj, A. [Univ. of Kalyani (India)

    1996-12-01

    Increased deposition of cadmium in impounded water through atmospheric fallout and runoff water is a growing concern for aquaculture. In India, pisciculture practices are threatened by frequent low to moderate deposition of Cd in ponds. Although several studies have been conducted on Cd toxicity to freshwater organisms, little is known about the interaction of Cd with other chemicals present in the receiving water system. There is evidence that Cd, in the presence of other chemicals, may produce synergistic, additive or antagonistic effect on aquatic organisms. Aquatic ecosystems, heavily enriched by nitrogen and phosphorus, have reduced the stress imposed by Cd. In contrast, chemicals such as KMnO{sub 4} and CoCl{sub 2} used in aquaculture increase Cd toxicity to fish and plankton. Poultry litter is frequently used in pisciculture ponds to enrich nutrients. However, interaction of poultry litter with Cd is not known. 17 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  19. Dynamic energy-based modeling of uranium and cadmium joint toxicity to Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margerit, Adrien; Gomez, Elena; Gilbin, Rodolphe

    2016-03-01

    Toxicokinetic - toxicodynamic energy-based models offer new alternatives to the commonly used approaches for the analysis of mixture toxicity data. Based on the Dynamic Energy Budget theory, DEBtox models enable the description of several endpoints over time simultaneously under the same framework. However, such model still has to be faced with experimental data in a multi-contamination context. In this study, the predictive capacities of a DEBtox model to describe the uranium and cadmium joint toxicity over the entire growth and reproduction period of the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was examined. The two reference additivity approaches, Concentration Addition and Response addition, implemented in the DEBtox model were tested. Assuming no interaction between the two toxicants through Response addition, the DEBtox model allowed a rather accurate fit of the U and Cd joint effects on the growth and reproduction of C. elegans: an interaction between the two metals at the toxicokinetic or toxicodynamic level seems thus unlikely or has only minor consequences. Interestingly, this study underlines that even if the compounds of a mixture share the same DEBtox physiological mode of action (in this case a decrease in assimilation), the Response addition approach may provide a better fit of joint toxicity data than the Concentration addition approach. Moreover, the present work highlighted limitations in the model predictions which are related to the simplifications of the DEBtox framework and its adaptations to the physiology of C. elegans and which lead to an overestimation of the U and Cd joint toxicity in some cases. PMID:26741545

  20. Influences of macroalga-derived dissolved organic carbon on the aquatic toxicity of copper and cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Martin T K; Wang, Wen-Xiong; Wong, Ming H

    2006-12-01

    In this study, the effect of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) derived from macroalga (Sargassum) on the acute toxicity of copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) to a freshwater cladoceran (Daphnia magna) was investigated. Potassium-loaded macroalga was incubated with ultrapure water to extract macroalgal DOC, which was then spiked with the constituents of the Elendt M7 hard water media. The 48 h median lethal concentration of Cu increased linearly with DOC levels but that of Cd was relatively independent of DOC levels (0-44 mg l(-1)). The independence of Cd toxicity on DOC level might be due to the competitive effect of high calcium concentrations in the media with Cd for the binding sites of DOC. The decreased Cu toxicity was a result of reduced Cu uptake as evidenced in a separate accumulation test. Also, the capability of the macroalgal DOC on reducing Cu toxicity was found to be comparable to DOC tested in other studies. Therefore, the present study suggested that the biosorption treatment process using macroalgae should consider the effect of DOC release from the biomass as a step of modifying the metal toxicity as well as influencing metal biosorption capacity. PMID:16709424

  1. Meta-analysis of cellular toxicity for cadmium-containing quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Eunkeu; Liu, Rong; Nel, Andre; Gemill, Kelly Boeneman; Bilal, Muhammad; Cohen, Yoram; Medintz, Igor L

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the relationships between the physicochemical properties of engineered nanomaterials and their toxicity is critical for environmental and health risk analysis. However, this task is confounded by material diversity, heterogeneity of published data and limited sampling within individual studies. Here, we present an approach for analysing and extracting pertinent knowledge from published studies focusing on the cellular toxicity of cadmium-containing semiconductor quantum dots. From 307 publications, we obtain 1,741 cell viability-related data samples, each with 24 qualitative and quantitative attributes describing the material properties and experimental conditions. Using random forest regression models to analyse the data, we show that toxicity is closely correlated with quantum dot surface properties (including shell, ligand and surface modifications), diameter, assay type and exposure time. Our approach of integrating quantitative and categorical data provides a roadmap for interrogating the wide-ranging toxicity data in the literature and suggests that meta-analysis can help develop methods for predicting the toxicity of engineered nanomaterials. PMID:26925827

  2. Meta-analysis of cellular toxicity for cadmium-containing quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Eunkeu; Liu, Rong; Nel, Andre; Gemill, Kelly Boeneman; Bilal, Muhammad; Cohen, Yoram; Medintz, Igor L.

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the relationships between the physicochemical properties of engineered nanomaterials and their toxicity is critical for environmental and health risk analysis. However, this task is confounded by material diversity, heterogeneity of published data and limited sampling within individual studies. Here, we present an approach for analysing and extracting pertinent knowledge from published studies focusing on the cellular toxicity of cadmium-containing semiconductor quantum dots. From 307 publications, we obtain 1,741 cell viability-related data samples, each with 24 qualitative and quantitative attributes describing the material properties and experimental conditions. Using random forest regression models to analyse the data, we show that toxicity is closely correlated with quantum dot surface properties (including shell, ligand and surface modifications), diameter, assay type and exposure time. Our approach of integrating quantitative and categorical data provides a roadmap for interrogating the wide-ranging toxicity data in the literature and suggests that meta-analysis can help develop methods for predicting the toxicity of engineered nanomaterials.

  3. Testicular toxicity and sperm quality following cadmium exposure in rats: Ameliorative potentials of Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serah F Ige

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of Allium cepa crude extract on cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 4 groups (n = 6. Group 1 was used as control, group 2 was administered 0.3 mg/kgBW of cadmium sulfate (CdSO 4 intraperitoneally for 3 days, group 3 was pretreated with 1 ml/100 g BW of Allium cepa (AcE for 8 weeks followed by intraperitoneal administration of 0.3 mg/kgBW of CdSO 4 in the last 3 days of experiment, and group 4 was administered 1 ml/100 g BW of AcE throughout the experiment. Testicular weight and semen analysis revealing the sperm count, sperm motility, and sperm morphology was carried out. Superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase activities, and lipid peroxidation status were also carried out in testes. Results: The study demonstrated that Allium cepa ameliorated CdSO 4 -induced alteration in testicular weight, sperm count, sperm motility, and sperm morphology. It also showed that Allium cepa attenuated the derangement of lipid peroxidation profile in testicular tissues caused by CdSO 4 exposure. Conclusions: The findings in the study showed that pre-treatment of rat model with Allium cepa extract prevented CdSO 4 -induced reproductive toxicity by improving sperm quality and enhancing testicular lipid peroxidation status.

  4. Imprinted Genes and the Environment: Links to the Toxic Metals Arsenic, Cadmium and Lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Smeester

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Imprinted genes defy rules of Mendelian genetics with their expression tied to the parent from whom each allele was inherited. They are known to play a role in various diseases/disorders including fetal growth disruption, lower birth weight, obesity, and cancer. There is increasing interest in understanding their influence on environmentally-induced disease. The environment can be thought of broadly as including chemicals present in air, water and soil, as well as food. According to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR, some of the highest ranking environmental chemicals of concern include metals/metalloids such as arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury. The complex relationships between toxic metal exposure, imprinted gene regulation/expression and health outcomes are understudied. Herein we examine trends in imprinted gene biology, including an assessment of the imprinted genes and their known functional roles in the cell, particularly as they relate to toxic metals exposure and disease. The data highlight that many of the imprinted genes have known associations to developmental diseases and are enriched for their role in the TP53 and AhR pathways. Assessment of the promoter regions of the imprinted genes resulted in the identification of an enrichment of binding sites for two transcription factor families, namely the zinc finger family II and PLAG transcription factors. Taken together these data contribute insight into the complex relationships between toxic metals in the environment and imprinted gene biology.

  5. Modulatory Effects of Glycyrrhizae Glabra (Liquorice) Roots Extract Against Cadmium Toxicity In Testis Of Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licorice is commonly used as a cure agent for digestive disorders and detoxification in East Asia. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of licorice water extract against cadmium-induced testicular toxicity. To induce acute toxicity, Cd (4 mg/kg body weight) was dissolved in normal saline and intravenously (i.v.) injected into rats. The rats then received licorice water extract (50 or 100 mg/kg/day) for 7 days, and were subsequently exposed to a single injection of Cd 24 h after the last licorice treatment. As a result of Cd toxicity, testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEA-S) levels were significantly decreased while estradiol (E2), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) , luteinizing hormone (LH), total acid phosphatase (TAP) and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) were significantly increased. Numerical changes, but non-significant, were occurred in all previous parameters after normal rats were treated with 50 or 100 mg licorice. When toxicated rats were treated with 50 or 100 mg licorice, significant improvement was occurred depending on dose.

  6. Development of a biotic ligand model to predict the acute toxicity of cadmium to Daphnia pulex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this study was to develop a biotic ligand model (BLM) to predict the acute toxicity of cadmium to Daphnia pulex. Organisms were cultured in moderately soft water and standard 48 h acute toxicity tests were used to determine EC50s in various water chemistries where the effects of Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+, Cl-, K+, pH, and two sources of natural organic matter (Suwannee River and Nordic Reservoir) were evaluated. Overall, toxicity responses were consistent with the free-ion activity model and the principles inherent in the BLM. Increases in Ca2+ resulted in higher EC50s, indicating that Cd2+ competes with Ca2+ for uptake at the biotic ligand. Similar cation competition effects were observed when Mg2+ was varied but with a less pronounced protective effect relative to Ca2+. Changes in Na+ and K+ concentrations had no significant effect on Cd toxicity. EC50 values did not change significantly when pH was adjusted over a range from 8.0 to 6.1. Additions of natural organic matter resulted in elevated dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations that significantly reduced Cd bioavailability via complexation of Cd2+. An existing biotic ligand model (HydroQual BLM ver 2.2.3) was tested for its ability to predict acute Cd toxicity to D. pulex. Once the BLM was adjusted for the relatively sensitivity of D. pulex the protective effects of Ca and DOC could be predicted reasonably well but other test chemistries did not match with measured EC50s. Binding constants derived from the test results were used to develop a modified BLM for the effects of Cd on D. pulex that accounted for the moderating effect of Ca and Mg on acute toxicity but overestimated the protective effect of DOC.

  7. Development of a biotic ligand model to predict the acute toxicity of cadmium to Daphnia pulex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford, Matthew [Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, ON N2L 3C5 (Canada); McGeer, James C., E-mail: jmcgeer@wlu.ca [Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, ON N2L 3C5 (Canada)

    2010-06-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a biotic ligand model (BLM) to predict the acute toxicity of cadmium to Daphnia pulex. Organisms were cultured in moderately soft water and standard 48 h acute toxicity tests were used to determine EC50s in various water chemistries where the effects of Ca{sup 2+}, Na{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+}, Cl{sup -}, K{sup +}, pH, and two sources of natural organic matter (Suwannee River and Nordic Reservoir) were evaluated. Overall, toxicity responses were consistent with the free-ion activity model and the principles inherent in the BLM. Increases in Ca{sup 2+} resulted in higher EC50s, indicating that Cd{sup 2+} competes with Ca{sup 2+} for uptake at the biotic ligand. Similar cation competition effects were observed when Mg{sup 2+} was varied but with a less pronounced protective effect relative to Ca{sup 2+}. Changes in Na{sup +} and K{sup +} concentrations had no significant effect on Cd toxicity. EC50 values did not change significantly when pH was adjusted over a range from 8.0 to 6.1. Additions of natural organic matter resulted in elevated dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations that significantly reduced Cd bioavailability via complexation of Cd{sup 2+}. An existing biotic ligand model (HydroQual BLM ver 2.2.3) was tested for its ability to predict acute Cd toxicity to D. pulex. Once the BLM was adjusted for the relatively sensitivity of D. pulex the protective effects of Ca and DOC could be predicted reasonably well but other test chemistries did not match with measured EC50s. Binding constants derived from the test results were used to develop a modified BLM for the effects of Cd on D. pulex that accounted for the moderating effect of Ca and Mg on acute toxicity but overestimated the protective effect of DOC.

  8. Molecular mechanisms of the epithelial transport of toxic metal ions, particularly mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic, zinc, and copper. Comprehensive progress report, October 1, 1975--December 31, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations were undertaken to elucidate the mode of transepithelial transport of potentially toxic metal ions across the gastrointestinal tract, with primary attention given to cadmium, zinc, and arsenic. In addition, the toxic effects of cadmium on the metabolism of vitamin D and calcium have been investigated in some detail. Several approaches have been taken, including studies on the localization of heavy metals in the intestinal mucosa, the effects of cadmium on various parameters of calcium metabolism, the modes of intestinal absorption of cadmium, arsenate, and zinc, and the interactions of heavy metals with each other and with calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D. Details of these experiments are attached in the Comprehensive Progress Report

  9. Molecular mechanisms of the epithelial transport of toxic metal ions, particularly mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic, zinc, and copper. Comprehensive progress report, October 1, 1975--December 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserman, R. H.

    1978-10-01

    Investigations were undertaken to elucidate the mode of transepithelial transport of potentially toxic metal ions across the gastrointestinal tract, with primary attention given to cadmium, zinc, and arsenic. In addition, the toxic effects of cadmium on the metabolism of vitamin D and calcium have been investigated in some detail. Several approaches have been taken, including studies on the localization of heavy metals in the intestinal mucosa, the effects of cadmium on various parameters of calcium metabolism, the modes of intestinal absorption of cadmium, arsenate, and zinc, and the interactions of heavy metals with each other and with calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D. Details of these experiments are attached in the Comprehensive Progress Report.

  10. The Role of Exopolymers in Protection of Ralstonia sp., a Cadmium-resistant Bacterium, from Cadmium Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Anchulee Watcharamusik; Benjaphorn Prapagdee

    2008-01-01

    Production of exopolymers is one of heavy metal resistance mechanisms in bacteria. Ralstonia sp. TAK1, a cadmium-resistant bacterium, was isolated from a high cadmium (Cd) contaminated soil at the zinc mine, Tak province, Thailand. The bacterium was cultivated in LB broth and its growth was monitored. The yields of exopolymers were measured by the phenol-sulfuric method at different growth phases. The levels of Cd resistance were quantitatively determined by survival cell assay. The highest a...

  11. Toxicity of cadmium and protective effect of bee honey, vitamins C and B complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, I; Elhabiby, M I; Ashour, A A

    2013-04-01

    The present work aimed to study the toxic effect of cadmium (Cd) on rabbits' blood indices, as well as the therapeutic effect of the antioxidant agents, vitamins C and B complex and bee honey on Cd intoxicated rabbits. Cadmium chloride (CdCl2) was injected subcutaneously at a dose of 3 mg/kg of body weight. The results showed a significant increase in serum glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, globulin, urea and creatinine, compared to the control group. In addition, CdCl2 intoxication increased the levels of uric acid, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin. Concerning haematological parameters, the more obvious changes were an increase in mean corpuscular volume and a decrease in white blood cells count, platelets, lymphocytes, heamatocrit, haemoglobin and red blood cells count. Treatment of CdCl2-intoxicated animals with vitamins C and B complex and bee honey showed a decrease in the harmful effects of Cd by restoring haematological and biochemical changes. Bee honey treatment was the most effective in providing recoveries in the altered blood parameters. PMID:23111883

  12. Effect of salicylic acid treatment on cadmium toxicity and leaf lipid composition in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradkhani S.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The ameliorative effect of salicylic acid (SA on cadmium (Cd toxicity in sunflower plants was studied by investigating plant growth and fatty acid composition. Sunflower plants in two leaves stage were exposed to CdCl2 treatment (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 µM and then were treated with salicylic acid (0, 250 and 500 µM as foliage spraying. One week after the last salicylic acid treatment,plants were harvested and growth parameters were measured . Oil of leaf was extracted in a Soxhlet system and fatty acid composition were measured by gas chromatography (GC. Statistical analyses showed excess Cd reduced growth parameters (fresh weight and length of stems and roots, fresh weight and number of leavesand SA increased them compared with the control. Maximum reduction in these parameters was at 200 µmol Cd and 0µmol of SA. Cd caused a shift in fatty acids composition, resulting in a lower degree of their unsaturation and an increase in saturated fatty acids in sunflower leaves,whereas SA improved them. SA, particularly increased the percentage of linolenic acid and lowered that of palmitic acid by the same proportion. These results sugg membrane integrity due to lipids est that SA could be used as a potential growth regulator and a stabilizer ofprotection of cadmium-induced oxidative stress to improve plant resistance to Cd stress

  13. The effect of cysteine and sodium selenite on the toxicity of cadmium in staphylococcus aureus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cysteine was shown to have a protective effect on the killing rate caused by cadmium (Cd) but no effect on the uptake of Cd in S. aureus 3719-. The addition of 254x10-3 mmol/l of sodium selenite or more into the liquid growth medium increased the lag phase of growth of S. aureus 3719-. Sodium selenite had no protective effect on the toxicity of Cd in S.aureus 3719- as evaluated by the length of the lag phase of growth in the presence of Cd and varying amounts of sodium selenite. 534 x 10-6 mmol/l of sodium selenite in the growth medium had no effect on the uptake of Cd in S. aureus. (author)

  14. The Protective Roles of Zinc and Magnesium in Cadmium-Induced Renal Toxicity in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Babaknejad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cadmium (Cd is a heavy metal that has widespread use. It enters the food chain in different ways, including soil and water. Cadmium can cause dysfunction of different body organs. Zinc (Zn and magnesium (Mg supplementation can have protective effects against cadmium toxicity due to their antagonistic and antioxidants properties. This study examines the influence of supplemental Zn and Mg on Cd renal toxicity. Methods: Young male Wistar rats were divided into six groups of five. The Cd group received 1 mg Cd/kg and the control group received 0.5 mg/kg normal saline (i.p.. The other four groups were administered 1 mg/kg Cd+0.5 mg/kg Zn, 1 mg/kg Cd+1.5 mg/kg Zn, 1 mg/kg Cd+ 0.5 mg/kg Mg, and 1 mg/kg Cd+ 1.5 mg/kg Mg (i.p. for 21 days. Then, serum sodium, potassium, urea, creatinine, and protein levels were measured. Results: The results indicated that creatinine and protein levels decreased while urea, sodium, and potassium levels increased as a result of Cd exposure. Co-administered Cd and Zn and Mg decreased urea and increased sodium serum level in comparison to the cadmium group. Treatment by Mg, contrary to co-administered Cd and Zn, reduced serum protein level compared to the cadmium group. Compared to the cadmium treated group, Zn and Mg treatment enhanced serum creatinine level and reduced serum potassium level. Conclusion: The findings seem to suggest that zinc and magnesium compounds, due to their antagonistic and antioxidant activities, can protect Cd renal toxic effects in a dose-dependent manner.

  15. Cadmium Toxicity on Arterioles Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbert L. Myles

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is frequently used in various industrial applications and is a ubiquitous environmental toxicant, also present in tobacco smoke. An important route of exposure is the circulatory system whereas blood vessels are considered to be main stream organs of Cd toxicity. Our previous results indicate that cadmium chloride (CdCl2 affects mean arterial blood pressure in hypertensive rats. We hypothesized that Cd alters the intracellular calcium transient mechanism, by cadmium-induced stimulation of MAPKs (ERK 1 & 2 which is mediated partially through calcium-dependent PKC mechanism. To investigate this hypothesis, we exposed primary cultures of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs from wistar kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR to increased concentrations of CdCl2 on cell viability, expression of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs/ERK 1 & 2, and protein kinase C (PKC which are activated by Cd in several cell types. The results from these studies indicate that CdCl2 decreased cell viability of both SHR and WKY VSMCs in a concentration dependent-manner. Viability of both cell types decreased 33±5.3 (SHR and 39±2.3% (WKY when exposed to 1 μM CdCl2, whereas, 8 and 16 μM reduced viability by 66±3.1 and 62±4.5% in SHR cells. CdCl2 increased ERK 1 & 2 in a biphasic manner with maximum increase occurring when cells are exposed to 1 and 4 μM in SHR VSMCs, whereas, a reduction in ERK 1 and 2 is observed when WKY cells are treated with 2 μM. The results also indicate that CdCl2 increased PKC a/ß in both SHR and WKY VSMCs with a greater increase in expression in SHR VSMCs. In addition, the [Ca2+]i chelator, BAPTA, suppressed the CdCl2 effect, whereas, the PKC inhibitor, GF109203X, reduced the CdCl2 induced-effect on PKC expression. The present studies support the hypothesis that Cd can be a risk factor of hypertension through dysfunction of vascular smooth muscle cells

  16. Improved phytoaccumulation of cadmium by genetically modified tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L.). Physiological and biochemical response of the transformants to cadmium toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The response of tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L.)-non-transformed and transformed with a metallothionein gene MThis from Silene vulgaris L. - to increase cadmium supply in the nutrient solution was compared. The transgenic plants accumulated significantly more Cd both in the roots and the leaves. Visual toxicity symptoms and disturbance in water balance were correlated with Cd tissue content. Treatment with 300 μM CdCl2 resulted in inhibition of photosynthesis and mobilization of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle. Treatment with 500 μM CdCl2 led to irreversible damage of photosynthesis and oxidative stress. An appearance of a new peroxidase isoform and changes in the leaf polypeptide pattern were observed at the highest Cd concentration. The level of non-protein thiols gradually increased following the Cd treatment both in transgenic and non-transformed plants. - Genetic transformation of Nicotiana tabacum L. by metallothionein gene improved phytoaccumulation of cadmium

  17. Improved phytoaccumulation of cadmium by genetically modified tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L.). Physiological and biochemical response of the transformants to cadmium toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorinova, N. [AgroBioInstitute, 8 Dragan Tzankov Blvd., 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria)]. E-mail: noraig60@yahoo.co.uk; Nedkovska, M. [AgroBioInstitute, 8 Dragan Tzankov Blvd., 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Todorovska, E. [AgroBioInstitute, 8 Dragan Tzankov Blvd., 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Simova-Stoilova, L. [Institute of Plant Physiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Stoyanova, Z. [Institute of Plant Physiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Georgieva, K. [Institute of Plant Physiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Demirevska-Kepova, K. [Institute of Plant Physiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Atanassov, A. [AgroBioInstitute, 8 Dragan Tzankov Blvd., 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Herzig, R. [Phytotech-Foundation PT-F, Quartiergasse 12, CH 3013 Bern (Switzerland)

    2007-01-15

    The response of tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L.)-non-transformed and transformed with a metallothionein gene MThis from Silene vulgaris L. - to increase cadmium supply in the nutrient solution was compared. The transgenic plants accumulated significantly more Cd both in the roots and the leaves. Visual toxicity symptoms and disturbance in water balance were correlated with Cd tissue content. Treatment with 300 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2} resulted in inhibition of photosynthesis and mobilization of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle. Treatment with 500 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2} led to irreversible damage of photosynthesis and oxidative stress. An appearance of a new peroxidase isoform and changes in the leaf polypeptide pattern were observed at the highest Cd concentration. The level of non-protein thiols gradually increased following the Cd treatment both in transgenic and non-transformed plants. - Genetic transformation of Nicotiana tabacum L. by metallothionein gene improved phytoaccumulation of cadmium.

  18. Role of Silicon Counteracting Cadmium Toxicity in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Ahmad H.; Hossain, Mohammad M.; Khatun, Most A.; Mandal, Abul; Haider, Syed A.

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most phytotoxic elements causing an agricultural problem and human health hazards. This work investigates whether and how silicon (Si) ameliorates Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. The addition of Si in Cd-stressed plants caused significant improvement in morpho-physiological features as well as total protein and membrane stability, indicating that Si does have critical roles in Cd detoxification in Alfalfa. Furthermore, Si supplementation in Cd-stressed plants showed a significant decrease in Cd and Fe concentrations in both roots and shoots compared with Cd-stressed plants, revealing that Si-mediated tolerance to Cd stress is associated with Cd inhibition in Alfalfa. Results also showed no significant changes in the expression of two metal chelators [MsPCS1 (phytochelatin synthase) and MsMT2 (metallothionein)] and PC (phytochelatin) accumulation, indicating that there may be no metal sequestration or change in metal sequestration following Si application under Cd stress in Alfalfa. We further performed a targeted study on the effect of Si on Fe uptake mechanisms. We observed the consistent reduction in Fe reductase activity, expression of Fe-related genes [MsIRT1 (Fe transporter), MsNramp1 (metal transporter) and OsFRO1 (ferric chelate reductase] and Fe chelators (citrate and malate) by Si application to Cd stress in roots of Alfalfa. These results support that limiting Fe uptake through the down-regulation of Fe acquisition mechanisms confers Si-mediated alleviation of Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. Finally, an increase of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities along with elevated methionine and proline subjected to Si application might play roles, at least in part, to reduce H2O2 and to provide antioxidant defense against Cd stress in Alfalfa. The study shows evidence of the effect of Si on alleviating Cd toxicity in Alfalfa and can be further extended for phytoremediation of Cd toxicity in plants. PMID:27512401

  19. Role of Silicon Counteracting Cadmium Toxicity in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Ahmad H; Hossain, Mohammad M; Khatun, Most A; Mandal, Abul; Haider, Syed A

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most phytotoxic elements causing an agricultural problem and human health hazards. This work investigates whether and how silicon (Si) ameliorates Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. The addition of Si in Cd-stressed plants caused significant improvement in morpho-physiological features as well as total protein and membrane stability, indicating that Si does have critical roles in Cd detoxification in Alfalfa. Furthermore, Si supplementation in Cd-stressed plants showed a significant decrease in Cd and Fe concentrations in both roots and shoots compared with Cd-stressed plants, revealing that Si-mediated tolerance to Cd stress is associated with Cd inhibition in Alfalfa. Results also showed no significant changes in the expression of two metal chelators [MsPCS1 (phytochelatin synthase) and MsMT2 (metallothionein)] and PC (phytochelatin) accumulation, indicating that there may be no metal sequestration or change in metal sequestration following Si application under Cd stress in Alfalfa. We further performed a targeted study on the effect of Si on Fe uptake mechanisms. We observed the consistent reduction in Fe reductase activity, expression of Fe-related genes [MsIRT1 (Fe transporter), MsNramp1 (metal transporter) and OsFRO1 (ferric chelate reductase] and Fe chelators (citrate and malate) by Si application to Cd stress in roots of Alfalfa. These results support that limiting Fe uptake through the down-regulation of Fe acquisition mechanisms confers Si-mediated alleviation of Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. Finally, an increase of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities along with elevated methionine and proline subjected to Si application might play roles, at least in part, to reduce H2O2 and to provide antioxidant defense against Cd stress in Alfalfa. The study shows evidence of the effect of Si on alleviating Cd toxicity in Alfalfa and can be further extended for phytoremediation of Cd toxicity in plants. PMID:27512401

  20. Development of a model to predict the effect of water chemistry on the acute toxicity of cadmium to Photobacterium phosphoreum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Acute cadmium toxicity was evaluated with P. phosphoreum as a test organism. • The effect of Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, pH and complexants on Cd toxicity was investigated. • Each factor has its own distinct characteristics on the toxicity-modifying effects. • A model was developed to predict Cd toxicity towards P. phosphoreum. -- Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) compounds are widely distributed toxic environmental and industrial pollutants, and they may bring danger to growth and development of aquatic organisms. The effects of Ca2+ (as CaCl2), Mg2+ (as MgSO4), K+ (as KCl), pH and complexants (EDTA, the commercial DOM, and three homemade DOMs) on Cd toxicity to Photobacterium phosphoreum were evaluated in standardized 15 min acute toxicity tests. Increases in Ca2+ concentration resulted in higher EC50 values, indicating the competition between the two ions for uptake sites at the biotic ligand. Increased waterborne Mg2+ also reduced Cd toxicity, but to a slightly lesser degree compared with Ca2+. The overall decline in EC50 data with increasing K+ in test solutions suggested that Cd toxicity was enhanced at larger K+ concentration. The toxicity alleviation by H+ was observed over the tested pH range of 5.0–9.0. Additions of complexing agents into the exposure water reduced Cd bioavailability via complexation of Cd2+, and complexants from different sources displayed different protective effect. The influence of these toxicity modifying factors was finally incorporated into a model that can predict acute cadmidum toxicity for Photobacterium phosphoreum. After validation with laboratory and natural waters, the developed model could support efforts to improve the ecological relevance of presently applied risk assessment procedures

  1. Development of a model to predict the effect of water chemistry on the acute toxicity of cadmium to Photobacterium phosphoreum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Ruijuan; Wang, Xinghao [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environment, Xianlin Campus, Nanjing University, Jiangsu Nanjing 210023 (China); Liu, Zhengtao; Yan, Zhenguang [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment and State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Ecological Effect and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Wang, Zunyao, E-mail: wangzun315cn@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environment, Xianlin Campus, Nanjing University, Jiangsu Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Acute cadmium toxicity was evaluated with P. phosphoreum as a test organism. • The effect of Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, K{sup +}, pH and complexants on Cd toxicity was investigated. • Each factor has its own distinct characteristics on the toxicity-modifying effects. • A model was developed to predict Cd toxicity towards P. phosphoreum. -- Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) compounds are widely distributed toxic environmental and industrial pollutants, and they may bring danger to growth and development of aquatic organisms. The effects of Ca{sup 2+} (as CaCl{sub 2}), Mg{sup 2+} (as MgSO{sub 4}), K{sup +} (as KCl), pH and complexants (EDTA, the commercial DOM, and three homemade DOMs) on Cd toxicity to Photobacterium phosphoreum were evaluated in standardized 15 min acute toxicity tests. Increases in Ca{sup 2+} concentration resulted in higher EC{sub 50} values, indicating the competition between the two ions for uptake sites at the biotic ligand. Increased waterborne Mg{sup 2+} also reduced Cd toxicity, but to a slightly lesser degree compared with Ca{sup 2+}. The overall decline in EC{sub 50} data with increasing K{sup +} in test solutions suggested that Cd toxicity was enhanced at larger K{sup +} concentration. The toxicity alleviation by H{sup +} was observed over the tested pH range of 5.0–9.0. Additions of complexing agents into the exposure water reduced Cd bioavailability via complexation of Cd{sup 2+}, and complexants from different sources displayed different protective effect. The influence of these toxicity modifying factors was finally incorporated into a model that can predict acute cadmidum toxicity for Photobacterium phosphoreum. After validation with laboratory and natural waters, the developed model could support efforts to improve the ecological relevance of presently applied risk assessment procedures.

  2. Use of Azolla to assess toxicity and accumulation of metals from artificial and natural sediments containing cadmium, copper, and zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, G.M. [S.M. Stoller Corp., Boulder, CO (United States); Nimmo, D.W.R.; Flickinger, S.A.; Brinkman, S.F.

    1998-12-31

    The aquatic macrophyte Azolla mexicana was studied to determine if it could indicate toxicity and bioavailability of cadmium, copper, and zinc in sediments. Plants were exposed to metal-fortified artificial sediment and to natural sediment contaminated with tailings from a Superfund site near Deer Lodge, Montana. Dry weights (mass) of biomass were used to determine effects of the metal concentrations and tissue metals were measured to determine metal uptake from the sediments. Plants exposed to artificial sediments fortified with cadmium and copper showed the greatest reduction in dry mass while zinc showed the least. And, plants exposed to copper singly in artificial sediments lost both zinc and cadmium for their tissues. Plants exposed to metal-contaminated natural sediment developed necrotic and chlorotic tissue within 24 hours in 75% and 100% dilutions but significant effects (P < 0.0001) using dry mass were found as low as 3.13%.

  3. Adsorptive removal of lead and cadmium ions using Cross -linked CMC Schiff base: Isotherm, Kinetics and Catalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Moganavally

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Water plays a vital role to human and other living organisms. Due to the effluent coming from chemical industries, the industrial activity, contamination of ground water level is goes on increasing nowadays. Therefore, there is a need to develop technologies that can remove toxic pollutants in wastewater. Hence the cross linked Carboxymethyl chitosan(CMC/ 2,3-dimethoxy Benzaldehyde Schiff base complex has been synthesized and characterized by using FT-IR and SEM analysis. All these results revealed that cross linked Schiff base has formed with high adsorption capacity. The prepared effective adsorbent used for the removal of heavy metals like lead (II and cadmium (II ions from aqueous solution and the adsorption data follow the Freundlich model, which follows pseudo first order kinetics. Effect of various parameters like solution pH, adsorbent dose and contact time for the removal of heavy metals has been studied. The synthesized sample undergoes catalytic oxidation process significantly at 24 hrs. The results showed that cross linked Schiff base is an effective, eco-friendly, low-cost adsorbent.

  4. ASSESSMENT OF CADMIUM EXPOSURE AND TOXICITY RISK IN AN AMERICAN VEGETARIAN POPULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been postulated that nonvegetarians may be exposed to less cadmium than vegetarians because of the cadmium-poor meat in their diet. This study attempts to test this possibility by measuring the cadmium exposure and accumulation in a population subgroup that includes many v...

  5. Hepatoprotective effect of Arctium lappa root extract on cadmium toxicity in adult Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Predes, Fabricia; da Silva Diamante, Maria Aparecida; Foglio, Mary Ann; Camargo, Camila de Andrade; Camargo, Camila Almeida; Aoyama, Hiroshi; Miranda, Silvio Cesar; Cruz, Bread; Gomes Marcondes, Maria Cristina Cintra; Dolder, Heidi

    2014-08-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of Arctium lappa (Al) to protect against cadmium damage in the rat liver. Male rats received a single i.p. dose of CdCl2 (1.2 mg/kg body weight (BW)) with or without Al extract administered daily by gavage (300 mg/kg BW) for 7 or 56 days. After 7 days, Al caused plasma transaminase activity to diminish in groups Al (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT)) and CdAl (GPT). After 56 days, GOT and GPT plasma activities were reduced in the Cd group. No alteration in plasma levels of creatinine, total bilirubin, and total protein were observed. GOT liver activity increased in the Cd group. No alteration was observed in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and malondialdehyde (MDA) dosage. In the Cd group, hepatocyte proportion decreased and sinusoid capillary proportion increased. In the Al and CdAl groups, the nuclear proportion increased and the cytoplasmic proportion decreased. The hepatocyte nucleus density reduced in Cd and increased in the Al group. After 56 days, there was no alteration in the Cd group. In Al and CdAl groups, the nuclear proportion increased without cytoplasmic proportion variation, but the sinusoid capillary proportion was reduced. The hepatocyte nucleus density decreased in the Cd group and increased in the Al and CdAl groups. In conclusion, the liver function indicators showed that A. lappa protected the liver against cadmium toxicity damage. PMID:24929543

  6. Salicylic Acid Alleviates the Cadmium Toxicity in Chinese Cabbages (Brassica chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicite Obono Mba

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available To test the effects of Salicylic Acid (SA on physiological changes of plants under cadmium stress one cultivar of Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis cadmium resistance, Changkenxiaobaicai (tolerance were studied with pots cultures. Like other organisms Plants have adaptatives mechanisms whereby they are able to respond to both nutrient deficiency and toxicities. Plants materials were originated from the vegetable market in Wuhan, Hubei China. The seeds were tested on the pot cultures in the green house. The results of our experiments were quite different between the treatments. The combined treatment Cd 5 ppm + SA 500 mmol L-1 during our experiment showed that the activity of peroxidase and superoxidase dismutase in the cabbages were induced, the total chlorophyll content increased significally by 25.38%, chl a/b about 43.01% and total biomass about 41.67%, both in comparison with the control. The soluble sugar content increased significantly to about 25.47% in comparison with the control. The electrolyte leakages were less affected. Under SA treatment only, the chlorophyll content, chl a/b content increased to about 18.85%, in comparison with the control. Plant biomass increased about 18.90% with the addition of SA in the culture. SA treatment can increase or decrease the Chinese cabbages metabolism. Plants were exposed to 5 ppm CdCl2 for 5 days under natural light. Then they were cultivated with Hoagland nutrient solution, which served as control, nutrient solution supplemented with 5 ppm CdCl2. Five days after Cd treatment, seedlings were harvested. The experiment was performed in triplicate.

  7. Stopping cross sections for 0.25-3.0-MeV He-4 ions in cadmium sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W. E.; Hutchby, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    Stopping cross sections of He-4 ions with energies between 0.25 and 3.0 MeV have been measured for cadmium sulfide with a probable error of plus or minus 7% to 8%. The experimental method utilized the Rutherford backscattering technique and measured the energy loss of elastically scattered He-4 ions from films of cadmium sulfide sputtered on carbon substrates. The experimental data are compared with recent experimental and theoretical results.

  8. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Colonization Alters Subcellular Distribution and Chemical Forms of Cadmium in Medicago sativa L. and Resists Cadmium Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yuanpeng; Huang, Jing; Gao, Yanzheng

    2012-01-01

    Some plants can tolerate and even detoxify soils contaminated with heavy metals. This detoxification ability may depend on what chemical forms of metals are taken up by plants and how the plants distribute the toxins in their tissues. This, in turn, may have an important impact on phytoremediation. We investigated the impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, Glomus intraradices, on the subcellular distribution and chemical forms of cadmium (Cd) in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) that were g...

  9. Target or barrier? The cell wall of early- and later- diverging plants vs cadmium toxicity: differences in the response mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi eParrotta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing industrialization and urbanization result in emission of pollutants in the environment including toxic heavy metals, as cadmium and lead. Among the different heavy metals contaminating the environment, cadmium raises great concern, as it is ecotoxic and as such can heavily impact ecosystems. The cell wall is the first structure of plant cells to come in contact with heavy metals. Its composition, characterized by proteins, polysaccharides and in some instances lignin and other phenolic compounds, confers the ability to bind non-covalently and/or covalently heavy metals via functional groups. A strong body of evidence in the literature has shown the role of the cell wall in heavy metal response: it sequesters heavy metals, but at the same time its synthesis and composition can be severely affected. The present review analyzes the dual property of plant cell walls, i.e. barrier and target of heavy metals, by taking Cd toxicity as example. Following a summary of the known physiological and biochemical responses of plants to Cd, the review compares the wall-related mechanisms in early- and later-diverging land plants, by considering the diversity in cell wall composition. By doing so, common as well as unique response mechanisms to metal/cadmium toxicity are identified among plant phyla and discussed. After discussing the role of hyperaccumulators’ cell walls as a particular case, the review concludes by considering important aspects for plant engineering.

  10. Cadmium carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waalkes, Michael P

    2003-12-10

    Cadmium is a heavy metal of considerable environmental and occupational concern. Cadmium compounds are classified as human carcinogens by several regulatory agencies. The most convincing data that cadmium is carcinogenic in humans comes from studies indicating occupational cadmium exposure is associated with lung cancer. Cadmium exposure has also been linked to human prostate and renal cancer, although this linkage is weaker than for lung cancer. Other target sites of cadmium carcinogenesis in humans, such as liver, pancreas and stomach, are considered equivocal. In animals, cadmium effectively induces cancers at multiple sites and by various routes. Cadmium inhalation in rats induces pulmonary adenocarcinomas, in accord with its role in human lung cancer. Cadmium can induce tumors and/or preneoplastic lesions within the rat prostate after ingestion or injection. At relatively high doses, cadmium induces benign testicular tumors in rats, but these appear to be due to early toxic lesions and loss of testicular function, rather than from a specific carcinogenic effect of cadmium. Like many other metals, cadmium salts will induce mesenchymal tumors at the site of subcutaneous (s.c.) or intramuscular (i.m.) injections, but the human relevance of these is dubious. Other targets of cadmium in rodents include the liver, adrenal, pancreas, pituitary, and hematopoietic system. With the exception of testicular tumors in rodents, the mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis are poorly defined. Cadmium can cause any number of molecular lesions that would be relevant to oncogenesis in various cellular model systems. Most studies indicate cadmium is poorly mutagenic and probably acts through indirect or epigenetic mechanisms, potentially including aberrant activation of oncogenes and suppression of apoptosis.

  11. Cadmium carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium is a heavy metal of considerable environmental and occupational concern. Cadmium compounds are classified as human carcinogens by several regulatory agencies. The most convincing data that cadmium is carcinogenic in humans comes from studies indicating occupational cadmium exposure is associated with lung cancer. Cadmium exposure has also been linked to human prostate and renal cancer, although this linkage is weaker than for lung cancer. Other target sites of cadmium carcinogenesis in humans, such as liver, pancreas and stomach, are considered equivocal. In animals, cadmium effectively induces cancers at multiple sites and by various routes. Cadmium inhalation in rats induces pulmonary adenocarcinomas, in accord with its role in human lung cancer. Cadmium can induce tumors and/or preneoplastic lesions within the rat prostate after ingestion or injection. At relatively high doses, cadmium induces benign testicular tumors in rats, but these appear to be due to early toxic lesions and loss of testicular function, rather than from a specific carcinogenic effect of cadmium. Like many other metals, cadmium salts will induce mesenchymal tumors at the site of subcutaneous (s.c.) or intramuscular (i.m.) injections, but the human relevance of these is dubious. Other targets of cadmium in rodents include the liver, adrenal, pancreas, pituitary, and hematopoietic system. With the exception of testicular tumors in rodents, the mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis are poorly defined. Cadmium can cause any number of molecular lesions that would be relevant to oncogenesis in various cellular model systems. Most studies indicate cadmium is poorly mutagenic and probably acts through indirect or epigenetic mechanisms, potentially including aberrant activation of oncogenes and suppression of apoptosis

  12. Effect of progesterone pretreatment on cadmium toxicity in male Fischer (F344/NCr) and Wistar (WF/NCr) rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Shiraishi, N; Barter, R. A.; Uno, H; Waalkes, M. P.

    1994-01-01

    A previous report indicated that progesterone pretreatment can markedly reduce cadmium (Cd) toxicity in male NAW mice. Therefore we examined the effects of progesterone pretreatment on Cd toxicity in male Fischer (F344) and Wistar (WF) rats. A single subcutaneous injection of 10 or 30 mumole (CdCl2)/kg proved nonlethal over 24 hr but caused the typical spectrum of testicular lesions in these rats. Moreover, when F344 rats were pretreated with progesterone (100 mg/kg, sc, at -48, -24, and 0 hr...

  13. Alleviation of cadmium toxicity in Medicago sativa by hydrogen-rich water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • HRW can alleviate Cd-induced alfalfa seedling growth inhibition and DNA laddering. • HRW alleviates Cd-induced oxidative stress by activating antioxidant enzymes. • Cd uptake in alfalfa seedling roots was decreased by HRW. • HRW can re-establish glutathione homeostasis under Cd stress. -- Abstract: Hydrogen gas (H2) induces plant tolerance to several abiotic stresses, including salinity and paraquat exposure. However, the role of H2 in cadmium (Cd)-induced stress amelioration is largely unknown. Here, pretreatment with hydrogen-rich water (HRW) was used to characterize physiological roles and molecular mechanisms of H2 in the alleviation of Cd toxicity in alfalfa plants. Our results showed that the addition of HRW at 10% saturation significantly decreased contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) caused by Cd, and inhibited the appearance of Cd toxicity symptoms, including the improvement of root elongation and seedling growth. These responses were related to a significant increase in the total or isozymatic activities of representative antioxidant enzymes, or their corresponding transcripts. In vivo imaging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the detection of lipid peroxidation and the loss of plasma membrane integrity provided further evidence for the ability of HRW to improve Cd tolerance significantly, which was consistent with a significant enhancement of the ratio of reduced/oxidized (homo)glutathione ((h)GSH). Additionally, plants pretreated with HRW accumulated less amounts of Cd. Together, this study suggested that the usage of HRW could be an effective approach for Cd detoxification and could be explored in agricultural production systems

  14. Alleviation of cadmium toxicity in Medicago sativa by hydrogen-rich water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Weiti; Gao, Cunyi; Fang, Peng [College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Lin, Guoqing [Laboratory Center of Life Sciences, Co. Laboratory of Nanjing Agricultural University and Carl Zeiss Far East, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Shen, Wenbiao, E-mail: wbshenh@njau.edu.cn [College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • HRW can alleviate Cd-induced alfalfa seedling growth inhibition and DNA laddering. • HRW alleviates Cd-induced oxidative stress by activating antioxidant enzymes. • Cd uptake in alfalfa seedling roots was decreased by HRW. • HRW can re-establish glutathione homeostasis under Cd stress. -- Abstract: Hydrogen gas (H{sub 2}) induces plant tolerance to several abiotic stresses, including salinity and paraquat exposure. However, the role of H{sub 2} in cadmium (Cd)-induced stress amelioration is largely unknown. Here, pretreatment with hydrogen-rich water (HRW) was used to characterize physiological roles and molecular mechanisms of H{sub 2} in the alleviation of Cd toxicity in alfalfa plants. Our results showed that the addition of HRW at 10% saturation significantly decreased contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) caused by Cd, and inhibited the appearance of Cd toxicity symptoms, including the improvement of root elongation and seedling growth. These responses were related to a significant increase in the total or isozymatic activities of representative antioxidant enzymes, or their corresponding transcripts. In vivo imaging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the detection of lipid peroxidation and the loss of plasma membrane integrity provided further evidence for the ability of HRW to improve Cd tolerance significantly, which was consistent with a significant enhancement of the ratio of reduced/oxidized (homo)glutathione ((h)GSH). Additionally, plants pretreated with HRW accumulated less amounts of Cd. Together, this study suggested that the usage of HRW could be an effective approach for Cd detoxification and could be explored in agricultural production systems.

  15. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) mediate cadmium toxicity to an emergent wetland species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhenhua [School of Earth and Environment, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Rengel, Zed, E-mail: zed.rengel@uwa.edu.au [School of Earth and Environment, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Meney, Kathy; Pantelic, Ljiljana; Tomanovic, Radmila [Syrinx Environmental Pty Ltd., 12 Monger St., Perth, WA 6000 (Australia)

    2011-05-15

    Growth and pollutant removal by emergent wetland plants may be influenced by interactions among mixed pollutants in constructed wetlands. A glasshouse experiment was conducted to investigate interactive effects of cadmium (Cd) x polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) x plant treatments on growth of Juncus subsecundus, Cd and PAH removal from soil and the total number of microorganisms in soil. Growth and biomass of J. subsecundus were significantly influenced by interaction of Cd and PAHs, significantly decreasing with either Cd or PAH additions, but with the effect of Cd on plant growth being stronger than that of PAHs. The mixture of low Cd and low PAH lessened Cd toxicity to plants, resulting in improved plant growth and increased Cd accumulation in plant tissues, thus enhancing Cd removal by plants. The dissipation of PAHs in soils was significantly influenced by interactions of Cd, PAH and plant presence or absence. The total number of microorganisms in soils was significantly increased by the PAH additions. The interactive effect of Cd and PAHs on plant growth may be linked to the changes in the abundance of microorganisms in the rhizosphere, probably via a positive effect of PAH metabolites and/or phytohormones produced by microorganisms on plant growth.

  16. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) mediate cadmium toxicity to an emergent wetland species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growth and pollutant removal by emergent wetland plants may be influenced by interactions among mixed pollutants in constructed wetlands. A glasshouse experiment was conducted to investigate interactive effects of cadmium (Cd) x polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) x plant treatments on growth of Juncus subsecundus, Cd and PAH removal from soil and the total number of microorganisms in soil. Growth and biomass of J. subsecundus were significantly influenced by interaction of Cd and PAHs, significantly decreasing with either Cd or PAH additions, but with the effect of Cd on plant growth being stronger than that of PAHs. The mixture of low Cd and low PAH lessened Cd toxicity to plants, resulting in improved plant growth and increased Cd accumulation in plant tissues, thus enhancing Cd removal by plants. The dissipation of PAHs in soils was significantly influenced by interactions of Cd, PAH and plant presence or absence. The total number of microorganisms in soils was significantly increased by the PAH additions. The interactive effect of Cd and PAHs on plant growth may be linked to the changes in the abundance of microorganisms in the rhizosphere, probably via a positive effect of PAH metabolites and/or phytohormones produced by microorganisms on plant growth.

  17. How toxic is the depleted uranium to crayfish Procambarus clarkii compared with cadmium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kaddissi, Simone; Simon, Olivier; Elia, Antonia Concetta; Gonzalez, Patrice; Floriani, Magali; Cavalie, Isabelle; Camilleri, Virginie; Frelon, Sandrine; Legeay, Alexia

    2016-02-01

    Due to a lack of information on the assessment of uranium's (U) toxicity, our work aimed to compare the effects of U on the crayfish Procambarus clarkii with those of the well documented metal: cadmium (Cd). Accumulation and impacts at different levels of biological organization were assessed after acute (40 µM Cd or U; 4-10 days) and chronic (0.1 µM Cd or U; 30-60 days) exposures. The survival rates demonstrated the high tolerance of this species toward both metals and showed that Cd had a greater effect on the sustainability of crayfish. The concentration levels of Cd and U accumulated in gills and hepatopancreas were compared between both conditions. Distinctions in the adsorption capacities and the mobility of the contaminants were suspected. Differences in the detoxification mechanisms of both metals using transmission electron microscopy equiped with an energy dispersive X-ray were also pointed out. In contrast, comparison between the histological structures of contaminated hepatopancreas showed similar symptoms. Principal component analyses revealed different impacts of each metal on the oxidative balance and mitochondria using enzymatic activities and gene expression levels as endpoints. The observation that U seemed to generate more oxidative stress than Cd in our conditions of exposure is discussed. PMID:25213093

  18. Availability and toxicity of cadmium to forage grasses grown in contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Enilson B; Fonseca, Felipe G; Alleoni, Luís R F; Nascimento, Sandra S; Grazziotti, Paulo H; Nardis, Bárbara O

    2016-09-01

    It is important to know the mechanisms for forage development, especially those related to the tolerance of potentially toxic elements, when considering their use in phytoremediation in heavy metal contaminated areas. In this study, we evaluated plant growth, concentration, and the availability of cadmium (Cd) for forage grasses (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Aruana and cv. Tanzânia; Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk; Brachiaria brizantha cv. Xaraés and cv. Marandu) cultivated in Cd contaminated soils. The experiments were performed under greenhouse conditions over a 90-day evaluation period, and the Cd rates were 2, 4, and 12 mg/kg of soil. The relative growth rate of the forage grasses decreased as Cd rates increased, and the following descending order of susceptibility was observed: Marandu > Xaraés > Aruana > Tanzânia > Basilisk, with regard to phytotoxicity in these plants. The forage Cd concentration increased in line with increases in the Cd rates. Cd contents extracted by Mehlich-1 and by diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid presented high positive correlation with forage relative growth. The forage plants did not block Cd entry into the food chain because they were not capable of limiting Cd absorption. PMID:26854007

  19. Assessing the impact of waterborne and dietborne cadmium toxicity on susceptibility risk for rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to use a risk-based integrated-scale toxicological model to examine the impact of waterborne and dietborne cadmium (Cd) toxicity on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) susceptibility appraised with recent published data. A probabilistic assessment model was performed to estimate Cd susceptibility risk. The dose-response models were constructed based on two endpoints of % Cd in metabolically active pool (MAP) and susceptibility time that causes 50% effect (ST50). We further constructed an elimination-detoxification-recovery scheme to enhance the model predictive ability. We found a 95% probability of % Cd in gill and liver MAP exceeding 47-49% and it was likely (70% probability) to have exceeded 52-55%, but it was unlikely (30% probability) to have exceeded 56-60%. In contrast to gill and liver, gut had a relative lower Cd susceptibility risk (15-17% Cd in MAP) with a longer ST50. We suggested that the proposed probabilistic risk assessment framework can incorporate the elimination-detoxification-recovery scheme to help government based biomonitoring and bioassessment programs to prevent potential aquatic ecosystems and human health consequences. - Research Highlights: → An integrated-scale toxicological model was used to examine the impact of Cd on rainbow trout. → A probabilistic assessment model was performed to estimate Cd susceptibility risk. → An elimination-detoxification-recovery scheme was constructed to enhance the model predictive ability. → Gut had a relative lower Cd susceptibility risk than that in gill and liver.

  20. Protective effects of Korean red ginseng extract on cadmium-induced hepatic toxicity in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sook Jahr; Lee, Jong Rok; Jo, Mi Jeong; Park, Sang Mi; Ku, Sae Kwang; Kim, Sang Chan

    2013-01-01

    Korean red ginseng is known to regulate the immune system and help the body struggle infection and disease. Cadmium is widely distributed in the environment due to its use in industry. Exposure to cadmium is problematic causing organ dysfunction. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of Korean red ginseng extract (RGE) against cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. In experiments, animals were orally administrated with RGE (25, 50 mg/kg) for 7 d and then intravenously in...

  1. Applications of Crown Ether Cross-Linked Chitosan for the Analysis of Lead and Cadmium in Environmental Water Samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new type of crown ether cross-linked chitosan was synthesized by the reaction of chitosan with 4,4'-dibromodibenzo-18-crown-6 (Br-DBC). Its token structure was analyzed with FT-IR and NMR and the adsorption behaviors for lead and cadmium in environmental water samples by FAAS were studied. In addition the best analysis conditions were discussed and the adsorption mechanism was explained. As the enrichment factor is above 100, both recoveries are 94%-106%, the detection limits of lead and cadmium are 0.5μg*L-1and 0.04 μg*L-1 and the relatively standard deviations of lead and cadmium are 3.1% and 2.8% respectively, this new method was successfully applied to the determination of environmental water samples. This method is fast and simple and it greatly enhances the determination ability of FAAS for lead and cadmium.

  2. Cadmium toxicity studies under long term-low level exposure (LLE) conditions. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A long term-low level exposure (LLE) experiment was conducted on rats to determine the metabolic patterns for realistic dietary levels of cadmium. Male rats fed with 61 ppb of cadmium ad libitum, 50 labelled with 109Cd radiotracer as cadmium chloride via drinking mineral water and 11 unlabelled via food for 2 years. The diet was characterized in its metal content by neutron activation analysis to obtain the total dietary intake of different elements. The kidney was found to be the tissue with the major concentration of cadmium which accumulated continuously during the experiment. The variation of the accumulation pattern of Cd concentration in the liver and intestine indicated an initial rapid increase of Cd during the first 100 days. After this period an apparent equilibrium was attained in both these tissues until the end of the study. The intracellular distribution of cadmium in kidneys, liver, intestine and pancreas were similar, the cytosol fractions containing about 80% of the cellular cadmium. Dialysis experiments indicated that significant amounts of cadmium were able to be associated with cellular organelles, the mitochondria representing the most important organelle capable of binding cadmium. The cytoplasmatic Cd-profiles obtained at various stages of the experiment showed that the metal was only bound to a low-molecular-weight component, cadmium-binding protein (CdBP), which represents the specific cellular-binding component for cadmium under the long term-low level exposure (LLE) conditions. No significant variations in the concentrations of the elements in different organs were observed in animals supplemented with 109Cd in respect to 109Cd untreated controls. (Auth.)

  3. Effect of zinc fertilization on cadmium toxicity in durum and bread wheat grown in zinc-deficient soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of increasing application of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) on shoot dry weight and shoot concentrations of Zn and Cd was studied in bread and durum wheat cultivars. Plants were grown in severely Zn-deficient calcareous soil treated with increasing Zn (0 and 10 mg kg-1 soil) and Cd (0, 10 and 25 mg kg-1 soil) and harvested after 35 and 65 days of growth under greenhouse conditions. Growing plants without Zn fertilization caused severe depression in shoot growth, especially in durum wheat and at high Cd treatment. Cadmium treatments resulted in rapid development of necrotic patches on the base and sheath parts of the oldest leaves of both wheat cultivars, but symptoms were more severe in durum wheat and under Zn deficiency. Decreases in shoot dry weight from increasing Cd application were more severe in Zn-deficient plants. Severity of Cd toxicity symptoms in durum and bread wheat at different Zn treatments did not show any relation to the Cd concentrations in shoot. Increasing Cd application to Zn-deficient plants tended to decrease Zn concentrations in Zn-deficient plants, whereas in plants with adequate Zn, concentrations of Zn were either not affected or increased by Cd. The results show that durum wheat was more sensitive to both Zn deficiency and Cd toxicity as compared to bread wheat. Cadmium toxicity in the shoot was alleviated by Zn treatment, but this was not accompanied by a corresponding decrease in shoot concentrations of Cd. Our results are compatible with the hypothesis that Zn protects plants from Cd toxicity by improving plant defense against Cd-induced oxidative stress and by competing with Cd for binding to critical cell constituents such as enzymes and membrane protein and lipids

  4. Temperature dependence of long-term cadmium toxicity in the zebrafish is not explained by liver oxidative stress: Evidence from transcript expression to physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standard ecotoxicity tests are performed at species’ specific standard temperatures, but temperature is known to affect chemical toxicity. A temperature increase has been shown to increase cadmium toxicity in several aquatic species but information in fish is scarce. Based on literature we hypothesize that with increasing temperature, cadmium accumulation and oxidative stress increase, resulting in increased toxicity. In this study zebrafish acclimated to 12, 18, 26 (standard temperature) or 34 °C for one month, were exposed to 5 μM cadmium for 4 or 28 days at the respective acclimation temperature. Cadmium toxicity (mortality) increased with increasing temperature. PCA showed that the high mortality at 34 °C was closely correlated to an increasing tissue cadmium accumulation with increasing temperature, but not to liver oxidative damage under the form of protein carbonyl content or lipid peroxidation (measured as malondialdehyde levels) or liver antioxidative potential. Instead, acclimation to 12 °C induced the highest oxidative damage to liver proteins and lipids, and transcript levels of glucose-6P-dehydrogenase, 6P-gluconate-dehydrogenase and glutathione peroxidase were particularly good markers of cold-induced oxidative stress. At this low temperature there was no interaction with cadmium exposure and there was no sign of cadmium sensitivity. Contrastingly, the combined effect of high temperature and cadmium exposure on mortality proved synergistic. Therefore we conclude that interactions between temperature and cadmium toxicity increased with increasing temperature and that this probably played part in increasing cadmium sensitivity. Increased cadmium compartmentalization and protein carbonyl content in liver of zebrafish acclimated to the standard temperature of 26 °C probably played part in increased sensitivity towards the same cadmium body burden compared to lower temperatures. On the one hand we recognize and this study even confirms the

  5. Fish pre-acclimation temperature only modestly affects cadmium toxicity in Atlantic salmon hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsvik, Pål A; Søfteland, Liv; Hevrøy, Ernst M; Rasinger, Josef D; Waagbø, Rune

    2016-04-01

    An emerging focus in environmental toxicology is how climate change will alter bioavailability and uptake of contaminants in organisms. Ectothermic animals unable to adjust their temperature by local migration, such as farmed fish kept in net pens, may become more vulnerable to contaminants in warmer seas. The aim of this work was to study cadmium (Cd) toxicity in cells obtained from fish acclimated to sub-optimal growth temperature. Atlantic salmon hepatocytes, harvested from fish pre-acclimated either at 15°C (optimal growth temperature) or 20°C (heat-stressed), were exposed in vitro to two concentrations of Cd (control, 1 and 100µM Cd) for 48h. Cd-induced cytotoxicity, determined with the xCELLigence system, was more pronounced in cells from fish pre-acclimated to a high temperature than in cells from fish grown at optimal temperature. A feed spiked with antioxidants could not ameliorate the Cd-induced cytotoxicity in cells from temperature-stressed fish. At the transcriptional level, Cd exposure affected 11 out of 20 examined genes, of which most are linked to oxidative stress. The transcriptional levels of a majority of the altered genes were changed in cells harvested from fish grown at sub-optimal temperature. Interaction effects between Cd exposure and fish pre-acclimation temperature were seen for four transcripts, hmox1, mapk1, fth1 and mmp13. Overall, this study shows that cells from temperature-stressed fish are modestly more vulnerable to Cd stress, and indicate that mechanisms linked to oxidative stress may be differentially affected in temperature-stressed cells. PMID:27033036

  6. Endogenous nitric oxide mediates alleviation of cadmium toxicity induced by calcium in rice seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long Zhang; Zhen Chen; Cheng Zhu

    2012-01-01

    The effect of calcium chloride (CaCl2) on rice seedling growth under cadmium chloride (CdCl2) stress,as well as the possible role of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) in this process,was studied.The growth of rice seedlings was seriously inhibited by CdCl2,and the inhibition was significantly mitigated by CaCl2.However,hemoglobin (Hb) and 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO) weakened the promotion effect of CaCl2.The resuhs of NO fluorescence localization suggest that growth accelerated by CaCl2 might be associated with elevated NO levels.The content of Cd,protein thiols (PBT),and nonprotein thiols (NPT) in cell walls,cell organelles,and soluble fractions,respectively,of rice seedlings decreased considerably in the presence of CaCl2,whereas the content of pectin,hemicellulose 1 (HC1),and hemicellulose 2 (HC2) increased significantly.Elimination of endogenous NO in Cd+Ca treatment could promote the transportation of Cd2+ to cell organelles and soluble fractions and increase the content of NPT and PBT in leaves.In addition,transportation of Cd2+ to cell organelles and soluble fractions was retarded in roots,the content of NPT increased,and the content of PBT decreased.With elimination of endogenous NO in Cd+Ca treatment,the content of pectin,HC 1,and HC2 decreased significantly.Thus,Ca may alleviate Cd toxicity via endogenous NO with variation in the levels of NPT,PBT,and matrix polysaccharides.

  7. Effect of Nitric Oxide on Alleviating Cadmium Toxicity in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xiu-feng; CHEN Lin; Muhammad IA Rehmani; WANG Qiang-sheng; WANG Shao-hua; HOU Peng-fu; LI Gang-hua; DING Yan-feng

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous signaling molecule in plants that plays a key role in mediating a wide range of physiological processes and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of the exogenous application of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an NO donor, on cadmium (Cd)-induced oxidative stress and Cd uptake in rice plants. Rice plants were exposed to Cd stress (0.2 mmol L-1 CdCl2) and different concentrations of SNP (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mmol L-1). A SNP concentration of 0.1 mmol L-1 (SNP10) significantly reduced the Cd-induced decrease in shoot and root dry weights and leaf chlorophyll concentrations. The addition of NO also reduced the malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ascorbic acid (ASA) concentrations. However, the reduction in glutathione (GSH) concentration was inhibited by NO treatment. Moreover, NO prevented the Cd-induced increase in antioxidative enzyme activity. The amount of Cd accumulation in rice plants was also influenced by the addition of NO. The NO supplied by the SNP enhanced the Cd tolerance of the rice by increasing the Cd uptake by the roots and decreasing the Cd accumulation by the shoots. However, the application of potassium ferrocyanide (Cd+Fe) or sodium nitrate and nitrite (Cd+N) (without NO release), did not exhibit the effects of the SNP. Furthermore, the effects of the SNP were reversed by the addition of hemoglobin (an NO scavenger). Our results suggested that exogenous NO was involved in the resistance of rice to Cd-toxicity.

  8. The toxic effect of cadmium on pure microbes using a microcalorimetric method and a biosensor technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiyan; Yao, Jun; Zhou, Yong; Chen, Huilun; Wang, Fei; Gai, Nan; Zhuang, Rensheng; Ceccanti, Brunello; Maskow, Thomas; Zaray, Gyula

    2008-12-01

    A microcalorimetric technique based on microbes heat-output was explored to evaluate the effect of Cd (II) on Bacillus subtilis and Candida humicola. The power-time curves of the growth metabolism of Bacillus subtilis and Candida humicola and the effect of Cd (II) on it were studied by using a TAM III microcalorimeter, ampoules method at 28 degrees C. For the evaluation of toxic effect on pure micro-organisms, the maximum peak-heat output power (P(max)) in the growth phase, the growth rate constants (k), the log phase heat effects (Q(log)), and the total heat effect (Q(T)) for Bacillus subtilis and Candida humicola were determined. Dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) were evaluated by a biosensor. Cadmium has been regarded as the essential biological trace element. Cd (II) solutions of different concentration have different effects on Bacillus subtilis and Candida humicola growth metabolism. The higher concentrations of Cd (II) inhibit the growth of Candida humicola (1600-3200 microg.mL(-1)), Bacillus subtilis (240-480 microg.mL(-1)); the lower concentrations can promote the growth of both micro-organism. The values of cell dry weight is also showed in conformity in the cell dry weight changes to the micro-organisms' growth time. Comparison of growth curves of two micro-organisms showed that both the trends of biochemical oxygen demand were exhibiting regressive changes with the passage of time during their generation times (t(G)). Results from ultraviolet spectrophotometer and precision pH meter all showed that the control growth curves were visioning same trends with the thermodynamic curves of micro-organisms measured by microcalorimeter. PMID:18988101

  9. Effect of cadmium on genetic toxicity and protection of cortex acanthopanasia radicis against genetic damage induced by cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective and Methods: The test of sperm aberration and micronucleus of bone marrow cells in mice were used to detect the mutagenicity of cadmium and anti-mutagenicity of Cortex Acanthopanasia Radicis (CAR) on germ cell and somatic cell. Kunming mice were divided randomly into four groups: normal saline control group (NS): MMC control group (MMC 1.0 mg/kg); Cd-mutate group (1/5 LD50), 17.6 mg/kg); CAR anti-mutate group (CAR 1,2,4 g/kg + Cd). Ridit test and x2 were used to evaluate the statistical significance of the date. Results: The experiment demonstrated that Chinese medicine CAR can significantly decrease sperm aberration and micronuclei frequencies induced by Cd (P<0.01). Conclusion: As an anti-mutagen CAR has practical value in occupational protection against genetic damage induced by Cd

  10. Bioremediation of adverse impact of cadmium toxicity on Cassia italica Mill by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Abeer; Abd Allah, E F; Alqarawi, A A; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza

    2016-01-01

    Cassia italica Mill is an important medicinal plant within the family Fabaceae. Pot experiment was conducted to evaluate cadmium stress induced changes in physiological and biochemical attributes in C. italica with and without arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Cadmium stressed plant showed reduced chlorophyll pigment and protein content while AMF inoculation enhanced the chlorophyll and protein content considerably. AMF also ameliorated the cadmium stress induced reduction in total chlorophyll and protein contents by 19.30% and 38.29%, respectively. Cadmium stress enhanced lipid peroxidation while AMF inoculation reduced lipid peroxidation considerably. Increase in proline and phenol content was observed due to cadmium stress and AMF inoculation caused a further increase in proline and phenol content ensuring better growth under stressed conditions. AMF alone also enhanced proline and phenol content. Activity of antioxidant enzymes enhanced under cadmium treatment and AMF inoculation further enhanced their activity thereby strengthening the antioxidant system. Enhanced activities of antioxidants and increased accumulation of osmolytes help plants to avoid damaging impact of oxidative damage. The research has shown that AMF inoculation mitigated the negative impact of stress by reducing the lipid peroxidation and enhancing the antioxidant activity. The present study strongly supports employing AMF as the biological mean for enhancing the cadmium stress tolerance of C. italica. PMID:26858537

  11. Effects of organic amendments on the toxicity and bioavailability of cadmium and copper in spiked formulated sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; May, T.W.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the partitioning and toxicity of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) spiked into formulated sediments containing two types of organic matter (OM), i.e., cellulose and humus. Amendments of cellulose up to 12.5% total organic carbon (TOC) did not affect partitioning of Cd or Cu between sediment and pore water and did not significantly affect the toxicity of spiked sediments in acute toxicity tests with the amphipod Hyalella azteca. In contrast, amendments of natural humus shifted the partitioning of both Cd and Cu toward greater concentrations in sediment and lesser concentrations in pore water and significantly reduced toxic effects of both metals. Thresholds for toxicity, based on measured metal concentrations in whole sediment, were greater for both Cd and Cu in sediments amended with a low level of humus (2.9% TOC) than in sediments without added OM. Amendments with a high level of humus (8.9% TOC) eliminated toxicity at the highest spike concentrations of both metals (sediment concentrations of 12.4 ??g Cd/g and 493 ??g Cu/g). Concentrations of Cd in pore water associated with acute toxicity were similar between sediments with and without humus amendments, suggesting that toxicity of Cd was reduced primarily by sorption to sediment OM. However, toxic effects of Cu in humus treatments were associated with greater pore-water concentrations than in controls, suggesting that toxicity of Cu was reduced both by sorption and by complexation with soluble ligands. Both sorption and complexation by OM tend to make proposed sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) based on total metal concentrations more protective for high-OM sediments. Our results suggest that the predictive ability of SQGs could be improved by models of metal interactions with natural OM in sediment and pore water.

  12. Toxicity assessment of simulated urban runoff containing polycyclic musks and cadmium in Carassius auratus using oxidative stress biomarkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to assess potential toxic effects of simulated urban runoff on Carassius auratus using oxidative stress biomarkers. The activity of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver of C. auratus were analyzed after a 7-, 14- and 21-day exposure to simulated urban runoff containing galaxolide (HHCB) and cadmium (Cd). The results showed that the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the content of MDA increased significantly exposed to the simulated urban runoff containing HHCB alone or mixture of HHCB and Cd. The activity of the investigated enzymes and the content of MDA then returned to the blank level over a longer period of exposure. The oxidative stress could be obviously caused in the liver of C. auratus under the experimental conditions. This could provide useful information for toxic risk assessment of urban runoff. - Highlights: ► We assessed potential toxicity of urban runoff containing HHCB and Cd. ► Exposure of simulated urban runoff can caused oxidative stress in C. auratus liver. ► SOD and CAT are more sensitive than POD and more suitable for indicating the toxicity of urban runoff. ► The present study using oxidative stress biomarkers could provide useful information for toxic risk assessment of urban runoff. - Simulated urban runoff containing HHCB and Cd could cause oxidative stress on the liver of Carassius auratus, which could provide useful information for toxic risk assessment of urban runoff.

  13. Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization alters subcellular distribution and chemical forms of cadmium in Medicago sativa L. and resists cadmium toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanpeng Wang

    Full Text Available Some plants can tolerate and even detoxify soils contaminated with heavy metals. This detoxification ability may depend on what chemical forms of metals are taken up by plants and how the plants distribute the toxins in their tissues. This, in turn, may have an important impact on phytoremediation. We investigated the impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungus, Glomus intraradices, on the subcellular distribution and chemical forms of cadmium (Cd in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. that were grown in Cd-added soils. The fungus significantly colonized alfalfa roots by day 25 after planting. Colonization of alfalfa by G. intraradices in soils contaminated with Cd ranged from 17% to 69% after 25-60 days and then decreased to 43%. The biomass of plant shoots with AM fungi showed significant 1.7-fold increases compared to no AM fungi addition under the treatment of 20 mg kg(-1 Cd. Concentrations of Cd in the shoots of alfalfa under 0.5, 5, and 20 mgkg(-1 Cd without AM fungal inoculation are 1.87, 2.92, and 2.38 times higher, respectively, than those of fungi-inoculated plants. Fungal inoculation increased Cd (37.2-80.5% in the cell walls of roots and shoots and decreased in membranes after 80 days of incubation compared to untreated plants. The proportion of the inactive forms of Cd in roots was higher in fungi-treated plants than in controls. Furthermore, although fungi-treated plants had less overall Cd in subcellular fragments in shoots, they had more inactive Cd in shoots than did control plants. These results provide a basis for further research on plant-microbe symbioses in soils contaminated with heavy metals, which may potentially help us develop management regimes for phytoremediation.

  14. An omics based assessment of cadmium toxicity in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of cadmium were assessed in the freshwater alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Algae were exposed to concentrations of 0, 8.1 or 114.8 μM of cadmium and growth rates, gene transcription and metabolite profiles were examined after 48 and 72 h of exposure. In algae exposed to 8.1 μM Cd, several genes were differentially transcribed after 48 h but no adverse growth related effects were detected. A transient effect on both gene transcription patterns and metabolite profiles could be discerned after 48 h of exposure but the majority of these changes disappeared after 72 h. In contrast, all effects were more pronounced at the 114.8 μM cadmium exposure. Here growth was clearly reduced and transcription of a large number of genes involved in oxidative stress defense mechanisms was differentially increased. Metabolites involved in the glutathione synthesis pathway (an important antioxidant defense) were also affected but the effects of cadmium were found to be more pronounced at the transcript level than in the metabolome, suggesting that the former exhibits greater sensitivity toward cadmium exposure.

  15. An omics based assessment of cadmium toxicity in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamers, An; Blust, Ronny; De Coen, Wim [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Griffin, Julian L. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, 80 Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 2QA (United Kingdom); Jones, Oliver A.H., E-mail: oliver.jones@rmit.edu.au [School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, GPO Box 2476, Melbourne, VIC 3001 (Australia)

    2013-01-15

    The effects of cadmium were assessed in the freshwater alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Algae were exposed to concentrations of 0, 8.1 or 114.8 {mu}M of cadmium and growth rates, gene transcription and metabolite profiles were examined after 48 and 72 h of exposure. In algae exposed to 8.1 {mu}M Cd, several genes were differentially transcribed after 48 h but no adverse growth related effects were detected. A transient effect on both gene transcription patterns and metabolite profiles could be discerned after 48 h of exposure but the majority of these changes disappeared after 72 h. In contrast, all effects were more pronounced at the 114.8 {mu}M cadmium exposure. Here growth was clearly reduced and transcription of a large number of genes involved in oxidative stress defense mechanisms was differentially increased. Metabolites involved in the glutathione synthesis pathway (an important antioxidant defense) were also affected but the effects of cadmium were found to be more pronounced at the transcript level than in the metabolome, suggesting that the former exhibits greater sensitivity toward cadmium exposure.

  16. Cadmium-induced toxicity on larvae of the common Asian toad Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Schneider 1799): evidence from empirical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranatunge, R A A R; Wijesinghe, M R; Ratnasooriya, W D; Dharmarathne, H A S G; Wijesekera, R D

    2012-07-01

    This paper investigates the toxicity of cadmium (Cd) on young stages of the common Asian toad Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Schneider 1799). Signs of acute toxicity were evident in tadpoles repeatedly exposed to five concentrations ranging from 0.002 to 2 mg L(-1)of Cd which included environmentally relevant levels. Mortality at concentrations of 0.02 mg L(-1) and above was enhanced from 2 % at 0.02 mg L(-1) to 100 % at 1 mg L(-1), in a dose-dependent manner. Significant growth impairment was evident at 0.20 mg L(-1) with the larvae being markedly smaller. Delayed metamorphosis and retarded swimming were also observed. Therefore levels of Cd recorded in some freshwater bodies in Sri Lanka (e.g. 0.2 mg L(-1)) may be detrimental to the young stages of D. melanostictus. PMID:22526988

  17. Hormesis and stage specific toxicity induced by cadmium in an insect model, the queen blowfly, Phormia regina Meig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the first report of a heavy metal displaying a hormetic-like biphasic response for early developmental success, while at the same time displaying stage-specific toxicity at a later developmental stage. - Hormesis is an adaptive response, commonly characterized by a biphasic dose-response that can be either directly induced, or the result of compensatory biological processes following an initial disruption in homeostasis [Calabrese and Baldwin, Hum. Exp. Toxicol., 21 (2002), 91]. Low and environmentally relevant levels of dietary cadmium significantly enhanced the pupation rate of blowfly larvae, while higher doses inhibited pupation success. However, dietary cadmium at all exposure levels adversely affected the emergence of the adult fly from the pupal case. Such findings represent the first report of a heavy metal displaying a hormetic-like biphasic response for pupation success, while at the same time displaying stage-specific toxicity at a later developmental period. These conclusions are based on substantial experimentation of over 1750 blowflies, in seven replicate experiments, involving 10 concentrations per experiment. These findings indicate the need to assess the impact of environmental stressors over a broad range of potential exposures as well as throughout the entire life cycle

  18. Role of L-carnitine in Ameliorating the Cadmium Chloride and/or Irradiation-Induced Testicular Toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of oxidative stress in chronic administration of CdCl2 and/or irradiation toxicity and its prevention by pretreatment with L-carnitine was investigated. Adult male rats were administered with CdCl2 (3 mg/kg S.C. three times a week for three weeks) and /or irradiated at (2 Gy) dose level of gamma radiation. CdCl2 administration and/or irradiation induced cellular damage was indicated by significant decrease in lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme (LDH-X), glutathione level (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity (GSH-PX) as well as significant increase in malonaldehyde (MDA) in testicular tissues. Administration of L-carnitine (200 mg/kg I.P.) 1 hr before CdCl2 and/or irradiation, ameliorated the decrease in LDH-X, GSH and GSH-PX and the increase in MDA induced by CdCl2 and/or irradiation indicating the prophylactic action of L-carnitine on CdCl2 and /or irradiation toxicity. Various studies have indicated that cadmium is a potent heavy metal carcinogen in experimental animals (Poirier et al., 1983 and Waalkes et al..,1988) and is possibly carcinogenic in human populations exposed either occupationally or environmentally (Bako et al., 1982). Target sites for cadmium carcinogenesis in rodents have been shown to include testes after parenteral exposure (Poirier et al., 1983 and Waalkes et al., 1988) and lung after chronic inhalation (Takenaka et al., 1983)

  19. Effect of cadmium toxicity on nitrogen metabolism in leaves of Solanum nigrum L. as a newly found cadmium hyperaccumulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Zhou, Qixing; Ding, Lingling; Sun, Yuebing

    2008-06-15

    Hyperaccumulators are ideal plant species used for phytoremediation of soils contaminated by heavy metals. A full understanding of metal tolerance mechanisms of hyperaccumulators will facilitate enhancing their phytoremediation efficiency. However, how Cd affects N metabolism and which role plays the response of N metabolism to Cd toxicity in the tolerance of hyperaccumulators are still unknown. To clarify these questions, this study investigated the effects of various soil Cd levels on the concentrations of N forms and the activity of key enzymes involved in N metabolism in leaves of the Cd hyperaccumulator, Solanum nigrum L. The results showed that its growth and all N metabolism indicators were normal at low Cd exposure (toxicity to a certain extent (soil Cd concentration

  20. Effect of cadmium toxicity on nitrogen metabolism in leaves of Solanum nigrum L. as a newly found cadmium hyperaccumulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Lin [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhou Qixing [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)], E-mail: Zhouqx@nankai.edu.cn; Ding Lingling; Sun Yuebing [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China)

    2008-06-15

    Hyperaccumulators are ideal plant species used for phytoremediation of soils contaminated by heavy metals. A full understanding of metal tolerance mechanisms of hyperaccumulators will facilitate enhancing their phytoremediation efficiency. However, how Cd affects N metabolism and which role plays the response of N metabolism to Cd toxicity in the tolerance of hyperaccumulators are still unknown. To clarify these questions, this study investigated the effects of various soil Cd levels on the concentrations of N forms and the activity of key enzymes involved in N metabolism in leaves of the Cd hyperaccumulator, Solanum nigrum L. The results showed that its growth and all N metabolism indicators were normal at low Cd exposure ({<=}12 mg kg{sup -1}). At 24 mg Cd kg{sup -1} soil, nitrate assimilation indicators (nitrate concentration and activity of nitrate reductase) were reduced significantly, whereas most ammonia assimilation indicators (ammonium concentration and activity of glutamine synthetase) remained normal. However, when exposed to a higher Cd level (48 mg kg{sup -1}), growth and most N metabolism indicators were reduced significantly. Therefore, N metabolism in leaves of S. nigrum could be tolerant of Cd toxicity to a certain extent (soil Cd concentration {<=}12 mg kg{sup -1}), and this might be involved in the Cd-tolerance of this Cd-hyperaccumulator.

  1. Effect of cadmium toxicity on nitrogen metabolism in leaves of Solanum nigrum L. as a newly found cadmium hyperaccumulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyperaccumulators are ideal plant species used for phytoremediation of soils contaminated by heavy metals. A full understanding of metal tolerance mechanisms of hyperaccumulators will facilitate enhancing their phytoremediation efficiency. However, how Cd affects N metabolism and which role plays the response of N metabolism to Cd toxicity in the tolerance of hyperaccumulators are still unknown. To clarify these questions, this study investigated the effects of various soil Cd levels on the concentrations of N forms and the activity of key enzymes involved in N metabolism in leaves of the Cd hyperaccumulator, Solanum nigrum L. The results showed that its growth and all N metabolism indicators were normal at low Cd exposure (≤12 mg kg-1). At 24 mg Cd kg-1 soil, nitrate assimilation indicators (nitrate concentration and activity of nitrate reductase) were reduced significantly, whereas most ammonia assimilation indicators (ammonium concentration and activity of glutamine synthetase) remained normal. However, when exposed to a higher Cd level (48 mg kg-1), growth and most N metabolism indicators were reduced significantly. Therefore, N metabolism in leaves of S. nigrum could be tolerant of Cd toxicity to a certain extent (soil Cd concentration ≤12 mg kg-1), and this might be involved in the Cd-tolerance of this Cd-hyperaccumulator

  2. Cadmium toxicity to ringed seals (Phoca hispida): an epidemiological study of possible cadmium-induced nephropathy and osteodystrophy in ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from Qaanaaq in Northwest Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne-Hansen, C; Dietz, R; Leifsson, P S;

    2002-01-01

    the skeleton nor to the cadmium concentrations. Furthermore, the degree of mineralisation of the skeleton was not correlated with the cadmium concentration, age or sex. It can therefore be concluded that despite high levels of cadmium, none of the ringed seals showed any signs of cadmium......-induced nephropathy or osteodystrophy. This might be explained by the composition of the ringed seals diet, which contains high levels of vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, selenium and protein. These elements are all likely to counteract cadmium-induced damage. It is speculated that ringed seal are not...

  3. Time-dependent toxicity of cadmium telluride quantum dots on liver and kidneys in mice: histopathological changes with elevated free cadmium ions and hydroxyl radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang M

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mengmeng Wang,1,2,* Jilong Wang,1,2,* Hubo Sun,1,2 Sihai Han,3 Shuai Feng,1 Lu Shi,1 Peijun Meng,1,2 Jiayi Li,1,2 Peili Huang,1,2 Zhiwei Sun1,2 1Department of Toxicology and Sanitary Chemistry, School of Public Health, Capital Medical University, 2Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 3College of Food and Bioengineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: A complete understanding of the toxicological behavior of quantum dots (QDs in vivo is of great importance and a prerequisite for their application in humans. In contrast with the numerous cytotoxicity studies investigating QDs, only a few in vivo studies of QDs have been reported, and the issue remains controversial. Our study aimed to understand QD-mediated toxicity across different time points and to explore the roles of free cadmium ions (Cd2+ and hydroxyl radicals (·OH in tissue damage. Male ICR mice were administered a single intravenous dose (1.5 µmol/kg of CdTe QDs, and liver and kidney function and morphology were subsequently examined at 1, 7, 14, and 28 days. Furthermore, ·OH production in the tissue was quantified by trapping ·OH with salicylic acid (SA as 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA and detecting it using a high-performance liquid chromatography fluorescence method. We used the induction of tissue metallothionein levels and 2,3-DHBA:SA ratios as markers for elevated Cd2+ from the degradation of QDs and ·OH generation in the tissue, respectively. Our experimental results revealed that the QD-induced histopathological changes were time-dependent with elevated Cd2+ and ·OH, and could recover after a period of time. The Cd2+ and ·OH exhibited delayed effects in terms of histopathological abnormalities. Histological assessments performed at multiple time points might facilitate the evaluation of the biological safety of

  4. Localization and toxic effects of cadmium, copper, and uranium in Azolla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sela, M.; Tel-Or, E.; Fritz, E.; Huttermann, A.

    1988-09-01

    The storage and distribution of copper, cadmium, and uranium and their effects on ionic contents in roots and shoots of Azolla filiculoides has been studied by x-ray microanalysis. The relative content of copper was eightfold higher in the root than in the shoot, suggesting low mobility of this metal in Azolla plant. Cadmium relative content in the shoot was similar to its content in the root, hence its mobility was relatively high. The absence of significant uranium quantities in the shoot and its relative high content in the root suggest the immobility of this metal from Azolla root. Cadmium formed precipitates with phosphate and calcium in xylem cells of the shoot bundle and caused a two- to threefold increase in the content of phosphate in the root. Uranium in roots and cadmium in shoots were associated with calcium. All three treatments caused losses of potassium, chloride, and magnesium from Azolla roots. Accumulation of heavy metals in Azolla and their mobility from the root to the shoot can be correlated with damage caused by the loss of essential nutrients.

  5. Evaluation of the toxic effects of arsenite, chromate, cadmium, and copper using a battery of four bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Kyung-Seok; Lee, Pyeong-Koo [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Geologic Environment Div.; Kong, In Chul [Yeungnam Univ., Kyungbuk (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Environmental Engineering

    2012-09-15

    The sensitivities of four different kinds of bioassays to the toxicities of arsenite, chromate, cadmium, and copper were compared. The different bioassays exhibited different sensitivities, i.e., they responded to different levels of toxicity of each of the different metals. However, with the exception of the {alpha}-glucosidase enzyme activity, arsenite was the most toxic compound towards all the tested organisms, exhibiting the highest toxic effect on the seeds of Lactuca, with an EC{sub 50} value of 0.63 mg/L. The sensitivities of Lactuca and Raphanus were greater than the sensitivities of two other kinds of seeds tested. Therefore, these were the seeds appropriate for use in a seed germination assay. A high revertant mutagenic ratio (5:1) of Salmonella typhimurium was observed with an arsenite concentration of 0.1 {mu}g/plate, indicative of a high possibility of mutagenicity. These different results suggested that a battery of bioassays, rather than one bioassay alone, is needed as a more accurate and better tool for the bioassessment of environmental pollutants. (orig.)

  6. Impact Assessment of Cadmium Toxicity and Its Bioavailability in Human Cell Lines (Caco-2 and HL-7702

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukhsanda Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is a widespread environmental toxic contaminant, which causes serious health-related problems. In this study, human intestinal cell line (Caco-2 cells and normal human liver cell line (HL-7702 cells were used to investigate the toxicity and bioavailability of Cd to both cell lines and to validate these cell lines as in vitro models for studying Cd accumulation and toxicity in human intestine and liver. Results showed that Cd uptake by both cell lines increased in a dose-dependent manner and its uptake by Caco-2 cells (720.15 µg mg−1 cell protein was significantly higher than HL-7702 cells (229.01 µg mg−1 cell protein at 10 mg L−1. A time- and dose-dependent effect of Cd on cytotoxicity assays (LDH release, MTT assay was observed in both Cd-treated cell lines. The activities of antioxidant enzymes and differentiation markers (SOD, GPX, and AKP of the HL-7702 cells were higher than those of Caco-2 cells, although both of them decreased significantly with raising Cd levels. The results from the present study indicate that Cd above a certain level inhibits cellular antioxidant activities and HL-7702 cells are more sensitive to Cd exposure than Caco-2 cells. However, Cd concentrations <0.5 mg L−1 pose no toxic effects on both cell lines.

  7. Investigation of the toxic effect of cadmium on Candida humicola and Bacillus subtilis using a microcalorimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the technique of microcalorimetry based on heat-output by aerobic bacterial respiration was explored to evaluate the toxic effect of cadmium on Candida humicola, Bacillus subtilis, singularly or in a mixture of both. Power-time curves of the growth metabolism of C. humicola and B. subtilis and the effect of Cd2+ were studied using the TAM III (the third generation thermal activity monitor) multi-channel microcalorimetric system, isothermal mode, at 28 deg. C. The differences in shape of the power-time curves and the thermodynamic and kinetic characteristics of microorganisms growth were compared. The effect of cadmium added into microorganism would significantly reduce the life cycle and change the thermal effect of microbial metabolic process with different concentrations of Cd2+. The experimental results revealed that at the same concentration, the sequence of inhibitory ratio (I) and maximum thermal power (Pmax) of the Cd2+ was: mixed microorganisms > C. humicola > B. subtilis. The sequence of total thermal effect (Qtotal) and growth rate constant (k) is mixed microorganisms > B. subtilis > C. humicola. These results are important to further studies of the physiology and pharmacology of C. humicola and B. subtilis and may support the theory of restoring contaminated soil

  8. Cadmium toxicity investigated at the physiological and biophysical levels under environmentally relevant conditions using the aquatic model plant Ceratophyllum demersum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Elisa; Kappel, Sophie; Stärk, Hans-Joachim; Riegger, Ulrike; Borovec, Jakub; Mattusch, Jürgen; Heinz, Andrea; Schmelzer, Christian E H; Matoušková, Šárka; Dickinson, Bryan; Küpper, Hendrik

    2016-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an important environmental pollutant and is poisonous to most organisms. We aimed to unravel the mechanisms of Cd toxicity in the model water plant Ceratophyllum demersum exposed to low (nM) concentrations of Cd as are present in nature. Experiments were conducted under environmentally relevant conditions, including nature-like light and temperature cycles, and a low biomass to water ratio. We measured chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence kinetics, oxygen exchange, the concentrations of reactive oxygen species and pigments, metal binding to proteins, and the accumulation of starch and metals. The inhibition threshold concentration for most parameters was 20 nM. Below this concentration, hardly any stress symptoms were observed. The first site of inhibition was photosynthetic light reactions (the maximal quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) reaction centre measured as Fv /Fm , light-acclimated PSII activity ΦPSII , and total Chl). Trimers of the PSII light-harvesting complexes (LHCIIs) decreased more than LHC monomers and detection of Cd in the monomers suggested replacement of magnesium (Mg) by Cd in the Chl molecules. As a consequence of dysfunctional photosynthesis and energy dissipation, reactive oxygen species (superoxide and hydrogen peroxide) appeared. Cadmium had negative effects on macrophytes at much lower concentrations than reported previously, emphasizing the importance of studies applying environmentally relevant conditions. A chain of inhibition events could be established. PMID:26840406

  9. Toxicity of cadmium and zinc mixtures to the decaudized cercarial life span of Diplostomum spathaceum

    OpenAIRE

    Morley, Neil; Crane, M.; Lewis, J W

    2005-01-01

    The effects of cadmium and zinc mixtures at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10,000mg l21 on the life-span of decaudized cercarial bodies (cercariae that have shed their tails) of Diplostomum spathaceum (Trematoda: Diplostomatidae) was investigated. Cercariae were exposed to metal mixtures of equal and unequal concentrations, and a low-dose pre-treatment followed by a high-dose exposure mixtures. Metal mixtures demonstrated variable effects on decaudized cercariae either by increasing or re...

  10. Follow up of Treatment of Cadmium and Copper Toxicity in Clarias Gariepinus Using Laser Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghloul, Khalid H.; Ali, Maha F.; El-Bary, Manal G. Abd; Abd El-Harith, Mohamed

    2010-04-01

    Two purified diets were formulated and fed to seven groups of the Nile catfish; Clarias gariepinus for 12 weeks. The formulated diets contained 50 or 500 mg/kg diet of an ascorbic acid equivalent, supplied by L-ascorbyl-2-monophosphate (Mg salt). Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIDS) technique has been used to characterize the bioaccumulation of cadmium, copper and iron in some selected organs (Gills, liver, kidney and muscles) and disturbance in the distribution of sodium, calcium and magnesium in gills and muscles of fish fed the minimum requirement of vitamin C (50 mg/kg diet) and exposed to cadmium (0.165 mg/l) and copper (0.35 mg/l) individually or in combination. Heavy metals bioaccumulation affect histological structure of gills, liver and kidney and consequently, fish exhibited the lowest growth rate and meat quality with a progressive fall in RBCs count, Hb content and haematocrite value. These effects were concomitant with significant increase in the WBCs count, serum glucose, total protein, AST, ALT, creatinine and uric acid. On the contrary, serum total lipids and liver glycogen revealed a significant decrease. However, fish fed 500 mg vitamin C/kg diet and exposed to the same concentrations of cadmium and copper either individually or in mixture showed an improvement in the growth rate and meat quality and a tendency to exhibit close to the control values for most of the other studied physiological, biochemical and histopathological investigations.

  11. Toxicity of cadmium in Japanese quail: Evaluation of body weight, hepatic and renal function, and cellular immune response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental pollutant that is able to alter the immune function. Previous studies have shown that, in mammals, chronic exposure to Cd decreases the release of macrophagic cytokines such as IL1 and TNα and decreases phagocytosis activity. On the other hand contradictory results showed an increase in the humoral response. The cellular response could be decreased by exposure to Cd. These alterations were observed in mammals. The present study aimed to investigate some of the toxic effects of Cd exposure in birds. In particular, the main objective of this work was to elucidate the effects of exposure to this pollutant on the cellular immune function of the Japanese quail as a model for the study of toxicity in animals exposed in nature. The animals were exposed to the metal (100 ppm, per os) during development, i.e., from 1 to 28 days old. Body weight, biochemical parameters, and cellular immune response were measured during and at the end of treatment. The results showed that the exposure to Cd for 28 days significantly reduced the body weight and induced hepatic toxicity. The kidney function and cellular immune response were not affected by the Cd exposure

  12. Transcriptome assembly and expression profiling of molecular responses to cadmium toxicity in hepatopancreas of the freshwater crab Sinopotamon henanense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Min; Ting Li, Yi; Liu, Yang; Chin Lee, Shao; Wang, Lan

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) pollution is a serious global problem, which causes irreversible toxic effects on animals. Freshwater crab, Sinopotamon henanense, is a useful environmental indicator since it is widely distributed in benthic habitats whereby it tends to accumulate Cd and other toxicants. However, its molecular responses to Cd toxicity remain unclear. In this study, we performed transcriptome sequencing and gene expression analyses of its hepatopancreas with and without Cd treatments. A total of 7.78 G clean reads were obtained from the pooled samples, and 68,648 unigenes with an average size of 622 bp were assembled, in which 5,436 were metabolism-associated and 2,728 were stimulus response-associated that include 380 immunity-related unigenes. Expression profile analysis demonstrated that most genes involved in macromolecular metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, detoxification and anti-oxidant defense were up-regulated by Cd exposure, whereas immunity-related genes were down-regulated, except the genes involved in phagocytosis were up-regulated. The current data indicate that Cd exposure alters gene expressions in a concentration-dependent manner. Therefore, our results provide the first comprehensive S.henanense transcriptome dataset, which is useful for biological and ecotoxicological studies on this crab and its related species at molecular level, and some key Cd-responsive genes may provide candidate biomarkers for monitoring aquatic pollution by heavy metals.

  13. Temperature and irradiance influences on cadmium and zinc uptake and toxicity in a freshwater cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → This study is the first to study the influences of temperature and light irradiance, two critical factors for the occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms, on metal uptake, subcellular distribution, and toxicity in a freshwater cyanobacterium commonly blooming in eutrophic lakes. → With increasing metal exposure, both cellular growth rate and photosynthesis became more sensitive to metal toxicity under elevated irradiance and temperature, primarily as a result of increased uptake and accumulation. → Cd in the metal rich granule faction increased under Cd exposure, suggesting that MRG may partially detoxify Cd in the cyanobacterial cells. → This study implies that temperature and irradiance may influence the chemical cycling of metals during cyanobacterial blooming in eutrophic freshwater ecosystems. - Abstract: Temperature and light irradiance are important factors affecting the occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms. In this study, we examined the influences of different temperatures (15, 24, and 30°C ) and irradiances (18, 32, and 55 μmol photons m-2 s-1) on the uptake and toxicity of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) in a freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. The subcellular distribution of Cd and Zn was analyzed. Enhanced growth rates were observed for the cyanobacterial cells incubated at higher temperature or irradiance conditions with lower metal concentrations. With increasing ambient Cd or Zn concentrations, both cellular growth rate and photosynthesis were significantly inhibited at elevated irradiance conditions. The observed increase in Cd and Zn toxicity might be attributed to the enhanced metal uptake and accumulation in Microcystis. Based on the intracellular Cd concentration, the 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) values were higher at the higher temperature or irradiance treatment. The subcellular distribution demonstrated that Cd in the metal rich granule (MRG) faction increased with elevated [Cd2+] concentration, suggesting

  14. Temperature and irradiance influences on cadmium and zinc uptake and toxicity in a freshwater cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng Jin [State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, East Beijing Road 73, Nanjing 210008 (China); Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wang Wenxiong, E-mail: wwang@ust.hk [Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} This study is the first to study the influences of temperature and light irradiance, two critical factors for the occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms, on metal uptake, subcellular distribution, and toxicity in a freshwater cyanobacterium commonly blooming in eutrophic lakes. {yields} With increasing metal exposure, both cellular growth rate and photosynthesis became more sensitive to metal toxicity under elevated irradiance and temperature, primarily as a result of increased uptake and accumulation. {yields} Cd in the metal rich granule faction increased under Cd exposure, suggesting that MRG may partially detoxify Cd in the cyanobacterial cells. {yields} This study implies that temperature and irradiance may influence the chemical cycling of metals during cyanobacterial blooming in eutrophic freshwater ecosystems. - Abstract: Temperature and light irradiance are important factors affecting the occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms. In this study, we examined the influences of different temperatures (15, 24, and 30{sup Degree-Sign }C ) and irradiances (18, 32, and 55 {mu}mol photons m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) on the uptake and toxicity of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) in a freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. The subcellular distribution of Cd and Zn was analyzed. Enhanced growth rates were observed for the cyanobacterial cells incubated at higher temperature or irradiance conditions with lower metal concentrations. With increasing ambient Cd or Zn concentrations, both cellular growth rate and photosynthesis were significantly inhibited at elevated irradiance conditions. The observed increase in Cd and Zn toxicity might be attributed to the enhanced metal uptake and accumulation in Microcystis. Based on the intracellular Cd concentration, the 50% inhibition concentration (IC{sub 50}) values were higher at the higher temperature or irradiance treatment. The subcellular distribution demonstrated that Cd in the metal rich granule (MRG) faction

  15. Cadmium toxicity to ringed seals (Phoca hispida): an epidemiological study of possible cadmium-induced nephropathy and osteodystrophy in ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from Qaanaaq in Northwest Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne-Hansen, C; Dietz, R; Leifsson, P S;

    2002-01-01

    The Greenland marine food chains contain high levels of cadmium, mercury and selenium. Concentrations of cadmium in the kidney of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the municipalities of Qaanaaq and Upernavik (Northwest Greenland) are among the highest recorded in the Arctic. The purpose of the st...

  16. Sensitivity of mottled sculpins (Cottus bairdi) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) to acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, J.M.; Mebane, C.A.; Mount, D.R.; Ivey, C.D.; Kunz, J.L.; Greer, I.E.; May, T.W.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of fish communities of streams draining mining areas suggest that sculpins (Cottus spp.) may be more sensitive than salmonids to adverse effects of metals. We compared the toxicity of zinc, copper, and cadmium to mottled sculpin (C. bairdi) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) in laboratory toxicity tests. Acute (96-h) and early life-stage chronic (21- or 28-d) toxicity tests were conducted with rainbow trout and with mottled sculpins from populations in Minnesota and Missouri, USA, in diluted well water (hardness = 100 mg/L as CaCO3). Acute and chronic toxicity of metals to newly hatched and swim-up stages of mottled sculpins differed between the two source populations. Differences between populations were greatest for copper, with chronic toxicity values (ChV = geometric mean of lowest-observed-effect concentration and no-observed-effect concentration) of 4.4 ??g/L for Missouri sculpins and 37 ??g/L for Minnesota sculpins. Cadmium toxicity followed a similar trend, but differences between sculpin populations were less marked, with ChVs of 1.1 ??g/L (Missouri) and 1.9 ??g/L (Minnesota). Conversely, zinc was more toxic to Minnesota sculpins (ChV = 75 ??g/L) than Missouri sculpins (chronic ChV = 219 ??g/L). Species-average acute and chronic toxicity values for mottled sculpins were similar to or lower than those for rainbow trout and indicated that mottled sculpins were among the most sensitive aquatic species to toxicity of all three metals. Our results indicate that current acute and chronic water quality criteria for cadmium, copper, and zinc adequately protect rainbow trout but may not adequately protect some populations of mottled sculpins. Proposed water quality criteria for copper based on the biotic ligand model would be protective of both sculpin populations tested. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  17. Toxicity of cadmium and zinc to cercarial tail loss in Diplostomum spathaceum (Trematoda: Diplostomidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Morley, Neil; Crane, M.; Lewis, J W

    2003-01-01

    The effect of cadmium and zinc at concentrations ranging from 0±1 to 10000 lg}l on tail loss in cercariae of Diplostomum spathaceum was investigated at 3 temperatures (12, 20 and 25 °C) and 3 levels of water hardness (distilled water, soft water and hard water). Increasing tail loss over time was found to be linked with a parallel decrease in cercarial survival in controls. Exposure to the heavy metals induced, especially at high concentrations, a change in the relationship between cercarial ...

  18. Copper, but not cadmium, is acutely toxic for trout hepatocytes: short-term effects on energetics and ion homeostasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The toxic effects of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) on cellular energy metabolism and ion homeostasis were investigated in hepatocytes from the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. The metal content of cells did not increase during incubation with Cu, whereas a dose-dependent increase was seen with Cd. Cell viability was unaffected in the presence of 100 μM Cd and 10 μM Cu but was significantly reduced after 30 min of exposure to 100 μM Cu, both in the presence and absence of extracellular calcium. Oxygen consumption (VO2) was not affected by 100 μM Cd or 10 μM Cu, whereas 100 μM Cu caused a significant and calcium-dependent increase of VO2. Lactate production and basal glucose release were not altered by either of the metals. However, the epinephrine-stimulated rate of glucose release was significantly reduced after 2 h of incubation with 100 μM Cu. Hepatocytes exposed to Cd showed only a marginal increase of intracellular free calcium (Cai2+), whereas with Cu a pronounced and dose-dependent increase of Cai2+ was induced after a delay of 10 to 15 min, the calcium being of extracellular origin. Intracellular pH was not altered by Cd but decreased significantly in the presence of Cu. Overall our data demonstrate that Cu, but not Cd, is acutely toxic for trout hepatocytes. Since Cu does not enter the cells in the short term it appears to exert its acutely toxic effects at the cell membrane. Although Cu toxicity is associated with an uptake of calcium from extracellular space, leading to an elevation of cellular respiration, cytotoxicity does not appear to be dependent on the presence of extracellular calcium

  19. Strain difference of cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in inbred Wistar-Imamichi and Fischer 344 rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Hideaki; Narumi, Rika [Kumamoto University, Faculty of Education, Kumamoto (Japan); Nagano, Masaaki; Yasutake, Akira [National Institute for Minamata Disease, Biochemistry Section, Kumamoto (Japan); Waalkes, Michael P. [National Cancer Institute at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Inorganic Carcinogenesis Section, Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Imamura, Yorishige [Kumamoto University, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    Previously, we reported that Wistar-Imamichi (WI) rats are highly resistant to cadmium (Cd)-induced lethality and hepatotoxicity compared to Fischer 344 (F344) rats. Since the testes are one of the most sensitive organs to acute Cd toxicity, we examined possible strain-related differences in Cd-induced testicular toxicity between inbred WI and F344 rats. Rats were treated with a single dose of 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg Cd/kg, as CdCl{sub 2}, sc and killed 24 h later. Cd at doses of 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg induced severe testicular hemorrhage, as assessed by pathological and testis hemoglobin content, in F344 rats, but not WI rats. After Cd treatment (2.0 mg/kg), the testicular Cd content was significantly lower in WI rats than in the F344 rats, indicating a toxiokinetic mechanism for the observed strain difference. Thus, the remarkable resistance to Cd-induced testicular toxicity in WI rats is associated, at least in part, with lower testicular accumulation of Cd. When zinc (Zn; 10 mg/kg, sc) was administered in combination with Cd (2.0 mg/kg) to F344 rats, the Cd-induced increase in testicular hemoglobin content, indicative of hemorrhage, was significantly reduced. Similarly, the testicular Cd content was significantly decreased with Zn co-treatment compared to Cd treatment alone. Thus, it can be concluded that the testicular Cd accumulation partly competes with Zn transport systems and that these systems may play an important role in the strain-related differences in Cd-induced testicular toxicity between WI and F344 rats. (orig.)

  20. Cadmium-induced oxidative damage and protective effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine against cadmium toxicity in Solanum nigrum L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of cadmium (Cd) on the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and antioxidant enzyme activities in roots of Solanum nigrum L. and the role of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) as a cysteine (Cys) donor against Cd toxicity were investigated. Cd at 50 and 200 μM significantly increased the contents of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), the production of H2O2 and superoxide anion (O2·-), and the activities of catalase, guaiacol peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase, and superoxide dismutase. Experiments with diphenylene iodonium as an inhibitor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase and NaN3 as an inhibitor of peroxidase showed that the major source of Cd-induced reactive oxygen species in the roots may include plasma membrane-bound NADPH oxidase and peroxidase. In addition, the effects of NAC on plant growth, antioxidant enzyme activity, and non-protein thiol content were analyzed. Under Cd stress, the addition of 500 μM NAC decreased the contents of TBARS and production of H2O2 and O2·-, but increased levels of Cys and reduced glutathione (GSH), phytochelatins, and activity of GSH-Px in roots. These results suggest that NAC could protect plants from oxidative stress damage, and this protection seems to be performed via increased GSH biosynthesis. Furthermore, NAC treatment also increased the contents of protein thiols in S. nigrum roots. By using size-exclusion chromatography, we found involvement of NAC in the Cd tolerance mechanism through increased biosynthesis of Cd-binding proteins.

  1. Cadmium-induced oxidative damage and protective effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine against cadmium toxicity in Solanum nigrum L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Xiaopeng; Xia Yan; Hu Wei [College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Weigang 1, Nanjing 210095 (China); Zhang Hongxiao, E-mail: hxzhang@njau.edu.cn [College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Weigang 1, Nanjing 210095 (China); Shen Zhenguo, E-mail: zgshen@njau.edu.cn [College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Weigang 1, Nanjing 210095 (China)

    2010-08-15

    The effects of cadmium (Cd) on the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and antioxidant enzyme activities in roots of Solanum nigrum L. and the role of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) as a cysteine (Cys) donor against Cd toxicity were investigated. Cd at 50 and 200 {mu}M significantly increased the contents of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), the production of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -}), and the activities of catalase, guaiacol peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase, and superoxide dismutase. Experiments with diphenylene iodonium as an inhibitor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase and NaN{sub 3} as an inhibitor of peroxidase showed that the major source of Cd-induced reactive oxygen species in the roots may include plasma membrane-bound NADPH oxidase and peroxidase. In addition, the effects of NAC on plant growth, antioxidant enzyme activity, and non-protein thiol content were analyzed. Under Cd stress, the addition of 500 {mu}M NAC decreased the contents of TBARS and production of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -}, but increased levels of Cys and reduced glutathione (GSH), phytochelatins, and activity of GSH-Px in roots. These results suggest that NAC could protect plants from oxidative stress damage, and this protection seems to be performed via increased GSH biosynthesis. Furthermore, NAC treatment also increased the contents of protein thiols in S. nigrum roots. By using size-exclusion chromatography, we found involvement of NAC in the Cd tolerance mechanism through increased biosynthesis of Cd-binding proteins.

  2. Exogenous auxin alleviates cadmium toxicity in Arabidopsis thaliana by stimulating synthesis of hemicellulose 1 and increasing the cadmium fixation capacity of root cell walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiao Fang [Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Wang, Zhi Wei [Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Dong, Fang; Lei, Gui Jie [State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Shi, Yuan Zhi [The Key Laboratory of Tea Chemical Engineering, Ministry of Agriculture, Yunqi Road 1, Hangzhou 310008 (China); Li, Gui Xin, E-mail: guixinli@zju.edu.cn [College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zheng, Shao Jian [Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Cd reduces endogenous auxin levels in Arabidopsis. • Exogenous applied auxin NAA increases Cd accumulation in the roots but decreases in the shoots. • NAA increases cell wall hemicellulose 1 content. • Hemicellulose 1 retains Cd and makes it difficult to be translocated to shoots. • NAA rescues Cd-induced chlorosis. -- Abstract: Auxin is involved in not only plant physiological and developmental processes but also plant responses to abiotic stresses. In this study, cadmium (Cd{sup 2+}) stress decreased the endogenous auxin level, whereas exogenous auxin (α-naphthaleneacetic acid, NAA, a permeable auxin analog) reduced shoot Cd{sup 2+} concentration and rescued Cd{sup 2+}-induced chlorosis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Under Cd{sup 2+} stress conditions, NAA increased Cd{sup 2+} retention in the roots and most Cd{sup 2+} in the roots was fixed in hemicellulose 1 of the cell wall. NAA treatment did not affect pectin content and its binding capacity for Cd{sup 2+}, whereas it significantly increased the content of hemicellulose 1 and the amount of Cd{sup 2+} retained in it. There were highly significant correlations between Cd{sup 2+} concentrations in the root, cell wall and hemicellulose 1 when the plants were subjected to Cd{sup 2+} or NAA + Cd{sup 2+} treatment for 1 to 7 d, suggesting that the increase in hemicellulose 1 contributes greatly to the fixation of Cd{sup 2+} in the cell wall. Taken together, these results demonstrate that auxin-induced alleviation of Cd{sup 2+} toxicity in Arabidopsis is mediated through increasing hemicellulose 1 content and Cd{sup 2+} fixation in the root, thus reducing the translocation of Cd{sup 2+} from roots to shoots.

  3. Time-dependent toxicity of cadmium telluride quantum dots on liver and kidneys in mice: histopathological changes with elevated free cadmium ions and hydroxyl radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengmeng; Wang, Jilong; Sun, Hubo; Han, Sihai; Feng, Shuai; Shi, Lu; Meng, Peijun; Li, Jiayi; Huang, Peili; Sun, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    A complete understanding of the toxicological behavior of quantum dots (QDs) in vivo is of great importance and a prerequisite for their application in humans. In contrast with the numerous cytotoxicity studies investigating QDs, only a few in vivo studies of QDs have been reported, and the issue remains controversial. Our study aimed to understand QD-mediated toxicity across different time points and to explore the roles of free cadmium ions (Cd2+) and hydroxyl radicals (·OH) in tissue damage. Male ICR mice were administered a single intravenous dose (1.5 µmol/kg) of CdTe QDs, and liver and kidney function and morphology were subsequently examined at 1, 7, 14, and 28 days. Furthermore, ·OH production in the tissue was quantified by trapping · OH with salicylic acid (SA) as 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) and detecting it using a high-performance liquid chromatography fluorescence method. We used the induction of tissue metallothionein levels and 2,3-DHBA:SA ratios as markers for elevated Cd2+ from the degradation of QDs and ·OH generation in the tissue, respectively. Our experimental results revealed that the QD-induced histopathological changes were time-dependent with elevated Cd2+ and ·OH, and could recover after a period of time. The Cd2+ and ·OH exhibited delayed effects in terms of histopathological abnormalities. Histological assessments performed at multiple time points might facilitate the evaluation of the biological safety of QDs. PMID:27307732

  4. Strain differences of cadmium-induced toxicity in rats: Insight from spleen and lung immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demenesku, Jelena; Popov Aleksandrov, Aleksandra; Mirkov, Ivana; Ninkov, Marina; Zolotarevski, Lidija; Kataranovski, Dragan; Brceski, Ilija; Kataranovski, Milena

    2016-08-10

    The impact of genetic background on effects of acute i.p. cadmium administration (0.5mg/kg and 1mg/kg) on basic immune activity of spleen and lungs was examined in two rat strains, Albino Oxford (AO) and Dark Agouti (DA), known to react differently to chemicals. More pronounced inhibition of Concanavalin A (ConA)-induced and Interleukin (IL)-2 stimulated spleen cell proliferation as well as higher levels of nitric oxide (known to decrease cell's proliferative ability) in DA rats at 1mg/kg, along with greater inhibition of ConA-induced Interferon (IFN-γ)-production by total and mononuclear (MNC) spleen cells and IL-17 production by spleen MNC in DA vs. AO rats at this dose show greater susceptibility of this strain to Cd effects on spleen cells response. More pronounced infiltration of neutrophils/CD11b(+) cells to lungs of DA rats treated with 1mg/kg of Cd and decreased IL-17 lung cell responses noted solely in DA rats speaks in favor of their higher susceptibility to this metal. However, lack of strain disparity in lung cells IFN-γ responses show that there are regional differences as well. Novel data from this study depict complexity of the influence of genetic background on the effects of cadmium on host immune reactivity. PMID:27234498

  5. Dechlorination with sodium thiosulfate affects the toxicity of wastewater contaminated with copper, cadmium, nickel, or zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, So-Rin; Kim, Jung-Kon; Lee, Min-Jung; Choi, Kyungho

    2008-04-01

    Sodium thiosulfate is recommended by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for dechlorination of the effluent samples containing residual chlorines before the toxicity testing. For samples contaminated with residual chlorine and metals, e.g., Cd(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II); however, metal toxicity as measured with Daphnia magna was reduced even at approximately half the recommended amount of sodium thiosulfate. Formation of metal-thiosulfate complexes that are less bioavailable may explain the apparent reduction of metal toxicity. In contrast, for samples spiked with Zn(II), dechlorination with sodium thiosulfate increased toxicity. The use of sodium thiosulfate for dechlorination should be cautioned when the sample under the bioassay is potentially contaminated with metals. PMID:18214916

  6. Gibberellic acid alleviates cadmium toxicity by reducing nitric oxide accumulation and expression of IRT1 in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiao Fang [State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Jiang, Tao [Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Wang, Zhi Wei [State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Lei, Gui Jie [Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Shi, Yuan Zhi [The Key Laboratory of Tea Chemical Engineering, Ministry of Agriculture, Yunqi Road 1, Hangzhou 310008 (China); Li, Gui Xin, E-mail: guixinli@zju.edu.cn [College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zheng, Shao Jian [State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd reduces endogenous GA levels in Arabidopsis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GA exogenous applied decreases Cd accumulation in plant. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GA suppresses the Cd-induced accumulation of NO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decreased NO level downregulates the expression of IRT1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Suppressed IRT1 expression reduces Cd transport across plasma membrane. - Abstract: Gibberellic acid (GA) is involved in not only plant growth and development but also plant responses to abiotic stresses. Here it was found that treating the plants with GA concentrations from 0.1 to 5 {mu}M for 24 h had no obvious effect on root elongation in the absence of cadmium (Cd), whereas in the presence of Cd{sup 2+}, GA at 5 {mu}M improved root growth, reduced Cd content and lipid peroxidation in the roots, indicating that GA can partially alleviate Cd toxicity. Cd{sup 2+} increased nitric oxide (NO) accumulation in the roots, but GA remarkably reduced it, and suppressed the up-regulation of the expression of IRT1. In contrary, the beneficial effect of GA on alleviating Cd toxicity was not observed in an IRT1 knock-out mutant irt1, suggesting the involvement of IRT1 in Cd{sup 2+} absorption. Furthermore, the GA-induced reduction of NO and Cd content can also be partially reversed by the application of a NO donor (S-nitrosoglutathione [GSNO]). Taken all these together, the results showed that GA-alleviated Cd toxicity is mediated through the reduction of the Cd-dependent NO accumulation and expression of Cd{sup 2+} uptake related gene-IRT1 in Arabidopsis.

  7. Protective effect of magnesium and selenium on cadmium toxicity in the isolated perfused rat liver system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghaffarian-Bahraman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The isolated perfused rat liver (IPRL model has been used into toxicology study of rat liver. This model provides an opportunity at evaluation of liver function in an isolated setting. Studies showed that Cd, in a dose-dependent manner, induced toxic effects in IPRL models, and these effects were associated with aminotransferase activity and lipid peroxidation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Mg  and/or Se could have protective effects against the Cd toxicity in the IPRL model. Male Wistar rats (9-10 weeks weighing 260-300 gr were used in this study. They were randomly divided into 8 groups of 4-6 rats per cage. In group 1, liver was perfused by Krebs-Henseleit buffer without MgSO4 (Control. Groups 2-8 were exposed to Mg, Se, Cd, Mg +Se, Cd + Mg, Cd + Se, Cd + Mg + Se respectively in Krebs-Henseleit buffer with no added MgSo4. Biochemical changes in the liver were examined within 90 minutes, and the result showed that the exposure to Cd, lowered glutathione level, while it increased malondialdehyde level and aminotransferase activities in IPRL model. Mg administration during exposure to Cd reduces the toxicity of Cd in the liver isolated while Se administration during exposure to Cd did not decrease Cd hepatotoxicity. Nevertheless, simultaneous treatment with Se and Mg on Cd toxicity have strengthened protective effects than the supplementation of Se alone in the liver.

  8. Cadmium toxicity to Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806 and its microcystin-lacking mutant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Huang

    Full Text Available The adverse effects of microcystin (MC produced by cyanobacteria have drawn considerable attention from the public. Yet it remains unclear whether MC confers any benefits to the cyanobacteria themselves. One suggested function of MC is complexation, which may influence the bioaccumulation and toxicity of trace metals. To test this hypothesis, we examined Cd toxicity to wild-type Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806 (WT and its MC-lacking mutant (MT under nutrient-enriched (+NP, phosphorus-limited (-P, and nitrogen-limited (-N conditions. The accumulation of Cd and the biochemical parameters associated with its detoxification [total phosphorus (TP, inorganic polyphosphate (Poly-P, and glutathione (GSH in the cells as well as intra- and extra-cellular carbohydrates] were quantified. Although the -P cyanobacteria accumulated less Cd than their +NP and -N counterparts, the different nutrient-conditioned cyanobacteria were similarly inhibited by similar free ion concentration of Cd in the medium ([Cd2+]F. Such good toxicity predictability of [Cd2+]F was ascribed to the synchronous decrease in the intracellular concentrations of Cd and TP. Nevertheless, Cd toxicity was still determined by the intracellular Cd to phosphorus ratio (Cd/P, in accordance with what has been reported in the literature. On the other hand, the concentrations of TP, Poly-P, and carbohydrates went up, but GSH concentration dropped down with the enhancement of [Cd2+]F, indicating their association with Cd detoxification. Although the inactivation of MC peptide synthetase gene had some nutrient and Cd concentration dependent effects on the parameters above, both cyanobacterial strains showed the same Cd accumulation ability and displayed similar Cd sensitivity. These results suggest that MC cannot affect metal toxicity either by regulating metal accumulation or by altering the detoxification ability of the cyanobacteria. Other possible functions of MC need to be further investigated.

  9. Experimental toxicity and bioaccumulation of cadmium in freshwater periphytic diatoms in relation with biofilm maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was undertaken to examine cadmium accumulation in freshwater biofilm, its effects on biofilm development and on diatom community structure in laboratory experimental conditions. A suspension of a biofilm originated from the Riou-Mort River (South West France) was inoculated into three experimental units containing clean glass substrates under laboratory conditions. Settling and already developed biofilms were exposed to a Cd concentration of 100 μg L-1. Metal accumulation (total and intracellular metal content) in biofilms, dry weight and ash-free dry mass, diatom cell density and diatom community composition were analyzed. Both total and intracellular Cd accumulated by the biofilm throughout the experiment increased with duration of metal exposure. Biofilms in the course of maturation were showed higher Cd content and less effective development than settled biofilms. However diatom communities in younger biofilms exposed to Cd increased their tolerance to Cd by a highly significant development of Nitzschia palea. In contrast, Cd exposure had different effect in installed biofilm and taxonomic composition. These results indicate that mature biofilm may limit Cd accumulation into its architecture and protect diatom communities from the effects of metals.

  10. Experimental toxicity and bioaccumulation of cadmium in freshwater periphytic diatoms in relation with biofilm maturity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duong, Thi Thuy, E-mail: duongthuy0712@yahoo.com [Institute of Environmental Technology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Morin, Soizic, E-mail: soizic.morin@cemagref.fr [Cemagref, UR REBX, 50 avenue de Verdun, F-33612 Cestas Cedex (France); Coste, Michel [Cemagref, UR REBX, 50 avenue de Verdun, F-33612 Cestas Cedex (France); Herlory, Olivier; Feurtet-Mazel, Agnes; Boudou, Alain [Universite de Bordeaux 1, CNRS, UMR 5805 EPOC, Place du Dr Peyneau, 33120 Arcachon (France)

    2010-01-01

    A study was undertaken to examine cadmium accumulation in freshwater biofilm, its effects on biofilm development and on diatom community structure in laboratory experimental conditions. A suspension of a biofilm originated from the Riou-Mort River (South West France) was inoculated into three experimental units containing clean glass substrates under laboratory conditions. Settling and already developed biofilms were exposed to a Cd concentration of 100 {mu}g L{sup -1}. Metal accumulation (total and intracellular metal content) in biofilms, dry weight and ash-free dry mass, diatom cell density and diatom community composition were analyzed. Both total and intracellular Cd accumulated by the biofilm throughout the experiment increased with duration of metal exposure. Biofilms in the course of maturation were showed higher Cd content and less effective development than settled biofilms. However diatom communities in younger biofilms exposed to Cd increased their tolerance to Cd by a highly significant development of Nitzschia palea. In contrast, Cd exposure had different effect in installed biofilm and taxonomic composition. These results indicate that mature biofilm may limit Cd accumulation into its architecture and protect diatom communities from the effects of metals.

  11. Single and combined toxicity of copper and cadmium to H. vulgare growth and heavy metal bioaccumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žaltauskaitė J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The single and combined effects of copper (Cu and cadmium (Cd (0.1-10 mg L−1 in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. plants grown in hydroponics are investigated. The aim of the study was to investigate the interactive effect of the binary mixture of Cu and Cd to the growth of H. vulgare and accumulation of these metals by the plants. Single and combined metal treatment led to major effects in the growth of roots and shoots and dry weight of barley. Exposure to metals altered the content of photosynthetic pigments and caused lipid peroxidation. It was observed that combined effects of heavy metals to plants are endpoint and concentration depending. The binary mixture Cu+Cd exhibited additive or less than additive interaction for dry weight, root length and shoot height. Analysis of tissue metal concentrations showed that Cu and Cd were mainly accumulated in the roots and the combination of Cu+Cd had less than additive response of metal bioaccumulation in the leaves and roots.

  12. Reproductive toxicity of bisphenol A and cadmium in Potamopyrgus antipodarum and modulation of bisphenol A effects by different test temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sieratowicz, Agnes, E-mail: A.Sieratowicz@bio.uni-frankfurt.de [Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Department of Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60323 Frankfurt (Germany); Stange, Daniela, E-mail: stange@bio.uni-frankfurt.de [Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Department of Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60323 Frankfurt (Germany); Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike, E-mail: schulte-oehlmann@bio.uni-frankfurt.de [Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Department of Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60323 Frankfurt (Germany); Oehlmann, Joerg, E-mail: oehlmann@bio.uni-frankfurt.de [Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Department of Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60323 Frankfurt (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    An OECD initiative for the development of mollusc-based toxicity tests for endocrine disrupters and other chemicals has recommended three test species with respective test designs for further standardisation. Preparing a subsequent pre-validation study we performed a reproduction test with Potamopyrgus antipodarum, determining the concentration range of the selected test substances, bisphenol A (BPA) and cadmium (Cd). At 16 deg. C, the recommended test temperature, the number of embryos in the brood pouch was increased by BPA and decreased by Cd (NOEC: 20 {mu}g BPA/L and 1 {mu}g Cd/L). Coinstantaneous BPA tests at 7 deg. C and 25 deg. C demonstrated a temperature dependency of the response, resulting in lower NOECs (5 {mu}g/L respectively). As expected, reproduction in control groups significantly varied depending on temperature. Additional observations of the brood stock showed seasonal fluctuations in reproduction under constant laboratory conditions. The recommended temperature range and test conditions have to be further investigated. - Highlights: > We performed a reproduction test with the mollusc Potamopyrgus antipodarum. > We defined the test substance concentration range for a pre-validation study. > The bisphenol A effect (increased reproduction) depends on the test temperature. > Reproduction of control groups significantly varies depending on temperature. > The brood stock shows seasonal fluctuations in reproduction at constant conditions. - A reproduction test with Potamopyrgus antipodarum with 2 substances for subsequent pre-validation is presented and bisphenol A effects show a temperature dependency.

  13. Developing acute-to-chronic toxicity ratios for lead, cadmium, and zinc using rainbow trout, a mayfly, and a midge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebane, C.A.; Hennessy, D.P.; Dillon, F.S.

    2008-01-01

    In order to estimate acute-to-chronic toxicity ratios (ACRs) relevant to a coldwater stream community, we exposed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in 96-h acute and 60+ day early-life stage (ELS) exposures. We also tested the acute and sublethal responses of a mayfly (Baetis tricaudatus) and a midge (Chironomus dilutus, formerly C. tentans) with Pb. We examine the statistical interpretation of test endpoints and the acute-to-chronic ratio concept. Increasing the number of control replicates by 2 to 3x decreased the minimum detectable differences by almost half. Pb ACR estimates mostly increased with increasing acute resistance of the organisms (rainbow trout ACRs trout and Cd were 0.6 and 0.95; Zn about 1.0; and for Pb 3.3 and 11. The comparable Pb ACRs for the mayfly and Chironomus were 5.2 and 51 respectively. Our rainbow trout ACRs with Pb were about 5-20x lower than earlier reports with salmonids. We suggest discounting previous ACR results that used larger and older fish in their acute tests. ?? 2007 GovernmentEmployee: U.S. Geological Survey.

  14. Liver Toxicity of Cadmium Telluride Quantum Dots (CdTe QDs Due to Oxidative Stress in Vitro and in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available With the applications of quantum dots (QDs expanding, many studies have described the potential adverse effects of QDs, yet little attention has been paid to potential toxicity of QDs in the liver. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cadmium telluride (CdTe QDs in mice and murine hepatoma cells alpha mouse liver 12 (AML 12. CdTe QDs administration significantly increased the level of lipid peroxides marker malondialdehyde (MDA in the livers of treated mice. Furthermore, CdTe QDs caused cytotoxicity in AML 12 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which was likely mediated through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and the induction of apoptosis. An increase in ROS generation with a concomitant increase in the gene expression of the tumor suppressor gene p53, the pro-apoptotic gene Bcl-2 and a decrease in the anti-apoptosis gene Bax, suggested that a mitochondria mediated pathway was involved in CdTe QDs’ induced apoptosis. Finally, we showed that NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 deficiency blocked induced oxidative stress to protect cells from injury induced by CdTe QDs. These findings provide insights into the regulatory mechanisms involved in the activation of Nrf2 signaling that confers protection against CdTe QDs-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes.

  15. Interactions of zinc and cadmium toxicity in their effects on growth and in antioxidative systems in tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaouhra Cherif; Chamseddine Mediouni; Wided Ben Ammar; Fatma Jemal

    2011-01-01

    The interaction between zinc and cadmium was investigated in tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum).Ten-day-old seedlings were treated with 10 μmol/L CdCl2 associated to different concentrations of ZnCl2 (10, 50, 100, and 150 μmol/L).Zn supply clearly reduced Cd accumulation in leaves and simultaneously increased Zn concentration.Cd induced oxidative stress in leaves as indicated by an increase in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) level and chlorophyll breakdown.Furthermore, compared with control, Cdtreated plants had significantly higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), whereas, catalase (CAT, EC 1.111.1.6),ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) activities were significantly suppressed by Cd addition.Zn supplementation, at low level, restored and enhanced the functional activity of these enzymes (SOD, CAT, APX and GR) as compared to Cd-alone-treated plants.The beneficial effect of adequate Zn level on Cd toxicity was confirmed by a significant decrease in TBARS level and restoration of chlorophyll content.However, when Zn was added at high level in combination with Cd there was an accumulation of oxidative stress, which was higher than that for Cd or excess Zn alone treatments.These results suggested that higher Zn concentrations and Cd are synergistic in their effect on plant growth parameters and oxidative stress.

  16. Reproductive toxicity of bisphenol A and cadmium in Potamopyrgus antipodarum and modulation of bisphenol A effects by different test temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An OECD initiative for the development of mollusc-based toxicity tests for endocrine disrupters and other chemicals has recommended three test species with respective test designs for further standardisation. Preparing a subsequent pre-validation study we performed a reproduction test with Potamopyrgus antipodarum, determining the concentration range of the selected test substances, bisphenol A (BPA) and cadmium (Cd). At 16 deg. C, the recommended test temperature, the number of embryos in the brood pouch was increased by BPA and decreased by Cd (NOEC: 20 μg BPA/L and 1 μg Cd/L). Coinstantaneous BPA tests at 7 deg. C and 25 deg. C demonstrated a temperature dependency of the response, resulting in lower NOECs (5 μg/L respectively). As expected, reproduction in control groups significantly varied depending on temperature. Additional observations of the brood stock showed seasonal fluctuations in reproduction under constant laboratory conditions. The recommended temperature range and test conditions have to be further investigated. - Highlights: → We performed a reproduction test with the mollusc Potamopyrgus antipodarum. → We defined the test substance concentration range for a pre-validation study. → The bisphenol A effect (increased reproduction) depends on the test temperature. → Reproduction of control groups significantly varies depending on temperature. → The brood stock shows seasonal fluctuations in reproduction at constant conditions. - A reproduction test with Potamopyrgus antipodarum with 2 substances for subsequent pre-validation is presented and bisphenol A effects show a temperature dependency.

  17. Exposure to cadmium-phenanthrene mixtures elicits complex toxic responses in the freshwater tubificid oligochaete, Ilyodrilus templetoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gust, Kurt A; Fleeger, John W

    2006-07-01

    The joint toxicity of metal-hydrocarbon mixtures in sediments was investigated using cadmium (Cd) and phenanthrene (Phen) as model contaminants. Sediment bioassays were utilized to quantify effects of individual and combined contaminants in the bulk-deposit feeding oligochaete Ilyodrilus templetoni. Combined contaminants elicited antagonistic lethal effects and independent responses for feeding rate (measured as sediment ingestion). The 10-d LC(50) for Cd alone was 1375 mg kg(-1) (95% C.I. 1340-1412), whereas Phen elicited no mortality even when loaded to sediment saturation. The presence of Phen decreased Cd lethality, increasing the LC(50) of Cd by as much as 40%. Regression analyses indicated that Phen was nearly 10 times more potent than Cd in eliciting feeding rate reductions. Exposure to Cd-Phen mixtures resulted in feeding rate reductions equivalent to those caused by Phen alone. The marked reduction in sediment ingestion induced by the co-pollutant Phen reduced exposure to Cd via ingestion. We suggest that this Phen-induced reduction in Cd exposure decreased Cd bioaccumulation and subsequent lethality. More generally, we suggest that even if the toxicological effects among dissimilarly acting chemicals (including metals and hydrocarbons) are independent, contaminant mixtures may elicit unexpected interactive effects facilitated by modifying exposure. PMID:16465559

  18. Histopathological and biochemical evidence of hepatopancreatic toxicity caused by cadmium in white shrimp, Palaemonetes argentinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodi Boudet, L N; Polizzi, P; Romero, M B; Robles, A; Marcovecchio, J E; Gerpe, M S

    2015-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most common pollutants in the environment and induces a range of tissue changes or damages and organ dysfunction. The histopathological effects of Cd and lipid peroxidation (LPO) on hepatopancreas of the freshwater shrimp, Palaemonetes argentinus, were studied. Shrimp were obtained from two lagoons with contrasting environmental quality, De los Padres (LP, impacted site) and Nahuel Rucá (NR, reference site), and were exposed to 3.06 and 12.24µgCdL(-1) for 3, 7, 10 and 15 days. The health status of both populations was also evaluated by histological analysis of control individuals. After exposure, shrimp were transferred to clean water for 28 days to evaluate the recuperation capacity of hepatopancreas. Control shrimp from NR exhibited a normal hepatopancreas structure; unlike control shrimp from LP which showed several alterations. These results were attributed to the different environmental quality of lagoons. The exposure to Cd resulted in several alterations in the histological structure of the hepatopancreas of both populations. The observed alterations included haemocytic and connective infiltrations in the intertubular space, erosioned microvilli, ripple of basal lamina, atrophied epithelium and necrosis, however, the latter was only observed in shrimp from LP. The exposure also caused an increase of LPO levels in both populations. P. argentinus was able to repair the hepatopancreas structure from the damage caused by Cd, evidenced by the histopathological results and LPO levels. Obtained results are indicating that the histological analysis of the hepatopancreas proved to be a highly sensitive method for evaluating water quality, in both environmental and laboratory conditions. PMID:25521337

  19. Phytoremediation potential of charophytes: Bioaccumulation and toxicity studies of cadmium, lead and zinc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Najjapak Sooksawat; Metha Meetam; Maleeya Kruatrachue; Prayad Pokethitiyook; Koravisd Nathalang

    2013-01-01

    The ability for usage of common freshwater charophytes,Chara aculeolata and Nitella opaca in removal of cadmium (Cd),lead (Pb)and zinc (Zn) from wastewater was examined.C aculeolata and N.opaca were exposed to various concentrations of Cd (0.25 and 0.5 mg/L),Pb (5 and 10 mg/L) and Zn (5 and 10 mg/L) solutions under hydroponic conditions for 6 days.C.aculeolata was more tolerant of Cd and Pb than N.opaca.The relative growth rate of N.opaca was drastically reduced at high concentrations of Cd and Pb although both were tolerant of Zn.Both macroalgae showed a reduction in chloroplast,chlorophyll and carotenoid content after Cd and Pb exposure,while Zn exposure had little effects.The bioaccumulation of both Cd and Pb was higher in N.opaca (1544.3 μg/g at 0.5 mg/L Cd,21657.0 μg/g at 10 mg/L Pb) whereas higher Zn accumulation was observed in C.aculeolata (6703.5 μg/g at 10 mg/L Zn).In addition,high bioconcentration factor values (> 1000) for Cd and Pb were observed in both species.C.aculeolata showed higher percentage of Cd and Pb removal (> 95%) than N.opaca and seemed to be a better choice for Cd and Pb removal from wastewater due to its tolerance to these metals.

  20. Architectural and biochemical changes in embryonic tissues of maize under cadmium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, A; Khaliq, S

    2015-09-01

    Heavy metals greatly alter plant morphology and architecture, however detailed mechanisms of such changes are not fully explored. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of cadmium (CdCl2 · 2.5H2 O) on some germination, morphological, biochemical and histological characteristics of developing embryonic tissue of maize. In the first experiment, maize seeds were germinated in increasing levels of CdCl2 (200-2000 μm) in sand and measurements were taken of changes in germination and seedling development attributes. Based on these parameters, 1000 μM CdCl2 was chosen for detailed biochemical and histological measurements. In the second experiment, seeds were germinated in Petri dishes and supplied with 0 (control) or 1000 μM CdCl2 (Cd-treated). Radicle, plumule, coleoptile and coleorhiza were measured for biochemical and histological changes. The highest amount of Cd was in the coleorhiza and radicle. Free proline, soluble sugars, anthocyanin, soluble phenolics, ascorbic acid, H2 O2 and MDA were significantly higher in coleorhizae, followed by the coleoptile, radicle and plumule. Although the radicle and coleorhiza were relatively poor targets of Cd than the other tissues, Cd stress reduced cortical cell size and vascular tissues, and deformed xylem and phloem parenchyma in all plant parts. In conclusion, the main reason for reduced germination was the influence of Cd on architecture of the coleorhiza and coleoptile, which was the result of oxidative stress and other physiological changes taking place in these tissues. PMID:25732002

  1. Functionalization of cross linked chitosan with 2-aminopyridine-3-carboxylic acid for solid phase extraction of cadmium and zinc ions and their determination by atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a new method for solid phase extraction (SPE) and preconcentration of trace amounts of cadmium and zinc using cross linked chitosan that was functionalized with 2-aminopyridine-3-carboxy acid. Analytical parameters, sample pH, effect of flow rate, sample volume, and concentration of eluent on column SPE were investigated. The effect of matrix ions on the recovery of cadmium and zinc has been investigated and were found not to interfere with preconcentration. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the preconcentration factors for Cd(II) and Zn(II) were found to be 90. The two elements were quantified via atomic absorption spectrometry. The detection limits for cadmium and zinc are 21 and 65 ng L -1, respectively. The method was evaluated by analyzing a certified reference material (NIST 1643e; water) and has been successfully applied to the analysis of cadmium and zinc in environmental water samples. (author)

  2. Potentiation by salicylate and salicyl alcohol of cadmium toxicity and accumulation in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosner, J L; Aumercier, M

    1990-01-01

    The toxicity of Cd2+ in Escherichia coli K-12 was potentiated by salicylate and several related compounds. The efficiency of plating on Luria broth plates was reduced by more than 10(5)-fold when 10 mM salicylate and 200 microM CdCl2 were present simultaneously but was unaffected when either compound was present by itself. Synergistic effects were found at pH 7.4 with certain other weak acids (acetyl salicylate [aspirin], benzoate, and cinnamate) and with a nonacidic salicylate analog, salicy...

  3. Acute toxicity of cadmium, lead, zinc, and their mixtures to stream-resident fish and invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebane, Christopher A; Dillon, Frank S; Hennessy, Daniel P

    2012-06-01

    The authors conducted 150 tests of the acute toxicity of resident fish and invertebrates to Cd, Pb, and Zn, separately and in mixtures, in waters from the South Fork Coeur d'Alene River watershed, Idaho, USA. Field-collected shorthead sculpin (Cottus confusus), westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi), two mayflies (Baetis tricaudatus and Rhithrogena sp.), a stonefly (Sweltsa sp.), a caddisfly (Arctopsyche sp.), a snail (Gyraulus sp.), and hatchery rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), were tested with all three metals. With Pb, the mayflies (Drunella sp., Epeorus sp., and Leptophlebiidae), a Simuliidae black fly, a Chironomidae midge, a Tipula sp. crane fly, a Dytiscidae beetle, and another snail (Physa sp.), were also tested. Adult westslope cutthroat trout were captured to establish a broodstock to provide fry of known ages for testing. With Cd, the range of 96-h median effect concentrations (EC50s) was 0.4 to >5,329 µg/L, and the relative resistances of taxa were westslope cutthroat trout ≈ rainbow trout ≈ sculpin trout trout trout trout ≈ sculpin trout fry, a pattern of decreasing resistance with increasing fish size was observed. In metal mixtures, the toxicities of the three metals were less than additive on a concentration-addition basis. PMID:22488500

  4. Influence of Cadmium(II Ions and Brewery Sludge on Metallothionein Level in Earthworms (Eisenia fetida – Bio- transforming of Toxic Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Metallothioneins belong to a group of intracellular, high molecular andcysteine-rich proteins whose content in an organism increase with increasing concentrationof a heavy metal. The aim of this work was to apply the electrochemical analysis for theanalysis of metallothioneins in earthworms exposed to cadmium ions and brewery sludge.Here we utilized adsorptive transfer technique coupled with differential pulse voltammetryBrdicka reaction to determine metallothionein in different biological samples. By meansthis very sensitive technique it was possible to analyze metallothionein in concentrationsbelow 1 μmol.l-1 with the standard deviation of 4-5%. We found out that the average MTlevel in the non-treated earthworms oscillated between 19 and 48 μmol.l-1. When weanalysed samples of earthworms treated by cadmium, we observed that the MT contentincreased with the exposition length and increase dose of cadmium ions. Finally, weattempted to study and compare the toxicity of the raw sludge and its leach by using ofearthworms. The raw brewery sludge caused the death of the earthworms quickly.Earthworms held in the presence of leach from brewery sludge increased their weight of147 % of their original weight because they ingested the nutrients from the sludge. Themetallothionein level changes markedly with increasing time of exposition and applieddose of toxic compound. It clearly follows from the obtained results that the MT synthesisis insufficient in the first hours of the exposition and increases after more than 24 h.

  5. Cadmium is more toxic to LLC-PK1 cells than to MDCK cells acting on the cadherin-catenin complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerhackl, L B; Momm, F; Wiegele, G; Brandis, M

    1998-07-01

    Cadmium toxicity to renal cells was investigated in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and LLC-PK1 cells as models of the distal tubule/collecting duct and proximal tubule, respectively. Cells were grown on two-compartment filters and exposed to 0.1-50 microM Cd2+. In MDCK cells, Cd2+ was more toxic from the basolateral than from the apical side and dependent on the extracellular Ca2+ concentration. Toxicity was evident within 24 h, as shown by a decrease in transepithelial resistance (TER), reduced proliferation (bromodeoxyuridine incorporation), reduction in ATP concentration, and morphological changes. On confocal microscopy, E-cadherin and alpha-catenin staining patterns indicated interference with the cadherin-catenin complex. LLC-PK1 cells showed a similar toxicity pattern, which was evident at lower Cd2+ concentrations. An increase of E-cadherin and alpha-catenin molecules in the Triton X-100-insoluble fraction was detectable at high Cd2+ concentrations in LLC-PK1 cells but not in MDCK cells. Lactate dehydrogenase release indicated membrane leakage in LLC-PK1 cells. Rhodamine-phalloidin staining, a probe for F-actin filaments, demonstrated alterations of the actin cytoskeleton in both cell lines. In conclusion, cadmium caused ATP depletion and interfered with the cadherin-catenin complex and probably the tight junctions changing renal cell morphology and function. PMID:9689016

  6. Potentiation by salicylate and salicyl alcohol of cadmium toxicity and accumulation in Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosner, J.L.; Aumercier, M. (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-12-01

    The toxicity of Cd{sub 2+} in Escherichia coli K-12 was potentiated by salicylate and several related compounds. The efficiency of plating on Luria broth plates was reduced by more than 10(5)-fold when 10 mM salicylate and 200 microM CdCl{sub 2} were present simultaneously but was unaffected when either compound was present by itself. Synergistic effects were found at pH 7.4 with certain other weak acids (acetyl salicylate (aspirin), benzoate, and cinnamate) and with a nonacidic salicylate analog, salicyl alcohol, but not with acetate or p-hydroxy benzoate. Thus, the synergism with Cd{sub 2+} is determined by the structure of the compounds and not merely by their acidity. The kinetics of {sup 109}Cd{sub 2+} uptake by cells grown and assayed in broth indicated the presence of two uptake systems with Kms of 1 and 52 microM Cd{sub 2+} and Vmaxs of 0.059 and 1.5 mumol of Cd{sub 2+} per min per g of cells, respectively. The kinetics of uptake for cells grown and assayed with 20 mM salicyl alcohol showed 2.5-fold increases in the Vmaxs of both systems but no change in the Kms. Salicylate-grown cells also exhibited increased rates of {sup 109}Cd{sub 2+} uptake by both systems. Thus, enhanced uptake of Cd{sub 2+} may be responsible for the potentiation of Cd{sub 2+} toxicity by salicylate and salicyl alcohol.

  7. Cadmium and zinc toxicity effects on growth and mineral nutrients of carrot (Daucus Carota)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiment was carried out in two successive seasons of 2006 and 2007 on carrot (Daucus carota L. var. Nantesa superior) at the Ministry of Local Government (Al Zahra Municipality), Gaza Strip, Palestine. It aimed to study the effect of (Cd and Zn) at different rates (10, 20 and 40 mu g g-1 Cd) and (75, 150 and 225 mu g g-1 Zn) on carrot plants. All of the studied growth characters (fresh and dry weights of shoot and root) and some of growth analysis (leaf weight ratio (LWR), relative growth rate (RGR mg g/sup -1d-1/), the rate of production of one sub-cellular component per unit of Cd and Zn (mg/g Cd or Zn per day) and specific utilization rate (SUR mg dw mg Cd/sup -1/ or Zn/sup -1/ d/sup -1/) decreased with increasing Cd either alone or combined with Zn soil addition at all levels, but it increased when Zn (at all levels) was added, with some exception. Moreover attempts were carried out to reduce the toxic effect of Cd on the plants by using different rates of Zn soil addition. The effect of Cd and Zn either alone or their combination on minerals (N, P and K) in plant (shoot and root) were studied. Increase in K, P and N concentrations was recorded by the carrot shoots and roots supplied with the all levels of Zn soil addition either alone or combined with Cd soil addition. Adding Zn alone was found to insignificantly affect growth characters, but if it was combined with Cd in different levels, it overcome to some extent the toxicity of Cd on growth characters as well as minerals concentrations. (author)

  8. 29 CFR 1926.1127 - Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... containment of cadmium or materials containing cadmium on the site or location at which construction...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1127 Cadmium. (a... forms, in all construction work where an employee may potentially be exposed to cadmium....

  9. Cross sections for the formation of sup(114m)In and sup(116m)In on bombardment of cadmium by deuterons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross sections for sup(114m)In and sup(116m)In production by (d,xn) reactions on natural cadmium were measured by the stacked foils activation method. The results are compared with the maximum cross sections estimated from other published studies. Thick target yield for Cd (d,xn) sup(114m)In reactions were determined for different irradiation times and as a function of deuteron energy. (author)

  10. Reciprocal enhancement of uptake and toxicity of cadmium and calcium in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver mitochondria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interactive effects of cadmium (Cd) and calcium (Ca) on energy metabolism in rainbow trout liver mitochondria were studied to test the prediction that Ca would protect against Cd-induced mitochondrial liability. Isolated rainbow trout liver mitochondria were energized with malate and glutamate and exposed to increasing concentrations (5-100 μM) of Cd and Ca singly and in combination at 15 oC. Accumulation of Cd and Ca in the mitochondria and mitochondrial respiration (oxygen consumption) rates were measured. Additionally, un-energized mitochondria were incubated with low doses (1 μM) of Cd and Ca singly and in combination, with time-course measurements of cation accumulation/binding and oxygen consumption rates. In energized actively phosphorylating mitochondria, the uptake rates of both Cd and Ca were dose-dependent and enhanced when administered concurrently. Upon low-dose incubation, Cd accumulation was rapid and peaked in 5 min, while no appreciable uptake of Ca occurred. Functionally, the resting (state 4, ADP-limited) respiration rate was not affected in the dose-response exposure, but it decreased remarkably on low-dose incubation. Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-stimulated respiration (state 3) rate was impaired dose-dependently with maximal inhibitions (at the highest dose, 100 μM) of 32, 64 and 73% for Ca, Cd, and combined exposures, respectively. The combined effects of Ca and Cd suggested synergistic (more than additive) action and partial additivity of effects at low and higher doses of the two cations, respectively. Moreover, on a molar basis, Cd was twice as toxic as Ca to rainbow trout liver mitochondria and when combined, approximately 90% of the effects were attributable to Cd. The coupling efficiency, as measured by respiratory control ratio (RCR) and phosphorylation efficiency, measured as ADP/O ratio, both decreased as the exposure dosage and duration increased. In addition, Cd and Ca exposure decreased mitochondrial proton leak (state 4

  11. Age-related changes in microsome-dependent conversion of T -T ,thyroid function and cadmium toxicity in albino rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohair A. Moustafa

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact of age on microsomal function, manifested by its ability to convert thyroid hormone thyroxine (T to triiodothyronine (T&, was investigated using four age '& (-months. The data show impaired microsomal function with advancing age represented by a significant decrease in serum levels of T& and T&/T ratio. There was a decline in the liver glutathione (GSH, total proteins and serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (*GT. There was an-age associated increase in liver content of the lipid peroxidation products, thiobarituric acid (TBA-reactants and the serum total protein. + +,-.'( +-/' +-old+0-1-mg/kg CdCl 2their controls were injected with distilled water. A higher susceptibility of senile rats to cadmium toxicity was manifested as a significantly higher decrease in their serum T& level and T&/T ratio than adult compared to control. A reduction in the adaptive response of senile animals was manifested by a less increase in hepatic GSH in senile than adult as compared to control. The level of hepatic TBA-reactants was significantly higher in treated than in control group. The increase was more pronounced in the senile group. A marked hepatic cellular damage indicated by an increase in the serum levels of the AST and ALT was more pronounced in senile compared with adult rats. Treatment resulted in a decrease in the serum *GT and liver triglycerides (TG. The decrease in both parameters was more evident in senile as compared to adult group. Key words: Introduction As nations become progressively associated decline in the above more industrialized, the incidence of variables may be further complicated by overweight, non-insulin dependent disturbance in the normal metabolism diabetes mellitus (NIDDM, and related and action of thyroid hormones, metabolic disorders has been shown to particularly T& (Wallace & Hofmann, increase especially at old age. Along ((%263 4(((with those changes

  12. Adsorptive removal of lead and cadmium ions using Cross -linked CMC Schiff base: Isotherm, Kinetics and Catalytic Activity

    OpenAIRE

    P.Moganavally; Deepa, M; P.N. SUDHA; Suresh, R.

    2016-01-01

    Water plays a vital role to human and other living organisms. Due to the effluent coming from chemical industries, the industrial activity, contamination of ground water level is goes on increasing nowadays. Therefore, there is a need to develop technologies that can remove toxic pollutants in wastewater. Hence the cross linked Carboxymethyl chitosan(CMC)/ 2,3-dimethoxy Benzaldehyde Schiff base complex has been synthesized and characterized by using FT-IR and SEM analysis. All these results...

  13. Cadmium and zinc in Mar Chiquita coastal lagoon (Argentina): salinity effects on lethal toxicity in juveniles of the burrowing crab Chasmagnathus granulatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrame, M Ornela; De Marco, Silvia G; Marcovecchio, Jorge E

    2008-07-01

    The large Argentine marine littoral zone is characterized by great number of wetlands and includes only one coastal lagoon, Mar Chiquita, which has been declared as a Biosphere Reserve by the Man and Biosphere Reserve Program from UNESCO. Its margins present populations of Chasmagnathus granulatus, a semiterrestrial crab distributed along wide salinity gradients that plays an important role as a key species within the corresponding trophic web. Dissolved cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) concentrations present in this ecosystem were determined. Cadmium concentrations ranged between n.d. and 0.82 mug/L and zinc levels ranged between n.d. and 1224.38 mug/L within the mentioned coastal lagoon. Cd and Zn acute semistatic toxicity bioassays were carried out for 96 h on juvenile crabs of C. granulatus. LC(50) 96-h values were 2.24 mg Cd(2+)/L and 7.07 mg Zn(2+)/L at 5 psu, and 15.42 mg Cd(2+)/L and 11.41 mg Zn(2+)/L at 25 psu. Higher salinities resulted in lower metal toxicity. This effect was stronger for Cd than for Zn. C. granulatus juveniles LC(50) 96-h values determined for Cd were three to four orders of magnitude higher than the corresponding dissolved metal concentrations in the Mar Chiquita coastal lagoon; nevertheless, those Zn values determined were similar to several ones corresponding to natural water samples. PMID:18071782

  14. Biochemical biomarker responses of green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus, to acute and subchronic waterborne cadmium toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandurvelan, Rathishri, E-mail: rch118@uclive.ac.nz [School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Marsden, Islay D., E-mail: islay.marsden@canterbury.ac.nz [School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Gaw, Sally, E-mail: sally.gaw@canterbury.ac.nz [Department of Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Glover, Chris N., E-mail: chris.glover@canterbury.ac.nz [School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •Biochemical biomarkers were measured to assess effects of Cd on Perna canaliculus. •Biochemical responses varied between acute and subchronic exposure to Cd. •MTLP induction correlated strongly with Cd accumulation. •Alkaline phosphatase and glycogen levels decreased during subchronic Cd exposure. •Duration of Cd exposure influenced biochemical biomarker responses in mussels. -- Abstract: The biochemical responses of the green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus, to waterborne cadmium (Cd) were investigated in order to delineate toxic mechanisms, and the impacts of exposure dose and duration, of this important toxicant in a potential sentinel species. Mussels were exposed for either 96 h (acute: 0, 2000, 4000 μg L{sup −1} Cd) or for 28 d (subchronic: 0, 200, 2000 μg L{sup −1} Cd), and the digestive gland, gill and haemolymph were examined for impacts. Biochemical responses measured included those associated with metal detoxification (metallothionein-like protein; MTLP), oxidative stress (catalase, lipid peroxidation), cellular homeostasis (alkaline phosphatase, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}-ATPase; NKA), and energy utilisation (glycogen, haemolymph protein). Following acute exposure, digestive gland glycogen and gill NKA activity were significantly altered by Cd exposure relative to levels in mussels exposed to Cd-free seawater. Subchronic Cd exposure resulted in a significant increase in MTLP levels in both the gill and the digestive gland. This increase was correlated strongly with the levels of Cd accumulation measured in these tissues (R = 0.957 for gill, 0.964 for digestive gland). Catalase activity followed a similar pattern, although the correlation with tissue Cd accumulation was not as strong (R = 0.907 for gill, 0.708 for digestive gland) as that for MTLP. Lipid peroxidation increased in the digestive gland at Days 7 and 14 at both subchronic Cd levels tested, but this effect had largely dissipated by Days 21 and 28 (with the exception of

  15. Biochemical biomarker responses of green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus, to acute and subchronic waterborne cadmium toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Biochemical biomarkers were measured to assess effects of Cd on Perna canaliculus. •Biochemical responses varied between acute and subchronic exposure to Cd. •MTLP induction correlated strongly with Cd accumulation. •Alkaline phosphatase and glycogen levels decreased during subchronic Cd exposure. •Duration of Cd exposure influenced biochemical biomarker responses in mussels. -- Abstract: The biochemical responses of the green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus, to waterborne cadmium (Cd) were investigated in order to delineate toxic mechanisms, and the impacts of exposure dose and duration, of this important toxicant in a potential sentinel species. Mussels were exposed for either 96 h (acute: 0, 2000, 4000 μg L−1 Cd) or for 28 d (subchronic: 0, 200, 2000 μg L−1 Cd), and the digestive gland, gill and haemolymph were examined for impacts. Biochemical responses measured included those associated with metal detoxification (metallothionein-like protein; MTLP), oxidative stress (catalase, lipid peroxidation), cellular homeostasis (alkaline phosphatase, Na+, K+-ATPase; NKA), and energy utilisation (glycogen, haemolymph protein). Following acute exposure, digestive gland glycogen and gill NKA activity were significantly altered by Cd exposure relative to levels in mussels exposed to Cd-free seawater. Subchronic Cd exposure resulted in a significant increase in MTLP levels in both the gill and the digestive gland. This increase was correlated strongly with the levels of Cd accumulation measured in these tissues (R = 0.957 for gill, 0.964 for digestive gland). Catalase activity followed a similar pattern, although the correlation with tissue Cd accumulation was not as strong (R = 0.907 for gill, 0.708 for digestive gland) as that for MTLP. Lipid peroxidation increased in the digestive gland at Days 7 and 14 at both subchronic Cd levels tested, but this effect had largely dissipated by Days 21 and 28 (with the exception of the 2000 μg L−1 group

  16. Toxicity of cadmium to soil microbial biomass and its activity: Effect of incubation time on Cd ecological dose in a paddy soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Min; LUO Yun-kuo; ZHAO Xiao-min; Huang Chang-yong

    2005-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is ubiquitous in the human environment and has toxic effect on soil microbial biomass or its activity,including microbial biomass carbon (Cmic), dehydrogenase activity (DHA) and basal respiration (BR), etc., Cmic, DHA, BR were used as bioindicators of the toxic effect of Cd in soil. This study was conducted to determine the effects of Cd on soil microbial biomass and its activity in a paddy soil. The inhibition of microbial biomass and its activity by different Cd concentrations was described by the kinetic model (M1) and the sigmoid dose-response model (M2) in order to calculate three ecological doses of Cd:ED50, ED10 and ED5. Results showed that M2 was better fit than M1 for describing the ecological toxicity dose effect of cadmium on soil microbial biomass and its activity in a paddy soil. M2 for ED values (mg/kg soil) of Cmic, DHA, BR best fitted the measured paddy soil bioindicators. M2 showed that all ED values (mg/kg) increased in turn with increased incubation time. ED50, ED10 and ED5 of Cmic with M2 were increased in turn from 403.2, 141.1,100.4 to 1000.7, 230.9, 144.8, respectively, after 10 d to 60 d of incubation. ED50, ED10 and ED5 of DHA with M2 increased in turn from 67.6, 6.2, 1.5 to 101.1, 50.9, 41.0, respectively, after 10 d to 60 d of incubation. ED50, ED10 and ED5 of BR with M2 increased in turn from 149.7, 6.5, 1.8 to 156.5, 50.8, 35.5, respectively,after 10 d to 60 d of incubation. So the ecological dose increased in turn with increased incubation time for M2 showed that toxicity of cadmium to soil microbial biomass and its activity was decreased with increased incubation time.

  17. Influence of static magnetic field on cadmium toxicity: study of oxidative stress and DNA damage in pregnant rat tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chater, Sihem; Douki, Thierry; Favier, Alain; Garrel, Cathrine; Sakly, Mohsen; Abdelmelek, Hafedh

    2008-01-01

    In our environment, we have numerous chances to be exposed to not only static magnetic fields (SMFs) but also many chemicals containing mutagens. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of co-exposure to SMF and cadmium (Cd) on the antioxidant enzymes activity and DNA damage in pregnant rat tissues. Pregnant rats were treated with cadmium (CdCl(2), 3.0 mg/Kg body weight) or exposed to SMF (128 mT/h/day) and treated with cadmium chlorides (3.0 mg/kg, body weight) for 13 consecutive days as from the 6th to 19th day of gestation. Cd treatment increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-oxodGuo levels in kidney of pregnant rats. However, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione level were decreased in kidney. Interestingly, the combined effects of SMF and Cd have no effects on activities of antioxidant in both tissues compared to cadmium treated group. However, the association between SMF and Cd decreased plasma MDA concentration. The same treatment failed to alter 8-oxodGuo concentration. Sub-acute Cd treatment altered antioxidant enzymes and DNA in kidney of pregnant rats. The results suggest that a homeostatic defence mechanism was activated when SMF was associated to Cd in pregnant rats. PMID:19037788

  18. Silicon-enhanced resistance to cadmium toxicity in Brassica chinensis L. is attributed to Si-suppressed cadmium uptake and transport and Si-enhanced antioxidant defense capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Alin [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Li Zhaojun [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Crop Nutrition and Fertilization, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang Jie [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Xue Gaofeng; Fan Fenliang [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Crop Nutrition and Fertilization, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Liang Yongchao, E-mail: ycliang@caas.ac.cn [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Crop Nutrition and Fertilization, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Key Laboratory of Oasis Eco-Agriculture, College of Agriculture, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832003 (China)

    2009-12-15

    A series of hydroponics experiments were performed to investigate roles of silicon (Si) in enhancing cadmium (Cd) tolerance in two pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.) cultivars: i.e. cv. Shanghaiqing, a Cd-sensitive cultivar, and cv. Hangyoudong, a Cd-tolerant cultivar. Plants were grown under 0.5 and 5 mg Cd L{sup -1} Cd stress without or with 1.5 mM Si. Plant growth of the Cd-tolerant cultivar was stimulated at the lower Cd level, but was decreased at the higher Cd level when plants were treated with Cd for one week. However, Plant growth was severely inhibited at both Cd levels as stress duration lasted for up to three weeks. Plant growth of the Cd-sensitive cultivar was severely inhibited at both Cd levels irrespective of Cd stress duration. Addition of Si increased shoot and root biomass of both cultivars at both Cd levels and decreased Cd uptake and root-to-shoot transport. Superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities decreased, but malondialdehyde and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrations increased at the higher Cd level, which were counteracted by Si added. Ascorbic acid, glutathione and non-protein thiols concentrations increased at the higher Cd level, which were further intensified by addition of Si. The effects of Si and Cd on the antioxidant enzyme activity were further verified by isoenzyme analysis. Silicon was more effective in enhancing Cd tolerance in the Cd-tolerant cultivar than in the Cd-sensitive cultivar. It can be concluded that Si-enhanced Cd tolerance in B. chinensis is attributed mainly to Si-suppressed Cd uptake and root-to-shoot Cd transport and Si-enhanced antioxidant defense activity.

  19. Silicon-enhanced resistance to cadmium toxicity in Brassica chinensis L. is attributed to Si-suppressed cadmium uptake and transport and Si-enhanced antioxidant defense capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of hydroponics experiments were performed to investigate roles of silicon (Si) in enhancing cadmium (Cd) tolerance in two pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.) cultivars: i.e. cv. Shanghaiqing, a Cd-sensitive cultivar, and cv. Hangyoudong, a Cd-tolerant cultivar. Plants were grown under 0.5 and 5 mg Cd L-1 Cd stress without or with 1.5 mM Si. Plant growth of the Cd-tolerant cultivar was stimulated at the lower Cd level, but was decreased at the higher Cd level when plants were treated with Cd for one week. However, Plant growth was severely inhibited at both Cd levels as stress duration lasted for up to three weeks. Plant growth of the Cd-sensitive cultivar was severely inhibited at both Cd levels irrespective of Cd stress duration. Addition of Si increased shoot and root biomass of both cultivars at both Cd levels and decreased Cd uptake and root-to-shoot transport. Superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities decreased, but malondialdehyde and H2O2 concentrations increased at the higher Cd level, which were counteracted by Si added. Ascorbic acid, glutathione and non-protein thiols concentrations increased at the higher Cd level, which were further intensified by addition of Si. The effects of Si and Cd on the antioxidant enzyme activity were further verified by isoenzyme analysis. Silicon was more effective in enhancing Cd tolerance in the Cd-tolerant cultivar than in the Cd-sensitive cultivar. It can be concluded that Si-enhanced Cd tolerance in B. chinensis is attributed mainly to Si-suppressed Cd uptake and root-to-shoot Cd transport and Si-enhanced antioxidant defense activity.

  20. Study on the protective role of selenium against cadmium toxicity in lactic acid bacteria: An advanced application of ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero Arauz, Iris Liliana [Instituto de Investigaciones Cientificas, Universidad de Guanajuato, L. de Retana No. 5, 36000 Guanajuato (Mexico); Afton, Scott [Department of Chemistry, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0172 (United States); Wrobel, Kazimierz [Instituto de Investigaciones Cientificas, Universidad de Guanajuato, L. de Retana No. 5, 36000 Guanajuato (Mexico); University of Cincinnati Metallomics Center of the Ameritas, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Caruso, Joseph A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0172 (United States); University of Cincinnati Metallomics Center of the Ameritas, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Gutierrez Corona, J. Felix [Instituto de Investigacion en Biologia Experimental, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de Guanajuato, L de Retana No. 5, 36000 Guanajuato (Mexico); Wrobel, Katarzyna [Instituto de Investigaciones Cientificas, Universidad de Guanajuato, L. de Retana No. 5, 36000 Guanajuato (Mexico); University of Cincinnati Metallomics Center of the Ameritas, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States)], E-mail: katarzyn@quijote.ugto.mx

    2008-05-30

    In this work, Lactobacillus casei rhamnosus were obtained from the commercial product of fermented milk and possible antagonistic effect of selenium (as sodium selenite) against cadmium toxicity was studied. The bacteria capability to incorporate Se was demonstrated: after 1 week exposure to Se(IV), its total concentration in the freeze-dried biomass was 405 {+-} 28 {mu}g/g (7.4 {+-} 0.8 {mu}g/g in control). In the presence of Se(IV) and Cd(II), the bacterial growth and cell viability were improved and lipid peroxidation less marked with respect to bacteria exposed to Cd(II) alone. The distribution of Se and Cd in molecular mass fractions of bacteria extracts was investigated by size exclusion chromatography with diode array and ICP-MS detection. The results obtained suggest that the antagonistic effect of Se is due to lower incorporation of cadmium at a high molecular mass (MM < 600 kDa). Slightly different distribution of elements in the fractions of MM < 40 kDa suggests the formation of new chemical species involving Cd and Se in bacteria exposed to Cd(II) + Se(IV) as compared to those exposed to Cd(II) alone. The study illustrates the high utility of atomic spectrometry to critically inform molecular questions that could be important in the industrial processes based on bacterial activity.

  1. Cadmium, Lead, and Other Metals in Relation to Semen Quality: Human Evidence for Molybdenum as a Male Reproductive Toxicant

    OpenAIRE

    Meeker, John D.; Rossano, Mary G.; Protas, Bridget; Diamond, Michael P.; Puscheck, Elizabeth; Daly, Douglas; Paneth, Nigel; Wirth, Julia J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Evidence on human semen quality as it relates to exposure to various metals, both essential (e.g., zinc, copper) and nonessential (e.g., cadmium, lead), is inconsistent. Most studies to date used small sample sizes and were unable to account for important covariates. Objectives Our goal in this study was to assess relationships between exposure to multiple metals at environmental levels and human semen-quality parameters. Methods We measured semen quality and metals in blood (arsen...

  2. Experimental toxicity studies of cadmium in human blood serum in Jordan, using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A spectrometric inductively coupled plasma-emission atomic technique was used for the determination of cadmium in human blood samples. An organized system for the collection and handling of cadmium of human blood samples was applied. Also procedures for collection, preparation, analysis and quality control were suggested. The aim of this is to assist scientists world wide to produce comparable data which will be useful on regional, national and international scale. The guideline in this study is directed to (Cd) which ranged from non detectable to low measurable values. Limit of detection of ICP-EAS was in the range from 0.3 ppb to 40 ppb. Accuracy was evaluated by analysis of the certified reference materials, using a standard addition method. One hundred and three human blood samples were analyzed; the population for the study had ages between nineteen and twenty years. Samples were collected at a specific time during a typical study day and analyzed for cadmium. The results of analysis showed a low measurable and non-detectable concentrations of (Cd), which is within and below the limits recommended by World health Organization (WHO). (author)

  3. Different behavior of Staphylococcus epidermidis in intracellular biosynthesis of silver and cadmium sulfide nanoparticles: more stability and lower toxicity of extracted nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvani Amin, Zohreh; Khashyarmanesh, Zahra; Fazly Bazzaz, Bibi Sedigheh

    2016-09-01

    Chemical reagents that are used for synthesis of nanoparticles are often toxic, while biological reagents are safer and cost-effective. Here, the behavior of Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 12228) was evaluated for biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) and cadmium sulfide nanoparticles (CdS-NPs) using TEM images intra- and extracellularly. The bacteria only biosynthesized the nanoparticles intracellularly and distributed Ag-NPs throughout the cytoplasm and on outside surface of cell walls, while CdS-NPs only formed in cytoplasm near the cell wall. A new method for purification of the nanoparticles was used. TEM images of pure CdS-NPs confirmed biosynthesis of agglomerated nanoparticles. Biosynthetic Ag-NPs were more stable against bright light and aggregation reaction than synthetic Ag-NPs (prepared chemically) also biosynthetic Ag-NPs displayed lower toxicity in in vitro assays. CdS-NPs indicated no toxicity in in vitro assays. Biosynthetic nanoparticles as product of the detoxification pathway may be safer and more stable for biosensors. PMID:27430507

  4. Acartia tonsa eggs as a biomonitor to evaluate bioavailability/toxicity of persistent contaminants in anoxic/sulfidic conditions: The case of cadmium and nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sei, Sandra; Invidia, Marion; Giannetto, Marco; Gorbi, Gessica

    2016-10-01

    The evaluation of toxicity due to persistent pollutants in anoxic aquatic environments has met with various problems, as most test organisms can not withstand oxygen lack and exposure to free sulfide. We evaluated the suitability of the eggs of the brackish copepod Acartia tonsa for bioassays in anoxic/sulfidic conditions: when exposed to deep hypoxia and free sulfide, the eggs become quiescent and are able to resume hatching after restoring normoxic conditions. Tests with cadmium and nickel were performed in normoxic and deeply hypoxic conditions and in anoxic water containing H2S or H2S+FeSO4 on an equimolar basis. Active and quiescent eggs showed equivalent sensitivity to the metals, both suffering significant reductions in hatching success at 89μM Cd and 17μM Ni. As expected on the basis of the SEM/AVS model, Cd toxicity was almost completely suppressed in presence of sulfides. Dissolved Cd concentration drastically dropped and hatching success was generally >80%, as against values contaminants in anoxic conditions and the role of sulfides in reducing metal bioavailability/toxicity. PMID:27235834

  5. Complexation and Toxicity of Copper in Higher Plants. II. Different Mechanisms for Copper versus Cadmium Detoxification in the Copper-Sensitive Cadmium/Zinc Hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges Ecotype)1[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijovilovich, Ana; Leitenmaier, Barbara; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Kroneck, Peter M.H.; Götz, Birgit; Küpper, Hendrik

    2009-01-01

    The cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens is sensitive toward copper (Cu) toxicity, which is a problem for phytoremediation of soils with mixed contamination. Cu levels in T. caerulescens grown with 10 μm Cu2+ remained in the nonaccumulator range (<50 ppm), and most individuals were as sensitive toward Cu as the related nonaccumulator Thlaspi fendleri. Obviously, hyperaccumulation and metal resistance are highly metal specific. Cu-induced inhibition of photosynthesis followed the “sun reaction” type of damage, with inhibition of the photosystem II reaction center charge separation and the water-splitting complex. A few individuals of T. caerulescens were more Cu resistant. Compared with Cu-sensitive individuals, they recovered faster from inhibition, at least partially by enhanced repair of chlorophyll-protein complexes but not by exclusion, since the content of Cu in their shoots was increased by about 25%. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements on frozen-hydrated leaf samples revealed that a large proportion of Cu in T. caerulescens is bound by sulfur ligands. This is in contrast to the known binding environment of cadmium and zinc in the same species, which is dominated by oxygen ligands. Clearly, hyperaccumulators detoxify hyperaccumulated metals differently compared with nonaccumulated metals. Furthermore, strong features in the Cu-EXAFS spectra ascribed to metal-metal contributions were found, in particular in the Cu-resistant specimens. Some of these features may be due to Cu binding to metallothioneins, but a larger proportion seems to result from biomineralization, most likely Cu(II) oxalate and Cu(II) oxides. Additional contributions in the EXAFS spectra indicate complexation of Cu(II) by the nonproteogenic amino acid nicotianamine, which has a very high affinity for Cu(II) as further characterized here. PMID:19692532

  6. Complexation and toxicity of copper in higher plants. II. Different mechanisms for copper versus cadmium detoxification in the copper-sensitive cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges Ecotype).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijovilovich, Ana; Leitenmaier, Barbara; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Kroneck, Peter M H; Götz, Birgit; Küpper, Hendrik

    2009-10-01

    The cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens is sensitive toward copper (Cu) toxicity, which is a problem for phytoremediation of soils with mixed contamination. Cu levels in T. caerulescens grown with 10 microm Cu(2+) remained in the nonaccumulator range (<50 ppm), and most individuals were as sensitive toward Cu as the related nonaccumulator Thlaspi fendleri. Obviously, hyperaccumulation and metal resistance are highly metal specific. Cu-induced inhibition of photosynthesis followed the "sun reaction" type of damage, with inhibition of the photosystem II reaction center charge separation and the water-splitting complex. A few individuals of T. caerulescens were more Cu resistant. Compared with Cu-sensitive individuals, they recovered faster from inhibition, at least partially by enhanced repair of chlorophyll-protein complexes but not by exclusion, since the content of Cu in their shoots was increased by about 25%. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements on frozen-hydrated leaf samples revealed that a large proportion of Cu in T. caerulescens is bound by sulfur ligands. This is in contrast to the known binding environment of cadmium and zinc in the same species, which is dominated by oxygen ligands. Clearly, hyperaccumulators detoxify hyperaccumulated metals differently compared with nonaccumulated metals. Furthermore, strong features in the Cu-EXAFS spectra ascribed to metal-metal contributions were found, in particular in the Cu-resistant specimens. Some of these features may be due to Cu binding to metallothioneins, but a larger proportion seems to result from biomineralization, most likely Cu(II) oxalate and Cu(II) oxides. Additional contributions in the EXAFS spectra indicate complexation of Cu(II) by the nonproteogenic amino acid nicotianamine, which has a very high affinity for Cu(II) as further characterized here. PMID:19692532

  7. CELL GROWTH IN PLANT CULTURES: AN INTERPRETATION OF THE INFLUENCE OF INITIAL WEIGHT IN CADMIUM AND COPPER TOXICITY TESTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The authors present an approach for conducting and interpreting results of newly established plant cell culture in toxicity studies. xtended culturing produces uniform suspension and facilities sampling. rimary (new) cultures are more representative of all responses of their plan...

  8. Toxicants accumulation rates and effects in Mytilus trossulus and Nereis diversicolor exposed separately or together to cadmium and PAHs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pempkowiak, Janusz; Pazdro, Ksenia; Kopecka, Justyna; Perez, Erkuden; Sole, Montserrat

    2006-01-01

    Two invertebrates, Mytilus trossulus and Nereis diversicolor, were exposed in aquaria to cadmium (50 microg L(-1)) and a mixture of three- to six-ring PAHs (2 microg L(-1) each) for 2 weeks. Organisms of two species were reared in separate tanks or together in the same one. Concentrations of Cd, PAHs and activities of selected biomarkers: catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were measured within 2 weeks of exposure. When reared separately, higher accumulation rates for cadmium were measured in mussels (16.4 microg day(-1) g(-1) d.w. lipid-free tissue) than in polychaeta (0.7 microg Cd g(-1) d.w day(-1)). When co-exposed, a difference in bioaccumulation was maintained but the accumulation rate in N. diversicolor increased to 1.0 microg Cd g(-1) d.w. day(-1) and decreased to 9.6 microg Cd g(-1) d.w. day(-1) in M. trossulus. On the contrary, faster bioaccumulation rates of PAHs were seen in polychaeta than in mussels when exposed separately (19.3 vs 4.5 microg PAHs day(-1) g(-1) lipid weight) than together (12.0 vs 3.1 microg PAHs g(-1) l.w. day(-1)). Substantial changes in the bioaccumulation patterns of the different M. trossulus organs were observed when both species were reared together. Biochemical responses indicated no effect of the accumulated contaminants on AChE, enhancement of CAT in both species and depletion of GST in Mytilus. The observed differences are discussed in terms of different bioavailability of contaminants, route of uptake and detoxification mechanism, under the two modes of exposure. PMID:17000547

  9. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B; Svendsen, P

    1988-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) is known to alleviate acute toxicity due to injection of cadmium salts. However, when cadmium chloride was administered by the oral route, DDC enhanced rather than alleviated the acute toxicity; both oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of DDC had this effec...

  10. Cadmium toxicity investigated at the physiological and biophysical levels under environmentally relevant conditions using the aquatic model plant Ceratophyllum demersum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Andresen, Elisa; Kappel, S.; Stärk, H.-J.; Riegger, U.; Borovec, Jakub; Mattusch, J.; Heinz, A.; Schmelzer, C.E.H.; Matoušková, Šárka; Dickinson, B.; Küpper, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 210, č. 4 (2016), s. 1244-1258. ISSN 0028-646X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Ceratophyllum demersum * Environmentally relevant * Light-harvesting complexes (LHCs) * Toxic metals Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 7.672, year: 2014

  11. PCB 126 toxicity is modulated by cross-talk between caveolae and Nrf2 signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petriello, Michael C. [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); University of Kentucky Superfund Research Center, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Han, Sung Gu [University of Kentucky Superfund Research Center, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resources, College of Animal Bioscience and Technology, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Newsome, Bradley J. [University of Kentucky Superfund Research Center, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Chemistry, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Hennig, Bernhard [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); University of Kentucky Superfund Research Center, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Animal and Food Sciences, College of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Kentucky, KY 40506 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Environmental toxicants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been implicated in the promotion of multiple inflammatory disorders including cardiovascular disease, but information regarding mechanisms of toxicity and cross-talk between relevant cell signaling pathways is lacking. To examine the hypothesis that cross-talk between membrane domains called caveolae and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) pathways alters PCB-induced inflammation, caveolin-1 was silenced in vascular endothelial cells, resulting in a decreased PCB-induced inflammatory response. Cav-1 silencing (siRNA treatment) also increased levels of Nrf2-ARE transcriptional binding, resulting in higher mRNA levels of the antioxidant genes glutathione s-transferase and NADPH dehydrogenase quinone-1 in both vehicle and PCB-treated systems. Along with this upregulated antioxidant response, Cav-1 siRNA treated cells exhibited decreased mRNA levels of the Nrf2 inhibitory protein Keap1 in both vehicle and PCB-treated samples. Silencing Cav-1 also decreased protein levels of Nrf2 inhibitory proteins Keap1 and Fyn kinase, especially in PCB-treated cells. Further, endothelial cells from wildtype and Cav-1 −/− mice were isolated and treated with PCB to better elucidate the role of functional caveolae in PCB-induced endothelial inflammation. Cav-1 −/− endothelial cells were protected from PCB-induced cellular dysfunction as evidenced by decreased vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) protein induction. Compared to wildtype cells, Cav-1 −/− endothelial cells also allowed for a more effective antioxidant response, as observed by higher levels of the antioxidant genes. These data demonstrate novel cross-talk mechanisms between Cav-1 and Nrf2 and implicate the reduction of Cav-1 as a protective mechanism for PCB-induced cellular dysfunction and inflammation. - Highlights: • Reduction of caveolin-1 protein protects against polychlorinated biphenyl toxicity. • Decreasing

  12. PCB 126 toxicity is modulated by cross-talk between caveolae and Nrf2 signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental toxicants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been implicated in the promotion of multiple inflammatory disorders including cardiovascular disease, but information regarding mechanisms of toxicity and cross-talk between relevant cell signaling pathways is lacking. To examine the hypothesis that cross-talk between membrane domains called caveolae and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) pathways alters PCB-induced inflammation, caveolin-1 was silenced in vascular endothelial cells, resulting in a decreased PCB-induced inflammatory response. Cav-1 silencing (siRNA treatment) also increased levels of Nrf2-ARE transcriptional binding, resulting in higher mRNA levels of the antioxidant genes glutathione s-transferase and NADPH dehydrogenase quinone-1 in both vehicle and PCB-treated systems. Along with this upregulated antioxidant response, Cav-1 siRNA treated cells exhibited decreased mRNA levels of the Nrf2 inhibitory protein Keap1 in both vehicle and PCB-treated samples. Silencing Cav-1 also decreased protein levels of Nrf2 inhibitory proteins Keap1 and Fyn kinase, especially in PCB-treated cells. Further, endothelial cells from wildtype and Cav-1 −/− mice were isolated and treated with PCB to better elucidate the role of functional caveolae in PCB-induced endothelial inflammation. Cav-1 −/− endothelial cells were protected from PCB-induced cellular dysfunction as evidenced by decreased vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) protein induction. Compared to wildtype cells, Cav-1 −/− endothelial cells also allowed for a more effective antioxidant response, as observed by higher levels of the antioxidant genes. These data demonstrate novel cross-talk mechanisms between Cav-1 and Nrf2 and implicate the reduction of Cav-1 as a protective mechanism for PCB-induced cellular dysfunction and inflammation. - Highlights: • Reduction of caveolin-1 protein protects against polychlorinated biphenyl toxicity. • Decreasing

  13. Differential effects of salen and manganese-salen complex (EUK-8) on the regulation of cellular cadmium uptake and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pei-Ming; Chiu, Shu-Jun; Lin, Lih-Yuan

    2005-05-01

    Cadmium (Cd) stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and causes cell damage. We investigated here the feasibility of using a cell permeable superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetic, EUK-8, to reduce the Cd-induced ROS and cytotoxicity in Chinese hamster ovary cells. EUK-8 reduces the ROS level caused by Cd treatment. EUK-8 also curtails propidium iodide (PI) influx and increases the viability of Cd-treated cells. The efficacy of EUK-8 as a Cd antidote diminishes gradually when added at a later stage of Cd treatment. EUK-8 blocks Cd transport into cells. It is ineffective in accelerating the efflux of metals from the cells. EUK-8 is a Mn-salen complex. Mn decreases the uptake and cytotoxicity of Cd, while salen perturbs the membrane integrity and increases the uptake and cytotoxicity of Cd. Salen is able to bind Cd, and the Cd-salen complex formed does not perturb the integrity of cell membranes and thus the influx of metal is not enhanced. Our results reveal a differential effect of salen and Mn-salen complex on the transport of Cd with subsequent different levels of cell damage. PMID:15689422

  14. Chelation in metal intoxication XXX: α-mercapto-β-aryl acrylic acids as antidotes to cadmium toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    α-Mercapto-β-(2-furyl) acrylic acid (MFA), α-mercapto-β-(2-hydroxyphenyl) acrylic acid (MHA), β-1,2-phenylene di-α-mercaptoacrylic acid (1,2-PDMA) and β-l,4-phenylene di-α-mercapto acrylic acid (1,4-PDMA) were compared to sodium N-benzyl-D-glucamine dithiocarbamate (NBG-DTC) an effective cadmium chelator, for their ability to mobilize Cd and influence the Cd induced tissue metallothionein (MT) in rats administered 109CdCl2, 72 hr earlier. MFA was almost as effective as NBG-DTC but more effective than MHA in enhancing urinary and faecal excretion of Cd, reducing tissue and blood levels of Cd and in lowering Cd induced increase in hepatic and renal MT contents. 1,2-PDMA and l,4-PDMA were effective only in reducing the hepatic burden of Cd. The results do not indicate any direct relationship between the efficacy of α-mercapto-β-aryl acrylic acids to decorporate body Cd and their lipophilic-hydrophilic character or number-arrangement of their sulfhydryl groups. (author)

  15. Toxic effects of two sources of dietborne cadmium on the juvenile cobia, Rachycentron canadum L. and tissue-specific accumulation of related minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Kang [Laboratory of Aquatic Animal Nutrition and Feed, College of Fisheries, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang, Guangdong (China); Guangdong Yuehai Feed Group Co., Ltd., Zhanjiang, Guangdong (China); Chi, Shuyan; Liu, Hongyu; Dong, Xiaohui; Yang, Qihui; Zhang, Shuang [Laboratory of Aquatic Animal Nutrition and Feed, College of Fisheries, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang, Guangdong (China); Tan, Beiping, E-mail: bptan@126.com [Laboratory of Aquatic Animal Nutrition and Feed, College of Fisheries, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang, Guangdong (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • CdCl{sub 2}–Cd showed a higher toxicity than SVM-Cd for cobia. • Cd accumulation in cobia fed diets contaminated SVM-Cd was higher than in cobia fed diets contaminated CdCl{sub 2}–Cd. • Cd accumulation in tissues of cobia fed both types of Cd was kidney > liver > intestine > gill muscle. • Dietborne Cd decreased the Fe concentration in kidney and liver, Ca concentrations in vertebra and scale. - Abstract: In the present study, juvenile cobia, Rachycentron canadum L. were fed diets contaminated by two different sources of cadmium: squid viscera meal (SVM-Cd, organic form) and cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}–Cd, inorganic form). The Cd concentrations in fish diet were approximate 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg Cd kg{sup −1} for both inorganic and organic forms. In the control diet (0.312 mg Cd kg{sup −1} diet, Cd mainly come from fish meal), no cadmium was added. The experiment lasted for 16 weeks and a statistically significant inverse relationship was observed between specific growth rate (SGR) and the concentration of dietary Cd. The SGR of cobia fed a diet with SVM-Cd increased at the lowest doses and decreased with the increasing level of dietary SVM. Fish fed diet contaminated SVM-Cd had significantly higher SGR than those fed diets contaminated CdCl{sub 2}–Cd among the high Cd level diets treatments. The dietary Cd levels also significantly affected the survival rate of the fish. Among the hematological characteristics and plasma constituents, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase activities and alkaline phosphatase activities in serum and liver increased and hepatic superoxide dismutase activity decreased with the increasing dietary Cd levels. The cobia fed diet contaminated by high level of CdCl{sub 2}–Cd had significantly higher ALP activity than cobia fed diet contaminated by high level of SVM-Cd. The results from these studies indicate no differences in toxicity response to dietborne SVM-Cd and CdCl{sub 2}–Cd at a low level of Cd

  16. Toxic effects of two sources of dietborne cadmium on the juvenile cobia, Rachycentron canadum L. and tissue-specific accumulation of related minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • CdCl2–Cd showed a higher toxicity than SVM-Cd for cobia. • Cd accumulation in cobia fed diets contaminated SVM-Cd was higher than in cobia fed diets contaminated CdCl2–Cd. • Cd accumulation in tissues of cobia fed both types of Cd was kidney > liver > intestine > gill muscle. • Dietborne Cd decreased the Fe concentration in kidney and liver, Ca concentrations in vertebra and scale. - Abstract: In the present study, juvenile cobia, Rachycentron canadum L. were fed diets contaminated by two different sources of cadmium: squid viscera meal (SVM-Cd, organic form) and cadmium chloride (CdCl2–Cd, inorganic form). The Cd concentrations in fish diet were approximate 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg Cd kg−1 for both inorganic and organic forms. In the control diet (0.312 mg Cd kg−1 diet, Cd mainly come from fish meal), no cadmium was added. The experiment lasted for 16 weeks and a statistically significant inverse relationship was observed between specific growth rate (SGR) and the concentration of dietary Cd. The SGR of cobia fed a diet with SVM-Cd increased at the lowest doses and decreased with the increasing level of dietary SVM. Fish fed diet contaminated SVM-Cd had significantly higher SGR than those fed diets contaminated CdCl2–Cd among the high Cd level diets treatments. The dietary Cd levels also significantly affected the survival rate of the fish. Among the hematological characteristics and plasma constituents, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase activities and alkaline phosphatase activities in serum and liver increased and hepatic superoxide dismutase activity decreased with the increasing dietary Cd levels. The cobia fed diet contaminated by high level of CdCl2–Cd had significantly higher ALP activity than cobia fed diet contaminated by high level of SVM-Cd. The results from these studies indicate no differences in toxicity response to dietborne SVM-Cd and CdCl2–Cd at a low level of Cd. However, at a higher level, cobia was more sensitive

  17. The toxic effect and bioaccumulation in aquatic oligochaete Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri after combined exposure to cadmium and perfluorooctane sulfonate at different pH values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Ruijuan; Liu, Jiaoqin; Wang, Liansheng; Wang, Zunyao

    2016-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have been detected in aquatic environment. In this study, we investigated the acute effect, bioaccumulation and oxidative stress status in the aquatic oligocheate Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri after exposure to Cd and PFOS at different pH values. In the studied pH range, acute Cd toxicity was significantly enhanced with pH increasing from 6.2 to 8.0, and the 48h-EC50 of Cd was (significantly) decreased in the presence of PFOS. Bioaccumulation analysis results show that the accumulated Cd/PFOS in single exposure group increased with increasing exposure concentrations, and co-exposure makes internal Cd concentration significantly lowered for Cd(0.1) group at pH 8.0. Significant changes in superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione level and malondialdehyde content were observed in single and combined treatments. Based on IBR value, single Cd and PFOS exposure caused largest damage to the antioxidant defense system at pH 8.0 and pH 6.2, respectively, while the harmful effects of joint exposure were always the "compromise" between single Cd and PFOS exposure. This work could provide useful information for the risk assessment of co-exposure to perfluorinated compounds and heavy metals in natural environment. PMID:27003372

  18. Bioaccumulation and single and joint toxicities of penta-BDE and cadmium to earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed to spiked soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Bioaccumulation of penta-BDE(DE-71) in earthworms(Eisenia fetida) and the induced toxicities on the growth and reproduction of earthworms were investigated.All the major congeners in DE-71 could be bioaccumulated in earthworms and the concentration found in earthworms correlated to the spiked concentration in soil.DE-71 might inhibit the growth and reproduction of cocoons and juveniles of earthworms.The toxicities were dose dependent and increased with exposure time.Exposing earthworms to combination of DE-71 and Cd resulted in enhanced mortality and reduction of cocoons or juveniles in a synergistic mode.The presence of DE-71 may affect the relocation of Cd in earthworms.When the earthworms were exposed to Cd alone,Cd up-taken by earthworms was mainly partitioned in the cytosolic fraction.While DE-71 was present,Cd in the cytosolic fraction decreased significantly.It is perhaps that DE-71 inhibits the synthesis of matallothioneins,and then reduces the detoxification ability of earthworms.This is the first report about the toxicity of PBDEs to earthworms.The result would be useful for ecological risk assessment of PBDEs in terrestrial ecosystem.

  19. Toxicity and sorption kinetics of dissolved cadmium and chromium III on tropical freshwater phytoperiphyton in laboratory mesocosm experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to assess the interactive effects of Cd and Cr III on tropical phytoperiphyton community growth, metal sorption kinetics, as well as Cd and Cr mixtures toxicity to diatom assemblages in laboratory mesocosm experiments. A natural phytoperiphyton community sampled from the Monjolinho River (South of Brazil) was inoculated into seven experimental systems containing clean glass substrates for phytoperiphyton colonization. The communities were exposed to mixtures of dissolved Cd and Cr concentrations of 0.01 and 0.1 mg.L-1 Cd and 0.05 and 0.2 mg.L-1 Cr. Phytoperiphyton chlorophyll a, ash-free dry mass, growth rate, diatom cell density and diatom community composition were analyzed on samples collected after 1, 2 and 3 weeks of colonization. High Cd concentration (0.1 mg.L-1) affects phytoperiphyton growth while high concentration of Cr (0.2 mg.L-1) decreased the toxic effects of Cd on phytoperiphyton growth demonstrating the importance of studying metal mixtures in field studies. Shifts in species composition (development of more resistant species like Achnanthidium minutissimum (Kuetzing) Czarnecki, and Nitzschia palea (Kuetzing) Smith and reduction of sensitive ones like Fragilaria capucina Desmazieres, Navicula cryptocephala (Grunow) Cleve, Encyonema silesiacum (Bleisch) Mann, Eunotia bilunaris (Ehrenberg) Mills and Gomphonema parvulum (Kuetzing) Kuetzing), of phytoperiphyton communities with increasing Cd and Cr concentrations and exposure duration have been demonstrated in this study making phytoperiphyton communities appropriate monitors of metal mixtures in aquatic systems. Good Cd and Cr accumulation capacity by phytoperiphyton was demonstrated with total and intracellular metal content in phytoperiphyton reflecting the effects of dissolved concentrations of metal in the culture media and exposure duration. Increase in both Cd and Cr reduced sequestration of each other, with generally more Cd being sequestered compared to Cr

  20. Effects of acclimation on the toxicity of stream water contaminated with zinc and cadmium to juvenile cutthroat trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, D.D.; Farag, A.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the influence of acclimation on results of in situ bioassays with cutthroat trout in metal-contaminated streams. Cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki) were held for 21 days (1) in live containers at a reference or "clean" site having dissolved metals near detection limits (0.01 ??g/L cadmium [Cd] and 2.8 ??g/L zinc [Zn]; hardness 32 mg/L as CaCO3) and (2) at a site in a mining-impacted watershed having moderately increased metals (0.07 ??g/L Cd and 38 to 40 ??g/L Zn; hardness 50 mg/L as CaCO3). The 96-hour survival of each treatment group was then tested in situ at five sites from September 5 to 9, 2002, and each group exhibited a range of metal concentrations (0.44 to 39 ??g/L arsenic [As], 0.01 to 2.2 ??g/L Cd, and 0.49 to 856 ??g/L Zn). Survival was 100% at three sites for both treatments. However, a higher percentage of metal-acclimated fish survived at the site with the second highest concentrations of Cd and Zn (0.90 and 238 ??g/L, respectively) compared with fish acclimated at the reference site (100% vs. 55%, respectively). Survival was 65% for acclimated fish and 0% for metal-nai??ve fish at the site with the largest metal concentrations (2.2 ??g/L Cd and 856 ??g/L Zn). Water collected from the site with the largest concentrations of dissolved metals (on October 30, 2002) was used in a laboratory serial dilution to determine 96-hour LC50 values. The 96-hour LC50 estimates of nai??ve fish during the in situ and laboratory experiments were similar (0.60 ??g Cd/L and 226 ??g Zn/L for in situ and 0.64 ??g Cd/L and 201 ??g Zn/L for laboratory serial dilutions). However, mortality of nai??ve cutthroat trout tested under laboratory conditions was more rapid in dilutions of 100%, 75%, and 38% site water than in situ experiments. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  1. The toxic effects of l-Cysteine-capped cadmium sulfide nanoparticles on the aquatic plant Spirodela polyrrhiza

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plants play an important role in the fate of nanoparticles in the environment through their uptake, bioaccumulation, and transfer to trophic chains. However, the impacts of nanoparticles on plants as essential components of all ecosystems are not well documented. In the present study, the toxic effects of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles on Spirodela polyrrhiza as an aquatic higher plant species were studied. l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles were synthesized using hydrothermal method and their characteristics were determined by XRD, SEM, HR-TEM, and FT-IR techniques. The diameter of majority of synthesized nanoparticles was about 15–20 nm. Subsequently, the uptake of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles by the plant species was confirmed using epifluorescence microscopy. The activity of peroxidase and superoxide dismutase as antioxidant enzymes was assayed and the relative frond number was calculated in the presence of different concentrations of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles. The obtained results revealed the toxic effects of the synthesized nanoparticles on S. polyrrhiza, leading to growth reduction and significant changes in antioxidant enzymes’ activity.Graphical Abstract

  2. The toxic effects of l-Cysteine-capped cadmium sulfide nanoparticles on the aquatic plant Spirodela polyrrhiza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khataee, Alireza, E-mail: ar_khataee@yahoo.com [University of Tabriz, Research Laboratory of Advanced Water and Wastewater Treatment Processes, Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Movafeghi, Ali [University of Tabriz, Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nazari, Fatemeh [University of Tabriz, Research Laboratory of Advanced Water and Wastewater Treatment Processes, Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vafaei, Fatemeh [University of Tabriz, Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dadpour, Mohammad Reza [University of Tabriz, Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hanifehpour, Younes; Joo, Sang Woo, E-mail: swjoo@yu.ac.kr [Yeungnam University, School of Mechanical Engineering (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Plants play an important role in the fate of nanoparticles in the environment through their uptake, bioaccumulation, and transfer to trophic chains. However, the impacts of nanoparticles on plants as essential components of all ecosystems are not well documented. In the present study, the toxic effects of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles on Spirodela polyrrhiza as an aquatic higher plant species were studied. l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles were synthesized using hydrothermal method and their characteristics were determined by XRD, SEM, HR-TEM, and FT-IR techniques. The diameter of majority of synthesized nanoparticles was about 15–20 nm. Subsequently, the uptake of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles by the plant species was confirmed using epifluorescence microscopy. The activity of peroxidase and superoxide dismutase as antioxidant enzymes was assayed and the relative frond number was calculated in the presence of different concentrations of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles. The obtained results revealed the toxic effects of the synthesized nanoparticles on S. polyrrhiza, leading to growth reduction and significant changes in antioxidant enzymes’ activity.Graphical Abstract.

  3. Toxicity of copper, lead, and cadmium on the motility of two marine microalgae Isochrysis galbana and Tetraselmis chui

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangxu Liu; Xueliang Chai; Yanqing Shao; Lihua Hu; Qilang Xie; Hongxi Wu

    2011-01-01

    Computer assisted movement tracking was used to characterize the motility of two marine microalgae, lsochrysis galbana and Tetraselrnis chui, and to investigate the toxicity of Cu, Pb, and Cd on motile percentage, curvilinear velocity, average path velocity, straight line velocity, linearity, straightness, and wobble. Except for motile percentage, all other motility parameters differed significantly between I. galbana and T. chui. Based on relative motile percentage data, the median effective concentration (EC50) of Cu on the motility of I. galbana and T. chui was 31.4 and 1.3 μmol/L, respectively, while for Pb it was 37.8 and 10.9 μmol/L and for Cd it was 121.6 and 37.8 μmol/L, respectively. Compared to I. galbana, T. chui was more sensitive to all tested metals. The toxic effect of the heavy metals on motility exhibited the following decreasing order for both species: Cu > Pb > Cd. Our results indicate that I. galbana and T. chui motility is sensitive to heavy metals and can be used as an indicator for toxicology bioassays.

  4. Ecological risk assessment on a cadmium contaminated soil landfill-a preliminary evaluation based on toxicity tests on local species and site-specific information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, methodology of ecological risk assessment has been developed and applied frequently for addressing various circumstances where ecological impacts are suspected or have occurred due to environmental contamination; however, its practice is very limited in Taiwan. In 1982, brown rice from rice paddy fields in Da-Tan, Tau-Yuan, was found to be contaminated with Cd and Pb due to illegal discharges of wastewater, known as the 'Cd rice' incidence. Cadmium laden soil was transferred to a constructed landfill in an industrial park 15 years after the incident. Possible leakage of the landfill was suspected by committee members of a supervising board for the remediation process, and a preliminary ecological risk evaluation was requested. A possible risk scenario was that groundwater contamination due to the leachate containing Cd and Pb from the landfill could result in pollution of coastal water, and subsequently produce toxic effects to aquatic organisms. Chemical dissipation in groundwater systems was simulated and short-term chronic toxicity tests on larvae of three local aquatic species were also performed to determine the no-observed adverse-effect concentrations (NOAECs), as well as the predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs), of the two metals in the organisms tested. The hazard quotient (HQ), the ratio of predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) to PNECs, was used for risk characterization. A worst-case-scenario calculation showed that the maximum Cd concentration at 60 m and farther downstream from the site in the groundwater system would be 0.0028 mg l-1 with a maximum initial concentration of 0.65 mg l-1 in the leachate, while for Pb, the highest concentration of 0.044 mg l-1 would be reached at a distance of 40 m and farther, which was based on an initial concentration of 4.4 mg l-1 in the leachate; however, both cases would only occur 80 years after the initiation of leakage. A presumed dilution factor of 100 was used to calculate the

  5. Ecological risk assessment on a cadmium contaminated soil landfill--a preliminary evaluation based on toxicity tests on local species and site-specific information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Min; Liu, Ming-Chao

    2006-04-15

    In recent years, methodology of ecological risk assessment has been developed and applied frequently for addressing various circumstances where ecological impacts are suspected or have occurred due to environmental contamination; however, its practice is very limited in Taiwan. In 1982, brown rice from rice paddy fields in Da-Tan, Tau-Yuan, was found to be contaminated with Cd and Pb due to illegal discharges of wastewater, known as the "Cd rice" incidence. Cadmium laden soil was transferred to a constructed landfill in an industrial park 15 years after the incident. Possible leakage of the landfill was suspected by committee members of a supervising board for the remediation process, and a preliminary ecological risk evaluation was requested. A possible risk scenario was that groundwater contamination due to the leachate containing Cd and Pb from the landfill could result in pollution of coastal water, and subsequently produce toxic effects to aquatic organisms. Chemical dissipation in groundwater systems was simulated and short-term chronic toxicity tests on larvae of three local aquatic species were also performed to determine the no-observed adverse-effect concentrations (NOAECs), as well as the predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs), of the two metals in the organisms tested. The hazard quotient (HQ), the ratio of predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) to PNECs, was used for risk characterization. A worst-case-scenario calculation showed that the maximum Cd concentration at 60 m and farther downstream from the site in the groundwater system would be 0.0028 mg l(-1) with a maximum initial concentration of 0.65 mg l(-1) in the leachate, while for Pb, the highest concentration of 0.044 mg l(-1) would be reached at a distance of 40 m and farther, which was based on an initial concentration of 4.4 mg l(-1) in the leachate; however, both cases would only occur 80 years after the initiation of leakage. A presumed dilution factor of 100 was used to

  6. Cadmium and Chrome Concentrations in Human Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Nazarpour

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nutrition of children has the highest priority in any program aimed at children's health care. Milk contaminated with various toxic elements can have adverse effects on children's health. This study aimed to determine the concentration of heavy metals including cadmium(Cd and chromium (Cr of breast feeding women’s milk in Varamin. Methods: This is a cross sectional study. In the present study, chromium and cadmium levels in milk of 100 mothers attending clinics in the city of Varamin were measured in four to eight weeks after delivery, using atomic absorption spectrometry. Results: The mean values (±SD of Cd and Cr in human milk were 5±6.9 μg/ml and 3±2.7 μg/ml respectively. Result of Linear regression showed that cadmium levels were higher in breast milk of people living close to the factory or industrial center. Also, the chromium levels were higher in the breast milk of women in cases of: Smoking by spouses, consumption of imported rice, consumption of mineral water, and living close to the factory or an industrial center. Conclusion: This study showed that the relationship of some factors such as living near a factory or an industrial center, smoking by spouse, the type of consumed rice and water, with the level of cadmium and chromium. Cadmium and chromium levels of breast milk in this study were higher than the levels of these elements mentioned in the reviewed articles and international standard. Because some variables, such as living near a factory or an industrial center, smoking by spouse, the type of consumed rice and water can affect the amount of entering elements in breast milk. Actions can be taken to reduce or eliminate these variables in order to decrease the mentioned elements in human milk.

  7. Single and double metallothionein knockout in the nematode C. elegans reveals cadmium dependent and independent toxic effects on life history traits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The genome of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans contains two metallothionein genes, both involved in metal homeostasis and/or detoxification. Single metallothionein knockout mutants have been created and now, for the first time, a double mutant has been isolated. Life history studies in the presence or absence of cadmium showed that all metallothionein mutants are viable. Although cadmium did not influence longevity, a dose dependent reduction in total brood size and volumetric growth was observed in wild type animals, which was magnified in single knockouts and further exacerbated in the double knockout. However, the metallothionein deletion caused two effects that are independent of cadmium exposure, namely all knockout strains displayed a reduced total brood size and the deletion of both metallothionein loci caused a significant reduction in volumetric growth. In summary, metallothionein is undoubtedly an important player in cadmium detoxification, but evidently also an important factor in cadmium independent pathways. - Metallothionein is a modifier of life-history parameters

  8. Cadmium- and calcium-mediated toxicity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in vivo: interactions on fitness and mitochondrial endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiele, Reginald C; Stevens, Don; Kamunde, Collins

    2011-11-01

    Rainbow trout were exposed to sublethal waterborne Cd (5 and 10 μg L(-1)) and dietary Ca (60 mg g(-1)), individually and in combination, for 30 d to elucidate the interactive effects and evaluate the toxicological significance of mitochondrial responses to these cations in vivo. Indices of fish condition and mortality were measured and livers, centers of metabolic homeostasis, were harvested to assess mitochondrial function and cation accumulation. All indices of condition assessed (body weight, hepatosomatic index and condition factor) were reduced in all the treatment groups. Mortality occurred in the Cd-exposed groups with dietary Ca partly protecting against and enhancing it in the lower and higher Cd exposure, respectively. State 3 mitochondrial respiration was inhibited by 30%, 35% and 40% in livers of fish exposed to Ca, Cd and Cd+Ca, respectively, suggesting reduced ATP turnover and/or impaired substrate oxidation. While the phosphorylation efficiency was unaffected, state 4 and state 4+ (+ oligomycin) respirations were inhibited by all the exposures. Mitochondrial coupling was reduced and transiently restored denoting partially effective compensatory mechanisms to counteract Cd/Ca toxicity. The respiratory dysfunction was associated with accumulation of both Cd and Ca in the mitochondria. Although fish that survived acute effects of Cd and Ca exposure apparently made adjustments to energy generation such that liver mitochondria functioned more efficiently albeit at reduced capacity, reduced fitness was persistent possibly due to increased demands for maintenance and defense against toxicity. Overall, interactions between Cd and Ca on condition indices and mitochondrial responses were competitive or cooperative depending on exposure concentrations and duration. PMID:21885087

  9. Bioavailability and toxicity of trace metals to the cladoceran Daphnia magna in relation to cadmium exposure history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Rui

    The cladoceran Daphnia magna is widely used in freshwater bioassessments and ecological risk assessments. This study designed a series of experiments employing radiotracer methodology to quantify the trace metals (mainly Cd and Zn) biokinetics in D. magna under different environmental and biological conditions and to investigate the influences of different Cd exposure histories on the bioavailability and toxicity of trace metals to D. magna. A bioenergetic-based kinetic model was finally applied in predicting the Cd accumulation dynamics in D. magna and the model validity under non-steady state was assessed. Cd assimilation was found in this study to be influenced by the food characteristics (e.g., metal concentration in food particles), the metal exposure history of the animals, and the genetic characteristics. Some of these influences could be interpreted by the capacity and/or competition of those metal binding sites within the digestive tract and/or the detoxifying proteins metallothionein (MT). My study demonstrated a significant induction of MT in response to Cd exposure and it was the dominant fraction in sequestering the internal nonessential trace metals in D. magna. The ratio of Cd body burden to MT might better predict the Cd toxicity on the digestion systems of D. magna than the Cd tissue burden alone within one-generational exposure to Cd. It was found that metal elimination (rate constant and contribution of different release routes) was independent of the food concentration and the dietary metal concentration, implying that the elimination may not be metabolically controlled. The incorporation of the bioenergetic-based kinetic model, especially under non-steady state, is invaluable in helping to understand the fate of trace metals in aquatic systems and potential environmental risks. The dependence of biokinetic parameters on environmental factors rather than on genotypes implies a great potential of using biokinetics in inter-laboratory comparisons.

  10. Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkman, H.; Iverfeldt, Aa. [Swedish Environmental Research Inst. (Sweden); Borg, H.; Lithner, G. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Inst. for Applied Environmental Research

    1998-03-01

    This report aims at assessing possible effects of cadmium in the Swedish environment. Swedish soils and soft freshwater systems are, due to a generally poor buffering capacity, severely affected by acidification. In addition, the low salinity in the Baltic Sea imply a naturally poor organism structure, with some important organisms living close to their limit of physiological tolerance. Cadmium in soils is mobilized at low pH, and the availability and toxicity of cadmium in marine systems are enhanced at low salinity. The Swedish environment is therefore extra vulnerable to cadmium pollution. The average concentrations of cadmium in the forest mor layers, agricultural soils, and fresh-waters in Sweden are enhanced compared to `back-ground concentrations`, with a general increasing trend from the north to the south-west, indicating strong impact of atmospheric deposition of cadmium originating from the central parts of Europe. In Swedish sea water, total cadmium concentrations, and the fraction of bio-available `free` cadmium, generally increases with decreasing salinity. Decreased emissions of cadmium to the environment have led to decreasing atmospheric deposition during the last decade. The net accumulation of cadmium in the forest mor layer has stopped, and even started to decrease. In northern Sweden, this is due to the decreased deposition, but in southern Sweden the main reason is increased leakage of cadmium from the topsoil as a consequence of acidification. As a result, cadmium in the Swedish environments is undergoing an extended redistribution between different soil compartments, and from the soils to the aquatic systems. 90 refs, 23 figs, 2 tabs. With 3 page summary in Swedish

  11. Comparison between two clones of Daphnia magna: effects of multigenerational cadmium exposure on toxicity, individual fitness, and biokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Rui; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2006-03-10

    We investigated the effects of genotype (two different clones) and multigenerational Cd-exposure history on Cd toxicity, individual fitness, and biokinetics in populations of a freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna. The adults of the tolerant (T) clone had longer mean-survival-time than the sensitive (S) clone in both control groups (without Cd-exposure) and continuous Cd-exposure groups, but the two clones showed comparable resistances to acute Cd stress in the recovery groups. The body concentration of metallothionein (MT) played a critical role in handling Cd stress, which mainly accounted for the significant difference between the two clones in terms of survival distribution. High comparability of these two clones in individual fitness parameters and biokinetics suggested that these parameters are unlikely driven by genetic variation. For each specific clone, continuous Cd-exposure inhibited the animal growth, elevated the MT induction, and increased the Cd uptake rate (ingestion rate, assimilation efficiency from dietary phase, and uptake rate from dissolved phase), all of which enhanced the weight-specific Cd accumulation in daphnids' bodies. The strong dependence of biokinetic parameters on environmental factors (e.g., food concentrations, pH, dissolved or dietary metal concentration, and metal exposure histories) rather than on genotypes implied the great potential of using biokinetics in inter-lab comparisons and environmental risk assessments. PMID:16289344

  12. Comparison between two clones of Daphnia magna: Effects of multigenerational cadmium exposure on toxicity, individual fitness, and biokinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan Rui [Atmospheric Marine Coastal Environment Program and Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Wang Wenxiong [Atmospheric Marine Coastal Environment Program and Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: wwang@ust.hk

    2006-03-10

    We investigated the effects of genotype (two different clones) and multigenerational Cd-exposure history on Cd toxicity, individual fitness, and biokinetics in populations of a freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna. The adults of the tolerant (T) clone had longer mean-survival-time than the sensitive (S) clone in both control groups (without Cd-exposure) and continuous Cd-exposure groups, but the two clones showed comparable resistances to acute Cd stress in the recovery groups. The body concentration of metallothionein (MT) played a critical role in handling Cd stress, which mainly accounted for the significant difference between the two clones in terms of survival distribution. High comparability of these two clones in individual fitness parameters and biokinetics suggested that these parameters are unlikely driven by genetic variation. For each specific clone, continuous Cd-exposure inhibited the animal growth, elevated the MT induction, and increased the Cd uptake rate (ingestion rate, assimilation efficiency from dietary phase, and uptake rate from dissolved phase), all of which enhanced the weight-specific Cd accumulation in daphnids' bodies. The strong dependence of biokinetic parameters on environmental factors (e.g., food concentrations, pH, dissolved or dietary metal concentration, and metal exposure histories) rather than on genotypes implied the great potential of using biokinetics in inter-lab comparisons and environmental risk assessments.

  13. Quantitative analysis of toxic metals lead and cadmium in water jet by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheri, M. Sadegh; Tavassoli, S. H.

    2011-03-20

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been applied to the analysis of toxic metals Pb and Cd in Pb(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and Cd(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O aqueous solutions, respectively. The plasma is generated by focusing a nanosecond Nd:YAG ({lambda}=1064 nm) laser on the surface of liquid in the homemade liquid jet configuration. With an assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), calibration curves of Pb and Cd were obtained at different delay times between 1 to 5 {mu}s. The temporal behavior of limit of detections (LOD) was investigated and it is shown that the minimum LODs for Pb and Cd are 4 and 68 parts in 10{sup 6} (ppm), respectively. In order to demonstrate the correctness of the LTE assumption, plasma parameters including plasma temperature and electron density are evaluated, and it is shown that the LTE condition is satisfied at all delay times.

  14. Quantitative analysis of toxic metals lead and cadmium in water jet by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheri, M Sadegh; Tavassoli, S H

    2011-03-20

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been applied to the analysis of toxic metals Pb and Cd in Pb(NO3)2 and Cd(NO3)2.4H2O aqueous solutions, respectively. The plasma is generated by focusing a nanosecond Nd:YAG (λ=1064 nm) laser on the surface of liquid in the homemade liquid jet configuration. With an assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), calibration curves of Pb and Cd were obtained at different delay times between 1 to 5 μs. The temporal behavior of limit of detections (LOD) was investigated and it is shown that the minimum LODs for Pb and Cd are 4 and 68 parts in 10(6) (ppm), respectively. In order to demonstrate the correctness of the LTE assumption, plasma parameters including plasma temperature and electron density are evaluated, and it is shown that the LTE condition is satisfied at all delay times. PMID:21460994

  15. Comparison between two clones of Daphnia magna: Effects of multigenerational cadmium exposure on toxicity, individual fitness, and biokinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the effects of genotype (two different clones) and multigenerational Cd-exposure history on Cd toxicity, individual fitness, and biokinetics in populations of a freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna. The adults of the tolerant (T) clone had longer mean-survival-time than the sensitive (S) clone in both control groups (without Cd-exposure) and continuous Cd-exposure groups, but the two clones showed comparable resistances to acute Cd stress in the recovery groups. The body concentration of metallothionein (MT) played a critical role in handling Cd stress, which mainly accounted for the significant difference between the two clones in terms of survival distribution. High comparability of these two clones in individual fitness parameters and biokinetics suggested that these parameters are unlikely driven by genetic variation. For each specific clone, continuous Cd-exposure inhibited the animal growth, elevated the MT induction, and increased the Cd uptake rate (ingestion rate, assimilation efficiency from dietary phase, and uptake rate from dissolved phase), all of which enhanced the weight-specific Cd accumulation in daphnids' bodies. The strong dependence of biokinetic parameters on environmental factors (e.g., food concentrations, pH, dissolved or dietary metal concentration, and metal exposure histories) rather than on genotypes implied the great potential of using biokinetics in inter-lab comparisons and environmental risk assessments

  16. Silicon alleviates cadmium toxicity in Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. seedlings in relation to root anatomy and radial oxygen loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The inhibition of growth of Avicennia marina due to Cd was alleviated by Si. • Si prompted the development of the apoplastic barrier in the roots. • Si increased the amount of ROL and the degree of Mn plaque. -- Abstract: The effects of Si on growth, the anatomy of the roots, radial oxygen loss (ROL) and Fe/Mn plaque on the root surface were investigated in Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. seedlings under Cd stress. Si prompted the growth of seedlings and reduced the Cd concentration in the root, stem and leaf of A. marina. Si prompted the development of the apoplastic barrier in the roots, which may be related to the reduction of Cd uptake. The higher amount of ROL and Mn plaque on the root surface due to Si were also related to the promotion of Cd tolerance in A. marina seedlings. Therefore, it is concluded that the alteration of the anatomy of the roots, the increase of ROL and Mn plaque of A. marina seedlings play an important role in alleviation of Cd toxicity due to Si

  17. Variation of Cd concentration in various rice cultivars and derivation of cadmium toxicity thresholds for paddy soil by species-sensitivity distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Wen-en[1; CHEN Shi-bao[1; LIU Ji-fang[2; CHEN Li[3; SONG Ning-ning[1; LINing[1; LIU Bin[1

    2015-01-01

    It is imperative to derive an appropriate cadmium (Cd) health risk toxicity threshold for paddy soils to ensure the Cd con- centration of rice grains meet the food safety standard. In this study, 20 rice cultivars from the main rice producing areas in China were selected, and a pot-experiment was conducted to investigate transformation of Cd in paddy soil-rice system with 0 (CK), 0.3 mg kg-1 (T1) and 0.6 mg kg-1(T2) Cd treatments in greenhouse. The results showed that Cd concentrations of rice grains existed significant difference (P〈0.05) in 20 rice cultivars under the same Cd level in soil. The Cd concentrations of rice grains of the CK, T1 and T2 treatments were in the range of 0.143-0.202, 0.128-0.458 and 0.332-0.806 mg kg-1, respectively. Marked differences of the ratios of Cd concentration for soil to rice grain (BCFs) and transfer factors (TFs, root to grain and straw to grain) among the tested cultivars were observed in this study. The bioconcentration factors (BCFgrain) and TFs of the 20 rice cultivars were 0.300-1.112 and 0.342-0.817, respectively. The TFs of Cd from straw to grain ranged from 0.366 to 1.71, with significant differences among these 20 rice cultivars. The bioconcentration factors (BCFgrain) and TFs among the 20 rice cultivars ranged from 0.300-1.112 and 0.342-0.817, respectively. The species-sensitivity distribu- tion (SSD) of Cd sensitivity of the rice species could be fitted well with Burr-Ill (R2=0.987) based on the data of BCFs. The toxicity threshold of Cd derived from SSD for the paddy soil was 0.507 mg kg-1 in the present study.

  18. Role of ARF6 in internalization of metal-binding proteins, metallothionein and transferrin, and cadmium-metallothionein toxicity in kidney proximal tubule cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filtered metal-protein complexes, such as cadmium-metallothionein-1 (CdMT-1) or transferrin (Tf) are apically endocytosed partly via megalin/cubilin by kidney proximal tubule (PT) cells where CdMT-1 internalization causes apoptosis. Small GTPase ARF (ADP-ribosylation factor) proteins regulate endocytosis and vesicular trafficking. We investigated roles of ARF6, which has been shown to be involved in internalization of ligands and endocytic trafficking in PT cells, following MT-1/CdMT-1 and Tf uptake by PT cells. WKPT-0293 Cl.2 cells derived from rat PT S1 segment were transfected with hemagglutinin-tagged wild-type (ARF6-WT) or dominant negative (ARF6-T27N) forms of ARF6. Using immunofluorescence, endogenous ARF6 was associated with the plasma membrane (PM) as well as juxtanuclear and co-localized with Rab5a and Rab11 involved in early and recycling endosomal trafficking. Immunofluorescence staining of megalin showed reduced surface labelling in ARF6 dominant negative (ARF6-DN) cells. Intracellular Alexa Fluor 546-conjugated MT-1 uptake was reduced in ARF6-DN cells and CdMT-1 (14.8 μM for 24 h) toxicity was significantly attenuated from 27.3 ± 3.9% in ARF6-WT to 11.1 ± 4.0% in ARF6-DN cells (n = 6, P < 0.02). Moreover, reduced Alexa Fluor 546-conjugated Tf uptake was observed in ARF-DN cells (75.0 ± 4.6% versus 3.9 ± 3.9% of ARF6-WT cells, n = 3, P < 0.01) and/or remained near the PM (89.3 ± 5. 6% versus 45.2 ± 14.3% of ARF6-WT cells, n = 3, P < 0.05). In conclusion, the data support roles for ARF6 in receptor-mediated endocytosis and trafficking of MT-1/Tf to endosomes/lysosomes and CdMT-1 toxicity of PT cells

  19. Cadmium accumulation and depuration in Anodonta anatina exposed to cadmium chloride or cadmium-EDTA complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holwerda, D.A.; Hemelraad, J.; Veenhof, P.R.; Zandee, D.I.

    1988-03-01

    The authors have previously reported on the uptake and distribution of cadmium in unionids, experimentally exposed to cadmium chloride. The purpose of the present investigation was to study the effect of metal chelation on cadmium kinetics, including metal elimination in the post-exposure phase. Generally, chelation of ionic metal by natural substances like humic acids or by synthetic compounds like EDTA decreases its environmental toxicity through a diminished rate of uptake, as compared with the free ion. The influences of metal chelation on bioconcentration and on toxicity do not always run parallel. To their knowledge, there are no data on the effect of chelation on metal kinetics in freshwater clams. Data on rates of cadmium elimination from aquatic invertebrates are highly divergent, but Cd excretion is invariably found to be smaller than uptake.

  20. Aluminium-based Coatings for Cadmium Replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Cardilli , Emanuele

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium electroplating is widely used in the aerospace industry for the corrosion protection of high strength steels. Cadmium is also used as compatible coating to reduce the galvanic corrosion generated in the assembly of components manufactured with different materials. However, environmental and safety concerns over the high toxicity of cadmium has led to the investigation of suitable replacements. Aluminium coatings are promising coatings for the replacement of electropl...

  1. Protective role of ceftriaxone plus sulbactam with VRP1034 on oxidative stress, hematological and enzymatic parameters in cadmium toxicity induced rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Vivek Kumar; Bhatanagar, Anuj; Chaudhary, Manu

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the protective role of ceftriaxone plus sulbactam with VRP1034 (Elores) on hematological, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymatic activities and Cd levels in the blood and tissues of cadmium exposed rats. Twenty-four male rats were divided into three groups of eight rats each. The control group received distilled water whereas group II received CdCl2 (1.5 mg/4 ml/body weight) through gastric gavage for 21 days. Group III received CdCl2 and was treated with ceftriaxone plus sulbactam with VRP1034 for 21 days. The hematological, biochemical, lipid peroxidation levels and enzymatic parameters were measured in plasma and tissues (brain, liver and kidney) of all groups. The Cd, Zn and Fe levels were measured in blood and tissues of all groups. Our findings showed significantly decreased cadmium (pceftriaxone plus sulbactam with VRP1034 treated group as compared to cadmium exposed group. Delta aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALAD) activity was significantly (pceftriaxone plus sulbactam with VRP1034 treated group as compared with cadmium exposed group. The levels of hepatic and renal parameters were significantly (pceftriaxone plus sulbactam with VRP1034 treated group as compared to cadmium exposed group. These findings indicate that ceftriaxone plus sulbactam with VRP1034 acts as a potent free radical scavenger and exhibits metal chelating properties that reduce free radical mediated tissue injury and prevent dysfunction of hepatic and renal organs during metal intoxication. PMID:23554563

  2. Research on the Toxic Effects of Cadmium and Chromium in Different Organisms%镉和铬对不同生物的毒性效应的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    修垒; 李专; 安平平

    2014-01-01

    This research selects three different trophic levels of organisms as experimental subjects (luminescent bacteria, Daphnia magna and zebrafish), cadmium and chromium as a pol utant, detect their acute toxicity on various organisms, the results shows that both luminescent bacteria, Daphnia magna or zebrafish, cadmium toxicity is greater than chrome, semilethal concentrations vary widely. This Il ustrates that the sensitivities of different trophic level organisms is not the same, Al biological play an important role on both the stability and function of the entire water ecosystems.%选取发光细菌、大型溞和斑马鱼这三种不同营养层级的生物作为实验对象,用镉和铬作为污染物,测定镉和铬对各种生物的急性毒性影响,结果显示,无论是发光菌、大型溞还是斑马鱼,镉的毒性都大于铬,但是其半致死浓度差异很大。说明不同营养级生物具有不一样的敏感性,对整个水生态系统的功能以及稳定起着重要作用的是每一个营养级上的生物。

  3. Cross-Sector Review of Drivers and Available 3Rs Approaches for Acute Systemic Toxicity Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Seidle, Troy; Robinson, Sally; Holmes, Tom; Creton, Stuart; Prieto, Pilar; Scheel, Julia; Chlebus, Magda

    2010-01-01

    Acute systemic toxicity studies are carried out in many sectors in which synthetic chemicals are manufactured or used and are among the most criticized of all toxicology tests on both scientific and ethical grounds. A review of the drivers for acute toxicity testing within the pharmaceutical industry led to a paradigm shift whereby in vivo acute toxicity data are no longer routinely required in advance of human clinical trials. Based on this experience, the following review was undertaken to ...

  4. Bioaccumulation and toxic effects of cadmium on feeding and growth of an Indian pond snail Lymnaea luteola L. under laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of dissolved cadmium exposure on the survival, feeding, growth rates and accumulation in Indian pond snails Lymnaea luteola L. were examined for a period of 7 weeks. The concentrations of cadmium tested were 0, 10, 32, 100, 320, 560, and 1000 μg l-1. Cadmium exposure significantly inhibited the feeding and growth rates. At higher Cd concentrations snails refused to consume food offered as plant Marsilia sp. leaves. Cadmium mainly accumulated in soft tissues in a dose-dependent manner. After 4 and 7 weeks of exposure, the no observed effect concentration (NOEC) of Cd was 10 μg l-1 and the lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) was 32 μg l-1. Reduction of growth (decrease in wet weight) was noticed followed by a high mortality in higher Cd concentrations. Significant reduction in food consumption and growth rates was found at 32 μg l-1 and above Cd concentration. A significant relationship between Cd exposure and growth and feeding rates was noticed. The results obtained with these key aquatic organisms in the food chains complement those obtained with other aquatic organisms and gastropod snails. The findings of the present study and those of earlier studies suggested that Indian pond snail L. luteola are useful test organisms for ecotoxicology bioassays.

  5. Bioaccumulation and toxic effects of cadmium on feeding and growth of an Indian pond snail Lymnaea luteola L. under laboratory conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Sangita [Ecotoxicology Laboratory, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, (Formerly: Industrial Toxicology Research Centre), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Post Box No. 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226 001 (India); Khangarot, B.S., E-mail: bkhangarot@hotmail.com [Ecotoxicology Laboratory, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, (Formerly: Industrial Toxicology Research Centre), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Post Box No. 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226 001 (India)

    2010-10-15

    Effects of dissolved cadmium exposure on the survival, feeding, growth rates and accumulation in Indian pond snails Lymnaea luteola L. were examined for a period of 7 weeks. The concentrations of cadmium tested were 0, 10, 32, 100, 320, 560, and 1000 {mu}g l{sup -1}. Cadmium exposure significantly inhibited the feeding and growth rates. At higher Cd concentrations snails refused to consume food offered as plant Marsilia sp. leaves. Cadmium mainly accumulated in soft tissues in a dose-dependent manner. After 4 and 7 weeks of exposure, the no observed effect concentration (NOEC) of Cd was 10 {mu}g l{sup -1} and the lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) was 32 {mu}g l{sup -1}. Reduction of growth (decrease in wet weight) was noticed followed by a high mortality in higher Cd concentrations. Significant reduction in food consumption and growth rates was found at 32 {mu}g l{sup -1} and above Cd concentration. A significant relationship between Cd exposure and growth and feeding rates was noticed. The results obtained with these key aquatic organisms in the food chains complement those obtained with other aquatic organisms and gastropod snails. The findings of the present study and those of earlier studies suggested that Indian pond snail L. luteola are useful test organisms for ecotoxicology bioassays.

  6. Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cadmium stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Luciana Mara Costa; Ribeiro, Frederico Haddad; Neves, Maria Jose [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia], e-mail: luamatu@uol.com.br; Porto, Barbara Abranches Araujo; Amaral, Angela M.; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Ativacao Neutronica], e-mail: menezes@cdtn.br; Rosa, Carlos Augusto [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia], e-mail: carlrosa@icb.ufmg

    2009-07-01

    The intensification of industrial activity has been greatly contributing with the increase of heavy metals in the environment. Among these heavy metals, cadmium becomes a serious pervasive environmental pollutant. The cadmium is a heavy metal with no biological function, very toxic and carcinogenic at low concentrations. The toxicity of cadmium and several other metals can be mainly attributed to the multiplicity of coordination complexes and clusters that they can form. Some aspects of the cellular response to cadmium were extensively investigated in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The primary site of interaction between many toxic metals and microbial cells is the plasma membrane. Plasma-membrane permeabilisation has been reported in a variety of microorganisms following cadmium exposure, and is considered one mechanism of cadmium toxicity in the yeast. In this work, using the yeast strain S. cerevisiae W303-WT, we have investigated the relationships between Cd uptake and release of cellular metal ions (K{sup +} and Na{sup +}) using neutron activation technique. The neutron activation was an easy, rapid and suitable technique for doing these metal determinations on yeast cells; was observed the change in morphology of the strains during the process of Cd accumulation, these alterations were observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) during incorporation of cadmium. (author)

  7. The Nrf2 transcription factor contributes to the induction of alpha-class GST isoenzymes in liver of acute cadmium or manganese intoxicated rats: Comparison with the toxic effect on NAD(P)H:quinone reductase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In rat liver, in addition to their intrinsic transferase activity, alpha-class GSTs have Se-independent glutathione peroxidase activity toward fatty acid hydroperoxides, cumene hydroperoxide and phospholipids hydroperoxides but not toward H2O2. We have previously shown that hepatic GST activity by these isoenzymes is significantly increased 24 h after cadmium or manganese administration (). Here it is reported that Se-independent glutathione peroxidase activity by alpha-class GSTs is also stimulated in the liver of intoxicated rats. The stimulation is associated with a higher level of alpha-class GST proteins, whose induction is blocked by actinomycin D co-administration. The observed Se-independent glutathione peroxidase activity is due to alpha-class GST isoenzymes, as indicated by the studies with diethyldithiocarbamate which, at any concentration, equally inhibits both GST and Se-independent glutathione peroxidase and is an uncompetitive inhibitor of both enzymes. As for liver Se-GSPx, it is not at all affected under these toxic conditions. For comparison, we have evaluated the status of another important antioxidant enzyme, NAD(P)H:quinone reductase, 24 h after cadmium or manganese administration. NQO1 too results strongly stimulated in the liver of the intoxicated rats. In these animals, a higher expression of Nrf2 protein is observed, actively translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. The results with the transcription inhibitor, actinomycin D, and the effects on Nrf2 protein are the first clear indication that acute manganese intoxication, similarly to that of cadmium and other heavy metals, increases both the hepatic level of Nrf2 and its transfer from the cytoplasm to the nucleus where it actively regulates the induction of phase II enzymes

  8. Improvement of cadmium phytoremediation after soil inoculation with a cadmium-resistant Micrococcus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangthong, Chirawee; Setkit, Kunchaya; Prapagdee, Benjaphorn

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium-resistant Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221, a plant growth-promoting bacterium, has stimulatory effects on the root lengths of Zea mays L. seedlings under toxic cadmium conditions compared to uninoculated seedlings. The performance of Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221 on promoting growth and cadmium accumulation in Z. mays L. was investigated in a pot experiment. The results indicated that Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221significantly promoted the root length, shoot length, and dry biomass of Z. mays L. transplanted in both uncontaminated and cadmium-contaminated soils. Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221 significantly increased cadmium accumulation in the roots and shoots of Z. mays L. compared to uninoculated plants. At the beginning of the planting period, cadmium accumulated mainly in the shoots. With a prolonged duration of cultivation, cadmium content increased in the roots. As expected, little cadmium was found in maize grains. Soil cadmium was significantly reduced with time, and the highest percentage of cadmium removal was found in the bacterial-inoculated Z. mays L. after transplantation for 6 weeks. We conclude that Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221 is a potent bioaugmenting agent, facilitating cadmium phytoextraction in Z. mays L. PMID:26336850

  9. Cadmium-induced bone effect is not mediated via low serum 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium is a widespread environmental pollutant, which is associated with increased risk of osteoporosis. It has been proposed that cadmium's toxic effect on bone is exerted via impaired activation of vitamin D, secondary to the kidney effects. To test this, we assessed the association of cadmium-induced bone and kidney effects with serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D); measured by enzyme immunoassay. For the assessment, we selected 85 postmenopausal women, based on low (0.14-0.39 μg/L) or high (0.66-2.1 μg/L) urinary cadmium, within a cross-sectional population-based women's health survey in Southern Sweden. We also measured 25-hydroxy vitamin D, cadmium in blood, bone mineral density and several markers of bone remodeling and kidney effects. Although there were clear differences in both kidney and bone effect markers between women with low and high cadmium exposure, the 1,25(OH)2D concentrations were not significantly different (median, 111 pmol/L (5-95th percentile, 67-170 pmol/L) in low- and 125 pmol/L (66-200 pmol/L) in high-cadmium groups; p=0.08). Also, there was no association between 1,25(OH)2D and markers of bone or kidney effects. It is concluded that the low levels of cadmium exposure present in the studied women, although high enough to be associated with lower bone mineral density and increased bone resorption, were not associated with lower serum concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D. Hence, decreased circulating levels of 1,25(OH)2D are unlikely to be the proposed link between cadmium-induced effects on kidney and bone

  10. Effect of iron upon cadmium-manganese and cadmium-iron interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increase cadmium production has enhanced the potential danger of this toxic metal including its effect upon the metabolism of some essential elements as, for instance, manganese of some essential elements as, for instance, manganese and iron. Relevant data about the cadmium-manganese interaction are rather scanty. Since there are more data of the effect of iron on the metabolism of either of these ions independently. The authors decided to investigate how the presence of iron affected the interaction between cadmium and manganese and how cadmium alone or in combination with the additional iron affected iron transfer and retention in the intestinal wall

  11. Cross sections of proton induced nuclear reactions on natural cadmium leading to the formation of radionuclides of indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross sections of proton induced nuclear reactions on natCd, leading to the formation of 110gIn,111In,113mIn, and 116mlIn for energies up to 14.7 MeV were measured using the stacked-foil irradiation technique and high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. Our experimental data were analyzed and the excitation functions for the studied radionuclides were compared with the previously reported data. Model codes ALICE-IPPE and EMPIRE-II were used for calculating the excitation functions theoretically. Integral yields of the radionuclides 110gIn,111In,113mIn and 116mlIn were also calculated. (orig.)

  12. Cadmium removal by Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Devaleena; Majumder, Arunabha; Misra, Amal K; Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the ability of two genus of duckweed (Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza) to phytoremediate cadmium from aqueous solution. Duckweed was exposed to six different cadmium concentrations, such as, 0.5,1.0,1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 mg/L and the experiment was continued for 22 days. Water samples were collected periodically for estimation of residual cadmium content in aqueous solution. At the end of treatment period plant samples were collected and accumulated cadmium content was measured. Cadmium toxicity was observed through relative growth factor and changes in chlorophyll content Experimental results showed that Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza were capable of removing 42-78% and 52-75% cadmium from media depending upon initial cadmium concentrations. Cadmium was removed following pseudo second order kinetic model Maximum cadmium accumulation in Lemna minor was 4734.56 mg/kg at 2 mg/L initial cadmium concentration and 7711.00 mg/kg in Spirodela polyrhiza at 3 mg/L initial cadmium concentration at the end of treatment period. Conversely in both cases maximum bioconcentration factor obtained at lowest initial cadmium concentrations, i.e., 0.5 mg/L, were 3295.61 and 4752.00 for Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza respectively. The present study revealed that both Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza was potential cadmium accumulator. PMID:24933906

  13. Cadmium and zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium and zinc are naturally occurring trace metals that are often considered together because of their close geochemical association and similarities in chemical reactivity. The loss of two electrons from an atom of Cd or Zn imparts to each an electron configuration with completely filled d orbitals; this results in a highly stable 2/sup +/ oxidation state. But Cd and Zn differ greatly in their significance to biological systems. Whereas Zn is an essential nutrient for plants, animals, and humans, Cd is best known for its toxicity to plants and as a causative agent of several disease syndromes in animals and humans

  14. Protective role of ceftriaxone plus sulbactam with VRP1034 on oxidative stress, hematological and enzymatic parameters in cadmium toxicity induced rat model

    OpenAIRE

    Dwivedi, Vivek Kumar; Bhatanagar, Anuj; Chaudhary, Manu

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the protective role of ceftriaxone plus sulbactam with VRP1034 (Elores) on hematological, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymatic activities and Cd levels in the blood and tissues of cadmium exposed rats. Twenty-four male rats were divided into three groups of eight rats each. The control group received distilled water whereas group II received CdCl2 (1.5 mg/4 ml/body weight) through gastric gavage for 21 days. Group III received CdCl2 and was treated with ceftriaxone plus s...

  15. Reviews of the environmental effects of pollutants: IV. Cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammons, A.S.; Huff, J.E.; Braunstein, H.M.; Drury, J.S.; Shriner, C.R.; Lewis, E.B.; Whitfield, B.L.; Towill, L.E.

    1978-06-01

    This report is a comprehensive, multidisciplinary review of the health and environmental effects of cadmium and specific cadmium derivatives. More than 500 references are cited. The cadmium body burden in animals and humans results mainly from the diet. In the United States, the normal intake of cadmium for adult humans is estimated at about 50 ..mu..g per day. Tobacco smoke is a significant additional source of cadmium exposure. The kidneys and liver together contain about 50% of the total cadmium body burden. Acute cadmium poisoning is primarily an occupational problem, generally from inhalation of cadmium fumes or dusts. In the general population, incidents of acute poisoning by inhaled or ingested cadmium or its compounds are relatively rare. The kidney is the primary target organ for toxicity from prolonged low-level exposure to cadmium. No causal relationship has been established between cadmium exposure and human cancer, although a possible link between cadmium and prostate cancer has been indicated. Cadmium has been shown to be teratogenic in rats, hamsters, and mice, but no such effects have been proven in humans. Cadmium has been reported to increase the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells and in human peripheral leukocytes. The major concern about environmental cadmium is the potential effects on the general population. There is no substantial evidence of hazard from current levels of cadmium in air, water, or food. However, because cadmium is a cumulative poison and because present intake provides a relatively small safety margin, there are adequate reasons for concern over possible future increases in background levels.

  16. Reviews of the environmental effects of pollutants: IV. Cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a comprehensive, multidisciplinary review of the health and environmental effects of cadmium and specific cadmium derivatives. More than 500 references are cited. The cadmium body burden in animals and humans results mainly from the diet. In the United States, the normal intake of cadmium for adult humans is estimated at about 50 μg per day. Tobacco smoke is a significant additional source of cadmium exposure. The kidneys and liver together contain about 50% of the total cadmium body burden. Acute cadmium poisoning is primarily an occupational problem, generally from inhalation of cadmium fumes or dusts. In the general population, incidents of acute poisoning by inhaled or ingested cadmium or its compounds are relatively rare. The kidney is the primary target organ for toxicity from prolonged low-level exposure to cadmium. No causal relationship has been established between cadmium exposure and human cancer, although a possible link between cadmium and prostate cancer has been indicated. Cadmium has been shown to be teratogenic in rats, hamsters, and mice, but no such effects have been proven in humans. Cadmium has been reported to increase the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells and in human peripheral leukocytes. The major concern about environmental cadmium is the potential effects on the general population. There is no substantial evidence of hazard from current levels of cadmium in air, water, or food. However, because cadmium is a cumulative poison and because present intake provides a relatively small safety margin, there are adequate reasons for concern over possible future increases in background levels

  17. Cadmium poisoning. Knowledge of the risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This data sheet provides an up-to-date summary of information on cadmium poisoning. The following points are examined: - the problem of increasing pollution of soil, water and the food chain; - physical and chemical properties, manufacture, industrial applications; - the toxic action of cadmium and its derivatives; - methods and apparatus for taking and analysis samples from the atmosphere and from body fluids; - existing French regulations; - technical control and medical surveillance

  18. Acute toxicity of copper and cadmium for piauçu, Leporinus macrocephalus, and curimatã, Prochilodus vimboides - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i3.5069 Acute toxicity of copper and cadmium for piauçu, Leporinus macrocephalus, and curimatã, Prochilodus vimboides - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i3.5069

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Loureiro Fernandes

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Ninety-six-hour static bioassays were conducted in the laboratory to determine lethal concentrations (96-h LC50 of copper and cadmium for curimatã (Prochilodus vimboides and piauçu (Leporinus macrocephalus. The 96-h LC50 of copper were 0.047 and 0.090 mg L-1, and of cadmium 3.16 and 7.42 mg L-1 for curimatã and piauçu, respectively. Curimatã is a preferred indigenous species for toxicological studies in the Doce River basin due to its availability in the hatcheries of the region and high sensitivity to metals.Ninety-six-hour static bioassays were conducted in the laboratory to determine lethal concentrations (96-h LC50 of copper and cadmium for curimatã (Prochilodus vimboides and piauçu (Leporinus macrocephalus. The 96-h LC50 of copper were 0.047 and 0.090 mg L-1, and of cadmium 3.16 and 7.42 mg L-1 for curimatã and piauçu, respectively. Curimatã is a preferred indigenous species for toxicological studies in the Doce River basin due to its availability in the hatcheries of the region and high sensitivity to metals.

  19. Evaluation of aluminium–based coatings for cadmium replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Chalaftris, George

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium electroplating is widely used in the aerospace industry for the corrosion protection of aircraft components like fasteners manufactured from non corrosion resisting high strength steels. However, environmental and safety concerns over the high toxicity of cadmium and its compounds have led to the investigation of suitable replacements. Alternatives to cadmium should offer effective corrosion protection and have no detrimental effects on the steel substrate. Hydrogen is known to be abs...

  20. Modulation of protein fermentation does not affect fecal water toxicity: a randomized cross-over study in healthy subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Windey

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Protein fermentation results in production of metabolites such as ammonia, amines and indolic, phenolic and sulfur-containing compounds. In vitro studies suggest that these metabolites might be toxic. However, human and animal studies do not consistently support these findings. We modified protein fermentation in healthy subjects to assess the effects on colonic metabolism and parameters of gut health, and to identify metabolites associated with toxicity. DESIGN: After a 2-week run-in period with normal protein intake (NP, 20 healthy subjects followed an isocaloric high protein (HP and low protein (LP diet for 2 weeks in a cross-over design. Protein fermentation was estimated from urinary p-cresol excretion. Fecal metabolite profiles were analyzed using GC-MS and compared using cluster analysis. DGGE was used to analyze microbiota composition. Fecal water genotoxicity and cytotoxicity were determined using the Comet assay and the WST-1-assay, respectively, and were related to the metabolite profiles. RESULTS: Dietary protein intake was significantly higher during the HP diet compared to the NP and LP diet. Urinary p-cresol excretion correlated positively with protein intake. Fecal water cytotoxicity correlated negatively with protein fermentation, while fecal water genotoxicity was not correlated with protein fermentation. Heptanal, 3-methyl-2-butanone, dimethyl disulfide and 2-propenyl ester of acetic acid are associated with genotoxicity and indole, 1-octanol, heptanal, 2,4-dithiapentane, allyl-isothiocyanate, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl-benzene, propionic acid, octanoic acid, nonanoic acid and decanoic acid with cytotoxicity. CONCLUSION: This study does not support a role of protein fermentation in gut toxicity. The identified metabolites can provide new insight into colonic health. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrial.gov NCT01280513.

  1. Oxidation-mediated DNA cross-linking contributes to the toxicity of 6-thioguanine in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brem, Reto; Karran, Peter

    2012-09-15

    The thiopurines azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine have been extensively prescribed as immunosuppressant and anticancer agents for several decades. A third member of the thiopurine family, 6-thioguanine (6-TG), has been used less widely. Although known to be partly dependent on DNA mismatch repair (MMR), the cytotoxicity of 6-TG remains incompletely understood. Here, we describe a novel MMR-independent pathway of 6-TG toxicity. Cell killing depended on two properties of 6-TG: its incorporation into DNA and its ability to act as a source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS targeted DNA 6-TG to generate potentially lethal replication-arresting DNA lesions including interstrand cross-links. These triggered processing by the Fanconi anemia and homologous recombination DNA repair pathways. Allopurinol protected against 6-TG toxicity by acting as a ROS scavenger and preventing DNA damage. Together, our findings provide mechanistic evidence to support the proposed use of thiopurines to treat HR-defective tumors and for the coadministration of 6-TG and allopurinol as an immunomodulation strategy in inflammatory disorders. PMID:22822082

  2. A comparative investigation of DNA strand breaks, sister chromatid exchanges and K-ras gene mutations induced by cadmium salts in cultured human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal of continuing occupational and environmental concern with a wide variety of adverse effects. Several studies have shown that cadmium produces DNA strand breaks, DNA-protein cross-links, oxidative DNA damage, chromosomal aberrations, dysregulation of gene expression resulting in enhanced proliferation, depressed apoptosis and/or altered DNA repair. This study was undertaken to investigate the ability of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) and cadmium sulphate (CdSO4) to induce point mutations in codon 12 of the K-ras protooncogene assessed by polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphisms (PCR-SSCP) and RFLP-enriched PCR methods. Also their genotoxic effects were analyzed by the comet assay and sister chromatid exchanges test. The human lung fibroblast cell line MRC-5 was used for the experiments. Sister chromatid exchanges assay (SCEs) frequencies were significantly increased in cells exposed to cadmium salts in relation to controls (p < 0.001). Despite the slow increment observed in the three comet parameters considered when cells were treated with cadmium chloride, significant differences between groups were only found in the variable comet moment (CM) (p < 0.005). On the other hand, when cells were exposed to cadmium sulphate, the Kruskal-Wallis test showed highly significant differences between groups for migration, tail moment and comet moment parameters (p < 0.001). Nevertheless, a null or weak point mutation induction in K-ras protooncogene was detected using polymerase chain reaction-low ionic strength-single strand conformation polymorphisms (PCR-LIS-SSCP) and RFLP-enriched PCR methods when cells were treated with cadmium salts. Thus, inorganic cadmium produces genotoxicity in human lung fibroblast MRC-5 cells, in the absence of significant point mutation of the K-ras gene

  3. Exposure dose response relationships of the freshwater bivalve Hyridella australis to cadmium spiked sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marasinghe Wadige, Chamani P.M., E-mail: chamani.marasinghe.wadige@canberra.edu.au; Maher, William A.; Taylor, Anne M.; Krikowa, Frank

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • The exposure–dose–response approach was used to assess cadmium exposure and toxicity. • Accumulated cadmium in H. australis reflected the sediment cadmium exposure. • Spill over of cadmium into the biologically active pool was observed. • Increased cadmium resulted in measurable biological effects. • H. australis has the potential to be a cadmium biomonitor in freshwater environments. - Abstract: To understand how benthic biota may respond to the additive or antagonistic effects of metal mixtures in the environment it is first necessary to examine their responses to the individual metals. In this context, laboratory controlled single metal-spiked sediment toxicity tests are useful to assess this. The exposure–dose–response relationships of Hyridella australis to cadmium-spiked sediments were, therefore, investigated in laboratory microcosms. H. australis was exposed to individual cadmium spiked sediments (<0.05 (control), 4 ± 0.3 (low) and 15 ± 1 (high) μg/g dry mass) for 28 days. Dose was measured as cadmium accumulation in whole soft body and individual tissues at weekly intervals over the exposure period. Dose was further examined as sub-cellular localisation of cadmium in hepatopancreas tissues. The biological responses in terms of enzymatic and cellular biomarkers were measured in hepatopancreas tissues at day 28. H. australis accumulated cadmium from spiked sediments with an 8-fold (low exposure organisms) and 16-fold (high exposure organisms) increase at day 28 compared to control organisms. The accumulated tissue cadmium concentrations reflected the sediment cadmium exposure at day 28. Cadmium accumulation in high exposure organisms was inversely related to the tissue calcium concentrations. Gills of H. australis showed significantly higher cadmium accumulation than the other tissues. Accumulated cadmium in biologically active and biologically detoxified metal pools was not significantly different in cadmium exposed

  4. Epigenetic Effects of Cadmium [Abstract and Poster 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have reviewed the literature on in vitro and in vivo experiments as well as human studies on cadmium to understand the epigenetic mechanisms involved in cadmium- induced toxicity and carcinogenicity. This presentation will identify gaps in our current understanding and suggest...

  5. Molecular and cellular mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium is a heavy metal, which is widely used in industry, affecting human health through occupational and environmental exposure. In mammals, it exerts multiple toxic effects and has been classified as a human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Cadmium affects cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and other cellular activities. Cd2+ does not catalyze Fenton-type reactions because it does not accept or donate electrons under physiological conditions, and it is only weakly genotoxic. Hence, indirect mechanisms are implicated in the carcinogenicity of cadmium. In this review multiple mechanisms are discussed, such as modulation of gene expression and signal transduction, interference with enzymes of the cellular antioxidant system and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inhibition of DNA repair and DNA methylation, role in apoptosis and disruption of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion. Cadmium affects both gene transcription and translation. The major mechanisms of gene induction by cadmium known so far are modulation of cellular signal transduction pathways by enhancement of protein phosphorylation and activation of transcription and translation factors. Cadmium interferes with antioxidant defense mechanisms and stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species, which may act as signaling molecules in the induction of gene expression and apoptosis. The inhibition of DNA repair processes by cadmium represents a mechanism by which cadmium enhances the genotoxicity of other agents and may contribute to the tumor initiation by this metal. The disruption of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion by cadmium probably further stimulates the development of tumors. It becomes clear that there exist multiple mechanisms which contribute to the carcinogenicity of cadmium, although the relative weights of these contributions are difficult to estimate

  6. Cadmium blood concentrations in relation to nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcovicová-Kudládková, Marica; Ursínyová, Monika; Masánová, Vlasta; Béderová, Alzbeta; Valachovicová, Martina

    2006-09-01

    Cadmium is a toxic element ubiquitous in the environment, which damages biological systems in various ways. The major source of cadmium exposure is food. High cadmium content in the soil leads to high cadmium concentrations in certain plants such as grains (above all surface layers and germs), oil or non-oil seeds, fruit and vegetables. These food commodities are the crucial components of a vegetarian nutrition. Blood cadmium concentrations were measured in two non-smoking population groups: the vegetarian group (n = 80) and the non-vegetarian (control) group of general population on traditional mixed diet (n = 84). The significantly higher blood cadmium content (1.78 +/- 0.22 vs. 0.45 +/- 0.04 microg/l) was measured in vegetarian group. Healthy risk values > 5 microg/l were found in 6 vegetarians vs. no non-vegetarian. The highest cadmium concentration (3.15 +/- 0.77 microg/l) was measured in vegan subgroup (plant food only, n = 10) and that value decreased with increasing animal food consumption (1.75 +/- 0.36 microg/l, lactovegetarian and lactoovovegetarian subgroup/added dairy products and eggs, n = 41/, 1.34 +/- 0.21 microg/I, semivegetarian subgroup /as a previous subgroup and added white meat, n = 291). Risk vegetarians vs. non-risk vegetarians consume significantly higher amounts of whole grain products, grain sprouts and oil seeds. Blood cadmium content is directly influenced by age (r = 0.32, p vegetarianism (r = 0.5, p Vegetarians have significantly higher plasma concentrations of natural antioxidants. The sufficient antioxidative protection against cadmium induced free radical formation in vegetarians may inhibit the harmful effects of greater cadmium intake from plant food. PMID:17152224

  7. The removal of toxic metals from liquid effluents by ion exchange resins. Part II: cadmium(II/ sulphate/Lewatit TP260

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alguacil, F. J.

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of cadmium (II, from aqueous sulphate solutions, on Lewatit TP260 resin has been investigated in batch equilibrium experiments. The influence of pH and temperature on metal adsorption capacity have also been examined. The kinetic performance of the resin has been assesed and the results have been correlated by the pore diffusion model. The resin has been used in mini-columns to study its performance under dynamics conditions. The desorption of metal ion is achieved using sulphuric acid (0.25M and 0.5M.

    Se estudia la adsorción de cadmio(II, de disoluciones en medio sulfato, sobre la resina Lewatit TP260. La adsorción del metal se ha investigado en función del pH, la temperatura y el tiempo de contacto con la resina. Los estudios cinéticos permiten correlacionar el proceso de intercambio iónico con el modelo de difusión en poro. Se ha empleado el sistema en mini columnas para evaluar el comportamiento de la resina bajo condiciones dinámicas. La desorción del metal se lleva a cabo con disoluciones de ácido sulfúrico (0,25M y 0,5M.

  8. A Review of Diabetes Mellitus and Exposure to the Environmental 
Toxicant Cadmium with an Emphasis on Likely Mechanisms of Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Joshua; Ackerman, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing interest in how exposure to environmental substances can contribute to the onset of Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Impaired insulin release is a hallmark of type I diabetes mellitus and is involved in the progression of T2DM. Both epidemiological and experimental studies show that exposure to the environmental pollutant cadmium (Cd), is associated with hyperglycemia, T2DM and reduced serum insulin. The goal of this review is to examine likely mechanisms of action of Cd-induced dysglycemia based on experimental studies in the literature and from the most recent findings in the Edwards lab. The primary focus of this review will examine how Cd may cause islet dysfunction and subsequent impaired insulin release. Recent findings in the Edwards lab indicate that Cd causes time-dependent and statistically significant changes in fasting leptin, Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide (GIP) and pancreas polypeptide hormone levels in a subchronic animal model of Cd-induced hyperglycemia. This review summarizes the most likely cellular mechanisms by which the ubiquitous environmental contaminant Cd disrupts glucose homeostasis. While individual cellular effects of Cd are reviewed it is likely that no one single mechanism is involved, rather multiple mechanisms exist and work synergistically resulting in islet dysfunction and ultimately dysglycemia. PMID:26264451

  9. Effect of silicon on reducing cadmium toxicity in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. cv. Claudio W.) grown in a soil with aged contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Metal stress alleviation in wheat supplemented with amorphous Si (ASi). ► Pot experiment with a metal-contaminated soil and increased doses of ASi. ► Effects are observed both at the soil and the plant levels. ► ASi increases plant biomass and Cd content in roots and decreases Cd in shoots. ► ASi decreases soil-available Cd but is limiting for Si uptake. - Abstract: Agricultural soil contamination and subsequently crops still require alternative solutions to reduce associated environmental risks. The effects of silica application on alleviating cadmium (Cd) phytotoxicity in wheat plants were investigated in a 71-day pot experiment conducted with a historically contaminated agricultural soil. We used amorphous silica (ASi) that had been extracted from a diatomite mine for Si distribution at 0, 1, 10 and 15 ton ASi ha−1. ASi applications increased plant biomass and plant Si concentrations, reduced the available Cd in the soil and the Cd translocation to shoots, while Cd was more efficiently sequestrated in roots. But ASi is limiting for Si uptake by plants. We conclude that significant plant-available Si in soil contributes to decreased Cd concentrations in wheat shoots and could be implemented in a general scheme aiming at controlling Cd concentrations in wheat.

  10. Nuclear toxicology file: the cadmium: mechanisms to elucidate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spread in the environment by the human activities, the cadmium is a toxic and mutagen metal and its mechanisms of toxicity are still badly understood. We review here the molecular mechanisms of the transport, the toxicity and the detoxication of this metal by relying us on the cellular model of baker's yeast. (N.C.)

  11. Molecular mechanisms of the epithelial transport of toxic metal ions, particularly mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic, zinc and copper. Progress report, January 1, 1980-December 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserman, R H

    1980-01-01

    Investigations were continued to elucidate the mode of transepithelial transport of toxic metal ions across the gastrointestinal tract, as well as their interactions with biological processes and other metal ions. All experimental details that are either published, submitted for publication or in press during this report period are included in the Appendix. Primary attention for this report has been given to the intestinal absorption of lead and its interaction with other biological moieties.

  12. Molecular mechanisms of the epithelial transport of toxic metal ions, particularly mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic, zinc and copper. Progress report, January 1, 1980-December 31, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations were continued to elucidate the mode of transepithelial transport of toxic metal ions across the gastrointestinal tract, as well as their interactions with biological processes and other metal ions. All experimental details that are either published, submitted for publication or in press during this report period are included in the Appendix. Primary attention for this report has been given to the intestinal absorption of lead and its interaction with other biological moieties

  13. Surfactant Mediated Cadmium Determination with Dithizone in Aqueous Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Ismael, Fouad Jawad

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Cadmium is a toxic and hazardous trace metal that has become a serious environmental pollutant since industrialization and intensive farming began in late 19th century. Although there are many established wet-chemical and instrumental methods for qualitative and quantitative determination of cadmium, most involve the formation of the Cd-dithizone complex in the presence of the highly toxic potassium cyanide which is then extracted into carcinogenic chlorinated organic solvents such ...

  14. Associations between Urinary Excretion of Cadmium and Renal Biomarkers in Nonsmoking Females: A Cross-Sectional Study in Rural Areas of South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-rui Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the relationship between urinary excretion of cadmium (U-Cd and biomarkers of renal dysfunction. Methods: One hundred eighty five non-smoking female farmers (aged from 44 to 71 years were recruited from two rural areas with different cadmium levels of exposure in southern China. Morning spot urine samples were collected for detecting U-Cd, urinary creatinine (U-cre, β2-microglobulin (β2-MG, α1-microglobulin (α1-MG, metallothionein (MT, retinol binding protein (RBP, albumin (AB, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1. Spearman’s rank correlation was carried out to assess pairwise bivariate associations between continuous variables. Three different models of multiple linear regression (the cre-corrected, un-corrected and cre-adjusted model were used to model the dose-response relationships between U-Cd and nine urine markers. Results: Spearman’s rank correlation showed that NAG, ALP, RBP, β2-MG and MT were significantly associated with U-Cd for both cre-corrected and observed data. Generally, NAG correlated best with U-Cd among the nine biomarkers studied, followed by ALP and MT. In the un-corrected model and cre-adjusted model, the regression coefficients and R2 of nine biomarkers were larger than the corresponding values in the cre-corrected model, indicating that the use of observed data was better for investigating the relationship between biomarkers and U-Cd than cre-corrected data. Conclusions: Our results suggest that NAG, MT and ALP in urine were better biomarkers for long-term environmental cadmium exposure assessment among the nine biomarkers studied. Further, data without normalization with creatinine show better relationships between cadmium exposure and renal dysfunction.

  15. Phytoremediation of cadmium and nickel by Spirodela polyrhiza

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy metal pollution in surface and groundwater has considerably increased in the last few years. It is essential to have an effective removal mechanism of these toxic metals. Current research includes the need to develop environment friendly and cost effective technologies for removing heavy metals from water. In several studies cadmium and nickel have been considerably removed using phytoremediation. The removal efficiency of cadmium and nickel by Spirodela polyrhiza, common duckweed has been examined in the present study for 3 different concentrations of cadmium (1, 2 and 3 mg/L) and nickel (4, 5 and 6 mg/L). Two sets of experiments for cadmium and nickel were conducted separately. Effect of metal toxicity on Spirodela polyrhiza was evaluated in terms of relative growth factor and cadmium was found to be more toxic than nickel. Under experimental condition BCF value for cadmium removal was more than >1000 in all the 3 concentrations of cadmium. But the BCF value was found to be more than > 1000 only when input nickel concentration was 4 mg/L during phytoremediation process. Experimental results suggest that Spirodela polyrhiza has the potential of accumulating cadmium and nickel from aqueous solution at lower metal concentration. (author)

  16. Association of Environmental Cadmium Exposure with Pediatric Dental Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Manish; Weuve, Jennifer Lynn; Schwartz, Joel David; Wright, Robert O.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure results in severe dental caries, limited epidemiologic data are available on this issue. Objectives: We aimed to examine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and dental caries in children 6–12 years of age. Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional data, including urine cadmium concentrations and counts of decayed or filled tooth surfaces, from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We ...

  17. Cadmium affects retinogenesis during zebrafish embryonic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocular malformations are commonly observed in embryos of aquatic species after exposure to toxicants. Using zebrafish embryos as the model organism, we showed that cadmium exposure from sphere stage (4 hpf) to end of segmentation stage (24 hpf) induced microphthalmia in cadmium-treated embryos. Embryos with eye defects were then assessed for visual abilities. Cadmium-exposed embryos were behaviorally blind, showing hyperpigmentation and loss of camouflage response to light. We investigated the cellular basis of the formation of the small eyes phenotype and the induction of blindness by studying retina development and retinotectal projections. Retinal progenitors were found in cadmium-treated embryos albeit in smaller numbers. The number of retinal ganglion cells (RGC), the first class of retinal cells to differentiate during retinogenesis, was reduced, while photoreceptor cells, the last batch of retinal neurons to differentiate, were absent. Cadmium also affected the propagation of neurons in neurogenic waves. The neurons remained in the ventronasal area and failed to spread across the retina. Drastically reduced RGC axons and disrupted optic stalk showed that the optic nerves did not extend from the retina beyond the chiasm into the tectum. Our data suggested that impairment in neuronal differentiation of the retina, disruption in RGC axon formation and absence of cone photoreceptors were the causes of microphthalmia and visual impairment in cadmium-treated embryos

  18. Comparative investigations of sodium arsenite, arsenic trioxide and cadmium sulphate in combination with gamma-radiation on apoptosis, micronuclei induction and DNA damage in a human lymphoblastoid cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the field of radiation protection the combined exposure to radiation and other toxic agents is recognised as an important research area. To elucidate the basic mechanisms of simultaneous exposure, the interaction of the carcinogens and environmental toxicants cadmium and two arsenic compounds, arsenite and arsenic trioxide, in combination with gamma-radiation in human lymphoblastoid cells (TK6) were investigated. Gamma-radiation induced significant genotoxic effects such as micronuclei formation, DNA damage and apoptosis, whereas arsenic and cadmium had no significant effect on these indicators of cellular damage at non-toxic concentrations. However, in combination with gamma-radiation arsenic trioxide induced a more than additive apoptotic rate compared to the sum of the single effects. Here, the level of apoptotic cells was increased, in a dose-dependent way, up to two-fold compared to the irradiated control cells. Arsenite did not induce a significant additive effect at any of the concentrations or radiation doses tested. On the other hand, arsenic trioxide was less effective than arsenite in the induction of DNA protein cross-links. These data indicate that the two arsenic compounds interact through different pathways in the cell. Cadmium sulphate, like arsenite, had no significant effect on apoptosis in combination with gamma-radiation at low concentrations and, at high concentrations, even reduced the radiation-induced apoptosis. An additive effect on micronuclei induction was observed with 1 μM cadmium sulphate with an increase of up to 80% compared to the irradiated control cells. Toxic concentrations of cadmium and arsenic trioxide seemed to reduce micronuclei induction. The results presented here indicate that relatively low concentrations of arsenic and cadmium, close to those occurring in nature, may interfere with radiation effects. Differences in action of the two arsenic compounds were identified

  19. Cadmium exposure induces hematuria in Korean adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Toxic heavy metals have adverse effects on human health. However, the risk of hematuria caused by heavy metal exposure has not been evaluated. Methods: Data from 4701 Korean adults were obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008–2010). Blood levels of the toxic heavy metals cadmium, lead, and mercury were measured. Hematuria was defined as a result of ≥+1 on a urine dipstick test. The odds ratios (ORs) for hematuria were measured according to the blood heavy metal levels after adjusting for multiple variables. Results: Individuals with blood cadmium levels in the 3rd and 4th quartiles had a greater OR for hematuria than those in the 1st quartile group: 3rd quartile, 1.35 (1.019–1.777; P=0.037); 4th quartile, 1.52 (1.140–2.017; P=0.004). When blood cadmium was considered as a log-transformed continuous variable, the correlation between blood cadmium and hematuria was significant: OR, 1.97 (1.224–3.160; Ptrend=0.005). In contrast, no significant correlations between hematuria and blood lead or mercury were found in the multivariate analyses. Discussion: The present study shows that high cadmium exposure is associated with a risk of hematuria. -- Highlights: • A high level of blood cadmium is associated with a high risk of hematuria. • This correlation is independent of several confounding factors. • Blood levels of lead and mercury are not associated with risk of hematuria. • This is the first study on the correlation between cadmium exposure and hematuria risk

  20. Cadmium exposure induces hematuria in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seung Seok [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myounghee, E-mail: dkkim73@gmail.com [Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Eulji University, Gyeonggi-do 461-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su Mi [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Pyo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sejoong [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Kwon Wook [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chun Soo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    Introduction: Toxic heavy metals have adverse effects on human health. However, the risk of hematuria caused by heavy metal exposure has not been evaluated. Methods: Data from 4701 Korean adults were obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008–2010). Blood levels of the toxic heavy metals cadmium, lead, and mercury were measured. Hematuria was defined as a result of ≥+1 on a urine dipstick test. The odds ratios (ORs) for hematuria were measured according to the blood heavy metal levels after adjusting for multiple variables. Results: Individuals with blood cadmium levels in the 3rd and 4th quartiles had a greater OR for hematuria than those in the 1st quartile group: 3rd quartile, 1.35 (1.019–1.777; P=0.037); 4th quartile, 1.52 (1.140–2.017; P=0.004). When blood cadmium was considered as a log-transformed continuous variable, the correlation between blood cadmium and hematuria was significant: OR, 1.97 (1.224–3.160; P{sub trend}=0.005). In contrast, no significant correlations between hematuria and blood lead or mercury were found in the multivariate analyses. Discussion: The present study shows that high cadmium exposure is associated with a risk of hematuria. -- Highlights: • A high level of blood cadmium is associated with a high risk of hematuria. • This correlation is independent of several confounding factors. • Blood levels of lead and mercury are not associated with risk of hematuria. • This is the first study on the correlation between cadmium exposure and hematuria risk.

  1. Cadmium and zinc reversibly arrest development of Artemia larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagshaw, J.C.; Rafiee, P.; Matthews, C.O.; MacRae, T.H.

    1986-08-01

    Despite the widespread distribution of heavy metals such as cadmium and zinc in the environment and their well-known cytotoxicity and embryotoxicity in mammals, comparatively little is known about their effect on aquatic organisms, particularly invertebrates. Post-gastrula and early larval development of the brine shrimp, Artemia, present some useful advantages for studies of developmental aspects of environmental toxicology. Dormant encysted gastrulae, erroneously called brine shrimp eggs, can be obtained commercially and raised in the laboratory under completely defined conditions. Following a period of post-gastrula development within the cyst, pre-nauplius larvae emerge through a crack in the cyst shell. A few hours later, free-swimming nauplius larvae hatch. Cadmium is acutely toxic to both adults and nauplius larvae of Artemia, but the reported LC50s are as high as 10 mM, depending on larval age. In this paper the authors show that pre-nauplius larvae prior to hatching are much more sensitive to cadmium than are hatched nauplius larvae. At 0.1 ..mu..m, cadmium retards development and hatching of larvae; higher concentrations block hatching almost completely and thus are lethal. However, the larvae arrested at the emergence stage survive for 24 hours or more before succumbing to the effects of cadmium, and during this period the potentially lethal effect is reversible if the larvae are placed in cadmium-free medium. The effects of zinc parallel those of cadmium, although zinc is somewhat less toxic than cadmium at equal concentrations.

  2. Environmental cadmium and lead concentrations in the Bahía Blanca Estuary (Argentina. Potential toxic effects of Cd and Pb on crab larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ferrer

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bahía Blanca Estuary includes a large tidal plain with an area close to 1150 km2. Mud is predominant in its sediments, where a significant population of the crab Chasmagnathus granulata lives during the whole year. Moreover, there are important urban and industrial discharges into this environment. Cd and Pb concentrations were determined in samples of water (for both dissolved and suspended particulate matter and surface sediments (total and 63 µm fractions. Organic matter was analysed in the sediments, while temperature, salinity, pH and dissolved oxygen were measured in the estuarine water. The metal concentrations determined in this study were: 1.47 ± 1.08 µg Cd g–1 and 14.68 ± 4.31 µg Pb g–1 in surface sediments; 2.21 ± 1.33 µg Cd g–1 and 25.70 ± 7.09 µg Pb g–1 in the –1 and below the analytical detection limit of Pb in suspended particulate matter. Furthermore, dissolved Cd and Pb were lower than the norms for marine and estuarine waters (2 µg dm–3 for Cd and 5 µg dm–3 for Pb, E.P.A.. Simultaneously, the effects of Cd and Pb were studied on recently hatched larvae of Ch. granulata, through 96-hour semi-static acute assays. Viability was the criterion assessed in the assays. LC50 (96 h for Cd was 46.43 µg dm–3 (36.92 - 56.34 µg dm–3, whilst that for Pb was 1.00 mg m–3 (0.79 - 1.23 mg dm–3, which demonstrates that Cd is more toxic towards larvae. Finally, both LC50 values determined for Cd and Pb were higher than the corresponding metal concentrations measured in the Bahía Blanca environment.

  3. Cadmium versus copper toxicity: Insights from an integrated dissection of protein synthesis pathway in the digestive glands of mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Cu2+-exposure of mussels results in genotoxicity, without affecting MTs production. •Cd2+-exposure of mussels causes low genotoxicity, but induces MTs production. • Both metals induce oxidative stress in mussels, with Cd being the strongest inducer. • Translation is suppressed by both metals, mainly at the initiation and elongation steps. • MTs abrogate translational defects caused by Cd2+, by trapping the toxic metal. -- Abstract: The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of metal-mediated stress on the protein-synthesis pathway in mussels. To this end, mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) underwent a 15 days exposure to 100 μg/L Cu2+ or Cd2+. Both metals, in particular Cd2+, accumulated in mussel digestive glands and generated a specific status of oxidative-stress. Exposure of mussels to each metal resulted in 40% decrease of the tRNA-aminoacylation efficiency, at the end of exposure. Cu2+ also caused a progressive loss in the capability of 40S-ribosomal subunits to form 48S pre-initiation complex, which reached 34% of the control at the end of exposure. Other steps of translation underwent less pronounced, but measurable damages. Mussels exposed to Cd2+ for 5 days presented a similar pattern of translational dysfunctions in digestive glands, but during the following days of exposure the ribosomal efficiency was gradually restored. Meanwhile, metallothionein levels significantly increased, suggesting that upon Cd2+-mediated stress the protein-synthesizing activity was reorganized both quantitatively and qualitatively. Conclusively, Cd2+ and Cu2+ affect translation at several levels. However, the pattern of translational responses differs, largely depending on the capability of each metal to affect cytotoxic pathways in the tissues, such as induction of antioxidant defense and specific repair mechanisms

  4. Cadmium versus copper toxicity: Insights from an integrated dissection of protein synthesis pathway in the digestive glands of mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pytharopoulou, S.; Kournoutou, G.G. [Laboratory of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Leotsinidis, M. [Laboratory of Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Georgiou, C.D. [Department of Biology, Section of Genetics, Cell Biology and Development, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Kalpaxis, D.L., E-mail: dimkal@med.upatras.gr [Laboratory of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Cu{sup 2+}-exposure of mussels results in genotoxicity, without affecting MTs production. •Cd{sup 2+}-exposure of mussels causes low genotoxicity, but induces MTs production. • Both metals induce oxidative stress in mussels, with Cd being the strongest inducer. • Translation is suppressed by both metals, mainly at the initiation and elongation steps. • MTs abrogate translational defects caused by Cd{sup 2+}, by trapping the toxic metal. -- Abstract: The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of metal-mediated stress on the protein-synthesis pathway in mussels. To this end, mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) underwent a 15 days exposure to 100 μg/L Cu{sup 2+} or Cd{sup 2+}. Both metals, in particular Cd{sup 2+}, accumulated in mussel digestive glands and generated a specific status of oxidative-stress. Exposure of mussels to each metal resulted in 40% decrease of the tRNA-aminoacylation efficiency, at the end of exposure. Cu{sup 2+} also caused a progressive loss in the capability of 40S-ribosomal subunits to form 48S pre-initiation complex, which reached 34% of the control at the end of exposure. Other steps of translation underwent less pronounced, but measurable damages. Mussels exposed to Cd{sup 2+} for 5 days presented a similar pattern of translational dysfunctions in digestive glands, but during the following days of exposure the ribosomal efficiency was gradually restored. Meanwhile, metallothionein levels significantly increased, suggesting that upon Cd{sup 2+}-mediated stress the protein-synthesizing activity was reorganized both quantitatively and qualitatively. Conclusively, Cd{sup 2+} and Cu{sup 2+} affect translation at several levels. However, the pattern of translational responses differs, largely depending on the capability of each metal to affect cytotoxic pathways in the tissues, such as induction of antioxidant defense and specific repair mechanisms.

  5. Cadmium: A toxin and a nutrient for marine phytoplankton. Doctoral thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.G.

    1995-06-01

    Although cadmium is known to be very toxic, it exhibits nutrient-like vertical concentration profiles in the open ocean. Cadmium enhances the growth of the marine diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii, a chlorophyte and some prymnesiophytes at inorganic zinc and cadmium concentrations typical of surface seawater. Detailed studies of T. weissflogii show that cadmium is also regulated like a nutrient over a wide range of external inorganic cadmium (5-500pM) and inorganic zinc (2-16pM) concentrations. The cellular cadmium concentration is maintained at relatively constant levels both through uptake and, at high inorganic cadmium concentrations (5nM), export of cadmium, most likely complexed to the metal-binding polypeptide phytochelatin. Cadmium may play an essential role in carbon uptake under conditions of zinc limitation. The same low level of inorganic cadmium that enhances the growth of T. weissflogii restores the activity of carbonic anhydrase, thought to be the key enzyme limiting growth at low zinc. Cadmium coelutes with a least one of the multiple isoforms of carbonic anhydrase produced by T. weissfiogii and covaries with activity of this isoform. The substitution of cadmium for zinc in carbonic anhydrase links the geochemical cycle of cadmium to those of zinc and carbon.

  6. Metal metabolism and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research focuses on the role of pregnancy and lactation in susceptibility to the toxic effects of cadmium and lead. Responses under investigation include lead-induced changes in pathways for vitamin D and calcium metabolism and cadmium-induced alterations in kidney function and skeletal structure. The second area focuses on the gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium and other actinide elements. Studies currently being conducted in nonhuman primates to develop a procedure to determine GI absorption values of uranium and plutonium that does not require sacrifice of the animal. 6 refs

  7. Effects of cadmium accumulation from suspended sediments and phytoplankton on the Oyster Saccostrea glomerata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Saccostrea glomerata accumulated cadmium from sediments and phytoplankton. • Effects were similar for both pathways. • Antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation and lysosomal destabilisation were affected. • Clear exposure–dose–response relationships were demonstrated. - Abstract: Metals are accumulated by filter feeding organisms via water, ingestion of suspended sediments or food. The uptake pathway can affect metal toxicity. Saccostrea glomerata were exposed to cadmium through cadmium-spiked suspended sediments (19 and 93 μg/g dry mass) and cadmium-enriched phytoplankton (1.6–3 μg/g dry mass) and cadmium uptake and effects measured. Oysters accumulated appreciable amounts of cadmium from both low and high cadmium spiked suspended sediment treatments (5.9 ± 0.4 μg/g and 23 ± 2 μg/g respectively compared to controls 0.97 ± 0.05 μg/g dry mass). Only a small amount of cadmium was accumulated by ingestion of cadmium-enriched phytoplankton (1.9 ± 0.1 μg/g compared to controls 1.2 ± 0.1 μg/g). In the cadmium spiked suspended sediment experiments, most cadmium was desorbed from sediments and cadmium concentrations in S. glomerata were significantly related to dissolved cadmium concentrations (4–21 μg/L) in the overlying water. In the phytoplankton feeding experiment cadmium concentrations in overlying water were <0.01 μg/L. In both exposure experiments, cadmium-exposed oysters showed a significant reduction in total antioxidant capacity and significantly increased lipid peroxidation and percentage of destabilised lysosomes. Destabilised lysosomes in the suspended sediments experiments also resulted from stress of exposure to the suspended sediments. The study demonstrated that exposure to cadmium via suspended sediments and to low concentrations of cadmium through the ingestion of phytoplankton, can cause sublethal stress to S. glomerata

  8. Effects of cadmium accumulation from suspended sediments and phytoplankton on the Oyster Saccostrea glomerata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, Helena A.; Maher, William A., E-mail: bill.maher@canberra.edu.au; Taylor, Anne M.; Krikowa, Frank

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Saccostrea glomerata accumulated cadmium from sediments and phytoplankton. • Effects were similar for both pathways. • Antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation and lysosomal destabilisation were affected. • Clear exposure–dose–response relationships were demonstrated. - Abstract: Metals are accumulated by filter feeding organisms via water, ingestion of suspended sediments or food. The uptake pathway can affect metal toxicity. Saccostrea glomerata were exposed to cadmium through cadmium-spiked suspended sediments (19 and 93 μg/g dry mass) and cadmium-enriched phytoplankton (1.6–3 μg/g dry mass) and cadmium uptake and effects measured. Oysters accumulated appreciable amounts of cadmium from both low and high cadmium spiked suspended sediment treatments (5.9 ± 0.4 μg/g and 23 ± 2 μg/g respectively compared to controls 0.97 ± 0.05 μg/g dry mass). Only a small amount of cadmium was accumulated by ingestion of cadmium-enriched phytoplankton (1.9 ± 0.1 μg/g compared to controls 1.2 ± 0.1 μg/g). In the cadmium spiked suspended sediment experiments, most cadmium was desorbed from sediments and cadmium concentrations in S. glomerata were significantly related to dissolved cadmium concentrations (4–21 μg/L) in the overlying water. In the phytoplankton feeding experiment cadmium concentrations in overlying water were <0.01 μg/L. In both exposure experiments, cadmium-exposed oysters showed a significant reduction in total antioxidant capacity and significantly increased lipid peroxidation and percentage of destabilised lysosomes. Destabilised lysosomes in the suspended sediments experiments also resulted from stress of exposure to the suspended sediments. The study demonstrated that exposure to cadmium via suspended sediments and to low concentrations of cadmium through the ingestion of phytoplankton, can cause sublethal stress to S. glomerata.

  9. Cadmium transport and tolerance in rice: perspectives for reducing grain cadmium accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Uraguchi, Shimpei; Fujiwara, Toru

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal which harms human health. In Japan, a major source of human Cd-intake is rice grains and contamination of paddy soils by Cd and accumulation of Cd in rice grains are the serious agricultural issues. There also exist Cd contamination of rice and its toxicity in several populations in countries including China and Thailand. Understanding the Cd transport mechanisms in rice can be a basis for regulating rice Cd transport and accumulation by molecular engineeri...

  10. Measured Copper Toxicity to Cnesterodon decemmaculatus (Pisces: Poeciliidae and Predicted by Biotic Ligand Model in Pilcomayo River Water: A Step for a Cross-Fish-Species Extrapolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victoria Casares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine copper toxicity (LC50 to a local species (Cnesterodon decemmaculatus in the South American Pilcomayo River water and evaluate a cross-fish-species extrapolation of Biotic Ligand Model, a 96 h acute copper toxicity test was performed. The dissolved copper concentrations tested were 0.05, 0.19, 0.39, 0.61, 0.73, 1.01, and 1.42 mg Cu L-1. The 96 h Cu LC50 calculated was 0.655 mg L-1 (0.823-0.488. 96-h Cu LC50 predicted by BLM for Pimephales promelas was 0.722 mg L-1. Analysis of the inter-seasonal variation of the main water quality parameters indicates that a higher protective effect of calcium, magnesium, sodium, sulphate, and chloride is expected during the dry season. The very high load of total suspended solids in this river might be a key factor in determining copper distribution between solid and solution phases. A cross-fish-species extrapolation of copper BLM is valid within the water quality parameters and experimental conditions of this toxicity test.

  11. Cadmium inhibits acid secretion in stimulated frog gastric mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium, a toxic environmental pollutant, affects the function of different organs such as lungs, liver and kidney. Less is known about its toxic effects on the gastric mucosa. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which cadmium impacts on the physiology of gastric mucosa. To this end, intact amphibian mucosae were mounted in Ussing chambers and the rate of acid secretion, short circuit current (Isc), transepithelial potential (Vt) and resistance (Rt) were recorded in the continuous presence of cadmium. Addition of cadmium (20 μM to 1 mM) on the serosal but not luminal side of the mucosae resulted in inhibition of acid secretion and increase in NPPB-sensitive, chloride-dependent short circuit current. Remarkably, cadmium exerted its effects only on histamine-stimulated tissues. Experiments with TPEN, a cell-permeant chelator for heavy metals, showed that cadmium acts from the intracellular side of the acid secreting cells. Furthermore, cadmium-induced inhibition of acid secretion and increase in Isc cannot be explained by an action on: 1) H2 histamine receptor, 2) Ca2+ signalling 3) adenylyl cyclase or 4) carbonic anhydrase. Conversely, cadmium was ineffective in the presence of the H+/K+-ATPase blocker omeprazole suggesting that the two compounds likely act on the same target. Our findings suggest that cadmium affects the functionality of histamine-stimulated gastric mucosa by inhibiting the H+/K+-ATPase from the intracellular side. These data shed new light on the toxic effect of this dangerous environmental pollutant and may result in new avenues for therapeutic intervention in acute and chronic intoxication.

  12. Cadmium exposure and risk of kidney effects and bone fractures : population-based studies in England and Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Laura D.K.

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal with no beneficial biological function. The dissemination of cadmium to the surface environment, by industrial and agricultural practices, has led to increased human exposure. Food is the main source of exposure in the general non - smoking population however in areas close to industrial sources, contact with contaminated environmental media may also be important. Previous studies have shown toxic effects of cadmium on the kidneys and bon...

  13. Oxidative stress and DNA damage induced by cadmium in the human keratinocyte HaCaT cell line: Role of glutathione in the resistance to cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium affects the cellular homeostasis and generates damage via complex mechanisms involving interactions with other metals and oxidative stress induction. In this work we used a human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) as a model to study the oxidative damage induced by cadmium to cellular macromolecules, its effect on the antioxidant systems and the role of glutathione in cell protection toward cadmium toxicity. The cells were incubated for 24 and 48 h with cadmium (3, 15, 50 and 100 μM). High doses of cadmium were required to induce a cytotoxicity: 100 μM lead to 30% mortality after 24 h and 50% after 48 h. The oxidation of lipids and proteins and the DNA damage, respectively, assessed by thiobarbituric acid reactants determination, thiol group measurement and comet assay, were observed for 50-100 μM cadmium. The cytotoxic effects were strongly correlated to the cellular cadmium content. The glutathione peroxidase and the catalase activities were decreased, while the glutathione reductase activity and the glutathione concentration were increased after cadmium treatment. The superoxide dismutases activities were unchanged. A depletion in glutathione prior to cadmium exposure increased the cytotoxic effects and provoked DNA damage. Our results suggested that the hydroxyl radical could be the major compound involved in the oxidative stress generated by cadmium and that glutathione could play a major role in the protection of HaCaT cells from cytotoxicity but mostly from DNA damage induced by cadmium

  14. Urinary cadmium and mammographic density in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Scott V; Newcomb, Polly A; Shafer, Martin M; Atkinson, Charlotte; Bowles, Erin J Aiello; Newton, Katherine M; Lampe, Johanna W

    2011-08-01

    Mammographic density (MD), a strong marker of breast cancer risk, is influenced by genetic, environmental, and hormonal factors. Cadmium, a persistent and widespread environmental pollutant, has been associated with risk of breast cancer, and laboratory evidence suggests cadmium is a carcinogen in the breast. We investigated the hypothesis that cadmium exposure is associated with higher MD. In a cross-sectional study of MD and urinary cadmium concentration, percentage MD (MD%) and Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data Systems (BI-RADS®) density category were determined from screening mammograms of 190 premenopausal women ages 40-45 years. Women completed a health questionnaire, and the cadmium content of spot urine samples was measured with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and corrected for urine creatinine. Urinary cadmium concentrations are thought to reflect exposure to cadmium during a period of 20-30 years. Multivariable linear regression and logistic regression were used to estimate the strength of association between urinary cadmium and mammographic breast density. Adjusted mean MD% among women in the upper tertile of creatinine-corrected urinary cadmium was 4.6% higher (95% CI: -2.3 to 11.6%) than in women in the lowest cadmium tertile. Each twofold increase in urinary cadmium was associated with higher odds of MD% in the upper tertile (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 0.82-2.02) or a BI-RADS category rating of "extremely dense" (OR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.14-2.70). Stronger associations were observed among nulliparous women, and current or former smokers. Exposure to cadmium may be associated with increased breast density in premenopausal women. PMID:21327468

  15. Multivariate approach to gill pathology in European sea bass after experimental exposure to cadmium and terbuthylazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manera, Maurizio; Sayyaf Dezfuli, Bahram; DePasquale, Joseph A; Giari, Luisa

    2016-07-01

    The combined use of guided quantitative expert analysis and of multivariate exploratory data analysis is reported as a robust, sensitive and sufficiently specific approach to study European sea bass gill secondary lamellar pathology after exposure to incremental doses of cadmium and terbuthylazine up to 48h. The following elementary pathological findings were considered: "epithelial lifting", "epithelial shrinkage", "epithelial swelling", "pillar cells coarctation", "pillar cells detachment", "channels fusion", "chloride cells swelling", and "chloride cells invasion". The relative spatial extension was determined according to exposure class and data were analyzed by means of canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and canonical variates analysis (CVA). Histologically and ultrastructurally, cellular shrinkage/coarctation prevailed in cadmium exposed lamellae, whereas cellular swelling and epithelial lifting were predominant in terbuthylazine exposed lamellae compared to unexposed fish. Both CCA and CVA permit a good graphical data grouping according to exposure classes by means of the convex hull minimum polygons. This also reveals exposure dose and time gradients in CCA plot. Accordingly, epithelial swelling and epithelial shrinkage were comparatively associated to higher exposure time, whereas epithelial shrinkage and pillar cells coarctation were comparatively associated to higher exposure dose. LDA with only "epithelial shrinkage", "epithelial swelling" and "pillar cells coarctation" in the model classified correctly 87.5% of the cross-validated cases. A possible pathogenetic relationship between the discriminant elementary lesions and the toxic mode of action at the cellular level of both cadmium and terbuthylazine is also discussed. PMID:27057996

  16. Correlative characteristic of cadmium in soils of steppe Dnieper region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Tsvetkova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Much attention is paid to searching for methods of establishing environmental standards for objective assessment of admissibility of anthropogenic load on the biosphere. The main pollutants of the environment are xenobiotics; heavy metals such as cadmium occupy hold a special place among them. Cadmium is one of the most dangerous environmental toxic agents, belonging to the 1stclass of hazard. Due to insufficient and fragmented information available on the distribution of cadmium in the city edaphotopes, it’s necessary to conduct additional research, taking into account the properties of soils and the biological characteristics of every element. The paper shows the ratio of cadmium in soils and soil-forming rocks of steppe Dnieper region. Environmental assessment of cadmium content in Dniprodzerzhinsk city soilsis made, and the problem of topsoil contamination of the city as a territory of high anthropogenic load is considered. It is found that the content of cadmium down the profile in natural soil increases. Enrichment of the topsoil with cadmium occurs due to contamination. The value of movable forms content, expressed as a percentage of the total content, varies from 12% to 70%, providing the evidence of the technogenic origin of cadmium in Dniprodzerzhinsk city topsoil. General and proximate correlation analyses of interrelation of soil cadmium and specifically selected characteristics of soil (pH, humus, sulfate ions, dry solid, chloride ions, total alkalinity, hygroscopic moisture were made. It is established that cadmium concentration in the movable forms of natural soils of the steppe Dnieper region depends primarily on pH value. With the increase in pH value, concentration of movable cadmium in soil increases.

  17. Cadmium uptake by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghiri, F.

    1973-01-01

    Absorption of /sup 115m/Cd by soybean (Gylcine max l.) plants via foliar and root systems and translocation into the seed was determined. The uptake of /sup 115m/Cd by soybeans via the root system was more efficient than that of the foliar placement. Growth and Cd concentrations of soybean and wheat (Triticum aestivum l.) tops were influenced by soil-applied Cd. In both crops, the Cd concentration of plant tops increased while yield decreased with increasing levels of applied Cd. Cadmium toxicitiy began to occur in both crops at the lowest level of soil applied Cd (2.5 ppM). With soybean plants, Cd toxicity symptoms resembled fe chlorosis. For wheat plants there were no visual symptoms other than the studied growth. The relative concentration of Cd found in several vegetable crops varied depending on the plant species. The relative Cd concentration in descending order for various vegetables was lettuce (Lactuca sativa l.) > radish top (Raphanus sativus l.) > celery stalk (Apium graveolens l.) > celery leaves greater than or equal to green pepper (Capsicum frutescens l.) > radish roots.

  18. Effect of environmental exposure to Cadmium on pregnancy outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ramezanzadeh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available "n "n "nBackgrounds andObjectives:The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential effect of environmental exposure to toxic metal (cadmium on pregnancy outcome and fetal growth."nMaterials and Methods: 330 normal pregnant women were randomly selected from vali-e-asr hospital, from July 2003 through Feb. 2005. Cadmium was measured in umbilical cord blood and mother whole blood of postpartum women without occupational exposure to metals in Tehran, Iran, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry"nResult: Whole blood cadmium and cord blood cadmium ranged from 0/00 to 6/30 μg/L ,respectivly. in the group higher level of maternal blood cadmium (> 0.40 μg/L 1cm decrease was seen in neonatal birth height. (p = 0.007 There was a significant association between cadmium exposure and birth weight.Mann-whitney test showed that, maternal blood cadmium level, was significantly negatively associated with neonatal birth weight (z = -1.83, P < 0.06."nConclusion: It was concluded that environmental exposure to cadmium significantly reduces neonatal birth height.

  19. Phytoremediation of cadmium at different salinities by Scirpus maritimus from the Óbidos Lagoon (Portugal)

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Márcia

    2011-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was performed, to verify if phytoremediation of cadmium can be done by using the macrophyte Scirpus maritimus from the Obidos Lagoon (Portugal), plus if water salinity can influence its phytoremediation effectiveness. Two concentrations of cadmium were tested (50 and 100 ƒÊg l-1) to evaluate the plant capability to accumulate cadmium, plus possible toxicity effects of this pollutant. The contamination levels were tested at different water salinity conditions (val...

  20. Effects of Cadmium on Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activities of Erica andevalensis

    OpenAIRE

    Belén Márquez-García; M. Ángeles Fernández-Recamales; Francisco Córdoba

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of cadmium on phenolic composition of Erica andevalensis, an endemic protected heather that grows in mine affected soils. Plants cultivated under laboratory-controlled conditions were exposed to acute doses of cadmium to investigate the mechanisms this species possesses to survive in the presence of toxic metals in its natural habitat. Cadmium increased the total levels of phenolics and flavonoids compounds, and the total antioxidant capacity. Cinnamic acid derivative...

  1. Kinetics of cadmium accumulation and elimination in carp Cyprinus carpio tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carp (Cyprinus carpio) were tested for cadmium accumulation and elimination during and after a simulated pollution exposure. Fish were distributed in two 1000-l indoor concrete aquaria supplied with a continuous flow (8 l min-1) of well water. The cadmium concentration was maintained at 53 μg l-1 in one aquarium and 443 μg l-1 in the other aquarium for 127 days. The exposure phase was followed by a 43-day depuration period. The cadmium accumulation in liver, kidney and muscle was measured by means of ICP-MS. The data showed that cadmium exposure produces significant cadmium uptake in tissues. Cadmium concentrations increased sharply in kidney and liver, whereas the pollutant level in muscle was only significant after 106 days. After 127 days of Cd exposure (53 μg l-1), the cadmium concentration in kidney was 4-fold higher than in liver and 50-fold higher than in muscle for a toxic level of 53 μg l-1. At a Cd of 443 μg l-1, kidney cadmium content was 2-fold higher than in liver and 100-fold higher than in muscle. In kidney and liver, the toxic concentration increased as the concentration of pollutant in water increased. During the 43 depuration days, the loss of accumulated cadmium was rapid and immediate in muscle. Conversely, no loss of cadmium was observed in kidney and liver. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  2. Acute toxicity of copper and cadmium for piauçu, Leporinus macrocephalus, and curimatã, Prochilodus vimboides - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i3.5069 Acute toxicity of copper and cadmium for piauçu, Leporinus macrocephalus, and curimatã, Prochilodus vimboides - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i3.5069

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Fernando Loureiro Fernandes; Rodrigo Nunes Oss; Adriana Regina Chippari-Gomes; Rafael de Almeida Magris; Levy Carvalho Gomes

    2009-01-01

    Ninety-six-hour static bioassays were conducted in the laboratory to determine lethal concentrations (96-h LC50) of copper and cadmium for curimatã (Prochilodus vimboides) and piauçu (Leporinus macrocephalus). The 96-h LC50 of copper were 0.047 and 0.090 mg L-1, and of cadmium 3.16 and 7.42 mg L-1 for curimatã and piauçu, respectively. Curimatã is a preferred indigenous species for toxicological studies in the Doce River basin due to its availability in the hatcheries of the region and high s...

  3. Cadmium and nickel combined influence on growth and development of the maize germinant

    OpenAIRE

    T. A. Demura

    2006-01-01

    Extent of toxic influence of cadmium and nickel joint action on growth and development of the maize germinant and plants’ adaptation capabilities to negative influence of heavy metals was studied. Specific protective activity of the phytohormones Emistim C and Zeastimulin under conditions of the cadmium and nickel joint action was shown.

  4. 腐植酸在褐鳟鱼鳃和肌肉抵抗镉中毒的组织病理学和生物化学作用%Histopathological and Biochemical Effects of Humic Acid Against Cadmium Toxicity in Brown Trout Gills and Muscles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gonca Alak; Muhammed Atamanalp; Ahmet Topal; Harun Arslan; Ertan Oruç; Serdar Altun; 李双(译)

    2015-01-01

    It was biochemically and histopathologically investigated whether humic acid (HA) has protective effects on cadmium (Cd) toxicity on muscle and gills of brown trout. The brown trout were exposed to cadmium (2ppm) and/or humic acid (5ppm). For this purpose, levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondi-aldehyde (MDA) was investigated in muscle and gills tissues of brown trout. The activities of GPx and SOD in the tis-sues of ifsh exposed to Cd was signiifcantly lower than the control groups (P0.05). Hovewer, humic acid did not affect biochemical damage in cadmium group. Cd caused a signiifcant increase in histopathological changes in muscle and gills tissues, but histopathological changes were lower in the muscle tissue of Cd+HA group. These results suggest that humic acid may counteract the cadmium toxicity in muscles tissue in histopathologic aspect.%为了探究腐植酸(HA)对褐鳟鱼鳃和肌肉在抵抗镉(Cd)中毒方面是否发挥积极作用,进行了组织病理学和生物化学方面的研究。试验中,褐鳟暴露在仅施加2 ppm镉,施加2 ppm镉加5 ppm腐植酸,仅施加5 ppm腐植酸的3种环境条件下,分别测定其鳃和肌肉组织的谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(G P x)、超氧化物歧化酶(S O D)、丙二醛(M D A)水平。在含镉条件下,褐鳟组织中的G P x和S O D活性显著低于对照组(P0.05)。然而,腐植酸并未影响镉造成的生化伤害。镉对鱼鳃和肌肉组织造成明显的组织病理学变化,而在镉+腐植酸处理组中,肌肉组织病理学变化较小。这些结果表明,腐植酸可从组织病理学方面中和肌肉组织镉中毒。

  5. Thin-film cadmium telluride photovoltaics: ES and H issues, solutions, and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photovoltaics (PV) is a growing business worldwide, with new technologies evolving towards potentially large-volume production. PV use produces no emissions, thus offsetting many potential environmental problems. However, the new PV technologies also bring unfamiliar environment, safety, and health (ES and H) challenges that require innovative solutions. This is a summary of the issues, solutions, and perspectives associated with the use of cadmium in one of the new and important PV technologies: thin-film, cadmium telluride (CdTe) PV, which is being developed and commercialized by several companies including Solar Cells Inc. (Toledo, Ohio), BP Solar (Fairfield, California), and Matsushita (Japan). The principal ES and H issue for thin-film cadmium telluride PV is the potential introduction of cadmium--a toxic heavy metal--into the air or water. The amount of cadmium in thin-film PV, however, is quite small--one nickel cadmium flashlight battery has about as much cadmium (7 g) as a square meter of PV module using current technology--and a typical cordless power tool will have 5--10 batteries. CdTe modules are also very well sealed, limiting the chance of release. Nonetheless, minimizing the amount of cadmium in cadmium telluride modules and preventing the introduction of that cadmium into the environment is a top priority for National Renewable Energy Laboratory researchers and cadmium telluride PV manufacturers

  6. Role of MTL-1, MTL-2, and CDR-1 in mediating cadmium sensitivity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Julie; Haas, Kathryn L; Freedman, Jonathan H

    2012-08-01

    Cadmium is an environmental toxicant whose exposure is associated with multiple human pathologies. To prevent cadmium-induced toxicity, organisms produce a variety of detoxification molecules. In response to cadmium, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans increases the steady-state levels of several hundred genes, including two metallothioneins, mtl-1 and mtl-2, and the cadmium-specific response gene, cdr-1. Despite the presumed importance in metal detoxification of mtl-1 and mtl-2, knockdown of their expression does not increase cadmium hypersensitivity, which suggests that these genes are not required for resistance to metal toxicity in C. elegans. To determine whether cdr-1 is critical in metal detoxification and compensates for the loss of mtl-1 and/or mtl-2, C. elegans strains were generated in which one, two, and all three genes were deleted, and the effects of cadmium on brood size, embryonic lethality, the Bag phenotype, and growth were determined. Growth at low cadmium concentrations was the only endpoint in which the triple mutant displayed more sensitivity than the single and double mutants. A lack of hypersensitivity in these strains suggests that other factors may be involved in the response to cadmium. Caenorhabditis elegans produces phytochelatins (PCs) that are critical in the defense against cadmium toxicity. PC levels in wild type, cdr-1 single, mtl-1, mtl-2 double, and triple mutants were measured. PC levels were constitutively higher in the mtl-1, mtl-2 double, and triple mutants compared with wild type. Following cadmium exposure, PC levels increased. The lack of cadmium hypersensitivity when these genes are deleted may be attributed to the compensatory effects of increases in PCs. PMID:22552775

  7. Cadmium (II) removal mechanisms in microbial electrolysis cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colantonio, Natalie; Kim, Younggy

    2016-07-01

    Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal, causing serious environmental and human health problems. Conventional methods for removing cadmium from wastewater are expensive and inefficient for low concentrations. Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) can simultaneously treat wastewater, produce hydrogen gas, and remove heavy metals with low energy requirements. Lab-scale MECs were operated to remove cadmium under various electric conditions: applied voltages of 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0V; and a fixed cathode potential of -1.0V vs. Ag/AgCl. Regardless of the electric condition, rapid removal of cadmium was demonstrated (50-67% in 24h); however, cadmium concentration in solution increased after the electric current dropped with depleted organic substrate under applied voltage conditions. For the fixed cathode potential, the electric current was maintained even after substrate depletion and thus cadmium concentration did not increase. These results can be explained by three different removal mechanisms: cathodic reduction; Cd(OH)2 precipitation; and CdCO3 precipitation. When the current decreased with depleted substrates, local pH at the cathode was no longer high due to slowed hydrogen evolution reaction (2H(+)+2e(-)→H2); thus, the precipitated Cd(OH)2 and CdCO3 started dissolving. To prevent their dissolution, sufficient organic substrates should be provided when MECs are used for cadmium removal. PMID:26970043

  8. Metal transport in cells: cadmium uptake by rat hepatocytes and renal cortical epithelial cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Shaikh, Z A; Blazka, M E; Endo, T

    1995-01-01

    The toxic metals appear to use the transport pathways that exist for biologically essential metals. In this regard interactions between the toxic and essential metals are possible. This report summarizes recent findings on the transport of cadmium in rat hepatocytes and renal cortical epithelial cells in the presence or absence of certain essential metals. The transport of cadmium in hepatocytes does not require energy and, therefore, is not an active process. It occurs primarily (80%) by tem...

  9. Study of Cadmium Removal from Environmental Water by Biofilm Covered Granular Activated Carbon

    OpenAIRE

    RA Dianati-Tilaki; AH Mahvi; M Shariat; S Nasseri

    2004-01-01

    The contamination of water by toxic heavy metals is a world-wide environmental problem. Discharges containing cadmium, in particular, are strictly controlled due to the highly toxic nature of this element and its tendency to accumulate in the tissues of living organisms. Low concentration (below 5 mg`/L) of cadmium is difficult to treat economically using chemical precipitation methodologies. Ion exchange and reverse Osmosis which can guarantee the metal concentration limits required by regul...

  10. Ion exchange of Cobalt and Cadmium in Zeolite X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growing development in the industry has an important contribution to the environmental damage, where the natural effluents are each day more contaminated by toxic elements, such as: mercury, chromium, lead and cadmium. So as to separate such elements it has sorbent must have enough stability, and have a sharp capacity of sorption. In this work it was studied the sorption behavior of cobalt and on the other hand, cadmium in aqueous solutions, which along with sodic form of the Zeolite X, undergoes a phenomenon of ionic interchange. Such interchange was verify to different concentration of cadmium, cobalt and hydronium ion. The content of cobalt and sodium in the interchanged samples was detected through the neutronic activation analysis. The results disclose a higher selectivity for cadmium than cobalt. (Author)

  11. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of cadmium chloride, cadmium bromide, cadmium iodide, cadmium nitrate, and cadmium sulphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apelblat, Alexander [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)]. E-mail: apelblat@bgu.ac.il; Korin, Eli [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2007-07-15

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of cadmium salts (chloride, bromide, iodide, nitrate, and sulphate) were determined over the temperature range 280 K to 322 K and compared with the literature data. The vapour pressures determined were used to obtain the water activities, osmotic coefficients and the molar enthalpies of vaporization in the (cadmium salt + water) systems.

  12. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of cadmium chloride, cadmium bromide, cadmium iodide, cadmium nitrate, and cadmium sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of cadmium salts (chloride, bromide, iodide, nitrate, and sulphate) were determined over the temperature range 280 K to 322 K and compared with the literature data. The vapour pressures determined were used to obtain the water activities, osmotic coefficients and the molar enthalpies of vaporization in the (cadmium salt + water) systems

  13. Metabolomics of microliter hemolymph samples enables an improved understanding of the combined metabolic and transcriptional responses of Daphnia magna to cadmium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadmium is a toxic metal causing sublethal and chronic effects in crustaceans. Omic technologies offer unprecedented opportunities to better understand modes of toxicity by providing a holistic view of the molecular changes underlying physiological disruption. We sought to use ge...

  14. Different effects of sodium chloride preincubation on cadmium tolerance of Pichia kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Li, Chunsheng; Dong, Xiaoyan; Wang, Dongfeng; Xu, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Application of growing microorganisms for cadmium removal is restricted by high cadmium toxicity. The effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) preincubation on the cadmium tolerance and removal ability of Pichia kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated in this study. NaCl preincubation improved the biomass of P. kudriavzevii under cadmium stress, while no obvious effect was observed in S. cerevisiae. The improved activities of peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) after NaCl preincubation might be an important reason for the decrease of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, cell death, and oxidative damage of proteins and lipids induced by cadmium, contributing to the improvement of the yeast growth. The cadmium bioaccumulation capacity of P. kudriavzevii decreased significantly after NaCl preincubation, which played an important role in mitigating the cadmium toxicity to the yeast. The cadmium removal rate of P. kudriavzevii was obviously higher than S. cerevisiae and was significantly enhanced after NaCl preincubation. The results suggested that NaCl preincubation improved the cadmium tolerance and removal ability of P. kudriavzevii. PMID:25721585

  15. Haematological changes in Bufo maculatus treated with sublethal concentrations of Cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Ikechukwu Ezemonye

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Adult Bufo maculatus was exposed to sublethal cadmium concentrations of 0.25, 0.50, 1.00 and 2.00 mg/L. The toxicant from which the cadmium concentrations were prepared was cadmium chloride (CdCl2.H2O. There were three replicate tanks per treatment and three individuals per tank including control groups. The hematologic alterations based on the examination of blood indices during the 28 days of exposure showed that total erythrocyte count (TEC, hematocrit (Hct and hemoglobin (Hb concentration decreased (P<0.05 relative to controls. The decline was concentration- dependent as concentration of cadmium increased. The decline in hemoglobin and hematocrit in the experimental organism could be due to a decrease in the synthesis or release of erythrocytes into the circulation or an increase in the rate of erythrocyte destruction inflicted by cadmium toxicity. There was significant (P<0.05 elevation in total leuko- leukocyte count (TLC with increase in the concen- cyte concentration of cadmium. The increase in total leukocyte count observed in this study could be attributed to a stimulation of the immune system in response to tissue damage caused by cadmium toxicity. The study has shown that the exposure of the Bufo maculatus toad to cadmium can inflict alterations in the hematologic indices, which could induce unfavorable physiological changes in the amphibian, which may lead to death. There is, therefore, the need to protect amphibians in order to sustain the biodiversity in the Nigerian Niger Delta ecological zone.

  16. RNA-Seq identifies key reproductive gene expression alterations in response to cadmium exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hanyang; Lu, Xing; Cen, Xiang; Chen, Xiaohua; Li, Feng; Zhong, Shan

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium is a common toxicant that is detrimental to many tissues. Although a number of transcriptional signatures have been revealed in different tissues after cadmium treatment, the genes involved in the cadmium caused male reproductive toxicity, and the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here we observed that the mice treated with different amount of cadmium in their rodent chow for six months exhibited reduced serum testosterone. We then performed RNA-seq to comprehensively investigate the mice testicular transcriptome to further elucidate the mechanism. Our results showed that hundreds of genes expression altered significantly in response to cadmium treatment. In particular, we found several transcriptional signatures closely related to the biological processes of regulation of hormone, gamete generation, and sexual reproduction, respectively. The expression of several testosterone synthetic key enzyme genes, such as Star, Cyp11a1, and Cyp17a1, were inhibited by the cadmium exposure. For better understanding of the cadmium-mediated transcriptional regulatory mechanism of the genes, we computationally analyzed the transcription factors binding sites and the mircoRNAs targets of the differentially expressed genes. Our findings suggest that the reproductive toxicity by cadmium exposure is implicated in multiple layers of deregulation of several biological processes and transcriptional regulation in mice. PMID:24982889

  17. RNA-Seq Identifies Key Reproductive Gene Expression Alterations in Response to Cadmium Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanyang Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a common toxicant that is detrimental to many tissues. Although a number of transcriptional signatures have been revealed in different tissues after cadmium treatment, the genes involved in the cadmium caused male reproductive toxicity, and the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here we observed that the mice treated with different amount of cadmium in their rodent chow for six months exhibited reduced serum testosterone. We then performed RNA-seq to comprehensively investigate the mice testicular transcriptome to further elucidate the mechanism. Our results showed that hundreds of genes expression altered significantly in response to cadmium treatment. In particular, we found several transcriptional signatures closely related to the biological processes of regulation of hormone, gamete generation, and sexual reproduction, respectively. The expression of several testosterone synthetic key enzyme genes, such as Star, Cyp11a1, and Cyp17a1, were inhibited by the cadmium exposure. For better understanding of the cadmium-mediated transcriptional regulatory mechanism of the genes, we computationally analyzed the transcription factors binding sites and the mircoRNAs targets of the differentially expressed genes. Our findings suggest that the reproductive toxicity by cadmium exposure is implicated in multiple layers of deregulation of several biological processes and transcriptional regulation in mice.

  18. Soluble Moringa oleifera leaf extract reduces intracellular cadmium accumulation and oxidative stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerdsomboon, Kittikhun; Tatip, Supinda; Kosasih, Sattawat; Auesukaree, Choowong

    2016-05-01

    Moringa oleifera leaves are a well-known source of antioxidants and traditionally used for medicinal applications. In the present study, the protective action of soluble M. oleifera leaf extract (MOLE) against cadmium toxicity was investigated in the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results showed that this extract exhibited a protective effect against oxidative stress induced by cadmium and H2O2 through the reduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Interestingly, not only the co-exposure of soluble MOLE with cadmium but also pretreatment of this extract prior to cadmium exposure significantly reduced the cadmium uptake through an inhibition of Fet4p, a low-affinity iron(II) transporter. In addition, the supplementation of soluble MOLE significantly reduced intracellular iron accumulation in a Fet4p-independent manner. Our findings suggest the potential use of soluble extract from M. oleifera leaves as a dietary supplement for protection against cadmium accumulation and oxidative stress. PMID:26675819

  19. Synthesis of heterocyclic triads by Pd-catalyzed cross-couplings and evaluation of their cell-specific toxicity profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamoun, Joseph; Anderson, Shelby; Burnett, James C; Gussio, Rick; Wipf, Peter

    2014-04-01

    Two complementary approaches for the preparation of linked 5-membered heterocycles were developed. The Pd-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling with halogenated furan, thiophene, and selenophene led to higher overall yields, but C,H-bond activation was a more efficient strategy for the coupling at C(2) of oxazoles. Potency and selectivity of the final hydroxymethyl products in renal (A498), lung (NCI-H226), kidney (CAKI-1), and breast (MDA-MB-468, MCF7) carcinoma cell lines were determined. PMID:24641272

  20. Synthesis of Heterocyclic Triads by Pd-Catalyzed Cross-Couplings and Evaluation of Their Cell-Specific Toxicity Profile

    OpenAIRE

    Salamoun, Joseph; Anderson, Shelby; Burnett, James C.; Gussio, Rick; Wipf, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Two complementary approaches for the preparation of linked 5-membered heterocycles were developed. The Pd-catalyzed Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling with halogenated furan, thiophene, and selenophene led to higher overall yields, but C,H-bond activation was a more efficient strategy for the coupling at C(2) of oxazoles. Potency and selectivity of the final hydroxymethyl products in renal (A498), lung (NCI-H226), kidney (CAKI-1), and breast (MDA-MB-468, MCF7) carcinoma cell lines were determined.

  1. Cadmium status in Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It is inferred from these studies that releases of Cd are still increasing and it is recommended that measures must be taken to reduce emissions of cadmium. Any cadmium discharged into the Egyptian environment may move from one compartment to another at varying rates,resulting in an accumulation in compartments such as soils and biota. Such accumulation can be expected to increase with continued emissions,and attention should be given to all sources of cadmium, natural as well as anthropogenic especially in the industrial cities in Egypt. Cadmium present in sewage, as well as industrial effluent (also, other liquid and solid wastes) and sewage sludge will increase levels in soils and is xpected to contribute to dietary levels and body burdens. The current information indicates that such effects may have to be evaluated over long periods of time, possibly as long as 50 - 100 years.

  2. Flow of Cadmium from Rechargeable Batteries in the United States, 1996-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, David R.

    2007-01-01

    Cadmium metal has been found to be toxic to humans and the environment under certain conditions; therefore, a thorough understanding of the use and disposal of the metal is warranted. Most of the cadmium used in the United States comes from imported products. In 2007, more than 83 percent of the cadmium used in the United States was contained in batteries, mostly in rechargeable nickel-cadmium batteries used in popular consumer products such as cordless phones and power tools. The flow of cadmium contained in rechageable nickel-cadmium batteries used in the United States was tracked for the years 1996 to 2007. The amount of cadmium metal contained in imported products in 2007 was estimated to be about 1,900 metric tons, or about 160 percent higher than the reported cadmium production in the United States from all primary and secondary sources. Although more than 40,000 metric tons of cadmium was estimated to be contained in nickel-cadmium rechargeable batteries that became obsolete during the 12-year study period, not all of this material was sent to municipal solid waste landfills. About 27 percent of the material available for recovery in the United States was recycled domestically in 2007; the balance was discarded in municipal solid waste landfills, exported for recycling, retained in temporary storage, or thrown away.

  3. Effects of Humic Acid on the Germination Traits of Pumpkin Seeds under Cadmium Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maasoumeh ASADI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study tackled the effect of humic acid and cadmium concentrations on the pumpkin seed germination characteristics throughout were studied. Treatments were cadmium concentrations on three levels: 0, 100 and 200 ppm and humic acid concentration of 0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg lit-1. Results showed that interaction of humic acid and cadmium was not significant on germination traits, but there was a significant effect on seedling growth indexes. Radicle and plumule length increased by 86 and 192% in comparison with control, of the mixture of 200 ppm cadmium and 300 mg lit-1 of humic acid. Cadmium had stimulatory effect on radicle and cotyledon dry weight and the highest values obtained with 200 ppm in mixture with 200 mg lit-1 of humic acid. Also, maximum plumule dry weight was recorded in 200 ppm cadmium and 300 mg lit-1 of humic acid. The highest of indexes were observed of 200 ppm cadmium and 400 mg lit-1 humic acid. In conclusion, the humic acid had detoxifying effect on cadmium stress in the culture and responded antagonistically against cadmium, but it seems that these concentrations of cadmium are low for the pumpkin seed and can be increased in order to reach the toxicity level.

  4. Effects of Cadmium Stress on Seed Germination, Seedling Growth and Seed Amylase Activities in Rice (Oryza sativa)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jun-yu; REN Yan-fang; ZHU Cheng; JIANG De-an

    2008-01-01

    Two rice varieties, Xiushui 110 with high cadmium (Cd) tolerance and Xiushui 11 with low Cd tolerance were used to study the effects of Cd stress on seed germination, seedling growth and amylase activities. The low cadmium concentration had little effect on seed germination rate. However, cadmium stress could significantly inhibit plumule and radicle growth, especially for radicle growth. Germination index, vigour index, radicle length and amylase activities of Xiushui 11 decreased more significantly with the increasing cadmium level compared with Xiushui 110. The cadmium content in seedlings of Xiushui 11 was higher than that in Xiushui 110 when the cadmium concentration exceeded 5 μmol/L, which caused lower mitotic index in root tips and amylase activities, and more serious cadmium toxicity in Xiushui 11.

  5. Blood cadmium concentration and lipid profile in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kisok, E-mail: kimkisok@kmu.ac.kr [Department of Public Health, Keimyung University, 1000 Shindang-dong, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure induces alterations in lipid profiles, no epidemiological study of this relationship has been performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between blood cadmium concentration and blood lipid levels in Korean adults. A cross-sectional study comprising participants (n=3903) aged 20 years or older from the 2005, 2008, and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted. Demographic characteristics and dietary intake were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and cadmium and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors, blood concentration of cadmium was positively associated with the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner (p for trend <0.001). In addition, the odds ratios (ORs) of a high triglyceride to HDL-C ratio was significantly increased in the high blood cadmium groups [OR=1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.79 for fourth quintile and OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.07-1.86 for fifth quintile] compared with the lowest quintile group. However, high blood cadmium was not associated with a risk of high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high triglycerides. These data suggest that an increased cadmium body burden increases the risk of dyslipidemia, mainly due to the increased risk of low HDL-C and the high ratio of triglycerides to HDL-C.

  6. Phytoremediation of cadmium contaminated soils by tuberose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential of three varieties of tuberose (Prajwal, Shringar and Mexican single) for phytoremediation of soil contaminated with cadmium was evaluated by subjecting the plants to five levels of Cd (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg kg-1 soil). Applied Cd did not produce any toxic symptoms in all the three varieties of tuberose except marginal reduction in the photosynthesis rate and total dry weight beyond 50 mg Cd kg-1 soil. The study showed that tuberose possessed the typical ability of Cd hyper accumulator characterized by (1) accumulation of Cd in the shoots of the plant exceeding the critical judging standard i.e., 100 μg g-1 DW and (2) ratio of Cd in the shoots to bulbs >1. It was concluded that tuberose may be an effective accumulator plant for phytoremediation of cadmium polluted soils. (author)

  7. Cadmium interacts with the transport of essential micronutrients in the mammary gland-A study in rural Bangladeshi women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the concentrations of the toxic metal cadmium in breast milk are generally low (s = 0.56; p s = 0.55; p s = -0.17; p = 0.05), indicating that cadmium inhibits the transport of calcium to breast milk. In conclusion, the present study may indicate that cadmium shares common transporters with iron and manganese for transfer to breast milk, but inhibits secretion of calcium to breast milk

  8. Principles for prevention of toxic effects from metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landrigan, Philip J.; Kotelchuk, David; Grandjean, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Toxic Effects of Metals Aluminum Antimony Arsenic Barium Beryllium Bismuth Cadmium Chromium Cobalt Copper Gallium and Semiconductor Compounds Germanium Indium Iron Lead Manganese Mercury Molybdenum Nickel Palladium Platinum Selenium Silver Tellurium Thallium Tin Titanium Tungsten Uranium Vanadium Zinc...

  9. Cadmium induces autophagy through ROS-dependent activation of the LKB1-AMPK signaling in skin epidermal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal which is environmentally and occupationally relevant. The mechanisms underlying cadmium-induced autophagy are not yet completely understood. The present study shows that cadmium induces autophagy, as demonstrated by the increase of LC3-II formation and the GFP-LC3 puncta cells. The induction of autophagosomes was directly visualized by electron microscopy in cadmium-exposed skin epidermal cells. Blockage of LKB1 or AMPK by siRNA transfection suppressed cadmium-induced autophagy. Cadmium-induced autophagy was inhibited in dominant-negative AMPK-transfected cells, whereas it was accelerated in cells transfected with the constitutively active form of AMPK. mTOR signaling, a negative regulator of autophagy, was downregulated in cadmium-exposed cells. In addition, cadmium generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) at relatively low levels, and caused poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP) activation and ATP depletion. Inhibition of PARP by pharmacological inhibitors or its siRNA transfection suppressed ATP reduction and autophagy in cadmium-exposed cells. Furthermore, cadmium-induced autophagy signaling was attenuated by either exogenous addition of catalase and superoxide dismutase, or by overexpression of these enzymes. Consequently, these results suggest that cadmium-mediated ROS generation causes PARP activation and energy depletion, and eventually induces autophagy through the activation of LKB1-AMPK signaling and the down-regulation of mTOR in skin epidermal cells. - Highlights: → Cadmium, a toxic heavy metal, induces autophagic cell death through ROS-dependent activation of the LKB1-AMPK signaling. → Cadmium generates intracellular ROS at low levels and this leads to severe DNA damage and PARP activation, resulting in ATP depletion, which are the upstream events of LKB1-AMPK-mediated autophagy. → This novel finding may contribute to further understanding of cadmium-mediated diseases.

  10. Sources of cadmium exposure among healthy premenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Cadmium, a persistent and widespread environmental pollutant, has been associated with kidney function impairment and several diseases. Cigarettes are the dominant source of cadmium exposure among smokers; the primary source of cadmium in non-smokers is food. We investigated sources of cadmium exposure in a sample of healthy women. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 191 premenopausal women completed a health questionnaire and a food frequency questionnaire. The cadmium content of spot urine samples was measured with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and normalized to urine creatinine content. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the strength of association between smoking habits and, among non-smokers, usual foods consumed and urinary cadmium, adjusted for age, race, multivitamin and supplement use, education, estimated total energy intake, and parity. Results: Geometric mean urine creatinine-normalized cadmium concentration (uCd) of women with any history of cigarette smoking was 0.43 μg/g (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38-0.48 μg/g) and 0.30 μg/g (0.27-0.33 μg/g) among never-smokers, and increased with pack-years of smoking. Analysis of dietary data among women with no reported history of smoking suggested that regular consumption of eggs, hot cereals, organ meats, tofu, vegetable soups, leafy greens, green salad, and yams was associated with uCd. Consumption of tofu products showed the most robust association with uCd; each weekly serving of tofu was associated with a 22% (95% CI: 11-33%) increase in uCd. Thus, uCd was estimated to be 0.11 μg/g (95% CI: 0.06-0.15 μg/g) higher among women who consumed any tofu than among those who consumed none. Conclusions: Cigarette smoking is likely the most important source of cadmium exposure among smokers. Among non-smokers, consumption of specific foods, notably tofu, is associated with increased urine cadmium concentration. - Research highlights: →Urine cadmium, usual

  11. Sources of cadmium exposure among healthy premenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Scott V., E-mail: sadams@fhcrc.org [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Newcomb, Polly A. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Shafer, Martin M. [Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, University of Wisconsin and Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, Madison, WI (United States); Atkinson, Charlotte [Department of Oral and Dental Science, Bristol Dental School, Bristol (United Kingdom); Bowles, Erin J. Aiello [Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA (United States); Newton, Katherine M. [Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA (United States); Lampe, Johanna W. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Background: Cadmium, a persistent and widespread environmental pollutant, has been associated with kidney function impairment and several diseases. Cigarettes are the dominant source of cadmium exposure among smokers; the primary source of cadmium in non-smokers is food. We investigated sources of cadmium exposure in a sample of healthy women. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 191 premenopausal women completed a health questionnaire and a food frequency questionnaire. The cadmium content of spot urine samples was measured with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and normalized to urine creatinine content. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the strength of association between smoking habits and, among non-smokers, usual foods consumed and urinary cadmium, adjusted for age, race, multivitamin and supplement use, education, estimated total energy intake, and parity. Results: Geometric mean urine creatinine-normalized cadmium concentration (uCd) of women with any history of cigarette smoking was 0.43 {mu}g/g (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38-0.48 {mu}g/g) and 0.30 {mu}g/g (0.27-0.33 {mu}g/g) among never-smokers, and increased with pack-years of smoking. Analysis of dietary data among women with no reported history of smoking suggested that regular consumption of eggs, hot cereals, organ meats, tofu, vegetable soups, leafy greens, green salad, and yams was associated with uCd. Consumption of tofu products showed the most robust association with uCd; each weekly serving of tofu was associated with a 22% (95% CI: 11-33%) increase in uCd. Thus, uCd was estimated to be 0.11 {mu}g/g (95% CI: 0.06-0.15 {mu}g/g) higher among women who consumed any tofu than among those who consumed none. Conclusions: Cigarette smoking is likely the most important source of cadmium exposure among smokers. Among non-smokers, consumption of specific foods, notably tofu, is associated with increased urine cadmium concentration. - Research highlights: {yields

  12. Cadmium-glutathione complex formation in human t-cell and b-cell lymphocytes after their incubation with organo-cadmium diacetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Hashmat; Khan, Muhammad Farid; Jan, Syed Umer; Hashmat, Farwa

    2015-11-01

    Cadmium intake is associated with oxidative stress that causes depletion of intracellular as well as extra cellular reduced glutathione. There is strong evidence indicating that reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species generated in the presence of cadmium could be responsible for its toxic effects in many cells and tissues. Depletion of reduced glutathione in various cells, especially in T and B-lymphocytes, causes extreme damage to the antioxidant defense system of body. The aim of this research work was to investigate the metabolic changes that occur in T and B lymphocytes after their incubation with organ cadmium diacetate by using Ellman's spectrophotometric method of thiol quantification. The results of the present study indicate that cadmium depleted T and B lymphocytes GSH to a harmful extent. It is proposed that this depletion is due to the bivalent cadmium glutathione complex formation, oxidation of reduced glutathione (GSH) to its oxidized form, or both. PMID:26639500

  13. Ranking the in vivo toxicity of nanomaterials in Drosophila melanogaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vecchio, G.; Galeone, A.; Malvindi, M. A. [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), Center for Bio-Molecular Nanotechnologies-UniLe (Italy); Cingolani, R. [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), Central Research Laboratories (Italy); Pompa, P. P., E-mail: pierpaolo.pompa@iit.it [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), Center for Bio-Molecular Nanotechnologies-UniLe (Italy)

    2013-09-15

    In this work, we propose a quantitative assessment of nanoparticles toxicity in vivo. We show a quantitative ranking of several types of nanoparticles (AuNPs, AgNPs, cadmium-based QDs, cadmium-free QDs, and iron oxide NPs, with different coating and/or surface chemistries), providing a categorization of their toxicity outcomes. This strategy may offer an innovative high-throughput screening tool of nanomaterials, of potential and broad interest to the nanoscience community.

  14. Ranking the in vivo toxicity of nanomaterials in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we propose a quantitative assessment of nanoparticles toxicity in vivo. We show a quantitative ranking of several types of nanoparticles (AuNPs, AgNPs, cadmium-based QDs, cadmium-free QDs, and iron oxide NPs, with different coating and/or surface chemistries), providing a categorization of their toxicity outcomes. This strategy may offer an innovative high-throughput screening tool of nanomaterials, of potential and broad interest to the nanoscience community

  15. An engineered non-toxic superantigen increases cross presentation of hepatitis B virus nucleocapsids by human dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie D McIntosh

    Full Text Available Virus like particles (VLPs are potent immunogens capable of priming strong protective antibody responses due to their repetitive structural arrangement and affinity for specific B cell receptors. By contrast, T cell responses to VLPs can be weak due to inefficient uptake and processing by antigen presenting cells. We report here a novel strategy for increasing the T cell reactivity of a VLP, the nucleocapsid of hepatitis B virus, through covalent coupling of M1, an engineered form of the Streptococcal superantigen SMEZ2, that binds MHC II with high affinity but lacks its T cell mitogenic capability. M1:HBcAg conjugates bound to dendritic cells and were efficiently endocytosed into late endosomes. Human dendritic cells pulsed with M1:HBcAgs stimulated HBV-specific CD8(+ T cells more effectively than cells pulsed with native capsids indicating that the modified VLP was more effectively cross presented by APCs. Coupling of M1 was also able to induce significantly greater reactivity of human CD4(+ T cells specific for a common T-helper epitope. These studies indicate the potential of recombinant superantigens to act as flexible molecular adjuvants that can be incorporated into various subunit vaccine platforms leading to enhanced T cell reactivity in humans.

  16. Trichosporon jirovecii-mediated synthesis of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Baz, Ashraf Farag; Sorour, Noha Mohamed; Shetaia, Youssria Mohamed

    2016-05-01

    Cadmium sulphide is one of the most promising materials for solar cells and of great interest due to its useful applications in photonics and electronics, thus the development of bio-mediated synthesis of cadmium sulphide nanoparticles (CdS NPs) is one of the essential areas in nanoparticles. The present study demonstrates for the first time the eco-friendly biosynthesis of CdS NPs using the yeast Trichosporon jirovecii. The biosynthesis of CdS NPs were confirmed by UV-Vis spectrum and characterized by X-ray diffraction assay and electron microscopy. Scanning and transmission electron microscope analyses shows the formation of spherical CdS NPs with a size range of about 6-15 nm with a mean Cd:S molar ratio of 1.0:0.98. T. jirovecii produced hydrogen sulfide on cysteine containing medium confirmed by positive cysteine-desulfhydrase activity and the colony color turned yellow on 0.1 mM cadmium containing medium. T. jirovecii tolerance to cadmium was increased by the UV treatment and three 0.6 mM cadmium tolerant mutants were generated upon the UV radiation treatment. The overall results indicated that T. jirovecii could tolerate cadmium toxicity by its conversion into CdS NPs on cysteine containing medium using cysteine-desulfhydrase as a defense response mechanism. PMID:26467054

  17. Geostatistical validation and cross-validation of magnetometric measurements of soil pollution with Potentially Toxic Elements in problematic areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabijańczyk, Piotr; Zawadzki, Jarosław

    2016-04-01

    Field magnetometry is fast method that was previously effectively used to assess the potential soil pollution. One of the most popular devices that are used to measure the soil magnetic susceptibility on the soil surface is a MS2D Bartington. Single reading using MS2D device of soil magnetic susceptibility is low time-consuming but often characterized by considerable errors related to the instrument or environmental and lithogenic factors. In this connection, measured values of soil magnetic susceptibility have to be usually validated using more precise, but also much more expensive, chemical measurements. The goal of this study was to analyze validation methods of magnetometric measurements using chemical analyses of a concentration of elements in soil. Additionally, validation of surface measurements of soil magnetic susceptibility was performed using selected parameters of a distribution of magnetic susceptibility in a soil profile. Validation was performed using selected geostatistical measures of cross-correlation. The geostatistical approach was compared with validation performed using the classic statistics. Measurements were performed at selected areas located in the Upper Silesian Industrial Area in Poland, and in the selected parts of Norway. In these areas soil magnetic susceptibility was measured on the soil surface using a MS2D Bartington device and in the soil profile using MS2C Bartington device. Additionally, soil samples were taken in order to perform chemical measurements. Acknowledgment The research leading to these results has received funding from the Polish-Norwegian Research Programme operated by the National Centre for Research and Development under the Norwegian Financial Mechanism 2009-2014 in the frame of Project IMPACT - Contract No Pol-Nor/199338/45/2013.

  18. Cadmium Chloride Induces DNA Damage and Apoptosis of Human Liver Carcinoma Cells via Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Skipper

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a heavy metal that has been shown to cause its toxicity in humans and animals. Many documented studies have shown that cadmium produces various genotoxic effects such as DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations. Ailments such as bone disease, renal damage, and several forms of cancer are attributed to overexposure to cadmium.  Although there have been numerous studies examining the effects of cadmium in animal models and a few case studies involving communities where cadmium contamination has occurred, its molecular mechanisms of action are not fully elucidated. In this research, we hypothesized that oxidative stress plays a key role in cadmium chloride-induced toxicity, DNA damage, and apoptosis of human liver carcinoma (HepG2 cells. To test our hypothesis, cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Lipid hydroperoxide content stress was estimated by lipid peroxidation assay. Genotoxic damage was tested by the means of alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet assay. Cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry assessment (Annexin-V/PI assay. The result of MTT assay indicated that cadmium chloride induces toxicity to HepG2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, showing a 48 hr-LD50 of 3.6 µg/mL. Data generated from lipid peroxidation assay resulted in a significant (p < 0.05 increase of hydroperoxide production, specifically at the highest concentration tested. Data obtained from the Comet assay indicated that cadmium chloride causes DNA damage in HepG2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. A strong concentration-response relationship (p < 0.05 was recorded between annexin V positive cells and cadmium chloride exposure. In summary, these in vitro studies provide clear evidence that cadmium chloride induces oxidative stress, DNA damage, and programmed cell death in human liver carcinoma (HepG2 cells.

  19. Fast-neutron scattering from elemental cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron differential-elastic-scattering cross sections of elemental cadmium are measured from approx. = 1.5 to 4.0 MeV at incident-neutron energy intervals of 50 to 200 keV and at 10 to 20 scattering angles distributed between approx. = 20 and 160 degrees. Concurrently, lumped-level neutron inelastic-excitation cross sections are measured. The experimental results are used to deduce parameters of an optical-statistical model that is descriptive of the observables and are compared with corresponding quantities given in ENDF/B-V

  20. Cross talk between poly(ADP-ribose polymerase 1 methylation and oxidative stress involved in the toxic effect of anatase titanium dioxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai W

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wenlin Bai,1,2 Yujiao Chen,1,2 Ai Gao1,2 1Department of Occupational Health and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, 2Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Given the tremendous growth in the application of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TNPs, concerns about the potential health hazards of TNPs to humans have been raised. Poly(ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP-1, a highly conserved DNA-binding protein, is involved in many molecular and cellular processes. Limited data demonstrated that certain nanomaterials induced the aberrant hypermethylation of PARP-1. However, the mechanism involved in TNP-induced PARP-1 abnormal methylation has not been studied. A549 cells were incubated with anatase TNPs (22.1 nm for 24 hours pretreatment with or without methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and the reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenger α-lipoic acid to assess the possible role of methylation and ROS in the toxic effect of TNPs. After TNPs characterization, a battery of assays was performed to evaluate the toxic effect of TNPs, PARP-1 methylation status, and oxidative damage. Results showed that TNPs decreased the cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, in accordance with the increase of lactate dehydrogenase activity, which indicated membrane damage of cells. Similar to the high level of PARP-1 methylation, the generation of ROS was significantly increased after exposure to TNPs for 24 hours. Furthermore, α-lipoic acid decreased TNP-induced ROS generation and then attenuated TNP-triggered PARP-1 hypermethylation. Meanwhile, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine simultaneously decreased the ROS generation induced by TNPs, resulting in the decline of PARP-1 methylation. In summary, TNPs triggered the aberrant hypermethylation of the PARP-1 promoter and there was a cross talk between oxidative stress and PARP-1 methylation in the toxic effect of TNPs

  1. Ecotoxicity and genotoxicity of cadmium in different marine trophic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlaki, Maria D; Araújo, Mário J; Cardoso, Diogo N; Silva, Ana Rita R; Cruz, Andreia; Mendo, Sónia; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Calado, Ricardo; Loureiro, Susana

    2016-08-01

    Cadmium ecotoxicity and genotoxicity was assessed in three representative species of different trophic levels of marine ecosystems - the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa, the decapod shrimp, Palaemon varians and the pleuronectiform fish Solea senegalensis. Ecotoxicity endpoints assessed in this study were adult survival, hatching success and larval development ratio (LDR) for A. tonsa, survival of the first larval stage (zoea I) and post-larvae of P. varians, egg and larvae survival, as well as the presence of malformations in the larval stage of S. senegalensis. In vivo genotoxicity was assessed on adult A. tonsa, the larval and postlarval stage of P. varians and newly hatched larvae of S. senegalensis using the comet assay. Results showed that the highest sensitivity to cadmium is displayed by A. tonsa, with the most sensitive endpoint being the LDR of nauplii to copepodites. Sole eggs displayed the highest tolerance to cadmium compared to the other endpoints evaluated for all tested species. Recorded cadmium toxicity was (by increasing order): S. senegalensis eggs < P. varians post-larvae < P. varians zoea I < S. senegalensis larvae < A. tonsa eggs < A. tonsa LDR. DNA damage to all species exposed to cadmium increased with increasing concentrations. Overall, understanding cadmium chemical speciation is paramount to reliably evaluate the effects of this metal in marine ecosystems. Cadmium is genotoxic to all three species tested and therefore may differentially impact individuals and populations of marine taxa. As A. tonsa was the most sensitive species and occupies a lower trophic level, it is likely that cadmium contamination may trigger bottom-up cascading effects in marine trophic interactions. PMID:27203468

  2. Plasmid-borne cadmium resistance genes in Listeria monocytogenes are similar to cadA and cadC of Staphylococcus aureus and are induced by cadmium.

    OpenAIRE

    Lebrun, M; AUDURIER, A.; Cossart, P

    1994-01-01

    pLm74 is the smallest known plasmid in Listeria monocytogenes. It confers resistance to the toxic divalent cation cadmium. It contains a 3.1-kb EcoRI fragment which hybridizes with the cadAC genes of plasmid pI258 of Staphylococcus aureus. When introduced into cadmium-sensitive L. monocytogenes or Bacillus subtilis strains, this fragment conferred cadmium resistance. The DNA sequence of the 3.1-kb EcoRI fragment contains two open reading frames, cadA and cadC. The deduced amino acid sequences...

  3. Curcumin regulates airway epithelial cell cytokine responses to the pollutant cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rennolds, Jessica; Malireddy, Smitha; Hassan, Fatemat; Tridandapani, Susheela; Parinandi, Narasimham [Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Boyaka, Prosper N. [Department of Veterinary Biosciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Cormet-Boyaka, Estelle, E-mail: Estelle.boyaka@osumc.edu [Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cadmium induces secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 by two distinct pathways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cadmium increases NAPDH oxidase activity leading to Erk activation and IL-8 secretion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Curcumin prevents cadmium-induced secretion of both IL-6 and IL-8 by airway cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Curcumin could be use to suppress lung inflammation due to cadmium inhalation. -- Abstract: Cadmium is a toxic metal present in the environment and its inhalation can lead to pulmonary disease such as lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These lung diseases are characterized by chronic inflammation. Here we show that exposure of human airway epithelial cells to cadmium promotes a polarized apical secretion of IL-6 and IL-8, two pivotal pro-inflammatory cytokines known to play an important role in pulmonary inflammation. We also determined that two distinct pathways controlled secretion of these proinflammatory cytokines by human airway epithelial cells as cadmium-induced IL-6 secretion occurs via an NF-{kappa}B dependent pathway, whereas IL-8 secretion involves the Erk1/2 signaling pathway. Interestingly, the natural antioxidant curcumin could prevent both cadmium-induced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion by human airway epithelial cells. In conclusion, curcumin could be used to prevent airway inflammation due to cadmium inhalation.

  4. Effects of cadmium on aneuploidy and hemocyte parameters in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, are commonly reared in estuaries where they are exposed to anthropogenic pollution. Much research has been made on the toxicity of cadmium to aquatic organisms because the compound recurrently contaminates their environment. Our study examined the influence of cadmium on aneuploidy level (lowered chromosome number in a percentage of somatic cells) and hemocyte parameters in C. gigas at different stages of life. Adults and juveniles were exposed to two different concentrations of cadmium. The first concentration applied was equivalent to a peak value found in Marennes-Oleron bay (Charente-Maritime, France; 50 ng L-1) and the second was 10 times higher (500 ng L-1). Exposure to 50 ng L-1 cadmium caused a significant decrease in the survival time of C. gigas, but exposure to 500 ng L-1 surprisingly affected the survival time positively. Significant differences in aneuploidy level were observed between the cadmium treatments and the control in adults but not in juveniles or the offspring of the adult groups. The effects of cadmium on hemocyte parameters were analyzed by flow cytometry. Several hemocyte parameters increased significantly after 21 days of cadmium exposure and subsequently decreased. Phenoloxidase-like activity, evaluated by spectrophotometry, varied over the time of the experiment and increased after 66 days of contact with 500 ng L-1 cadmium. Taken together, cadmium at environmentally relevant concentrations seems to have only moderate effects on aneuploidy and hemocyte parameters

  5. Curcumin regulates airway epithelial cell cytokine responses to the pollutant cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Cadmium induces secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 by two distinct pathways. ► Cadmium increases NAPDH oxidase activity leading to Erk activation and IL-8 secretion. ► Curcumin prevents cadmium-induced secretion of both IL-6 and IL-8 by airway cells. ► Curcumin could be use to suppress lung inflammation due to cadmium inhalation. -- Abstract: Cadmium is a toxic metal present in the environment and its inhalation can lead to pulmonary disease such as lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These lung diseases are characterized by chronic inflammation. Here we show that exposure of human airway epithelial cells to cadmium promotes a polarized apical secretion of IL-6 and IL-8, two pivotal pro-inflammatory cytokines known to play an important role in pulmonary inflammation. We also determined that two distinct pathways controlled secretion of these proinflammatory cytokines by human airway epithelial cells as cadmium-induced IL-6 secretion occurs via an NF-κB dependent pathway, whereas IL-8 secretion involves the Erk1/2 signaling pathway. Interestingly, the natural antioxidant curcumin could prevent both cadmium-induced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion by human airway epithelial cells. In conclusion, curcumin could be used to prevent airway inflammation due to cadmium inhalation.

  6. Impact of cadmium on the ecdysteroids production in Gammarus fossarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, Sondes; Abbaci, Khedidja Tair; Geffard, Olivier; Boumaiza, Moncef; Dumet, Adeline; Garric, Jeanne; Mondy, Nathalie

    2016-07-01

    Gammarus fossarum is an important test organism which is currently used as a bio-indicator as well as in ecotoxicological tests. Nevertheless, data on ecdysteroids in endocrine toxicity test are not yet available for these species, despite its crucial role in molting and reproduction. In the present paper, ecdysteroids concentrations were studied during the molt cycle (in females) and embryonic development in G. fossarum (Crustacea, Amphipoda) in order to propose an ecdysteroids toxicity test. Ecdysteroids levels in G. fossarum showed a single peak during premolt at stage Dl-D2. In embryos, ecdysteroids levels progressively increased over stages 3 and 4, with peak levels at stage 4. A Cadmium toxicity test was proposed to examine if the molting and embryogenesis disturbances previously observed after cadmium exposure (Geffard et al. 2010) could be attributed to changes in ecdysteroids titers. Exposure to the different cadmium concentrations (3; 9; 300; 900 µg/l) increased ecdysteroids secretion by Y-organs in vitro, but it had no significant effect on exposed embryos (in vivo). Based on previous findings, we are led to conclude that the molting impairments in cadmium-exposed females of G. fossarum is connected to the changes in ecdysteroids concentrations. PMID:26980586

  7. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) and cadmium selenide (CdSe) leaching behavior and surface chemistry in response to pH and O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chao; Ramos-Ruiz, Adriana; Field, Jim A; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes

    2015-05-01

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) and cadmium selenide (CdSe) are increasingly being applied in photovoltaic solar cells and electronic components. A major concern is the public health and ecological risks associated with the potential release of toxic cadmium, tellurium, and/or selenium species. In this study, different tests were applied to investigate the leaching behavior of CdTe and CdSe in solutions simulating landfill leachate. CdTe showed a comparatively high leaching potential. In the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and Waste Extraction Test (WET), the concentrations of cadmium released from CdTe were about 1500 and 260 times higher than the regulatory limit (1 mg/L). In contrast, CdSe was relatively stable and dissolved selenium in both leaching tests was below the regulatory limit (1 mg/L). Nonetheless, the regulatory limit for cadmium was exceeded by 5- to 6- fold in both tests. Experiments performed under different pH and redox conditions confirmed a marked enhancement in CdTe and CdSe dissolution both at acidic pH and under aerobic conditions. These findings are in agreement with thermodynamic predictions. Taken as a whole, the results indicate that recycling of decommissioned CdTe-containing devices is desirable to prevent the potential environmental release of toxic cadmium and tellurium in municipal landfills. PMID:25710599

  8. Selection and breeding of plant cultivars to minimize cadmium accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural variation occurs in the uptake and distribution of essential and nonessential trace elements among crop species and among cultivars within species. Such variation can be responsible for trace element deficiencies and toxicities, which in turn can affect the quality of food. Plant breeding can be an important tool to both increase the concentration of desirable trace elements and reduce that of potentially harmful trace elements such as cadmium (Cd). Selection programs for a low-Cd content of various crops, including durum wheat, sunflower, rice and soybean have been established and low-Cd durum wheat cultivars and sunflower hybrids have been developed. In durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum), low-Cd concentration is controlled by a single dominant gene. The trait is highly heritable, and incorporation of the low-Cd allele can help to reduce the average grain Cd to levels below proposed international limits. The allele for low-Cd concentration does not appear to affect major economic traits and should not cause problems when incorporated into durum cultivars. The cost of Cd selection in a breeding program is initially large both in terms of Cd determination and reduced progress towards development of other economic traits, but declines as more breeding lines in the program carry the low-Cd trait and are utilized in new crosses. Production of low-Cd crop cultivars can be used as a tool to reduce the risk of movement of Cd into the human diet

  9. Soil ecotoxicity assessment using cadmium sensitive plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crop plants, sorghum and cucumber, can be used as indicator species to assess ecotoxicity of soils contaminated by cadmium. - Four crop plant species (sweet corn, Zea may; wheat, Triticum aestivum; cucumber, Cucumis sativus; and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor) were tested to assess an ecotoxicity in cadmium-amended soils. The measurement endpoints used were seed germination and seedling growth (shoot and root). The presence of cadmium decreased the seedling growth. The medium effective concentration values (EC50) for shoot or root growth were calculated by the Trimmed Spearman-Karber method. Due to the greater accumulation of Cd to the roots, root growth was a more sensitive endpoint than shoot growth. Bioavailability and transport of Cd within plant were related to concentration and species. The ratio of bioaccumulation factor (BAF) in the shoots to the roots indicated high immobilization of Cd in the roots. Seed germination was insensitive to Cd toxicity, and is not recommended for a suitable assay. Among the test plants and test endpoints, root growth of sorghum and cucumber appears to be a good protocol to assess ecotoxicity of soils contaminated by Cd

  10. Soil ecotoxicity assessment using cadmium sensitive plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Youn-Joo

    2004-01-01

    The crop plants, sorghum and cucumber, can be used as indicator species to assess ecotoxicity of soils contaminated by cadmium. - Four crop plant species (sweet corn, Zea may; wheat, Triticum aestivum; cucumber, Cucumis sativus; and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor) were tested to assess an ecotoxicity in cadmium-amended soils. The measurement endpoints used were seed germination and seedling growth (shoot and root). The presence of cadmium decreased the seedling growth. The medium effective concentration values (EC50) for shoot or root growth were calculated by the Trimmed Spearman-Karber method. Due to the greater accumulation of Cd to the roots, root growth was a more sensitive endpoint than shoot growth. Bioavailability and transport of Cd within plant were related to concentration and species. The ratio of bioaccumulation factor (BAF) in the shoots to the roots indicated high immobilization of Cd in the roots. Seed germination was insensitive to Cd toxicity, and is not recommended for a suitable assay. Among the test plants and test endpoints, root growth of sorghum and cucumber appears to be a good protocol to assess ecotoxicity of soils contaminated by Cd.

  11. Influence of cadmium exposure on selected hematological parameters in freshwater teleost, Notemigonus crysoleucas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, W.H.; Baer, K.N.; Stackhouse, R.A.; Watson, C.F.

    1987-02-01

    The use of hematological parameters for assessing the acute toxicity of heavy metals to mammals has shown considerable promise. These parameters include the measurement of blood glucose, hematocrit, and a variety of enzymes. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the use of selected hematological parameters in aquatic organisms. Exposure of Notemigonus crysoleucas to cadmium resulted in a 96-hr /sup LC/50 value of 3.15 mg Cd/liter. The influence of cadmium on selected hematological parameters was examined following 96 hr of exposure to 0, 1.35, and 2.40 mg Cd/liter. Cadmium exposure produced significant alterations in the levels of glucose, aspartate aminotransaminase, and alanine aminotransaminase. Hematocrit was not altered by exposure to cadmium. These results indicate that glucose and transaminases may be useful as diagnostic tests for cadmium exposure in aquatic organisms.

  12. Nephrotoxicity of cadmium & lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonick, H C

    2008-10-01

    Cadmium and lead are divalent cations with a propensity to settle in the proximal tubule of the nephron, leading to nephrotoxicity. The pathophysiological results, however, tend to diverge. Cadmium in sufficient cumulative dosage leads to the production of the Fanconi syndrome, a generalized proximal tubular reabsorptive defect thought to be related to inhibition of both ATP production and Na-K-ATPase activity. On the other hand, lead accumulation in the proximal tubule leads to hyperuricaemia and gout, presumably by inhibiting uric acid secretion, and diminished glomerular filteration rate (GFR). Fanconi syndrome is seen unusually only in children and experimental animals. Cadmium nephrotoxicity is heralded by increased excretion of beta2-microglobulin, retinol binding protein and alpha1-microglobulin, indicative of decreased proximal tubule function. Beta2-microglobulinuria is not found in lead nephropathy. In lead nephropathy albuminuria is absent or minimal whereas in cadmium nephropathy albuminuria is variable. From the standpoint of pathology, both entities are characterized by tubulointerstitial disease and fibrosis, but only early lead nephropathy is characterized by the presence of proximal tubule nuclear inclusion bodies, due to the combination of lead with a lead binding-protein. PMID:19106433

  13. Normal tissue toxicity of upper hemibody irradiation (UHBI) when used as a non-cross resistant agent in combination with chemotherapy in the treatment of small cell lung cancer (SCLC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies at this Institute have investigated the use of HBI as a consolidation agent in the treatment of SCLC. The present Phase I-II study investigates the toxicity and efficacy of UHBI used as a non-cross resistant alternating agent with chemotherapy early in the induction phase of treatment of all stages of SCLC. Toxicity due to the combined effects of chemotherapy plus UHBI is reported as well as effects on bone marrow, lungs and GI tract. The increased incidence of pneumonitis observed in the present study points to a possible interaction of these modalities when HBI is being used as an alternating agent with Cisplatin and Adriamycin

  14. Interaction between cadmium and iron. Accumulation and distribution of metals and changes in growth parameters of Phaseolus vulgaris L. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Siedlecka

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between cadmium, one of the most toxic heavy metals, and iron, an essential plant nutritional element, was investigated in Phaseolus vulgaris L. (cv. Słowianka seedlings. The interaction was externally induced by changing the content of both metals in the nutrient medium. Under iron deficiency conditions (0 and 0.5 of normal dose of this element, the toxic effects of cadmium on plant growth parameters, like fresh and dry weight accumulation, primary leaves area, etc., were generally much more pronounced than under normal iron supply. At normal and excess iron supply (1, 2 and 4 doses cadmium diminished iron accumulation in roots and primary leaves, but on the other hand excess iron decreased cadmium level, preventing plants from extreme toxicity of very high cadmium concentrations in the growth environment. It is to be noted that iron is classified also as a heavy metal, and its excess may become toxic, e.g. decreasing root dry weight or diminishing leaf area, especially at the highest dose. The detoxication role of iron against cadmium, and possibly other toxic metals is, however, limited to concentrations of this element in the nutrient solution which themselves are not toxic for the organism.

  15. Higher sensitivity to cadmium induced cell death of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons: A cholinesterase dependent mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium is an environmental pollutant, which is a cause of concern because it can be greatly concentrated in the organism causing severe damage to a variety of organs including the nervous system which is one of the most affected. Cadmium has been reported to produce learning and memory dysfunctions and Alzheimer like symptoms, though the mechanism is unknown. On the other hand, cholinergic system in central nervous system (CNS) is implicated on learning and memory regulation, and it has been reported that cadmium can affect cholinergic transmission and it can also induce selective toxicity on cholinergic system at peripheral level, producing cholinergic neurons loss, which may explain cadmium effects on learning and memory processes if produced on central level. The present study is aimed at researching the selective neurotoxicity induced by cadmium on cholinergic system in CNS. For this purpose we evaluated, in basal forebrain region, the cadmium toxic effects on neuronal viability and the cholinergic mechanisms related to it on NS56 cholinergic mourine septal cell line. This study proves that cadmium induces a more pronounced, but not selective, cell death on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) on cholinergic neurons. Moreover, MTT and LDH assays showed a dose dependent decrease of cell viability in NS56 cells. The ACh treatment of SN56 cells did not revert cell viability reduction induced by cadmium, but siRNA transfection against AChE partially reduced it. Our present results provide new understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the harmful effects of cadmium on the function and viability of neurons, and the possible relevance of cadmium in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases

  16. Kidney function and blood pressure in preschool-aged children exposed to cadmium and arsenic - potential alleviation by selenium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skröder, Helena [Unit of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Hawkesworth, Sophie [Medical Research Council (MRC), International Nutrition Group, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK. (United Kingdom); Kippler, Maria [Unit of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); El Arifeen, Shams [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), Dhaka (Bangladesh); Wagatsuma, Yukiko [Department of Clinical Trial and Clinical Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan. (Japan); Moore, Sophie E. [MRC Human Nutrition Research, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Vahter, Marie, E-mail: marie.vahter@ki.se [Unit of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-07-15

    Background: Early-life exposure to toxic compounds may cause long-lasting health effects, but few studies have investigated effects of childhood exposure to nephrotoxic metals on kidney and cardiovascular function. Objectives: To assess effects of exposure to arsenic and cadmium on kidney function and blood pressure in pre-school-aged children, and potential protection by selenium. Methods: This cross-sectional study was part of the 4.5 years of age (range: 4.4–5.4 years) follow-up of the children from a supplementation trial in pregnancy (MINIMat) in rural Bangladesh, and nested studies on early-life metal exposures. Exposure to arsenic, cadmium and selenium from food and drinking water was assessed by concentrations in children's urine, measured by ICP-MS. Kidney function was assessed by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, n=1106), calculated from serum cystatin C, and by kidney volume, measured by ultrasound (n=375). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was measured (n=1356) after five minutes rest. Results: Multivariable-adjusted regression analyzes showed that exposure to cadmium, but not arsenic, was inversely associated with eGFR, particularly in girls. A 0.5 µg/L increase in urinary cadmium among the girls (above spline knot at 0.12) was associated with a decrease in eGFR of 2.6 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2}, corresponding to 0.2SD (p=0.022). A slightly weaker inverse association with cadmium was also indicated for kidney volume, but no significant associations were found with blood pressure. Stratifying on children's urinary selenium (below or above median of 12.6 µg/L) showed a three times stronger inverse association of U-Cd with eGFR (all children) in the lower selenium stratum (B=−2.8; 95% CI: −5.5, −0.20; p=0.035), compared to those with higher selenium (B=−0.79; 95% CI: −3.0, 1.4; p=0.49). Conclusions: Childhood cadmium exposure seems to adversely affect kidney function, but not blood pressure, in this population of young

  17. Kidney function and blood pressure in preschool-aged children exposed to cadmium and arsenic - potential alleviation by selenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Early-life exposure to toxic compounds may cause long-lasting health effects, but few studies have investigated effects of childhood exposure to nephrotoxic metals on kidney and cardiovascular function. Objectives: To assess effects of exposure to arsenic and cadmium on kidney function and blood pressure in pre-school-aged children, and potential protection by selenium. Methods: This cross-sectional study was part of the 4.5 years of age (range: 4.4–5.4 years) follow-up of the children from a supplementation trial in pregnancy (MINIMat) in rural Bangladesh, and nested studies on early-life metal exposures. Exposure to arsenic, cadmium and selenium from food and drinking water was assessed by concentrations in children's urine, measured by ICP-MS. Kidney function was assessed by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, n=1106), calculated from serum cystatin C, and by kidney volume, measured by ultrasound (n=375). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was measured (n=1356) after five minutes rest. Results: Multivariable-adjusted regression analyzes showed that exposure to cadmium, but not arsenic, was inversely associated with eGFR, particularly in girls. A 0.5 µg/L increase in urinary cadmium among the girls (above spline knot at 0.12) was associated with a decrease in eGFR of 2.6 ml/min/1.73 m2, corresponding to 0.2SD (p=0.022). A slightly weaker inverse association with cadmium was also indicated for kidney volume, but no significant associations were found with blood pressure. Stratifying on children's urinary selenium (below or above median of 12.6 µg/L) showed a three times stronger inverse association of U-Cd with eGFR (all children) in the lower selenium stratum (B=−2.8; 95% CI: −5.5, −0.20; p=0.035), compared to those with higher selenium (B=−0.79; 95% CI: −3.0, 1.4; p=0.49). Conclusions: Childhood cadmium exposure seems to adversely affect kidney function, but not blood pressure, in this population of young

  18. A major gene for grain cadmium accumulation in oat

    OpenAIRE

    Tanhuanpää, Pirjo; Kalendar, Ruslan; Schulman, Alan; Kiviharju, Elina

    2008-01-01

    A population of 150 F2 plants was derived from a cross between two spring oat individuals, one from cv. Aslak (Boreal Plant Breeding LTd., Finland) and the other from cv. Salo (Svalöf-Weibull AB, Sweden). Cadmium was tested by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method.

  19. Isolation and genetic analysis of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii strains resistant to cadmium.

    OpenAIRE

    Collard, J. M.; Matagne, R. F.

    1990-01-01

    In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, cadmium induces reduction of growth, reduction of chlorophyll content, and lethality. The toxicity was higher in a cell wall-deficient strain than in the wild type. By growing the cells on agar medium containing cadmium at concentrations inducing high lethality, stable resistant clones were isolated. The resistance was due to a nuclear mutation (cadAR) which probably preexisted in the wild-type cell population, as suggested by the fluctuation test. A double mutan...

  20. Accumulation of Cadmium and Lead in Soils and Vegetables of Lenjanat Region in Isfahan Province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Salehi M. H.; Mohajer R.; Mohammadi J.

    2013-01-01

    Various heavy metals have been reported as dangerous agents to the human health and wildlife when they occur in the environment at high concentrations. Cadmium and lead compounds are classified as human carcinogens by several regulatory agencies. Vegetables grown at environmentally contaminated sites could take up and accumulate metals at concentrations that are probably toxic to human health. In this study, concentrations of cadmium and lead in some of vegetables and soil samples were invest...

  1. THE COMPARISON OF SUSCEPTIBILITY OF CHICKEN AND DUCK EMBRYOS TO CADMIUM DURING IN OVO EXPOSURE

    OpenAIRE

    Dżugan M.; Lis M.; Głodek K.; Droba M.; Niedziółka J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium gives a real threat for living organisms due to its enhancing environmental contamination, a unique ability to bioaccumulation and multidirectional toxic effects. All birds are exposed to cadmium in their natural habitats, but in the case of water fowl the exposure seems to be much higher as a result of the contact with polluted bottom sediments. It is confirmed that reproductive disturbances of wild waterfowl have this etiology and avian eggs are considered to be sensitive indicators...

  2. Striking association between urinary cadmium level and albuminuria among Torres Strait Islander people with diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: Indigenous people of the Torres Strait (Australia) have greater potential for cadmium exposure and renal damage than other Australians due to high cadmium in some traditional seafood and a high prevalence of Type 2 diabetes, hypertension, smoking, and obesity. This study explored associations between albuminuria and an index of cadmium exposure (urinary cadmium excretion) in the presence and absence of Type 2 diabetes. Research design and methods: Two population-based, cross-sectional studies were undertaken in the Torres Strait to obtain data on body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, chronic disease, smoking, urinary cadmium, and albumin creatinine ratio (ACR). Results: Age- and BMI-adjusted urinary cadmium levels were significantly higher (p<0.01) among people with diabetes and albuminuria (n=22, geometric mean (GM) 1.91 μg Cd/g creatinine) compared to those with diabetes and normal ACR (n=21, GM 0.74 μg Cd/g creatinine). Urinary cadmium was also strongly associated (p<0.001) with ACR among people with diabetes in regression models and remained significant after controlling for age, sex, BMI, smoking status, and hypertension (or continuous systolic and diastolic measurements). Conclusions: While the study has methodological limitations and the nature of the association is unclear, the striking dose-dependent links between markers of cadmium exposure and of Type 2 diabetic nephropathy highlight the need for further definitive research on the health effects of cadmium in the presence of diabetes

  3. Uptake of Cadmium by Lemna minor, a (hyper?-) accumulator plant involved in phytoremediation applications

    OpenAIRE

    Bianconi D.; Pietrini F.; Massacci A.; Iannelli M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Metal pollution in waters and soils is a major environmental and human health problem. Cadmium (Cd2+) is a heavy metal displaying toxic effects in plants. In this work we studied the potentiality of Lemna minor, a monocotyledonous aquatic macrophyte, to phytoremediate cadmium-polluted waters. The plants were exposed to different cadmium concentrations 0, 13, 22 and 46μM CdSO4 for a period of 24, 48 and 72 hours. Relative growth rates (RGR), bioconcentration factor (BCF), tolerance index (Ti),...

  4. Contacting cadmium deposition from spent industrial solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium metal deposition from spent industrial solutions by cadmium (2) reduction with dispersed aluminium is studied. The influence of temperature, reagent concentration and the presence of complexing agents on the yield and purity of isolated cadmium metal is examined

  5. Cadmium minimization in wheat: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Abbas, Tahir; Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Hannan, Fakhir; Keller, Catherine; Al-Wabel, Mohammad I; Ok, Yong Sik

    2016-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) accumulation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and its subsequent transfer to food chain is a major environmental issue worldwide. Understanding wheat response to Cd stress and its management for aiming to reduce Cd uptake and accumulation in wheat may help to improve wheat growth and grain quality. This paper reviewed the toxic effects, tolerance mechanisms, and management of Cd stress in wheat. It was concluded that Cd decreased germination, growth, mineral nutrients, photosynthesis and grain yield of wheat and plant response to Cd toxicity varies with cultivars, growth conditions and duration of stress applied. Cadmium caused oxidative stress and genotoxicity in wheat plants. Stimulation of antioxidant defense system, osmoregulation, ion homeostasis and over production of signalling molecules are important adaptive strategies of wheat under Cd stress. Exogenous application of plant growth regulators, inorganic amendments, proper fertilization, silicon, and organic, manures and biochar, amendments are commonly used for the reduction of Cd uptake in wheat. Selection of low Cd-accumulating wheat cultivars, crop rotation, soil type, and exogenous application of microbes are among the other agronomic practices successfully employed in reducing Cd uptake by wheat. These management practices could enhance wheat tolerance to Cd stress and reduce the transfer of Cd to the food chain. However, their long-term sustainability in reducing Cd uptake by wheat needs further assessment. PMID:27062345

  6. Raman spectra and cross sections of ammonia, chlorine, hydrogen sulfide, phosgene, and sulfur dioxide toxic gases in the fingerprint region 400-1400 cm−1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Aggarwal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Raman spectra of ammonia (NH3, chlorine (Cl2, hydrogen sulfide (H2S, phosgene (COCl2, and sulfur dioxide (SO2 toxic gases have been measured in the fingerprint region 400-1400 cm−1. A relatively compact (<2′x2′x2′, sensitive, 532 nm 10 W CW Raman system with double-pass laser and double-sided collection was used for these measurements. Two Raman modes are observed at 934 and 967 cm−1 in NH3. Three Raman modes are observed in Cl2 at 554, 547, and 539 cm−1, which are due to the 35/35 35/37, and 37/37 Cl isotopes, respectively. Raman modes are observed at 870, 570, and 1151 cm−1 in H2S, COCl2, and SO2, respectively. Values of 3.68 ± 0.26x10−32 cm2/sr (3.68 ± 0.26x10−36 m2/sr, 1.37 ± 0.10x10−30 cm2/sr (1.37 ± 0.10x10−34 m2/sr, 3.25 ± 0.23x10−31 cm2/sr (3.25 ± 0.23x10−35 m2/sr, 1.63 ± 0.14x10−30 cm2/sr (1.63 ± 0.14x10−34 m2/sr, and 3.08 ± 0.22x10−30 cm2/sr (and 3.08 ± 0.22x10−34 m2/sr were determined for the differential Raman cross section of the 967 cm−1 mode of NH3, sum of the 554, 547, and 539 cm−1 modes of Cl2, 870 cm−1 mode of H2S, 570 cm−1 mode of COCl2, and 1151 cm-1 mode of SO2, respectively, using the differential Raman cross section of 3.56 ± 0.14x10−31 cm2/sr (3.56 ± 0.14x10−35 m2/sr for the 1285 cm−1 mode of CO2 as the reference.

  7. Raman spectra and cross sections of ammonia, chlorine, hydrogen sulfide, phosgene, and sulfur dioxide toxic gases in the fingerprint region 400-1400 cm-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, R. L.; Farrar, L. W.; Di Cecca, S.; Jeys, T. H.

    2016-02-01

    Raman spectra of ammonia (NH3), chlorine (Cl2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), phosgene (COCl2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) toxic gases have been measured in the fingerprint region 400-1400 cm-1. A relatively compact (<2'x2'x2'), sensitive, 532 nm 10 W CW Raman system with double-pass laser and double-sided collection was used for these measurements. Two Raman modes are observed at 934 and 967 cm-1 in NH3. Three Raman modes are observed in Cl2 at 554, 547, and 539 cm-1, which are due to the 35/35 35/37, and 37/37 Cl isotopes, respectively. Raman modes are observed at 870, 570, and 1151 cm-1 in H2S, COCl2, and SO2, respectively. Values of 3.68 ± 0.26x10-32 cm2/sr (3.68 ± 0.26x10-36 m2/sr), 1.37 ± 0.10x10-30 cm2/sr (1.37 ± 0.10x10-34 m2/sr), 3.25 ± 0.23x10-31 cm2/sr (3.25 ± 0.23x10-35 m2/sr), 1.63 ± 0.14x10-30 cm2/sr (1.63 ± 0.14x10-34 m2/sr), and 3.08 ± 0.22x10-30 cm2/sr (and 3.08 ± 0.22x10-34 m2/sr) were determined for the differential Raman cross section of the 967 cm-1 mode of NH3, sum of the 554, 547, and 539 cm-1 modes of Cl2, 870 cm-1 mode of H2S, 570 cm-1 mode of COCl2, and 1151 cm-1 mode of SO2, respectively, using the differential Raman cross section of 3.56 ± 0.14x10-31 cm2/sr (3.56 ± 0.14x10-35 m2/sr) for the 1285 cm-1 mode of CO2 as the reference.

  8. Effect of Cadmium Chloride on Metallothionein Levels in Carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kovarova

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to anthropogenic activities, heavy metals still represent a threat for various trophic levels. If aquatic animals are exposed to heavy metals, we can obviously observe considerable toxicity. It is well known that organisms treated with heavy metals synthesize low molecular mass compounds rich in cysteine. In this work the effects of cadmium chloride (2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 and 12.5 mg/L on common carp (Cyprinus carpio was investigated. We determined cadmium content in tissue of muscle, liver and kidney by atomic absorption spectrometry with electrothermal atomization and content of metallothionein (MT in the same tissues by the Brdicka reaction. Electrochemical methods can be considered as suitable and sensitive tools for MT determination in carp tissues. Results of our study showed a gradually enhancing of cadmium content in muscle with time and dose of cadmium chloride in water. MT levels in liver reached both high levels (above 130 ng/g in fish exposed to 2.5, 5 and 7.5 mg/L and low level (to 50 ng/g in fish exposed to 10 and 12.5 mg/L of cadmium chloride. This finding confirms that the synthesis of metallothioneins and binding capacity of these proteins is restricted.

  9. Removal of cadmium ions from wastewater using innovative electronic waste-derived material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A novel developed adsorbent material derived from waste printed circuit boards’ component. • The innovative adsorbent material can effectively remove cadmium ions from aqueous solutions. • The maximum capacity for cadmium ion removal is 2.1 mmol/g. • Cadmium removal capacity is either equivalent or better than commercial resins. - Abstract: Cadmium is a highly toxic heavy metal even at a trace level. In this study, a novel material derived from waste PCBs has been applied as an adsorbent to remove cadmium ions from aqueous solutions. The effects of various factors including contact time, initial cadmium ion concentration, pH and adsorbent dosage have been evaluated. The maximum uptake capacity of the newly derived material for cadmium ions has reached 2.1 mmol/g at an initial pH 4. This value shows that this material can effectively remove cadmium ions from effluent. The equilibrium isotherm has been analyzed using several isotherm equations and is best described by the Redlich–Peterson model. Furthermore, different commercial adsorbent resins have been studied for comparison purposes. The results further confirm that this activated material is highly competitive with its commercial counterparts

  10. Process for removing and detoxifying cadmium from scrap metal including mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium-bearing scrap from nuclear applications, such as neutron shielding and reactor control and safety rods, must usually be handled as mixed waste since it is radioactive and the cadmium in it is both leachable and highly toxic. Removing the cadmium from this scrap, and converting it to a nonleachable and minimally radioactive form, would greatly simplify disposal or recycling. A process now under development will do this by shredding the scrap; leaching it with reagents which selectively dissolve out the cadmium; reprecipitating the cadmium as its highly insoluble sulfide; then fusing the sulfide into a glassy matrix to bring its leachability below EPA limits before disposal. Alternatively, the cadmium may be recovered for reuse. A particular advantage of the process is that all reagents (except the glass frit) can easily be recovered and reused in a nearly closed cycle, minimizing the risk of radioactive release. The process does not harm common metals such as aluminum, iron and stainless steel, and is also applicable to non-nuclear cadmium-bearing scrap such as nickel-cadmium batteries

  11. Cadmium analysis using field deployable nano-band electrode system and its removal using electrocoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttula, Mallikarjuna Murthy

    Cadmium (Cd) is an extremely toxic metal commonly found in industrial workplaces. Major industrial releases of Cd stem from waste streams, leaching of landfills, and from a variety of operations that involve cadmium or zinc. Particularly, cadmium can be released to drinking water from the corrosion of some galvanized plumbing and water main pipe materials. The United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has set the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for cadmium at 5 ppb. Long term exposure of cadmium above the MCL results in kidney, liver, bone and blood damage. An accurate and rapid measurement of cadmium in the field remains a technical challenge. In this work, a relatively new method of a Nano-Band Electrode system using anodic stripping voltammetry was optimized by changing deposition potential, electrolyte, and plating time. We efficiently used Electrocoagulation remove cadmium from wastewater and obtained a removal efficiency of +/-99%. Removal mechanism of cadmium in electrocoagulation was also proposed with the help of X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Attenuated Total Reflection - Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (SEM-EDS).

  12. Dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake modifies the effect of cadmium exposure on markers of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Colacino, Justin A.; Arthur, Anna E.; Ferguson, Kelly K.; Rozek, Laura S.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic cadmium exposure may cause disease through induction of systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. Factors that mitigate cadmium toxicity and could serve as interventions in exposed populations have not been well characterized. We used data from the 2003–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to quantify diet’s role in modifying associations between cadmium exposure and oxidative stress and inflammation. We created a composite antioxidant and anti-inflammatory diet sco...

  13. Cadmium sulfite hexahydrate revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Baggio

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The present structural revision of the title compound, tetracadmium tetrasulfite hexahydrate, [Cd4(SO34(H2O5]·H2O, is a low-temperature upgrade (T = 100 K and R = 0.017 of the original room-temperature structure reported by Kiers & Vos [Cryst. Struct. Commun. (1978. 7, 399–403; T = 293 K and R = 0.080. The compound is a three-dimensional polymer with four independent cadmium centres, four sulfite anions and six water molecules, five of them coordinated to two cadmium centres and the remaining one an unbound solvent molecule which completes the asymmetric unit. There are two types of cadmium environment: CdO8 (through four chelating sulfite ligands and CdO6 (by way of six monocoordinated ligands. The former groups form planar arrays [parallel to (001 and separated by half a unit cell translation along c], made up of chains running along [110] and [overline{1}10], respectively. These chains are, in turn, interconnected both in an intraplanar as well as in an interplanar fashion by the latter CdO6 polyhedra into a tight three-dimensional framework. There is, in addition, an extensive network of hydrogen bonds, in which all 12 water H atoms act as donors and eight O atoms from all four sulfite groups and two water molecules act as acceptors.

  14. Experimental study, in rat wistar, of cadmium distribution and elimination as a function of administration route. Cadmium 109 maximum permissible concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The absorption and the elimination of cadmium have been investigated in rats wistar after oral administration or after inhalation. Before studying gastro-intestinal absorption, it appeared necessary to precise acute toxicity of orally administred cadmium. The distribution of cadmium within organes was determined following a single or multiple oral doses, and we specially studied retention of a Cd dose ingested after several weeks of treatment with Cd-Acetate. Pulmonary and gastro-intestinal absorption of cadmium after ihalation of Cd-microparticles were studied. Data obtained from these studies on rats and extrapolated to man were used to calculate mximum permissible concentration (M.P.C.) of Cd-109 in water and in air

  15. Effect of cadmium on protein synthesis in gill tissue of marine mollusc Mytilus edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussels have a high capacity to accumulate cadmium and other heavy metals without notable toxic effects. However, they have recently found that cadmium is toxic to M. edulis at a relatively low concentration, as anoxic survival time of the animals was significantly shortened after two weeks of exposure to 50 ppb Cd. Based on this finding, a research was started to study the toxic effects of cadmium at a macromolecular level (proteins, RNA). Mussels were exposed to 250 ppb Cd for short periods. Then excised gills were incubated with 35s-methionine for 4 hours. In the gill tissue of 7 and 15 days Cd-exposed animals, a significantly decrease in the incorporation rate of the introduced label was found of 30 and 37%, respectively. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the de novo synthesized gill tissue proteins

  16. in situ immobilization of Cadmium and zinc in contaminated soils

    OpenAIRE

    Osté, L. A.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords: beringite, cadmium, DOC, DOM, earthworms, immobilization, leaching, lime, manganese oxides, metal binding, metal uptake, organic matter partitioning, pH, soil contamination, remediation, sorption, Swiss chard, zeolites, zinc.It is generally assumed that a decrease in metal concentration in the soil solution reduces metal leaching, and metal uptake by and toxicity to plants and soil organisms. In situ immobilization is a soil remediation technique that aims at reducing the metal conc...

  17. A Review of Molecular Events of Cadmium-Induced Carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Luevano, Joe; Damodaran, Chendil

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic, heavy industrial metal that poses serious environmental health hazards to both humans and wildlife. Lately, Cd and Cd containing compounds have been classified as known human carcinogens and epidemiological data show causal associations with prostate, breast and lung cancer. The molecular mechanisms involved in Cd-induced carcinogenesis are poorly understood and are only now beginning to be elucidated. The effects of chronic exposure to Cd have recently become of grea...

  18. Efeitos do cádmio sobre o crescimento das leveduras Saccharomyces cerevisiae PE-2 e Saccharomyces cerevisiae IZ-1904, e a capacidade da vinhaça em atenuar a toxicidade Effect of cadmium on the growth of two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, and the vinasse capacity to atenuate the toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Mariano-da-Silva

    2004-03-01

    , minimizando os efeitos deletérios do metal.The present study was carried out in order to evaluate the capability of different cadmium concentration (0; 0,05, 0,10 and 0,50mM to affect the growth of two S. cerevisiae strains (PE-2 and IZ-1904 in YED (yeast extract 1% and dextrose 2% medium, and to evaluate the three vinasse concentration capability (0,15 and 30% to attenuate the two cadmium concentration toxicity (0,1 and 0,5mM, using S. cerevisiae PE-2 strain in YED medium. In the first assay, the medium was inoculated in aseptic conditions with 1mL of 1% yeast suspension (PE-2 or IZ-1904 and incubated at 30ºC, 70 RPM for 18 hours. During anaerobic growth (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 and 18 hours, portions of cell suspension were taken out and biomass concentration was determined. At the end of fermentation, yeast viability, budding rate and bacterial contamination were determined. Both, initial and final trehalose, was measured. In the second assay, the medium was inoculated in aseptic conditions with 2mL of 1% PE-2 suspension and incubated at 30ºC, 120 rpm for 18 hours. During the anaerobic growth (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12,14, 16 and 18 hours portions of cell suspension were taken out and biomass concentration was determined. At the end of fermentation, alcohol production, yeast viability, budding rate and bacterial contamination were determined. Both, initial and final trehalose, was measured. The increase of cadmium levels showed a reduction on yeast growth and cell viability. Vinasse showed low toxicity, but protected yeast cells very effectively against the toxic effects of cadmium.

  19. Blood cadmium concentration and lipid profile in Korean adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure induces alterations in lipid profiles, no epidemiological study of this relationship has been performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between blood cadmium concentration and blood lipid levels in Korean adults. A cross-sectional study comprising participants (n=3903) aged 20 years or older from the 2005, 2008, and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted. Demographic characteristics and dietary intake were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and cadmium and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors, blood concentration of cadmium was positively associated with the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner (p for trend <0.001). In addition, the odds ratios (ORs) of a high triglyceride to HDL-C ratio was significantly increased in the high blood cadmium groups [OR=1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03–1.79 for fourth quintile and OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.07–1.86 for fifth quintile] compared with the lowest quintile group. However, high blood cadmium was not associated with a risk of high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high triglycerides. These data suggest that an increased cadmium body burden increases the risk of dyslipidemia, mainly due to the increased risk of low HDL-C and the high ratio of triglycerides to HDL-C.

  20. Subcellular targets of cadmium nephrotoxicity: cadmium binding to renal membrane proteins in animals with or without protective metallothionein synthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Nordberg, G F; Jin, T; Nordberg, M.

    1994-01-01

    Nephrotoxic effects of cadmium exposure are well established in humans and experimental animals. An early manifestation of such toxicity is calciuria a few hours after injection of CdMT in rats. Protection against calciuria and other adverse effects such as proteinuria (occurring later) is offered by pretreatment with Cd, which effectively induces metallothionein synthesis. In the present experiment, one group of animals was given pretreatment with CdCl2 to induce metallothionein synthesis. T...

  1. Assessment of Toxic Metals and feed habits of the snail Pomacea specie from the Amatitlan Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present thesis an assesment of cadmium, cooper, cromium VI, and lead was made in samples of snail pomacea specie from the Amatitlan Lake. We conclude that the comsuption of this mollusk is toxic for human health. The concentration of heavy metals like cadmium, cooper shows that are not recomended for human comsuption according to Spanish and FAO/PAHO standards

  2. Cadmium in blood and hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eum, Ki-Do; Lee, Mi-Sun [Department of Environmental Health, Graduate School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paek, Domyung [Department of Environmental Health, Graduate School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: paekdm@snu.ac.kr

    2008-12-15

    Objectives:: This study is to examine the effect of cadmium exposure on blood pressure in Korean general population. Methods:: The study population consisted of 958 men and 944 women who participated in the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), in which blood pressure and blood cadmium were measured from each participant. Results:: The mean blood cadmium level was 1.67 {mu}g/L (median level 1.55). The prevalence of hypertension was 26.2%. The blood cadmium level was significantly higher among those subjects with hypertension than those without (mean level 1.77 versus 1.64 {mu}g/dL). After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratio of hypertension comparing the highest to the lowest tertile of cadmium in blood was 1.51 (95% confidence interval 1.13 to 2.05), and a dose-response relationship was observed. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure were all positively associated with blood cadmium level, and this effect of cadmium on blood pressure was markedly stronger when the kidney function was reduced. Conclusions:: Cadmium exposures at the current level may have increased the blood pressure of Korean general population.

  3. Cadmium in blood and hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives:: This study is to examine the effect of cadmium exposure on blood pressure in Korean general population. Methods:: The study population consisted of 958 men and 944 women who participated in the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), in which blood pressure and blood cadmium were measured from each participant. Results:: The mean blood cadmium level was 1.67 μg/L (median level 1.55). The prevalence of hypertension was 26.2%. The blood cadmium level was significantly higher among those subjects with hypertension than those without (mean level 1.77 versus 1.64 μg/dL). After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratio of hypertension comparing the highest to the lowest tertile of cadmium in blood was 1.51 (95% confidence interval 1.13 to 2.05), and a dose-response relationship was observed. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure were all positively associated with blood cadmium level, and this effect of cadmium on blood pressure was markedly stronger when the kidney function was reduced. Conclusions:: Cadmium exposures at the current level may have increased the blood pressure of Korean general population

  4. Projectbeschrijving Cadmium-informatiepunt (CIP)

    OpenAIRE

    Meijer PJ

    1989-01-01

    To minimize the use of cadmium the Central Government has decided to perform the purchase of products and materials within the Central Government as much as possible within the Draft Cadmium Decree. The activities to achieve this are as far as could be seen at the start of the project in june 1989, mentioned in this report.

  5. The relationship between observer-based toxicity scoring and patient assessed symptom severity after treatment for head and neck cancer. A correlative cross sectional study of the DAHANCA toxicity scoring system and the EORTC quality of life questionnaires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Morbidity is an important issue in cancer research. The observer-based toxicity scoring system used by DAHANCA (the Danish head and neck cancer study group) has proved itself sensitive to differences in toxicity in a large randomised study, but like other toxicity scoring systems it has not been formally validated. Conversely, the EORTC quality of life questionnaire (QLQ) has been validated as a tool for collecting information about the consequences of disease and treatment on the well being of cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the two methods of side effect recording. Patients and methods: One hundred and sixteen recurrence free patients with laryngeal (n=44), pharyngeal (n=34) and oral cavity (n=38) cancer attending follow-up after radiotherapy (n=83) or surgery (n=33) completed EORTC C30, the core questionnaire concerning general symptoms and function and EORTC H and N35 the head and neck specific questionnaire. The attending physicians in the follow-up clinic evaluated and recorded DAHANCA toxicity scores on the same patients. Results: The DAHANCA toxicity scoring system and the EORTC QLQ correlated with several clinical endpoints. The conceptually similar endpoints of the two methods correlated significantly. The objective endpoints of the DAHANCA scoring system were only correlated with quality of life endpoints to a very low degree. The DAHANCA toxicity scores had a low sensitivity (0.48-0.74) in detecting equivalent subjective complaints from the questionnaires and the observer-based scoring system severely underestimated patient complaints. A specific patient group where the DAHANCA score had a higher tendency to fail could not be detected. Conclusion: The DAHANCA toxicity score is an effective instrument in assessing objective treatment induced toxicity in head and neck cancer patients but insensitive and non-specific with regard to patient assessed subjective endpoints. This

  6. Cadmium exposure in the Swedish environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report gives a thorough description of cadmium in the Swedish environment. It comprises three parts: Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks;, Cadmium in goods - contribution to environmental exposure;, and Cadmium in fertilizers, soil, crops and foods - the Swedish situation. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all three parts

  7. A simple method to reduce the risk of cadmium exposure from consumption of Iceland scallops (Chlamys islandica) fished in Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Lis; Sonne, Christian; Rigét, Frank F; Dietz, Rune; Asmund, Gert

    2014-08-01

    This paper studied the levels and organ distribution of the toxic heavy metal cadmium in scallops from unpolluted Greenlandic waters. The scallops had an average cadmium concentration of 2.93 ± 0.94 μg/g wet weight in the total soft tissues and no concentration dependent effect was found for gender or size (both p>0.05). The kidney was the primary organ for cadmium accumulation with a mean of 226.2 ± 111.7 μg/g wet weight, and despite the small weight of the kidney, it appeared as the principal contributor of cadmium with 92% of the total cadmium body burden. The cadmium concentrations in the total soft tissues far exceeded the EU-limit of 1 μg/g wet weight for cadmium in bivalves. Based on this, selective evisceration of the cadmium-rich kidney and digestive gland during processing can be regarded as a reliable measure to be taken in order to reduce the cadmium content of scallops used for human consumption. PMID:24815343

  8. Characterization of cadmium-resistant bacteria and their application for cadmium bioremediation - 16072

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On a global basis, trace-metal pollution is one of the most pervasive environmental problems. It is particularly difficult to prevent or clean up because the metals are toxic in their elemental form and cannot be decomposed. Bioremediation has been shown to be a powerful system for heavy metal pollution clean up and prevention. In this work, we characterized the cadmium (Cd)-resistant bacteria isolated from rice field soil downstream from zinc (Zn) mineralized area which the owners were contaminated at high level of cadmium content in their blood (>10 μg Cd/g creatinine). We found that all 24 isolated bacteria tolerated toxic Cd concentrations (2,500 μM). In order to determine whether the Cd toxicity affected the growth of isolated bacteria, we grew the isolated bacterial cells in the absence and presence of toxic concentrations of CdCl2 (500 μM). In the absence of Cd, all isolated bacterial cells grew slightly better than in the presence of toxic concentrations of Cd. In addition, the Cd binding capacity of all isolated bacteria were very high, ranging from 6.38 to 9.38 log[Cd(atom)]/cell when grown in the presence of 500 μM CdCl2. Furthermore, the stability of Cd-bacteria complex of all isolated bacteria was affected by 1 mM EDTA. When grown in the presence of 500 μM CdCl2, Cd-resistant isolates S2500-6, -8, -9, -15, -17, -18, -19, and -22 increasingly produced proteins containing cysteine (SH-group) (from 1.3 to 2.2 times) as well as 11 isolates of Cd-resistant bacteria, including S2500-1, -2, -3, -5, -6, -8, -9, -11, -16, -20, and -21, increasingly produced inorganic sulfide (1.5 to 4.7 times). Furthermore, the Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy studies indicated that Cd-resistant isolated S2500-3 precipitated amounts of cadmium sulfide (CdS), when grown in the presence of 500 μM CdCl2. The results suggested that these Cd-resistant bacteria have potential ability to precipitate a toxic soluble CdCl2 as nontoxic

  9. Prompt gamma neutron activation analysis of toxic elements in radioactive waste packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J-L; Carasco, C; Perot, B; Mauerhofer, E; Kettler, J; Havenith, A

    2012-07-01

    The French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) are conducting an R&D program to improve the characterization of long-lived and medium activity (LL-MA) radioactive waste packages. In particular, the amount of toxic elements present in radioactive waste packages must be assessed before they can be accepted in repository facilities in order to avoid pollution of underground water reserves. To this aim, the Nuclear Measurement Laboratory of CEA-Cadarache has started to study the performances of Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) for elements showing large capture cross sections such as mercury, cadmium, boron, and chromium. This paper reports a comparison between Monte Carlo calculations performed with the MCNPX computer code using the ENDF/B-VII.0 library and experimental gamma rays measured in the REGAIN PGNAA cell with small samples of nickel, lead, cadmium, arsenic, antimony, chromium, magnesium, zinc, boron, and lithium to verify the validity of a numerical model and gamma-ray production data. The measurement of a ∼20kg test sample of concrete containing toxic elements has also been performed, in collaboration with Forschungszentrum Jülich, to validate the model in view of future performance studies for dense and large LL-MA waste packages. PMID:22406218

  10. Cadmium in newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Eklund, Gunilla

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a well-known nephrotoxic environmental contaminant but there are indications that the developing nervous system might be even more sensitive to Cd than the kidneys in adults. Infants are exposed to Cd from various formulas and infant diets and the gastrointestinal Cd uptake is believed to be higher in newborns than in adults. Cd levels monitored in infant foods ranged between 0.74 and 27.0 µg/kg. Cow's milk formulas had the lowest levels and cereal-based formulas had up to 21 ...

  11. Cadmium sulfite hexahydrate revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Baggio; Andrés Ibáñez; Ricardo Baggio

    2008-01-01

    The present structural revision of the title compound, tetracadmium tetrasulfite hexahydrate, [Cd4(SO3)4(H2O)5]·H2O, is a low-temperature upgrade (T = 100 K and R = 0.017) of the original room-temperature structure reported by Kiers & Vos [Cryst. Struct. Commun. (1978). 7, 399–403; T = 293 K and R = 0.080). The compound is a three-dimensional polymer with four independent cadmium centres, four sulfite anions and six water molecules, five of them coordinated to two c...

  12. Cadmium Induced Changes in Metabolic Function of Mitochondrial Isolated from Potato Tissue (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chagra Ali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Cadmium is highly toxic at low concentrations, but the mechanism of its toxicity is still not understood particularly at the cellular and subcellular level. Approach: In this study we examined the effects of cadmium on the oxidophosphorylation properties of mitochondria isolated from potatoes. Results: Cadmium strongly disturbed the respiratory metabolism of mitochondria isolated especially in the transfer of electrons by cyanide pathway. Meanwhile, cadmium altered the composition of lipid fatty acids polar while inhibiting catalase activity, a key enzyme in the detoxification (antioxidant process. In addition, cadmium caused an increase in mitochondrial volume associated with strong inhibition of ATPase activity, which could be explained by a transport of the potassium ion stimulation at the origin of the massive influx of H+ by antiport through the K+/H+ leading to a decoupling (cut of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. The swelling of mitochondria was accompanied by the rupture of the mitochondrial outer membrane and thus the release of Cytochrome C, which appears to be the initial phase of apoptosis. Conclusion: Following this study, it appeared that cadmium generates in potato the isolated mitochondria a concentration-dependent oxidative stress.

  13. Analysis of the swimming velocity of cadmium-stressed Daphnia magna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The swimming velocity of the waterflea Daphnia magna is dependent on its body size. Therefore, environmental factors like toxic stress that influence growth also influence swimming velocity. An experiment was set up to test whether exposure to cadmium would reduce only growth, with a concomitant decrease in velocity, or whether it would reduce velocity below the swimming velocity of similarly-sized control animals. Daphnids were exposed for 10 days to free cadmium ion concentrations ranging from 1x10-8 to 1x10-7 M Cd2+, and body size and swimming velocity were measured every 2 days. The results showed that cadmium decreased both growth and velocity, i.e. exposed daphnids swam slower than similarly-sized control daphnids. Swimming velocity provided no indication of successful acclimation in any cadmium treatment. Food consumption and assimilation were reduced by exposure to cadmium. This reduced food intake may have, at least partially, caused the decreased growth rates. However, since reduced food intake does not affect swimming velocity, the reduced swimming velocity must be attributed to toxic effects of cadmium, other than those on food intake. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  14. Cadmium causes delayed effects on renal function in the offspring of cadmium-contaminated pregnant female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquillet, G; Barbier, O; Rubera, I; Tauc, M; Borderie, A; Namorado, M C; Martin, D; Sierra, G; Reyes, J L; Poujeol, P; Cougnon, M

    2007-11-01

    In the adult rat, chronic cadmium intoxication induces nephropathy with Fanconi-like features. This result raises the question of whether intoxication of pregnant rats has any deleterious effects on renal function in their offspring. To test this hypothesis, we measured the renal function of 2- to 60-day-old postnatal offspring from female rats administered cadmium chloride by the oral route (0.5 mg.kg(-1).day(-1)) throughout their entire gestation. Investigations of rat offspring from contaminated pregnant rats showed the presence of cadmium in the kidney at gestational day 20. After birth, the cadmium kidney concentration increased from postnatal day 2 to day 60 (PND2 to PND60), presumably because of 1) milk contamination and 2) neonatal liver cadmium content release. Although the renal parameters (glomerular filtration, U/P inulin, and urinary excretion rate) were not significantly affected until PND45, renal failure appeared at PND60, as demonstrated by a dramatic decrease of the glomerular filtration rate associated with increased excretion of the main ions. In parallel, an immunofluorescence study of tight-junction protein expression of PND60 offspring from contaminated rats showed a disorganization of the tight-junction proteins claudin-2 and claudin-5, specifically expressed in the proximal tubule and glomerulus, respectively. In contrast, expression of a distal claudin protein, claudin-3, was not affected. In conclusion, in utero exposure of cadmium leads to toxic renal effects in adult offspring. These results suggest that contamination of pregnant rats is a serious and critical hazard for renal function of their offspring. PMID:17686954

  15. Biomonitoring of cadmium in pig production

    OpenAIRE

    Lindén, Anna

    2002-01-01

    Cadmium is a nephrotoxic metal with increasing levels in arable soils. The non-smoking population is exposed to cadmium mainly from vegetable food, especially cereal products. The major part of pig feed is cereals, and accumulated cadmium in pig kidney could reflect cadmium in the local agricultural environment. In this thesis, the possibility to use pig kidney as a bioindicator of the availability of cadmium in the agricultural environment was evaluated. There were significant correlations b...

  16. No rise in cadmium concentration in stream water after forest fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In two trials involving fertilization with nitrogen, SkogForsk recorded a rise in the concentration of heavy metals in the soil water. The clearest and most serious increase was in cadmium concentrations. Cadmium is a highly toxic metal and is hazardous to people, animals and plant life. These findings raised concern that there could also be an increase of cadmium concentrations in stream water and lakes, thus posing a serious environmental problem. SkogForsk has therefore conducted an analysis of the stream water on two sites where nitrogen fertilizer was applied on an operational scale. Water samples were taken both upstream and downstream of the treated areas. The findings were reassuring. When the water samples were analysed, no cadmium was found in the water either upstream or downstream of the sites. Any concentrations were therefore below the detection limit, which was 0.02 micrograms per litre. The authors of the report present the following explanation for the findings: * It has long since been known that fertilizing forest land with a nitrogenous mix causes a temporary lowering of the pH value of the soil water; * When the soil water becomes more acidic, it increases the solubility of metals - including cadmium - in the soil; and * At deeper levels in the soil profile, the pH of the soil water is higher. This reduces the solubility of cadmium and the metal is deposited in the soil again. The outcome is that no cadmium reaches the surface water

  17. Review of cadmium transfers from soil to humans and its health effects and Jamaican environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concerns about the effects of cadmium on human health have led to numerous guidelines and regulations limiting its concentrations in soils and food and allowable human intakes. These have socio-economic consequences in terms of land use and the marketing of food. The bauxite soils in Jamaica, which are both aluminium ores and agricultural soils contain orders of magnitude higher than world normal concentrations of cadmium resulting in elevated Cd concentrations in several foodstuffs and significant transfers to humans, which would seem to represent a risk factor for increased mortality and/or morbidity in the local populations. But, as in Shipham and other examples, there is no evidence of cadmium-related human distress. Macro-indicators like life expectancy and median ages of death do not show cadmium related geographical distributions. The present review focuses on the soils and foods and illnesses of high incidence especially cancers and renal disease that have been traditionally associated with cadmium. In view of the remarkable concentrations of cadmium involved in Jamaica, and often contradictory reports in the literature, it appears that much remains to be learned about certain details of cadmium toxicity

  18. Review of cadmium transfers from soil to humans and its health effects and Jamaican environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalor, Gerald C. [International Centre for Environmental and Nuclear Sciences, University of the West Indies Mona, Kingston 7 (Jamaica)], E-mail: gerald.lalor@uwimona.edu.jm

    2008-08-01

    Concerns about the effects of cadmium on human health have led to numerous guidelines and regulations limiting its concentrations in soils and food and allowable human intakes. These have socio-economic consequences in terms of land use and the marketing of food. The bauxite soils in Jamaica, which are both aluminium ores and agricultural soils contain orders of magnitude higher than world normal concentrations of cadmium resulting in elevated Cd concentrations in several foodstuffs and significant transfers to humans, which would seem to represent a risk factor for increased mortality and/or morbidity in the local populations. But, as in Shipham and other examples, there is no evidence of cadmium-related human distress. Macro-indicators like life expectancy and median ages of death do not show cadmium related geographical distributions. The present review focuses on the soils and foods and illnesses of high incidence especially cancers and renal disease that have been traditionally associated with cadmium. In view of the remarkable concentrations of cadmium involved in Jamaica, and often contradictory reports in the literature, it appears that much remains to be learned about certain details of cadmium toxicity.

  19. Influence of sodium, calcium, magnesium, and ammonium in the sorption of cadmium in a zeolite rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cadmium is one of the more toxic heavy metals and the water pollution by this metal, is originated by industries whose turn is the production of batteries, electroplating processes, the production of pigments and in the refinement process of others metals. The objective of this work was to evaluate the ion exchange of cadmium using natural zeolite, obtained from the Arroyo zone, La Haciendita Municipality, in the State of Chihuahua. The parameters considered in this investigation were: the sorption time, the pH, the initial concentration of cadmium and the influence of sodium, calcium, magnesium and ammonium on the sorption of cadmium in the natural zeolite. Also, the theoretical pattern for kinetics and isotherm that better it is adjusted to those experimental results it was determined. The experimentation results allowed to establish the following conclusions: the sorption of the cadmium doesn't depend on the pH in an interval between 4 and 6; the pattern that better it describes the kinetics it is that of Pseudo-second order of Ho and Mc Kay; the Langmuir-Freundlich pattern is the one that better it describes the sorption isotherm and the calcium is the component that interferes in an important manner in the sorption of cadmium. The carried out investigation contributes to the definition of some of the parameters that should be considered in the development of ion exchangers for the cadmium removal. (Author)

  20. Uptake of Cadmium by Lemna minor, a (hyper?- accumulator plant involved in phytoremediation applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianconi D.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Metal pollution in waters and soils is a major environmental and human health problem. Cadmium (Cd2+ is a heavy metal displaying toxic effects in plants. In this work we studied the potentiality of Lemna minor, a monocotyledonous aquatic macrophyte, to phytoremediate cadmium-polluted waters. The plants were exposed to different cadmium concentrations 0, 13, 22 and 46μM CdSO4 for a period of 24, 48 and 72 hours. Relative growth rates (RGR, bioconcentration factor (BCF, tolerance index (Ti, cadmium uptake in whole plant and maximum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm were measured under controlled climate conditions. RGR, Ti and Fv/Fm declined with increasing exposure time and cadmium concentrations, while the BCF and cadmium uptake showed an opposite behavior. Data analysis of RGR, BCF, Tiand FV/FM indicates that L. minor maintains a good capacity of growth, metal bioconcentration, tolerance and efficiency of PSII up to 48h in plants exposed to 13 and 22μM CdSO4. Our results exhibited that L. minor is a good cadmium accumulator and is able to remediate Cd-polluted waters, especially at low Cd concentrations.

  1. Protective Effect of Cleistocalyx nervosum var. paniala Fruit Extract against Oxidative Renal Damage Caused by Cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warut Poontawee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium nephrotoxicity is a serious environmental health problem as it will eventually end up with end stage renal disease. The pathobiochemical mechanism of this toxic heavy metal is related to oxidative stress. This study investigated whether Cleistocalyx nervosum var. paniala fruit extract (CNFE could protect the kidney against oxidative injury caused by cadmium. Initial analysis of the extract revealed antioxidant abilities and high levels of polyphenols, particularly catechin. Its potential renal benefits was further explored in rats treated with vehicle, CNFE, cadmium (2 mg/kg, and cadmium plus CNFE (0.5, 1, 2 g/kg for four weeks. Oxidative renal injury was developed after cadmium exposure as evidenced by blood urea nitrogen and creatinine retention, glomerular filtration reduction, renal structural damage, together with increased nitric oxide and malondialdehyde, but decreased antioxidant thiols, superoxide dismutase, and catalase in renal tissues. Cadmium-induced nephrotoxicity was diminished in rats supplemented with CNFE, particularly at the doses of 1 and 2 g/kg. It is concluded that CNFE is able to protect against the progression of cadmium nephrotoxicity, mostly via its antioxidant power. The results also point towards a promising role for this naturally-occurring antioxidant to combat other human disorders elicited by disruption of redox homeostasis.

  2. Cadmium determination in Lentinus edodes mushroom species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Akiko Maihara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have drawn attention to the occurrence and concentration of toxic elements found in the fruiting body of mushrooms. Some edible mushroom species are known to accumulate high levels of inorganic contaminants, mainly cadmium, mercury, and lead. There are about 2,000 known edible mushroom species, but only 25 of them are cultivated and used as food. In Brazil, the most marketed and consumed mushroom species are Agaricus bisporus, known as Paris champignon, Lentinus edodes, or Shitake and Pleurotus sp, also called Shimeji or Hiratake. In this study, the concentration of cadmium was determined in Lentinus edodes mushrooms from different cities in São Paulo state and some samples imported from Japan and China. The analyses were performed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after HNO3-H2O2 digestion. The results showed a lower concentration of Cd in the mushrooms cultivated in São Paulo (0.0079 to 0.023 mg.kg-1 in natura than that of the mushrooms cultivated abroad (0.125 to 0.212 mg.kg-1 in natura. Although there is no tolerance limit for Cd in mushrooms in Brazil, the results show that Lentinus edodes mushrooms can be safely consumed.

  3. Ecotoxicological tests with cadmium and chromium using postlarvae of silverside Odontesthes (Austromenidia regia regia Hildebrand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Vera

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the mean effective concentrations (EC50% of cadmium (Cd+2 and chromium (Cr+6 using postlarvae of the silverside fish Odontesthes (Austromenidia regia regia were determined. The postlarvae were exposed to different concentrations of the metals, between 0,142 and 1,208 mg.L–1 of cadmium and between 0,53 and 33,74 mg.L–1 of chromium. The mean effective concentrations (EC50% obtained were 0,648 mg.L–1 of cadmium (at 96 h and 2,68 mg.L–1 of chromium (at 96 h. Comparatively, cadmium is more toxic than chromium, and silverside is more tolerant than other organisms.

  4. Effects of Cadmium on Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activities of Erica andevalensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Márquez-García

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effects of cadmium on phenolic composition of Erica andevalensis, an endemic protected heather that grows in mine affected soils. Plants cultivated under laboratory-controlled conditions were exposed to acute doses of cadmium to investigate the mechanisms this species possesses to survive in the presence of toxic metals in its natural habitat. Cadmium increased the total levels of phenolics and flavonoids compounds, and the total antioxidant capacity. Cinnamic acid derivatives, epicatechin, and rutin were increased in the presence of cadmium when applied in levels that did not alter the ratio of chlorophylls. Phenolic compounds play an important role in the metabolism of E. andevalensis to survive in heavy metal polluted soils.

  5. CADMIUM IN OCTOPUS VULGARIS: AN INPUT TO ASSESS HUMAN HEALTH RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ceci

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium concentrations has been evaluated in Octopus vulgaris sampled from two sites of Apulian coast (South Italy and compared with import cephalopods to estimate if maximum levels of cadmium established for these organisms by the European Commission were exceed. In all local samples mean cadmium concentrations were higher in hepatopancreas than in flesh, this is an important evaluation if consider the traditional and unusual consumption in certain population of Mediterranean region of raw and whole cephalopods. The cadmium estimated weekly intake for whole cephalopods between 2,25 and 2,84 g Kg -1 of body weight underlines the necessity to determine the real risk and implications for public health through a correct assessment of contribution made by this specie among certain consumers group to the TWI set by the EFSA. A particular attention from competent authorities to prevent human toxicity is required.

  6. Blood Translation Elongation Factor-1δ Is a Novel Marker for Cadmium Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-Ning Lei

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Translation elongation factor-1d (TEF-1δ has been identified as a novel cadmium-responsive proto-oncogene. However, it is still unclear whether TEF-1δ could be a potential biomarker of cadmium exposure. Rats were treated with CdCl2 at different concentrations (high dose 1.225, mid-dose 0.612 and low dose 0.306 mg/kg body weight, respectively for 14 weeks, and the cadmium levels, weight coefficients, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, serum creatinine (SCR, 24-h urine protein (24hPro, urinary creatinine (Cr and pathological features were determined. The TEF-1δ expression in white blood cells and multiple organs were examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR and were also confirmed with fluorescence quantitative PCR. A cadmium dose-dependent increase (p < 0.05 of cadmium levels in blood, urine, liver, kidney, heart and lung, and the weight coefficients was observed. The liver and renal function indictors including AST, ALT, SCR, BUN and 24hPro, were elevated in a cadmium dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05. Significant pathological changes in liver, kidney, heart and lung were indicated. The TEF-1δ expression was up-regulated in both blood and organs (p < 0.05. Moreover, the expression level of blood TEF-1δ was positively correlated to TEF-1δ expression level, cadmium level and toxicity in the organs (p < 0.01. This study indicates that blood TEF-1δ is a novel valuable biomarker for cadmium exposure and its organ toxicity.

  7. Potentiometric titration of excess cadmium in cadmium selenide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and rapid potentiometric technique for determining excess cadmium in CdSe has been developed. Reaction with AgNO3 is used for sample treatment. Silver, formed in the AgNO3 reaction with excess Cd is determined with the help of KI. When using the given method of analysis the relative standard deviation is equal to 0.08-0.21. The real detection limit of excess cadmium is 9x10-7 g

  8. Impact of bio-fertilizers and different levels of cadmium on the growth, biochemical contents and lipid peroxidation of Plantago ovata Forsk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneef, Irfana; Faizan, Shahla; Perveen, Rubina; Kausar, Saima

    2014-09-01

    Plantago ovata Forsk. (isabgol) is a valuable medicinal plant; its seeds and shell have a significant role in pharmacy as a laxative compound. Increasing soil contamination with cadmium (Cd) is one of the major concerns and is responsible for toxic effects in plants. This investigation was aimed to analyze the role of biofertilizers in alleviation of cadmium stress, given at the rate of 0, 50, and 100 mg kg(-1) of soil. The plants of isabgol, were grown in pots with and without application of AM fungi and Azotobacter (alone and combination). Cadmium showed negative effect on growth and biochemical component whereas proline and MDA content increase with increasing cadmium concentration. Addition of bio-fertilizer showed better growth and higher pigment concentration under cadmium stress as compared to the control. The dual inoculation of AM fungi and Azotobacter was found to be the best in reduction of cadmium stress and promotion of growth parameters. PMID:25183940

  9. The morphological changes in liver and small intestine of rats under the chronic influence of ionizing radiation and cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The morphometric studies of a state of small intestine mucosa and liver of rats are realized under the chronic influence of γ-radiation (0.72 cGy/day) and cadmium with drinking water (0.01 mg Cd2+/l). The detected substantial changes of the liver histostructure in comparison with small intestine mucosa are possibly connected with the cadmium accumulation in cells and the enhancement of its toxic properties

  10. Reversal of Cadmium-induced Oxidative Stress in Chicken by Herbal Adaptogens Withania Somnifera and Ocimum Sanctum

    OpenAIRE

    K Bharavi; Reddy, A. Gopala; G S Rao; Reddy, A. Rajasekhara; Rao, S. V. Rama

    2010-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the herbal adaptogens Withania somnifera and Ocimum sanctum on cadmium-induced oxidative toxicity in broiler chicken. Cadmium administration at the rate of 100 ppm orally along with feed up to 28 days produced peroxidative damage, as indicated by increase in TBARS, reduction in glutathione (GSH) concentration in liver and kidney, and increase in catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) of erythrocytes. Herbal adaptogens Withania somnifera roo...

  11. Lead, mercury, and cadmium in breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Yurdakök

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Toxic heavy metals are the major source of environmental pollution in this new millennium. Lead, mercury, and cadmium are the most common toxic heavy metals in the environment. There is no known function of these toxic heavy metals in the human body. In females, toxic heavy metals can be accumulated in maternal body before pregnancy and may be transferred to fetus through placenta and later, via breast milk. Lead previously accumulated in maternal bones can be mobilized along with calcium in order to meet increased calcium needs of the fetus in pregnant women and for the calcium needs in human milk during lactation. Human fetus and infants are susceptible to heavy metal toxicity passing through placenta and breastmilk due to rapid growth and development of organs and tissues, especially central nervous system. However most of the damage is already done by the time the infant is born. Intrauterine lead exposure can cause growth retardation, cognitive dysfunction, low IQ scores on ability tests, and low performance in school. Biological samples, such as umbilical cord blood and breast milk, and less commonly infant hair, are used for biomonitoring of intra-uterine exposure to these toxic chemicals. Although toxic metals and other pollutants may be excreted into breast milk, their effects are unknown and this topic is subject of a growing body of research. Despite the possibility of harm from environmental contaminants in breast milk, breastfeeding is still recommended as the best infant feeding method. In fact, the species-specific components present in breast milk protect infants against infections; promote immune and neurologic system development; and may decrease the risk of disease, including allergies, obesity, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, inflammatory bowel disease, and sudden infant death syndrome. Breastfeeding also facilitates maternal-infant attachment. The potential risk of environmental contaminants that can be transferred from

  12. Dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake modifies the effect of cadmium exposure on markers of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic cadmium exposure may cause disease through induction of systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. Factors that mitigate cadmium toxicity and could serve as interventions in exposed populations have not been well characterized. We used data from the 2003–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to quantify diet's role in modifying associations between cadmium exposure and oxidative stress and inflammation. We created a composite antioxidant and anti-inflammatory diet score (ADS) by ranking participants by quintile of intake across a panel of 19 nutrients. We identified associations and effect modification between ADS, urinary cadmium, and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation by multiple linear regression. An interquartile range increase in urinary cadmium was associated with a 47.5%, 8.8%, and 3.7% increase in C-reactive protein (CRP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), respectively. An interquartile range increase in ADS was associated with an 7.4%, 3.3%, 5.2%, and 2.5% decrease in CRP, GGT, ALP, and total white blood cell count respectively, and a 3.0% increase in serum bilirubin. ADS significantly attenuated the association between cadmium exposure, CRP and ALP. Dietary interventions may provide a route to reduce the impact of cadmium toxicity on the population level. - Highlights: • Cadmium may cause chronic disease through oxidative stress or inflammation. • We developed a score to quantify dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake. • Cadmium was associated with markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. • Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake mitigated the effects of cadmium exposure. • Dietary interventions may be effective against chronic cadmium toxicity

  13. Dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake modifies the effect of cadmium exposure on markers of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colacino, Justin A.; Arthur, Anna E.; Ferguson, Kelly K.; Rozek, Laura S., E-mail: rozekl@umich.edu

    2014-05-01

    Chronic cadmium exposure may cause disease through induction of systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. Factors that mitigate cadmium toxicity and could serve as interventions in exposed populations have not been well characterized. We used data from the 2003–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to quantify diet's role in modifying associations between cadmium exposure and oxidative stress and inflammation. We created a composite antioxidant and anti-inflammatory diet score (ADS) by ranking participants by quintile of intake across a panel of 19 nutrients. We identified associations and effect modification between ADS, urinary cadmium, and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation by multiple linear regression. An interquartile range increase in urinary cadmium was associated with a 47.5%, 8.8%, and 3.7% increase in C-reactive protein (CRP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), respectively. An interquartile range increase in ADS was associated with an 7.4%, 3.3%, 5.2%, and 2.5% decrease in CRP, GGT, ALP, and total white blood cell count respectively, and a 3.0% increase in serum bilirubin. ADS significantly attenuated the association between cadmium exposure, CRP and ALP. Dietary interventions may provide a route to reduce the impact of cadmium toxicity on the population level. - Highlights: • Cadmium may cause chronic disease through oxidative stress or inflammation. • We developed a score to quantify dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake. • Cadmium was associated with markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. • Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake mitigated the effects of cadmium exposure. • Dietary interventions may be effective against chronic cadmium toxicity.

  14. Cadmium(2) complexes of cytosine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complexes of cadmium(2) with cytosine obtained from aqueous or physiological solutions at room temperature are reported. The complexes were characterized by spectroscopic, conductometric, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR measurements and also by thermogravimetry. (Authors)

  15. Discovery of the Cadmium Isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Amos, S.; Thoennessen, M

    2009-01-01

    Thirty-seven cadmium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  16. Cd-Resistant Strains of B. cereus S5 with Endurance Capacity and Their Capacities for Cadmium Removal from Cadmium-Polluted Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huiqing; Wu, Qingping; Wu, Guojie; Gu, Qihui; Wei, Linting

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify Cd-resistant bacterial strains with endurance capacity and to evaluate their ability to remove cadmium ions from cadmium-polluted water. The Bacillus cereusS5 strain identified in this study had the closest genetic relationship with B. cereus sp. Cp1 and performed well in the removal of Cd2+ions from solution. The results showed that both the live and dead biomasses of the Cd2+-tolerant B. cereus S5 strain could absorb Cd2+ ions in solution but that the live biomass of the B. cereus S5 strain outperformed the dead biomass at lower Cd2+concentrations. An analysis of the cadmium tolerance genes of B. cereus S5 identified ATPase genes that were associated with cadmium tolerance and involved in the ATP pumping mechanism. The FTIR spectra revealed the presence of amino, carboxyl and hydroxyl groups on the pristine biomass and indicated that the cadmium ion removal ability was related to the structure of the strain. The maximum absorption capacity of the B. cereus S5 strain in viable spore biomass was 70.16 mg/g (dry weight) based on a pseudo-second-order kinetic model fit to the experimental data. The Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm adsorption models fit the cadmium ion adsorption data well, and the kinetic curves indicated that the adsorption rate was second-order. For Cd2+ concentrations (mg/L) of 1–109 mg/L, good removal efficiency (>80%) was achieved using approximately 3.48–10.3 g/L of active spore biomass of the B. cereus S5 strain. A cadmium-tolerant bacteria-activated carbon-immobilized column could be used for a longer duration and exhibited greater treatment efficacy than the control column in the treatment of cadmium-polluted water. In addition, a toxicity assessment using mice demonstrated that the biomass of the B. cereus S5 strain and its fermentation products were non-toxic. Thus, the isolated B. cereus S5 strain can be considered an alternative biological adsorbent for use in emergency responses to

  17. Cadmium telluride nuclear radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics and performance of undoped high resistivity cadmium telluride detectors are compared to chlorine lifted counters. It is shown, in particular, that Undodep CdTe is in fact aluminium doped and that compensation occurs, as an silicon or germanium, by pair and triplet formation between the group III donor and the doubly charged cadmium vacancy acceptor. Furthermore, in chlorine doped samples, the polarization effect results from the unpaired level at Esub(c)-0,6eV

  18. Speciation of Dissolved Cadmium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Peter Engelund; Andersen, Sjur; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1995-01-01

    Equilibrium dialysis and ion exchange methods, as well as computer calculations (GEOCHEM), were applied for speciation of dissolved cadmium (Cd) in test solutions and leachate samples. The leachate samples originated from soil, compost, landfill waste and industrial waste. The ion exchange (IE......) method separates dissolved Cd into free divalent Cd (Cd 2+) and complexed Cd and furthermore separates the latter into the operationally defined forms: labile, slowly labile and stable complexes. The dialysis (ED) method determines high molecular weight Cd complexes (above 1000mol. wt). For both methods...... the reproducibility was good. By combining the results of the GEOCHEM calculations in terms of the inorganic complexes, and the IE results, the fractions of free and inorganically complexed Cd were estimated. The IE and ED results furthermore provided information about the organic complexes. Selected...

  19. Glutathione Transferase from Trichoderma virens Enhances Cadmium Tolerance without Enhancing Its Accumulation in Transgenic Nicotiana tabacum

    OpenAIRE

    Dixit, Prachy; Mukherjee, Prasun K.; Ramachandran, V.; Eapen, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Background Cadmium (Cd) is a major heavy metal pollutant which is highly toxic to plants and animals. Vast agricultural areas worldwide are contaminated with Cd. Plants take up Cd and through the food chain it reaches humans and causes toxicity. It is ideal to develop plants tolerant to Cd, without enhanced accumulation in the edible parts for human consumption. Glutathione transferases (GST) are a family of multifunctional enzymes known to have important roles in combating oxidative stresses...

  20. Electrodialytic removal of cadmium from biomass combustion fly ash in larger scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Simonsen, Peter;

    2005-01-01

    Due to a high concentration of the toxic heavy metal cadmium (Cd), biomass combustion fly ash often fails to meet the Danish legislative requirements for recycling on agricultural fields. It has previously been shown that it is possible to reduce the concentration of Cd in different bio ashes...

  1. The study and development of cadmium telluride detectors for gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is the study of possibility of cadmium telluride's utilisation in gamma ray spectroscopy. This material has some superiorities in comparison with germanium which is utilised in (Ge Li) structures. In a first chapter we study the interaction of rays with matter in the particular case of cadmium telluride. The range of α and β rays in the some way as the effect cross section of gamma ray versus energy are deducted from data tabulated for tin which has a density and an atomic weight very near. The problems related with creation and collection of charges in a cadmium telluride structure are discussed in the same way as the resolution in nuclear spectroscopy, acting the different parameters characterising the detector. In the second chapter, after some indications in the metallurgy of cadmium telluride, we describe the realisation of several structures types, evaporation of a cadmium telluride's layer, diffusion of gold or copper, metal semiconductor contact. Measures of current-voltage characteristics and capacity allow the determination of possibility of nuclear detection with this structures and state precisely some parameters. In the third chapter range's measures of α rays are compared with the first chapter's theoretical results. Results of α ray spectroscopy obtained with three detectors are described and show the possibility of cadmium telluride in this way. Detection of gamma ray at last justify the choice of this material, but the results obtained here show the progress to do in cadmium telluride metallurgy. (author)

  2. Suppression of the tert-butylhydroquinone toxicity by its grafting onto chitosan and further cross-linking to agavin toward a novel antioxidant and prebiotic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Valdepeña, Miguel A; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Gracia-Mora, Isabel; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto; Sánchez-Bartez, Francisco; Nieto-Sotelo, Jorge; Montiel, Carmina; Shirai, Keiko; Gimeno, Miquel

    2016-05-15

    The enzyme-mediated grafting of tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) onto chitosan and further crosslinking to agave inulin (agavin) has been successfully achieved in a mild and non-toxic two-step route. The resulting products were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Infra-red spectroscopies to assess the molecular structure. The study of acute oral toxicity in mice revealed no adverse short-term effects of consumption in the synthesized materials with non-toxicity evidence until 2000 mg/kg through an oral acute administration. Importantly, this study proves that the compound maintains the radical scavenging capacity of the phenolic antioxidant upon ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays with a measured half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) for the best case of 1.54 g/L based on inhibition of 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS). Additionally, the novel compound presented high prebiotic activities as ascertained in the presence of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). PMID:26775999

  3. Low serum zinc is associated with elevated risk of cadmium nephrotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yu-Sheng, E-mail: Lin.Yu-Sheng@epa.gov [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Ho, Wen-Chao [Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Caffrey, James L. [Integrative Physiology and Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX (United States); Sonawane, Babasaheb [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Background: Despite animal evidence suggests that zinc modulates cadmium nephrotoxicity, limited human data are available. Objective: To test the hypothesis that low serum zinc concentrations may increase the risk of cadmium-mediated renal dysfunction in humans. Methods: Data from 1545 subjects aged 20 or older in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2011–2012 were analyzed. Renal function was defined as impaired when estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) fell below 60 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2} and/or the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio surpassed 2.5 in men and 3.5 mg/mmol in women. Results: Within the study cohort, 117 subjects had reduced eGFR and 214 had elevated urinary albumin. After adjusting for potential confounders, subjects with elevated blood cadmium (>0.53 μg/L) were more likely to have a reduced eGFR (odds ratio [OR]=2.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09–4.50) and a higher urinary albumin (OR=2.04, 95% CI: 1.13–3.69) than their low cadmium (<0.18 μg/L) peers. In addition, for any given cadmium exposure, low serum zinc is associated with elevated risk of reduced eGFR (OR=3.38, 95% CI: 1.39–8.28). A similar increase in the odds ratio was observed between declining serum zinc and albuminuria but failed to reach statistical significance. Those with lower serum zinc/blood cadmium ratios were likewise at a greater risk of renal dysfunction (p<0.01). Conclusions: This study results suggest that low serum zinc concentrations are associated with an increased risk of cadmium nephrotoxicity. Elevated cadmium exposure is global public health issue and the assessment of zinc nutritional status may be an important covariate in determining its effective renal toxicity. - Highlights: • Blood cadmium was associated with increased risk of nephrotoxicity. • Low serum zinc may exacerbate risk of cadmium-mediated renal dysfunction. • Both zinc deficiency and elevated cadmium exposure are global public health issues.

  4. Low serum zinc is associated with elevated risk of cadmium nephrotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Despite animal evidence suggests that zinc modulates cadmium nephrotoxicity, limited human data are available. Objective: To test the hypothesis that low serum zinc concentrations may increase the risk of cadmium-mediated renal dysfunction in humans. Methods: Data from 1545 subjects aged 20 or older in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2011–2012 were analyzed. Renal function was defined as impaired when estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) fell below 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and/or the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio surpassed 2.5 in men and 3.5 mg/mmol in women. Results: Within the study cohort, 117 subjects had reduced eGFR and 214 had elevated urinary albumin. After adjusting for potential confounders, subjects with elevated blood cadmium (>0.53 μg/L) were more likely to have a reduced eGFR (odds ratio [OR]=2.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09–4.50) and a higher urinary albumin (OR=2.04, 95% CI: 1.13–3.69) than their low cadmium (<0.18 μg/L) peers. In addition, for any given cadmium exposure, low serum zinc is associated with elevated risk of reduced eGFR (OR=3.38, 95% CI: 1.39–8.28). A similar increase in the odds ratio was observed between declining serum zinc and albuminuria but failed to reach statistical significance. Those with lower serum zinc/blood cadmium ratios were likewise at a greater risk of renal dysfunction (p<0.01). Conclusions: This study results suggest that low serum zinc concentrations are associated with an increased risk of cadmium nephrotoxicity. Elevated cadmium exposure is global public health issue and the assessment of zinc nutritional status may be an important covariate in determining its effective renal toxicity. - Highlights: • Blood cadmium was associated with increased risk of nephrotoxicity. • Low serum zinc may exacerbate risk of cadmium-mediated renal dysfunction. • Both zinc deficiency and elevated cadmium exposure are global public health issues.

  5. Zinc-induced protection against cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Early, J.L.; Schnell, R.C.

    1978-02-01

    Pretreatment of male rats with cadmium acetate potentiates the duration of hexobarbital hypnosis and inhibits the rate of hepatic microsomal drug metabolism. Pretreatment of rats with zinc acetate protects against these alterations in drug action elicited by cadmium.

  6. Effects of Cadmium on Rat Sperm Motility Evaluated With Computer Assisted Sperm Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study effects of cadmium on rat sperm motility evaluated with computer assisted sperm analysis. Methods  Different doses of cadmium chloride (0.2,0.4,0.8mg Cd/kg BW) were administrated ip to adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Control animals received the same volume of 0.9% NaCl solution. After 7 days, the rats were sacrificed with their testes removed. A part of one testis was used for testicular sperm head counts and daily sperm production observation. The motility of spermatozoa obtained from cauda epididymides using the “diffusion”method was measured by computer assisted sperm analysis(CASA). Results  The sperm head counts and daily sperm production decreased significantly in the high dose group. The motility of spermatozoa in the middle dose group was reduced significantly. No motile sperm was found in the high dose group. The results suggest that germinal epithelium was impaired irreversibly in a short time to produce toxic effects on spermatogenesis at high cadmium doses. Conclusion  Cadmium may reduce sperm motility at a dose far below the dose affecting sperm production at this time point. The motility of sperm is an early and sensitive endpoint for the assessment of cadmium toxicity on male reproduction.

  7. Drug-induced acute tubulointerstitial nephritis: a case with elevated urinary cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subat-Dezulović, Mirna; Slavić, Irena; Rozmanić, Vojko; Persić, Mladen; Medjimurec, Branka; Sćukanec-Spoljar, Mira

    2002-05-01

    Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis (ATIN) has many different causes, but is most frequently caused by drugs. We report a 13-year-old vegetarian girl with drug-induced ATIN, confirmed by renal biopsy, and simultaneous occurrence of elevated urinary cadmium. Four weeks prior to admission she had been treated with antibiotics and acetaminophen for respiratory infection, and remaining febrile, was treated with different "home-made" herbal mixtures. She presented with acute non-oliguric renal failure, tubular dysfunction, and sterile pyuria, but without skin rash or edema. Laboratory data showed a raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate, normal white blood count with eosinophilia, and a serum creatinine of 245 micromol/l. Urinalysis was remarkable for glycosuria, tubular proteinuria, and elevated beta(2)-microglobulin and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase excretion. Immunoserological tests characteristic of acute glomerulonephritis and systemic diseases were negative. She was treated with steroids and her renal function improved. Follow-up analyses disclosed normal urinary cadmium and enzyme excretion within 6 months. Heavy metal analysis of herbal preparations that she had taken confirmed the presence of cadmium, but within approved concentrations. In conclusion, elevated urinary cadmium in the case of drug-induced ATIN may be assumed to be an accidental finding. However, consumption of different herbs containing cadmium and cadmium-induced nephro-toxicity could be the reason for such serious renal damage. PMID:12042900

  8. Molecular Mechanisms of Malignant Transformation by Low Dose Cadmium in Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluz, Thomas; Cohen, Lisa; Shen, Steven S.; Costa, Max

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium is a carcinogenic metal, the mechanisms of which are not fully understood. In this study, human bronchial epithelial cells were transformed with sub-toxic doses of cadmium (0.01, 0.05, and 0.1 μM) and transformed clones were characterized for gene expression changes using RNA-seq, as well as other molecular measurements. 440 genes were upregulated and 47 genes were downregulated in cadmium clones relative to control clones over 1.25-fold. Upregulated genes were associated mostly with gene ontology terms related to embryonic development, immune response, and cell movement, while downregulated genes were associated with RNA metabolism and regulation of transcription. Several embryonic genes were upregulated, including the transcription regulator SATB2. SATB2 is critical for normal skeletal development and has roles in gene expression regulation and chromatin remodeling. Small hairpin RNA knockdown of SATB2 significantly inhibited growth in soft agar, indicating its potential as a driver of metal-induced carcinogenesis. An increase in oxidative stress and autophagy was observed in cadmium clones. In addition, the DNA repair protein O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase was depleted by transformation with cadmium. MGMT loss caused significant decrease in cell viability after treatment with the alkylating agent temozolomide, demonstrating diminished capacity to repair such damage. Results reveal various mechanisms of cadmium-induced malignant transformation in BEAS-2B cells including upregulation of SATB2, downregulation of MGMT, and increased oxidative stress. PMID:27186882

  9. Cadmium in edible mushrooms from NW Spain: Bioconcentration factors and consumer health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgar, M Julia; Alonso, Julián; García, M Angeles

    2016-02-01

    Mushrooms do not constitute a significant portion of the human diet, but the consumption of wild and cultivated mushrooms has become increasingly in recent years. Some species accumulate high levels of toxic metals, both in unpolluted and polluted areas. In this study, we examined the accumulation capacity of cadmium in edible mushrooms in relation to certain factors and their possible toxicological implications. Cadmium concentrations were determined by an ICP-MS spectrometer in 238 samples of the fruiting bodies of 28 wild and cultivated growing edible mushrooms species and the underlying soil. The hymenophore (H) and the rest of the fruiting body (RFB) were analysed separately. The highest mean cadmium concentration (mg/kg dry weight) was found in Agaricus macrosporus (52.9 in H and 28.3 in RFB). All mushroom species accumulated cadmium in relation to the underlying soils. There were statistically significant differences between the hymenophore and the rest of the fruiting body (p < 0.001). Cadmium concentrations were compared to data in the literature and to levels set by legislation. It was concluded that consumption of our studied mushrooms is not a toxicological risk as far as cadmium content is concerned, although the species A. macrosporus should not be consumed. PMID:26702984

  10. Cadmium & its adverse effects on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, A

    2008-10-01

    Cadmium (Cd), a by-product of zinc production, is one of the most toxic elements to which man can be exposed at work or in the environment. Once absorbed, Cd is efficiently retained in the human body, in which it accumulates throughout life. Cd is primarily toxic to the kidney, especially to the proximal tubular cells, the main site of accumulation. Cd can also cause bone demineralization, either through direct bone damage or indirectly as a result of renal dysfunction. In the industry, excessive exposures to airborne Cd may impair lung function and increase the risk of lung cancer. All these effects have been described in populations with relatively high exposures to Cd in the industrial or in heavily polluted environments. Recent studies, however, suggest that the chronic low environmental exposure to Cd now prevailing in industrialized countries can adversely affect the kidneys and bones of the general population. These studies show consistent associations between various renal and bone biomarkers and the urinary excretion of Cd used to assess Cd body burden. The public health impact of these findings are still unknown. Further research is needed to ascertain that these associations are truly causal and not secondary to parallel changes in Cd metabolism and in the bone or kidney function occurring because of ageing or diseases unrelated to Cd exposure. PMID:19106447

  11. Bioavailability of cadmium from linseed and cocoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Rasmussen, Rie Romme

    In Denmark and EU the exposure of cadmium from food is at a level that is relatively close to the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI). This report describes an investigation of the bioavailability of cadmium in selected food items known to contain high levels of cadmium. The purpose was to provide data ...... crushed linseed nor the intake of cocoa and chocolate....

  12. Cadmium purification and quantification using immunochromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Yongvongsoontorn, Nunnarpas; Tawarada, Kei; Ohnishi, Yoshikazu; Arakane, Tamami; Kayama, Fujio; Abe, Kaoru; Oguma, Shinichi; Ohmura, Naoya

    2009-06-10

    One of the pathways by which cadmium enters human beings is through the consumption of agricultural products. The monitoring of cadmium has a significant role in the management of cadmium intake. Cadmium purification and quantification using immunochromatography were conducted in this study as an alternative means of cadmium analysis. The samples used in this study were rice, tomato, lettuce, garden pea, Arabidopsis thaliana (a widely used model organism for studying plants), soil, and fertilizer. The cadmium immunochromatography has been produced from the monoclonal antibody Nx2C3, which recognize the chelate form of cadmium, Cd.EDTA. The immunochromatography can be used for quantification of cadmium in a range from 0.01 to 0.1 mg/L at 20% mean coefficient of variance. A chelate column employing quaternary ammonium salts was used for the purification of cadmium from HCl extracts of samples. Recoveries of cadmium were near 100%, and the lowest recovery was 76.6% from rice leaves. The estimated cadmium concentrations from the immunochromatography procedure were evaluated by comparison with the results of instrumental analysis (ICP-AES or ICP-MS). By comparison of HCl extracts analyzed by ICP-MS and column eluates analyzed by immunochromatography of the samples, the estimated cadmium concentrations were closely similar, and their recoveries were from 98 to 116%. PMID:19489614

  13. Cadmium accumulation and subcellular distribution in relation to cadmium chloride induced cytotoxicity in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bovine kidney cell culture system was used to assess what relationship cadmium (Cd) uptake and subcellular distribution had to cadmium chloride induced cytotoxicity. Twenty-four hour incubation with 0.1-10 μM Cd elicited 0-90% cytotoxicity. Fifty percent cytotoxicity was estimated to result from 0.8 μM Cd. A concentration-related Cd accumulation paralleled the cytotoxicity profile. The time-course for Cd accumulation was linear for the first 6 h of exposure and plateaued by 18 h post-exposure. When the degree of cytotoxicity was compared with the cellular Cd burden at 24 h post-treatment a least-squares linear regression analysis (r=0.93) indicated a direct relationship. Subcellular distribution studies indicated greater than 90% Cd recovery from the soluble supernatant (105,000 g) at all levels of cytotoxicity studied. Metallothionein sequestered less than 25% of the cellular Cd. As a result of the correlation of the degree of cytotoxicity with the cellular Cd burden and the independence of subcellular distribution from cytotoxicity, a cumulative mechanism of toxicity for Cd in MDBK cells was suggested. (author)

  14. Toxic heavy metals: materials cycle optimization.

    OpenAIRE

    Ayres, R U

    1992-01-01

    Long-term ecological sustainability is incompatible with an open materials cycle. The toxic heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, silver, uranium/plutonium, zinc) exemplify the problem. These metals are being mobilized and dispersed into the environment by industrial activity at a rate far higher than by natural processes. Apart from losses to the environment resulting from mine wastes and primary processing, many of these metals are utilized in products that are in...

  15. Mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium (Cd), a heavy metal of considerable occupational and environmental concern, has been classified as a human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The carcinogenic potential of Cd as well as the mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis following exposure to Cd has been studied using in vitro cell culture and in vivo animal models. Exposure of cells to Cd results in their transformation. Administration of Cd in animals results in tumors of multiple organs/tissues. Also, a causal relationship has been noticed between exposure to Cd and the incidence of lung cancer in human. It has been demonstrated that Cd induces cancer by multiple mechanisms and the most important among them are aberrant gene expression, inhibition of DNA damage repair, induction of oxidative stress, and inhibition of apoptosis. The available evidence indicates that, perhaps, oxidative stress plays a central role in Cd carcinogenesis because of its involvement in Cd-induced aberrant gene expression, inhibition of DNA damage repair, and apoptosis.

  16. Multi-generation cadmium acclimation and tolerance in Daphnia magna Straus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cladoceran Daphnia magna was acclimated for seven generations to cadmium concentrations ranging from 0 (control) to 250 μg/l Cd (corresponding to a free ion activity of 4.60 nM Cd2+). Acute and chronic cadmium tolerance as well as cadmium accumulation were monitored as a function of acclimation time. After two to three generations of acclimation to concentrations ranging from 0.23 to 1.11 nM Cd2+ increases in acute tolerance were maximal (factor 7.2) and significant. Acclimation for seven generations to the same acclimation concentrations did result in an increased chronic cadmium tolerance (21 days EC50 values increased). Organisms acclimated to 1.93 nM Cd2+ were equally or more sensitive than non-acclimated daphnids in acute and chronic toxicity tests. Cadmium contents in D. magna increased significantly as a function of the acclimation concentration. Maximum body burdens of 236±30 μg Cd/g dry weight were measured in organisms exposed to 4.60 nM Cd2+, but detoxification mechanisms were only successful up to 82±20 μg Cd/g dry weight as this concentration did not cause major decreases in survival and reproduction in chronic toxicity tests. As the potential positive effect of acclimation on cadmium tolerance disappeared with successive acclimation generations and increasing acclimation concentrations, it is concluded that multi-generation acclimation studies are important for the evaluation of the long-term effects of environmental toxicants. - Multi-generation acclimation studies are important for evaluating long-term effects of aquatic pollutants

  17. Impact of cadmium contamination and oxygenation levels on biochemical responses in the Asiatic clam Corbicula fluminea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential utility of several biochemical parameters as indicators of the toxic effects of cadmium in the freshwater clam Corbicula fluminea under two levels of oxygenation (normoxia 21 kPa and hypoxia 4 kPa). These variations in oxygenation are representative of the natural environments of bivalves living at the bottom of the water column, where hypoxic episodes may occur regularly. Cadmium accumulation, metallothionein synthesis, MXR protein induction, lipoperoxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities (catalase, glutathione reductase and total and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidases) were assessed in the gills of C. fluminea in four experimental conditions: normoxia, hypoxia, normoxia with cadmium and hypoxia with cadmium ([Cd] = 30 μg l-1) over a 14-day period. Behavioural reactions were also followed for the duration of the experiment by monitoring clam activity and valve movements. This study is a first report on biochemical responses under cadmium contamination and hypoxia and will enable us to determine better biomarkers for C. fluminea as they were measured simultaneously. In metal-exposed animals, we found an increasing accumulation of cadmium in the gills with time, and this was more severe in hypoxic conditions. Metallothionein synthesis occurred in contaminated clams and was precocious in hypoxic conditions. MXR protein induction appeared promising due to its quick and significant response to metal with a strong impact from hypoxic contamination. On the other hand, in our experimental conditions, antioxidant parameters did not show decisive responses to contamination and hypoxia, except glutathione peroxidases which decreased systematically with time in a cadmium-independent manner. Lipid peroxidation, expressed as malondialdehyde content, was not stimulated by normoxic contamination, as has been shown in other studies, but was stimulated under hypoxic cadmium contamination. Our study confirms the

  18. Assessment of concentration of lead, cadmium, chromium and selenium in blood serum of cancer and diabetic patients of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy metals have specific role in the progression of diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the level of toxic elements, i.e. lead, cadmium, chromium and selenium in blood serum of type 1 diabetes mellitus and cancer patients. Samples were collected from Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Oncology, Lahore (INMOL) Hospital and Jinnah Hospital, Lahore. They were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Concentrations of toxic metals, i.e. lead, cadmium and chromium have been found relatively high in both cancer and diabetic patients where as concentration of selenium was relatively lower than the normal subjects. (author)

  19. Toxic compounds in honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Nazmul; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Islam, Md Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-07-01

    There is a wealth of information about the nutritional and medicinal properties of honey. However, honey may contain compounds that may lead to toxicity. A compound not naturally present in honey, named 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), may be formed during the heating or preservation processes of honey. HMF has gained much interest, as it is commonly detected in honey samples, especially samples that have been stored for a long time. HMF is a compound that may be mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic. It has also been reported that honey can be contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium. Honey produced from the nectar of Rhododendron ponticum contains alkaloids that can be poisonous to humans, while honey collected from Andromeda flowers contains grayanotoxins, which can cause paralysis of limbs in humans and eventually leads to death. In addition, Melicope ternata and Coriaria arborea from New Zealand produce toxic honey that can be fatal. There are reports that honey is not safe to be consumed when it is collected from Datura plants (from Mexico and Hungary), belladonna flowers and Hyoscamus niger plants (from Hungary), Serjania lethalis (from Brazil), Gelsemium sempervirens (from the American Southwest), Kalmia latifolia, Tripetalia paniculata and Ledum palustre. Although the symptoms of poisoning due to honey consumption may differ depending on the source of toxins, most common symptoms generally include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, headache, palpitations or even death. It has been suggested that honey should not be considered a completely safe food. PMID:24214851

  20. Toxic action/toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathway, D E

    2000-02-01

    Some six or so physiological systems, essential to normal mammalian life, are involved in poisoning; an intoxication that causes severe injury to any one of them could be life threatening. Reversible chemical reactions showing Scatchard-type binding are exemplified by CO, CN- and cyclodiene neurotoxin insecticide intoxications, and by antigen-antibody complex formation. Haemoglobin (Hb) molecular biology accounts for the allosteric co-operativity and other characteristics of CO poisoning, CN- acts as a powerful cytochrome oxidase inhibitor, and antigen binding in a deep antibody cleft between two domains equipped with epitopes for antigen-binding groups explains hapten-specific immune reactions. Covalent chemical reactions with second-order (SN2) kinetics characterize Hg and Cd poisonings, the reactions of organophosphates and phosphonates with acetylcholinesterase and neurotoxic esterase and the reaction sequence whereby Paraquat accepts electrons and generates superoxide under aerobic conditions. Indirect carcinogens require cytochrome P450 activation to form DNA adducts in target-organ DNA and cause cancer, but a battery of detoxifying enzymes clustered with the P450 system must be overcome. Thus, S-metabolism competes ineffectively with target DNA for reactive vinyl chloride (VC) metabolites, epoxide hydrolase is important to the metabolism and carcinogenicity of alfatoxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (benzo[a]pyrene, etc.), and the non-toxic 2-naphthylhydroxylamine N-glucuronide acts as a transport form in 2-naphthylamine bladder cancer. VC liver-cancer pathogenesis is explicable in terms of the presence of the glutathione S-transferase detoxifying system in hepatocytes and its absence from the fibroblastic elements, and of the VC concentrations reaching the liver by different administrative routes. In VC carcinogenicity, chemical reactions give imidazo-cyclization products with nucleoside residues of target DNA, and in benzene leukaemia, Z

  1. Cadmium cytotoxity: study of Allium sativum L. root meristems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clain, E.; Deysson, G.

    1976-01-01

    Three cadmium salts, CdSO/sub 4/, Cd(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/, and Cd(OAc)/sub 2/ were tested on garlic root meristems. CdSO/sub 4/ was the most toxic of the three; when 10/sup -7/ mol/ml was used, mitostasis resulted within 24 hours and cellular death after forty-eight hours. Cd(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ and Cd(OAc)/sub 2/ were lethal at 5 x 10/sup -7/ mol/ml. 1 figure, 1 table.

  2. Nickel cadmium battery expert system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The applicability of artificial intelligence methodologies for the automation of energy storage management, in this case, nickel cadmium batteries, is demonstrated. With the Hubble Space Telescope Electrical Power System (HST/EPS) testbed as the application domain, an expert system was developed which incorporates the physical characterization of the EPS, in particular, the nickel cadmium batteries, as well as the human's operational knowledge. The expert system returns not only fault diagnostics but also status and advice along with justifications and explanations in the form of decision support.

  3. Electrochemical monitoring of phytochelatin accumulation in Nicotiana tabacum cells exposed to sub-cytotoxic and cytotoxic levels of cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fojta, Miroslav [Laboratory of Biophysical Chemistry and Molecular Oncology, Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Kralovopolska 135, 612 65 Brno (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: fojta@ibp.cz; Fojtova, Miloslava [Laboratory of Molecular Epigenetics, Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Kralovopolska 135, 612 65 Brno (Czech Republic); Havran, Ludek [Laboratory of Biophysical Chemistry and Molecular Oncology, Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Kralovopolska 135, 612 65 Brno (Czech Republic); Pivonkova, Hana [Laboratory of Biophysical Chemistry and Molecular Oncology, Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Kralovopolska 135, 612 65 Brno (Czech Republic); Dorcak, Vlastimil [Laboratory of Biophysical Chemistry and Molecular Oncology, Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Kralovopolska 135, 612 65 Brno (Czech Republic); Sestakova, Ivana [J. Heyrovsky Institute of Physical Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Dolejskova 3, 182 23 Prague 8 (Czech Republic)

    2006-02-03

    Cadmium belongs to the most dangerous environmental pollutants among the toxic heavy metals seriously affecting vital functions in both animal and plant cells. It has been previously shown that cadmium ions at 50-100 {mu}M concentrations caused tobacco BY-2 (TBY-2) cells to enter apoptosis within several days of exposure. Phytochelatins (PCs), the 'plant metallothioneins', are cysteine-rich peptides involved in detoxification of heavy metals in plants. The PCs are synthesized in response to the heavy metal exposure. In this paper, we utilized electrochemical analysis to monitor accumulation of PCs in the TBY-2 cells exposed to cadmium ions. Measurements of a characteristic PC signal at mercury electrode in the presence of cobalt ions made it possible to detect changes in the cellular PC levels during the time of cultivation, starting from 30 min after exposure. Upon TBY-2 cultivation in the presence of cytotoxic cadmium concentrations, the PC levels remarkably increased during the pre-apoptotic phase and reached a limiting value at cultivation times coinciding with apoptosis trigger. The PC level observed for a sub-cytotoxic cadmium concentration (10 {mu}M) was about three-times lower than that observed for the 50 or 100 {mu}M cadmium ions after 5 days of exposure. We show that using a simple electrochemical analysis, synthesis of PCs in plant cells can be easily followed in parallel with other tests of the cellular response to the toxic heavy metal stress.

  4. Field effects of cadmium contamination in the radiation characteristics of maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illes, B.; Anda, A.

    2012-04-01

    Cadmium is one of the most common toxic heavy metals in our environment. Cadmium is a particularly dangerous element, because it dissolves readily, making it easily available to plants. It is thus able to accumulate in various links in the food chain, finally reaching humans, at the end of the chain. Adverse effects on human body was reported in 1858 at first. If it enters the body, damage to health, cause changes and can also cause cancer. Our study was designated to simulate the effects of cadmium on maize in field conditions, during the 2011 growing season. The impact of cadmium on maize was investigated at the Agro-meteorological Research Station in Keszthely. A Swiss-bred maize hybrid, Sperlona (FAO 340), with a short vegetation period, was sown in the experiments at the plant density (70,000 plants per hectare) widely used under Hungarian climatic conditions for growing grain maize. Effects of cadmium on corn life were studied under two water supplies. Evapotranspirometers of the Thornthwaite type were used for the "ad libitum" treatment and the the rainfed variant was sown in field plots. 0,5 M concentration of cadmium was used, which was sprayed weekly. The aim of the investigation was to simulate impact of atmospheric pollution of traffic origin (low and frequent doses in the field). Plant height was registered weekly similarly to leaf area index (LAI). Albedo was measured by pyranometers of the CMA-11 type (Kipp & Zonen, Vaisala). From this the most important radiative properties were calculated, so the net radiation balance, latent heat, sensible heat and the Bowen ratio. The values of LAI for the cadmium contaminated maize were significantly lower compared to the control maize. The net radiation balance was about the same in both treatments. Cadmium causes the latent heat decreased, while the sensible heat increased compared to the control treatment. The Bowen ratio in the polluted crops was higher, than the cadmium-untreated area. The yield of maize

  5. Silicon-induced reversibility of cadmium toxicity in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Muhammad Ansar; Detterbeck, Amelie; Clemens, Stephan; Dietz, Karl-Josef

    2016-05-01

    Silicon (Si) modulates tolerance to abiotic stresses, but little is known about the reversibility of stress effects by supplementing previously stressed plants with Si. This is surprising since recovery experiments might allow mechanisms of Si-mediated amelioration to be addressed. Rice was exposed to 10 µM CdCl2 for 4 d in hydroponics, followed by 0.6mM Si(OH)4 supplementation for 4 d. Si reversed the effects of Cd, as reflected in plant growth, photosynthesis, elemental composition, and some biochemical parameters. Cd-dependent deregulation of nutrient homeostasis was partially reversed by Si supply. Photosynthetic recovery within 48h following Si supply, coupled with strong stimulation of the ascorbate-glutathione system, indicates efficient activation of defense. The response was further verified by transcript analyses with emphasis on genes encoding members of the stress-associated protein (SAP) family. The transcriptional response to Cd was mostly reversed following Si supply. Reprogramming of the Cd response was obvious for Phytochelatin synthase 1, SAP1 , SAP14, and the transcription factor genes AP2/Erf020, Hsf31, and NAC6 whose transcript levels were strongly activated in roots of Cd-stressed rice, but down-regulated in the presence of Si. These findings, together with changes in biochemical parameters, highlight the significance of Si in growth recovery of Cd-stressed rice and indicate a decisive role for readjusting cell redox homeostasis. PMID:27122572

  6. Effects of benzoic acid and cadmium toxicity on wheat seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Kavita Yadav; Singh, N.B.

    2013-01-01

    Benzoic acid (BA) and Cd exhibit cumulative effects on plants due to their accumulation in the soil. The present study reports the effects of BA an allelochemical, Cd and their combinations on seed germination, seedling growth, biochemical parameters, and response of antioxidant enzymes in Triticum aestivum L. The experiment was conducted in sand supplemented with Hoagland nutrient solution. Benzoic acid was applied at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mM with or without Cd (7 mg L-1) to ob...

  7. Insulin Expression in Rats Exposed to Cadmium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effects of cadmium exposure on insulin expression in rats. Methods Eighteen adult SD assessed. The levels of cadmium and zinc in pancreas, blood and urine glucose, serum insulin and urine NAG (N-acyetyl-β-glucosaminidase) were determined. The gene expressions of metallothionein (MT) and insulin were also measured,and the oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were carried out. Results The contents of cadmium in pancreas in cadmium-treated rats were higher than that in the control group, which was associated with slight increase of zinc in pancreas.not change significantly after cadmium administration, and the UNAG had no change in Cd-treated group. The gene expression the change of the expression of insulin, MT-Ⅰ and MT-Ⅱ genes. Cadmium can influence the biosynthesis of insulin, but does not induce the release of insulin. The dysfunction of pancreas occurs earlier than that of kidney after administration of cadmium.

  8. Role of Calcium Channels in Heavy Metal Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Marchetti

    2013-01-01

    Cellular membranes are basically impermeable to ions and have developed specific pathways (channels, transporters or pumps) to facilitate metal translocation. These physiological carriers are not ideally selective and their specificity spectrum may include xenobiotic species, such as toxic metals whose availability in the environment has increased enormously in industrial times. I have studied the pathways of influx of two toxic metals, lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in mammalian cells. Both meta...

  9. Survey of toxicity and carcinogenity of mineral deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furst, A.; Harding-Barlow, I.

    1981-11-03

    The toxicities and biogeochemical cycles of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead and nickel are reviewed in some detail, and other trace elements briefly mentioned. These heavy metals are used as a framework within which the problem of low-level radioactive waste disposal can be compared. (ACR)

  10. Toxic Elements in Food: Occurrence, Binding, and Reduction Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajeb, P.; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Shakibazadeh, Sh;

    2014-01-01

    Toxic elements such as mercury, arsenic, cadmium, and lead, sometimes called heavy metals, can diminish mental and central nervous system function; elicit damage to blood composition as well as the kidneys, lungs, and liver; and reduce energy levels. Food is considered one of the main routes...

  11. Survey of toxicity and carcinogenity of mineral deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The toxicities and biogeochemical cycles of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead and nickel are reviewed in some detail, and other trace elements briefly mentioned. These heavy metals are used as a framework within which the problem of low-level radioactive waste disposal can be compared

  12. Acute toxicity of copper and cadmium for piauçu, Leporinus macrocephalus, and curimatã, Prochilodus vimboides = Toxicidade aguda do cobre e do cádmio no piauçu, Leporinus macrocephalus, e no curimatã, Prochilodus vimboides

    OpenAIRE

    Levy Carvalho Gomes; Adriana Regina Chippari-Gomes; Rodrigo Nunes Oss; Luiz Fernando Loureiro Fernandes; Rafael de Almeida Magris

    2009-01-01

    Ninety-six-hour static bioassays were conducted in the laboratory to determine lethal concentrations (96-h LC50) of copper and cadmium for curimatã (Prochilodus vimboides) and piauçu (Leporinus macrocephalus). The 96-h LC50 of copper were 0.047 and 0.090 mg L-1, and of cadmium 3.16 and 7.42 mg L-1 for curimatã and piauçu, respectively. Curimatã is a preferred indigenous species for toxicological studies in the Doce River basin due to its availability in the hatcheries of the region and high s...

  13. Effect of Zero-Valent Iron Application on Cadmium Uptake in Rice Plants Grown in Cadmium-Contaminated Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Toshihiro; Murata, Yasutoshi; Nakamura,Takashi; Sakai, Yuki; Osaki, Mitsuru

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) contamination in soils is a serious problem for crop production in the world. Zero-valent iron (Fe(0)) is a reactive material with reducing power capable of stabilizing toxic elements in a solution. In the present study, we examined the effect of zero-valent iron (Fe(0)) application on Cd accumulation in rice plants growing in Cd-contaminated paddy soils. The Fe(0) application significantly decreased the Cd accumulation in the leaves and seeds of rice plants grown in Cd-contamina...

  14. Elastic positron-cadmium scattering at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The elastic and annihilation cross sections for positron-cadmium scattering are reported up to the positronium-formation threshold (at 2.2 eV). The low-energy phase shifts for the elastic scattering of positrons from cadmium were derived from the bound and pseudostate energies of a very large basis configuration-interaction calculation of the e+-Cd system. The s-wave binding energy is estimated to be 126±42 meV, with a scattering length of Ascat=(14.2±2.1)a0, while the threshold annihilation parameter, Zeff, was 93.9±26.5. The p-wave phase shift exhibits a weak shape resonance that results in a peak Zeff of 91±17 at a collision energy of about 490±50 meV.

  15. Effects of long-term low-dose cadmium exposure on genomic DNA methylation in human embryo lung fibroblast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium is a toxic transition metal of continuing occupational and environmental concern. As a well-recognized human carcinogen, its carcinogenic mechanisms are still poorly understood. Cadmium has long been considered a non-genotoxic carcinogen and thought to act through epigenetic mechanisms. In the present study, we tested the effects of long-term low-dose cadmium exposure on DNA methylation in human embryo lung fibroblast (HLF) cells. After 2 months of exposure to 0-1.5 μmol/L cadmium, both the level of genomic DNA methylation and the enzyme activity of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) were increased in a concentration-related manner. Moreover, our results showed that cadmium exposure up-regulated the mRNA levels of DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b at higher concentrations. We further tested the growth dynamics of HLF cells, and observed significantly elevated growth rates, decreased cell population of G0/G1-phase and increased cell population of S-phase at 0.9, 1.2, and 1.5 μmol/L concentrations. Our study indicated that long-term low-dose cadmium exposure could disrupt DNA methylation, which may be one of the possible underlying carcinogenic mechanisms of cadmium

  16. ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION OF TOXIC METALS TO LAKE MICHIGAN: PRELIMINARY ANNUAL MODEL CALCULATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concern is growing for the environmental water quality of the Great Lakes. tmospheric deposition of toxic substances is recognized as a major pathway of contaminants to the water medium. o estimate the annual atmospheric loadings of five toxic metals -- arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd)...

  17. Analysis of accumulation of cadmium in seeds of selected breeding linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) genotypes cultivated for medicinal purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Praczyk Marcin; Heller Krzysztof; Silska Grażyna; Baraniecki Przemysław

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was genetic and breeding screening of selected varieties and hybrids of oil flax for in-seed cadmium fixing ability. Seven parental varieties as well as nineteen F1 and F2 hybrids were analyzed. The varieties were crossed in di-allelic scheme, according to the Griffing method II. Significant differences were found in the activity of fixing cadmium from the soil between analysed flax parental forms and hybrids. High variability of tested genotypes, calculated by the ...

  18. Comparison of toxicity indices in isolated fish and rat hepatocytes exposed in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many non-mammalian organisms have been proposed as alternative species for toxicity testing. We investigated the use of isolated fish hepatocytes exposed in vitro for toxicity assessment and compared responses with those from similarly treated isolated rat hepatocytes. The effects of cadmium on cell viability (trypan blue exclusion), protein synthesis (3H-leucine incorporation) and intracellular potassium (atomic absorption spectroscopy) were evaluated. Cadmium was much more toxic to rat hepatocytes than to hepatocytes from either fish species. Intracellular potassium leakage was the most sensitive of the endpoints leakage was the most sensitive of the endpoints measured in rat hepatocytes (EC50=6.5 μM). Although protein synthesis was reduced in rat hepatocytes 50% at 37 μM, more than 500 μM was required for an effect of similar magnitude in hepatocytes from either fish species. Based on these indices, cadmium is much more toxic to rat hepatocytes than to those from fish

  19. Protective efficacy of Emblica officinalis Linn. against radiation and cadmium induced biochemical alterations in the liver of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All organisms living on earth are being perpetually exposed to some amount of radiation originating from a variety of sources. Radiation causes deleterious effects in all forms of life due to increasing utilization and production of modern technology, a simultaneous exposure of organisms to heavy metals is also unavoidable. These heavy metals become toxic when present in large quantities, with increasing the industrial revolution and industrial waste, the emission of cadmium has increased into the environment. Thus concomitant exposure to cadmium chloride and ionizing radiation might produce deleterious effect upon biological system. The total environmental burden of toxicants may have greater effect as against their individual impact as expected by their nature. So interaction between radiation and other toxicants represents a field of great potential importance. In the recent years, immense interest has been developed in the field of chemoprotection against radiation and heavy metals induced changes. In view of the potential for practical application, a variety of compounds are being tested for their radioprotective activities. Among these, Emblica holds a great promise. In light of the above, the present study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of Emblica against radiation and cadmium induced biochemical alterations in the liver of Swiss albino mice. The animals were exposed to 6.0 Gy of gamma rays with or without cadmium chloride treatment. The Emblica was administered seven days prior to irradiation or cadmium chloride treatment

  20. Cadmium in jamaican bush teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoo Fung, L A; Rattray, V R; Lalor, G C

    2014-01-01

    Samples of Jamaican plants used as bush teas were collected from households in high soil-cadmium (Cd) areas of central Jamaica and analysed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry for total cadmium and for cadmium extractable with a hot water brew as prepared for human consumption to determine their contribution to dietary cadmium exposure. The concentrations ranged from < 0.03 to 6.85 µg/g for total Cd, between 1 and 15% of which was extracted with a hot water brew. One cup (200 ml) of the teas examined was found to contain < 0.04-1.18 µg of Cd and would contribute 0.1-0.3 µg of Cd to a person's dietary intake. This is significantly below the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of 7 µg Cd/kg body weight established by the World Health Organization (WHO). While this suggests that bush tea consumption does not contribute significantly to the PTWI, some of the teas examined exceed the WHO recommendation of less than 0.3 mg/kg Cd for medicinal plants. PMID:25303189

  1. CADMIUM MONITORING AMONG SOME PLANT AND VEGETABLE SPECIES IN SINGRAULI REGION OF MADHYA PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil K. Pandey* and Rajesh Pandey

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermal power plants produce enormous quantity of pollutants such as fly ash as a by - product of combustion of coal or any pulverized fuel at higher temperature. Industrial effluents contain several heavy metals including cadmium distrusted the metabolic process of living organism due to easily dispersion and mobilization in environment. The eatables and applicable potential plants and vegetables altered by Cadmium and concern derivatives which directly and indirectly posing severe risks to human health which, extremely toxic even in low concentration, and will bioaccumulate in organisms and ecosystems. Interest has therefore risen in its bio hazardous potential. Present study deals on monitoring or current status of cadmium in certain plant and common vegetable species in singrauli region, resulted indication were observed an alarming situation in Singrauli region of India.

  2. Water hyacinths for removal of cadmium and nickel from polluted waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1975-01-01

    Removal of cadmium and nickel from static water systems utilizing water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) was investigated. This aquatic plant demonstrated the ability to rapidly remove heavy metals from aqueous systems by root absorption and concentration. Water hyacinths demonstrated the ability to absorb and concentrate up to 0.67 mg of cadmium and 0.50 mg of nickel per gram of dry plant material when exposed for a 24-hour period to waters polluted with from 0.578 to 2.00 ppm of these toxic metals. It is found that one hectare of water hyacinths has the potential of removing 300 g of cadmium or nickel from 240,000 liters of water polluted with these metals during a 24-hour period.

  3. The role of microRNAs in copper and cadmium homeostasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essential heavy metals (e.g., copper) and non-essential metals (e.g., cadmium) are both toxic to plants at high concentrations. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as important modulators of plants adaptive response to heavy metal stress. Plant miRNAs negatively regulate target mRNAs by post-transcriptional cleavage. miR398 regulates copper homeostasis via down-regulating the expression of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (CSD), a scavenger of superoxide radicals. miR393 and miR171 play an important role in cadmium stress mediation. This review focuses on the recent advance in the involvement of miRNAs in copper and cadmium stress regulatory networks in plants.

  4. Interaction of Cadmium With the Aerobic Bacterium Pseudomonas Mendocina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, P. J.; Haack, E. A.; Maurice, P. A.

    2006-05-01

    The fate of toxic metals in the environment can be heavily influenced by interaction with bacteria in the vadose zone. This research focuses on the interactions of cadmium with the strict aerobe Pseudomonas mendocina. P. mendocina is a gram-negative bacterium that has shown potential in the bioremediation of recalcitrant organic compounds. Cadmium is a common environmental contaminant of wide-spread ecological consequence. In batch experiments P. mendocina shows typical bacterial growth curves, with an initial lag phase followed by an exponential phase and a stationary to death phase; concomitant with growth was an increase in pH from initial values of 7 to final values at 96 hours of 8.8. Cd both delays the onset of the exponential phase and decreases the maximum population size, as quantified by optical density and microscopic cell counts (DAPI). The total amount of Cd removed from solution increases over time, as does the amount of Cd removed from solution normalized per bacterial cell. Images obtained with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the production of a cadmium, phosphorus, and iron containing precipitate that was similar in form and composition to precipitates formed abiotically at elevated pH. However, by late stationary phase, the precipitate had been re-dissolved, perhaps by biotic processes in order to obtain Fe. Stressed conditions are suggested by TEM images showing the formation of pili, or nanowires, when 20ppm Cd was present and a marked decrease in exopolysaccharide and biofilm material in comparison to control cells (no cadmium added).

  5. Adsorptive removal of cadmium ions by Spirulina platensis dry biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Homaidan, Ali A; Alabdullatif, Jamila A; Al-Hazzani, Amal A; Al-Ghanayem, Abdullah A; Alabbad, Aljawharah F

    2015-11-01

    Cadmium is one of the most toxic substances found in aquatic ecosystems. This metal tends to accumulate in photosynthetic plants and fish and is transferred to humans causing many diseases. It has to be removed from our environment to reduce any health risks. Dry biomass of the microalga (cyanobacterium) Spirulina platensis was used as biosorbent for the removal of cadmium ions (Cd(2+)) from aqueous solutions. The effects of different levels of pH (3-9), biomass concentration (0.25-2 g), temperature (18-46 °C), metal concentration (40-200 mg/l) and contact time (30-120 min) were tested. Batch cultures were carried out in triplicate in an orbital shaker at 150 rpm. After centrifuging the biomass, the remaining levels of cadmium ions were measured in the supernatant by Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. Very high levels of removal, reaching up to 87.69% were obtained. The highest percentage of removal was reached at pH 8, 2 g of biosorbent, 26 °C, and 60 mg/l of cadmium concentration after 90 min of contact time. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to describe the adsorption isotherm of the metal ions by S. platensis. Langmuir model was found to be in better correlation with experimental data (R (2) = 0.92). Results of this study indicated that S. platensis is a very good candidate for the removal of heavy metals from aquatic environments. The process is feasible, reliable and eco-friendly. PMID:26587009

  6. Sensitivity of biochemical markers to evaluate cadmium stress in the freshwater diatom Nitzschia palea (Kuetzing) W. Smith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human activities have been increasing the cadmium levels in soils and waters, disturbing many organisms in the primary trophic levels such as microalgae. Toxic metal pollution is a focus point of serious concern and the examination and monitoring water quality are becoming essential procedures. Diatoms are important bioindicators to monitor the metal concentrations in diverse habitats. The present study was planned to determine the biochemical mechanisms used by freshwater diatoms to cope with cadmium stress and to identify biomarkers of metal stress. For this, Nitzschia palea (Kuetzing) W. Smith was grown under different concentrations of Cd (0.01-0.1 mg l-1) and the IC50 determined. Three concentrations (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mg Cd l-1) and a control (no cadmium) were used to undergo the experimental assays which allowed the determination of cadmium accumulation and several biochemical markers currently used to assess metal stress. N. palea was sensitive to cadmium, as the IC50 calculated was 0.0276 mg Cd l-1. Cadmium accumulation increased sharply and was mainly associated to the frustule. Total protein content increased with cadmium exposure, inducing increases and decreases in polypeptide expression, indicating an attempt of N. palea cells to adjust to the new prevailing conditions induced by metal stress. In order to cope with cadmium stress, cells induced the synthesis of chelating molecules such as phytochelatins (PCs). The enzymatic (SOD and CAT) and non-enzymatic (glutathione and proline) ROS scavenging mechanisms were also induced. Our results indicate the existence of diverse metal stress-mediated mechanisms in order to lessen metal damages to the cell. PCs showed to be a suitable biomarker of metal stress; besides being metal specific and concentration respondent it also allows to infer about the level of stress imposed to cells, constituting a useful tool to complement the evaluation of diatom communities when accessing aquatic metal toxicity.

  7. Effect of dietary zinc deficiency on the accumulation of cadmium and metallothionein in selected tissues of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waalkes, M.P.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of continuous dietary zinc deficiency on the metabolism of the toxic heavy metal cadmium has not been widely studied. This investigation was designed to assess the effects of subadequate dietary zinc intake on the accumulation of dietary cadmium and on metallothionein (MT) and zinc concentrations in target organs of cadmium toxicity. Adult male Wistar rats (180-200 g) were allowed, ad libitum, diets either adequate (60 ppm) or deficient (7 ppm) in zinc for a total of 9 wk. The zinc-deficient diet resulted in an approximately 40% reduction in plasma zinc (assessed at 3, 6, and 9 wk) in the absence of overt signs of zinc deficiency (i.e., reduced weight gain, alopecia, etc.). Separate groups of rats were also maintained on zinc-defined diets for a total of 9 wk, but cadmium was added to the diet (0, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 ppm) a the end of wk 3 and maintained at that level throughout the remaining 6 wk of the study, when the rats were killed. The feeding of the zinc-deficient diet markedly enhanced the accumulation of cadmium in the liver, kidney, and testes. Hepatic, renal, and testicular zinc concentrations were not affected by suboptimal zinc intake alone. However, marked reductions in renal and testicular zinc concentrations were caused by zinc deficiency in concert with cadmium exposure. MT levels, when related to tissue cadmium concentrations, were elevated to a significantly lesser extent in the kidneys of zinc-deficient animals. These results indicate that marginal zinc deficiency markedly increases cadmium accumulation in various organs and reduces zinc content and MT induction in some organs.

  8. Blood cadmium levels are associated with a decline in lung function in males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Cadmium exposure was found to cause a decline in lung function among the general population, but these findings were limited to smokers and gender differences were not explored. Objectives: To examine the relationship between cadmium and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) according to gender and smoking status in Korea. Methods: Cross-sectional data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2011 were analyzed. COPD was defined by a pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s divided by forced vital capacity of <0.70. A logistic regression model was used to elucidate the association between blood cadmium levels and COPD according to gender and smoking status. Results: Among 3861 eligible participants, 3622 were included in the analysis. The prevalence of COPD demonstrated an increasing trend in males (P for trend<0.001), but not in females (P for trend=0.67). After adjusting for covariates, a higher blood cadmium level, but within the normal range, was associated with COPD in males, including those who had never-smoked (P for trend <0.001 and P for trend=0.008). However, a higher blood cadmium level was not significantly associated with COPD in females, including those who had never smoked (P for trend=0.39 and P for trend=0.43). Conclusions: A higher blood cadmium level, within the normal range, was associated with COPD in males, including those who had never smoked. However, there was no significant association between blood cadmium levels and COPD in females. - Highlights: • Elevated blood cadmium level is associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in male. • This association can be seen even in never smoked male. • However, this association is present only in male, but not in female

  9. Blood cadmium levels are associated with a decline in lung function in males

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Chang-Mo [Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); The Korea Central Cancer Registry, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Oh, In-Hwan; Lee, Jong-Keun [Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yoon Hyung [Departments of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Bong-Keun; Yoon, Tai-Young [Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Joong-Myung, E-mail: jmchoi@khu.ac.kr [Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    Background: Cadmium exposure was found to cause a decline in lung function among the general population, but these findings were limited to smokers and gender differences were not explored. Objectives: To examine the relationship between cadmium and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) according to gender and smoking status in Korea. Methods: Cross-sectional data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2011 were analyzed. COPD was defined by a pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s divided by forced vital capacity of <0.70. A logistic regression model was used to elucidate the association between blood cadmium levels and COPD according to gender and smoking status. Results: Among 3861 eligible participants, 3622 were included in the analysis. The prevalence of COPD demonstrated an increasing trend in males (P for trend<0.001), but not in females (P for trend=0.67). After adjusting for covariates, a higher blood cadmium level, but within the normal range, was associated with COPD in males, including those who had never-smoked (P for trend <0.001 and P for trend=0.008). However, a higher blood cadmium level was not significantly associated with COPD in females, including those who had never smoked (P for trend=0.39 and P for trend=0.43). Conclusions: A higher blood cadmium level, within the normal range, was associated with COPD in males, including those who had never smoked. However, there was no significant association between blood cadmium levels and COPD in females. - Highlights: • Elevated blood cadmium level is associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in male. • This association can be seen even in never smoked male. • However, this association is present only in male, but not in female.

  10. The relationship between cadmium in kidney and cadmium in urine and blood in an environmentally exposed population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akerstrom, Magnus, E-mail: magnus.akerstrom@amm.gu.se [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Barregard, Lars [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Lundh, Thomas [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University Hospital, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Sallsten, Gerd [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2013-05-01

    Introduction: Cadmium (Cd) is toxic to the kidney and a major part of the body burden occurs here. Cd in urine (U-Cd) and blood (B-Cd) are widely-used biomarkers for assessing Cd exposure or body burden. However, empirical general population data on the relationship between Cd in kidney (K-Cd), urine, and blood are scarce. Our objectives were to determine the relationship between cadmium in kidney, urine, and blood, and calculate the elimination half-time of Cd from the kidney. Methods: Kidney cortex biopsies, urine, and blood samples were collected from 109 living kidney donors. Cd concentrations were determined and the relationships between K-Cd, U-Cd, and B-Cd were investigated in regression models. The half-time of K-Cd was estimated from the elimination constant. Results: There was a strong association between K-Cd and U-Cd adjusted for creatinine (r{sub p} = 0.70, p < 0.001), while the association with B-Cd was weaker (r{sub p} = 0.44, p < 0.001). The relationship between K-Cd and U-Cd was nonlinear, with slower elimination of Cd at high K-Cd. Estimates of the K-Cd half-time varied between 18 and 44 years. A K-Cd of 25 μg/g corresponds to U-Cd of 0.42 μg/g creatinine in overnight urine (U-Cd/K-Cd ratio: about 1:60). Multivariate models showed Cd in blood and urinary albumin as determinants for U-Cd excretion. Discussion: In healthy individuals with low-level Cd exposure, there was a strong correlation between Cd in kidney and urine, especially after adjustment for creatinine. Urinary Cd was also affected by Cd in blood and urinary albumin. Previous estimates of the U-Cd/K-Cd ratio may underestimate K-Cd at low U-Cd. - Highlights: ► The first study of the relation between Cd in kidney, blood and urine at low U-Cd ► Simultaneous samples were collected from healthy kidney donors. ► There was a nonlinear relationship between cadmium in kidney and urine. ► Estimates of the kidney cadmium half-time were 18–44 years, depending on model used. ► Previous

  11. Metallothionein-like proteins induced by cadmium stress in the scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukovskaya, Avianna F.; Belcheva, Nina N.; Slobodskova, Valentina S.; Chelomin, Viktor P.

    2012-09-01

    Organisms have evolved a cellular response called stress protein response that increases their tolerance in adverse environmental conditions. Well known stress proteins that bind essential and toxic metals are metallothionein (MT). The scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis is the most interesting organism because it is able to accumulate toxic cadmium in its digestive gland. However, in the tissue of the digestive gland of Mizuhopecten yessoensis MT (metallothioneins) have not been found. Eastern scallops, Mizuhopecten yessoensis, were collected from two locations — one clean and one polluted site. The concentrations of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) were measured in the digestive gland. There was a significant increase in Cd concentrations in this studied tissue. We found that in the presence of cadmium Mizuhopecten yessoensis can induce high molecular proteins. The results of experiments have shown that Cd-binding ligands have a number of properties similar to MT: acetone and temperature stability; the ability to bind some metals, including Cd, Cu and Zn. Protein chromatography (FPLC, Superosa 12) from the digestive gland of scallop M. yessoensis has shown that cadmium is associated with high molecular weight Cd-binding proteins (72 kDa and 43 kDa). The major cadmium-binding protein 72 kDa is glycoprotein. In experiments we have demonstrated that Cd-binding proteins can be induced when there is cadmium exposure. The results of this study strongly suggest that the far eastern scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis has a unique and well-developed system for the detoxification of heavy metals and it allows for biochemical systems to be maintained in a relatively stable manner in the presence of heavy metals.

  12. Introducing Toxics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Bellinger

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available With this inaugural issue, Toxics begins its life as a peer-reviewed, open access journal focusing on all aspects of toxic chemicals. We are interested in publishing papers that present a wide range of perspectives on toxicants and naturally occurring toxins, including exposure, biomarkers, kinetics, biological effects, fate and transport, treatment, and remediation. Toxics differs from many other journals in the absence of a page or word limit on contributions, permitting authors to present their work in as much detail as they wish. Toxics will publish original research papers, conventional reviews, meta-analyses, short communications, theoretical papers, case reports, commentaries and policy perspectives, and book reviews (Book reviews will be solicited and should not be submitted without invitation. Toxins and toxicants concern individuals from a wide range of disciplines, and Toxics is interested in receiving papers that represent the full range of approaches applied to their study, including in vitro studies, studies that use experimental animal or non-animal models, studies of humans or other biological populations, and mathematical modeling. We are excited to get underway and look forward to working with authors in the scientific and medical communities and providing them with a novel venue for sharing their work. [...

  13. Effect of zeolite on toxicity of ammonia in freshwater sediments: Implications for toxicity identification evaluation procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besser, J.M.; Ingersoll, C.G. [Geological Survey, Columbia, MO (United States); Leonard, E.N.; Mount, D.R. [Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN (United States). Mid-Continent Ecology Div.

    1998-11-01

    Techniques for reducing ammonia toxicity in freshwater sediments were investigated as part of a project to develop toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) procedures for whole sediments. Although ammonia is a natural constituent of freshwater sediments, pollution can lead to ammonia concentrations that are toxic to benthic invertebrates, and ammonia can also contribute to the toxicity of sediments that contain more persistent contaminants. The authors investigated the use of amendments of a natural zeolite mineral, clinoptilolite, to reduce concentrations of ammonia in sediment pore water. Zeolites have been widely used for removal of ammonia in water treatment and in aqueous TIE procedures. The addition of granulated zeolite to ammonia-spiked sediments reduced pore-water ammonia concentrations and reduced ammonia toxicity to invertebrates. Amendments of 20% zeolite (v/v) reduced ammonia concentrations in pore water by {ge}70% in spiked sediments with ammonia concentrations typical of contaminated freshwater sediments. Zeolite amendments reduced toxicity of ammonia-spiked sediments to three taxa of benthic invertebrates (Hyalella azteca, Lumbriculus variegatus, and Chironomus tentans), despite their widely differing sensitivity to ammonia toxicity. In contrast, zeolite amendments did not reduce acute toxicity of sediments containing high concentrations of cadmium or copper or reduce concentrations of these metals in pore waters. These studies suggest that zeolite amendments, used in conjunction with toxicity tests with sensitive taxa such as H. azteca, may be an effective technique for selective reduction of ammonia toxicity in freshwater sediments.

  14. How Plants Cope with Cadmium: Staking All on Metabolism and Gene Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giovanni DalCorso; Silvla Fadnati; Silvia Maistd; Antonella Furini

    2008-01-01

    Environmental pollullon is one of the major problems for human health. Toxic heavy metals are normally present as soil constituents or can also be spread out in the environment by human activity and agricultural techniques. Soil contamination by heavy metals as cadmium, highlights two main aspects: on one side they interfere with the life cycle of plants and therefore reduce crop yields, and on the other hand, once adsorbed and accumulated into the plant tissues, they enter the food chain poisoning animals and humans. Considering this point of view, understanding the mechanism by which plants handle heavy metal exposure, In particular cadmium stress, is a primary goal of plant-blotechnology research or plant breeders whose aim is to create plants that are able to recover high amounts of heavy metals, which can be used for phytoremediation, or identify crop varieties that do not accumulate toxic metal in grains or fruits. In this review we focus on the main symptoms of cadmium toxicity both on root apparatus and shoots. We elucidate the mechanisms that plants activate to prevent absorption or to detoxify toxic metal ions, such as synthesis of phytochelatins, metallothioneins and enzymes involved in stress response. Finally we consider new plant-biotechnology applications that can be applied for phytoremediation.

  15. A Study for Extraction of Lead and Cadmium from Wastewater by Nano Particles Zn-ip via Cation Exchange and under Ultrasonic Irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Naghipour, Ali; Khanpour, Mojtaba

    2015-01-01

    Today, one of the most significant challenges is removal of toxic metals such as cadmium and lead from drinking water and irrigation, partially in developing countries. Accordingly, researchers have been trying to provide different ways to eliminate environmental metals. One of these methods, the use of metal-organic frameworks due to their high porosity and the ability to control pores. Thus, in this study we present an innovative study of the removal of cadmium and lead from water by MOFs v...

  16. Immunohistochemical study of cell proliferation, Bcl-2, p53, and caspase-3 expression on preneoplastic changes induced by cadmium and zinc chloride in the ventral rat prostate.

    OpenAIRE

    Arriazu, Riánsares; José M Pozuelo; Henriques-Gil, Nuno; Perucho, Teresa; Martín, Rocío; Rodríguez, Rosario; Santamaría, Luis

    2006-01-01

    KEYWORDS CLASSIFICATION: Animals;Apoptosis;biosynthesis;Biology;chemically induced;Cadmium;Cadmium Chloride;Carcinogens;Caspase 3;Caspases;Cell Proliferation;Chlorides;Immunohistochemistry;metabolism;Male;mechanisms of carcinogenesis;pathology;pharmacology;Precancerous Conditions;Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen;Prostate;Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia;Prostatic Neoplasms;Proteins;Proto-Oncogene Proteins;Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2;Rats;Rats,Sprague-Dawley;Research;Spain;toxicity;Ti...

  17. Naringenin protects against cadmium-induced oxidative renal dysfunction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renugadevi, J; Prabu, S Milton

    2009-02-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental and industrial pollutant that affects various organs in human and experimental animals. Naringenin is a naturally occurring plant bioflavonoid found in citrus fruits, which has been reported to have a wide range of pharmacological properties. A body of evidence has accumulated implicating the free radical generation with subsequent oxidative stress in the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of cadmium toxicity. Since kidney is the critical target organ of chronic Cd toxicity, we carried out this study to investigate the effects of naringenin on Cd-induced toxicity in the kidney of rats. In experimental rats, oral administration of cadmium chloride (5mg/(kgday)) for 4 weeks significantly induced the renal damage which was evident from the increased levels of serum urea, uric acid, creatinine with a significant (pCadmium also significantly decreased the levels of urea, uric acid and creatinine in urine. A markedly increased levels of lipid peroxidation markers (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and lipid hydroperoxides) and protein carbonyl contents with significant (pcadmium-treated rats. Co-administration of naringenin (25 and 50mg/(kgday)) along with Cd resulted in a reversal of Cd-induced biochemical changes in kidney accompanied by a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation and an increase in the level of renal antioxidant defense system. The histopathological studies in the kidney of rats also showed that naringenin (50mg/(kgday)) markedly reduced the toxicity of Cd and preserved the normal histological architecture of the renal tissue. The present study suggest that the nephroprotective potential of naringenin in Cd toxicity might be due to its antioxidant and metal chelating properties, which could be useful for achieving optimum effects in Cd-induced renal damage. PMID:19063931

  18. Cadmium-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in the testes of frog Rana limnocharis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Cd can cause vacuoles and deformity of the spermatogenic cells in the frog testes. ► Cd can result in oxidative stress in the frog testes. ► Cd can induce significantly increase of ROS contents triggered DNA damages in the frog testes. ► Cd can cause apoptosis in the testes of male R. limnocharis. ► Apoptosis by Cd in the frog testes is related to Caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2 genes. - Abstract: This study explored the genetic damage induced by cadmium exposure in the testes of Rana limnocharis. Healthy adult frogs were exposed to 2.5, 5, 7.5, or 10 mg/L of cadmium solution for 14 days. The results showed that exposure to these concentrations increased the levels of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde content in the testes, clearly indicating a dose–effect relationship. Moreover, the same dosages of Cd2+ solution increased glutathione (reduced) content, with the values being significantly different from those observed in the control group (P < 0.01). The comet assay results demonstrated that the DNA damage rate, tail length, and tail moment of samples obtained from frogs exposed to 2.5–7.5 mg/L of cadmium solution significantly increased compared with those of samples obtained from the control group (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that cadmium can induce free radical generation, followed by lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. Ultrastructural observation revealed vacuoles in the spermatogenic cells, cell dispersion, incomplete cell structures, and deformed nucleoli. Moreover, cadmium exposure induced significant down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression and up-regulation of Bax and caspase-3 expressions. Taken together, these data indicate that cadmium can induce testicular cell apoptosis in R. limnocharis. Exploring the effects of cadmium on the mechanism of reproductive toxicity in amphibians will help provide a scientific basis accounting for the global population decline in amphibian species.

  19. Grape juice concentrate (G8000(®) ) intake mitigates testicular morphological and ultrastructural damage following cadmium intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Celina A; Gollücke, Andrea P B; Dolder, Heidi

    2015-10-01

    Cadmium is a well-known testicular toxicant, and parts of the world population are exposed chronically by inhalation or by food and water intake. Grape products have been highlighted as important sources of bioactive compounds, having anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and metal chelating properties. Since maintenance of tissue morphology is essential for testicular sperm development and hence male fertility, we analysed the protective effect of grape juice concentrate (GJC) (G8000(®) ) consumption on testicular morphology in rats exposed to cadmium. Thus, four groups of male Wistar rats (n = 6 per group), 50 days old, ingested either water or G8000(®) (2 g/kg/day) until they had completed one spermatogenic cycle in adult life (136 days old). Cadmium (1.2 mg / kg) was injected intraperitoneally when the animals were 80 days old into one of the water and one of the G8000 groups; intraperitoneal saline was used as a control in the other two groups. Animals anaesthetised and exsanguinated at 136 days and then perfused with Karnovsky's fixative and then the testes were collected for morphological analysis. We describe evident disruption of testicular morphology by cadmium, with alteration in tissue component proportions, reduced Leydig cells volume and initial signs of an inflammatory process. Ultrastructural analysis showed greater damage, suggesting spermatogenesis disruption. G8000(®) ingestion allowed tissue architecture to be re-established, as was corroborated by our stereological and morphometric findings. Animals from the group where G8000(®) had been administered together with cadmium revealed a significant reduction in macrophages and blood vessel volume, suggesting diminished inflammation, when compared to animals that received only cadmium. Moreover, smaller number of ultrastructural alterations was noted, revealing fewer areas of degeneration and disorganized interstitium. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that GJC consumption prevented the

  20. Metal and pharmaceutical mixtures: Is ion loss the mechanism underlying acute toxicity and widespread additive toxicity in zebrafish?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Zebrafish larvae were used to test the acute toxicity of contaminant mixtures. •Interactions were observed between metals, ammonia and pharmaceuticals. •Larval Na+ loss was observed with exposure to all acutely toxic contaminants tested. •Water quality criteria should recognize the toxic interactions between contaminants. -- Abstract: The acute toxicities and mechanisms of action of a variety of environmental contaminants were examined using zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio; 4–8 days post fertilization). Toxic interactions were observed between metals. For example, the addition of a sublethal level of nickel (15% of the LC50, one third of the LC01) to all copper treatments decreased the copper 96 h LC50 by 58%, while sublethal copper exposure (6% of the copper LC50, 13% of the LC01) decreased the cadmium 96 h LC50 by 47%. Two predictive models were assessed, the concentration addition (CA) model, which assumes similar mechanisms of action, and the independent action (IA) model, which assumes different mechanisms of action. Quantitative comparisons indicated the CA model performed better than the IA model; the latter tended to underestimate combined toxicity to a greater extent. The effects of mixtures with nickel or ammonia were typically additive, while mixtures with copper or cadmium were typically greater than additive. Larvae exposed to cadmium, copper or nickel experienced whole body ion loss. Decreases were greatest for Na+ followed by K+ (as high as 19% and 9%, respectively, in 24 h). Additive toxicity between copper and other pharmaceutical compounds such as fluoxetine (Prozac™), β-naphthoflavone, estrogen and 17α-ethinylestradiol were also observed. Similar to metals, acutely toxic concentrations of fluoxetine, β-naphthoflavone and ammonia all decreased whole body Na+ and K+. Overall, whole body Na+ loss showed the greatest correlation with mortality across a variety of toxicants. We theorize that a disruption of ion homeostasis

  1. Comparative Genotoxicity of Cadmium and Lead in Earthworm Coelomocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ptumporn Muangphra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine genotoxicity to coelomocytes, Pheretima peguana earthworms were exposed in filter paper studies to cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb for 48 h, at concentrations less than the LC10—Cd: 0.09, 0.19, 0.38, 0.75, and 1.50 μg cm−2; Pb: 1.65, 3.29, 6.58, 13.16, and 26.32 μg cm−2. For Cd at 0.75 μg cm−2, in the micronucleus test (detects chromosomal aberrations, significant increases (<.05 in micronuclei and binucleate cells were observed, and in the comet assay (detects DNA single-strand breaks, tail DNA% was significantly increased. Lead was less toxic with minimal effects on DNA, but the binucleates were significantly increased by Pb at 3.29 μg cm−2. This study shows that Cd is more acutely toxic and sublethally g