WorldWideScience

Sample records for cadmium telluride cdte

  1. Leaching of cadmium and tellurium from cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin-film solar panels under simulated landfill conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Ruiz, Adriana; Wilkening, Jean V.; Field, James A.; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes

    2017-01-01

    A crushed non-encapsulated CdTe thin-film solar cell was subjected to two standardized batch leaching tests (i.e., Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and California Waste Extraction Test (WET)) and to a continuous-flow column test to assess cadmium (Cd) and tellurium (Te) dissolution under conditions simulating the acidic- and the methanogenic phases of municipal solid waste landfills. Low levels of Cd and Te were solubilized in both batch leaching tests (leaching behavior of CdTe in the columns is related to different aqueous pH and redox conditions promoted by the microbial communities in the columns, and is in agreement with thermodynamic predictions. PMID:28472709

  2. Leaching of cadmium and tellurium from cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin-film solar panels under simulated landfill conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Ruiz, Adriana; Wilkening, Jean V; Field, James A; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes

    2017-08-15

    A crushed non-encapsulated CdTe thin-film solar cell was subjected to two standardized batch leaching tests (i.e., Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and California Waste Extraction Test (WET)) and to a continuous-flow column test to assess cadmium (Cd) and tellurium (Te) dissolution under conditions simulating the acidic- and the methanogenic phases of municipal solid waste landfills. Low levels of Cd and Te were solubilized in both batch leaching tests (<8.2% and <3.6% of added Cd and Te, respectively). On the other hand, over the course of 30days, 73% of the Cd and 21% of the Te were released to the synthetic leachate of a continuous-flow column simulating the acidic landfill phase. The dissolved Cd concentration was 3.24-fold higher than the TCLP limit (1mgL -1 ), and 650-fold higher than the maximum contaminant level established by the US-EPA for this metal in drinking water (0.005mgL -1 ). In contrast, the release of Cd and Te to the effluent of the continuous-flow column simulating the methanogenic phase of a landfill was negligible. The remarkable difference in the leaching behavior of CdTe in the columns is related to different aqueous pH and redox conditions promoted by the microbial communities in the columns, and is in agreement with thermodynamic predictions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Landfill waste and recycling: Use of a screening-level risk assessment tool for end-of-life cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin-film photovoltaic (PV) panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyrs, William D.; Avens, Heather J.; Capshaw, Zachary A.; Kingsbury, Robert A.; Sahmel, Jennifer; Tvermoes, Brooke E.

    2014-01-01

    Grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) power is currently one of the fastest growing power-generation technologies in the world. While PV technologies provide the environmental benefit of zero emissions during use, the use of heavy metals in thin-film PV cells raises important health and environmental concerns regarding the end-of-life disposal of PV panels. To date, there is no published quantitative assessment of the potential human health risk due to cadmium leaching from cadmium telluride (CdTe) PV panels disposed in a landfill. Thus, we used a screening-level risk assessment tool to estimate possible human health risk associated with disposal of CdTe panels into landfills. In addition, we conducted a literature review of potential cadmium release from the recycling process in order to contrast the potential health risks from PV panel disposal in landfills to those from PV panel recycling. Based on the results of our literature review, a meaningful risk comparison cannot be performed at this time. Based on the human health risk estimates generated for PV panel disposal, our assessment indicated that landfill disposal of CdTe panels does not pose a human health hazard at current production volumes, although our results pointed to the importance of CdTe PV panel end-of-life management. - Highlights: • Analysis of possible human health risk posed by disposal of CdTe panels into landfills. • Qualitative comparison of risks associated with landfill disposal and recycling of CdTe panels. • Landfill disposal of CdTe panels does not pose a human health hazard at current production volumes. • There could be potential risks associated with recycling if not properly managed. • Factors other than concerns over toxic substances will likely drive the decisions of how to manage end-of-life PV panels

  4. and Cadmium Zinc Telluride

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    INTRODUCTION. Semiconductor nanoparticles or Quantum Dots (QDs), in particular II-VI materials, have ... the study of structural, electronic transport and optical properties of Zn doped CdTe thin films, ...... Bhattacharya, S.K & Anjali, K. 2007.

  5. Electrical properties of cadmium telluride films doped with antimony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atdaev, B.S.; Garyagdyev, G.; Grin', V.F.; Noskov, A.I.

    1989-01-01

    Effect of cadmium telluride doping with antimony on electric and photoelectric properties is investigated. Temperature dependence of dark (σ d ) and photoconductivity (σ p ) during excitation from the range of proper absorption in the temperature range 77-300 K and spectral distribution of photoconductivity at 300 K are investigated. It is shown that in the process of doping antimony diffusses intensively over CdTe grain boundaries, decreasing potential barriers between them and due to diffusion into CdTe grains it changes their electrical properties. The acceptor character of antimony impurity can be caused by antimony diffusion into tellurium sublattice owing to proximity of their ionic and covalent radii

  6. Thin-film cadmium telluride photovoltaics: ES and H issues, solutions, and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweibel, K.; Moskowitz, P.; Fthenakis, V.

    1998-02-01

    Photovoltaics (PV) is a growing business worldwide, with new technologies evolving towards potentially large-volume production. PV use produces no emissions, thus offsetting many potential environmental problems. However, the new PV technologies also bring unfamiliar environment, safety, and health (ES and H) challenges that require innovative solutions. This is a summary of the issues, solutions, and perspectives associated with the use of cadmium in one of the new and important PV technologies: thin-film, cadmium telluride (CdTe) PV, which is being developed and commercialized by several companies including Solar Cells Inc. (Toledo, Ohio), BP Solar (Fairfield, California), and Matsushita (Japan). The principal ES and H issue for thin-film cadmium telluride PV is the potential introduction of cadmium--a toxic heavy metal--into the air or water. The amount of cadmium in thin-film PV, however, is quite small--one nickel cadmium flashlight battery has about as much cadmium (7 g) as a square meter of PV module using current technology--and a typical cordless power tool will have 5--10 batteries. CdTe modules are also very well sealed, limiting the chance of release. Nonetheless, minimizing the amount of cadmium in cadmium telluride modules and preventing the introduction of that cadmium into the environment is a top priority for National Renewable Energy Laboratory researchers and cadmium telluride PV manufacturers

  7. Processing and Characterization of Thin Cadmium Telluride Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtowicz, Anna

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) has the highest theoretical limit to conversion efficiency of single-junction photovoltaic (PV) technologies today. However, despite a maximum theoretical open-circuit voltage of 1.20 V, record devices have historically had voltages pinned around only 900 mV. Voltage losses due to high recombination rates remains to be the most complex hurdle to CdTe technology today, and the subject of on-going research in the physics PV group at Colorado State University. In this work, an ultrathin CdTe device architecture is proposed in an effort to reduce bulk recombination and boost voltages. By thinning the CdTe layer, a device's internal electric field extends fully towards the back contact. This quickly separates electrons-hole pairs throughout the bulk of the device and reduces overall recombination. Despite this advantage, very thin CdTe layers also present a unique set of optical and electrical challenges which result in performance losses not as prevalent in thicker devices. When fabricating CdTe solar cells, post-deposition treatments applied to the absorber layer are a critical step for achieving high efficiency devices. Exposure of the polycrystalline CdTe film to a chlorine species encourages the passivation of dangling bonds and larger grain formation, while copper-doping improves device uniformity and voltages. This work focuses on experiments conducted via close-space sublimation to optimize CdCl2 and CuCl treatments for thin CdTe solar cells. Sweeps of both exposure and anneal time were performed for both post-deposition treatments on CdTe devices with 1.0 mum absorber layers. The results demonstrate that thin CdTe devices require substantially less post-deposition processing than standard thicker devices as expected. Additionally, the effects of CdTe growth temperature on thin devices is briefly investigated. The results suggest that higher growth temperatures lead to both electrical and stoichiometric changes in CdTe closely associated

  8. Rise time spectroscopy in cadmium telluride detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharager, Claude; Siffert, Paul; Carnet, Bernard; Le Meur, Roger.

    1980-11-01

    By a simultaneous analysis of rise time and pulse amplitude distributions of the signals issued from various cadmium telluride detectors, it is possible to obtain informations about surface and bulk trapping, field distribution within the detectors, as well as charge collection and transport properties. These investigations have been performed on both pure and chlorine doped and materials for various surfaces preparation conditions [fr

  9. Removal of CdTe in acidic media by magnetic ion-exchange resin: A potential recycling methodology for cadmium telluride photovoltaic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Teng, E-mail: zhangteng@mail.iee.ac.cn; Dong, Zebin; Qu, Fei; Ding, Fazhu; Peng, Xingyu; Wang, Hongyan; Gu, Hongwei

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • Sulfonated magnetic microsphere was prepared as one strong acid cation-exchange resin. • Cd and Te can be removed directly from the highly acidic leaching solution of CdTe. • Good chemical stability, fast adsorbing rate and quick magnetic separation in strong acidic media. • A potential path for recycling CdTe photovoltaic waste. - Abstract: Sulfonated magnetic microspheres (PSt-DVB-SNa MPs) have been successfully prepared as adsorbents via an aqueous suspension polymerization of styrene-divinylbenzene and a sulfonation reaction successively. The resulting adsorbents were confirmed by means of Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The leaching process of CdTe was optimized, and the removal efficiency of Cd and Te from the leaching solution was investigated. The adsorbents could directly remove all cations of Cd and Te from a highly acidic leaching solution of CdTe. The adsorption process for Cd and Te reached equilibrium in a few minutes and this process highly depended on the dosage of adsorbents and the affinity of sulfonate groups with cations. Because of its good adsorption capacity in strong acidic media, high adsorbing rate, and efficient magnetic separation from the solution, PSt-DVB-SNa MPs is expected to be an ideal material for the recycling of CdTe photovoltaic waste.

  10. Synthesis of ultra-long cadmium telluride nanotubes via combinational chemical transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kee-Ryung; Cho, Hong-Baek; Choa, Yong-Ho, E-mail: choa15@hanyang.ac.kr

    2017-03-01

    Synthesis of high-throughput cadmium telluride (CdTe) nanotubes with an ultra-long aspect ratio is presented via a combination process concept combined with electrospinning, electrodeposition, and cationic exchange reaction. Ultra-long sacrificial silver (Ag) nanofibers were synthesized by electrospinning involving two-step calcination, and were then electrodeposited to create silver telluride nanotubes. These nanotubes underwent cationic exchange reaction in cadmium nitrate tetrahydrate solution with the aid of a ligand, tributylphosphine (TBP). Analysis showed that ultra-long pure zinc blende CdTe nanotubes were obtained with controlled dimension and uniform morphology. The thermodynamic driving force induced by the coordination of methanol solvent and TBP attributed to overcome the kinetic barrier between Ag{sub 2}Te and CdTe nanotubes, facilitating the synthesis of CdTe nanotubes. This synthetic process involving a topotactic reaction route paves a way for high-throughput extended synthesis of new chalcogenide hollow nanotubes for application in photodetectors and solar cells. - Highlights: • High throughput synthetic route of hollow CdTe nanotubes with ultra-long aspect ratio. • Chemical combination of electrospinning, electrodeposition & cation exchange reaction. • Pure zinc blende CdTe by controlled dimension & structural variation of Ag nanofibers. • Potential for the high throughput synthesis of new exotic chalcogenide nanotubes.

  11. Development of a cadmium telluride pixel detector for astrophysical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyasaka, Hiromasa; Harrison, Fiona A.; Cook, Walter R.; Mao, Peter H.; Rana, Vikram R.; Ishikawa, Shin-Nosuke; Ushio, Masayoshi; Aono, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Shin; Sato, Goro; Kokubun, Motohide; Takahashi, Tadayuki

    2009-08-01

    We are developing imaging Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) pixel detectors optimized for astrophysical hard X-ray applications. Our hybrid detector consist of a CdTe crystal 1mm thick and 2cm × 2cm in area with segmented anode contacts directly bonded to a custom low-noise application specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The CdTe sensor, fabricated by ACRORAD (Okinawa, Japan), has Schottky blocking contacts on a 605 micron pitch in a 32 × 32 array, providing low leakage current and enabling readout of the anode side. The detector is bonded using epoxy-gold stud interconnects to a custom low noise, low power ASIC circuit developed by Caltech's Space Radiation Laboratory. We have achieved very good energy resolution over a wide energy range (0.62keV FWHM @ 60keV, 10.8keV FWHM @ 662keV). We observe polarization effects at room temperature, but they are suppressed if we operate the detector at or below 0°C degree. These detectors have potential application for future missions such as the International X-ray Observatory (IXO).

  12. Application of cadmium telluride detectors to high energy computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasser, F.; Thomas, G.; Cuzin, M.; Verger, L.

    1991-01-01

    15 years ago, Cadmium Telluride detectors have been investigated in our laboratory as possible detectors for medical scanners [1]. Today most of these machines are using high pressure Xenon gas as multicells detectors, BGO or CdWO 4 scintillators for industrial computerized tomography. Xenon gas detectors are well suited for detection of 100 KeV X-rays and enables to build 1000 cells homogeneous detector with a dynamic range of 3 decades. BGO and CdWO 4 scintillators, associated with photomultipliers or photodiodes are used for higher energy (400 KeV). They present a low afterglow and a dynamic range of 4 to 5 decades. Non destructive testing of very absorbing objects (eg 2 m diameter solid rocket motor) by X-ray tomography requires much higher energy X-rays (16 MeV) and doses up to 12000 rads/min at 1 meter. For this application Cadmium Telluride detectors operating as photoconductors are well suited. A prototype of tomograph machine, able to scan 0.5 m diameter high density objects has been realized with 25 CdTe detectors (25x15x0.8 mm 3 ). It produces good quality 1024x1024 tomographic images

  13. Properties of Nitrogen-Doped Zinc Telluride Films for Back Contact to Cadmium Telluride Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimpi, Tushar M.; Drayton, Jennifer; Swanson, Drew E.; Sampath, Walajabad S.

    2017-08-01

    Zinc telluride (ZnTe) films have been deposited onto uncoated glass superstrates by reactive radiofrequency (RF) sputtering with different amounts of nitrogen introduced into the process gas, and the structural and electronic transport properties of the resulting nitrogen-doped ZnTe (ZnTe:N) films characterized. Based on transmission and x-ray diffraction measurements, it was observed that the crystalline quality of the ZnTe:N films decreased with increasing nitrogen in the deposition process. The bulk carrier concentration of the ZnTe:N films determined from Hall-effect measurements showed a slight decrease at 4% nitrogen flow rate. The effect of ZnTe:N films as back contact to cadmium telluride (CdTe) solar cells was also investigated. ZnTe:N films were deposited before or after CdCl2 passivation on CdTe/CdS samples. Small-area devices were characterized for their electronic properties. Glancing-angle x-ray diffraction measurements and energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis confirmed substantial loss of zinc from the samples where CdCl2 passivation was carried out after ZnTe:N film deposition.

  14. Precision timing detectors with cadmium-telluride sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornheim, A.; Pena, C.; Spiropulu, M.; Xie, S.; Zhang, Z.

    2017-09-01

    Precision timing detectors for high energy physics experiments with temporal resolutions of a few 10 ps are of pivotal importance to master the challenges posed by the highest energy particle accelerators such as the LHC. Calorimetric timing measurements have been a focus of recent research, enabled by exploiting the temporal coherence of electromagnetic showers. Scintillating crystals with high light yield as well as silicon sensors are viable sensitive materials for sampling calorimeters. Silicon sensors have very high efficiency for charged particles. However, their sensitivity to photons, which comprise a large fraction of the electromagnetic shower, is limited. To enhance the efficiency of detecting photons, materials with higher atomic numbers than silicon are preferable. In this paper we present test beam measurements with a Cadmium-Telluride (CdTe) sensor as the active element of a secondary emission calorimeter with focus on the timing performance of the detector. A Schottky type CdTe sensor with an active area of 1cm2 and a thickness of 1 mm is used in an arrangement with tungsten and lead absorbers. Measurements are performed with electron beams in the energy range from 2 GeV to 200 GeV. A timing resolution of 20 ps is achieved under the best conditions.

  15. Theoretical study of bismuth-doped cadmium telluride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez-Proupin, E.; Rios-Gonzalez, J. A.; Pena, J. L.

    Cadmium telluride heavily doped with bismuth has been proposed as an absorber with an intermediate band for solar cells. Increase in the photocurrent has been shown recently, although the overall cell efficiency has not improved. In this work, we study the electronic structure and the formation energies of the defects associated to bismuth impurities. We have performed electronic structure calculations within generalized density functional theory, using the exchange-correlation functional HSE(w) , where the range-separation parameter w has been tuned to reproduce the CdTe bandgap. Improving upon previous reports, we have included the spin-orbit interaction, which modifies the structure of the valence band and the energy levels of bismuth. We have found that interstitial Bi (Bii) tends to occupy Cd vacancies, cadmium substitution (BiCd) creates single donor level, while tellurium substitution (BiTe) is a shallow single acceptor. We investigate the interaction between these point defects and how can they be combined to create a partially filled intermediate band. Supported by FONDECYT Grant 1130437, CONACYT-SENER SUSTENTABILIDAD ENERGETICA/project CeMIE-Sol PY-207450/25 and PY-207450/26. JARG acknowledges CONACYT fellowship for research visit. Powered@NLHPC (ECM-02).

  16. Characterization of nanocrystalline cadmium telluride thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    tion method, successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR), are described. For deposition of CdTe thin films ... By conducting several trials optimization of the adsorption, reaction and rinsing time duration for CdTe thin film .... The electrical resistivity of CdTe films was studied in air. Figure 3 shows the variation of log ...

  17. Novel aspects of application of cadmium telluride quantum dots nanostructures in radiation oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazaeli, Yousef; Feizi, Shahzad [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Radiation Application Research School, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zare, Hakimeh; Karimi, Shokufeh [Yazd University, Department of Physics, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahighi, Reza [Sharif University of Technology, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    In the last two decades, quantum dots nanomaterials have garnered a great deal of scientific interest because of their unique properties. Quantum dots (QDs) are inorganic fluorescent nanocrystals in the size range between 1 and 20 nm. Due to their structural properties, they possess distinctive properties and behave in different way from crystals in macro scale, in many branches of human life. Cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs) were labeled with {sup 68}Ga radio nuclide for fast in vivo targeting and coincidence imaging of tumors. Using instant paper chromatography, the physicochemical properties of the Cadmium telluride quantum dots labeled with {sup 68}Ga NPs ({sup 68}Ga rate at CdTe QDs) were found high enough stable in organic phases, e.g., a human serum, to be reliably used in bioapplications. In vivo biodistribution of the {sup 68}Ga rate at CdTe QDs nanoconposite was investigated in rats bearing fibro sarcoma tumor after various post-injection periods of time. The {sup 68}Ga NPs exhibited a rapid as well as high tumor uptake in a very short period of time (less than 10 min), resulting in an efficient tumor targeting/imaging agent. Meantime, the low lipophilicity of the {sup 68}Ga NPs caused to their fast excretion throughout the body by kidneys (as also confirmed by the urinary tract). Because of the short half-life of {sup 68}Ga radionuclide, the {sup 68}Ga rate at CdTe QDs with an excellent tumor targeting/imaging and fast washing out from the body can be suggested as one of the most effective and promising nanomaterials in nanotechnology-based cancer diagnosis and therapy. (orig.)

  18. Novel aspects of application of cadmium telluride quantum dots nanostructures in radiation oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazaeli, Yousef; Zare, Hakimeh; Karimi, Shokufeh; Rahighi, Reza; Feizi, Shahzad

    2017-08-01

    In the last two decades, quantum dots nanomaterials have garnered a great deal of scientific interest because of their unique properties. Quantum dots (QDs) are inorganic fluorescent nanocrystals in the size range between 1 and 20 nm. Due to their structural properties, they possess distinctive properties and behave in different way from crystals in macro scale, in many branches of human life. Cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs) were labeled with 68Ga radio nuclide for fast in vivo targeting and coincidence imaging of tumors. Using instant paper chromatography, the physicochemical properties of the Cadmium telluride quantum dots labeled with 68Ga NPs (68Ga@ CdTe QDs) were found high enough stable in organic phases, e.g., a human serum, to be reliably used in bioapplications. In vivo biodistribution of the 68Ga@ CdTe QDs nanoconposite was investigated in rats bearing fibro sarcoma tumor after various post-injection periods of time. The 68Ga NPs exhibited a rapid as well as high tumor uptake in a very short period of time (less than 10 min), resulting in an efficient tumor targeting/imaging agent. Meantime, the low lipophilicity of the 68Ga NPs caused to their fast excretion throughout the body by kidneys (as also confirmed by the urinary tract). Because of the short half-life of 68Ga radionuclide, the 68Ga@ CdTe QDs with an excellent tumor targeting/imaging and fast washing out from the body can be suggested as one of the most effective and promising nanomaterials in nanotechnology-based cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  19. Solid-state cadmium telluride radiation detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Yoji; Kitamoto, Hisashi; Hosomatsu, Haruo

    1984-09-01

    The growth of CdTe single crystal and its application to CdTe detector array was studied for X-ray computed tomography (XCT) equipment. A p-type CdTe single crystal with 10/sup 4/ ohm.cm specific resistivity was grown in a quartz ampoule under vapor pressure control of Cd in a vertical Bridgman furnace. An 18-element detector array was fabricated with this single crystal. The detector was operated with no bias and the sensitivity was confirmed to be between 2.8 x 10/sup -12/ and 14 x 10/sup -12/ A.h/(R.mm/sup 2/). Commercial CdTe single crystal was used to manufacture as 560-element detector array for XCT. Results show that CdTe detector is sensitive, linear and has high resolution.

  20. Regulatory policy governing cadmium-telluride photovoltaics: A case study contrasting life cycle management with the precautionary principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Parikhit; Kriegner, Christopher J.; Schew, William A.; Kaczmar, Swiatoslav W.; Traister, Matthew; Wilson, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Market projections for cadmium-telluride (CdTe) thin-film photovoltaics (PV) are tempered by global environmental policies based on the precautionary principle which restrict electronic products containing cadmium, a known human carcinogen. An alternative to the precautionary principle is life cycle management, which involves manufacturers assuming product stewardship from beginning to end of product life. Both approaches have the aim of minimizing environmental contamination, but attempt to do so in different ways. Restrictions on electronic products containing cadmium by the precautionary principle-based restriction of hazardous substances (RoHS) directive in the European Union and a similar policy in China are presented, relative to their potential impact on CdTe PV. Life cycle environmental risks with respect to potential release of cadmium to the environment are also presented for routine operation of CdTe PV panels, potential catastrophic release of cadmium from a residential fire, and at the end of the product life. There is negligible risk of environmental cadmium contamination during routine operation and insignificant risk during catastrophic exposure events such as fire. At the end of the product life, risks of contamination are minimized by take-back programs that may be paid for by insurance premiums incorporated into the cost of the product. Therefore, policies based on the precautionary principle that could potentially ban the product based on its cadmium content may not be warranted

  1. Regulatory policy governing cadmium-telluride photovoltaics: A case study contrasting life cycle management with the precautionary principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Parikhit; Kriegner, Christopher J.; Schew, William A.; Kaczmar, Swiatoslav W.; Traister, Matthew; Wilson, David J. [O' Brien and Gere, Ecological Sciences, E. 512 Township Line Road, Two Valley Square, Suite 120, Blue Bell, PA 19422 (United States)

    2008-01-15

    Market projections for cadmium-telluride (CdTe) thin-film photovoltaics (PV) are tempered by global environmental policies based on the precautionary principle which restrict electronic products containing cadmium, a known human carcinogen. An alternative to the precautionary principle is life cycle management, which involves manufacturers assuming product stewardship from beginning to end of product life. Both approaches have the aim of minimizing environmental contamination, but attempt to do so in different ways. Restrictions on electronic products containing cadmium by the precautionary principle-based restriction of hazardous substances (RoHS) directive in the European Union and a similar policy in China are presented, relative to their potential impact on CdTe PV. Life cycle environmental risks with respect to potential release of cadmium to the environment are also presented for routine operation of CdTe PV panels, potential catastrophic release of cadmium from a residential fire, and at the end of the product life. There is negligible risk of environmental cadmium contamination during routine operation and insignificant risk during catastrophic exposure events such as fire. At the end of the product life, risks of contamination are minimized by take-back programs that may be paid for by insurance premiums incorporated into the cost of the product. Therefore, policies based on the precautionary principle that could potentially ban the product based on its cadmium content may not be warranted. (author)

  2. Spectroscopic, microscopic, and internal stress analysis in cadmium telluride grown by close-space sublimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manciu, Felicia S.; Salazar, Jessica G.; Diaz, Aryzbe; Quinones, Stella A.

    2015-01-01

    High quality materials with excellent ordered structure are needed for developing photovoltaic and infrared devices. With this end in mind, the results of our research prove the importance of a detailed, comprehensive spectroscopic and microscopic analysis in assessing cadmium telluride (CdTe) characteristics. The goal of this work is to examine not only material crystallinity and morphology, but also induced stress in the deposit material. A uniform, selective growth of polycrystalline CdTe by close-space sublimation on patterned Si(111) and Si(211) substrates is demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy images. Besides good crystallinity of the samples, as revealed by both Raman scattering and Fourier transform infrared absorption investigations, the far-infrared transmission data also show the presence of surface optical phonon modes, which is direct evidence of confinement in such a material. The qualitative identification of the induced stress was achieved by performing confocal Raman mapping microscopy on sample surfaces and by monitoring the existence of the rock-salt and zinc-blende structural phases of CdTe, which were associated with strained and unstrained morphologies, respectively. Although the induced stress in the material is still largely due to the high lattice mismatch between CdTe and the Si substrate, the current results provide a direct visualization of its partial release through the relaxation effect at crystallite boundaries and of preferential growth directions of less strain. Our study, thus offers significant value for improvement of material properties, by targeting the needed adjustments in the growth processes. - Highlights: • Assessing the characteristics of CdTe deposited on patterned Si substrates • Proving the utility of confocal Raman microscopy in monitoring the induced stress • Confirming the partial stress release through the grain boundary relaxation effect • Demonstrating the phonon confinement effect in low

  3. Heart imaging by cadmium telluride gamma camera European Program 'BIOMED' consortium

    CERN Document Server

    Scheiber, C; Chambron, J; Prat, V; Kazandjan, A; Jahnke, A; Matz, R; Thomas, S; Warren, S; Hage-Hali, M; Regal, R; Siffert, P; Karman, M

    1999-01-01

    Cadmium telluride semiconductor detectors (CdTe) operating at room temperature are attractive for medical imaging because of their good energy resolution providing excellent spatial and contrast resolution. The compactness of the detection system allows the building of small light camera heads which can be used for bedside imaging. A mobile pixellated gamma camera based on 2304 CdTe (pixel size: 3x3 mm, field of view: 15 cmx15 cm) has been designed for cardiac imaging. A dedicated 16-channel integrated circuit has also been designed. The acquisition hardware is fully programmable (DSP card, personal computer-based system). Analytical calculations have shown that a commercial parallel hole collimator will fit the efficiency/resolution requirements for cardiac applications. Monte-Carlo simulations predict that the Moire effect can be reduced by a 15 deg. tilt of the collimator with respect to the detector grid. A 16x16 CdTe module has been built for the preliminary physical tests. The energy resolution was 6.16...

  4. Investigation of the electrochemical deposition of thick layers of cadmium telluride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousset, J.

    2007-04-01

    This research thesis deals with the problem of electrochemical deposition of thick layers of cadmium telluride (CdTe) meeting the requirements of high energy radiation detection. The author first recalls the physicochemical properties of CdTe and the basic principles of radiology. He details the different criteria which define a material for X ray detection. He describes the experimental conditions, the nature and preparation of substrates, and the different electrochemical systems used in this research. He studies the impact of the applied potential on the material properties, and compares previously obtained results available in the literature with those obtained in the chosen pool conditions. He discusses the synthesis of CdTe thick layers for which different methods are tested: static in potential, static in intensity, pulsed. The coatings obtained with a given potential and then with a given current are investigated. Finally, the influence of a thermal treatment in presence or absence of a sintering agent on the morphology, the chemical composition, and the crystalline and electric properties of the deposited material is discussed, and the results of the behaviour under X rays of a electrodeposited layer are presented

  5. Inhibition of autophagy contributes to the toxicity of cadmium telluride quantum dots in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan J

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Junpeng Fan,1–4 Ming Shao,1–4 Lu Lai,3–5 Yi Liu,3–5 Zhixiong Xie1–4,6 1College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, 2Hubei Provincial Cooperative Innovation Center of Industrial Fermentation,3State Key Laboratory of Virology, 4Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (MOE, 5College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 6School of Life Science and Technology, Hubei Engineering University, Xiaogan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs are used as near-infrared probes in biologic and medical applications, but their cytological effects and mechanism of potential toxicity are still unclear. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of CdTe QDs of different sizes and investigated their mechanism of toxicity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A growth inhibition assay revealed that orange-emitting CdTe (O-CdTe QDs (half inhibitory concentration [IC50] =59.44±12.02 nmol/L were more toxic than green-emitting CdTe QDs (IC50 =186.61±19.74 nmol/L to S. cerevisiae. Further studies on toxicity mechanisms using a transmission electron microscope and green fluorescent protein tagged Atg8 processing assay revealed that O-CdTe QDs could partially inhibit autophagy at a late stage, which differs from the results reported in mammalian cells. Moreover, autophagy inhibited at a late stage by O-CdTe QDs could be partially recovered by enhancing autophagy with rapamycin (an autophagy activator, combined with an increased number of living cells. These results indicate that inhibition of autophagy acts as a toxicity mechanism of CdTe QDs in S. cerevisiae. This work reports a novel toxicity mechanism of CdTe QDs in yeast and provides valuable information on the effect of CdTe QDs on the processes of living cells. Keywords: CdTe quantum dots, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, toxicity, autophagy

  6. Gamma-ray peak shapes from cadmium zinc telluride detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namboodiri, M.N.; Lavietes, A.D.; McQuaid, J.H.

    1996-09-01

    We report the results of a study of the peak shapes in the gamma spectra measured using several 5 x 5 x 5 mm{sup 3} cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors. A simple parameterization involving a Gaussian and an exponential low energy tail describes the peak shapes sell. We present the variation of the parameters with gamma energy. This type of information is very useful in the analysis of complex gamma spectra consisting of many peaks.

  7. Trace analysis in cadmium telluride by heavy ion induced X-ray emission and by SIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharager, C.; Stuck, R.; Siffert, P.; Cailleret, J.; Heitz, Ch.; Lagarde, G.; Tenorio, D.

    1979-01-01

    The possibilities of using both selective heavy ion induced X-ray emission and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), for the identification of impurities present at low concentrations in cadmium telluride are examined. The relative concentrations of the impurities along CdTe crystals have been determined by exciting the X-ray emission of the elements in several slices with Ar and Kr ions and by comparing the relative characteristic X-ray emission yields. As a consequence of the quasimolecular inner shell ionization mechanism in heavy ion-atom collisions, Ar and Kr ions allow a strong excitation of the main impurities seen by SIMS namely Si, Cl and Ge, As, with only a minor contribution of Cd and Te. From the changes of the concentrations of the various impurities along the crystal, informations about segregation coefficients and compensation can be obtained

  8. Carrier Transport, Recombination, and the Effects of Grain Boundaries in Polycrystalline Cadmium Telluride Thin Films for Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuteja, Mohit

    Cadmium Telluride (CdTe), a chalcogenide semiconductor, is currently used as the absorber layer in one of the highest efficiency thin film solar cell technologies. Current efficiency records are over 22%. In 2011, CdTe solar cells accounted for 8% of all solar cells installed. This is because, in part, CdTe has a low degradation rate, high optical absorption coefficient, and high tolerance to intrinsic defects. Solar cells based on polycrystalline CdTe exhibit a higher short-circuit current, fill factor, and power conversion efficiency than their single crystal counterparts. This is despite the fact that polycrystalline CdTe devices exhibit lower open-circuit voltages. This is contrary to the observation for silicon and III-V semiconductors, where material defects cause a dramatic drop in device performance. For example, grain boundaries in covalently-bonded semiconductors (a) act as carrier recombination centers, and (b) lead to localized energy states, causing carrier trapping. Despite significant research to date, the mechanism responsible for the superior current collection properties of polycrystalline CdTe solar cells has not been conclusively answered. This dissertation focuses on the macro-scale electronic band structure, and micro scale electronic properties of grains and grain boundaries in device-grade CdTe thin films to answer this open question. My research utilized a variety of experimental techniques. Samples were obtained from leading groups fabricating the material and devices. A CdCl 2 anneal is commonly performed as part of this fabrication and its effects were also investigated. Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy was employed to study the band structure and defect states in CdTe polycrystals. Cadmium vacancy- and chlorine-related states lead to carrier recombination, as in CdTe films grown by other methods. Comparing polycrystalline and single crystal CdTe, showed that the key to explaining the improved performance of polycrystalline CdTe does

  9. N-hydroxysuccinimide-mediated photoelectrooxidation of aliphatic alcohols based on cadmium telluride nanoparticles decorated graphene nanosheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navaee, Aso; Salimi, Abdollah

    2013-01-01

    A simple nonenzymatic electrochemical protocol is proposed for the oxidation of aliphatic alcohols using formed N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) radical cation on the graphene nanosheets/L-cysteine/cadmium telluride quantum dot (QD) nanocomposite (GNs/Cys/CdTe) modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode. At first, graphene oxide (GO) is chemically synthesized from graphite after which Cys is covalently functionalized to GO through formation of amide bonds between carboxylic acid groups of GO and amine groups of Cys. The resulting GNs/Cys is used as a capping agent to synthesize CdTe QD nanoparticles. After the characterization of the as-made nanocomposite which confirmed the successful attachment of CdTe nanoparticles to the GNs, the ability of the GNs/Cys/CdTe modified GC electrode toward the nonenzymatic ethanol electrooxidation is examined in the presence of NHS as an effective mediating system. Our results revealed that the proposed system possess a good activity to NHS electrooxidation and subsequently, ethanol oxidation. Moreover, the GNs/Cys/CdTe modified electrode displayed a significant photoelectrocatalytic activity toward the ethanol oxidation upon illumination by visible light. The photoactive GNs/Cys/CdTe nanohybrid presented here showing favorable photoelectrochemical features for nonenzymatic aliphatic alcohols oxidation may hold great promise to the development of electrochemical sensors and biofuel cells

  10. Sputtered indium-tin oxide/cadmium telluride junctions and cadmium telluride surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courreges, F.G.; Fahrenbruch, A.L.; Bube, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    The properties of indium-tin oxide (ITO)/CdTe junction solar cells prepared by rf sputtering of ITO on P-doped CdTe single-crystal substrates have been investigated through measurements of the electrical and photovoltaic properties of ITO/CdTe and In/CdTe junctions, and of electron beam induced currents (EBIC) in ITO/CdTe junctions. In addition, surface properties of CdTe related to the sputtering process were investigated as a function of sputter etching and thermal oxidation using the techniques of surface photovoltage and photoluminescence. ITO/CdTe cells prepared by this sputtering method consist of an n + -ITO/n-CdTe/p-CdTe buried homojunction with about a 1-μm-thick n-type CdTe layer formed by heating of the surface of the CdTe during sputtering. Solar efficiencies up to 8% have been observed with V/sub 0c/=0.82 V and J/sub s/c=14.5 mA/cm 2 . The chief degradation mechanism involves a decrease in V/sub 0c/ with a transformation of the buried homojunction structure to an actual ITO/CdTe heterojunction

  11. Electro-Plating and Characterisation of CdTe Thin Films Using CdCl2 as the Cadmium Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor A. Abdul-Manaf

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium telluride (CdTe thin films have been successfully prepared from an aqueous electrolyte bath containing cadmium chloride (CdCl2·H2O and tellurium dioxide (TeO2 using an electrodeposition technique. The structural, electrical, morphological and optical properties of these thin films have been characterised using X-ray diffraction (XRD, Raman spectroscopy, optical profilometry, DC current-voltage (I-V measurements, photoelectrochemical (PEC cell measurement, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. It is observed that the best cathodic potential is 698 mV with respect to standard calomel electrode (SCE in a three electrode system. Structural analysis using XRD shows polycrystalline crystal structure in the as-deposited CdTe thin films and the peaks intensity increase after CdCl2 treatment. PEC cell measurements show the possibility of growing p-, i- and n-type CdTe layers by varying the growth potential during electrodeposition. The electrical resistivity of the as-deposited layers are in the order of 104 Ω·cm. SEM and AFM show that the CdCl2 treated samples are more roughness and have larger grain size when compared to CdTe grown by CdSO4 precursor. Results obtained from the optical absorption reveal that the bandgap of as-deposited CdTe (1.48–1.52 eV reduce to (1.45–1.49 eV after CdCl2 treatment. Full characterisation of this material is providing new information on crucial CdCl2 treatment of CdTe thin films due to its built-in CdCl2 treatment during the material growth. The work is progressing to fabricate solar cells with this material and compare with CdTe thin films grown by conventional sulphate precursors.

  12. Cadmium Telluride-Titanium Dioxide Nanocomposite for Photodegradation of Organic Substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontam, Areeporn; Khaorapapong, Nithima; Ogawa, Makoto

    2015-12-01

    Cadmium telluride-titanium dioxide nanocomposite was prepared by hydrothermal reaction of sol-gel derived titanium dioxide and organically modified cadmium telluride. The crystallinity of titanium dioxide in the nanocomposite was higher than that of pure titanium dioxide obtained by the reaction under the same temperature and pressure conditions, showing that cadmium telluride induced the crystallization of titanium dioxide. Diffuse reflectance spectrum of the nanocomposite showed the higher absorption efficiency in the UV-visible region due to band-gap excitation of titanium dioxide. The nanocomposite significantly showed the improvement of photocatalytic activity for 4-chlorophenol with UV light.

  13. Effect of Annealing on the Properties of Antimony Telluride Thin Films and Their Applications in CdTe Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhouling Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimony telluride alloy thin films were deposited at room temperature by using the vacuum coevaporation method. The films were annealed at different temperatures in N2 ambient, and then the compositional, structural, and electrical properties of antimony telluride thin films were characterized by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, and Hall measurements. The results indicate that single phase antimony telluride existed when the annealing temperature was higher than 488 K. All thin films exhibited p-type conductivity with high carrier concentrations. Cell performance was greatly improved when the antimony telluride thin films were used as the back contact layer for CdTe thin film solar cells. The dark current voltage and capacitance voltage measurements were performed to investigate the formation of the back contacts for the cells with or without Sb2Te3 buffer layers. CdTe solar cells with the buffer layers can reduce the series resistance and eliminate the reverse junction between CdTe and metal electrodes.

  14. Study on thermal annealing of cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, G.; Bolotnikov, A.E.; Fochuk, P.M.; Camarda, G.S.; Cui, Y.; Hossain, A.; Kim, K.; Horace, J.; McCall, B.; Gul, R.; Xu, L.; Kopach, O.V.; James, R.B.

    2010-01-01

    Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) has attracted increasing interest with its promising potential as a room-temperature nuclear-radiation-detector material. However, different defects in CZT crystals, especially Te inclusions and dislocations, can degrade the performance of CZT detectors. Post-growth annealing is a good approach potentially to eliminate the deleterious influence of these defects. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), we built up different facilities for investigating post-growth annealing of CZT. Here, we report our latest experimental results. Cd-vapor annealing reduces the density of Te inclusions, while large temperature gradient promotes the migration of small-size Te inclusions. Simultaneously, the annealing lowers the density of dislocations. However, only-Cd-vapor annealing decreases the resistivity, possibly reflecting the introduction of extra Cd in the lattice. Subsequent Te-vapor annealing is needed to ensure the recovery of the resistivity after removing the Te inclusions.

  15. Megapixel mercury cadmium telluride focal plane arrays for infrared imaging out to 12 microns, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the fabrication of large format, long wave infrared (LWIR) mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe or MCT) detector arrays where the cutoff wavelength is...

  16. Measurement and Modeling of Blocking Contacts for Cadmium Telluride Gamma Ray Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Patrick R. [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States)

    2010-01-07

    Gamma ray detectors are important in national security applications, medicine, and astronomy. Semiconductor materials with high density and atomic number, such as Cadmium Telluride (CdTe), offer a small device footprint, but their performance is limited by noise at room temperature; however, improved device design can decrease detector noise by reducing leakage current. This thesis characterizes and models two unique Schottky devices: one with an argon ion sputter etch before Schottky contact deposition and one without. Analysis of current versus voltage characteristics shows that thermionic emission alone does not describe these devices. This analysis points to reverse bias generation current or leakage through an inhomogeneous barrier. Modeling the devices in reverse bias with thermionic field emission and a leaky Schottky barrier yields good agreement with measurements. Also numerical modeling with a finite-element physics-based simulator suggests that reverse bias current is a combination of thermionic emission and generation. This thesis proposes further experiments to determine the correct model for reverse bias conduction. Understanding conduction mechanisms in these devices will help develop more reproducible contacts, reduce leakage current, and ultimately improve detector performance.

  17. A cadmium-zinc-telluride crystal array spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHugh, H. R.; Quam, W.; DeVore, T.; Vogle, R.; Weslowski, J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a gamma detector employing an array of eight cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) crystals configured as a high resolution gamma ray spectrometer. This detector is part of a more complex instrument that identifies the isotope,displays this information, and records the gamma spectrum. Various alarms and other operator features are incorporated in this battery operated rugged instrument. The CZT detector is the key component of this instrument and will be described in detail in this paper. We have made extensive spectral measurements of the usual laboratory gamma sources, common medical isotopes, and various Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) with this detector. Some of these data will be presented as spectra. We will also present energy resolution and detection efficiency for the basic 8-crystal array. Additional data will also be presented for a 32-crystal array. The basic 8-crystal array development was completed two years ago, and the system electronic design has been imp roved recently. This has resulted in significantly improved noise performance. We expect to have a much smaller detector package, using 8 crystals, in a few months. This package will use flip-chip packaging to reduce the electronics physical size by a factor of 5

  18. Preliminary uranium enrichment analysis results using cadmium zinc telluride detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavietes, A.D.; McQuaid, J.H.; Paulus, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and EG ampersand G ORTEC have jointly developed a portable ambient-temperature detection system that can be used in a number of application scenarios. The detection system uses a planar cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detector with custom-designed detector support electronics developed at LLNL and is based on the recently released MicroNOMAD multichannel analyzer (MCA) produced by ORTEC. Spectral analysis is performed using software developed at LLNL that was originally designed for use with high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector systems. In one application, the CZT detection system determines uranium enrichments ranging from less than 3% to over 75% to within accuracies of 20%. The analysis was performed using sample sizes of 200 g or larger and acquisition times of 30 min. The authors have demonstrated the capabilities of this system by analyzing the spectra gathered by the CZT detection system from uranium sources of several enrichments. These experiments demonstrate that current CZT detectors can, in some cases, approach performance criteria that were previously the exclusive domain of larger HPGe detector systems

  19. Cadmium zinc telluride as a mid-infrared variable retarder

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, William; Taherion, Saeid; Kumar, F. Joseph; Giles, David; Hore, Dennis

    2018-04-01

    The electro-optic behavior of cadmium zinc telluride is examined in the mid-infrared region between 3 and 11 μm, for applied DC field strengths of up to 106 V/m. The measurements performed here include full characterization of the polarization state of the transmitted light by means of the Stokes vector. We demonstrate the suitability of this material for DC variable retarder applications such as those achieved by quarter- or half-wave retardation. A comparison of two different metallic coatings for electrodes, gold and indium, reveals important differences in performance that are attributed to the homogeneity of the field through the bulk of the crystal. We illustrate that, in the case of both metals, the same electro-optic coefficients are measured, but regions of higher and lower retardation result in significant depolarization in the case of gold. Such depolarization may adversely affect the contrast ratio in a light valve, or increase the voltage necessary for the operation of an arbitrary polarization state generator.

  20. Derived reference doses for three compounds used in the photovoltaics industry: Copper indium diselenide, copper gallium diselenide, and cadmium telluride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Bernholc, N.; DePhillips, M.P.; Viren, J.

    1995-07-06

    Polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaic modules made from copper indium diselenide (CIS), copper gallium diselenide (CGS), and cadmium telluride (CdTe) arc nearing commercial development. A wide range of issues are being examined as these materials move from the laboratory to large-scale production facilities to ensure their commercial success. Issues of traditional interest include module efficiency, stability and cost. More recently, there is increased focus given to environmental, health and safety issues surrounding the commercialization of these same devices. An examination of the toxicological properties of these materials, and their chemical parents is fundamental to this discussion. Chemicals that can present large hazards to human health or the environment are regulated often more strictly than those that are less hazardous. Stricter control over how these materials are handled and disposed can increase the costs associated with the production and use of these modules dramatically. Similarly, public perception can be strongly influenced by the inherent biological hazard that these materials possess. Thus, this report: presents a brief background tutorial on how toxicological data are developed and used; overviews the toxicological data available for CIS, CGS and CdTe; develops ``reference doses`` for each of these compounds; compares the reference doses for these compounds with those of their parents; discusses the implications of these findings to photovoltaics industry.

  1. Current transport mechanisms in mercury cadmium telluride diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopal, Vishnu, E-mail: vishnu-46@yahoo.com, E-mail: wdhu@mail.sitp.ac.cn [Institute of Defence Scientists and Technologists, CFEES Complex, Brig. S. K. Majumdar Marg, Delhi 110054 (India); Li, Qing; He, Jiale; Hu, Weida, E-mail: vishnu-46@yahoo.com, E-mail: wdhu@mail.sitp.ac.cn [National Lab for Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200083 (China); He, Kai; Lin, Chun [Key Laboratory of Infrared Imaging Materials and Detectors, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200083 (China)

    2016-08-28

    This paper reports the results of modelling of the current-voltage characteristics (I-V) of a planar mid-wave Mercury Cadmium Telluride photodiode in a gate controlled diode experiment. It is reported that the diode exhibits nearly ideal I-V characteristics under the optimum surface potential leading to the minimal surface leakage current. Deviations from the optimum surface potential lead to non ideal I–V characteristics, indicating a strong relationship between the ideality factor of the diode with its surface leakage current. Diode's I–V characteristics have been modelled over a range of gate voltages from −9 V to −2 V. This range of gate voltages includes accumulation, flat band, and depletion and inversion conditions below the gate structure of the diode. It is shown that the I–V characteristics of the diode can be very well described by (i) thermal diffusion current, (ii) ohmic shunt current, (iii) photo-current due to background illumination, and (iv) excess current that grows by the process of avalanche multiplication in the gate voltage range from −3 V to −5 V that corresponds to the optimum surface potential. Outside the optimum gate voltage range, the origin of the excess current of the diode is associated with its high surface leakage currents. It is reported that the ohmic shunt current model applies to small surface leakage currents. The higher surface leakage currents exhibit a nonlinear shunt behaviour. It is also shown that the observed zero-bias dynamic resistance of the diode over the entire gate voltage range is the sum of ohmic shunt resistance and estimated zero-bias dynamic resistance of the diode from its thermal saturation current.

  2. Growth and Characterization of (211)B Cadmium Telluride Buffer Layer Grown by Metal-organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy on Nanopatterned Silicon for Mercury Cadmium Telluride Based Infrared Detector Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintri, Shashidhar S.

    Mercury cadmium telluride (MCT or Hg1-xCdxTe) grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is presently the material of choice for fabricating infrared (IR) detectors used in night vision based military applications. The focus of MCT epitaxy has gradually shifted since the last decade to using Si as the starting substrate since it offers several advantages. But the ˜19 % lattice mismatch between MCT and Si generates lots of crystal defects some of which degrade the performance of MCT devices. Hence thick CdTe films are used as buffer layers on Si to accommodate the defects. However, growth of high quality single crystal CdTe on Si is challenging and to date, the best MBE CdTe/Si reportedly has defects in the mid-105 cm -2 range. There is a critical need to reduce the defect levels by at least another order of magnitude, which is the main motivation behind the present work. The use of alternate growth technique called metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) offers some advantages over MBE and in this work MOVPE has been employed to grow the various epitaxial films. In the first part of this work, conditions for obtaining high quality (211)B CdTe epitaxy on (211)Si were achieved, which also involved studying the effect of having additional intermediate buffer layers such as Ge and ZnTe and incorporation of in-situ thermal cyclic annealing (TCA) to reduce the dislocation density. A critical problem of Si cross-contamination due to 'memory effect' of different reactant species was minimized by introducing tertiarybutylArsine (TBAs) which resulted in As-passivation of (211)Si. The best 8-10 µm thick CdTe films on blanket (non-patterned) Si had dislocations around 3×105 cm-2, which are the best reported by MOVPE till date and comparable to the highest quality films available by MBE. In the second part of the work, nanopatterned (211)Si was used to study the effect of patterning on the crystal quality of epitaxial CdTe. In one such study, patterning of ˜20 nm holes in SiO2

  3. The influence of reaction times on structural, optical and luminescence properties of cadmium telluride nanoparticles prepared by wet-chemical process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiprotich, Sharon, E-mail: KiprotichS@qwa.ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State (QwaQwa campus), Private Bag X-13, Phuthaditjhaba 9866 (South Africa); Dejene, Francis B.; Ungula, Jatani [Department of Physics, University of the Free State (QwaQwa campus), Private Bag X-13, Phuthaditjhaba 9866 (South Africa); Onani, Martin O. [Departments of Chemistry, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville 7535 (South Africa)

    2016-01-01

    This paper explains one pot synthesis of type II water soluble L-cysteine capped cadmium telluride (CdTe) core shell quantum dots using cadmium acetate, potassium tellurite and L-cysteine as the starting materials. The reaction was carried out in a single three necked flask without nitrogen under reflux at 100 °C. Results from PL show a sharp absorption excitonic band edge of the CdTe core with respect to the core shell which loses its shoulder during the growth of the shell on the core. The PL spectra indicate a drastic shift in emission window of the core which is simultaneously accompanied by an increase in emission intensity. X-ray diffraction pattern confirms the formation of hexagonal phase for all samples. Some difference in absorption edges were observed due to varying synthesis time of CdTe NPs. The position of the absorption band is observed to shift towards the lower wavelength side for shorter durations of synthesis.

  4. Impurity states of vanadium in cadmium and zinc tellurides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnatenko, Yu.P.; Farina, I.A.

    1996-01-01

    Low-temperature optical (4.5 K) and photoelectrical properties of CdTe and ZnTe crystals doped by vanadium are invetigated. The energies of carrier transition to valence and conduction bands, Mott-Habbard energy for 3d 3 -ion vanadium in both crystals are determined. The resonance of the excited 4 T l ( 4 P)-state of V 2+ -ion with the conduction band of CdTe crystal is found. 8 bibl.; 4 figs

  5. Cadmium telluride leaching behavior: Discussion of Zeng et al. (2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Parikhit

    2015-11-01

    Zeng et al. (2015) evaluate the leaching behavior and surface chemistry of II-VI semiconductor materials, CdTe and CdSe, in response to pH and O2. Under agitation in acidic and aerobic conditions, the authors found approximately 3.6%-6.4% (w/w) solubility of Cd content in CdTe in the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), Waste Extraction Test (WET), and dissolution test, with lower solubility (0.56-0.58%) under agitation in acidic and anoxic conditions. This range is comparable with prior long-term transformation and dissolution testing and bio-elution testing of CdTe (2.3%-4.1% w/w solubility of Cd content in CdTe). The implications for potential leaching behavior of CdTe-containing devices require further data. Since CdTe PV modules contain approximately 0.05% Cd content by mass, the starting Cd content in the evaluation of CdTe-containing devices would be lower by three orders of magnitude than the starting Cd content in the authors' study, and leaching potential would be further limited by the monolithic glass-adhesive laminate-glass structure of the device that encapsulates the semiconductor material. Experimental evaluation of leaching potential of CdTe PV modules crushed by landfill compactor has been conducted, with results of TCLP and WET tests on the crushed material below regulatory limits for Cd. CdTe PV recycling technology has been in commercial operation since 2005 with high yields for semiconductor (95%) and glass (90%) recovery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cadmium Telluride and Grain Boundaries: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Michael Evan

    The efficacy of the CdCl2 treatment on polycrystalline CdTe-based solar cells was discovered over a quarter of a century ago; and yet, the exact mechanism of this treatment is still not fully understood to this day. In fact, the lack of understanding stems from a debate on the exact role of grain boundaries in CdCl2-treated CdTe solar cells. Some hypothesize that the CdCl2-treatment causes grain boundaries to become beneficial to solar cell performance while others disagree and claim that the treatment simply mitigates the harmful effects of grain boundaries via passivation. A future goal of this project is to determine which, if either, hypothesis is correct by direct wafer bonding single crystalline CdTe. Direct wafer bonding of single crystalline materials would create only one grain boundary at the bonded interface. This approach allows the orientation and surface chemistry of interfaces to be controlled in order to study the chemistry of grain boundaries methodically. However, before any direct wafer bonding can be done, a preliminary study of single crystalline CdTe is necessary. High-quality direct wafer bonding can only be achieved if the surfaces of each wafer satisfy certain requirements. Additionally, analyzing single crystalline CdTe materials prior to bonding is crucial in order to make any insightful connections between results found from direct bonding of single crystalline CdTe and what is observed in polycrystalline CdTe. First, the surface of an (001) CdTe layer epitaxially grown on an (001) InSb substrate is studied using atomic force microscopy. Stacking faults on the CdTe surface are observed and the thickness of the grown CdTe epilayer is calculated by considering the interplanar angles between the (001) and (111) crystallographic planes as well as the dimensions of the stacking faults. While the stacking faults will inhibit successful wafer bonding, the roughness of the regions outside the stacking faults is 0.9 nm, which is an acceptable

  7. Study and microscopic characterization of the cadmium telluride deep levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biglari, B.

    1989-05-01

    The spectroscopic methods PICTS, QTS and CTS were developed and perfected to investigate deep level analysis of high resistivity CdTe crystals which were either undoped, or doped with chlorine and copper. Crystals which were grown in space were also investigated. The main characterization of defect levels was determined and different correlations were established between the material's resistivity, chemical residues, dopant concentration and the nuclear radiation detector parameters. Using PICTS and CTS techniques, the generation of defects, under strong gamma-ray irradiation and particle bombardment was also studied. The influence of hydrogen on the main electrical characteristics of CdTe, in particular its ability to passivate the electrical activity of many deep defect and impurity states have been demonstrated. The compensation effects of Cl, Cu and H + are interpreted using the qualitative models based on different possibilities of pairing or triplet formation between the ions of these dopants and those of defects [fr

  8. The melt-growth and characterization of cadmium telluride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullin, J.B.; Straughan, B.W.

    1977-01-01

    Developments in the melt-growth of CdTe are reviewed particularly with respect to techniques for controlling the dissociation pressure. The potential merits of Pressure Balancing are considered together with the results of a preliminary LEC growth investigation. The characterization, dislocations, precipitates, impurities and impurity defects-together with a discussion on their origin, and experience and suggestions for their elimination or control

  9. Characterization of large cadmium zinc telluride crystals grown by traveling heater method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, H.; Awadalla, S.A.; Iniewski, K.

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to evaluate thick, 20 X 20 X 10 and 10 X 10 X 10 mm(3), cadmium zinc telluride (CZT), Cd0.9Zn0.1Te, crystals grown using the traveling heater method (THIM). The phenomenal spectral performance and small size and low concentration of Te inclusions/precipitates of these c......The focus of this paper is to evaluate thick, 20 X 20 X 10 and 10 X 10 X 10 mm(3), cadmium zinc telluride (CZT), Cd0.9Zn0.1Te, crystals grown using the traveling heater method (THIM). The phenomenal spectral performance and small size and low concentration of Te inclusions...

  10. Acceptors in cadmium telluride. Identification and electronic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molva, E.

    1983-11-01

    It is shown that electronic properties of CdTe are determined by impurities more than by intrinsic defects like vacancies or interstitials in Cd or Te contrary to classical theories. These results are based on annealing, diffusion, implantation and electron irradiation at 4 K. Centers appearing in treated samples are accurately identified by photoluminescence, cathodoluminescence infra-red absorption, electrical measurements and magneto-optic properties. Acceptors identified are Li, Na, Cu, Ag and Au impurities in Cd and N, P and As in Te. Energy levels of all acceptors and fine structure of excitons are determined [fr

  11. Mechanisms of antimony interstitial penetration into cadmium telluride crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Nikonyuk, E S; Zakharuk, Z I; Fochuk, P M; Rarenko, A I

    2001-01-01

    The results of electrophysical investigations of CdTe crystals, grown by Bridgman method and doped with Sb impurity in concentrations for 10 sup 1 sup 7 -3 x 10 sup 1 sup 9 cm sup - sup 3 are presented. The analysis of the temperature dependence of Hall coefficient, current carrier mobility and photoconductivity at intrinsic excitation for samples taken from different parts of ingots allows to conclude, that Sb sub T sub e , Sb sub C sub d centers and (Sb sub T sub e Sb sub C sub d) associated appear in CdTe crystal during its doping by antimony impurity. The hole conductivity in doped crystals is controlled by A sub 3 (Sb sub T sub e) acceptors, their density not exceeding 5 x 10 sup 1 sup 6 cm sup - sup 3 , and is essentially less than the real impurity content. The ionization energy of A sub 3 acceptors is (0.28 +- 0.01) eV. In non-equilibrium conditions these acceptors play the role of adhesion centers for holes (at high temperatures) and the slow recombination centers for electrons (at low temperatures)

  12. Growth of cadmium zinc telluride by liquid phase electroepitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armour, N.; Dost, S. [Crystal Growth Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, University of Victoria, Victoria BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada); Sheibani, H. [Department of Industrial Engineering, Alhosn University, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2006-10-15

    This study was undertaken to examine the feasibility of growing CdZnTe by liquid phase electroepitaxy. Based on our successful LPEE system of GaInAs, a new crucible to grow CdZnTe was developed. The development presented numerous difficulties. The physical properties of CdZnTe make this material very difficult to grow. All components of the system were investigated. Electromigration of the solute across the solution carries species towards the growth interface. In liquid Cd-Zn-Te, the CdTe and ZnTe species remain associated, contrary to the GaInAs system. Experiments showed that LPEE growth of CdZnTe is possible and the electromigration mechanism functions well in the CdZnTe solution. Despite this, other problems remained with the new LPEE system. The preparation of the solution proved difficult without pressurizing the LPEE crucible. Control of the reaction required the use of pre-compounded CdTe and ZnTe. Proper control of the solution saturation is imperative to ensure minimal dissolution of the seed prior to growth initiation and a reasonable growth rate during growth. The solution remained an issue during the duration of growth due to the high vapor pressures of the constituents. Tellurium evaporation during growth could lower solution volume until electrical contact across the solution is broken. Careful preparation of appropriate solution volume was imperative for successful growth. In LPEE, a uniform electric current passage across the growth interface is necessary for uniform and stable growth interface. This requires the design of a uniform contact zone between the bottom graphite electrode and the seed crystal. The contact zone issue was not adequately resolved in this study. However, a number of successful growth runs were achieved despite the electrical contact problems. Results show that the LPEE of growth CdZnTe is feasible. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Growth of cadmium zinc telluride by liquid phase electroepitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour, N.; Dost, S.; Sheibani, H.

    2006-01-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the feasibility of growing CdZnTe by liquid phase electroepitaxy. Based on our successful LPEE system of GaInAs, a new crucible to grow CdZnTe was developed. The development presented numerous difficulties. The physical properties of CdZnTe make this material very difficult to grow. All components of the system were investigated. Electromigration of the solute across the solution carries species towards the growth interface. In liquid Cd-Zn-Te, the CdTe and ZnTe species remain associated, contrary to the GaInAs system. Experiments showed that LPEE growth of CdZnTe is possible and the electromigration mechanism functions well in the CdZnTe solution. Despite this, other problems remained with the new LPEE system. The preparation of the solution proved difficult without pressurizing the LPEE crucible. Control of the reaction required the use of pre-compounded CdTe and ZnTe. Proper control of the solution saturation is imperative to ensure minimal dissolution of the seed prior to growth initiation and a reasonable growth rate during growth. The solution remained an issue during the duration of growth due to the high vapor pressures of the constituents. Tellurium evaporation during growth could lower solution volume until electrical contact across the solution is broken. Careful preparation of appropriate solution volume was imperative for successful growth. In LPEE, a uniform electric current passage across the growth interface is necessary for uniform and stable growth interface. This requires the design of a uniform contact zone between the bottom graphite electrode and the seed crystal. The contact zone issue was not adequately resolved in this study. However, a number of successful growth runs were achieved despite the electrical contact problems. Results show that the LPEE of growth CdZnTe is feasible. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. A portable cadmium telluride multidetector probe for cardiac function monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Arntz, Y; Dumitresco, B; Eclancher, B; Prat, V

    1999-01-01

    A new nuclear stethoscope based on a matrix of small CdTe semiconductor detectors has been developed for studying the cardiac performance by gamma ventriculography at the equilibrium, in rest and stress conditions, in the early and recovery phases of the coronary disease and to follow the long-term therapy. The light-weight probe consists of an array of 64 detectors 5x5x2 mm grouped in 16 independent units in a lead shielded aluminum box including 16 preamplifiers. The probe is connected to an electronic box containing DC power supply, 16 channel amplifiers, discriminators and counters, two analog-triggering ECG channels, and interface to a PC. The left ventricle activity is, preferentially, detected by using a low-resolution matching convergent collimator. A physical evaluation of the probe has been performed, both with static tests and dynamically with a hydraulic home-built model of beating heart ventricle paced by a rhythm simulator. The sum of the 16 detectors activity provided a radiocardiogram (RCG) wh...

  15. A portable cadmium telluride multidetector probe for cardiac function monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arntz, Y.; Chambron, J.; Dumitresco, B.; Eclancher, B. E-mail: eclan@alsace.u-strasbg.fr; Prat, V

    1999-06-01

    A new nuclear stethoscope based on a matrix of small CdTe semiconductor detectors has been developed for studying the cardiac performance by gamma ventriculography at the equilibrium, in rest and stress conditions, in the early and recovery phases of the coronary disease and to follow the long-term therapy. The light-weight probe consists of an array of 64 detectors 5x5x2 mm grouped in 16 independent units in a lead shielded aluminum box including 16 preamplifiers. The probe is connected to an electronic box containing DC power supply, 16 channel amplifiers, discriminators and counters, two analog-triggering ECG channels, and interface to a PC. The left ventricle activity is, preferentially, detected by using a low-resolution matching convergent collimator. A physical evaluation of the probe has been performed, both with static tests and dynamically with a hydraulic home-built model of beating heart ventricle paced by a rhythm simulator. The sum of the 16 detectors activity provided a radiocardiogram (RCG) which well depicted the filling and ejection of the cardiac beats, allowing to compare the clinically relevant parameters of the cardiac performance, proportional variables of the stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF) and ventricular flow-rate with the known absolute values programmed on the model. The portable system is now in operation for clinical assessment of cardiac patients.

  16. A portable cadmium telluride multidetector probe for cardiac function monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arntz, Y.; Chambron, J.; Dumitresco, B.; Eclancher, B.; Prat, V.

    1999-01-01

    A new nuclear stethoscope based on a matrix of small CdTe semiconductor detectors has been developed for studying the cardiac performance by gamma ventriculography at the equilibrium, in rest and stress conditions, in the early and recovery phases of the coronary disease and to follow the long-term therapy. The light-weight probe consists of an array of 64 detectors 5x5x2 mm grouped in 16 independent units in a lead shielded aluminum box including 16 preamplifiers. The probe is connected to an electronic box containing DC power supply, 16 channel amplifiers, discriminators and counters, two analog-triggering ECG channels, and interface to a PC. The left ventricle activity is, preferentially, detected by using a low-resolution matching convergent collimator. A physical evaluation of the probe has been performed, both with static tests and dynamically with a hydraulic home-built model of beating heart ventricle paced by a rhythm simulator. The sum of the 16 detectors activity provided a radiocardiogram (RCG) which well depicted the filling and ejection of the cardiac beats, allowing to compare the clinically relevant parameters of the cardiac performance, proportional variables of the stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF) and ventricular flow-rate with the known absolute values programmed on the model. The portable system is now in operation for clinical assessment of cardiac patients

  17. Applications of CdTe to nuclear medicine. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entine, G.

    1985-01-01

    Uses of cadmium telluride (CdTe) nuclear detectors in medicine are briefly described. They include surgical probes and a system for measuring cerebral blood flow in the intensive care unit. Other uses include nuclear dentistry, x-ray exposure control, cardiology, diabetes, and the testing of new pharmaceuticals

  18. Preparation and study of the properties of lead telluride and cadmium telluride diodes for use in nuclear spectrometry; Preparation et etude des proprietes de diodes au tellurure de plomb et au tellurure de cadmium en vue d'une utilisation en spectrometrie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancon, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    This work studies the possibility of using high atomic number compound semiconductors, like lead telluride and cadmium telluride as to realize nuclear radiation detectors, specially in gamma ray spectrometry because of their high absorption coefficient. The problems related to the preparation of binary compounds are exposed. Experiments on PbTe show the influence of the conditions of preparation on the electrical properties of the semiconductor which are greatly dependent on the stoichiometry of the compound. PbTe surface-barrier diodes were realized and have been used to study the surface properties of this semiconductor. These diodes cannot detect nuclear radiations because of the too weak resistivity of our material. Different types of devices made of Cd Te have been studied. One of these diodes has been used as an alpha particle detector. We explain the relative poor performances of that detector by the presence of lattice defects in Cd Te where charge carriers may recombine themselves. By analysing the properties of gold diffused Cd Te diodes we identified this defect, the cadmium vacancy, the presence of which is due to the deviation from stoichiometry during the preparation of the material. (author) [French] Ce travail etudie la possibilite d'utiliser des semiconducteurs composes d'elements a numero atomique eleve, tels que le tellurure de plomb et le tellurure de cadmium pour la realisation de detecteurs de rayonnements nucleaires, grace notamment a la section efficace de capture elevee qu'ils presentent vis-a-vis des rayons gamma. On souligne les problemes relatifs a la preparation des composes binaires. Les experiences realisees sur PbTe mettent en evidence l'influence des conditions de preparation sur les proprietes electriques du semiconducteur qui dependent fortement de la stoechiometrie du compose. Nous avons realise des diodes au PbTe a barriere de surface qui ont permis de preciser les proprietes de surface de ce semiconducteur. La trop faible

  19. Cadmium telluride gamma-radiation detectors with a high energy resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseeva, L.A.; Dorogov, P.G.; Ivanov, V.I.; Khusainov, A.K.

    1985-01-01

    This paper considers the possibility of improving the energy resolution of cadmium telluride gamma-radiation detectors through the choice of the geometry and size of the sensitive region of the detector. The optimum ratio of the product of the mobility and lifetime for electrons to the same product for holes from the point of view of energy resolution is greater than or equal to 10 2 for a detector of spherical geometry and should be less than or equal to 10 for a cylindrical geometry and approximately 1 for a planar geometry. The optimum values of the major and minor radii of a spherical detector are calculated

  20. Specific features of the photoconductivity of semi-insulating cadmium telluride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golubyatnikov, V. A.; Grigor’ev, F. I.; Lysenko, A. P., E-mail: aplysenko@hse.ru; Strogankova, N. I.; Shadov, M. B. [National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics (Russian Federation); Belov, A. G. [OAO GIREDMET State Research and Design Institute of the Rare-Metal Industry (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-15

    The effect of local illumination providing a high level of free-carrier injection on the conductivity of a sample of semi-insulating cadmium telluride and on the properties of ohmic contacts to the sample is studied. It is found that, irrespective of the illumination region, the contact resistance of ohmic contacts decreases and the concentration of majority carriers in the sample grows in proportion to the illumination intensity. It is shown that inherent heterogeneities in crystals of semi-insulating semiconductors can be studied by scanning with a light probe.

  1. Effect of Gallium Doping on the Characteristic Properties of Polycrystalline Cadmium Telluride Thin Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, A. A.; Dharmadasa, I. M.

    2017-08-01

    Ga-doped CdTe polycrystalline thin films were successfully electrodeposited on glass/fluorine doped tin oxide substrates from aqueous electrolytes containing cadmium nitrate (Cd(NO3)2·4H2O) and tellurium oxide (TeO2). The effects of different Ga-doping concentrations on the CdTe:Ga coupled with different post-growth treatments were studied by analysing the structural, optical, morphological and electronic properties of the deposited layers using x-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy, photoelectrochemical cell measurement and direct-current conductivity test respectively. XRD results show diminishing (111)C CdTe peak above 20 ppm Ga-doping and the appearance of (301)M GaTe diffraction above 50 ppm Ga-doping indicating the formation of two phases; CdTe and GaTe. Although, reductions in the absorption edge slopes were observed above 20 ppm Ga-doping for the as-deposited CdTe:Ga layer, no obvious influence on the energy gap of CdTe films with Ga-doping were detected. Morphologically, reductions in grain size were observed at 50 ppm Ga-doping and above with high pinhole density within the layer. For the as-deposited CdTe:Ga layers, conduction type change from n- to p- were observed at 50 ppm, while the n-type conductivity were retained after post-growth treatment. Highest conductivity was observed at 20 ppm Ga-doping of CdTe. These results are systematically reported in this paper.

  2. Cadmium telluride quantum dots induce apoptosis in human breast cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Saeed; Zare, Hakimeh; Taghavinia, Nima; Irajizad, Azam; Aghaei, Mahmoud; Panjehpour, Mojtaba

    2018-05-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), especially those containing cadmium, have undergone marked improvements and are now widely used nanomaterials in applicable biological fields. However, great concerns exist regarding their toxicity in biomedical applications. Because of the lack of sufficient data regarding the toxicity mechanism of QDs, this study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of three types of QDs: CdTe QDs, high yield CdTe QDs, and CdTe/CdS core/shell QDs on two human breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB468 and MCF-7. The breast cancer cells were treated with different concentrations of QDs, and cell viability was evaluated via MTT assay. Hoechst staining was applied for observation of morphological changes due to apoptosis. Apoptotic DNA fragmentation was visualized by the agarose gel electrophoresis assay. Flow cytometric annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) measurement was used for apoptosis detection. A significant decrease in cell viability was observed after QDs treatment ( p < 0.05). Apoptotic bodies and chromatin condensation was observed by Hoechst staining. DNA fragmentation assay demonstrated a DNA ladder profile in the exposed cells and also annexin V/PI flow cytometry confirmed apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Our results revealed that CdTe, high yield CdTe, and CdTe/CdS core/shell QDs induce apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. This study would help realizing the underlying cytotoxicity mechanism, at least partly, of CdTe QDs and may provide information for the development of nanotoxicology and safe use of biological applications of QDs.

  3. Spatial mapping of cadmium zinc telluride materials properties and electrical response to improve device yield and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Van Scyoc, J M; Yoon, H; Gilbert, T S; Hilton, N R; Lund, J C; James, R B

    1999-01-01

    Cadmium zinc telluride has experienced tremendous growth in its application to various radiation sensing problems over the last five years. However, there are still issues with yield, particularly of the large volume devices needed for imaging and sensitivity-critical applications. Inhomogeneities of various types and on various length scales currently prevent the fabrication of large devices of high spectral performance. This paper discusses the development of a set of characterization tools for quantifying these inhomogeneities, in order to develop improvement strategies to achieve the desired cadmium zinc telluride crystals for detector fabrication.

  4. Interactions between N-acetyl-L-cysteine protected CdTe quantum dots and doxorubicin through spectroscopic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiupei, E-mail: xiupeiyang@163.com [Chemical Synthesis and Pollution Control Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Nanchong 637000 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, China West Normal University, Nanchong 637000 (China); Lin, Jia; Liao, Xiulin; Zong, Yingying; Gao, Huanhuan [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, China West Normal University, Nanchong 637000 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • CdTe quantum dots with the diameter of 3–5 nm were synthesized in aqueous solution. • The modified CdTe quantum dots showed well fluorescence properties. • The interaction between the CdTe quantum dots and doxorubicin (DR) was investigated. - Abstract: N-acetyl-L-cysteine protected cadmium telluride quantum dots with a diameter of 3–5 nm were synthesized in aqueous solution. The interaction between N-acetyl-L-cysteine/cadmium telluride quantum dots and doxorubicin was investigated by ultraviolet–visible absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy at physiological conditions (pH 7.2, 37 °C). The results indicate that electron transfer has occurred between N-acetyl-L-cysteine/cadmium telluride quantum dots and doxorubicin under light illumination. The quantum dots react readily with doxorubicin to form a N-acetyl-L-cysteine/cadmium telluride-quantum dots/doxorubicin complex via electrostatic attraction between the −NH{sub 3}{sup +} moiety of doxorubicin and the −COO{sup −} moiety of N-acetyl-L-cysteine/cadmium telluride quantum dots. The interaction of N-acetyl-L-cysteine/cadmium telluride-quantum dots/doxorubicin complex with bovine serum albumin was studied as well, showing that the complex might induce the conformation change of bovine serum due to changes in microenvironment of bovine serum.

  5. Interactions between N-acetyl-L-cysteine protected CdTe quantum dots and doxorubicin through spectroscopic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiupei; Lin, Jia; Liao, Xiulin; Zong, Yingying; Gao, Huanhuan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CdTe quantum dots with the diameter of 3–5 nm were synthesized in aqueous solution. • The modified CdTe quantum dots showed well fluorescence properties. • The interaction between the CdTe quantum dots and doxorubicin (DR) was investigated. - Abstract: N-acetyl-L-cysteine protected cadmium telluride quantum dots with a diameter of 3–5 nm were synthesized in aqueous solution. The interaction between N-acetyl-L-cysteine/cadmium telluride quantum dots and doxorubicin was investigated by ultraviolet–visible absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy at physiological conditions (pH 7.2, 37 °C). The results indicate that electron transfer has occurred between N-acetyl-L-cysteine/cadmium telluride quantum dots and doxorubicin under light illumination. The quantum dots react readily with doxorubicin to form a N-acetyl-L-cysteine/cadmium telluride-quantum dots/doxorubicin complex via electrostatic attraction between the −NH 3 + moiety of doxorubicin and the −COO − moiety of N-acetyl-L-cysteine/cadmium telluride quantum dots. The interaction of N-acetyl-L-cysteine/cadmium telluride-quantum dots/doxorubicin complex with bovine serum albumin was studied as well, showing that the complex might induce the conformation change of bovine serum due to changes in microenvironment of bovine serum

  6. Demonstration of iodine K-edge imaging by use of an energy-discrimination X-ray computed tomography system with a cadmium telluride detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abudurexiti, Abulajiang; Kameda, Masashi; Sato, Eiichi; Abderyim, Purkhet; Enomoto, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Manabu; Hitomi, Keitaro; Tanaka, Etsuro; Mori, Hidezo; Kawai, Toshiaki; Takahashi, Kiyomi; Sato, Shigehiro; Ogawa, Akira; Onagawa, Jun

    2010-07-01

    An energy-discrimination K-edge X-ray computed tomography (CT) system is useful for increasing the contrast resolution of a target region by utilizing contrast media. The CT system has a cadmium telluride (CdTe) detector, and a projection curve is obtained by linear scanning with use of the CdTe detector in conjunction with an X-stage. An object is rotated by a rotation step angle with use of a turntable between the linear scans. Thus, CT is carried out by repetition of the linear scanning and the rotation of an object. Penetrating X-ray photons from the object are detected by the CdTe detector, and event signals of X-ray photons are produced with use of charge-sensitive and shaping amplifiers. Both the photon energy and the energy width are selected by use of a multi-channel analyzer, and the number of photons is counted by a counter card. For performing energy discrimination, a low-dose-rate X-ray generator for photon counting was developed; the maximum tube voltage and the minimum tube current were 110 kV and 1.0 microA, respectively. In energy-discrimination CT, the tube voltage and the current were 60 kV and 20.0 microA, respectively, and the X-ray intensity was 0.735 microGy/s at 1.0 m from the source and with a tube voltage of 60 kV. Demonstration of enhanced iodine K-edge X-ray CT was carried out by selection of photons with energies just beyond the iodine K-edge energy of 33.2 keV.

  7. The use of cadmium telluride γ spectrometers in monitoring activity deposited in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.T.

    1977-01-01

    The ability to inspect and test key components and when necessary repair or replace them is a significant factor in the safety case submitted before consent is given for construction of a nuclear reactor. A knowledge of the probable rate of deposition and isotopic composition of radioactive contamination in these areas is necessary and since it is not always practicable to take samples away to the laboratory for analysis, direct gamma ray spectroscopy in the contaminated environment is sometimes used. The experience of direct monitoring with a cadmium telluride spectrometer in two such reactor situations is reported. In the first situation, a remotely cooled intrinsic Germanium spectrometer was used in equivalent positions and spectra from both systems are presented. The relative merits of the two systems are discussed. In the second situation, measurements were made in an environment at 70 deg C in radiation levels of 10Rh -1 . An improvised cooling system was used to maintain the Cadmium Telluride at about 20 deg C and Pile-up Rejection was used to enable count rates of about 10 5 s -1 to be handled. It is noted that the usually quoted detector parameters, resolution and crystal volume, are not necessarily the most important in practical spectrometry of mixed isotopes. As with germanium detectors, the most useful parameter is probably the Peak-to-Compton ratio

  8. Charge sharing and charge loss in a cadmium-zinc-telluride fine-pixel detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaskin, J.A.; Sharma, D.P.; Ramsey, B.D.

    2003-01-01

    Because of its high atomic number, room temperature operation, low noise, and high spatial resolution a cadmium-zinc-telluride multi-pixel detector is ideal for hard X-ray astrophysical observation. As part of on-going research at MSFC to develop multi-pixel CdZnTe detectors for this purpose, we have measured charge sharing and charge loss for a 4x4 (750 μm pitch), 1 mm thick pixel array and modeled these results using a Monte-Carlo simulation. This model was then used to predict the amount of charge sharing for a much finer pixel array (with a 300 μm pitch). Future work will enable us to compare the simulated results for the finer array to measured values

  9. Emissions and encapsulation of cadmium in CdTe PV modules during fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fthenakis, V.M.; Fuhrmann, M.; Heiser, J.; Fitts, J.; Wang, W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States). Environmental Sciences Dept.; Lanzirotti, A. [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States). Consortium for Advanced Radiation Resources

    2005-12-15

    Fires in residential and commercial properties are not uncommon. If such fires involve the roof, photovoltaic arrays mounted on the roof will be exposed to the flames. The amount of cadmium that can be released in fires involving CdTe PV and the magnitude of associated health risks has been debated. The current study aims in delineating this issue. Previous thermogravimetric studies of CdTe, involved pure CdTe and single-glass PV modules. The current study is based on glass-glass CdTe PV modules which are the only ones in the market. Pieces of commercial CdTe photovoltaic (PV) modules, sizes 25x3 cm, were heated to temperatures up to 1100{sup o}C to simulate exposure to residential and commercial building fires. The temperature rate and duration in these experiments were defined according to standard protocols. Four different types of analysis were performed to investigate emissions and redistribution of elements in the matrix of heated CdTe PV modules: (1) measurements of sample weight loss as a function of temperature; (2) analyses of Cd and Te in the gaseous emissions; (3) Cd distribution in the heated glass using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microprobe analysis; and (4) chemical analysis for Cd and Te in the acid-digested glass. These experiments showed that almost all (i.e., 99.5%) of the cadmium content of CdTe PV modules was encapsulated in the molten glass matrix; a small amount of Cd escaped from the perimeter of the samples before the two sheets of glass melted together. Adjusting for this loss in full-size modules, results in 99.96% retention of Cd. Multiplying this with the probability of occurrence for residential fires in wood-frame houses in the US (e.g., 10{sup -4}), results in emissions of 0.06 mg/GWh; the probability of sustained fires and subsequent emissions in adequately designed and maintained utility systems appears to be zero. (Author)

  10. First ever full size CdTE luminescent down-shifting module

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ross, D.; Alonso-Alvarez, D.; Fritsche, J.; Bauer, M.; Debije, M.G.; Fifield, R.M.; Richards, B.S.

    2012-01-01

    For the first time a luminescent down-shifting (LDS) layer has been applied to a full size PV module to improve its short-wavelength response. An average 4.3% relative increase in the short-circuit current density (JSC) was recorded for the Calyxo cadmium telluride (CdTe) modules after the best LDS

  11. Cadmium Manganese Telluride (Cd1-xMnxTe): A potential material for room-temperature radiation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, A.; Cui, Y.; Bolotnikov, A.; Camarda, G.; Yang, G.; Kim, K-H.; Gul, R.; Xu, L.; Li, L.; Mycielski, A.; and James, R.B.

    2010-07-11

    Cadmium Manganese Telluride (CdMnTe) recently emerged as a promising material for room-temperature X- and gamma-ray detectors. It offers several potential advantages over CdZnTe. Among them is its optimal tunable band gap ranging from 1.7-2.2 eV, and its relatively low (< 50%) content of Mn compared to that of Zn in CdZnTe that assures this favorable band-gap range. Another important asset is the segregation coefficient of Mn in CdTe that is approximately unity compared to 1.35 for Zn in CdZnTe, so ensuring the homogenous distribution of Mn throughout the ingot; hence, a large-volume stoichiometric yield is attained. However, some materials issues primarily related to the growth process impede the production of large, defect-free single crystals. The high bond-ionicity of CdMnTe entails a higher propensity to crystallize into a hexagonal structure rather than to adopt the expected zinc-blend structure, which is likely to generate twins in the crystals. In addition, bulk defects generate in the as-grown crystals due to the dearth of high-purity Mn, which yields a low-resistivity material. In this presentation, we report on our observations of such material defects in current CdMnTe materials, and our evaluation of its potential as an alternative detector material to the well-known CdZnTe detectors. We characterized the bulk defects of several indium- and vanadium-doped Cd1-xMnxTe crystals by using several advanced techniques, viz., micro-scale mapping, white-beam x-ray diffraction/reflection topography, and chemical etching. Thereafter, we fabricated some detectors from selected CdMnTe crystals, characterized their electrical properties, and tested their performance as room-temperature X- and gamma-ray detectors. Our experimental results indicate that CdMnTe materials could well prove to become a viable alternative in the near future.

  12. Low-cost cadmium zinc telluride radiation detectors based on electron-transport-only designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunett, B.A.; Lund, J.C.; Van Scyoc, J.M.; Hilton, N.R.; Lee, E.Y.; James, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this project was to utilize a novel device design to build a compact, high resolution, room temperature operated semiconductor gamma ray sensor. This sensor was constructed from a cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) crystal. It was able to both detect total radiation intensity and perform spectroscopy on the detected radiation. CZT detectors produced today have excellent electron charge carrier collection, but suffer from poor hole collection. For conventional gamma-ray spectrometers, both the electrons and holes must be collected with high efficiency to preserve energy resolution. The requirement to collect the hole carriers, which have relatively low lifetimes, limits the efficiency and performance of existing experimental devices. By implementing novel device designs such that the devices rely only on the electron signal for energy information, the sensitivity of the sensors for detecting radiation can be increased substantially. In this report the authors describe a project to develop a new type of electron-only CZT detector. They report on their successful efforts to design, implement and test these new radiation detectors. In addition to the design and construction of the sensors the authors also report, in considerable detail, on the electrical characteristics of the CZT crystals used to make their detectors

  13. Study of a high-resolution, 3-D positioning cadmium zinc telluride detector for PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y; Matteson, J L; Skelton, R T; Deal, A C; Stephan, E A; Duttweiler, F; Gasaway, T M; Levin, C S

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the performance of 1 mm resolution Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors for positron emission tomography (PET) capable of positioning the 3-D coordinates of individual 511 keV photon interactions. The detectors comprise 40 mm × 40 mm × 5 mm monolithic CZT crystals that employ a novel cross-strip readout with interspersed steering electrodes to obtain high spatial and energy resolution. The study found a single anode FWHM energy resolution of 3.06±0.39% at 511 keV throughout most the detector volume. Improved resolution is expected with properly shielded front-end electronics. Measurements made using a collimated beam established the efficacy of the steering electrodes in facilitating enhanced charge collection across anodes, as well as a spatial resolution of 0.44±0.07 mm in the direction orthogonal to the electrode planes. Finally, measurements based on coincidence electronic collimation yielded a point spread function with 0.78±0.10 mm FWHM, demonstrating 1 mm spatial resolution capability transverse to the anodes – as expected from the 1 mm anode pitch. These findings indicate that the CZT-based detector concept has excellent performance and shows great promise for a high-resolution PET system. PMID:21335649

  14. Study of a high-resolution, 3D positioning cadmium zinc telluride detector for PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y; Matteson, J L; Skelton, R T; Deal, A C; Stephan, E A; Duttweiler, F; Gasaway, T M; Levin, C S

    2011-03-21

    This paper investigates the performance of 1 mm resolution cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors for positron emission tomography (PET) capable of positioning the 3D coordinates of individual 511 keV photon interactions. The detectors comprise 40 mm × 40 mm × 5 mm monolithic CZT crystals that employ a novel cross-strip readout with interspersed steering electrodes to obtain high spatial and energy resolution. The study found a single anode FWHM energy resolution of 3.06 ± 0.39% at 511 keV throughout most of the detector volume. Improved resolution is expected with properly shielded front-end electronics. Measurements made using a collimated beam established the efficacy of the steering electrodes in facilitating enhanced charge collection across anodes, as well as a spatial resolution of 0.44 ± 0.07 mm in the direction orthogonal to the electrode planes. Finally, measurements based on coincidence electronic collimation yielded a point spread function with 0.78 ± 0.10 mm FWHM, demonstrating 1 mm spatial resolution capability transverse to the anodes-as expected from the 1 mm anode pitch. These findings indicate that the CZT-based detector concept has excellent performance and shows great promise for a high-resolution PET system.

  15. Cadmium telluride nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon as adsorbent for removal of sunset yellow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedi, M.; Hekmati Jah, A.; Khodadoust, S.; Sahraei, R.; Daneshfar, A.; Mihandoost, A.; Purkait, M. K.

    2012-05-01

    Adsorption is a promising technique for decolorization of effluents of textile dyeing industries but its application is limited due to requirement of high amounts of adsorbent required. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of cadmium telluride nanoparticles loaded onto activated carbon (CdTN-AC) for the removal of sunset yellow (SY) dye from aqueous solution. Adsorption studies were conducted in a batch mode varying solution pH, contact time, initial dye concentration, CdTN-AC dose, and temperature. In order to investigate the efficiency of SY adsorption on CdTN-AC, pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich, and intra-particle diffusion kinetic models were studied. It was observed that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model fits better than other kinetic models with good correlation coefficient. Equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir model. Thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy, entropy, activation energy, and sticking probability were also calculated. It was found that the sorption of SY onto CdTN-AC was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The proposed adsorbent is applicable for SY removal from waste of real effluents including pea-shooter, orange drink and jelly banana with efficiency more than 97%.

  16. Fluorescence Stability of Mercaptopropionic Acid Capped Cadmium Telluride Quantum Dots in Various Biochemical Buffers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borse, Vivek; Kashikar, Adisha; Srivastava, Rohit

    2018-04-01

    Quantum dots are the semiconductor nanocrystals having unique optical and electronic properties. Quantum dots are category of fluorescent labels utilized for biological tagging, biosensing, bioassays, bioimaging and in vivo imaging as they exhibit very small size, signal brightness, photostability, tuning of light emission range, longer photoluminescence decay time as compared to organic dyes. In this work, we have synthesized and characterized mercaptopropionic acid capped cadmium telluride quantum dots (MPA-CdTe QDs) using hydrothermal method. The study further reports fluorescence intensity stability of quantum dots suspended in different buffers of varying concentration (1-100 mM), stored at various photophysical conditions. Fluorescence intensity values were reduced with increase in buffer concentration. When the samples were stored at room temperature in ambient light condition the quantum dots suspended in different buffers lost the fluorescence intensity after day 15 (except TRIS II). Fluorescence intensity values were found stable for more than 30 days when the samples were stored in dark condition. Samples stored in refrigerator displayed modest fluorescence intensity even after 300 days of storage. Thus, storage of MPA-CdTe QDs in refrigerator may be the suitable choice to maintain its fluorescence stability for longer time for further application.

  17. Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride photon detector for epithermal neutron spectroscopy--pulse height response characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tardocchi, M.; Pietropaolo, A.; Andreani, C.; Bracco, A.; D'Angelo, A.; Gorini, G.; Imberti, S.; Senesi, R.; Rhodes, N.J.; Schooneveld, E.M.

    2004-01-01

    The Resonance Detector Spectrometer was recently revised for neutron spectroscopic studies in the eV energy region. In this technique one makes use of a photon detector to record the gamma emission from analyser foils used as neutron-gamma converters. The pulse-height response of a Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride photon detector to neutron capture emission from 238 U and 197 Au analyser foils was characterised in the neutron energy range 1-200 eV. The experiment was performed on the VESUVIO spectrometer at the ISIS neutron-pulsed source. A biparametric data acquisition, specifically developed for these measurements, allowed the simultaneous measurements of both the neutron time of flight and γ pulse-height spectra. Through the analysis of the γ pulse-height spectra the main components of the signal associated with resonant and non-resonant neutron absorption were identified. It was also shown that, in principle, energy discrimination can be used to improve the signal to background ratio of the neutron time-of-flight measurement

  18. Investigation of the Electronic Properties of Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) Detectors using a Nuclear Microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BRUNETT, BRUCE A.; DOYLE, BARNEY L.; JAMES, RALPH B.; VIZKELETHY, GYORGY; WALSH, DAVID S.

    1999-01-01

    The electronic transport properties of Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) determine the charge collection efficiency (i.e. the signal quality) of CZT detectors. These properties vary on both macroscopic and microscopic scale and depend on the presence of impurities and defects introduced during the crystal growth. Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection (IBICC) is a proven method to measure the charge collection efficiency. Using an ion microbeam, the charge collection efficiency can be mapped with submicron resolution, and the map of electronic properties (such as drift length) can be calculated from the measurement. A more sophisticated version of IBICC, the Time Resolved IBICC (TRIBICC) allows them to determine the mobility and the life time of the charge carriers by recording and analyzing the transient waveform of the detector signal. Furthermore, lateral IBICC and TRIBICC can provide information how the charge collection efficiency depends on the depth where the charge carriers are generated. This allows one to deduce information on the distribution of the electric field and transport properties of the charge carriers along the detector axis. IBICC and TRIBICC were used at the Sandia microbeam facility to image electronic properties of several CZT detectors. From the lateral TRIBICC measurement the electron and hole drift length profiles were calculated

  19. Investigations of portable cadmium telluride (CdTe(Cl)) detectors for clinical studies with radioactive indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojsen, J.

    1985-01-01

    The combination of small, portable γ-radiation-sensitive Cadmium Telluride (CdTE(Cl)) crystal detectors and portable solid state data storage memories makes it feasible to extend the measuring period in a number of clinical investigations based on the use of various radioisotopes and external detection. Blood sampling can be avoided in some cases. Continuous ambulatory monitoring of relevant physiological parameters is practicable, e.g. kidney function (GFR), left ventricular ejection fraction, subcutaneous blood flow, muscle blood flow and insulin absorption in diabetic patients. In the present methodological study the applicability of the 133-Xe washout technique to subcutaneous (s.c.) adipose tissue blood flow (SBF) has been investigated and adapted to the use of CdTe(Cl) detectors attached to the skin surface for the measurement of local 133-Xe-disappearance rate constants (k). Physical characterization of CdTe(Cl) detectors as γ-sensitive devices has been performed, and adequate counting sensitivities were found without detector energy-resolution properties. The CdTe(Cl) detectors are therefore suitable for single indicator studies. The measuring geometry of CdTe(Cl) detectors was studied and compared with that of stationary Sodium Iodide (NaI(Tl)) detectors in both phantom and in vivo investigations. The spatial properties of CdTe(Cl) detectors could to some extent be adjusted by pulse height discrimination and lead collimation. When long-term measurements were complicated by for instance physical activity of the patients, the small CdTe(Cl) detectors in general showed equal or better performance than the heavy and voluminous NaI(Tl) detectors. The free movement of the ambulatory patient and the avoidance of cable connections to stationary data-collecting systems gave improved possibilities for measurements of the relevant parameters. From this point of view, portable CdTe(Cl) detectors must be considered an important advance for radioactivity studies in

  20. Mercury-Cadmium-Telluride Focal Plane Array Performance Under Non-Standard Operating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Brandon S.; Eastwood, Michael L.; Bruce, Carl F.; Green, Robert O.; Coles, J. B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper highlights a new technique that allows the Teledyne Scientific & Imaging LLC TCM6604A Mercury-Cadmium-Telluride (MCT) Focal Plane Array (FPA) to operate at room temperature. The Teledyne MCT FPA has been a standard in Imaging Spectroscopy since its creation in the 1980's. This FPA has been used in applications ranging from space instruments such as CRISM, M3 and ARTEMIS to airborne instruments such as MaRS and the Next Generation AVIRIS Instruments1. Precise focal plane alignment is always a challenge for such instruments. The current FPA alignment process results in multiple cold cycles requiring week-long durations, thereby increasing the risk and cost of a project. These alignment cycles are necessary because optimal alignment is approached incrementally and can only be measured with the FPA and Optics at standard operating conditions, requiring a cold instrument. Instruments using this FPA are normally cooled to temperatures below 150K for the MCT FPA to properly function. When the FPA is run at higher temperatures the dark current increases saturating the output. This paper covers the prospect of warm MCT FPA operation from a theoretical and experimental perspective. We discuss the empirical models and physical laws that govern MCT material properties and predict the optimal settings that will result in the best MCT PA performance at 300K. Theoretical results are then calculated for the proposed settings. We finally present the images and data obtained using the actual system with the warm MCT FPA settings. The paper concludes by emphasizing the strong positive correlation between the measured values and the theoretical results.

  1. Advanced Processing of CdTe- and CuInxGa1-xSe2-Based Solar Cells: Final Report: 18 April 1995 - 31 May 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayapalan, A.; Tetali, B.; Ferekides, C.S.; Marinskiy, D.; Morel, D.L.; Lin, H.; Sankaranarayanan, H.; Bhatt, R.; Narayanaswamy, R.; Prabhakaran, R.; Marinskaya, S.; Zafar, S.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes work performed by the University of South Florida Department of Electrical Engineering under this subcontract. The Cadmium telluride(CdTe) portion of this project deals with the development of high-efficiency thin-filmed CdTe solar cells using fabrication techniques that are suitable for manufacturing environments

  2. Computational analysis of interfacial attachment kinetics and transport phenomena during liquid phase epitaxy of mercury cadmium telluride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasin, Igal; Brandon, Simon [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Ben Dov, Anne; Grimberg, Ilana; Klin, Olga; Weiss, Eliezer [SCD-Semi-Conductor Devices, P.O. Box 2250/99, Haifa 31021 (Israel)

    2010-07-01

    Deposition of mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) thin films, on lattice matched cadmium zinc telluride substrates, is often achieved via Liquid Phase Epitaxy (LPE). The yield and quality of these films, required for the production of infrared detector devices, is to a large extent limited by lack of knowledge regarding details of physical phenomena underlying the deposition process. Improving the understanding of these phenomena and their impact on the quality of the resultant films is therefore an important goal which can be achieved through relevant computational and/or experimental studies. We present a combined computational and experimental effort aimed at elucidating physical phenomena underlying the LPE of MCT via a slider growth process. The focus of the presentation will be results generated by a time-dependent three-dimensional model of mass transport, fluid flow, and interfacial attachment kinetics, which we have developed and applied in the analysis of this LPE process. These results, combined with experimental analyses, lead to an improved understanding of the role of different transport and kinetic phenomena underlying this growth process.

  3. Scientific/Technical Report: Improvement in compensation and crystal growth of cadmium zinc telluride radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelvin G. Lynn; Kelly A. Jones

    2007-01-01

    Comparison of actual accomplishments with goals and objectives: (1) Growth of 12 ingots--Washington State University (WSU) more than met this goal for the project by growing 12 final ingots for the year. Nine of the twelve crystal growth ingots resolved gamma radiation at room temperature. The other three ingots where resistivity of ∼ 3 x 10 8 Ohm*cm for CG32a, CG36, and CG42 lower than expected, however none of these were tried with blocking contacts. All ingots were evaluated from tip to heel. In these three cases, the group III, dopant Aluminum (Al) was not detected to a level to compensate the Cd vacancies in the cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) thus the ingots were lower resistivity. The nine ingots that were successful radiation detectors averaged a bulk resistivity of 1.25 x 10 10 Ohm*cm and with a average μτ product for electrons of ∼ 2 x 10 -4 cm 2 /V with a 1/4 microsecond shaping time with samples ∼2 mm in thickness. (2) Attempt new compensations techniques--WSU also met this goal. Several doping schemes were attempted and investigated with various amounts of excess Tellurium added to the growth. The combination of Al and Erbium (Er) were first attempted for these ingots and subsequently CG34 was grown with Al, Er and Holmium. These compensation techniques produced radiation detectors and are currently under investigation. These growths were made with significant different doping levels to determine the affect of the dopants. CG43 was doped with Indium and Er. Indium was introduced instead of Al to determine if Indium is more soluble than Al for CZT and was less oxidized. This may decrease the amount of low resistivity ingots grown by doping with Indium instead of Al. (3) Grow large single crystals--Several changes in approach occurred in the crystal growth furnace. Steps were taken to maximize the crystal growth interface during growth by modifying liners, quartz, heat sinks, crucibles and various growth steps and temperature profiles. CG39 ingot

  4. Thermodynamics of post-growth annealing of cadmium zinc telluride nuclear radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Aaron Lee

    Nuclear Radiation Detectors are used for detecting, tracking, and identifying radioactive materials which emit high-energy gamma and X-rays. The use of Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CdZnTe) detectors is particularly attractive because of the detector's ability to operate at room temperature and measure the energy spectra of gamma-ray sources with a high resolution, typically less than 1% at 662 keV. While CdZnTe detectors are acceptable imperfections in the crystals limit their full market potential. One of the major imperfections are Tellurium inclusions generated during the crystal growth process by the retrograde solubility of Tellurium and Tellurium-rich melt trapped at the growth interface. Tellurium inclusions trap charge carriers generated by gamma and X-ray photons and thus reduce the portion of generated charge carriers that reach the electrodes for collection and conversion into a readable signal which is representative of the ionizing radiation's energy and intensity. One approach in resolving this problem is post-growth annealing which has the potential of removing the Tellurium inclusions and associated impurities. The goal of this project is to use experimental techniques to study the thermodynamics of Tellurium inclusion migration in post-growth annealing of CdZnTe nuclear detectors with the temperature gradient zone migration (TGZM) technique. Systematic experiments will be carried out to provide adequate thermodynamic data that will inform the engineering community of the optimum annealing parameters. Additionally, multivariable correlations that involve the Tellurium diffusion coefficient, annealing parameters, and CdZnTe properties will be analyzed. The experimental approach will involve systematic annealing experiments (in Cd vapor overpressure) on different sizes of CdZnTe crystals at varying temperature gradients ranging from 0 to 60°C/mm (used to migrate the Tellurium inclusion to one side of the crystal), and at annealing temperatures ranging

  5. Determination of the mean inner potential of cadmium telluride via electron holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, C.; Dhar, A.; Shintake, T.

    2017-04-01

    Mean inner potential is a fundamental material parameter in solid state physics and electron microscopy and has been experimentally measured in CdTe, a technologically important semiconductor. As a first step, the inelastic mean free path for electron scattering in CdTe was determined, using electron energy loss spectroscopy, to enable precise thickness mapping of thin CdTe lamellae. The obtained value was λi(CdTe, 300 kV) = 192 ± 10 nm. This value is relatively large, given the high density of the material, and is discussed in the text. Next, electron diffraction and specimen tilting were employed to identify weakly diffracting lattice orientations, to enable the straightforward measurement of the electron phase shift. Finally, electron holography was utilized to quantitatively map the phase shift experienced by electron waves passing through a CdTe crystal, with several different propagation vectors. Utilization of both thickness and phase data allowed computation of mean inner potential as V0 (CdTe) = 14.0 ± 0.9 V, within the range of previous theoretical estimates.

  6. Electroplating of CdTe Thin Films from Cadmium Sulphate Precursor and Comparison of Layers Grown by 3-Electrode and 2-Electrode Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imyhamy M. Dharmadasa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrodeposition of CdTe thin films was carried out from the late 1970s using the cadmium sulphate precursor. The solar energy group at Sheffield Hallam University has carried out a comprehensive study of CdTe thin films electroplated using cadmium sulfate, cadmium nitrate and cadmium chloride precursors, in order to select the best electrolyte. Some of these results have been published elsewhere, and this manuscript presents the summary of the results obtained on CdTe layers grown from cadmium sulphate precursor. In addition, this research program has been exploring the ways of eliminating the reference electrode, since this is a possible source of detrimental impurities, such as K+ and Ag+ for CdS/CdTe solar cells. This paper compares the results obtained from CdTe layers grown by three-electrode (3E and two-electrode (2E systems for their material properties and performance in CdS/CdTe devices. Thin films were characterized using a wide range of analytical techniques for their structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties. These layers have also been used in device structures; glass/FTO/CdS/CdTe/Au and CdTe from both methods have produced solar cells to date with efficiencies in the region of 5%–13%. Comprehensive work carried out to date produced comparable and superior devices fabricated from materials grown using 2E system.

  7. Fractal features of CdTe thin films grown by RF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseinpanahi, Fayegh, E-mail: f.hosseinpanahi@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Payame Noor University, P.O. Box 19395-4697, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Raoufi, Davood [Department of Physics, University of Bu Ali Sina, P.O. Box 65174, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ranjbarghanei, Khadijeh [Department of Physics, Plasma Physics Research Center, Science & Research Branch Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimi, Bayan [Department of Physics, Payame Noor University, P.O. Box 19395-4697, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Babaei, Reza [Department of Physics, Plasma Physics Research Center, Science & Research Branch Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hasani, Ebrahim [Department of Physics, University of Bu Ali Sina, P.O. Box 65174, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • CdTe thin films were deposited on glass substrates by RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature with different deposition time 5, 10 and 15 min. • Nanostructure of CdTe layer indicates that CdTe films are polycrystalline and have zinc blende structure, irrespective of their deposition time. • Complexity and roughness of the CdTe films and strength of multifractality increase with increasing deposition time. • Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and also multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) methods showed that prepared CdTe films have multifractal nature. - Abstract: Cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering on glass substrates at room temperature (RT). The film deposition was performed for 5, 10, and 15 min at power of 30 W with a frequency of 13.56 MHz. The crystal structure of the prepared CdTe thin films was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. XRD analyses indicate that the CdTe films are polycrystalline, having zinc blende structure of CdTe irrespective of their deposition time. All CdTe films showed a preferred orientation along (1 1 1) crystalline plane. The surface morphology characterization of the films was studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The quantitative AFM characterization shows that the RMS surface roughness of the prepared CdTe thin films increases with increasing the deposition time. The detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and also multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) methods showed that prepared CdTe thin films have multifractal nature. The complexity, roughness of the CdTe thin films and strength of the multifractality increase as deposition time increases.

  8. Fractal features of CdTe thin films grown by RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseinpanahi, Fayegh; Raoufi, Davood; Ranjbarghanei, Khadijeh; Karimi, Bayan; Babaei, Reza; Hasani, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • CdTe thin films were deposited on glass substrates by RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature with different deposition time 5, 10 and 15 min. • Nanostructure of CdTe layer indicates that CdTe films are polycrystalline and have zinc blende structure, irrespective of their deposition time. • Complexity and roughness of the CdTe films and strength of multifractality increase with increasing deposition time. • Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and also multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) methods showed that prepared CdTe films have multifractal nature. - Abstract: Cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering on glass substrates at room temperature (RT). The film deposition was performed for 5, 10, and 15 min at power of 30 W with a frequency of 13.56 MHz. The crystal structure of the prepared CdTe thin films was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. XRD analyses indicate that the CdTe films are polycrystalline, having zinc blende structure of CdTe irrespective of their deposition time. All CdTe films showed a preferred orientation along (1 1 1) crystalline plane. The surface morphology characterization of the films was studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The quantitative AFM characterization shows that the RMS surface roughness of the prepared CdTe thin films increases with increasing the deposition time. The detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and also multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) methods showed that prepared CdTe thin films have multifractal nature. The complexity, roughness of the CdTe thin films and strength of the multifractality increase as deposition time increases.

  9. Effects of substrate temperature and post-deposition anneal on properties of evaporated cadmium telluride films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacaksiz, E.; Basol, B.M.; Altunbas, M.; Novruzov, V.; Yanmaz, E.; Nezir, S.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of substrate temperature and post-deposition heat treatment steps on the morphology, structural, optical and electrical properties of thin film CdTe layers grown by vacuum evaporation were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were employed to study the structural changes. It was observed that the grain sizes and morphologies of as-deposited layers were similar for substrate temperatures of - 173 deg. C and - 73 deg. C. However, CdTe films produced at a substrate temperature of 27 deg. C had substantially larger grain size and clearly facetted morphology. Annealing at 200-400 deg. C in air did not cause any appreciable grain growth in any of the films irrespective of their growth temperature. However, annealing at 400 deg. C reduced faceting in all cases and initiated fusing between grains. XRD studies showed that this behavior after annealing at 400 deg. C coincided with an onset of a degree of randomization in the originally strong (111) texture of the as-grown layers. Optical band gap measurements showed sharpening of the band-edge upon annealing at 400 deg. C and a band gap value in the range of 1.46-1.49 eV. Resistivity measurements indicated that annealing at 400 deg. C in air forms a highly resistive compensated CdTe film. All results point to 400 deg. C to be a critical annealing temperature at which optical, structural and electrical properties of CdTe layers start to change

  10. Physical and optical properties of size-selective CdTe nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fok, Alice [Department of Chemistry, The City College of New York, CUNY New York, NY 10031 (United States); Morales, Jorge [Department of Biology, City College of New York, CUNY New York, NY 10031 (United States); Sohel, Mohammad [Natural Sciences Department, Hostos College, CUNY Bronx, NY 10451 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Physical and optical properties of colloidal cadmium telluride nanocrystals (CdTe NCs) were investigated. The CdTe NCs were synthesized by reacting elemental tellurium dissolved in tributylphosphine with a mixture of cadmium oxide, octadecene, and oleic acid. These NCs, which were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are spherical and ranged from 5 to 7 nm in diameter. The identity of the compound post-synthesis was confirmed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD) patterns. UV-Vis and photoluminescence (PL) properties as grown and pure CdTe samples were investigated. Bright excitonic photoluminescence emission was observed (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. High-quality CdTe films from nanoparticle precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, D.L.; Pehnt, M.; Urgiles, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    In this paper the authors demonstrate that nanoparticulate precursors coupled with spray deposition offers an attractive route into electronic materials with improved smoothness, density, and lower processing temperatures. Employing a metathesis approach, cadmium iodide was reacted with sodium telluride in methanol solvent, resulting in the formation of soluble NaI and insoluble CdTe nanoparticles. After appropriate chemical workup, methanol-capped CdTe colloids were isolated. CdTe thin film formation was achieved by spray depositing the nanoparticle colloids (25-75 {Angstrom} diameter) onto substrates at elevated temperatures (T = 280-440{degrees}C) with no further thermal treatment. These films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Cubic CdTe phase formation was observed by XRD, with a contaminant oxide phase also detected. XPS analysis showed that CdTe films produced by this one-step method contained no Na or C and substantial O. AFM gave CdTe grain sizes of {approx}0.1-0.3 {mu}m for film sprayed at 400{degrees}C. A layer-by-layer film growth mechanism proposed for the one-step spray deposition of nanoparticle precursors will be discussed.

  12. Study on response function of CdTe detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyunduk; Cho, Gyuseong [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Bo-Sun [Department of Radiological Science, Catholic University of Daegu, Kyoungsan, Kyoungbuk 712-702 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: bskang@cu.ac.kr

    2009-10-21

    So far the origin of the mechanism of light emission in the sonoluminescence has not elucidated whether it is due to blackbody radiation or bremsstrahlung. The final goal of our study is measuring X-ray energy spectrum using high-sensitivity cadmium telluride (CdTe) detector in order to obtain information for understanding sonoluminescence phenomena. However, the scope of this report is the measurement of X-ray spectrum using a high-resolution CdTe detector and determination of CdTe detector response function to obtain the corrected spectrum from measured soft X-ray source spectrum. In general, the measured spectrum was distorted by the characteristics of CdTe detector. Monte Carlo simulation code, MCNP, was used to obtain the reference response function of the CdTe detector. The X-ray spectra of {sup 57}Co, {sup 133}Ba, and {sup 241}Am were obtained by a 4x4x1.0(t) mm{sup 3} CdTe detector at room temperature.

  13. Determination of deep levels in semi-insulating cadmium telluride by thermally stimulated current measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharager, C.; Muller, J.C.; Stuck, R.; Siffert, P.

    1975-01-01

    Thermally stimulated current (TSC) measurements have been performed in high resistivity (rho approximately 10 7 ohms.cm) CdTe γ-ray detectors between 35 and 300K. The TSC curves have been analyzed by different methods, including those taking into account the retrapping of the carriers. The trap characteristics have been determined; especially three levels located at E(v)+0.13eV, E(v)+0.30eV and E(c)-0.55eV have been investigated [fr

  14. Use of a cadmium telluride detector in a new tiny personal radiation chirper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, M.A.; Umbarger, C.J.; Entine, G.

    1978-01-01

    By use of a CdTe crystal coupled to newly designed, low power electronics, we have developed a new personal radiation chirper that is superior to existing instruments. The device emits audible chirps or beeps at a rate proportional to the photon radiation exposure to the wearer. The device is small (6.2 cm high by 3.2 cm wide by 1.7 cm thick) and of low mass (50 grams) and is made to be clipped to the shirt collar of the wearer. The instrument has long continuous-use battery life and is sensitive over a large photon energy and exposure rate span

  15. Modelling of illuminated current–voltage characteristics to evaluate leakage currents in long wavelength infrared mercury cadmium telluride photovoltaic detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopal, Vishnu; Qiu, WeiCheng; Hu, Weida

    2014-01-01

    The current–voltage characteristics of long wavelength mercury cadmium telluride infrared detectors have been studied using a recently suggested method for modelling of illuminated photovoltaic detectors. Diodes fabricated on in-house grown arsenic and vacancy doped epitaxial layers were evaluated for their leakage currents. The thermal diffusion, generation–recombination (g-r), and ohmic currents were found as principal components of diode current besides a component of photocurrent due to illumination. In addition, both types of diodes exhibited an excess current component whose growth with the applied bias voltage did not match the expected growth of trap-assisted-tunnelling current. Instead, it was found to be the best described by an exponential function of the type, I excess  = I r0  + K 1 exp (K 2 V), where I r0 , K 1 , and K 2 are fitting parameters and V is the applied bias voltage. A study of the temperature dependence of the diode current components and the excess current provided the useful clues about the source of origin of excess current. It was found that the excess current in diodes fabricated on arsenic doped epitaxial layers has its origin in the source of ohmic shunt currents. Whereas, the source of excess current in diodes fabricated on vacancy doped epitaxial layers appeared to be the avalanche multiplication of photocurrent. The difference in the behaviour of two types of diodes has been attributed to the difference in the quality of epitaxial layers

  16. Growth of Bi doped cadmium zinc telluride single crystals by Bridgman oscillation method and its structural, optical, and electrical analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcelen, V.; Rodriguez-Fernandez, J.; Dieguez, E.; Hidalgo, P.

    2010-01-01

    The II-VI compound semiconductor cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) is very useful for room temperature radiation detection applications. In the present research, we have successfully grown Bi doped CZT single crystals with two different zinc concentrations (8 and 14 at. %) by the Bridgman oscillation method, in which one experiment has been carried out with a platinum (Pt) tube as the ampoule support. Pt also acts as a cold finger and reduces the growth velocity and enhances crystalline perfection. The grown single crystals have been studied with different analysis methods. The stoichiometry was confirmed by energy dispersive by x-ray and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy analyses and it was found there is no incorporation of impurities in the grown crystal. The presence of Cd and Te vacancies was determined by cathodoluminescence studies. Electrical properties were assessed by I-V analysis and indicated higher resistive value (8.53x10 8 Ω cm) for the crystal grown with higher zinc concentration (with Cd excess) compare to the other (3.71x10 5 Ω cm).

  17. Templated growth of cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) nanowires using pulsed-potentials in hot non-aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandhi, T.; Raja, K.S.; Misra, M.

    2006-01-01

    A single step non-aqueous electrodeposition of cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) nanowires on nanoporous TiO 2 substrate was investigated under pulsed-potential conditions. Propylene carbonate was used as the non-aqueous medium. Cyclic voltammogram studies were carried out to understand the growth mechanism of CZT. EDAX and XRD measurements indicated formation of a compound semiconductor with a stoichiometry of Cd 1-x Zn x Te, where x varied between 0.04 and 0.2. Variation of the pulsed-cathodic potentials could modulate the composition of the CZT. More negative cathodic potentials resulted in increased Zn content. The nanowires showed an electronic band gap of about 1.6 eV. Mott-Schottky analyses indicated p-type semiconductor properties of both as-deposited and annealed CZT materials. Increase in Zn content increased the charge carrier density. Annealing of the deposits resulted in lower charge carrier densities, in the order of 10 15 cm -3

  18. Comparison of Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride semiconductor and Yttrium-Aluminum-Perovskite scintillator as photon detectors for epithermal neutron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tardocchi, M.; Pietropaolo, A.; Andreani, C.; Gorini, G.; Imberti, S.; Perelli-Cippo, E.; Senesi, R.; Rhodes, N.; Schooneveld, E.M.

    2006-01-01

    The range of applications of epithermal neutron scattering experiments has been recently extended by the development of the Resonance Detector. In a Resonance Detector, resonant neutron absorption in an analyzer foil results in prompt emission of X- and γ-rays which are detected by a photon counter. Several combinations of analyzer foils and photon detectors have been studied and tested over the years and best results have been obtained with the combination of a natural uranium and (i) Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT) semiconductor (ii) Yttrium-Aluminum-Perovskite (YAP) scintillators. Here we compare the performance of the CZT semiconductor and YAP scintillator as Resonance Detector units. Two Resonance Detector prototypes made of natural uranium foil viewed by CZT and YAP were tested on the VESUVIO spectrometer at the ISIS spallation neutron source. The results show that both YAP and CZT can be used to detect epithermal neutrons in the energy range from 1 up to 66 eV. It was found that the signal-to-background ratio of the measurement can significantly be improved by raising the lower level discrimination threshold on the γ energy to about 600 keV. The advantages/disadvantages of the choice of a Resonance Detector based on YAP or CZT are discussed together with some potential applications

  19. Diagnostic performance of a novel cadmium-zinc-telluride gamma camera system assessed using fractional flow reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hirokazu; Chikamori, Taishiro; Tanaka, Nobuhiro; Hida, Satoshi; Igarashi, Yuko; Yamashita, Jun; Ogawa, Masashi; Shiba, Chie; Usui, Yasuhiro; Yamashina, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Although the novel cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) camera system provides excellent image quality, its diagnostic value using thallium-201 as assessed on coronary angiography (CAG) and fractional flow reserve (FFR) has not been validated. METHODS AND RESULTS: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the CZT ultrafast camera system (Discovery NM 530c), 95 patients underwent stress thallium-201 single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and then CAG within 3 months. Image acquisition was performed in the supine and prone positions after stress for 5 and 3 min, respectively, and in the supine position at rest for 10 min. Significant stenosis was defined as ≥90% diameter narrowing on visual estimation, or a lesion with <90% and ≥50% stenosis and FFR ≤0.75. To detect individual coronary stenosis, the respective sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 90%, 64%, and 78% for left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis, 78%, 84%, and 81% for left circumflex stenosis, and 83%, 47%, and 60% for right coronary artery (RCA) stenosis. The combination of prone and supine imaging had a higher specificity for RCA disease than supine imaging alone (65% vs. 47%), with an improvement in accuracy from 60% to 72%. Using thallium-201 with short acquisition time, combined with prone imaging, CZT SPECT had a high diagnostic yield in detecting significant coronary stenosis as assessed using FFR.

  20. A facile and green preparation of high-quality CdTe semiconductor nanocrystals at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yan [Jilin Province Research Center for Engineering and Technology of Spectral Analytical Instruments, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Shen Qihui; Shi Weiguang; Li Jixue; Liu Xiaoyang [State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Yu Dongdong [1st Hopstail affiliated to Jilin University, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Zhou Jianguang [Research Center for Analytical Instrumentation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)], E-mail: liuxy@jlu.edu.cn, E-mail: jgzhou70@126.com

    2008-06-18

    One chemical reagent, hydrazine hydrate, was discovered to accelerate the growth of semiconductor nanocrystals (cadmium telluride) instead of additional energy, which was applied to the synthesis of high-quality CdTe nanocrystals at room temperature and ambient conditions within several hours. Under this mild condition the mercapto stabilizers were not destroyed, and they guaranteed CdTe nanocrystal particle sizes with narrow and uniform distribution over the largest possible range. The CdTe nanocrystals (photoluminescence emission range of 530-660 nm) synthesized in this way had very good spectral properties; for instance, they showed high photoluminescence quantum yield of up to 60%. Furthermore, we have succeeded in detecting the living Borrelia burgdorferi of Lyme disease by its photoluminescence image using CdTe nanocrystals.

  1. A facile and green preparation of high-quality CdTe semiconductor nanocrystals at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yan; Shen Qihui; Shi Weiguang; Li Jixue; Liu Xiaoyang; Yu Dongdong; Zhou Jianguang

    2008-01-01

    One chemical reagent, hydrazine hydrate, was discovered to accelerate the growth of semiconductor nanocrystals (cadmium telluride) instead of additional energy, which was applied to the synthesis of high-quality CdTe nanocrystals at room temperature and ambient conditions within several hours. Under this mild condition the mercapto stabilizers were not destroyed, and they guaranteed CdTe nanocrystal particle sizes with narrow and uniform distribution over the largest possible range. The CdTe nanocrystals (photoluminescence emission range of 530-660 nm) synthesized in this way had very good spectral properties; for instance, they showed high photoluminescence quantum yield of up to 60%. Furthermore, we have succeeded in detecting the living Borrelia burgdorferi of Lyme disease by its photoluminescence image using CdTe nanocrystals

  2. Evolution of oxygenated cadmium sulfide (CdS:O) during high-temperature CdTe solar cell fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meysing, Daniel M.; Reese, Matthew O.; Warren, Charles W.; Abbas, Ali; Burst, James M.; Mahabaduge, Hasitha P.; Metzger, Wyatt K.; Walls, John M.; Lonergan, Mark C.; Barnes, Teresa M.; Wolden, Colin A.

    2016-12-01

    Oxygenated cadmium sulfide (CdS:O) produced by reactive sputtering has emerged as a promising alternative to conventional CdS for use as the n-type window layer in CdTe solar cells. Here, complementary techniques are used to expose the window layer (CdS or CdS:O) in completed superstrate devices and combined with a suite of materials characterization to elucidate its evolution during high temperature device processing. During device fabrication amorphous CdS:O undergoes significant interdiffusion with CdTe and recrystallization, forming CdS1-yTey nanocrystals whose Te fraction approaches solubility limits. Significant oxygen remains after processing, concentrated in sulfate clusters dispersed among the CdS1-yTey alloy phase, accounting for ~30% of the post-processed window layer based on cross-sectional microscopy. Interdiffusion and recrystallization are observed in devices with un-oxygenated CdS, but to a much lesser extent. Etching experiments suggest that the CdS thickness is minimally changed during processing, but the CdS:O window layer is reduced from 100 nm to 60-80 nm, which is confirmed by microscopy. Alloying reduces the band gap of the CdS:O window layer to 2.15 eV, but reductions in thickness and areal density improve its transmission spectrum, which is well matched to device quantum efficiency. The changes to the window layer in the reactive environments of device fabrication are profoundly different than what occurs by thermal annealing in an inert environment, which produced films with a band gap of 2.4 eV for both CdS and CdS:O. These results illustrate for the first time the significant changes that occur to the window layer during processing that are critical to the performance of CdTe solar cells.

  3. Imaging properties of small-pixel spectroscopic x-ray detectors based on cadmium telluride sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, Thomas; Schulze, Julia; Zuber, Marcus; Rink, Kristian; Oelfke, Uwe; Butzer, Jochen; Hamann, Elias; Cecilia, Angelica; Zwerger, Andreas; Fauler, Alex; Fiederle, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Spectroscopic x-ray imaging by means of photon counting detectors has received growing interest during the past years. Critical to the image quality of such devices is their pixel pitch and the sensor material employed. This paper describes the imaging properties of Medipix2 MXR multi-chip assemblies bump bonded to 1 mm thick CdTe sensors. Two systems were investigated with pixel pitches of 110 and 165 μm, which are in the order of the mean free path lengths of the characteristic x-rays produced in their sensors. Peak widths were found to be almost constant across the energy range of 10 to 60 keV, with values of 2.3 and 2.2 keV (FWHM) for the two pixel pitches. The average number of pixels responding to a single incoming photon are about 1.85 and 1.45 at 60 keV, amounting to detective quantum efficiencies of 0.77 and 0.84 at a spatial frequency of zero. Energy selective CT acquisitions are presented, and the two pixel pitches' abilities to discriminate between iodine and gadolinium contrast agents are examined. It is shown that the choice of the pixel pitch translates into a minimum contrast agent concentration for which material discrimination is still possible. We finally investigate saturation effects at high x-ray fluxes and conclude with the finding that higher maximum count rates come at the cost of a reduced energy resolution. (paper)

  4. CdTe Photovoltaics for Sustainable Electricity Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munshi, Amit; Sampath, Walajabad

    2016-09-01

    Thin film CdTe (cadmium telluride) is an important technology in the development of sustainable and affordable electricity generation. More than 10 GW of installations have been carried out using this technology around the globe. It has been demonstrated as a sustainable, green, renewable, affordable and abundant source of electricity. An advanced sublimation tool has been developed that allows highly controlled deposition of CdTe films onto commercial soda lime glass substrates. All deposition and treatment steps can be performed without breaking the vacuum within a single chamber in an inline process that can be conveniently scaled to a commercial process. In addition, an advanced cosublimation source has been developed to allow the deposition of ternary alloys such as Cd x Mg1- x Te to form an electron reflector layer which is expected to address the voltage deficits in current CdTe devices and to achieve very high efficiency. Extensive materials characterization, including but not limited to scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron back-scatter diffraction, has been performed to get a better understanding of the effects of processing conditions on CdTe thin film photovoltaics. This combined with computer modeling such as density function theory modeling gives a new insight into the mechanism of CdTe photovoltaic function. With all these efforts, CdTe photovoltaics has seen great progress in the last few years. Currently, it has been recorded as the cheapest source of electricity in the USA on a commercial scale, and further improvements are predicted to further reduce the cost while increasing its utilization. Here, we give an overview of the advantages of thin film CdTe photovoltaics as well as a brief review of the challenges that need to be addressed. Some fundamental studies of processing conditions for thin film CdTe are also presented

  5. Time-dependent toxicity of cadmium telluride quantum dots on liver and kidneys in mice: histopathological changes with elevated free cadmium ions and hydroxyl radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengmeng; Wang, Jilong; Sun, Hubo; Han, Sihai; Feng, Shuai; Shi, Lu; Meng, Peijun; Li, Jiayi; Huang, Peili; Sun, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    A complete understanding of the toxicological behavior of quantum dots (QDs) in vivo is of great importance and a prerequisite for their application in humans. In contrast with the numerous cytotoxicity studies investigating QDs, only a few in vivo studies of QDs have been reported, and the issue remains controversial. Our study aimed to understand QD-mediated toxicity across different time points and to explore the roles of free cadmium ions (Cd(2+)) and hydroxyl radicals (·OH) in tissue damage. Male ICR mice were administered a single intravenous dose (1.5 µmol/kg) of CdTe QDs, and liver and kidney function and morphology were subsequently examined at 1, 7, 14, and 28 days. Furthermore, ·OH production in the tissue was quantified by trapping · OH with salicylic acid (SA) as 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) and detecting it using a high-performance liquid chromatography fluorescence method. We used the induction of tissue metallothionein levels and 2,3-DHBA:SA ratios as markers for elevated Cd(2+) from the degradation of QDs and ·OH generation in the tissue, respectively. Our experimental results revealed that the QD-induced histopathological changes were time-dependent with elevated Cd(2+) and ·OH, and could recover after a period of time. The Cd(2+) and ·OH exhibited delayed effects in terms of histopathological abnormalities. Histological assessments performed at multiple time points might facilitate the evaluation of the biological safety of QDs.

  6. Cascaded systems analysis of charge sharing in cadmium telluride photon-counting x-ray detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanguay, Jesse; Cunningham, Ian A

    2018-05-01

    Single-photon-counting (SPC) and spectroscopic x-ray detectors are under development in academic and industry laboratories for medical imaging applications. The spatial resolution of SPC and spectroscopic x-ray detectors is an important design criterion. The purpose of this article was to extend the cascaded systems approach to include a description of the spatial resolution of SPC and spectroscopic x-ray imaging detectors. A cascaded systems approach was used to model reabsorption of characteristic x rays, Coulomb repulsion, and diffusion in SPC and spectroscopic x-ray detectors. In addition to reabsorption, diffusion, and Coulomb repulsion, the model accounted for x-ray conversion to electron-hole (e-h) pairs, integration of e-h pairs in detector elements, electronic noise, and energy thresholding. The probability density function (PDF) describing the number of e-h pairs was propagated through each stage of the model and was used to derive new theoretical expressions for the large-area gain and modulation transfer function (MTF) of CdTe SPC x-ray detectors, and the energy bin sensitivity functions and MTFs of CdTe spectroscopic detectors. Theoretical predictions were compared with the results of MATLAB-based Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and published data. Comparisons were also made with the MTF of energy-integrating systems. Under general radiographic conditions, reabsorption, diffusion, and Coulomb repulsion together artificially inflate count rates by 20% to 50%. For thicker converters (e.g. 1000 μm) and larger detector elements (e.g. 500 μm pixel pitch) these processes result in modest inflation (i.e. ∼10%) in apparent count rates. Our theoretical and MC analyses predict that SPC MTFs will be degraded relative to those of energy-integrating systems for fluoroscopic, general radiographic, and CT imaging conditions. In most cases, this degradation is modest (i.e., ∼10% at the Nyquist frequency). However, for thicker converters, the SPC MTF can be degraded

  7. Highly sensitive FRET-based fluorescence immunoassay for aflatoxin B1 using cadmium telluride quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zekavati, Roya; Bayat, Mansour; Safi, Shahabeddin; Hashemi, Seyed Jamal; Rahmani-Cherati, Tavoos; Tabatabaei, Meisam; Mohsenifar, Afshin

    2013-01-01

    We report on a competitive immunoassay for the determination of aflatoxin B1 using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from anti-aflatoxin B1 antibody (immobilized on the shell of CdTe quantum dots) to Rhodamine 123 (Rho 123-labeled aflatoxin B1 bound to albumin). The highly specific immuno reaction between the antibody against aflatoxin B1 on the QDs and the labeled-aflatoxin B1 brings the Rho 123 fluorophore (acting as the acceptor) and the QDs (acting as the donor) in close spatial proximity and causes FRET to occur upon photoexcitation of the QDs. In the absence of unlabeled aflatoxin B1, the antigen-antibody complex is stable, and strong emission resulting from the FRET from QDs to labeled aflatoxin B1 is observed. In the presence of aflatoxin B1, it will compete with the labeled aflatoxin B1-albumin complex for binding to the antibody-QDs conjugate so that FRET will be increasingly suppressed. The reduction in the fluorescence intensity of the acceptor correlates well with the concentration of aflatoxin B1. The feasibility of the method was established by the detection of aflatoxin B1 in spiked human serum. There is a linear relationship between the increased fluorescence intensity of Rho 123 with increasing concentration of aflatoxin B1 in spike human serum, over the range of 0.1–0.6 μmol·mL −1 . The limit of detection is 2 × 10 −11 M. This homogeneous competitive detection scheme is simple, rapid and efficient, and does not require excessive washing and separation steps. (author)

  8. Material properties of large-volume cadmium zinc telluride crystals and their relationship to nuclear detector performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, R.B.; Lund, J. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Yoon, H. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)]|[Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-09-01

    The material showing the greatest promise today for production of large-volume gamma-ray spectrometers operable at room temperature is cadmium zinc telluride (CZT). Unfortunately, because of deficiencies in the quality of the present material, high-resolution CZT spectrometers have thus far been limited to relatively small dimensions, which makes them inefficient at detecting high photon energies and ineffective for weak radiation signals except in near proximity. To exploit CZT fully, it will be necessary to make substantial improvements in the material quality. Improving the material involves advances in the purity, crystallinity, and control of the electrical compensation mechanism. Sandia National Laboratories, California, in close collaboration with US industry and academia, has initiated efforts to develop a detailed understanding of the underlying material problems limiting the performance of large volume gamma-ray spectrometers and to overcome them through appropriate corrections therein. A variety of analytical and numerical techniques are employed to quantify impurities, compositional and stoichiometric variations, crystallinity, strain, bulk and surface defect states, carrier mobilities and lifetimes, electric field distributions, and contact chemistry. Data from these measurements are correlated with spatial maps of the gamma-ray and alpha particle spectroscopic response to determine improvements in the material purification, crystal growth, detector fabrication, and surface passivation procedures. The results of several analytical techniques will be discussed. The intended accomplishment of this work is to develop a low-cost, high-efficiency CZT spectrometer with an active volume of 5 cm{sup 3} and energy resolution of 1--2% (at 662 keV), which would give the US a new field capability for screening radioactive substances.

  9. Comparison between stress myocardial perfusion SPECT recorded with cadmium-zinc-telluride and Anger cameras in various study protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verger, Antoine; Karcher, Gilles; Djaballah, Wassila; Fourquet, Nicolas; Rouzet, Francois; Le Guludec, Dominique; Koehl, Gregoire; Roch, Veronique; Imbert, Laetitia; Poussier, Sylvain; Fay, Renaud; Marie, Pierre-Yves

    2013-01-01

    The results of stress myocardial perfusion SPECT could be enhanced by new cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) cameras, although differences compared to the results with conventional Anger cameras remain poorly known for most study protocols. This study was aimed at comparing the results of CZT and Anger SPECT according to various study protocols while taking into account the influence of obesity. The study population, which was from three different institutions equipped with identical CZT cameras, comprised 276 patients referred for study using protocols involving 201 Tl (n = 120) or 99m Tc-sestamibi injected at low dose at stress ( 99m Tc-Low; stress/rest 1-day protocol; n = 110) or at high dose at stress ( 99m Tc-High; rest/stress 1-day or 2-day protocol; n = 46). Each Anger SPECT scan was followed by a high-speed CZT SPECT scan (2 to 4 min). Agreement rates between CZT and Anger SPECT were good irrespective of the study protocol (for abnormal SPECT, 201 Tl 92 %, 99m Tc-Low 86 %, 99m Tc-High 98 %), although quality scores were much higher for CZT SPECT with all study protocols. Overall correlations were high for the extent of myocardial infarction (r = 0.80) and a little lower for ischaemic areas (r = 0.72), the latter being larger on Anger SPECT (p 201 Tl or 99m Tc-Low group and in whom stress myocardial counts were particularly low with Anger SPECT (228 ± 101 kcounts) and dramatically enhanced with CZT SPECT (+279 ± 251 %). Concordance between the results of CZT and Anger SPECT is good regardless of study protocol and especially when excluding obese patients who have low-count Anger SPECT and for whom myocardial counts are dramatically enhanced on CZT SPECT. (orig.)

  10. Comparison between stress myocardial perfusion SPECT recorded with cadmium-zinc-telluride and Anger cameras in various study protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verger, Antoine; Karcher, Gilles [CHU-Nancy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nancy (France); INSERM U947, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep Experimental Imaging Platform, Nancy (France); Djaballah, Wassila [CHU-Nancy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nancy (France); INSERM U947, Nancy (France); Fourquet, Nicolas [Clinique Pasteur, Toulouse (France); Rouzet, Francois; Le Guludec, Dominique [AP-HP, Hopital Bichat, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Paris (France); INSERM U 773 Inserm and Denis Diderot University, Paris (France); Koehl, Gregoire; Roch, Veronique [CHU-Nancy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep Experimental Imaging Platform, Nancy (France); Imbert, Laetitia [CHU-Nancy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep Experimental Imaging Platform, Nancy (France); Centre Alexis Vautrin, Department of Radiotherapy, Vandoeuvre (France); Poussier, Sylvain [INSERM U947, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep Experimental Imaging Platform, Nancy (France); Fay, Renaud [INSERM, Centre d' Investigation Clinique CIC-P 9501, Nancy (France); Marie, Pierre-Yves [CHU-Nancy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep Experimental Imaging Platform, Nancy (France); INSERM U961, Nancy (France); Hopital de Brabois, CHU-Nancy, Medecine Nucleaire, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2013-03-15

    The results of stress myocardial perfusion SPECT could be enhanced by new cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) cameras, although differences compared to the results with conventional Anger cameras remain poorly known for most study protocols. This study was aimed at comparing the results of CZT and Anger SPECT according to various study protocols while taking into account the influence of obesity. The study population, which was from three different institutions equipped with identical CZT cameras, comprised 276 patients referred for study using protocols involving {sup 201}Tl (n = 120) or {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi injected at low dose at stress ({sup 99m}Tc-Low; stress/rest 1-day protocol; n = 110) or at high dose at stress ({sup 99m}Tc-High; rest/stress 1-day or 2-day protocol; n = 46). Each Anger SPECT scan was followed by a high-speed CZT SPECT scan (2 to 4 min). Agreement rates between CZT and Anger SPECT were good irrespective of the study protocol (for abnormal SPECT, {sup 201}Tl 92 %, {sup 99m}Tc-Low 86 %, {sup 99m}Tc-High 98 %), although quality scores were much higher for CZT SPECT with all study protocols. Overall correlations were high for the extent of myocardial infarction (r = 0.80) and a little lower for ischaemic areas (r = 0.72), the latter being larger on Anger SPECT (p < 0.001). This larger extent was mainly observed in 50 obese patients who were in the {sup 201}Tl or {sup 99m}Tc-Low group and in whom stress myocardial counts were particularly low with Anger SPECT (228 {+-} 101 kcounts) and dramatically enhanced with CZT SPECT (+279 {+-} 251 %). Concordance between the results of CZT and Anger SPECT is good regardless of study protocol and especially when excluding obese patients who have low-count Anger SPECT and for whom myocardial counts are dramatically enhanced on CZT SPECT. (orig.)

  11. Myocardial perfusion imaging with a cadmium zinc telluride-based gamma camera versus invasive fractional flow reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouden, Mohamed [Isala klinieken, Department of Cardiology, Zwolle (Netherlands); Isala klinieken, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zwolle (Netherlands); Ottervanger, Jan Paul; Timmer, Jorik R. [Isala klinieken, Department of Cardiology, Zwolle (Netherlands); Knollema, Siert; Reiffers, Stoffer; Oostdijk, Ad H.J.; Jager, Pieter L. [Isala klinieken, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zwolle (Netherlands); Boer, Menko-Jan de [University Medical Centre Nijmegen, Department of Cardiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2014-05-15

    Recently introduced ultrafast cardiac SPECT cameras with cadmium zinc telluride-based (CZT) detectors may provide superior image quality allowing faster acquisition with reduced radiation doses. Although the level of concordance between conventional SPECT and invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR) measurement has been studied, that between FFR and CZT-based SPECT is not yet known. Therefore, we aimed to assess the level of concordance between CZT SPECT and FFR in a large patient group with stable coronary artery disease. Both invasive FFR and myocardial perfusion imaging with a CZT-based SPECT camera, using Tc-tetrofosmin as tracer, were performed in 100 patients with stable angina and intermediate grade stenosis on invasive coronary angiography. A cut-off value of <0.75 was used to define abnormal FFR. The mean age of the patients was 64 ± 11 years, and 64 % were men. SPECT demonstrated ischaemia in 31 % of the patients, and 20 % had FFR <0.75. The concordance between CZT SPECT and FFR was 73 % on a per-patient basis and 79 % on a per-vessel basis. Discordant findings were more often seen in older patients and were mainly (19 %) the result of ischaemic SPECT findings in patients with FFR ≥0.75, whereas only 8 % had an abnormal FFR without ischaemia as demonstrated by CZT SPECT. Only 20 - 30 % of patients with intermediate coronary stenoses had significant ischaemia as assessed by CZT SPECT or invasive FFR. CZT SPECT showed a modest degree of concordance with FFR, which is comparable with previous results with conventional SPECT. Further investigations are particularly necessary in patients with normal SPECT and abnormal FFR, especially to determine whether these patients should undergo revascularization. (orig.)

  12. Material properties of large-volume cadmium zinc telluride crystals and their relationship to nuclear detector performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.B.; Lund, J.; Yoon, H.

    1997-01-01

    The material showing the greatest promise today for production of large-volume gamma-ray spectrometers operable at room temperature is cadmium zinc telluride (CZT). Unfortunately, because of deficiencies in the quality of the present material, high-resolution CZT spectrometers have thus far been limited to relatively small dimensions, which makes them inefficient at detecting high photon energies and ineffective for weak radiation signals except in near proximity. To exploit CZT fully, it will be necessary to make substantial improvements in the material quality. Improving the material involves advances in the purity, crystallinity, and control of the electrical compensation mechanism. Sandia National Laboratories, California, in close collaboration with US industry and academia, has initiated efforts to develop a detailed understanding of the underlying material problems limiting the performance of large volume gamma-ray spectrometers and to overcome them through appropriate corrections therein. A variety of analytical and numerical techniques are employed to quantify impurities, compositional and stoichiometric variations, crystallinity, strain, bulk and surface defect states, carrier mobilities and lifetimes, electric field distributions, and contact chemistry. Data from these measurements are correlated with spatial maps of the gamma-ray and alpha particle spectroscopic response to determine improvements in the material purification, crystal growth, detector fabrication, and surface passivation procedures. The results of several analytical techniques will be discussed. The intended accomplishment of this work is to develop a low-cost, high-efficiency CZT spectrometer with an active volume of 5 cm 3 and energy resolution of 1--2% (at 662 keV), which would give the US a new field capability for screening radioactive substances

  13. CdTe quantum dots with daunorubicin induce apoptosis of multidrug-resistant human hepatoma HepG2/ADM cells: in vitro and in vivo evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Lixin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cadmium telluride quantum dots (Cdte QDs have received significant attention in biomedical research because of their potential in disease diagnosis and drug delivery. In this study, we have investigated the interaction mechanism and synergistic effect of 3-mercaptopropionic acid-capped Cdte QDs with the anti-cancer drug daunorubicin (DNR on the induction of apoptosis using drug-resistant human hepatoma HepG2/ADM cells. Electrochemical assay revealed that Cdte QDs readily facilitated the uptake of the DNR into HepG2/ADM cells. Apoptotic staining, DNA fragmentation, and flow cytometry analysis further demonstrated that compared with Cdte QDs or DNR treatment alone, the apoptosis rate increased after the treatment of Cdte QDs together with DNR in HepG2/ADM cells. We observed that Cdte QDs treatment could reduce the effect of P-glycoprotein while the treatment of Cdte QDs together with DNR can clearly activate apoptosis-related caspases protein expression in HepG2/ADM cells. Moreover, our in vivo study indicated that the treatment of Cdte QDs together with DNR effectively inhibited the human hepatoma HepG2/ADM nude mice tumor growth. The increased cell apoptosis rate was closely correlated with the enhanced inhibition of tumor growth in the studied animals. Thus, Cdte QDs combined with DNR may serve as a possible alternative for targeted therapeutic approaches for some cancer treatments.

  14. Optimization of material/device parameters of CdTe photovoltaic for solar cells applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijewarnasuriya, Priyalal S.

    2016-05-01

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) has been recognized as a promising photovoltaic material for thin-film solar cell applications due to its near optimum bandgap of ~1.5 eV and high absorption coefficient. The energy gap is near optimum for a single-junction solar cell. The high absorption coefficient allows films as thin as 2.5 μm to absorb more than 98% of the above-bandgap radiation. Cells with efficiencies near 20% have been produced with poly-CdTe materials. This paper examines n/p heterostructure device architecture. The performance limitations related to doping concentrations, minority carrier lifetimes, absorber layer thickness, and surface recombination velocities at the back and front interfaces is assessed. Ultimately, the paper explores device architectures of poly- CdTe and crystalline CdTe to achieve performance comparable to gallium arsenide (GaAs).

  15. Time-dependent toxicity of cadmium telluride quantum dots on liver and kidneys in mice: histopathological changes with elevated free cadmium ions and hydroxyl radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang M

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mengmeng Wang,1,2,* Jilong Wang,1,2,* Hubo Sun,1,2 Sihai Han,3 Shuai Feng,1 Lu Shi,1 Peijun Meng,1,2 Jiayi Li,1,2 Peili Huang,1,2 Zhiwei Sun1,2 1Department of Toxicology and Sanitary Chemistry, School of Public Health, Capital Medical University, 2Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 3College of Food and Bioengineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: A complete understanding of the toxicological behavior of quantum dots (QDs in vivo is of great importance and a prerequisite for their application in humans. In contrast with the numerous cytotoxicity studies investigating QDs, only a few in vivo studies of QDs have been reported, and the issue remains controversial. Our study aimed to understand QD-mediated toxicity across different time points and to explore the roles of free cadmium ions (Cd2+ and hydroxyl radicals (·OH in tissue damage. Male ICR mice were administered a single intravenous dose (1.5 µmol/kg of CdTe QDs, and liver and kidney function and morphology were subsequently examined at 1, 7, 14, and 28 days. Furthermore, ·OH production in the tissue was quantified by trapping ·OH with salicylic acid (SA as 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA and detecting it using a high-performance liquid chromatography fluorescence method. We used the induction of tissue metallothionein levels and 2,3-DHBA:SA ratios as markers for elevated Cd2+ from the degradation of QDs and ·OH generation in the tissue, respectively. Our experimental results revealed that the QD-induced histopathological changes were time-dependent with elevated Cd2+ and ·OH, and could recover after a period of time. The Cd2+ and ·OH exhibited delayed effects in terms of histopathological abnormalities. Histological assessments performed at multiple time points might facilitate the evaluation of the biological safety of

  16. Effects of Long-term exposure of Gelatinated and Non-gelatinated Cadmium Telluride Quantum Dots on Differentiated PC12 cells

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Prasad, Babu R

    2012-01-20

    Abstract Background The inherent toxicity of unmodified Quantum Dots (QDs) is a major hindrance to their use in biological applications. To make them more potent as neuroprosthetic and neurotherapeutic agents, thioglycolic acid (TGA) capped CdTe QDs, were coated with a gelatine layer and investigated in this study with differentiated pheochromocytoma 12 (PC12) cells. The QD - cell interactions were investigated after incubation periods of up to 17 days by MTT and APOTOX-Glo Triplex assays along with using confocal microscopy. Results Long term exposure (up to 17 days) to gelatinated TGA-capped CdTe QDs of PC12 cells in the course of differentiation and after neurites were grown resulted in dramatically reduced cytotoxicity compared to non-gelatinated TGA-capped CdTe QDs. Conclusion The toxicity mechanism of QDs was identified as caspase-mediated apoptosis as a result of cadmium leaking from the core of QDs. It was therefore concluded that the gelatine capping on the surface of QDs acts as a barrier towards the leaking of toxic ions from the core QDs in the long term (up to 17 days).

  17. Design study of a high-resolution breast-dedicated PET system built from cadmium zinc telluride detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Hao; Levin, Craig S

    2010-01-01

    We studied the performance of a dual-panel positron emission tomography (PET) camera dedicated to breast cancer imaging using Monte Carlo simulation. The proposed system consists of two 4 cm thick 12 x 15 cm 2 area cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) panels with adjustable separation, which can be put in close proximity to the breast and/or axillary nodes. Unique characteristics distinguishing the proposed system from previous efforts in breast-dedicated PET instrumentation are the deployment of CZT detectors with superior spatial and energy resolution, using a cross-strip electrode readout scheme to enable 3D positioning of individual photon interaction coordinates in the CZT, which includes directly measured photon depth-of-interaction (DOI), and arranging the detector slabs edge-on with respect to incoming 511 keV photons for high photon sensitivity. The simulation results show that the proposed CZT dual-panel PET system is able to achieve superior performance in terms of photon sensitivity, noise equivalent count rate, spatial resolution and lesion visualization. The proposed system is expected to achieve ∼32% photon sensitivity for a point source at the center and a 4 cm panel separation. For a simplified breast phantom adjacent to heart and torso compartments, the peak noise equivalent count (NEC) rate is predicted to be ∼94.2 kcts s -1 (breast volume: 720 cm 3 and activity concentration: 3.7 kBq cm -3 ) for a ∼10% energy window around 511 keV and ∼8 ns coincidence time window. The system achieves 1 mm intrinsic spatial resolution anywhere between the two panels with a 4 cm panel separation if the detectors have DOI resolution less than 2 mm. For a 3 mm DOI resolution, the system exhibits excellent sphere resolution uniformity (σ rms /mean) ≤ 10%) across a 4 cm width FOV. Simulation results indicate that the system exhibits superior hot sphere visualization and is expected to visualize 2 mm diameter spheres with a 5:1 activity concentration ratio within

  18. Physical vapor deposition of CdTe thin films at low temperature for solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heisler, Christoph; Brueckner, Michael; Lind, Felix; Kraft, Christian; Reisloehner, Udo; Ronning, Carsten; Wesch, Werner [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Cadmium telluride is successfully utilized as an absorber material for thin film solar cells. Industrial production makes use of high substrate temperatures for the deposition of CdTe absorber layers. However, in order to exploit flexible substrates and to simplify the manufacturing process, lower deposition temperatures are beneficial. Based on the phase diagram of CdTe, predictions on the stoichiometry of CdTe thin films grown at low substrate temperatures are made in this work. These predictions were verified experimentally using additional sources of Cd and Te during the deposition of the CdTe thin films at different substrate temperatures. The deposited layers were analyzed with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. In case of CdTe layers which were deposited at substrate temperatures lower than 200 C without usage of additional sources we found a non-stoichiometric growth of the CdTe layers. The application of the additional sources leads to a stoichiometric growth for substrate temperatures down to 100 C which is a significant reduction of the substrate temperature during deposition.

  19. Band structure of CdTe under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayam, Sr. Gerardin; Nirmala Louis, C.; Amalraj, A.

    2005-01-01

    The band structures and density of states of cadmium telluride (CdTe) under various pressures ranging from normal to 4.5 Mbar are obtained. The electronic band structure at normal pressure of CdTe (ZnS structure) is analyzed and the direct band gap value is found to be 1.654 eV. CdTe becomes metal and superconductor under high pressure but before that it undergoes structural phase transition from ZnS phase to NaCl phase. The equilibrium lattice constant, bulk modulus and the phase transition pressure at which the compounds undergo structural phase transition from ZnS to NaCl are predicted from the total energy calculations. The density of states at the Fermi level (N(E F )) gets enhanced after metallization, which leads to the superconductivity in CdTe. In our calculation, the metallization pressure (P M = 1.935 Mbar) and the corresponding reduced volume ((V/V 0 ) M = 0.458) are estimated. Metallization occurs via direct closing of band gap at Γ point. (author)

  20. Pre-chemotherapy values for left and right ventricular volumes and ejection fraction by gated tomographic radionuclide angiography using a cadmium-zinc-telluride detector gamma camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haarmark, Christian; Haase, Christine; Jensen, Maria Maj

    2016-01-01

    age and both left and right ventricular volumes in women (r = -0.4, P right end systolic ventricular volume in men (r = -0.3, P = .001). CONCLUSION: A set of reference values for cardiac evaluation prior to chemotherapy in cancer patients without other known cardiopulmonary......BACKGROUND: Estimation of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) using equilibrium radionuclide angiography is an established method for assessment of left ventricular function. The purpose of this study was to establish normative data on left and right ventricular volumes and ejection fraction......, using cadmium-zinc-telluride SPECT camera. METHODS AND RESULTS: From routine assessments of left ventricular function in 1172 patients, we included 463 subjects (194 men and 269 women) without diabetes, previous potentially cardiotoxic chemotherapy, known cardiovascular or pulmonary disease. The lower...

  1. Study of CdTe surface by SIMS and RBS ellipsometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuck, R.; Hage-Ali, M.; Grob, A.; Siffert, P.

    1978-01-01

    For a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the rectification of metal-cadmium telluride contacts, the surface of bromine-methanol etched CdTe crystals by means of ellipsometry, secondary ions mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and Rutherford backscattering of charged particles (RBS) has been investigated. The results show that these surfaces are contaminated with bromine and that a tellurium surface oxide layer grows, its thickness increasing with time. This surface layer composition has been analyzed at different steps of its evolution [fr

  2. Evaluation of XRI-UNO CdTe detector for nuclear medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jambi, L.K.; Lees, J.E.; Bugby, S.L.; Alqahtani, M.S.; Tipper, S.; Perkins, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades advances in semiconductor detector technology have reached the point where they are sufficiently sensitive to become an alternative to scintillators for high energy gamma ray detection for application in fields such as medical imaging. This paper assessed the Cadmium-Telluride (CdTe) XRI-UNO semiconductor detector produced by X-RAY Imatek for photon energies of interest in nuclear imaging. The XRI-UNO detector was found to have an intrinsic spatial resolution of <0.5mm and a high incident count rate capability up to at least 1680cps. The system spatial resolution, uniformity and sensitivity characteristics are also reported

  3. Technical evaluation of Solar Cells, Inc., CdTe module and array at NREL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, B.; Strand, T.; Hansen, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Powell, R.; Sasala, R. [Solar Cells, Inc., Toledo, OH (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The Engineering and Technology Validation Team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducts in-situ technical evaluations of polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules and arrays. This paper focuses on the technical evaluation of Solar Cells, Inc., (SCI) cadmium telluride (CdTe) module and array performance by attempting to correlate individual module and array performance. This is done by examining the performance and stability of the modules and array over a period of more than one year. Temperature coefficients for module and array parameters (P{sub max}, V{sub oc}, V{sub max}, I{sub sc}, I{sub max}) are also calculated.

  4. Influences of the CdS nanoparticles grown strategies on CdTe nanorods array films: A comparison between successive ionic layer absorption and reaction and chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jun; Zhou, Xiaoming; Lv, Pin; Yang, Lihua; Ding, Dong; Niu, Jiasheng; Liu, Li; Li, Xue; Fu, Wuyou; Yang, Haibin

    2016-01-01

    The cadmium sulfide (CdS) film is deposited on the surface of cadmium telluride (CdTe) nanorods (NRs) by two different methods, successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) and chemical bath deposition (CBD) techniques. The influence of the deposition parameters on the properties of the films is investigated. Compared to SILAR, CBD is a simple and time saving technique, which can ensure full coverage and better growth of CdS on the surface of CdTe NRs. The photovoltaic characteristics of CdS sensitized CdTe films are also investigated. It is found that the CdTe/CBD-CdS thin film demonstrates excellent photoelectrical properties, which is ascribed to the large absorption coefficient of the material, indicating the potential applications in solar cells.

  5. Ecotoxicity of CdTe quantum dots to freshwater mussels: Impacts on immune system, oxidative stress and genotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagne, F.; Auclair, J.; Turcotte, P.; Fournier, M.; Gagnon, C.; Sauve, S.; Blaise, C.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the toxic effects of cadmium-telluride (CdTe) quantum dots on freshwater mussels. Elliption complanata mussels were exposed to increasing concentrations of CdTe (0, 1.6, 4 and 8 mg/L) and cadmium sulfate (CdSO 4 , 0.5 mg/L) for 24 h at 15 o C. After the exposure period, they were removed for assessments of immunocompetence, oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation) and genotoxicity (DNA strand breaks). Preliminary experiments revealed that CdTe dissolved in aquarium water tended to aggregate in the particulate phase (85%) while 15% of CdTe was found in the dissolved phase. Immunotoxicity was characterized by a significant decrease in the number of hemocytes capable of ingesting fluorescent beads, and hemocyte viability. The cytotoxic capacity of hemocytes to lyse mammalian K-562 cells was significantly increased, but the number of circulating hemocytes remained unchanged. Lipid peroxidation was significantly increased at a threshold concentration of 5.6 mg/L in gills and significantly reduced in digestive glands at a threshold concentration <1.6 mg/L CdTe. The levels of DNA strand breaks were significantly reduced in gills at <1.6 mg/L CdTe. In digestive glands, a transient but marginal increase in DNA strand breaks occurred at the lowest concentration and dropped significantly at the higher concentrations. A multivariate analysis revealed that the various response patterns differed based on the concentration of CdTe, thus permitting the identification of biomarkers associated with the form (colloidal vs. molecular) of cadmium

  6. Ecotoxicity of CdTe quantum dots to freshwater mussels: Impacts on immune system, oxidative stress and genotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagne, F. [Fluvial Ecosystem Research, Environment Canada, 105 McGill Street, Montreal, Quebec, H2Y 2E7 (Canada)], E-mail: francois.gagne@ec.gc.ca; Auclair, J.; Turcotte, P. [Fluvial Ecosystem Research, Environment Canada, 105 McGill Street, Montreal, Quebec, H2Y 2E7 (Canada); Fournier, M. [INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, 245 Hymus, Pointe-Claire, Quebec, H9R 3G6 (Canada); Gagnon, C. [Fluvial Ecosystem Research, Environment Canada, 105 McGill Street, Montreal, Quebec, H2Y 2E7 (Canada); Sauve, S. [Departement de Chimie, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3J7 (Canada); Blaise, C. [Fluvial Ecosystem Research, Environment Canada, 105 McGill Street, Montreal, Quebec, H2Y 2E7 (Canada)

    2008-02-18

    The purpose of this study was to examine the toxic effects of cadmium-telluride (CdTe) quantum dots on freshwater mussels. Elliption complanata mussels were exposed to increasing concentrations of CdTe (0, 1.6, 4 and 8 mg/L) and cadmium sulfate (CdSO{sub 4}, 0.5 mg/L) for 24 h at 15 {sup o}C. After the exposure period, they were removed for assessments of immunocompetence, oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation) and genotoxicity (DNA strand breaks). Preliminary experiments revealed that CdTe dissolved in aquarium water tended to aggregate in the particulate phase (85%) while 15% of CdTe was found in the dissolved phase. Immunotoxicity was characterized by a significant decrease in the number of hemocytes capable of ingesting fluorescent beads, and hemocyte viability. The cytotoxic capacity of hemocytes to lyse mammalian K-562 cells was significantly increased, but the number of circulating hemocytes remained unchanged. Lipid peroxidation was significantly increased at a threshold concentration of 5.6 mg/L in gills and significantly reduced in digestive glands at a threshold concentration <1.6 mg/L CdTe. The levels of DNA strand breaks were significantly reduced in gills at <1.6 mg/L CdTe. In digestive glands, a transient but marginal increase in DNA strand breaks occurred at the lowest concentration and dropped significantly at the higher concentrations. A multivariate analysis revealed that the various response patterns differed based on the concentration of CdTe, thus permitting the identification of biomarkers associated with the form (colloidal vs. molecular) of cadmium.

  7. Effects of various deposition times and RF powers on CdTe thin film growth using magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorannevis, Z.; Akbarnejad, E.; Ghoranneviss, M.

    2016-09-01

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is a p-type II-VI compound semiconductor, which is an active component for producing photovoltaic solar cells in the form of thin films, due to its desirable physical properties. In this study, CdTe film was deposited using the radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering system onto a glass substrate. To improve the properties of the CdTe film, effects of two experimental parameters of deposition time and RF power were investigated on the physical properties of the CdTe films. X-ray Diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and spectrophotometer were used to study the structural, morphological and optical properties of the CdTe samples grown at different experimental conditions, respectively. Our results suggest that film properties strongly depend on the experimental parameters and by optimizing these parameters, it is possible to tune the desired structural, morphological and optical properties. From XRD data, it is found that increasing the deposition time and RF power leads to increasing the crystallinity as well as the crystal sizes of the grown film, and all the films represent zinc blende cubic structure. Roughness values given from AFM images suggest increasing the roughness of the CdTe films by increasing the RF power and deposition times. Finally, optical investigations reveal increasing the film band gaps by increasing the RF power and the deposition time.

  8. Studying nanotoxic effects of CdTe quantum dots in Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Stahl Vieira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Semiconductor nanoparticles, such as quantum dots (QDs, were used to carry out experiments in vivo and ex vivo with Trypanosoma cruzi. However, questions have been raised regarding the nanotoxicity of QDs in living cells, microorganisms, tissues and whole animals. The objective of this paper was to conduct a QD nanotoxicity study on living T. cruzi protozoa using analytical methods. This was accomplished using in vitro experiments to test the interference of the QDs on parasite development, morphology and viability. Our results show that after 72 h, a 200 μM cadmium telluride (CdTe QD solution induced important morphological alterations in T. cruzi, such as DNA damage, plasma membrane blebbing and mitochondrial swelling. Flow cytometry assays showed no damage to the plasma membrane when incubated with 200 μM CdTe QDs for up to 72 h (propidium iodide cells, giving no evidence of classical necrosis. Parasites incubated with 2 μM CdTe QDs still proliferated after seven days. In summary, a low concentration of CdTe QDs (2 μM is optimal for bioimaging, whereas a high concentration (200 μM CdTe could be toxic to cells. Taken together, our data indicate that 2 μM QD can be used for the successful long-term study of the parasite-vector interaction in real time.

  9. Understanding arsenic incorporation in CdTe with atom probe tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, G. L.; Diercks, D. R.; Ogedengbe, O. S.; Jayathilaka, P. A. R. D.; Edirisooriya, M.; Myers, T. H.; Zaunbrecher, K. N.; Moseley, J.; Barnes, T. M.; Gorman, B. P.

    2018-08-01

    Overcoming the open circuit voltage deficiency in Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) photovoltaics may be achieved by increasing p-type doping while maintaining or increasing minority carrier lifetimes. Here, routes to higher doping efficiency using arsenic are explored through an atomic scale understanding of dopant incorporation limits and activation in molecular beam epitaxy grown CdTe layers. Atom probe tomography reveals spatial segregation into nanometer scale clusters containing > 60 at% As for samples with arsenic incorporation levels greater than 7-8 x 10^17 cm-3. The presence of arsenic clusters was accompanied by crystal quality degradation, particularly the introduction of arsenic-enriched extended defects. Post-growth annealing treatments are shown to increase the size of the As precipitates and the amount of As within the precipitates.

  10. Application of CdTe for the NeXT mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Tadayuki; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Shin; Sato, Goro; Mitani, Takefumi; Tanaka, Takaaki; Oonuki, Kousuke; Tamura, Ken'ichi; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Kamae, Tuneyoshi; Madejski, Greg; Nomachi, Masaharu; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Makishima, Kazuo; Kokubun, Motohide; Terada, Yukikatsu; Kataoka, Jun; Tashiro, Makoto

    2005-01-01

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) and cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe) have been regarded as promising semiconductor materials for hard X-ray and γ-ray detection. The high-atomic number of the materials (Z Cd =48,Z Te =52) gives a high quantum efficiency in comparison with Si. The large band-gap energy (E g =1.5eV) allows to operate the detector at room temperature. Based on recent achievements in high-resolution CdTe detectors, in the technology of ASICs and in bump-bonding, we have proposed the novel hard X-ray and γ-ray detectors for the NeXT mission in Japan. The high-energy response of the super mirror onboard NeXT will enable us to perform the first sensitive imaging observations up to 80keV. The focal plane detector, which combines a fully depleted X-ray CCD and a pixellated CdTe detector, will provide spectra and images in the wide energy range from 0.5 to 80keV. In the soft γ-ray band up to ∼ 1MeV, a narrow field-of-view Compton γ-ray telescope utilizing several tens of layers of thin Si or CdTe detector will provide precise spectra with much higher sensitivity than present instruments. The continuum sensitivity will reach several x10 -8 photons -1 keV -1 cm -2 in the hard X-ray region and a few x10 -7 photons -1 keV -1 cm -2 in the soft γ-ray region

  11. Solar-energy conversion by combined photovoltaic converters with CdTe and CuInSe2 base layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrypunov, G. S.; Sokol, E. I.; Yakimenko, Yu. I.; Meriuts, A. V.; Ivashuk, A. V.; Shelest, T. N.

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of the combined use of bifacial thin-film solar cells based on CdTe and frontal solar cells with a CuInSe 2 base layer in tandem structures is experimentally confirmed. It is found that, for the use of bifacial solar cells based on cadmium telluride in a tandem structure, the optimal thickness of their base layer should be 1 μm. The gain in the efficiency of the tandem structure, compared with an individual CuInSe 2 -based solar cell, is 1.8% in the case of series-connected solar cells and 1.3%, for parallel-connected

  12. Characterization inconsistencies in CdTe and CZT gamma-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavietes, A.D.; McQuaid, J.H.

    1994-10-01

    In the past few years, significant developments in cadmium telluride (CdTe) and cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) semiconductor materials have taken place with respect to both quality and yield. Many of the more recent developments have occurred in the area of CZT crystal growth. This has resulted in an explosion of interest in the use of these materials in ambient temperature gamma-ray detectors. Most, if not all, of the manufacturers of CdTe and CZT have acquired government funding to continue research in development and applications, indicating the importance of these improvements in material quality. We have examined many detectors, along with the accompanying manufacturer's data, and it has become apparent that a clear standard does not exist by which each manufacturer characterizes the performance of their material. Result is a wide variety of performance claims that have no basis for comparison and normally cannot be readily reproduced. This paper first supports our observations and then proposes a standard that all manufacturers and users of these materials may use for characterization

  13. Performance of cardiac cadmium-zinc-telluride gamma camera imaging in coronary artery disease: a review from the cardiovascular committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agostini, Denis; Marie, Pierre-Yves; Ben-Haim, Simona; Rouzet, Francois; Songy, Bernard; Giordano, Alessandro; Gimelli, Alessia; Hyafil, Fabien; Sciagra, Roberto; Bucerius, Jan; Verberne, Hein J.; Slart, Riemer H.J.A.; Lindner, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    The trade-off between resolution and count sensitivity dominates the performance of standard gamma cameras and dictates the need for relatively high doses of radioactivity of the used radiopharmaceuticals in order to limit image acquisition duration. The introduction of cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT)-based cameras may overcome some of the limitations against conventional gamma cameras. CZT cameras used for the evaluation of myocardial perfusion have been shown to have a higher count sensitivity compared to conventional single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) techniques. CZT image quality is further improved by the development of a dedicated three-dimensional iterative reconstruction algorithm, based on maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM), which corrects for the loss in spatial resolution due to line response function of the collimator. All these innovations significantly reduce imaging time and result in a lower patient's radiation exposure compared with standard SPECT. To guide current and possible future users of the CZT technique for myocardial perfusion imaging, the Cardiovascular Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine, starting from the experience of its members, has decided to examine the current literature regarding procedures and clinical data on CZT cameras. The committee hereby aims (1) to identify the main acquisitions protocols; (2) to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of CZT derived myocardial perfusion, and finally (3) to determine the impact of CZT on radiation exposure. (orig.)

  14. Performance of cardiac cadmium-zinc-telluride gamma camera imaging in coronary artery disease: a review from the cardiovascular committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostini, Denis [CHU Caen and Normandy University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Caen (France); Normandy University, Caen (France); Marie, Pierre-Yves [University of Lorraine, Faculty of Medicine, Nancyclotep Experimental Imaging Platform, Nancy (France); University of Lorraine, Faculty of Medicine, CHU Nancy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nancy (France); University of Lorraine, Faculty of Medicine, Nancy (France); Ben-Haim, Simona [University College London, University College Hospital, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ramat Gan (Israel); Rouzet, Francois [University Hospital of Paris-Bichat, UMR 1148, Inserm et Paris Diderot-Paris 7 University Paris, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Paris (France); UMR 1148, Inserm and Paris Diderot-Paris 7 University Paris, Paris (France); Songy, Bernard [Centre Cardiologique du Nord, Saint-Denis (France); Giordano, Alessandro [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Largo A. Gemelli, Department of Bioimages and Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy); Gimelli, Alessia [Fondazione Toscana Gabriele Monasterio, Pisa (Italy); Hyafil, Fabien [Bichat University Hospital, Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Paris, UMR 1148, Inserm and Paris Diderot-Paris 7 University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Paris (France); Sciagra, Roberto [University of Florence, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences, Florence (Italy); Bucerius, Jan [Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht (Netherlands); University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Verberne, Hein J. [Academic Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Slart, Riemer H.J.A. [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); University of Twente, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Biomedical Photonic Imaging, Enschede (Netherlands); Lindner, Oliver [Institute of Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Heart and Diabetes Center NRW, Bad Oeynhausen (Germany); Collaboration: Cardiovascular Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM)

    2016-12-15

    The trade-off between resolution and count sensitivity dominates the performance of standard gamma cameras and dictates the need for relatively high doses of radioactivity of the used radiopharmaceuticals in order to limit image acquisition duration. The introduction of cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT)-based cameras may overcome some of the limitations against conventional gamma cameras. CZT cameras used for the evaluation of myocardial perfusion have been shown to have a higher count sensitivity compared to conventional single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) techniques. CZT image quality is further improved by the development of a dedicated three-dimensional iterative reconstruction algorithm, based on maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM), which corrects for the loss in spatial resolution due to line response function of the collimator. All these innovations significantly reduce imaging time and result in a lower patient's radiation exposure compared with standard SPECT. To guide current and possible future users of the CZT technique for myocardial perfusion imaging, the Cardiovascular Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine, starting from the experience of its members, has decided to examine the current literature regarding procedures and clinical data on CZT cameras. The committee hereby aims (1) to identify the main acquisitions protocols; (2) to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of CZT derived myocardial perfusion, and finally (3) to determine the impact of CZT on radiation exposure. (orig.)

  15. Diagnostic Performance of a Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography System With Low-Dose Technetium-99m as Assessed by Fractional Flow Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikamori, Taishiro; Hida, Satoshi; Tanaka, Nobuhiro; Igarashi, Yuko; Yamashita, Jun; Shiba, Chie; Murata, Naotaka; Hoshino, Kou; Hokama, Yohei; Yamashina, Akira

    2016-04-25

    Although stress single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using a cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) camera facilitates radiation dose reduction, only a few studies have evaluated its diagnostic accuracy in Japanese patients by applying fractional flow reserve (FFR) measurements. We prospectively evaluated 102 consecutive patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease with a low-dose stress/rest protocol ((99m)Tc radiotracer 185/370 MBq) using CZT SPECT. Within 3 months, coronary angiography was performed and a significant stenosis was defined as ≥90% diameter narrowing on visual estimation, or as a lesion of <90% and ≥ 50% stenosis with FFR ≤0.80. To detect individual coronary stenosis, the respective sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 86%, 75%, and 82% for left anterior descending artery stenosis, 76%, 81%, and 79% for left circumflex artery stenosis, and 87%, 92%, and 90% for right coronary artery stenosis. When limited to 92 intermediate stenotic lesions in which FFR was measured, stress SPECT showed 77% sensitivity, 91% specificity, and 84% accuracy, whereas the diagnostic value decreased to 52% sensitivity, 68% specificity, and 58% accuracy based only on visual estimation of ≥75% diameter narrowing. CZT SPECT demonstrated a good diagnostic yield in detecting hemodynamically significant coronary stenoses as assessed by FFR, even when using a low-dose (99m)Tc protocol with an effective dose ≤5 mSv. (Circ J 2016; 80: 1217-1224).

  16. Rapid long-wave infrared laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements using a mercury-cadmium-telluride linear array detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Clayton S-C; Brown, Eiei; Kumi-Barimah, Eric; Hommerich, Uwe; Jin, Feng; Jia, Yingqing; Trivedi, Sudhir; D'souza, Arvind I; Decuir, Eric A; Wijewarnasuriya, Priyalal S; Samuels, Alan C

    2015-11-20

    In this work, we develop a mercury-cadmium-telluride linear array detection system that is capable of rapidly capturing (∼1-5  s) a broad spectrum of atomic and molecular laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) emissions in the long-wave infrared (LWIR) region (∼5.6-10  μm). Similar to the conventional UV-Vis LIBS, a broadband emission spectrum of condensed phase samples covering the whole 5.6-10 μm region can be acquired from just a single laser-induced microplasma or averaging a few single laser-induced microplasmas. Atomic and molecular signature emission spectra of solid inorganic and organic tablets and thin liquid films deposited on a rough asphalt surface are observed. This setup is capable of rapidly probing samples "as is" without the need of elaborate sample preparation and also offers the possibility of a simultaneous UV-Vis and LWIR LIBS measurement.

  17. Effect of capping agent on selectivity and sensitivity of CdTe quantum dots optical sensor for detection of mercury ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labeb, Mohmed; Sakr, Abdel-Hamed; Soliman, Moataz; Abdel-Fettah, Tarek M.; Ebrahim, Shaker

    2018-05-01

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots (QDs) were prepared from an aqueous solution containing CdCl2 and Te precursor in the presence of thioglycolic acid (TGA) or L-cysteine as capping agents. Two optical sensors have been developed for Hg2+ ions with very low concentration in the range of nanomolar (nM) or picomolar (pM) depending on the type of capping agents and based on photoluminescence (PL) quenching of CdTe QDs. It was observed that low concentrations of Hg2+ ions quench the fluorescence spectra of CdTe QDs and TGA capped CdTe QDs exhibited a linear response to Hg2+ ions in the concentration range from 1.25 to 10 nM. Moreover, it was found that L-cysteine capped CdTe QDs optical sensor with a sensitivity of 6 × 109 M-1, exhibited a linear coefficient of 0.99 and showed a detection limit of 2.7 pM in range from 5 to 25 pM of Hg2+ ions was achieved. In contrast to the significant response that was observed for Hg2+, a weak signal response was noted upon the addition of other metal ions indicating an excellent selectivity of CdTe QDs towards Hg2+.

  18. IDeF-X ECLAIRs: A CMOS ASIC for the Readout of CdTe and CdZnTe Detectors for High Resolution Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gevin, O.; Baron, P.; Coppolani, X.; Delagnes, E.; Lugiez, F.; Daly, F.; Limousin, O.; Meuris, A.; Pinsard, F.; Renaud, D.

    2009-01-01

    The very last member of the IDeF-X ASIC family is presented: IDeF-X ECLAIRs is a 32-channel front end ASIC designed for the readout of Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) and Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CdZnTe) Detectors. Thanks to its noise performance (Equivalent Noise Charge floor of 33 e - rms) and to its radiation hardened design (Single Event Latch-up Linear Energy Transfer threshold of 56 MeV.cm 2 .mg -1 ), the chip is well suited for soft X-rays energy discrimination and high energy resolution, 'space proof', hard X-ray spectroscopy. We measured an energy low threshold of less than 4 keV with a 10 pF input capacitor and a minimal reachable sensitivity of the Equivalent Noise Charge (ENC) to input capacitance of less than 7e - /pF obtained with a 6 μs peak time. IDeF-X ECLAIRs will be used for the readout of 6400 CdTe Schottky mono-pixel detectors of the 2D coded mask imaging telescope ECLAIRs aboard the SVOM satellite. IDeF-X ECLAIRs (or IDeF-X V2) has also been designed for the readout of a pixelated CdTe detector in the miniature spectro-imager prototype Caliste 256 that is currently foreseen for the high energy detector module of the Simbol-X mission. (authors)

  19. IDeF-X ECLAIRs: A CMOS ASIC for the Readout of CdTe and CdZnTe Detectors for High Resolution Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevin, Olivier; Baron, Pascal; Coppolani, Xavier; Daly, FranÇois; Delagnes, Eric; Limousin, Olivier; Lugiez, Francis; Meuris, Aline; Pinsard, FrÉdÉric; Renaud, Diana

    2009-08-01

    The very last member of the IDeF-X ASIC family is presented: IDeF-X ECLAIRs is a 32-channel front end ASIC designed for the readout of Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) and Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CdZnTe) Detectors. Thanks to its noise performance (Equivalent Noise Charge floor of 33 e- rms) and to its radiation hardened design (Single Event Latchup Linear Energy Transfer threshold of 56 MeV.cm2.mg-1), the chip is well suited for soft X-rays energy discrimination and high energy resolution, ldquospace proof,rdquo hard X-ray spectroscopy. We measured an energy low threshold of less than 4 keV with a 10 pF input capacitor and a minimal reachable sensitivity of the Equivalent Noise Charge (ENC) to input capacitance of less than 7 e-/pF obtained with a 6 mus peak time. IDeF-X ECLAIRs will be used for the readout of 6400 CdTe Schottky monopixel detectors of the 2D coded mask imaging telescope ECLAIRs aboard the SVOM satellite. IDeF-X ECLAIRs (or IDeF-X V2) has also been designed for the readout of a pixelated CdTe detector in the miniature spectro-imager prototype Caliste 256 that is currently foreseen for the high energy detector module of the Simbol-X mission.

  20. Advanced processing of CdTe pixel radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gädda, A.; Winkler, A.; Ott, J.; Härkönen, J.; Karadzhinova-Ferrer, A.; Koponen, P.; Luukka, P.; Tikkanen, J.; Vähänen, S.

    2017-12-01

    We report a fabrication process of pixel detectors made of bulk cadmium telluride (CdTe) crystals. Prior to processing, the quality and defect density in CdTe material was characterized by infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The semiconductor detector and Flip-Chip (FC) interconnection processing was carried out in the clean room premises of Micronova Nanofabrication Centre in Espoo, Finland. The chip scale processes consist of the aluminum oxide (Al2O3) low temperature thermal Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), titanium tungsten (TiW) metal sputtering depositions and an electroless Nickel growth. CdTe crystals with the size of 10×10×0.5 mm3 were patterned with several photo-lithography techniques. In this study, gold (Au) was chosen as the material for the wettable Under Bump Metalization (UBM) pads. Indium (In) based solder bumps were grown on PSI46dig read out chips (ROC) having 4160 pixels within an area of 1 cm2. CdTe sensor and ROC were hybridized using a low temperature flip-chip (FC) interconnection technique. The In-Au cold weld bonding connections were successfully connecting both elements. After the processing the detector packages were wire bonded into associated read out electronics. The pixel detectors were tested at the premises of Finnish Radiation Safety Authority (STUK). During the measurement campaign, the modules were tested by exposure to a 137Cs source of 1.5 TBq for 8 minutes. We detected at the room temperature a photopeak at 662 keV with about 2 % energy resolution.

  1. (99m)Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy of the hand: comparing the use of novel cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) and routine NaI(Tl) detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulikov, Victoria; Lerman, Hedva; Kesler, Mikhail; Even-Sapir, Einat

    2015-12-01

    Cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) solid-state detectors have been recently introduced in the field of nuclear medicine in cardiology and breast imaging. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the performance of the novel detectors (CZT) compared to that of the routine NaI(Tl) in bone scintigraphy. A dual-headed CZT-based camera dedicated originally to breast imaging has been used, and in view of the limited size of the detectors, the hands were chosen as the organ for assessment. This is a clinical study. Fifty-eight consecutive patients (total 116 hands) referred for bone scan for suspected hand pathology gave their informed consent to have two acquisitions, using the routine camera and the CZT-based camera. The latter was divided into full-dose full-acquisition time (FD CZT) and reduced-dose short-acquisition time (RD CZT) on CZT technology, so three image sets were available for analysis. Data analysis included comparing the detection of hot lesions and identification of the metacarpophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, and distal interphalangeal joints. A total of 69 hot lesions were detected on the CZT image sets; of these, 61 were identified as focal sites of uptake on NaI(Tl) data. On FD CZT data, 385 joints were identified compared to 168 on NaI(Tl) data (p < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in delineation of joints between FD and RD CZT data as the latter identified 383 joints. Bone scintigraphy using a CZT-based gamma camera is associated with improved lesion detection and anatomic definition. The superior physical characteristics of this technique raised a potential reduction in administered dose and/or acquisition time without compromising image quality.

  2. Studies on focal alveolar bone healing with technetium (Tc)-99m labeled methylene diphosphonate and gold-collimated cadmium telluride probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchimochi, M.; Hosain, F.; Engelke, W.; Zeichner, S.J.; Ruttimann, U.E.; Webber, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The benefit of using a collimator for a miniaturized cadmium telluride probe was evaluated by monitoring the bone-healing processes for 13 weeks after the induction of small iatrogenic alveolar bone lesions in one side of the mandible in beagles. Technetium (Tc)-99m labeled methylene diphosphonate (200 to 300 MBq, 5.1 to 8.1 mCi, in a solution of 0.5 to 1 ml, intravenously) was used as a bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical. The radioactivity over the bone lesion (L) and the contralateral normal site (C) in the mandible were measured between 1.5 and 2 hours after injection of the tracer, and the activity ratio L/C served as an index of relative bone uptake. A study of six dogs revealed that the healing response to a hemispheric bone defect of 2 mm diameter in the cortical bone could not be detected by an uncollimated probe, and in a repeated study in two dogs the use of a gold collimator (5 mm in diameter, 5 mm in length) did not increase the L/C ratio significantly. A second study in six dogs with 5 mm lesions showed that although systematic trends in the time courses of the L/C ratio obtained both with and without the collimator could be demonstrated, the L/C ratio of collimated versus uncollimated measurements was significantly (p less than 0.005) increased. In three of the latter six dogs, abscesses developed after 9 weeks, leading to a second increase (p less than 0.05) of the L/C ratio with collimation compared with the noninflammation group; without collimation no significant (p greater than 0.15) difference between the two groups could be demonstrated

  3. Effect of increasing tellurium content on the electronic and optical properties of cadmium selenide telluride alloys CdSe{sub 1-x}Te{sub x}: An ab initio study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reshak, Ali Hussain, E-mail: maalidph@yahoo.co.uk [Institute of Physical Biology-South Bohemia University, Nove Hrady 37333 (Czech Republic); School of Material Engineering, Malaysia University of Perlis, P.O Box 77, d/a Pejabat Pos Besar, 01007 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Kityk, I.V. [Electrical Engineering Department, Technical University of Czestochowa, Al. Armii Krajowej 17/19, Czestochowa (Poland); Khenata, R. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et de Modelisation Mathematique de la Matiere (LPQ3 M), universite de Mascara, Mascara 29000 (Algeria); Department of Physics and Astronomy, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Auluck, S. [National Physical Laboratory Dr. K S Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2011-06-16

    Highlights: > Theoretical study of effect of vary Te content on band structure, density of states, linear and nonlinear optical susceptibilities of CdSe{sub 1-x}Te{sub x}. > Increasing Te content leads to a decrease in the energy band gap. > Significant enhancement of the electronic properties as a function of tellurium concentration - Abstract: An all electron full potential linearized augmented plane wave method, within a framework of GGA (EV-GGA) approach, has been used for an ab initio theoretical study of the effect of increasing tellurium content on the band structure, density of states, and the spectral features of the linear and nonlinear optical susceptibilities of the cadmium-selenide-telluride ternary alloys CdSe{sub 1-x}Te{sub x} (x = 0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0). Our calculations show that increasing Te content leads to a decrease in the energy band gap. We find that the band gaps are 0.95 (1.76), 0.89 (1.65), 0.83 (1.56), 0.79 (1.44) and 0.76 (1.31) eV for x = 0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 in the cubic structure. As these alloys are known to have a wurtzite structure for x less than 0.25, the energy gaps are 0.8 (1.6) eV and 0.7 (1.55) eV for the wurtzite structure (x = 0.0, 0.25) for the GGA (EV-GGA) exchange correlation potentials. This reduction in the energy gaps enhances the functionality of the CdSe{sub 1-x}Te{sub x} alloys, at least for these concentrations, leading to an increase in the effective second-order susceptibility coefficients from 16.75 pm/V (CdSe) to 18.85 pm/V (CdSe{sub 0.75}Te{sub 0.25}), 27.23 pm/V (CdSe{sub 0.5}Te{sub 0.5}), 32.25 pm/V (CdSe{sub 0.25}Te{sub 0.75}), and 37.70 pm/V (CdTe) for the cubic structure and from 12.65 pm/V (CdSe) to 21.11 pm/V (CdSe{sub 0.75}Te{sub 0.25}) in the wurtzite structure. We find a nonlinear relationship between the absorption/emission energies and composition, and a significant enhancement of the electronic properties as a function of tellurium concentration. This variation will help in

  4. Doping properties of cadmium-rich arsenic-doped CdTe single crystals: Evidence of metastable AX behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, Akira; Kuciauskas, Darius; Scarpulla, Michael A.

    2017-12-01

    Cd-rich composition and group-V element doping are of interest for simultaneously maximizing the hole concentration and minority carrier lifetime in CdTe, but the critical details concerning point defects are not yet fully established. Herein, we report on the properties of arsenic doped CdTe single crystals grown from Cd solvent by the travelling heater method. The photoluminescence spectra and activation energy of 74 ± 2 meV derived from the temperature-dependent Hall effect are consistent with AsTe as the dominant acceptor. Doping in the 1016 to 1017/cm3 range is achieved for measured As concentrations between 1016 and 1020/cm3 with the highest doping efficiency of 40% occurring near 1017 As/cm3. We observe persistent photoconductivity, a hallmark of light-induced metastable configuration changes consistent with AX behavior. Additionally, quenching experiments reveal at least two mechanisms of increased p-type doping in the dark, one decaying over 2-3 weeks and the other persisting for at least 2 months. These results provide essential insights for the application of As-doped CdTe in thin film solar cells.

  5. An XPS study of bromine in methanol etching and hydrogen peroxide passivation treatments for cadmium zinc telluride radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babar, S.; Sellin, P.J.; Watts, J.F.; Baker, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► CdZnTe single crystal etched in bromine-in-methanol and passivated in H 2 O 2 . ► XPS depth used to accurately determine enriched Te layer and TeO 2 thickness. ► For 0.2 and 2.0 (v/v) % bromine-in-methanol treatments, enriched Te layer thickness determined to be 1.3 and 1.8 nm, respectively. ► After passivation in 30 wt.% H 2 O 2 , the oxide thickness varies between 1.0 and 1.25 nm depending on the calculation method. - Abstract: The performance of single crystal CdZnTe radiation detectors is dependent on both the bulk and the surface properties of the material. After single crystal fabrication and mechanical polishing, modification of the surface to remove damage and reduce the surface leakage current is generally achieved through chemical etching followed by a passivation treatment. In this work, CdZnTe single crystals have been chemically etched using a bromine in methanol (BM) treatment. The BM concentrations employed were 0.2 and 2.0 (v/v) % and exposure times varied between 5 and 120 s. Angle resolved XPS and sputter depth profiling has been employed to characterize the surfaces for the different exposure conditions. A Te rich surface layer was formed for all exposures and the layer thickness was found to be independent of exposure time. The enriched Te layer thickness was accurately determined by calibrating the sputter rate against a CdTe layer of known thickness. For BM concentrations of 0.2 (v/v) % and 2 (v/v) %, the Te layer thickness was determined to be 1.3 ± 0.2 and 1.8 ± 0.2 nm, respectively. The BM etched surfaces have subsequently been passivated in a 30 wt.% H 2 O 2 solution employing exposure time of 15 s. The oxide layer thickness has been calculated using two standard XPS methodologies, based on the Beer–Lambert expression. The TeO 2 thickness calculated from ARXPS data are slightly higher than the thickness obtained by the simplified Beer–Lambert expression. For BM exposures of 30–120 s followed by a passivation

  6. Preparation and characterization of pulsed laser deposited CdTe thin films at higher FTO substrate temperature and in Ar + O{sub 2} atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Chao; Ming, Zhenxun [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, Sichuan (China); Li, Bing, E-mail: libing70@126.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, Sichuan (China); Feng, Lianghuan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, Sichuan (China); Wu, Judy [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Kansas University, Lawrence 66045 (United States)

    2013-06-20

    Highlights: • CdTe films were deposited by PLD at high substrate temperatures (400 °C, 550 °C). • CdTe films were achieved under the atmosphere (1.2 Torr) of Ar mixed with O{sub 2}. • Deposited CdTe films were cubic phase and had strong (1 0 0) preferred orientation. • Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed an average grain size of 0.3–0.6 μm. • The ultra-thin film (CdS/PLD-CdTe) solar cell with efficiency of 6.68% was made. -- Abstract: Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is one of the promising techniques for depositing cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films. It has been reported that PLD CdTe thin films were almost deposited at the lower substrate temperatures (<300 °C) under vacuum conditions. However, the poor crystallinity of CdTe films prepared in this way renders them not conducive to the preparation of high-efficiency CdTe solar cells. To obtain high-efficiency solar cell devices, better crystallinity and more suitable grain size are needed, which requires the CdTe layer to be deposited by PLD at high substrate temperatures (>400 °C). In this paper, CdTe layers were deposited by PLD (KrF, λ = 248 nm, 10 Hz) at different higher substrate temperatures (T{sub s}). Excellent performance of CdTe films was achieved at higher substrate temperatures (400 °C, 550 °C) under an atmosphere of Ar mixed with O{sub 2} (1.2 Torr). X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of CdTe cubic phase with a strong (1 0 0) preferential orientation at all substrates temperatures on 60 mJ laser energy. The optical properties of CdTe were investigated, and the band gaps of CdTe films were 1.51 eV and 1.49 eV at substrate temperatures of 400 °C and 550 °C, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed an average grain size of 0.3–0.6 μm. Thus, under these conditions of the atmosphere of Ar + O{sub 2} (15 Torr) and at the relatively high T{sub s} (500 °C), an thin-film (FTO/PLD-CdS (100 nm)/PLD-CdTe (∼1.5 μm)/HgTe: Cu/Ag) solar cell with an

  7. p-type doping efficiency in CdTe: Influence of second phase formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Jedidiah J.; Swain, Santosh K.; Sieber, John R.; Diercks, David R.; Gorman, Brian P.; Lynn, Kelvin G.

    2018-04-01

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) high purity, bulk, crystal ingots doped with phosphorus were grown by the vertical Bridgman melt growth technique to understand and improve dopant solubility and activation. Large net carrier densities have been reproducibly obtained from as-grown ingots, indicating successful incorporation of dopants into the lattice. However, net carrier density values are orders of magnitude lower than the solubility of P in CdTe as reported in literature, 1018/cm3 to 1019/cm3 [J. H. Greenberg, J. Cryst. Growth 161, 1-11 (1996) and R. B. Hall and H. H. Woodbury, J. Appl. Phys. 39(12), 5361-5365 (1968)], despite comparable starting charge dopant densities. Growth conditions, such as melt stoichiometry and post growth cooling, are shown to have significant impacts on dopant solubility. This study demonstrates that a significant portion of the dopant becomes incorporated into second phase defects as compounds of cadmium and phosphorous, such as cadmium phosphide, which inhibits dopant incorporation into the lattice and limits maximum attainable net carrier density in bulk crystals. Here, we present an extensive study on the characteristics of these second phase defects in relation to their composition and formation kinetics while providing a pathway to minimize their formation and enhance solubility.

  8. High Flux Energy-Resolved Photon-Counting X-Ray Imaging Arrays with CdTe and CdZnTe for Clinical CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, William C.; Hartsough, Neal E.; Gandhi, Thulasidharan; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Wessel, Jan C.; Nygard, Einar; Malakhov, Nail; Wawrzyniak, Gregor; Dorholt, Ole; Danielsen, Roar

    2013-06-01

    We have fabricated fast room-temperature energy dispersive photon counting x-ray imaging arrays using pixellated cadmium zinc (CdTe) and cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe) semiconductors. We have also fabricated fast application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) with a two dimensional (2D) array of inputs for readout from the CdZnTe sensors. The new CdTe and CdZnTe sensors have a 2D array of pixels with a 0.5 mm pitch and can be tiled in 2D. The new 2D ASICs have four energy discriminators per pixel with a linear energy response across the entire dynamic range for clinical CT. The ASICs can also be tiled in 2D and are designed to fit within the active area of the 2D sensors. We have measured several important performance parameters including; an output count rate (OCR) in excess of 20 million counts per second per square mm, an energy resolution of 7 keV full width at half maximum (FWHM) across the entire dynamic range, and a noise floor less than 20 keV. This is achieved by directly interconnecting the ASIC inputs to the pixels of the CdTE and CdZnTe sensors incurring very little additional capacitance. We present a comparison of the performance of the CdTe and CdZnTe sensors including the OCR, FWHM energy resolution, and noise floor. (authors)

  9. The improvement of near-term CdTe processing and product capabilities and establishment of next-generation CdTe technology. Annual technical progress report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kester, J.; Albright, S. [Golden Photon, Inc., CO (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The potential of photovoltaics to become a major global business enterprise still lingers outside the limits of industrial capabilities. For the Cadmium Sulfide/Cadmium Telluride (CdS/CdTe) system this potential has continued to focus on improvements in efficiency, stability, and cost reduction. This triad is the primary objective of the present subcontract with NREL entitled {open_quotes}The Improvement of Near-term CdTe Processing and Product Capabilities & Establishment of Next Generation CdTe Technology{close_quotes}. This subcontract represents an intermediate stage of NREL`s plan to assist the growth of the photovoltaic industry in overcoming the scientific and technical barriers to commercialization. This report outlines the progress that has been made during the period of August 1995 through August 1996. The objectives of this subcontract are to improve processing methods, quantify and understand efficiency improvement mechanisms, meet life-testing goals, and address cadmium safety concerns. Task and subtask goals are defined to meet these objectives in specific areas. The approach to fulfilling the subcontract goals is through a balanced plan of process improvement and mechanism identification. These are carried out and continued through monitoring under various long term and accelerated stress conditions. GPI maintains an on-going awareness of all safety related issues, can in particular, those involving cadmium.

  10. Health, safety and environmental risks from the operation of CdTe and CIS thin-film modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberger, Hartmut

    1998-01-01

    This paper identifies the materials embedded in on a type of CIS (Copper indium diselenide) and four different types of CdTe (cadmium telluride) thin-film modules. It refers to the results of our outdoor leaching experiments on photovoltaic (PV) samples broken into small fragments. Estimations for modules accidents on the roof or in the garden of a residential house, e.g. leaching of hazardous materials into water or soil, are given. The outcomes of our estimations show some module materials released into water or oil during leaching accidents. In a worst-case scenario for CdTe modules the leached cadmium concentration in the collected water is estimated to be no higher than the German drinking water limit concentration. For the CIS module scenario the estimated leached element concentrations are about one to two orders of magnitude below the German drinking water limit concentration. For broken CIS and CdTe modules on the ground no critical increase of the natural element concentration is observed after leaching into the soil for 1 year. (Author)

  11. Development of a two-dimensional ASIC for hard X-ray spectroscopy and imaging with a CdTe pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiruta, Tatsuro; Tamura, K.; Ikeda, H.; Nakazawa, K.; Takasima, T.; Takahashi, T.

    2006-01-01

    We are developing a two-dimensional analog ASIC for the readout of pixel sensors based on silicon (Si) or cadmium telluride (CdTe) for spectroscopic imaging observations in the X-ray and gamma-ray regions. The aim for the ASIC is to obtain a low-noise performance better than 100 electrons (rms) with self-triggering capabilities. As the first step of prototyping, we have fabricated several ASICs. We obtained an energy resolution of 5.4 keV (FWHM) for 81 keV gamma-rays from 133 Ba with a one-dimensional ASIC connected to a CdTe diode and also verified a readout architecture via a two-dimensional ASIC with 144 pixel channels. Based on the results obtained and experience gained through prototype ASICs, we are developing a 4096-channel two-dimensional analog ASIC

  12. Synthesis and characterization of CdTe nanostructures grown by RF magnetron sputtering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarnejad, Elaheh; Ghoranneviss, Mahmood; Hantehzadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we synthesize Cadmium Telluride nanostructures by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering system on soda lime glass at various thicknesses. The effect of CdTe nanostructures thickness on crystalline, optical and morphological properties has been studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometry, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. The XRD parameters of CdTe nanostructures such as microstrain, dislocation density, and crystal size have been examined. From XRD analysis, it could be assumed that increasing deposition time caused the formation of the wurtzite hexagonal structure of the sputtered films. Optical properties of the grown nanostructures as a function of film thickness have been observed. All the films indicate more than 60% transmission over a wide range of wavelengths. The optical band gap values of the films have obtained in the range of 1.62-1.45 eV. The results indicate that an RF sputtering method succeeded in depositing of CdTe nanostructures with high purity and controllable physical properties, which is appropriate for photovoltaic and nuclear detector applications.

  13. Segmented-spectrum detection mechanism for medical x-ray in CdTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zaifeng; Meng, Qingzhen; Cao, Qingjie; Yao, Suying

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a segmented X-ray spectrum detection method based on a layered X-ray detector in Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) substrate. We describe the three-dimensional structure of proposed detector pixel and investigate the matched spectrum-resolving method. Polychromatic X-ray beam enter the CdTe substrate edge on and will be absorbed completely in different thickness varying with photon energy. Discrete potential wells are formed under external controlling voltage to collect the photo-electrons generated in different layers, and segmented X-ray spectrum can be deduced from the quantity of photo-electrons. In this work, we verify the feasibility of the segmented-spectrum detection mechanism by simulating the absorption of monochromatic X-ray in a CdTe substrate. Experiments in simulation show that the number of photo-electrons grow exponentially with the increase of incident thickness, and photons with different energy will be absorbed in various thickness. The charges generated in different layers are collected into adjacent potential wells, and collection efficiency is estimated to be about 87% for different incident intensity under the 40000V/cm electric field. Errors caused by charge sharing between neighboring layers are also analyzed, and it can be considered negligible by setting appropriate size of electrodes.

  14. Comparison of structural properties of thermally evaporated CdTe thin films on different substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, G.H.; Anis-ur-Rehman, M.

    2011-01-01

    The direct energy band gap in the range of 1.5 eV and the high absorption coefficient (105 cm/sup -1/) makes Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) a suitable material for fabrication of thin film solar cells. Thin film solar cells based on CdTe (1 cm area) achieved efficiency of 15.6% on a laboratory scale. CdTe thin films were deposited by thermal evaporation technique under vacuum 2 X 10/sup -5/mbar on glass and stainless steel (SS) substrates. During deposition substrates temperature was kept same at 200 deg. C for all samples. The structural properties were determined by the X-ray Diffraction (XRD) patterns. All samples exhibit polycrystalline nature. Dependence of different structural parameters such as lattice parameter, micro strain, and grain size and dislocation density on thickness was studied. Also the influence of the different substrates on these parameters was investigated. The analysis showed that the preferential orientation of films was dependent on the substrate type. (author)

  15. Photosensitive space charge limited current in screen printed CdTe thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, C. U.; Pataniya, Pratik; Zankat, Chetan K.; Patel, Alkesh B.; Pathak, V. M.; Patel, K. D.; Solanki, G. K.

    2018-05-01

    Group II-VI Compounds have emerged out as most suitable in the class of photo sensitive material. They represent a strong position in terms of their applications in the field of detectors as well as photo voltaic devices. Cadmium telluride is the prime member of this Group, because of high acceptance of this material as active component in opto-electronic devices. In this paper we report preparation and characterization of CdTe thin films by using a most economical screen printing technique in association with sintering at 510°C temperature. Surface morphology and smoothness are prime parameters of any deposited to be used as an active region of devices. Thus, we studied of the screen printed thin film by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for this purpose. However, growth processes induced intrinsic defects in fabricated films work as charge traps and affect the conduction process significantly. So the conduction mechanism of deposited CdTe thin film is studied under dark as well as illuminated conditions. It is found that the deposited films showed the space charge limited conduction (SCLC) mechanism and hence various parameters of space charge limited conduction (SCLC) of CdTe film were evaluated and discussed and the photo responsive resistance is also presented in this paper.

  16. Defect characterization of CdTe thin films using a slow positron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neretina, S.; Grebennikov, D.; Mascher, P.; Hughes, R.A.; Weber, M.; Lynn, K.G.; Simpson, P.J.; Preston, J.S.

    2007-01-01

    Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) is the most well established II-VI compound largely due to its use as a photonic material. Existing applications, as well as those under consideration, are demanding increasingly stringent control of the material properties. The deposition of high quality thin films is of the utmost importance to such applications. In this regard, we present a report detailing the role of lattice mismatch in determining the film quality. Thin films were deposited on a wide variety of substrate materials using the pulsed laser deposition technique. Common to all substrates was the strong tendency towards the preferential alignment of CdTe's (111) planes parallel to the substrate's surface. X-ray diffraction analysis, however, revealed that the crystalline quality varied dramatically depending upon the substrate used with the best results yielding a single crystal film. This tendency also manifested itself in the surface morphology with higher structural perfection yielding smoother surfaces. Slow positron beam techniques revealed a strong correlation between the defect concentration and the degree of structural perfection. Simulations of the data using the POSTRAP 5 program were used to calculate the defect concentration in relative (atom -1 ) and absolute units and to determine the diffusion lengths of the positrons in the film. All of these characterization techniques point towards lattice mismatch as being the dominant mechanism in determining the quality of CdTe films. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Fast polycrystalline CdTe detectors for bunch-by-bunch luminosity monitoring in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Brambilla, A; Jolliot, M; Bravin, E

    2008-01-01

    The luminosity at the four interaction points of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) must be continuously monitored in order to provide an adequate tool for the control and optimisation of beam parameters. Polycrystalline cadmium telluride (CdTe) detectors have previously been tested, showing their high potential to fulfil the requirements of luminosity measurement in the severe environment of the LHC interaction regions. Further, the large signal yield and the fast response time should allow bunch-by-bunch measurement of the luminosity at 40 MHz with high accuracy. Four luminosity monitors with two rows of five polycrystalline CdTe detectors each have been fabricated and will be installed at both sides of the low-luminosity interaction points ALICE and LHC-b. A detector housing was specially designed to meet the mechanical constraints in the LHC. A series of elementary CdTe detectors were fabricated and tested, of which 40 were selected for the luminosity monitors. A sensitivity of 104 electrons per minimum ioni...

  18. The large-area CdTe thin film for CdS/CdTe solar cell prepared by physical vapor deposition in medium pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Run; Liu, Bo; Yang, Xiaoyan; Bao, Zheng; Li, Bing, E-mail: libing70@126.com; Zhang, Jingquan; Li, Wei; Wu, Lili; Feng, Lianghuan

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The large-area CdTe film has been prepared by PVD under the pressure of 0.9 kPa. • The as-prepared CdTe thin film processes excellent photovoltaic properties. • This technique is suitable for depositing large-area CdTe thin film. • The 14.6% champion efficiency CdS/CdTe cell has been achieved. - Abstract: The Cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin film has been prepared by physical vapor deposition (PVD), the Ar + O{sub 2} pressure is about 0.9 kPa. This method is a newer technique to deposit CdTe thin film in large area, and the size of the film is 30 × 40 cm{sup 2}. This method is much different from the close-spaced sublimation (CSS), as the relevance between the source temperature and the substrate temperature is weak, and the gas phase of CdTe is transferred to the substrate by Ar + O{sub 2} flow. Through this method, the compact and uniform CdTe film (30 × 40 cm{sup 2}) has been achieved, and the performances of the CdTe thin film have been determined by transmission spectrum, SEM and XRD. The film is observed to be compact with a good crystallinity, the CdTe is polycrystalline with a cubic structure and a strongly preferred (1 1 1) orientation. Using the CdTe thin film (3 × 5 cm{sup 2}) which is taken from the deposited large-area film, the 14.6% efficiency CdS/CdTe thin film solar cell has been prepared successfully. The structure of the cell is glass/FTO/CdS/CdTe/graphite slurry/Au, short circuit current density (J{sub sc}) of the cell is 26.9 mA/cm{sup 2}, open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) is 823 mV, and filling factor (FF) is 66.05%. This technique can be a quite promising method to apply in the industrial production, as it has great prospects in the fabricating of large-area CdTe film.

  19. Study of CdTe and HgCdTe thin films obtained by electrochemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillen, C.

    1990-01-01

    Cadmium telluride polycrystalline thin films were fabricated on SnO 2 -coated glass substrates by potentiostatic electrodeposition and characterized by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray analyses (EDAX), optical and electrical measurements. The films dseposited at potentials more positive than -0.65 V vs.SCE were p-type but those deposited at more negative potentials were n-type. All CdTe thin films showed a band-gap energy about 1.45 eV and a large absorption coeffici-ent (a=10 5 cm -1 ) above de band edge. The addition of even small amounts of mercury to the CdTe produces higuer conductivity values and lower band-gap energies. We have prepared HgCdTe thin films where the band-gap energies ranged between 0.93 and 0.88 eV depending on the ratio of mercury to cadmium. Heat treatment at 300 0 C increases the crystalline diameter and alter the composition of the electrodeposited films, a decrease of the resistivity values was also observed. (Author)

  20. Study and development of new CdTe and CdZnTe detection structures for X and γ imagery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosaz, M.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study is to show the interest of applying cadmium telluride (CdTe) for X- and γ- ray imaging applications, with specific technological (via contact nature) and geometric (via Frisch grids) structures suited for each application. This work is divided into three different but complementary parts: the first part describes a simulation model which allows a better understanding of CdTe based γ- ray detectors. The new feature of this model compared to previous ones, is that it is able to take into account the electric field's non uniform spatial distribution inside the detector s. The results enable us to de-convolute the influence of material and contact parameters on the spectrometric performances (energy resolution and peak/valley ratio) of CdTe based detectors; the second part presents different technological structures deposited upon CdTe, (grown by two different methods, i.e Bridgman and High Pressure Bridgman). These structures were characterised in X- and γ- ray detection; theoretical models are developed which allow a certain insight into the detection properties of each couple (material + contact); the third part deals with new contact geometries which allow a screening effect of the bulk (analogous to the Frisch grid effect in gaseous detectors) resulting in improved energy resolution and peak/valley ratios; encouraging first results on prototypes are presented and discussed. This work has allowed a better understanding of physical behaviour of CdTe based detectors, coupled with advances in technological issues to upgrade the overall performances of these detectors for application in X- and γ- ray imaging. (author)

  1. Polycrystalline Thin-Film Cadmium Telluride Solar Cells Fabricated by Electrodeposition; Final Technical Report, 20 March 1995-15 June 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trefny, J. U.; Mao, D.; Kaydanov, V.; Ohno, T. R.; Williamson, D. L.; Collins, R.; Furtak, T. E.

    1999-01-27

    This report summarizes work performed by the Colorado School of Mines Department of Physics under this subcontract. Based on the studies conducted, researchers increased the efficiency of the cells with electrodeposited CdTe and CBD CdS by 3% on average ({approx}30 relative %). The improvement came from 1. Optimization of CdS initial thickness taking into account CdS consumption of CdTe during the CdTe/CdS post-deposition treatment; optimization of CdS post-deposition treatment with CdCl2 aimed at prevention of Te diffusion into CdS and improvement of the CdS film morphology and electronic properties. That led to a considerable increase in short circuit current, by 13% on average. 2. Optimization of CdTe thickness and post-deposition treatment which led to a significant increase in Voc, by {approx}70 mV. The highest Voc obtained exceeded 800 mV. 3. Development of a ZnTe:Cu/Metal back contact processing procedure that included selection of optimal Cu content, deposition regime and post-deposition treatment conditions. As a result, back contact resistance as low as 0.1W-cm2 was obtained. The cell stability was measured on exposure to accelerated stress conditions. Preliminary studies of some new approaches to improvement of CdS/CdTe structure were conducted.

  2. CdZnTe and CdTe materials for X-ray and gamma ray radiation detector applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szeles, Csaba

    2004-01-01

    Good detection efficiency and high energy-resolution make Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CdZnTe) and Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) detectors attractive in many room temperature X-ray and gamma-ray detection applications such as medical and industrial imaging, industrial gauging and non-destructive testing, security and monitoring, nuclear safeguards and non-proliferation, and astrophysics. Advancement of the crystal growth and device fabrication technologies and the reduction of bulk, interface and surface defects in the devices are crucial for the widespread practical deployment of Cd 1-x Zn x Te-based detector technology. Here we review the effects of bulk, interface and surface defects on charge transport, charge transport uniformity and device performance and the progress in the crystal growth and device fabrication technologies aiming at reducing the concentration of harmful defects and improving Cd 1-x Zn x Te detector performance. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Optical and structural characterization of oleic acid-stabilized CdTe nanocrystals for solution thin film processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Davet Gutiérrez-Lazos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This work presents results of the optical and structural characterization of oleic acid-stabilized cadmium telluride nanocrystals (CdTe-NC synthesized by an organometallic route. After being cleaned, the CdTe-NC were dispersed in toluene to obtain an ink-like dispersion, which was drop-cast on glass substrate to deposit a thin film. The CdTe-NC colloidal dispersion as well as the CdTe drop-cast thin films were characterized with regard to the optical and structural properties. TEM analysis indicates that the CdTe-NC have a nearly spherical shape (3.5 nm as mean size. Electron diffraction and XRD diffraction analyses indicated the bulk-CdTe face-centered cubic structure for CdTe-NC. An additional diffraction line corresponding to the octahedral Cd3P2 was also detected as a secondary phase, which probably originates by reacting free cadmium ions with trioctylphosphine (the tellurium reducing agent. The Raman spectrum exhibits two broad bands centered at 141.6 and 162.3 cm−1, which could be associated to the TO and LO modes of cubic CdTe nanocrystals, respectively. Additional peaks located in the 222 to 324 cm−1 range, agree fairly well with the wavenumbers reported for TO modes of octahedral Cd3P2.

  4. Cadmium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbelt, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Together with zinc and mercury, cadmium belongs to group IIb of the periodic table. It can be found in rocks, soil, water, coal, zinc ore, lead ore, and copper ore. In the environment, cadmium is present predominantly as the oxide or as the chloride, sulfide, or sulfate salt. It has no recognizable

  5. CdTe Based Hard X-ray Imager Technology For Space Borne Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limousin, Olivier; Delagnes, E.; Laurent, P.; Lugiez, F.; Gevin, O.; Meuris, A.

    2009-01-01

    CEA Saclay has recently developed an innovative technology for CdTe based Pixelated Hard X-Ray Imagers with high spectral performance and high timing resolution for efficient background rejection when the camera is coupled to an active veto shield. This development has been done in a R&D program supported by CNES (French National Space Agency) and has been optimized towards the Simbol-X mission requirements. In the latter telescope, the hard X-Ray imager is 64 cm² and is equipped with 625µm pitch pixels (16384 independent channels) operating at -40°C in the range of 4 to 80 keV. The camera we demonstrate in this paper consists of a mosaic of 64 independent cameras, divided in 8 independent sectors. Each elementary detection unit, called Caliste, is the hybridization of a 256-pixel Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) detector with full custom front-end electronics into a unique 1 cm² component, juxtaposable on its four sides. Recently, promising results have been obtained from the first micro-camera prototypes called Caliste 64 and will be presented to illustrate the capabilities of the device as well as the expected performance of an instrument based on it. The modular design of Caliste enables to consider extended developments toward IXO type mission, according to its specific scientific requirements.

  6. Embedded vertically aligned cadmium telluride nanorod arrays grown by one-step electrodeposition for enhanced energy conversion efficiency in three-dimensional nanostructured solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Liu, Shurong; Mu, Yannan; Liu, Li; A, Runa; Yang, Jiandong; Zhu, Guijie; Meng, Xianwei; Fu, Wuyou; Yang, Haibin

    2017-11-01

    Vertically aligned CdTe nanorods (NRs) arrays are successfully grown by a simple one-step and template-free electrodeposition method, and then embedded in the CdS window layer to form a novel three-dimensional (3D) heterostructure on flexible substrates. The parameters of electrodeposition such as deposition potential and pH of the solution are varied to analyze their important role in the formation of high quality CdTe NRs arrays. The photovoltaic conversion efficiency of the solar cell based on the 3D heterojunction structure is studied in detail. In comparison with the standard planar heterojunction solar cell, the 3D heterojunction solar cell exhibits better photovoltaic performance, which can be attributed to its enhanced optical absorption ability, increased heterojunction area and improved charge carrier transport. The better photoelectric property of the 3D heterojunction solar cell suggests great application potential in thin film solar cells, and the simple electrodeposition process represents a promising technique for large-scale fabrication of other nanostructured solar energy conversion devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. MPA-capped CdTe quantum dots exposure causes neurotoxic effects in nematode Caenorhabditis elegans by affecting the transporters and receptors of glutamate, serotonin and dopamine at the genetic level, or by increasing ROS, or both

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tianshu; He, Keyu; Zhan, Qinglin; Ang, Shengjun; Ying, Jiali; Zhang, Shihan; Zhang, Ting; Xue, Yuying; Tang, Meng

    2015-12-01

    As quantum dots (QDs) are widely used in biomedical applications, the number of studies focusing on their biological properties is increasing. While several studies have attempted to evaluate the toxicity of QDs towards neural cells, the in vivo toxic effects on the nervous system and the molecular mechanisms are unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neurotoxic effects and the underlying mechanisms of water-soluble cadmium telluride (CdTe) QDs capped with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Our results showed that exposure to MPA-capped CdTe QDs induced behavioral defects, including alterations to body bending, head thrashing, pharyngeal pumping and defecation intervals, as well as impaired learning and memory behavior plasticity, based on chemotaxis or thermotaxis, in a dose-, time- and size-dependent manner. Further investigations suggested that MPA-capped CdTe QDs exposure inhibited the transporters and receptors of glutamate, serotonin and dopamine in C. elegans at the genetic level within 24 h, while opposite results were observed after 72 h. Additionally, excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was observed in the CdTe QD-treated worms, which confirmed the common nanotoxicity mechanism of oxidative stress damage, and might overcome the increased gene expression of neurotransmitter transporters and receptors in C. elegans induced by long-term QD exposure, resulting in more severe behavioral impairments.

  8. Comparison of conventional and cadmium-zinc-telluride single-photon emission computed tomography for analysis of thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging: an exploratory study in normal databases for different ethnicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Masaru; Onoguchi, Masahisa; Taniguchi, Yasuyo; Shibutani, Takayuki

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the differences in thallium-201-chloride (thallium-201) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) scans evaluated by conventional anger-type single-photon emission computed tomography (conventional SPECT) versus cadmium-zinc-telluride SPECT (CZT SPECT) imaging in normal databases for different ethnic groups. MPI scans from 81 consecutive Japanese patients were examined using conventional SPECT and CZT SPECT and analyzed with the pre-installed quantitative perfusion SPECT (QPS) software. We compared the summed stress score (SSS), summed rest score (SRS), and summed difference score (SDS) for the two SPECT devices. For a normal MPI reference, we usually use Japanese databases for MPI created by the Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine, which can be used with conventional SPECT but not with CZT SPECT. In this study, we used new Japanese normal databases constructed in our institution to compare conventional and CZT SPECT. Compared with conventional SPECT, CZT SPECT showed lower SSS (p < 0.001), SRS (p = 0.001), and SDS (p = 0.189) using the pre-installed SPECT database. In contrast, CZT SPECT showed no significant difference from conventional SPECT in QPS analysis using the normal databases from our institution. Myocardial perfusion analyses by CZT SPECT should be evaluated using normal databases based on the ethnic group being evaluated.

  9. Synthesis of surface molecular imprinting polymer on SiO{sub 2}-coated CdTe quantum dots as sensor for selective detection of sulfadimidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Zhiping; Ying, Haiqin; Liu, Yanyan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Xu, Wanzhen, E-mail: xwz09@ujs.edu.cn [School of the Environment and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Yang, Yanfei; Luan, Yu [Zhenjiang Institute for Drug Control of Jiangsu Province, Zhenjiang 212003 (China); Lu, Yi; Liu, Tianshu [Zhenjiang Entry-Exit Inspection Quarantine Bureau, Zhenjiang 212008 (China); Yu, Shui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Yang, Wenming, E-mail: ywm@ujs.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Surface molecular imprinting technology and SiO{sub 2}-coated CdTe QDs were combined to prepare a novel fluorescent sensor for selective detection of sulfadimidine. • The relative fluorescent intensity weakened in a linear way with the increasing concentration of sulfadimidine in the range of 10–60 μmol L{sup −1}. • The practical application of the fluorescent MIP sensor was evaluated by means of analyzing sulfadimidine in the real milk samples. The recoveries were at the range of 90.3–99.6% and the relative standard deviation ranged from 1.9 to 3.1%. - Abstract: This paper demonstrates a facile method to synthesize surface molecular imprinting polymer (MIP) on SiO{sub 2}-coated CdTe QDs for selective detection of sulfadimidine (SM{sub 2}). The fluorescent MIP sensor was prepared using cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs) as the material of fluorescent signal readout, sulfadimidine as template molecule, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) as functional monomer and tetraethyloxysilane (TEOS) as cross-linking agent. The CdTe cores were embed in the silicon shells by a sol-gel reaction and then the molecular imprinting layers were immobilized on the surface of the SiO{sub 2}-coated CdTe QDs. Under the optimized conditions, the relative fluorescent intensity weakened in a linear way with the increasing concentration of sulfadimidine in the range of 10–60 μmol L{sup −1}. The practical application of the fluorescent MIP sensor was evaluated by means of analyzing sulfadimidine in the real milk samples. The recoveries were at the range of 90.3–99.6% and the relative standard deviation (RSD) ranged from 1.9 to 3.1%, which indicates the successful synthesis of the fluorescent MIP sensor. This sensor provides an alternative solution for selective determination of sulfadimidine from real milk samples.

  10. A facile route to shape controlled CdTe nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mntungwa, Nhlakanipho; Rajasekhar, Pullabhotla V.S.R. [Department of Chemistry, University of Zululand, Private Bag X1001, KwaDlangezwa 3886, Empangeni, KZN (South Africa); Revaprasadu, Neerish, E-mail: nrevapra@pan.uzulu.ac.za [Department of Chemistry, University of Zululand, Private Bag X1001, KwaDlangezwa 3886, Empangeni, KZN (South Africa)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: {yields} A facile hybrid solution based/thermolysis route has been used for the synthesis of hexadecylamine capped CdTe nanoparticles. {yields} This method involves the reaction by the addition of an aqueous suspension of a cadmium salt to a freshly prepared NaHTe solution. {yields} The cadmium salt plays an important role in the growth mechanism of the particles and hence its final morphology. - Abstract: Hexadecylamine (HDA) capped CdTe nanoparticles have been synthesized using a facile hybrid solution based/thermolysis route. This method involves the reaction by the addition of an aqueous suspension or solution of a cadmium salt (chloride, acetate, nitrate or carbonate) to a freshly prepared NaHTe solution. The isolated CdTe was then dispersed in tri-octylphosphine (TOP) and injected into pre-heated HDA at temperatures of 190, 230 and 270 deg. C for 2 h. The particle growth and size distribution of the CdTe particles synthesized using cadmium chloride as the cadmium source were monitored using absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The final morphology of the CdTe nanoparticles synthesized from the various cadmium sources was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution TEM. The cadmium source has an influence on the final morphology of the particles.

  11. A facile route to shape controlled CdTe nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mntungwa, Nhlakanipho; Rajasekhar, Pullabhotla V.S.R.; Revaprasadu, Neerish

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → A facile hybrid solution based/thermolysis route has been used for the synthesis of hexadecylamine capped CdTe nanoparticles. → This method involves the reaction by the addition of an aqueous suspension of a cadmium salt to a freshly prepared NaHTe solution. → The cadmium salt plays an important role in the growth mechanism of the particles and hence its final morphology. - Abstract: Hexadecylamine (HDA) capped CdTe nanoparticles have been synthesized using a facile hybrid solution based/thermolysis route. This method involves the reaction by the addition of an aqueous suspension or solution of a cadmium salt (chloride, acetate, nitrate or carbonate) to a freshly prepared NaHTe solution. The isolated CdTe was then dispersed in tri-octylphosphine (TOP) and injected into pre-heated HDA at temperatures of 190, 230 and 270 deg. C for 2 h. The particle growth and size distribution of the CdTe particles synthesized using cadmium chloride as the cadmium source were monitored using absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The final morphology of the CdTe nanoparticles synthesized from the various cadmium sources was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution TEM. The cadmium source has an influence on the final morphology of the particles.

  12. Studies of crystalline CdZnTe radiation detectors and polycrystalline thin film CdTe for X-ray imaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ede, Anthony

    2001-01-01

    The development of a replacement to the conventional film based X-ray imaging technique is required for many reasons. One possible route for this is the use of a large area film of a suitable semiconductor overlaid on an amorphous silicon readout array. A suitable semiconductor exists in cadmium telluride and its tertiary alloy cadmium zinc telluride. In this thesis the spectroscopic characteristics of commercially available CZT X- and γ-radiation detectors are established. The electronic, optical, electro-optic, structural and compositional properties of these detectors are then investigated. The attained data is used to infer a greater understanding for the carrier transport in a CZT radiation detector following the interaction of a high energy photon. Following this a method used to fabricate large area films of CdTe on a commercial scale is described. This is cathodic electrodeposition from an aqueous electrolyte. The theory and experimental arrangement for this technique are described in detail with preliminary results from the fabricated films presented. Attention is then turned to the CdS/CdTe films that are produced commercially for the photovoltaic industry. In this case the crystalline nature, surface topography and optical properties are investigated. A conclusion examines the progress that has been made towards the development of a large area fiat panel digital imaging technique. (author)

  13. Study and development of new CdTe and CdZnTe detection structures for X and {gamma} imagery; Etude et realisation de nouvelles structures de detection a base de CdTe et CdZnTe pour l`imagerie X et {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosaz, M

    1997-10-24

    The aim of this study is to show the interest of applying cadmium telluride (CdTe) for X- and {gamma}- ray imaging applications, with specific technological (via contact nature) and geometric (via Frisch grids) structures suited for each application. This work is divided into three different but complementary parts: the first part describes a simulation model which allows a better understanding of CdTe based {gamma}- ray detectors. The new feature of this model compared to previous ones, is that it is able to take into account the electric field`s non uniform spatial distribution inside the detector s. The results enable us to de-convolute the influence of material and contact parameters on the spectrometric performances (energy resolution and peak/valley ratio) of CdTe based detectors; the second part presents different technological structures deposited upon CdTe, (grown by two different methods, i.e Bridgman and High Pressure Bridgman). These structures were characterised in X- and {gamma}- ray detection; theoretical models are developed which allow a certain insight into the detection properties of each couple (material + contact); the third part deals with new contact geometries which allow a screening effect of the bulk (analogous to the Frisch grid effect in gaseous detectors) resulting in improved energy resolution and peak/valley ratios; encouraging first results on prototypes are presented and discussed. This work has allowed a better understanding of physical behaviour of CdTe based detectors, coupled with advances in technological issues to upgrade the overall performances of these detectors for application in X- and {gamma}- ray imaging. (author) 93 refs.

  14. Microwave studies on the dielectric properties of Sm3+ and Sm3+/CdTe doped sol-gel silica glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathew, Siby; Rejikumar, P.R.; Yohannan, Jaimon; Mathew, K.T.; Unnikrishnan, N.V.

    2008-01-01

    Complex permittivity and conductivity studies of Samarium and Samarium/semiconductor cadmium telluride sol-gel silica glass samples were done. We use cavity perturbation technique at S band frequencies using TE 10p Mode. Structural evolution of the matrix on annealing is discussed based on FTIR analysis/XRD power diffraction. In cavity perturbation technique dielectric parameters like complex permittivity and conductivity are determined by measuring changes in resonant frequency due to small perturbation inside the cavity produced by the introduction of the samples. The addition of the semiconductor along with the samarium was found to lower the permittivity, loss factor and conductivity. Variations of permittivity values with annealing temperature find applications in IC Technology, optic fibre communication, etc. The Sm 3+ /CdTe doped glasses can also be used in the fabrication of new and improved materials for microwave electronic circuits and in electromagnetic shielding devices

  15. A low-cost non-toxic post-growth activation step for CdTe solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, J. D.; Treharne, R. E.; Phillips, L. J.; Durose, K.

    2014-07-01

    Cadmium telluride, CdTe, is now firmly established as the basis for the market-leading thin-film solar-cell technology. With laboratory efficiencies approaching 20 per cent, the research and development targets for CdTe are to reduce the cost of power generation further to less than half a US dollar per watt (ref. 2) and to minimize the environmental impact. A central part of the manufacturing process involves doping the polycrystalline thin-film CdTe with CdCl2. This acts to form the photovoltaic junction at the CdTe/CdS interface and to passivate the grain boundaries, making it essential in achieving high device efficiencies. However, although such doping has been almost ubiquitous since the development of this processing route over 25 years ago, CdCl2 has two severe disadvantages; it is both expensive (about 30 cents per gram) and a water-soluble source of toxic cadmium ions, presenting a risk to both operators and the environment during manufacture. Here we demonstrate that solar cells prepared using MgCl2, which is non-toxic and costs less than a cent per gram, have efficiencies (around 13%) identical to those of a CdCl2-processed control group. They have similar hole densities in the active layer (9 × 1014 cm-3) and comparable impurity profiles for Cl and O, these elements being important p-type dopants for CdTe thin films. Contrary to expectation, CdCl2-processed and MgCl2-processed solar cells contain similar concentrations of Mg; this is because of Mg out-diffusion from the soda-lime glass substrates and is not disadvantageous to device performance. However, treatment with other low-cost chlorides such as NaCl, KCl and MnCl2 leads to the introduction of electrically active impurities that do compromise device performance. Our results demonstrate that CdCl2 may simply be replaced directly with MgCl2 in the existing fabrication process, thus both minimizing the environmental risk and reducing the cost of CdTe solar-cell production.

  16. Preparation of strongly fluorescent silica nanoparticles of polyelectrolyte-protected cadmium telluride quantum dots and their application to cell toxicity and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Jianhua; Xie Lian; Zhang Bin; Qiu Ting; Qi Bin; Xie Hongping

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The staining effect of the control group (a), QDs-SiO 2 (b) and QDs-PDADMAC-SiO 2 (c). Highlights: ► The fluorescence intensity of QDs-PDADMAC-SiO 2 is stronger than that of QDs-SiO 2 . ► The fluorescence stability of QDs-PDADMAC-SiO 2 is better than that of QDs-SiO 2 . ► The cytotoxicity of QDs-PDADMAC-SiO 2 was lower than that of QDs-SiO 2 ► The staining effect of QDs-PDADMAC-SiO 2 was much better than that of QDs-SiO 2 . - Abstract: Based on the polyelectrolyte-protected CdTe quantum dots (QDs), which were prepared by self-assembling of QDs and poly-diallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC) in the help of electrostatic attraction, the strong fluorescence silica nanoparticles (QDs-PDADMAC-SiO 2 ) have been prepared via a water-in-oil reverse microemulsion method. Transmission electron microscopy and Zeta potential analysis were used to characterize the as-prepared nanoparticles. All of the particles were almost spherical and there is a uniform distribution of the particle size with the average diameter about 25 nm. There is a large Zeta potential of −35.07 mV which is necessary for good monodispersity of nanoparticles solution. As compared with the QDs coated by SiO 2 (QDs-SiO 2 ), the QDs-PDADMAC-SiO 2 nanoparticles have much stronger fluorescence, and their fluorescence stability could be obviously improved. Moreover, QDs-PDADMAC-SiO 2 exhibits good biological compatibility which promotes their application in cellular imaging.

  17. CDTE alloys and their application for increasing solar cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Drew E.

    Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) thin film solar is the largest manufactured solar cell technology in the United States and is responsible for one of the lowest costs of utility scale solar electricity at a purchase agreement of $0.0387/kWh. However, this cost could be further reduced by increasing the cell efficiency. To bridge the gap between the high efficiency technology and low cost manufacturing, a research and development tool and process was built and tested. This fully automated single vacuum PV manufacturing tool utilizes multiple inline close space sublimation (CSS) sources with automated substrate control. This maintains the proven scalability of the CSS technology and CSS source design but with the added versatility of independent substrate motion. This combination of a scalable deposition technology with increased cell fabrication flexibility has allowed for high efficiency cells to be manufactured and studied. The record efficiency of CdTe solar cells is lower than fundamental limitations due to a significant deficit in voltage. It has been modeled that there are two potential methods of decreasing this voltage deficiency. The first method is the incorporation of a high band gap film at the back contact to induce a conduction-band barrier that can reduce recombination by reflecting electrons from the back surface. The addition of a Cd1-x MgxTe (CMT) layer at the back of a CdTe solar cell should induce this desired offset and reflect both photoelectrons and forward-current electrons away from the rear surface. Higher collection of photoelectrons will increase the cells current and the reduction of forward current will increase the cells voltage. To have the optimal effect, CdTe must have reasonable carrier lifetimes and be fully depleted. To achieve this experimentally, CdTe layers have been grown sufficiently thin to help produce a fully depleted cell. A variety of measurements including performance curves, transmission electron microscopy, x

  18. New imaging spectrometer CdTe very high spatial and spectral resolution for X and gamma astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubos, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    The thesis work presented in this manuscript corresponds to the first development phase of the MC2 project, an ambitious R and D effort to realize a new type of cadmium telluride (CdTe) -based imaging spectrometer for future hard X- and gamma-rays astronomy missions. The final goal is to achieve a 300 micron-pitch pixelated detector plane hybridized with a very low noise front-end electronics for a total pixel density multiplied by 4 compared to the most advanced System recently available in the laboratory, the Caliste HD imaging spectrometer. Moreover, thanks to the joint development of readout circuits adapted to the interconnection of pixelated detectors with low capacitance and low leakage current, spectroscopic performances of such system are assumed to approach inherent limitations of the CdTe detector, especially for the lowest energies. The work was organized in parallel and complementary areas: evaluation of current Systems, feedback and identification of issues associated with the development of highly-resolved detection planes, implementation and complete characterization of a new two-dimensional ASIC specifically developed for this application, and modeling and study of the associated sensor to optimize the design of the detector pattern. Finally, a first hybrid prototype was completed and first experimental tests thereby conducted. (author) [fr

  19. Nanocrystalline CdTe thin films by electrochemical synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh S. Kapadnis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium telluride thin films were deposited onto different substrates as copper, Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO, Indium tin oxide (ITO, Aluminum and zinc at room temperature via electrochemical route. The morphology of the film shows the nanostructures on the deposited surface of the films and their growth in vertical direction. Different nanostructures developed on different substrates. The X-ray diffraction study reveals that the deposited films are nanocrystalline in nature. UV-Visible absorption spectrum shows the wide range of absorption in the visible region. Energy-dispersive spectroscopy confirms the formation of cadmium telluride.

  20. Basic performance and stability of a CdTe solid-state detector panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Katsutoshi; Takahashi, Isao; Kawaguchi, Tsuneaki; Yokoi, Kazuma; Morimoto, Yuuichi; Ishitsu, Takafumi; Suzuki, Atsurou; Ueno, Yuuichirou; Kobashi, Keiji

    2010-05-01

    We have developed a prototype gamma camera system (R1-M) using a cadmium telluride (CdTe) detector panel and evaluated the basic performance and the spectral stability. The CdTe panel consists of 5-mm-thick crystals. The field of view is 134 x 268 mm comprising 18,432 pixels with a pixel pitch of 1.4 mm. Replaceable small CdTe modules are mounted on to the circuit board by dedicated zero insertion force connectors. To make the readout circuit compact, the matrix read out is processed by dedicated ASICs. The panel is equipped with a cold-air cooling system. The temperature and humidity in the panel were kept at 20 degrees C and below 70% relative humidity. CdTe polarization was suppressed by the bias refresh technique to stabilize the detector. We also produced three dedicated square pixel-matched collimators: LEGP (20 mm-thick), LEHR (27 mm-thick), and LEUHR (35 mm-thick). We evaluated their basic performance (energy resolution, system resolution, and sensitivity) and the spectral stability in terms of short-term (several hours of continuous acquisition) and long-term (infrequent measurements over more than a year) activity. The intrinsic energy resolution (FWHM) acquired with Tc-99m (140.5 keV) was 6.6%. The spatial resolutions (FWHM at a distance of 100 mm) with LEGP, LEHR, and LEUHR collimators were 5.7, 4.9, and 4.2 mm, and the sensitivities were 71, 39, and 23 cps/MBq, respectively. The energy peak position and the intrinsic energy resolution after several hours of operation were nearly the same as the values a few minutes after the system was powered on; the variation of the peak position was <0.2%, and that of the resolution was about 0.3%. Infrequent measurements conducted over a year showed that the variations of the energy peak position and the intrinsic energy resolution of the system were at a similar level to those described above. The basic performance of the CdTe-gamma camera system was evaluated, and its stability was verified. It was shown that the

  1. Thin-film-based CdTe photovoltaic module characterization: measurements and energy prediction improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay-Ekuakille, A; Arnesano, A; Vergallo, P

    2013-01-01

    Photovoltaic characterization is a topic of major interest in the field of renewable energy. Monocrystalline and polycrystalline modules are mostly used and, hence characterized since many laboratories have data of them. Conversely, cadmium telluride (CdTe), as thin-film module are, in some circumstances, difficult to be used for energy prediction. This work covers outdoor testing of photovoltaic modules, in particular that regarding CdTe ones. The scope is to obtain temperature coefficients that best predict the energy production. A First Solar (K-275) module has been used for the purposes of this research. Outdoor characterizations were performed at Department of Innovation Engineering, University of Salento, Lecce, Italy. The location of Lecce city represents a typical site in the South Italy. The module was exposed outdoor and tested under clear sky conditions as well as under cloudy sky ones. During testing, the global-inclined irradiance varied between 0 and 1500 W/m(2). About 37,000 I-V characteristics were acquired, allowing to process temperature coefficients as a function of irradiance and ambient temperature. The module was characterized by measuring the full temperature-irradiance matrix in the range from 50 to 1300 W/m(2) and from -1 to 40 W/m(2) from October 2011 to February 2012. Afterwards, the module energy output, under real conditions, was calculated with the "matrix method" of SUPSI-ISAAC and the results were compared with the five months energy output data of the same module measured with the outdoor energy yield facility in Lecce.

  2. Investigation of Processing, Microstructures and Efficiencies of Polycrystalline CdTe Photovoltaic Films and Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munshi, Amit Harenkumar

    CdTe based photovoltaics have been commercialized at multiple GWs/year level. The performance of CdTe thin film photovoltaic devices is sensitive to process conditions. Variations in deposition temperatures as well as other treatment parameters have a significant impact on film microstructure and device performance. In this work, extensive investigations are carried out using advanced microstructural characterization techniques in an attempt to relate microstructural changes due to varying deposition parameters and their effects on device performance for cadmium telluride based photovoltaic cells deposited using close space sublimation (CSS). The goal of this investigation is to apply advanced material characterization techniques to aid process development for higher efficiency CdTe based photovoltaic devices. Several techniques have been used to observe the morphological changes to the microstructure along with materials and crystallographic changes as a function of deposition temperature and treatment times. Traditional device structures as well as advanced structures with electron reflector and films deposited on Mg1-xZnxO instead of conventional CdS window layer are investigated. These techniques include Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) with Electron Back Scattered Diffraction (EBSD) and Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) to study grain structure and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) with electron diffraction and EDS. These investigations have provided insights into the mechanisms that lead to change in film structure and device performance with change in deposition conditions. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) is used for chemical mapping of the films as well as to understand interlayer material diffusion between subsequent layers. Electrical performance of these devices has been studied using current density vs voltage plots. Devices with efficiency over 18% have been fabricated on low cost commercial glass substrates

  3. Optimisation of pH of cadmium chloride post-growth-treatment in processing CDS/CDTE based thin film solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ojo, A. A.; Dharmadasa, I

    2017-01-01

    The role of Chlorine-based activation in the production of high quality CdS/CdTe photovoltaic have been well discussed and explored with an overlook of the effect of Cadmium chloride (CdCl2) post-growth treatment acidity on the property of the fabricated devices. This work focuses on the optimisation of CdCl2 post-growth treatment pH as it affects both the material and fabricated device properties of all-electrodeposited multilayer glass/FTO/n-CdS/n-CdTe/p-CdTe configuration. CdCl2 treatments...

  4. Cytotoxicity of CdTe quantum dots in human umbilical vein endothelial cells: the involvement of cellular uptake and induction of pro-apoptotic endoplasmic reticulum stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan M

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ming Yan,1,* Yun Zhang,2,* Haiyan Qin,3 Kezhou Liu,1 Miao Guo,1 Yakun Ge,1 Mingen Xu,1 Yonghong Sun,4 Xiaoxiang Zheng4 1Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Life Information Science and Instrument Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou, 2Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Shaoxing University, Shaoxing, 3Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, 4Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Cardio-Cerebral Vascular Detection Technology and Medicinal Effectiveness Appraisal, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs have been proposed to induce oxidative stress, which plays a crucial role in CdTe QDs-mediated mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. However, the direct interactions of CdTe QDs with HUVECs and their potential impairment of other organelles like endoplasmic reticulum (ER in HUVECs are poorly understood. In this study, we reported that the negatively charged CdTe QDs (–21.63±0.91 mV, with good dispersity and fluorescence stability, were rapidly internalized via endocytosis by HUVECs, as the notable internalization could be inhibited up to 95.52% by energy depletion (NaN3/deoxyglucose or low temperature. The endocytosis inhibitors (methyl-β-cyclodextrin, genistein, sucrose, chlorpromazine, and colchicine dramatically decreased the uptake of CdTe QDs by HUVECs, suggesting that both caveolae/raft- and clathrin-mediated endocytosis were involved in the endothelial uptake of CdTe QDs. Using immunocytochemistry, a striking overlap of the internalized CdTe QDs and ER marker was observed, which indicates that QDs may be transported to ER. The CdTe QDs also caused remarkable ER stress responses in HUVECs, confirmed by significant dilatation of ER cisternae, upregulation of ER stress markers GRP78/GRP94, and

  5. Fine-Pitch CdTe Detector for Hard X-Ray Imaging and Spectroscopy of the Sun with the FOXSI Rocket Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; Katsuragawa, Miho; Watanabe, Shin; Uchida, Yuusuke; Takeda, Shin'lchiro; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Saito, Shinya; Glesener, Lindsay; Bultrago-Casas, Juan Camilo; Krucker, Sam; hide

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a fine-pitch hard X-ray (HXR) detector using a cadmium telluride (CdTe) semiconductor for imaging and spectroscopy for the second launch of the Focusing Optics Solar X-ray Imager (FOXSI). FOXSI is a rocket experiment to perform high sensitivity HXR observations from 4 to 15 keV using the new technique of HXR focusing optics. The focal plane detector requires less than 100 micrometers position resolution (to take advantage of the angular resolution of the optics) and approximately equals 1 keV energy resolution (full width at half maximum (FWHM)) for spectroscopy down to 4 keV, with moderate cooling (greater than -30 C). Double-sided silicon strip detectors were used for the first FOXSI flight in 2012 to meet these criteria. To improve the detectors' efficiency (66% at 15 keV for the silicon detectors) and position resolution of 75 micrometers for the second launch, we fabricated double-sided CdTe strip detectors with a position resolution of 60 micrometers and almost 100% efficiency for the FOXSI energy range. The sensitive area is 7.67 mm x 7.67 mm, corresponding to the field of view of 791'' x 791''. An energy resolution of 1 keV (FWHM) and low-energy threshold of approximately equals 4 keV were achieved in laboratory calibrations. The second launch of FOXSI was performed on 11 December 2014, and images from the Sun were successfully obtained with the CdTe detector. Therefore, we successfully demonstrated the detector concept and the usefulness of this technique for future HXR observations of the Sun.

  6. High rate deposition of thin film cadmium sulphide by pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisco, F., E-mail: F.Lisco@lboro.ac.uk [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Kaminski, P.M.; Abbas, A.; Bowers, J.W.; Claudio, G. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Losurdo, M. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR, via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Walls, J.M. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) is an important n-type semiconductor widely used as a window layer in thin film photovoltaics Copper Indium Selenide, Copper Indium Gallium (di)Selenide, Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide and Cadmium Telluride (CdTe). Cadmium Sulphide has been deposited using a number of techniques but these techniques can be slow (chemical bath deposition and Radio Frequency sputtering) or the uniformity and the control of thickness can be relatively difficult (close space sublimation). In this paper we report on the development of a process using pulsed Direct Current magnetron sputtering which allows nanometre control of thin film thickness using time only. The CdS thin films deposited in this process are highly uniform and smooth. They exhibit the preferred hexagonal structure at room temperature deposition and they have excellent optical properties. Importantly, the process is highly stable despite the use of a semi-insulating magnetron target. Moreover, the process is very fast. The deposition rate using 1.5 kW of power to a 6-inch circular magnetron was measured to be greater than 8 nm/s. This makes the process suitable for industrial deployment. - Highlights: • Pulsed DC magnetron sputtering of CdS • High deposition rate deposition • Uniform, pinhole free films.

  7. High rate deposition of thin film cadmium sulphide by pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisco, F.; Kaminski, P.M.; Abbas, A.; Bowers, J.W.; Claudio, G.; Losurdo, M.; Walls, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) is an important n-type semiconductor widely used as a window layer in thin film photovoltaics Copper Indium Selenide, Copper Indium Gallium (di)Selenide, Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide and Cadmium Telluride (CdTe). Cadmium Sulphide has been deposited using a number of techniques but these techniques can be slow (chemical bath deposition and Radio Frequency sputtering) or the uniformity and the control of thickness can be relatively difficult (close space sublimation). In this paper we report on the development of a process using pulsed Direct Current magnetron sputtering which allows nanometre control of thin film thickness using time only. The CdS thin films deposited in this process are highly uniform and smooth. They exhibit the preferred hexagonal structure at room temperature deposition and they have excellent optical properties. Importantly, the process is highly stable despite the use of a semi-insulating magnetron target. Moreover, the process is very fast. The deposition rate using 1.5 kW of power to a 6-inch circular magnetron was measured to be greater than 8 nm/s. This makes the process suitable for industrial deployment. - Highlights: • Pulsed DC magnetron sputtering of CdS • High deposition rate deposition • Uniform, pinhole free films

  8. ASTRO-H CdTe detectors proton irradiation at PIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limousin, O.; Renaud, D.; Horeau, B.; Dubos, S.; Laurent, P.; Lebrun, F.; Chipaux, R.; Boatella Polo, C.; Marcinkowski, R.; Kawaharada, M.; Watanabe, S.; Ohta, M.; Sato, G.; Takahashi, T.

    2015-01-01

    Asbstract: The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), with the support of the European Space Agency (ESA), is partner of the Soft Gamma-Ray Detector (SGD) and the Hard X-ray Imager (HXI) onboard the 6th Japanese X-ray scientific satellite ASTRO-H (JAXA) initiated by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS). Both scientific instruments, one hosting a series of Compton Gamma Cameras and the other being a focal plane of a grazing incidence mirror telescope in the hard X-ray domain, are equipped with Cadmium Telluride based detectors. ASTRO-H will be operated in a Low Earth Orbit with a 31° inclination at ~550 km altitude, thus passing daily through the South Atlantic Anomaly radiation belt, a specially harsh environment where the detectors are suffering the effect of the interaction with trapped high energy protons. As CdTe detector performance might be affected by the irradiation, we investigate the effect of the accumulated proton fluence on their spectral response. To do so, we have characterized and irradiated representative samples of SGD and HXI detector under different conditions. The detectors in question, from ACRORAD, are single-pixels having a size of 2 mm by 2 mm and 750 µm thick. The Schottky contact is either made of an Indium or Aluminum for SGD and HXI respectively. We ran the irradiation test campaign at the Proton Irradiation Facility (PIF) at PSI, and ESA approved equipment to evaluate the radiation hardness of flight hardware. We simulated the proton flux expected on the sensors over the entire mission, and secondary neutrons flux due to primary proton interactions into the surrounding BGO active shielding. We eventually characterized the detector response evolution, emphasizing each detector spectral response as well as its stability by studying the so-called Polarization effect. The latter is provoking a spectral response degradation against time as a charge accumulation process occurs in Schottky type CdTe sensors. In this paper

  9. Supply risks associated with CdTe and CIGS thin-film photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helbig, Christoph; Bradshaw, Alex M.; Kolotzek, Christoph; Thorenz, Andrea; Tuma, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Supply risks associated with thin film photovoltaic technologies are considered. • Eleven supply risk indicators are used to evaluate Cd, Te, Cu, In, Ga, Se and Mo. • Indicator weighting based on peer assessment and an Analytic Hierarchy Process. • Various possibilities for the aggregation of elemental supply risks discussed. • Aggregated results show a marginally lower supply risk for CdTe than for CIGS. - Abstract: As a result of the global warming potential of fossil fuels there has been a rapid growth in the installation of photovoltaic generating capacity in the last decade. While this market is dominated by crystalline silicon, thin-film photovoltaics are still expected to make a substantial contribution to global electricity supply in future, due both to lower production costs and to recent increases in conversion efficiency. At present, cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper-indium-gallium diselenide (CuIn_xGa_1_−_xSe_2) seem to be the most promising materials and currently have a share of ≈9% of the photovoltaic market. An expected stronger market penetration by these thin-film technologies raises the question as to the supply risks associated with the constituent elements. Against this background, we report here a semi-quantitative, relative assessment of mid- to long-term supply risk associated with the elements Cd, Te, Cu, In, Ga, Se and Mo. In this approach, the supply risk is measured using 11 indicators in the four categories “Risk of Supply Reduction”, “Risk of Demand Increase”, “Concentration Risk” and “Political Risk”. In a second step, the single indicator values, which are derived from publicly accessible databases, are weighted relative to each other specifically for the case of thin film photovoltaics. For this purpose, a survey among colleagues and an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) approach are used, in order to obtain a relative, element-specific value for the supply risk. The aggregation of these

  10. Doping of germanium telluride with bismuth tellurides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrikosov, N.Kh.; Karpinskij, O.G.; Makalatiya, T.Sh.; Shelimova, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    Effect of germanium telluride doping with bismuth fellurides (Bi 2 Te 3 ; BiTe; Bi 2 Te) on phase transition temperature, lattice parameters and electrophysical properties of alloys is studied. It is shown that in alloys of GeTe-Bi 2 Te 3 (BiTe)(Bi 2 Te) cross sections solid solution of GeTe with Bi 2 Te 3 , characterized by deviation from stoichiometry, and germanium in the second phase the quantity of which increases during the transition from GeTe-Bi 2 Te 3 cross section to GeTe-Bi 2 Te are in equilibrium. Lower values of holes concentration and of electric conductivity and higher values of thermo e.m.f. coefficient in comparison with alloys of GeTe-Bi 2 Te 3 cross section with the same bismuth content are characterized for GeTe-Bi 2 Te cross section alloys. It is shown that in the range of GeTe-base solid solution the α→γ phase transformation which runs trough the two-phase region (α→γ) is observed with tellurium content increase. Extension of α-phase existence region widens with the bismuth content increase. Peculiarities of interatomic interaction in GeTe-base solid solutions with isovalent and heterovalent cation substitution are considered [ru

  11. A 2D 4×4 Channel Readout ASIC for Pixelated CdTe Detectors for Medical Imaging Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias-Montero, Jose-Gabriel; Sarraj, Maher; Chmeissani, Mokhtar; Martínez, Ricardo; Puigdengoles, Carles

    2015-10-01

    We present a 16-channel readout integrated circuit (ROIC) with nanosecond-resolution time to digital converter (TDC) for pixelated Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) gamma-ray detectors. The 4 × 4 pixel array ROIC is the proof of concept of the 10 × 10 pixel array readout ASIC for positron-emission tomography (PET) scanner, positron-emission mammography (PEM) scanner, and Compton gamma camera. The electronics of each individual pixel integrates an analog front-end with switchable gain, an analog to digital converter (ADC), configuration registers, and a 4-state digital controller. For every detected photon, the pixel electronics provides the energy deposited in the detector with 10-bit resolution, and a fast trigger signal for time stamp. The ASIC contains the 16-pixel matrix electronics, a digital controller, five global voltage references, a TDC, a temperature sensor, and a band-gap based current reference. The ASIC has been fabricated with TSMC 0.25 μ m mixed-signal CMOS technology and occupies an area of 5.3 mm × 6.8 mm. The TDC shows a resolution of 95.5 ps, a precision of 600 ps at full width half maximum (FWHM), and a power consumption of 130 μ W. In acquisition mode, the total power consumption of every pixel is 200 μ W. An equivalent noise charge (ENC) of 160 e - RMS at maximum gain and negative polarity conditions has been measured at room temperature.

  12. Electrodeposition of CdTe thin films onto n-Si(1 0 0): nucleation and growth mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, H.; Henriquez, R.; Schrebler, R.; Cordova, R.; Ramirez, D.; Riveros, G.; Dalchiele, E.A.

    2005-01-01

    The mechanisms related to the initial stages of the nucleation and growth of cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films on the rough face side of a (1 0 0) monocrystalline n-type silicon have been studied as a function of different potential steps that varied from an initial value of -0.200 V to values comprised between -0.515 and -0.600 V versus saturated calomel electrode (SCE). The analysis of the corresponding potentiostatic j/t transients suggests that the main phenomena involved at short times is the formation of a Te-Cd bi-layer (BL). For potentials below -0.540 V, the formation of this bi-layer can be considered independent of potential. At greater times, the mechanisms is controlled by two process: (i) progressive nucleation three dimensional charge transfer controlled growth (PN-3D) ct and (ii) progressive nucleation three dimensional diffusion controlled growth (PN-3D) diff , both giving account for the formation of conical and hemispherical nuclei, respectively. Ex situ AFM images of the surface seem to support these assumptions

  13. CdTe aggregates in KBr crystalline matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensouici, A.; Plaza, J.L.; Dieguez, E.; Halimi, O.; Boudine, B.; Addala, S.; Guerbous, L.; Sebais, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we report the experimental results on the fabrication and optical characterization of Czochralski (Cz) grown KBr single crystals doped with CdTe crystallites. The results of the optical absorption have shown two bands, the first one located at 250 nm demonstrates the incorporation of cadmium atoms in the KBr host followed by a partial chemical decomposition of CdTe, the second band located at 585 nm shows an optical response of CdTe aggregates. Photoluminescence spectra at room temperature before annealing showed a band located at 520 nm (2.38 eV), with a blue shift from the bulk gap of 0.82 eV (E g (CdTe)=1.56 eV). While the photoluminescence spectra after annealing at 600 deg. C showed a band situated at 640 nm (1.93 eV), these bands are due to band-to-band transitions of CdTe nanocrystals with a blue shift from the bulk gap at 0.38 eV. Blue shift in optical absorption and photoluminescence spectra confirm nanometric size of dopant. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra have shown the incorporation of CdTe aggregates in KBr.

  14. CdTe aggregates in KBr crystalline matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensouici, A., E-mail: bensouicia@yahoo.f [Laboratory of Crystallography, Department of Physics, Mentouri-Constantine University, Constantine 25000 (Algeria); Plaza, J.L., E-mail: joseluis.plaza@uam.e [Crystal Growth Laboratory (CGL), Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Dieguez, E. [Crystal Growth Laboratory (CGL), Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Halimi, O.; Boudine, B.; Addala, S. [Laboratory of Crystallography, Department of Physics, Mentouri-Constantine University, Constantine 25000 (Algeria); Guerbous, L. [Centre de recherche nucleaire d' Alger (CRNA), Alger 16000 (Algeria); Sebais, M. [Laboratory of Crystallography, Department of Physics, Mentouri-Constantine University, Constantine 25000 (Algeria)

    2009-09-15

    In this work, we report the experimental results on the fabrication and optical characterization of Czochralski (Cz) grown KBr single crystals doped with CdTe crystallites. The results of the optical absorption have shown two bands, the first one located at 250 nm demonstrates the incorporation of cadmium atoms in the KBr host followed by a partial chemical decomposition of CdTe, the second band located at 585 nm shows an optical response of CdTe aggregates. Photoluminescence spectra at room temperature before annealing showed a band located at 520 nm (2.38 eV), with a blue shift from the bulk gap of 0.82 eV (E{sub g} (CdTe)=1.56 eV). While the photoluminescence spectra after annealing at 600 deg. C showed a band situated at 640 nm (1.93 eV), these bands are due to band-to-band transitions of CdTe nanocrystals with a blue shift from the bulk gap at 0.38 eV. Blue shift in optical absorption and photoluminescence spectra confirm nanometric size of dopant. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra have shown the incorporation of CdTe aggregates in KBr.

  15. Applicability of a portable CdTe and NaI (Tl) spectrometer for activity measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Jaquiel Salvi

    2005-02-01

    In this work it was studied the application of an in situ gamma spectrometer (ROVER) of Amptek Inc., composed by a Cadmium Telluride detector (CdTe) of 3 mm x 3 mm x 1 mm and a 30 mm x 30 mm Sodium Iodide detector doped with Thallium [NaI (Tl)). The radioactive sources used were type pastille, sealed in aluminum and polyethylene, of 241 Am, 133 Ba, 152 Eu, 3 sources of 137 Cs and soil samples contaminated with 137 Cs. It was performed a factorial planning 2 3 to optimize the in situ spectrometry system. This way it was determined that the best temperature for CdTe crystal operation is -22, deg C, with Shaping Time of 3 μS and Rise Time Discrimination (RTD) with value 3. With the help of the certified radioactive sources, we determined the efficiency curve of the two detectors. The CdTe detector was positioned at the standard distance of 1 meter of the sources and also at 4.15 cm. The NaI (Tl) detector was also positioned at the standard distance of 1 meter of the sources and at 2.8 cm. Measures were performed to determine the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) for both detectors. For the pastille type sources, the 137 Cs MDA for the CdTe detector at 4.15 cm, analyzing the energy line of 32 keV, was 6 kBq and at 1 meter of the 137 Cs source, analyzing the line of 661.65 keV, the MDA was 67 kBq. For soil samples, CdTe detector at 4.15 cm presented a MDA of 693 kBq.kg-l for the line of 32 keV, and for the soil sample 7 Be content the MDA found was 2867 Bq.kg -1 at 4.15 cm. For the NaI (Tl) detector, analyzing the line of 661.65 keV, the 137 Cs MDA for pastille type source at 1 meter of distance was 7 kBq, and for soil sample at 2.8 cm the measured 137 Cs MDA was 71 Bq.kg -1 . For the soil sample 7 Be content, at 2.8 cm of the Nal (Tl) detector, the obtained MDA was 91 Bq.kg -1 . Due to the minimum detectable activities found for the two detectors, we concluded that the employed in situ gamma ray spectrometer system allows the quantification of 137 Cs and 7 Be

  16. Theoretical and Experimental Study on the Permittivity of CdTe in the Terahertz Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The phonon dispersion spectrum, eigenvector, and lattice vibration frequency of cadmium telluride with a zinc blende structure have been investigated using the density functional theory, and the permittivity of cadmium telluride crystal is numerically calculated. The permittivity of the crystal is measured using the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system. The experimental results are consistent with the theoretical calculations on the modified local density approximation, the general gradient approximation, and the modified general gradient approximation. Finally, the differences among the three approximate exchange correlation potentials indicate that in the terahertz region, the permittivity of cadmium telluride is dominantly contributed by the coupling between electron and phonon; however, the phonon frequencies of transverse wave and longitudinal wave were sensitive to electron density distribution.

  17. Energy dispersive CdTe and CdZnTe detectors for spectral clinical CT and NDT applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, W.C., E-mail: william.barber@dxray.com [DxRay, Inc., Northridge, CA (United States); Interon AS, Asker (Norway); Wessel, J.C. [DxRay, Inc., Northridge, CA (United States); Interon AS, Asker (Norway); Nygard, E. [Interon AS, Asker (Norway); Iwanczyk, J.S. [DxRay, Inc., Northridge, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    We are developing room temperature compound semiconductor detectors for applications in energy-resolved high-flux single x-ray photon-counting spectral computed tomography (CT), including functional imaging with nanoparticle contrast agents for medical applications and non-destructive testing (NDT) for security applications. Energy-resolved photon-counting can provide reduced patient dose through optimal energy weighting for a particular imaging task in CT, functional contrast enhancement through spectroscopic imaging of metal nanoparticles in CT, and compositional analysis through multiple basis function material decomposition in CT and NDT. These applications produce high input count rates from an x-ray generator delivered to the detector. Therefore, in order to achieve energy-resolved single photon counting in these applications, a high output count rate (OCR) for an energy-dispersive detector must be achieved at the required spatial resolution and across the required dynamic range for the application. The required performance in terms of the OCR, spatial resolution, and dynamic range must be obtained with sufficient field of view (FOV) for the application thus requiring the tiling of pixel arrays and scanning techniques. Room temperature cadmium telluride (CdTe) and cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe) compound semiconductors, operating as direct conversion x-ray sensors, can provide the required speed when connected to application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) operating at fast peaking times with multiple fixed thresholds per pixel provided the sensors are designed for rapid signal formation across the x-ray energy ranges of the application at the required energy and spatial resolutions, and at a sufficiently high detective quantum efficiency (DQE). We have developed high-flux energy-resolved photon-counting x-ray imaging array sensors using pixellated CdTe and CdZnTe semiconductors optimized for clinical CT and security NDT. We have also fabricated high

  18. A framework for technological learning in the supply chain: A case study on CdTe photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergesen, Joseph D.; Suh, Sangwon

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A framework for technological learning in the supply chain is proposed. • This framework separates learning effects on value added and intermediate inputs. • Supply-chain learning can project both changing environmental impacts and costs. • Learning upstream in the supply chain can influence observed learning rates. • An example for CdTe photovoltaics illustrates how this framework can be implemented. - Abstract: Accounting for technological changes and innovation is important when assessing the implications of rapidly-developing greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation technologies. Technological learning curves have been commonly used as a tool to understand technological change as a function of cumulative production. Traditional learning curve approaches, however, do not distinguish the direct and upstream, supply chain technological changes by which cost reductions are achieved. While recent advances in learning curves have focused on distinguishing the different physical and economic drivers of learning, forecasted technological changes have not been applied to estimate the potential changes in the environmental performance of a technology. This article illustrates how distinguishing the different effects of technological learning throughout the supply chain can help assess the changing costs, environmental impacts and natural resource implications of technologies as they develop. We propose a mathematical framework to distinguish the effects of learning on the direct inputs to a technology from the effects of learning on value added, and we incorporate those effects throughout the supply chain of a technology using a life cycle assessment (LCA) framework. An example for cadmium telluride (CdTe) photovoltaics (PV) illustrates how the proposed framework can be implemented. Results show that that life cycle GHG emissions can decrease at least 40% and costs can decrease at least 50% as cumulative production of CdTe reaches 100 GW. Technological

  19. High Throughput Manufacturing of Thin-Film CdTe Photovoltaic Materials; Final Subcontract Report, 16 November 1993-31 December 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandwisch, D.W.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes work performed by Solar Cells, Inc. (SCI), during this Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) subcontract. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is recognized as one of the leading materials for low-cost photovoltaic modules. SCI has developed this technology and is preparing to scale its pilot production capabilities to a multi-megawatt level. This four-phase PVMaT subcontract supports these efforts. The work was related to product definition, process definition, equipment engineering, and support programs development. In the area of product definition and demonstration, two products were specified and demonstrated-a grid-connected, frameless, high-voltage product that incorporates a pigtail potting design and a remote low-voltage product that may be framed and may incorporate a junction box. SCI produced a 60.3-W thin-film CdTe module with total-area efficiency of 8.4%; SCI also improved module pass rate on the interim qualification test protocol from less than 20% to 100% as a result of work related to the subcontract. In the manufacturing process definition area, the multi-megawatt manufacturing process was defined, several of the key processes were demonstrated, and the process was refined and proven on a 100-kW pilot line that now operates as a 250-kW line. In the area of multi-megawatt manufacturing-line conceptual design review, SCI completed a conceptual layout of the multi-megawatt lines. The layout models the manufacturing line and predicts manufacturing costs. SCI projected an optimized capacity, two-shift/day operation of greater than 25 MW at a manufacturing cost of below$1.00/W

  20. Simultaneous detection of folic acid and methotrexate by an optical sensor based on molecularly imprinted polymers on dual-color CdTe quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensafi, Ali A; Nasr-Esfahani, Parisa; Rezaei, B

    2017-12-15

    In this work, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were used on the surface of cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs) for the simultaneous determination of folic acid (FA) and methotrexate (MTX). For this purpose, two different sizes of CdTe QDs with emission peaks in the yellow (QD Y ) and orange (QD O ) spectral regions were initially synthesized and capped with MIPs. FA and MTX were used as templates for the synthesis of the two composites and designated as QD Y -MIPs and QD O -MIPs, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy were employed to characterize the composites. QD Y -MIPs and QD O -MIPs were then mixed (to form QDs-MIPs) and excited at identical excitation wavelengths; they emitted two different emission wavelengths without any spectral overlap. The fluorescence signals of QD Y -MIPs and QD O -MIPs diminished in intensity with increasing concentration of the corresponding template molecules. Under optimal conditions, the dynamic range was 0.5-20 μmol L -1 for FA and MTX, and the detection limits for FA and MTX were 32.0 nmol L -1 and 34.0 nmol L -1 , respectively. The reproducibility of the method was checked for 12.5 μmol L -1 of FA and MTX to find RSD values of 4.2% and 6.3%, respectively. Finally, the applicability of the method was checked using human blood plasma samples. Results indicated the successful application of the method as a fluorescent probe for the rapid and simultaneous detection of FA and MTX in real samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. High Throughput Manufacturing of Thin-Film CdTe Photovoltaic Materials; Final Subcontract Report, 16 November 1993-31 December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandwisch, D. W. (Solar Cells, Inc.)

    1999-09-02

    This report describes work performed by Solar Cells, Inc. (SCI), during this Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) subcontract. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is recognized as one of the leading materials for low-cost photovoltaic modules. SCI has developed this technology and is preparing to scale its pilot production capabilities to a multi-megawatt level. This four-phase PVMaT subcontract supports these efforts. The work was related to product definition, process definition, equipment engineering, and support programs development. In the area of product definition and demonstration, two products were specified and demonstrated-a grid-connected, frameless, high-voltage product that incorporates a pigtail potting design and a remote low-voltage product that may be framed and may incorporate a junction box. SCI produced a 60.3-W thin-film CdTe module with total-area efficiency of 8.4%; SCI also improved module pass rate on the interim qualification test protocol from less than 20% to 100% as a result of work related to the subcontract. In the manufacturing process definition area, the multi-megawatt manufacturing process was defined, several of the key processes were demonstrated, and the process was refined and proven on a 100-kW pilot line that now operates as a 250-kW line. In the area of multi-megawatt manufacturing-line conceptual design review, SCI completed a conceptual layout of the multi-megawatt lines. The layout models the manufacturing line and predicts manufacturing costs. SCI projected an optimized capacity, two-shift/day operation of greater than 25 MW at a manufacturing cost of below $1.00/W.

  2. Toward VIP-PIX: A Low Noise Readout ASIC for Pixelated CdTe Gamma-Ray Detectors for Use in the Next Generation of PET Scanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias-Montero, Jose-Gabriel; Sarraj, Maher; Chmeissani, Mokhtar; Puigdengoles, Carles; Lorenzo, Gianluca De; Martínez, Ricardo

    2013-08-01

    VIP-PIX will be a low noise and low power pixel readout electronics with digital output for pixelated Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) detectors. The proposed pixel will be part of a 2D pixel-array detector for various types of nuclear medicine imaging devices such as positron-emission tomography (PET) scanners, Compton gamma cameras, and positron-emission mammography (PEM) scanners. Each pixel will include a SAR ADC that provides the energy deposited with 10-bit resolution. Simultaneously, the self-triggered pixel which will be connected to a global time-to-digital converter (TDC) with 1 ns resolution will provide the event's time stamp. The analog part of the readout chain and the ADC have been fabricated with TSMC 0.25 μ m mixed-signal CMOS technology and characterized with an external test pulse. The power consumption of these parts is 200 μ W from a 2.5 V supply. It offers 4 switchable gains from ±10 mV/fC to ±40 mV/fC and an input charge dynamic range of up to ±70 fC for the minimum gain for both polarities. Based on noise measurements, the expected equivalent noise charge (ENC) is 65 e - RMS at room temperature.

  3. Investigation of the chlorine A-Center in polycrystalline CdTe layers by photoluminescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, Christian; Metzner, Heiner; Haedrich, Mathias [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Universitaet Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Schley, Pascal [Institut fuer Physik, Technische Universitaet Ilmenau, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany); Goldhahn, Ruediger [Institut fuer Experimentelle Physik, Universitaet Magdeburg, 39016 Magdeburg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Polycrystalline CdTe is a well known absorber material for thin film solar cells. However, the improvement of CdTe-based solar cells for industrial application is mainly based on empirical enhancements of certain process steps which are not concerning the absorber itself. Hence, the defect structure of CdTe is still not understood in detail. One of the most discussed defects in CdTe is the so called chlorine A-center. In general, the A-Center describes a defect complex of the intrinsic cadmium vacancy defect and an extrinsic impurity. By means of photoluminescence spectroscopy at temperatures of 5 K we investigated the behavior of the chlorine A-center under different CdTe activation techniques. Therefore, we were able to determine the electronic level of that defect and to analyze its influence on the crystal quality and the functionality of solar cells that were prepared of the corresponding samples.

  4. Analysis of MCNP simulated gamma spectra of CdTe detectors for boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Alexander; Koivunoro, Hanna; Savolainen, Sauli

    2017-06-01

    The next step in the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is the real time imaging of the boron concentration in healthy and tumor tissue. Monte Carlo simulations are employed to predict the detector response required to realize single-photon emission computed tomography in BNCT, but have failed to correctly resemble measured data for cadmium telluride detectors. In this study we have tested the gamma production cross-section data tables of commonly used libraries in the Monte Carlo code MCNP in comparison to measurements. The cross section data table TENDL-2008-ACE is reproducing measured data best, whilst the commonly used ENDL92 and other studied libraries do not include correct tables for the gamma production from the cadmium neutron capture reaction that is occurring inside the detector. Furthermore, we have discussed the size of the annihilation peaks of spectra obtained by cadmium telluride and germanium detectors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Inclusion free cadmium zinc tellurium and cadmium tellurium crystals and associated growth method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotnikov, Aleskey E [South Setauket, NY; James, Ralph B [Ridge, NY

    2010-07-20

    The present disclosure provides systems and methods for crystal growth of cadmium zinc tellurium (CZT) and cadmium tellurium (CdTe) crystals with an inverted growth reactor chamber. The inverted growth reactor chamber enables growth of single, large, high purity CZT and CdTe crystals that can be used, for example, in X-ray and gamma detection, substrates for infrared detectors, or the like. The inverted growth reactor chamber enables reductions in the presence of Te inclusions, which are recognized as an important limiting factor in using CZT or CdTe as radiation detectors. The inverted growth reactor chamber can be utilized with existing crystal growth techniques such as the Bridgman crystal growth mechanism and the like. In an exemplary embodiment, the inverted growth reactor chamber is a U-shaped ampoule.

  6. Electronic structure of CdTe using GGA+USIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menéndez-Proupin, E.; Amézaga, A.; Cruz Hernández, N.

    2014-01-01

    A simple method to obtain a gap-corrected band structure of cadmium telluride within density functional theory is presented. On-site Coulomb self-interaction-like correction potential has been applied to the 5p-shell of Te and the 4d-shell of Cd. The predicted physical properties are similar to or better than those obtained with hybrid functionals and at largely reduced computational cost. In addition to the corrected electronic structure, the lattice parameters and the bulk modulus are improved. The relative stabilities of the different phases (zincblende, wurtzite, rocksalt and cinnabar) are preserved. The formation energy of the cadmium vacancy remains close to the values obtained from hybrid functional calculations

  7. A prototype small CdTe gamma camera for radioguided surgery and other imaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchimochi, Makoto; Sakahara, Harumi; Hayama, Kazuhide; Funaki, Minoru; Ohno, Ryoichi; Shirahata, Takashi; Orskaug, Terje; Maehlum, Gunnar; Yoshioka, Koki; Nygard, Einar

    2003-12-01

    Gamma probes have been used for sentinel lymph node biopsy in melanoma and breast cancer. However, these probes can provide only radioactivity counts and variable pitch audio output based on the intensity of the detected radioactivity. We have developed a small semiconductor gamma camera (SSGC) that allows visualisation of the size, shape and location of the target tissues. This study is designed to characterise the performance of the SSGC for radioguided surgery of metastatic lesions and for other imaging applications amenable to the smaller format of this prototype imaging system. The detector head had 32 cadmium telluride semiconductor arrays with a total of 1,024 pixels, and with application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) and a tungsten collimator. The entire assembly was encased in a lead housing measuring 152 mmx166 mmx65 mm. The effective visual field was 44.8 mmx44.8 mm. The energy resolution and imaging aspects were tested. Two spherical 5-mm- and 15-mm-diameter technetium-99m radioactive sources that had activities of 0.15 MBq and 100 MBq, respectively, were used to simulate a sentinel lymph node and an injection site. The relative detectability of these foci by the new detector and a conventional scintillation camera was studied. The prototype was also examined in a variety of clinical applications. Energy resolution [full-width at half-maximum (FWHM)] for a single element at the centre of the field of view was 4.2% at 140 keV (99mTc), and the mean energy resolution of the CdTe detector arrays was approximately 7.8%. The spatial resolution, represented by FWHM, had a mean value of 1.56 +/- 0.05 mm. Simulated node foci could be visualised clearly by the SSGC using a 15-s acquisition time. In preliminary clinical tests, the SSGC successfully imaged diseases in a variety of tissues, including salivary and thyroid glands, temporomandibular joints and sentinel lymph nodes. The SSGC has significant potential for diagnosing diseases and facilitating

  8. A prototype small CdTe gamma camera for radioguided surgery and other imaging applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchimochi, Makoto; Hayama, Kazuhide [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, The Nippon Dental University School of Dentistry at Niigata, 1-8 Hamaura-cho, 951-8580, Niigata (Japan); Sakahara, Harumi [Department of Radiology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu (Japan); Funaki, Minoru; Ohno, Ryoichi; Shirahata, Takashi [Acrorad Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Orskaug, Terje; Maehlum, Gunnar; Yoshioka, Koki; Nygard, Einar [Integrated Detector and Electronics A.S (IDE AS), Hovik (Norway)

    2003-12-01

    Gamma probes have been used for sentinel lymph node biopsy in melanoma and breast cancer. However, these probes can provide only radioactivity counts and variable pitch audio output based on the intensity of the detected radioactivity. We have developed a small semiconductor gamma camera (SSGC) that allows visualisation of the size, shape and location of the target tissues. This study is designed to characterise the performance of the SSGC for radioguided surgery of metastatic lesions and for other imaging applications amenable to the smaller format of this prototype imaging system. The detector head had 32 cadmium telluride semiconductor arrays with a total of 1,024 pixels, and with application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) and a tungsten collimator. The entire assembly was encased in a lead housing measuring 152 mm x 166 mm x 65 mm. The effective visual field was 44.8 mm x 44.8 mm. The energy resolution and imaging aspects were tested. Two spherical 5-mm- and 15-mm-diameter technetium-99m radioactive sources that had activities of 0.15 MBq and 100 MBq, respectively, were used to simulate a sentinel lymph node and an injection site. The relative detectability of these foci by the new detector and a conventional scintillation camera was studied. The prototype was also examined in a variety of clinical applications. Energy resolution [full-width at half-maximum (FWHM)] for a single element at the centre of the field of view was 4.2% at 140 keV ({sup 99m}Tc), and the mean energy resolution of the CdTe detector arrays was approximately 7.8%. The spatial resolution, represented by FWHM, had a mean value of 1.56{+-}0.05 mm. Simulated node foci could be visualised clearly by the SSGC using a 15-s acquisition time. In preliminary clinical tests, the SSGC successfully imaged diseases in a variety of tissues, including salivary and thyroid glands, temporomandibular joints and sentinel lymph nodes. The SSGC has significant potential for diagnosing diseases and

  9. A prototype small CdTe gamma camera for radioguided surgery and other imaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchimochi, Makoto; Hayama, Kazuhide; Sakahara, Harumi; Funaki, Minoru; Ohno, Ryoichi; Shirahata, Takashi; Orskaug, Terje; Maehlum, Gunnar; Yoshioka, Koki; Nygard, Einar

    2003-01-01

    Gamma probes have been used for sentinel lymph node biopsy in melanoma and breast cancer. However, these probes can provide only radioactivity counts and variable pitch audio output based on the intensity of the detected radioactivity. We have developed a small semiconductor gamma camera (SSGC) that allows visualisation of the size, shape and location of the target tissues. This study is designed to characterise the performance of the SSGC for radioguided surgery of metastatic lesions and for other imaging applications amenable to the smaller format of this prototype imaging system. The detector head had 32 cadmium telluride semiconductor arrays with a total of 1,024 pixels, and with application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) and a tungsten collimator. The entire assembly was encased in a lead housing measuring 152 mm x 166 mm x 65 mm. The effective visual field was 44.8 mm x 44.8 mm. The energy resolution and imaging aspects were tested. Two spherical 5-mm- and 15-mm-diameter technetium-99m radioactive sources that had activities of 0.15 MBq and 100 MBq, respectively, were used to simulate a sentinel lymph node and an injection site. The relative detectability of these foci by the new detector and a conventional scintillation camera was studied. The prototype was also examined in a variety of clinical applications. Energy resolution [full-width at half-maximum (FWHM)] for a single element at the centre of the field of view was 4.2% at 140 keV ( 99m Tc), and the mean energy resolution of the CdTe detector arrays was approximately 7.8%. The spatial resolution, represented by FWHM, had a mean value of 1.56±0.05 mm. Simulated node foci could be visualised clearly by the SSGC using a 15-s acquisition time. In preliminary clinical tests, the SSGC successfully imaged diseases in a variety of tissues, including salivary and thyroid glands, temporomandibular joints and sentinel lymph nodes. The SSGC has significant potential for diagnosing diseases and facilitating

  10. Applicability of a portable CdTe and NaI (Tl) spectrometer for activity measure; Aplicabilidade de um espectrometro portatil de CdTe e NaI (Tl) para a medida da atividade de Cesio-137 ({sup 137}Cs) e Berilio-7 ({sup 7}Be)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Jaquiel Salvi

    2005-02-15

    In this work it was studied the application of an in situ gamma spectrometer (ROVER) of Amptek Inc., composed by a Cadmium Telluride detector (CdTe) of 3 mm x 3 mm x 1 mm and a 30 mm x 30 mm Sodium Iodide detector doped with Thallium [NaI (Tl)). The radioactive sources used were type pastille, sealed in aluminum and polyethylene, of {sup 241}Am, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 152}Eu, 3 sources of {sup 137}Cs and soil samples contaminated with {sup 137}Cs. It was performed a factorial planning 2{sup 3} to optimize the in situ spectrometry system. This way it was determined that the best temperature for CdTe crystal operation is -22, deg C, with Shaping Time of 3 {mu}S and Rise Time Discrimination (RTD) with value 3. With the help of the certified radioactive sources, we determined the efficiency curve of the two detectors. The CdTe detector was positioned at the standard distance of 1 meter of the sources and also at 4.15 cm. The NaI (Tl) detector was also positioned at the standard distance of 1 meter of the sources and at 2.8 cm. Measures were performed to determine the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) for both detectors. For the pastille type sources, the {sup 137}Cs MDA for the CdTe detector at 4.15 cm, analyzing the energy line of 32 keV, was 6 kBq and at 1 meter of the {sup 137}Cs source, analyzing the line of 661.65 keV, the MDA was 67 kBq. For soil samples, CdTe detector at 4.15 cm presented a MDA of 693 kBq.kg-l for the line of 32 keV, and for the soil sample {sup 7}Be content the MDA found was 2867 Bq.kg{sup -1} at 4.15 cm. For the NaI (Tl) detector, analyzing the line of 661.65 keV, the {sup 137}Cs MDA for pastille type source at 1 meter of distance was 7 kBq, and for soil sample at 2.8 cm the measured {sup 137}Cs MDA was 71 Bq.kg{sup -1}. For the soil sample {sup 7}Be content, at 2.8 cm of the Nal (Tl) detector, the obtained MDA was 91 Bq.kg{sup -1}. Due to the minimum detectable activities found for the two detectors, we concluded that the employed in situ gamma

  11. Effect of the cadmium chloride treatment on RF sputtered Cd{sub 0.6}Zn{sub 0.4}Te films for application in multijunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimpi, Tushar M., E-mail: mechanical.tushar@gmail.com; Kephart, Jason M.; Swanson, Drew E.; Munshi, Amit H.; Sampath, Walajabad S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Colorado State University, 1320 Campus Delivery, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States); Abbas, A.; Walls, John M. [CREST (Centre for Renewable Energy Systems and Technology), Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-15

    Single phase Cd{sub 0.6}Zn{sub 0.4}Te (CdZnTe) films of 1 μm thickness were deposited by radio frequency planar magnetron sputter deposition on commercial soda lime glass samples coated with fluorine-doped tin oxide and cadmium sulphide (CdS). The stack was then treated with cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}) at different temperatures using a constant treatment time. The effect of the CdCl{sub 2} treatment was studied using optical, materials, and electrical characterization of the samples and compared with the as-deposited CdZnTe film with the same stack configuration. The band gap deduced from Tauc plots on the as-deposited CdZnTe thin film was 1.72 eV. The deposited film had good crystalline quality with a preferred orientation along the {111} plane. After the CdCl{sub 2} treatment, the absorption edge shifted toward longer wavelength region and new peaks corresponding to cadmium telluride (CdTe) emerged in the x-ray diffraction pattern. This suggested loss of zinc after the CdCl{sub 2} treatment. The cross sectional transmission electron microscope images of the sample treated at 400 °C and the energy dispersive elemental maps revealed the absence of chlorine along the grain boundaries of CdZnTe and residual CdTe. The presence of chlorine in the CdTe devices plays a vital role in drastically improving the device performance which was not observed in CdZnTe samples treated with CdCl{sub 2}. The loss of zinc from the surface and incomplete recrystallization of the grains together with the presence of high densities of stacking faults were observed. The surface images using scanning electron microscopy showed that the morphology of the grains changed from small spherical shape to large grains formed due to the fusion of small grains with distinct grain boundaries visible at the higher CdCl{sub 2} treatment temperatures. The absence of chlorine along the grain boundaries, incomplete recrystallization and distinct grain boundaries is understood to cause the poor

  12. GEOLOGY OF THE FLORENCIA GOLD – TELLURIDE DEPOSIT (CAMAGÜEY, CUBA AND SOME METALLURGICAL CONSIDERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López K Jesús M.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results from a study of the Florencia gold-telluride deposit in Central Cuba, including mineralogical, petrographical, microprobe and chemical analysis. Valuable information is provided for the exploration, mining and processing of gold ores from other nearby deposits with similar characteristics. Results highlight changes in the mineralogical composition of the ores between the north and south sectors of the deposit, as reflected in metallurgical concentrates after beneficiation and flotation of samples from these sectors.
    It is shown that gold deposits of the Cretaceous Volcanic Arc of Cuba largely consist of native gold, telluride and pyrite, where arsenopyrite is almost absent. Traces of lead, zinc and cadmium are present in the periphery of the main ore zones.

  13. Photon-counting hexagonal pixel array CdTe detector: Spatial resolution characteristics for image-guided interventional applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedantham, Srinivasan; Shrestha, Suman; Karellas, Andrew; Shi, Linxi; Gounis, Matthew J; Bellazzini, Ronaldo; Spandre, Gloria; Brez, Alessandro; Minuti, Massimo

    2016-05-01

    High-resolution, photon-counting, energy-resolved detector with fast-framing capability can facilitate simultaneous acquisition of precontrast and postcontrast images for subtraction angiography without pixel registration artifacts and can facilitate high-resolution real-time imaging during image-guided interventions. Hence, this study was conducted to determine the spatial resolution characteristics of a hexagonal pixel array photon-counting cadmium telluride (CdTe) detector. A 650 μm thick CdTe Schottky photon-counting detector capable of concurrently acquiring up to two energy-windowed images was operated in a single energy-window mode to include photons of 10 keV or higher. The detector had hexagonal pixels with apothem of 30 μm resulting in pixel pitch of 60 and 51.96 μm along the two orthogonal directions. The detector was characterized at IEC-RQA5 spectral conditions. Linear response of the detector was determined over the air kerma rate relevant to image-guided interventional procedures ranging from 1.3 nGy/frame to 91.4 μGy/frame. Presampled modulation transfer was determined using a tungsten edge test device. The edge-spread function and the finely sampled line spread function accounted for hexagonal sampling, from which the presampled modulation transfer function (MTF) was determined. Since detectors with hexagonal pixels require resampling to square pixels for distortion-free display, the optimal square pixel size was determined by minimizing the root-mean-squared-error of the aperture functions for the square and hexagonal pixels up to the Nyquist limit. At Nyquist frequencies of 8.33 and 9.62 cycles/mm along the apothem and orthogonal to the apothem directions, the modulation factors were 0.397 and 0.228, respectively. For the corresponding axis, the limiting resolution defined as 10% MTF occurred at 13.3 and 12 cycles/mm, respectively. Evaluation of the aperture functions yielded an optimal square pixel size of 54 μm. After resampling to 54

  14. Photon-counting hexagonal pixel array CdTe detector: Spatial resolution characteristics for image-guided interventional applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedantham, Srinivasan; Shrestha, Suman; Karellas, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.karellas@umassmed.edu; Shi, Linxi; Gounis, Matthew J. [Department of Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655 (United States); Bellazzini, Ronaldo; Spandre, Gloria; Brez, Alessandro; Minuti, Massimo [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Pisa 56127, Italy and Pixirad Imaging Counters s.r.l., L. Pontecorvo 3, Pisa 56127 (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: High-resolution, photon-counting, energy-resolved detector with fast-framing capability can facilitate simultaneous acquisition of precontrast and postcontrast images for subtraction angiography without pixel registration artifacts and can facilitate high-resolution real-time imaging during image-guided interventions. Hence, this study was conducted to determine the spatial resolution characteristics of a hexagonal pixel array photon-counting cadmium telluride (CdTe) detector. Methods: A 650 μm thick CdTe Schottky photon-counting detector capable of concurrently acquiring up to two energy-windowed images was operated in a single energy-window mode to include photons of 10 keV or higher. The detector had hexagonal pixels with apothem of 30 μm resulting in pixel pitch of 60 and 51.96 μm along the two orthogonal directions. The detector was characterized at IEC-RQA5 spectral conditions. Linear response of the detector was determined over the air kerma rate relevant to image-guided interventional procedures ranging from 1.3 nGy/frame to 91.4 μGy/frame. Presampled modulation transfer was determined using a tungsten edge test device. The edge-spread function and the finely sampled line spread function accounted for hexagonal sampling, from which the presampled modulation transfer function (MTF) was determined. Since detectors with hexagonal pixels require resampling to square pixels for distortion-free display, the optimal square pixel size was determined by minimizing the root-mean-squared-error of the aperture functions for the square and hexagonal pixels up to the Nyquist limit. Results: At Nyquist frequencies of 8.33 and 9.62 cycles/mm along the apothem and orthogonal to the apothem directions, the modulation factors were 0.397 and 0.228, respectively. For the corresponding axis, the limiting resolution defined as 10% MTF occurred at 13.3 and 12 cycles/mm, respectively. Evaluation of the aperture functions yielded an optimal square pixel size of 54

  15. An analytical X-ray CdTe detector response matrix for incomplete charge collection correction for photon energies up to 300 keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurková, Dana; Judas, Libor

    2018-05-01

    Gamma and X-ray energy spectra measured with semiconductor detectors suffer from various distortions, one of them being so-called "tailing" caused by an incomplete charge collection. Using the Hecht equation, a response matrix of size 321 × 321 was constructed which was used to correct the effect of incomplete charge collection. The correction matrix was constructed analytically for an arbitrary energy bin and the size of the energy bin thus defines the width of the spectral window. The correction matrix can be applied separately from other possible spectral corrections or it can be incorporated into an already existing response matrix of the detector. The correction was tested and its adjustable parameters were optimized on the line spectra of 57Co measured with a cadmium telluride (CdTe) detector in a spectral range from 0 up to 160 keV. The best results were obtained when the values of the free path of holes were spread over a range from 0.4 to 1.0 cm and weighted by a Gauss function. The model with the optimized parameter values was then used to correct the line spectra of 152Eu in a spectral range from 0 up to 530 keV. An improvement in the energy resolution at full width at half maximum from 2.40 % ± 0.28 % to 0.96 % ± 0.28 % was achieved at 344.27 keV. Spectra of "narrow spectrum series" beams, N120, N150, N200, N250 and N300, generated with tube voltages of 120 kV, 150 kV, 200 kV, 250 kV and 300 kV respectively, and measured with the CdTe detector, were corrected in the spectral range from 0 to 160 keV (N120 and N150) and from 0 to 530 keV (N200, N250, N300). All the measured spectra correspond both qualitatively and quantitatively to the available reference data after the correction. To obtain better correspondence between N150, N200, N250 and N300 spectra and the reference data, lower values of the free paths of holes (range from 0.16 to 0.65 cm) were used for X-ray spectra correction, which suggests energy dependence of the phenomenon.

  16. Mechanisms of component diffusion in mercury cadmium telluride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, M.S.; Stevenson, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    The component diffusion coefficients for the Hg/sub 0.8/Cd/sub 0.2/Te (MCT) system are measured using radioactive tracers. Multiple branches are observed in the tracer diffusion profiles which are related to fast and slow-diffusing components. Diffusion models for each component are proposed based on the defect chemistry of MCT, a calculation of the thermodynamic factor, and the relationship between component diffusion coefficients and the interdiffusion coefficients for pseudobinary systems. The model provides insight into the thermodynamic properties of the system, the mechanisms for diffusion, and the practical application of tracer diffusion data to interdiffusion and p-to-n conversion by Hg annealing

  17. Sheet resistance effects in mercury cadmium telluride implanted photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorito, G.; Gasparrini, G.; Svelto, F.

    1977-01-01

    The frequency response of Hg + implanted Hgsub(1-x)Cdsub(x)Te photodiodes is discussed. This analysis, evaluating both the response to fast laser pulses and the 3 dB rolloff of the diode shot-noise spectrum, showed the necessity of adopting a distributed equivalent circuit model taking into account the implanted layer sheet resistance. Frequency behaviour, in fact, proved not to match a simple p-n junction model based on a lumped standard equivalent circuit. On this basis apparent anomalies previously reported can be explained, and useful suggestions can be obtained for design and fabrication of fast detectors. (author)

  18. The Cadmium Zinc Telluride Imager on AstroSat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V. Bhalerao

    2017-06-19

    Jun 19, 2017 ... which act as the interface to the satellite. The overall dimensions of ... plate affixed on a side to dissipate heat and provide a cold bias for maintaining ... patterns, with some repeats, were placed in the form of a 4 × 4 matrix to ...

  19. Surface passivation for CdTe devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reese, Matthew O.; Perkins, Craig L.; Burst, James M.; Gessert, Timothy A.; Barnes, Teresa M.; Metzger, Wyatt K.

    2017-08-01

    In one embodiment, a method for surface passivation for CdTe devices is provided. The method includes adjusting a stoichiometry of a surface of a CdTe material layer such that the surface becomes at least one of stoichiometric or Cd-rich; and reconstructing a crystalline lattice at the surface of the CdTe material layer by annealing the adjusted surface.

  20. Polycrystalline CdTe solar cells on elastic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibinski, M.; Lisik, Z.

    2007-01-01

    The presented article is a report on progress in photovoltaic devices and material processing. A cadmium telluride solar cell as one of the most attractive option for thin-film polycrystalline cell constructions is presented. All typical manufacturing steps of this device, including recrystallisation and junction activation are explained. A new potential field of application for this kind of device - the BIPV (Building Integrated Photovoltaic) is named and discussed. All possible configuration options for this application, according to material properties and exploitation demands are considered. The experimental part of the presented paper is focused on practical implementation of the high - temperature polymer foil as the substrate of the newly designed device by the help of ICSVT (Isothermal Close Space Vapour Transport) technique. The evaluation of the polyester and polyamide foils according to the ICSVT/CSS manufacturing process parameters is described and discussed. A final conclusion on practical verification of these materials is also given. (authors)

  1. Impacting Innovation and Commercialization: NREL's Partnering Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    pioneer cadmium telluride (CdTe) solar panels with industry. DOE recognized the lab's role, and NREL's deposits uniform layers of semiconductor material for solar panels, won a 2003 R&D100 Award and was

  2. Selective and low temperature transition metal intercalation in layered tellurides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Takeshi; Koshiko, Masaki; Zhang, Yaoqing; Oguchi, Tamio; Yu, Wen; Kato, Daichi; Kobayashi, Yoji; Orikasa, Yuki; Yamamoto, Takafumi; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Green, Mark A.; Kageyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Layered materials embrace rich intercalation reactions to accommodate high concentrations of foreign species within their structures, and find many applications spanning from energy storage, ion exchange to secondary batteries. Light alkali metals are generally most easily intercalated due to their light mass, high charge/volume ratio and in many cases strong reducing properties. An evolving area of materials chemistry, however, is to capture metals selectively, which is of technological and environmental significance but rather unexplored. Here we show that the layered telluride T2PTe2 (T=Ti, Zr) displays exclusive insertion of transition metals (for example, Cd, Zn) as opposed to alkali cations, with tetrahedral coordination preference to tellurium. Interestingly, the intercalation reactions proceed in solid state and at surprisingly low temperatures (for example, 80 °C for cadmium in Ti2PTe2). The current method of controlling selectivity provides opportunities in the search for new materials for various applications that used to be possible only in a liquid. PMID:27966540

  3. Self-Catalyzed CdTe Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Baines

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available CdTe wires have been fabricated via a catalyst free method using the industrially scalable physical vapor deposition technique close space sublimation. Wire growth was shown to be highly dependent on surface roughness and deposition pressure, with only low roughness surfaces being capable of producing wires. Growth of wires is highly (111 oriented and is inferred to occur via a vapor-solid-solid growth mechanism, wherein a CdTe seed particle acts to template the growth. Such seed particles are visible as wire caps and have been characterized via energy dispersive X-ray analysis to establish they are single phase CdTe, hence validating the self-catalysation route. Cathodoluminescence analysis demonstrates that CdTe wires exhibited a much lower level of recombination when compared to a planar CdTe film, which is highly beneficial for semiconductor applications.

  4. Fluorescence-tagged metallothionein with CdTe quantum dots analyzed by the chip-CE technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guszpit, Ewelina, E-mail: ewelina.guszpit@gmail.com [Wroclaw Medical University, Department of Biomedical and Environmental Analysis, Faculty of Pharmacy (Poland); Krizkova, Sona [Mendel University in Brno, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy (Czech Republic); Kepinska, Marta [Wroclaw Medical University, Department of Biomedical and Environmental Analysis, Faculty of Pharmacy (Poland); Rodrigo, Miguel Angel Merlos [Mendel University in Brno, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy (Czech Republic); Milnerowicz, Halina [Wroclaw Medical University, Department of Biomedical and Environmental Analysis, Faculty of Pharmacy (Poland); Kopel, Pavel; Kizek, Rene [Mendel University in Brno, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy (Czech Republic)

    2015-11-15

    Quantum dots (QDs) are fluorescence nanoparticles (NPs) with unique optic properties which allow their use as probes in chemical, biological, immunological, and molecular imaging. QDs linked with target ligands such as peptides or small molecules can be used as tumor biomarkers. These particles are a promising tool for selective, fast, and sensitive tagging and imaging in medicine. In this study, an attempt was made to use QDs as a marker for human metallothionein (MT) isoforms 1 and 2. Four kinds of CdTe QDs of different sizes bioconjugated with MT were analyzed using the chip-CE technique. Based on the results, it can be concluded that MT is willing to interact with QDs, and the chip-CE technique enables the observation of their complexes. It was also observed that changes ranging roughly 6–7 kDa, a value corresponding to the MT monomer, depend on the hydrodynamic diameters of QDs; also, the MT sample without cadmium interacted stronger with QDs than MT saturated with cadmium. Results show that MT is willing to interact with smaller QDs (blue CdTe) rather than larger ones QDs (red CdTe). To our knowledge, chip-CE has not previously been applied in the study of CdTe QDs interaction with MT.Graphical Abstract.

  5. Fluorescence-tagged metallothionein with CdTe quantum dots analyzed by the chip-CE technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guszpit, Ewelina; Krizkova, Sona; Kepinska, Marta; Rodrigo, Miguel Angel Merlos; Milnerowicz, Halina; Kopel, Pavel; Kizek, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are fluorescence nanoparticles (NPs) with unique optic properties which allow their use as probes in chemical, biological, immunological, and molecular imaging. QDs linked with target ligands such as peptides or small molecules can be used as tumor biomarkers. These particles are a promising tool for selective, fast, and sensitive tagging and imaging in medicine. In this study, an attempt was made to use QDs as a marker for human metallothionein (MT) isoforms 1 and 2. Four kinds of CdTe QDs of different sizes bioconjugated with MT were analyzed using the chip-CE technique. Based on the results, it can be concluded that MT is willing to interact with QDs, and the chip-CE technique enables the observation of their complexes. It was also observed that changes ranging roughly 6–7 kDa, a value corresponding to the MT monomer, depend on the hydrodynamic diameters of QDs; also, the MT sample without cadmium interacted stronger with QDs than MT saturated with cadmium. Results show that MT is willing to interact with smaller QDs (blue CdTe) rather than larger ones QDs (red CdTe). To our knowledge, chip-CE has not previously been applied in the study of CdTe QDs interaction with MT.Graphical Abstract

  6. Cadmium carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waalkes, Michael P.

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium is a heavy metal of considerable environmental and occupational concern. Cadmium compounds are classified as human carcinogens by several regulatory agencies. The most convincing data that cadmium is carcinogenic in humans comes from studies indicating occupational cadmium exposure is associated with lung cancer. Cadmium exposure has also been linked to human prostate and renal cancer, although this linkage is weaker than for lung cancer. Other target sites of cadmium carcinogenesis in humans, such as liver, pancreas and stomach, are considered equivocal. In animals, cadmium effectively induces cancers at multiple sites and by various routes. Cadmium inhalation in rats induces pulmonary adenocarcinomas, in accord with its role in human lung cancer. Cadmium can induce tumors and/or preneoplastic lesions within the rat prostate after ingestion or injection. At relatively high doses, cadmium induces benign testicular tumors in rats, but these appear to be due to early toxic lesions and loss of testicular function, rather than from a specific carcinogenic effect of cadmium. Like many other metals, cadmium salts will induce mesenchymal tumors at the site of subcutaneous (s.c.) or intramuscular (i.m.) injections, but the human relevance of these is dubious. Other targets of cadmium in rodents include the liver, adrenal, pancreas, pituitary, and hematopoietic system. With the exception of testicular tumors in rodents, the mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis are poorly defined. Cadmium can cause any number of molecular lesions that would be relevant to oncogenesis in various cellular model systems. Most studies indicate cadmium is poorly mutagenic and probably acts through indirect or epigenetic mechanisms, potentially including aberrant activation of oncogenes and suppression of apoptosis

  7. Cadmium carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waalkes, Michael P

    2003-12-10

    Cadmium is a heavy metal of considerable environmental and occupational concern. Cadmium compounds are classified as human carcinogens by several regulatory agencies. The most convincing data that cadmium is carcinogenic in humans comes from studies indicating occupational cadmium exposure is associated with lung cancer. Cadmium exposure has also been linked to human prostate and renal cancer, although this linkage is weaker than for lung cancer. Other target sites of cadmium carcinogenesis in humans, such as liver, pancreas and stomach, are considered equivocal. In animals, cadmium effectively induces cancers at multiple sites and by various routes. Cadmium inhalation in rats induces pulmonary adenocarcinomas, in accord with its role in human lung cancer. Cadmium can induce tumors and/or preneoplastic lesions within the rat prostate after ingestion or injection. At relatively high doses, cadmium induces benign testicular tumors in rats, but these appear to be due to early toxic lesions and loss of testicular function, rather than from a specific carcinogenic effect of cadmium. Like many other metals, cadmium salts will induce mesenchymal tumors at the site of subcutaneous (s.c.) or intramuscular (i.m.) injections, but the human relevance of these is dubious. Other targets of cadmium in rodents include the liver, adrenal, pancreas, pituitary, and hematopoietic system. With the exception of testicular tumors in rodents, the mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis are poorly defined. Cadmium can cause any number of molecular lesions that would be relevant to oncogenesis in various cellular model systems. Most studies indicate cadmium is poorly mutagenic and probably acts through indirect or epigenetic mechanisms, potentially including aberrant activation of oncogenes and suppression of apoptosis.

  8. Developing fine-pixel CdTe detectors for the next generation of high-resolution hard x-ray telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christe, Steven

    Over the past decade, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been improving the angular resolution of hard X-ray (HXR; 20 "70 keV) optics to the point that we now routinely manufacture optics modules with an angular resolution of 20 arcsec Half Power Diameter (HDP), almost three times the performance of NuSTAR optics (Ramsey et al. 2013; Gubarev et al. 2013a; Atkins et al. 2013). New techniques are currently being developed to provide even higher angular resolution. High angular resolution HXR optics require detectors with a large number of fine pixels in order to adequately sample the telescope point spread function (PSF) over the entire field of view. Excessively over-sampling the PSF will increase readout noise and require more processing with no appreciable increase in image quality. An appropriate level of over-sampling is to have 3 pixels within the HPD. For the HERO mirrors, where the HPD is 26 arcsec over a 6-m focal length converts to 750 μm, the optimum pixel size is around 250 μm. At a 10-m focal length these detectors can support a 16 arcsec HPD. Of course, the detectors must also have high efficiency in the HXR region, good energy resolution, low background, low power requirements, and low sensitivity to radiation damage (Ramsey 2001). The ability to handle high counting rates is also desirable for efficient calibration. A collaboration between Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), MSFC, and Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the UK is developing precisely such detectors under an ongoing, funded APRA program (FY2015 to FY2017). The detectors use the RALdeveloped Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) dubbed HEXITEC, for High Energy X-Ray Imaging Technology. These HEXITEC ASICs can be bonded to 1- or 2- mm-thick Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) or Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT) to create a fine (250 μm pitch) HXR detector (Jones et al. 2009; Seller et al. 2011). The objectives of this funded effort are to develop and test a HEXITEC

  9. Occurency and aqueous processing of tellurides from Sonora (Mexico)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguayo, S.; Perez, E.; Ecinas, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Tellurium production is limited mainly to that obtained from the treatment of electrolyte muds from copper refineries. however, there are several other sources from which the precious metal tellurides are potentially attractive. This work presents a review of the main localitiesin Sonora (Mexico), where tellurides have been found. In addition, based upon the physical chemistry fundamentals for tellurium and precious metal tellurides, the aqueous extraction and recovery routes are discussed. (Author) 51 refs

  10. Synthesis of cadmium chalcogenide nanotubes at room temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Jun

    2012-10-01

    Cadmium chalcogenide (CdE, E=S, Se, Te) polycrystalline nanotubes have been synthesized from precursor of CdS/cadmium thiolate complex at room temperature. The precursor was hydrothermally synthesized at 180 °C using thioglycolic acid (TGA) and cadmium acetate as starting materials. The transformation from the rod-like precursor of CdS/cadmium thiolate complex to CdS, CdSe and CdTe nanotubes were performed under constant stirring at room temperature in aqueous solution containing S 2-, Se 2- and Te 2-, respectively. The nanotube diameter can be controlled from 150 to 400 nm related to the dimension of templates. The XRD patterns show the cadmium chalcogenide nanotubes all corresponding to face-centered cubic structure. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthesis of cadmium chalcogenide nanotubes at room temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Jun; Qian, Yitai

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium chalcogenide (CdE, E=S, Se, Te) polycrystalline nanotubes have been synthesized from precursor of CdS/cadmium thiolate complex at room temperature. The precursor was hydrothermally synthesized at 180 °C using thioglycolic acid (TGA) and cadmium acetate as starting materials. The transformation from the rod-like precursor of CdS/cadmium thiolate complex to CdS, CdSe and CdTe nanotubes were performed under constant stirring at room temperature in aqueous solution containing S 2-, Se 2- and Te 2-, respectively. The nanotube diameter can be controlled from 150 to 400 nm related to the dimension of templates. The XRD patterns show the cadmium chalcogenide nanotubes all corresponding to face-centered cubic structure. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Tellurium self-diffusion and point defects in lead telluride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simirskij, Yu.N.; Firsova, L.P.

    1982-01-01

    Method of radioactive indicators was used to determine factors of tellurium self-diffusion in lead telluride with different deviation of the composition from stoichiometric in the range of enrichment by tellurium. It was found that at 973 K factors of tellurium self-diffusion in lead telluride depend slightly on the vapor pressure of tellurium equilibrium with solid phase

  13. Spectroscopic study on the doping of polycrystalline CdTe layers for solar cells; Spektroskopische Untersuchungen zur Dotierung von polykristallinen CdTe-Schichten fuer Solarzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, Christian

    2011-11-29

    First in the present thesis the fundamental properties of CdTe are described. In the following it is discussed, how a CdTe solar cell is generally constructed, which specialities are to be regarded, and how an improvement of the actually reachable data of such a solar cell in view of the efficiency can be reached fundamentally and in then practical realization. In the third chapter the physical foundations of the most important methods are discussed, which are applied in the framework of this thesis for the analysis of the CdTe layers. The fourth chapter describes the details of the experiments of this thesis. The fifth chapter deals with the analysis of the photoluminescence of CdTe layers. Special attention is put on the analysis of the excitonic luminescence. The sixth chapter treats the implantation of CdTe layers with phosphor. The influence of phosphorus as dopant on the PL spectra of CdTe and the correponding characteristics of implanted solar cells are presented. Also the influence of radiation damages as consequence of the ion implantation is studied in this chapter by means of the analysis of differently thick absorber layers. In the seventh chapter finally a new procedure for the fabrication of solar cells on the base of CdTe as absorber material is introduced, which shall make possible to change the stoichiometry of cadmium mand tellurium specifically and to present additionally a suited material, in order to form the doping of CdTE a solar-cell material variably. The fundamental properties of the new facility are experimentally determined, and first solar cells are fabricated with this facility and analyzed. Also an in-situ doping with phosphorus is thereby performed and the result studied.

  14. Cadmium sulfate and CdTe-quantum dots alter DNA repair in zebrafish (Danio rerio) liver cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Song; Cai, Qingsong [The Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79416 (United States); Chibli, Hicham [Department of Biomedical Engineering, McGill University, Montréal, QC H3A 2B4 (Canada); Allagadda, Vinay [The Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79416 (United States); Nadeau, Jay L. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, McGill University, Montréal, QC H3A 2B4 (Canada); Mayer, Gregory D., E-mail: greg.mayer@ttu.edu [The Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79416 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Increasing use of quantum dots (QDs) makes it necessary to evaluate their toxicological impacts on aquatic organisms, since their contamination of surface water is inevitable. This study compares the genotoxic effects of ionic Cd versus CdTe nanocrystals in zebrafish hepatocytes. After 24 h of CdSO{sub 4} or CdTe QD exposure, zebrafish liver (ZFL) cells showed a decreased number of viable cells, an accumulation of Cd, an increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and an induction of DNA strand breaks. Measured levels of stress defense and DNA repair genes were elevated in both cases. However, removal of bulky DNA adducts by nucleotide excision repair (NER) was inhibited with CdSO{sub 4} but not with CdTe QDs. The adverse effects caused by acute exposure of CdTe QDs might be mediated through differing mechanisms than those resulting from ionic cadmium toxicity, and studying the effects of metallic components may be not enough to explain QD toxicities in aquatic organisms. - Highlights: • Both CdSO{sub 4} and CdTe QDs lead to cell death and Cd accumulation. • Both CdSO{sub 4} and CdTe QDs induce cellular ROS generation and DNA strand breaks. • Both CdSO{sub 4} and CdTe QDs induce the expressions of stress defense and DNA repair genes. • NER repair capacity was inhibited with CdSO{sub 4} but not with CdTe QDs.

  15. Electronic structure of CdTe using GGA+U{sup SIC}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menéndez-Proupin, E., E-mail: emenendez@uchile.cl [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, 780-0003 Ñuñoa, Santiago (Chile); Instituto de Energía Solar and Dept. Tecnologías Especiales, E.T.S.I. Telecomunicación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (Spain); Amézaga, A. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, 780-0003 Ñuñoa, Santiago (Chile); Instituto de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad Austral de Chile, Casilla 567, Valdivia (Chile); Cruz Hernández, N. [Departamento de Física Aplicada I, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería Informática, Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Reina Mercedes, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)

    2014-11-01

    A simple method to obtain a gap-corrected band structure of cadmium telluride within density functional theory is presented. On-site Coulomb self-interaction-like correction potential has been applied to the 5p-shell of Te and the 4d-shell of Cd. The predicted physical properties are similar to or better than those obtained with hybrid functionals and at largely reduced computational cost. In addition to the corrected electronic structure, the lattice parameters and the bulk modulus are improved. The relative stabilities of the different phases (zincblende, wurtzite, rocksalt and cinnabar) are preserved. The formation energy of the cadmium vacancy remains close to the values obtained from hybrid functional calculations.

  16. Development of planar waveguides in zinc telluride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valette, Serge

    1977-02-01

    Zinc telluride (ZnTe) is one of the most attractive semi-conductors for monolithic integrated optics. In this study, the general characteristics of the planar optical waveguides achieved by implantation of light ions in ZnTe are investigated. Different aspects of prism-coupling and coherent light guiding have been taken up theoretically and experimentally. Some assumptions about the physical origin of these structures are discussed in order to explain all these results and the weak losses which have been measured. [fr

  17. Production of CdTe Semiconductor Thin Films by Electrodeposition Technique for Solar Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet PEKSÖZ

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Electro-deposited cadmium tellurite (CuTe thin film was grown onto ITO-coated glass substrate for 120 seconds at the room temperature and a constant cathodic potential of -0.85 V. Deposition solution was prepared from cadmium chloride (CdCl2, sodium tellurite (Na2TeO3 and pure water. The pH value of the deposition solution was adjusted to 2.0 by adding HCl. The EDX analysis shows that the film has 52% Cd and 48% Te elemental compositions. Film thickness was found to be 140 nm. The CdTe thin film exhibits p-type semiconductor character, and has an energy bandgap of 1.47 eV. 

  18. CdTe magic-sized clusters and the use as building blocks for assembling two-dimensional nanoplatelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hu; Hou, Yumei; Zhang, Hua

    2017-06-01

    A facile one-pot noninjection synthesis of CdTe magic-sized clusters (MSCs) and their use as building blocks for assembling two-dimensional (2D) quantum confined nanoplatelets (NPLs) are reported. Four distinct MSC families, with the first exciton absorption peaks at 447 nm (F447), 485 nm (F485), 535 nm (F535), and 555 nm (F555), are synthesized by the reaction between cadmium oleate and trioctylphosphine tellurium (TOP-Te) in octadecene media containing primary amine and TOP at appropriate intermediate temperatures. Especially, F447 is obtained in pure form and can self-assemble in situ into 2D NPLs in the reaction solution. The formation, growth, and transformation of CdTe MSCs are monitored mainly by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The pure F447 and its assembled 2D NPLs are further characterized using transmission electron microscopy. The influence of various experimental variables, including reaction temperature, the nature, and amount of capping ligands, on the stability and growth kinetics of the obtained MSC families has been systematically investigated. Experimental results indicate that the appropriate reaction temperature and the presence of long hydrocarbon chain primary amines play a crucial role in the formation of MSCs and the subsequent assembly into 2D NPLs. Primary amines can also promote ultra-small sized CdTe regular nanocrystals to transform into MSCs, and therefore, CdTe MSCs can be obtained indirectly from regularly sized nanocrystals. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. Mercury telluride as a zero-gap semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berchenko, N.N.; Pashkovskij, M.V.

    1976-01-01

    The paper presents a review of main properties of mercury telluride which is a representative of a new class of substances - gapless semiconductors. The causes leading to the appearance of a gapless state in mercury chalcogenides are considered; it is demonstrated that the main role in the formation of the inverse band structure belongs to relativistic corrections. The specific properties of mercury telluride are associated with the zero forbidden band, p-like nature of electron states of the conduction band and its nonparabolicity, resonance states of impurities and anomalies of dielectric permittivity. Conditions of forbidden band appearing in mercury telluride under the effect external factors are analyzed

  20. Review of CdTe medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entine, G; Garcia, D A; Tow, D E

    1977-02-01

    CdTe sensors are now being used in several areas of nuclear medicine. CdTe probe technics, originally developed to study dental pathology in dog models, are being used clinically to diagnose venous thrombosis of the legs and to detect occult dental infections in patients scheduled for prosthetic cardiovascular and orthopedic surgery. Similar instrumentation is in use in animal research of myocardial infarction and synthetic tooth substitutes. Transmission technics have also been developed to diagnose pulmonary edema and to measure bone mineral changes in space flight. Investigations are also underway in the use of linear or two-dimensional arrays of CdTe gamma sensors for medical imaging. Economic considerations have slowed this work, but the technology appears to be available. Development of photoconductive CdTe X-ray detectors for scintigraphic scanners has also begun. Rapid detector improvement will be needed for success in this field, but the potential usefulness is very great. Together, the present application results are encouraging and wide use of CdTe detectors should occur within only a few years.

  1. Electrochemical Deposition of CdTe Semiconductor Thin Films for Solar Cell Application Using Two-Electrode and Three-Electrode Configurations: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. K. Echendu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of CdTe semiconductor were electrochemically deposited using two-electrode and three-electrode configurations in potentiostatic mode for comparison. Cadmium sulphate and tellurium dioxide were used as cadmium and tellurium sources, respectively. The layers obtained using both configurations exhibit similar structural, optical, and electrical properties with no specific dependence on any particular electrode configuration used. These results indicate that electrochemical deposition (electrodeposition of CdTe and semiconductors in general can equally be carried out using two-electrode system as well as the conventional three-electrode system without compromising the essential qualities of the materials produced. The results also highlight the advantages of the two-electrode configuration in process simplification, cost reduction, and removal of a possible impurity source in the growth system, especially as the reference electrode ages.

  2. Luminous composite ultrathin films of CdTe quantum dots/silk fibroin co-assembled with layered doubled hydroxide: Enhanced photoluminescence and biosensor application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sohail Haroone

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Quantum dots (QDs luminescent films are extensively applied to optoelectronics and optical devices. However, QDs aggregation results in the quenching of their fluorescence property which limits their practical applications to a greater extent. In order to resolve this issue, 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MPA functionalized Cadmium Tellurium (CdTe QDs were stabilized by silk fibroin (SB and co-assembled with layered doubled hydroxide (LDH to form (QDs@SF/LDHn ultrathin films (UTFs via the layer-by-layer (LBL technique. UV–Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy showed a stepwise and normal growth of the films upon increasing the number of deposition cycles. XRD and AFM studies confirmed the formation of a periodic layered structure and regular surface morphology of the thin films. As compared to (CdTe QDs/LDHnUTFs, the (CdTe QDs@SF/LDHnUTFs displayed fluorescence enhancement and longer fluorescent lifetime, both in solid states and aqueous solutions. Furthermore compared with the solution state, the fluorescence enhancement of SF-RC and SF-β are, respectively, 7 times and 17 times in the (CdTe QDs@SF/LDHn UTFs, indicating that the LDH nanosheets favor the fluorescence enhancement effect on the CdTe QDs@SF. The fabricated materials displayed fluorescence response to a biological molecule such as immune globulin, lgG. Thus, the (CdTe QDs@SF/LDHn UTFs has a potential to be used as biosensor. Keywords: CdTe quantum dots, Silk fibroin, Layered doubled hydroxide, Co-assembly, Fluorescence enhancement

  3. Structural, optical, photoluminescence, dielectric and electrical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The optical band gap of thin films was found to allow direct tran- sition with energy ... Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is an important group II–VI semi- ... Extensive research was done in the last two decades on CdTe ... 3.1 X-ray diffraction analysis.

  4. Cadmium Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    carcinogenic, leachable Trivalent and non- chrome passivates generally struggle with conductivity Major Differences in Trivalent vs. Hexavalent Passivates...for Change Cadmium passivated with hexavalent chromium has been in use for many decades Cadmium is toxic, and is classified as a priority...Executive Orders 13514 & 13423 DoD initiatives – Young memo (April 2009) DFAR restricting use of hexavalent chromium Allows the use of hexavalent

  5. Research into the electrical property variation of undoped CdTe and ZnTe crystals grown under Te-rich conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yadong, E-mail: xyd220@nwpu.edu.cn; Liu, Hang; He, Yihui; Yang, Rui; Luo, Lin; Jie, Wanqi

    2014-11-05

    Highlights: • Conductivity type and resistivity of undoped Te-rich ZnTe and CdTe are different. • Te{sub i} and V{sub Zn} as the dominant defects account for the p-type low resistivity ZnTe. • Te{sub Cd} as the principle defect leading to the light n-type high resistivity CdTe. • DAP and eA peaks dominate the luminescence with their intensities anti-correlated. - Abstract: Both undoped ZnTe and CdTe bulk single crystals are grown under Te-saturated conditions from the solution and melt, respectively. To give an insight into the variation of the electrical properties, the defects structures in both tellurides are discussed. According to the actual growth velocities and the entire cooling history, tellurium interstitials (Te{sub i}) and Zinc vacancies (V{sub Zn}) are proposed as the dominant grown-in defects, account for the low resistivity of p-type ZnTe. However, relatively high pulling rates and slow cooling-down processes result in tellurium anti-sites (Te{sub Cd}) as the principle grown-in defects, leading to the high resistivity of light n-type CdTe. Further low-temperature (8.6 K) photoluminescence spectra of both tellurides are obtained. The donor–acceptor pair (DAP) and recombination of free electron to neutral acceptor (eA) dominate the luminescence, however, with their intensities are anti-correlated. eA is superior to DAP in undoped Te-rich ZnTe, suggests a high concentration of Te{sub i} or V{sub Zn}. On the contrary, DAP is the principal emission for undoped Te-rich CdTe. In addition, V-line is clearly identified in undoped Te-rich ZnTe, which possibly associated with V{sub Zn} or close Frenkel pair V{sub Zn}–Zn{sub i}.

  6. Studies of antimony telluride and copper telluride films electrodeposition from choline chloride containing ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catrangiu, Adriana-Simona; Sin, Ion [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, Calea Grivitei 132, Bucharest (Romania); Prioteasa, Paula [INCDIE ICPE-Advanced Research, Splaiul Unirii 313, Bucharest (Romania); Cotarta, Adina [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, Calea Grivitei 132, Bucharest (Romania); Cojocaru, Anca, E-mail: a_cojocaru@chim.upb.ro [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, Calea Grivitei 132, Bucharest (Romania); Anicai, Liana [Center of Surface Science and Nanotechnology, University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, Splaiul Independentei 313, Bucharest (Romania); Visan, Teodor [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, Calea Grivitei 132, Bucharest (Romania)

    2016-07-29

    Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to investigate the deposition of antimony telluride or copper telluride from ionic liquid consisting in mixture of choline chloride with oxalic acid. In addition, the cathodic process during copper telluride formation was studied in the mixture of choline chloride with ethylene glycol. The results indicate that the Pt electrode is first covered with a Te layer, and then the more negative polarisation leads to the deposition of Sb{sub x}Te{sub y} or Cu{sub x}Te{sub y} semiconductor compounds. Thin films were deposited on copper and carbon steel at 60–70 °C and were characterised by scanning electron microscopy, energy X-ray dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Their stoichiometry depends on the bath composition and applied potential. EDS and XRD patterns indicate the possible synthesis of stoichiometric Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} phase and Cu{sub 2}Te, Cu{sub 5}Te{sub 3}, and Cu{sub 2.8}Te{sub 2} phases, respectively, by controlling the ratio of ion concentrations in ionic liquid electrolytes and deposition potential. - Highlights: • Sb{sub x}Te{sub y} and Cu{sub x}Te{sub y} films electrodeposited from choline-chloride-based ionic liquids. • The stoichiometry of film depends on the bath composition and deposition potential. • Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, Cu{sub 2}Te, Cu{sub 5}Te{sub 3}, Cu{sub 2.8}Te{sub 2} phases were identified in X-ray diffraction patterns.

  7. Telluride School, Telluride, Colorado solar-energy-system performance evaluation, February 1982-April 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, K.M.

    1982-01-01

    The Telluride School solar site is an elementary/junior-senior high school in Colorado with a passive/active hybrid solar energy system designed to supply 40% of the heating load. It is equipped with a 1428 square foot, double glazed Trombe wall, a 1392 square foot greenhouse with collection tube, and an auxiliary oil-fired boiler. Monthly performance data are tabulated for the overall system and for the Trombe wall, greenhouse, and greenhouse storage. System operation is illustrated by graphs of typical Trombe wall insolation and temperatures and typical greenhouse insolation and temperatures. (LEW)

  8. Synthesis and evaluation of lead telluride/bismuth antimony telluride nanocomposites for thermoelectric applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Shreyashi; Zhou, Chen; Morelli, Donald; Sakamoto, Jeffrey; Uher, Ctirad; Brock, Stephanie L.

    2011-12-01

    Heterogeneous nanocomposites of p-type bismuth antimony telluride (Bi 2- xSb xTe 3) with lead telluride (PbTe) nanoinclusions have been prepared by an incipient wetness impregnation approach. The Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity and Hall coefficient were measured from 80 to 380 K in order to investigate the influence of PbTe nanoparticles on the thermoelectric performance of nanocomposites. The Seebeck coefficients and electrical resistivities of nanocomposites decrease with increasing PbTe nanoparticle concentration due to an increased hole concentration. The lattice thermal conductivity decreases with the addition of PbTe nanoparticles but the total thermal conductivity increases due to the increased electronic thermal conductivity. We conclude that the presence of nanosized PbTe in the bulk Bi 2- xSb xTe 3 matrix results in a collateral doping effect, which dominates transport properties. This study underscores the need for immiscible systems to achieve the decreased thermal transport properties possible from nanostructuring without compromising the electronic properties.

  9. SU-E-T-231: Measurements of Gold Nanoparticle-Mediated Proton Dose Enhancement Due to Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission and Activation Products Using Radiochromic Films and CdTe Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, J; Cho, S; Manohar, N; Krishnan, S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: There have been several reports of enhanced cell-killing and tumor regression when tumor cells and mouse tumors were loaded with gold nanoparticles (GNPs) prior to proton irradiation. While particle-induced xray emission (PIXE), Auger electrons, secondary electrons, free radicals, and biological effects have been suggested as potential mechanisms responsible for the observed GNP-mediated dose enhancement/radiosensitization, there is a lack of quantitative analysis regarding the contribution from each mechanism. Here, we report our experimental effort to quantify some of these effects. Methods: 5-cm-long cylindrical plastic vials were filled with 1.8 mL of either water or water mixed with cylindrical GNPs at the same gold concentration (0.3 mg Au/g) as used in previous animal studies. A piece of EBT2 radiochromic film (30-µm active-layer sandwiched between 80/175-µm outer-layers) was inserted along the long axis of each vial and used to measure dose enhancement due to PIXE from GNPs. Vials were placed at center-of-modulation (COM) and 3-cm up-/down-stream from COM and irradiated with 5 different doses (2–10 Gy) using 10-cm-SOBP 160-MeV protons. After irradiation, films were cleaned and read to determine the delivered dose. A vial containing spherical GNPs (20 mg Au/g) was also irradiated, and gamma-rays from activation products were measured using a cadmium-telluride (CdTe) detector. Results: Film measurements showed no significant dose enhancement beyond the experimental uncertainty (∼2%). There was a detectable activation product from GNPs, but it appeared to contribute to dose enhancement minimally (<0.01%). Conclusion: Considering the composition of EBT2 film, it can be inferred that gold characteristic x-rays from PIXE and their secondary electrons make insignificant contribution to dose enhancement. The current investigation also suggests negligible dose enhancement due to activation products. Thus, previously-reported GNP-mediated proton dose

  10. Technical and economic opportunities for CdTe PV at the turn of the millennium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, Peter V.; Albright, Scot P.

    2000-01-01

    A variety of issues face the photovoltaic (PV) industry in order to meet a market penetration goal of more than gigawatt per year in worldwide sales before the year 2020. Although the PV market is dominated by silicon-based technology, it is not reasonable to project installed system prices of below $1.50/W in the next 5 or even 20 years without including the impact of polycrystalline thin films. Polycrystalline thin-film technologies, including cadmium telluride (CdTe)-based technologies, are a viable option for enabling lower costs, more rapid market expansion, and gigawatt/yr annual sales. A number of issues must be resolved in order to demonstrate a competitive price of energy to the customer in the range of the $0.11-0.16/kWh. (Author)

  11. Use of various device geometries to improve the performance of CdTe detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanio, K.

    1977-01-01

    Cadmium telluride detectors were fabricated from semi-insulating material (rho>10 7 Ω.cm) with different geometries. So as to take advantages of the superior mobility-trapping time products of electrons (equal to 6.10x10 -4 cm 2 /V) as compared to those of holes approximately 5x10 -6 cm 2 /V) and suit different ranges of photon energies. In the case of X-ray detectors, plane parallel devices were fabricated with active areas up to 3cm 2 . For the case of high energy more penetrating radiation, cube shaped detectors, having nonuniform electric fields, were fabricated. Arrays were also made from such cubes to evaluate their potential use in imaging applications at room temperature. Where a small frontal area but high efficiency is required, such as in ablation studies for reentry vehicles, bar-shaped detectors, 3mmx7mm and up to 2cm in length are appropriate and were also fabricated

  12. Electrochemical Deposition of Lanthanum Telluride Thin Films and Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Su (Ike); Farias, Stephen; Cammarata, Robert

    2013-03-01

    Tellurium alloys are characterized by their high performance thermoelectric properties and recent research has shown nanostructured tellurium alloys display even greater performance than bulk equivalents. Increased thermoelectric efficiency of nanostructured materials have led to significant interests in developing thin film and nanowire structures. Here, we report on the first successful electrodeposition of lanthanum telluride thin films and nanowires. The electrodeposition of lanthanum telluride thin films is performed in ionic liquids at room temperature. The synthesis of nanowires involves electrodepositing lanthanum telluride arrays into anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanoporous membranes. These novel procedures can serve as an alternative means of simple, inexpensive and laboratory-environment friendly methods to synthesize nanostructured thermoelectric materials. The thermoelectric properties of thin films and nanowires will be presented to compare to current state-of-the-art thermoelectric materials. The morphologies and chemical compositions of the deposited films and nanowires are characterized using SEM and EDAX analysis.

  13. Spectrometry of X-ray beams using Cadmium and Zinc Teluride detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Paulo Henriques Bastos

    1997-06-01

    Determination of X-ray spectra to be utilized for medical diagnostics is a complementary process to the development of procedures to be applied to the quality control of radiodiagnostics X-ray equipment. Until some years ago, that was only possible using Germanium or Silicon detectors. Both have an excellent resolution in this energy range, but present also some restrictions as there are high costs and the necessity of operating them at temperature of liquid Nitrogen, which is not always available at the measurement's place. Room temperature detectors like Cadmium Telluride and Mercury Iodine don't have these restrictions. They, however, have a lower resolution and incomplete collection of the charges produced by their interaction with radiation. With technological advance of crystal growth in general and new techniques like cooling the crystal with a Peltier cell and rise time discrimination circuits, today Cadmium Telluride detectors show a resolution very close to that from Germanium detectors. This work relates to the routine use of Cadmium and Zinc Telluride detectors for measuring X-ray spectra in loco of diagnostic X-ray units. It characterizes the properties of a commercially available detector and offers a model for stripping the measured pulse height distribution. It was also developed a collimator to allow the direct measurement of the beam. The model developed and the constructed set-up were applied to two X-ray tubes and the achieved spectra compared with some spectra available from the literature. (author)

  14. Properties of Nanostructure Bismuth Telluride Thin Films Using Thermal Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Arora

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth telluride has high thermoelectric performance at room temperature; in present work, various nanostructure thin films of bismuth telluride were fabricated on silicon substrates at room temperature using thermal evaporation method. Tellurium (Te and bismuth (Bi were deposited on silicon substrate in different ratio of thickness. These films were annealed at 50°C and 100°C. After heat treatment, the thin films attained the semiconductor nature. Samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM to show granular growth.

  15. Lead telluride with increased mechanical stability for cylindrical thermoelectric generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to improve the mechanical stability of lead telluride (PbTe), trying to vary its mechanical properties independently from its thermoelectric properties. Thus the influence of material preparation as well as different dopants on the mechanical and thermoelectric properties of lead telluride is being analysed. When using appropriately set process parameters, milling and sintering of lead telluride increases the material's hardness. With sintering temperatures exceeding 300 C stable material of high relative density can be achieved. Milling lead telluride generates lattice defects leading to a reduction of the material's charge carrier density. These defects can be reduced by increased sintering temperatures. Contamination of the powder due to the milling process leads to bloating during thermal cycling and thus reduced density of the sintered material. In addition to that, evaporation of tellurium at elevated temperatures causes instability of the material's thermoelectric properties. Based on the experimental results obtained in this work, the best thermoelectric and mechanical properties can be obtained by sintering coarse powders at around 400 C. Within this work a concept was developed to vary the mechanical properties of lead telluride via synthesis of PbTe with electrically nondoping elements, which thus may keep the thermoelectric properties unchanged. Therefore, the mechanical and thermoelectric properties of Pb 1-x Ca x Te were investigated. Doping pure PbTe with calcium causes a significant increase of the material's hardness while only slightly decreasing the charge carrier density and thus keeping the thermoelectric properties apart from a slight reduction of the electrical conductivity nearly unchanged. The abovementioned concept is proven using sodium doped lead telluride, as it is used for thermoelectric generators: The additional doping with calcium again increases the material's hardness while its thermoelectric properties

  16. Synthesis and evaluation of lead telluride/bismuth antimony telluride nanocomposites for thermoelectric applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, Shreyashi; Zhou Chen; Morelli, Donald; Sakamoto, Jeffrey; Uher, Ctirad; Brock, Stephanie L.

    2011-01-01

    Heterogeneous nanocomposites of p-type bismuth antimony telluride (Bi 2−x Sb x Te 3 ) with lead telluride (PbTe) nanoinclusions have been prepared by an incipient wetness impregnation approach. The Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity and Hall coefficient were measured from 80 to 380 K in order to investigate the influence of PbTe nanoparticles on the thermoelectric performance of nanocomposites. The Seebeck coefficients and electrical resistivities of nanocomposites decrease with increasing PbTe nanoparticle concentration due to an increased hole concentration. The lattice thermal conductivity decreases with the addition of PbTe nanoparticles but the total thermal conductivity increases due to the increased electronic thermal conductivity. We conclude that the presence of nanosized PbTe in the bulk Bi 2−x Sb x Te 3 matrix results in a collateral doping effect, which dominates transport properties. This study underscores the need for immiscible systems to achieve the decreased thermal transport properties possible from nanostructuring without compromising the electronic properties. - Graphical abstract: PbTe nanoparticles introduced into p-type Bi 2 Te 3 by incipient wetness results in decreased lattice thermal conductivity, but also acts as an electronic dopant, resulting in an overall decrease in thermoelectric performance. Highlights: ► Composites of PbTe nanoparticles in Bi 2−x Sb x Te 3 were formed by incipient wetness. ► PbTe nanoparticles leads to decreased κ l , consistent with phonon scattering. ► PbTe nanoparticles lead to decreased S and ρ, due to increased carriers. ► Collateral doping from PbTe leads to decreased ZT with increasing concentration. ► Immiscible systems are preferred for improved ZT.

  17. Characterization and photoluminescence studies of CdTe ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. The major objective of this work was to detect the change of photoluminescence (PL) intensity of. CdTe nanoparticles (NPs) before and after transfer from liquid phase to polystyrene (PS) matrix by electro- spinning technique. Thio-stabilized CdTe NPs were first synthesized in aqueous, then enwrapped by cetyl-.

  18. Homogeneous CdTe quantum dots-carbon nanotubes heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Kayo Oliveira [Grupo de Pesquisa em Química de Materiais – (GPQM), Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei, Campus Dom Bosco, Praça Dom Helvécio, 74, CEP 36301-160, São João del-Rei, MG (Brazil); Bettini, Jefferson [Laboratório Nacional de Nanotecnologia, Centro Nacional de Pesquisa em Energia e Materiais, CEP 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Ferrari, Jefferson Luis [Grupo de Pesquisa em Química de Materiais – (GPQM), Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei, Campus Dom Bosco, Praça Dom Helvécio, 74, CEP 36301-160, São João del-Rei, MG (Brazil); Schiavon, Marco Antonio, E-mail: schiavon@ufsj.edu.br [Grupo de Pesquisa em Química de Materiais – (GPQM), Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei, Campus Dom Bosco, Praça Dom Helvécio, 74, CEP 36301-160, São João del-Rei, MG (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    The development of homogeneous CdTe quantum dots-carbon nanotubes heterostructures based on electrostatic interactions has been investigated. We report a simple and reproducible non-covalent functionalization route that can be accomplished at room temperature, to prepare colloidal composites consisting of CdTe nanocrystals deposited onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) functionalized with a thin layer of polyelectrolytes by layer-by-layer technique. Specifically, physical adsorption of polyelectrolytes such as poly (4-styrene sulfonate) and poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) was used to deagglomerate and disperse MWCNTs, onto which we deposited CdTe quantum dots coated with mercaptopropionic acid (MPA), as surface ligand, via electrostatic interactions. Confirmation of the CdTe quantum dots/carbon nanotubes heterostructures was done by transmission and scanning electron microscopies (TEM and SEM), dynamic-light scattering (DLS) together with absorption, emission, Raman and infrared spectroscopies (UV–vis, PL, Raman and FT-IR). Almost complete quenching of the PL band of the CdTe quantum dots was observed after adsorption on the MWCNTs, presumably through efficient energy transfer process from photoexcited CdTe to MWCNTs. - Highlights: • Highly homogeneous CdTe-carbon nanotubes heterostructures were prepared. • Simple and reproducible non-covalent functionalization route. • CdTe nanocrystals homogeneously deposited onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes. • Efficient energy transfer process from photoexcited CdTe to MWCNTs.

  19. High-temperature thermoelectric behavior of lead telluride

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The central problem in thermoelectric material research is the selection of ... temperature range (400–1000 K), and bismuth telluride-based materials .... parent from the results that band non-parabolicity has a significant effect on the .... M P Singh thankfully acknowledges financial assistance from the Council of Scien-.

  20. Phase transition of bismuth telluride thin films grown by MBE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fülöp, Attila; Song, Yuxin; Charpentier, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    A previously unreported phase transition between Bi2Te3 and Bi4Te3 in bismuth telluride grown by molecular beam epitaxy is recorded via XRD, AFM, and SIMS observations. This transition is found to be related to the Te/Bi beam equivalent pressure (BEP) ratio. BEP ratios below 17 favor the formation...

  1. CdTe ambulatory ventricular function monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazewatsky, J.L.; Alpert, N.M.; Moore, R.H.; Boucher, C.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1979-01-01

    A prototype device consisting of two arrays of CdTe detectors, ECG amplifiers and gate, microprocessor, and tape recorder was devised to record simultaneous ECG and radionuclide blood pool data from the left ventricle for extended periods during normal activity. The device is intended to record information concerning both normal and abnormal physiology of the heart and to permit the evaluation of new pharmaceuticals under everyday conditions. Preliminary results indicate that the device is capable of recording and reading out data from both phantoms and patients

  2. Post-CMOS FinFET integration of bismuth telluride and antimony telluride thin-film-based thermoelectric devices on SoI substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Aktakka, Ethem Erkan; Ghafouri, Niloufar; Smith, Casey; Peterson, Rebecca Lorenz; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Najafi, Khalil

    2013-01-01

    This letter reports, for the first time, heterogeneous integration of bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) and antimony telluride (Sb 2Te3) thin-film-based thermoelectric ffect transistors) via a characterized TE-film coevaporationand shadow-mask patterning

  3. Cadmium and the kidney.

    OpenAIRE

    Friberg, L

    1984-01-01

    The paper is a review of certain aspects of importance of cadmium and the kidney regarding the assessment of risks and understanding of mechanisms of action. The review discusses the following topics: history and etiology of cadmium-induced kidney dysfunction and related disorders; cadmium metabolism, metallothionein and kidney dysfunction; cadmium in urine as indicator of body burden, exposure and kidney dysfunction; cadmium levels in kidney and liver as indicators of kidney dysfunction; cha...

  4. Spin dynamics in bulk CdTe at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahalkova, P.; Nemec, P.; Sprinzl, D.; Belas, E.; Horodysky, P.; Franc, J.; Hlidek, P.; Maly, P.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the room temperature dynamics of spin-polarized carriers in undoped bulk CdTe. Platelets of CdTe with different concentration of preparation-induced dislocations were prepared by combining the mechanical polishing and chemical etching. Using the polarization-resolved pump-probe experiment in transmission geometry, we have observed a systematic decrease of both the signal polarization and the electron spin dephasing time (from 52 to 36 ps) with the increased concentration of defects. We have suggested that the Elliot-Yafet mechanism might be the dominant spin dephasing mechanism in platelets of CdTe at room temperature

  5. About thermo-electric properties of bismuth telluride doped by gadolinium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akperov, M.M.; Ismailov, Sh.S.; Shukyurova, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    Results of study of the Gd impurities effect on the bismuth telluride thermo-electric properties are presented. The experiment was carried out within the temperature range T=300-700 K. It is determined, that at temperature increase the energy level is appreciably closing up to bismuth telluride forbidden zone which makes up 0.16-0.24 eV. Such anomalous energy properties of gadolinium in telluride affect on material thermoelectric properties

  6. Plasma kinetics and biodistribution of water-soluble CdTe quantum dots in mice: a comparison between Cd and Te

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Ying; Xie Guangyun; Sun Zhiwei; Mu Ying; Han Sihai; Xiao Yang; Liu Na; Wang Hui; Guo Caixia; Shi Zhixiong; Li Yanbo; Huang Peili

    2011-01-01

    Water-soluble quantum dots (QDs) have shown potential as tumor diagnostic agents. However, little is known about their biological behaviors in vivo. Male ICR mice were intravenously given a single dose (2.5 μmol kg −1 body weight) of water-soluble cadmium–telluride (CdTe) QDs (the QDs are approximately 4 nm in diameter and have maximal emission at 630 nm). Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for measuring the kinetic action of 111 Cd and 125 Te for 7 days. The plasma kinetics of Cd and Te followed a two-compartment model, in which Cd exhibited greater apparent volume of distribution, greater clearance, faster distribution half-life, and significantly slower elimination half-life compared to Te. Contrary to its relatively transient fate in the plasma, high levels of Cd persisted in the liver and kidneys. Te accumulated primarily in the spleen. The different plasma kinetics and distribution patterns of Cd and Te imply that CdTe QDs have been part of the degradation or aggregation in vivo.

  7. Characterization of CdZnTe ambient temperature detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavietes, A.

    1994-09-01

    A great deal of interest has been generated in the use of cadmium telluride (CdTe) and cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe) detectors for ambient temperature detection of radionuclides. The addition of zinc to CdTe provides several benefits that enhance the materials operational characteristics at ambient temperature. Recent movement in the industry is to produce larger volume detectors using CdZnTe without much known about the effects of larger geometry on performance. The purpose of this study is to get an idea of the relationship of detector performance to both area and thickness variations

  8. Growth of CdTe: Al films; Crecimiento de peliculas de CdTe: Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez A, M.; Zapata T, M. [CICATA-IPN, 89600 Altamira, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Melendez L, M. [CINVESTAV-IPN, A.P. 14-740, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Pena, J.L. [CINVESTAV-IPN, A.P. 73 Cordemex, 97310 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    CdTe: AI films were grown by the close space vapor transport technique combined with free evaporation (CSVT-FE). The Aluminum (Al) evaporation was made by two kinds of sources: one made of graphite and the other of tantalum. The films were deposited on glass substrates. The Al source temperature was varied maintaining the CdTe source temperature fixed as well as the substrate temperature. The films were characterized by x-ray energy dispersive analysis (EDAX), x-ray diffraction and optical transmission. The results showed for the films grown with the graphite source for Al evaporation, the Al did not incorporate in the CdTe matrix, at least to the level of EDAX sensitivity; they maintained the same crystal structure and band gap. For the samples grown with the tantalum source, we were able to incorporate the Al. The x-ray diffraction patterns show that the films have a crystal structure that depends on Al concentration. They were cubic up to 2.16 at. % Al concentration; for 19.65 at. % we found a mixed phase; for Al concentration higher than 21 at. % the films were amorphous. For samples with cubic structure it was found that the lattice parameter decreases and the band gap increases with Al concentration. (Author)

  9. Cadmium, an environmental poison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard, A K

    1974-04-15

    In recent years, industrial employment of cadmium has increased considerably. Cadmium is now present in the environment and has caused acute and chronic poisoning. Inhalation of cadmium vapor or dust causes pulmonary damage while the kidney is the critical organ in absorption of cadmium. The element accumulates in the kidney and causes tubular damage or 200 ppm in the renal cortex. In animal experiments, cadmium may cause raised blood pressure, sterility and malignant tumors. On account of the pronounced tendency of cadmium to accumulate and its toxicity, it is important to trace sources and to reduce exposure of the population. 62 references.

  10. Interaction of porphyrins with CdTe quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xing; Liu Zhongxin; Ma Lun; Hossu, Marius; Chen Wei

    2011-01-01

    Porphyrins may be used as photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy, photocatalysts for organic pollutant dissociation, agents for medical imaging and diagnostics, applications in luminescence and electronics. The detection of porphyrins is significantly important and here the interaction of protoporphyrin-IX (PPIX) with CdTe quantum dots was studied. It was observed that the luminescence of CdTe quantum dots was quenched dramatically in the presence of PPIX. When CdTe quantum dots were embedded into silica layers, almost no quenching by PPIX was observed. This indicates that PPIX may interact and alter CdTe quantum dots and thus quench their luminescence. The oxidation of the stabilizers such as thioglycolic acid (TGA) as well as the nanoparticles by the singlet oxygen generated from PPIX is most likely responsible for the luminescence quenching. The quenching of quantum dot luminescence by porphyrins may provide a new method for photosensitizer detection.

  11. The effect of excitons on CdTe solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karazhanov, S. Zh.; Zhang, Y.; Mascarenhas, A.; Deb, S.

    2000-01-01

    Temperature and doping-level dependence of CdTe solar cells is investigated, taking into account the involvement of excitons on photocurrent transport. We show that the density of excitons in CdTe is comparable with that of minority carriers at doping levels ≥10 15 cm -3 . From the investigation of the dark-saturation current, we show that the product of electron and hole concentrations at equilibrium is several orders of magnitude more than the square of the intrinsic carrier concentration. With this assumption, we have studied the effect of excitons on CdTe solar cells, and the effect is negative. CdTe solar cell performance with excitons included agrees well with existing experimental results. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  12. ABC transporters affect the elimination and toxicity of CdTe quantum dots in liver and kidney cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Mingli; Yin, Huancai; Bai, Pengli [CAS Key Lab of Bio-Medical Diagnostics, Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215163 (China); Miao, Peng [CAS Key Lab of Bio-Medical Diagnostics, Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215163 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Deng, Xudong [Department of Chemical Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4L7 (Canada); Xu, Yingxue [CAS Key Lab of Bio-Medical Diagnostics, Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215163 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Hu, Jun [CAS Key Lab of Bio-Medical Diagnostics, Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215163 (China); Yin, Jian, E-mail: yinj@sibet.ac.cn [CAS Key Lab of Bio-Medical Diagnostics, Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215163 (China)

    2016-07-15

    This paper aimed to investigate the role of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporters on the efflux and the toxicity of nanoparticles in liver and kidney cells. In this study, we synthesized CdTe quantum dots (QDs) that were monodispersed and emitted green fluorescence (maximum peak at 530 nm). Such QDs tended to accumulate in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2), human kidney cells 2 (HK-2), and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, and cause significant toxicity in all the three cell lines. Using specific inhibitors and inducers of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and multidrug resistance associated proteins (Mrps), the cellular accumulation and subsequent toxicity of QDs in HepG2 and HK-2 cells were significantly affected, while only slight changes appeared in MDCK cells, corresponding well with the functional expressions of ABC transporters in cells. Moreover, treatment of QDs caused concentration- and time- dependent induction of ABC transporters in HepG2 and HK-2 cells, but such phenomenon was barely found in MDCK cells. Furthermore, the effects of CdTe QDs on ABC transporters were found to be greater than those of CdCl{sub 2} at equivalent concentrations of cadmium, indicating that the effects of QDs should be a combination of free Cd{sup 2+} and specific properties of QDs. Overall, these results indicated a strong dependence between the functional expressions of ABC transporters and the efflux of QDs, which could be an important reason for the modulation of QDs toxicity by ABC transporters. - Highlights: • ABC transporters contributed actively to the cellular efflux of CdTe quantum dots. • ABC transporters affected the cellular toxicity of CdTe quantum dots. • Treatment of CdTe quantum dots induced the gene expression of ABC transporters. • Free Cd{sup 2+} should be partially involved in the effects of QDs on ABC transporters. • Cellular efflux of quantum dots could be an important modulator for its toxicity.

  13. Next Generation Semiconductor-Based Radiation Detectors Using Cadmium Magnesium Telluride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, Sudhir B [Brimrose Technology Corporation, Sparks Glencoe, MD (United States); Kutcher, Susan W [Brimrose Technology Corporation, Sparks Glencoe, MD (United States); Palsoz, Witold [Brimrose Technology Corporation, Sparks Glencoe, MD (United States); Berding, Martha [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Burger, Arnold [Brimrose Technology Corporation, Sparks Glencoe, MD (United States)

    2014-11-17

    The primary objective of Phase I was to perform extensive studies on the purification, crystal growth and annealing procedures of CdMgTe to gain a clear understanding of the basic material properties to enable production of detector material with performance comparable to that of CdZnTe. Brimrose utilized prior experience in the growth and processing of II-VI crystals and produced high purity material and good quality single crystals of CdMgTe. Processing techniques for these crystals including annealing, mechanical and chemical polishing, surface passivation and electrode fabrication were developed. Techniques to characterize pertinent electronic characteristics were developed and gamma ray detectors were fabricated. Feasibility of the development of comprehensive defect modeling in this new class of material was demonstrated by our partner research institute SRI International, to compliment the experimental work. We successfully produced a CdMgTe detector that showed 662 keV gamma response with energy resolution of 3.4% (FWHM) at room temperature, without any additional signal correction. These results are comparable to existing CdZnTe (CZT) technology using the same detector size and testing conditions. We have successfully demonstrated detection of gamma-radiation from various isotopes/sources, using CdMgTe thus clearly proving the feasibility that CdMgTe is an excellent, low-cost alternative to CdZnTe.

  14. Hall effect and photoconductivity lifetime studies of gallium nitride, indium nitride, and mercury cadmium telluride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Craig H.

    A deep understanding of both carrier recombination and transport is necessary for semiconductor engineering, particularly in defining the ultimate limits of performance for a given device before spending the resources to perfect its fabrication. Hall effect measurements utilizing a variable magnetic field are necessary to discriminate between conduction in epitaxial layers and conduction originating at the surface or at an interfacial layer. For thick hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) grown GaN, variable field Hall measurements revealed the presence of small but significant lower mobility surface and interface electrons which would otherwise lead to errors in interpreting the electrical properties. In addition, QMSA analysis of the measurements indicates that thick GaN samples contain a large spread in electron mobility values, most likely with depth. For molecular beam epitaxial InN, it was found that electrical measurements are affected by surface charge conduction, as well as the non-uniformity of mobility and carrier concentration with depth. Both of these effects mask the surprisingly high quality of the material close to the surface. Photoconductance lifetime and variable-magnetic-field Hall and transient measurements were performed on a series of undoped, In-doped and As-doped HgCdTe grown by MBE and MOCVD. N-type layers often significantly influence the interpretation of the electrical measurements. Even the best Low Wavelength Infrared (LWIR) n-type material still appears to be dominated by defect-related recombination, as intrinsic lifetimes calculated with full band structure can be well above those measured. Mid-Wavelength Infrared (MWIR) lifetimes increase somewhat with carrier concentration, as if the n-type doping process were passivating Schockley-Read-Hall (SRH) defects. P-type MWIR films lie mainly below the predicted values, and their relationship between concentration and lifetime is essentially unchanged by growth technique, indicating that a fundamental native defect is responsible for the recombination. Those with lifetimes above the predicted values have anomalous temperature dependences when measured, and often a non-exponential photoconductive decay characteristic of minority carrier traps. Deep level trap concentrations in GaN can harm performance in many desired applications. Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) measurement on MBE GaN suggest that the trapping center concentration drops with temperature below 770°C.

  15. Faraday Rotation Studies of Indium Antimonide and CADMIUM(1-X) Manganese(x) Telluride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez Gonzalez, Hector J.

    Faraday rotation has been studied in two material systems: narrow-gap InSb and wide-gap Cd_ {1-x}Mn_{x}Te. The measurements were done in the infrared region using high magnetic fields up to 150 kG. The Faraday rotation of n-type InSb has been measured for wavelengths between 8.0 and 13.0 μm at 9 K, using magnetic fields up to 150 kG. Measurements were made on samples with nominal carrier concentrations of 1 times 10^{14 }, 6 times 10 ^{14}, 1 times 10^{15}, and 5 times 10^{15} cm^{-3}. The experimental results have been successfully analyzed in terms of intraband and interband transitions at the Gamma point in the Brillouin zone, using a quantum-mechanical treatment. In this approach, there are three contributions to the Faraday rotation: (a) interband, (b) plasma, and (c) spin contributions. The interband contribution is dominant in the low concentration samples where the plasma and spin contributions, which are due to the free carriers, are small. At high carrier concentrations the spin and plasma contributions are dominant. In the low-magnetic -field regime the interband and plasma contributions are linearly proportional to the magnetic field and become small. This makes the spin contribution the leading contribution to the Faraday rotation at low magnetic fields. The 4 -band k cdot p Pidgeon and Brown model was used to calculate the energy levels and the matrix elements for these transitions. Quantum oscillatory effects were observed at low magnetic field. Cyclotron resonance absorption was observed in all samples for wavelengths _sp{~}{>}16.0 mum. The Faraday rotation of Cd_{1 -x}Mn_{x}Te has been measured for x = 0 to 0.27 at 300 and 77 K for photon energies between 0.1 and 1.5 eV, corresponding to wavelengths of 12.0 and 0.8 mum, respectively. We have developed a multioscillator model for the Faraday rotation using an analytical expression for the refractive index that includes contributions from interband transitions at the Gamma, L, and X points of the Brillouin zone as well as the lattice contribution from optical phonons. The multioscillator model explains the measured behavior of the Verdet constant as a function of photon energy for all the above values of x at both temperatures. This model has also been applied successfully to Faraday rotation data for Cd_ {1-x}Mn_{x}Te and Zn_{1-x}Mn _{x}Te from previous studies. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253 -1690.).

  16. Femtosecond optical characterization and applications in cadmium(manganese) telluride diluted magnetic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daozhi

    This thesis is devoted to the optical characterization of Cd(Mn)Te single crystals. I present the studies of free-carrier dynamics and generation and detection of coherent acoustic phonons (CAPS) using time-resolved femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. The giant Faraday effect and ultrafast responsivity of Cd(Mn)Te to sub-picosecond electromagnetic transients are also demonstrated and discussed in detail. The first, few-picosecond-long electronic process after the initial optical excitation exhibits very distinct characteristic dependence on the excitation condition, and in case of Cd(Mn)Te, it has been attributed to the collective effects of band filling, band renormalization, and two-photon absorption. A closed-form, analytic expression for the differential reflectivity induced by the CAPs is derived based on the propagating-strain-pulse model and it accounts very well for our experimental observations. The accurate values of the Mn concentration and longitudinal sound velocity nu s in Cd(Mn)Te were obtained by fitting the data of the refractive index dependence on the probe wavelength to the Schubert model. In Cd 0.91Mn0.09Te, nus was found to be 3.6x103 m/s. Our comparison studies from the one-color and two-color experiments reveal that the intrinsic phonon lifetime in Cd(Mn)Te was at least on the order of nanoseconds, and the observed exponential damping of the CAP oscillations was due to the finite absorption depth of the probe light. Optically-induced electronic stress has been demonstrated to be the main generation mechanism of CAPs. We also present the giant Faraday effect in the Cd(Mn)Te and the spectra of the Verdet constant, which is mainly due to the exchange interaction between the Mn ions and band electrons. The spectral characteristics of the Verdet constant in Cd(Mn)Te exhibit very unique features compared to that in pure semiconductors. In our time-resolved sampling experiments at the room temperature, the response of the Cd(Mn)Te, particularly with low Mn concentrations, to the sub-picosecond electromagnetic pulses has been demonstrated for the first time and studied in detail. The physical origin of the ultrafast responsivity is shown to be the electro-optic (Pockels) effect, simultaneously excluding the magneto-optical (Faraday) effect due to the Mn-ion spin dynamics. The discrepancy between the absence of the low-frequency Pockels effect and the ultrafast sampling results, suggests that in Cd(Mn)Te crystals at low frequencies, the electric field component of the external electromagnetic transients is screened by the free carriers (holes). At very high (THz) frequencies, tested by our sampling experiment, Mn spins are too slow to respond and we observe the very large Pockels effect in Cd(Mn)Te crystals.

  17. Film thickness and chemical processing effects on the stability of cadmium telluride solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albin, D.S.; Demtsu, S.H.; McMahon, T.J.

    2006-01-01

    The performance and stability of CdS/CdTe solar cells as a function of layer thickness, back contact etch, and oxygen during the CdCl 2 anneal was determined. Multiple linear regression models were used to analyze the statistical significance of various first order effects and interactions. With stress, all devices showed a reduction in open-circuit voltage (V oc ) and fill factor (FF) characteristic of increased recombination. Devices using thinner CdS were vulnerable to shunt formation. Oxygen during the CdCl 2 anneal minimizes this effect. A thermodynamic model involving the formation of Cu-oxide is presented to explain the latter

  18. Investigation to optimize the energy resolution and efficiency of cadmium(zinc)telluride for photon measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hadong

    While the investigations of the Cd(Zn)Te characteristics were completed, a new method to make arbitrary anode shapes, without the troublesome shadow mask technique, was found. With this technique, the two-anode geometry Cd(Zn)Te detector was introduced and tested. The semiconductor performance of the two-anode geometry detectors for the incoming gamma rays of 241Am, 57Co, and 137Cs were compared to the responses of the planar device. The very promising photon energy resolutions of 9.3 and 5.4% FWHM were obtained with the two-anode geometry detector for the gamma rays energies of 122 keV and 662 keV, respectively, while no discernible full energy peaks were apparent with the planar detector. Several simulation programs that are very easy to handle were developed as useful tools for investigating the complicated gamma ray pulse height distributions, which were due to the energy deposition events inside the semiconductors. Comparisons to the known values and with the results from other application programs, validated the information obtained from the simulation programs, which were developed during this research effort. A graphical user interface (GUI) was designed for the user's convenience in order to enter the required input parameters for the specific requirements of each simulation programs. The idealized noise free spectra for the planar detector and for the small pixel geometry detector were successfully obtained by applying Monte Carlo techniques.

  19. Calcium enhances cadmium tolerance and decreases cadmium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We aimed at characterizing mechanisms controlling cadmium accumulation in lettuce, which is a food crop showing one of the highest capacities to accumulate this toxic compound. In this study, plants from three lettuce varieties were grown for eight days on media supplemented or not with cadmium (15 μM CdCl2) and ...

  20. Method of Creating Micro-scale Silver Telluride Grains Covered with Bismuth Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jung (Inventor); Choi, Sang Hyouk (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Lee, Kunik (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Provided is a method of enhancing thermoelectric performance by surrounding crystalline semiconductors with nanoparticles by contacting a bismuth telluride material with a silver salt under a substantially inert atmosphere and a temperature approximately near the silver salt decomposition temperature; and recovering a metallic bismuth decorated material comprising silver telluride crystal grains.

  1. XAFS studies of nickel-doped lead telluride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radisavljevic, Ivana; Novakovic, Nikola; Ivanovic, Nenad; Romcevic, Nebojsa; Manasijevic, Miodrag; Mahnke, Heinz-Eberhard

    2009-01-01

    The problem of impurities and defect states in lead telluride-based semiconductors is of crucial importance for their practical applications. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) techniques are capable to address some of the key issues regarding impurities position, their valent state, as well as the local structural changes of the host lattice in the immediate surrounding of the impurity atoms. In this paper we present the results of the Ni K-absorption edge XAFS studies of Ni-doped PbTe at different temperatures. Analysis of near edge and extended XAFS regions of the measured spectra provided information about exact local environment and lattice ordering around Ni atoms.

  2. Comparative study of CdTe sources used for deposition of CdTe thin films by close spaced sublimation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Anacleto Pinheiro

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Unlike other thin film deposition techniques, close spaced sublimation (CSS requires a short source-substrate distance. The kind of source used in this technique strongly affects the control of the deposition parameters, especially the deposition rate. When depositing CdTe thin films by CSS, the most common CdTe sources are: single-crystal or polycrystalline wafers, powders, pellets or pieces, a thick CdTe film deposited onto glass or molybdenum substrate (CdTe source-plate and a sintered CdTe powder. In this work, CdTe thin films were deposited by CSS technique from different CdTe sources: particles, powder, compact powder, a paste made of CdTe and propylene glycol and source-plates (CdTe/Mo and CdTe/glass. The largest deposition rate was achieved when a paste made of CdTe and propylene glycol was used as the source. CdTe source-plates led to lower rates, probably due to the poor heat transmission, caused by the introduction of the plate substrate. The results also showed that compacting the powder the deposition rate increases due to the better thermal contact between powder particles.

  3. Cadmium and renal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'yasova, Dora; Schwartz, Gary G.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Rates of renal cancer have increased steadily during the past two decades, and these increases are not explicable solely by advances in imaging modalities. Cadmium, a widespread environmental pollutant, is a carcinogen that accumulates in the kidney cortex and is a cause of end-stage renal disease. Several observations suggest that cadmium may be a cause of renal cancer. Methods: We performed a systematic review of the literature on cadmium and renal cancer using MEDLINE for the years 1966-2003. We reviewed seven epidemiological and eleven clinical studies. Results: Despite different methodologies, three large epidemiologic studies indicate that occupational exposure to cadmium is associated with increased risk renal cancer, with odds ratios varying from 1.2 to 5.0. Six of seven studies that compared the cadmium content of kidneys from patients with kidney cancer to that of patients without kidney cancer found lower concentrations of cadmium in renal cancer tissues. Conclusions: Exposure to cadmium appears to be associated with renal cancer, although this conclusion is tempered by the inability of studies to assess cumulative cadmium exposure from all sources including smoking and diet. The paradoxical findings of lower cadmium content in kidney tissues from patients with renal cancer may be caused by dilution of cadmium in rapidly dividing cells. This and other methodological problems limit the interpretation of studies of cadmium in clinical samples. Whether cadmium is a cause of renal cancer may be answered more definitively by future studies that employ biomarkers of cadmium exposure, such as cadmium levels in blood and urine

  4. Isolation, identification and cadmium adsorption of a high cadmium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-27

    Sep 27, 2010 ... 1School of Minerals Processing and Bioengineering, Central South University, Changsha, ... Cadmium is a non-essential ... (1994) reported that cadmium might interact ... uptake of cadmium, lead and mercury (Svecova et al.,.

  5. Kelvin probe studies of cesium telluride photocathode for AWA photoinjector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisniewski, Eric E., E-mail: ewisniew@anl.gov [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Physics Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, 3300 South Federal Street, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Velazquez, Daniel [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Physics Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, 3300 South Federal Street, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Yusof, Zikri, E-mail: zyusof@hawk.iit.edu [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Physics Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, 3300 South Federal Street, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Spentzouris, Linda; Terry, Jeff [Physics Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, 3300 South Federal Street, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Sarkar, Tapash J. [Rice University, 6100 Main, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Harkay, Katherine [Accelerator Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States)

    2013-05-21

    Cesium telluride is an important photocathode as an electron source for particle accelerators. It has a relatively high quantum efficiency (>1%), is sufficiently robust in a photoinjector, and has a long lifetime. This photocathode is grown in-house for a new Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) beamline to produce high charge per bunch (≈50nC) in a long bunch train. Here, we present a study of the work function of cesium telluride photocathode using the Kelvin probe technique. The study includes an investigation of the correlation between the quantum efficiency and the work function, the effect of photocathode aging, the effect of UV exposure on the work function, and the evolution of the work function during and after photocathode rejuvenation via heating. -- Highlights: ► The correlation between Quantum Efficiency (QE) and work function. ► How QE and work function evolve together. ► Rejuvenation of the photocathode via heating and the effect on work function. ► The effects on the work function due to exposure to UV light.

  6. Magneto-photoconductivity of three dimensional topological insulator bismuth telluride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bingchen; Eginligil, Mustafa; Yu, Ting

    2018-03-01

    Magnetic field dependence of the photocurrent in a 3D topological insulator is studied. Among the 3D topological insulators bismuth telluride has unique hexagonal warping and spin texture which has been studied by photoemission, scanning tunnelling microscopy and transport. Here, we report on low temperature magneto-photoconductivity, up to 7 T, of two metallic bismuth telluride topological insulator samples with 68 and 110 nm thicknesses excited by 2.33 eV photon energy along the magnetic field perpendicular to the sample plane. At 4 K, both samples exhibit negative magneto-photoconductance below 4 T, which is as a result of weak-antilocalization of Dirac fermions similar to the previous observations in electrical transport. However the thinner sample shows positive magneto-photoconductance above 4 T. This can be attributed to the coupling of surface states. On the other hand, the thicker sample shows no positive magneto-photoconductance up to 7 T since there is only one surface state at play. By fitting the magneto-photoconductivity data of the thicker sample to the localization formula, we obtain weak antilocalization behaviour at 4, 10, and 20 K, as expected; however, weak localization behaviour at 30 K, which is a sign of surface states masked by bulk states. Also, from the temperature dependence of phase coherence length bulk carrier-carrier interaction is identified separately from the surface states. Therefore, it is possible to distinguish surface states by magneto-photoconductivity at low temperature, even in metallic samples.

  7. Photostimulated changes of properties of CdTe films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzhafarov, T.D. [Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, AZ-1143 Baku (Azerbaijan); Yesilkaya, S.S. [Department of Physics, Yildiz Technical University, 34210 Esenler/Istanbul (Turkey)

    2007-08-15

    The effect of illumination during the close-spaced sublimation (CSS) growth on composition, structural, electrical, optical and photovoltaic properties of CdTe films and CdTe/CdS solar cells were investigated. Data on comparative study by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), absorption spectra and conductivity-temperature measurements of CdTe films prepared by CSS method in dark (CSSD) and under illumination (CSSI) were presented. It is shown that the growth rate and the grain size of CdTe films grown under illumination is higher (by factor about of 1.5 and 3 respectively) than those for films prepared without illumination. The energy band gap of CdTe films fabricated by both technology, determined from absorption spectra, is same (about of 1.50 eV), however conductivity of the CdTe films produced by CSSI is considerably greater (by factor of 10{sup 7}) than that of films prepared by CSSD. The photovoltaic parameters of pCdTe/nCdS solar cells fabricated by photostimulated CSSI technology (J{sub sc}=28 mA/cm{sup 2}, V{sub oc}=0.63 V) are considerably larger than those for cells prepared by CSSD method (J{sub sc}=22 mA/cm{sup 2}, V{sub oc}=0.52 V). A mechanism of photostimulated changes of properties of CdTe films and improvement of photovoltaic parameters of CdTe/CdS solar cells is suggested. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. A confocal laser scanning microscopic study on thermoresponsive

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Monodisperse poly(N -isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) particles loaded with cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots (QDs) of two different sizes (4.7 nm and 5.6 nm) were synthesized in aqueous medium by bonding the capping agent on the quantum dots to the amide groups of PNIPAM and incubating the samples at 45° ...

  9. Teresa Barnes, Ph.D. | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    graduate student. She came to NREL as a postdoctoral researcher to continue working on transparent conducting oxides and began working on carbon nanotube and metal nanowire transparent contacts. She is currently a senior scientist at NREL working on cadmium telluride (CdTe) solar cells. Her research interests

  10. Synthesis and characterization of electrochemically deposited nanocrystalline CdTe thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ragini Raj, E-mail: raginirajsingh@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Bhopal University, Bhopal-462026 (India); Department of Physical Electronics, Iby and Aladar Fleishman Faculty of Engineering, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv-69978 (Israel); Painuly, Diksha [Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Kerala, Thiruanantpuram, Kerala (India); Pandey, R.K. [Department of Physics, Bhopal University, Bhopal-462026 (India)

    2009-07-15

    Electrodeposition is emerging as a method for the synthesis of semiconductor thin films and nanostructures. In this work we prepared the nanocrystalline CdTe thin films on indium tin oxide coated glass substrate from aqueous acidic bath at the deposition temperature 50 {+-} 1 deg. C. The films were grown potentiostatically from -0.60 V to -0.82 V with respect to saturated calomel reference electrode. The structural, compositional, morphological and optical properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive analysis by X-rays (EDAX), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and UV-vis spectroscopy respectively and cyclic voltammetery. The structural and optical studies revealed that films are nanocrystalline in nature and possess cubic phase, also the films are preferentially oriented along the cubic (1 1 1) plane. The effect of cadmium composition on the deposited morphology was also investigated. The size dependent blue shift in the experimentally determined absorption edge has been compared with the theoretical predictions based on the effective mass approximation and tight binding approximation. It is shown that the experimentally determined absorption edges depart from the theoretically calculated values.

  11. Electrochemical Studies of Lead Telluride Behavior in Acidic Nitrate Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudnik E.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemistry of lead telluride stationary electrode was studied in nitric acid solutions of pH 1.5-3.0. E-pH diagram for Pb-Te-H2O system was calculated. Results of cyclic voltammetry of Pb, Te and PbTe were discussed in correlation with thermodynamic predictions. Anodic dissolution of PbTe electrode at potential approx. -100÷50 mV (SCE resulted in tellurium formation, while above 300 mV TeO2 was mainly produced. The latter could dissolve to HTeO+2 under acidic electrolyte, but it was inhibited by increased pH of the bath.

  12. Effect of thallium impurity on hole scattering in lead telluride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajdanov, V.I.; Nemov, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    Hole mobility in PbTe monocrystalline specimens in the temperature range from 4.2 to 300 K has been investigated. Detected is a sharp increase in scattering cross section of light and heavy holes in the specimens having the Hall hole concentration p approximately (5+-9)x10 19 cm -3 explained by resonant scattering into a band of quasilocal states of thallium located lower than the ceiling of heavy carrier zone by 0.01+-0.01 eV. Very large differences in resonant scattering of current carriers into the quasilocal states of In and Tl in PbTe result from the inertial polarizability of a crystal. The same mechanism is used to explain long-lived relaxation of zone electron concentration in lead telluride and Pbsub(1-x)Snsub(x)Te doped with indium [ru

  13. Radiative and interfacial recombination in CdTe heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swartz, C. H., E-mail: craig.swartz@txstate.edu; Edirisooriya, M.; LeBlanc, E. G.; Noriega, O. C.; Jayathilaka, P. A. R. D.; Ogedengbe, O. S.; Hancock, B. L.; Holtz, M.; Myers, T. H. [Materials Science, Engineering, and Commercialization Program, Texas State University, 601 University Dr., San Marcos, Texas 78666 (United States); Zaunbrecher, K. N. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Mississippi RSF200, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Double heterostructures (DH) were produced consisting of a CdTe film between two wide band gap barriers of CdMgTe alloy. A combined method was developed to quantify radiative and non-radiative recombination rates by examining the dependence of photoluminescence (PL) on both excitation intensity and time. The measured PL characteristics, and the interface state density extracted by modeling, indicate that the radiative efficiency of CdMgTe/CdTe DHs is comparable to that of AlGaAs/GaAs DHs, with interface state densities in the low 10{sup 10 }cm{sup −2} and carrier lifetimes as long as 240 ns. The radiative recombination coefficient of CdTe is found to be near 10{sup −10} cm{sup 3}s{sup −1}. CdTe film growth on bulk CdTe substrates resulted in a homoepitaxial interface layer with a high non-radiative recombination rate.

  14. Thermal stability of substitutional ag in CdTe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahn, SG; Hofsass, H; Restle, M; Ronning, C; Quintel, H; BharuthRam, K; Wahl, U

    The thermal stability of substitutional Ag in CdTe was deduced from lattice location measurements at different temperatures. Substitutional Ag probe atoms were generated via transmutation doping from radioactive Cd isotopes. The lattice sites of Ag isotopes were determined by measuring the

  15. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CdTe QUANTUM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    variables, including pH values, Cd/Te and Cd/Cys molar ratios, on the ... QDs requires nitrogen as the protective gas at the initial stage. ... three-fold volume isopropyl alcohol, and the sediment was collected after centrifugation at 4000.

  16. Zinc and cadmium monosalicylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharitonov, Yu.Ya.; Tujebakhova, Z.K.

    1984-01-01

    Zinc and cadmium monosalicylates of the composition MSal, where M-Zn or Cd, Sal - twice deprotonated residue of salicylic acid O-HOC 6 H 4 COOH (H 2 Sal), are singled out and characterized. When studying thermograms, thermogravigrams, IR absorption spectra, roentgenograms of cadmium salicylate compounds (Cd(OC 6 H 4 COO) and products of their thepmal transformations, the processes of thermal decomposition of the compounds have been characterized. The process of cadmium monosalicylate decomposition takes place in one stage. Complete loss of salicylate acido group occurs in the range of 320-460 deg. At this decomposition stage cadmium oxide is formed. A supposition is made that cadmium complex has tetrahedral configuration, at that, each salicylate group plays the role of tetradentate-bridge ligand. The compound evidently has a polymer structure

  17. Determination of cadmium selenide nonstoichiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brezhnev, V.Yu.; Kharif, Ya.L.; Kovtunenko, P.V.

    1986-01-01

    Physicochemical method of determination of cadmium selenide nonstoichiometry is developed. The method nature consists in the fact, that under definite conditions dissolved cadmium is extracted from crystals to a vapor phase and then is determined in it using the photocolorimetric method. Cadmium solubility in CdSe crystal is calculated from known CdSe mass and amount of separated cadmium. The lower boundary of determined contents constitutes 1x10 -5 % mol at sample of cadmium selenide 10 g

  18. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of cadmium chloride, cadmium bromide, cadmium iodide, cadmium nitrate, and cadmium sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apelblat, Alexander; Korin, Eli

    2007-01-01

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of cadmium salts (chloride, bromide, iodide, nitrate, and sulphate) were determined over the temperature range 280 K to 322 K and compared with the literature data. The vapour pressures determined were used to obtain the water activities, osmotic coefficients and the molar enthalpies of vaporization in the (cadmium salt + water) systems

  19. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of cadmium chloride, cadmium bromide, cadmium iodide, cadmium nitrate, and cadmium sulphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apelblat, Alexander [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)]. E-mail: apelblat@bgu.ac.il; Korin, Eli [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2007-07-15

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of cadmium salts (chloride, bromide, iodide, nitrate, and sulphate) were determined over the temperature range 280 K to 322 K and compared with the literature data. The vapour pressures determined were used to obtain the water activities, osmotic coefficients and the molar enthalpies of vaporization in the (cadmium salt + water) systems.

  20. Calcium enhances cadmium tolerance and decreases cadmium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-26

    Apr 26, 2012 ... concentrations alleviated the toxic effect of cadmium on the growth and water status of lettuce plants. The three lettuce varieties ... electroplating, in batteries, in electrical conductors, in the manufacture of alloys ..... Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals, Third edition, Salt Lake City, UT: Acad. Press. Österås ...

  1. CdTe polycrystalline films on Ni foil substrates by screen printing and their photoelectric performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Huizhen; Ma, Jinwen; Mu, Yannan; Su, Shi; Lv, Pin; Zhang, Xiaoling; Zhou, Liying; Li, Xue; Liu, Li; Fu, Wuyou; Yang, Haibin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The sintered CdTe polycrystalline films by a simple screen printing. • The flexible Ni foil was chose as substrates to reduce the weight of the electrode. • The compact CdTe film was obtained at 550 °C sintering temperature. • The photoelectric activity of the CdTe polycrystalline films was excellent. - Abstract: CdTe polycrystalline films were prepared on flexible Ni foil substrates by sequential screen printing and sintering in a nitrogen atmosphere for the first time. The effect of temperature on the quality of the screen-printed film was investigated in our work. The high-quality CdTe films were obtained after sintering at 550 °C for 2 h. The properties of the sintered CdTe films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction pattern and UV–visible spectroscopy. The high-quality CdTe films have the photocurrent was 2.04 mA/cm 2 , which is higher than that of samples prepared at other temperatures. Furthermore, CdCl 2 treatment reduced the band gap of the CdTe film due to the larger grain size. The photocurrent of photoelectrode based on high crystalline CdTe polycrystalline films after CdCl 2 treatment improved to 2.97 mA/cm 2 , indicating a potential application in photovoltaic devices

  2. Current simulation of symmetric contacts on CdTe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzin, A.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the calculated current-voltage characteristics of symmetric Metal-Semiconductor-Metal configurations for Schottky, Ohmic, and injecting-Ohmic contacts on high resistivity CdTe. The results clearly demonstrate that in the wide band-gap, semi-insulating semiconductors, such as high resistivity CdTe, the linearity of the I-V curves cannot be considered a proof of the ohmicity of the contacts. It is shown that the linear I-V curves are expected for a wide range of contact barriers. Furthermore, the slope of these linear curves is governed by the barrier height, rather than the bulk doping concentration. Therefore the deduction of bulk's resistivity from the I-V curves may be false.

  3. Current simulation of symmetric contacts on CdTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruzin, A., E-mail: aruzin@post.tau.ac.il [School of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2011-12-01

    This article presents the calculated current-voltage characteristics of symmetric Metal-Semiconductor-Metal configurations for Schottky, Ohmic, and injecting-Ohmic contacts on high resistivity CdTe. The results clearly demonstrate that in the wide band-gap, semi-insulating semiconductors, such as high resistivity CdTe, the linearity of the I-V curves cannot be considered a proof of the ohmicity of the contacts. It is shown that the linear I-V curves are expected for a wide range of contact barriers. Furthermore, the slope of these linear curves is governed by the barrier height, rather than the bulk doping concentration. Therefore the deduction of bulk's resistivity from the I-V curves may be false.

  4. A 90 element CdTe array detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwase, Y.; Onozuka, A.; Ohmori, M. (Nippon Mining Co. Ltd., Toda, Saitama (Japan). Electronic Material and Components Labs.); Funaki, M. (Nippon Mining Co. Ltd., Toda, Saitama (Japan). Materials Development Research Labs.)

    1992-11-15

    The fabrication of a CdTe array radiation detector and its radiation detection characteristics are described. In order to obtain high efficiency of charge collection and realize uniform detection sensitivity, current-voltage characteristics with the combination of large and small barrier height contacts and three kinds of CdTe crystals have been investigated. It was found that the Schottky barrier height of electroless Pt deposition was 0.97 eV, which effectively suppressed electron injection. By using the crystal grown by the travelling heater method with a Cl concentration of 2 ppm, carrier lifetimes for electrons and holes of 1.0 and 0.5 [mu]s, respectively, were achieved. A 90 element array detector exhibited an energy resolution as low as 4.5 keV and a count rate variation of less than 5% for 60 keV [gamma]-rays. (orig.).

  5. A 90 element CdTe array detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, Y.; Funaki, M.; Onozuka, A.; Ohmori, M.

    1992-11-01

    The fabrication of a CdTe array radiation detector and its radiation detection characteristics are described. In order to obtain high efficiency of charge collection and realize uniform detection sensitivity, current-voltage characteristics with the combination of large and small barrier height contacts and three kinds of CdTe crystals have been investigated. It was found that the Schottky barrier height of electroless Pt deposition was 0.97 eV, which effectively suppressed electron injection. By using the crystal grown by the travelling heater method with a Cl concentration of 2 ppm, carrier lifetimes for electrons and holes of 1.0 and 0.5 μs, respectively, were achieved. A 90 element array detector exhibited an energy resolution as low as 4.5 keV and a count rate variation of less than 5% for 60 keV γ-rays.

  6. Metastability and reliability of CdTe solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Da; Brinkman, Daniel; Shaik, Abdul R.; Ringhofer, Christian; Vasileska, Dragica

    2018-04-01

    Thin-film modules of all technologies often suffer from performance degradation over time. Some of the performance changes are reversible and some are not, which makes deployment, testing, and energy-yield prediction more challenging. Manufacturers devote significant empirical efforts to study these phenomena and to improve semiconductor device stability. Still, understanding the underlying reasons of these instabilities remains clouded due to the lack of ability to characterize materials at atomistic levels and the lack of interpretation from the most fundamental material science. The most commonly alleged causes of metastability in CdTe devices, such as ‘migration of Cu’, have been investigated rigorously over the past fifteen years. Still, the discussion often ended prematurely with stating observed correlations between stress conditions and changes in atomic profiles of impurities or CV doping concentration. Multiple hypotheses suggesting degradation of CdTe solar cell devices due to interaction and evolution of point defects and complexes were proposed, and none of them received strong theoretical or experimental confirmation. It should be noted that atomic impurity profiles in CdTe provide very little intelligence on active doping concentrations. The same elements could form different energy states, which could be either donors or acceptors, depending on their position in crystalline lattice. Defects interact with other extrinsic and intrinsic defects; for example, changing the state of an impurity from an interstitial donor to a substitutional acceptor often is accompanied by generation of a compensating intrinsic interstitial donor defect. Moreover, all defects, intrinsic and extrinsic, interact with the electrical potential and free carriers so that charged defects may drift in the electric field and the local electrical potential affects the formation energy of the point defects. Such complexity of interactions in CdTe makes understanding of temporal

  7. Niobium and zirconium telluride thin films prepared by sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, M.; Pailharey, D.; Mathey, Y.

    2000-01-01

    A versatile procedure of sputter deposition, well adapted for getting a large of Te/M ratios (with M = Zr or Nb), has led to the synthesis of several highly anisotropic zirconium and niobium poly tellurides in thin film form. Upon tuning the two key parameters of the process, i.e., the Te percentage in the target and the substrate temperature during the deposition, preparation of systems ranging from ZrTe 0 .72 to ZrTe 6 .7, on the one hand, and from NbTe 1 .28 to NbTe 7 .84, on the other, has been achieved. Besides their amorphous or crystalline (with or without preferential orientations) behavior and their relationship to known structural types, the most striking feature of these films is their large departure from the stoichiometry of the bulk Mte x reference compounds. This peculiarity, together with the possible changes of composition under annealing, are described and interpreted in terms of variable of Te and M atoms trapped or intercalated within the parent structures. (author)

  8. Simultaneous determination of oxygen and cadmium in cadmium and cadmium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaeda, K.; Kuriki, T.; Ohsawa, K.; Ishii, Y.

    1977-01-01

    Cadmium and its compounds were analysed for oxygen and cadmium by a modification of the Schutze-Unterzaucher method. Oxygen in some compounds such as cadmium oxide, nitrate and sulphate could not be determined by the usual method. The method of adding carbon was employed for the determination of total oxygen. Total oxygen could be determined by the addition of 5 mg of carbon to a sample boat and heating at 950 0 . The determination was also carried out by addition of naphthalene (2 mg). It was found that the cadmium powder and cadmium flake used contained ca. 1 and 0.15% oxygen, respectively. Oxygen and cadmium in cadmium and its compounds were simultaneously determined by the addition of 2 mg of naphthalene. Cadmium was determined colorimetrically by use of glyoxal-bis-(2-hydroxyanil). Oxygen and cadmium in the samples could be determined simultaneously with an average error of -0.02 and -0.22%, respectively. (author)

  9. Surface passivation of high purity granular metals: zinc, cadmium, lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirozhenko L. A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For the high purity metals (99.9999%, such as zinc, cadmium, and lead, which are widely used as initial components in growing semiconductor and scintillation crystals (CdTe, CdZnTe, ZnSe, (Cd, Zn, Pb WO4, (Cd, Zn, Pb MoO4 et al., it is very important to ensure reliable protection of the surface from oxidation and adsorption of impurities from the atmosphere. The specific features of surface passivation of high purity cadmium, lead and zinc are not sufficiently studied and require specific methodologies for further studies. The use of organic solutions in the schemes of chemical passivation of the investigated metals avoids hydrolysis of the obtained protective films. The use of organic solvents with pure cation and anion composition as the washing liquid prevents chemisorption of ions present in the conventionally used distilled water. This keeps the original purity of the granular metals. Novel compositions of etchants and etching scheme providing simultaneous polishing and passivation of high purity granular Zn, Cd and Pb are developed. Chemical passivation allows storing metals in the normal atmospheric conditions for more than half a year for Zn and Cd and up to 30 days for Pb without changing the state of the surface. The use of the glycerol-DMF solution in the processes for obtaining Pb granules provides self-passivation of metal surfaces and eliminates the additional chemical processing while maintaining the quality of corrosion protection.

  10. Special features of self-compensation of halogen donor action in lead telluride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajdanov, V.I.; Nemov, S.A.; Ravich, Yu.I.; Dereza, A.Yu.

    1985-01-01

    Specific features of self-compensation of halogen donor action in lead telluride are investigasted. Lead telluride samples with chlorine additions (with tellurium excess) and, besides, with bromine- and iodine additions were studied in order to reveal general regularities in alloyind with all halogen donor impurities. Experimental dependences of the difference between the electron and hole concentrations (n-p) in PbTe as a function of an amount of introduced halogen impurities (Ni) are presented for samples with a maximum compensation at 295 K. General features of the n-p=f(Ni) dependence are presented for all halogens. The hypothesis on the kinetic mechanism of increasing the efficiency of self-compensation of halogen donor action in lead telluride is suggested

  11. Process for obtaining oxygen doped zinc telluride monocrystals and scintillator crystals obtained by this process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Maurice; Moreau, Roland; D'Haenen, J.-P.; Merenda, Pierre.

    1976-01-01

    A process is described for obtaining oxygen doped zinc telluride monocrystals, for use as scintillator crystals for ionising radiation detectors. The following operations are carried out in succession: one or several zinc telluride crystals are introduced into a silica ampoule together with a ternary mixture of zinc tellurium and oxygen, as an oxide or hydroxide of these elements; the ampoule is pumped down to a high vacuum and sealed; the sealed ampoule containing the mixture and monocrystals is placed in a kiln and brought to a uniform temperature sufficient to make the mixture three-phased, depending on its composition; the zinc telluride crystalline compound remains solid; the ampoule is then tempered to bring it quickly back to ambient temperature [fr

  12. Flux of Cadmium through Euphausiids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benayoun, G.; Fowler, S.W.; Oregioni, B.

    1976-01-01

    Flux of the heavy metal cadmium through the euphausiid Meganyctiphanes norvegica was examined. Radiotracer experiments showed that cadmium can be accumulated either directly from water or through the food chain. When comparing equilibrium cadmium concentration factors based on stable element measurements with those obtained from radiotracer experiments, it is evident that exchange between cadmium in the water and that in euphausiid tissue is a relatively slow process, indicating that, in the long term, ingestion of cadmium will probably be the more important route for the accumulation of this metal. Approximately 10% of cadmium ingested by euphausiids was incorporated into internal tissues when the food source was radioactive Artemia. After 1 month cadmium, accumulated directly from water, was found to be most concentrated in the viscera with lesser amounts in eyes, exoskeleton and muscle, respectively. Use of a simple model, based on the assumption that cadmium taken in by the organism must equal cadmium released plus that accumulated in tissue, allowed assessment of the relative importance of various metabolic parameters in controlling the cadmium flux through euphausiids. Fecal pellets, due to their relatively high rate of production and high cadmium content, accounted for 84% of the total cadmium flux through M. norvegica. Comparisons of stable cadmium concentrations in natural euphausiid food and the organism's resultant fecal pellets indicate that the cadmium concentration in ingested material was increased nearly 5-fold during its passage through the euphausiid. From comparisons of all routes by which cadmium can be released from M. norvegica to the water column, it is concluded that fecal pellet deposition represents the principal mechanism effecting the downward vertical transport of cadmium by this species. (author)

  13. Translocation and neurotoxicity of CdTe quantum dots in RMEs motor neurons in nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yunli; Wang, Xiong; Wu, Qiuli; Li, Yiping; Wang, Dayong

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We investigated in vivo neurotoxicity of CdTe QDs on RMEs motor neurons in C. elegans. • CdTe QDs in the range of μg/L caused neurotoxicity on RMEs motor neurons. • Bioavailability of CdTe QDs may be the primary inducer for CdTe QDs neurotoxicity. • Both oxidative stress and cell identity regulate the CdTe QDs neurotoxicity. • CdTe QDs were translocated and deposited into RMEs motor neurons. - Abstract: We employed Caenorhabditis elegans assay system to investigate in vivo neurotoxicity of CdTe quantum dots (QDs) on RMEs motor neurons, which are involved in controlling foraging behavior, and the underlying mechanism of such neurotoxicity. After prolonged exposure to 0.1–1 μg/L of CdTe QDs, abnormal foraging behavior and deficits in development of RMEs motor neurons were observed. The observed neurotoxicity from CdTe QDs on RMEs motor neurons might be not due to released Cd 2+ . Overexpression of genes encoding Mn-SODs or unc-30 gene controlling cell identity of RMEs neurons prevented neurotoxic effects of CdTe QDs on RMEs motor neurons, suggesting the crucial roles of oxidative stress and cell identity in regulating CdTe QDs neurotoxicity. In nematodes, CdTe QDs could be translocated through intestinal barrier and be deposited in RMEs motor neurons. In contrast, CdTe@ZnS QDs could not be translocated into RMEs motor neurons and therefore, could only moderately accumulated in intestinal cells, suggesting that ZnS coating might reduce neurotoxicity of CdTe QDs on RMEs motor neurons. Therefore, the combinational effects of oxidative stress, cell identity, and bioavailability may contribute greatly to the mechanism of CdTe QDs neurotoxicity on RMEs motor neurons. Our results provide insights into understanding the potential risks of CdTe QDs on the development and function of nervous systems in animals

  14. Translocation and neurotoxicity of CdTe quantum dots in RMEs motor neurons in nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yunli; Wang, Xiong; Wu, Qiuli; Li, Yiping; Wang, Dayong, E-mail: dayongw@seu.edu.cn

    2015-02-11

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We investigated in vivo neurotoxicity of CdTe QDs on RMEs motor neurons in C. elegans. • CdTe QDs in the range of μg/L caused neurotoxicity on RMEs motor neurons. • Bioavailability of CdTe QDs may be the primary inducer for CdTe QDs neurotoxicity. • Both oxidative stress and cell identity regulate the CdTe QDs neurotoxicity. • CdTe QDs were translocated and deposited into RMEs motor neurons. - Abstract: We employed Caenorhabditis elegans assay system to investigate in vivo neurotoxicity of CdTe quantum dots (QDs) on RMEs motor neurons, which are involved in controlling foraging behavior, and the underlying mechanism of such neurotoxicity. After prolonged exposure to 0.1–1 μg/L of CdTe QDs, abnormal foraging behavior and deficits in development of RMEs motor neurons were observed. The observed neurotoxicity from CdTe QDs on RMEs motor neurons might be not due to released Cd{sup 2+}. Overexpression of genes encoding Mn-SODs or unc-30 gene controlling cell identity of RMEs neurons prevented neurotoxic effects of CdTe QDs on RMEs motor neurons, suggesting the crucial roles of oxidative stress and cell identity in regulating CdTe QDs neurotoxicity. In nematodes, CdTe QDs could be translocated through intestinal barrier and be deposited in RMEs motor neurons. In contrast, CdTe@ZnS QDs could not be translocated into RMEs motor neurons and therefore, could only moderately accumulated in intestinal cells, suggesting that ZnS coating might reduce neurotoxicity of CdTe QDs on RMEs motor neurons. Therefore, the combinational effects of oxidative stress, cell identity, and bioavailability may contribute greatly to the mechanism of CdTe QDs neurotoxicity on RMEs motor neurons. Our results provide insights into understanding the potential risks of CdTe QDs on the development and function of nervous systems in animals.

  15. Dissolution kinetics of lead telluride in alkali solutions of hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilova, M.G.; Sveshnikova, L.L.; Stavitskaya, T.A.; Repinskij, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    Dissolution kinetics of lead telluride in alkali solutions of hydrogen peroxide was investigated. Dependences of change of PbTe dissolution rate on concentration of hydrogen peroxide and alkali in the solution were obtained. It is shown that dissolution rate of lead telluride is affected by dissolution rate of lead oxide, representing the product of ReTe dissolution. The obtained regularities can be explained by change of solution structure with increase of KOH concentration and by the state of hydrogen peroxide in the solution

  16. Simulation of core-level binding energy shifts in germanium-doped lead telluride crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zyubin, A.S.; Dedyulin, S.N.; Yashina, L.V.; Shtanov, V.I.

    2007-01-01

    To simulate the changes in core-level binding energies in germanium-doped lead telluride, cluster calculations of the changes in the electrostatic potential at the corresponding centers have been performed. Different locations of the Ge atom in the crystal bulk have been considered: near vacancies, near another dopant site, and near the surface. For calculating the potential in the clusters that model the bulk and the surface of the lead telluride crystal (c-PbTe), the electron density obtained in the framework of the Hartree-Fock and hybrid density functional theory (DFT) methods has been used [ru

  17. Influence of EDTA2− on the hydrothermal synthesis of CdTe nanocrystallites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Haibo; Hao Xiaopeng; Wu Yongzhong; Cao Bingqiang; Xu Hongyan; Xu Xiangang

    2011-01-01

    Transformation from Te nanorods to CdTe nanoparticles was achieved with the assistance of EDTA as a ligand under hydrothermal conditions. Experimental results showed that at the beginning of reaction Te nucleated and grew into nanorods. With the proceeding of reaction, CdTe nucleus began to emerge on the surface, especially on the tips of Te nanorods. Finally, nearly monodispersed hexagonal CdTe nanoparticles with diameters of about 200 nm were obtained. The effects of EDTA on the morphology and formation of CdTe nanoparticles were discussed in consideration of the strong ligand-effect of EDTA, which greatly decreased the concentration of Cd 2+ . Furthermore, the possible formation process of CdTe nanoparticles from Te nanorods was further proposed. The crystal structure and morphology of the products were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). - Graphical Abstract: Firstly, Te nucleated and grew into nanorods in the presence of EDTA 2− . Then CdTe nucleus began to emerge on Te nanorods and finally monodispersed CdTe nanoparticles were obtained. Highlights: ► EDTA serves as a strong ligand with Cd 2+ . ► The existence of EDTA constrains the nucleation of CdTe and promotes the formation of Te nanorods. ► With the proceeding of reaction, CdTe nucleus began to emerge on the surface, especially on the tips of Te nanorods. ► Nearly monodispersed hexagonal CdTe nanoparticles with diameters of about 200 nm were finally obtained.

  18. Chlorination leaching of cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lach, E.; Pajak, I.; Bojanowska, A.

    1978-01-01

    The results of the investigations on chlorination leaching of cadmium from dust coming from dry dust collector of sinter belt, that is leaching with water saturated with gaseous chlorine and leaching with solutions of ammonium chloride and sodium chloride were given. The optimum conditions for these processes were established. It was found, that the method of leaching in the presence of gaseous chlorine is more effective, as it allows to report into the solution over 90% cadmium contained in dust. Owing to technical difficulties, environmental protection and safety conditions more advantageous seems to be the use as leaching agent of the ammonium chloride solutions. When applying 20% NH 4 Cl and temperature of 60 0 C, the time of 2 hours and the ratio of solid to liquid of 1:5, 70% cadmium contained in the dust can be reported into the solution. (auth.)

  19. Study of correlation between the structural defects and inhomogeneities of CDTE based radiation detectors used for medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buis, Camille

    2013-01-01

    In the present Ph.D. thesis, we investigate microstructural defects in a chlorine-doped cadmium telluride crystal (CdTe:Cl), to understand the relationship between defects and performance of CdTe-based radiation detectors. Characterization tools, such as diffraction topography and chemical etching, are used for bulk and surface investigations of the distribution of dislocations. Dislocations are arranged into walls. Most of them appear to cross the whole thickness of the sample. Very good correlation is observed between areas with variations of dark-current and photo-current, and positions of the dislocation walls revealed at the surface of the sample. Then spectroscopic analysis of these defects was performed at low temperatures. It highlighted that dislocation walls induce non-radiative recombination, but it didn't show any Y luminescence usually attributed to dislocations in the literature. Ion Beam Induced Current (IBIC) measurements were used to evaluate the influence of dislocation walls on charge carrier transport properties. This experiment shows that they reduce the mobility-lifetime product of the charge carriers. A very clear correlation was, in fact, established between the distribution of the dislocation network and the linear defects revealed by their lower CIE on the device. (author) [fr

  20. Immobilization of pH-sensitive CdTe Quantum Dots in a Poly(acrylate) Hydrogel for Microfluidic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, M.; Leubner, S.; Dubavik, A.; George, A.; Savchenko, T.; Pini, C.; Frank, P.; Melnikau, D.; Rakovich, Y.; Gaponik, N.; Eychmüller, A.; Richter, A.

    2017-04-01

    Microfluidic devices present the basis of modern life sciences and chemical information processing. To control the flow and to allow optical readout, a reliable sensor material that can be easily utilized for microfluidic systems is in demand. Here, we present a new optical readout system for pH sensing based on pH sensitive, photoluminescent glutathione capped cadmium telluride quantum dots that are covalently immobilized in a poly(acrylate) hydrogel. For an applicable pH sensing the generated hybrid material is integrated in a microfluidic sensor chip setup. The hybrid material not only allows in situ readout, but also possesses valve properties due to the swelling behavior of the poly(acrylate) hydrogel. In this work, the swelling property of the hybrid material is utilized in a microfluidic valve seat, where a valve opening process is demonstrated by a fluid flow change and in situ monitored by photoluminescence quenching. This discrete photoluminescence detection (ON/OFF) of the fluid flow change (OFF/ON) enables upcoming chemical information processing.

  1. Post-CMOS FinFET integration of bismuth telluride and antimony telluride thin-film-based thermoelectric devices on SoI substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Aktakka, Ethem Erkan

    2013-10-01

    This letter reports, for the first time, heterogeneous integration of bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) and antimony telluride (Sb 2Te3) thin-film-based thermoelectric ffect transistors) via a characterized TE-film coevaporationand shadow-mask patterning process using predeposition surface treatment methods for reduced TE-metal contact resistance. As a demonstration vehicle, a 2 × 2 mm2-sized integrated planar thermoelectric generator (TEG) is shown to harvest 0.7 μ W from 21-K temperature gradient. Transistor performance showed no significant change upon post-CMOS TEG integration, indicating, for the first time, the CMOS compatibility of the Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 thin films, which could be leveraged for realization of high-performance integrated micro-TE harvesters and coolers. © 2013 IEEE.

  2. Dewetted growth of CdTe in microgravity (STS-95)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiederle, M.; Babentsov, V.; Benz, K.W.; Duffar, T.; Dusserre, P.; Corregidor, V.; Dieguez, E.; Delaye, P.; Roosen, G.; Chevrier, V.; Launay, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    Two CdTe crystals had been grown in microgravity during the STS-95 mission. The growth configuration was dedicated to obtain dewetting of the crystals and to achieve high quality material. Background for the performed experiments was based on the theory of the dewetting and previous experience. The after flight characterization of the crystals has demonstrated existence of the dewetting areas of the crystals and their improved quality regarding the earth grown reference sample. The samples had been characterized by EDAX, Synchrotron X-ray topography, Photoluminescence and Optical and IR microscopy. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. High-Efficiency, Commercial Ready CdTe Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sites, James R. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2015-11-19

    Colorado State’s F-PACE project explored several ways to increase the efficiency of CdTe solar cells and to better understand the device physics of those cells under study. Increases in voltage, current, and fill factor resulted in efficiencies above 17%. The three project tasks and additional studies are described in detail in the final report. Most cells studied were fabricated at Colorado State using an industry-compatible single-vacuum closed-space-sublimation (CSS) chamber for deposition of the key semiconductor layers. Additionally, some cells were supplied by First Solar for comparison purposes, and a small number of modules were supplied by Abound Solar.

  4. Structure of CdTe nanoparticles in glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, T. M.; Nagpal, Swati; Persans, P. D.

    2000-03-01

    Optical long-pass wavelength filters are generally made by growing small crystallites of appropriate semiconductors in a transparent glass matrix. Depending on the semiconductor, these systems are candidates for interesting and important nonlinear optical switching applications. The structure of these nanocrystals has been shown to be a valuable indicator of the chemical and thermodynamic processes during crystallite growth and dissolution. We have used x-ray absorption spectroscopy to study the structure of the crystallites produced during heat treatment of filter glasses containing Cd and Te and producing optical absorption edges at the band gap of bulk CdTe. The results will be discussed.

  5. Magnetic circular dichroism of CdTe nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakhovskii, A. V.; Sokolov, A. E.; Tsipotan, A. S.; Zharkov, S. M.; Zabluda, V. N.

    2018-04-01

    Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) of water-soluble CdTe nanoparticles was observed in the visible spectral range for the first time. Diameter of nanoparticles varied from 2.3 to 4.5 nm. Absorption and photoluminescence spectra were also recorded. Absorption line at 19400 cm-1 and luminescent line at 18200 cm-1 were observed. Splitting of value 960 cm-1 was revealed in the MCD spectrum. Approximately the same splitting was extracted from the absorption spectrum. The MCD was identified as the temperature independent paramagnetic mixing effect. Nature of the absorption line and of its splitting are discussed.

  6. Cadmium plating replacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, M.J.; Groshart, E.C.

    1995-03-01

    The Boeing Company has been searching for replacements to cadmium plate. Two alloy plating systems seem close to meeting the needs of a cadmium replacement. The two alloys, zinc-nickel and tin-zinc are from alloy plating baths; both baths are neutral pH. The alloys meet the requirements for salt fog corrosion resistance, and both alloys excel as a paint base. Currently, tests are being performed on standard fasteners to compare zinc-nickel and tin-zinc on threaded hardware where cadmium is heavily used. The Hydrogen embrittlement propensity of the zinc-nickel bath has been tested, and just beginning for the tin-zinc bath. Another area of interest is the electrical properties on aluminum for tin-zinc and will be discussed. The zinc-nickel alloy plating bath is in production in Boeing Commercial Airplane Group for non-critical low strength steels. The outlook is promising that these two coatings will help The Boeing Company significantly reduce its dependence on cadmium plating.

  7. Cadmium: The deformed metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbs, R L [Cadmium Association, London (UK)

    1979-03-01

    The paper, which is a somewhat abridged version of the introductory paper of the 2nd International Cadmium Conference in Cannes on February 6 to 8, 1979, outlines the present trends in production, reserves, consumption, world trade, prices, and cost. Due to the lack of statistics on the USSR and other socialist countries, the review is limited to the non-socialist world.

  8. zinc, chromium, cadmium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-30

    Jun 30, 2016 ... Cadmium also causes destruction of the immune system, thus, predisposes the consumer to infectious diseases like tuberculosis (Khan et al., 2008). ... years, sputum specimens positive for acid-fast bacilli by microscopy and clinical and radiographic abnormalities consistent with pulmonary tuberculosis.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of TGA-capped CdTe nanoparticles embedded in PVA matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, S.K.; Kaur, Ramneek; Sharma, Mamta [Panjab University, Department of Physics, Center of Advanced Study in Physics, Chandigarh (India)

    2014-10-25

    This paper reports the synthesis and characterization of TGA-capped CdTe nanoparticles and its nanocomposite in a PVA matrix prepared by ex situ technique. The crystallite sizes of the CdTe nanoparticles and nanocomposite calculated from X-ray diffraction patterns are 6.07 and 7.75 nm with hexagonal structure, respectively. The spherical nature of the CdTe nanoparticles is confirmed from transmission electron microscopy measurements. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows good interaction between the CdTe nanoparticles and PVA matrix. The absorption and emission spectra have also been studied. The stability of the TGA-capped CdTe nanoparticles increases after dispersion in a PVA matrix. In electrical measurements, the dark conductivity and the steady-state photoconductivity of CdTe nanocomposite thin films have been studied. The effect of temperature and intensity on the transient photoconductivity of CdTe nanocomposite is also studied. The values of differential life time have been calculated from the decay of photocurrent with time. The non-exponential decay of photoconductivity is observed indicating that the traps exist at all the energies in the band gap, making these materials suitable for various optoelectronic devices. (orig.)

  10. Synthesis and characterization of TGA-capped CdTe nanoparticles embedded in PVA matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, S.K.; Kaur, Ramneek; Sharma, Mamta

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the synthesis and characterization of TGA-capped CdTe nanoparticles and its nanocomposite in a PVA matrix prepared by ex situ technique. The crystallite sizes of the CdTe nanoparticles and nanocomposite calculated from X-ray diffraction patterns are 6.07 and 7.75 nm with hexagonal structure, respectively. The spherical nature of the CdTe nanoparticles is confirmed from transmission electron microscopy measurements. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows good interaction between the CdTe nanoparticles and PVA matrix. The absorption and emission spectra have also been studied. The stability of the TGA-capped CdTe nanoparticles increases after dispersion in a PVA matrix. In electrical measurements, the dark conductivity and the steady-state photoconductivity of CdTe nanocomposite thin films have been studied. The effect of temperature and intensity on the transient photoconductivity of CdTe nanocomposite is also studied. The values of differential life time have been calculated from the decay of photocurrent with time. The non-exponential decay of photoconductivity is observed indicating that the traps exist at all the energies in the band gap, making these materials suitable for various optoelectronic devices. (orig.)

  11. Doping of polycrystalline CdTe for high-efficiency solar cells on flexible metal foil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Lukas; Gretener, Christina; Perrenoud, Julian; Schmitt, Rafael; Pianezzi, Fabian; La Mattina, Fabio; Blösch, Patrick; Cheah, Erik; Chirilă, Adrian; Fella, Carolin M; Hagendorfer, Harald; Jäger, Timo; Nishiwaki, Shiro; Uhl, Alexander R; Buecheler, Stephan; Tiwari, Ayodhya N

    2013-01-01

    Roll-to-roll manufacturing of CdTe solar cells on flexible metal foil substrates is one of the most attractive options for low-cost photovoltaic module production. However, various efforts to grow CdTe solar cells on metal foil have resulted in low efficiencies. This is caused by the fact that the conventional device structure must be inverted, which imposes severe restrictions on device processing and consequently limits the electronic quality of the CdTe layer. Here we introduce an innovative concept for the controlled doping of the CdTe layer in the inverted device structure by means of evaporation of sub-monolayer amounts of Cu and subsequent annealing, which enables breakthrough efficiencies up to 13.6%. For the first time, CdTe solar cells on metal foil exceed the 10% efficiency threshold for industrialization. The controlled doping of CdTe with Cu leads to increased hole density, enhanced carrier lifetime and improved carrier collection in the solar cell. Our results offer new research directions for solving persistent challenges of CdTe photovoltaics.

  12. Capillary electrophoresis-driven synthesis of water-soluble CdTe quantum dots in nanoliter scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejdl, Lukas; Hynek, David; Adam, Vojtech; Vaculovicova, Marketa

    2018-04-01

    ‘Green nanotechnology’ is a term used for the design of nanomaterials and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and/or generation of hazardous substances. In this paper, a capillary electrophoresis (CE)-driven synthesis of CdTe quantum dots (QDs) and their subsequent conjugation with a metal-binding protein metallothionein (isofom MT1) is reported. Even though the toxic materials (cadmium and potassium borohydride) were used for synthesis, the proposed method can be labeled as ‘environmentally friendly’ because the whole process (synthesis of QDs and MT1 conjugation) was carried out under mild conditions: ultra-low volume (nanoliter scale), relatively low temperature (50 °C), atmospheric pressure, and completed in a short time (under 90 s). Prepared QDs were also characterized by classical fluorescence spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. This study opens up new possibilities for the utilization of classical CE in the synthesis of nanoparticles and on-line labeling of biomolecules in the nanoliter scale in short period of time.

  13. Performance characteristics of CdTe drift ring detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alruhaili, A.; Sellin, P. J.; Lohstroh, A.; Veeramani, P.; Kazemi, S.; Veale, M. C.; Sawhney, K. J. S.; Kachkanov, V.

    2014-03-01

    CdTe and CdZnTe material is an excellent candidate for the fabrication of high energy X-ray spectroscopic detectors due to their good quantum efficiency and room temperature operation. The main material limitation is associated with the poor charge transport properties of holes. The motivation of this work is to investigate the performance characteristics of a detector fabricated with a drift ring geometry that is insensitive to the transport of holes. The performance of a prototype Ohmic CdTe drift ring detector fabricated by Acrorad with 3 drift rings is reported; measurements include room temperature current voltage characteristics (IV) and spectroscopic performance. The data shows that the energy resolution of the detector is limited by leakage current which is a combination of bulk and surface leakage currents. The energy resolution was studied as a function of incident X-ray position with an X-ray microbeam at the Diamond Light Source. Different ring biasing schemes were investigated and the results show that by increasing the lateral field (i.e. the bias gradient across the rings) the active area, evaluated by the detected count rate, increased significantly.

  14. Molecular basis of cadmium toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nath, R; Prasad, R; Palinal, V K; Chopra, R K

    1984-01-01

    Cadmium has been shown to manifest its toxicity in human and animals by mainly accumulating in almost all of the organs. The kidney is the main target organ where it is concentrated mainly in the cortex. Environmental exposure of cadmium occurs via food, occupational industries, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem. At molecular level, cadmium interferes with the utilization of essential metals e.g. Ca, Zn, Se, Cr and Fe and deficiencies of these essential metals including protein and vitamins, exaggerate cadmium toxicity, due to its increased absorption through the gut and greater retention in different organs as metallothionein (Cd-Mt). Cadmium transport, across the intestinal and renal brush border membrane vesicles, is carrier mediated and it competes with zinc and calcium. It has been postulated that cadmium shares the same transport system. Cadmium inhibits protein synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism and drug metabolizing enzymes in liver of animals. Chronic environmental exposure of cadmium produces hypertension in experimental animals. Functional changes accompanying cadmium nephropathy include low molecular weight proteinuria which is of tubular origin associated with excess excretion of proteins such as beta 2 microglobulin, metallothionein and high molecular weight proteinuria of glomerular origin (excretion of proteins such as albumin IgG, transferrin etc.). Recent data has shown that metallothionein is more nephrotoxic to animals. Cadmium is also toxic to central nervous system. It causes an alterations of cellular functions in lungs. Cadmium affects both humoral and cell mediated immune response in animals. Cadmium induces metallothionein in liver and kidney but under certain nutritional deficiencies like protein-calorie malnutrition and calcium deficiency, enhanced induction and greater accumulation of cadmium metallothionein has been observed.

  15. Thrombus detection using 125I-fibrinogen and a CdTe probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, D.A.; Frisbie, J.H.; Tow, D.E.; Sasahara, A.A.; Entine, G.

    1976-01-01

    A compact CdTe detector system was developed for use in a clinical screening test for venous thrombosis of the legs. Patients given intravenously administered autologous 125 I-fibrinogen were probed externally at selected points on the thighs and calves for abnormal accumulations of radioactivity. Measurements made with the CdTe probe were compared to those obtained with a standard portable NaI detector system. The CdTe probe was the equal of the NaI detector in diagnostic capability. The compact design of the semiconductor system considerably eased the probing procedure, especially in bedridden patients with limited mobility of the extremities

  16. Low dose in nuclear cardiology: state of the art in the era of new cadmium-zinc-telluride cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acampa, Wanda; Buechel, Ronny R; Gimelli, Alessia

    2016-06-01

    The use of myocardial perfusion imaging has seen a tremendous growth during the last decade and has become the most commonly used non-invasive imaging tool for risk stratification in patients with suspected and known coronary artery disease. Adherence to radiation safety best practices varied significantly between laboratories but the possibility to use the new cameras in nuclear cardiology can reduce dramatically the radiation dose without losing accuracy. Moreover, the physical characteristics of ultrafast technology could be able to open new doors for the evaluation of old parameters, changing the impact of nuclear cardiology in the diagnostic strategies. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Indium telluride nanotubes: Solvothermal synthesis, growth mechanism, and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Liyan [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Yan, Shancheng, E-mail: yansc@njupt.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); School of Geography and Biological Information, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210046 (China); Lu, Tao; Shi, Yi; Wang, Jianyu [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Yang, Fan [School of Geography and Biological Information, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210046 (China)

    2014-03-15

    hydrogen storage, compared with the nanowires. The nanotube device also has a broad light detection range from 300 nm to 1100 nm, covering the UV–visible–NIR region. This good performance of In{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanotubes may enable significant advancements of new photodetection and photosensing applications. Highlights: • The In{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanotube device also has a broad light detection range from 300 nm to 1100 nm. • The nanotube is 137.85 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}, which makes it suitable for gas sensing and hydrogen storage. • A possible growth mechanism of the indium telluride nanotubes was proposed. • In addition, no In{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanotubes have been reported until now.

  18. Interaction and energy transfer studies between bovine serum albumin and CdTe quantum dots conjugates: CdTe QDs as energy acceptor probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotresh, M G; Inamdar, L S; Shivkumar, M A; Adarsh, K S; Jagatap, B N; Mulimani, B G; Advirao, G M; Inamdar, S R

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, a systematic investigation of the interaction of bovine serum albumin (BSA) with water-soluble CdTe quantum dots (QDs) of two different sizes capped with carboxylic thiols is presented based on steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence measurements. Efficient Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) was observed to occur from BSA donor to CdTe acceptor as noted from reduction in the fluorescence of BSA and enhanced fluorescence from CdTe QDs. FRET parameters such as Förster distance, spectral overlap integral, FRET rate constant and efficiency were determined. The quenching of BSA fluorescence in aqueous solution observed in the presence of CdTe QDs infers that fluorescence resonance energy transfer is primarily responsible for the quenching phenomenon. Bimolecular quenching constant (k q ) determined at different temperatures and the time-resolved fluorescence data provide additional evidence for this. The binding stoichiometry and various thermodynamic parameters are evaluated by using the van 't Hoff equation. The analysis of the results suggests that the interaction between BSA and CdTe QDs is entropy driven and hydrophobic forces play a key role in the interaction. Binding of QDs significantly shortened the fluorescence lifetime of BSA which is one of the hallmarks of FRET. The effect of size of the QDs on the FRET parameters are discussed in the light of FRET parameters obtained. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkman, H; Iverfeldt, Aa [Swedish Environmental Research Inst. (Sweden); Borg, H; Lithner, G [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Inst. for Applied Environmental Research

    1998-03-01

    This report aims at assessing possible effects of cadmium in the Swedish environment. Swedish soils and soft freshwater systems are, due to a generally poor buffering capacity, severely affected by acidification. In addition, the low salinity in the Baltic Sea imply a naturally poor organism structure, with some important organisms living close to their limit of physiological tolerance. Cadmium in soils is mobilized at low pH, and the availability and toxicity of cadmium in marine systems are enhanced at low salinity. The Swedish environment is therefore extra vulnerable to cadmium pollution. The average concentrations of cadmium in the forest mor layers, agricultural soils, and fresh-waters in Sweden are enhanced compared to `back-ground concentrations`, with a general increasing trend from the north to the south-west, indicating strong impact of atmospheric deposition of cadmium originating from the central parts of Europe. In Swedish sea water, total cadmium concentrations, and the fraction of bio-available `free` cadmium, generally increases with decreasing salinity. Decreased emissions of cadmium to the environment have led to decreasing atmospheric deposition during the last decade. The net accumulation of cadmium in the forest mor layer has stopped, and even started to decrease. In northern Sweden, this is due to the decreased deposition, but in southern Sweden the main reason is increased leakage of cadmium from the topsoil as a consequence of acidification. As a result, cadmium in the Swedish environments is undergoing an extended redistribution between different soil compartments, and from the soils to the aquatic systems. 90 refs, 23 figs, 2 tabs. With 3 page summary in Swedish

  20. Se-Se isoelectronic centers in high purity CdTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najjar, Rita; Andre, Regis; Mariette, Henri [CEA-CNRS, Nanophysique et Semiconducteurs, Institut Neel, 25 rue des martyrs, 38042 Grenoble (France); Golnik, Andrzej; Kossacki, Piotr; Gaj, Jan A. [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Warsaw, Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland)

    2010-06-15

    We evidence zero-dimensional exciton states trapped on isoelectronic Se centers in CdTe quantum wells, {delta}-doped with Se. Thanks to special precautions taken to have very high purity CdTe heterostructures, it is possible to observe, in photoluminescence spectra, sharp discrete lines arising from individual centers related to the Se doping. These emission lines appear at about 40 meV below the CdTe band gap energy. The most prominent lines are attributed to the recombination of excitons bound to nearest-neighbor selenium pairs in a tetrahedral CdTe environment. This assignment is confirmed by a common linear polarization direction of the emitted light, parallel to <110>. These excitons localized on individual isoelectronic traps are good candidates as single photon emitters (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Defect complexes formed with Ag atoms in CDTE, ZnTe, and ZnSe

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, H; Ostheimer, V; Hamann, J; Lany, S; Wichert, T

    2000-01-01

    Using the radioactive acceptor $^{111}\\!$Ag for perturbed $\\gamma$-$\\gamma$-angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy for the first time, defect complexes formed with Ag are investigated in the II-VI semiconductors CdTe, ZnTe and ZnSe. The donors In, Br and the Te-vacancy were found to passivate Ag acceptors in CdTe via pair formation, which was also observed in In-doped ZnTe. In undoped or Sb-doped CdTe and in undoped ZnSe, the PAC experiments indicate the compensation of Ag acceptors by the formation of double broken bond centres, which are characterised by an electric field gradient with an asymmetry parameter close to h = 1. Additionally, a very large electric field gradient was observed in CdTe, which is possibly connected with residual impurities.

  2. Design Strategies for High-Efficiency CdTe Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tao

    With continuous technology advances over the past years, CdTe solar cells have surged to be a leading contributor in thin-film photovoltaic (PV) field. While empirical material and device optimization has led to considerable progress, further device optimization requires accurate device models that are able to provide an in-depth understanding of CdTe device physics. Consequently, this thesis is intended to develop a comprehensive model system for high-efficiency CdTe devices through applying basic design principles of solar cells with numerical modeling and comparing results with experimental CdTe devices. The CdTe absorber is central to cell performance. Numerical simulation has shown the feasibility of high energy-conversion efficiency, which requires both high carrier density and long minority carrier lifetime. As the minority carrier lifetime increases, the carrier recombination at the back surface becomes a limitation for cell performance with absorber thickness cell performance, since it can induce a large valence-band bending which suppresses the hole injection near the interface for the electron-hole recombination, but too large a spike is detrimental to photocurrent transport. In a heterojunction device with many defects at the emitter/absorber interface (high SIF), a thin and highly-doped emitter can induce strong absorber inversion and hence help maintain good cell performance. Performance losses from acceptor-type interface defects can be significant when interface defect states are located near mid-gap energies. In terms of specific emitter materials, the calculations suggest that the (Mg,Zn)O alloy with 20% Mg, or a similar type-I heterojunction partner with moderate DeltaE C (e.g., Cd(S,O) or (Cd,Mg)Te with appropriate oxygen or magnesium ratios) should yield higher voltages and would therefore be better candidates for the CdTe-cell emitter. The CdTe/substrate interface is also of great importance, particularly in the growth of epitaxial

  3. Cadmium: The deformed metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubbs, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    The paper, which is a somewhat abridged version of the introductory paper of the 2nd International Cadmium Conference in Cannes on February 6 to 8, 1979, outlines the present trends in production, reserves, consumption, world trade, prices, and cost. Due to the lack of statistics on the USSR and other socialist countries, the review is limited to the non-socialist world. (orig./IHOE) [de

  4. RHEED studies of MBE growth mechanisms of CdTe and CdMnTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waag, A.; Behr, T.; Litz, T.; Kuhn-Heinrich, B.; Hommel, D.; Landwehr, G. (Physikalisches Inst., Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany))

    1993-01-30

    We report on reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) studies of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth of CdTe and CdMnTe on (100) oriented CdTe substrates. RHEED oscillations were measured for both the growth and desorption of CdTe and CdMnTe as a function of flux and temperature. For the first time, the influence of laser and electron irradiation on the growth rate, as well as desorption, of CdTe is studied in detail using RHEED oscillations. We found a very small effect on the growth rate as well as on the CdTe desorption rate. The growth rate of CdTe was determined for different temperatures and CdTe flux ratios. The obtained experimental results are compared with a kinetic growth model to get information on the underlying growth processes, taking into account the influence of a precursor by including surface diffusion. From the comparison between model and experimental results the sticking coefficients of Cd and Te are determined. The growth rate of CdMnTe increases with Mn flux. This dependence can be used to calibrate the Mn content during growth by comparing the growth rate of CdTe with the growth rate of CdMnTe. The change in growth rate has been correlated with Mn content via photoluminescence measurements. In addition, the sticking coefficient of Mn is derived by comparing experimental results with a kinetic growth model. For high manganese content a transition to three-dimensional growth occurs. (orig.).

  5. Identification of a type of defects in CdTe crystals by the piezo spectroscopic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarbajev, M.Yi.

    1999-01-01

    The dependence of line shifts and the photoluminescence line intensity of bound exciton complexes on the direction of elastic deformation are studied for CdTe crystals at 4.2 K. On the basis of the found differences in piezo optic behavior of excitons bound to neutral donors and acceptors, the method of identification of a type of defects in CdTe crystals is proposed

  6. On the doping problem of CdTe films: The bismuth case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil-Galan, O. [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del IPN, Edif. 9, UPALM, 07738 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Brown, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Toledo, 43606 Toledo, OH (United States); Ruiz, C.M. [Depto. Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Vidal-Borbolla, M.A. [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Av. Karakorum 1470, Lomas 4a. Secc., 78210 San Luis Potosi, SLP (Mexico); Ramirez-Bon, R. [CINVESTAV-IPN, U. Queretaro, Libramiento Norponiente No. 2000, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, 76230 Santiago de Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico); Sanchez-Meza, E. [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del IPN, Edif. 9, UPALM, 07738 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Tufino-Velazquez, M. [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del IPN, Edif. 9, UPALM, 07738 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)], E-mail: mtufinovel@yahoo.com.mx; Calixto, M. Estela [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del IPN, Edif. 9, UPALM, 07738 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Compaan, A.D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Toledo, 43606 Toledo, OH (United States); Contreras-Puente, G. [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del IPN, Edif. 9, UPALM, 07738 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    2008-08-30

    The controlled increase of hole concentration is an important issue and still an unsolved problem for polycrystalline CdTe-based solar cells. The typical hole concentration of as-grown CdTe thin-films goes up to 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}, depending on the specific growth technique. The highest electron concentration obtained for CdS, the suitable window partner material of CdTe, is around 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}. Thus, the PV-performance of a CdS/CdTe device can be optimized if the hole concentration in CdTe is increased. We have faced up this problem by studying the electrical properties of two types of CdTe films: CdTe films grown by Close Space Vapor Transport using a CdTe:Bi powder as the starting material and CdTe sputtered films doped by implantation with different Bi-doses. Temperature-dependent resistivity and Hall effect measurements and a discussion on the efficiency of both doping processes are presented.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of CdTe quantum dots by one-step method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Li

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available L-Cysteine (Cys-capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs were prepared when sodium tellurite worked as a tellurium source and sodium borohydride acted as a reductant. The influences of various experimental variables, including pH values, Cd/Te and Cd/Cys molar ratios, on the photoluminescence (PL quantum yield (QY of the obtained CdTe QDs have been systematically investigated. Experimental results indicated that green to red emitting CdTe QDs with maximum quantum yield of 19.4% can be prepared at pH 11.5 and n(Cd2+:n(Te2−:n(Cys = 1:0.07:2.0. X-Ray powder diffraction (XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM were used to characterize the crystal structure and shape of CdTe QDs. The results showed that the prepared CdTe QDs were of cubic zinc blend crystal structure in a sphere-like shape.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v27i3.7

  8. On the doping problem of CdTe films: The bismuth case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigil-Galan, O.; Brown, M.; Ruiz, C.M.; Vidal-Borbolla, M.A.; Ramirez-Bon, R.; Sanchez-Meza, E.; Tufino-Velazquez, M.; Calixto, M. Estela; Compaan, A.D.; Contreras-Puente, G.

    2008-01-01

    The controlled increase of hole concentration is an important issue and still an unsolved problem for polycrystalline CdTe-based solar cells. The typical hole concentration of as-grown CdTe thin-films goes up to 10 13 cm -3 , depending on the specific growth technique. The highest electron concentration obtained for CdS, the suitable window partner material of CdTe, is around 10 15 cm -3 . Thus, the PV-performance of a CdS/CdTe device can be optimized if the hole concentration in CdTe is increased. We have faced up this problem by studying the electrical properties of two types of CdTe films: CdTe films grown by Close Space Vapor Transport using a CdTe:Bi powder as the starting material and CdTe sputtered films doped by implantation with different Bi-doses. Temperature-dependent resistivity and Hall effect measurements and a discussion on the efficiency of both doping processes are presented

  9. Glutathione-capped CdTe nanocrystals as probe for the determination of fenbendazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Tan, Xuanping; Li, Jin; Pan, Li; Liu, Xiaorong

    2015-04-01

    Water-soluble glutathione (GSH)-capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized. In pH 7.1 PBS buffer solution, the interaction between GSH-capped CdTe QDs and fenbendazole (FBZ) was investigated by spectroscopic methods, including fluorescence spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, and resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) spectroscopy. In GSH-capped CdTe QDs solution, the addition of FBZ results in the fluorescence quenching and RRS enhancement of GSH-capped CdTe QDs. And the quenching intensity (enhanced RRS intensity) was proportional to the concentration of FBZ in a certain range. Investigation of the interaction mechanism, proved that the fluorescence quenching and RRS enhancement of GSH-capped CdTe QDs by FBZ is the result of electrostatic attraction. Based on the quenching of fluorescence (enhancement of RRS) of GSH-capped CdTe QDs by FBZ, a novel, simple, rapid and specific method for FBZ determination was proposed. The detection limit for FBZ was 42 ng mL-1 (3.4 ng mL-1) and the quantitative determination range was 0-2.8 μg mL-1 with a correlation of 0.9985 (0.9979). The method has been applied to detect FBZ in real simples and with satisfactory results.

  10. Defect creation rates in CdTe irradiated by electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caillot, M.

    1978-01-01

    Up to now, the defect creation rates in CdTe irradiated by electrons were unknown. They have been calculated for different electron kinetic energies. As the samples studied are thick, the energy loss when the electrons penetrate the material has been taken into account. The cross-sections of Cd and Te displacements vs the depth of electron penetration were determined for different electron kinetic energies, and the defect creation rates obtained for each sublattice. These creation rates have been compared with those deduced from experiments and it was found that the experimental creation rates were lower than the calculated ones. This discrepancy can be explained in terms of creation of neutral Frenkel pairs. (Auth.)

  11. Mechanism of manganese (mono and di) telluride thin-film formation and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Raj Kishore; Singh, Gurmeet; Shul, Yong Gun; Kim, Hansung

    2007-03-01

    Mechanistic studies on the electrocrystallization of manganese telluride (MnTe) thin film are reported using aqueous acidic solution containing MnSO 4 and TeO 2. Tartaric acid was used for the inhibition of hydrated manganese oxide anodic growth at counter electrode. A detailed study on the mechanistic aspect of electrochemical growth of MnTe using cyclic voltametry is carried out. Conditions for electrochemical growth of manganese mono and di telluride thin films have been reported using cyclic voltammetric scans for Mn 2+, Te 4+ and combined Mn 2+ and Te 4+. X-ray diffraction showed the formation of polycrystalline MnTe films with cubic, hexagonal and orthorhombic mixed phases. MnTe film morphology was studied using scanning electron microscope. Susceptibility and electrical characterization supports the anti-ferromagnetic behavior of the as-deposited MnTe thin film.

  12. Diagnostic Genesis Features of Au-Ag Selenide-Telluride Mineralization of Western Java Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euis Tintin Yuningsih

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.3.1.67-76The ore mineralogy of the westernmost part of West Java such as Pongkor, Cibaliung, Cikidang, Cikotok, and Cirotan are characterized by the dominance of silver-arsenic-antimony sulfosalt with silver selenides and rarely tellurides over the argentite, whereas the eastern part of West Java including Arinem and Cineam deposits are dominated by silver-gold tellurides. Mineralogy of Se-type deposits at Pongkor, Cikidang, Cibaliung, Cisungsang, and Cirotan and Te-type deposits at Arinem and Cineam shows their different geochemical characteristics. Mineralogical and geochemical differences can be explained by variation of physico-chemical conditions that existed during gold-silver deposition by applying the phase relation among sulfide, telluride, and selenide mineral association in the deposits. The relative values of ƒSe2(g, ƒTe(g, and ƒS2(g control the actual presence of selenide or telluride minerals within the West Java deposits, which also depend on their concentrations in the hydrothermal fluid. Even though the concentration of selenium in the hydrothermal fluid of Te-type deposits might have been similar or even higher than that in the Se-type, early substitution of selenium in the sulfide minerals prevents its concentration in the hydrothermal fluid to the levels for precipitating selenide minerals. Therefore, early sulfide mineral deposition from reduction fluids will not increase the ƒSe2(g/ƒS2(g ratio to form selenide minerals in Te-type deposits of Arinem and Cineam, other than selenium-bearing sulfide mineral such as Se-bearing galena or Se-bearing pyrargyrite-proustite.

  13. Donor impurity self-compensation by neutral complexes in bismuth doped lead telluride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravich, Yu.I.; Nemov, S.A.; Proshin, V.I.

    1994-01-01

    Self-compensation is calculated of impurity doping action in semiconductors of the A 4 B 6 type by neutral complexes, consisting of a vacancy and two impurity atoms. Complexes entropy is estimated and the thermodynamic potential is minimized in the concentration of single two-charge vacancies and complexes. Calculation results are compared with experimental data, obtained when lead telluride doping by bismuth. Account for complex formation improves agreement theory with experiment. 4 refs., 1 fig

  14. Cadmium in blood and hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eum, Ki-Do; Lee, Mi-Sun; Paek, Domyung

    2008-01-01

    Objectives:: This study is to examine the effect of cadmium exposure on blood pressure in Korean general population. Methods:: The study population consisted of 958 men and 944 women who participated in the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), in which blood pressure and blood cadmium were measured from each participant. Results:: The mean blood cadmium level was 1.67 μg/L (median level 1.55). The prevalence of hypertension was 26.2%. The blood cadmium level was significantly higher among those subjects with hypertension than those without (mean level 1.77 versus 1.64 μg/dL). After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratio of hypertension comparing the highest to the lowest tertile of cadmium in blood was 1.51 (95% confidence interval 1.13 to 2.05), and a dose-response relationship was observed. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure were all positively associated with blood cadmium level, and this effect of cadmium on blood pressure was markedly stronger when the kidney function was reduced. Conclusions:: Cadmium exposures at the current level may have increased the blood pressure of Korean general population

  15. Cadmium in blood and hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eum, Ki-Do; Lee, Mi-Sun [Department of Environmental Health, Graduate School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paek, Domyung [Department of Environmental Health, Graduate School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: paekdm@snu.ac.kr

    2008-12-15

    Objectives:: This study is to examine the effect of cadmium exposure on blood pressure in Korean general population. Methods:: The study population consisted of 958 men and 944 women who participated in the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), in which blood pressure and blood cadmium were measured from each participant. Results:: The mean blood cadmium level was 1.67 {mu}g/L (median level 1.55). The prevalence of hypertension was 26.2%. The blood cadmium level was significantly higher among those subjects with hypertension than those without (mean level 1.77 versus 1.64 {mu}g/dL). After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratio of hypertension comparing the highest to the lowest tertile of cadmium in blood was 1.51 (95% confidence interval 1.13 to 2.05), and a dose-response relationship was observed. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure were all positively associated with blood cadmium level, and this effect of cadmium on blood pressure was markedly stronger when the kidney function was reduced. Conclusions:: Cadmium exposures at the current level may have increased the blood pressure of Korean general population.

  16. Cytotoxicity of cadmium-containing quantum dots based on a study using a microfluidic chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Xiannuo; Weng Lixing; Tian Jing; Wang Lianhui; Wu Lei; Jin Qinghui; Zhao Jianlong

    2012-01-01

    There is a lack of reliable nanotoxicity assays available for monitoring and quantifying multiple cellular events in cultured cells. In this study, we used a microfluidic chip to systematically investigate the cytotoxicity of three kinds of well-characterized cadmium-containing quantum dots (QDs) with the same core but different shell structures, including CdTe core QDs, CdTe/CdS core–shell QDs, and CdTe/CdS/ZnS core–shell–shell QDs, in HEK293 cells. Using the microfluidic chip combined with fluorescence microscopy, multiple QD-induced cellular events including cell morphology, viability, proliferation, and QD uptake were simultaneously analysed. The three kinds of QDs showed significantly different cytotoxicities. The CdTe QDs, which are highly toxic to HEK293 cells, resulted in remarkable cellular and nuclear morphological changes, a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability, and strong inhibition of cell proliferation; the CdTe/CdS QDs were moderately toxic but did not significantly affect the proliferation of HEK293 cells; while the CdTe/CdS/ZnS QDs had no detectable influence on cytotoxicity with respect to cell morphology, viability, and proliferation. Our data indicated that QD cytotoxicity was closely related to their surface structures and specific physicochemical properties. This study also demonstrated that the microfluidic chip could serve as a powerful tool to systematically evaluate the cytotoxicity of nanoparticles in multiple cellular events. (paper)

  17. Cytotoxicity of cadmium-containing quantum dots based on a study using a microfluidic chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiannuo; Tian, Jing; Weng, Lixing; Wu, Lei; Jin, Qinghui; Zhao, Jianlong; Wang, Lianhui

    2012-02-01

    There is a lack of reliable nanotoxicity assays available for monitoring and quantifying multiple cellular events in cultured cells. In this study, we used a microfluidic chip to systematically investigate the cytotoxicity of three kinds of well-characterized cadmium-containing quantum dots (QDs) with the same core but different shell structures, including CdTe core QDs, CdTe/CdS core-shell QDs, and CdTe/CdS/ZnS core-shell-shell QDs, in HEK293 cells. Using the microfluidic chip combined with fluorescence microscopy, multiple QD-induced cellular events including cell morphology, viability, proliferation, and QD uptake were simultaneously analysed. The three kinds of QDs showed significantly different cytotoxicities. The CdTe QDs, which are highly toxic to HEK293 cells, resulted in remarkable cellular and nuclear morphological changes, a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability, and strong inhibition of cell proliferation; the CdTe/CdS QDs were moderately toxic but did not significantly affect the proliferation of HEK293 cells; while the CdTe/CdS/ZnS QDs had no detectable influence on cytotoxicity with respect to cell morphology, viability, and proliferation. Our data indicated that QD cytotoxicity was closely related to their surface structures and specific physicochemical properties. This study also demonstrated that the microfluidic chip could serve as a powerful tool to systematically evaluate the cytotoxicity of nanoparticles in multiple cellular events.

  18. Use of a Soluble Anode in Electrodeposition of Thick Bismuth Telluride Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, M.; Diliberto, S.; de Vaulx, C.; Azzouz, K.; Boulanger, C.

    2014-10-01

    Integration of thermoelectric devices within an automotive heat exchanger could enable conversion of lost heat into electrical energy, contributing to improved total output from the engine. For this purpose, synthesis of thick bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) films is required. Bismuth telluride has been produced by an electrochemical method in nitric acid with a sacrificial bismuth telluride anode as the source of cations. The binary layer grows on the working electrode while the counter-electrode, a Bi2Te3 disk obtained by high frequency melting, is oxidized to BiIII and TeIV. This process leads to auto-regeneration of the solution without modification of its composition. The thickness of films deposited by use of the Bi2Te3 anode was approximately 10 times that without. To demonstrate the utility of a soluble anode in electrochemical deposition, we report characterization of the composition and morphology of the films obtained under different experimental conditions. Perfectly dense and regular Bi2Te3 films (˜400 μm) with low internal stress and uniform composition across the cross-section were prepared. Their thermoelectric properties were assessed.

  19. Cadmium exposure in the Swedish environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report gives a thorough description of cadmium in the Swedish environment. It comprises three parts: Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks;, Cadmium in goods - contribution to environmental exposure;, and Cadmium in fertilizers, soil, crops and foods - the Swedish situation. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all three parts

  20. Cadmium and zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safaya, N.M.; McLean, J.E.; Halverson, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Cadmium and zinc are naturally occurring trace metals that are often considered together because of their close geochemical association and similarities in chemical reactivity. The loss of two electrons from an atom of Cd or Zn imparts to each an electron configuration with completely filled d orbitals; this results in a highly stable 2/sup +/ oxidation state. But Cd and Zn differ greatly in their significance to biological systems. Whereas Zn is an essential nutrient for plants, animals, and humans, Cd is best known for its toxicity to plants and as a causative agent of several disease syndromes in animals and humans

  1. Cadmium immobilization by hydroxyapatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smičiklas Ivana D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of air, soil and water by cadmium is a great environmental problem. If cadmium occurs in nature in ionic form, soluble in water, it easily enters into the food chain. Hydroxyapatite (HAP, Ca-o(POAe(OH2 is a sparingly soluble salt and an excellent matrix for the removal of heavy metals from solutions. Considerable research attention has been paid to the bond between Cc/2+ ions and synthetic hydroxyapatite of known composition. The sorption mechanism is complex. The dominant process is ion exchange, but surface adsorption, surface complexation and coprecipitation can also contribute to the overall mechanism. The sorption capacity depends on the characteristics of hydroxyapatite itself and on the experimental conditions. Under optimum conditions a maximum capacity of 0.8 mol Cd2+/mol HAP can be achieved. HAP is a potential sorbent for the remediation of contaminated water and soil, for industrial waste treatment, and it is also referenced as a material that can be used as a barrier around waste depositories.

  2. Cadmium colours: composition and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulus, J.; Knuutinen, U.

    2004-01-01

    The composition and the properties of cadmium aquarelle colours are discussed. The examined colours were 24 different aquarelle cadmium colours from six different manufacturers. The colours ranged from light, bright yellows to dark, deep-red tones. The aim of this research was to find out if the pigments contain cadmium salts: sulphides and/or selenides. This information will help in choosing watercolours in conservation processes. Today, aquarelle colours not containing cadmium pigments are being sold as cadmium colours; thus their properties might be different from actual cadmium colours. The aim of the research was to verify that the colour samples contained cadmium pigments and to estimate their compositions and ageing properties. Element analyses were performed from colour samples using micro-chemical tests and X-ray fluorescence measurements. Thin-layer chromatography was used for analysing gum Arabic as a possible binding medium in the chosen colour samples. Through ageing tests, the resistance of the colour samples to the exposure to light, heat and humidity was studied. Visible-light spectroscopy was used in determining the hues and hue changes of the aquarelle colour samples. The spectrophotometer used the CIE L * a * b * tone colour measuring system. From the colour measurements the changes in the lightness/darkness, the redness, the yellowness and the saturation of the samples were examined. (orig.)

  3. Cadmium in the biofuel system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aabyhammar, T.; Fahlin, M.; Holmroos, S.

    1993-12-01

    Removal of biofuel depletes the soil of important nutrients. Investigations are being made of possibilities to return most of these nutrients by spreading the ashes remaining after combustion in the forest or on field. Return of ashes implies that both beneficial and harmful substances are returned. This study has been conducted to illustrate that the return of cadmium implies the greatest risk for negative influences. The occurrence, utilization, emissions and effects of cadmium are discussed. The behaviour of cadmium in soil is discussed in detail. Flows and quantities of cadmium in Swedish society are reviewed. Flows and quantities of both total and plant available cadmium in the entire forest and arable areas of Sweden are given. A scenario for a bioenergy system of max 100 TWh is discussed. The cadmium flow in different biofuels and forest raw products, and anticipated amounts of ashes and cadmium concentrations, are calculated. Power production from biofuels is surveyed. Possibilities to clean ashes have been examined in laboratory experiments. Ashes and trace elements occurring as a result of the gasification of biofuels are reviewed. Strategies for handling ashes are discussed. Proposals on continued inputs in both the biological and technical sciences are made. 146 refs, 23 figs, 38 tabs

  4. Structural and optoelectronic properties of β-In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films to Be applied on cadmium reduced solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galarza Gutierrez, Uziel; Albor Aguilera, Maria Lourdes de; Hernandez Vasquez, Cesar; Aguilar Hernandez, Jorge R.; Remolina Millan, Aduljay [Instituto Politecnico Nacional - ESFM, Dept. de Fisica, U.P.A.L.M., Zacatenco (Mexico); Flores Marquez, Jose M. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional - ESIQIE, Dept. Metalurgia y Mat., U.P.A.L.M., Zacatenco (Mexico); Gonzalez Trujillo, Miguel A. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional - ESCOM, Dept. de Ciencias Basicas, U.P.A.L.M., Zacatenco (Mexico); Jimenez Olarte, Daniel [Instituto Politecnico Nacional - ESIME, SEPI, U.P.A.L.M., Zacatenco (Mexico)

    2018-02-15

    In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films are prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique to be applied as buffer layer in CdTe solar cells. CdTe photovoltaic devices are developed using In{sub 2}S{sub 3} as ''standard buffer layer'' in order to reduce the CdS thickness used as window material. It is important to examine potential thin films in a prospective life cycle study, focusing on direct costs, resource availability, and environmental impacts. Open and closed CBD system influence on the In{sub 2}S{sub 3} physical properties is analyzed. Stable tetragonal β-In{sub 2}S{sub 3} phase was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Electrical properties were determined by four-point probe technique obtaining a resistivity value of 10{sup 2} Ω cm. CdTe solar cells performance was studied by measuring J-V characteristics and spectral quantum efficiencies. These results reveal In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films as buffer layer reduce the cadmium quantity used in solar cells manufacture and improve their current collection in blue wavelength region (300-500 nm). (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Emitter/absorber interface of CdTe solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Tao, E-mail: tsong241@gmail.com; Sites, James R. [Physics Department, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States); Kanevce, Ana [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

    2016-06-21

    The performance of CdTe solar cells can be very sensitive to the emitter/absorber interface, especially for high-efficiency cells with high bulk lifetime. Performance losses from acceptor-type interface defects can be significant when interface defect states are located near mid-gap energies. Numerical simulations show that the emitter/absorber band alignment, the emitter doping and thickness, and the defect properties of the interface (i.e., defect density, defect type, and defect energy) can all play significant roles in the interface recombination. In particular, a type I heterojunction with small conduction-band offset (0.1 eV ≤ ΔE{sub C} ≤ 0.3 eV) can help maintain good cell efficiency in spite of high interface defect density, much like with Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) cells. The basic principle is that positive ΔE{sub C}, often referred to as a “spike,” creates an absorber inversion and hence a large hole barrier adjacent to the interface. As a result, the electron-hole recombination is suppressed due to an insufficient hole supply at the interface. A large spike (ΔE{sub C} ≥ 0.4 eV), however, can impede electron transport and lead to a reduction of photocurrent and fill-factor. In contrast to the spike, a “cliff” (ΔE{sub C} < 0 eV) allows high hole concentration in the vicinity of the interface, which will assist interface recombination and result in a reduced open-circuit voltage. Another way to mitigate performance losses due to interface defects is to use a thin and highly doped emitter, which can invert the absorber and form a large hole barrier at the interface. CdS is the most common emitter material used in CdTe solar cells, but the CdS/CdTe interface is in the cliff category and is not favorable from the band-offset perspective. The ΔE{sub C} of other n-type emitter choices, such as (Mg,Zn)O, Cd(S,O), or (Cd,Mg)Te, can be tuned by varying the elemental ratio for an optimal positive value of ΔE{sub C}. These

  6. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts, Physics and Mathematics, Number 34

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-04-27

    USSR UDC 621.315.592 ANOMALOUS PHOTOCONDUCTIVITY AND DARK CONDUCTIVITY OF SEMI-INSULATING CADMIUM TELLURIDE Leningrad FIZIKA I TEKHNIKA...conductivity activation energy of CdTe. The temperature characteristic of the dark conductivity, measured within the ohmic range of the current...A. V., Joint Institute for Nuclear Research [Abstract] The purpose of this theoretical paper is to show that the quark -parton modification offers

  7. Study of material properties important for an optical property modulation-based radiation detection method for positron emission tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Li; Daghighian, Henry M.; Levin, Craig S.

    2017-01-01

    We compare the performance of two detector materials, cadmium telluride (CdTe) and bismuth silicon oxide (BSO), for optical property modulation-based radiation detection method for positron emission tomography (PET), which is a potential new direction to dramatically improve the annihilation photon pair coincidence time resolution. We have shown that the induced current flow in the detector crystal resulting from ionizing radiation determines the strength of optical modulation signal. A large...

  8. CdSe/ZnSe quantum dot structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy with a CdTe submonolayer stressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedova, I. V.; Lyublinskaya, O. G.; Sorokin, S. V.; Sitnikova, A. A.; Toropov, A. A.; Donatini, F.; Dang, Si Le; Ivanov, S. V.

    2007-01-01

    A procedure for formation of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) in a ZnSe matrix is suggested. The procedure is based on the introduction of a CdTe submonolayer stressor deposited on the matrix surface just before deposition of the material of the QDs. (For CdTe/ZnSe structure, the relative lattice mismatch is Δa/a ∼ 14%.) The stressor forms small strained islands at the ZnSe surface, thus producing local fields of high elastic stresses controlling the process of the self-assembling of the QDs. According to the data of transmission electron microscopy, this procedure allows a considerable increase in the surface density of QDs, with a certain decrease in their lateral dimensions (down to 4.5 ± 1.5 nm). In the photoluminescence spectra, a noticeable (∼150 meV) shift of the peak to longer wavelengths from the position of the reference CdSe/ZnSe QD structure is observed. The shift is due to some transformation of the morphology of the QDs and an increase in the Cd content in the QDs. Comprehensive studies of the nanostructures by recording and analyzing the excitation spectra of photoluminescence, the time-resolved photoluminescence spectra, and the cathodoluminescence spectra show that the emission spectra involve two types of optical transitions, namely, the type-I transitions in the CdSeTe/ZnSe QDs and the type-II transitions caused mainly by the low cadmium content (Zn,Cd)(Se,Te)/ZnSe layer formed between the QDs

  9. Recent Developments of Flexible CdTe Solar Cells on Metallic Substrates: Issues and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Aliyu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the key issues in the fabrication of CdTe solar cells on metallic substrates, their trends, and characteristics as well as effects on solar cell performance. Previous research works are reviewed while the successes, potentials, and problems of such technology are highlighted. Flexible solar cells offer several advantages in terms of production, cost, and application over glass-based types. Of all the metals studied as substrates for CdTe solar cells, molybdenum appears the most favorable candidate, while close spaced sublimation (CSS, electrodeposition (ED, magnetic sputtering (MS, and high vacuum thermal evaporation (HVE have been found to be most common deposition technologies used for CdTe on metal foils. The advantages of these techniques include large grain size (CSS, ease of constituent control (ED, high material incorporation (MS, and low temperature process (MS, HVE, ED. These invert-structured thin film CdTe solar cells, like their superstrate counterparts, suffer from problems of poor ohmic contact at the back electrode. Thus similar strategies are applied to minimize this problem. Despite the challenges faced by flexible structures, efficiencies of up to 13.8% and 7.8% have been achieved in superstrate and substrate cell, respectively. Based on these analyses, new strategies have been proposed for obtaining cheaper, more efficient, and viable flexible CdTe solar cells of the future.

  10. [Oxidative damage effects induced by CdTe quantum dots in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, G Y; Chen, W; Wang, Q K; Cheng, X R; Xu, J N; Huang, P L

    2017-07-20

    Objective: To investigate Oxidative damage effects induced by CdTe Quantum Dots (QDs) in mice. Methods: 40 ICR mice were randomly divided into 5 groups: one control group (normal saline) ; four CdTe QDs (exposed by intravenous injection of 0.2 ml of CdTe QDs at the concentration of 0、0.5、5.0、50.0 and 500.0 nmol/ml respectively) . After 24 h, the mice were decapitated and the blood was collected for serum biochemically indexes、hematology indexes, the activities of SOD、GSH-Px and the concentration of MDA were all detected. Results: The results showed in the four CdTe QDs exposure groups, the level of CRE、PLT and the concentration of MDA were all significantly lower than those of the control group ( P control group ( P <0.01) . Conclusion: It was suggested that CdTe QDs at 0.5 nmol/ml could induce Oxidative damage effects in mice.

  11. Influence of the layer parameters on the performance of the CdTe solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddout, Assiya; Raidou, Abderrahim; Fahoume, Mounir

    2018-03-01

    Influence of the layer parameters on the performances of the CdTe solar cells is analyzed by SCAPS-1D. The ZnO: Al film shows a high efficiency than SnO2:F. Moreover, the thinner window layer and lower defect density of CdS films are the factor in the enhancement of the short-circuit current density. As well, to increase the open-circuit voltage, the responsible factors are low defect density of the absorbing layer CdTe and high metal work function. For the low cost of cell production, ultrathin film CdTe cells are used with a back surface field (BSF) between CdTe and back contact, such as PbTe. Further, the simulation results show that the conversion efficiency of 19.28% can be obtained for the cell with 1-μm-thick CdTe, 0.1-μm-thick PbTe and 30-nm-thick CdS.

  12. Photoluminescence of CdTe nanocrystals grown by pulsed laser ablation on a template of Si nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillen-Cervantes, A.; Silva-Lopez, H.; Becerril-Silva, M.; Arias-Ceron, J.S.; Campos-Gonzalez, E.; Zelaya-Angel, O. [CINVESTAV-IPN, Physics Department, Apdo. Postal 14-740, Mexico (Mexico); Medina-Torres, A.C. [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del IPN, Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-11-12

    CdTe nanocrystals were grown on eroded Si (111) substrates at room temperature by pulsed laser ablation. Before growth, Si substrates were subjected to different erosion time in order to investigate the effect on the CdTe samples. The erosion process consists of exposition to a pulsed high-voltage electric arc. The surface consequence of the erosion process consists of Si nanoparticles which acted as a template for the growth of CdTe nanocrystals. CdTe samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), room temperature photoluminescence (RT PL) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). CdTe nanocrystals grew in the stable cubic phase, according to XRD spectra. A strong visible emission was detected in photoluminescence (PL) experiments. The PL signal was centered at 540 nm (∝2.34 eV). With the effective mass approximation, the size of the CdTe crystals was estimated around 3.5 nm. HRTEM images corroborated the physical characteristics of CdTe nanocrystals. These results could be useful for the development of CdTe optoelectronic devices. (orig.)

  13. Photoluminescence properties of a novel conjugate of water-soluble CdTe quantum dots to guanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Xuejiao [North-East Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Shang, Qingkun, E-mail: shangqk995@nenu.edu.c [North-East Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Liu Hongjian [Relia Diagnostic Systems, Burlingame, CA 94010 (United States); Wang Wenlan; Wang Zhidan; Liu Junyu [North-East Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China)

    2010-04-15

    A novel conjugate of water-soluble CdTe quantum dots to a small biomolecule guanine has been obtained in aqueous phase. The photoluminescence property and the stability of the conjugate increased comparing to CdTe QDs. The interaction between CdTe QDs and guanine was studied by TEM, fluorescence microscope and photoluminescence (PL), IR, UV-Vis spectra. The effects of reflux time, pH value, ionic strength, and the ratio of CdTe QDs to guanine on the photoluminescence properties of conjugate were investigated in detail. The results show that guanine has a great influence on both the photoluminescence property and stability of thioglycolic acid-stabilized CdTe QDs. The formation of coordination and hydrogen bond between guanine molecules and CdTe including thioglycolic acid on its surface may effectively enhance the PL intensity and stability of CdTe QDs. The maximum PL intensity of the conjugate was obtained on the condition with lower ionic strength, less than 30 min reflux time, neutral pH value and 6/1 as molar ratio of guanine to CdTe.

  14. A computational study on the energy bandgap engineering in performance enhancement of CdTe thin film solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameen M. Ali

    Full Text Available In this study, photovoltaic properties of CdTe thin film in the configuration of n-SnO2/n-CdS/p-CdTe/p-CdTe:Te/metal have been studied by numerical simulation software named “Analysis of Microelectronic and Photonic Structure” (AMPS-1D. A modified structure for CdTe thin film solar cell has been proposed by numerical analysis with the insertion of a back contact buffer layer (CdTe:Te. This layer can serve as a barrier that will decelerate the copper diffusion in CdTe solar cell. Four estimated energy bandgap relations versus the Tellurium (Te concentrations and the (CdTe:Te layer thickness have been examined thoroughly during simulation. Correlation between energy bandgap with the CdTe thin film solar cell performance has also been established. Keywords: Numerical modelling, CdTe thin film, Solar cell, AMPS-1D, Bandgap

  15. Cadmium-containing waste and recycling possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegand, V.; Rauhut, A.

    1981-01-01

    To begin with, the processes of cadmium production from zinc ores in smelting plants or from intermediates of other metal works are described. A considerable amount of the cadmium is obtained in the recycling process in zinc, lead, and copper works. The way of the cadmium-containing intermediaries, processing, enrichment, and disposal of cadmium waste are described. Uses of cadmium and its compounds are mentioned, and cadmium consumption in the years 1973-1977 in West Germany is presented in a table. Further chapters discuss the production and the way of waste during production and processing of cadmium-containing products, the problem of cadmium in household refuse and waste incineration plants, and the problem of cadmium emissions. (IHOE) [de

  16. CdTe detector based PIXE mapping of geological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, P.C., E-mail: cchaves@ctn.ist.utl.pt [Centro de Física Atómica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); IST/ITN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, EN10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Taborda, A. [Centro de Física Atómica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); IST/ITN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, EN10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Oliveira, D.P.S. de [Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia (LNEG), Apartado 7586, 2611-901 Alfragide (Portugal); Reis, M.A. [Centro de Física Atómica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); IST/ITN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, EN10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal)

    2014-01-01

    A sample collected from a borehole drilled approximately 10 km ESE of Bragança, Trás-os-Montes, was analysed by standard and high energy PIXE at both CTN (previous ITN) PIXE setups. The sample is a fine-grained metapyroxenite grading to coarse-grained in the base with disseminated sulphides and fine veinlets of pyrrhotite and pyrite. Matrix composition was obtained at the standard PIXE setup using a 1.25 MeV H{sup +} beam at three different spots. Medium and high Z elemental concentrations were then determined using the DT2fit and DT2simul codes (Reis et al., 2008, 2013 [1,2]), on the spectra obtained in the High Resolution and High Energy (HRHE)-PIXE setup (Chaves et al., 2013 [3]) by irradiation of the sample with a 3.8 MeV proton beam provided by the CTN 3 MV Tandetron accelerator. In this paper we present results, discuss detection limits of the method and the added value of the use of the CdTe detector in this context.

  17. Medipix2 based CdTe microprobe for dental imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vykydal, Z; Jakubek, J; Fauler, A; Fiederle, M; Zwerger, A; Svestkova, M

    2011-01-01

    Medical imaging devices and techniques are demanded to provide high resolution and low dose images of samples or patients. Hybrid semiconductor single photon counting devices together with suitable sensor materials and advanced techniques of image reconstruction fulfil these requirements. In particular cases such as the direct observation of dental implants also the size of the imaging device itself plays a critical role. This work presents the comparison of 2D radiographs of tooth provided by a standard commercial dental imaging system (Gendex 765DC X-ray tube with VisualiX scintillation detector) and two Medipix2 USB Lite detectors one equipped with a Si sensor (300 μm thick) and one with a CdTe sensor (1 mm thick). Single photon counting capability of the Medipix2 device allows virtually unlimited dynamic range of the images and thus increases the contrast significantly. The dimensions of the whole USB Lite device are only 15 mm × 60 mm of which 25% consists of the sensitive area. Detector of this compact size can be used directly inside the patients' mouth.

  18. Band-edge photoluminescence in CdTe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horodysky, P.; Grill, R.; Hlidek, P.

    2006-01-01

    Near band-gap photoluminescence (PL) and absorption of bulk crystals of CdTe were measured over a wide range of temperatures (4-500 K). It is demonstrated that the high-temperature (above 150 K) PL intensity correlates with a lower quality of the samples and quasiparticle localization induced by the crystal potential fluctuations. The influence of the high absorption coefficient at the free-exciton resonance energy on the PL spectra is analytically studied by solving the diffusion-recombination equation. We show that the reabsorption of the radiation by the free-exciton states creates two illusory PL maxima. No dead surface layer is needed to explain reabsorption effects. The room-temperature PL maximum matches neither the free-exciton resonance nor the band-gap energy. The high temperature PL is explained by the recombination of electrons and holes localized on potential fluctuations. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. CdTe reflection anisotropy line shape fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina-Contreras, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, an empirical novel plane-wave time dependent ensemble is introduced to fit the RA, the reflectance (R) and the imaginary part of the dielectric function oscillation measured around the E 1 and E 1 + Δ 1 transition region in II-VI semiconductors. By applying the new plane-wave time dependent ensemble to the measured spectrum for a (0 0 1) oriented CdTe undoped commercial wafer, crystallized in a zinc-blende structure, a very good agreement was found between the measured spectrum and the fitting. In addition to this, the reliability of the plane-wave time dependent ensemble was probed, by comparing the results with the calculated fitting in terms of a Fourier series and in terms of a six-order polynomial fit. Our analysis suggests, that the experimental oscillation in the line shape of the RA cannot be fitted with a Fourier series using harmonics multiples of the number which dominates the measured RA spectra in the argument of the plane-wave ensemble.

  20. Ion implantation of CdTe single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiecek, Tomasz; Popovich, Volodymir; Bester, Mariusz; Kuzma, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Ion implantation is a technique which is widely used in industry for unique modification of metal surface for medical applications. In semiconductor silicon technology ion implantation is also widely used for thin layer electronic or optoelectronic devices production. For other semiconductor materials this technique is still at an early stage. In this paper based on literature data we present the main features of the implantation of CdTe single crystals as well as some of the major problems which are likely to occur when dealing with them. The most unexpected feature is the high resistance of these crystals against the amorphization caused by ion implantation even at high doses (10"1"7 1/cm"2). The second property is the disposal of defects much deeper in the sample then it follows from the modeling calculations. The outline of principles of the ion implantation is included in the paper. The data based on RBS measurements and modeling results obtained by using SRIM software were taken into account.

  1. Impedance spectroscopy of CdTe thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Charlotte; Heisler, Christoph; Reisloehner, Udo; Ronning, Carsten; Wesch, Werner [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Impedance Spectroscopy (IS) is a widely used method to analyze dielectric properties of specimen as a function of frequency. Typically this characterization method delivers an equivalent circuit diagram of the device under examination to describe its electrical properties. Traditionally IS is used in coating evaluation, corrosion monitoring and in electrochemistry. During the last years the method became more important also in the field of electrical characterization of solar cells. In our work we use IS for the electrical characterization of thin film CdTe solar cells. The measurement is done at room temperature without illumination in a frequency domain from 20 Hz to 2 MHz. The samples are measured under variable forward bias. The results match insufficiently with the model of two resistor-capacitor circuits in series which is commonly used to describe the p-n junction and the blocking back contact. For better consistency, other models from the literature are used and discussed. From the results a conclusion is drawn about the properties of the solar cell such as the nature of the p-n junction or the performance of the back contact.

  2. Discovery of the cadmium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, S.; Thoennessen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-seven cadmium isotopes have been observed so far and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  3. Microstructured Optical Fiber for X-ray Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHaven, Stanton L.

    2009-01-01

    A novel scintillating optical fiber is presented using a composite micro-structured quartz optical fiber. Scintillating materials are introduced into the multiple inclusions of the fiber. This creates a composite optical fiber having quartz as a cladding with an organic scintillating material core. X-ray detection using these fibers is compared to a collimated cadmium telluride (CdTe) detector over an energy range from 10 to 40 keV. Results show a good correlation between the fiber count rate trend and that of the CdTe detector.

  4. Heavy doping of CdTe single crystals by Cr ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovych, Volodymyr D.; Böttger, Roman; Heller, Rene; Zhou, Shengqiang; Bester, Mariusz; Cieniek, Bogumil; Mroczka, Robert; Lopucki, Rafal; Sagan, Piotr; Kuzma, Marian

    2018-03-01

    Implantation of bulk CdTe single crystals with high fluences of 500 keV Cr+ ions was performed to achieve Cr concentration above the equilibrium solubility limit of this element in CdTe lattice. The structure and composition of the implanted samples were studied using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) to characterize the incorporation of chromium into the host lattice and to investigate irradiation-induced damage build-up. It was found that out-diffusion of Cr atoms and sputtering of the targets alter the depth distribution and limit concentration of the projectile ions in the as-implanted samples. Appearance of crystallographically oriented, metallic α-Cr nanoparticles inside CdTe matrix was found after implantation, as well as a strong disorder at the depth far beyond the projected range of the implanted ions.

  5. The next generation CdTe technology- Substrate foil based solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferekides, Chris [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States)

    2017-03-22

    The main objective of this project was the development of one of the most promising Photovoltaic (PV) materials CdTe into a versatile, cost effective, and high throughput technology, by demonstrating substrate devices on foil substrates using high throughput fabrication conditions. The typical CdTe cell is of the superstrate configuration where the solar cell is fabricated on a glass superstrate by the sequential deposition of a TCO, n-type heterojunction partner, p-CdTe absorber, and back contact. Large glass modules are heavy and present significant challenges during manufacturing (uniform heating, etc.). If a substrate CdTe cell could be developed (the main goal of this project) a roll-to-toll high throughput technology could be developed.

  6. Growth and optical characterization of colloidal CdTe nanoparticles capped by a bifunctional molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd El-sadek, M.S., E-mail: el_sadek_99@email.co [Nanomaterial Laboratory, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, South Valley University, Qena-83523 (Egypt); Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University Chennai, Chennai-600025 (India); Moorthy Babu, S. [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University Chennai, Chennai-600025 (India)

    2010-08-15

    Thiol-capped CdTe nanoparticles were synthesized in aqueous solution by wet chemical route. CdTe nanoparticles with bifunctional molecule mercaptoacetic acid as a stabilizer were synthesized at pH{approx}11.2 and using potassium tellurite as tellurium source. The effect of refluxing time on the preparation of these samples was measured using UV-vis absorption and photoluminescence analysis. By increasing the refluxing time the UV-vis absorption and photoluminescence results show that the band edge emission is redshifted. The synthesized thiol-capped CdTe were characterized with FT-IR, TEM and TG-DTA. The particle size was calculated by the effective mass approximation (EMA). The role of precursors, their composition, pH and reaction procedure on the development of nanoparticles are analyzed.

  7. One-step synthesis of CdTe branched nanowires and nanorod arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Junwei; Yang Xiuchun; Lv Xiaoyi; Peng Dengfeng; Huang Min; Wang Qingyao

    2011-01-01

    Single crystalline CdTe branched nanowires and well-aligned nanorod arrays were simultaneously synthesized by a simple chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) and selected area electronic diffraction (SAED) were used to study the crystalline structure, composition and morphology of different samples. Vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) and vapor-solid (VS) processes were proposed for the formation of the CdTe branched nanowires and nanorod arrays, respectively. As-grown CdTe nanorod arrays show a strong red emission band centered at about 620 nm, which can be well fitted by two Gaussian curves centered at 610 nm and 635 nm, respectively.

  8. Electrochemical Determination of Uric Acid at CdTe Quantum Dot Modified Glassy Carbon Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Deng; Rong, Shengzhong; Zhang, Guangteng; Zhang, Yannan; Zhou, Qiang; Liu, Fenghai; Li, Miaojing; Chang, Dong; Pan, Hongzhi

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry were used to investigate the electrochemical behavior of uric acid (UA) at a CdTe quantum dot (QD) modified the glassy carbon electrode (GCE). CdTe QDs, as new semiconductor nanocrystals, can greatly improve the peak current of UA. The anodic peak current of UA was linear with its concentration between 1.0×10(-6) and 4.0×10(-4) M in 0.1 M pH 5.0 phosphate buffer solution. The LOD for UA at the CdTe electrode (1.0×10(-7) M) was superior to that of the GCE. In addition, we also determined the effects of scan rate, pH, and interferences of UA for the voltammetric behavior and detection. The results indicated that modified electrode possessed excellent reproducibility and stability. Finally, a new and efficient electrochemical sensor for detecting UA was developed.

  9. Microstructural, optical and electrical properties of Cl-doped CdTe single crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Hyojeong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Microstructural, optical and electrical properties of Cl-doped CdTe crystals grown by the low pressure Bridgman (LPB method were investigated for four different doping concentrations (unintentionally doped, 4.97 × 1019 cm−3, 9.94 × 1019 cm−3 and 1.99 × 1020 cm−3 and three different locations within the ingots (namely, samples from top, middle and bottom positions in the order of the distance from the tip of the ingot. It was shown that Cl dopant suppressed the unwanted secondary (5 1 1 crystalline orientation. Also, the average size and surface coverage of Te inclusions decreased with an increase in Cl doping concentration. Spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements showed that the optical quality of the Cl-doped CdTe single crystals was enhanced. The resistivity of the CdTe sample doped with Cl at the 1.99 × 1020 cm−3 was above 1010 Ω.cm.

  10. CdTe Quantum Dots Embedded in Multidentate Biopolymer Based on Salep: Characterization and Optical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Rezanejade Bardajee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a novel method for surface modification of water soluble CdTe quantum dots (QDs by using poly(acrylic acid grafted onto salep (salep-g-PAA as a biopolymer. As-prepared CdTe-salep-g-PAA QDs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectrum, thermogravimetric (TG analysis, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The absorption and fluorescence emission spectra were measured to investigate the effect of salep-g-PAA biopolymer on the optical properties of CdTe QDs. The results showed that the optical properties of CdTe QDs were significantly enhanced by using salep-g-PAA-based biopolymer.

  11. Tests of UFXC32k chip with CdTe pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maj, P.; Taguchi, T.; Nakaye, Y.

    2018-02-01

    The paper presents the performance of the UFXC32K—a hybrid pixel detector readout chip working with CdTe detectors. The UFXC32K has a pixel pitch of 75 μm and can cope with both input signal polarities. This functionality allows operating with widely used silicon sensors collecting holes and CdTe sensors collecting electrons. This article describes the chip focusing on solving the issues connected to high-Z sensor material, namely high leakage currents, slow charge collection time and thick material resulting in increased charge-sharring effects. The measurements were conducted with higher X-ray energies including 17.4 keV from molybdenum. Conclusions drawn inside the paper show the UFXC32K's usability for CdTe sensors in high X-ray energy applications.

  12. A new MBE CdTe photoconductor array detector for X-ray applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, S.S.; Sivananthan, S.; Faurie, J.P.; Rodricks, B.; Bai, J.; Montano, P.A.; Argonne National Lab., IL

    1994-10-01

    A CdTe photoconductor array x-ray detector was grown using Molecular Beam Epitaxially (MBE) on a Si (100) substrate. The temporal response of the photoconductor arrays is as fast as 21 psec risetime and 38 psec Full Width Half Maximum (FWHM). Spatial and energy responses were obtained using x-rays from a rotating anode and synchrotron radiation source. The spatial resolution of the photoconductor was good enough to provide 75 microm FWHM using a 50 microm synchrotron x-ray beam. A substantial number of x-ray photons are absorbed effectively within the MBE CdTe layer as observed from the linear response up to 15 keV. These results demonstrate that MBE grown CdTe is a suitable choice of the detector materials to meet the requirements for x-ray detectors in particular for the new high brightness synchrotron sources

  13. Feasibility of preparing patterned molybdenum coatings on bismuth telluride thermoelectric modules.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarobol, Pylin; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Miller, Stephen Samuel; Knight, Marlene E.; LePage, William S.; Sobczak, Catherine Elizabeth.; Wesolowski, Daniel Edward

    2013-09-01

    Molybdenum electrical interconnects for thermoelectric modules were produced by air plasma spraying a 30%CE%BCm size molybdenum powder through a laser-cut Kapton tape mask. Initial feasibility demonstrations showed that the molybdenum coating exhibited excellent feature and spacing retention (~170%CE%BCm), adhered to bismuth-telluride, and exhibited electrical conductivity appropriate for use as a thermoelectric module interconnect. A design of experiments approach was used to optimize air plasma spray process conditions to produce a molybdenum coating with low electrical resistivity. Finally, a molybdenum coating was successfully produced on a fullscale thermoelectric module. After the addition of a final titanium/gold layer deposited on top of the molybdenum coating, the full scale module exhibited an electrical resistivity of 128%CE%A9, approaching the theoretical resistivity value for the 6mm module leg of 112%CE%A9. Importantly, air plasma sprayed molybdenum did not show significant chemical reaction with bismuth-telluride substrate at the coating/substrate interface. The molybdenum coating microstructure consisted of lamellar splats containing columnar grains. Air plasma sprayed molybdenum embedded deeply (several microns) into the bismuth-telluride substrate, leading to good adhesion between the coating and the substrate. Clusters of round pores (and cracks radiating from the pores) were found immediately beneath the molybdenum coating. These pores are believed to result from tellurium vaporization during the spray process where the molten molybdenum droplets (2623%C2%B0C) transferred their heat of solidification to the substrate at the moment of impact. Substrate cooling during the molybdenum deposition process was recommended to mitigate tellurium vaporization in future studies.

  14. Biological indicators of cadmium exposure and toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaikh, Z A; Smith, L M

    1986-01-01

    The increasing environmental and occupational exposure of populations to cadmium creates the need for biological indicators of cadmium exposure and toxicity. The advantages and disadvantages of monitoring blood cadmium, urinary, fecal, hair, and tissue cadmium, serum creatine, beta 2-microglobulin, alpha 1-anti-trypsin and other proteins, and urinary amino acids, enzymes, total proteins, glucose, beta 2-microglobulin, retinol-binding protein, lysozyme, and metallothionein are discussed. It is concluded that urinary cadmium, metallothionein and beta 2-microglubulin may be used together to assess cadmium exposure and toxicity. 66 references.

  15. Electrodeposition of CdTe thin film from acetate-based ionic liquid bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldiya, Manmohansingh; Bhagat, Dharini; Mukhopadhyay, Indrajit

    2018-05-01

    CdTe being a direct band gap semiconductor, is mostly used in photovoltaics. Here we present, the synthesis of CdTe thin film on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate potentiostatically using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([Bmim][Ac]) ionic liquid (IL) bath at 90 °C. Major advantages of using electrodeposition involves process simplicity, large scalability & economic viability. Some of the benefits offered by IL electrolytic bath are low vapour pressure, wide electrochemical window, and good ionic mobility. Cd(CH3COO)2 (anhydrous) and TeO2 were used as the source precursors. The IL electrolytic bath temperature was kept at 90 °C for deposition, owing to the limited solubility of TeO2 in [Bmim][Ac] IL at room temperature. Cathodic electrodeposition was carried out using a three electrode cell setup at a constant potential of -1.20 V vs. platinum (Pt) wire. The CdTe/FTO thin film were annealed in argon (Ar) atmosphere. Optical study of nanostructured CdTe film were done using UV-Vis-IR and Raman spectroscopy. Raman analysis confirms the formation of CdTe having surface optics (SO) mode at 160.6 cm-1 and transverse optics (TO) mode at 140.5 cm-1. Elemental Te peaks at 123, 140.5 and 268 cm-1 were also observed. The optical band gap of Ar annealed CdTe thin film were found to be 1.47 eV (absorbance band edge ˜ 846 nm). The optimization of deposition parameters using acetate-based IL electrolytic bath to get nearly stoichiometric CdTe thin film is currently being explored.

  16. Numerical Analysis of Novel Back Surface Field for High Efficiency Ultrathin CdTe Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Matin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper numerically explores the possibility of high efficiency, ultrathin, and stable CdTe cells with different back surface field (BSF using well accepted simulator AMPS-1D (analysis of microelectronics and photonic structures. A modified structure of CdTe based PV cell SnO2/Zn2SnO4/CdS/CdTe/BSF/BC has been proposed over reference structure SnO2/Zn2SnO4/CdS/CdTe/Cu. Both higher bandgap materials like ZnTe and Cu2Te and low bandgap materials like As2Te3 and Sb2Te3 have been used as BSF to reduce minority carrier recombination loss at the back contact in ultra-thin CdTe cells. In this analysis the highest conversion efficiency of CdTe based PV cell without BSF has been found to be around 17% using CdTe absorber thickness of 5 μm. However, the proposed structures with different BSF have shown acceptable efficiencies with an ultra-thin CdTe absorber of only 0.6 μm. The proposed structure with As2Te3 BSF showed the highest conversion efficiency of 20.8% ( V,  mA/cm2, and . Moreover, the proposed structures have shown improved stability in most extents, as it was found that the cells have relatively lower negative temperature coefficient. However, the cell with ZnTe BSF has shown better overall stability than other proposed cells with temperature coefficient (TC of −0.3%/°C.

  17. Effect of shells on photoluminescence of aqueous CdTe quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Zhimin; Yang, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Size-tunable CdTe coated with several shells using an aqueous solution synthesis. CdTe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots exhibited high PL efficiency up to 80% which implies the promising applications for biomedical labeling. - Highlights: • CdTe quantum dots were fabricated using an aqueous synthesis. • CdS, ZnS, and CdS/ZnS shells were subsequently deposited on CdTe cores. • Outer ZnS shells provide an efficient confinement of electron and hole inside the QDs. • Inside CdS shells can reduce the strain on the QDs. • Aqueous CdTe/CdS/ZnS QDs exhibited high stability and photoluminescence efficiency of 80%. - Abstract: CdTe cores with various sizes were fabricated in aqueous solutions. Inorganic shells including CdS, ZnS, and CdS/ZnS were subsequently deposited on the cores through a similar aqueous procedure to investigate the effect of shells on the photoluminescence properties of the cores. In the case of CdTe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots, the outer ZnS shell provides an efficient confinement of electron and hole wavefunctions inside the quantum dots, while the middle CdS shell sandwiched between the CdTe core and ZnS shell can be introduced to obviously reduce the strain on the quantum dots because the lattice parameters of CdS is situated at the intermediate-level between those of CdTe and ZnS. In comparison with CdTe/ZnS core–shell quantum dots, the as-prepared water-soluble CdTe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots in our case can exhibit high photochemical stability and photoluminescence efficiency up to 80% in an aqueous solution, which implies the promising applications in the field of biomedical labeling

  18. Tiny optical fiber temperature sensor based on temperature-dependent refractive index of zinc telluride film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Qiang; Song, Zhangqi; Song, Dongyu; Zhang, Xueliang; Li, Bingsheng; Yu, Yang; Chen, Yuzhong

    2018-03-01

    The temperature-dependent refractive index of zinc telluride film can be used to develop a tiny, low cost and film-coated optical fiber temperature sensor. Pulse reference-based compensation technique is used to largely reduce the background noise which makes it possible to detect the minor reflectivity change of the film in different temperatures. The temperature sensitivity is 0.0034dB/° and the background noise is measured to be 0.0005dB, so the resolution can achieve 0.2°.

  19. Formation of solid solutions on the boundary of zinc oxidezinc telluride heterojunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurkan, A.E.; Buzhor, L.V.

    1987-01-01

    Distribution of ZnO x Te 1-x alloy composition on the interface of zinc oxide-zinc telluride heterojunction depending on the production conditions is investigated. A regularity in the formation of an extended area with constant alloy composition is detected. The regularity is explained by the fact that electric Peltier field conditioned by contact of two heterogeneous semiconductors participates in the solid solution formation process. Peltier field levels off the composition at the end length section. So, a possibility of creating a section with the assigned minor thickness alloy constant composition controlled in the interface of heterojunction occurs

  20. Iron telluride nanorods-based system for the detection of total mercury in blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Prathik; Lin, Zong-Hong [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, 1, Section 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Liang, Chi-Te [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, 1, Section 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chang, Huan-Tsung, E-mail: changht@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, 1, Section 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Elucidation of the detection of mercury using iron telluride nanorods (FeTe NRs), and dose-response curve for varying concentrations of Hg{sup 2+}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Iron telluride nanorods (FeTe NRs) are prepared from tellurium nanowires (Te NWs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mercury telluride nanorods (HgTe NRs) form by cation exchange reaction of FeTe NRs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe{sup 2+} ions released catalyze the oxidation of ABTS by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mercury is effectively determined in blood with an LOD of 1.31 nM at S/N ratio 3. - Abstract: We have developed a simple, colorimetric iron telluride (FeTe) nanorods (NRs) based system for the detection of mercury, mainly based on the cation exchange reaction between FeTe NRs and Hg{sup 2+}. FeTe NRs (length, 105 {+-} 21 nm) react with Hg{sup 2+} to form HgTe NRs (length, 112 {+-} 26 nm) and consequently release Fe{sup 2+} ions that catalyzes the oxidation between a peroxidase substrate 2,2 Prime -azino-bis(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The concentration of Fe{sup 2+} and thereby Hg{sup 2+} can be determined by measuring the absorbance of the ABTS oxidized product at 418 nm. This approach allows the detection of Hg{sup 2+}, with a limit of detection of 1.31 nM at a signal-to-noise ratio 3 and a linear range 5-100 nM (R{sup 2} = 0.99). The low-cost, simple, sensitive, and reproducible assay has been validated for the detection of Hg{sup 2+} in a blood sample (SRM 955c), with the result being in good agreement with that provided by National Institute of Standards and Technology.

  1. Crystalline perfection and mechanical investigations on vertical Bridgman grown Bismuth telluride (Bi_2Te_3) single crystals for thermoelectric applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna, Anuj; Vijayan, N.; Singh, Budhendra; Thukral, Kanika; Maurya, K.K.

    2016-01-01

    High efficiency thermoelectric materials plays a vital role in power generation and refrigeration applications. Bismuth telluride (Bi_2Te_3) is one among them. In the present work single crystal of bismuth telluride was grown using vertical Bridgman technique. The phase of grown crystals was analysed using a powder X-ray diffractometer. Quality of the grown crystal was assessed by using high resolution X-ray diffractometer and observed that it is fairly good. Further mechanical investigations on grown crystal was carried out using nano-indentation technique and various mechanical properties like hardness, stiffness and Young’s modulus were evaluated. Observed results clearly indicate its suitability for thermoelectric applications.

  2. Lead telluride with increased mechanical stability for cylindrical thermoelectric generators; Bleitellurid mit erhoehter mechanischer Stabilitaet fuer zylindrische thermoelektrische Generatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, Andreas

    2013-04-30

    The aim of this work is to improve the mechanical stability of lead telluride (PbTe), trying to vary its mechanical properties independently from its thermoelectric properties. Thus the influence of material preparation as well as different dopants on the mechanical and thermoelectric properties of lead telluride is being analysed. When using appropriately set process parameters, milling and sintering of lead telluride increases the material's hardness. With sintering temperatures exceeding 300 C stable material of high relative density can be achieved. Milling lead telluride generates lattice defects leading to a reduction of the material's charge carrier density. These defects can be reduced by increased sintering temperatures. Contamination of the powder due to the milling process leads to bloating during thermal cycling and thus reduced density of the sintered material. In addition to that, evaporation of tellurium at elevated temperatures causes instability of the material's thermoelectric properties. Based on the experimental results obtained in this work, the best thermoelectric and mechanical properties can be obtained by sintering coarse powders at around 400 C. Within this work a concept was developed to vary the mechanical properties of lead telluride via synthesis of PbTe with electrically nondoping elements, which thus may keep the thermoelectric properties unchanged. Therefore, the mechanical and thermoelectric properties of Pb{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}Te were investigated. Doping pure PbTe with calcium causes a significant increase of the material's hardness while only slightly decreasing the charge carrier density and thus keeping the thermoelectric properties apart from a slight reduction of the electrical conductivity nearly unchanged. The abovementioned concept is proven using sodium doped lead telluride, as it is used for thermoelectric generators: The additional doping with calcium again increases the material's hardness while its thermoelectric

  3. Lead telluride with increased mechanical stability for cylindrical thermoelectric generators; Bleitellurid mit erhoehter mechanischer Stabilitaet fuer zylindrische thermoelektrische Generatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, Andreas

    2013-04-30

    The aim of this work is to improve the mechanical stability of lead telluride (PbTe), trying to vary its mechanical properties independently from its thermoelectric properties. Thus the influence of material preparation as well as different dopants on the mechanical and thermoelectric properties of lead telluride is being analysed. When using appropriately set process parameters, milling and sintering of lead telluride increases the material's hardness. With sintering temperatures exceeding 300 C stable material of high relative density can be achieved. Milling lead telluride generates lattice defects leading to a reduction of the material's charge carrier density. These defects can be reduced by increased sintering temperatures. Contamination of the powder due to the milling process leads to bloating during thermal cycling and thus reduced density of the sintered material. In addition to that, evaporation of tellurium at elevated temperatures causes instability of the material's thermoelectric properties. Based on the experimental results obtained in this work, the best thermoelectric and mechanical properties can be obtained by sintering coarse powders at around 400 C. Within this work a concept was developed to vary the mechanical properties of lead telluride via synthesis of PbTe with electrically nondoping elements, which thus may keep the thermoelectric properties unchanged. Therefore, the mechanical and thermoelectric properties of Pb{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}Te were investigated. Doping pure PbTe with calcium causes a significant increase of the material's hardness while only slightly decreasing the charge carrier density and thus keeping the thermoelectric properties apart from a slight reduction of the electrical conductivity nearly unchanged. The abovementioned concept is proven using sodium doped lead telluride, as it is used for thermoelectric generators: The additional doping with calcium again increases the material's hardness while

  4. Facile aqueous synthesis and growth mechanism of CdTe nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Haibo; Hao Xiaopeng; Gao Chang; Wu Yongzhong; Du Jie; Xu Xiangang; Jiang Minhua

    2008-01-01

    Single-crystal CdTe nanorods with diameters of 50-100 nm were synthesized under a surfactant-assisted hydrothermal condition. The experimental results indicated that with a temporal dependence the morphologies of CdTe nanocrystallites changed from nanoparticles to smooth surface nanorods. The crystal structure, morphology and optical properties of the products were investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence spectrophotometer. Furthermore, the formation mechanisms of the nanorods were investigated and discussed on the basis of the experimental results.

  5. Induced Recrystallization of CdTe Thin Films Deposited by Close-Spaced Sublimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, B.

    1998-01-01

    We have deposited CdTe thin films by close-spaced sublimation at two different temperature ranges. The films deposited at the lower temperature partially recrystallized after CdCl2 treatment at 350C and completely recrystallized after the same treatment at 400C. The films deposited at higher temperature did not recrystallize at these two temperatures. These results confirmed that the mechanisms responsible for changes in physical properties of CdTe films treated with CdCl2 are recrystallization and grain growth, and provided an alternative method to deposit CSS films using lower temperatures

  6. Characterization of point defects in CdTe by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsharkawy, M. R. M. [Carnegie Laboratory of Physics, SUPA, School of Science and Engineering, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Minia University, P.O. Box 61519, Minia (Egypt); Kanda, G. S.; Keeble, D. J., E-mail: d.j.keeble@dundee.ac.uk [Carnegie Laboratory of Physics, SUPA, School of Science and Engineering, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom); Abdel-Hady, E. E. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Minia University, P.O. Box 61519, Minia (Egypt)

    2016-06-13

    Positron lifetime measurements on CdTe 0.15% Zn-doped by weight are presented, trapping to monovacancy defects is observed. At low temperatures, localization at shallow binding energy positron traps dominates. To aid defect identification density functional theory, calculated positron lifetimes and momentum distributions are obtained using relaxed geometry configurations of the monovacancy defects and the Te antisite. These calculations provide evidence that combined positron lifetime and coincidence Doppler spectroscopy measurements have the capability to identify neutral or negative charge states of the monovacancies, the Te antisite, A-centers, and divacancy defects in CdTe.

  7. Design considerations for CdTe Nanotetrapods as electronic devices. krogstrup@fys.ku.dk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teich-McGoldrick, S L; Bellanger, M; Caussanel, M; Tsetseris, L; Pantelides, S T; Glotzer, S C; Schrimpf, R D

    2009-11-01

    We investigate the feasibility of using CdTe nanotetrapods as circuit elements using models and simulation at multiple scales. Technology computer-aided design tools are used to simulate the electrical behavior for both metal-semiconductor field-effect transistors and junction field-effect transistors. Our results show that by varying the doping concentrations and material composition, CdTe nanotetrapods have the potential to be useful circuit elements. Monte Carlo simulations provide insight into how control over interparticle and particle-substrate interactions can lead to the directed assembly of ordered arrays of electrically gated nanotetrapods.

  8. Formation of self assembled PbTe quantum dots in CdTe on Si(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, F.; Fognini, A.; Rahim, M.; Fill, M.; Müller, E.; Zogg, H.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the growth and formation of self assembled PbTe quantum dots in a CdTe host on a silicon (111) substrate. Annealing yields different photoluminescence spectra depending on initial PbTe layer thickness, thickness of the CdTe cap layer and annealing temperature. Generally two distinct emission peaks at ˜0.3 eV and ˜0.45 eV are visible. Model calculations explaining their temperature dependence are performed. The dot size corresponds well with the estimated sizes from electron microscopy images. The quantum dots may be used as absorber within a mid-infrared detector.

  9. Comparison of cytotoxicity and expression of metal regulatory genes in zebrafish (Danio rerio) liver cells exposed to cadmium sulfate, zinc sulfate and quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Song; Allagadda, Vinay; Chibli, Hicham; Nadeau, Jay L; Mayer, Gregory D

    2013-10-01

    Recent advances in the ability to manufacture and manipulate materials at the nanometer scale have led to increased production and use of many types of nanoparticles. Quantum dots (QDs) are small, fluorescent nanoparticles composed of a core of semiconductor material (e.g. cadmium selenide, zinc sulfide) and shells or dopants of other elements. Particle core composition, size, shell, and surface chemistry have all been found to influence toxicity in cells. The aim of this study was to compare the toxicities of ionic cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) and Cd- and Zn-containing QDs in zebrafish liver cells (ZFL). As expected, Cd(2+) was more toxic than Zn(2+), and the general trend of IC50-24 h values of QDs was determined to be CdTe InP/ZnS, suggesting that ZnS-shelled CdSe/ZnS QDs were more cytocompatible than bare core CdTe crystals. Smaller QDs showed greater toxicity than larger QDs. Isolated mRNA from these exposures was used to measure the expression of metal response genes including metallothionein (MT), metal response element-binding transcription factor (MTF-1), divalent metal transporter (DMT-1), zrt and irt like protein (ZIP-1) and the zinc transporter, ZnT-1. CdTe exposure induced expression of these genes in a dose dependent manner similar to that of CdSO4 exposure. However, CdSe/ZnS and InP/ZnS altered gene expression of metal homeostasis genes in a manner different from that of the corresponding Cd or Zn salts. This implies that ZnS shells reduce QD toxicity attributed to the release of Cd(2+), but do not eliminate toxic effects caused by the nanoparticles themselves.

  10. Uptake and distribution of cadmium in corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peel, J.W.; Vetter, R.J.; Christian, J.E.; Kessler, W.V.; McFee, W.W.

    1978-01-01

    The uptake and distribution of cadmium in corn (Zea mays) treated at various time intervals after planting and sampled at various times after treatment were measured. Cadmium was found to accumulate in all parts sampled. As shown in field studies, stems and leaves generally concentrated more cadmium than did husks, cobs, kernels, silks, or tassels. Samples of stems and leaves from corn treated 23 days after planting and sampled 5 days later exhibited higher concentrations of cadmium than samples taken 25, 45, 65, or 85 days after treatment. Concentrations generally decreased with time. Greenhouse studies showed that corn exposed to cadmium for the longest period of time accumulated the greatest total cadmium. The highest cadmium concentrations were found in the base or lowest leaves sampled 45 days after planting; this suggests a useful technique for quick screening corn crops for cadmium pollution

  11. Zinc-induced protection against cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Early, J.L.; Schnell, R.C.

    1978-02-01

    Pretreatment of male rats with cadmium acetate potentiates the duration of hexobarbital hypnosis and inhibits the rate of hepatic microsomal drug metabolism. Pretreatment of rats with zinc acetate protects against these alterations in drug action elicited by cadmium.

  12. CdTe deposition by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique onto ZnO nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, Raul; Delamoreanu, Alexandru; Saidi, Bilel; Ivanova, Valentina [CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 Rue des Martyrs, 38054, Grenoble (France); Levy-Clement, Claude [CNRS, Institut de Chimie et des Materiaux de Paris-Est, 94320, Thiais (France)

    2014-09-15

    In this study is reported CdTe deposition by Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and reaction (SILAR) at room temperature onto ZnO nanowires (NWs). The as-deposited CdTe layer exhibits poor crystalline quality and not well defined optical transition which is probably result of its amorphous nature. The implementation of an annealing step and chemical treatment by CdCl{sub 2} to the classical SILAR technique improved significantly the CdTe film quality. The XRD analysis showed that the as treated layers are crystallized in the cubic zinc blende structure. The full coverage of ZnO nanowires and thickness of the CdTe shell, composed of small crystallites, was confirmed by STEM and TEM analysis. The layer thickness could be controlled by the number of SILAR cycles. The sharper optical transitions for the annealed and CdCl{sub 2} treated heterostructures additionally proves the enhancement of the layer crystalline quality. For comparison CdTe was also deposited by close space sublimation (CSS) method onto ZnO nanowires. It is shown that the SILAR deposited CdTe exhibits equal crystalline and optical properties to that prepared by CSS. These results demonstrate that SILAR technique is more suitable for conformal thin film deposition on nanostructures. CdTe extremely thin film deposited by SILAR method onto ZnO nanowire. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. CdTe deposition by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique onto ZnO nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, Raul; Delamoreanu, Alexandru; Saidi, Bilel; Ivanova, Valentina; Levy-Clement, Claude

    2014-01-01

    In this study is reported CdTe deposition by Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and reaction (SILAR) at room temperature onto ZnO nanowires (NWs). The as-deposited CdTe layer exhibits poor crystalline quality and not well defined optical transition which is probably result of its amorphous nature. The implementation of an annealing step and chemical treatment by CdCl 2 to the classical SILAR technique improved significantly the CdTe film quality. The XRD analysis showed that the as treated layers are crystallized in the cubic zinc blende structure. The full coverage of ZnO nanowires and thickness of the CdTe shell, composed of small crystallites, was confirmed by STEM and TEM analysis. The layer thickness could be controlled by the number of SILAR cycles. The sharper optical transitions for the annealed and CdCl 2 treated heterostructures additionally proves the enhancement of the layer crystalline quality. For comparison CdTe was also deposited by close space sublimation (CSS) method onto ZnO nanowires. It is shown that the SILAR deposited CdTe exhibits equal crystalline and optical properties to that prepared by CSS. These results demonstrate that SILAR technique is more suitable for conformal thin film deposition on nanostructures. CdTe extremely thin film deposited by SILAR method onto ZnO nanowire. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Strain effect on the heat transport properties of bismuth telluride nanofilms with a hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Te-Hua; Chang, Win-Jin; Wang, Kuan-Yu; Huang, Chao-Chun

    2018-06-01

    We investigated the mechanical behavior of bismuth telluride nanofilms with holes by using an equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) approach. The holes had diameters of 20, 30, 40, and 50 Å. The thermal conductivity values of the nanofilms were calculated under different strains at different temperatures using a nonequilibrium MD simulation. The simulation revealed that the thermal conductivity of a bismuth telluride nanofilm with a hole decreases with an increase in hole diameter at different strains. For a film with a perfect structure at 300 K, a 48% reduction (from 0.33 to 0.17 W/m K) in the thermal conductivity was observed at a 7% tensile strain. In addition, the thermal conductivity increased by approximately 39% (from 0.33 to 0.46 W/m K) at a 7% compressive strain. A very low value (0.11 W/m K) of thermal conductivity is obtained for the nanofilm with a hole diameter of 50 Å at a 7% tensile strain at 300 K.

  15. Effect of electronic contribution on temperature-dependent thermal transport of antimony telluride thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won-Yong; Park, No-Won [Department of Physics, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Ji-Eun [Department of Materials Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Soon-Gil, E-mail: sgyoon@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Materials Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Jung-Hyuk [School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Kwon, E-mail: sangkwonlee@cau.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-25

    Highlights: • We investigated thermal transport of the antimony telluride thin films. • The contribution of the electronic thermal conductivity increased up to ∼77% at 300 K. • We theoretically analyze and explain the high contribution of electronic component. - Abstract: We study the theoretical and experimental characteristics of thermal transport of 100 nm and 500 nm-thick antimony telluride (Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}) thin films prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The thermal conductivity was measured at temperatures ranging from 20 to 300 K, using four-point-probe 3-ω method. Out-of-plane thermal conductivity of the Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin film was much lesser in comparison to the bulk material in the entire temperature range, confirming that the phonon- and electron-boundary scattering are enhanced in thin films. Moreover, we found that the contribution of the electronic thermal conductivity (κ{sub e}) in total thermal conductivity (κ) linearly increased up to ∼77% at 300 K with increasing temperature. We theoretically analyze and explain the high contribution of electronic component of thermal conductivity towards the total thermal conductivity of the film by a modified Callaway model. Further, we find the theoretical model predictions to correspond well with the experimental results.

  16. Possible bicollinear nematic state with monoclinic lattice distortions in iron telluride compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, Christopher B. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Herbrych, Jacek W. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dagotto, Elbio R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moreo, Adriana [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-07-15

    Here, iron telluride (FeTe) is known to display bicollinear magnetic order at low temperatures together with a monoclinic lattice distortion. Because the bicollinear order can involve two different wave vectors (π/2,π/2) and (π/2,–π/2), symmetry considerations allow for the possible stabilization of a nematic state with short-range bicollinear order coupled to monoclinic lattice distortions at a TS higher than the temperature TN where long-range bicollinear order fully develops. As a concrete example, the three-orbital spin-fermion model for iron telluride is studied with an additional coupling ˜λ12 between the monoclinic lattice strain and an orbital-nematic order parameter with B2g symmetry. Monte Carlo simulations show that with increasing ˜λ12 the first-order transition characteristic of FeTe splits and bicollinear nematicity is stabilized in a (narrow) temperature range. In this new regime, the lattice is monoclinically distorted and short-range spin and orbital order breaks rotational invariance. A discussion of possible realizations of this exotic state is provided.

  17. Cadmium uptake by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghiri, F.

    1973-01-01

    Absorption of /sup 115m/Cd by soybean (Gylcine max l.) plants via foliar and root systems and translocation into the seed was determined. The uptake of /sup 115m/Cd by soybeans via the root system was more efficient than that of the foliar placement. Growth and Cd concentrations of soybean and wheat (Triticum aestivum l.) tops were influenced by soil-applied Cd. In both crops, the Cd concentration of plant tops increased while yield decreased with increasing levels of applied Cd. Cadmium toxicitiy began to occur in both crops at the lowest level of soil applied Cd (2.5 ppM). With soybean plants, Cd toxicity symptoms resembled fe chlorosis. For wheat plants there were no visual symptoms other than the studied growth. The relative concentration of Cd found in several vegetable crops varied depending on the plant species. The relative Cd concentration in descending order for various vegetables was lettuce (Lactuca sativa l.) > radish top (Raphanus sativus l.) > celery stalk (Apium graveolens l.) > celery leaves greater than or equal to green pepper (Capsicum frutescens l.) > radish roots.

  18. Bioavailability of cadmium from linseed and cocoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Rasmussen, Rie Romme

    In Denmark and EU the exposure of cadmium from food is at a level that is relatively close to the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI). This report describes an investigation of the bioavailability of cadmium in selected food items known to contain high levels of cadmium. The purpose was to provide data...

  19. Preparation of bioconjugates of CdTe nanocrystals for cancer marker detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Fengqin; Ran Yuliang; Zhou Zhuan; Gao Mingyuan

    2006-01-01

    Highly fluorescent CdTe quantum dots (Q-dots) stabilized by 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) were prepared by an aqueous solution approach and used as fluorescent labels in detecting a cancer marker, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), expressed on human colon carcinoma cell line LS 180. Nonspecific adsorptions of CdTe Q-dots on carcinoma cells were observed and effectively eliminated by replacing MPA with a thiolated PEG (poly(ethylene glycol), Mn = 750) synthesized according to literature. It was unexpectedly found out that the PEG-coated CdTe Q-dots exhibited very strong and specific affinity to anti-CEA monoclonal antibody rch 24 (rch 24 mAb). The resultant CdTe-(rch 24 mAb) conjugates were successfully used in detections of CEA expressed on the surface of cell line LS 180. Further experiments demonstrated that the fluorescent CdTe Q-dots exhibited much better photostability and a brighter fluorescence than FITC, which consequently led to a higher efficiency in the cancer marker detection

  20. Hydrothermal synthesis of thiol-capped CdTe nanoparticles and their optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Hang-Beom; Kikunaga, Hayato; Shimura, Kunio; Takahasi, Kohji; Taniguchi, Taichi; Kim, DaeGwi

    2013-02-28

    Water soluble nanoparticles (NPs) with a high emission property were synthesized via hydrothermal routes. In this report, we chose thiol ligand N-acetyl-L-cysteine as the ideal stabilizer and have successfully employed it to synthesize readily size-controllable CdTe NPs in a reaction of only one step. Hydrothermal synthesis of CdTe NPs has been carried out in neutral or basic conditions so far. We found out that the pH value of precursor solutions plays an important role in the uniformity of the particle size. Actually, high quality CdTe NPs were synthesized under mild acidic conditions of pH 5. The resultant NPs indicated good visible light-emitting properties and stability. Further, the experimental results showed that the reaction temperature influenced significantly the growth rate and the maximum size of the NPs. The CdTe NPs with a high photoluminescence quantum yield (the highest value: 57%) and narrower half width at half maximum (the narrowest value: 33 nm) were attained in very short time, within 40 minutes, reaching diameters of 2.3 to 4.3 nm. The PL intensity was increased with an increase in the reaction time, reflecting the suppression of nonradiative recombination processes. Furthermore, the formation of CdTe/CdS core-shell structures was discussed from the viewpoint of PL dynamics and X-ray diffraction studies.

  1. CdTe quantum dots for an application in the life sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuy, Ung Thi Dieu; Toan, Pham Song; Chi, Tran Thi Kim; Liem, Nguyen Quang; Khang, Dinh Duy

    2010-01-01

    This report highlights the results of the preparation of semiconductor CdTe quantum dots (QDs) in the aqueous phase. The small size of a few nm and a very high luminescence quantum yield exceeding 60% of these materials make them promisingly applicable to bio-medicine labeling. Their strong, two-photon excitation luminescence is also a good characteristic for biolabeling without interference with the cell fluorescence. The primary results for the pH-sensitive CdTe QDs are presented in that fluorescence of CdTe QDs was used as a proton sensor to detect proton flux driven by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis in chromatophores. In other words, these QDs could work as pH-sensitive detectors. Therefore, the system of CdTe QDs on chromatophores prepared from the cells of Rhodospirillum rubrum and the antibodies against the beta-subunit of F0F1–ATPase could be a sensitive detector for the avian influenza virus subtype A/H5N1

  2. Time resolution improvement of Schottky CdTe PET detectors using digital signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakhostin, M.; Ishii, K.; Kikuchi, Y.; Matsuyama, S.; Yamazaki, H.; Torshabi, A. Esmaili

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of our study on the timing performance of Schottky CdTe PET detectors using the technique of digital signal processing. The coincidence signals between a CdTe detector (15x15x1 mm 3 ) and a fast liquid scintillator detector were digitized by a fast digital oscilloscope and analyzed. In the analysis, digital versions of the elements of timing circuits, including pulse shaper and time discriminator, were created and a digital implementation of the Amplitude and Rise-time Compensation (ARC) mode of timing was performed. Owing to a very fine adjustment of the parameters of timing measurement, a good time resolution of less than 9.9 ns (FWHM) at an energy threshold of 150 keV was achieved. In the next step, a new method of time pickoff for improvement of timing resolution without loss in the detection efficiency of CdTe detectors was examined. In the method, signals from a CdTe detector are grouped by their rise-times and different procedures of time pickoff are applied to the signals of each group. Then, the time pickoffs are synchronized by compensating the fixed time offset, caused by the different time pickoff procedures. This method leads to an improved time resolution of ∼7.2 ns (FWHM) at an energy threshold of as low as 150 keV. The methods presented in this work are computationally fast enough to be used for online processing of data in an actual PET system.

  3. The role of substrate surface alteration in the fabrication of vertically aligned CdTe nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neretina, S; Devenyi, G A; Preston, J S; Mascher, P; Hughes, R A; Sochinskii, N V

    2008-01-01

    Previously we have described the deposition of vertically aligned wurtzite CdTe nanowires derived from an unusual catalytically driven growth mode. This growth mode could only proceed when the surface of the substrate was corrupted with an alcohol layer, although the role of the corruption was not fully understood. Here, we present a study detailing the remarkable role that this substrate surface alteration plays in the development of CdTe nanowires; it dramatically improves the size uniformity and largely eliminates lateral growth. These effects are demonstrated to arise from the altered surface's ability to limit Ostwald ripening of the catalytic seed material and by providing a surface unable to promote the epitaxial relationship needed to sustain a lateral growth mode. The axial growth of the CdTe nanowires is found to be exclusively driven through the direct impingement of adatoms onto the catalytic seeds leading to a self-limiting wire height associated with the sublimation of material from the sidewall facets. The work presented furthers the development of the mechanisms needed to promote high quality substrate-based vertically aligned CdTe nanowires. With our present understanding of the growth mechanism being a combination of selective area epitaxy and a catalytically driven vapour-liquid-solid growth mode, these results also raise the intriguing possibility of employing this growth mode in other material systems in an effort to produce superior nanowires

  4. Novel Approach to Front Contact Passivation for CdTe Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kephart, Jason

    2018-02-18

    The goal of this project was to study the use of sputter-deposited oxide materials for interface passivation of CdTe-based photovoltaics. Several candidate materials were chosen based on their promise in passivating the CdTe and CdSeTe semiconductor interface, chemical and thermal stability to device processing, and ability to be deposited by sputter deposition.

  5. Comparative study on toxicity of extracellularly biosynthesized and laboratory synthesized CdTe quantum dots

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komínková, M.; Milosavljevic, V.; Vítek, Petr; Polanská, H.; Číhalová, K.; Dostálová, S.; Hynstová, V.; Guran, R.; Kopel, P.; Richtera, L.; Masarik, M.; Brtnický, M.; Kynický, J.; Zítka, O.; Adam, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 241, JAN (2017), s. 193-200 ISSN 0168-1656 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Quantum dots * Biosynthesis * Escherichia coli (E. coli) * CdTe * Toxicity Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics OBOR OECD: Environmental biotechnology Impact factor: 2.599, year: 2016

  6. Characterization of a pixelated CdTe Timepix detector operated in ToT mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billoud, T.; Leroy, C.; Papadatos, C.; Roux, J.S.; Pichotka, M.; Pospisil, S.

    2017-01-01

    A 1 mm thick CdTe sensor bump-bonded to a Timepix readout chip operating in Time-over-Threshold (ToT) mode has been characterized in view of possible applications in particle and medical physics. The CdTe sensor layer was segmented into 256 × 256 pixels, with a pixel pitch of 55  μm. This CdTe Timepix device, of ohmic contact type, has been exposed to alpha-particles and photons from an 241 Am source, photons from a 137 Cs source, and protons of different energies (0.8–10 MeV) delivered by the University of Montreal Tandem Accelerator. The device was irradiated on the negatively biased backside electrode. An X-ray per-pixel calibration commonly used for this type of detector was done and its accuracy and resolution were assessed and compared to those of a 300  μm thick silicon Timepix device. The electron mobility-lifetime product (μ e τ e ) of CdTe for protons of low energy has been obtained from the Hecht equation. Possible polarization effects have been also investigated. Finally, information about the homogeneity of the detector was obtained from X-ray irradiation.

  7. Studies on interaction between CdTe quantum dots and α ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    ence of CdTe QDs were also studied. α-Chy can maintain its high activity and stability under different. pH conditions ... creasing attention in the past decade. 1. Because of ... divided into 'poor' and 'good' substrate, depending on their kinetic ...

  8. Photoluminescence measurement of polycrystalline CdTe made of high purity source material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempel, Hannes; Kraft, Christian; Heisler, Christoph; Geburt, Sebastian; Ronning, Carsten; Wesch, Werner [Institute of Solid State Physics, Friedrich Schiller Universitaet Jena, Helmholtzweg 3, 07743 Jena (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    CdTe is a common material for thin film solar cells. However, the mainly used CdTe source material is known to contain a high number of intrinsic defects and impurities. In this work we investigate the defect structure of high purity CdTe by means of Photoluminescence, which is a common method to detect the energy levels of defects in the band gap of semiconductors. We used a 633 nm HeNe-Laser at sample temperatures of 8 K. The examined samples were processed in a new vacuum system based on the PVD method. They yield significantly different spectra on as-grown samples compared to those measured on samples which are grown by the standard process, since the double peak at 1.55 eV was hardly detectable and the A-center correlated transition vanished. Instead a peak at 1.50 eV with pronounced phonon coupling was observed. The 1.50 eV peak is known from other measurements but has not been characterized so far. The intention of this work is to characterize this new feature and the influence of post deposition treatments of the CdTe layers on the PL spectra.

  9. Quantitative analysis of polarization phenomena in CdTe radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Hiroyuki; Higa, Akira; Yamazato, Masaaki; Maehama, Takehiro; Toguchi, Minoru; Ohno, Ryoichi

    2006-01-01

    Polarization phenomena in a Schottky-type CdTe radiation detector were studied. We evaluated the distribution of electric field in a biased CdTe detector by measuring the progressive change of Schottky barrier lowering with time. The parameters of deep acceptors such as detrapping time, concentration, and the depth of the energy level were quantitatively evaluated. In the case of applying the conventional model of charge accumulation, the obtained result shows that the CdTe bulk is never undepleted. We modified the charge accumulation model by taking account of the occupation state of the deep acceptor level. When a modified model is applied, the time that the depletion width in the bulk begins to diminish closely fits the time that the photopeak position begins to shift in radiation measurements. In this paper, we present a distribution of electric field during biasing and a simple method for the evaluation of the parameters of deep acceptors in CdTe bulk. (author)

  10. Vapor transport deposition of large-area polycrystalline CdTe for radiation image sensor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Keedong; Cha, Bokyung; Heo, Duchang; Jeon, Sungchae [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, 111 Hanggaul-ro, Ansan-si, Gyeonggi-do 426-170 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    Vapor transport deposition (VTD) process delivers saturated vapor to substrate, resulting in high-throughput and scalable process. In addition, VTD can maintain lower substrate temperature than close-spaced sublimation (CSS). The motivation of this work is to adopt several advantages of VTD for radiation image sensor application. Polycrystalline CdTe films were obtained on 300 mm x 300 mm indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass. The polycrystalline CdTe film has columnar structure with average grain size of 3 μm ∝ 9 μm, which can be controlled by changing the substrate temperature. In order to analyze electrical and X-ray characteristics, ITO-CdTe-Al sandwich structured device was fabricated. Effective resistivity of the polycrystalline CdTe film was ∝1.4 x 10{sup 9}Ωcm. The device was operated under hole-collection mode. The responsivity and the μτ product estimated to be 6.8 μC/cm{sup 2}R and 5.5 x 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2}/V. The VTD can be a process of choice for monolithic integration of CdTe thick film for radiation image sensor and CMOS/TFT circuitry. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Excitons in tunnel coupled CdTe and (Cd,Mn)Te quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terletskii, Oleg; Ryabchenko, Sergiy; Tereshchenko, Oleksandr [Institute of Physics NASU, pr. Nauki 46, 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Sugakov, Volodymyr; Vertsimakha, Ganna [Institute for Nuclear Research NASU, pr. Nauki 47, 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Karczewski, Grzegorz [Institute of Physics PAS, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, PL-02-668 Warsaw (Poland)

    2017-05-15

    The photoluminescence (PL) from structures containing Cd{sub 0.95}Mn{sub 0.05}Te and CdTe quantum wells (QWs) separated by a narrow (1.94 nm) barrier was studied. The PL lines of comparable intensities from several possible exciton states were observed simultaneously at energy distances substantially exceeding kT. This means that the energy transfer in the studied systems is slower than the radiative recombination of the confined excitons. For the CdTe QW width of about 8.7-9 nm, indirect excitons with the electron and heavy hole chiefly localized in the CdTe and Cd{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}Te QWs, respectively, were detected in the magnetic field. These indirect excitons have PL energy of about 10-20 meV above the PL line of the direct excitons in the CdTe QW. The observation of the PL from the indirect excitons which are not the lowest excitations in the structure is a distinctive feature of the system. Photoluminescence intensity dependence on the energy and the magnetic field. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Thin film CdTe solar cells by close spaced sublimation: Recent results from pilot line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siepchen, B.; Drost, C.; Späth, B.; Krishnakumar, V.; Richter, H.; Harr, M.; Bossert, S.; Grimm, M.; Häfner, K.; Modes, T.; Zywitzki, O.; Morgner, H.

    2013-01-01

    CdTe is an attractive material to produce high efficient and low cost thin film solar cells. The semiconducting layers of this kind of solar cell can be deposited by the Close Spaced Sublimation (CSS) process. The advantages of this technique are high deposition rates and an excellent utilization of the raw material, leading to low production costs and competitive module prices. CTF Solar GmbH is offering equipment and process knowhow for the production of CdTe solar modules. For further improvement of the technology, research is done at a pilot line, which covers all relevant process steps for manufacture of CdTe solar cells. Herein, we present the latest results from the process development and our research activities on single functional layers as well as for complete solar cell devices. Efficiencies above 13% have already been obtained with Cu-free back contacts. An additional focus is set on different transparent conducting oxide materials for the front contact and a Sb 2 Te 3 based back contact. - Highlights: ► Laboratory established on industrial level for CdTe solar cell research ► 13.0% cell efficiency with our standard front contact and Cu-free back contact ► Research on ZnO-based transparent conducting oxide and Sb 2 Te 3 back contacts ► High resolution scanning electron microscopy analysis of ion polished cross section

  13. Quantitative analysis of impurities present in the trace state in CdTe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Neami, A.

    1988-01-01

    Impurities in CdTe have been analyzed by PIXE using 3 MeV protons and by 1 MeV Ar ion induced X-ray emission. In the case of PIXE elements with Z > 25 are detected whereas with Ar ions only elements with 13 [fr

  14. Growth and analysis of micro and nano CdTe arrays for solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Brandon Adrian

    CdTe is an excellent material for infrared detectors and photovoltaic applications. The efficiency of CdTe/CdS solar cells has increased very rapidly in the last 3 years to ˜20% but is still below the maximum theoretical value of 30%. Although the short-circuit current density is close to its maximum of 30 mA/cm2, the open circuit voltage has potential to be increased further to over 1 Volt. The main limitation that prevents further increase in the open-circuit voltage and therefore efficiency is the high defect density in the CdTe absorber layer. Reducing the defect density will increase the open-circuit voltage above 1 V through an increase in the carrier lifetime and concentration to tau >10 ns and p > 10 16 cm-3, respectively. However, the large lattice mismatch (10%) between CdTe and CdS and the polycrystalline nature of the CdTe film are the fundamental reasons for the high defect density and pose a difficult challenge to solve. In this work, a method to physically and electrically isolate the different kinds of defects at the nanoscale and understand their effect on the electrical performance of CdTe is presented. A SiO2 template with arrays of window openings was deposited between the CdTe and CdS to achieve selective-area growth of the CdTe via close-space sublimation. The diameter of the window openings was varied from the micro to the nanoscale to study the effect of size on nucleation, grain growth, and defect density. The resulting structures enabled the possibility to electrically isolate and individually probe micrometer and nanoscale sized CdTe/CdS cells. Electron back-scattered diffraction was used to observe grain orientation and defects in the miniature cells. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy was used to study the morphology, grain boundaries, grain orientation, defect structure, and strain in the layers. Finally, conducting atomic force microscopy was used to study the current-voltage characteristics of the solar cells. An

  15. Coprecipitation of cadmium with calcite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujino, Osamu; Kumagai, Tetsu; Shigematsu, Tsunenobu; Matsui, Masakazu

    1976-01-01

    The distribution of cadmium between precipitates of calcite and saturated aqueous solution was measured at 25 0 C to understand the distribution of cadmium in the bivalves. Calcite was precipitated from calcium bicarbonate solution by the gradual release of carbon dioxide. The cadmium ions were coprecipitated in calcite, obeying the logarithmic distribution law. The apparent distribution coefficient was decreased as α, α'-dipyridyl increased, but the true distribution coefficient was found to be an almost constant value, 560. This value is fairly close to the ratio of solubility product constants K sub(calcite)/K sub(CdCO 3 ), 890. This suggests that the deviation of the present solid solution from ideality is not very large. (auth.)

  16. Health hazards of environmental cadmium pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordberg, G F

    1974-01-01

    Cadmium, a metal widely used in industrial processes, has been recognized to be a highly toxic and dangerous environmental pollutant. In this study the author describes the sources and occurrence of cadmium, and the intake by human beings. He states that present standards for daily intake do not allow sufficient safety margins. The fate and known effects of cadmium in human beings are summarized; some effects associated with cadmium are renal (kidney) damage, anemia, hypertension, and liver damage. Cadmium was identified as the main cause of the Itai-Itai disease in Japan, and epidemiological studies from various areas of Japan are presented. 64 references, 9 figures, 5 tables.

  17. Growth of CdTe on Si(100) surface by ionized cluster beam technique: Experimental and molecular dynamics simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araghi, Houshang, E-mail: araghi@aut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zabihi, Zabiholah [Department of Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nayebi, Payman [Department of Physics, College of Technical and Engineering, Saveh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Saveh (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ehsani, Mohammad Mahdi [Department of Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    II–VI semiconductor CdTe was grown on the Si(100) substrate surface by the ionized cluster beam (ICB) technique. In the ICB method, when vapors of solid materials such as CdTe were ejected through a nozzle of a heated crucible into a vacuum region, nanoclusters were created by an adiabatic expansion phenomenon. The clusters thus obtained were partially ionized by electron bombardment and then accelerated onto the silicon substrate at 473 K by high potentials. The cluster size was determined using a retarding field energy analyzer. The results of X-ray diffraction measurements indicate the cubic zinc blende (ZB) crystalline structure of the CdTe thin film on the silicon substrate. The CdTe thin film prepared by the ICB method had high crystalline quality. The microscopic processes involved in the ICB deposition technique, such as impact and coalescence processes, have been studied in detail by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation.

  18. Mechanism of charge transport in ligand-capped crystalline CdTe nanoparticles according to surface photovoltaic and photoacoustic results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Kuiying, E-mail: kuiyingli@ysu.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Metastable Materials Manufacture Technology and Science, Yanshan University, Hebei Str. 438, Qinhuangdao, Hebei Province 066004 (China); Zhang Hao [Key Laboratory for Supramolecular Structure and Materials, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Yang Weiyong; Wei Sailing [National Laboratory of Metastable Materials Manufacture Technology and Science, Yanshan University, Hebei Str. 438, Qinhuangdao, Hebei Province 066004 (China); Wang Dayang, E-mail: dayang@mpikg-golm.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Potsdam 14424 (Germany)

    2010-09-01

    By combining surface photovoltaic and photoacoustic techniques, we probed the photogenerated charge transport channels of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA)- and 2-mercaptoethylamine (MA)-capped crystalline CdTe nanoparticles on illumination with UV-near IR light. The results experimentally confirmed the presence of a CdS shell outside the CdTe core that formed through the self-assembly and decomposition of mercapto ligands during CdTe preparation. The data revealed that the CdS layer was partly responsible for the deexcitation behavior of the photogenerated carriers, which is related to the quantum tunnel effect. Experiments demonstrated that two quantum wells were located at wavelengths of 440 and 500 nm in buried interfacial space-charge regions, whereas the formation of a ligand layer obstructed charge transfer transitions of the core CdTe nanoparticles to a certain extent.

  19. Size dependence of upconversion photoluminescence in MPA capped CdTe quantum dots: Existence of upconversion bright point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananthakumar, S.; Jayabalan, J.; Singh, Asha; Khan, Salahuddin; Babu, S. Moorthy; Chari, Rama

    2016-01-01

    The photoluminescence (PL) from semiconductor quantum dots can show a “PL bright point”, that is the PL from as prepared quantum dots is maximum at a particular size. In this work we show that, for CdTe quantum dots, upconversion photoluminescence (UCPL) originating from nonlinear absorption shows a similar “UCPL bright point”. The PL and UCPL bright points occur at nearly the same size. The existence of a UCPL bright point has important implications for upconversion microscopy applications. - Highlights: • The size dependence of the upconversion photoluminescence (UCPL) spectrum of CdTe quantum dots has been reported. • We show that the UCPL from the CdTe quantum dots is highest at a particular size. • Thus the occurrence of a "UCPL bright point" in CdTe quantum dots has been demonstrated. • It has been shown that the UCPL bright point occurs at nearly the same size as a normal bright point.

  20. [Investigation of urinary cadmium reference of general population in two rural high background areas of soil cadmium and non-cadmium-polluted in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jingxiu; Li, Qiujuan; Yao, Dancheng; Zheng, Jiangang; Zhang, Wenli; Shang, Qi

    2014-09-01

    To study the reference of urinary. cadmium of the general population in rural high background areas of soil cadmium and non-cadmium contaminated in China. In rural high background areas of soil cadmium and non-cadmium contaminated, randomly selected non-occupational-cadmium exposed population 1134 people (male 519, female 615) with each gender and age groups, questionnaire surveyed and collected random urine. Urinary cadmium and urinary creatinine (Cr) concentration were tested, excluding urinary Cr 3 g/L. Analyze the impact factors of urinary cadmium and calculated 95% quantile (P,95 ) of urinary cadmium after correction by urinary Cr. Female median urinary cadmium was significantly higher than men, male smokers median urinary cadmium was significantly higher than male non-smokers (P 30 year-old. According to gender, and 15 -30, 30 years old, analysis the upper limit of cadmium in urine. The 95% upper limit of urinary cadmium of 30 year-old female (12.24 microg/gCr) was significantly higher than other populations ( population exceeded the upper limit (5 microg/gCr) of the occupational cadmium poisoning diagnostic criteria in China (GBZ 17-2002). In the two rural high background areas of soil cadmium and non-cadmium polluted , urinary cadmium reference of non-cadmium-occupational-exposed male is <9.0 microg/gCr, and female <13.0 microg/gCr.

  1. Structural, Mechanical and Thermodynamic Properties under Pressure Effect of Rubidium Telluride: First Principle Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidai K.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available First-principles density functional theory calculations have been performed to investigate the structural, elastic and thermodynamic properties of rubidium telluride in cubic anti-fluorite (anti-CaF2-type structure. The calculated ground-state properties of Rb2Te compound such as equilibrium lattice parameter and bulk moduli are investigated by generalized gradient approximation (GGA-PBE that are based on the optimization of total energy. The elastic constants, Young’s and shear modulus, Poisson ratio, have also been calculated. Our results are in reasonable agreement with the available theoretical and experimental data. The pressure dependence of elastic constant and thermodynamic quantities under high pressure are also calculated and discussed.

  2. Heavily doped GaAs:Te layers grown by MOVPE using diisopropyl telluride as a source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniltsev, V. M.; Demidov, E. V.; Drozdov, M. N.; Drozdov, Yu. N., E-mail: drozdyu@ipmras.ru; Kraev, S. A.; Surovegina, E. A.; Shashkin, V. I.; Yunin, P. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    The capabilities of GaAs epitaxial layers extremely heavily doped with tellurium by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy using diisopropyl telluride as a source are studied. It is shown that tellurium incorporation into GaAs occurs to an atomic concentration of 10{sup 21} cm{sup –3} without appreciable diffusion and segregation effects. Good carrier concentrations (2 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup –3}) and specific contact resistances of non-alloyed ohmic contacts (1.7 × 10{sup –6} Ω cm{sup 2}) give grounds to use such layers to create non-alloyed ohmic contacts in electronic devices. A sharp decrease in the electrical activity of Te atoms, a decrease in the electron mobility, and an increase in the contact resistance at atomic concentrations above 2 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup –3} are detected.

  3. Effect of ball milling time on thermoelectric properties of bismuth telluride nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khade, Poonam; Bagwaiya, Toshi; Bhattacharaya, Shovit; Singh, Ajay; Jha, Purushottam; Shelke, Vilas

    2018-04-01

    The effect of different milling time on thermoelectric properties of bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) was investigated. The nanomaterial was prepared by varying the ball milling time and followed by hot press sintering. The crystal structure and phase formation were verified by X-ray diffraction and Raman Spectroscopy. The experimental results show that electrical conductivity increases whereas thermal conductivity decreases with increasing milling time. The negative sign of seebeck coefficient indicate the n-type nature with majority charge carriers of electrons. A maximum figure of merit about 0.55 is achieved for l5hr ball milled Bi2Te3 sample. The present study demonstrates the simple and cost-effective method for synthesis of Bi2Te3 thermoelectric material at large scale thermoelectric applications.

  4. High pressure and doping effects on the Curie temperature in chromium telluride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grazhdankina, N.P.; Bersenev, Yu.S.

    1976-01-01

    Results of an experimental investigation of the effect of hydrostatic pressure (up to 12 kbars) on the Curie temperature Tsub(c) of solid CrTsub(1-x)Xsub(x) solutions (X=Se, Sb) are presented for x concentration values up to 0.5. The baric coefficients γ=Tsub(c)sup(-1)(dTsub(c)/dP) for all alloys investigated are negative. However the γ(x) dependence is determined by the X alloy component and correspondingly by the nature of the compression which may be either isotropic (X=Se) or anisotropic (X=Sb). Possible mechanisms of exchange spin coupling in the alloys investigated are discussed on the basis of the data obtained. It is concluded that two types of exchange interactions coexist in chromium telluride: indirect exchange of localized electrons via the anion and interaction between collectivized electrons in the narrow 3d band energy determines the Curie temperature

  5. An additive approach to low temperature zero pressure sintering of bismuth antimony telluride thermoelectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catlin, Glenn C.; Tripathi, Rajesh; Nunes, Geoffrey; Lynch, Philip B.; Jones, Howard D.; Schmitt, Devin C.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents an additive-based approach to the formulation of thermoelectric materials suitable for screen printing. Such printing processes are a likely route to such thermoelectric applications as micro-generators for wireless sensor networks and medical devices, but require the development of materials that can be sintered at ambient pressure and low temperatures. Using a rapid screening process, we identify the eutectic combination of antimony and tellurium as an additive for bismuth-antimony-telluride that enables good thermoelectric performance without a high pressure step. An optimized composite of 15 weight percent Sb7.5Te92.5 in Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 is scaled up and formulated into a screen-printable paste. Samples fabricated from this paste achieve a thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) of 0.74 using a maximum processing temperature of 748 K and a total thermal processing budget of 12 K-hours.

  6. Angular dependence of magnetization reversal in epitaxial chromium telluride thin films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pramanik, Tanmoy, E-mail: pramanik.tanmoy@utexas.edu; Roy, Anupam, E-mail: anupam@austin.utexas.edu; Dey, Rik, E-mail: rikdey@utexas.edu; Rai, Amritesh; Guchhait, Samaresh; Movva, Hema C.P.; Hsieh, Cheng-Chih; Banerjee, Sanjay K.

    2017-09-01

    Highlights: • Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in epitaxial Cr{sub 2}Te{sub 3} has been investigated. • Presence of a relatively strong second order anisotropy contribution is observed. • Magnetization reversal is explained quantitatively using a 1D defect model. • Relative roles of nucleation and pinning in magnetization reversal are discussed. • Domain structures and switching process are visualized by micromagnetic simulation. - Abstract: We investigate magnetic anisotropy and magnetization reversal mechanism in chromium telluride thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. We report existence of strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in these thin films, along with a relatively strong second order anisotropy contribution. The angular variation of the switching field observed from the magnetoresistance measurement is explained quantitatively using a one-dimensional defect model. The model reveals the relative roles of nucleation and pinning in the magnetization reversal, depending on the applied field orientation. Micromagnetic simulations are performed to visualize the domain structure and switching process.

  7. First operation of cesium telluride photocathodes in the TTF injector RF gun

    CERN Document Server

    Sertore, D; Flöttmann, K; Stephan, F; Zapfe, K; Michelato, P

    2000-01-01

    During the run 1998/1999 a new injector based on a laser-driven RF gun was brought in operation at the TESLA Test Facility (TTF) linac at DESY, in order to produce the beam structure and quality required either by TeV collider and SASE FEL experiments. High quantum efficiency cesium telluride photocathodes, prepared at Milano and transferred to DESY, have been successfully operated in the RF gun. A bunch charge of 50 nC, only limited by space charge effects, was achieved. The photocathodes have shown an operative lifetime of several months. A new cathode surface finishing has showed a promising decrease of the photocathode dark current. Measurements of dark current, quantum efficiency and lifetime are reported.

  8. Enhanced glutathione content allows the in vivo synthesis of fluorescent CdTe nanoparticles by Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P Monrás

    Full Text Available The vast application of fluorescent semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs or quantum dots (QDs has prompted the development of new, cheap and safer methods that allow generating QDs with improved biocompatibility. In this context, green or biological QDs production represents a still unexplored area. This work reports the intracellular CdTe QDs biosynthesis in bacteria. Escherichia coli overexpressing the gshA gene, involved in glutathione (GSH biosynthesis, was used to produce CdTe QDs. Cells exhibited higher reduced thiols, GSH and Cd/Te contents that allow generating fluorescent intracellular NP-like structures when exposed to CdCl(2 and K(2TeO(3. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that QDs-producing cells accumulate defined structures of various colors, suggesting the production of differently-sized NPs. Purified fluorescent NPs exhibited structural and spectroscopic properties characteristic of CdTe QDs, as size and absorption/emission spectra. Elemental analysis confirmed that biosynthesized QDs were formed by Cd and Te with Cd/Te ratios expected for CdTe QDs. Finally, fluorescent properties of QDs-producing cells, such as color and intensity, were improved by temperature control and the use of reducing buffers.

  9. The performance of a combined solar photovoltaic (PV) and thermoelectric generator (TEG) system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein

    2015-01-01

    The performance of a combined solar photovoltaic (PV) and thermoelectric generator (TEG) system is examined using an analytical model for four different types of commercial PVs and a commercial bismuth telluride TEG. The TEG is applied directly on the back of the PV, so that the two devices have...... the same temperature. The PVs considered are crystalline Si (c-Si), amorphous Si (a-Si), copper indium gallium (di) selenide (CIGS) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) cells. The degradation of PV performance with temperature is shown to dominate the increase in power produced by the TEG, due to the low...... efficiency of the TEG. For c-Si, CIGS and CdTe PV cells the combined system produces a lower power and has a lower efficiency than the PV alone, whereas for an a-Si cell the total system performance may be slightly increased by the TEG....

  10. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry of Compounds Containing Carboxyl Groups Using CdTe and CuO Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Megumi Sakurai; Taro Sato; Jiawei Xu; Soichi Sato; Tatsuya Fujino

    2018-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry of compounds containing carboxyl groups was carried out by using semiconductor nanoparticles (CdTe and CuO) as the matrix. Salicylic acid (Sal), glucuronic acid (Glu), ibuprofen (Ibu), and tyrosine (Tyr) were ionized as deprotonated species (carboxylate anions) by using electrons ejected from CdTe after the photoexcitation. When CuO was used as the matrix, the peak intensity of Tyr became high compared with that obtained with CdTe....

  11. Novel Contact Materials for Improved Performance CdTe Solar Cells Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockett, Angus [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Marsillac, Sylvain [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Collins, Robert [Univesity of Toledo

    2018-04-15

    This program has explored a number of novel materials for contacts to CdTe solar cells in order to reduce the back contact Schottky barrier to zero and produce an ohmic contact. The project tested a wide range of potential contact materials including TiN, ZrN, CuInSe2:N, a-Si:H and alloys with C, and FeS2. Improved contacts were achieved with FeS2. As part of understanding the operation of the devices and controlling the deposition processes, a number of other important results were obtained. In the process of this project and following its conclusion it led to research that resulted in seven journal articles, nine conference publications, 13 talks presented at conferences, and training of eight graduate students. The seven journal articles were published in 2015, 2016, and 2017 and have been cited, as of March 2018, 52 times (one cited 19 times and two cited 11 times). We demonstrated high levels of doping of CIS with N but electrical activity of the resulting N was not high and the results were difficult to reproduce. Furthermore, even with high doping the contacts were not good. Annealing did not improve the contacts. A-Si:H was found to produce acceptable but unstable contacts, degrading even over a day or two, apparently due to H incorporation into the CdTe. Alloying with C did not improve the contacts or stability. The transition metal nitrides produced Schottky type contacts for all materials tested. While these contacts were found to be unsatisfactory, we investigated FeS2 and found this material to be effective and comparable to the best contacts currently available. The contacts were found to be chemically stable under heat treatment and preferable to Cu doped contacts. Thus, we demonstrated an improved contact material in the course of this project. In addition, we developed new ways of controlling the deposition of CdTe and other materials, demonstrated the nature of defects in CdTe, and studied the distribution of conductivity and carrier type in CdTe

  12. Mechanisms of cadmium induced genomic instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filipic, Metka, E-mail: metka.filipic@nib.si [National Institute of Biology, Department for Genetic Toxicology and Cancer Biology, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2012-05-01

    Cadmium is an ubiquitous environmental contaminant that represents hazard to humans and wildlife. It is found in the air, soil and water and, due to its extremely long half-life, accumulates in plants and animals. The main source of cadmium exposure for non-smoking human population is food. Cadmium is primarily toxic to the kidney, but has been also classified as carcinogenic to humans by several regulatory agencies. Current evidence suggests that exposure to cadmium induces genomic instability through complex and multifactorial mechanisms. Cadmium dose not induce direct DNA damage, however it induces increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which in turn induce DNA damage and can also interfere with cell signalling. More important seems to be cadmium interaction with DNA repair mechanisms, cell cycle checkpoints and apoptosis as well as with epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression control. Cadmium mediated inhibition of DNA repair mechanisms and apoptosis leads to accumulation of cells with unrepaired DNA damage, which in turn increases the mutation rate and thus genomic instability. This increases the probability of developing not only cancer but also other diseases associated with genomic instability. In the in vitro experiments cadmium induced effects leading to genomic instability have been observed at low concentrations that were comparable to those observed in target organs and tissues of humans that were non-occupationally exposed to cadmium. Therefore, further studies aiming to clarify the relevance of these observations for human health risks due to cadmium exposure are needed.

  13. Mechanisms of cadmium induced genomic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipič, Metka

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium is an ubiquitous environmental contaminant that represents hazard to humans and wildlife. It is found in the air, soil and water and, due to its extremely long half-life, accumulates in plants and animals. The main source of cadmium exposure for non-smoking human population is food. Cadmium is primarily toxic to the kidney, but has been also classified as carcinogenic to humans by several regulatory agencies. Current evidence suggests that exposure to cadmium induces genomic instability through complex and multifactorial mechanisms. Cadmium dose not induce direct DNA damage, however it induces increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which in turn induce DNA damage and can also interfere with cell signalling. More important seems to be cadmium interaction with DNA repair mechanisms, cell cycle checkpoints and apoptosis as well as with epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression control. Cadmium mediated inhibition of DNA repair mechanisms and apoptosis leads to accumulation of cells with unrepaired DNA damage, which in turn increases the mutation rate and thus genomic instability. This increases the probability of developing not only cancer but also other diseases associated with genomic instability. In the in vitro experiments cadmium induced effects leading to genomic instability have been observed at low concentrations that were comparable to those observed in target organs and tissues of humans that were non-occupationally exposed to cadmium. Therefore, further studies aiming to clarify the relevance of these observations for human health risks due to cadmium exposure are needed.

  14. Cadmium resistance in Drosophila: a small cadmium binding substance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, K.B.; Williams, M.W.; Richter, L.J.; Holt, S.E.; Hook, G.J.; Knoop, S.M.; Sloop, F.V.; Faust, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    A small cadmium-binding substance (CdBS) has been observed in adult Drosophila melanogaster that were raised for their entire growth cycle on a diet that contained 0.15 mM CdCl 2 . Induction of CdBS was observed in strains that differed widely in their sensitivity of CdCl 2 . This report describes the induction of CdBS and some of its characteristics. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  15. Cadmium and Cadmium/Zinc Ratios and Tobacco-Related Morbidities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Patricia; Faroon, Obaid; Pappas, R. Steven

    2017-01-01

    Metals are one of five major categories of carcinogenic or toxic constituents in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Cadmium is highly volatile and a higher percentage of the total tobacco cadmium content is efficiently transferred to mainstream tobacco smoke than many other toxic metals in tobacco. Inhaled cadmium bioaccumulates in the lungs and is distributed beyond the lungs to other tissues, with a total body biological half-life of one to two decades. Chronic cadmium exposure through tobacco use elevates blood and urine cadmium concentrations. Cadmium is a carcinogen, and an inducer of proinflammatory immune responses. Elevated exposure to cadmium is associated with reduced pulmonary function, obstructive lung disease, bronchogenic carcinoma, cardiovascular diseases including myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, pancreatic cancer, and various oral pathologies. Cadmium and zinc have a toxicologically inverse relationship. Zinc is an essential element and is reportedly antagonistic to some manifestations of cadmium toxicity. This review summarizes associations between blood, urine, and tissue cadmium concentrations with emphasis on cadmium exposure due to tobacco use and several disease states. Available data about zinc and cadmium/zinc ratios and tobacco-related diseases is summarized from studies reporting smoking status. Collectively, data suggest that blood, urine, and tissue cadmium and cadmium/zinc ratios are often significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers and they are also different in smokers for several diseases and cancers. Additional biomonitoring data such as blood or serum and urine zinc and cadmium levels and cadmium/zinc ratios in smokers may provide further insight into the development and progression of diseases of the lung, cardiovascular system, and possibly other organs. PMID:28961214

  16. Cadmium and Cadmium/Zinc Ratios and Tobacco-Related Morbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Patricia; Faroon, Obaid; Pappas, R Steven

    2017-09-29

    Metals are one of five major categories of carcinogenic or toxic constituents in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Cadmium is highly volatile and a higher percentage of the total tobacco cadmium content is efficiently transferred to mainstream tobacco smoke than many other toxic metals in tobacco. Inhaled cadmium bioaccumulates in the lungs and is distributed beyond the lungs to other tissues, with a total body biological half-life of one to two decades. Chronic cadmium exposure through tobacco use elevates blood and urine cadmium concentrations. Cadmium is a carcinogen, and an inducer of proinflammatory immune responses. Elevated exposure to cadmium is associated with reduced pulmonary function, obstructive lung disease, bronchogenic carcinoma, cardiovascular diseases including myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, pancreatic cancer, and various oral pathologies. Cadmium and zinc have a toxicologically inverse relationship. Zinc is an essential element and is reportedly antagonistic to some manifestations of cadmium toxicity. This review summarizes associations between blood, urine, and tissue cadmium concentrations with emphasis on cadmium exposure due to tobacco use and several disease states. Available data about zinc and cadmium/zinc ratios and tobacco-related diseases is summarized from studies reporting smoking status. Collectively, data suggest that blood, urine, and tissue cadmium and cadmium/zinc ratios are often significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers and they are also different in smokers for several diseases and cancers. Additional biomonitoring data such as blood or serum and urine zinc and cadmium levels and cadmium/zinc ratios in smokers may provide further insight into the development and progression of diseases of the lung, cardiovascular system, and possibly other organs.

  17. High performance p-i-n CdTe and CdZnTe detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Khusainov, A K; Ilves, A G; Morozov, V F; Pustovoit, A K; Arlt, R D

    1999-01-01

    A breakthrough in the performance of p-i-n CdTe and CdZnTe detectors is reported. The detector stability has been significantly improved, allowing their use in precise gamma and XRF applications. Detectors with energy resolution close to Si and Ge were produced operating with only -30--35 deg. C cooling (by a Peltier cooler of 15x15x10 mm size and a consumed power less than 5 W). Presently detectors with volume of up to 300 mm sup 3 are available. In terms of photoelectric effect efficiency it corresponds to HPGe detectors with volumes of about 1.5 cm sup 3. The possibilities of further improvement of CdTe and CdZnTe detector characteristics are discussed in this paper.

  18. Synthesis and transport characterization of electrochemically deposited CdTe nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jaskiran; Kaur, Harmanmeet; Singh, R. C.

    2018-04-01

    This paper reports the synthesis and characterization of CdTe nanowires. A thin polymeric films were irradiated with 80MeV Ag ions at a fluence of 8E7 ions/cm2, followed by UV irradiation and chemically etching in aqueous NaOH. Nanosizes go-through pores so formed were filled using a specially designed cell via electrodeposition. Nanowires so formed were further studied using SEM, I-V, UV and XRD analysis. SEM images show very smooth and uniform CdTe nanowires freely standing on the substrate. The in-situ I-V characteristics of nano-/micro structures was carried out at room temperature by leaving the structures embedded in the insulating template membrane itself.

  19. Pressure-induced drastic structural change in liquid CdTe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, T.; Hattori, T.; Narushima, T.; Tsuji, K.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the structure of liquid CdTe at pressures up to 6 GPa by synchrotron x-ray diffraction. The structure factor, S(Q), and the pair distribution function, g(r), change drastically within a small pressure interval of about 1 GPa (between 1.8 and 3 GPa). The S(Q),g(r), and other structural parameters, such as the average coordination number, CN, and the ratios of peak positions in S(Q) or g(r), reveal that the change originates from the pressure-induced modification in the local structure from the zinc-blende-like form into the rocksaltlike one. The liquid CdTe shows a high-pressure behavior similar to that in the crystalline counterpart in terms of the sharpness of the structural change and the high-pressure sequence in the local structure

  20. Improvement of radiation response characteristic on CdTe detectors using fast neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamaru, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Akito; Iida, Toshiyuki

    1999-01-01

    The treatment of fast neutron pre-irradiation was applied to a CdTe radiation detector in order to improve radiation response characteristic. Electron transport property of the detector was changed by the irradiation effect to suppress pulse amplitude fluctuation in risetime. Spectroscopic performance of the pre-irradiated detector was compared with the original. Additionally, the pre-irradiated detector was employed with a detection system using electrical signal processing of risetime discrimination (RTD). Pulse height spectra of 241 Am, 133 Ba, and 137 Cs gamma rays were measured to examine the change of the detector performance. The experimental results indicated that response characteristic for high-energy photons was improved by the pre-irradiation. The combination of the pre-irradiated detector and the RTD processing was found to provide further enhancement of the energy resolution. Application of fast neutron irradiation effect to the CdTe detector was demonstrated. (author)

  1. CdTe in photoconductive applications. Fast detector for metrology and X-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuzin, M.

    1991-01-01

    Operating as a photoconductor, the sensitivity and the impulse response of semi-insulating materials greatly depend on the excitation duration compared to electron and hole lifetimes. The requirement of ohmic contact is shortly discussed. Before developing picosecond measurements with integrated autocorrelation system, this paper explains high energy industrial tomographic application with large CdTe detectors (25x15x0.9 mm 3 ). The excitation is typically μs range. X-ray flash radiography, with 10 ns burst, is in an intermediate time domain where excitation is similar to electron life-time. In laser fusion experiment excitation is in the range of 50 ps and we develop photoconductive devices able to study very high speed X-ray emission time behaviour. Thin polycristalline MOCVD CdTe films with picosecond response are suitable to perform optical correlation measurements of single shot pulses with a very large bandwidth (- 50 GHz)

  2. Unusual strain in homoepitaxial CdTe(001) layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinke, H.; Waag, A.; Moeller, M.O.; Regnet, M.M.; Landwehr, G. [Physikalisches Institut, Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany)

    1994-01-01

    For homoepitaxial CdTe(001) films grown by molecular beam epitaxy onto CdTe(001) substrates, a difference between the lattice constants of the substrate and the layer was systematically observed using high resolution X-ray diffraction. Reciprocal space maps point out an unusual strain state of such layers which is indicated by the position of their reciprocal lattice points. They lie in a section of reciprocal space which is usually forbidden by elasticity theory. The strain is laterally anisotropic leading to a monoclinic symmetry of the thin films. The lateral strain is depth dependent. Possible reasons for the formation of the unusual strain are discussed, and a correlation of the unusual strain with the growth conditions is attempted

  3. Photovoltaic properties of in-doped CDTE thin films deposited on metallic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagah F Mohamad; Khalid K Mohammed

    2006-01-01

    CDTE is a promising photovoltaic material due to its nearly optimum band gap and high optical absorption coefficient. This study looks into the effect of indium doping of the CdTe thin film deposited on stainless steel substrate. The conventional cells are usually manufactured on glass substrate and offer no weight advantage over single crystal cells. Since the metal foil support can be as thin as (40-60) μm and the weight saving is significant. The spectral response of the photo current with and without indium doping was studied in detail and compared with theory. The sub gap response of the resulted structure is particularly strong and extends to wavelengths up to 1000 nm

  4. CdTe and Cd1-xZnxTe for nuclear detectors: facts and fictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fougeres, P.; Siffert, P.; Hageali, M.; Koebel, J.M.; Regal, R.

    1999-01-01

    Both CdTe and Cd 1-x Zn x Te (CZT) can be considered from their physical properties as very good materials for room temperature X- and γ-rays detection. However, despite years of intense material research, no significant advance has been made to help one to choose between both semiconductors. This paper reviews a few facts about CdTe and CZT to attempt to draw a real comparison between both. THM-CdTe and HPB-CZT have been grown and characterized in Strasbourg. Crystal growth, alloying effects, transport properties and defects are reviewed on the basis of our results and the published ones. The results show that it is still very difficult to claim which one is the best

  5. In situ observation of morphological change in CdTe nano- and submicron wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davami, Keivan; Lee, Jeong-Soo; Meyyappan, M [Division of IT Convergence Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Ghassemi, Hessam M; Yassar, Reza S [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States); Sun, Xuhui, E-mail: ljs6951@postech.ac.kr, E-mail: m.meyyappan@nasa.gov [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)

    2011-10-28

    We report growth and characterization of CdTe wires 30-400 nm in diameter by the vapor-liquid-solid technique. Individual nanowires were placed on a movable piezotube, which allowed three-dimensional motion toward a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). A bias was applied to the STM tip in contact with the nanowire, and the morphological changes due to Joule heating were observed in situ using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) in real time. For thick CdTe wires (d > {approx} 150 nm), the process results in the growth of superfine nanowires (SFNWs) of 2-4 nm diameter on the surface of the wire. Smaller diameter nanowires, in contrast, disintegrate under the applied bias before the complete evolution of SFNWs on the surface.

  6. Improvement of the sensitivity of CdTe detectors in the high energy regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishizawa, Hiroshi; Ikegami, Kazunori; Takashima, Kazuo; Usami, Teruo [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Yamamoto, Takayoshi

    1996-07-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of the full energy peak in the high energy regions, we had previously suggested a multi-layered structure of CdTe elements and have since confirmed the sensitivity improvement of the full energy peak. And furthermore, we have suggested a new type structure of multi-layered elements in this paper and we confirmed that the efficiency of the full energy peak became higher and that more proper energy spectra were obtained by our current experiment than by the detector with the conventional structure. This paper describes a simulation and experiment to improve the efficiency of the full energy peak and to obtain the more proper energy spectra of {sup 137}Cs (662keV) and {sup 60}Co (1.17 and 1.33MeV) using the new structure of CdTe detector. (J.P.N.)

  7. Local polarization phenomena in In-doped CdTe x-ray detector arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Toshiyuki; Sato, Kenji; Ishida, Shinichiro; Kiri, Motosada; Hirooka, Megumi; Yamada, Masayoshi; Kanamori, Hitoshi

    1995-01-01

    Local polarization phenomena have been studied in detector arrays with the detector element size of 500 microm x 500 microm, which are fabricated from high-resistivity In-doped CdTe crystals grown by the vertical Bridgman technique. It has been found for the first time that a polarization effect, which is characterized by a progressive decrease of the pulse counting rate with increasing photon fluence, strongly depends on the detector elements, that is, the portion of crystals used. The influence of several parameters, such as the applied electric field strength, time, and temperature, on this local polarization effect is also investigated. From the photoluminescence measurements of the inhomogeneity of In dopant, it is concluded that the local polarization effect observed here originates from a deep level associated with In dopant in CdTe crystals

  8. Study of polarization phenomena in Schottky CdTe diodes using infrared light illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Goro, E-mail: gsato@astro.isas.jaxa.jp [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Fukuyama, Taro [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Watanabe, Shin; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Ohta, Masayuki; Ishikawa, Shin' nosuke [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Takahashi, Tadayuki [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Shiraki, Hiroyuki; Ohno, Ryoichi [ACRORAD Co., Ltd., 13-23 Suzaki, Uruma, Okinawa 904-2234 (Japan)

    2011-10-01

    Schottky CdTe diode detectors suffer from a polarization phenomenon, which is characterized by degradation of the spectral properties over time following exposure to high bias voltage. This is considered attributable to charge accumulation at deep acceptor levels. A Schottky CdTe diode was illuminated with an infrared light for a certain period during a bias operation, and two opposite behaviors emerged. The detector showed a recovery when illuminated after the bias-induced polarization had completely progressed. Conversely, when the detector was illuminated before the emergence of bias-induced polarization, the degradation of the spectral properties was accelerated. Interpretation of these effects and discussion on the energy level of deep acceptors are presented.

  9. Growth and optical properties of CdTe quantum dots in ZnTe nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojnar, Piotr; Janik, Elzbieta; Baczewski, Lech T.; Kret, Slawomir; Karczewski, G.; Wojtowicz, Tomasz [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Goryca, Mateusz; Kazimierczuk, Tomasz; Kossacki, Piotr [Institute of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-09-12

    We report on the formation of optically active CdTe quantum dots in ZnTe nanowires. The CdTe/ZnTe nanostructures have been grown by a gold nanocatalyst assisted molecular beam epitaxy in a vapor-liquid solid growth process. The presence of CdTe insertions in ZnTe nanowire results in the appearance of a strong photoluminescence band in the 2.0 eV-2.25 eV energy range. Spatially resolved photoluminescence measurements reveal that this broad emission consists of several sharp lines with the spectral width of about 2 meV. The large degree of linear polarization of these individual emission lines confirms their nanowire origin, whereas the zero-dimensional confinement is proved by photon correlation spectroscopy.

  10. Photoinduced interaction between MPA capped CdTe QDs and certain anthraquinone dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagadeeswari, S.; Asha Jhonsi, M.; Kathiravan, A. [School of Chemistry, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024, Tamil Nadu (India); Renganathan, R., E-mail: rrengas@gmail.co [School of Chemistry, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2011-04-15

    Photoinduced interaction of mercapto propionic acid (MPA) capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs) with certain anthraquinone dyes namely alizarin, alizarin red S, acid blue 129 and uniblue has been studied by steady state and time resolved fluorescence measurements. Addition of anthraquinone dyes to CdTe QDs results in the reduction of electron hole recombination has been observed (i.e., fluorescence quenching). The Stern-Volmer constant (K{sub SV}), quenching rate constant (k{sub q}) and association constants (K) were obtained from fluorescence quenching data. The interaction of anthraquinone dyes with QDs occurs through static quenching was confirmed by unaltered fluorescence lifetime. The occurrence of electron transfer quenching mechanism has been proved by the negative free energy change ({Delta}G{sub et}) obtained as per the Rehm-Weller equation.

  11. Optical Properties of Al- and Sb-Doped CdTe Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. J. Al-Douri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nondoped and (Al, Sb-doped CdTe thin films with 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5  wt.%, respectively, were deposited by thermal evaporation technique under vacuum onto Corning 7059 glass at substrate temperatures ( of room temperature (RT and 423 K. The optical properties of deposited CdTe films such as band gap, refractive index (n, extinction coefficient (, and dielectric coefficients were investigated as function of Al and Sb wt.% doping, respectively. The results showed that films have direct optical transition. Increasing and the wt.% of both types of dopant, the band gap decrease but the optical is constant as n, and real and imaginary parts of the dielectric coefficient increase.

  12. Fabrication of fluorescent composite with ultrafast aqueous synthesized high luminescent CdTe quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lei, E-mail: mejswu@ust.hk; Chen, Haibin, E-mail: mejswu@ust.hk, E-mail: mejswu@ust.hk; Wu, Jingshen, E-mail: mejswu@ust.hk, E-mail: mejswu@ust.hk [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong and Fok Ying Tung Graduate School, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (Hong Kong); Bi, Xianghong, E-mail: takubatch@gmail.com [Fok Ying Tung Graduate School, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (Hong Kong)

    2014-05-15

    Without precursor preparation, inert gas protection and enormous amount of additives and reductants, CdTe quantum dots (QDs) can be rapidly synthesized with high quality. A 600 nm photoluminescence peak wavelength could be obtained within 1 hour's refluxing through minimal addition of 1,2-diaminoethane (DAE). The theoretical design for the experiments are illustrated and further proved by the characterization results with different concentrations and reagents. On the other hand, generation of CdTe QDs was found even under room temperature by applying droplet quantity of DAE. This indicates that QDs can be synthesized with simply a bottle and no enormous additives required. The QDs were mixed into the epoxy matrix through solution casting method with cetyltrimethylammonium (CTA) capping for phase transfer. The acquired epoxy based nanocomposite exhibits good transparency, compatibility and fluorescence.

  13. Structure impact on the thermal and electronic properties of bismuth telluride by ab-initio and molecular dynamics calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Termentzidis, K; Pokropivny, A; Xiong, S-Y; Chumakov, Y; Volz, S; Woda, M; Cortona, P

    2012-01-01

    We use molecular dynamics and ab-initio methods to predict the thermal and electronic properties of new materials with high figures of merit. The simulated systems are bulk bismuth tellurides with antisite and vacancy defects. Optimizations of the materials under investigation are performed by the SIESTA code for subsequent calculations of force constants, electronic properties, and Seebeck coefficients. The prediction of the thermal conductivity is made by Non-Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics (NEMD) using the LAMMPS code. The thermal conductivity of bulk bismuth telluride with different stoichiometry and with a number of substitution defects is calculated. We have found that the thermal conductivity can be decreased by 60% by introducing vacancy defects. The calculated thermal conductivities for the different structures are compared with the available experimental and theoretical results.

  14. Applications of CdTe to nuclear medicine. Annual report, February 1, 1979-January 31, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entine, G.

    1980-01-01

    The application of CdTe gamma detectors in nuclear medicine is reported on. An internal probe was developed which can be inserted into the heart to measure the efficiency of various radiopharmaceuticals in the treatment of heart attacks. A second application is an array of detectors which is light enough to be worn by ambulatory patients and can measure the change in cardiac output over an eight hour period during heart attack treatment. The instrument includes an on board tape recorder

  15. Edge effects in a small pixel CdTe for X-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, D. D.; Bell, S. J.; Lipp, J.; Schneider, A.; Seller, P.; Veale, M. C.; Wilson, M. D.; Baker, M. A.; Sellin, P. J.; Kachkanov, V.; Sawhney, K. J. S.

    2013-10-01

    Large area detectors capable of operating with high detection efficiency at energies above 30 keV are required in many contemporary X-ray imaging applications. The properties of high Z compound semiconductors, such as CdTe, make them ideally suitable to these applications. The STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory has developed a small pixel CdTe detector with 80 × 80 pixels on a 250 μm pitch. Historically, these detectors have included a 200 μm wide guard band around the pixelated anode to reduce the effect of defects in the crystal edge. The latest version of the detector ASIC is capable of four-side butting that allows the tiling of N × N flat panel arrays. To limit the dead space between modules to the width of one pixel, edgeless detector geometries have been developed where the active volume of the detector extends to the physical edge of the crystal. The spectroscopic performance of an edgeless CdTe detector bump bonded to the HEXITEC ASIC was tested with sealed radiation sources and compared with a monochromatic X-ray micro-beam mapping measurements made at the Diamond Light Source, U.K. The average energy resolution at 59.54 keV of bulk and edge pixels was 1.23 keV and 1.58 keV, respectively. 87% of the edge pixels present fully spectroscopic performance demonstrating that edgeless CdTe detectors are a promising technology for the production of large panel radiation detectors for X-ray imaging.

  16. High luminescent L-cysteine capped CdTe quantum dots prepared at different reaction times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiprotich, Sharon; Onani, Martin O.; Dejene, Francis B.

    2018-04-01

    This paper reports a facile synthesis route of high luminescent L-cysteine capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs). The effect of reaction time on the growth mechanism, optical and physical properties of the CdTe QDs was investigated in order to find the suitability of them towards optical and medical applications. The representative high-resolution transmission microscopy (HRTEM) analysis showed that the as-obtained CdTe QDs appeared as spherical particles with excellent monodispersity. The images exhibited clear lattice fringes which are indicative of good crystallinity. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern displayed polycrystalline nature of the QDs which correspond well to zinc blende phase of bulk CdTe. The crystallite sizes calculated from the Scherrer equation were less than 10 nm for different reaction times which were in close agreement with the values estimated from HRTEM. An increase in reaction time improved crystallinity of the sample as explained by highest peak intensity of the XRD supported by the photoluminescence emission spectra which showed high intensity at a longer growth time. It was observed that for prolonged growth time the emission bands were red shifted from about 517-557 nm for 5-180 min of reaction time due to increase in particle sizes. Ultraviolet and visible analysis displayed well-resolved absorption bands which were red shifted upon an increase in reaction time. There was an inverse relation between the band gap and reaction time. Optical band gap decreases from 3.98 to 2.59 eV with the increase in reaction time from 15 to 180 min.

  17. Performance and Metastability of CdTe Solar Cells with a Te Back-Contact Buffer Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Andrew

    Thin-film CdTe photovoltaics are quickly maturing into a viable clean-energy solution through demonstration of competitive costs and performance stability with existing energy sources. Over the last half decade, CdTe solar technology has achieved major gains in performance; however, there are still aspects that can be improved to progress toward their theoretical maximum efficiency. Perhaps equally valuable as high photovoltaic efficiency and a low levelized cost of energy, is device reliability. Understanding the root causes for changes in performance is essential for accomplishing long-term stability. One area for potential performance enhancement is the back contact of the CdTe device. This research incorporated a thin-film Te-buffer layer into the contact structure, between the CdTe and contact metal. The device performance and characteristics of many different back contact configurations were rigorously studied. CdTe solar cells fabricated with the Te-buffer contact showed short-circuit current densities and open-circuit voltages that were on par with the traditional back-contacts used at CSU. However, the Te-buffer contact typically produced 2% larger fill-factors on average, leading to greater conversation efficiency. Furthermore, using the Te buffer allowed for incorporation of 50% less Cu, which is used for p-type doping but is also known to decrease lifetime and stability. This resulted in an additional 3% fill-factor gain with no change in other parameters compared to the standard-Cu treated device. In order to better understand the physical mechanisms of the Te-buffer contact, electrical and material properties of the Te layer were extracted and used to construct a simple energy band diagram. The Te layer was found to be highly p-type (>1018 cm-3) and possess a positive valence-band offset of 0.35-0.40 eV with CdTe. An existing simulation model incorporating the Te-layer properties was implemented and validated by comparing simulated results of CdTe

  18. Strain relaxation of CdTe on Ge studied by medium energy ion scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillet, J.C., E-mail: jean-christophe.pillet@cea.fr [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CEA, LETI, MINATEC campus, F38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, Département Optique et Photonique, F38054 Grenoble (France); Pierre, F. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CEA, LETI, MINATEC campus, F38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, Service de Caractérisation des Matériaux et Composants, F38054 Grenoble (France); Jalabert, D. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CEA, LETI, MINATEC campus, F38000 Grenoble (France); CEA-INAC/UJF-Grenoble 1 UMR-E, SP2M, LEMMA, Minatec Grenoble F-38054 (France)

    2016-10-01

    We have used the medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) technique to assess the strain relaxation in molecular-beam epitaxial (MBE) grown CdTe (2 1 1)/Ge (2 1 1) system. A previous X-ray diffraction study, on 10 samples of the same heterostructure having thicknesses ranging from 25 nm to 10 μm has allowed the measurement of the strain relaxation on a large scale. However, the X-ray diffraction measurements cannot achieve a stress measurement in close proximity to the CdTe/Ge interface at the nanometer scale. Due to the huge lattice misfit between the CdTe and Ge, a high degree of disorder is expected at the interface. The MEIS in channeling mode is a good alternative in order to profile defects with a high depth resolution. For a 21 nm thick CdTe layer, we observed, at the interface, a high density of Cd and/or Te atoms moved from their expected crystallographic positions followed by a rapid recombination of defects. Strain relaxation mechanisms in the vicinity of the interface are discussed.

  19. Reduction of Fermi level pinning and recombination at polycrystalline CdTe surfaces by laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonds, Brian J. [Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Kheraj, Vipul [Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, S. V. National Institute of Technology, Surat 395 007 (India); Palekis, Vasilios; Ferekides, Christos [Electrical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States); Scarpulla, Michael A., E-mail: scarpulla@eng.utah.edu [Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)

    2015-06-14

    Laser processing of polycrystalline CdTe is a promising approach that could potentially increase module manufacturing throughput while reducing capital expenditure costs. For these benefits to be realized, the basic effects of laser irradiation on CdTe must be ascertained. In this study, we utilize surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS) to investigate the changes to the electronic properties of the surface of polycrystalline CdTe solar cell stacks induced by continuous-wave laser annealing. The experimental data explained within a model consisting of two space charge regions, one at the CdTe/air interface and one at the CdTe/CdS junction, are used to interpret our SPS results. The frequency dependence and phase spectra of the SPS signal are also discussed. To support the SPS findings, low-temperature spectrally-resolved photoluminescence and time-resolved photoluminescence were also measured. The data show that a modest laser treatment of 250 W/cm{sup 2} with a dwell time of 20 s is sufficient to reduce the effects of Fermi level pinning at the surface due to surface defects.

  20. Structural and luminescent properties of Fe3+ doped PVA capped CdTe nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindranadh K.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available During recent decades, magnetic and semiconductor nanoparticles have attracted significant attention of scientists in various fields of engineering, physics, chemistry, biology and medicine. Fe3+ doped PVA capped CdTe nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation method and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, SEM, TEM, FT-IR, optical, EPR and PL techniques to collect the information about the crystal structure, coordination/local site symmetry of doped Fe3+ ions in the host lattice and the luminescent properties of prepared sample. Powder XRD data revealed that the crystal structure belongs to a cubic system and its lattice cell parameters were evaluated. The average crystallite size was estimated to be 8 nm. The morphology of prepared samples was analyzed by using SEM and TEM investigations. Functional groups of the prepared sample were observed in FT-IR spectra. Optical absorption and EPR studies have shown that on doping, Fe3+ ions enter the host lattice in octahedral site symmetry. PL studies of Fe3+ doped PVA capped CdTe nanoparticles revealed UV and blue emission bands. CIE chromaticity coordinates were also calculated from the emission spectrum of Fe3+ doped PVA capped CdTe nanoparticles.

  1. Excimer laser doping technique for application in an integrated CdTe imaging device

    CERN Document Server

    Mochizuki, D; Aoki, T; Tomita, Y; Nihashi, T; Hatanaka, Y

    1999-01-01

    CdTe is an attractive semiconductor material for applications in solid-state high-energy X-ray and gamma-ray imaging systems because of its high absorption coefficient, large band gap, good mobility lifetime product of holes and stability at normal atmospheric conditions. We propose a new concept for fabricating an integrated CdTe with monolithic circuit configuration for two-dimensional imaging systems suitable for medical, research or industrial applications and operation at room temperature. A new doping technique has been recently developed that employs excimer laser radiation to diffuse impurity atoms into the semiconductor. Accordingly, heavily doped n- and p-type layers with resistivities less than 1 OMEGA cm can be formed on the high resistive CdTe crystals. We have further extended this technique for doping with spatial pattern. We will present the laser doping technique and various results thus obtained. Spatially patterned doping is demonstrated and we propose the use of these doping techniques for...

  2. Molecular beam epitaxy of iodine-doped CdTe and (CdMg)Te

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, F.; Waag, A.; Litz, Th.; Scholl, S.; Schmitt, M.; Landwehr, G. (Physikalisches Inst. der Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany)); Bilger, G. (Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie und Wasserstofforschung, Stuttgart (Germany))

    1994-08-01

    The n-type doping of CdTe and (CdMg)Te by the use of the solid dopant source material ZnI[sub 2] is reported. Doping levels as high as 7x10[sup 18] cm[sup -3] have been obtained in CdTe with carrier mobilities around 500 cm[sup 2]/V[center dot]s at room temperature. For a dopant incorporation higher than 1x10[sup 19] cm[sup -3] the free carrier concentration decreases, indicating the onset of a compensation mechanism, which is observed in the case of chlorine and bromine doping, too. Preliminary experiments show that with increasing Mg concentration the free carrier concentration decreases. Nevertheless, CdMgTe with a magnesium concentration x=0.37 (band gap 2.2 eV at room temperature) can be doped up to 2x10[sup 17] cm[sup -3]. The existence of deep donor levels in this CdTe based ternary is not supposed to be the only reason for the reduction of the free carrier concentration. For high Mg support during molecular beam epitaxial (MBE) growth of wide gap (CdMg)Te layers, the ZnI[sub 2] incorporation is reduced, leading to low doping levels, too

  3. Prototype of high resolution PET using resistive electrode position sensitive CdTe detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Yohei; Ishii, Keizo; Matsuyama, Shigeo; Yamazaki, Hiromichi

    2008-01-01

    Downsizing detector elements makes it possible that spatial resolutions of positron emission tomography (PET) cameras are improved very much. From this point of view, semiconductor detectors are preferable. To obtain high resolution, the pixel type or the multi strip type of semiconductor detectors can be used. However, in this case, there is a low packing ratio problem, because a dead area between detector arrays cannot be neglected. Here, we propose the use of position sensitive semiconductor detectors with resistive electrode. The CdTe detector is promising as a detector for PET camera because of its high sensitivity. In this paper, we report development of prototype of high resolution PET using resistive electrode position sensitive CdTe detectors. We made 1-dimensional position sensitive CdTe detectors experimentally by changing the electrode thickness. We obtained 750 A as an appropriate thickness of position sensitive detectors, and evaluated the performance of the detector using a collimated 241 Am source. A good position resolution of 1.2 mm full width half maximum (FWHM) was obtained. On the basis of the fundamental development of resistive electrode position sensitive detectors, we constructed a prototype of high resolution PET which was a dual head type and was consisted of thirty-two 1-dimensional position sensitive detectors. In conclusion, we obtained high resolutions which are 0.75 mm (FWHM) in transaxial, and 1.5 mm (FWHM) in axial. (author)

  4. An optimized multilayer structure of CdS layer for CdTe solar cells application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Junfeng; Liao Cheng; Jiang Tao; Spanheimer, C.; Haindl, G.; Fu, Ganhua; Krishnakumar, V.; Zhao Kui; Klein, A.; Jaegermann, W.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Two different methods to prepare CdS films for CdTe solar cells. → A new multilayer structure of window layer for the CdTe solar cell. → Thinner CdS window layer for the solar cell than the standard CdS layer. → Higher performance of solar cells based on the new multilayer structure. - Abstract: CdS layers grown by 'dry' (close space sublimation) and 'wet' (chemical bath deposition) methods are deposited and analyzed. CdS prepared with close space sublimation (CSS) has better crystal quality, electrical and optical properties than that prepared with chemical bath deposition (CBD). The performance of CdTe solar cell based on the CSS CdS layer has higher efficiency than that based on CBD CdS layer. However, the CSS CdS suffers from the pinholes. And consequently it is necessary to prepare a 150 nm thin film for CdTe/CdS solar cell. To improve the performance of CdS/CdTe solar cells, a thin multilayer structure of CdS layer (∼80 nm) is applied, which is composed of a bottom layer (CSS CdS) and a top layer (CBD CdS). That bi-layer film can allow more photons to pass through it and significantly improve the short circuit current of the CdS/CdTe solar cells.

  5. Pixelized M-pi-n CdTe detector coupled to Medipix2 readout chip

    CERN Document Server

    Kalliopuska, J; Penttila, R; Andersson, H; Nenonen, S; Gadda, A; Pohjonen, H; Vanttajac, I; Laaksoc, P; Likonen, J

    2011-01-01

    We have realized a simple method for patterning an M-pi-n CdTe diode with a deeply diffused pn-junction, such as indium anode on CdTe. The method relies on removing the semiconductor material on the anode-side of the diode until the physical junction has been reached. The pixelization of the p-type CdTe diode with an indium anode has been demonstrated by patterning perpendicular trenches with a high precision diamond blade and pulsed laser. Pixelization or microstrip pattering can be done on both sides of the diode, also on the cathode-side to realize double sided detector configuration. The article compares the patterning quality of the diamond blade process, pulsed pico-second and femto-second lasers processes. Leakage currents and inter-strip resistance have been measured and are used as the basis of the comparison. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) characterization has been done for a diode to define the pn-junction depth and to see the effect of the thermal loads of the flip-chip bonding process. Th...

  6. First-principles-based analysis of the influence of Cu on CdTe electronic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasikov, D.; Knizhnik, A.; Potapkin, B.; Selezneva, S.; Sommerer, T.

    2013-01-01

    The maximum voltage of CdTe solar cells is limited by low majority carrier concentration and doping difficulty. Copper that enters from the back contact can form both donors and acceptors in CdTe. It is empirically known that the free carrier concentration is several orders lower than the total Cu concentration. Simplified thermodynamic models of defect compensation after Cu introduction can be found in literature. We present a first-principles-based analysis of kinetics of defect formation upon Cu introduction, and show that Cu i is mobile at room temperature. Calculations of properties of Cu i –V Cd and Cu i –Cu Cd complexes show that the neutral Cu i –Cu Cd complex is mobile at elevated temperatures, while formation of the V Cd –Cu i complex is unlikely because it transforms into the Cu Cd defect. - Highlights: ► First-principles calculations of copper defects in CdTe are performed. ► Formation of Cd vacancy + Cu interstitial(Cu i ) complex is unlikely. ► Cu i defect is mobile at room temperature. ► Cu i + Cu on Cd-site (Cu Cd ) complex is mobile at elevated temperature. ► Cu Cd defect forms by kicking-out of the regular lattice Cd by Cu i

  7. A stacked CdTe pixel detector for a compton camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oonuki, Kousuke; Tanaka, Takaaki; Watanabe, Shin; Takeda, Shin'ichiro; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Ushio, Masayoshi; Mitani, Takefumi; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Tajima, Hiroyasu

    2007-01-01

    We are developing a semiconductor Compton telescope to explore the universe in the energy band from several tens of keV to a few MeV. A detector material of combined Si strip and CdTe pixel is used to cover the energy range around 60keV. For energies above several hundred keV, in contrast, the higher detection efficiency of CdTe semiconductor in comparison with Si is expected to play an important role as both an absorber and a scatterer. In order to demonstrate the spectral and imaging capability of a CdTe-based Compton camera, we developed a Compton telescope consisting of a stack of CdTe pixel detectors as a small scale prototype. With this prototype, we succeeded in reconstructing images and spectra by solving the Compton kinematics within the energy band from 122 to 662keV. The energy resolution (FWHM) of reconstructed spectra is 7.3keV at 511keV. The angular resolution obtained at 511keV is measured to be 12.2 deg. (FWHM)

  8. Compton profiles and band structure calculations of CdS and CdTe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heda, N.L.; Mathur, S.; Ahuja, B.L.; Sharma, B.K.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present the isotropic Compton profiles of zinc-blende CdS and CdTe measured at an intermediate resolution of 0.39 a.u. using our 20 Ci 137 Cs Compton spectrometer. The electronic band structure calculations for both the zinc-blende structure compounds and also wurtzite CdS have been undertaken using various schemes of ab-initio linear combination of atomic orbitals calculations implemented in CRYSTAL03 code. The band structure and Mulliken's populations are reported using density functional scheme. In case of wurtzite CdS, our theoretical anisotropies in directional Compton profiles are compared with available experimental data. In case of both the zinc-blende compounds, the isotropic experimental profiles are found to be in better agreement with the present Hartree-Fock calculations. A study of the equal-valence-electron-density experimental profiles of zinc-blende CdS and CdTe shows that the CdS is more ionic than CdTe. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Preparation of High Purity CdTe for Nuclear Detector: Electrical and Nuclear Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaiour, A.; Ayoub, M.; Hamié, A.; Fawaz, A.; Hage-ali, M.

    High purity crystal with controllable electrical properties, however, control of the electrical properties of CdTe has not yet been fully achieved. Using the refined Cd and Te as starting materials, extremely high-purity CdTe single crystals were prepared by the traditional vertical THM. The nature of the defects involved in the transitions was studied by analyzing the position of the energy levels by TSC method. The resolution of 4.2 keV (FWHM) confirms the high quality and stability of the detectors: TSC spectrum was in coherence with detectors spectrum with a horizontal plate between 0.2 and 0.6 eV. The enhancement in resolution of detectors with a full width at half- maximum (less than 0.31 meV), lead to confirm that the combination of vacuum distillation and zone refining was very effective to obtain more purified CdTe single crystals for photovoltaic or nuclear detectors with better physical properties.

  10. Distribution of cadmium between calcium carbonate and solution, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitano, Yasushi; Kanamori, Nobuko; Fujiyoshi, Ryoko

    1978-01-01

    The distribution coefficient of cadmium between calcite and solution has been measured in the calcium bicarbonate solution containing cadmium and chloride ions, which forms complexes with cadmium ions. It has been confirmed experimentally that cadmium carbonate is present as a solid solution between calcitic calcium carbonate and cadmium carbonate in the carbonate precipitate formed in the solution system. However, the constant value of the thermodynamic distribution coefficient of cadmium between calcite and solution has not been obtained experimentally in the calcium bicarbonate solution containing cadmium and chloride ions. It may have been caused by the very specific behavior of cadmium ions, but the exact reason remains unsolved and must be studied. (Kobatake, H.)

  11. Historical perspectives on cadmium toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordberg, Gunnar F.

    2009-01-01

    The first health effects of cadmium (Cd) were reported already in 1858. Respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms occurred among persons using Cd-containing polishing agent. The first experimental toxicological studies are from 1919. Bone effects and proteinuria in humans were reported in the 1940's. After World War II, a bone disease with fractures and severe pain, the itai-itai disease, a form of Cd-induced renal osteomalacia, was identified in Japan. Subsequently, the toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of Cd were described including its binding to the protein metallothionein. International warnings of health risks from Cd-pollution were issued in the 1970's. Reproductive and carcinogenic effects were studied at an early stage, but a quantitative assessment of these effects in humans is still subject to considerable uncertainty. The World Health Organization in its International Program on Chemical Safety, WHO/IPCS (1992) (Cadmium. Environmental Health Criteria Document 134, IPCS. WHO, Geneva, 1-280.) identified renal dysfunction as the critical effect and a crude quantitative evaluation was presented. In the 1990's and 2000 several epidemiological studies have reported adverse health effects, sometimes at low environmental exposures to Cd, in population groups in Japan, China, Europe and USA (reviewed in other contributions to the present volume). The early identification of an important role of metallothionein in cadmium toxicology formed the basis for recent studies using biomarkers of susceptibility to development of Cd-related renal dysfunction such as gene expression of metallothionein in peripheral lymphocytes and autoantibodies against metallothionein in blood plasma. Findings in these studies indicate that very low exposure levels to cadmium may give rise to renal dysfunction among sensitive subgroups of human populations such as persons with diabetes.

  12. Lead and cadmium in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gliesmann, S.; Kruse, H.; Kriews, M.; Mangels, H.

    1992-08-01

    The amounts of lead and cadmium produced and processed in these days are considerable. As a result, our environment is increasingly polluted by heavy metals and industrial installations, motor vehicles or incinerating plants appear to be among the main culprits here. Air and water are the media permitting the entry of heavy metals into our natural environment where they accumulate in the soil and then gradually migrate into the plants. Their further transport in the food constitutes the third step in the environmental spread of heavy metals. The consumption of muscle and organ meats, of vegetables, fruits, canned food and drinking water is unavoidably associated with some ingestion of lead and cadmium. The degree to which they are taken up and stored in different tissues is determined by absorption properties and the nutritional state of the organism. Cadmium tends to accumulate in the kidneys, lead is mainly stored in the bones. A continuously increasing uptake finally results in health injuries that range from unspecific complaints to damaged kidneys or bones and disorders of liver function. Children and elderly people are at a particular risk here. The level of food contamination is such that screening for heavy metals must be rigorously carried out once appropriate legal thresholds have been set, which ought to be based on proven detrimental effects of lead and cadmium on our health and also take account of infants and children or any other risk groups, where particular caution must be exercised. It should be pointed out that such thresholds have so far not been determined. (orig./MG) [de

  13. Preliminary study of CdTe and CdTe:Cu thin films nanostructures deposited by using DC magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marwoto, Putut; Made, D. P. Ngurah; Sugianto [Departement of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Gunungpati, Semarang 50229 Jawa Tengah (Indonesia); Wibowo, Edy; Astuti, Santi Yuli; Aryani, Nila Prasetya [Materials Research Group, Laboratory of Thin Film, Department of Physics, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Gunungpati, Semarang 50229 Jawa Tengah (Indonesia); Othaman, Zulkafli [Departement of Physics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Skudai, Johor Bahru (Malaysia)

    2013-09-03

    Growth and properties of CdTe and CdTe:Cu thin films nanostrucures deposited by using dc magnetron sputtering are reported. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the surface morphologies of the thin films. At growth conditions of 250 °C and 14 W, CdTe films did not yet evenly deposited. However, at growth temperature and plasma power of 325 °C and 43 W, both CdTe and CdTe:Cu(2%) have deposited on the substrates. In this condition, the morphology of the films indicate that the films have a grain-like nanostructures. Grain size diameter of about 200 nm begin to appear on top of the films. Energy Dispersive X-rays spectroscopy (EDX) was used to investigate chemical elements of the Cu doped CdTe film deposited. It was found that the film deposited consist of Cd, Te and Cu elements. XRD was used to investigate the full width at half maximum (FWHM) values of the thin films deposited. The results show that CdTe:Cu(2%) thin film has better crystallographic properties than CdTe thin film. The UV-Vis spectrometer was used to investigate the optical properties of thin films deposited. The transmittance spectra showed that transmittance of CdTe:Cu(2%) film is lower than CdTe film. It was found that the bandgap energy of CdTe and CdTe:Cu(2%) thin films of about 1.48 eV.

  14. Effects of chemical intermixing on electrical and thermal contact conductances at metallized bismuth and antimony telluride interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devender,; Mehta, Rutvik J.; Ramanath, Ganpati, E-mail: Ramanath@rpi.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Lofgreen, Kelly; Mahajan, Ravi [Intel Corporation, Assembly Test and Technology Development, Chandler, Arizona 85226 (United States); Yamaguchi, Masashi [Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Borca-Tasciuc, Theodorian [Department of Mechanical Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Tailoring electrical and thermal contact conductivities (Σ{sub c} and Γ{sub c}) across metallized pnictogen chalcogenide interfaces is key for realizing efficient thermoelectric devices. The authors report that Cu, Ni, Ti, and Ta diffusion and interfacial telluride formation with n-Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and p-Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} influence both Σ{sub c} and Γ{sub c}. Cu metallization yields the highest Γ{sub c} and the lowest Σ{sub c}, correlating with maximal metal diffusion and copper telluride formation. Ni diffuses less and yields the highest Σ{sub c} with Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} due to p-type nickel telluride formation, which diminishes Σ{sub c} improvement with n-Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} interfaces. Ta and Ti contacts yield the lowest properties similar to that in Ni-metallized structures. These correlations between interfacial diffusion and phase formation on electronic and thermal transport properties will be important for devising suitable metallization for thermoelectric devices.

  15. Diffusion of iron in β-iron telluride (Fe1.12Te) by Moessbauer spectroscopy and tracer method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magara, Masaaki; Tsuji, Toshihide; Naito, Keiji

    1993-01-01

    The diffusion coefficient of iron in a β-iron telluride (Fe 1.12 Te) polycrystalline sample was measured by Moessbauer diffusional line broadening method which relates to the collapse of coherence in gamma-ray photon by the atomic jump at local sites. The diffusion coefficient of iron along the c-axis in nearly single crystal of β-iron telluride was also measured by tracer technique which shows the results of an atom transport in long distance. The activation energies for the diffusion of iron in Fe 1.12 Te obtained by the Moessbauer spectroscopy and the tracer method were 91.5±5.4 and 106±23 kJ/mol, respectively. The diffusion coefficients of iron in β-iron telluride obtained by Moessbauer line broadening are in fair agreement with the values averaged from that along c-axis obtained by tracer method and that along a- and b-axes obtained from reaction rate constant between iron and tellurium by the previous study of the present authors. (orig.)