WorldWideScience

Sample records for cadmium sulphide nanoparticles

  1. Interaction between serum albumins and sonochemically synthesized cadmium sulphide nanoparticles: a spectroscopic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naveenraj, Selvaraj; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Anandan, Sambandam

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium Sulphide nanoparticles approximately 5–10 nm in size range were synthesized by sonochemical technique, which follows acoustic cavitation phenomenon and generates nanoparticles with a smaller size range and higher surface area. The in vitro binding interaction of these sonochemically synthesized CdS nanoparticles with serum albumins (SA) were investigated using UV–Vis absorption, fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic techniques since CdS nanoparticles has biological applications such as cellular labelling and deep-tissue imaging. UV–Vis absorption and fluorescence studies confirm that CdS nanoparticles bind with SA through ground state complex formation (static quenching mechanism). The results suggest that sonochemically synthesized CdS nanoparticles interact with HSA more than that of BSA and these nanoparticles can be easily transported and rapidly released to the targets by serum albumins. CD studies confirmed the conformational change of serum albumins on the interaction of CdS nanoparticles.Graphical AbstractThis paper investigates the in vitro binding interaction of Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) nanoparticles with serum albumins (HSA and BSA) using the UV-vis, steady-state fluorescence, time-resolved fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectral techniques.

  2. Structural and optical properties of hydrazine hydrate capped cadmium sulphide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Rekha Garg; Rajaram, P.

    2018-05-01

    Semiconductor nanoparticles have received considerable interest due to their size-dependent optical properties. CdS is an important semiconductor material widely used in low cost photovoltaic devices, light-emitting diodes and biological imaging. The nanoparticles of CdS were prepared by a simple chemical precipitation method in aqueous medium. The reaction was carried out at room temperature. The cadmium sulphide nanoparticles were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and UV-visible spectroscopy. The lattice strain, crystallite size and dislocation density were calculated using the Williamson-Hall (W-H) method. The band gap was obtained from the UV-Visible spectra of CdS nanoparticles. The band gap of CdS nanoparticles is around 2.68 eV and the crystallite size is around 5.8 nm.

  3. Study on the Interaction between Cadmium Sulphide Nanoparticles and Proteins by Resonance Rayleigh Scattering Spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of cadmium sulphide nanoparticles [(CdSn] with proteins has been studied by resonance Rayleigh scattering spectra (RRS. Below the isoelectric point, proteins such as bovine serum albumin (BSA, human serum albumin (HSA, lysozyme (Lys, hemoglobin (HGB, and ovalbumin (OVA can bind with CdSn to form macromolecules by virtue of electrostatic attraction and hydrophobic force. It can result in the enhancement of resonance Rayleigh scattering spectra (RRS intensity. Their maximum scattering peaks were 280 nm, and there was a smaller peak at 370 nm. The scattering enhancement (ΔIRRS is directly proportional to the concentration of proteins. A new RRS method for the determination of trace proteins using uncapped CdSn nanoparticles probe has been developed. The detection limits are 19.6 ng/mL for HSA, 16.7 ng/mL for BSA, 18.5 ng/mL for OVA, 80.2 ng/mL for HGB, and 67.4 ng/mL for Lys, separately. In this work, the optimum condition of reaction, the effect of foreign, and the analytical application had been investigated.

  4. Detection of cadmium sulphide nanoparticles by using screen-printed electrodes and a handheld device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkoci, Arben; Marcolino-Junior, Luiz Humberto; MarIn, Sergio; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando; Alegret, Salvador

    2007-01-01

    A simple method based on screen-printed electrodes and a handheld potentiostatic device is reported for the detection of water soluble CdS quantum dots modified with glutathione. The detection method is based on the stripping of electrochemically reduced cadmium at pH 7.0 by using square wave voltammetry. Various parameters that affect the sensitivity of the method are optimized. QD suspension volumes of 20 μl and a number of around 2 x 10 11 CdS quantum dots have been able to be detected. The proposed method should be of special interest for bioanalytical assays, where CdS quantum dots can be used as electrochemical tracers

  5. Non-covalent interactions of cadmium sulphide and gold nanoparticles with DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atay, Z.; Biver, T.; Corti, A.; Eltugral, N.; Lorenzini, E.; Masini, M.; Paolicchi, A.; Pucci, A.; Ruggeri, G.; Secco, F.; Venturini, M.

    2010-08-01

    Mercaptoethanol-capped CdS nanoparticles (CdSnp) and monohydroxy-(1-mercaptoundec-11-yl)tetraethylene-glycol-capped Au nanoparticles (Aunp) were synthesised, characterised and their interactions with DNA were investigated. Aunp are stable in different aqueous solvents, whereas CdSnp do precipitate in 0.1 M NaCl and form two different cluster types in 0.1 M NaNO3. As regards the CdSnp/DNA interaction, absorbance and fluorescence titrations, ethidium bromide displacement assays and gel electrophoresis experiments indicate that a non-covalent interaction between DNA and the CdSnp external surface does take place. The binding constant was evaluated to be equal to (2.2 ± 0.5) × 105 M-1. On the contrary, concerning Aunp, no direct interaction with DNA could be observed. Possible interaction with serum albumin was also checked, but no effects could be observed for either CdSnp or Aunp. Finally, short-time exposure of cultured cells to nanoparticles revealed the ability of CdSnp to enter the cells and allocate both in cytosol and nucleus, thus promoting cell proliferation at low concentration ( p resulted in a significant inhibition of cell growth, accompanied by apoptotic cell death. Aunp neither enter the cells, nor do affect cell proliferation. In conclusion, our data indicate that CdSnp can strongly interact with living cells and nucleic acid while no effects or interactions were observed for Aunp.

  6. Non-covalent interactions of cadmium sulphide and gold nanoparticles with DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atay, Z. [Bogazici University, Department of Chemistry (Turkey); Biver, T., E-mail: tarita@dcci.unipi.i [Universita di Pisa, Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale (Italy); Corti, A. [Universita di Pisa, Dipartimento di Patologia Sperimentale BMIE (Italy); Eltugral, N. [Universita di Pisa, Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale (Italy); Lorenzini, E.; Masini, M.; Paolicchi, A. [Universita di Pisa, Dipartimento di Patologia Sperimentale BMIE (Italy); Pucci, A.; Ruggeri, G.; Secco, F.; Venturini, M. [Universita di Pisa, Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale (Italy)

    2010-08-15

    Mercaptoethanol-capped CdS nanoparticles (CdS{sub np}) and monohydroxy-(1-mercaptoundec-11-yl)tetraethylene-glycol-capped Au nanoparticles (Au{sub np}) were synthesised, characterised and their interactions with DNA were investigated. Au{sub np} are stable in different aqueous solvents, whereas CdS{sub np} do precipitate in 0.1 M NaCl and form two different cluster types in 0.1 M NaNO{sub 3}. As regards the CdS{sub np}/DNA interaction, absorbance and fluorescence titrations, ethidium bromide displacement assays and gel electrophoresis experiments indicate that a non-covalent interaction between DNA and the CdS{sub np} external surface does take place. The binding constant was evaluated to be equal to (2.2 {+-} 0.5) x 10{sup 5} M{sup -1}. On the contrary, concerning Au{sub np}, no direct interaction with DNA could be observed. Possible interaction with serum albumin was also checked, but no effects could be observed for either CdS{sub np} or Au{sub np}. Finally, short-time exposure of cultured cells to nanoparticles revealed the ability of CdS{sub np} to enter the cells and allocate both in cytosol and nucleus, thus promoting cell proliferation at low concentration (p < 0.005), while longer-time exposure resulted in a significant inhibition of cell growth, accompanied by apoptotic cell death. Au{sub np} neither enter the cells, nor do affect cell proliferation. In conclusion, our data indicate that CdS{sub np} can strongly interact with living cells and nucleic acid while no effects or interactions were observed for Au{sub np}.

  7. Combustion synthesis of cadmium sulphide nanomaterials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anion-doped cadmium sulphide nanomaterials have been synthesized by using combustionmethod at normal atmospheric conditions. Oxidant/fuel ratios have been optimized in order to obtain CdS with best characteristics. Formation of CdS and size of crystallite were identified by X-ray diffraction and confirmed by ...

  8. Impedance spectroscopy studies of Silver Doped Cadmium Sulphide Nanocrystallites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivanand, R.; Chellammal, S.; Manivannan, S.

    2018-02-01

    Using co-precipitation method, cadmium sulphide (CdS) and silver doped cadmium sulphide (CdS;Ag) was prepared. By using energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to analyse the structural characterization of the prepared samples. The energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) measurement is used to confirm, the presence of elements in prepared samples. There is no peaks of other impurity were detected. The average size of nanoparticles was calculated by scherrer formula. SEM photographs indicate that the nanopowders consist of well dispersed agglomerates of grains with a narrow size distribution, whereas the sizes of the individual particles are between 5 and 12 nm. The synthesized samples have been structurally analysed by X-ray diffraction method. The peaks in the XRD pattern are in good matches with the standard values of JCPDS file and other impurity peaks of crystalline phases were not detected. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurement is used for the morphological studies. Electrical conductivity studies are analysed by Impedance spectroscopy measurement and also calculate the activation energies at low and high temperature for prepared samples.

  9. Dynamic of cadmium accumulation in the internal organs of rats after exposure to cadmium chloride and cadmium sulphide nanoparticules of various sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apykhtina O.L.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of study of cadmium accumulation in the internal organs of Wistar rats after prolonged intraperitoneal administration of cadmium chloride and cadmium sulphide nanoparticles of 4-6 nm and 9-11 nm in size in a dose of 0.08 mg /kg/day calculated as cadmium. Toxic effects were evaluated after 30 injections (1.5 months, 60 injections (3 months, and 1.5 months after the exposure has been ceased. The results of the study showed that the most intensive accumulation of cadmium was observed in the kidneys and liver of experimental animals, which is due to the peculiarities of the toxicokinetics and the route of administration of cadmium compounds. In the kidneys, spleen and thymus of animals exposed to cadmium sulphide nanoparticles, a greater concentration of cadmium than in the organs of animals exposed to cadmium chloride was found. Cadmium accumulated more intensively in the spleen after exposure to larger nanoparticles, than in the kidneys and thymus. In the liver, heart, aorta and brain significant accumulation was observed after cadmium chloride exposure.

  10. Cadmium sulphide thin film for application in gamma radiation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) thin film was prepared using pyrolytic spraying technique and then irradiated at varied gamma dosage. The CdS thin film absorption before gamma irradiation was 0.6497. Absorbed doses were computed using standard equation established for an integrating dosimeter. The plot of absorbed dose ...

  11. Growth of cadmium oxide whiskers on cadmium sulphide single crystals with copper as growth activator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koparanova, N.; Simov, S. (Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia. Inst. po Fizika na Tvyrdoto Tyalo); Genchev, D. (Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia. Inst. za Yadrena Izsledvaniya i Yadrena Energetika); Metchenov, G. (Research Inst. of Criminalistics and Criminology, Sofia (Bulgaria))

    1985-02-01

    Some results on the growth and morphology of cadmium oxide whiskers, obtained on cadmium sulphide single crystals with copper as a growth activator, are presented in this work. Cadmium oxide whiskers have been obtained on brace 112-bar0 brace faces of cadmium sulphide plates with a copper layer deposited in advance. The whiskers grew during the annealing of the plates in a weak stream of technically pure argon at temperatures 670 to 730 deg C for 15 min to 3.5 h. Details about the procedure have been given elsewhere. The composition and morphology of the whiskers have been studied by an X-ray microanalyser JEOL 35 DDS and a scanning electron microscope JEOL, JSM 35. The optical microscopic observations have shown that after annealing, a gray-black granular layer is formed on the cadmium sulphide single crystals and this layer can easily be separated from the crystal substrate. Under the granular layer the crystal is heavily damaged. The whiskers grow on the granular layer and they are coloured yellow-brown or red-brown. The maximum whisker length attains several hundreds of micrometres and in some cases up to 1 mm or more.

  12. Growth of cadmium oxide whiskers on cadmium sulphide single crystals with copper as growth activator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koparanova, N.; Simov, S.

    1985-01-01

    Some results on the growth and morphology of cadmium oxide whiskers, obtained on cadmium sulphide single crystals with copper as a growth activator, are presented in this work. Cadmium oxide whiskers have been obtained on brace 112-bar0 brace faces of cadmium sulphide plates with a copper layer deposited in advance. The whiskers grew during the annealing of the plates in a weak stream of technically pure argon at temperatures 670 to 730 deg C for 15 min to 3.5 h. Details about the procedure have been given elsewhere. The composition and morphology of the whiskers have been studied by an X-ray microanalyser JEOL 35 DDS and a scanning electron microscope JEOL, JSM 35. The optical microscopic observations have shown that after annealing, a gray-black granular layer is formed on the cadmium sulphide single crystals and this layer can easily be separated from the crystal substrate. Under the granular layer the crystal is heavily damaged. The whiskers grow on the granular layer and they are coloured yellow-brown or red-brown. The maximum whisker length attains several hundreds of micrometres and in some cases up to 1 mm or more. (author)

  13. Cadmium Sulphide Nanorods: Synthesis, Characterization and their Photocatalytic Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giribabu, Krishnamoorthy; Suresh, Ranganathan; Manigandan, Ramadoss; Vijayaraj, Arunachalam; Prabu, Raju; Narayanan, Vengidusamy

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium sulphide (CdS) nanorods were prepared by a single precursor thermal decomposition (SPTD) method. The formation of CdS nanorods and their structure, morphology and elemental composition were studied by means of FT-IR, XRD, FE-SEM, HR-TEM and EDAX analysis. Photoluminescence (PL) and lifetime measurements were recorded to study the luminescence properties of the material. The PL spectrum of the CdS nanorods showed one broad peak and four shoulders and the cause for this emission was discussed. The PL emissions from the band edge and deep trap state of the CdS nanorods were studied by lifetime measurements. Further, the synthesized CdS nanorods showed an increase in efficiency of photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (RhB). The increase in the photocatalytic activity was attributed to the mixed phase of the CdS nanorods

  14. Cadmium Sulphide Nanorods: Synthesis, Characterization and their Photocatalytic Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giribabu, Krishnamoorthy; Suresh, Ranganathan; Manigandan, Ramadoss; Vijayaraj, Arunachalam; Prabu, Raju; Narayanan, Vengidusamy [Univ. of Madras, Madras (India)

    2012-09-15

    Cadmium sulphide (CdS) nanorods were prepared by a single precursor thermal decomposition (SPTD) method. The formation of CdS nanorods and their structure, morphology and elemental composition were studied by means of FT-IR, XRD, FE-SEM, HR-TEM and EDAX analysis. Photoluminescence (PL) and lifetime measurements were recorded to study the luminescence properties of the material. The PL spectrum of the CdS nanorods showed one broad peak and four shoulders and the cause for this emission was discussed. The PL emissions from the band edge and deep trap state of the CdS nanorods were studied by lifetime measurements. Further, the synthesized CdS nanorods showed an increase in efficiency of photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (RhB). The increase in the photocatalytic activity was attributed to the mixed phase of the CdS nanorods.

  15. Synthesis, structural and property studies of Ni doped cadmium sulphide quantum dots stabilized in DETA matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercy, A.; Jesper Anandhi, A.; Sakthi Murugesan, K.; Jayavel, R.; Kanagadurai, R.; Milton Boaz, B.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Ni doped CdS nanoparticles are synthesized by chemical precipitation method. • X-ray diffractogram confirms the formation of CdS with dopant. • FTIR spectrum reveals that the nanosamples are encapsulated by DETA. • The UV-VIS absorption spectra shows strong blue shift. - Abstract: Pure and Nickel doped cadmium sulphide nanoparticles at pH value 10 with three different concentrations have been synthesized by chemical precipitation method. Diethylene triamine was used as stabilizing agent to control the particle size as quantum dots without any agglomeration. The synthesized samples were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), High resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM), Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Ultraviolet–Visible absorption spectroscopy (UV–VIS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) studies. The nano crystalline nature of the as prepared samples is confirmed using XRD analysis. The average size of Ni doped cadmium sulphide nanoparticles calculated from Debye Scherer formula was of the order of 1.5–3 nm and that of pure CdS nanoparticles was of the order of 6–7 nm. The same value of the particle size was confirmed by using Williamson Hall plot as well as Henglein’s formula. X-ray peak broadening analysis was carried out using Williamson–Hall plot. The surface morphology studies of the sample using HRSEM images show the formation of nanoclusters and the EDAX spectra confirms the presence of cadmium sulphide and nickel elements in the sample. TEM images establish the stabilization of CdS nanoparticles in DETA. The UV–VIS absorption spectra of the sample show blue shift in the absorption region due to the quantum confinement effect. FTIR studies have been carried out to establish the presence of bonding by capping agent in the Ni doped samples. The synthesized samples show photoluminescence in the spectral region from 350 to 550

  16. Structural characterization of nanocrystalline cadmium sulphide powder prepared by solvent evaporation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Samir; Tandel, Digisha; Chodavadiya, Nisarg

    2018-05-01

    CdS is one of the most important compounds in the II-VI group of semiconductor. There are numerous applications of CdS in the form of nanoparticles and nanocrystalline. Semiconductors nanoparticles (also known as quantum dots), belong to state of matter in the transition region between molecules and solids, have attracted a great deal of attention because of their unique electrical and optical properties, compared to bulk materials. In the field of optoelectronic, nanocrystalline form utilizes mostly in the field of catalysis and fluid technology. Considering these observations, presented work had been carried out, i.e. based on the nanocrystalline material preparation. In the present work CdS nano-crystalline powder was synthesized by a simple and cost effective chemical technique to grow cadmium sulphide (CdS) nanoparticles at 200 °C with different concentrations of cadmium. The synthesis parameters were optimized. The synthesized powder was structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction and particle size analyzer. In the XRD analysis, Micro-structural parameters such as lattice strain, dislocation density and crystallite size were analysed. The broadened diffraction peaks indicated nanocrystalline particles of the film material. In addition to that the size of the prepared particles was analyzed by particle size analyzer. The results show the average size of CdS particles ranging from 80 to 100 nm. The overall conclusion of the work can be very useful in the synthesis of nanocrystalline CdS powder.

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Mercaptoacetic Acid Capped Cadmium Sulphide Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wageh, S; Maize, Mai; Donia, A M; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A; Umar, Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports the facile synthesis and detailed characterization of mercaptoacetic acid capped cadmium sulphide (CdS) quantum dots using various cadmium precursors. The mercaptoacetic acid capped CdS quantum dots were prepared by facile and simple wet chemical method and characterized by several techniques such as energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, UV-vis. spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission microscopy (HRTEM) and thremogravimetric analysis. The EDS studies revealed that the prepared quantum dots possess higher atomic percentage of sulfur compared to cadmium due to the coordination of thiolate to the quantum dots surfaces. The X-ray and absorption analyses exhibited that the size of quantum dots prepared by cadmium acetate is larger than the quantum dots prepared by cadmium chloride and cadmium nitrate. The increase in size can be attributed to the low stability constant of cadmium acetate in comparison with cadmium chloride and cadmium nitrate. The FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis showed that the nature of capping molecule on the surface of quantum dots are different depending on the cadmium precursors which affect the emission from CdS quantum dots. Photoemission spectroscopy revealed that the emission of quantum dots prepared by cadmium acetate has high intensity band edge emission along with low intensity trapping state emission. However the CdS quantum dots prepared by cadmium chloride and cadmium nitrate produced only trapping state emissions.

  18. Surfactant free nickel sulphide nanoparticles for high capacitance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandhini, S.; Muralidharan, G.

    2018-04-01

    The surfactant free nickel sulphide nanoparticles were synthesized via facile hydrothermal method towards supercapacitor applications. The formation of crystalline spherical nanoparticles was confirmed through structural and morphological studies. Electrochemical behaviour of the electrode was analyzed using cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge studies (GCD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The CV studies imply that specific capacitance of the electrode arises from a combination of surface adsorption and Faradic reaction. The NiS electrode delivered a specific capacitance of about 529 F g-1 at a current density of 2 A g-1 (GCD measurements). A profitable charge transfer resistance of 0.5 Ω was obtained from EIS. The 100 % of capacity retention even after 2000 repeated charge-discharge cycles could be observed in 2 M KOH electrolyte at a much larger rate of 30 A g-1. The experimental results suggest that nickel sulphide is a potential candidate for supercapacitor applications.

  19. Cathodoluminescence and ion implantation of cadmium sulphide/cuprous sulphide solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glew, R W; Bryant, F J

    1975-10-01

    By the use of implantation with copper ions or oxygen ions of 50 keV energy, changes in the cathodoluminescence emission spectrum from cadmium sulfide/cuprous sulfide thin film manufactured solar cells have been correlated with changes in the phases of the cuprous sulfide layer. Thus, monitoring the relative intensities of cathodoluminescence emission bands affords a method of assessing the cuprous sulfide layer and possibly predicting the performance of the cells.

  20. High rate deposition of thin film cadmium sulphide by pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisco, F., E-mail: F.Lisco@lboro.ac.uk [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Kaminski, P.M.; Abbas, A.; Bowers, J.W.; Claudio, G. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Losurdo, M. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR, via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Walls, J.M. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) is an important n-type semiconductor widely used as a window layer in thin film photovoltaics Copper Indium Selenide, Copper Indium Gallium (di)Selenide, Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide and Cadmium Telluride (CdTe). Cadmium Sulphide has been deposited using a number of techniques but these techniques can be slow (chemical bath deposition and Radio Frequency sputtering) or the uniformity and the control of thickness can be relatively difficult (close space sublimation). In this paper we report on the development of a process using pulsed Direct Current magnetron sputtering which allows nanometre control of thin film thickness using time only. The CdS thin films deposited in this process are highly uniform and smooth. They exhibit the preferred hexagonal structure at room temperature deposition and they have excellent optical properties. Importantly, the process is highly stable despite the use of a semi-insulating magnetron target. Moreover, the process is very fast. The deposition rate using 1.5 kW of power to a 6-inch circular magnetron was measured to be greater than 8 nm/s. This makes the process suitable for industrial deployment. - Highlights: • Pulsed DC magnetron sputtering of CdS • High deposition rate deposition • Uniform, pinhole free films.

  1. High rate deposition of thin film cadmium sulphide by pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisco, F.; Kaminski, P.M.; Abbas, A.; Bowers, J.W.; Claudio, G.; Losurdo, M.; Walls, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) is an important n-type semiconductor widely used as a window layer in thin film photovoltaics Copper Indium Selenide, Copper Indium Gallium (di)Selenide, Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide and Cadmium Telluride (CdTe). Cadmium Sulphide has been deposited using a number of techniques but these techniques can be slow (chemical bath deposition and Radio Frequency sputtering) or the uniformity and the control of thickness can be relatively difficult (close space sublimation). In this paper we report on the development of a process using pulsed Direct Current magnetron sputtering which allows nanometre control of thin film thickness using time only. The CdS thin films deposited in this process are highly uniform and smooth. They exhibit the preferred hexagonal structure at room temperature deposition and they have excellent optical properties. Importantly, the process is highly stable despite the use of a semi-insulating magnetron target. Moreover, the process is very fast. The deposition rate using 1.5 kW of power to a 6-inch circular magnetron was measured to be greater than 8 nm/s. This makes the process suitable for industrial deployment. - Highlights: • Pulsed DC magnetron sputtering of CdS • High deposition rate deposition • Uniform, pinhole free films

  2. Use of cadmium sulphide to measure integrated dose in short-time irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nimnual, S.

    1975-01-01

    An experiment was made to measure the dose from a short burst of X-rays in the order of 1 second or less by means of the cadmium sulphide photoconductive cell. If protected from light, the CdS cell has a very high resistance such that it does not discharge a capacitor appreciably. But during irradiation, the resistance decreases temporarily and an amount of charge will leak from the capacitor through the Ca S cell. The result to this experiment shows that the principle works very well but it is necessary to add another fixed high resistance of about 10 7 ohms into the circuit in order to get results independent of the dose-rate. The equipment used in this experiment can measure a dose as low as 6 m R

  3. Photocatalytically active colloidal platinum-decorated cadmium sulphide nanorods for hydrogen production; Photokatalytisch Aktive Kolloidale Platindekorierte Cadmiumsulfidnanostaebchen zur Wasserstoffproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berr, Maximilian Josef

    2012-12-07

    This is the first study to have been successful in producing hydrogen by means of photocatalytically active colloidal semiconductor particles. Specifically, colloidal platinum-decorated cadmium sulphide nanorods were used to reduce water to hydrogen. Oxidation of water to oxygen was substituted by addition of a reducing agent (hole collector), e.g. sulphite, which itself is oxidised to sulphate by the photohole. During photochemical platinum decoration it was discovered that in addition to the expected platinum nanoparticles there had also formed platinum clusters in the subnanometer range. In spite of the small quantity of platinum deposited on the nanorods these clusters showed the same quantum efficiency as the intended product. [German] In dieser Arbeit wurde erstmals mit kolloidalen Halbleiternanopartikeln photokatalytische Wasserstoffproduktion erzielt. Im Detail wurde Wasser mit kolloidalen, platindekorierten Cadmiumsulfidnanostaebchen zu Wasserstoff reduziert. Die Oxidation des Wasser zu Sauerstoff wurde durch Zugabe eines Reduktionsmittels (Lochfaenger) substituiert, z.B. Sulfit, das durch das Photoloch zu Sulfat reduziert wird. Bei der photochemischen Platindekoration wurden neben den erwarteten Platinnanopartikeln mit 4 - 5 nm Durchmesser auch Subnanometer grosse Platincluster entdeckt, die trotz der geringeren Menge an deponierten Platin auf den Nanostaebchen die gleiche Quanteneffizienz demonstrieren.

  4. Cadmium Sulphide-Reduced Graphene Oxide-Modified Photoelectrode-Based Photoelectrochemical Sensing Platform for Copper(II Ions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ibrahim

    Full Text Available A photoelectrochemical (PEC sensor with excellent sensitivity and detection toward copper (II ions (Cu2+ was developed using a cadmium sulphide-reduced graphene oxide (CdS-rGO nanocomposite on an indium tin oxide (ITO surface, with triethanolamine (TEA used as the sacrificial electron donor. The CdS nanoparticles were initially synthesized via the aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD method using cadmium acetate and thiourea as the precursors to Cd2+ and S2-, respectively. Graphene oxide (GO was then dip-coated onto the CdS electrode and sintered under an argon gas flow (50 mL/min for the reduction process. The nanostructured CdS was adhered securely to the ITO by a continuous network of rGO that also acted as an avenue to intensify the transfer of electrons from the conduction band of CdS. The photoelectrochemical results indicated that the ITO/CdS-rGO photoelectrode could facilitate broad UV-visible light absorption, which would lead to a higher and steady-state photocurrent response in the presence of TEA in 0.1 M KCl. The photocurrent decreased with an increase in the concentration of Cu2+ ions. The photoelectrode response for Cu2+ ion detection had a linear range of 0.5-120 μM, with a limit of detection (LoD of 16 nM. The proposed PEC sensor displayed ultra-sensitivity and good selectivity toward Cu2+ ion detection.

  5. Electrical and mechanical behavior of polymethyl methacrylate/cadmium sulphide composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Rajdeep; Samra, Kawaljeet Singh

    2018-06-01

    In the present investigation, electrical and mechanical behavior of cadmium sulphide (CdS) doped polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) have been studied using different techniques. Dip casting technique was used for preparing free standing films of pristine and CdS doped PMMA at different compositions (i.e. 1 and 5 wt%). Optical absorbance as a function of wavelength was studied, by UV-visible spectroscopy, to find the impact of CdS doping on the optical band gap of synthesized PMMA/CdS composite. DC and AC conductivities were measured as a function of dopant concentration and temperature. Considerable increase in electrical conductivity was observed with the increase of CdS contents in polymer matrix. Overall electrical conduction mechanism in PMMA/CdS composites was attributed to movement of electrons through the uniformly distributed CdS aggregates within the matrix of PMMA. Mechanical properties, such as Young's modulus, tensile strength, elongation and ductility, of PMMA/CdS composites were determined and relevant responsible phenomena were discussed.

  6. Inkjet printing and electrical characterisation of DNA-templated cadmium sulphide nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurdillayeva, R. N.; Oshido, A. B.; Bamford, T. A.; El-Zubir, O.; Houlton, A.; Hedley, J.; Pike, A. R.; Horrocks, B. R.

    2018-04-01

    Cadmium sulphide can be templated on λ-DNA molecules to form an aqueous dispersion of CdS/λ-DNA nanowires. Subsequent addition of ethylene glycol to 50% v/v is sufficient to formulate an ink suitable for printing using piezoelectric drop-on-demand technology. Printed droplet arrays show a coffee-ring morphology of individual deposits by fluorescence and Raman microscopy, but upon increasing the number of layers of printed material by repeated printing over each droplet, the dry deposit approaches closer to a disc shape. It is also possible to print parallel tracks by reducing the droplet separation in the array until neighbouring droplets overlap before they dry. The droplets coalesce to form a strip of width roughly equal to the diameter of the droplets. Evaporation-driven capillary flow sends the nanowires to the edges of the strip and when dry they form parallel tracks of CdS/λ-DNA nanowire bundles. Both droplets and tracks were printed onto Pt-on-glass interdigitated microelectrodes (10 μm width, 10 μm gap). The current-voltage characteristics of these two-terminal devices were approximately ohmic, but with some hysteresis. The conductance increased with temperature as a simple activated process with activation energies of 0.57 ± 0.02 eV (tracks) and 0.39 ± 0.02 eV (droplets). The impedance spectra of the printed films were consistent with hopping between CdS grains.

  7. Data on HepG2 cells changes following exposure to cadmium sulphide quantum dots (CdS QDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Paesano

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The data included in this paper are associated with the research article entitled "Markers for toxicity to HepG2 exposed to cadmium sulphide quantum dots; damage to mitochondria" (Paesano et al. [1]. The article concerns the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of CdS QDs in HepG2 cells and the mechanisms involved. In this dataset, changes in expression levels of candidate genes are reported, together with details concerning synthesis and properties of CdS QDs, additional information obtained through literature survey, measures of the mitochondrial membrane potential and the glutathione redox state.

  8. Dichloro (bis[diphenylthiourea]) cadmium complex as a precursor for HDA-capped CdS nanoparticles and their solubility in water

    OpenAIRE

    Tshinyadzo R. Tshikhudo; Manuel Fernandes; Makwena J. Moloto; Poslet M. Shumbula

    2010-01-01

    A single-source precursor route has been explored by using the diphenylthiourea cadmium complex as the source of cadmium sulphide (CdS) nanoparticles. The reaction was carried out using hexadecylamine (HDA) as the solvent and stabilising agent for the particles. The phenylthiourea complex was synthesised and characterised by means of a combination of spectroscopic techniques, microanalysis and X-ray crystal structural analysis. The diphenylthiourea complex was thermolysed in HDA at 120 ºC for...

  9. Optical and surface morphological properties of triethylamine passivated lead sulphide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navaneethan, M.; Nisha, K.D.; Ponnusamy, S.; Muthamizhchelvan, C.

    2009-01-01

    The triethylamine capped lead sulphide (PbS) nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by simple wet chemical method. The synthesized product has been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis spectrophotometry, FTIR spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and photoluminescence studies. The size of the PbS nanoparticles was determined from AFM, TEM, XRD and from these studies it is found that the size of the particles of the order of 10-15 nm. Significant 'blue shift' from bulk material was observed on the PbS nanoparticles using UV-vis and photoluminescence spectrum.

  10. Application of ZnO Nanoparticle as Sulphide Gas Sensor Using UV/VIS/NIR-Spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juliasih, N; Buchari; Noviandri, I

    2017-01-01

    The nanoparticle of metal oxides has great unique characteristics that applicable to the wide industrial as sensors and catalysts for reducing environmental pollution. Sulphide gas monitors and detectors are required for assessing safety aspects, due to its toxicity level. A thin film of ZnO as the sulphide gas sensor was synthesised by the simple method of chemical liquid deposition with variation of annealing temperature from 200 ºC to 500 ºC, and characterised by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and UV/VIS/NIR-Spectrophotometer. Characterization studies showed nanoparticle size from the range 62 – 92 nm of diameters. The application this ZnO thin film to sulfide gas, detected by UV/VIS/NIR Spectrophotometer with diffuse reflectance, showed specific chemical reaction by the shifting of maximum % Reflectance peak. The gas sensing using this method is applicable at room. (paper)

  11. Quenching of exciton luminescence due to impact ionization and mechanisms of electron relaxation in cadmium sulphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagan, V.D.; Karpenko, S.L.; Katilyus, R.

    1989-01-01

    Quenching of exciton luminescence in the constant electric field in cadmium sulfide at 1.8K, caused by impact ionization of free and delocalization of bound excitons by hot electrons is observed. When the field is increase up to 1 kW/cm continuous transfer from the Taundsen-Shockley law to the Davydov-Wolf one takes place. Among the samples studied pure samples are distinguished by the exciton spectrum, where, as it is shown in the work, the high-energy electrons lose quasipulse, radiating spontaneously piezophonons; in other samples scattering on impurities prevails. Theoretical processing of data on the bound exciton radiation line quenching in the moderate field region presents about 10 -4 values in pure and about 5x10 -6 cm ones in other samples for the 4 MeV energy electron free flight length. So, the optical methods used allowed one to determine high-energy electron relaxation mechanisms, prevailing in CdS at low temperature

  12. Rapid biosynthesis of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid biosynthesis of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles using culture supernatants of Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 and Lactobacillus ... The process of extracellular and fast biosynthesis may help in the development of an easy and eco-friendly route for the synthesis of CdS nanoparticles.

  13. Localized surface plasmon and exciton interaction in silver-coated cadmium sulphide quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, P.; Rustagi, K. C.; Vasa, P.; Singh, B. P., E-mail: bhanuprs@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai- 400076 (India)

    2015-05-15

    Localized surface plasmon and exciton coupling has been investigated on colloidal solutions of silver-coated CdS nanoparticles (NPs), synthesized by gamma irradiation. Two broad photoluminescence (PL) bands (blue/red) corresponding to band to band and defect state transitions have been observed for the bare and coated samples. In case of bare CdS NPs, the intensity of the red PL peak is about ten times higher than the blue PL peak intensity. However, on coating the CdS NPs with silver, the peak intensity of the blue PL band gets enhanced and becomes equal to that of the red PL band. High-resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) images adequately demonstrate size distribution of these metal/semiconductor nanocomposites. UV-Vis absorption studies show quantum confinement effect in these semiconductor quantum dot (SQD) systems. Absorption spectrum of silver-coated SQDs shows signature of surface plasmon-exciton coupling which has been theoretically verified.

  14. Inorganic Nanoparticle-Modified Poly(Phenylene Sulphide/ Carbon Fiber Laminates: Thermomechanical Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Díez-Pascual

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fiber (CF-reinforced high-temperature thermoplastics such as poly(phenylene sulphide (PPS are widely used in structural composites for aerospace and automotive applications. The porosity of CF-reinforced polymers is a very important topic for practical applications since there is a direct correlation between void content and mechanical properties. In this study, inorganic fullerene-like tungsten disulphide (IF-WS2 lubricant nanoparticles were used to manufacture PPS/IF-WS2/CF laminates via melt-blending and hot-press processing, and the effect of IF-WS2 loading on the quality, thermal and mechanical behaviour of the hybrid composites was investigated. The addition of IF-WS2 improved fiber impregnation, resulting in lower degree of porosity and increased delamination resistance, compression and flexural properties; their reinforcement effect was greater at temperatures above the glass transition (Tg. IF-WS2 contents higher than 0.5 wt % increased Tg and the heat deflection temperature while reduced the coefficient of thermal expansion. The multiscale laminates exhibited higher ignition point and notably reduced peak heat release rate compared to PPS/CF. The coexistence of micro- and nano-scale fillers resulted in synergistic effects that enhanced the stiffness, strength, thermal conductivity and flame retardancy of the matrix. The results presented herein demonstrate that the IF-WS2 are very promising nanofillers to improve the thermomechanical properties of conventional thermoplastic/CF composites.

  15. Effect of surfactant in mitigating cadmium oxide nanoparticle toxicity: Implications for mitigating cadmium toxicity in environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balmuri, Sricharani Rao [Department of Bioengineering, School of Chemical & Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613401 (India); Selvaraj, Uthra [Department of Biotechnology, School of Chemical & Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613401 (India); Kumar, Vadivel Vinod [Department of Chemistry, School of Chemical & Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613401 (India); Anthony, Savarimuthu Philip, E-mail: philip@biotech.sastra.edu [Department of Chemistry, School of Chemical & Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613401 (India); Tsatsakis, Aristides Michael [Department of Forensic Sciences and Toxicology, Medical School, University of Crete, Heraklion 71003 (Greece); Scientific Educational Center of Nanotechnology, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok 690990 (Russian Federation); Golokhvast, Kirill Sergeevich [Scientific Educational Center of Nanotechnology, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok 690990 (Russian Federation); Raman, Thiagarajan, E-mail: raman@biotech.sastra.edu [Department of Bioengineering, School of Chemical & Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613401 (India); Centre for Research in Infectious Diseases (CRID), School of Chemical & Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613401 (India)

    2017-01-15

    Cadmium (Cd), classified as human carcinogen, is an extremely toxic heavy metal pollutant, and there is an increasing environmental concern for cadmium exposure through anthropogenic sources including cigarette smoke. Though Cd based nanoparticles such as cadmium oxide (CdO) are being widely used in a variety of clinical and industrial applications, the toxicity of CdO nanoparticles has not been well characterized. Herein we report the toxicity of CdO nanoparticles employing zebrafish as a model. Two different CdO nanoparticles were prepared, calcination of Cd(OH){sub 2} without any organic molecule (CdO-1) and calcination of Cd-citrate coordination polymer (CdO-2), to evaluate and compare the toxicity of these two different CdO nanoparticles. Results show that zebrafish exposed to CdO-2 nanoparticles expressed reduced toxicity as judged by lower oxidative stress levels, rescue of liver carboxylesterases and reduction in metallothionein activity compared to CdO-1 nanoparticles. Histopathological observations also support our contention that CdO-1 nanoparticles showed higher toxicity relative to CdO-2 nanoparticles. The organic unit of Cd-citrate coordination polymer might have converted into carbon during calcination that might have covered the surface of CdO nanoparticles. This carbon surface coverage can control the release of Cd{sup 2+} ions in CdO-2 compared to non-covered CdO-1 nanoparticles and hence mitigate the toxicity in the case of CdO-2. This was supported by atomic absorption spectrophotometer analyses of Cd{sup 2+} ions release from CdO-1 and CdO-2 nanoparticles. Thus the present study clearly demonstrates the toxicity of CdO nanoparticles in an aquatic animal and also indicates that the toxicity could be substantially reduced by carbon coverage. This could have important implications in terms of anthropogenic release and environmental pollution caused by Cd and human exposure to Cd{sup 2+} from sources such as cigarette smoke. - Highlights:

  16. Effect of surfactant in mitigating cadmium oxide nanoparticle toxicity: Implications for mitigating cadmium toxicity in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmuri, Sricharani Rao; Selvaraj, Uthra; Kumar, Vadivel Vinod; Anthony, Savarimuthu Philip; Tsatsakis, Aristides Michael; Golokhvast, Kirill Sergeevich; Raman, Thiagarajan

    2017-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd), classified as human carcinogen, is an extremely toxic heavy metal pollutant, and there is an increasing environmental concern for cadmium exposure through anthropogenic sources including cigarette smoke. Though Cd based nanoparticles such as cadmium oxide (CdO) are being widely used in a variety of clinical and industrial applications, the toxicity of CdO nanoparticles has not been well characterized. Herein we report the toxicity of CdO nanoparticles employing zebrafish as a model. Two different CdO nanoparticles were prepared, calcination of Cd(OH) 2 without any organic molecule (CdO-1) and calcination of Cd-citrate coordination polymer (CdO-2), to evaluate and compare the toxicity of these two different CdO nanoparticles. Results show that zebrafish exposed to CdO-2 nanoparticles expressed reduced toxicity as judged by lower oxidative stress levels, rescue of liver carboxylesterases and reduction in metallothionein activity compared to CdO-1 nanoparticles. Histopathological observations also support our contention that CdO-1 nanoparticles showed higher toxicity relative to CdO-2 nanoparticles. The organic unit of Cd-citrate coordination polymer might have converted into carbon during calcination that might have covered the surface of CdO nanoparticles. This carbon surface coverage can control the release of Cd 2+ ions in CdO-2 compared to non-covered CdO-1 nanoparticles and hence mitigate the toxicity in the case of CdO-2. This was supported by atomic absorption spectrophotometer analyses of Cd 2+ ions release from CdO-1 and CdO-2 nanoparticles. Thus the present study clearly demonstrates the toxicity of CdO nanoparticles in an aquatic animal and also indicates that the toxicity could be substantially reduced by carbon coverage. This could have important implications in terms of anthropogenic release and environmental pollution caused by Cd and human exposure to Cd 2+ from sources such as cigarette smoke. - Highlights: • Toxicity of Cd

  17. The effect of thermal annealing on the optical band gap of cadmium sulphide thin films, prepared by the chemical bath deposition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ampong, F. K.; Boakye, F.; Asare Donkor, N. K.

    2010-01-01

    Cadmium sulphide thin films have been prepared by the chemical bath deposition technique (ph 11, 70 degree centigrade). Two different sets of films were prepared under varied conditions and concentrations of their ions sources (Cd 2+ from cadmium nitrate, S 2- from thiourea) and Na 2 EDTA as a complexing agent. A UV mini-Schimazu UV-VIS Spectrophotometer was used to determine the optical absorbance of the films as a function of wavelength at room temperature over the wavelength range 200 - 600 nm. The samples were then thermally annealed for thirty minutes, at temperatures of 100 degree centigrade, and 200 degree centigrade, after which the absorbance of the films were again recorded. The band gap values obtained for the sample with 0.5 M CdS as deposited, annealed at 100 degree centigrade and 200 degree centigrade were 2.1 eV, 2.2 eV and 2.3 eV respectively. Whilst the values obtained for the sample 0.15 CdS as deposited, annealed at 100 degree centigrade and annealed at 200 degree centigrade were 2.0 eV, 2.01 eV and 2.02 eV respectively. The increase in band gap with annealing temperature might be attributed to the improvement in crystallinity in the films. (au)

  18. A study on dependence of the structural, optical and electrical properties of cadmium lead sulphide thin films on Cd/Pb ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Sinitha B., E-mail: sinithanair@gmail.com, E-mail: anithakklm@gmail.com; Abraham, Anitha, E-mail: sinithanair@gmail.com, E-mail: anithakklm@gmail.com; Philip, Rachel Reena, E-mail: reenatara@rediffmail.com [Thin film research Lab, U.C. College, Aluva, Kerala (India); Pradeep, B., E-mail: bp@cusat.ac.in [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Cochin University of science and Technology, Cochin (India); Shripathi, T., E-mail: shri@csr.res.in, E-mail: vganesancsr@gmail.com; Ganesan, V., E-mail: shri@csr.res.in, E-mail: vganesancsr@gmail.com [UGC-DAE CSR, Khandwa Road, Indore, 452001, Madhya Pradesh (India)

    2014-10-15

    Cadmium Lead Sulphide thin films with systematic variation in Cd/Pb ratio are prepared at 333K by CBD, adjusting the reagent-molarity, deposition time and pH. XRD exhibits crystalline-amorphous transition as Cd% exceeds Pb%. AFM shows agglomeration of crystallites of size ∼50±5 nm. EDAX assess the composition whereas XPS ascertains the ternary formation, with binding energies of Pb4f{sub 7/2} and 4f{sub 5/2}, Cd3d{sub 5/2} and 3d{sub 3/2} and S2p at 137.03, 141.606, 404.667, 412.133 and 160.218 eV respectively. The optical absorption spectra reveal the variance in the direct allowed band gaps, from 1.57eV to 2.42 eV as Cd/Pb ratio increases from 0.2 to 2.7, suggesting possibility of band gap engineering in the n-type films.

  19. On the sub-band gap optical absorption in heat treated cadmium sulphide thin film deposited on glass by chemical bath deposition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, P.; Karim, B.; Guha Roy, S.

    2013-01-01

    The sub-band gap optical absorption in chemical bath deposited cadmium sulphide thin films annealed at different temperatures has been critically analyzed with special reference to Urbach relation. It has been found that the absorption co-efficient of the material in the sub-band gap region is nearly constant up to a certain critical value of the photon energy. However, as the photon energy exceeds the critical value, the absorption coefficient increases exponentially indicating the dominance of Urbach rule. The absorption coefficients in the constant absorption region and the Urbach region have been found to be sensitive to annealing temperature. A critical examination of the temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient indicates two different kinds of optical transitions to be operative in the sub-band gap region. After a careful analyses of SEM images, energy dispersive x-ray spectra, and the dc current-voltage characteristics, we conclude that the absorption spectra in the sub-band gap domain is possibly associated with optical transition processes involving deep levels and the grain boundary states of the material

  20. On the sub-band gap optical absorption in heat treated cadmium sulphide thin film deposited on glass by chemical bath deposition technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, P.; Karim, B.; Guha Roy, S.

    2013-12-01

    The sub-band gap optical absorption in chemical bath deposited cadmium sulphide thin films annealed at different temperatures has been critically analyzed with special reference to Urbach relation. It has been found that the absorption co-efficient of the material in the sub-band gap region is nearly constant up to a certain critical value of the photon energy. However, as the photon energy exceeds the critical value, the absorption coefficient increases exponentially indicating the dominance of Urbach rule. The absorption coefficients in the constant absorption region and the Urbach region have been found to be sensitive to annealing temperature. A critical examination of the temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient indicates two different kinds of optical transitions to be operative in the sub-band gap region. After a careful analyses of SEM images, energy dispersive x-ray spectra, and the dc current-voltage characteristics, we conclude that the absorption spectra in the sub-band gap domain is possibly associated with optical transition processes involving deep levels and the grain boundary states of the material.

  1. Dichloro (bis[diphenylthiourea] cadmium complex as a precursor for HDA-capped CdS nanoparticles and their solubility in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshinyadzo R. Tshikhudo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A single-source precursor route has been explored by using the diphenylthiourea cadmium complex as the source of cadmium sulphide (CdS nanoparticles. The reaction was carried out using hexadecylamine (HDA as the solvent and stabilising agent for the particles. The phenylthiourea complex was synthesised and characterised by means of a combination of spectroscopic techniques, microanalysis and X-ray crystal structural analysis. The diphenylthiourea complex was thermolysed in HDA at 120 °C for 1 h to produce CdS nanoparticles. The CdS nanoparticles prepared were made water-soluble via a ligand exchange reaction involving the use of pyridine to displace HDA. The pyridine was, in turn, replaced by glucose and glucuronic acid. The absorption and emission spectra showed the typical features of quantum confinement for the nanoparticles for both HDA-capped and glucose- or glucuronic acid-capped CdS nanoparticles. The change in the capping groups, from HDA to glucose and glucuronic acid, resulted in absorption and emission features that were almost similar, with only slight red-shifting and tailing.

  2. Synthesis, Structural and Optical Properties of TOPO and HDA Capped Cadmium Sulphide Nanocrystals, and the Effect of Capping Ligand Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian C. Onwudiwe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal decomposition of bis(N,N-diallyldithiocarbamatoCd(II in a “one-pot” synthesis in tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO and hexadecylamine (HDA afforded CdS (TOPO-CdS and HDA-CdS of varying optical properties and morphologies. The influence of the ratio of the precursor concentration to the capping molecule, as a factor affecting the morphology and size of the nanoparticles, was investigated. The particles varied in shape from spheres to rods and show quantum size effects in their optical spectra with clear differences in the photoluminescence (PL spectra. The PL spectrum of the HDA capped CdS nanoparticles has an emission maximum centred at 468, 472, and 484 nm for the precursor to HDA concentration ratio of 1 : 10, 1 : 15, and 1 : 20, respectively, while the TOPO capped nanoparticles show emission peaks at 483, 494, and 498 nm at the same concentration ratio. Powdered X-ray diffraction (p-XRD shows the nanoparticles to be hexagonal. The crystallinity of the nanoparticles was evident from high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM which gave well-defined images of particles with clear lattice fringes.

  3. Study of optimizing the process of Cadmium adsorption by synthesized silver nanoparticles using Chlorella vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Sajadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Cadmium (Cd is one of the most toxic heavy metals in water that mostly enters the water cycle through industrial waste water. Silver nanoparticles have the capacity to remove heavy metals from the water resources through the mechanism of adsorption. The present study aimed at producing  silver bio-nanoparticles and optimizing . Cd removal from aquatic solutions. Materials and Methods: Silver bio-nanoparticles were extracted via a micro-algae Chlorella vulgaris extract and silver nitrate synthesis. Then, the characteristics of the particles were  determined using FT-IR, XRD, SEM devices. In order to optimize Cadmium adsorption by means of silver nanoparticles, parameters including pH, reaction time, initial concentration of Cd and concentrations of nanoparticles were studied under different conditions. Results: The resulting nanoparticles were spherical, single and crystalline, whose sizes were 10-45 nm.  Under the condition of PH = 8, the initial concentration of cadmium 0.5 mg/L, adsorbent dosage of 0.5 mg, reaction time of 10 min, temperature of 300C and mixing speed of 200 rpm, 99% of cadmium was removed. Isotherm of Cadmium-ion adsorption followed Langmuir (R2> 0/96 (and Freundlich (R2> 0/94 models. Conclusion: Under optimal conditions, silver bio-nanoparticles had the capacity of quick and effective adsorption of cadmium. Thus, with a cheap, non-toxic and environmentally friendly method  can remove heavy metals in a short time.

  4. The study of metal sulphide nanomaterials obtained by chemical bath deposition and hot-injection technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraeva, E. V.; Alexandrova, O. A.; Forostyanaya, N. A.; Levitskiy, V. S.; Mazing, D. S.; Maskaeva, L. N.; Markov, V. Ph; Moshnikov, V. A.; Shupta, A. A.; Spivak, Yu M.; Tulenin, S. S.

    2015-11-01

    In this study lead sulphide - cadmium sulphide based layers were obtained through chemical deposition of water solutions and cadmium sulphide quantum dots were formed through hot-injection technique. The article discusses the results of surface investigations with the use of atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence measurements.

  5. The study of metal sulphide nanomaterials obtained by chemical bath deposition and hot-injection technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraeva, E V; Alexandrova, O A; Levitskiy, V S; Mazing, D S; Moshnikov, V A; Shupta, A A; Spivak, Yu M; Forostyanaya, N A; Maskaeva, L N; Markov, V Ph; Tulenin, S S

    2015-01-01

    In this study lead sulphidecadmium sulphide based layers were obtained through chemical deposition of water solutions and cadmium sulphide quantum dots were formed through hot-injection technique. The article discusses the results of surface investigations with the use of atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence measurements. (paper)

  6. Investigation of electronic quality of electrodeposited cadmium sulphide layers from thiourea precursor for use in large area electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojo, A.A., E-mail: chartell2006@yahoo.com; Dharmadasa, I.M.

    2016-09-01

    CdS layers used in thin film solar cells and other electronic devices are usually grown by wet chemical methods using CdCl{sub 2} as the Cadmium source and either Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}, NH{sub 4}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} or NH{sub 2}CSNH{sub 2} as Sulphur sources. Obviously, one of the sulphur precursors should produce more suitable CdS layers required to give the highest performing devices. This can only be achieved by comprehensive experimental work on growth and characterisation of CdS layers from the above mentioned sulphur sources. This paper presents the results observed on CdS layers grown by electrodepositing using two electrode configuration and thiourea as the sulphur precursor. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, optical absorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell methods have been used to characterise the material properties. In order to test and study the electronic device quality of the layers, ohmic and rectifying contacts were fabricated on the electroplated layers. Schottky barriers, formed on the layers were also compared with previously reported work on Chemical Bath Deposited CBD-CdS layers and bulk single crystals of CdS. Comparatively, Schottky diodes fabricated on electroplated CdS layers using two-electrode system and thiourea precursor exhibit excellent electronic properties suitable for electronic devices such as thin film solar panels and large area display devices. - Highlights: • Precipitate-free electrodeposition of CdS is achievable using Thiourea precursor. • Electrodeposition of CdS using 2-electrode configuration. • The electrodeposited CdS shows excellent electronic properties. • Exploration of the effect of heat treatment temperature and heat treatment duration.

  7. The characterization of the adsorption of cadmium from aqueous solution using natural fibers treated with nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rediske, Nicole M.

    The objective of this research was to characterize natural carbon fibers from coconut husks, both bare and impregnated with metallic nanoparticles, in removing cadmium from aqueous media. The adsorbent load, kinetics, isotherm parameters, removal efficiencies, desorption capacity and possible contaminant removal mechanisms were evaluated. It was found that the fibers treated with metallic nanoparticles performed better than the bare fibers in removing cadmium from water. The ideal conditions were found to be neutral pH with low initial cadmium concentrations. Through the kinetic analyses, the adsorption process was first thought to be pseudo first order with two separate adsorption mechanisms apparent. Upon further analysis, it was seen that the first mechanism does not follow the pseudo first order kinetics model. An increase in calcium and magnesium concentrations was observed as the cadmium concentrations decreases. This increase corresponds with first mechanism. This suggests the cadmium removal in the first mechanism is due to ion exchange. The second mechanism's rate constant was consistently lower than the first mechanisms rate constant by an order of magnitude. This led to the hypothesis that the second mechanism is controlled by van de Waals forces, specifically ion-induced dipole interactions, and physical adsorption. It was also found that the cadmium does not effectively desorb from the wasted fibers in DI water. Keywords: Adsorption; kinetics; pseudo first order; cadmium; metallic nanoparticles; natural fibers; removal efficiencies; ion exchange.

  8. Cadmium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbelt, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Together with zinc and mercury, cadmium belongs to group IIb of the periodic table. It can be found in rocks, soil, water, coal, zinc ore, lead ore, and copper ore. In the environment, cadmium is present predominantly as the oxide or as the chloride, sulfide, or sulfate salt. It has no recognizable

  9. Cadmium nanoparticles citrullinate cytokeratins within lung epithelial cells: cadmium as a potential cause of citrullination in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutchinson D

    2018-01-01

    cytoplasm and cell nuclei. Conclusion: Cadmium oxide nanoparticle exposure facilitated post-translational citrullination of proteins. Keywords: cadmium, COPD, nanoparticles, cytokeratins, citrullination, autoimmunity, proteomics

  10. Evaluations of Effective Factors on Efficiency Zinc Oxides Nanoparticles in Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Ehrampoush

    2014-09-01

    Results: The results indicated that the adsorption process is affected by different parameters such as initial pollutant concentrations, adsorbent dose, pH, and contact time and Cadmiumremoval efficiency increases with increasing adsorbent dose and reaction time and decreases with increasing initial concentration of Cadmium. Therefore, it is observed that by raising the initial Cadmium concentration, the adsorption rate increases. The maximum efficiency of adsorptionin pH=7amounted to 89.6%. Conclusion: It is concluded that Zinc Oxide nanoparticles have proper efficiency in removal of Cadmium from aqueous solutions and can be used in the treatment of wastewater that contains ion Cadmium. However, its efficiency is deeply dependent on ion strength and the interaction of other metals in wastewater.

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Cadmium Sulfide Nanoparticles by Chemical Precipitation Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, R Aruna; Latha, M; Velumani, S; Oza, Goldie; Reyes-Figueroa, P; Rohini, M; Becerril-Juarez, I G; Lee, Jae-Hyeong; Yi, Junsin

    2015-11-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical precipitation method using cadmium chloride (CdCl2), sodium sulfide (Na2S) and water as a solvent by varying temperatures from 20-80 degrees C. The nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and UV-Visible spectroscopy. XRD pattern revealed cubic crystal structure for all the synthesized CdS nanoparticles. Raman spectra showed first and second order longitudinal optical (LO) phonon vibrational modes of CdS. The size of CdS nanoparticles was found to be in the range of 15-80 nm by FE-SEM analysis, in all cases. The atomic percentage of cadmium and sulfur was confirmed to be 1:1 from EDS analysis. TEM micrograph depicts the spherical shape of the particles and the size is in the range of 15-85 nm while HR-TEM images of CdS nanoparticles exhibit well-resolved lattice fringes of the cubic structure of CdS. The optical properties of CdS were examined by UV-Visible spectroscopy which showed variation in absorption band from 460-480 nm. The band gap was calculated from the absorption edge and found to be in the range of 3.2-3.5 eV which is greater than the bulk CdS.

  12. Cadmium-containing nanoparticles: Perspectives on pharmacology and toxicology of quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzigalinski, Beverly A.; Strobl, Jeannine S.

    2009-01-01

    The field of nanotechnology is rapidly expanding with the development of novel nanopharmaceuticals that have potential for revolutionizing medical treatment. The rapid pace of expansion in this field has exceeded the pace of pharmacological and toxicological research on the effects of nanoparticles in the biological environment. The development of cadmium-containing nanoparticles, known as quantum dots, show great promise for treatment and diagnosis of cancer and targeted drug delivery, due to their size-tunable fluorescence and ease of functionalization for tissue targeting. However, information on pharmacology and toxicology of quantum dots needs much further development, making it difficult to assess the risks associated with this new nanotechnology. Further, nanotechnology poses yet another risk for toxic cadmium, which will now enter the biological realm in nano-form. In this review, we discuss cadmium-containing quantum dots and their physicochemical properties at the nano-scale. We summarize the existing work on pharmacology and toxicology of cadmium-containing quantum dots and discuss perspectives in their utility in disease treatment. Finally, we identify critical gaps in our knowledge of cadmium quantum dot toxicity, and how these gaps need to be assessed to enable quantum dot nanotechnology to transit safely from bench to bedside.

  13. Theoretical Modelling of Immobilization of Cadmium and Nickel in Soil Using Iron Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidotas Danila

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Immobilization using zero valent using iron nanoparticles is a soil remediation technology that reduces concentrations of dissolved contaminants in soil solution. Immobilization of heavy metals in soil can be achieved through heavy metals adsorption and surface complexation reactions. These processes result in adsorption of heavy metals from solution phase and thus reducing their mobility in soil. Theoretical modelling of heavy metals, namely, cadmium and nickel, adsorption using zero valent iron nanoparticles was conducted using Visual MINTEQ. Adsorption of cadmium and nickel from soil solutions were modelled separately and when these metals were dissolved together. Results have showed that iron nanoparticles can be successfully applied as an effective adsorbent for cadmium and nickel removal from soil solution by producing insoluble compounds. After conducting the modelling of dependences of Cd+2 and Ni+2 ions adsorption on soil solution pH using iron nanoparticles, it was found that increasing pH of solution results in the increase of these ions adsorption. Adsorption of cadmium reached approximately 100% when pH ≥ 8.0, and adsorption of nickel reached approximately 100% when pH ≥ 7.0. During the modelling, it was found that adsorption of heavy metals Cd and Ni mostly occur, when one heavy metal ion is chemically adsorbed on two sorption sites. During the adsorption modelling, when Cd+2 and Ni+2 ions were dissolved together in acidic phase, it was found that adsorption is slightly lower than modelling adsorption of these metals separately. It was influenced by the competition of Cd+2 and Ni+2 ions for sorption sites on the surface of iron nanoparticles.

  14. Algal testing of titanium dioxide nanoparticles - Testing considerations, inhibitory effects and modification of cadmium bioavailability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Nanna Isabella Bloch; von der Kammer, F.; Hofmann, T.

    2010-01-01

    The ecotoxicity of three different sizes of titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) particles (primary particles sizes: 10, 30, and 300 nm) to the freshwater green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata was investigated in this study. Algal growth inhibition was found for all three particle types...... surfaces. It is also believed that heteroaggregation, driven by algal exopolymeric exudates, is occurring and could influence the concentration-response relationship. The ecotoxicity of cadmium to algae was investigated both in the presence and absence of 2 mg/LTiO(2). The presence of TiO(2) in algal tests......(II) species, indicating a possible carrier effect, or combined toxic effect of TiO(2) nanoparticles and cadmium. These results emphasize the importance of systematic studies of nanoecotoxicological effects of different sizes of nanoparticles and underline the fact that, in addition to particle toxicity...

  15. Inhaled Cadmium Oxide Nanoparticles: Their in Vivo Fate and Effect on Target Organs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dumková, J.; Vrlíková, Lucie; Večeřa, Zbyněk; Putnová, Barbora; Dočekal, Bohumil; Mikuška, Pavel; Fictum, P.; Hampl, A.; Buchtová, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 6 (2016), s. 874-893 E-ISSN 1422-0067 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/11/2315; GA ČR(CZ) GBP503/12/G147 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 ; RVO:68081715 Keywords : nanoparticles * cadmium oxide * electron microscopy Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology; CB - Analytical Chemistry , Separation (UIACH-O) Impact factor: 3.226, year: 2016

  16. Inhaled Cadmium Oxide Nanoparticles: Their in Vivo Fate and Effect on Target Organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Dumkova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing amount of heavy metals used in manufacturing equivalently increases hazards of environmental pollution by industrial products such as cadmium oxide (CdO nanoparticles. Here, we aimed to unravel the CdO nanoparticle destiny upon their entry into lungs by inhalations, with the main focus on the ultrastructural changes that the nanoparticles may cause to tissues of the primary and secondary target organs. We indeed found the CdO nanoparticles to be transported from the lungs into secondary target organs by blood. In lungs, inhaled CdO nanoparticles caused significant alterations in parenchyma tissue including hyperemia, enlarged pulmonary septa, congested capillaries, alveolar emphysema and small areas of atelectasis. Nanoparticles were observed in the cytoplasm of cells lining bronchioles, in the alveolar spaces as well as inside the membranous pneumocytes and in phagosomes of lung macrophages. Nanoparticles even penetrated through the membrane into some organelles including mitochondria and they also accumulated in the cytoplasmic vesicles. In livers, inhalation caused periportal inflammation and local hepatic necrosis. Only minor changes such as diffusely thickened filtration membrane with intramembranous electron dense deposits were observed in kidney. Taken together, inhaled CdO nanoparticles not only accumulated in lungs but they were also transported to other organs causing serious damage at tissue as well as cellular level.

  17. Inhaled Cadmium Oxide Nanoparticles: Their in Vivo Fate and Effect on Target Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumkova, Jana; Vrlikova, Lucie; Vecera, Zbynek; Putnova, Barbora; Docekal, Bohumil; Mikuska, Pavel; Fictum, Petr; Hampl, Ales; Buchtova, Marcela

    2016-06-03

    The increasing amount of heavy metals used in manufacturing equivalently increases hazards of environmental pollution by industrial products such as cadmium oxide (CdO) nanoparticles. Here, we aimed to unravel the CdO nanoparticle destiny upon their entry into lungs by inhalations, with the main focus on the ultrastructural changes that the nanoparticles may cause to tissues of the primary and secondary target organs. We indeed found the CdO nanoparticles to be transported from the lungs into secondary target organs by blood. In lungs, inhaled CdO nanoparticles caused significant alterations in parenchyma tissue including hyperemia, enlarged pulmonary septa, congested capillaries, alveolar emphysema and small areas of atelectasis. Nanoparticles were observed in the cytoplasm of cells lining bronchioles, in the alveolar spaces as well as inside the membranous pneumocytes and in phagosomes of lung macrophages. Nanoparticles even penetrated through the membrane into some organelles including mitochondria and they also accumulated in the cytoplasmic vesicles. In livers, inhalation caused periportal inflammation and local hepatic necrosis. Only minor changes such as diffusely thickened filtration membrane with intramembranous electron dense deposits were observed in kidney. Taken together, inhaled CdO nanoparticles not only accumulated in lungs but they were also transported to other organs causing serious damage at tissue as well as cellular level.

  18. Algal testing of titanium dioxide nanoparticles-Testing considerations, inhibitory effects and modification of cadmium bioavailability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, N.B.; Von der Kammer, F.; Hofmann, T.; Baalousha, M.; Ottofuelling, S.; Baun, A.

    2010-01-01

    The ecotoxicity of three different sizes of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) particles (primary particles sizes: 10, 30, and 300 nm) to the freshwater green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata was investigated in this study. Algal growth inhibition was found for all three particle types, but the physiological mode of action is not yet clear. It was possible to establish a concentration/dose-response relationship for the three particle sizes. Reproducibility, however, was affected by concentration-dependent aggregation of the nanoparticles, subsequent sedimentation, and possible attachment to vessel surfaces. It is also believed that heteroaggregation, driven by algal exopolymeric exudates, is occurring and could influence the concentration-response relationship. The ecotoxicity of cadmium to algae was investigated both in the presence and absence of 2 mg/L TiO 2 . The presence of TiO 2 in algal tests reduced the observed toxicity due to decreased bioavailability of cadmium resulting from sorption/complexation of Cd 2+ ions to the TiO 2 surface. However, for the 30 nm TiO 2 nanoparticles, the observed growth inhibition was greater than what could be explained by the concentration of dissolved Cd(II) species, indicating a possible carrier effect, or combined toxic effect of TiO 2 nanoparticles and cadmium. These results emphasize the importance of systematic studies of nanoecotoxicological effects of different sizes of nanoparticles and underline the fact that, in addition to particle toxicity, potential interactions with existing environmental contaminants are also of crucial importance in assessing the potential environmental risks of nanoparticles.

  19. Gene expression profiling in rat kidney after intratracheal exposure to cadmium-doped nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccini, Teresa; Roda, Elisa; Fabbri, Marco; Sacco, Maria Grazia; Gribaldo, Laura; Manzo, Luigi

    2012-08-01

    While nephrotoxicity of cadmium is well documented, very limited information exists on renal effects of exposure to cadmium-containing nanomaterials. In this work, "omics" methodologies have been used to assess the action of cadmium-containing silica nanoparticles (Cd-SiNPs) in the kidney of Sprague-Dawley rats exposed intratracheally. Groups of animals received a single dose of Cd-SiNPs (1 mg/rat), CdCl2 (400 μg/rat) or 0.1 ml saline (control). Renal gene expression was evaluated 7 and 30 days post exposure by DNA microarray technology using the Agilent Whole Rat Genome Microarray 4x44K. Gene modulating effects were observed in kidney at both time periods after treatment with Cd-SiNPs. The number of differentially expressed genes being 139 and 153 at the post exposure days 7 and 30, respectively. Renal gene expression changes were also observed in the kidney of CdCl2-treated rats with a total of 253 and 70 probes modulated at 7 and 30 days, respectively. Analysis of renal gene expression profiles at day 7 indicated in both Cd-SiNP and CdCl2 groups downregulation of several cluster genes linked to immune function, oxidative stress, and inflammation processes. Differing from day 7, the majority of cluster gene categories modified by nanoparticles in kidney 30 days after dosing were genes implicated in cell regulation and apoptosis. Modest renal gene expression changes were observed at day 30 in rats treated with CdCl2. These results indicate that kidney may be a susceptible target for subtle long-lasting molecular alterations produced by cadmium nanoparticles locally instilled in the lung.

  20. Gene expression profiling in rat kidney after intratracheal exposure to cadmium-doped nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coccini, Teresa; Roda, Elisa; Fabbri, Marco; Sacco, Maria Grazia; Gribaldo, Laura; Manzo, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    While nephrotoxicity of cadmium is well documented, very limited information exists on renal effects of exposure to cadmium-containing nanomaterials. In this work, “omics” methodologies have been used to assess the action of cadmium-containing silica nanoparticles (Cd-SiNPs) in the kidney of Sprague-Dawley rats exposed intratracheally. Groups of animals received a single dose of Cd-SiNPs (1 mg/rat), CdCl 2 (400 μg/rat) or 0.1 ml saline (control). Renal gene expression was evaluated 7 and 30 days post exposure by DNA microarray technology using the Agilent Whole Rat Genome Microarray 4x44K. Gene modulating effects were observed in kidney at both time periods after treatment with Cd-SiNPs. The number of differentially expressed genes being 139 and 153 at the post exposure days 7 and 30, respectively. Renal gene expression changes were also observed in the kidney of CdCl 2 -treated rats with a total of 253 and 70 probes modulated at 7 and 30 days, respectively. Analysis of renal gene expression profiles at day 7 indicated in both Cd-SiNP and CdCl 2 groups downregulation of several cluster genes linked to immune function, oxidative stress, and inflammation processes. Differing from day 7, the majority of cluster gene categories modified by nanoparticles in kidney 30 days after dosing were genes implicated in cell regulation and apoptosis. Modest renal gene expression changes were observed at day 30 in rats treated with CdCl 2 . These results indicate that kidney may be a susceptible target for subtle long-lasting molecular alterations produced by cadmium nanoparticles locally instilled in the lung.

  1. Determination of Lead and Cadmium in cow’s Milk and Elimination by Using Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haniyeh Moallem Bandani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Heavy metals such as cadmium and lead are the most important toxins spreading through various ways like water, soil, and air in nature and easily enter human food chain. It is essential to determine the cumulative and harmful effects of these metals in nutrients, especially in cow milk because it is a unique source of food for all ages and it contains both essential and nonessential trace elements. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 milk samples were directly collected from healthy cows in Zabol located on east of Iran. The samples were tested to determine lead and cadmium residues. The rates of the heavy metals were determined using a Rayleigh atomic absorption spectrum equipped with hollow cathode lamps (HCL at 283.3 nm for lead (Pb and at 228.8 nm for cadmium (Cd. By using the photo-catalytic titanium dioxide nanoparticles, these toxic metals were removed. Results: The mean ± SD of the concentration of lead and cadmium in raw milk were 9.175± 2.5 and 4.557 ± 1.081 ppb, respectively. Also, the P-values of Kalmogorov– Smiranov test for lead and cadmium were respectively 0.057 ppb (P>0.05 and 0.435 ppb (P>0.05. TiO2 nanoparticles were used to eliminate and remove lead and cadmium in milk samples. The results showed that there was a significant difference between lead and cadmium contents before and after adding TiO2 nanoparticles (P<0.05. Conclusions: According to results of this study, there was a very low amount of toxic metals. So, it seems that it is not necessary to use TiO2 in milk samples but these days it used frequently as an additive to some samples like milk to remove these pollutants. Keywords: lead, cadmium, milk, atomic absorption spectroscopy, TiO2 nanoparticles

  2. Cadmium removal from aqueous solution by green synthesis zero valent silver nanoparticles with Benjamina leaves extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairia M. Al-Qahtani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (II is an important element used in various industries, however, it is a poisonous element that affects the health of plants, animals and humans alike. It’s very important to remove this element from contaminated waters. This study aims at synthesizing zero valent silver nanoparticles by environmentally ecofriendly method without using hazardous compounds (via green approach. In this work, silver nanoparticles were prepared using hot water for the Ficus tree (Ficus Benjamina leaf extract (FBLE. The size of crystalline for AgNPs was measured by UV–vis spectroscopy and flourier transform infrared (FTIR. The properties of nano-silver particles (AgNPs have been studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM. The capability of nanoparticles to remove Cd2+ from contaminated solution was then studied. Parameter like adsorbent dose, heavy metal concentration, pH, agitation speed and contact time were studied. Cadmium removal increased when the dosage of biosorbent increases, pH increased from 1 to 6, contact time from 5 to 40 and initial concentration of Cd decrease. Isotherm adsorption was also described by the Freundleich model with a constant correlation (R2 higher than 0.973.

  3. New compositions of cadmium selenium nanoparticles and dye molecules with cyclodextrin inclusion complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asimov, M.M.; Anufrik, S.S.; Tarkovsky, V.V.; Sazonko, H.H.

    2013-01-01

    Spectroscopic properties of new heterogeneous multicolor compositions based on cadmium selenium (CdSe/ZnS) nano crystal and inclusion complexes of dye molecule with cyclodextrin are presented. Spectral fluorescence of proposed compositions investigated in thin films. Signals from multicolor fluorescence of proposing compositions may be combined to definite spectral codes that could be used for tracking or verification of different objects. Calibration bar of signal within spectral codes guarantee high reliability in practical application of proposed multicolor compositions. Express analysis the size of nanoparticles during their synthesis and purification by spectroscopic methods is suggested. Application of Cyclodextrin molecules as target delivery systems is considered. (authors)

  4. Manufacturing and Morphological Analysis of Composite Material of Polystyrene Nanospheres/Cadmium Metal Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratama Jujur Wibawa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A very simple nanocomposite material has been in-situ manufactured from an aqueous polystyrene nanospheres dispersion and cadmium (Cd metal nanoparticles. The manufacturing was performed by using a high frequency of 40 kHz ultrasonic (US agitation for 45 minute at atmospheric pressure and at room temperature 20 oC. No chemical reducing agent and surfactant added in this manufacturing technique due to the US could reduce Cd2+ ions of cadmium nitrate tetrahydrate to Cd atomic metals nanoparticles whereas water molecules could act as a pseudo stabilizer for the manufactured material. A thin film was manufactured from aqueous colloidal nanocomposite material of Polystyrene nanospheres/Cd metal nanoparticles (PSNs/CdMNp fabricated on a hydrophilic silicon wafer. The thin film was then characterized by a JEOL-FESEM for its surface morphology characteristic and by ATR-FTIR spectrometry for its molecular change investigation. It could be clearly observed that surface morphology of the thin film material was not significantly changed under 633 nm wavelength continuous laser radiation exposure for 20 minute. In addition, its ATR-FTIR spectra of wave number peaks around 3400 cm-1 have been totally disappeared under the laser exposure whereas that at around 699 cm-1 and 668 cm-1 have not been significantly changed. The first phenomenon indicated that the hydrogen bond existed in PSNs/CdMNp material was collapsed by the laser exposure. The second phenomena indicated that the PSNs phenyl ring moiety was not totally destroyed under the laser exposure. It was suspected due to the existence of Cd nanoparticles covered throughout the spherical surface of PSNs/CdMNp material particles. Therefore a nice model of material structure of the mentioned PSNs/CdMNp nanocomposite material could be suggested in this research. It could be concluded that this research have been performed since the material structure model of the manufactured PSNs/CdMNp nanocomposite could be

  5. Cadmium Immobilization in Soil using Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Stabilized Magnetite Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Farrokhian Firouzi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Some methods of contaminated soils remediation reduces the mobile fraction of trace elements, which could contaminate groundwater or be taken up by soil organisms. Cadmium (Cd as a heavy metal has received much attention in the past few decades due to its potential toxic impact on soil organism activity and compositions. Cadmium is a soil pollutant of no known essential biological functions, and may pose threats to soil-dwelling organisms and human health. Soil contamination with Cd usually originates from mining and smelting activities, atmospheric deposition from metallurgical industries, incineration of plastics and batteries, land application of sewage sludge, and burning of fossil fuels. Heavy metal immobilization using amendments is a simple and rapid method for the reduction of heavy metal pollution. One way of the assessment of contaminated soils is sequential extraction procedure. Sequential extraction of heavy metals in soils is an appropriate way to determine soil metal forms including soluble, exchangeable, carbonate, oxides of iron and manganese, and the residual. Its results are valuable in prediction of bioavailability, leaching rate and elements transformation in contaminated agricultural soils. Materials and Methods The objective of this study was to synthesize magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4 stabilized with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS and to investigate the effect of its different percentages (0, 1, 2.5, 5, and 10% on the different fractions of cadmium in soil by sequential extraction method. The nanoparticles were synthesized following the protocol described by Si et al. (19. The investigations were carried out with a loamy sand topsoil. Before use, the soil was air-dried, homogenized and sieved (

  6. Magnetite nanoparticle (NP) uptake by wheat plants and its effect on cadmium and chromium toxicological behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Luna, J., E-mail: jlol_24@hotmail.com [Instituto de Estudios Ambientales, Universidad de la Sierra Juárez, Ixtlán de Juárez 68725, Oaxaca (Mexico); Silva-Silva, M.J. [Instituto de Estudios Ambientales, Universidad de la Sierra Juárez, Ixtlán de Juárez 68725, Oaxaca (Mexico); Martinez-Vargas, S. [Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma del Carmen, Ciudad del Carmen 24115, Campeche (Mexico); Mijangos-Ricardez, O.F. [Instituto de Estudios Ambientales, Universidad de la Sierra Juárez, Ixtlán de Juárez 68725, Oaxaca (Mexico); González-Chávez, M.C. [Colegio de Postgraduados en Ciencias Agrícolas, Carr. México–Texcoco km 36.5, Montecillo 56230, Estado de México (Mexico); Solís-Domínguez, F.A. [Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Mexicali 21280, Baja California Norte (Mexico); Cuevas-Díaz, M.C. [Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Veracruzana, Coatzacoalcos 96535, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    The aim of this work was to assess the uptake of citrate-coated magnetite nanoparticles (NPs) by wheat plants and its effect on the bioaccumulation and toxicity of individual and joint Cd{sup 2+} and Cr{sup 6+} levels. Seven-day assays were conducted using quartz sand as the plant growth substrate. The endpoints measured were seed germination, root and shoot lengths, and heavy metal accumulation. Magnetite exhibited very low toxicity, regardless of the wheat seedling NP uptake and distribution into roots and shoots. The seed germination and shoot length were not sensitive enough, while the root length was a more sensitive toxicity endpoint. The root length of wheat seedlings exposed to individual metals decreased by 50% at 2.67 mg Cd{sup 2+} kg{sup −1} and 5.53 mg Cr{sup 6+} kg{sup −1}. However, when magnetite NPs (1000 mg kg{sup −1}) were added, the root length of the plants increased by 25 and 50%. Cd{sup 2+} and Cr{sup 6+} showed similar and noninteractive joint action, but strongly impaired the wheat seedlings. In contrast, an interactive infra-additive or antagonistic effect was observed upon adding magnetite NPs. Thus, cadmium and chromium accumulation in vegetable tissues was considerately diminished and the toxicity alleviated. - Highlights: • We assessed the effect of nanomagnetite on heavy metal toxicity in wheat plants. • Citrate-coated magnetite nanoparticles (NPs) exerted very low toxicity to plants. • Cadmium was more toxic than chromium and toxicity was mitigated by magnetite NPs. • Cadmium and chromium had a similar and noninteractive joint action on plants. • Metals showed an interactive infra-additive joint effect by adding magnetite NPs.

  7. Luminescent and photocatalytic properties of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles synthesized via microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Huaming; Huang Chenghuan; Li Xianwei; Shi Rongrong; Zhang Ke

    2005-01-01

    Uniform cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles of about 6 nm in crystal size have been successfully synthesized via microwave irradiation. The as-prepared sample has a uniform morphology and high purity. The red photoluminescence spectrum of the CdS nanoparticles displays a strong peak at 602 nm by using a 300 nm excitation wavelength. The photocatalytic oxidation of methyl orange (MeO) in CdS suspensions under ultraviolet illumination was investigated. The results indicate that a low pH value (pH 2.0) and low reaction temperatures (20-30 deg. C) will facilitate the decolorization of the MeO solution. The photodegradation degree decreases with increasing the pH value and temperature of solution. The efficiency of the recycled CdS semiconductor becomes lower due to the deposit of elemental Cd on the CdS surface, which weakens the photocatalytic activity. The luminescent and photocatalytic mechanisms of the as-prepared CdS nanoparticles were primarily discussed. Microwave irradiation is proved to be a convenient, efficient and environmental-friendly one-step route to synthesize nanoparticles

  8. The potential of TiO2 nanoparticles as carriers for cadmium uptake in Lumbriculus variegatus and Daphnia magna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Nanna Isabella Bloch; Legros, Samuel; Von der Kammer, Frank

    2012-01-01

    variegatus, was investigated both in the absence and presence of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (P25 Evonic Degussa, d: 30nm). The uptake of cadmium in sub-lethal concentrations was also studied in the absence and presence of 2mg/L TiO2 nanoparticles. Formation of larger nanoparticles aggregates...

  9. Gene expression analysis in rat lungs after intratracheal exposure to nanoparticles doped with cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coccini, Teresa; Manzo, Luigi [Toxicology Division, Salvatore Maugeri Foundation IRCCS, Pavia (Italy); Fabbri, Marco; Sacco, Maria Grazia; Gribaldo, Laura [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, IHCP- 21027 Ispra (Italy); Roda, Elisa [European Centre for Nanomedicine, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2011-07-06

    Silica nanoparticles (NPs) incorporating cadmium (Cd) have been developed for a range of potential application including drug delivery devices. Occupational Cd inhalation has been associated with emphysema, pulmonary fibrosis and lung tumours. Mechanistically, Cd can induce oxidative stress and mediate cell-signalling pathways that are involved in inflammation.This in vivo study aimed at investigating pulmonary molecular effects of NPs doped with Cd (NP-Cd, 1 mg/animal) compared to soluble CdCl{sub 2} (400 {mu}g/animal), in Sprague Dawley rats treated intra-tracheally, 7 and 30 days after administration. NPs of silica containing Cd salt were prepared starting from commercial nano-size silica powder (HiSil{sup TM} T700 Degussa) with average pore size of 20 nm and surface area of 240 m{sup 2}/g. Toxicogenomic analysis was performed by the DNA microarray technology (using Agilent Whole Rat Genome Microarray 4x44K) to evaluate changes in gene expression of the entire genome. These findings indicate that the whole genome analysis may represent a valuable approach to assess the whole spectrum of biological responses to cadmium containing nanomaterials.

  10. Revealing a room temperature ferromagnetism in cadmium oxide nanoparticles: An experimental and first-principles study

    KAUST Repository

    Bououdina, Mohamed

    2015-03-26

    We obtain a single cadmium oxide phase from powder synthesized by a thermal decomposition method of cadmium acetate dehydrate. The yielded powder is annealed in air, vacuum, and H2 gas in order to create point defects. Magnetization-field curves reveal the appearance of diamagnetic behavior with a ferromagnetic component for all the powders. Powder annealing under vacuum and H2 atmosphere leads to a saturation magnetization 1.15 memu g-1 and 1.2 memu g-1 respectively with an increase by 45% and 16% compared to the one annealed in air. We show that annealing in vacuum produces mainly oxygen vacancies while annealing in H2 gas creates mainly Cd vacancy leading to room temperature ferromagnetic (RTFM) component together with known diamagnetic properties. Ab initio calculations performed on the CdO nanoparticles show that the magnetism is governed by polarized hybrid states of the Cd d and O p orbitals together with the vacancy. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

  11. Gene expression analysis in rat lungs after intratracheal exposure to nanoparticles doped with cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coccini, Teresa; Manzo, Luigi; Fabbri, Marco; Sacco, Maria Grazia; Gribaldo, Laura; Roda, Elisa

    2011-01-01

    Silica nanoparticles (NPs) incorporating cadmium (Cd) have been developed for a range of potential application including drug delivery devices. Occupational Cd inhalation has been associated with emphysema, pulmonary fibrosis and lung tumours. Mechanistically, Cd can induce oxidative stress and mediate cell-signalling pathways that are involved in inflammation.This in vivo study aimed at investigating pulmonary molecular effects of NPs doped with Cd (NP-Cd, 1 mg/animal) compared to soluble CdCl 2 (400 μg/animal), in Sprague Dawley rats treated intra-tracheally, 7 and 30 days after administration. NPs of silica containing Cd salt were prepared starting from commercial nano-size silica powder (HiSil T M T700 Degussa) with average pore size of 20 nm and surface area of 240 m 2 /g. Toxicogenomic analysis was performed by the DNA microarray technology (using Agilent Whole Rat Genome Microarray 4x44K) to evaluate changes in gene expression of the entire genome. These findings indicate that the whole genome analysis may represent a valuable approach to assess the whole spectrum of biological responses to cadmium containing nanomaterials.

  12. Gene expression analysis in rat lungs after intratracheal exposure to nanoparticles doped with cadmium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccini, Teresa; Fabbri, Marco; Roda, Elisa; Grazia Sacco, Maria; Manzo, Luigi; Gribaldo, Laura

    2011-07-01

    Silica nanoparticles (NPs) incorporating cadmium (Cd) have been developed for a range of potential application including drug delivery devices. Occupational Cd inhalation has been associated with emphysema, pulmonary fibrosis and lung tumours. Mechanistically, Cd can induce oxidative stress and mediate cell-signalling pathways that are involved in inflammation.This in vivo study aimed at investigating pulmonary molecular effects of NPs doped with Cd (NP-Cd, 1 mg/animal) compared to soluble CdCl2 (400 μg/animal), in Sprague Dawley rats treated intra-tracheally, 7 and 30 days after administration. NPs of silica containing Cd salt were prepared starting from commercial nano-size silica powder (HiSil™ T700 Degussa) with average pore size of 20 nm and surface area of 240 m2/g. Toxicogenomic analysis was performed by the DNA microarray technology (using Agilent Whole Rat Genome Microarray 4×44K) to evaluate changes in gene expression of the entire genome. These findings indicate that the whole genome analysis may represent a valuable approach to assess the whole spectrum of biological responses to cadmium containing nanomaterials.

  13. Kinetics and Isotherm of Sunset Yellow Dye Adsorption on Cadmium Sulfide Nanoparticle Loaded on Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mosallanejad, A. Arami

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the potential of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles loaded onto activated carbon (CdSN-AC for the removal of sunset yellow (SY dye from aqueous solution. Adsorption studies were conducted in a batch mode varying solution pH, contact time, initial dye concentration, CdSN-AC dose. In order to investigate the efficiency of SY adsorption on CdSN-AC, pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order kinetic models were studied. It was observed that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model fits better than other kinetic models with good correlation coefficient. Equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir model. It was found that the sorption of SY onto CdSN-AC is followed by these results. 

  14. Loading of atorvastatin and linezolid in β-cyclodextrin–conjugated cadmium selenide/silica nanoparticles: A spectroscopic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antony, Eva Janet; Shibu, Abhishek; Ramasamy, Sivaraj; Paulraj, Mosae Selvakumar; Enoch, Israel V.M.V.

    2016-01-01

    The preparation of β–cyclodextrin–conjugated cadmium selenide–silica nanoparticles, the loading of two drugs viz., Atorvastatin and linezolid in the cyclodextrin cavity, and the fluorescence energy transfer between CdSe/SiO_2 nanoparticles and the drugs encapsulated in the cyclodextrin cavity are reported in this paper. IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, transmission electron microscopy, and particle size analysis by light–scattering experiment were used as the tools of characterizing the size and the crystal system of the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles fall under hexagonal system. The silica–shell containing CdSe nanoparticles were functionalized by reaction with aminoethylamino–β–cyclodextrin. Fluorescence spectra of the nanoparticles in their free and drug–encapsulated forms were studied. The FÖrster distances between the encapsulated drugs and the CdSe nanoparticles are below 3 nm. The change in the FÖrster resonance energy parameters under physiological conditions may aid in tracking the release of drugs from the cavity of the cyclodextrin. - Highlights: • CdSe/SiO_2 nanoparticles of crystallite size 15 nm are prepared. • β-Cyclodextrin is attached to the surface of the nanoparticles. • Atorvastatin and linezolid get encapsulated in the cyclodextrin cavity. • FRET efficiency between the nanoparticles and the loaded drugs are determined.

  15. Loading of atorvastatin and linezolid in β-cyclodextrin–conjugated cadmium selenide/silica nanoparticles: A spectroscopic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antony, Eva Janet; Shibu, Abhishek [Department of Nanosciences & Technology, Karunya University, Coimbatore 641114, Tamil Nadu (India); Ramasamy, Sivaraj; Paulraj, Mosae Selvakumar [Department of Chemistry, Karunya University, Coimbatore 641114, Tamil Nadu (India); Enoch, Israel V.M.V., E-mail: drisraelenoch@gmail.com [Department of Nanosciences & Technology, Karunya University, Coimbatore 641114, Tamil Nadu (India); Department of Chemistry, Karunya University, Coimbatore 641114, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2016-08-01

    The preparation of β–cyclodextrin–conjugated cadmium selenide–silica nanoparticles, the loading of two drugs viz., Atorvastatin and linezolid in the cyclodextrin cavity, and the fluorescence energy transfer between CdSe/SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and the drugs encapsulated in the cyclodextrin cavity are reported in this paper. IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, transmission electron microscopy, and particle size analysis by light–scattering experiment were used as the tools of characterizing the size and the crystal system of the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles fall under hexagonal system. The silica–shell containing CdSe nanoparticles were functionalized by reaction with aminoethylamino–β–cyclodextrin. Fluorescence spectra of the nanoparticles in their free and drug–encapsulated forms were studied. The FÖrster distances between the encapsulated drugs and the CdSe nanoparticles are below 3 nm. The change in the FÖrster resonance energy parameters under physiological conditions may aid in tracking the release of drugs from the cavity of the cyclodextrin. - Highlights: • CdSe/SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles of crystallite size 15 nm are prepared. • β-Cyclodextrin is attached to the surface of the nanoparticles. • Atorvastatin and linezolid get encapsulated in the cyclodextrin cavity. • FRET efficiency between the nanoparticles and the loaded drugs are determined.

  16. N-hydroxysuccinimide-mediated photoelectrooxidation of aliphatic alcohols based on cadmium telluride nanoparticles decorated graphene nanosheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navaee, Aso; Salimi, Abdollah

    2013-01-01

    A simple nonenzymatic electrochemical protocol is proposed for the oxidation of aliphatic alcohols using formed N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) radical cation on the graphene nanosheets/L-cysteine/cadmium telluride quantum dot (QD) nanocomposite (GNs/Cys/CdTe) modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode. At first, graphene oxide (GO) is chemically synthesized from graphite after which Cys is covalently functionalized to GO through formation of amide bonds between carboxylic acid groups of GO and amine groups of Cys. The resulting GNs/Cys is used as a capping agent to synthesize CdTe QD nanoparticles. After the characterization of the as-made nanocomposite which confirmed the successful attachment of CdTe nanoparticles to the GNs, the ability of the GNs/Cys/CdTe modified GC electrode toward the nonenzymatic ethanol electrooxidation is examined in the presence of NHS as an effective mediating system. Our results revealed that the proposed system possess a good activity to NHS electrooxidation and subsequently, ethanol oxidation. Moreover, the GNs/Cys/CdTe modified electrode displayed a significant photoelectrocatalytic activity toward the ethanol oxidation upon illumination by visible light. The photoactive GNs/Cys/CdTe nanohybrid presented here showing favorable photoelectrochemical features for nonenzymatic aliphatic alcohols oxidation may hold great promise to the development of electrochemical sensors and biofuel cells

  17. Cadmium Sulfide Nanoparticles Synthesized by Microwave Heating for Hybrid Solar Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Martínez-Alonso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium sulfide nanoparticles (CdS-n are excellent electron acceptor for hybrid solar cell applications. However, the particle size and properties of the CdS-n products depend largely on the synthesis methodologies. In this work, CdS-n were synthetized by microwave heating using thioacetamide (TA or thiourea (TU as sulfur sources. The obtained CdS-n(TA showed a random distribution of hexagonal particles and contained TA residues. The latter could originate the charge carrier recombination process and cause a low photovoltage (Voc, 0.3 V in the hybrid solar cells formed by the inorganic particles and poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT. Under similar synthesis conditions, in contrast, CdS-n synthesized with TU consisted of spherical particles with similar size and contained carbonyl groups at their surface. CdS-n(TU could be well dispersed in the nonpolar P3HT solution, leading to a Voc of about 0.6–0.8 V in the resulting CdS-n(TU : P3HT solar cells. The results of this work suggest that the reactant sources in microwave methods can affect the physicochemical properties of the obtained inorganic semiconductor nanoparticles, which finally influenced the photovoltaic performance of related hybrid solar cells.

  18. A facile approach to anchor cadmium sulfide nanoparticles on graphene nanosheets as promising electrode materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jia; Li, Jing; Yang, Xuyu [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Wang, Xianbao, E-mail: wangxb68@yahoo.com.cn [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Wan, Li; Yang, Yingkui [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China)

    2012-08-15

    A controllable preparation of novel graphene-based inorganic semi-conducting composites has aroused great attention in the optoelectronic device and powerful electronic anode materials. In this article, we demonstrate a simple two-step strategy for the synthesis of cadmium sulfide/reduced graphene oxide (CdS/RGO) nanocomposites, of which the preparing process includes modification of the exfoliated graphene oxide acylated with thionyl chloride, immobilization of the CdS nanoparticles on the graphene oxide (GO) surface by an amide reaction between the amino groups located on the CdS particles and the acyl chloride bound to the GO surface, and reduction by hydrazine and ammonia. Our results showed that the CdS nanoparticles with an average size of 20 nm were homogeneously dispersed on the surface of RGO sheets. The CdS/RGO nanocomposites can form a homogeneous and stable solution in dimethylformamide, and CV analysis indicated a remarkable increase for the CdS/RGO modified electrode in the electrochemical current relative to that at a glass carbon electrode. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CdS/RGO nanocomposites were synthesized by a covalent bonding and electrostatic interaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CdS/RGO exhibits a homogeneous dispersion in dimethylformamide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CdS/RGO was used as an anode electrode with good electrochemical activity.

  19. Biotechnological sulphide removal with oxygen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buisman, C.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis deals with the development of a new process for biotechnological sulphide removal from wastewater, in which it is attempted to convert sulphide into elemental sulphur by colourless sulphur bacteria. The toxicity, corrosive properties, unpleasant odor and high oxygen demand of sulphide

  20. On presolar meteoritic sulphides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, D.D.; Ramadurai, S.

    1977-01-01

    It is stated that discoveries of isotopic anomalies in meteorites caused some workers to postulate nucleosynthetic inhomogeneities that were somehow carried into the early solar system. A picture was developed treating most anomalies as extinct radioactivities trapped in mineral condensations in the expanding sites of explosive nucleosynthesis, such as supernovae or novae. As evidence for this grows it becomes clear that not only isotopic but also mineralogical evidence of presolar grains is wanted, and also knowledge of what supernovae condensates are likely to survive. It is suggested here that a search should be made among sulphides in meteorites, searching especially for sulphides of Ti. The reasoning is that many sulphides, especially Ti sulphides, will not be expected in solar condensation sequences, but are expected to dominate certain key zones of supernovae expansion. Sulphur seems to have resulted primarily from the nuclear explosions of O and Si, and arguments leading to that conclusion are analysed. It is thought that the discussion could lead to important discoveries for nucleosynthesis and the origin of the solar system. (U.K.)

  1. Biofabrication of morphology improved cadmium sulfide nanoparticles using Shewanella oneidensis bacterial cells and ionic liquid: For toxicity against brain cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Chen, Siyuan; Ding, Yiming; Zhu, Qiang; Zhang, Nijia; Yu, Shuqing

    2018-01-01

    The present work determines the anticancer activity of bio-mediated synthesized cadmium sulfide nanoparticles using the ionic liquid and bacterial cells (Shewanella oneidensis). Bacterial cells have been exposed to be important resources that hold huge potential as ecofriendly, cost-effective, evading toxic of dangerous chemicals and the alternative of conventional physiochemical synthesis. The Shewanella oneidensis is an important kind of metal reducing bacterium, known as its special anaerobic respiratory and sulfate reducing capacity. The crystalline nature, phase purity and surface morphology of biosynthesized cadmium sulfide nanoparticles were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Field emission scanning electron microscopy, Energy dispersive spectroscopy and Transmission electron microscopy. The use of imidazolium based ionic liquids as soft templating agent for controlling self-assembly and crystal growth direction of metal sulfide nanoparticles has also advanced as an important method. The microscopic techniques showed that the nanoparticles are designed on the nano form and have an excellent spherical morphology, due to the self-assembled mechanism of ionic liquid assistance. The antitumor efficiency of the cadmium sulfide nanoparticles was investigated against brain cancer cell lines using rat glioma cell lines. The effectively improved nano-crystalline and morphological structure of CdS nanoparticles in the presence of IL exhibit excellent cytotoxicity and dispersion ability on the cell shape is completely spread out showing a nice toxic environment against cancer cells. The cytotoxicity effect of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles was discussed with a diagrammatic representation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Cadmium telluride nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon as adsorbent for removal of sunset yellow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedi, M.; Hekmati Jah, A.; Khodadoust, S.; Sahraei, R.; Daneshfar, A.; Mihandoost, A.; Purkait, M. K.

    2012-05-01

    Adsorption is a promising technique for decolorization of effluents of textile dyeing industries but its application is limited due to requirement of high amounts of adsorbent required. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of cadmium telluride nanoparticles loaded onto activated carbon (CdTN-AC) for the removal of sunset yellow (SY) dye from aqueous solution. Adsorption studies were conducted in a batch mode varying solution pH, contact time, initial dye concentration, CdTN-AC dose, and temperature. In order to investigate the efficiency of SY adsorption on CdTN-AC, pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich, and intra-particle diffusion kinetic models were studied. It was observed that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model fits better than other kinetic models with good correlation coefficient. Equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir model. Thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy, entropy, activation energy, and sticking probability were also calculated. It was found that the sorption of SY onto CdTN-AC was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The proposed adsorbent is applicable for SY removal from waste of real effluents including pea-shooter, orange drink and jelly banana with efficiency more than 97%.

  3. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles modulate the toxicological response to cadmium in the gills of Mytilus galloprovincialis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Della Torre, Camilla; Balbi, Teresa; Grassi, Giacomo; Frenzilli, Giada; Bernardeschi, Margherita; Smerilli, Arianna; Guidi, Patrizia; Canesi, Laura; Nigro, Marco; Monaci, Fabrizio; Scarcelli, Vittoria; Rocco, Lucia; Focardi, Silvano; Monopoli, Marco; Corsi, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Nano-TiO 2 modulate CdCl 2 cellular responses in gills of marine mussel. • Nano-TiO 2 reduced CdCl 2 -induced effects by lowering abcb1 m-RNA and GST activity. • Nano-TiO 2 reduced Cd accumulation in mussel’s gills but not in whole soft tissue. • Higher accumulation of Ti in the presence of CdCl 2 was observed in gills. - Abstract: We investigated the influence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO 2 ) on the response to cadmium in the gills of the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis in terms of accumulation and toxicity. Mussels were in vivo exposed to nano-TiO 2 , CdCl 2 , alone and in combination. Several cellular biomarkers were investigated in gills: ABC transport proteins and metallothioneins at gene/protein (abcb1, abcc-like and mt-20) and functional level, GST activity, NO production and DNA damage (Comet assay). Accumulation of total Cd and titanium in gills as in whole soft tissue was also investigated. Significant responses to Cd exposure were observed in mussel gills as up-regulation of abcb1 and mt-20 gene transcription, increases in total MT content, P-gp efflux and GST activity, DNA damage and NO production. Nano-TiO 2 alone increased P-gp efflux activity and NO production. When combined with Cd, nano-TiO 2 reduced the metal-induced effects by significantly lowering abcb1 gene transcription, GST activity, and DNA damage, whereas, additive effects were observed on NO production. A lower concentration of Cd was observed in the gills upon co-exposure, whereas, Ti levels were unaffected. A competitive effect in uptake/accumulation of nano-TiO 2 and Cd seems to occur in gills. A confirmation is given by the observed absence of adsorption of Cd onto nano-TiO 2 in sea water media

  4. Improved electrical properties of cadmium substituted cobalt ferrites nano-particles for microwave application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Rabia [Institute of Chemical Sciences, Gomal University, D. I. Khan (Pakistan); Hussain Gul, Iftikhar, E-mail: iftikhar.gul@scme.nust.edu.pk [Thermal Transport Laboratory (TTL), Materials Engineering Department, School of Chemical and Materials Engineering (SCME), National University of Sciences and Technology - NUST, H-12 Campus, Islamabad (Pakistan); Zarrar, Muhammad [Thermal Transport Laboratory (TTL), Materials Engineering Department, School of Chemical and Materials Engineering (SCME), National University of Sciences and Technology - NUST, H-12 Campus, Islamabad (Pakistan); Anwar, Humaira [Islamabad Model College for Girls G-10/2, Islamabad (Pakistan); Khan Niazi, Muhammad Bilal [Department of Chemicals Engineering, SCME, NUST, H-12 Campus, Islamabad (Pakistan); Khan, Azim [Institute of Chemical Sciences, Gomal University, D. I. Khan (Pakistan)

    2016-05-01

    Cadmium substituted cobalt ferrites with formula Cd{sub x}Co{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x=0.0, 0.2, 0.35, 0.5), have been synthesized by wet chemical co-precipitation technique. Electrical, morphological and Structural properties of the samples have been studied using DC electrical resistivity and Impedance analyzer, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), respectively. XRD, SEM and AFM have been used to study the structural parameters such as measured density, lattice constant, X-ray density, crystallite size and morphology of the synthesized nano-particles. Debye–Scherrer formula has been used for the estimation of crystallite sizes. The estimated crystallite sizes were to be 15–19±2 nm. Hopping length of octahedral and tetrahedral sites have been calculated using indexed XRD data. The porosity and lattice constant increased as Cd{sup 2+}concentration increases. DC electrical resistivity was performed using two probe technique. The decrease of resistivity with temperature confirms the semiconducting nature of the samples. The dielectric properties variation has been studied at room temperature as a function of frequency. Variation of dielectric properties from 100 Hz to 5 MHz has been explained on the basis of Maxwell and Wagner’s model and hoping of electrons on octahedral sites. To separates the grains boundary and grains of the system Cd{sub x}Co{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} the impedance analysis were performed. - Highlights: • Preparation of homogeneous, spherical and single phase well crystallized cobalt ferrites. • A simple and economical PEG assisted wet chemical co-precipitation method has been used. • Increased in DC electrical resistivity and activation energy. • Decease in dielectric constant used for microwave absorber. • AC conductivity of Cd{sup 2+} substituted Co-ferrites increases.

  5. Improved electrical properties of cadmium substituted cobalt ferrites nano-particles for microwave application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Rabia; Hussain Gul, Iftikhar; Zarrar, Muhammad; Anwar, Humaira; Khan Niazi, Muhammad Bilal; Khan, Azim

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium substituted cobalt ferrites with formula Cd x Co 1−x Fe 2 O 4 (x=0.0, 0.2, 0.35, 0.5), have been synthesized by wet chemical co-precipitation technique. Electrical, morphological and Structural properties of the samples have been studied using DC electrical resistivity and Impedance analyzer, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), respectively. XRD, SEM and AFM have been used to study the structural parameters such as measured density, lattice constant, X-ray density, crystallite size and morphology of the synthesized nano-particles. Debye–Scherrer formula has been used for the estimation of crystallite sizes. The estimated crystallite sizes were to be 15–19±2 nm. Hopping length of octahedral and tetrahedral sites have been calculated using indexed XRD data. The porosity and lattice constant increased as Cd 2+ concentration increases. DC electrical resistivity was performed using two probe technique. The decrease of resistivity with temperature confirms the semiconducting nature of the samples. The dielectric properties variation has been studied at room temperature as a function of frequency. Variation of dielectric properties from 100 Hz to 5 MHz has been explained on the basis of Maxwell and Wagner’s model and hoping of electrons on octahedral sites. To separates the grains boundary and grains of the system Cd x Co 1−x Fe 2 O 4 the impedance analysis were performed. - Highlights: • Preparation of homogeneous, spherical and single phase well crystallized cobalt ferrites. • A simple and economical PEG assisted wet chemical co-precipitation method has been used. • Increased in DC electrical resistivity and activation energy. • Decease in dielectric constant used for microwave absorber. • AC conductivity of Cd 2+ substituted Co-ferrites increases.

  6. Revealing a room temperature ferromagnetism in cadmium oxide nanoparticles: An experimental and first-principles study

    KAUST Repository

    Bououdina, Mohamed; Dakhel, A; El-Hilo, : Mohammad; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Kanoun, Mohammed Benali; Goumri-Said, Souraya

    2015-01-01

    We obtain a single cadmium oxide phase from powder synthesized by a thermal decomposition method of cadmium acetate dehydrate. The yielded powder is annealed in air, vacuum, and H2 gas in order to create point defects. Magnetization-field curves

  7. Precipitation of metal sulphides using gaseous hydrogen sulphide : mathematical modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarazi, Mousa Al-; Heesink, A. Bert M.; Versteeg, Geert F.

    2004-01-01

    A mathematical model has been developed that describes the precipitation of metal sulphides in an aqueous solution containing two different heavy metal ions. The solution is assumed to consist of a well-mixed bulk and a boundary layer that is contacted with hydrogen sulphide gas. The model makes use

  8. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles modulate the toxicological response to cadmium in the gills of Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Della Torre, Camilla [Department of Physical, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena (Italy); Balbi, Teresa [Department of Earth, Environmental and Life Sciences-DISTAV, University of Genoa (Italy); Grassi, Giacomo [Department of Physical, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena (Italy); Frenzilli, Giada; Bernardeschi, Margherita [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa (Italy); Smerilli, Arianna [Department of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies (DiSTABiF), Seconda Università di Napoli, Caserta (Italy); Guidi, Patrizia [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa (Italy); Canesi, Laura [Department of Earth, Environmental and Life Sciences-DISTAV, University of Genoa (Italy); Nigro, Marco [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa (Italy); Monaci, Fabrizio [Department of Physical, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena (Italy); Scarcelli, Vittoria [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa (Italy); Rocco, Lucia [Department of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies (DiSTABiF), Seconda Università di Napoli, Caserta (Italy); Focardi, Silvano [Department of Physical, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena (Italy); Monopoli, Marco [Centre for BioNanoInteractions, School of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, University College Dublin (Ireland); Corsi, Ilaria, E-mail: ilaria.corsi@unisi.it [Department of Physical, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena (Italy)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Nano-TiO{sub 2} modulate CdCl{sub 2} cellular responses in gills of marine mussel. • Nano-TiO{sub 2} reduced CdCl{sub 2}-induced effects by lowering abcb1 m-RNA and GST activity. • Nano-TiO{sub 2} reduced Cd accumulation in mussel’s gills but not in whole soft tissue. • Higher accumulation of Ti in the presence of CdCl{sub 2} was observed in gills. - Abstract: We investigated the influence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO{sub 2}) on the response to cadmium in the gills of the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis in terms of accumulation and toxicity. Mussels were in vivo exposed to nano-TiO{sub 2}, CdCl{sub 2}, alone and in combination. Several cellular biomarkers were investigated in gills: ABC transport proteins and metallothioneins at gene/protein (abcb1, abcc-like and mt-20) and functional level, GST activity, NO production and DNA damage (Comet assay). Accumulation of total Cd and titanium in gills as in whole soft tissue was also investigated. Significant responses to Cd exposure were observed in mussel gills as up-regulation of abcb1 and mt-20 gene transcription, increases in total MT content, P-gp efflux and GST activity, DNA damage and NO production. Nano-TiO{sub 2} alone increased P-gp efflux activity and NO production. When combined with Cd, nano-TiO{sub 2} reduced the metal-induced effects by significantly lowering abcb1 gene transcription, GST activity, and DNA damage, whereas, additive effects were observed on NO production. A lower concentration of Cd was observed in the gills upon co-exposure, whereas, Ti levels were unaffected. A competitive effect in uptake/accumulation of nano-TiO{sub 2} and Cd seems to occur in gills. A confirmation is given by the observed absence of adsorption of Cd onto nano-TiO{sub 2} in sea water media.

  9. Synthesis and shape control of copper tin sulphide nanocrystals and formation of gold-copper tin sulphide hybrid nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruszynska, Marta; Parisi, Juergen; Kolny-Olesiak, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Hexagonal prismatic Cu 3 SnS 4 nanoparticles and nanorods were synthesized by a hot-injection procedure. Changing the reaction conditions leads to the formation of different shapes. When oleylamine is used as a solvent, hexagonal prismatic particles are obtained, while a reaction in octadecene results in the formation of nanorods. The growth process of copper tin sulphide starts with the formation of djurleite copper sulphide seeds. Their reaction with Sn 4+ ions leads to the formation of Cu 3 SnS 4 . These Cu 3 SnS 4 nanocrystals form Au-Cu 3 SnS 4 hybrid nanostructures by reaction with gold seeds.

  10. Studying the state of the surface and internal mass of powder-like zinc and cadmium sulfides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundel', A.A.; Khozhainov, Yu.M.

    1979-01-01

    The investigation on the chemical and the phase composition of the surface and the bulk of powder zinc and cadmium sulphides as a function of the conditions of ignition and physico-chemical processing carried out using electron diffraction, X-ray phase and chemical analyses. The electron diffraction analysis has shown that ignition gives rise to zinc oxide on the surface of zinc sulphide particles and in the case of cadmium sulphide, to metallic cadmium. To obtain a pure zinc sulphide, free from its oxide both on the surface and in bulk, use should be made of a deoxidized preparation and all contact with oxidizing medium in subsequent ignition should be eliminated

  11. Field testing of sulphide electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, P.R.; Gaonkar, K.B.; Gadiyar, H.S.

    1993-01-01

    Sulphide ion selective electrodes have been developed at BARC, for determination of Ag + and S - ions directly and Cl - and CN - ions indirectly. The electrodes were tested for their use in sulphide environments in the EAD (Effluent After Dilution) stream at the Heavy Water Plant, Kota. The electrodes are suitable in the concentration range of 16000 ppm to 0.002 ppm, with a slope of 29-31 mV per decade change in the sulphide ion concentration. The response time is less than 10 seconds. These electrodes are reliable for continuous on-line use for a long period. (author). 7 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  12. Enhanced hydrogen evolution rates at high pH with a colloidal cadmium sulphide–platinum hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Julian; Vaneski, Aleksandar; Susha, Andrei S.; Rogach, Andrey L.; Pesch, Georg R.; Yang Teoh, Wey

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate enhanced hydrogen generation rates at high pH using colloidal cadmium sulphide nanorods decorated with Pt nanoparticles. We introduce a simplified procedure for the decoration and subsequent hydrogen generation, reducing both the number of working steps and the materials costs. Different Pt precursor concentrations were tested to reveal the optimal conditions for the efficient hydrogen evolution. A sharp increase in hydrogen evolution rates was measured at pH 13 and above, a condition at which the surface charge transfer was efficiently mediated by the formation of hydroxyl radicals and further consumption by the sacrificial triethanolamine hole scavenger

  13. Enhanced hydrogen evolution rates at high pH with a colloidal cadmium sulphide–platinum hybrid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Julian; Vaneski, Aleksandar; Susha, Andrei S.; Rogach, Andrey L., E-mail: andrey.rogach@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science and Centre for Functional Photonics (CFP), City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Pesch, Georg R.; Yang Teoh, Wey [Clean Energy and Nanotechnology (CLEAN) Laboratory, School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate enhanced hydrogen generation rates at high pH using colloidal cadmium sulphide nanorods decorated with Pt nanoparticles. We introduce a simplified procedure for the decoration and subsequent hydrogen generation, reducing both the number of working steps and the materials costs. Different Pt precursor concentrations were tested to reveal the optimal conditions for the efficient hydrogen evolution. A sharp increase in hydrogen evolution rates was measured at pH 13 and above, a condition at which the surface charge transfer was efficiently mediated by the formation of hydroxyl radicals and further consumption by the sacrificial triethanolamine hole scavenger.

  14. Synthesize of silver-nanoparticles by plant extract and its application for preconcentration of cadmium followed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almertaha, Abdul-Hossein; Eftekhari, Mohammad; Chamsaz, Mahmoud; Gheibi, Mohammad

    2018-02-02

    In this paper, Mentha pulegium leaves extract was used as a green reducing agent for the synthesis of silver-nanoparticles. The synthesized silver-nanoparticles were characterized by UV-VIS spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray spectroscopy and used as an adsorbent for preconcentration of trace levels of cadmium (ІІ). After the desorption of cadmium (ІІ) in 5 mol L -1 formic acid, the desorbent solution was aspirated into the flame atomic absorption spectrometry for the determination of cadmium. In order to optimize the experimental condition, a response surface methodology based on central composite design was used. The optimum conditions are: pH: 8.6, amounts of adsorbent: 30 mg, 10 min extraction time and desorption time of 2 min. Under the optimum condition, the calibration curve was linear in the range of 5-200 μg L -1 cadmium (ІІ) ion with a correlation coefficient of 0.9995. The limit of detection was 1.1 μg L -1 and the relative standard deviation for 25 μg L -1 cadmium (ІІ) ion was 3.0% (n = 5). In order to check the applicability of the proposed method, different real samples were analyzed. Also, the accuracy of this method was successfully checked by the analysis of certified reference material and spike tests.

  15. Starch mediated CdS nanoparticles and their photocatalytic performance under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firdaus, Farha, E-mail: Farha-firdaus@yahoo.co.in [Chemistry Section, Women’s College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 UP (India); Faraz, Mohd [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Green synthesis of Cadmium Sulphide (CdS-S) nanoparticles is of considerable interest due to its biocompatible and nontoxicity. Here, we present a biomolecule stimulated chemical method was adopted for the successful synthesis of CdS-S nanoparticles using starch as a capping agent. The CdS-S nanoparticles were characterized by various analytical techniques. The CdS-S nanoparicles exhibit photocatalytic activity against methyl orange (MO) at pH 9 in Visible light and the reaction follows pseudo first-order kinetics. The comparative photocatalytic activity revealed that CdS-S nanoparticles remarkably enhanced activities as compared to the commercial TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. The outcome of these studies offers valuable for planning CdS-S nanoparticles having photocatalytic activities helpful for the formulation of waste water remediation.

  16. Starch mediated CdS nanoparticles and their photocatalytic performance under visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firdaus, Farha; Faraz, Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Green synthesis of Cadmium Sulphide (CdS-S) nanoparticles is of considerable interest due to its biocompatible and nontoxicity. Here, we present a biomolecule stimulated chemical method was adopted for the successful synthesis of CdS-S nanoparticles using starch as a capping agent. The CdS-S nanoparticles were characterized by various analytical techniques. The CdS-S nanoparicles exhibit photocatalytic activity against methyl orange (MO) at pH 9 in Visible light and the reaction follows pseudo first-order kinetics. The comparative photocatalytic activity revealed that CdS-S nanoparticles remarkably enhanced activities as compared to the commercial TiO 2 nanoparticles. The outcome of these studies offers valuable for planning CdS-S nanoparticles having photocatalytic activities helpful for the formulation of waste water remediation.

  17. Release of dissolved cadmium and sulfur nanoparticles from oxidizing sulfide minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadmium enrichment (relative to Fe and Zn) in paddy rice grain occurs during the pre-harvest drainage of flooded soil, which causes oxidative dissolution of sulfide minerals present in reduced soil. We investigated this process over a range of environmentally realistic Cdcontain...

  18. Evolution of different morphologies of CdS nanoparticles by thermal decomposition of bis(thiourea)cadmium chloride in various solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaur, Rama; Jeevanandam, P.

    2015-01-01

    CdS nanoparticles with different morphologies have been synthesized by thermal decomposition of bis(thiourea)cadmium chloride in different solvents without the use of any ligand/surfactant. CdS nanoparticles with pyramid, sponge-like and hexagonal disc-like morphologies were obtained in diphenyl ether (DPE), 1-octadecene (ODE) and ethylene glycol (EG), respectively. In addition, CdS nanoparticles with unique morphologies were obtained when the decomposition of the complex was carried out in mixed solvents (DPE–EG and ODE–EG). Extensive characterization of the CdS nanoparticles was carried out using powder X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy, thermal analysis, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy, and detailed mechanism of the formation of CdS nanoparticles with different morphologies in various solvents has been proposed

  19. Effects of cadmium chloride as inhibitor on stability and kinetics of immobilized Lactoperoxidase(LPO on silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles versus free LPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Babadaie Samani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Enzyme immobilization via nanoparticles is perfectly compatible against the other chemical or biological approximate to improve enzyme functions and stability. In this study lactoperoxidase was immobilized onto silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles to improve enzyme properties in the presence of cadmium chloride as an inhibitor. Materials and Methods:  The process consists of the following steps: (1 preparing magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles using the co-precipitation method, (2 coating NP with silica (SiO2 by sol–gel reaction, (3 characterizations of NPs were examined by FT-IR, XRD, AGFM and TEM. (4 Immobilization of LPO on the magnetite NPs, (5 Study kinetic and stability of both free and immobilized LPO in the presence of various concentrations of cadmium chloride. Results:  The size of the Fe3O4 and silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles were about 9 nm and 12 nm, respectively. The results showed that the highest immobilization yield, nearly 90 %, was attained at 240 to 300 µg of LPO at 15h. It was found that the concentration of cadmium chloride directly affects the LPO activity and changes the kinetic parameters of it. Also, the results showed that immobilized LPO has better tolerance than the free LPO, so that after immobilization, Vmax of immobilized LPO was increased and Km of immobilized LPO was decreased. Conclusion: The results demonstrating that the effect of immobilized lactoperoxidase on silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles increases the stability of the LPO in the presence of cadmium chloride as inhibitor. Michaelis–Menten parameters (Km and Vmax also revealed the considerable improvement of immobilized.

  20. Application of modified stir bar with nickel:zinc sulphide nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon as a sorbent for preconcentration of losartan and valsartan and their determination by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebdani, Arezou Amiri; Dadfarnia, Shayesteh; Shabani, Ali Mohammad Haji; Khodadoust, Saeid; Haghgoo, Soheila

    2016-03-11

    In this study, the stir bar was coated for the first time with the ​nicel:zins sulphide nanoparticles (Ni:ZnS NPs) loaded on activated carbon (AC) (Ni:ZnS-AC) as well as 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ionic liquid (IL) using sol gel technique and was used for stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) of losartan (LOS) and valsartan (VAL) as the model compounds. The extracted analytes were then quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with an ultra violet detector. The best extraction performance for LOS and VAL was obtained through the optimization of the parameters affecting SBSE including pH of sample solution, ionic strength, extraction time, volume of desorption solvent, desorption time, and stirring speed. The fractional factorial design (FFD) was used to find the most important parameters, which were then optimized by the central composite design (CCD) and the desirability function (DF). Under the optimal experimental conditions, wide linear ranges of 0.4-50μgL(-1) and 0.5-50μgL(-1) and good RSDs (at level of 5μgL(-1) and n=6) of 4.4 and 4.9% were obtained for LOS and VAL, respectively. With the enrichment factors (EFs) of 188.6 and 184.8-fold, the limits of detection (LODs, S/N=3) of the developed method were found to be 0.12 and 0.15μgL(-1) for LOS and VAL, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of LOS and VAL in urine and plasma matrices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthesis, Characterization and in Vitro Antibacterial Activities of CdO Nanoparticle and Nano-sheet Mixed-ligand of Cadmium(ІІ Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Rashidi Ranjbar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report the synthesis of a Schiff-base mixed-ligand complex of cadmium(ІІ in bulk and nano-scales via the precipitation and sonochemical methods, respectively. The complex formula is [Cd(3-bpdh(3-bpdbCl2]n (1, where the ligands are 3-bpdh = 2,5-bis(3-pyridyl-3,4-diaza-2,4-hexadiene and 3-bpdb = 1,4-bis(3-pyridyl-2,3-diaza-1,3-butadiene. The structure of mixed-ligand complex (1 was characterized by IR, 1H NMR and elemental analyses. Cadmium(ІІ oxide nanoparticles were prepared by direct thermolysis from nanosheet of complex (1. The cadmium(ІІ oxide structure was characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD and Energy Dispersive X-ray  analyses (EDAX. Size, morphology and structural dispersion of all obtained nanostructures were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The Schiff-base ligands, bulk and nano-scales of complex (1 and cadmium(ІІ oxide nanoparticles were analyzed for antibacterial activities against Bacillus alvei (bacteria causing the honey bee European foulbrood disease. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC has been shown moderate antibacterial activities compared with some other standard drugs. Known antibiotics like penicillin and SXT (Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole were used as positive control.

  2. Morphological and cytohistochemical evaluation of renal effects of cadmium-doped silica nanoparticles given intratracheally to rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coccini, T; Roda, E; Manzo, L; Barni, S

    2013-01-01

    Renal morphological parameters were determined in rats intratracheally instilled with model cadmium-containing silica nanoparticles (Cd-SiNPs, 1mg/rat), also exploring whether their potential modifications would be associated with toxicogenomic changes. Cd-SiNP effects, evaluated 7 and 30 days post-exposure, were assessed by (i) histopathology (Haematoxylin/Eosin Staining), (ii) characterization of apoptotic features by TUNEL staining. Data were compared with those obtained by CdCl 2 (400μg/rat), SiNPs (600μg/rat), 0.1 ml saline. Area-specific cell apoptosis was observed in all treatment groups: cortex and inner medulla were the most affected regions. Apoptotic changes were apparent at 7 days post-exposure in both areas, and were still observable in inner medulla 30 days after treatment. Increase in apoptotic frequency was more pronounced in Cd-SiNP-treated animals compared to either CdCl 2 or SiNPs. Histological findings showed comparable alterations in the renal glomerular (cortex) architecture occurring in all treatment groups at both time-points considered. The glomeruli appeared often collapsed, showing condensed, packed mesangial and endothelial cells. Oedematous haemorrhagic glomeruli were also observed in Cd-SiNPs-treated animals. Bare SiNPs caused morphological and apoptotic changes without modifying the renal gene expression profile. These findings support the concept that multiple assays and an integrated testing strategy should be recommended to characterize toxicological responses to nanoparticles in mammalian systems.

  3. Morphological and cytohistochemical evaluation of renal effects of cadmium-doped silica nanoparticles given intratracheally to rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccini, T.; Roda, E.; Barni, S.; Manzo, L.

    2013-04-01

    Renal morphological parameters were determined in rats intratracheally instilled with model cadmium-containing silica nanoparticles (Cd-SiNPs, 1mg/rat), also exploring whether their potential modifications would be associated with toxicogenomic changes. Cd-SiNP effects, evaluated 7 and 30 days post-exposure, were assessed by (i) histopathology (Haematoxylin/Eosin Staining), (ii) characterization of apoptotic features by TUNEL staining. Data were compared with those obtained by CdCl2 (400μg/rat), SiNPs (600μg/rat), 0.1 ml saline. Area-specific cell apoptosis was observed in all treatment groups: cortex and inner medulla were the most affected regions. Apoptotic changes were apparent at 7 days post-exposure in both areas, and were still observable in inner medulla 30 days after treatment. Increase in apoptotic frequency was more pronounced in Cd-SiNP-treated animals compared to either CdCl2 or SiNPs. Histological findings showed comparable alterations in the renal glomerular (cortex) architecture occurring in all treatment groups at both time-points considered. The glomeruli appeared often collapsed, showing condensed, packed mesangial and endothelial cells. Oedematous haemorrhagic glomeruli were also observed in Cd-SiNPs-treated animals. Bare SiNPs caused morphological and apoptotic changes without modifying the renal gene expression profile. These findings support the concept that multiple assays and an integrated testing strategy should be recommended to characterize toxicological responses to nanoparticles in mammalian systems.

  4. Preparation of manganese doped cadmium sulfide nanoparticles in zincblende phase and their magnetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaya, Masafumi; Tanaka, Itaru; Muramatsu, Atsushi

    2012-12-01

    In this study, the random dope of Mn into CdS nanoparticles in zincblende phase has been carried out under the mild reaction condition. The resulting nanoparticles were characterized by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), UV-Vis spectrometer, PL spectrometer, and SQUID. EDX showed that the compositions of Mn doped CdS nanoparticles were readily controlled. TEM showed the particle sizes were not significantly affected by the compositions, retaining to be ca. 3 nm with a narrow size distribution. UV-Vis and PL spectra of the resulting nanoparticles showed the intra-Mn level may be affected by the quantum size effect. SQUID measurement showed that the resulting nanoparticles showed diamagnetism, paramagnetism and superparamagnetism dependent on Mn content.

  5. The rapid size- and shape-controlled continuous hydrothermal synthesis of metal sulphide nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Peter W.; Starkey, Chris L.; Gimeno-Fabra, Miquel; Lester, Edward H.

    2014-01-01

    Continuous flow hydrothermal synthesis offers a cheap, green and highly scalable route for the preparation of inorganic nanomaterials which has predominantly been applied to metal oxide based materials. In this work we report the first continuous flow hydrothermal synthesis of metal sulphide nanomaterials. A wide range of binary metal sulphides, ZnS, CdS, PbS, CuS, Fe(1-x)S and Bi2S3, have been synthesised. By varying the reaction conditions two different mechanisms may be invoked; a growth dominated route which permits the formation of nanostructured sulphide materials, and a nucleation driven process which produces nanoparticles with temperature dependent size control. This offers a new and industrially viable route to a wide range of metal sulphide nanoparticles with facile size and shape control.Continuous flow hydrothermal synthesis offers a cheap, green and highly scalable route for the preparation of inorganic nanomaterials which has predominantly been applied to metal oxide based materials. In this work we report the first continuous flow hydrothermal synthesis of metal sulphide nanomaterials. A wide range of binary metal sulphides, ZnS, CdS, PbS, CuS, Fe(1-x)S and Bi2S3, have been synthesised. By varying the reaction conditions two different mechanisms may be invoked; a growth dominated route which permits the formation of nanostructured sulphide materials, and a nucleation driven process which produces nanoparticles with temperature dependent size control. This offers a new and industrially viable route to a wide range of metal sulphide nanoparticles with facile size and shape control. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, refinement procedure, fluorescence spectra of ZnS samples. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05749f

  6. Efficient removal of rhodamine 6G dye from aqueous solution using nickel sulphide incorporated polyacrylamide grafted gum karaya bionanocomposite hydrogel

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumar, N

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available polymer of the Gk with the PAAm was synthesized using the graft co-polymerization technique. In the second step, the nickel sulphide nanoparticles were incorporated in situ within the hydrogel polymer matrix. The synthesized hydrogel nanocomposite...

  7. Preparation of modified magnetic nanoparticles as a sorbent for the preconcentration and determination of cadmium ions in food and environmental water samples prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirabi, Ali; Dalirandeh, Zeinab [Department of Chemistry, Qaemshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rad, Ali Shokuhi, E-mail: a.shokuhi@qaemshahriau.ac.ir [Department of Chemical Engineering, Qaemshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-05-01

    A new method has been developed for the separation/preconcentration of trace level cadmium ions using diphenyl carbazone/sodium dodecyl sulfate immobilized on magnetic nanoparticle Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} as a new sorbent SPE and their determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Synthesized nanoparticle was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Various influencing parameters on the separation and preconcentration of trace level cadmium ions such as, pH value, amount of nanoparticles, amount of diphenyl carbazone, condition of eluting solution, the effects of matrix ions were examined. The cadmium ions can be eluted from the modified magnetic nanoparticle using 1 mol L{sup −1} HCl as a desorption reagent. The detection limit of this method for cadmium was 3.71 ng ml{sup −1} and the R.S.D. was 0.503% (n=6). The advantages of this new method include rapidity, easy preparation of sorbents and a high concentration factor. The proposed method has been applied to the determination of Cd ions at trace levels in real samples such as, green tea, rice, tobacco, carrot, lettuce, ginseng, spice, tap water, river water, sea water with satisfactory results. - Highlights: • MNPs method is economical, simple, rapid and sensitive for trace analysis of Cd. • High preconcentration factor was obtained easily through this method. • A detection limit at ng mL{sup −1} level was achieved with 100.0 mL of sample. • This method provides good repeatability and extraction efficiency in a short time.

  8. Preparation of modified magnetic nanoparticles as a sorbent for the preconcentration and determination of cadmium ions in food and environmental water samples prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirabi, Ali; Dalirandeh, Zeinab; Rad, Ali Shokuhi

    2015-01-01

    A new method has been developed for the separation/preconcentration of trace level cadmium ions using diphenyl carbazone/sodium dodecyl sulfate immobilized on magnetic nanoparticle Fe 3 O 4 as a new sorbent SPE and their determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Synthesized nanoparticle was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Various influencing parameters on the separation and preconcentration of trace level cadmium ions such as, pH value, amount of nanoparticles, amount of diphenyl carbazone, condition of eluting solution, the effects of matrix ions were examined. The cadmium ions can be eluted from the modified magnetic nanoparticle using 1 mol L −1 HCl as a desorption reagent. The detection limit of this method for cadmium was 3.71 ng ml −1 and the R.S.D. was 0.503% (n=6). The advantages of this new method include rapidity, easy preparation of sorbents and a high concentration factor. The proposed method has been applied to the determination of Cd ions at trace levels in real samples such as, green tea, rice, tobacco, carrot, lettuce, ginseng, spice, tap water, river water, sea water with satisfactory results. - Highlights: • MNPs method is economical, simple, rapid and sensitive for trace analysis of Cd. • High preconcentration factor was obtained easily through this method. • A detection limit at ng mL −1 level was achieved with 100.0 mL of sample. • This method provides good repeatability and extraction efficiency in a short time

  9. Fluorescent cadmium sulfide nanoparticles for selective and sensitive detection of toxic pesticides in aqueous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walia, Shanka; Acharya, Amitabha

    2014-01-01

    The detection of pesticide residues in ground water, food, or soil samples is extremely important. The currently available laboratory techniques have several drawbacks and needs to be replaced. Fluorescent chemosensors for pesticide detection were reported in the literature, with few reports published on quantum dot-based pesticide sensors, but none of these were focused toward differentiating organophosphorus and organochlorine pesticides specifically. In this respect, glutathione-coated CdS nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized. The TEM studies of the nanoparticles suggested mostly monodispersed spherical particles, with size in the range of 11.5±1 nm. The prepared fluorescent nanoparticles were found to selectively recognize organochlorine pesticide dicofol among all the other pesticides studied, by increasing the fluorescence intensity of the nanoparticles ∼ 2.5 times. Similar studies carried out with organophosphorous pesticide dimethoate did not result any change in the fluorescence intensity of the nanoparticles. Further studies carried out with commercially available pesticide solutions, also confirmed similar results. The TEM, SEM, and DLS studies suggested aggregation of the nanoparticles in the presence of dicofol. Control experiments suggested possible role of both amine and carboxylic acid functional groups of glutathione in the recognition of dicofol. The limit of detection of dicofol was found to be ∼ 55±11 ppb.Graphical AbstractGlutathione-coated CdS nanoparticles selectively recognize organochlorine pesticide dicofol among all the other pesticides studied, by increasing the fluorescence intensity of the nanoparticles. The TEM, SEM, and DLS studies suggested aggregation of the nanoparticles in the presence of dicofol

  10. Fluorescent cadmium sulfide nanoparticles for selective and sensitive detection of toxic pesticides in aqueous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walia, Shanka; Acharya, Amitabha, E-mail: amitabhachem@gmail.com [CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Biotechnology Division (India)

    2014-12-15

    The detection of pesticide residues in ground water, food, or soil samples is extremely important. The currently available laboratory techniques have several drawbacks and needs to be replaced. Fluorescent chemosensors for pesticide detection were reported in the literature, with few reports published on quantum dot-based pesticide sensors, but none of these were focused toward differentiating organophosphorus and organochlorine pesticides specifically. In this respect, glutathione-coated CdS nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized. The TEM studies of the nanoparticles suggested mostly monodispersed spherical particles, with size in the range of 11.5±1 nm. The prepared fluorescent nanoparticles were found to selectively recognize organochlorine pesticide dicofol among all the other pesticides studied, by increasing the fluorescence intensity of the nanoparticles ∼ 2.5 times. Similar studies carried out with organophosphorous pesticide dimethoate did not result any change in the fluorescence intensity of the nanoparticles. Further studies carried out with commercially available pesticide solutions, also confirmed similar results. The TEM, SEM, and DLS studies suggested aggregation of the nanoparticles in the presence of dicofol. Control experiments suggested possible role of both amine and carboxylic acid functional groups of glutathione in the recognition of dicofol. The limit of detection of dicofol was found to be ∼ 55±11 ppb.Graphical AbstractGlutathione-coated CdS nanoparticles selectively recognize organochlorine pesticide dicofol among all the other pesticides studied, by increasing the fluorescence intensity of the nanoparticles. The TEM, SEM, and DLS studies suggested aggregation of the nanoparticles in the presence of dicofol.

  11. Precipitation of metal sulphides using gaseous hydrogen sulphide: mathematical modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Tarazi, M.Y.M.; Heesink, Albertus B.M.; Versteeg, Geert

    2004-01-01

    A mathematical model has been developed that describes the precipitation of metal sulffides in an aqueous solution containing two different heavy metal ions. The solution is assumed to consist of a well-mixed bulk and a boundary layer that is contacted with hydrogen sulphide gas. The model makes use

  12. Biosynthesis and characterization of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles – An emphasis of zeta potential behavior due to capping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankhla, Aryan; Sharma, Rajeshwar; Yadav, Raghvendra Singh; Kashyap, Diwakar; Kothari, S.L.; Kachhwaha, S.

    2016-01-01

    Biological approaches have been amongst the most promising protocols for synthesis of nanomaterials. In this study, Cadmium sulfide nanoparticles (CdS NPs) were synthesized by incubating their precursor salts with Escherichia coli and zeta potential (ζ-potential) measurement with varying pH was carried out to evaluate stability of the colloidal dispersion. Formation of CdS NPs was studied in synchrony with microbial growth. TEM analysis confirmed the uniform distribution of NPs. Average size (5 ± 0.4 nm) and electron diffraction pattern revealed polycrystalline cubic crystal phase of these nanoparticles. X-ray diffractogram ascertained the formation of CdS nanoparticles with phase formation and particle size distribution in accordance with the particle size obtained from TEM. Absorption edge of biosynthesized CdS NPs showed a blue shift at ∼400 nm in comparison to their bulk counterpart. A hump at 279 nm indicated presence of biomolecules in the solution in addition to the particles. FT-IR spectrum of capped CdS NPs showed peaks of protein. This confirms adsorption of protein molecules on nanoparticle surface. They act as a capping agent hence responsible for the stability of NPs. The enhanced stability of the particles was confirmed by Zeta potential analysis. The presence of charge on the surface of capped CdS NPs gave a detail understanding of dispersion mechanism and colloidal stability at the NP interface. This stability study of biosynthesized semiconductor nanoparticles utilizing microbial cells had not been done in the past by any research group providing an impetus for the same. Surface area of capped CdS NPs and bare CdS NPs were found to be 298 ± 2.65 m 2 /g and 117 ± 2.41 m 2 /g respectively. A possible mechanism is also proposed for the biosynthesis of CdS NPs. - Highlights: • Synthesis of CdS NPs utilizing reproducible molecular machinery viz. Escherichia coli biomass. • Uniform and Polydispersed NPs with high surface area and

  13. Biosynthesis and characterization of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles – An emphasis of zeta potential behavior due to capping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sankhla, Aryan, E-mail: aaryansankhla@gmail.com [Centre for Converging Technologies, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, 302015 (India); Sharma, Rajeshwar; Yadav, Raghvendra Singh [Centre for Converging Technologies, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, 302015 (India); Kashyap, Diwakar [Department of Biological Chemistry, Ariel University, Ariel, 40700 (Israel); Kothari, S.L. [Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University, Jaipur, 303002 (India); Kachhwaha, S. [Department of Botany, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, 302004 (India)

    2016-02-15

    Biological approaches have been amongst the most promising protocols for synthesis of nanomaterials. In this study, Cadmium sulfide nanoparticles (CdS NPs) were synthesized by incubating their precursor salts with Escherichia coli and zeta potential (ζ-potential) measurement with varying pH was carried out to evaluate stability of the colloidal dispersion. Formation of CdS NPs was studied in synchrony with microbial growth. TEM analysis confirmed the uniform distribution of NPs. Average size (5 ± 0.4 nm) and electron diffraction pattern revealed polycrystalline cubic crystal phase of these nanoparticles. X-ray diffractogram ascertained the formation of CdS nanoparticles with phase formation and particle size distribution in accordance with the particle size obtained from TEM. Absorption edge of biosynthesized CdS NPs showed a blue shift at ∼400 nm in comparison to their bulk counterpart. A hump at 279 nm indicated presence of biomolecules in the solution in addition to the particles. FT-IR spectrum of capped CdS NPs showed peaks of protein. This confirms adsorption of protein molecules on nanoparticle surface. They act as a capping agent hence responsible for the stability of NPs. The enhanced stability of the particles was confirmed by Zeta potential analysis. The presence of charge on the surface of capped CdS NPs gave a detail understanding of dispersion mechanism and colloidal stability at the NP interface. This stability study of biosynthesized semiconductor nanoparticles utilizing microbial cells had not been done in the past by any research group providing an impetus for the same. Surface area of capped CdS NPs and bare CdS NPs were found to be 298 ± 2.65 m{sup 2}/g and 117 ± 2.41 m{sup 2}/g respectively. A possible mechanism is also proposed for the biosynthesis of CdS NPs. - Highlights: • Synthesis of CdS NPs utilizing reproducible molecular machinery viz. Escherichia coli biomass. • Uniform and Polydispersed NPs with high surface area

  14. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of cadmium-doped Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} nanoparticles under simulated solar light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Xu Chun, E-mail: songxuchunfj@163.com; Li, Wen Ting [Fujian Normal University, Department of Chemistry (China); Huang, Wan Zhen; Zhou, Huan [Zhejiang University of Technology, Research Center of Analysis and Measurement (China); Yin, Hao Yong [Hangzhou Dianzi University, Institute of Environmental Science and Engineering (China); Zheng, Yi Fan [Zhejiang University of Technology, Research Center of Analysis and Measurement (China)

    2015-03-15

    Novel cadmium-doped Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} nanoparticles with different Cd contents have been synthesized by a one-step route using ethylene glycol and water as solvents at 180 °C for 12 h. The as-synthesized samples were characterized in detailed by SEM, XRD, EDS, HRTEM, UV–Vis DRS, BET techniques, and so on. The results shown that with the increase of the Cd{sup 2+} addition, the crystal structure, lattice space, and absorption edge were not significantly changed and the calculated band gap value was 2.58 eV. However, the flower-like Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} sphere was gradually destroyed. Simultaneously, the surface area and photocurrent responses of the catalysts were greatly increased. Photocatalytic activity of the Cd-doped Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} samples was determined by monitoring the change of RhB concentration under simulated solar light. The results revealed that cadmium doping greatly improved the photocatalytic efficiency of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}. The Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} sample with R{sub Cd} = 0.05 displayed the highest photocatalytic activity, and the degradation rate is about two times greater than pure Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}. Moreover, the Cd–Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} photocatalyst remained stable even after five consecutive cycles. A possible mechanism of photocatalytic activity enhancement on basis of the experimental results was proposed.

  15. Flotation of sulphide minerals 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forssberg, K S.E. [ed.; Luleaa University of Technology, Luleaa (Sweden). Division of Mineral Processing

    1991-01-01

    A total of 27 papers presented at the workshop on flotation of sulphide minerals, reprinted from the International Journal of Mineral Processing, vol. 33, nos. 1-4, are included in this book. They cover various aspects of flotation of such minerals as chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, galena, malachite and pyrite.

  16. Diffusion mediated agglomeration of CdS nanoparticles via Langmuir–Blodgett technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Nayan Mani; Roy, Dhrubojyoti; Gupta, P.S.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Diffusion mediated agglomeration of CdS nanoparticles are discussed. • Formation of CdS nanoparticles are confirmed by the change of chain length in XRD. • AFM shows the agglomeration of particles with a film swelling of about 5 Å. • UV–vis absorbance suggests that the grown particles show quantum confinement. • Hexagonal form of particle was confirmed by UV–vis reflectivity. - Abstract: We have reported a diffusion mediated agglomeration of cadmium sulphide (CdS) nanoparticles within cadmium arachidate (CdA 2 ) film matrix. The structural morphology and formation of CdS nanoparticles are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray reflectivity (XRR), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy techniques. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show a change in bilayer difference from 53.04 Å to 43 Å after the sulphidation. An epitaxial growth of the films by ∼5 Å after sulphidation is confirmed from atomic force microscopy studies. The particle size calculated form UV–vis absorption edges are found to be varying from 2.6 nm to 3.3 nm for the different layers. A lateral dimension of 72–80 nm from AFM measurements and a size of 2.6–3.3 nm have confirmed one side flat pseudo two-dimensional disk-like nanoparticles. UV–vis reflectivity peak at E 1 (A) confirms the formation of hexagonal CdS nanoparticles along the c-axis

  17. Synthesis and optical properties of CdS/ZnS coreshell nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraswathi Amma, B.; Manzoor, K.; Ramakrishna, K.; Pattabi, Manjunatha

    2008-01-01

    Synthesis and optical properties of manganese (Mn 2+ )-doped, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP)-capped cadmium sulphide (CdS) nanoparticles coated with zinc sulphide (ZnS) are reported. Colloidal solution of Mn 2+ -doped CdS nanoparticles capped with PVP is synthesized using methanol as solvent. PVP is used to control the particle size and to prevent agglomeration. Mn 2+ doping is expected to help in increasing the CdS band edge photoluminescence (PL) emission. Addition of zinc nitrate and sodium sulphide alternately to the Mn 2+ -doped, PVP-stabilized CdS colloid led to the formation of ZnS-coated CdS coreshell nanoparticles. Photoluminescence emission spectra recorded for (CdS-PVP)Mn nanoparticles showed two emission peaks, one at 416 nm and the other weaker peak at 586 nm which is attributed to Mn 2+ emission. Intensity of Mn 2+ peak increased with increase in the Mn 2+ content. Mn 2+ emission disappears when ZnS is coated over the CdS core, resulting in pure CdS band edge emission

  18. Synthesis, characterization and biocompatibility of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles capped with dextrin for in vivo and in vitro imaging application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; Martínez-Mena, Alberto; Gutiérrez-Sancha, Ivonne; Rodríguez-Fragoso, Patricia; de la Cruz, Gerardo Gonzalez; Mondragón, R; Rodríguez-Fragoso, Lourdes

    2015-11-17

    The safe use in biomedicine of semiconductor nanoparticles, also known as quantum dots (QDs), requires a detailed understanding of the biocompatibility and toxicity of QDs in human beings. The biological characteristics and physicochemical properties of QDs entail new challenges regarding the management of potential adverse health effects following exposure. At certain concentrations, the synthesis of semiconductor nanoparticles of CdS using dextrin as capping agent, at certain concentration, to reduce their toxicity and improves their biocompatibility. This study successfully synthesized and characterized biocompatible dextrin-coated cadmium sulfide nanoparticles (CdS-Dx/QDs). The results show that CdS-Dx/QDs are cytotoxic at high concentrations (>2 μg/mL) in HepG2 and HEK293 cells. At low concentrations (nanoparticles only induced cell death by apoptosis in HEK293 cells at 1 μg/mL concentrations. The in vitro results showed that the cells efficiently took up the CdS-Dx/QDs and this resulted in strong fluorescence. The subcellular localization of CdS-Dx/QDs were usually small and apparently unique in the cytoplasm in HeLa cells but, in the case of HEK293 cells it were more abundant and found in cytoplasm and the nucleus. Animals treated with 100 μg/kg of CdS-Dx/QDs and sacrificed at 3, 7 and 18 h showed a differential distribution in their organs. Intense fluorescence was detected in lung and kidney, with moderate fluorescence detected in liver, spleen and brain. The biocompatibility and toxicity of CdS-Dx/QDs in animals treated daily with 100 μg/kg for 1 week showed the highest level of fluorescence in kidney, liver and brain. Less fluorescence was detected in lung and spleen. There was also evident presence of fluorescence in testis. The histopathological and biochemical analyses showed that CdS-Dx/QDs were non-toxic for rodents. The in vitro and in vivo studies confirmed the effective cellular uptake and even distribution pattern of CdS-Dx/QDs in tissues

  19. Enhanced phosphorescence and electroluminescence in triplet emitters by doping gold into cadmium selenide/zinc sulfide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.-W.; Laskar, Inamur R.; Huang, C.-P.; Cheng, J.-A.; Cheng, S.-S.; Luo, L.-Y.; Wang, H.-R.; Chen, T.-M.

    2005-01-01

    Gold-cadmium selenide/zinc sulfide (Au-CdSe/ZnS) nanocomposites (NCs) were synthesized and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, ultraviolet-visible (UV-visible) absorption and photoluminescence (PL) emission spectroscopy. The PL intensity in the Au-CdSe/ZnS NCs system was found to be much greater than that of CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles (NPs) alone, because of the surface-enhanced Raman scattering of Au NPs. Adding Au-CdSe/ZnS NCs to the cyclometalated iridium(III) complex (Ir-complex) greatly enhanced the PL intensity of a triplet emitter. Three double-layered electroluminescence (EL) devices were fabricated where the emitting zone contains the definite mixture of Ir-complex and the NCs [molar concentration of Ir-complex/NCs = 1:0 (Blank, D-1), 1:1 (D-2) and 1:3 (D-3)] and the device D-2 exhibited optimal EL performances

  20. Size-controlled one-pot synthesis of fluorescent cadmium sulfide semiconductor nanoparticles in an apoferritin cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwahori, K; Yamashita, I

    2008-01-01

    A simple size-controlled synthesis of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticle (NP) cores in the cavity of apoferritin from horse spleen (HsAFr) was performed by a slow chemical reaction synthesis and a two-step synthesis protocol. We found that the CdS NP core synthesis was slow and that premature CdS NP cores were formed in the apoferritin cavity when the concentration of ammonia water was low. It was proven that the control of the ammonia water concentration can govern the CdS NP core synthesis and successfully produce size-controlled CdS NP cores with diameters from 4.7 to 7.1 nm with narrow size dispersion. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) observation characterized the CdS NP cores obtained as cubic polycrystalline NPs, which showed photoluminescence with red shifts depending on their diameters. From the research of CdS NP core synthesis in the recombinant apoferritins, the zeta potential of apoferritin is important for the biomineralization of CdS NP cores in the apoferritin cavity. These synthesized CdS NPs with different photoluminescence properties will be applicable in a wide variety of nano-applications.

  1. Interactions between TiO2 nanoparticles and cadmium: consequences for uptake and ecotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, B.; Baun, Anders

    2011-01-01

    As a consequence of the increasing use of engineered nanoparticles in e.g. industrial applications and consumer products, these particles will be released into the aquatic environment. They will be present in the water phase where they are likely to form aggregates/agglomerates. Through sedimenta...

  2. Synthesis and shape control of copper tin sulphide nanocrystals and formation of gold-copper tin sulphide hybrid nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruszynska, Marta; Parisi, Juergen; Kolny-Olesiak, Joanna [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Physics, Energy and Semiconductor Research Lab.

    2014-08-15

    Hexagonal prismatic Cu{sub 3}SnS{sub 4} nanoparticles and nanorods were synthesized by a hot-injection procedure. Changing the reaction conditions leads to the formation of different shapes. When oleylamine is used as a solvent, hexagonal prismatic particles are obtained, while a reaction in octadecene results in the formation of nanorods. The growth process of copper tin sulphide starts with the formation of djurleite copper sulphide seeds. Their reaction with Sn{sup 4+} ions leads to the formation of Cu{sub 3}SnS{sub 4}. These Cu{sub 3}SnS{sub 4} nanocrystals form Au-Cu{sub 3}SnS{sub 4} hybrid nanostructures by reaction with gold seeds.

  3. Cadmium colours: composition and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulus, J.; Knuutinen, U.

    2004-01-01

    The composition and the properties of cadmium aquarelle colours are discussed. The examined colours were 24 different aquarelle cadmium colours from six different manufacturers. The colours ranged from light, bright yellows to dark, deep-red tones. The aim of this research was to find out if the pigments contain cadmium salts: sulphides and/or selenides. This information will help in choosing watercolours in conservation processes. Today, aquarelle colours not containing cadmium pigments are being sold as cadmium colours; thus their properties might be different from actual cadmium colours. The aim of the research was to verify that the colour samples contained cadmium pigments and to estimate their compositions and ageing properties. Element analyses were performed from colour samples using micro-chemical tests and X-ray fluorescence measurements. Thin-layer chromatography was used for analysing gum Arabic as a possible binding medium in the chosen colour samples. Through ageing tests, the resistance of the colour samples to the exposure to light, heat and humidity was studied. Visible-light spectroscopy was used in determining the hues and hue changes of the aquarelle colour samples. The spectrophotometer used the CIE L * a * b * tone colour measuring system. From the colour measurements the changes in the lightness/darkness, the redness, the yellowness and the saturation of the samples were examined. (orig.)

  4. Structural studies of thin films of semiconducting nanoparticles in polymer matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Luccio, Tiziana; Piscopiello, Emanuela; Laera, Anna Maria; Antisari, Marco Vittori

    2007-01-01

    Ordered films of nanoscale materials are issue of wide interest for applications in several fields, such as optics, catalysis, and bioelectronics. In particular, semiconducting nanoparticles incorporation in a processable polymer film is an easy way to manipulate such materials for their application. We deposited thin layers of cadmium sulphide (CdS) and zinc sulphide (ZnS) nanoparticles embedded in a thermoplastic cyclo-olephin copolymer (COC) with elevated optical transparency and highly bio-compatible. The nanoparticles were obtained by thiolate precursors previously dispersed in the polymer upon thermal treatment at temperatures ranging between 200 and 300 deg. C depending on the desired size. The precursor/polymer solutions were spin-coated in order to get thin films. The spinning conditions were changed in order to optimise the layer thickness and uniformity. The samples were mainly characterised by X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analyses. The thinnest layer we have deposited is 8 nm thick, as evaluated by XRR. The HRTEM measurements showed that the nanoparticles have quasi-spherical shape without evident microstructural defects. The size of the nanoparticles depends on the annealing temperature, e.g. at 232 deg. C the size of the CdS nanoparticles is about 4-5 nm

  5. Structural studies of thin films of semiconducting nanoparticles in polymer matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Luccio, Tiziana [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Brindisi, SS7 Appia Km 706, I-72100 Brindisi (Italy)], E-mail: tiziana.diluccio@portici.enea.it; Piscopiello, Emanuela; Laera, Anna Maria [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Brindisi, SS7 Appia Km 706, I-72100 Brindisi (Italy); Antisari, Marco Vittori [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, I-00060 S. Maria di Galeria (Roma) (Italy)

    2007-09-15

    Ordered films of nanoscale materials are issue of wide interest for applications in several fields, such as optics, catalysis, and bioelectronics. In particular, semiconducting nanoparticles incorporation in a processable polymer film is an easy way to manipulate such materials for their application. We deposited thin layers of cadmium sulphide (CdS) and zinc sulphide (ZnS) nanoparticles embedded in a thermoplastic cyclo-olephin copolymer (COC) with elevated optical transparency and highly bio-compatible. The nanoparticles were obtained by thiolate precursors previously dispersed in the polymer upon thermal treatment at temperatures ranging between 200 and 300 deg. C depending on the desired size. The precursor/polymer solutions were spin-coated in order to get thin films. The spinning conditions were changed in order to optimise the layer thickness and uniformity. The samples were mainly characterised by X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analyses. The thinnest layer we have deposited is 8 nm thick, as evaluated by XRR. The HRTEM measurements showed that the nanoparticles have quasi-spherical shape without evident microstructural defects. The size of the nanoparticles depends on the annealing temperature, e.g. at 232 deg. C the size of the CdS nanoparticles is about 4-5 nm.

  6. A comprehensive study on the photocatalytic activity of coupled copper oxide-cadmium sulfide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senobari, Samaneh; Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Alireza

    2018-05-01

    Coupled CdS-CuO nanoparticles (NPs) subjected in the photocatalytic degradation of Methylene blue (MB) aqueous solution. The calcination temperature and the crystallite phase of CuO had a significant role on the photocatalytic activity of the coupled system and CuO200/2h-CdS catalyst (containing CuO calcined at 200 °C for 2 h) showed the best photocatalytic activity. The coupled system showed increased activity with respect to the monocomponent semiconductors. The prepared catalysts characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyzer, x-ray mapping, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The best degradation extent of MB was obtained at: CMB: 1 mg L-1, pH 5, 80 min irradiation time and 0.8 g L-1 of the CuO200/2h-CdS catalyst. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) confirmed about 83% of MB molecules can be mineralized at the optimum conditions.

  7. Toxicity of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles against Escherichia coli and HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, Sk Tofajjen; Mukherjee, Samir Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Toxic effect of CdS NPs on the growth and cell division in E. coli was studied. • CdS NPs affected cell surface topology and cell division. • Downregulation of both FtsZ and FtsQ was observed due to NPs exposure. • CdS NPs affected HeLa cell morphology with fragmented nuclei. • All such effects might be due to elevated oxidative stress. -- Abstract: The present study endeavours to assess the toxic effect of synthesized CdS nanoparticles (NPs) on Escherichia coli and HeLa cells. The CdS NPs were characterized by DLS, XRD, TEM and AFM studies and the average size of NPs was revealed as ∼3 nm. On CdS NPs exposure bacterial cells changed morphological features to filamentous form and damage of the cell surface was found by AFM study. The expression of two conserved cell division components namely ftsZ and ftsQ in E. coli was decreased both at transcriptional and translational levels upon CdS NPs exposure. CdS NPs inhibited proper cell septum formation without affecting the nucleoid segregation. Viability of HeLa cells declined with increasing concentration of CdS NPs and the IC 50 value was found to be 4 μg/mL. NPs treated HeLa cells showed changed morphology with condensed and fragmented nuclei. Increased level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was found both in E. coli and HeLa cells on CdS NPs exposure. The inverse correlation between declined cell viabilities and elevated ROS level suggested that oxidative stress seems to be the key event by which NPs induce toxicity both in E. coli and HeLa cells

  8. Properties of gallium lanthanum sulphide glass

    OpenAIRE

    Bastock, P.; Craig, C.; Khan, K.; Weatherby, E.; Yao, J.; Hewak, D.W.

    2015-01-01

    A series of gallium lanthanum sulphide (GLS) glasses has been studied in order to ascertain properties across the entire glass forming region. This is the first comprehensive study of GLS glass over a wide compositional range.

  9. Sensitive and selective colorimetric detection of cadmium(II) using gold nanoparticles modified with 4-amino-3-hydrazino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ai-Jun; Feng, Jiu-Ju; Guo, Han; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Rui-Zhi; Zhou, Dan-Ling

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a simple, sensitive and selective colorimetric method for the detection of cadmium(II) (Cd 2+ ) using gold nanoparticles modified with 4-amino-3-hydrazino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole. Organic solvents or additives are not required. It is found that Cd 2+ induces the aggregation of the modified Au-NPs via chelation, leading to a color change from red to blue. This change can be seen with bare eyes, and monitored by UV–vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The detection limit is 30 nM (at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3). The new approach was successfully applied to the detection of Cd 2+ in spiked samples of tap water and lake water, and the results agree well with those obtained by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. (author)

  10. Co-exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles does not affect cadmium toxicity in radish seeds (Raphanus sativus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manesh, R Roshan; Grassi, G; Bergami, E; Marques-Santos, L F; Faleri, C; Liberatori, G; Corsi, I

    2018-02-01

    Recent developments on environmental fate models indicate that as nano waste, engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) could reach terrestrial ecosystems thus potentially affecting environmental and human health. Plants can be therefore exposed to ENMs but controversial data in terms of fate and toxicity are currently available. Furthermore, there is a current lack of information on complex interactions/transformations to which ENMs undergo in the natural environment as for instance interacting with existing toxic compounds. The aim of the present study was to assess the behavior and biological effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (n-TiO 2 ) (Aeroxide P25, Degussa Evonik) and its interaction with cadmium (CdCl 2 ) in plants using radish seeds (Raphanus sativus L. Parvus) as model species. Radish seeds were exposed to n-TiO 2 (1-1000mg/L) and CdCl 2 (1-250mg/L) alone and in combination using a seed germination and seedling growth toxicity test OECD 208. Percentage of seed germination, germination index (GI) and root elongation were calculated. Cell morphology and oxidative stress parameters as glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase activities (CAT) were measured in radish seeds after 5 days of exposure. Z-Average, PdI and Z-potential of n-TiO 2 in Milli-Q water as exposure medium were also determined. DLS analysis showed small aggregates of n-TiO 2 , negative Z-potential and stable PdI in seed's exposure media. Germination percentage, GI and root length resulted affected by n-TiO 2 exposure compared to controls. In particular, n-TiO 2 at 1mg/L and 100mg/L did not affect radish seeds germination (100%) while at concentration of 10mg/L, 200mg/L, 500mg/L, and 1000mg/L a slight but not significant decrease of germination % was observed. Similarly root length and GI resulted significantly higher in seeds exposed to 10mg/L and 200mg/L compared to 1mg/L, 100mg/L, 500mg/L, 1000mg/L and control (p germination % and GI compared to control seeds and a concentration dependent

  11. Cadmium carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waalkes, Michael P.

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium is a heavy metal of considerable environmental and occupational concern. Cadmium compounds are classified as human carcinogens by several regulatory agencies. The most convincing data that cadmium is carcinogenic in humans comes from studies indicating occupational cadmium exposure is associated with lung cancer. Cadmium exposure has also been linked to human prostate and renal cancer, although this linkage is weaker than for lung cancer. Other target sites of cadmium carcinogenesis in humans, such as liver, pancreas and stomach, are considered equivocal. In animals, cadmium effectively induces cancers at multiple sites and by various routes. Cadmium inhalation in rats induces pulmonary adenocarcinomas, in accord with its role in human lung cancer. Cadmium can induce tumors and/or preneoplastic lesions within the rat prostate after ingestion or injection. At relatively high doses, cadmium induces benign testicular tumors in rats, but these appear to be due to early toxic lesions and loss of testicular function, rather than from a specific carcinogenic effect of cadmium. Like many other metals, cadmium salts will induce mesenchymal tumors at the site of subcutaneous (s.c.) or intramuscular (i.m.) injections, but the human relevance of these is dubious. Other targets of cadmium in rodents include the liver, adrenal, pancreas, pituitary, and hematopoietic system. With the exception of testicular tumors in rodents, the mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis are poorly defined. Cadmium can cause any number of molecular lesions that would be relevant to oncogenesis in various cellular model systems. Most studies indicate cadmium is poorly mutagenic and probably acts through indirect or epigenetic mechanisms, potentially including aberrant activation of oncogenes and suppression of apoptosis

  12. Cadmium carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waalkes, Michael P

    2003-12-10

    Cadmium is a heavy metal of considerable environmental and occupational concern. Cadmium compounds are classified as human carcinogens by several regulatory agencies. The most convincing data that cadmium is carcinogenic in humans comes from studies indicating occupational cadmium exposure is associated with lung cancer. Cadmium exposure has also been linked to human prostate and renal cancer, although this linkage is weaker than for lung cancer. Other target sites of cadmium carcinogenesis in humans, such as liver, pancreas and stomach, are considered equivocal. In animals, cadmium effectively induces cancers at multiple sites and by various routes. Cadmium inhalation in rats induces pulmonary adenocarcinomas, in accord with its role in human lung cancer. Cadmium can induce tumors and/or preneoplastic lesions within the rat prostate after ingestion or injection. At relatively high doses, cadmium induces benign testicular tumors in rats, but these appear to be due to early toxic lesions and loss of testicular function, rather than from a specific carcinogenic effect of cadmium. Like many other metals, cadmium salts will induce mesenchymal tumors at the site of subcutaneous (s.c.) or intramuscular (i.m.) injections, but the human relevance of these is dubious. Other targets of cadmium in rodents include the liver, adrenal, pancreas, pituitary, and hematopoietic system. With the exception of testicular tumors in rodents, the mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis are poorly defined. Cadmium can cause any number of molecular lesions that would be relevant to oncogenesis in various cellular model systems. Most studies indicate cadmium is poorly mutagenic and probably acts through indirect or epigenetic mechanisms, potentially including aberrant activation of oncogenes and suppression of apoptosis.

  13. Pyridine-functionalized Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles as a novel sorbent for the preconcentration of lead and cadmium ions in tree leaf as a bioindicator of urban traffic pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, Omid; Zhad, Hamid Reza Lotfi Zadeh; Sadeghi, Omid; Amani, Vahid; Najafi, Ezzatolla; Tavassoli, Najmeh

    2012-12-01

    We have developed a facile and highly sensitive sorbent for cadmium and lead ions. It is based on Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles functionalized with a derivative of picoline and was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, differential thermographic analysis, and elemental analysis. The material can be applied to the preconcentration of lead and cadmium ions. Factors such as the type, concentration and volume of eluent, the pH of the sample solution, the time for extraction, and the volume of the sample were studied. The effects of a variety of ions on preconcentration and recovery of these ions were also investigated. The ions were determined by FAAS, and the limits of detection are lead and cadmium, respectively. Recoveries and precisions are >98.0 % and <1.3 %, respectively. The method was validated by analyzing several certified leaf reference materials.

  14. The toxic effects of l-Cysteine-capped cadmium sulfide nanoparticles on the aquatic plant Spirodela polyrrhiza

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khataee, Alireza; Movafeghi, Ali; Nazari, Fatemeh; Vafaei, Fatemeh; Dadpour, Mohammad Reza; Hanifehpour, Younes; Joo, Sang Woo

    2014-01-01

    Plants play an important role in the fate of nanoparticles in the environment through their uptake, bioaccumulation, and transfer to trophic chains. However, the impacts of nanoparticles on plants as essential components of all ecosystems are not well documented. In the present study, the toxic effects of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles on Spirodela polyrrhiza as an aquatic higher plant species were studied. l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles were synthesized using hydrothermal method and their characteristics were determined by XRD, SEM, HR-TEM, and FT-IR techniques. The diameter of majority of synthesized nanoparticles was about 15–20 nm. Subsequently, the uptake of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles by the plant species was confirmed using epifluorescence microscopy. The activity of peroxidase and superoxide dismutase as antioxidant enzymes was assayed and the relative frond number was calculated in the presence of different concentrations of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles. The obtained results revealed the toxic effects of the synthesized nanoparticles on S. polyrrhiza, leading to growth reduction and significant changes in antioxidant enzymes’ activity.Graphical Abstract

  15. The toxic effects of l-Cysteine-capped cadmium sulfide nanoparticles on the aquatic plant Spirodela polyrrhiza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khataee, Alireza, E-mail: ar_khataee@yahoo.com [University of Tabriz, Research Laboratory of Advanced Water and Wastewater Treatment Processes, Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Movafeghi, Ali [University of Tabriz, Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nazari, Fatemeh [University of Tabriz, Research Laboratory of Advanced Water and Wastewater Treatment Processes, Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vafaei, Fatemeh [University of Tabriz, Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dadpour, Mohammad Reza [University of Tabriz, Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hanifehpour, Younes; Joo, Sang Woo, E-mail: swjoo@yu.ac.kr [Yeungnam University, School of Mechanical Engineering (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Plants play an important role in the fate of nanoparticles in the environment through their uptake, bioaccumulation, and transfer to trophic chains. However, the impacts of nanoparticles on plants as essential components of all ecosystems are not well documented. In the present study, the toxic effects of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles on Spirodela polyrrhiza as an aquatic higher plant species were studied. l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles were synthesized using hydrothermal method and their characteristics were determined by XRD, SEM, HR-TEM, and FT-IR techniques. The diameter of majority of synthesized nanoparticles was about 15–20 nm. Subsequently, the uptake of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles by the plant species was confirmed using epifluorescence microscopy. The activity of peroxidase and superoxide dismutase as antioxidant enzymes was assayed and the relative frond number was calculated in the presence of different concentrations of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles. The obtained results revealed the toxic effects of the synthesized nanoparticles on S. polyrrhiza, leading to growth reduction and significant changes in antioxidant enzymes’ activity.Graphical Abstract.

  16. Mesophilic leaching of copper sulphide sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMIR B. CVETKOVSKI

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Copper was precipitated using a sodium sulphide solution as the precipitation agent from an acid solution containing 17 g/l copper and 350 g/l sulphuric acid. The particle size of nearly 1 µm in the sulphide sludge sample was detected by optical microscopy. Based on chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses, covellite was detected as the major sulphide mineral. The batch bioleach amenability test was performed at 32 °C on the Tk31 mine mesophilic mixed culture using a residence time of 28 days. The dissolution of copper sulphide by direct catalytic leaching of the sulphides with bacteria attached to the particles was found to be worthy, although a small quantity of ferrous ions had to be added to raise the activity of the bacteria and the redox potential of the culture medium. Throughout the 22-day period of the bioleach test, copper recovery based on residue analysis indicated a copper extraction of 95 %, with copper concentration in the bioleach solution of 15 g/l. The slope of the straight line tangential to the exponential part of the extraction curve gave a copper solubilisation rate of 1.1 g/l per day. This suggests that a copper extraction of 95 % for the period of bioleach test of 13.6 days may be attained in a three-stage bioreactor system.

  17. Covalent attachment of thionine onto gold electrode modified with cadmium sulfide nanoparticles: Improvement of electrocatalytic and photelectrocatalytic reduction of hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salimi, Abdollah; Rahmatpanah, Rojzin; Hallaj, Rahman; Roushani, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    A newly developed strategy based on gold (Au) electrode modified with cadmium sulfide nanoparticles (CdSnp) and thionine (Th) was proposed toward electrocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) reduction. At first, a thin film of CdS nanoparticles was electrodeposited onto Au electrode. Then, the CdS/Au electrode was modified with mercaptoacetic acid (MAA), which not only acts as a stabilizing agent to prevent the chalcogenide CdS nanocrystals from aggregation but also as a linker for subsequent attachment of Th onto the CdS nanoparticles. The effective covalent immobilization of Th was achieved through amide bond formation reaction between -NH 2 groups of Th and -COOH groups of MAA, using dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) as condensation agent. The Au/CdS/Th modified electrode showed a well-defined redox couple with surface confined characteristics at wide pH range (2–12). The heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (k s ) and the surface coverage of immobilized Th on the modified electrode was obtained as 0.12 s −1 and 4.35 × 10 −9 mole cm −2 , respectively. The electrocatalytic activity and stability of the modified electrode toward hydrogen peroxide reduction was investigated and it was found that the Au/CdS/Th electrode illustrates excellent electrocatalytic activity toward H 2 O 2 reduction at reduced overpotential. The detection limit, sensitivity and catalytic rate constant (k cat ) of the modified electrode toward H 2 O 2 were 55 nM, 3.4 μA μM −1 cm −2 and 3.75 (±0.1) × 10 3 M −1 s −1 , respectively, at linear concentration range up to 10 mM. Upon light irradiation, about two-fold improvements were attained in sensitivity and detection limit of the modified electrode toward H 2 O 2 electrocatalytic determination

  18. Fungal-Transformation of Surrogate Sulphides and Carbonaceous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    boundaries or fractures of sulphides, typically pyrite and arsenopyrite. ... phur in the residual sulphidic materials, and by determining the preg-robbing effect of the treated CM. Within 21 ..... The forms of sulphur in sulphur compounds are gen-.

  19. Development of the floating sulphur biofilm reactor for sulphide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of the floating sulphur biofilm reactor for sulphide oxidation in biological water treatment systems. ... The effect of influent sulphide concentrations, flow rate and reactor dimensions on the sulphur biofilm formation were investigated for the optimisation of elemental sulphur recovery and sulphide removal ...

  20. Identification, characterization and expression profiles of Chironomus riparius glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes in response to cadmium and silver nanoparticles exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Prakash M. Gopalakrishnan [School of Environmental Engineering and Graduate School of Energy and Environmental System Engineering, University of Seoul, 90 Jeonnong-dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-743 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jinhee, E-mail: jinhchoi@uos.ac.kr [School of Environmental Engineering and Graduate School of Energy and Environmental System Engineering, University of Seoul, 90 Jeonnong-dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-743 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    In this study, we report the identification and characterization of 13 cytosolic GST genes in Chironomus riparius from Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) database generated using pyrosequencing. Comparative and phylogenetic analyses were undertaken with Drosophila melanogaster and Anopheles gambiae GSTs and 3 Delta, 4 Sigma, 1 each in Omega, Epsilon, Theta, Zeta and 2 unclassified classes of GSTs were identified and characterized. The relative mRNA expression levels of all of the C. riparius GSTs (CrGSTs) genes under different developmental stages were varied with low expression in the larval stage. The antioxidant role of CrGSTs was studied by exposing fourth instar larvae to a known oxidative stress inducer Paraquat and the relative mRNA expression to different concentrations of cadmium (Cd) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) for various time intervals were also studied. All the CrGSTs showed up- or down regulation to varying levels based upon the concentration, and duration of exposure. The highest mRNA expression was noticed in Delta3, Sigma4 and Epsilon1 GST class in all treatments. These results show the role of CrGST genes in defense against oxidative stress and its potential as a biomarker to Cd and AgNPs exposure.

  1. An evolutionary perspective on the immunomodulatory role of hydrogen sulphide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers-Auty, J

    2015-11-01

    Most preclinical studies on endogenous hydrogen sulphide signalling have given little consideration to the fact that the human body contains more bacterial cells than human cells, and that evolution provides the context for all biology. Whether hydrogen sulphide is pro or anti-inflammatory is heavily debated within the literature, yet researchers have not fully considered that invasive bacteria produce hydrogen sulphide, often at levels far above the endogenous levels of the host. Here I argue that if hydrogen sulphide is an endogenous signalling molecule with immunomodulatory functions, then it must have evolved in the presence of virulent bacteria which produce hydrogen sulphide. This context leads to two competing theories about the evolution of endogenous hydrogen sulphide signalling. The detectable emission theory proposes that bacteria produce hydrogen sulphide as part of normal metabolism and hosts which evolved to detect and respond to this hydrogen sulphide would gain a selective survival advantage. This predicts that the endogenous production of hydrogen sulphide is a mechanism which amplifies the bacterial hydrogen sulphide signal. The opposing protective agent theory predicts that bacterial hydrogen sulphide is an effective defence against the bactericidal mechanisms of the host's immune response. In this case, endogenous hydrogen sulphide production is either at inconsequential levels to alter the immune response, or is involved in the inflammation resolution process. Evidence suggests that the direct interactions of hydrogen sulphide with the bactericidal mechanisms of the innate immune system are most congruent with the protective agent theory. Therefore, I argue that if hydrogen sulphide is an immunomodulatory endogenous signalling molecule its effects are most likely anti-inflammatory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of ascorbic acid-stabilized zero valent iron nanoparticles on the distribution of different forms of cadmium in three spiked soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohaddese Savasari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Increases in pollution of water resources due to the contaminants have made researchers to develop the various methods in the remediation and the reuses of polluted resources contamination of soils with heavy metals is one of great environmental concerns for the human beings. Cadmium (Cd as a toxic heavy metal is of significant environmental and occupational concern. Contamination of soils with heavy metals is one of great environmental concerns for the human beings. The numbers of sorbents that have been used for Cd (II reductive removal are biopolymers, fly ash, activated carbon, metal oxides, clays, zeolites, dried plant parts, microorganisms, and sewage sludge. However, most of the mentioned sorbents had limitations of cost and durability that call a needed approach by cost effective remediation technique with high efficiency. Application of zero valent iron nanoparticles (ZVINs as a promising technique for remediation of heavy metals are being increasingly considered by researchers. This study was conducted to synthesis and characterize the ZVINs stabilized with ascorbic acid (AAS - ZVIN in aerobic conditions and to assess their ability for removal efficiency of cadmium (Cd from the soils and changes in different fraction of Cd in three spiked soils including sandy, acidity and calcareous soils were also studied. Materials and Methods: The stabilized ZVINs were prepared in cold distilled water by reducing Fe (III to Fe0 using sodium borohydride in the presence of ascorbic acid as stabilizer and reducing agent. The freshly synthesized AAS-ZVIN washed three times and then used for the subsequent analysis. Characterization of the synthesized AAS-ZVIN was carried out by scanning electron microscope (SEM. X-ray diffraction (XRD was performed using a Philips D500 diffract meter with Ni-filtered Cu ka radiation. To determine the availability of Cd, the DTPA-extractable amounts of Cd in the spiked soils so sandy, acid and calcareous

  3. Voltammetric Determination of Lead (II) and Cadmium (II) Using a Bismuth Film Electrode Modified with Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Die; Wang, Liang; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    A new chemically modified glassy carbon electrode based on bismuth film coated mesoporous silica nanoparticles was developed and evaluated for reliable quantification of trace Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ by anodic stripping square wave voltammetry in natural water samples. Compared with conventional bismuth film electrodes or bismuth nanoparticles modified electrodes, this electrode exhibited significantly improved sensitivity and stability for Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ detection. The key experimental parameters related to the fabrication of the electrode and the voltammetric measurements were optimized on the basis of the stripping signals, where the peak currents increased linearly with the metal concentrations in a range of 2-150 μg L −1 with a detect limit of 0.2 μg L −1 for Pb 2+ , and 0.6 μg L −1 for Cd 2+ for 120s deposition. Good reproducibility was achieved on both single and equally prepared electrodes. In addition, scanning electron microscopy reveals that fibril-like bismuth structures were formed on silica nanoparticles, which could be responsible for the improved voltammetric performance due to the enhanced surface area. Finally, the developed electrode was applied to determine Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ in water samples, indicating that this electrode was sensitive, reliable and effective for the simultaneous determination of Pb 2+ and Cd 2+

  4. Magmatic sulphides in Quaternary Ecuadorian arc magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgatou, Ariadni; Chiaradia, Massimo; Rezeau, Hervé; Wälle, Markus

    2018-01-01

    New petrographic and geochemical data on magmatic sulphide inclusions (MSIs) are presented and discussed for 15 Quaternary volcanic centers of the Ecuadorian frontal, main and back volcanic arc. MSIs occur mostly in Fe-Ti oxides (magnetite and/or magnetite-ilmenite pair) and to a lesser extent in silicate minerals (amphibole, plagioclase, and pyroxene). MSIs are present in all volcanic centers ranging in composition from basalt to dacite (SiO2 = 50-67 wt.%), indicating that sulphide saturation occurs at various stages of magmatic evolution and independently from the volcano location along the volcanic arc. MSIs also occur in dioritic, gabbroic and hornblenditic magmatic enclaves of the volcanic rocks. MSIs display variable sizes (1-30 μm) and shapes (globular, ellipsoidal, angular, irregular) and occur mostly as polymineralic inclusions composed of Fe-rich and Cu-poor (pyrrhotite) and Cu-rich (mostly chalcopyrite) phases. Aerial sulphide relative abundances range from 0.3 to 7 ppm in volcanic host rocks and from 13 to 24 ppm in magmatic enclaves. Electron microprobe analyses of MSIs indicate maximum metal contents of Cu = 65.7 wt.%, Fe = 65.2 wt.%, Ni = 10.1 wt.% for those hosted in the volcanic rocks and of Cu = 57.7 wt.%, Fe = 60.9 wt.%, Ni = 5.1 wt.%, for those hosted in magmatic enclaves. Relationships of the sulphide chemistry to the host whole rock chemistry show that with magmatic differentiation (e.g., increasing SiO2) the Cu and Ni content of sulphides decrease whereas the Fe and S contents increase. The opposite behavior is observed with the increase of Cu in the whole rock, because the latter is anti-correlated with the SiO2 whole rock content. Laser ablation ICP-MS analyses of MSIs returned maximum values of PGEs and noble metals of Pd = 30 ppm, Rh = 8.1 ppm, Ag = 92.8 ppm and Au = 0.6 ppm and Pd = 43 ppm, Rh = 22.6 ppm, Ag = 89 ppm and Au = 1 ppm for those hosted in volcanic rocks and magmatic enclaves, respectively. These PGE contents display a

  5. Patterns of Macroinvertebrate and Fish Diversity in Freshwater Sulphide Springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Greenway

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Extreme environments are characterised by the presence of physicochemical stressors and provide unique study systems to address problems in evolutionary ecology research. Sulphide springs provide an example of extreme freshwater environments; because hydrogen sulphide’s adverse physiological effects induce mortality in metazoans even at micromolar concentrations. Sulphide springs occur worldwide, but while microbial communities in sulphide springs have received broad attention, little is known about macroinvertebrates and fish inhabiting these toxic environments. We reviewed qualitative occurrence records of sulphide spring faunas on a global scale and present a quantitative case study comparing diversity patterns in sulphidic and adjacent non-sulphidic habitats across replicated river drainages in Southern Mexico. While detailed studies in most regions of the world remain scarce, available data suggests that sulphide spring faunas are characterised by low species richness. Dipterans (among macroinvertebrates and cyprinodontiforms (among fishes appear to dominate the communities in these habitats. At least in fish, there is evidence for the presence of highly endemic species and populations exclusively inhabiting sulphide springs. We provide a detailed discussion of traits that might predispose certain taxonomic groups to colonize sulphide springs, how colonizers subsequently adapt to cope with sulphide toxicity, and how adaptation may be linked to speciation processes.

  6. Cadmium Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    carcinogenic, leachable Trivalent and non- chrome passivates generally struggle with conductivity Major Differences in Trivalent vs. Hexavalent Passivates...for Change Cadmium passivated with hexavalent chromium has been in use for many decades Cadmium is toxic, and is classified as a priority...Executive Orders 13514 & 13423 DoD initiatives – Young memo (April 2009) DFAR restricting use of hexavalent chromium Allows the use of hexavalent

  7. Reducing the cadmium content of crude phosphates and mineral fertilizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plessen, H von; Schimmel, G

    1987-10-01

    Crude sedimentary phosphates generally contain cadmium together with traces of other heavy metals. These Cd traces generally end up in fertilizers produced from the crude phosphates. Processes have therefore been developed to separate the Cd from the crude phosphate or from the crude phosphoric acids arising therefrom as intermediates. In this way, the Cd content of the crude phosphate can be reduced to less the 10% of its original value, and to 50% thereof by extractive treatment with acidic calcium nitrate solution. Older calcination processes for crude phosphate have been improved to give residual Cd contents of 10 to 50% at temperatures of 800 to 1000/sup 0/C. Cadmium can be removed almost quantitatively from crude phosphate by means of dialkyl dithiophosphoric acid esters by extraction, binding to adsorbents, or ion flotation. Cadmium can be extracted from crude acids in high yield by long-chained amines. After partial neutralization of the crude acids, precipitation as cadmium sulphide is also possible.

  8. Investigation of the explosion hazards of hydrogen sulphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saber, A.J.; Sulmistras, A.; Moen, I.O.; Thibault, P.A.

    1986-03-01

    The results of Phase I of an investigation directed towards quantifying the explosion hazards of hydrogen sulphide in air are described. The first phase is focussed on detonation in free hydrogen sulphide/air clouds. Detonation properties, including velocity and pressure, have been calculated and compared with experimental results. The observed detonation structure together with critical tube tests tests are used to assess the detonability of hydrogen sulphide/air mixtures relative to hydrogen and common hydrocarbon gases. Detailed chemical kinetic modelling of hydrogen sulphide combustion in air has been performed to correlate the detonation cell size data and to determine the influence of water vapour on the detonability of hydrogen sulphide in air. Calculations of the blast wave properties for detonation of a hydrogen sulphide/air cloud provide the data required to assess the blast effects of such explosions

  9. Doped cadmium sulfide particles in polymer matrix: X-ray diffraction, optical reflectivity and photoconductivity study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Franc, Jiří; Nešpůrek, Stanislav; Makarova, Marina; Krtil, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 3 (2008), s. 520-527 ISSN 1454-4164 R&D Projects: GA MPO FT-TA2/018 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : cadmium sulphide * doping * polymer binder * photoconductivity Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.577, year: 2008

  10. Combination of maghemite and titanium oxide nanoparticles in polyvinyl alcohol-alginate encapsulated beads for cadmium ions removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majidnia, Zohreh; Idris, Ani [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, johor bahru (Malaysia)

    2015-06-15

    Both maghemite (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles were mixed at various ratios and embedded in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-alginate beads. These beads were tested for photocatalytic behavior in eliminating toxic Cd(Ⅱ) from the aqueous solution. The photocatalytic experiments were performed under sunlight irradiation at various pH, initial feed concentrations and γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}: TiO{sub 2} ratios. The recycling attribute of these beads was also investigated. The results revealed that 100% of the Cd(Ⅱ) was eliminated in 150 minutes at pH 7 under sunlight. It shows that maghemite and titania PVA-alginate beads can be readily isolated from the aqueous solution after the photocatalyst process and reused for at least six times without losing their initial properties.

  11. Indicator minerals as guides to base metal sulphide mineralisation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zn-bearing minerals that act as indicator minerals for base metal sulphide mineralization from the Proterozoic Betul Belt,central India with special emphasis on their genetic significance have been discussed.Sulphide mineralisation is hosted by the felsic volcanic rocks and has similarities with volcanic-hosted massive ...

  12. Method of removing hydrogen sulphide from hot gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.; Yumura, M.

    1987-12-22

    Hydrogen sulphide can be removed from hot gas mixtures by contacting the hot gas mixture at temperatures in the range of 500-900/sup 0/C with an adsorbent consisting of managanese nodules. The nodules may contain additional calcium cations. In sulphided form, the nodules are catalytically active for hydrogen sulphide decomposition to produce hydrogen. Regeneration of the adsorbent can be accomplished by roasting in an oxidizing atmosphere. The nodules can be used to treat gaseous mixtures containing up to 20% hydrogen sulfide, for example, gases produced during pyrolysis, cracking, coking, and hydrotreating processes. Experiments using the processes described in this patent are also outlined. 6 tabs.

  13. Evaluation of hydrogen sulphide test for detection of fecal coliform ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-03-19

    Mar 19, 2007 ... on production of hydrogen sulphide by bacteria that are associated with fecal contamination. This rapid fields test needs no technical staff and the cost is lower than ..... Sources and Potable Water Supplies in Peru.

  14. Indicator minerals as guides to base metal sulphide mineralisation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    figures 3C, D). At the Bhuyari prospect (figure 1), gahnite is present in the quartz + biotite + muscovite + plagio- clase + gahnite + garnet + chlorite assemblage along with disseminated sulphides and is closely associated with the mineralized zone.

  15. Investigation of sulphides in iron alloys of high purity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyjadlowski, T.

    1973-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of the morphology and composition of sulphides in iron alloys with respect to metal composition and to the nature of impurities. In order to understand the specific action of each addition on inclusion morphology, this work has started with high-purity alloys (binary alloys and then ternary alloys). The author studied whether solubility variations would entail either intergranular or intragranular or hybrid iron sulphide precipitation. He examined whether sulphide morphology is depending on thermal treatment, and whether equilibrium precipitates were different in terms of morphology and composition at high and room temperature. He studied the influence of addition elements on sulphide morphology and composition, an important issue as some elements may reduce brittleness. These elements are classified in terms of affinity with sulphur

  16. Palladium sulphide (PdS) films as a new thermoelectric sulphide compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ares, J.R.; Diaz-Chao, P.; Clamagirand, J.; Macia, M.D.; Ferrer, I.J.; Sanchez, C. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Lab. de Materiales de Interes en Energias Renovables

    2010-07-01

    Palladium sulphide (PdS) films have been prepared by direct sulphuration of 20 nm thick palladium films at different temperatures (200 C < T < 450 C). Sulphurated films exhibit an unique crystalline phase: PdS. Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity of these films are between -110 and -150 {mu}V/K and {proportional_to} 0.08 to 0.8 {omega}cm depending on the sulphuration temperature. Negative sign of Seebeck coefficient indicates an n type conduction in all films. Discussion is focused on the influence of atomic ratio between sulphur and palladium as well as impurities arising from the substrate on transport properties. (orig.)

  17. Cadmium and the kidney.

    OpenAIRE

    Friberg, L

    1984-01-01

    The paper is a review of certain aspects of importance of cadmium and the kidney regarding the assessment of risks and understanding of mechanisms of action. The review discusses the following topics: history and etiology of cadmium-induced kidney dysfunction and related disorders; cadmium metabolism, metallothionein and kidney dysfunction; cadmium in urine as indicator of body burden, exposure and kidney dysfunction; cadmium levels in kidney and liver as indicators of kidney dysfunction; cha...

  18. Sulphide fluxes and concentrations in the spent nuclear fuel repository at Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wersin, P.; Alt-Epping, P.; Pitkaenen, P.

    2014-01-01

    Sulphide may act as corrodant for the copper canister in the KBS-3 disposal concept. Sulphide fluxes at repository level are affected by various sources in the host rock, the backfill and the buffer. Hydrogen sulphide is effectively immobilised by Fe to form insoluble iron sulphide minerals. Thus, dissolved sulphide levels in reducing environment and also in Olkiluoto groundwaters are generally low. In zones favourable for sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB), however, temporarily more elevated sulphide concentrations are possible. The sulphate reduction and subsequent iron sulphide precipitation process depends on geochemical conditions, microbial activity and mass transfer of the reactants and is thus highly system-specific. The overall objective of the work presented in this report is to provide a thorough background for the sulphide concentrations and sulphide fluxes in the near field and the far field used in the performance assessment 2012

  19. SR-Site - sulphide content in the groundwater at Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tullborg, E-L (Terralogica (Sweden)); Smellie, J (Conterra (Sweden)); Nilsson, A-Ch (Geosigma (Sweden)); Gimeno, M J; Auque, LF (Univ. of Zaragoza (Spain)); Bruchert, V (Stockholms Universitet (Sweden)); Molinero, J (Amphos21 (Spain))

    2010-12-15

    Sulphide concentrations in groundwater play a key role in the long-term reliability of the metal canisters containing the radioactive waste within a disposal facility for nuclear waste. This is because sulphide in the groundwaters circulating in the vicinity of the deposition tunnels can react with copper in the canisters causing corrosion and therefore reducing their expected lifetime; in a worst case scenario erosion of the bentonite buffer material will expose the canister more rapidly to the fracture groundwater.Sulphide in the groundwater is predominantly microbially produced and thereby controlled by the content of oxidised sulphur sources, organics (carbon sources), reductants (mainly Fe(II), DOC, H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}), and also flow and mixing of different groundwater types. In addition, achieved saturation in respect to amorphous Fe-monosulphide will control the possible maximum values and will also limit the Fe2+ and S2- values in the groundwater. The aim of this report is to assess realistic, representative and reliable sulphide groundwater concentrations at present conditions in Forsmark and also to evaluate possible changes during different climatic conditions covering the repository operation period (some tens to hundreds of years), post closure conditions (some thousand of years) and the proceeding temperate period (some tens of thousands of years) which may be extended due to enhanced greenhouse effects etc. It is expected that this period will be followed by the onset of the next glaciation during which periglacial (permafrost), glacial and postglacial conditions may succeed each other. To achieve these aims, an evaluation is performed of all the sulphide-related data reported from the Forsmark site investigations /Laaksoharju et al. 2008/ and later monitoring campaigns, all of which are stored in the Sicada database. This evaluation shows that values from the Complete Chemical Characterisation (CCC) sampling are usually lower than those measured

  20. SR-Site - sulphide content in the groundwater at Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tullborg, E-L; Smellie, J; Nilsson, A-Ch; Gimeno, M J; Auque, LF; Bruchert, V; Molinero, J

    2010-12-01

    Sulphide concentrations in groundwater play a key role in the long-term reliability of the metal canisters containing the radioactive waste within a disposal facility for nuclear waste. This is because sulphide in the groundwaters circulating in the vicinity of the deposition tunnels can react with copper in the canisters causing corrosion and therefore reducing their expected lifetime; in a worst case scenario erosion of the bentonite buffer material will expose the canister more rapidly to the fracture groundwater.Sulphide in the groundwater is predominantly microbially produced and thereby controlled by the content of oxidised sulphur sources, organics (carbon sources), reductants (mainly Fe(II), DOC, H 2 and CH 4 ), and also flow and mixing of different groundwater types. In addition, achieved saturation in respect to amorphous Fe-monosulphide will control the possible maximum values and will also limit the Fe 2+ and S 2- values in the groundwater. The aim of this report is to assess realistic, representative and reliable sulphide groundwater concentrations at present conditions in Forsmark and also to evaluate possible changes during different climatic conditions covering the repository operation period (some tens to hundreds of years), post closure conditions (some thousand of years) and the proceeding temperate period (some tens of thousands of years) which may be extended due to enhanced greenhouse effects etc. It is expected that this period will be followed by the onset of the next glaciation during which periglacial (permafrost), glacial and postglacial conditions may succeed each other. To achieve these aims, an evaluation is performed of all the sulphide-related data reported from the Forsmark site investigations /Laaksoharju et al. 2008/ and later monitoring campaigns, all of which are stored in the Sicada database. This evaluation shows that values from the Complete Chemical Characterisation (CCC) sampling are usually lower than those measured during

  1. Cadmium, an environmental poison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard, A K

    1974-04-15

    In recent years, industrial employment of cadmium has increased considerably. Cadmium is now present in the environment and has caused acute and chronic poisoning. Inhalation of cadmium vapor or dust causes pulmonary damage while the kidney is the critical organ in absorption of cadmium. The element accumulates in the kidney and causes tubular damage or 200 ppm in the renal cortex. In animal experiments, cadmium may cause raised blood pressure, sterility and malignant tumors. On account of the pronounced tendency of cadmium to accumulate and its toxicity, it is important to trace sources and to reduce exposure of the population. 62 references.

  2. Potentiometric titration of zinc and cadmium in electrolytes of in galvanic baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosyuga, E.A.; Kalugin, A.A.; Gur'ev, I.A.

    1979-01-01

    The method of potentiometric titration of zinc and cadmium by complexone 3 in electrolytes of galvanic baths using sulphide - silver electrode for determining the finite point of titration is suggested. Copper (2) ions are proposed as indicator ions. The potentiometric determination should be performed at pH=10. The method is verified on model electrolyte solutions and on the electrolyte solutions of operating baths.The technique can be used for automatic control. The time for analysis is 10 minutes

  3. Impacts of fullerene C60 and virgin olive oil on cadmium-induced genotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Fayza M; Kotb, Ahmed M; Haridy, Mohie A M; Hammad, Seddik

    2018-07-15

    Currently, cadmium is considered to be one of the major environmental pollutants. Environmentally, cadmium is released in various forms e.g. oxide, chloride and sulphide. The aim of the present study was to examine the genotoxic impact of fullerene nanoparticles C 60 (C 60 ) and virgin olive oil (VOO) on cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 )-induced genotoxicity in rats. To evaluate these effects on DNA damage and chromosomal frequency, 25 albino rats were randomly assigned to 5 groups (n=5 per group): Group 1 served as a control; Group 2 received a single intraperitoneal dose of CdCl 2 (3.5mg/kg); Group 3 animals were treated with C 60 (4mg/kg, orally) every other day for 20days; Group 4 received a single intraperitoneal dose of CdCl 2 (3.5mg/kg) and an oral dose of C 60 (4mg/kg); and Group 5 received a single intraperitoneal dose of CdCl 2 (3.5mg/kg) and oral doses of VOO every other day for 20 consecutive days. Genotoxic and anti-genotoxic effects of C 60 and VOO were evaluated in the liver, kidney and bone marrow using molecular and cytogenetic assays. As expected, CdCl 2 and C 60 administration was associated with band number alterations in both liver and kidney; however, C 60 pretreatment recovered to approximately basal number. Surprisingly, C 60 and VOO significantly attenuated the genotoxic effects caused by CdCl 2 in livers and kidneys. In bone marrow, in addition to a reduction in the chromosomal number, several chromosomal aberrations were caused by CdCl 2 . These chromosomal alterations were also reversed by C 60 and VOO. In conclusion, molecular and cytogenetic studies showed that C 60 and VOO exhibit anti-genotoxic agents against CdCl 2 -induced genotoxicity in rats. Further studies are needed to investigate the optimal conditions for potential biomedical applications of these anti-genotoxic agents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Corrosion of copper alloys in sulphide containing district heting systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorarinsdottir, R.I.; Maahn, Ernst Emanuel

    1999-01-01

    Copper and some copper alloys are prone to corrosion in sulphide containing geothermal water analogous to corrosion observed in district heating systems containing sulphide due to sulphate reducing bacteria. In order to study the corrosion of copper alloys under practical conditions a test...... was carried out at four sites in the Reykjavik District Heating System. The geothermal water chemistry is different at each site. The corrosion rate and the amount and chemical composition of deposits on weight loss coupons of six different copper alloys are described after exposure of 12 and 18 months......, respectively. Some major differences in scaling composition and the degree of corrosion attack are observed between alloys and water types....

  5. Copper variation in Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells with indium sulphide buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiering, S., E-mail: stefanie.spiering@zsw-bw.de [Zentrum für Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung (ZSW) Baden-Wuerttemberg, Industriestrasse 6, 70565 Stuttgart (Germany); Paetel, S.; Kessler, F. [Zentrum für Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung (ZSW) Baden-Wuerttemberg, Industriestrasse 6, 70565 Stuttgart (Germany); Igalson, M.; Abdel Maksoud, H. [Warsaw University of Technology (WUT), Faculty of Physics, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warszawa (Poland)

    2015-05-01

    In the manufacturing of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) thin film solar cells the application of a buffer layer on top of the absorber is essential to obtain high efficiency devices. Regarding the roll-to-roll production of CIGS cells and modules a vacuum deposition process for the buffer is preferable to the conventional cadmium sulphide buffer deposited in a chemical bath. Promising results have already been achieved for the deposition of indium sulphide buffer by different vacuum techniques. The solar device performance is very sensitive to the conditions at the absorber-buffer heterojunction. In view of optimization we investigated the influence of the Cu content in the absorber on the current-voltage characteristics. In this work the integral copper content was varied between 19 and 23 at.% in CIGS on glass substrates. An improvement of the cell performance by enhanced open circuit voltage was observed for a reduction to ~ 21 at.% when thermally evaporated indium sulphide was applied as the buffer layer. The influence of stoichiometry deviations on the transport mechanism and secondary barriers in the device was studied using detailed dark and light current-voltage analysis and admittance spectroscopy and compared to the reference CdS-buffered cells. We conclude that the composition of the absorber in the interface region affects current transport in In{sub x}S{sub y}-buffered and CdS-buffered cells in different ways hence optimal Cu content in those two types of devices is different. - Highlights: • Influence of Cu-variation in CIGS cells with In{sub x}S{sub y} buffer layer on cell performance • Enhanced efficiency by slight reduction of Cu-content to 21 at.% • Contribution of tunnelling-enhanced interface recombination for higher Cu-content.

  6. The first report on SILAR deposited nano-structured uranyl sulphide thin films and their chemical conversion to silver sulphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garole, Dipak J.; Tetgure, Sandesh R.; Borse, Amulrao U.; Yogesh R Toda; Vaman J Garole; Babasaheb R Sankapal; Prashant K Baviskar

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the novel synthesis of uranyl sulphide (UO_2S) thin films using the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique at room temperature. Cationic exchange reaction was used to convert uranyl sulphide (UO_2S) to silver sulphide (Ag_2S). The influence of concentration variation on the structural and optical properties of UO_2S and Ag_2S thin films was investigated. The structural, surface morphological, elemental analysis and optical absorption studies were performed. Structural studies revealed that all the deposited films were nano-sized and amorphous in nature. Surface morphology showed that all the grains were spherical and granular in nature and grains got conglomerated to form a large particle. Also, the variations of the optical band gap and the width of the tail of localized states were represented as a function of various parameters. (authors)

  7. Experimental study on bio-leaching of high sulphuric acid consumption uranium ore by adding sulphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Yunsheng; Zheng Ying; Liu Hui; Cheng Hao; Zhou Lei; Liu Chao; Fan Baotuan; Li Jianhua

    2012-01-01

    In order to decrease acid consumption and increase leaching rate, an experiment on bio-leach-ing of low grade uranium ore by adding sulphide was done. Compared with conventional leaching method, the leaching rate of uranium is improved by 3% and the leaching period was reduced to 60 days from 90 days by bio-leaching method of adding sulphide. In order to decrease acid consumption with bio-leaching by adding sulphide obviously, robust bacteria to sulphide should be chosen. (authors)

  8. The influence of reaction times on structural, optical and luminescence properties of cadmium telluride nanoparticles prepared by wet-chemical process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiprotich, Sharon, E-mail: KiprotichS@qwa.ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State (QwaQwa campus), Private Bag X-13, Phuthaditjhaba 9866 (South Africa); Dejene, Francis B.; Ungula, Jatani [Department of Physics, University of the Free State (QwaQwa campus), Private Bag X-13, Phuthaditjhaba 9866 (South Africa); Onani, Martin O. [Departments of Chemistry, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville 7535 (South Africa)

    2016-01-01

    This paper explains one pot synthesis of type II water soluble L-cysteine capped cadmium telluride (CdTe) core shell quantum dots using cadmium acetate, potassium tellurite and L-cysteine as the starting materials. The reaction was carried out in a single three necked flask without nitrogen under reflux at 100 °C. Results from PL show a sharp absorption excitonic band edge of the CdTe core with respect to the core shell which loses its shoulder during the growth of the shell on the core. The PL spectra indicate a drastic shift in emission window of the core which is simultaneously accompanied by an increase in emission intensity. X-ray diffraction pattern confirms the formation of hexagonal phase for all samples. Some difference in absorption edges were observed due to varying synthesis time of CdTe NPs. The position of the absorption band is observed to shift towards the lower wavelength side for shorter durations of synthesis.

  9. SR-Site - sulphide content in the groundwater at Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tullborg, E-L (Terralogica, Graabo (Sweden)); Smellie, J. (Conterra, Uppsala (Sweden)); Nilsson, A-Ch (Geosigma, Uppsala (Sweden)); Gimeno, M.J.; Auque, L.F. (Univ. of Zaragoza (Spain)); Wallin, B. (Geokema, Lidingoe (Sweden)); Bruechert, V. (Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)); Molinero, J. (Amphos21, Barcelona (Spain))

    2010-12-15

    Sulphide concentrations in groundwater play a key role in the long term reliability of the metal canisters containing the radioactive waste within a disposal facility for nuclear waste. This is because sulphide in the groundwaters circulating in the vicinity of the deposition tunnels can react with copper in the canisters causing corrosion and therefore reducing their expected lifetime; in a worst case scenario erosion of the bentonite buffer material will expose the canister more rapidly to the fracture groundwater. Sulphide in the groundwater is predominantly microbially produced and thereby controlled by the content of oxidised sulphur sources, organics (carbon sources), reductants (mainly Fe(II), DOC, H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}), and also flow. In addition, achieved saturation in respect to amorphous Fe-monosulphide will control the possible maximum values and thus limit the Fe2+ and S2- values in the groundwater. The aim of this report is to assess realistic, representative and reliable sulphide groundwater concentrations at present conditions in Laxemar to be considered for use in (future) safety assessments. To achieve this, an evaluation is performed of all the sulphide related data reported from the Laxemar site investigations /Laaksoharju et al. 2009/ and later monitoring campaigns, all of which are stored in the Sicada database. This evaluation shows that values from the Complete Chemical Characterisation (CCC) (i.e. in situ sampling from one or more borehole sections using mobile equipment) are usually lower than those measured during the monitoring phase (i.e. in situ sampling from one borehole section using permanently installed equipment). An exception is borehole KLX01, where values generally lie within the same range as the monitoring samples. For most of the CCC and monitoring sections the last sample in the time series is suggested as representing the 'best possible' sulphide value. When both initial values from CCC (or samples taken with

  10. SR-Site - sulphide content in the groundwater at Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tullborg, E-L; Smellie, J.; Nilsson, A-Ch; Gimeno, M.J.; Auque, L.F.; Wallin, B.; Bruechert, V.; Molinero, J.

    2010-12-01

    Sulphide concentrations in groundwater play a key role in the long term reliability of the metal canisters containing the radioactive waste within a disposal facility for nuclear waste. This is because sulphide in the groundwaters circulating in the vicinity of the deposition tunnels can react with copper in the canisters causing corrosion and therefore reducing their expected lifetime; in a worst case scenario erosion of the bentonite buffer material will expose the canister more rapidly to the fracture groundwater. Sulphide in the groundwater is predominantly microbially produced and thereby controlled by the content of oxidised sulphur sources, organics (carbon sources), reductants (mainly Fe(II), DOC, H 2 and CH 4 ), and also flow. In addition, achieved saturation in respect to amorphous Fe-monosulphide will control the possible maximum values and thus limit the Fe 2+ and S 2- values in the groundwater. The aim of this report is to assess realistic, representative and reliable sulphide groundwater concentrations at present conditions in Laxemar to be considered for use in (future) safety assessments. To achieve this, an evaluation is performed of all the sulphide related data reported from the Laxemar site investigations /Laaksoharju et al. 2009/ and later monitoring campaigns, all of which are stored in the Sicada database. This evaluation shows that values from the Complete Chemical Characterisation (CCC) (i.e. in situ sampling from one or more borehole sections using mobile equipment) are usually lower than those measured during the monitoring phase (i.e. in situ sampling from one borehole section using permanently installed equipment). An exception is borehole KLX01, where values generally lie within the same range as the monitoring samples. For most of the CCC and monitoring sections the last sample in the time series is suggested as representing the 'best possible' sulphide value. When both initial values from CCC (or samples taken with the hydrotest

  11. Calcium enhances cadmium tolerance and decreases cadmium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We aimed at characterizing mechanisms controlling cadmium accumulation in lettuce, which is a food crop showing one of the highest capacities to accumulate this toxic compound. In this study, plants from three lettuce varieties were grown for eight days on media supplemented or not with cadmium (15 μM CdCl2) and ...

  12. A general method to incorporate metal nanoparticles in zeolites and zeotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a method for producing a zeolite, zeolite-like or zeotype structure with selective formation of metal, metal oxide or metal sulphide nanoparticles and/or clusters inside the zeolite, zeolite-like or zeotype structure.......Disclosed herein is a method for producing a zeolite, zeolite-like or zeotype structure with selective formation of metal, metal oxide or metal sulphide nanoparticles and/or clusters inside the zeolite, zeolite-like or zeotype structure....

  13. Oxygen, nitrogen and sulphide fluxes in the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. KONOVALOV

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The fluxes and production/consumption rates of oxygen, nitrate, ammonium and sulphide are estimated in the paper utilising results of the 1.5-dimensional stationary model of vertical exchange in the Black Sea (Samodurov & Ivanov, 1998. The profiles of the vertical flux and rate of production/consumption of these substances have revealed a number of intriguing features in the biogeochemical nature of the Black Sea. An approximate redox balance of the counter-fluxes of nitrate and ammonium into the sub-oxic zone has been revealed confirming that intensive denitrification may be the primary loss of nitrogen in the Black Sea. A low ratio of the nitrate stock to the flux of nitrate from the oxycline confirms the possibility of prominent changes in the distribution of nitrate on the time scale of a year. The ratio of the nitrate to oxygen vertical flux has revealed a lack of nitrate in the oxycline above the nitrate maximum. The lateral (related to the "Bosporus plume" flux of oxygen in the layer of the main pycnocline appears to be very important for the existing biogeochemical structure of the Black sea water column being the reason of sulphide consumption inside the anoxic zone and changes in the ammonium-sulphide stoichiometry of the anoxic zone, the primary reason of the existence of the sub-oxic layer and the basic reason of relative stability of the sulphide onset.

  14. Fungal-Transformation of Surrogate Sulphides and Carbonaceous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the recovery of gold from refractory gold ores, pretreatment is required to decompose sulphides and liberate occluded gold before cyanidation, and to deactivate carbonaceous matter and prevent it from adsorbing dissolved gold. Until the past three decades, most commercial pretreatment processes had been by abiotic ...

  15. Radioluminescence Decay Time Measurements in Silver-Doped Cadmium-Sulphide Crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, R.

    2004-01-01

    Alpha-induced radioluminescence decay times of CdS(Ag) crystals have been measured at temperatures ranging from 80 K to 300 K by using single-photon counting technique. These measurements indicate a complex and non-exponential type of decay time profiles, which are in general composed of two decay components, the fast one having about 3 ns and the slow one having about 6 ns. The decay times were found to be almost temperature independent. It was experimentally proved that the fast one is originating from the 594 nm emission line, whereas the slow one is originating from the 576 nm emission line. The whole wavelength-dependences of decay times (t 1 /e and t 1 /e 2 ) were also presented. The observation of fast and non-exponential decay times shows that the recombination mechanisms in CdS(Ag) crystals are not simple, responsible centers are not isolated, and there might be more than one radioluminescence center. This suggests the existence of

  16. Characterization of nanostructured photosensitive cadmium sulphide thin films grown by SILAR deposition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubale, A.U.; Bargal, A.N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the preparation of photosensitive nanostructured CdS thin films by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method at room temperature. To obtain good quality CdS thin films, preparative conditions such as concentration of cationic and anionic precursors, adsorption and rinsing time durations etc. are optimized. The structural, optical and electrical characterizations of the as-deposited and annealed CdS thin films were carried out using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, optical absorption and electrical resistivity methods. The photoconductivity studies showed that the annealed films are more than that photosensitive. The TEP measurement shows that deposited films are of n-type. (author)

  17. Labeling and in vivo visualization of transplanted adipose tissue-derived stem cells with safe cadmium-free aqueous ZnS coating of ZnS-AgInS2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogihara, Yusuke; Yukawa, Hiroshi; Kameyama, Tatsuya; Nishi, Hiroyasu; Onoshima, Daisuke; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Torimoto, Tsukasa; Baba, Yoshinobu

    2017-01-01

    The facile synthesis of ZnS-AgInS2 (ZAIS) as cadmium-free QDs and their application, mainly in solar cells, has been reported by our groups. In the present study, we investigated the safety and the usefulness for labeling and in vivo imaging of a newly synthesized aqueous ZnS-coated ZAIS (ZnS-ZAIS) carboxylated nanoparticles (ZZC) to stem cells. ZZC shows the strong fluorescence in aqueous solutions such as PBS and cell culture medium, and a complex of ZZC and octa-arginine (R8) peptides (R8-ZZC) can achieve the highly efficient labeling of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs). The cytotoxicity of R8-ZZC to ASCs was found to be extremely low in comparison to that of CdSe-based QDs, and R8-ZZC was confirmed to have no influence on the proliferation rate or the differentiation ability of ASCs. Moreover, R8-ZZC was not found to induce the production of major inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-12p70, IL-6 and MCP-1) in ASCs. Transplanted R8-ZZC-labeled ASCs could be quantitatively detected in the lungs and liver mainly using an in vivo imaging system. In addition, high-speed multiphoton confocal laser microscopy revealed the presence of aggregates of transplanted ASCs at many sites in the lungs, whereas individual ASCs were found to have accumulated in the liver.

  18. Cadmium and renal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'yasova, Dora; Schwartz, Gary G.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Rates of renal cancer have increased steadily during the past two decades, and these increases are not explicable solely by advances in imaging modalities. Cadmium, a widespread environmental pollutant, is a carcinogen that accumulates in the kidney cortex and is a cause of end-stage renal disease. Several observations suggest that cadmium may be a cause of renal cancer. Methods: We performed a systematic review of the literature on cadmium and renal cancer using MEDLINE for the years 1966-2003. We reviewed seven epidemiological and eleven clinical studies. Results: Despite different methodologies, three large epidemiologic studies indicate that occupational exposure to cadmium is associated with increased risk renal cancer, with odds ratios varying from 1.2 to 5.0. Six of seven studies that compared the cadmium content of kidneys from patients with kidney cancer to that of patients without kidney cancer found lower concentrations of cadmium in renal cancer tissues. Conclusions: Exposure to cadmium appears to be associated with renal cancer, although this conclusion is tempered by the inability of studies to assess cumulative cadmium exposure from all sources including smoking and diet. The paradoxical findings of lower cadmium content in kidney tissues from patients with renal cancer may be caused by dilution of cadmium in rapidly dividing cells. This and other methodological problems limit the interpretation of studies of cadmium in clinical samples. Whether cadmium is a cause of renal cancer may be answered more definitively by future studies that employ biomarkers of cadmium exposure, such as cadmium levels in blood and urine

  19. nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu-Cabedo, Patricia; Mondragon, Rosa; Hernandez, Leonor; Martinez-Cuenca, Raul; Cabedo, Luis; Julia, J. Enrique

    2014-10-01

    Thermal energy storage (TES) is extremely important in concentrated solar power (CSP) plants since it represents the main difference and advantage of CSP plants with respect to other renewable energy sources such as wind, photovoltaic, etc. CSP represents a low-carbon emission renewable source of energy, and TES allows CSP plants to have energy availability and dispatchability using available industrial technologies. Molten salts are used in CSP plants as a TES material because of their high operational temperature and stability of up to 500°C. Their main drawbacks are their relative poor thermal properties and energy storage density. A simple cost-effective way to improve thermal properties of fluids is to dope them with nanoparticles, thus obtaining the so-called salt-based nanofluids. In this work, solar salt used in CSP plants (60% NaNO3 + 40% KNO3) was doped with silica nanoparticles at different solid mass concentrations (from 0.5% to 2%). Specific heat was measured by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A maximum increase of 25.03% was found at an optimal concentration of 1 wt.% of nanoparticles. The size distribution of nanoparticle clusters present in the salt at each concentration was evaluated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and image processing, as well as by means of dynamic light scattering (DLS). The cluster size and the specific surface available depended on the solid content, and a relationship between the specific heat increment and the available particle surface area was obtained. It was proved that the mechanism involved in the specific heat increment is based on a surface phenomenon. Stability of samples was tested for several thermal cycles and thermogravimetric analysis at high temperature was carried out, the samples being stable.

  20. Isolation, identification and cadmium adsorption of a high cadmium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-27

    Sep 27, 2010 ... 1School of Minerals Processing and Bioengineering, Central South University, Changsha, ... Cadmium is a non-essential ... (1994) reported that cadmium might interact ... uptake of cadmium, lead and mercury (Svecova et al.,.

  1. Preparation of strongly fluorescent silica nanoparticles of polyelectrolyte-protected cadmium telluride quantum dots and their application to cell toxicity and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Jianhua; Xie Lian; Zhang Bin; Qiu Ting; Qi Bin; Xie Hongping

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The staining effect of the control group (a), QDs-SiO 2 (b) and QDs-PDADMAC-SiO 2 (c). Highlights: ► The fluorescence intensity of QDs-PDADMAC-SiO 2 is stronger than that of QDs-SiO 2 . ► The fluorescence stability of QDs-PDADMAC-SiO 2 is better than that of QDs-SiO 2 . ► The cytotoxicity of QDs-PDADMAC-SiO 2 was lower than that of QDs-SiO 2 ► The staining effect of QDs-PDADMAC-SiO 2 was much better than that of QDs-SiO 2 . - Abstract: Based on the polyelectrolyte-protected CdTe quantum dots (QDs), which were prepared by self-assembling of QDs and poly-diallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC) in the help of electrostatic attraction, the strong fluorescence silica nanoparticles (QDs-PDADMAC-SiO 2 ) have been prepared via a water-in-oil reverse microemulsion method. Transmission electron microscopy and Zeta potential analysis were used to characterize the as-prepared nanoparticles. All of the particles were almost spherical and there is a uniform distribution of the particle size with the average diameter about 25 nm. There is a large Zeta potential of −35.07 mV which is necessary for good monodispersity of nanoparticles solution. As compared with the QDs coated by SiO 2 (QDs-SiO 2 ), the QDs-PDADMAC-SiO 2 nanoparticles have much stronger fluorescence, and their fluorescence stability could be obviously improved. Moreover, QDs-PDADMAC-SiO 2 exhibits good biological compatibility which promotes their application in cellular imaging.

  2. Determination of boron, silica, fluoride, MBAS, phenols, cyanide and sulphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.

    1982-01-01

    This study forms part of the NIWR's series of interlaboratory comparison studies involving southern African laboratories engaged in water and wastewater analysis, and is concerned with the analysis of synthetic water samples by 31 laboratories for boron, silica, fluoride, methylene blue active substances (MBAS), phenols, cyanide and sulphide. The results obtained are evaluated and discussed. Recognised standard methods, or modifications of these methods, were used for most of the determinations. Results from the boron, silica and fluoride determinations showed, in general, acceptable accuracy and precision. Results from the MBAS, phenols, cyanide and sulphide determinations were, however, somewhat widespread, and illustrated the difficulty in obtaining reliable results from the measurement of relatively low levels of these determinands

  3. TEM analysis of fine sulphides dissolution and precipitation in steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbarz, B.; Marcisz, J.; Wojtas, J.

    2003-01-01

    Results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigation of morphology, size distribution and chemistry of nano-inclusions formed in 4 mm thick laboratory steel ingots in as-cast condition and after heat treatment are reported. The investigated steel contained 0.11-0.14 C, 0.6 Mn, 0.25 Si, 0.22 Cu, 0.025-0.037 S (wt.%), and 80-115 ppm O and solidified at an average cooling rate of 250 K s -1 . In the as-cast specimens most nano-inclusions had a diameter in the range 10-100 nm with an average size of 30 nm. They were identified by microanalysis in thin foils as sulphides: MnS, (Mn,Cu)S, CuS and Cu 2 S. After a solution treatment of the thin ingots the re-precipitation of nano-sulphides was investigated

  4. New sulphiding method for steel and cast iron parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarelnyk, V.; Martsynkovskyy, V.; Gaponova, O.; Konoplianchenko, Ie; Dovzyk, M.; Tarelnyk, N.; Gorovoy, S.

    2017-08-01

    A new method for sulphiding steel and cast iron part surfaces by electroerosion alloying (EEA) with the use of a special electrode is proposed, which method is characterized in that while manufacturing the electrode, on its surface, in any known manner (punching, threading, pulling, etc.), there is formed at least a recess to be filled with sulfur as a consistent material, and then there is produced EEA by the obtained electrode without waiting for the consistent material to become dried.

  5. Anodic stripping voltammetry of synthesized CdS nanoparticles at boron-doped diamond electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayat, Mohammad; Ivandini, Tribidasari A., E-mail: ivandini.tri@sci.ui.ac.id; Saepudin, Endang [Department of Chemistry, FMIPA, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok (Indonesia); Einaga, Yasuaki [Department of Chemistry, Keio University (Japan)

    2016-04-19

    Cadmium sulphide (CdS) nanoparticles were chemically synthesized using reverse micelles microreactor methods. By using different washing treatments, UV-Vis spectroscopy showed that the absorption peaks appeared at 465 nm, 462 nm, 460 nm, and 459 nm respectively for CdS nanoparticles without and with 1, 2, and 3 times washing treatments using pure water. In comparison with the absorbance peak of bulk CdS at 512 nm, the shifted absorption peaks, indicates that the different sizes of CdS can be prepared. Anodic stripping voltammetry of the CdS nanoparticles was then studied at a boron-doped diamond electrode using 0.1 M KClO{sub 4} and 0.1 M HClO{sub 4} as the electrolytes. A scan rate of 100 mV/s with a deposition potential of -1000 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) for 60 s at a potential scan from -1600 mV to +800 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) was applied as the optimum condition of the measurements. Highly-accurate linear calibration curves (R{sup 2} = 0.99) in 0.1 M HClO{sub 4} with the sensitivity of 0.075 mA/mM and the limit of detection of 81 µM in 0.1 M HClO{sub 4} can be achieved, which is promising for an application of CdS nanoparticles as a label for biosensors.

  6. Recovery of zinc and cadmium from spent batteries using Cyphos IL 102 via solvent extraction route and synthesis of Zn and Cd oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rashmi; Mahandra, Harshit; Gupta, Bina

    2017-09-01

    The overall aim of this study is to separate and recover zinc and cadmium from spent batteries. For this purpose Cyphos IL 102 diluted in toluene was employed for the extraction and recovery of Zn and Cd from Zn-C and Ni-Cd batteries leach liquor. The influence of extractant concentration for the leach liquors of Zn-C (0.01-0.05mol/L) and Ni-Cd (0.04-0.20mol/L) batteries has been investigated. Composition of the leach liquor obtained from Zn-C/Ni-Cd spent batteries is Zn - 2.18g/L, Mn - 4.59g/L, Fe - 4.0×10 -3 g/L, Ni - 0.2×10 -3 g/L/Cd - 4.28g/L, Ni - 0.896×10 -1 g/L, Fe - 0.148g/L, Co - 3.77×10 -3 g/L, respectively. Two stage counter current extraction at A/O 1:1 and 3:2 with 0.04mol/L and 0.2mol/L Cyphos IL 102 for Zn and Cd, respectively provide more than 99.0% extraction of both the metal ions with almost negligible extraction of associated metal ions. A stripping efficiency of around 99.0% for Zn and Cd was obtained at O/A 1:1 using 1.0mol/L HNO 3 in two and three counter current stages, respectively. ZnO and CdO were also synthesized using the loaded organic phase and characterized using XRD, FE-SEM and EDX techniques. XRD peaks of ZnO and CdO correspond to zincite and monteponite, respectively. The average particle size was ∼27.0nm and ∼37.0nm for ZnO and CdO, respectively. The EDX analysis of ZnO and CdO shows almost 1:1 atomic percentage. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Zinc and cadmium monosalicylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharitonov, Yu.Ya.; Tujebakhova, Z.K.

    1984-01-01

    Zinc and cadmium monosalicylates of the composition MSal, where M-Zn or Cd, Sal - twice deprotonated residue of salicylic acid O-HOC 6 H 4 COOH (H 2 Sal), are singled out and characterized. When studying thermograms, thermogravigrams, IR absorption spectra, roentgenograms of cadmium salicylate compounds (Cd(OC 6 H 4 COO) and products of their thepmal transformations, the processes of thermal decomposition of the compounds have been characterized. The process of cadmium monosalicylate decomposition takes place in one stage. Complete loss of salicylate acido group occurs in the range of 320-460 deg. At this decomposition stage cadmium oxide is formed. A supposition is made that cadmium complex has tetrahedral configuration, at that, each salicylate group plays the role of tetradentate-bridge ligand. The compound evidently has a polymer structure

  8. Knowledge on possibilities of applying mineral biotechnology to treatment of Slovak sulphide ores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štyriaková Iveta

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The summary of results from research aimed at possibilities to use biotechnological procedures for treatment of Slovak sulphide ores is presented in this study. The object of the research is an extraction of valuable metals, undesirable admixtures and degradation of crystallic lattice of sulphides for subsequent chemical leaching processing of precious metals. Further, the results of experiments on existence of biogenic processes in situ on waste dumps from exploitation containing residual sulphides are presented.

  9. Microwave-assisted synthesis of BSA-modified silver nanoparticles as a selective fluorescent probe for detection and cellular imaging of cadmium(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Yu; Li, Nan; Gao, Mengmeng; Wang, Zilu; Xiao, Deli; Li, Yun; Jia, Huning; He, Hua

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a microwave-assisted method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) whose surface is modified with bovine serum albumin (BSA). The reaction involves reduction of the BSA-Ag(I) complex by tyrosine in strongly alkaline solution to form BSA-AgNPs. The reaction takes a few minutes only owing to rapid and uniform microwave heating. The modified AgNPs were characterized by UV–vis and fluorescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X- ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The BSA-AgNPs are yellow and display luminescence with a maximum at 521 nm if excited at 465 nm. They have a hydrodynamic diameter of 3–5 nm and possess good colloidal stability in the pH 4.6 to 12.0 range. The fluorescence of the BSA-AgNPs is enhanced by Cd(II) ion due to the formation of a stable hybrid conjugate referred to as Cd-BSA-AgNPs. The effect was exploited to quantify Cd(II) in spiked real water samples with a 4.7 nM detection limit, and also to fluorescently image Cd(II) in Hepatoma cells. (author)

  10. Determination of cadmium selenide nonstoichiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brezhnev, V.Yu.; Kharif, Ya.L.; Kovtunenko, P.V.

    1986-01-01

    Physicochemical method of determination of cadmium selenide nonstoichiometry is developed. The method nature consists in the fact, that under definite conditions dissolved cadmium is extracted from crystals to a vapor phase and then is determined in it using the photocolorimetric method. Cadmium solubility in CdSe crystal is calculated from known CdSe mass and amount of separated cadmium. The lower boundary of determined contents constitutes 1x10 -5 % mol at sample of cadmium selenide 10 g

  11. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of cadmium chloride, cadmium bromide, cadmium iodide, cadmium nitrate, and cadmium sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apelblat, Alexander; Korin, Eli

    2007-01-01

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of cadmium salts (chloride, bromide, iodide, nitrate, and sulphate) were determined over the temperature range 280 K to 322 K and compared with the literature data. The vapour pressures determined were used to obtain the water activities, osmotic coefficients and the molar enthalpies of vaporization in the (cadmium salt + water) systems

  12. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of cadmium chloride, cadmium bromide, cadmium iodide, cadmium nitrate, and cadmium sulphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apelblat, Alexander [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)]. E-mail: apelblat@bgu.ac.il; Korin, Eli [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2007-07-15

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of cadmium salts (chloride, bromide, iodide, nitrate, and sulphate) were determined over the temperature range 280 K to 322 K and compared with the literature data. The vapour pressures determined were used to obtain the water activities, osmotic coefficients and the molar enthalpies of vaporization in the (cadmium salt + water) systems.

  13. Calcium enhances cadmium tolerance and decreases cadmium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-26

    Apr 26, 2012 ... concentrations alleviated the toxic effect of cadmium on the growth and water status of lettuce plants. The three lettuce varieties ... electroplating, in batteries, in electrical conductors, in the manufacture of alloys ..... Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals, Third edition, Salt Lake City, UT: Acad. Press. Österås ...

  14. Prediction and optimisation of Pb/Zn/Fe sulphide scales in gas production fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, Sarah; Orski, Karine; Menezes, Carlos; Heath, Steve; MacPherson, Calum; Simpson, Caroline; Graham, Gordon

    2006-03-15

    Lead, zinc and iron sulphide scales are known to be a particular issue with gas production fields, particularly those producing from HP/HT reservoirs. However the prediction of sulphide scale and the methodologies available for their laboratory assessment are not as well developed as those for the more conventional sulphate and carbonate scales. This work examines a particular sulphide scaling regime from a North Sea high temperature gas condensate production field containing only 0.8ppm of sulphide ions. Sulphide scales were identified in the production system which was shown to be a mixture of lead and zinc sulphide, primarily lead sulphide. This formed as a result of cooling during production resulting in the over saturation of these minerals. This paper describes scale prediction and modified laboratory test protocols used to re-create the scales formed in the field prior to chemical performance testing. From the brine composition, scale prediction identified that the major scales that could be formed were calcium carbonate, iron carbonate, iron sulphide, lead sulphide and zinc sulphide. In addition, modification of the brine compositions led to prediction of primarily one scale or the other. Given the predicted over saturation of various minerals, preliminary laboratory tests were therefore conducted in order to ensure that the scale formed under laboratory conditions was representative of the field scale. Laboratory protocols were therefore developed to ensure that the scales formed in fully anaerobic dynamic performance tests and static performance tests were similar to those encountered in the field. The paper compares results from field analysis, scale predictions and laboratory scale formation tests using newly developed test protocols and shows differences between prediction and laboratory data. The paper therefore demonstrates the importance of ensuring that the correct scale is formed under laboratory test conditions and also indicates some potential

  15. Effect of Molar Concentration on Optical Absorption Spectra of ZnS:Mn Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports the synthesis and characterization of luminescent nanocrystals of manganese doped zinc sulphide. Nanocrystals of zinc sulphide were prepared by chemical precipitation method using the solution of zinc chloride, sodium sulphide, manganese chloride and mercaptoethanol was used as the capping agent. It was found that change in the molar concentration changes the particle size. The particle size of such nanocrystals was measured using XRD pattern and it is found to be in between 3 nm – 5 nm. The blue-shift in absorption spectra was found with reducing size of the nanoparticles

  16. Hydrothermally Synthesized Zinc Sulphide Microspheres for Solar Light-Driven Photocatalytic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghadkar, Yogesh; Arbuj, Sudhir; Shinde, Manish; Ballal, Reshma; Rane, Sunit B.; Gosavi, Suresh; Fouad, H.; Chauhan, Ratna

    2018-02-01

    In this work, we reported the synthesis of zinc sulphide microspheres using the hydrothermal method. ZnS microspheres were synthesized using water, zinc acetate, thiourea and ammonia solution at 150°C for 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h. The as-synthesized ZnS powders were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. XRD indicates the cubic (major phase) as well as hexagonal (minor phase) crystalline phase with enhanced crystallinity increased gradually with more reaction time. UV-Vis spectra show the absorption peaks in the UV-Vis region for all the samples. The Tauc's plot was used to calculate the band gap energy of ZnS samples, which are found to be 3.39 eV, 3.4 eV, and 3.42 eV for the samples synthesized at reaction times of 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h, respectively. FESEM images confirm the formation of microspheres as aggregates of spherical nanoparticles. The as-synthesized ZnS microspheres have been explored for solar light-induced photo-catalytic dye degradation of methylene blue (MB), and the results confirm that such microspheres exhibit effectual photocatalytic properties.

  17. Evolution of Acid Mine Drainage Formation in Sulphidic Mine Tailings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Dold

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sulphidic mine tailings are among the largest mining wastes on Earth and are prone to produce acid mine drainage (AMD. The formation of AMD is a sequence of complex biogeochemical and mineral dissolution processes. It can be classified in three main steps occurring from the operational phase of a tailings impoundment until the final appearance of AMD after operations ceased: (1 During the operational phase of a tailings impoundment the pH-Eh regime is normally alkaline to neutral and reducing (water-saturated. Associated environmental problems include the presence of high sulphate concentrations due to dissolution of gypsum-anhydrite, and/or effluents enriched in elements such as Mo and As, which desorbed from primary ferric hydroxides during the alkaline flotation process. (2 Once mining-related operations of the tailings impoundment has ceased, sulphide oxidation starts, resulting in the formation of an acidic oxidation zone and a ferrous iron-rich plume below the oxidation front, that re-oxidises once it surfaces, producing the first visible sign of AMD, i.e., the precipitation of ferrihydrite and concomitant acidification. (3 Consumption of the (reactive neutralization potential of the gangue minerals and subsequent outflow of acidic, heavy metal-rich leachates from the tailings is the final step in the evolution of an AMD system. The formation of multi-colour efflorescent salts can be a visible sign of this stage.

  18. Investigation of the explosion hazards of hydrogen sulphide. (Phase II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moen, I.O.

    1986-01-01

    The results of Phase II of an investigation directed towards quantifying the explosive hazards of hydrogen sulphide in air are described. This second and final phase is focussed on flame acceleration until detonation in obstacle environments simulating a heavy water plant. The results of previous experimental tests, both small and large scale, are compiled and summarized and the results of a series of flame acceleration tests are reported. These tests were performed in order to assess the potential for damaging explosions in simulated industrial environments with repeated obstacles. The experimented apparatus consisted of a channel 1.8 m x 1.8 m in cross-section and 15.5 m long. Two obstacle configurations were tested, corresponding to 500 mm or 220 mm diameter tubes mounted across the channel at regular intervals. Tests were performed with acetylene, propane and hydrogen sulphide fuels. The results of numerical simulation are also reported and compared with the observed results. Scaling predictions are also made. The key results are summarized in the main text, and detailed reports covering the various aspects are included in three annexes

  19. Investigation of the explosion hazards of hydrogen sulphide. Phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moen, I.O.

    1986-01-01

    The results of Phase II of an investigation directed towards quantifying the explosive hazards of hydrogen sulphide in air are described. This second and final phase is focussed on flame acceleration until detonation in obstacle environments simulating a heavy water plant. The results of previous experimental tests, both small and large scale, are compiled and summarized and the results of a series of flame acceleration tests are reported. These tests were performed in order to assess the potential for damaging explosions in simulated industrial environments with repeated obstacles. The experimented apparatus consisted of a channel 1.8 m x 1.8 m in cross-section and 15.5 m long. Two obstacle configurations were tested, corresponding to 500 mm or 220 mm diameter tubes mounted across the channel at regular intervals. Tests were performed with acetylene, propane and hydrogen sulphide fuels. The results of numerical simulation are also reported and compared with the observed results. Scaling predictions are also made. The key results are summarized in the main text, and detailed reports covering the various aspects are included in three annexes

  20. Porous silicon-based direct hydrogen sulphide fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhafarov, T D; Yuksel, S Aydin

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, the use of Au/porous silicon/Silicon Schottky type structure, as a direct hydrogen sulphide fuel cell is demonstrated. The porous silicon filled with hydrochlorid acid was developed as a proton conduction membrane. The Au/Porous Silicon/Silicon cells were fabricated by first creating the porous silicon layer in single-crystalline Si using the anodic etching under illumination and then deposition Au catalyst layer onto the porous silicon. Using 80 mM H2S solution as fuel the open circuit voltage of 0.4 V was obtained and maximum power density of 30 W/m2 at room temperature was achieved. These results demonstrate that the Au/Porous Silicon/Silicon direct hydrogen sulphide fuel cell which uses H2S:dH2O solution as fuel and operates at room temperature can be considered as the most promising type of low cost fuel cell for small power-supply units.

  1. Improved sulphate removal rates at increased sulphide concentration in the sulphidogenic bioreactor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, HA

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The product of the biological sulphate reduction is sulphide. High concentrations of molecular H2S(g) can be inhibitory for microbial activity, especially at a reactor pH of 6 to 7. This paper focuses on the effect of high sulphide concentrations...

  2. New exploration methods for platinum and rhodium deposits poor in base-metal sulphides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohnenstetter, M.; Johan, Z.; Cocherie, A.

    1999-01-01

    Platinum-group elements (PGE) are typically associated with mafic and ultramafic intrusive rocks and the main exploration targets are layers and zones rich in PGE-bearing sulphides. Some PGE occurences, however, are in sulphide-poor situations and this raises the possibility that PGE deposits may...

  3. Global warming enhances sulphide stress in a key seagrass species (NW Mediterranean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Rosa; Holmer, Marianne; Duarte, Carlos M; Marbà, Núria

    2013-12-01

    The build-up of sulphide concentrations in sediments, resulting from high inputs of organic matter and the mineralization through sulphate reduction, can be lethal to the benthos. Sulphate reduction is temperature dependent, thus global warming may contribute to even higher sulphide concentrations and benthos mortality. The seagrass Posidonia oceanica is very sensitive to sulphide stress. Hence, if concentrations build up with global warming, this key Mediterranean species could be seriously endangered. An 8-year monitoring of daily seawater temperature, the sulphur isotopic signatures of water (δ(34)S(water)), sediment (δ(34)SCRS ) and P. oceanica leaf tissue (δ(34)S(leaves)), along with total sulphur in leaves (TS(leaves)) and annual net population growth along the coast of the Balearic archipelago (Western Mediterranean) allowed us to determine if warming triggers P. oceanica sulphide stress and constrains seagrass survival. From the isotopic S signatures, we estimated sulphide intrusion into the leaves (F(sulphide)) and sulphur incorporation into the leaves from sedimentary sulphides (SS(leaves)). We observed lower δ(34)S(leaves), higher F(sulphide) and SS(leaves) coinciding with a 6-year period when two heat waves were recorded. Warming triggered sulphide stress as evidenced by the negative temperature dependence of δ(34)S(leaves) and the positive one of F(sulphide), TS(leaves) and SS(leaves). Lower P. oceanica net population growth rates were directly related to higher contents of TS(leaves). At equivalent annual maximum sea surface water temperature (SST(max)), deep meadows were less affected by sulphide intrusion than shallow ones. Thus, water depth acts as a protecting mechanism against sulphide intrusion. However, water depth would be insufficient to buffer seagrass sulphide stress triggered by Mediterranean seawater summer temperatures projected for the end of the 21st century even under scenarios of moderate greenhouse gas emissions, A1B

  4. Carbon steel protection in G.S. [Girldler sulphide] plants: Pt. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lires, Osvaldo; Delfino, Cristina; Rojo, Enrique.

    1989-01-01

    In order to protect carbon steel towers and piping of a GS experimental heavy water plant against corrosion produced by the action of aqueous solutions of hydrogen sulphide, a method, elsewhere published, was developed. Carbon steel exposed to saturated aqueous solutions of hydrogen sulphide forms iron sulphide scales. In oxygen free solutions, evolution of corrosion follows the sequence mackinawite → cubic ferrous sulphide → troilite → pyrrotite → pyrite. Scales formed by pyrrotite and pyrite are the most protective layers (these are obtained at 130 deg C, 2 MPa for a period of 14 days). During a plant shutdown procedures, the carbon steel protected with those scales is exposed to water and highly humid air; under such conditions oxidation is unavoidable. Later, treatment in plant conditions does not regenerate scales because the composition of regenerated scales involves more soluble iron sulphides such as mackinawite and troilite. Therefore, it is not recommendable to expose the protective scales to atmospherical conditions. (Author)

  5. Some specific features of interaction between light and dislocations in cadmium sulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klassen, N.V.; Krasil'nikova, L.L.; Tabeev, Eh.F.

    1977-01-01

    The local spectroscopy of a plastically strained cadmium sulphide is used to study light focusing phenomenon caused by slip bands and light-guide effect of the bands. Such phenomena are strongly dependent on the wavelength and light polarization. The behaviour of the light in the vicinity of slip bands on polarization normal to the bands is adequately explained by photoelastic interaction of the light with dislocations entering into the bands. Explanation of the anomalous behaviour of the light being polarized parallel to the slip bands requires the use of a model taking into consideration the role of localized dislocation states excited by the light of this polarization

  6. Simultaneous determination of oxygen and cadmium in cadmium and cadmium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaeda, K.; Kuriki, T.; Ohsawa, K.; Ishii, Y.

    1977-01-01

    Cadmium and its compounds were analysed for oxygen and cadmium by a modification of the Schutze-Unterzaucher method. Oxygen in some compounds such as cadmium oxide, nitrate and sulphate could not be determined by the usual method. The method of adding carbon was employed for the determination of total oxygen. Total oxygen could be determined by the addition of 5 mg of carbon to a sample boat and heating at 950 0 . The determination was also carried out by addition of naphthalene (2 mg). It was found that the cadmium powder and cadmium flake used contained ca. 1 and 0.15% oxygen, respectively. Oxygen and cadmium in cadmium and its compounds were simultaneously determined by the addition of 2 mg of naphthalene. Cadmium was determined colorimetrically by use of glyoxal-bis-(2-hydroxyanil). Oxygen and cadmium in the samples could be determined simultaneously with an average error of -0.02 and -0.22%, respectively. (author)

  7. Flux of Cadmium through Euphausiids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benayoun, G.; Fowler, S.W.; Oregioni, B.

    1976-01-01

    Flux of the heavy metal cadmium through the euphausiid Meganyctiphanes norvegica was examined. Radiotracer experiments showed that cadmium can be accumulated either directly from water or through the food chain. When comparing equilibrium cadmium concentration factors based on stable element measurements with those obtained from radiotracer experiments, it is evident that exchange between cadmium in the water and that in euphausiid tissue is a relatively slow process, indicating that, in the long term, ingestion of cadmium will probably be the more important route for the accumulation of this metal. Approximately 10% of cadmium ingested by euphausiids was incorporated into internal tissues when the food source was radioactive Artemia. After 1 month cadmium, accumulated directly from water, was found to be most concentrated in the viscera with lesser amounts in eyes, exoskeleton and muscle, respectively. Use of a simple model, based on the assumption that cadmium taken in by the organism must equal cadmium released plus that accumulated in tissue, allowed assessment of the relative importance of various metabolic parameters in controlling the cadmium flux through euphausiids. Fecal pellets, due to their relatively high rate of production and high cadmium content, accounted for 84% of the total cadmium flux through M. norvegica. Comparisons of stable cadmium concentrations in natural euphausiid food and the organism's resultant fecal pellets indicate that the cadmium concentration in ingested material was increased nearly 5-fold during its passage through the euphausiid. From comparisons of all routes by which cadmium can be released from M. norvegica to the water column, it is concluded that fecal pellet deposition represents the principal mechanism effecting the downward vertical transport of cadmium by this species. (author)

  8. Failure rate of piping in hydrogen sulphide systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hare, M.G.

    1993-08-01

    The objective of this study is to provide information about piping failures in hydrogen sulphide service that could be used to establish failures rates for piping in 'sour service'. Information obtained from the open literature, various petrochemical industries and the Bruce Heavy Water Plant (BHWP) was used to quantify the failure analysis data. On the basis of this background information, conclusions from the study and recommendations for measures that could reduce the frequency of failures for piping systems at heavy water plants are presented. In general, BHWP staff should continue carrying out their present integrity and leak detection programmes. The failure rate used in the safety studies for the BHWP appears to be based on the rupture statistics for pipelines carrying sweet natural gas. The failure rate should be based on the rupture rate for sour gas lines, adjusted for the unique conditions at Bruce

  9. High-pressure crystal chemistry of nickel sulphides

    CERN Document Server

    Prewitt, C T; Fei, Y

    2002-01-01

    Monochromatic synchrotron x-ray diffraction data collected at CHESS and ESRF at varying temperatures and pressures were used to investigate the crystal structures of phases with the composition Ni sub 3 S sub 2. At low pressures Ni sub 3 S sub 2 has the rhombohedral heazlewoodite structure (Ni sub 3 S sub 2 I), but transforms to two new structures at higher pressures and temperatures. Ni sub 3 S sub 2 III is orthorhombic (space group Cmcm, a = 3.118 A, b = 10.862 A, c 6.730 A) and contains Ni coordinated by five S atoms in a square pyramid. The structure of Ni sub 3 S sub 2 III is described in this report along with an analysis of electronic structures of nickel sulphides.

  10. Phase transformations in nickel sulphide: Microstructures and mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousfi, Oussama; Donnadieu, Patricia; Brechet, Yves; Robaut, Florence; Charlot, Frederic; Kasper, Andreas; Serruys, Francis

    2010-01-01

    Nickel sulphide inclusions are known to be responsible for delayed fracture in tempered glasses due to phase transformation within the inclusion. Microstructural identification of the phase transformation mechanisms in the Ni-S system close to the NiS composition were carried out on a series of partially transformed states. Observations allow to investigate the morphological evolution during transformation, the phase orientation relationships and the first stages of the transformation were investigated by optical microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The transformation mechanisms change significantly with the change in sulphur content of the α-NiS phase. Massive transformation is observed for near-stoichiometric composition. For overstoichiometric composition, the transformation is controlled by a long-range diffusion mechanism. The influence of stoichiometry and impurities (Fe) on the microstructural evolution and transformation mechanisms has also been studied.

  11. Solution growth, characterization and applications of zinc sulphide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ndukwe, I C [School of Physical Sciences, Abia State University, Uturu, Abia State (Nigeria)

    1996-04-29

    Zinc sulphide (ZnS) thin films were successfully deposited on glass substrates under varying deposition conditions using the electroless or solution growth technique. The film properties investigated include their transmittance/reflectance/absorbance spectra, bandgap, optical constants, and thicknesses. Films grown under certain parametric conditions were found to exhibit high transmittance (64-98%), low absorbance, and low reflectance in the ultraviolet (uv)/visible/near infrared (nir) regions up to 1.00 {mu}m. Those obtained under other conditions exhibited high transmittance (78-98%) and low absorbance (0.01-0.1) in the uv/visible regions but low transmittance (30-37) and high absorbance (0.56) in the nir region. These characteristics revealed their suitability for various solar device applications. Bandgap range E{sub g}=3.7-3.8 eV and thickness range t=0.07 - 0.73 {mu}m were obtained.

  12. Bioleaching of pollymetallic sulphide concentrate using thermophilic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Milovan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An extreme thermophilic, iron-sulphur oxidising bacterial culture was isolated and adapted to tolerate high metal and solids concentrations at 70°C. Following isolation and adaptation, the culture was used in a batch bioleach test employing a 5-l glass standard magnetic agitated and aerated reactor, for the bioleaching of a copper-lead-zinc collective concentrate. The culture exhibited stable leach performance over the period of leach operation and overall copper and zinc extractions higher than 97%. Lead sulphide is transformed into lead sulphate remaining in the bioleach residue due to the low solubility in sulphate media. Brine leaching of bioleach residue yields 95% lead extraction. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 34023

  13. Collective sulphide flotation of the polymetallic molybdenic ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazanek, C.; Maselko, J.; Rycerz, L.

    1980-01-01

    Results of investigations on polymetallic molybdenic ore are presented. The useful minerals of this ore are as follows: molybdenite, sphalerite, galena and chalcopyrite whereas quartz, feldspars, chlorite and sericite are barren rocks. The flotation process parameters are established i.e. the consumption of flotation reagents, the flotation time and the most advantageous grain composition of the ore submitted to flotation. Taking into consideration the established parameters, a collective sulphide flotation of ore and a control flotation of wastes were carried out. The obtained concentrate was submitted to a single cleaning flotation whereby a concentrate was obtained containing: 4,65% Mo, 2,51% Cu, 0,9% Zn, 0,69% Pb, and 1,4% Bi. (author)

  14. Complex sulphide-barite ore leaching in ferric chloride solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Sokić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of research on the leaching process of complex sulphide-barite ore were presented in this paper. The leaching process was carried out in a laboratory autoclave by ferric chloride solution. Considering that those minerals are represented in complex structural-textural relationships, it is not possible to extract lead, zinc and copper minerals from ore by flotation methods. The obtained results confirmed possibility of the ore processing directly, by chemical methods. The effect of temperature, time and oxygen partial pressure on the lead, zinc and copper dissolution was studied. The maximal leaching degree was achieved at 100 °C and amount of 91.5 % for Pb, 96.1 % for Zn and 60.7 % for Cu. Leaching at temperatures above 100 °C is impractical.

  15. Removal of mercury (II), elemental mercury and arsenic from simulated flue gas by ammonium sulphide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Ping; Guo, Xiaolong; Wang, Xueqian; Wang, Ping; Ma, Yixing; Lan, Yi

    2015-01-01

    A tubular resistance furnace was used as a reactor to simulate mercury and arsenic in smelter flue gases by heating mercury and arsenic compounds. The flue gas containing Hg(2+), Hg(0) and As was treated with ammonium sulphide. The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of varying the concentration of ammonium sulphide, the pH value of ammonium sulphide, the temperature of ammonium sulphide, the presence of SO2 and the presence of sulphite ion on removal efficiency. The prepared adsorption products were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the optimal concentration of ammonium sulphide was 0.8 mol/L. The optimal pH value of ammonium sulphide was 10, and the optimal temperature of ammonium sulphide was 20°C.Under the optimum conditions, the removal efficiency of Hg(2+), Hg(0) and As could reach 99%, 88.8%, 98%, respectively. In addition, SO2 and sulphite ion could reduce the removal efficiency of mercury and arsenic from simulated flue gas.

  16. Extremophiles in Mineral Sulphide Heaps: Some Bacterial Responses to Variable Temperature, Acidity and Solution Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen R. Watling

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In heap bioleaching, acidophilic extremophiles contribute to enhanced metal extraction from mineral sulphides through the oxidation of Fe(II and/or reduced inorganic sulphur compounds (RISC, such as elemental sulphur or mineral sulphides, or the degradation of organic compounds derived from the ore, biota or reagents used during mineral processing. The impacts of variable solution acidity and composition, as well as temperature on the three microbiological functions have been examined for up to four bacterial species found in mineral sulphide heaps. The results indicate that bacteria adapt to sufficiently high metal concentrations (Cu, Ni, Co, Zn, As to allow them to function in mineral sulphide heaps and, by engaging alternative metabolic pathways, to extend the solution pH range over which growth is sustained. Fluctuating temperatures during start up in sulphide heaps pose the greatest threat to efficient bacterial colonisation. The large masses of ores in bioleaching heaps mean that high temperatures arising from sulphide oxidation are hard to control initially, when the sulphide content of the ore is greatest. During that period, mesophilic and moderately thermophilic bacteria are markedly reduced in both numbers and activity.

  17. Chlorination leaching of cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lach, E.; Pajak, I.; Bojanowska, A.

    1978-01-01

    The results of the investigations on chlorination leaching of cadmium from dust coming from dry dust collector of sinter belt, that is leaching with water saturated with gaseous chlorine and leaching with solutions of ammonium chloride and sodium chloride were given. The optimum conditions for these processes were established. It was found, that the method of leaching in the presence of gaseous chlorine is more effective, as it allows to report into the solution over 90% cadmium contained in dust. Owing to technical difficulties, environmental protection and safety conditions more advantageous seems to be the use as leaching agent of the ammonium chloride solutions. When applying 20% NH 4 Cl and temperature of 60 0 C, the time of 2 hours and the ratio of solid to liquid of 1:5, 70% cadmium contained in the dust can be reported into the solution. (auth.)

  18. Some studies on successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) grown indium sulphide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathan, H.M.; Lokhande, C.D.; Kulkarni, S.S.; Amalnerkar, D.P.; Seth, T.; Han, Sung-Hwan

    2005-01-01

    Indium sulphide (In 2 S 3 ) thin films were grown on amorphous glass substrate by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. X-ray diffraction, optical absorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Rutherford back scattering (RBS) were applied to study the structural, optical, surface morphological and compositional properties of the indium sulphide thin films. Utilization of triethanolamine and hydrazine hydrate complexed indium sulphate and sodium sulphide as precursors resulted in nanocrystalline In 2 S 3 thin film. The optical band gap was found to be 2.7 eV. The film appeared to be smooth and homogeneous from SEM study

  19. Carbon steel protection in G.S. [Girldler sulphide] plants: Pt. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lires, Osvaldo; Delfino, Cristina; Rojo, Enrique.

    1990-01-01

    In order to protect carbon steel of towers and piping of a GS experimental heavy water plant against corrosion produced by the action of aqueous solutions of hydrogen sulphide, a method, elsewhere published, was developed. Carbon steel exposed to saturated aqueous solutions of hydrogen sulphide forms iron sulphide scales. In oxygen free solutions, evolution of corrosion follows the sequence mackinawate → cubic ferrous sulphide → troilite → pyrrotite → pyrite. Scales formed by pyrrotite and pyrite are the most protective layers (these are obtained at 130 deg C, 2 MPa for a period of 14 days). Pyrite formation is favoured by an oxidizing agent presence that allows the oxidation of sulphur ions to disulphur ions. Elemental sulphur or oxygen were used as oxidating agents. Variation and operational parameters such as concentration, temperature, pH, aggregate time, etc. were studied. Though little improvement on protective scales quality was observed, results do not justify operational troubles and the additional costs and effort involved. (Author)

  20. Considerations on the analytic control of sulphide tracks in metal uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Cellini, R.; Gasco Sanchez, C.

    1956-01-01

    Volumetric and colorimetric determinations of sulphur (sulphide) in uranium have been carried out by acid treatment and evaluation of SH 2 . According to the experimental results a discussion of both methods has been made. (Author)

  1. A spectrophotometric method for the determination of Hydrogen Sulphide sugar cane juice and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadeviah, S.; Galil, Mansour S.; Kumar, M.S. Yogender; Suresha, M.S.; Nagendrappa, G.

    2006-01-01

    A sensitive spectrophotometric is developed for the determination of hydrogen sulphide in water and sugarcane juice. The method is based on the reaction of hydrogen sulphide with phospomolybdate (ammonium molybdate and phosphate) in sulphuric acid medium. The system obeys Lambert-Beer's law at 715 nm in the concentration range of 0.284-5.68 ug ml. Molar absorptivity, correlation coefficient and Sandell sensitivity values were found to be 5x10 l mol cm, 0.9995 and 0.0494 ug cm respectively. The method was employed for the determination of hydrogen sulphide in sugar cane juice and in water samples. The results obtained were reproducible with acceptable standard deviation 0.1140-0.1337 and relative standard deviation varies from 0.0797-0.6038%. For comparison, hydrogen sulphide present in sugarcane juice and water samples were also determined separately following the methylene blue official method. The results of the proposed method compare well with the official method. (author)

  2. Solutions for reducing dissolved hydrogen sulphide in the Black Sea by electrochemical oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciocanea, Adrian; Budea, Sanda; Radulescu, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    Anaerobic disintegration of organic matter is a particular phenomenon in the Black Sea because of the set up of deposits of hydrogen sulphide, H 2 S, having high concentrations. The formation of such deposits is due to the absence of upward streams at depths larger than 100 meters. In Black Sea there is an oxic layer located roughly between 50 and 200 meters from which downwards begins the anoxic layer. If the equilibrium in Black Sea is not kept under control, an ecological disaster is possible. The first signals will be observed in surface waters, than, if the equilibrium is further disturbed the depth sulphides and the hydrogen sulphide deposits can develop up to inflammable and even explosive phases. This paper presents some solutions to reduce the hydrogen sulphide from Black Sea with a particular stress upon the electrochemical method. (authors)

  3. Effect of composition and. gamma. -irradiation on crystal lattice spacing of lead sulphide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indenbaum, G V; Novikova, S F; Vanyukov, A V; Dvorkin, Yu V [Moskovskij Inst. Stali i Splavov (USSR)

    1981-02-01

    Value of crystal lattice spacing of lead sulphide after annealing and quenching at temperatures of 600, 700 and 800 deg C are found for the both boundaries of homogeneity region with error of 5x10/sup -5/A. The effect of ..gamma.. irradiation with quanta energy of 1.25 MeV from /sup 60/Co source (10/sup 4/, 10/sup 5/ and 10/sup 6/ G/kg) on crystal lattice spacing of lead sulphide preliminary saturated with sulphur or lead at 600 deg C, is studied. It is established that lattice spacing of lead sulphide depends on material prehistory and decreases at room temperature after quenching and ..gamma..-irradiation. Effect of natural ageing of lead sulphide is explained by the decomposition of nonstechiometric solid solution, supersaturated with components, at room temperature.

  4. Anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor for the removal of sulphide by autotrophic denitrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinamarca, Carlos [Department of Process, Energy and Environment, Faculty of Technology, Telemark University College Kjolnes ring 56, 3918 Porsgrunn (Norway)

    2013-07-01

    The Removal efficiency, load and N/S molar ratio, of an EGSB reactor for autotrophic sulphide denitrification operated for 96 days, were studied. The reactor was operated at high inlet sulphide concentrations between 0.25 to 3.00 g HS--S/L equivalents to loads between 5 to 250 g HS--S/m3-h. Sulphide removals higher than 99 % were achieved. At a N/S molar ratio of 0.3 and 12 hours HRT the process was stable even during transition periods of influent sulphide concentration and pH (9.0-12.1). At N/S molar ratio of 1.3, granules lost some of their sedimentation properties and appeared to disintegrate. On average 94 ± 4 % of the equivalent inlet sulphur ended as elemental sulphur.

  5. Effect of the cadmium ion source on the structural and optical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rami, M.; Benamar, E.; Fahoume, M.; Chraibi, F.; Ennaoui, A.

    1999-06-01

    The chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique has been successfully used to deposit cadmium sulphide from cadmium chloride and cadmium acetate as the cadmium ion source and thiourea as the sulphur source on both glass microscope slide and indium tin oxide coated glass substrates. Various properties of the films such as surface morphology, crystallinity, optical properties and resistivitiy have been investigated. XRD patterns reveal that the CdS films deposited from cadmium chloride have an hexagonal structure. Their preferential orientation changes from (002) to (100) with the thermal annealing. Films deposited from cadmium acetate are amorphous but improve their crystallinity with annealing. SEM analysis shows that the grains of the as deposited films are randomly shaped and appear to be bigger in the case of the CdS prepared from cadmium chloride. The optical transmission of the layers are in the 70-80 % range for wavelength above the band gap absorption which makes them more appropriate as window material in heterojunction solar cells.

  6. Effect of the cadmium ion source on the structural and optical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rami, M.; Benamar, E.; Fahoume, M.; Chraibi, F.; Ennaoui, A. [University Mohamed V, Laboratory of Materials Physics, Dept., Faculty of Sciences, Rabat (Morocco)

    1999-06-01

    The chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique has been successfully used to deposit cadmium sulphide from cadmium chloride and cadmium acetate as the cadmium ion source and thiourea as the sulphur source on both glass microscope slide and indium tin oxide coated glass substrates. Various properties of the films such as surface morphology, crystallinity, optical properties and resistivity have been investigated. XRD patterns reveal that the CdS films deposited from cadmium chloride have an hexagonal structure. Their preferential orientation changes from (002) to (100) with the thermal annealing. Films deposited from cadmium acetate are amorphous but improve their crystallinity with annealing. SEM analysis shows that the grains of the as deposited films are randomly shaped and appear to be bigger in the case of the CdS prepared from cadmium chloride. The optical transmission of the layers are in the 70-80% range for wavelength above the band gap absorption which makes them more appropriate as window material in heterojunction solar cells. (authors)

  7. Cadmium plating replacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, M.J.; Groshart, E.C.

    1995-03-01

    The Boeing Company has been searching for replacements to cadmium plate. Two alloy plating systems seem close to meeting the needs of a cadmium replacement. The two alloys, zinc-nickel and tin-zinc are from alloy plating baths; both baths are neutral pH. The alloys meet the requirements for salt fog corrosion resistance, and both alloys excel as a paint base. Currently, tests are being performed on standard fasteners to compare zinc-nickel and tin-zinc on threaded hardware where cadmium is heavily used. The Hydrogen embrittlement propensity of the zinc-nickel bath has been tested, and just beginning for the tin-zinc bath. Another area of interest is the electrical properties on aluminum for tin-zinc and will be discussed. The zinc-nickel alloy plating bath is in production in Boeing Commercial Airplane Group for non-critical low strength steels. The outlook is promising that these two coatings will help The Boeing Company significantly reduce its dependence on cadmium plating.

  8. Cadmium: The deformed metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbs, R L [Cadmium Association, London (UK)

    1979-03-01

    The paper, which is a somewhat abridged version of the introductory paper of the 2nd International Cadmium Conference in Cannes on February 6 to 8, 1979, outlines the present trends in production, reserves, consumption, world trade, prices, and cost. Due to the lack of statistics on the USSR and other socialist countries, the review is limited to the non-socialist world.

  9. zinc, chromium, cadmium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-30

    Jun 30, 2016 ... Cadmium also causes destruction of the immune system, thus, predisposes the consumer to infectious diseases like tuberculosis (Khan et al., 2008). ... years, sputum specimens positive for acid-fast bacilli by microscopy and clinical and radiographic abnormalities consistent with pulmonary tuberculosis.

  10. Polyol-mediated synthesis of copper indium sulphide by solvothermal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorai, S.; Chaudhuri, S.

    2005-01-01

    A simple polyol-mediated solvothermal method has been proposed to synthesize copper indium sulphide. XRD studies reveal that the products are well crystallized. SEM indicates rod-like (with different aspect ratio) and star-shaped flake-like morphology of the products. The products are also characterized by optical studies and compositional analysis (XRF). XRF results show the formation of stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric copper indium sulphides depending on the reaction conditions

  11. Bio-assisted synthesis and characterization of nanostructured bismuth (III) sulphide using Clostridium acetobutylicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaraj, Sathish Kumar; Venkatachalam, Ganesh; Arumugam, Palaniappan; Berchmans, Sheela

    2014-01-01

    Nanostructured bismuth (III) sulphide is synthesized at room temperature using a hydrogen sulphide producing microorganism namely Clostridium acetobutylicum. On contrary to chemical routes involving both the high and room temperature methods, the present experimental procedure involves a bio-assisted approach. This method is free from the usage of toxic and hazardous chemicals making it an environment friendly route. The synthesized bismuth sulphide is characterized using transmission electron microscope (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). From our experiments we find that bismuth sulphide produced using this bio-assisted approach exhibits a hexagonal shaped plate-like structures and is stabilized by the extracellular proteins present in the culture medium. - Graphical abstract: A green chemistry approach towards the synthesis of bismuth (III) sulphide nanostructures at room temperature using a hydrogen sulphide producing microorganism namely, Clostridium acetobutylicum is demonstrated. - Highlights: • Environmentally benign (greener) route towards synthesis of Bi 2 S 3 nanostructures. • Bio-assisted synthesis of Bi 2 S 3 at room temperature using Clostridium acetobutylicum. • Extracellular proteins in H 2 S producing microorganism as stabilizer for Bi 2 S 3 NPs. • Hexagonal platelets of Bi 2 S 3 possessing an orthorhombic crystalline structure

  12. Molecular basis of cadmium toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nath, R; Prasad, R; Palinal, V K; Chopra, R K

    1984-01-01

    Cadmium has been shown to manifest its toxicity in human and animals by mainly accumulating in almost all of the organs. The kidney is the main target organ where it is concentrated mainly in the cortex. Environmental exposure of cadmium occurs via food, occupational industries, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem. At molecular level, cadmium interferes with the utilization of essential metals e.g. Ca, Zn, Se, Cr and Fe and deficiencies of these essential metals including protein and vitamins, exaggerate cadmium toxicity, due to its increased absorption through the gut and greater retention in different organs as metallothionein (Cd-Mt). Cadmium transport, across the intestinal and renal brush border membrane vesicles, is carrier mediated and it competes with zinc and calcium. It has been postulated that cadmium shares the same transport system. Cadmium inhibits protein synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism and drug metabolizing enzymes in liver of animals. Chronic environmental exposure of cadmium produces hypertension in experimental animals. Functional changes accompanying cadmium nephropathy include low molecular weight proteinuria which is of tubular origin associated with excess excretion of proteins such as beta 2 microglobulin, metallothionein and high molecular weight proteinuria of glomerular origin (excretion of proteins such as albumin IgG, transferrin etc.). Recent data has shown that metallothionein is more nephrotoxic to animals. Cadmium is also toxic to central nervous system. It causes an alterations of cellular functions in lungs. Cadmium affects both humoral and cell mediated immune response in animals. Cadmium induces metallothionein in liver and kidney but under certain nutritional deficiencies like protein-calorie malnutrition and calcium deficiency, enhanced induction and greater accumulation of cadmium metallothionein has been observed.

  13. Penguins are attracted to dimethyl sulphide at sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kyran L B; Pichegru, Lorien; Ryan, Peter G

    2011-08-01

    Breeding Spheniscus penguins are central place foragers that feed primarily on schooling pelagic fish. They are visual hunters, but it is unclear how they locate prey patches on a coarse scale. Many petrels and storm petrels (Procellariiformes), the penguins' closest relatives, use olfactory cues to locate prey concentrations at sea, but this has not been demonstrated for penguins. Procellariiforms are attracted to a variety of olfactory cues, including dimethyl sulphide (DMS), an organosulphur compound released when phytoplankton is grazed, as well as fish odorants such as cod liver oil. A recent study found that African penguins Spheniscus demersus react to DMS on land. We confirm this result and show that African penguins are also attracted by DMS at sea. DMS-scented oil slicks attracted 2-3 times more penguins than control slicks, whereas penguins showed no response to slicks containing cod liver oil. The number of penguins attracted to DMS increased for at least 30 min, suggesting penguins could travel up to 2 km to reach scent cues. Repeats of land-based trials confirmed previous results showing DMS sensitivity of penguins on land. Our results also support the hypothesis that African penguins use DMS as an olfactory cue to locate prey patches at sea from a distance, which is particularly important given their slow commuting speed relative to that of flying seabirds.

  14. Direct current electroluminescence in rare-earth-doped zinc sulphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, F.J.; Krier, A.

    1984-01-01

    Some of the properties and characteristics of rare-earth-doped zinc sulphide DCEL devices are reported. Two types of devices are discussed, co-evaporated ZnS:RE thin films and ion implanted ZnS:RE single crystal diodes. The thin film devices exhibit bright DCEL of various colours at low applied voltages (typically approximately 12 V). A study of the spectral intensities and lifetimes of the Er 3+ ion in ZnS:Er 3+ thin films is consistent with a Boltzmann energy distribution amongst the conduction electrons present in these devices. The ZnS:RE single crystal diodes fabricated in this laboratory by ion implantation are also capable of various colour DCEL. By comparing the EL emission obtained from the different rare earth dopants, erbium and neodymium are identified as the most efficient luminescence centres. Further consideration of the EL emission spectra gives evidence for the presence of inter-conduction band hot electron transitions in those devices containing rare earth dopants which are inefficent electroluminescence centres. These findings can be explained in terms of Auger processes occurring in rare earth complexes. (author)

  15. A Biphasic Ligand Exchange Reaction on Cdse Nanoparticles: Introducing Undergraduates to Functionalizing Nanoparticles for Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemke, Jennifer M.; Franz, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Semiconductor nanoparticles, including cadmium selenide (CdSe) particles, are attractive as light harvesting materials for solar cells. In the undergraduate laboratory, the size-tunable optical and electronic properties can be easily investigated; however, these nanoparticles (NPs) offer another platform for application-based tunability--the NP…

  16. Sulphide mineralization and wall-rock alteration in ophiolites and modern oceanic spreading centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Massive and stockwork Fe-Cu-Zn (Cyprus type) sulphide deposits in the upper parts of ophiolite complexes represent hydrothermal mineralization at ancient accretionary plate boundaries. These deposits are probable metallogenic analogues of the polymetallic sulphide deposits recently discovered along modern oceanic spreading centres. Genetic models for these deposits suggest that mineralization results from large-scale circulation of sea-water through basaltic basement along the tectonically active axis of spreading, a zone of high heat flow. The high geothermal gradient above 1 to 2 km deep magma chambers emplaced below the ridge axis drives the convective circulation cell. Cold oxidizing sea-water penetrating the crust on the ridge flanks becomes heated and evolves into a highly reduced somewhat acidic hydrothermal solvent during interaction with basaltic wall-rock. Depending on the temperature and water/rock ratio, this fluid is capable of leaching and transporting iron, manganese, and base metals; dissolved sea-water sulphate is reduced to sulphide. At the ridge axis, the buoyant hydrothermal fluid rises through permeable wall-rocks, and fluid flow may be focussed along deep-seated fractures related to extensional tectonic processes. Metal sulphides are precipitated along channelways as the ascending fluid undergoes adiabatic expansion and then further cooling during mixing with ambient sub-sea-floor water. Vigorous fluid flow results in venting of reduced fluid at the sea-floor/sea-water interface and deposition of massive sulphide. A comparison of sulphide mineralization and wall-rock alteration in ancient and modern spreading centre environments supports this genetic concept. Massive sulphide deposits in ophiolites generally occur in clusters of closely spaced (stacked sequences of pillow basalt and sheet flows, the sea-floor underlying numerous deposits in Guaymas Basin consists of diatomaceous ooze and terrigenous clastic sediment that is intruded by diabase

  17. Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkman, H; Iverfeldt, Aa [Swedish Environmental Research Inst. (Sweden); Borg, H; Lithner, G [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Inst. for Applied Environmental Research

    1998-03-01

    This report aims at assessing possible effects of cadmium in the Swedish environment. Swedish soils and soft freshwater systems are, due to a generally poor buffering capacity, severely affected by acidification. In addition, the low salinity in the Baltic Sea imply a naturally poor organism structure, with some important organisms living close to their limit of physiological tolerance. Cadmium in soils is mobilized at low pH, and the availability and toxicity of cadmium in marine systems are enhanced at low salinity. The Swedish environment is therefore extra vulnerable to cadmium pollution. The average concentrations of cadmium in the forest mor layers, agricultural soils, and fresh-waters in Sweden are enhanced compared to `back-ground concentrations`, with a general increasing trend from the north to the south-west, indicating strong impact of atmospheric deposition of cadmium originating from the central parts of Europe. In Swedish sea water, total cadmium concentrations, and the fraction of bio-available `free` cadmium, generally increases with decreasing salinity. Decreased emissions of cadmium to the environment have led to decreasing atmospheric deposition during the last decade. The net accumulation of cadmium in the forest mor layer has stopped, and even started to decrease. In northern Sweden, this is due to the decreased deposition, but in southern Sweden the main reason is increased leakage of cadmium from the topsoil as a consequence of acidification. As a result, cadmium in the Swedish environments is undergoing an extended redistribution between different soil compartments, and from the soils to the aquatic systems. 90 refs, 23 figs, 2 tabs. With 3 page summary in Swedish

  18. Cadmium: The deformed metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubbs, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    The paper, which is a somewhat abridged version of the introductory paper of the 2nd International Cadmium Conference in Cannes on February 6 to 8, 1979, outlines the present trends in production, reserves, consumption, world trade, prices, and cost. Due to the lack of statistics on the USSR and other socialist countries, the review is limited to the non-socialist world. (orig./IHOE) [de

  19. Developing the lithotectonic framework and model for sulphide mineralization in the Jebilet Massif, Morocco: implications for regional exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Lusty, Paul A.J.; Goodenough, Kathryn M.; Essaifi, Abderrahim; Maacha, Lhou

    2015-01-01

    The central Jebilet massif, part of the North African Variscan Belt, hosts significant polymetallic sulphide mineralization. It is generally considered syngenetic and has many features of volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS) mineralization. However, some characteristics are not compatible with a classic VMS model and two alternative scenarios for formation have been proposed. Our preliminary research favours a complex, multi-stage development of the sulphide deposits...

  20. Role of sulphide species on the behaviour of carbon steel envisioned for high-level radioactive disposal: interaction between sulphide and corrosion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdoiseau, Jacques-Andre

    2011-01-01

    This PhD work deals with the nuclear waste disposal. In France, it is envisaged by Andra (French national radioactive waste management agency) that high-level radioactive wastes will be confined in a glass matrix, stored in a stainless steel canister, it self placed in a carbon steel overpack. The wastes will then be stored at a depth of ∼500 m in a deep geological repository, drilled in a very stiff (indurated) clay (argillite) formation. The kinetics of corrosion expected for the overpack in this disposal concept are low and will stay low if the somehow protective rust layer that will develop initially on the steel surface remains undamaged. Local changes of the physico-chemical conditions may however degrade this layer and induce accelerated kinetics of corrosion. In particular, the growth of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) close to the steel overpack cannot be excluded and the sulphide species these micro-organisms produce may modify the corrosion process. The aim of this work was then to achieve a better understanding of the corrosion system constituted with steel, its rust layer mainly made of siderite FeCO 3 , and a sulphide-containing electrolyte. First, it proved necessary to characterise the iron sulphides involved in the corrosion processes by Raman micro-spectroscopy so as to study their formation and transformation mechanisms in various conditions of Fe(II) and S(-II) concentration, pH, temperature and aeration. It could be demonstrated that the Raman spectrum of mackinawite FeS, the compound that precipitated in any case from dissolved Fe(II) and S(-II) species with the experimental conditions considered here, depended on the crystallinity and oxidation state. Moreover, the mechanisms of the oxidation of mackinawite into greigite Fe 3 S 4 in acidic anoxic solutions at 80 C could be described. Finally, iron sulphides, often present on archaeological artefacts, could be identified using Raman micro-spectroscopy. The compounds present were mainly

  1. Effect of Copper and Iron Ions on the Sulphidizing Flotation of Copper Oxide in Copper Smelting Slag

    OpenAIRE

    Qing-qing Pan; Hui-qing Peng

    2018-01-01

    The treatment of smelting slag has attracted much attention nowadays. This study investigates the influence of Na2S, CuSO4, and FeCl3 on sulphidizing flotation of copper oxide. The results show that a proper Cu2+ concentration can increase the sulphidizing effect of copper oxide, while Fe3+ inhibits the sulphidizing effect. Further analysis shows that Cu2+ ions can reduce the surface potential, increase the S2− adsorption, then generate more polysulfide, and therefore promote the sulphidizing...

  2. Calculation of near-field concentrations of hydrogen sulphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baynes, C.J.

    1985-03-01

    This report provides simulations of the near-field dispersion in the atmosphere of postulated releases of hydrogen sulphide gas (H2S) at a heavy water plant. The size and extent of the flammable or detonable gas clouds which might result are estimated. This work was undertaken to support experimental studies of the detonability of H2S releases. Thirty-six different cases were simulated involving the catastrophic failure of a liquid H2S storage tank or tank car of H2S. The major variables were the size of the release, the initial mixing ratio of gas with ambient air, and the wind speed. Since the gas/air mixture is initially heavier than air, an existing heavy gas mathematical model (DENZ) was used for these simulations. The model was modified to provide the outputs needed to support the experimental studies. The outputs were the mass of H2S in the cloud, the mass and volume of the cloud, its radius at ground level and its temperature, all as functions of distance and time from release. The edge of the cloud was defined by a given concentration of H2S in air. The simulations were repeated for ten different values of this parameter, ranging between 3% and 40% H2S by volume. Simulations were also performed using a simple 'top-hat' mixing model to predict the length of the flammable or detonable jet formed at the break in a pipe carrying H2S vapour under pressure. The analysis was conducted for four postulated pipe break diameters and repeated for the same ten concentration levels used in the storage tank studies. The report presents a summary of the results. The complete outputs from the 36 storage tank failure simulations are available on floppy disks in a format suitable for detailed examination using any IBM-PC compatible microcomputer system

  3. Microemulsion Synthesis of Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotić, M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles and nanomaterials have wide applications in electronics, physics, material design, being also utilized as sensors, catalysts, and more and more in biomedicine. Microemulsions are an exceptionally suitable medium for the synthesis of nanoparticles due to their thermodynamical stability, great solubility of both polar and nonpolar components, as well as their ability to control the size, dispersity and shape of the particles. This review presents microemulsion techniques for the synthesis of inorganic nanoparticles. It takes place in water-in-oil microemulsions by mixing one microemulsion with a cationic precursor, and the other with a precipitating or reducing agent, or by direct addition of reducing agents or gas (O2, NH3 ili CO2 into microemul sion (Fig. 1. Metal nanoparticles are used as catalysts, sensors, ferrofluids etc. They are produced by reducing the metal cation with a suitable reducing agent. In a similar way, one can prepare nanoparticles of alloys from the metal salts, provided that the metals are mutually soluble. The microemulsion technique is also suitable for depositing nanoparticles onto various surfaces. Highly active catalysts made from nanoparticles of Pt, Pd, Rh and other noble metals may be obtained in this way. Metal oxides and hydroxides may be prepared by hydrolysis or precipitation in the water core of microemulsion. Precipitation can be initiated by adding the base or precipitating agent into the microemulsion with water solution of metal ions. Similarly, nanoparticles may be prepared of sulphides, halogenides, cyanides, carbonates, sulphates and other insoluble metal salts. To prevent oxidation of nanoparticles, especially Fe, the particles are coated with inert metals, oxides, various polymers etc. Coating may provide additional functionality; e.g. coating with gold allows subsequent functionalization with organic compounds containing sulphur, due to the strong Au–S bond. Polymer coatings decrease

  4. Experimental observation of zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate (ZDDP)-induced iron sulphide formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltanahmadi, Siavash, E-mail: s.soltanahmadi@leeds.ac.uk [Institute of Functional Surfaces, School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Morina, Ardian [Institute of Functional Surfaces, School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Eijk, Marcel C.P. van; Nedelcu, Ileana [SKF Engineering and Research Centre, 3430 DT Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Neville, Anne [Institute of Functional Surfaces, School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2017-08-31

    Graphical abstract: Chemical analysis of ZDDP-induced tribofilm under severe boundary lubricated regime in nano and micro-meter scales.▪ - Highlights: • A ZDDP-derived locally formed iron-sulphide layer is detected on the steel surface. • The iron-sulphide is a 5–10 nm thin distinct layer at steel-phosphate interface. • Near the surface-crack site the elemental distribution of the tribofilm is altered. • Sulphur concentration is enhanced in the iron-sulphide layer near the cracked-site. • ZDDP elements are detected inside the crack with a greater contribution of sulphur. - Abstract: Zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate (ZDDP) as a well-known anti-wear additive enhances the performance of the lubricant beyond its wear-protection action, through its anti-oxidant and Extreme Pressure (EP) functionality. In spite of over thirty years of research attempting to reveal the mechanism of action of ZDDP, there are still some uncertainties around the exact mechanisms of its action. This is especially the case with the role of sulphide layer formed in the tribofilm and its impact on surface fatigue. Although iron sulphide on the substrate is hypothesised in literature to form as a separate layer, there has been no concrete experimental observation on the distribution of the iron sulphide as a dispersed precipitate, distinct layer at the steel substrate or both. It remains to be clarified whether the iron sulphide layer homogeneously covers the surface or locally forms at the surface. In the current study a cross section of the specimen after experiment was prepared and has been investigated with Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Energy-Dispersive X-ray (EDX) elemental analysis. A 5–10 nm iron sulphide layer is visualised on the interface as a separate layer underneath the phosphate layer with an altered distribution of tribofilm elements near the crack site. The iron sulphide interface layer is more visible near the crack site where the concentration of the

  5. Experimental observation of zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate (ZDDP)-induced iron sulphide formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltanahmadi, Siavash; Morina, Ardian; Eijk, Marcel C.P. van; Nedelcu, Ileana; Neville, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Chemical analysis of ZDDP-induced tribofilm under severe boundary lubricated regime in nano and micro-meter scales.▪ - Highlights: • A ZDDP-derived locally formed iron-sulphide layer is detected on the steel surface. • The iron-sulphide is a 5–10 nm thin distinct layer at steel-phosphate interface. • Near the surface-crack site the elemental distribution of the tribofilm is altered. • Sulphur concentration is enhanced in the iron-sulphide layer near the cracked-site. • ZDDP elements are detected inside the crack with a greater contribution of sulphur. - Abstract: Zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate (ZDDP) as a well-known anti-wear additive enhances the performance of the lubricant beyond its wear-protection action, through its anti-oxidant and Extreme Pressure (EP) functionality. In spite of over thirty years of research attempting to reveal the mechanism of action of ZDDP, there are still some uncertainties around the exact mechanisms of its action. This is especially the case with the role of sulphide layer formed in the tribofilm and its impact on surface fatigue. Although iron sulphide on the substrate is hypothesised in literature to form as a separate layer, there has been no concrete experimental observation on the distribution of the iron sulphide as a dispersed precipitate, distinct layer at the steel substrate or both. It remains to be clarified whether the iron sulphide layer homogeneously covers the surface or locally forms at the surface. In the current study a cross section of the specimen after experiment was prepared and has been investigated with Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Energy-Dispersive X-ray (EDX) elemental analysis. A 5–10 nm iron sulphide layer is visualised on the interface as a separate layer underneath the phosphate layer with an altered distribution of tribofilm elements near the crack site. The iron sulphide interface layer is more visible near the crack site where the concentration of the

  6. Lactate has the potential to promote hydrogen sulphide formation in the human colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquet, Perrine; Duncan, Sylvia H; Chassard, Christophe; Bernalier-Donadille, Annick; Flint, Harry J

    2009-10-01

    High concentrations of sulphide are toxic for the gut epithelium and may contribute to bowel disease. Lactate is a favoured cosubstrate for the sulphate-reducing colonic bacterium Desulfovibrio piger, as shown here by the stimulation of sulphide formation by D. piger DSM749 by lactate in the presence of sulphate. Sulphide formation by D. piger was also stimulated in cocultures with the lactate-producing bacterium Bifidobacterium adolescentis L2-32. Other lactate-utilizing bacteria such as the butyrate-producing species Eubacterium hallii and Anaerostipes caccae are, however, expected to be in competition with the sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) for the lactate formed in the human colon. Strains of E. hallii and A. caccae produced 65% and 96% less butyrate from lactate, respectively, in a coculture with D. piger DSM749 than in a pure culture. In triculture experiments involving B. adolescentis L2-32, up to 50% inhibition of butyrate formation by E. hallii and A. caccae was observed in the presence of D. piger DSM749. On the other hand, sulphide formation by D. piger was unaffected by E. hallii or A. caccae in these cocultures and tricultures. These experiments strongly suggest that lactate can stimulate sulphide formation by SRB present in the colon, with possible consequences for conditions such as colitis.

  7. Transport of metals and sulphur in magmas by flotation of sulphide melt on vapour bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungall, J. E.; Brenan, J. M.; Godel, B.; Barnes, S. J.; Gaillard, F.

    2015-03-01

    Emissions of sulphur and metals from magmas in Earth’s shallow crust can have global impacts on human society. Sulphur-bearing gases emitted into the atmosphere during volcanic eruptions affect climate, and metals and sulphur can accumulate in the crust above a magma reservoir to form giant copper and gold ore deposits, as well as massive sulphur anomalies. The volumes of sulphur and metals that accumulate in the crust over time exceed the amounts that could have been derived from an isolated magma reservoir. They are instead thought to come from injections of multiple new batches of vapour- and sulphide-saturated magmas into the existing reservoirs. However, the mechanism for the selective upward transfer of sulphur and metals is poorly understood because their main carrier phase, sulphide melt, is dense and is assumed to settle to the bottoms of magma reservoirs. Here we use laboratory experiments as well as gas-speciation and mass-balance models to show that droplets of sulphide melt can attach to vapour bubbles to form compound drops that float. We demonstrate the feasibility of this mechanism for the upward mobility of sulphide liquids to the shallow crust. Our work provides a mechanism for the atmospheric release of large amounts of sulphur, and contradicts the widely held assumption that dense sulphide liquids rich in sulphur, copper and gold will remain sequestered in the deep crust.

  8. Cadmium in blood and hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eum, Ki-Do; Lee, Mi-Sun; Paek, Domyung

    2008-01-01

    Objectives:: This study is to examine the effect of cadmium exposure on blood pressure in Korean general population. Methods:: The study population consisted of 958 men and 944 women who participated in the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), in which blood pressure and blood cadmium were measured from each participant. Results:: The mean blood cadmium level was 1.67 μg/L (median level 1.55). The prevalence of hypertension was 26.2%. The blood cadmium level was significantly higher among those subjects with hypertension than those without (mean level 1.77 versus 1.64 μg/dL). After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratio of hypertension comparing the highest to the lowest tertile of cadmium in blood was 1.51 (95% confidence interval 1.13 to 2.05), and a dose-response relationship was observed. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure were all positively associated with blood cadmium level, and this effect of cadmium on blood pressure was markedly stronger when the kidney function was reduced. Conclusions:: Cadmium exposures at the current level may have increased the blood pressure of Korean general population

  9. Cadmium in blood and hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eum, Ki-Do; Lee, Mi-Sun [Department of Environmental Health, Graduate School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paek, Domyung [Department of Environmental Health, Graduate School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: paekdm@snu.ac.kr

    2008-12-15

    Objectives:: This study is to examine the effect of cadmium exposure on blood pressure in Korean general population. Methods:: The study population consisted of 958 men and 944 women who participated in the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), in which blood pressure and blood cadmium were measured from each participant. Results:: The mean blood cadmium level was 1.67 {mu}g/L (median level 1.55). The prevalence of hypertension was 26.2%. The blood cadmium level was significantly higher among those subjects with hypertension than those without (mean level 1.77 versus 1.64 {mu}g/dL). After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratio of hypertension comparing the highest to the lowest tertile of cadmium in blood was 1.51 (95% confidence interval 1.13 to 2.05), and a dose-response relationship was observed. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure were all positively associated with blood cadmium level, and this effect of cadmium on blood pressure was markedly stronger when the kidney function was reduced. Conclusions:: Cadmium exposures at the current level may have increased the blood pressure of Korean general population.

  10. and Cadmium Zinc Telluride

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    INTRODUCTION. Semiconductor nanoparticles or Quantum Dots (QDs), in particular II-VI materials, have ... the study of structural, electronic transport and optical properties of Zn doped CdTe thin films, ...... Bhattacharya, S.K & Anjali, K. 2007.

  11. Synthesis and Fungicidal activity of some sulphide derivatives of O-Ethyl-N-substituted phenylcarbamates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imeokparia, F.A.

    2006-01-01

    Monosulphides of O-ethyl-N-substituted phenylcarbamates were prepared by the reaction between O-ethyl-N-substituted phenylcarbamates and sulphur dichloride, while the corresponding disulphides were prepared by the reaction between O-ethyl-N-substituted phenylcarbamates and sulphur monochloride. The synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, thin layer chromatography (TLC), Fourier-transform infrared, and /sup 1/H and /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic techniques. In vitro fungicidal assay of these sulphides against Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Rhizopus stolonifer showed that they had Greater fungicidal activity than their parent carbamates. The synthesized sulphides were more active towards A. Niger and A. flavus. Unlike the parent carbamates, the type of substituents attached to the aromatic nucleus of these sulphides had little or no effect on their fungicidal activity as there was insignificant variation in the fungicidal activity of the monosulphide and the disulphide derivatives of O-ethyl-N-substituted phenylcarbamates. (author)

  12. Comparative study of ketoconazole versus selenium sulphide shampoo in pityriasis versicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal K

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Forty patients suffering from pityriasis versicolor were treated with either 2% ketoconazole shampoo (20 patients or 2.5% selenium sulphide shampoo (20 patients, once a week for three weeks. On global assessment after one month of start of therapy, 19 (95% out of 20 patients treated with ketoconazole shampoo were cured while one case had mild residual disease. In selenium sulphide shampoo group, 17 (85% out of 20 patients were cured, one had mild residual disease and two had considerable residual disease. No significant difference was observed in the response rates in the two groups. Relapse occurred in one patient of ketoconazole group and two patients of selenium sulphide group during the follow - up period of three months.

  13. Synthesis and luminescence of graphene-nano calcium sulphide composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Geeta; Patil, K.R.; Gosavi, S.W.

    2014-01-01

    Graphene-nanocrystalline calcium sulphide has been synthesized using in-situ reduction of calcium salt and graphene oxide. Graphene oxide was prepared using Hummer's method. Surface morphology and crystal structure of samples were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-Ray diffraction (XRD). Ultra thin graphene and graphene oxide sheets with size ranging between tens to several hundreds of square nanometers are observed in TEM images. The TEM micrographs of G-CaS show that CaS particles are embedded in graphene sheets and the average particle size of CaS particles in the composite is less than 50 nm. The reduction in the intensity of various functional groups in FTIR spectrum also confirms the formation of graphene. The UV-Visible spectra of CaS shows absorption peak at 220 nm with a small shoulder at 250 nm whereas in G-CaS 220 nm absorption peak has reduced intensity and the shoulder at 250 nm has now shifted to 270 nm due to modification in the defect structure of CaS by graphene. CaS and G-CaS shows photoluminescence emission at 470 nm (λ exc . = 375 nm) and 440 nm (λ exc . = 350 nm) respectively, however emission intensity of G-CaS is relatively lower than CaS. Although the emission intensity is found to be lower than CaS, addition of CaS to graphene in G-CaS complex has made graphene luminescent. XPS spectra also indicate reduction of various oxygen containing functional groups in highly reduced graphene oxide and G-CaS. - Highlights: • G-CaS was synthesized using in situ reduction of calcium salt and graphene oxide. • Samples were characterized by XRD, TEM, PL, FTIR, XPS, Raman Spectroscopy. • TEM of GCaS show CaS particles having size less than 50 nm are embedded in graphene. • G-CaS shows PL emission at 440 nm when excited with 350 nm. • PL emission intensity in case of G-CaS is lower than CaS but it is luminescent

  14. Extraction of antimony and arsenic from sulphidic concentrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BalហPeter

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of both mineral processing and extractive metallurgy of minerals depends on the separation of individual mineral components and on the exposure of their surface. The production of flotation concentrates, with particle sizes of tens of microns, is not sufficient for many hydrometallurgical processes to operate at their optimum. As a consequence, metallurgical plants require for the effective processing high temperatures and pressures and some sort of concentrate pretreatment. Mechanical activation is an innovative procedure where an improvement in hydrometallurgical processes can be attained via a combination of new surface area and formation of crystalline defects in minerals. The lowering of reaction temperatures, the increase of rate and amount of solubility, preparation of water soluble compounds, the necessity for simpler and less expensive reactors and shorter reaction times are some of the advantages of mechanical activation. The environmental aspects of these processes are particularly attractive.This paper is devoted to the examples of application of mechanochemical treatment in the processing of sulfidic concentrates. The sulphide concentrates of various origin (Peru, Chile, Slovakia were succesfully tested for antimony and arsenic extraction. The mechanochemical treatment improve the degree of recovery and the rate of leaching of both metals. Two modes of mechanochemical treatment were tested: the mechanical activation before leaching and the mechanochemical leaching which integrates mechanical activation and leaching into a common step. The flowsheet consisted of mechanochemical leaching in an attritor and further operations as filtration, cementation, antimony precipitation, crystallization and arsenic precipitation. The pilot plant unit was designed for 500 kg per day feed of tetrahedrite concentrate. For the antimony extraction, electrowinning has also been considered. The residue which is a CuAgAu concentrate was

  15. Cadmium exposure in the Swedish environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report gives a thorough description of cadmium in the Swedish environment. It comprises three parts: Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks;, Cadmium in goods - contribution to environmental exposure;, and Cadmium in fertilizers, soil, crops and foods - the Swedish situation. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all three parts

  16. Cadmium and zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safaya, N.M.; McLean, J.E.; Halverson, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Cadmium and zinc are naturally occurring trace metals that are often considered together because of their close geochemical association and similarities in chemical reactivity. The loss of two electrons from an atom of Cd or Zn imparts to each an electron configuration with completely filled d orbitals; this results in a highly stable 2/sup +/ oxidation state. But Cd and Zn differ greatly in their significance to biological systems. Whereas Zn is an essential nutrient for plants, animals, and humans, Cd is best known for its toxicity to plants and as a causative agent of several disease syndromes in animals and humans

  17. Diffusive Transport of Sulphide through an Engineering Barrier System in a Deep Geological Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, S. A.; Sleep, B. E.; McKelvie, J. R. M.; Krol, M.

    2015-12-01

    Bentonite is a naturally occurring clay-rich sediment containing montmorillonite, a smectitic clay mineral that has a high cation exchange capacity and swells upon contact with water. Owing to these characteristics, highly compacted bentonite (HCB) is an often included component of engineered barrier systems (EBS) designed to protect used fuel containers (UFCs) in deep geological repositories (DGR) for high-level nuclear waste. The low water activity and high swelling pressure of HCB suppresses microbial activity and the related production of sulphide that could cause microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of UFCs The Canadian Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) has chosen a UFC that consists of an inner steel core and outer copper coating which is resistant to corrosion. However, under anaerobic conditions, MIC can still contribute to UFC corrosion if sulphides are present in the groundwater. Therefore the EBS consisting of bentonite blocks and pellets has been designed to impede the movement of sulphides to the UFC. In order to examine the effectiveness of the EBS, a 3D numerical model was developed capable of simulating the diffusive transport of sulphide within the NWMO EBS. The model was developed using COMSOL Multiphysics, a finite element software package and is parametric which allows the impact of different repository layouts to be assessed. The developed model was of the entire NWMO placement room, as well as, a stand-alone UFC and included conservative assumptions such as a fully saturated system and a constant concentration boundary condition. The results showed that the highest sulphide flux occurred at the semi-spherical end caps of the UFC. Further studies examined the effect of sulphide hotspots and fractures, representing possible EBS failure mechanisms. The model results highlight that even with conservative assumptions the chosen EBS will effectively protect the UFC from microbiologically influenced corrosion.

  18. Sulphur isotope variations in the mantle from ion microprobe analyses of micro-sulphide inclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaussidon, M.; Albarede, F.; Sheppard, S.M.F.

    1989-01-01

    21 samples of sulphide trapped either as liquid globules or grains in various minerals (olivine, pyroxenes, ilmenite and garnet) or rocks (basalt glasses, peridotites, eclogites and kimberlites) of mantle origin, have been analysed for their sulphur isotope, and their Cu, Ni, Fe compositions by ion microprobe. The results show a wide range of δ 34 S values between -4.9±1 and +8±1per mille. Sulphides with high nickel contents (up to 40% pentlandite), corresponding mostly to residual peridotites, have δ 34 S values ranging from -3.2per mille to +3.6per mille with a mode of +3±1per mille, compared to low Ni content sulphides, mostly contained in pyroxenites, OIB and kimberlites, ranging from -3.6per mille to +8per mille with a mode of +1±1per mille. The δ 34 S of sulphides originating from within the mantle are variable. The sulphide globules with high Ni contents and δ 34 S values close to +3per mille, are probably produced by 10-20% partial melting of a mantle source containing 300 ppm sulphur as an upper limit and having a δ 34 S value of +0.5±0.5per mille. This difference in δ 34 S values suggests a high-temperature S-isotope fractionation of ≅+3per mille between liquid sulphide and the sulphur dissolved in the silicate liquid. The sulphur isotopes balance in the system upper mantle + oceanic crust + continental crust + seawater requires a mean δ 34 S value of the primitive upper mantle of +0.5per mille, slightly but significantly different from that of chondrites (+0.2±0.2per mille). (orig.)

  19. Treating landfill gas hydrogen sulphide with mineral wool waste (MWW) and rod mill waste (RMW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergersen, Ove; Haarstad, Ketil

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) gas is a major odorant at municipal landfills. The gas can be generated from different waste fractions, for example demolition waste containing gypsum based plaster board. The removal of H2S from landfill gas was investigated by filtering it through mineral wool waste products. The flow of gas varied from 0.3 l/min to 3.0 l/min. The gas was typical for landfill gas with a mean H2S concentration of ca. 4500 ppm. The results show that the sulphide gas can effectively be removed by mineral wool waste products. The ratios of the estimated potential for sulphide precipitation were 19:1 for rod mill waste (RMW) and mineral wool waste (MWW). A filter consisting of a mixture of MWW and RMW, with a vertical perforated gas tube through the center of filter material and with a downward gas flow, removed 98% of the sulfide gas over a period of 80 days. A downward gas flow was more efficient in contacting the filter materials. Mineral wool waste products are effective in removing hydrogen sulphide from landfill gas given an adequate contact time and water content in the filter material. Based on the estimated sulphide removal potential of mineral wool and rod mill waste of 14 g/kg and 261 g/kg, and assuming an average sulphide gas concentration of 4500 ppm, the removal capacity in the filter materials has been estimated to last between 11 and 308 days. At the studied location the experimental gas flow was 100 times less than the actual gas flow. We believe that the system described here can be upscaled in order to treat this gas flow. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Magnetized Nanoparticle Based Solid-Phase Extraction Procedure Followed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry to Determine Arsenic, Lead and Cadmium in Water, Milk, Indian Rice and Red Tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Salameh; Es'haghi, Zarrin

    2017-06-01

    A sensitive and simple method using magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNTs-Fe 3 O 4 MNP), as the adsorbent, has been successfully developed for extraction and pre-concentration of arsenic, lead and cadmium with detection by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The nanosorbent was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The key factors affecting the signal intensity such as pH, adsorbent amount, etc. were investigated. Under optimal conditions, the limits of detection (three-time of signal to noise ratio, S/N 3) were 0.3, 0.6, 0.3 ng/mL for arsenic, lead and cadmium, respectively. Application of the adsorbent was investigated by the analysis of water, milk, Indian rice and red tea. The experimental data was analyzed and obeyed Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. The kinetic data was fitted to the pseudo-second-order model. Thermodynamic studies revealed the feasibility and exothermic nature of the system.

  1. The rapid size- and shape-controlled continuous hydrothermal synthesis of metal sulphide nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Dunne, Peter W.; Starkey, Christopher L.; Gimeno-Fabra, Miquel; Lester, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Continuous flow hydrothermal synthesis offers a cheap, green and highly scalable route for the preparation of inorganic nanomaterials which has predominantly been applied to metal oxide based materials. In this work we report the first continuous flow hydrothermal synthesis of metal sulphide nanomaterials. A wide range of binary metal sulphides, ZnS, CdS, PbS, CuS, Fe₍₁₋ᵪ₎S and Bi₂S₃, have been synthesised. By varying the reaction conditions two different mechanisms may be invoked; a growth d...

  2. Removal of hydrogen sulphide from pig house using biofilter with fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael J.; Pedersen, Claus L.; Søgaard Jensen, Louise H.

    2018-01-01

    was to investigate if this high removal could be due to the presence of fungi. The removal of reduced sulphur compounds in a 600-mm wide cellulose biofilter was measured at depths of 0, 200, 400 and 600 mm and the results compared with estimated fungal hyphae surface area per biofilm area. Over 19 months, removal...... of hydrogen sulphide was measured during periods with and without fungi. The results demonstrate a correlation between the fungal hyphae surface area and the removal of hydrogen sulphide with the highest removal in the first 200 mm of the biofilter and decreasing removal with depth. During periods...... area caused by the hyphae....

  3. Protection of Mild Steel Against Sulphides Corrosion In Petroleum Oil Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, A.M.H.

    2004-01-01

    The aggressive properties of the media encountered when drilling for oil derive from the fact that they contain an abundance of mineralized water, as well as hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide. Particularly vulnerable to corrosion and installation of old deposits, where highly mineralized water or sometimes even sea water, is pumped into the bed so as to increase the oil yield, and where acid treatment is also carried out, the injection of such water into the bed creates favourable conditions for the development of microbiological processes promoting the life activity of sulphate-reducing bacteria and contributing to the appearance of hydrogen sulphide in the system

  4. Iron sulphide containing hydrodesulfurization catalysts : Mössbauer study of the sulfidibility of alpha-iron(III) oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramselaar, W.L.T.M.; Beer, de V.H.J.; Kraan, van der A.M.

    1988-01-01

    As a first step in the study of the sulphidation of carbon-supported iron oxide catalyst systems the sulphiding of a well-characterized, unsupported model compound, viz. a-Fe2O3(mean particle diameter ca. 50 nm) was investigated using in-situ Mössbauer spectroscopy and the temperature-programmed

  5. Significance of porous structure on degradatin of 2 2' dichloro diethyl sulphide and 2 chloroethyl ethyl sulphide on the surface of vanadium oxide nanostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Beer; Mahato, T.H.; Srivastava, A.K.; Prasad, G.K.; Ganesan, K.; Vijayaraghavan, R.; Jain, Rajeev

    2011-01-01

    Degradation of the king of chemical warfare agent, 2 2' dichloro diethyl sulphide (HD), and its simulant 2 chloroethyl ethyl sulphide (CEES) were investigated on the surface of porous vanadium oxide nanotubes at room temperature (30 ± 2 ° C ). Reaction kinetics was monitored by GC-FID technique and the reaction products were characterized by GC-MS. Data indicates that HD degraded faster relative to CEES inside the solid decontaminant compared to the reported liquid phase degradation of CEES and HD. Data explores the role of hydrolysis, elimination and oxidation reactions in the detoxification of HD and CEES and the first order rate constant and t 1/2 were calculated to be 0.026 h -1 , 26.6 h for CEES and 0.052 h -1 , 13.24 h for HD. In this report faster degradation of HD compared to CEES was explained on the basis of porous structure.

  6. Cadmium immobilization by hydroxyapatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smičiklas Ivana D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of air, soil and water by cadmium is a great environmental problem. If cadmium occurs in nature in ionic form, soluble in water, it easily enters into the food chain. Hydroxyapatite (HAP, Ca-o(POAe(OH2 is a sparingly soluble salt and an excellent matrix for the removal of heavy metals from solutions. Considerable research attention has been paid to the bond between Cc/2+ ions and synthetic hydroxyapatite of known composition. The sorption mechanism is complex. The dominant process is ion exchange, but surface adsorption, surface complexation and coprecipitation can also contribute to the overall mechanism. The sorption capacity depends on the characteristics of hydroxyapatite itself and on the experimental conditions. Under optimum conditions a maximum capacity of 0.8 mol Cd2+/mol HAP can be achieved. HAP is a potential sorbent for the remediation of contaminated water and soil, for industrial waste treatment, and it is also referenced as a material that can be used as a barrier around waste depositories.

  7. Effect of Copper and Iron Ions on the Sulphidizing Flotation of Copper Oxide in Copper Smelting Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-qing Pan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of smelting slag has attracted much attention nowadays. This study investigates the influence of Na2S, CuSO4, and FeCl3 on sulphidizing flotation of copper oxide. The results show that a proper Cu2+ concentration can increase the sulphidizing effect of copper oxide, while Fe3+ inhibits the sulphidizing effect. Further analysis shows that Cu2+ ions can reduce the surface potential, increase the S2− adsorption, then generate more polysulfide, and therefore promote the sulphidizing flotation. However, Fe3+ ions would increase the surface potential, reduce the S2− adsorption, generate more sulfur element, and therefore inhibit the sulphidizing flotation.

  8. Cadmium in the biofuel system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aabyhammar, T.; Fahlin, M.; Holmroos, S.

    1993-12-01

    Removal of biofuel depletes the soil of important nutrients. Investigations are being made of possibilities to return most of these nutrients by spreading the ashes remaining after combustion in the forest or on field. Return of ashes implies that both beneficial and harmful substances are returned. This study has been conducted to illustrate that the return of cadmium implies the greatest risk for negative influences. The occurrence, utilization, emissions and effects of cadmium are discussed. The behaviour of cadmium in soil is discussed in detail. Flows and quantities of cadmium in Swedish society are reviewed. Flows and quantities of both total and plant available cadmium in the entire forest and arable areas of Sweden are given. A scenario for a bioenergy system of max 100 TWh is discussed. The cadmium flow in different biofuels and forest raw products, and anticipated amounts of ashes and cadmium concentrations, are calculated. Power production from biofuels is surveyed. Possibilities to clean ashes have been examined in laboratory experiments. Ashes and trace elements occurring as a result of the gasification of biofuels are reviewed. Strategies for handling ashes are discussed. Proposals on continued inputs in both the biological and technical sciences are made. 146 refs, 23 figs, 38 tabs

  9. Highly Sensitive Cadmium Concentration Sensor Using Long Period Grating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Lalasangi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have proposed a simple and effective Long Period Grating chemical sensor for detecting the traces of Cadmium (Cd++ in drinking water at ppm level. Long Period gratings (LPG were fabricated by point-by-point technique with CO2 laser. We have characterized the LPG concentration sensor sensitivity for different solutions of Cd concentrations varying from 0.01 ppm to 0.04 ppm by injecting white Light source and observed transmitted spectra using Optical Spectrum Analyzer (OSA. Proper reagents have been used in the solutions for detection of the Cd species. The overall shift in wavelength is 10 nm when surrounding medium gradually changed from water to 0.04 ppm of cadmium concentrations. A comparative study has been done using sophisticated spectroscopic atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS and Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP instruments. The spectral sensitivity enhancement was done by modifying grating surface with gold nanoparticles.

  10. Synthesis of SiOx@CdS core–shell nanoparticles by simple thermal decomposition approach and studies on their optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandula, Syam; Jeevanandam, P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • SiO x @CdS nanoparticles have been synthesized by a novel thermal decomposition approach. • The method is easy and there is no need for surface functionalization of silica core. • SiO x @CdS nanoparticles show different optical properties compared to pure CdS. - Abstract: SiO x @CdS core–shell nanoparticles have been synthesized by a simple thermal decomposition approach. The synthesis involves two steps. In the first step, SiO x spheres were synthesized using StÖber’s process. Then, cadmium sulfide nanoparticles were deposited on the SiO x spheres by the thermal decomposition of cadmium acetate and thiourea in ethylene glycol at 180 °C. Electron microscopy results show uniform deposition of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles on the surface of SiO x spheres. Electron diffraction patterns confirm crystalline nature of the cadmium sulfide nanoparticles on silica and high resolution transmission electron microscopy images clearly show the lattice fringes due to cubic cadmium sulfide. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy results show blue shift of band gap absorption of SiO x @CdS core–shell nanoparticles with respect to bulk cadmium sulfide and this is attributed to quantum size effect. Photoluminescence results show enhancement in intensity of band edge emission and weaker emission due to surface defects in SiO x @CdS core–shell nanoparticles compared to pure cadmium sulfide nanoparticles

  11. A facile route to shape controlled CdTe nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mntungwa, Nhlakanipho; Rajasekhar, Pullabhotla V.S.R. [Department of Chemistry, University of Zululand, Private Bag X1001, KwaDlangezwa 3886, Empangeni, KZN (South Africa); Revaprasadu, Neerish, E-mail: nrevapra@pan.uzulu.ac.za [Department of Chemistry, University of Zululand, Private Bag X1001, KwaDlangezwa 3886, Empangeni, KZN (South Africa)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: {yields} A facile hybrid solution based/thermolysis route has been used for the synthesis of hexadecylamine capped CdTe nanoparticles. {yields} This method involves the reaction by the addition of an aqueous suspension of a cadmium salt to a freshly prepared NaHTe solution. {yields} The cadmium salt plays an important role in the growth mechanism of the particles and hence its final morphology. - Abstract: Hexadecylamine (HDA) capped CdTe nanoparticles have been synthesized using a facile hybrid solution based/thermolysis route. This method involves the reaction by the addition of an aqueous suspension or solution of a cadmium salt (chloride, acetate, nitrate or carbonate) to a freshly prepared NaHTe solution. The isolated CdTe was then dispersed in tri-octylphosphine (TOP) and injected into pre-heated HDA at temperatures of 190, 230 and 270 deg. C for 2 h. The particle growth and size distribution of the CdTe particles synthesized using cadmium chloride as the cadmium source were monitored using absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The final morphology of the CdTe nanoparticles synthesized from the various cadmium sources was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution TEM. The cadmium source has an influence on the final morphology of the particles.

  12. A facile route to shape controlled CdTe nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mntungwa, Nhlakanipho; Rajasekhar, Pullabhotla V.S.R.; Revaprasadu, Neerish

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → A facile hybrid solution based/thermolysis route has been used for the synthesis of hexadecylamine capped CdTe nanoparticles. → This method involves the reaction by the addition of an aqueous suspension of a cadmium salt to a freshly prepared NaHTe solution. → The cadmium salt plays an important role in the growth mechanism of the particles and hence its final morphology. - Abstract: Hexadecylamine (HDA) capped CdTe nanoparticles have been synthesized using a facile hybrid solution based/thermolysis route. This method involves the reaction by the addition of an aqueous suspension or solution of a cadmium salt (chloride, acetate, nitrate or carbonate) to a freshly prepared NaHTe solution. The isolated CdTe was then dispersed in tri-octylphosphine (TOP) and injected into pre-heated HDA at temperatures of 190, 230 and 270 deg. C for 2 h. The particle growth and size distribution of the CdTe particles synthesized using cadmium chloride as the cadmium source were monitored using absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The final morphology of the CdTe nanoparticles synthesized from the various cadmium sources was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution TEM. The cadmium source has an influence on the final morphology of the particles.

  13. Statistical optimization of gold recovery from difficult leachable sulphide minerals using bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Hussin A.M. [King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). Mining Engineering Dept.; El-Midany, Ayman A. [King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-07-01

    Some of refractory gold ores represent one of the difficult processable ores due to fine dissemination and interlocking of the gold grains with the associated sulphide minerals. This makes it impossible to recover precious metals from sulphide matrices by direct cyanide leaching even at high consumption of cyanide solution. Research to solve this problem is numerous. Application of bacteria shows that, some types of bacteria have great affect on sulphides bio-oxidation and consequently facilitate the leaching process. In this paper, leaching of Saudi gold ore, from Alhura area, containing sulphides before cyanidation is studied to recover gold from such ores applying bacteria. The process is investigated using stirred reactor bio-leaching rather than heap bio-leaching. Using statistical analysis the main affecting variables under studied conditions were identified. The design results indicated that the dose of bacteria, retention time and nutrition K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} are the most significant parameters. The higher the bacterial dose and the bacterial nutrition, the better is the concentrate grade. Results show that the method is technically effective in gold recovery. A gold concentrate containing > 100 g/t gold was obtained at optimum conditions, from an ore containing < 2 g/t gold i.e., 10 ml bacterial dose, 6 days retention time, and 6.5 kg/t K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}as bacteria nutrition. (orig.)

  14. Biogenic catalysis in sulphide minerals' weathering processes and acid mine drainage genesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kušnierová, Mária; Praščáková, Mária; Nowak, Anna K; Gorazda, Katarzyna; Wzorek, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    Bioleaching and biogenesis are the main outputs from a large group of environmental processes participating in the natural material cycle, used in raw materials processing. Bio-oxidation reactions are the main basis for bioleaching procedures, often participating in parallel leaching processes. During the leaching processes of polycomponent sulphide substrates, the factor of process selection also plays an important role, being in direct relation to the electric properties and galvanic effect occurring between the individual components of the leaching substrate. This work gives a summary of the results of a research focused on the possibilities of using biotechnological procedures for treatment of Slovak sulphide ores. The object of the research is extraction of valuable metals, undesirable admixtures and degradation of crystal lattice of sulphides for subsequent chemical leaching processing of precious metals. The results of experiments on the existence of biogenic processes in situ on waste dumps from exploitation containing residual sulphides are also presented. The processes result in acid mine drainage water generation. These waters are strongly mineralised (over 48 g/L) and of low pH; that is why they are very caustic. The arsenic content (2.558 mg/L) in outflowing waters from old mines is high and over the limits set by the law.

  15. Biological sulphide removal from anaerobically treated domestic sewage: reactor performance and microbial community dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Graziella Patrício Pereira; Diniz, Renata Côrtes Oliveira; Bicalho, Sarah Kinaip; Franco, Vitor Araujo de Souza; Gontijo, Eider Max de Oliveira; Toscano, Rodrigo Argolo; Canhestro, Kenia Oliveira; Santos, Merly Rita Dos; Carmo, Ana Luiza Rodrigues Dias; Lobato, Livia Cristina S; Brandt, Emanuel Manfred F; Chernicharo, Carlos A L; Calabria de Araujo, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    We developed a biological sulphide oxidation system and evaluated two reactors (shaped similar to the settler compartment of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket [UASB] reactor) with different support materials for biomass retention: polypropylene rings and polyurethane foam. The start-up reaction was achieved using microorganisms naturally occurring on the open surface of UASB reactors treating domestic wastewater. Sulphide removal efficiencies of 65% and 90% were achieved with hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 24 and 12 h, respectively, in both reactors. However, a higher amount of elemental sulphur was formed and accumulated in the biomass from reactor 1 (20 mg S(0) g(-1) VTS) than in that from reactor 2 (2.9 mg S(0) g(-1) VTS) with an HRT of 24 h. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) results revealed that the the pink and green biomass that developed in both reactors comprised a diverse bacterial community and had sequences related to phototrophic green and purple-sulphur bacteria such as Chlorobium sp., Chloronema giganteum, and Chromatiaceae. DGGE band patterns also demonstrated that bacterial community was dynamic over time within the same reactor and that different support materials selected for distinct bacterial communities. Taken together, these results indicated that sulphide concentrations of 1-6 mg L(-1) could be efficiently removed from the effluent of a pilot-scale UASB reactor in two sulphide biological oxidation reactors at HRTs of 12 and 24 h, showing the potential for sulphur recovery from anaerobically treated domestic wastewater.

  16. Characterization of nanocrystalline products prepared by mechanochemical reduction of copper sulphide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balaz, P.; Godocikova, E.; Boldizarova, E.

    2002-01-01

    The mechanochemical processing of the copper sulphide with iron in a high-energy mill was studied. The nanosized copper of 10 nm crystallite size and the hexagonal pyrrhotite 1C were identified among products of the reaction by methods of XRD and Mossbauer spectroscopy. In the surface layer...

  17. Foam generation during G.S. [Girdler sulphide] process and its prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lammirato, Alberto; Rojo, Enrique.

    1989-01-01

    Available literature, from both foreign and local sources, regarding foam generation during Girdler Sulphide (G.S.) process operation, was compiled. Assembly and operation of a loop for hydraulic process conditions simulation, of which further tests are to be expected, is reported. (Author) [es

  18. Organosulphide profile and hydrogen sulphide-releasing activity of garlic fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tocmo, Restituto; Lai, Abigail Nianci; Wu, Yuchen; Liang, Dong; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Huang, Dejian

    2017-01-01

    Blanched and unblanched garlic were fermented using L. plantarum for investigation of organosulphide profiles, hydrogen sulphide-releasing activity, pH, titratable activity and microbial growth. Both raw and blanched garlic preparations allowed growth of L. plantarum with corresponding lowering of

  19. An instrumented leach column for the study of sulphide oxidation in waste heaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowson, R.T.; Sarbutt, J.V.

    1985-05-01

    The construction, commissioning and first year of operation of a large scale, instrumented leach column are described. The column material was sulphidic mine overburden. Monitored parameters included matrix potential, temperature, redox potential, dissolved oxygen, pore space gas, water addition and drainage, together with pH, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cl - , F - , SO 4 2- and PO 4 3- in the effluent

  20. Synthesis of TOPO-capped Nanocrystals of Copper Sulphide from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nearly mono-dispersed TOPO-capped copper sulphide nanocrystals of ca. 4.5 nm (diameter) have been ... aqueous sols,1 monolayers,2 bilayer lipid membranes,3,4 LB films,5 ... addition of an excess of methanol to the yellow solution a thin.

  1. Controls of dimethyl sulphide in the Bay of Bengal during BOBMEX-Pilot cruise 1998

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoy, D.M.; DileepKumar, M.; Sarma, V.V.S.S

    The air-sea exchange is one of the main mechanisms maintaining the abundances of trace gases in the atmosphere. Some of these, such as carbon dioxide and dimethyl sulphide (DMS), will have a bearing on the atmospheric heat budget. While the former...

  2. Kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of organic sulphides by 2,2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    In the present article, we report the kinetics of oxidation of thirty-four organic sulphides by BPCC in ..... t-Butyl alcohol. 24⋅0. Acetone. 40⋅7 .... different sensitivity to the electronic demand for the phenomenon being studied. It has the ... 144. Table 5. Temperature dependence for the reaction constants for the oxidation of.

  3. Cadmium-containing waste and recycling possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegand, V.; Rauhut, A.

    1981-01-01

    To begin with, the processes of cadmium production from zinc ores in smelting plants or from intermediates of other metal works are described. A considerable amount of the cadmium is obtained in the recycling process in zinc, lead, and copper works. The way of the cadmium-containing intermediaries, processing, enrichment, and disposal of cadmium waste are described. Uses of cadmium and its compounds are mentioned, and cadmium consumption in the years 1973-1977 in West Germany is presented in a table. Further chapters discuss the production and the way of waste during production and processing of cadmium-containing products, the problem of cadmium in household refuse and waste incineration plants, and the problem of cadmium emissions. (IHOE) [de

  4. Discovery of the cadmium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, S.; Thoennessen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-seven cadmium isotopes have been observed so far and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  5. The mineralogy and geochemistry of the copper lead and zinc sulphides of the Otavi Mountainland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emslie, D.P.

    1980-01-01

    A study of 44 samples from the area revealed that the major primary sulphides, which constitute the bulk of the mineralization, are galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, and tennantite. The copper mineralization is concentrated in the Huttenberg Formation of the Tsumeb Subgroup and in the Nosib Subgroup, and the lead and zinc mineralization mainly in the Berg Aukas, Gauss, Auros, Maieberg, and Elandshoek Formations of the Otavi Group. Antimony, manganese, and silver were detected in all the samples of galena analysed, and selenium in four deposits. Silver, iron, and zinc were found within tennantite exsolutions in sphalerite. The concentrations of these minor and trace elements are probably too low to affect the economic potential of any of the deposits. Manganese was also observed in samples of sphalerite, which were found to vary in colour according to their manganese content, being dark red when the manganese content is high and ranging through orange to yellow as the manganese content decreases.The deposits of the Otavi Mountainland are similar in many ways to deposits of the Mississippi Valley type, and a similar genesis is proposed for the Mountainland. It is sugessted that the genesis involved the deposition of sediments and chemical deposits in the Swakop Basin, the leaching of the contained metals from the clay particles by the fluid trapped in the sediments, and the transportation of these metals in brine solutions. Bacterial action resulted in the formation of hydrogen sulphide, which was then trapped in the solutions. Bacterial action resulted in the formation of hydrogen sulphide, which was then trapped in the carbonates and later released when the dolomitic rocks of the area were subjected to folding, faulting, and brecciation. On its release, the hydrogen sulphide reacted with the brine solutions to form sulphide deposits in the fault and breccia zones

  6. Optoelectronic properties of cadmium sulfide thin films deposited by thermal evaporation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, N.; Iqbal, M.A.; Hussain, S.T.; Waris, M.; Munair, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    The substrate temperature in depositions of thin films plays a vital role in the characteristics of deposited films. We studied few characteristics of cadmium sulphide thin film deposited at different temperature (150 deg. C- 300 deg. C) on corning 7059 glass substrate. We measured transmittance, absorbance, band gap and reflectance via UV spectroscopy. It was found that the transmittance for 300 nm to 1100 nm was greater than 80%. The resistivity and mobility was calculated by Vander Pauw method which were 10-80 cm and 2-60 cm/sup 2/V/sup -1/S/sup -1/ respectively. The thermoelectric properties of the film were measured by hot and cold probe method which shows the N-type nature of the film. (author)

  7. Biological indicators of cadmium exposure and toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaikh, Z A; Smith, L M

    1986-01-01

    The increasing environmental and occupational exposure of populations to cadmium creates the need for biological indicators of cadmium exposure and toxicity. The advantages and disadvantages of monitoring blood cadmium, urinary, fecal, hair, and tissue cadmium, serum creatine, beta 2-microglobulin, alpha 1-anti-trypsin and other proteins, and urinary amino acids, enzymes, total proteins, glucose, beta 2-microglobulin, retinol-binding protein, lysozyme, and metallothionein are discussed. It is concluded that urinary cadmium, metallothionein and beta 2-microglubulin may be used together to assess cadmium exposure and toxicity. 66 references.

  8. Interaction of Peat Soil and Sulphidic Material Substratum: Role of Peat Layer and Groundwater Level Fluctuations on Phosphorus Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito Heru Purwanto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P often becomes limiting factor for plants growth. Phosphorus geochemistry in peatland soil is associated with the presence of peat layer and groundwater level fluctuations. The research was conducted to study the role of peat layer and groundwater level fluctuations on P concentration in peatland. The research was conducted on deep, moderate and shallow peat with sulphidic material as substratum, peaty acid sulphate soil, and potential acid sulphate soil. While P concentration was observed in wet season, in transition from wet to dry season, and in dry season. Soil samples were collected by using peat borer according to interlayer and soil horizon. The results showed that peat layer might act as the main source of P in peatland with sulphidic material substratum. The upper peat layer on sulphidic material caused by groundwater level fluctuations had no directly effect on P concentration in the peat layers. Increased of P concentration in the lowest sulphidic layer might relate to redox reaction of iron in the sulphidic layer and precipitation process. Phosphorus concentration in peatland with sulphidic material as substratum was not influenced by peat thickness. However, depletion or disappearance of peat layer decreased P concentration in soil solution. Disappearance of peat layer means loss of a natural source of P for peatland with sulphidic material as substratum, therefore peat layer must be kept in order to maintain of peatlands.

  9. The separation of tungsten and molybdenum by the formation of sulphide complexes and extraction into a weak-base resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    The separation of molybdenum from tungten can be achieved if a solution containing molybdate and tungstate ions is reacted with sulphide ions, and the molybdenum sulphide is extracted with an anion-exchangeresin. The separation between molybdenum and tungsten is influenced byfactors such as the pH value of the solution, the concentrations of sulphide and resin in the solution, and the period of contact between theresin and the metal ions in solution. A fundamental study of the interaction between sulphide ions and molybdate or tungstate ions confirmed a mechanism proposed recently in the literature: MeOsup(2-)sub(4)+nHSsup(-)+nHsup(+) is equivalent to MeO 4 sub(-n)Ssub(n)sup(2-)+nH 2 O, where Me = molybdenum or tungsten and n = 1, 2, 3, or 4. In these reaction sequences, each successive step in the reaction (sulphur being substituted for oxygen) is slower than the preceding one, and the molybdate reactions with sulphide are several orders of magnitude faster than the analogous tungsten reactions. As a result, the extent of the complexing of tungsten with sulphide is minimal compared with that of molybdenum in the time span of the extraction experiments. However, the current investigation shows that this is not the cause of the selectivity of anion-exchange resins for molybdenum in this system, and that the separation factor between molybdenum and tungsten is much the same for the precursor tungstate anion as it is for the various tungsten sulphide anions. The selectivity of the resin for molybdenum apparently originates from a thermodynamic preference of the amine functional group on the resin for molybdenum sulphide anions over tungstate or tungsten sulphide anions. It is shown that, under optimum conditions, a separation factor of about 30 between molybdenum and tungsten can be achieved in this system

  10. Uptake and distribution of cadmium in corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peel, J.W.; Vetter, R.J.; Christian, J.E.; Kessler, W.V.; McFee, W.W.

    1978-01-01

    The uptake and distribution of cadmium in corn (Zea mays) treated at various time intervals after planting and sampled at various times after treatment were measured. Cadmium was found to accumulate in all parts sampled. As shown in field studies, stems and leaves generally concentrated more cadmium than did husks, cobs, kernels, silks, or tassels. Samples of stems and leaves from corn treated 23 days after planting and sampled 5 days later exhibited higher concentrations of cadmium than samples taken 25, 45, 65, or 85 days after treatment. Concentrations generally decreased with time. Greenhouse studies showed that corn exposed to cadmium for the longest period of time accumulated the greatest total cadmium. The highest cadmium concentrations were found in the base or lowest leaves sampled 45 days after planting; this suggests a useful technique for quick screening corn crops for cadmium pollution

  11. Zinc-induced protection against cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Early, J.L.; Schnell, R.C.

    1978-02-01

    Pretreatment of male rats with cadmium acetate potentiates the duration of hexobarbital hypnosis and inhibits the rate of hepatic microsomal drug metabolism. Pretreatment of rats with zinc acetate protects against these alterations in drug action elicited by cadmium.

  12. Determination of the reaction rate coefficient of sulphide mine tailings deposited under water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awoh, Akué Sylvette; Mbonimpa, Mamert; Bussière, Bruno

    2013-10-15

    The efficiency of a water cover to limit dissolved oxygen (DO) availability to underlying acid-generating mine tailings can be assessed by calculating the DO flux at the tailings-water interface. Fick's equations, which are generally used to calculate this flux, require knowing the effective DO diffusion coefficient (Dw) and the reaction (consumption) rate coefficient (Kr) of the tailings, or the DO concentration profile. Whereas Dw can be accurately estimated, few studies have measured the parameter Kr for submerged sulphide tailings. The objective of this study was to determine Kr for underwater sulphide tailings in a laboratory experiment. Samples of sulphide mine tailings (an approximately 6 cm layer) were placed in a cell under a water cover (approximately 2 cm) maintained at constant DO concentration. Two tailings were studied: TA1 with high sulphide content (83% pyrite) and TA2 with low sulphide content (2.8% pyrite). DO concentration was measured with a microelectrode at various depths above and below the tailings-water interface at 1 mm intervals. Results indicate that steady-state condition was rapidly attained. As expected, a diffusive boundary layer (DBL) was observed in all cases. An iterative back-calculation process using the numerical code POLLUTEv6 and taking the DBL into account provided the Kr values used to match calculated and experimental concentration profiles. Kr obtained for tailings TA1 and TA2 was about 80 d(-1) and 6.5 d(-1), respectively. For comparison purposes, Kr obtained from cell tests on tailings TA1 was lower than Kr calculated from the sulphate production rate obtained from shake-flask tests. Steady-state DO flux at the water-tailings interface was then calculated with POLLUTEv6 using tailings characteristics Dw and Kr. For the tested conditions, DO flux ranged from 608 to 758 mg O2/m(2)/d for tailings TA1 and from 177 to 221 mg O2/m(2)/d for tailings TA2. The impact of placing a protective layer of inert material over

  13. Cadmium uptake by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghiri, F.

    1973-01-01

    Absorption of /sup 115m/Cd by soybean (Gylcine max l.) plants via foliar and root systems and translocation into the seed was determined. The uptake of /sup 115m/Cd by soybeans via the root system was more efficient than that of the foliar placement. Growth and Cd concentrations of soybean and wheat (Triticum aestivum l.) tops were influenced by soil-applied Cd. In both crops, the Cd concentration of plant tops increased while yield decreased with increasing levels of applied Cd. Cadmium toxicitiy began to occur in both crops at the lowest level of soil applied Cd (2.5 ppM). With soybean plants, Cd toxicity symptoms resembled fe chlorosis. For wheat plants there were no visual symptoms other than the studied growth. The relative concentration of Cd found in several vegetable crops varied depending on the plant species. The relative Cd concentration in descending order for various vegetables was lettuce (Lactuca sativa l.) > radish top (Raphanus sativus l.) > celery stalk (Apium graveolens l.) > celery leaves greater than or equal to green pepper (Capsicum frutescens l.) > radish roots.

  14. Bioavailability of cadmium from linseed and cocoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Rasmussen, Rie Romme

    In Denmark and EU the exposure of cadmium from food is at a level that is relatively close to the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI). This report describes an investigation of the bioavailability of cadmium in selected food items known to contain high levels of cadmium. The purpose was to provide data...

  15. The influence of reaction time on hydrogen sulphide removal from air by means of Fe(III)-EDTA/Fiban catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasag, H.; Cel, W.; Chomczynska, M.; Kujawska, J.

    2018-05-01

    The paper deals with a new method of hydrogen sulphide removal from air by its filtration and selective catalytic oxidation with the use of fibrous carriers of Fe(III)-EDTA complex. The basis of these filtering materials includes fibrous ion exchangers with the complex immobilized on their functional groups. It has been established that the degree of catalytic hydrogen sulphide decomposition depends on the reaction time. Thus, the required degree of hydrogen sulphide removal from air could be easily controlled by applying appropriate thickness of the filtering layer under a given filtering velocity. It allows applying very thin filtering layers of the Fe(III)-EDTA/Fiban AK-22 or Fiban A-6 catalysts. The obtained results of the research confirm the applicability of these materials for deep air purification from hydrogen sulphide.

  16. A simple route to shape controlled CdS nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejo, Ayorinde O.; Nejo, Adeola A.; Pullabhotla, Rajasekhar V. S. R.; Revaprasadu, Neerish

    2013-02-01

    We report the synthesis of CdS nanoparticles in the form of spheres, triangles and wire-like structures. The method involves the reaction of reduced sulfur with a cadmium salt followed by thermolysis in hexadecylamine (HDA). The different shapes were obtained by variation of reaction conditions such as reaction time, temperature and cadmium source. The optical studies show the particles to be quantum confined and luminescent at room temperature.

  17. Comparative study on the passivation layers of copper sulphide minerals during bioleaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Kai-bin; Lin, Hai; Mo, Xiao-lan; Wang, Han; Wen, Hong-wei; Wen, Zi-long

    2012-10-01

    The bioleaching of copper sulphide minerals was investigated by using A. ferrooxidans ATF6. The result shows the preferential order of the minerals bioleaching as djurleite>bornite>pyritic chalcopyrite>covellite>porphyry chalcopyrite. The residues were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is indicated that jarosite may not be responsible for hindered dissolution. The elemental sulfur layer on the surface of pyritic chalcopyrite residues is cracked. The compact surface layer of porphyry chalcopyrite may strongly hinder copper extraction. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) further confirms that the passivation layers of covellite, pyritic chalcopyrite, and porphyry chalcopyrite are copper-depleted sulphide Cu4S11, S8, and copper-rich iron-deficient polysulphide Cu4Fe2S9, respectively. The ability of these passivation layers was found as Cu4Fe2S9>Cu4S11>S8>jarosite.

  18. Influence of liberation of sulphide minerals on flotation of sedimentary copper ore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakalarz Alicja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ore liberation is one of the most important parameter in mineral processing, especially in flotation. To separate the valuable components from gangue minerals, it is necessary to liberate one from others. It is achieve primarily through crushing and grinding. These stages are one of the most expensive of mineral production. It is important to determine the adequate mineral liberation which would result in huge savings in the overall cost of flotation plant. The aim of the paper was the analysis of the influence of milling time on the laboratory flotation of the copper ore from stratiform Polish deposit. Three different milling time of copper ore in laboratory ball mill was applied. The flotation results were presented as the recovery-recovery and grade-recovery upgrading curves. The liberation of sulphides and the particle size of sulphides in flotation product were analysed and compared.

  19. Disseminated sulphides in basalts from the northern central Indian ridge: Implications on late-stage hydrothermal activity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banerjee, R.; Ray, D.

    interplay between oceanic crust fractur- ing due to tectonically active megamullions and subsequent hydrothermal alteration, accounting for the formation of dis- seminated sulphides at the NCIR. In a novel attempt, this study examines the mineralogy... of samples. Instead, the dark greyish coloured altered basalts, frequently fractured and often with a greenish tint, dominate the assemblage. Specks of sulphides are un- evenly distributed in these altered basalts as disseminated grains or fine stringers...

  20. Coprecipitation of cadmium with calcite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujino, Osamu; Kumagai, Tetsu; Shigematsu, Tsunenobu; Matsui, Masakazu

    1976-01-01

    The distribution of cadmium between precipitates of calcite and saturated aqueous solution was measured at 25 0 C to understand the distribution of cadmium in the bivalves. Calcite was precipitated from calcium bicarbonate solution by the gradual release of carbon dioxide. The cadmium ions were coprecipitated in calcite, obeying the logarithmic distribution law. The apparent distribution coefficient was decreased as α, α'-dipyridyl increased, but the true distribution coefficient was found to be an almost constant value, 560. This value is fairly close to the ratio of solubility product constants K sub(calcite)/K sub(CdCO 3 ), 890. This suggests that the deviation of the present solid solution from ideality is not very large. (auth.)

  1. Biotic conversion of sulphate to sulphide and abiotic conversion of sulphide to sulphur in a microbial fuel cell using cobalt oxide octahedrons as cathode catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Pritha; Ghangrekar, M M; Rao, Surampalli; Kumar, Senthil

    2017-05-01

    Varying chemical oxygen demand (COD) and sulphate concentrations in substrate were used to determine reaction kinetics and mass balance of organic matter and sulphate transformation in a microbial fuel cell (MFC). MFC with anodic chamber volume of 1 L, fed with wastewater having COD of 500 mg/L and sulphate of 200 mg/L, could harvest power of 54.4 mW/m 2 , at a Coulombic efficiency of 14%, with respective COD and sulphate removals of 90 and 95%. Sulphide concentration, even up to 1500 mg/L, did not inhibit anodic biochemical reactions, due to instantaneous abiotic oxidation to sulphur, at high inlet sulphate. Experiments on abiotic oxidation of sulphide to sulphur revealed maximum oxidation taking place at an anodic potential of -200 mV. More than 99% sulphate removal could be achieved in a MFC with inlet COD/sulphate of 0.75, giving around 1.33 kg/m 3  day COD removal. Bioelectrochemical conversion of sulphate facilitating sulphur recovery in a MFC makes it an interesting pollution abatement technique.

  2. Significance of porous structure on degradatin of 2 2' dichloro diethyl sulphide and 2 chloroethyl ethyl sulphide on the surface of vanadium oxide nanostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Beer, E-mail: beerbs5@rediffmail.com [Defence R and D Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior, M.P 474002 (India); Mahato, T.H.; Srivastava, A.K.; Prasad, G.K.; Ganesan, K.; Vijayaraghavan, R. [Defence R and D Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior, M.P 474002 (India); Jain, Rajeev [School of Studies in Chemistry, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, M.P. 474011 (India)

    2011-06-15

    Degradation of the king of chemical warfare agent, 2 2' dichloro diethyl sulphide (HD), and its simulant 2 chloroethyl ethyl sulphide (CEES) were investigated on the surface of porous vanadium oxide nanotubes at room temperature (30 {+-} 2{sup Degree-Sign }C ). Reaction kinetics was monitored by GC-FID technique and the reaction products were characterized by GC-MS. Data indicates that HD degraded faster relative to CEES inside the solid decontaminant compared to the reported liquid phase degradation of CEES and HD. Data explores the role of hydrolysis, elimination and oxidation reactions in the detoxification of HD and CEES and the first order rate constant and t{sub 1/2} were calculated to be 0.026 h{sup -1}, 26.6 h for CEES and 0.052 h{sup -1}, 13.24 h for HD. In this report faster degradation of HD compared to CEES was explained on the basis of porous structure.

  3. The determination of some trace elements in sulphide concentrates by spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelton, B.J.; Komarkova, E.; Josephson, M.; Cook, E.B.T.; Dixon, K.

    1977-01-01

    The report describes the determination of trace amounts (as low as 1 to 10 p.p.m. depending on the element) of arsenic, germanium, molybdenum, nickel, phosphorus, selenium, tellurium, tin, and titanium in sulphide concentrates. The proposed methods, which are detailed in the appendices, are adaptations of established procedures that were modified to allow for the complex nature of the concentrates to be analysed

  4. MATHEMATICAL OPTIMIZATION METHODS TO ESTABLISH ACTIVE PHASES ON HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS: CASE OF BULK TRANSITION METAL SULPHIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Machín

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a set of procedures based on mathematical optimization methods to establish optimal active sulphide phases with higher HDS activity. This paper proposes a list of active phases as a guide for orienting the experimental work in the search of new catalysts that permit optimize the HDS process. Studies in this paper establish Co-S, Cr-S, Nb-S and Ni-S systems have the greatest potential to improve HDS activity.

  5. Surface Passivation for 3-5 Semiconductor Processing: Stable Gallium Sulphide Films by MOCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macinnes, Andrew N.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Power, Michael B.; Kang, Soon; Barron, Andrew R.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Tabib-Azar, Massood

    1994-01-01

    Gallium sulphide (GaS) has been deposited on GaAs to form stable, insulating, passivating layers. Spectrally resolved photoluminescence and surface recombination velocity measurements indicate that the GaS itself can contribute a significant fraction of the photoluminescence in GaS/GaAs structures. Determination of surface recombination velocity by photoluminescence is therefore difficult. By using C-V analysis of metal-insulator-semiconductor structures, passivation of the GaAs with GaS films is quantified.

  6. Reagents and fractions impact on sulphide ore heap bioleaching at Smolnik mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oros, L. M.; Zavada, J.

    2017-10-01

    Mine Smolnik is one of the oldest sulphide ore mines in Europe and it is also an important part of bioleaching development. This paper follows previous attempts to extract residual metals from nearby heaps via variations in bioleaching reagents with regard to recent findings and needs in the related industry. Furthermore, economic and process relations between reagents and chosen heap fractions were also investigated in this case study.

  7. Biogenic Properties of Deep Waters from the Black Sea Reduction (Hydrogen Sulphide) Zone for Marine Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Polikarpov, Gennady G.; Lazorenko, Galina Е.; Тereschenko, Natalya N.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Generalized data of biogenic properties investigations of the Black Sea deep waters from its reduction zone for marine algae are presented. It is shown on board and in laboratory that after pre-oxidation of hydrogen sulphide by intensive aeration of the deep waters lifted to the surface of the sea, they are ready to be used for cultivation of the Black Sea unicellular, planktonic, and multicellular, benthic, algae instead of artificial medium. Naturally balanced micro- and macroeleme...

  8. Electrical methods for optimization of structural changes and defects in sulphide glasses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalužný, J.; Pedlíková, Jitka; Zavadil, Jiří; Labaš, V.; Kubliha, M.; Kostka, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 12 (2009), s. 2053-2057 ISSN 1454-4164 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/08/0734 Grant - others:GA SR(SK) APVV-20043505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502; CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : sulphide glasses * electrical * dielectric Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.433, year: 2009

  9. Quantitative examination of carbide and sulphide precipitates in chemically complex steels processed by direct strip casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorin, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.dorin@deakin.edu.au [Deakin University, Pigdons Road, Geelong, Victoria, 3216 (Australia); Wood, Kathleen [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Bragg Institute, New South Wales, 2234, Menai (Australia); Taylor, Adam; Hodgson, Peter; Stanford, Nicole [Deakin University, Pigdons Road, Geelong, Victoria, 3216 (Australia)

    2016-02-15

    A high strength low alloy steel composition has been melted and processed by two different routes: simulated direct strip casting and slow cooled ingot casting. The microstructures were examined with scanning and transmission electron microscopy, atom probe tomography and small angle neutron scattering (SANS). The formation of cementite (Fe{sub 3}C), manganese sulphides (MnS) and niobium carbo-nitrides (Nb(C,N)) was investigated in both casting conditions. The sulphides were found to be significantly refined by the higher cooling rate, and developed an average diameter of only 100 nm for the fast cooled sample, and a diameter too large to be measured with SANS in the slow cooled condition (> 1.1 μm). Slow cooling resulted in the development of classical Nb(C,N) precipitation, with an average diameter of 7.2 nm. However, after rapid cooling both the SANS and atom probe tomography data indicated that the Nb was retained in the matrix as a random solid solution. There was also some evidence that O, N and S are also retained in solid solution in levels not found during conventional processing. - Highlights: • The influence of cooling rate on microstructure is investigated in a HSLA steel. • SANS, TEM and APT are used to characterise the sulphides and Nb(C,N) precipitates. • The slow cooling rate result in the formation of Nb(C,N) precipitates. • The fast cooling rate results in a microstructure supersaturated in Nb, C and N. • The sulphides are 100 nm in the fast cooled sample and > 1 μm in the slow cooled one.

  10. High temperature chlorination of uranium and some radionuclides from rich sulphide ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdy, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    This work is concerned with the application of the high temperature chlorination technique upon a sulphide-rich uranium ore from elliot lake, ontario, canada. The purpose is to find a substitute to conventional sulphuric acid leaching which involves both acid drainage and radionuclide dissolution problems. Test work has therefore been directed towards studying some relevant factors of chlorination beside the effect of a number of additives

  11. Liquid-liquid interfacial nanoparticle assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrick, Todd S [South Deerfield, MA; Russell, Thomas P [Amherst, MA; Dinsmore, Anthony [Amherst, MA; Skaff, Habib [Amherst, MA; Lin, Yao [Amherst, MA

    2008-12-30

    Self-assembly of nanoparticles at the interface between two fluids, and methods to control such self-assembly process, e.g., the surface density of particles assembling at the interface; to utilize the assembled nanoparticles and their ligands in fabrication of capsules, where the elastic properties of the capsules can be varied from soft to tough; to develop capsules with well-defined porosities for ultimate use as delivery systems; and to develop chemistries whereby multiple ligands or ligands with multiple functionalities can be attached to the nanoparticles to promote the interfacial segregation and assembly of the nanoparticles. Certain embodiments use cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles, since the photoluminescence of the particles provides a convenient means by which the spatial location and organization of the particles can be probed. However, the systems and methodologies presented here are general and can, with suitable modification of the chemistries, be adapted to any type of nanoparticle.

  12. Determination of dimethyl selenide and dimethyl sulphide compounds causing off-flavours in bottled mineral waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadayol, Marta; Cortina, Montserrat; Guadayol, Josep M; Caixach, Josep

    2016-04-01

    Sales of bottled drinking water have shown a large growth during the last two decades due to the general belief that this kind of water is healthier, its flavour is better and its consumption risk is lower than that of tap water. Due to the previous points, consumers are more demanding with bottled mineral water, especially when dealing with its organoleptic properties, like taste and odour. This work studies the compounds that can generate obnoxious smells, and that consumers have described like swampy, rotten eggs, sulphurous, cooked vegetable or cabbage. Closed loop stripping analysis (CLSA) has been used as a pre-concentration method for the analysis of off-flavour compounds in water followed by identification and quantification by means of GC-MS. Several bottled water with the aforementioned smells showed the presence of volatile dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides, whose concentrations ranged, respectively, from 4 to 20 ng/L and from 1 to 63 ng/L. The low odour threshold concentrations (OTCs) of both organic selenide and sulphide derivatives prove that several objectionable odours in bottled waters arise from them. Microbial loads inherent to water sources, along with some critical conditions in water processing, could contribute to the formation of these compounds. There are few studies about volatile organic compounds in bottled drinking water and, at the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the presence of dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides causing odour problems in bottled waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ore mineragraphy of uraniferous polymetallic sulphides at Juba, Chhattisgarh basin, Raipur district, Central India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, S.K.; Sinha, D.K.; Verma, S.C.; Singh, Rajendra

    1998-01-01

    Polymetallic sulphide mineralization associated with uranium, has been located in the subfeldspathic arenite of Rehatikhol Formation of Chhattisgarh Supergroup near Juba (21 o 20'55 N : 83 o 15'43 E ) and Banjhapali (21 o 20'16 N : 83 o 14'44 E ) villages of Raipur district, Madhya Pradesh. The present paper describes ore mineragraphy and petrographic details of ore and the host rock. Ore microscopic study carried out on 82 rock samples has revealed fracture and intergranular space filled epigenetic mineralisation of uraninite/pitchblende, coffinite (1), pyrite, galena and pyrrhotite with traces of, bornite, luzonite, chalcopyrite, covellite, argentite, sternburgite and argentopyrite, besides diagenetically developed pyrite. Silification (chert), argillitisation and minor propylitisation represent the wall rock alterations. Coffinite (II) has formed due to reaction of uraninite/pitchblende and silica. Textural studies indicate, two stages of epigenetic mineralisation. (a) Introduction of sulphides of Fe-Pb-Cu-As and Ag and related potash metasomatism and (b) infiltration of siliceous material with pyrite, pitchblende, and subsequent coffinite. Coffinite (I) is deposited on porous pyrite is dusted with galena. Supergene processes have also formed minerals like bornite, covellite, galena etc. Thus the ore mineragraphic studies indicate epigenetic hydrothermal type uraniferous polymetallic sulphide mineralisation in the Juba area of Raipur district, Madhya Pradesh. (author)

  14. Sulphide production and corrosion in seawaters during exposure to FAME diesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason S; Ray, Richard I; Little, Brenda J; Duncan, Kathleen E; Oldham, Athenia L; Davidova, Irene A; Suflita, Joseph M

    2012-01-01

    Experiments were designed to evaluate the corrosion-related consequences of storing/transporting fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) alternative diesel fuel in contact with natural seawater. Coastal Key West, FL (KW), and Persian Gulf (PG) seawaters, representing an oligotrophic and a more organic- and inorganic mineral-rich environment, respectively, were used in 60 day incubations with unprotected carbon steel. The original microflora of the two seawaters were similar with respect to major taxonomic groups but with markedly different species. After exposure to FAME diesel, the microflora of the waters changed substantially, with Clostridiales (Firmicutes) becoming dominant in both. Despite low numbers of sulphate-reducing bacteria in the original waters and after FAME diesel exposure, sulphide levels and corrosion increased markedly due to microbial sulphide production. Corrosion morphology was in the form of isolated pits surrounded by an intact, passive surface with the deepest pits associated with the fuel/seawater interface in the KW exposure. In the presence of FAME diesel, the highest corrosion rates measured by linear polarization occurred in the KW exposure correlating with significantly higher concentrations of sulphur and chlorine (presumed sulphide and chloride, respectively) in the corrosion products.

  15. Thermal decomposition synthesis of nanorods bismuth sulphide from bismuth N-ethyl cyclohexyl dithiocarbamate complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, Nurul Hidayah; Zainal, Zulkarnain; Silong, Sidik; Tahir, Mohamed Ibrahim Mohamed; Tan, Kar-Ban; Chang, Sook-Keng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Bismuth N-ethyl cyclohexyl dithiocarbamate was used as single source precursor. • No surfactant was used in the preparation of Bi_2S_3 nanorods. • Pure phase orthorhombic Bi_2S_3 is obtained. • Bismuth sulphide with an average atomic ratio of Bi:S close to 2:3 is obtained. - Abstract: Nanorods of bismuth sulphide were prepared by thermal decomposition of bismuth N-ethyl cyclohexyl dithiocarbamate at different calcination duration. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows that at 400 °C, the precursor was fully decomposed to orthorhombic bismuth sulphide after 2 h of calcination. Besides, calcination duration does not affect the existence of Bi_2S_3 phase. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses reveal that Bi_2S_3 nanorods with an average width ranging from 29–36 nm were obtained. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis confirmed the atomic ratio of Bi and S close to 2:3, giving a possible composition of Bi_2S_3. Direct band gap energy of Bi_2S_3 decreases from 1.83 eV to 1.54 eV as calcination time increases.

  16. Cleaner processing: a sulphide-free approach for depilation of skins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjithkumar, Ammasi; Durga, Jayanthi; Ramesh, Ramakrishnan; Rose, Chellan; Muralidharan, Chellappa

    2017-01-01

    The conventional unhairing process in leather making utilises large amount of lime and sodium sulphide which is hazardous and poses serious waste disposal concerns. Under acidic conditions, sodium sulphide liberates significant quantities of hydrogen sulphide which causes frequent fatal accidents. Further, the conventional unhairing process involves destruction of the hair leading to increased levels of biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total dissolved solids (TDS) and total suspended solids (TSS) in the effluent. A safe approach is needed to overcome such environmental and health problems through an eco-benign process. The present study deals with a clean technology in which the keratinous body is detached from the dermis using enzymes produced from Bacillus crolab MTCC 5468 by solid state fermentation (SSF) as an alternative to noxious chemicals. Complete unhairing of skin could be achieved with an enzyme concentration of 1.2 % (w/w). The bio-chemical parameters of the spent liquor of the enzymatic process were environmentally favourable when compared with conventional method. The study indicates that the enzymatic unhairing is a safe process which could be used effectively in leather processing to alleviate pollution and health problems.

  17. Case studies of hydrogen sulphide occupational exposure incidents in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kate

    2014-12-15

    The UK Health and Safety Executive has investigated several incidents of workplace accidents involving hydrogen sulphide exposure in recent years. Biological monitoring has been used in some incidents to determine the cause of unconsciousness resulting from these incidents and as a supporting evidence in regulatory enforcement. This paper reports on three case incidents and discusses the use of biological monitoring in such cases. Biological monitoring has a role in identifying hydrogen sulphide exposure in incidents, whether these are occupational or in the wider environment. Sample type, time of collection and sample storage are important factors in the applicability of this technique. For non-fatal incidents, multiple urine samples are recommended at two or more time points between the incident and 15 h post-exposure. For routine occupational monitoring, post-shift samples should be adequate. Due to endogenous levels of urinary thiosulphate, it is likely that exposures in excess of 12 ppm for 30 min (or 360 ppm/min equivalent) would be detectable using biological monitoring. This is within the Acute Exposure Guideline Level 2 (the level of the chemical in air at or above which there may be irreversible or other serious long-lasting effects or impaired ability to escape) for hydrogen sulphide. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Health hazards of environmental cadmium pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordberg, G F

    1974-01-01

    Cadmium, a metal widely used in industrial processes, has been recognized to be a highly toxic and dangerous environmental pollutant. In this study the author describes the sources and occurrence of cadmium, and the intake by human beings. He states that present standards for daily intake do not allow sufficient safety margins. The fate and known effects of cadmium in human beings are summarized; some effects associated with cadmium are renal (kidney) damage, anemia, hypertension, and liver damage. Cadmium was identified as the main cause of the Itai-Itai disease in Japan, and epidemiological studies from various areas of Japan are presented. 64 references, 9 figures, 5 tables.

  19. Potentiometric microdetermination of cadmium in organic compounds after oxygen flask combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campiglio, A.

    1986-01-01

    The sample is burnt in an oxygen flask and the combustion products are absorbed in 1Μ HNO 3 . After removal of interfering gases by boiling, the solution is transfered to the titration cell and neutralized with NaOH in the presence of methyl red; cd(II) is finally titrated potentiometrically in a buffered 50% ethanolic medium with 0.01Μ sodium diethyldithiocarbamate in 50% ethanol. A silver/sulphide ion-selective electrode and a double junction referenceelectrode containing a 10% KNO 3 solution in 26% ethanol in the outer compartment are used in combination with a Titroprocessor to detect the end point. The results obtained are very accurate and reproducible: the maximum error does not exceed 0.09%, the recovery of cadmium is in the range 99.67 to 99.95% and the rel. standard deviation is 0.05%. The potentiometric titration with diethyldithiocarbamate, which is useful to determine small Cd(II) amounts down to 30μg (2μg ml -1 ), as well as the oxygen flask combustion of organic cadmium compounds are discussed. (Author)

  20. [Investigation of urinary cadmium reference of general population in two rural high background areas of soil cadmium and non-cadmium-polluted in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jingxiu; Li, Qiujuan; Yao, Dancheng; Zheng, Jiangang; Zhang, Wenli; Shang, Qi

    2014-09-01

    To study the reference of urinary. cadmium of the general population in rural high background areas of soil cadmium and non-cadmium contaminated in China. In rural high background areas of soil cadmium and non-cadmium contaminated, randomly selected non-occupational-cadmium exposed population 1134 people (male 519, female 615) with each gender and age groups, questionnaire surveyed and collected random urine. Urinary cadmium and urinary creatinine (Cr) concentration were tested, excluding urinary Cr 3 g/L. Analyze the impact factors of urinary cadmium and calculated 95% quantile (P,95 ) of urinary cadmium after correction by urinary Cr. Female median urinary cadmium was significantly higher than men, male smokers median urinary cadmium was significantly higher than male non-smokers (P 30 year-old. According to gender, and 15 -30, 30 years old, analysis the upper limit of cadmium in urine. The 95% upper limit of urinary cadmium of 30 year-old female (12.24 microg/gCr) was significantly higher than other populations ( population exceeded the upper limit (5 microg/gCr) of the occupational cadmium poisoning diagnostic criteria in China (GBZ 17-2002). In the two rural high background areas of soil cadmium and non-cadmium polluted , urinary cadmium reference of non-cadmium-occupational-exposed male is <9.0 microg/gCr, and female <13.0 microg/gCr.

  1. Mechanisms of cadmium induced genomic instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filipic, Metka, E-mail: metka.filipic@nib.si [National Institute of Biology, Department for Genetic Toxicology and Cancer Biology, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2012-05-01

    Cadmium is an ubiquitous environmental contaminant that represents hazard to humans and wildlife. It is found in the air, soil and water and, due to its extremely long half-life, accumulates in plants and animals. The main source of cadmium exposure for non-smoking human population is food. Cadmium is primarily toxic to the kidney, but has been also classified as carcinogenic to humans by several regulatory agencies. Current evidence suggests that exposure to cadmium induces genomic instability through complex and multifactorial mechanisms. Cadmium dose not induce direct DNA damage, however it induces increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which in turn induce DNA damage and can also interfere with cell signalling. More important seems to be cadmium interaction with DNA repair mechanisms, cell cycle checkpoints and apoptosis as well as with epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression control. Cadmium mediated inhibition of DNA repair mechanisms and apoptosis leads to accumulation of cells with unrepaired DNA damage, which in turn increases the mutation rate and thus genomic instability. This increases the probability of developing not only cancer but also other diseases associated with genomic instability. In the in vitro experiments cadmium induced effects leading to genomic instability have been observed at low concentrations that were comparable to those observed in target organs and tissues of humans that were non-occupationally exposed to cadmium. Therefore, further studies aiming to clarify the relevance of these observations for human health risks due to cadmium exposure are needed.

  2. Mechanisms of cadmium induced genomic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipič, Metka

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium is an ubiquitous environmental contaminant that represents hazard to humans and wildlife. It is found in the air, soil and water and, due to its extremely long half-life, accumulates in plants and animals. The main source of cadmium exposure for non-smoking human population is food. Cadmium is primarily toxic to the kidney, but has been also classified as carcinogenic to humans by several regulatory agencies. Current evidence suggests that exposure to cadmium induces genomic instability through complex and multifactorial mechanisms. Cadmium dose not induce direct DNA damage, however it induces increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which in turn induce DNA damage and can also interfere with cell signalling. More important seems to be cadmium interaction with DNA repair mechanisms, cell cycle checkpoints and apoptosis as well as with epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression control. Cadmium mediated inhibition of DNA repair mechanisms and apoptosis leads to accumulation of cells with unrepaired DNA damage, which in turn increases the mutation rate and thus genomic instability. This increases the probability of developing not only cancer but also other diseases associated with genomic instability. In the in vitro experiments cadmium induced effects leading to genomic instability have been observed at low concentrations that were comparable to those observed in target organs and tissues of humans that were non-occupationally exposed to cadmium. Therefore, further studies aiming to clarify the relevance of these observations for human health risks due to cadmium exposure are needed.

  3. Application of photocatalytic cadmium sulfide nanoparticles to detection of enzymatic activities of glucose oxidase and glutathione reductase using oxidation of 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinyte, Ruta; Garai-Ibabe, Gaizka; Saa, Laura; Pavlov, Valeri, E-mail: vpavlov@cicbiomagune.es

    2015-06-30

    Highlights: • The light-powered nanosensor fabricated by enzymatic reactions was reported. • The sensor use energy of photons for oxidation of chromogenic enzymatic substrates. • Enzymatic assays for glucose oxidase and glutathione reductase were developed. - Abstract: It was found out that semiconductor CdS nanoparticles (NPs) are able to catalyze photooxidation of the well known chromogenic enzymatic substrate 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) by oxygen. The photocatalytical oxidation of TMB does not require hydrogen peroxide and its rate is directly proportional to the quantity of CdS NPs produced in situ through the interaction of Cd{sup 2+} and S{sup 2−} ions in an aqueous medium. This phenomenon was applied to development of colorimetric sensitive assays for glucose oxidase and glutathione reductase based on enzymatic generation of CdS NPs acting as light-powered catalysts. Sensitivity of the developed chromogenic assays was of the same order of magnitude or even better than that of relevant fluorogenic assays. The present approach opens the possibility for the design of simple and sensitive colorimetric assays for a number of enzymes using inexpensive and available TMB as a universal chromogenic compound.

  4. Ligandless surfactant mediated solid phase extraction combined with Fe₃O₄ nano-particle for the preconcentration and determination of cadmium and lead in water and soil samples followed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry: multivariate strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalbani, N; Soylak, M

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, a microextraction technique combining Fe3O4 nano-particle with surfactant mediated solid phase extraction ((SM-SPE)) was successfully developed for the preconcentration/separation of Cd(II) and Pb(II) in water and soil samples. The analytes were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The effective variables such as the amount of adsorbent (NPs), the pH, concentration of non-ionic (TX-114) and centrifugation time (min) were investigated by Plackett-Burman (PBD) design. The important variables were further optimized by central composite design (CCD). Under the optimized conditions, the detection limits (LODs) of Cd(II) and Pb(II) were 0.15 and 0.74 µg/L, respectively. The validation of the proposed procedure was checked by the analysis of certified reference materials of TMDA 53.3 fortified water and GBW07425 soil. The method was successfully applied for the determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II) in water and soil samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of sulphide ion on the corrosion behaviour of X52 steel in a carbon dioxide environment at temperature 40 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatah, M.C.; Ismail, M.C.; Ari-Wahjoedi, B.; Kurnia, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We study the effect of sulphide ion on the corrosion behaviour of X52 steel. → Increasing sulphide ion concentration will increase the corrosion rate of X52 steel. → Increasing sulphide ion concentration will increase cathodic reaction. → Less protective film, also contribute to the increasing the corrosion rate. - Abstract: The electrochemical behaviour of X52 steel in the presence of sulphide at 40 deg. C in a CO 2 environment was investigated using the methods of linear polarization resistance (LPR), potentiodynamic sweep, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). In addition, the surface of X52 steel was also studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the corrosion rate of X52 steel increased with increasing concentration of sulphide ion. Potentiodynamic curve showed that there were changes in cathodic branch due to the change in the nature of cathodic reaction in the presence of sulphide ion. EIS analysis showed the higher sulphide ion concentration, the higher adsorbed species on the steel surface that contributed in the cathodic reaction. Furthermore, SEM results showed crevices on the scale which indicated pitting tendency in sulphide ion solutions. The less protective film, probably mackinawite, also contributed to the increase of corrosion rate in the presence of sulphide ion.

  6. Draa Sfar, Morocco: A Visean (331 Ma) pyrrhotite-rich, polymetallic volcanogenic massive sulphide deposit in a Hercynian sediment-dominant terrane

    OpenAIRE

    Marcoux , Eric; Belkabir , Abdelhay; Gibson , Harold L.; Lentz , David; Ruffet , Gilles

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Draa Sfar is a Visean, stratabound, volcanogenic massive sulphide ore deposit hosted by a Hercynian carbonaceous, black shale-rich succession of the Jebilet terrane, Morocco. The ore deposit contains 10 Mt grading 5.3 wt.% Zn, 2 wt.% Pb, and 0.3 wt.% Cu within two main massive sulphides orebodies, Tazakourt (Zn-rich) and Sidi M'Barek (Zn–Cu rich). Pyrrhotite is by far the dominant sulphide (70 to 95% of total sulphides), sphalerite is fairly abundant, chalcopyrite and ...

  7. Effect of precursor concentration, temperature and capping group on the morphology of CdS nanoparticles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moloto, N

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel ligand to the synthesis of nanoparticles has been employed in this study. A Tetramethylthiuram disulphide cadmium complex (abundant in sulphur atoms) was used as a single-source precursor for the synthesis of CdS nanoparticles. The CdS...

  8. Effect of temperature, precursor concentration and capping group on the shape of Cds nanoparticles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moloto, N

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel ligand to the synthesis of nanoparticles has been employed in this study. A Tetramethylthiuram disulphide cadmium complex (abundant in sulphur atoms) was used as a single-source precursor for the synthesis of CdS nanoparticles. The CdS...

  9. Cadmium resistance in Drosophila: a small cadmium binding substance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, K.B.; Williams, M.W.; Richter, L.J.; Holt, S.E.; Hook, G.J.; Knoop, S.M.; Sloop, F.V.; Faust, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    A small cadmium-binding substance (CdBS) has been observed in adult Drosophila melanogaster that were raised for their entire growth cycle on a diet that contained 0.15 mM CdCl 2 . Induction of CdBS was observed in strains that differed widely in their sensitivity of CdCl 2 . This report describes the induction of CdBS and some of its characteristics. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  10. n-TiO{sub 2} and CdCl{sub 2} co-exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles and cadmium: Genomic, DNA and chromosomal damage evaluation in the marine fish European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigro, M.; Bernardeschi, M. [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pisa University, Pisa (Italy); Costagliola, D. [Department of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, Second University of Naples, Caserta (Italy); Della Torre, C. [Department of Physical, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena, Siena (Italy); Frenzilli, G., E-mail: giada@biomed.unipi.it [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pisa University, Pisa (Italy); Guidi, P.; Lucchesi, P. [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pisa University, Pisa (Italy); Mottola, F.; Santonastaso, M. [Department of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, Second University of Naples, Caserta (Italy); Scarcelli, V. [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pisa University, Pisa (Italy); Monaci, F.; Corsi, I. [Department of Physical, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena, Siena (Italy); Stingo, V.; Rocco, L. [Department of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, Second University of Naples, Caserta (Italy)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • European sea bass was exposed to CdCl{sub 2} and n-TiO{sub 2} alone and in combination. • Genotoxicity was evaluated by RAPD-assay, comet assay and cytome assay. • CdCl{sub 2} induced DNA primary damage but not chromosomal damage. • n-TiO{sub 2} induced chromosomal damage but not DNA primary damage. • Co-exposure effects depend on the biomarker used. - Abstract: Due to the large production and growing use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (n-TiO{sub 2}), their release in the marine environment and their potential interaction with existing toxic contaminants represent a growing concern for biota. Different end-points of genotoxicity were investigated in the European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax exposed to n-TiO{sub 2} (1 mg L{sup −1}) either alone and combined with CdCl{sub 2} (0.1 mg L{sup −1}) for 7 days. DNA primary damage (comet assay), apoptotic cells (diffusion assay), occurrence of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities (cytome assay) were assessed in peripheral erythrocytes and genomic stability (random amplified polymorphism DNA-PCR, RAPD assay) in muscle tissue. Results showed that genome template stability was reduced after CdCl{sub 2} and n-TiO{sub 2} exposure. Exposure to n-TiO{sub 2} alone was responsible for chromosomal alteration but ineffective in terms of DNA damage; while the opposite was observed in CdCl{sub 2} exposed specimens. Co-exposure apparently prevents the chromosomal damage and leads to a partial recovery of the genome template stability.

  11. Cadmium and Cadmium/Zinc Ratios and Tobacco-Related Morbidities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Patricia; Faroon, Obaid; Pappas, R. Steven

    2017-01-01

    Metals are one of five major categories of carcinogenic or toxic constituents in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Cadmium is highly volatile and a higher percentage of the total tobacco cadmium content is efficiently transferred to mainstream tobacco smoke than many other toxic metals in tobacco. Inhaled cadmium bioaccumulates in the lungs and is distributed beyond the lungs to other tissues, with a total body biological half-life of one to two decades. Chronic cadmium exposure through tobacco use elevates blood and urine cadmium concentrations. Cadmium is a carcinogen, and an inducer of proinflammatory immune responses. Elevated exposure to cadmium is associated with reduced pulmonary function, obstructive lung disease, bronchogenic carcinoma, cardiovascular diseases including myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, pancreatic cancer, and various oral pathologies. Cadmium and zinc have a toxicologically inverse relationship. Zinc is an essential element and is reportedly antagonistic to some manifestations of cadmium toxicity. This review summarizes associations between blood, urine, and tissue cadmium concentrations with emphasis on cadmium exposure due to tobacco use and several disease states. Available data about zinc and cadmium/zinc ratios and tobacco-related diseases is summarized from studies reporting smoking status. Collectively, data suggest that blood, urine, and tissue cadmium and cadmium/zinc ratios are often significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers and they are also different in smokers for several diseases and cancers. Additional biomonitoring data such as blood or serum and urine zinc and cadmium levels and cadmium/zinc ratios in smokers may provide further insight into the development and progression of diseases of the lung, cardiovascular system, and possibly other organs. PMID:28961214

  12. Cadmium and Cadmium/Zinc Ratios and Tobacco-Related Morbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Patricia; Faroon, Obaid; Pappas, R Steven

    2017-09-29

    Metals are one of five major categories of carcinogenic or toxic constituents in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Cadmium is highly volatile and a higher percentage of the total tobacco cadmium content is efficiently transferred to mainstream tobacco smoke than many other toxic metals in tobacco. Inhaled cadmium bioaccumulates in the lungs and is distributed beyond the lungs to other tissues, with a total body biological half-life of one to two decades. Chronic cadmium exposure through tobacco use elevates blood and urine cadmium concentrations. Cadmium is a carcinogen, and an inducer of proinflammatory immune responses. Elevated exposure to cadmium is associated with reduced pulmonary function, obstructive lung disease, bronchogenic carcinoma, cardiovascular diseases including myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, pancreatic cancer, and various oral pathologies. Cadmium and zinc have a toxicologically inverse relationship. Zinc is an essential element and is reportedly antagonistic to some manifestations of cadmium toxicity. This review summarizes associations between blood, urine, and tissue cadmium concentrations with emphasis on cadmium exposure due to tobacco use and several disease states. Available data about zinc and cadmium/zinc ratios and tobacco-related diseases is summarized from studies reporting smoking status. Collectively, data suggest that blood, urine, and tissue cadmium and cadmium/zinc ratios are often significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers and they are also different in smokers for several diseases and cancers. Additional biomonitoring data such as blood or serum and urine zinc and cadmium levels and cadmium/zinc ratios in smokers may provide further insight into the development and progression of diseases of the lung, cardiovascular system, and possibly other organs.

  13. Influence of Irradiation Time on properties of CdS Nanoparticles Synthesized using Microwave Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayereh Soltani; Elias SSaion; Maryam Erfani; Mohd Zobir Hussein; Robiah Yunus

    2011-01-01

    Different sizes of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles which exhibit obvious quantum confinement effect have been synthesized of cadmium chloride and thioacetamide through the simple and rapid microwave method. The properties of these CdS nanoparticles were examined with varying irradiation time from 10 to 40 min using a pulse regime. The obtained CdS particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transition electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The effects of irradiation time on the size, degree of crystallinity, yield of reaction and optical band gap of CdS nanoparticles are investigated. (author)

  14. Investigation of copper(I sulphide leaching in oxidative hydrochloric acid solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Marković

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Present work is focused on the copper (I sulphide leaching with sodium chloride in hydrochloric acid solution and with introduction of gaseous oxygen. Chemical reactions of leaching and their thermodynamic probabilities are predicted based on the literature data and products which were formed during the process and the overall leaching reaction was defined. The influence of temperature and time on the leaching degree of copper was experimentally determined. The quantity of dissolved copper increases with the increase of both investigated parameters. Elemental sulphur was formed as the main leaching product, precipitated at the particle surfaces and chloride ions have a role to disrupt the creation of this passive layer.

  15. Hydrodeoxygenation of aliphatic and aromatic oxygenates on sulphided catalysts for production of second generation biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senol, O.I.

    2007-07-01

    Environmental concerns and diminishing petroleum reserves have increased the importance of biofuels for traffic fuel applications. Second generation biofuels produced from wood, vegetable oils and animal fats have been considered promising for delivering biofuels in large amount with low production cost. The abundance of oxygen in the form of various aliphatic and aromatic oxygenates decreases the quality of biofuels, however, and therefore the oxygen content of biofuels must be reduced. Upgrading of biofuels can be achieved by hydrodeoxygenation (HDO), which is similar to hydrodesulphurisation in oil refining. In HDO, oxygen-containing compounds are converted to hydrocarbons by eliminating oxygen in the form of water in the presence of hydrogen and a sulphided catalyst. Due to the low sulphur content of biofuels, a sulphiding agent is typically added to the HDO feed to maintain activity and stability of the catalyst. The aim of this work was to investigate HDO using aliphatic and aromatic oxygenates as model compounds on sulphided NiMo/gamma-Al{sub 2}O3 and CoMo/gamma-Al{sub 2}O3 catalysts. The effects of side product, water, and of sulphiding agents, H{sub 2}S and CS{sub 2}, on HDO were determined. The primary focus was on the HDO of aliphatic oxygenates, because a reasonable amount of data regarding the HDO of aromatic oxygenates already exists. The HDO of aliphatic esters produced hydrocarbons from intermediate alcohol, carboxylic acid, aldehyde and ether compounds. A few sulphur-containing compounds were also detected in trace amounts, and their formation caused desulphurisation of the catalysts. Hydrogenation reactions and acid-catalysed reactions (dehydration, hydrolysis, esterification, E{sub 2} elimination and SN{sub 2} nucleophilic substitution) played a major role in the HDO of aliphatic oxygenates. The NiMo catalyst showed a higher activity for HDO and hydrogenation reactions than the CoMo catalyst, but both catalysts became deactivated because of

  16. Proton non-Rutherford backscattering study of oxidation kinetics in Cu and Fe sulphides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiari, M.; Giuntini, L.; Pratesi, G.; Santo, A.P.

    1998-01-01

    Non-Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (NBS) with 2.4 MeV protons was performed for depth profiling of oxygen in three species of copper and iron sulphides - pyrite, chalcopyrite and bornite - on both altered and fresh surfaces. The tarnished surfaces were obtained by bathing samples in H 2 O 2 (35% vol.) for 100 and 1000 s. The spectra collected were compared to simulations to extract quantitative data on oxygen depth distributions for the different bathing times. The measurements have shown that the kinetics of oxidation has completely different patterns in the three investigated minerals. (orig.)

  17. Sulphide stress corrosion behaviour of a nickel coated high-strength low-alloyed steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvago, G; Fumagalli, G; Cigada, A; Scolari, P

    1987-01-01

    The sulphide stress corrosion cracking (SSCC) of the quenched and tempered AISI 4137 H steel either bare or coated with nickel alloys was examined. Both traditional electrochemical and linear elastic fracture mechanics methods were used to examine cracking in the NACE environment and in environments simulating the geothermal fluids found in the area of Larderello in Italy. Some tests were carried out on a geothermal well in Ferrara. High nickel content coatings seem to increase the SSCC resistance of the AISI 4137-H steel. Galvanic couplings effects are possible factors responsible for the behaviour in SSCC.

  18. Distribution of cadmium between calcium carbonate and solution, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitano, Yasushi; Kanamori, Nobuko; Fujiyoshi, Ryoko

    1978-01-01

    The distribution coefficient of cadmium between calcite and solution has been measured in the calcium bicarbonate solution containing cadmium and chloride ions, which forms complexes with cadmium ions. It has been confirmed experimentally that cadmium carbonate is present as a solid solution between calcitic calcium carbonate and cadmium carbonate in the carbonate precipitate formed in the solution system. However, the constant value of the thermodynamic distribution coefficient of cadmium between calcite and solution has not been obtained experimentally in the calcium bicarbonate solution containing cadmium and chloride ions. It may have been caused by the very specific behavior of cadmium ions, but the exact reason remains unsolved and must be studied. (Kobatake, H.)

  19. Historical perspectives on cadmium toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordberg, Gunnar F.

    2009-01-01

    The first health effects of cadmium (Cd) were reported already in 1858. Respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms occurred among persons using Cd-containing polishing agent. The first experimental toxicological studies are from 1919. Bone effects and proteinuria in humans were reported in the 1940's. After World War II, a bone disease with fractures and severe pain, the itai-itai disease, a form of Cd-induced renal osteomalacia, was identified in Japan. Subsequently, the toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of Cd were described including its binding to the protein metallothionein. International warnings of health risks from Cd-pollution were issued in the 1970's. Reproductive and carcinogenic effects were studied at an early stage, but a quantitative assessment of these effects in humans is still subject to considerable uncertainty. The World Health Organization in its International Program on Chemical Safety, WHO/IPCS (1992) (Cadmium. Environmental Health Criteria Document 134, IPCS. WHO, Geneva, 1-280.) identified renal dysfunction as the critical effect and a crude quantitative evaluation was presented. In the 1990's and 2000 several epidemiological studies have reported adverse health effects, sometimes at low environmental exposures to Cd, in population groups in Japan, China, Europe and USA (reviewed in other contributions to the present volume). The early identification of an important role of metallothionein in cadmium toxicology formed the basis for recent studies using biomarkers of susceptibility to development of Cd-related renal dysfunction such as gene expression of metallothionein in peripheral lymphocytes and autoantibodies against metallothionein in blood plasma. Findings in these studies indicate that very low exposure levels to cadmium may give rise to renal dysfunction among sensitive subgroups of human populations such as persons with diabetes.

  20. Lead and cadmium in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gliesmann, S.; Kruse, H.; Kriews, M.; Mangels, H.

    1992-08-01

    The amounts of lead and cadmium produced and processed in these days are considerable. As a result, our environment is increasingly polluted by heavy metals and industrial installations, motor vehicles or incinerating plants appear to be among the main culprits here. Air and water are the media permitting the entry of heavy metals into our natural environment where they accumulate in the soil and then gradually migrate into the plants. Their further transport in the food constitutes the third step in the environmental spread of heavy metals. The consumption of muscle and organ meats, of vegetables, fruits, canned food and drinking water is unavoidably associated with some ingestion of lead and cadmium. The degree to which they are taken up and stored in different tissues is determined by absorption properties and the nutritional state of the organism. Cadmium tends to accumulate in the kidneys, lead is mainly stored in the bones. A continuously increasing uptake finally results in health injuries that range from unspecific complaints to damaged kidneys or bones and disorders of liver function. Children and elderly people are at a particular risk here. The level of food contamination is such that screening for heavy metals must be rigorously carried out once appropriate legal thresholds have been set, which ought to be based on proven detrimental effects of lead and cadmium on our health and also take account of infants and children or any other risk groups, where particular caution must be exercised. It should be pointed out that such thresholds have so far not been determined. (orig./MG) [de

  1. Relationships between basin architecture, basin closure, and occurrence of sulphide-bearing schists: an example from Tampere Schist Belt, Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliomäki, Henrik; Torvela, Taija; Moreau, Julien

    , therefore, offers an excellent opportunity to examine the volcano-sedimentary evolution of an ancient marginal basin, and the mechanics of and strain distribution during its subsequent closure. The aim of this study is to investigate the structural development and the architecture of a part of the TSB...... in more detail, including the relationships between the volcano-sedimentary sequences, the tectonic structures, and the sulphide-bearing schist horizons. Important insights are gained into understanding the mechanisms of the basin closure and the localisation of the sulphide mineralisation within......, in order to accommodate the crustal shortening during basin closure. Furthermore, it is suggested that there is a genetic relationship between the interpreted palaeothrusts and the sulphide-bearing schist horizons in the study area: early, gently dipping thrusts acted as both channels and traps...

  2. Flow injection analysis of sulphide based on its photoelectrocatalytic oxidation at poly-methylene blue modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilgin, Yusuf; Canarslan, Seda; Ayyildiz, Onder; Ertek, Bensu; Nişli, Gürel

    2012-01-01

    A new approach for photoelectrocatalytic determination of sulphide in a flow injection analysis (FIA) system was studied using a poly-methylene blue modified glassy carbon electrode (poly-MB/GCE). Results from electrochemical measurements have revealed that poly-MB/GCE is capable of signalling electrocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic activity towards sulphide oxidation. When the surface of poly-MB/GCE was irradiated with a light source (250 W Halogen lamp), the electrocatalytic current increased substantially. A homemade flow electrochemical cell with a suitable transparent window for the irradiation of the electrode surface was used to perform the photoelectrocatalytic determination of sulphide in FIA system. The currents obtained from the photoamperometric measurements in the FIA system at optimum conditions (carrier solution: pH 9.0 Britton Robinson buffer solution containing 0.1 M KCl; flow rate: 1.3 mL min −1 ; transmission tubing length: 10 cm; injection volume: 100 μL; and constant applied potential: +150 mV vs. Ag/AgCl/KCl sat ) were linearly correlated with the sulphide concentration. The calibration curves were obtained for sulphide concentrations in a range of 0.5–500 μM. The detection limits were found to be 0.27 and 0.15 μM for amperometric and photoamperometric methods, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to different wastewaters such as municipal sewage or tannery wastewater. Finally, results from the sulphide measurements by poly-MB/GCE were in good agreement with those attained using spectrophotometric method.

  3. Interferometric investigation and simulation of refractive index in glass matrixes containing nanoparticles of varying sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feeney, Michael Gerard; Ince, Rabia; Yukselici, Mehmet Hikmet; Allahverdi, Cagdas

    2011-07-01

    The relationship between refractive index and nanoparticle radii of cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles embedded within glass matrixes was investigated experimentally and by simulations. A homemade automated Michelson interferometer arrangement employing a rotating table and a He-Ne laser source at a wavelength of 632.8 nm determined the refractive index versus nanoparticle radii of embedded cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles. The refractive index was found to decrease linearly with nanoparticle radius increase. However, one sample showed a step increase in refractive index; on spectroscopic analysis, it was found that its resonant wavelength matched that of the He-Ne source wavelength. The simulations showed that two conditions caused the step increase in refractive index: low plasma frequency and matched sample and source resonances. This simple interferometer setup defines a new method of determining the radii of nanoparticles embedded in substrates and enables refractive index tailoring by modification of exact annealing conditions.

  4. Cadmium accumulation by Axonopus compressus (Sw.) P. Beauv and Cyperus rotundas Linn growing in cadmium solution and cadmium-zinc contaminated soil

    OpenAIRE

    Paitip Thiravetyan; Vibol Sao; Woranan Nakbanpote

    2007-01-01

    This research investigated the phyto-remediation potentials of Cyperus rotundas Linn (Nutgrass) and Axonopus compressus (Sw.) P. Beauv (Carpetgrass) for cadmium removal from cadmium solution andcadmium-zinc contaminated soil. Plants growth in the solution showed that cadmium decreased the relative growth rate of both grasses. However, the amount of cadmium accumulated in shoot and root was increasedwith the increase in cadmium concentration and exposure time. Growth in fertile soil mixed with...

  5. Adhesion of metals to LaCrO3 by copper sulphide method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, Yoshihiro; Toibana, Yasuo; Uetsuki, Tsuneo; Kose, Saburo; Kataoka, Nagamasa

    1979-01-01

    A method of adhering metallic copper to LaCrO 3 was researched using mixtures of copper sulphide and kaolin as the coponent of metalliser to obtain optimum condition for the adhesion. As a maximum adhesive strength, 300 kg/cm 2 has been attained with the metallised intermediate layer which was composed of 70 wt% copper sulphide and 30 wt% kaolin, and fired at 1000 0 C. The adhesive strength was not affected by soaking the specimen into 48% KOH solution at 70 0 C for 70 hr. Electric resistance of the desirable specimen metallised with Cu 2 S- kaolin layer and silver-paint was 1.4 times higher than that of the one coated with silver-paint only. Investigating into the fired intermediate layer by means of X-ray diffraction and EPMA, it has been confirmed that the layer partly transformed to a phase of spinel of Al 2 O 3 with CuO. Thickness of the layer penetrated into the LaCrO 3 substratum was about 50 - 60 μm. (author)

  6. Inoculum development by using activated sludge to remove hydrogen sulphide (H2S through biofiltration*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Mora

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Different activated sludges were used for developing an inoculum able to degrade hydrogen sulphide in a pilot scale biofiltration plant using two different support materials: sugarcane bagasse and this bagasse mixed with pumice stone. Adapting and selecting microbial species which degrade hydrogen sulphide (H2S was aided by adding nutrients plus a specific substrate to the activated sludge. Population variation was monitored within the different trophic groups in the biofiter medium during pilot scale plant operation, a general trend towards sulphur-oxidising bacteria (SOB growth being observed as was a decrease in heterotrophic bacteria, molds and yeasts. The activated sludge which showed the highest substrate degradation speed was selected for standardising inoculum preparation; the different nutritional mediums were evaluated during this process. Measuring some variables for controlling the process led to choosing the pH for determining the proper point of inoculum adaptation for this specific substrate. The inoculation procedure and support characteristics in terms of establishing and developing the microbial species increased biofilter removal efficiency by up to 99% from start-up. Key words: biofilter, activated sludge, adapted microorganisms, sulphur-oxidising bacteria, respirometry. Este artículo es el resultado de un proyecto cofinanciado por Colciencias y desarrollado por un grupo de investigadores vinculados al proyecto a través de las entidades Corporación

  7. Flotation separation of arsenopyrite from several sulphide minerals with organic depressants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Fuliang; Wang Ligang; Sun Chuanyao

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,the separation of arsenopyrite from chalcopyrite,pyrite,galena with organic depressants (guergum and sodium humic)was discussed,and the functioning mechanism of those organic depressants was dis-cussed.The experimental results of monomineral flotation indicated that both guergum and sodium humic have depress-ing effect on arsenopyrite in the presence of ethyl xanthate.Guergum and sodium humic showed different depressing a-bility to pyrite,chalcopyrite and galena,and the higher the pH value in pulp,the stronger the depressing ability.Ultra-violet-Visible Spectrophotometric study showed that the adsorption layer of xanthate on surface of minerals had been de-sorbed by the two organic depressants,and the selective desorption of the collector layer was found from different miner-als.The xanthate cover on minerals surface was set free when dosage of the organic depressants was high enough.For artificially-mixed minerals,the separation of arsenopyrite from other sulphides was successfully realized by controlling dosage of the organic depressants.And sodium humic had been used successfully to decrease arsenic content in sulphide concentr ates in a commercial Lead-Zinc concentrator.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of lead sulphide thin films from ethanolamine (ETA) complexing agent chemical bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gashaw Hone, Fekadu; Dejene, F. B.

    2018-02-01

    Polycrystalline lead sulphide (PbS) thin films were grown on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition route using ethanolamine (ETA) as a complexing agent. The effects of ETA molar concentration on the structural, morphological, electrical and optical properties of lead sulphide thin films were thoroughly studied. The XRD analyses revealed that all the deposited thin films were face center cubic crystal structure and their preferred orientations were varied along the (111) and (200) planes. The XRD results further confirmed that ETA concentration had a significant effects on the strain, average crystalline size and dislocation density of the deposited thin films. The SEM studies illustrated the evolution and transformation of surface morphology as ETA molar concentration increased from 0.41 M to 1.64 M. The energy dispersive x-ray analysis was used to verify the compositional elements of the deposited thin films. Optical spectroscopy investigation established that the band gap of the PbS thin films were reduced from 0.98 eV to 0.68 eV as ETA concentration increased. The photoluminescence spectra showed a well defined peak at 428 nm and shoulder around 468 nm for all PbS thin films. The electrical resistivity of the thin films found in the order of 103 Ω cm at room temperature and decreased as the ETA molar concentration was increased.

  9. Oxic microshield and local pH enhancement protects Zostera muelleri from sediment derived hydrogen sulphide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodersen, Kasper Elgetti; Nielsen, Daniel Aagren; Ralph, Peter J; Kühl, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Seagrass is constantly challenged with transporting sufficient O₂ from above- to belowground tissue via aerenchyma in order to maintain aerobic metabolism and provide protection against phytotoxins. Electrochemical microsensors were used in combination with a custom-made experimental chamber to analyse the belowground biogeochemical microenvironment of Zostera muelleri under changing environmental conditions. Measurements revealed high radial O₂ release of up to 500 nmol O2 cm(-2) h(-1) from the base of the leaf sheath, maintaining a c. 300-μm-wide plant-mediated oxic microzone and thus protecting the vital meristematic regions of the rhizome from reduced phytotoxic metabolites such as hydrogen sulphide (H₂S). H₂S intrusion was prevented through passive diffusion of O₂ to belowground tissue from leaf photosynthesis in light, as well as from the surrounding water column into the flow-exposed plant parts during darkness. Under water column hypoxia, high belowground H₂S concentrations at the tissue surface correlated with the inability to sustain the protecting oxic microshield around the meristematic regions of the rhizome. We also found increased pH levels in the immediate rhizosphere of Z. muelleri, which may contribute to further detoxification of H₂S through shifts in the chemical speciation of sulphide. Zostera muelleri can modify the geochemical conditions in its immediate rhizosphere, thereby reducing its exposure to H₂S. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Fundamental Studies on the Electrochemical Behaviour of Carbon Steel Exposed in Sulphide and Sulphate-Reducing Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    The aim of the report is to give a fundamental understanding of the response of different electrochemical techniques on carbon steel in a sulphide environment as well as in a biologically active sulphate-reducing environment (SRB). This will form the basis for further studies and for recommendati......The aim of the report is to give a fundamental understanding of the response of different electrochemical techniques on carbon steel in a sulphide environment as well as in a biologically active sulphate-reducing environment (SRB). This will form the basis for further studies...

  11. Treatment of waste gas containing low concentration of dimethyl sulphide (DMS) in a bench-scale biofilter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, B S; Mudliar, S N; Deshmukh, S C; Banerjee, S; Pandey, R A

    2010-04-01

    Biological treatment of dimethyl sulphide (DMS) was investigated in a bench-scale biofilter, packed with compost along with wood chips, and enriched with DMS degrading microorganism Bacillus sphaericus. The biofilter could remove 62-74% of the inlet DMS, at an optimum loading of 0.484 g/m(3)/h with optimum empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 384 s and an average moisture range of 65-70%. The biodegradative products of DMS were sulphide, thiosulphate and sulphate. Evaluation of microbiological status of the biofilter indicated the presence of other bacterial cultures viz. Paenibacillus polymyxa, and Bacillus megaterium, besides B. sphaericus. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Attenuated total reflection UV spectroscopy for simultaneous analysis of alkali, sulphide and dissolved lignin in pulping liquors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, X.S.; Zhu, J.Y.; Luo, Q.; Li, J.

    2003-01-01

    This study experimentally demonstrated attenuated total reflection (ATR) ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy for rapid and simultaneous determination of the concentrations of hydroxide, sulphide and dissolved lignin in kraft pulping liquors. A multivariate partial least squares fitting procedure (using commercially available software) was employed to obtain the species concentrations from the measured absorption spectra of the pulping liquors. Good agreements between ATR-UV measured species concentrations and those obtained by reference methods (titration for hydroxide and sulphide and conventional UV absorption for dissolved lignin) were achieved. (author)

  13. Zinc and cadmium mobility in a 5-year-old dredged sediment deposit: experiments and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lions, J. [BRGM, Orleans (France). Water Div.; Centre National de Recherche sur les Sites et Sols Pollues, Douai (France); Lee, J. van der [Ecole des Mines de Paris, Fontainebleau (France). Geosciences - Reactive Hydrodynamics Group; Guerin, V.; Bataillard, P. [BRGM, Orleans (France). Environment and Process Div.; Centre National de Recherche sur les Sites et Sols Pollues, Douai (France); Laboudigue, A. [Ecole des Mines de Douai (France). Environmental and Civil Engineering; Centre National de Recherche sur les Sites et Sols Pollues, Douai (France)

    2007-08-15

    Background. Landfill deposits of contaminated, dredged sediments are subject to chemical alteration and especially to oxidation processes. Accordingly, sulphides are gradually oxidized leading to the formation of secondary phases and associated metals could become mobile and redistributed among the sediment components, such as carbonates, clay and freshly precipitated (hydr)oxides. Once mobilised, metals could represent a hazard for the environment and especially for drinking water supply facilities. Methods. In the present study, leaching experiments have been carried out on a dredged sediment to study metal mobilisation after 5 years of field aging. First, kinetic batch tests allowed one to evaluate the impact of solid-liquid contact time and to determine the kinetic parameters. Secondly, two types of dynamic experiments have been conducted: dynamic flush reactor and column leach test to evaluate the impact of solution renewing by excluding or not excluding the transport processes, respectively. In order to evaluate the impact of calcium on the metal mobilisation, the column leaching test is conducted with pure water and Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} solution, at the beginning and at the end of the injection, respectively. Geochemical and reactive transport modelling of the experiments was performed using the geochemical code CHESS and the reactive transport model HYTEC. Results and Discussion. The studied sediment is complex with numerous reactive phases such as sulphides, (hydr)oxides, organic matter, phyllosilicates. All leaching tests highlight that zinc and cadmium are mobilised in significant concentrations and lead remains insoluble. A conceptual geochemical model of the sediment has been built to allow simulations of the whole experiments, based on a single, coherent phase description and parameter set. Simulations of the batch, flush and column experiments were performed taking into account the major reaction-controlling mechanisms including, among others, p

  14. Improvement of cadmium phytoremediation after soil inoculation with a cadmium-resistant Micrococcus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangthong, Chirawee; Setkit, Kunchaya; Prapagdee, Benjaphorn

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium-resistant Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221, a plant growth-promoting bacterium, has stimulatory effects on the root lengths of Zea mays L. seedlings under toxic cadmium conditions compared to uninoculated seedlings. The performance of Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221 on promoting growth and cadmium accumulation in Z. mays L. was investigated in a pot experiment. The results indicated that Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221significantly promoted the root length, shoot length, and dry biomass of Z. mays L. transplanted in both uncontaminated and cadmium-contaminated soils. Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221 significantly increased cadmium accumulation in the roots and shoots of Z. mays L. compared to uninoculated plants. At the beginning of the planting period, cadmium accumulated mainly in the shoots. With a prolonged duration of cultivation, cadmium content increased in the roots. As expected, little cadmium was found in maize grains. Soil cadmium was significantly reduced with time, and the highest percentage of cadmium removal was found in the bacterial-inoculated Z. mays L. after transplantation for 6 weeks. We conclude that Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221 is a potent bioaugmenting agent, facilitating cadmium phytoextraction in Z. mays L.

  15. [Investigation of urinary cadmium characteristics of the general population in three non-cadmium-polluted rural areas in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jingxiu; Hu, Ji; Sun, Hong; Jing, Qiqing; Wang, Xiaofeng; Lou, Xiaoming; Ding, Zhen; Chen, Xiaodong; Zhang, Wenli; Shang, Qi

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the characteristics of urinary cadmium of the non-occupational-cadmium-exposed population in non-cadmium contaminated rural area in China. Randomly selected non-occupational cadmium exposed population 2548 people (male 1290, female 1258) with each gender and age groups, questionnaire surveyed and collected random urine. Urinary cadmium and urinary creatinine (Cr) concentration were tested, excluding urinary Cr 3 g/L. Analyze the impact factors of urinary cadmium and calculated 95% quantile (P95) of urinary cadmium after correction by urinary Cr. Urinary cadmium increased with age and showed an upward trend. The urinary cadmium of the population of ≥ 30 years old was significantly higher than that of populations (China (GB Z17-2002). The urinary cadmium reference value of non-occupational-cadmium-exposed populations is China, but for smoking women over 30 year-old it needs more research to explore.

  16. A double Fe-Ti oxide and Fe-sulphide liquid immiscibility in the Itsindro Gabbro Complex, Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augé, Thierry; Bailly, Laurent; Roig, Jean-Yves

    2017-11-01

    The petrology and mineralogy of the Itsindro complex in south-central Madagascar has been investigated through samples obtained from the 320.7 m-deep Lanjanina borehole. The section consists of a 254 m-thick pyroxenite unit with interbedded gabbro layers that overlies a gabbro unit and is itself overlain by a 19 m-thick granite unit. Most of the structures are sub-horizontal. A weak magmatic layering is locally observed but at the scale of the core, the intrusion does not appear to be a layered complex. Pyroxenite and gabbro show a systematic disseminated mineralization consisting of Fe-Ti-P oxides and Fe-(Cu-Ni) sulphides that takes the form of ilmenite-titanomagnetite ± apatite and pyrrhotite ± chalcopyrite ± pentlandite. In the upper zone, from 90 to 72 m, sub-massive centimetre-to decimetre-sized layers of oxides and sulphides comprise a total of 16 m of sub-massive sulphide (the main mineralized zone). In this mineralized zone the oxide/sulphide ratio is close to 1/1. The sulphide is strongly dominated by pyrrhotite, which may locally contain inclusions of molybdenite crystals with the Re sulphide rheniite (ReS2). Oxides are generally euhedral, included in or attached to the Fe-sulphide, and also locally form sub-massive centimetre-sized bands. Apatite as a cumulus phase is ubiquitous. Locally it may account for 30% of the ore-rich samples and some samples consist of apatite-Fe-Ti oxides-Fe-Cu-Ni sulphides with virtually no silicate. Apatite is the main REE carrier but the total REE content remains low (<90 ppm). Mineral compositions and whole rock geochemistry indicate that the rocks are highly differentiated, and in spite of a relatively limited thickness, the differentiation process is observed. Two zones can be distinguished: from the bottom to 162.8 m we see a decrease in the Mg number of olivine and pyroxene, and a drop in TiO2 and Al2O3 for the latter. A reverse trend is then observed within the pyroxenite unit from the 162.8 m level upwards. The

  17. Cadmium stress in wheat seedlings: growth, cadmium accumulation and photosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ci, Dunwei; Jiang, Dong; Wollenweber, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    parameters were generally depressed by Cd stress, especially under the high Cd concentrations. Cd concentration and accumulation in both shoots and roots increased with increasing external Cd concentrations. Relationships between corrected parameters of growth, photosynthesis and fluorescence and corrected......Seedlings of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars Jing 411, Jinmai 30 and Yangmai 10 were exposed to 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 or 50 μM of CdCl2 in a solution culture experiment. The effects of cadmium (Cd) stress on wheat growth, leaf photon energy conversion, gas exchange, and Cd accumulation in wheat...

  18. Cadmium in the bioenergy system - a synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlfont, K.

    1997-12-01

    Cadmium is a toxic metal without any known positive biological effects. Both emissions and atmospheric deposition of cadmium have decreased radically in Sweden during recent years. In Sweden, about 150 tonnes of cadmium was supplied to the technosphere in 1990, mostly originating from NiCd batteries. More than 100 tonnes of cadmium accumulated in the technosphere. Mankind takes up cadmium from water, food and particulate atmospheric pollution. Even small amounts may be injurious in the long-term since the half-life in the kidneys is 30 years. Cadmium in biofuel and ashes are generally a cause of discussion. Ashes from biofuel constitute a nutrient resource that should be returned to the soil. A possible risk with spreading ashes is the spreading of heavy metals, and then foremost cadmium, which is among the heavy metals that forest soils are considered to tolerate the least. Several studies on cadmium in the bioenergy system have been made, both within the Research Programme for Recycling of Wood-ash, and within Vattenfall's Bioenergy Project. The present report is intended to provide a picture of the current state of knowledge and to review plans for the future With a 3 page summary in English. 51 refs, 1 fig, 3 tabs

  19. 29 CFR 1926.1127 - Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... occupational exposure to cadmium as follows: (1) Reassess the employee's work practices and personal hygiene... employee's work practices and personal hygiene; the employee's respirator use, if any; the employee's...; assuring that all employees exposed to air cadmium levels above the PEL wear appropriate personal...

  20. Cadmium and children: Exposure and health effects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoeters, G.; Hond, E. Den; Zuurbier, M.; Naginiene, R.; Hazel, P.J. van den; Stilianakis, N.; Ronchetti, R.; Koppe, J.G.

    2006-01-01

    Cadmium exposure and accumulation in the body start at young age. Exposure routes in children are mainly via food, environmental tobacco smoke and house dust. Excretion from the body is limited. Cadmium accumulation in the kidney is responsible for effects such as nephrotoxicity and osteoporosis

  1. Immunochromatographic assay of cadmium levels in oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Kosuke; Kim, In-Hae; Itai, Takaaki; Sugahara, Takuya; Takeyama, Haruko; Ohkawa, Hideo

    2012-08-15

    Oysters are one of foodstuffs containing a relatively high amount of cadmium. Here we report on establishment of an immunochromatographic assay (ICA) method of cadmium levels in oysters. Cadmium was extracted with 0.l mol L(-1) HCl from oysters and cleaned up from other metals by the use of an anion-exchange column. The behavior of five metals Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Cd was monitored at each step of extraction and clean-up procedure for the ICA method in an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. The results revealed that a simple extraction method with the HCl solution was efficient enough to extract almost all of cadmium from oysters. Clean-up with an anion-exchange column presented almost no loss of cadmium adsorbed on the column and an efficient removal of metals other than cadmium. When a spiked recovery test was performed in the ICA method, the recovery ranged from 98% to 112% with relative standard deviations between 5.9% and 9.2%. The measured values of cadmium in various oyster samples in the ICA method were favorably correlated with those in ICP-MS analysis (r(2)=0.97). Overall results indicate that the ICA method established in the present study is an adequate and reliable detection method for cadmium levels in oysters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Association of urinary cadmium and myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everett, Charles J.; Frithsen, Ivar L.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of individuals 45-79 years old in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (1988-1994) (NHANES III). Myocardial infarction was determined by electrocardiogram (ECG). Our sample included 4912 participants, which when weighted represented 52,234,055 Americans. We performed adjusted logistic regressions with the Framingham risk score, pack-years of smoking, race-ethnicity, and family history of heart attack, and diabetes as covariates. Urinary cadmium ≥0.88 μg/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.86 (95% CI 1.26-2.75) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 μg/g creatinine. This result supports the hypothesis that cadmium is associated with coronary heart disease. When logistic regressions were done by gender, women, but not men, showed a significant association of urinary cadmium with myocardial infarction. Women with urinary cadmium ≥0.88 μg/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.80 (95% CI 1.06-3.04) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 μg/g creatinine. When the analysis was restricted to never smokers (N=2187) urinary cadmium ≥0.88 μg/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.85 (95% CI 1.10-3.14) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 μg/g creatinine

  3. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B; Svendsen, P

    1988-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) is known to alleviate acute toxicity due to injection of cadmium salts. However, when cadmium chloride was administered by the oral route, DDC enhanced rather than alleviated the acute toxicity; both oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of DDC had this effect...

  4. Electro-spark machining of cadmium antimonide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanovskij, V.N.; Stepakhina, K.A.

    1975-01-01

    Experimental data on electrical erosion of the semiconductor material (cadmium antimonide) alloyed with tellurium are given. The potentialisies and expediency of using the electric-spark method of cutting cadmium antimonide ingots with the resistivity of 1 ohm is discussed. Cutting has been carried out in distilled water and in the air

  5. Cadmium toxcity in the pregnant rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.G.; Hitchcock, B.B.; King, J.F.

    1978-01-01

    Iron-deficient and normal pregnant rats were assigned to groups that either received a dose of cadmium (0.025, 0.050, or 0.100 mmole) plus 8 μCi of /sup 115m/Cd on day 18 of gestation or served as a nondosed group. Animals were either sacrificed 3 days after the dosing or allowed to litter (nondosed and 0.100 mmole cadmium groups only); pups and dams were sacrificed at 14 days of age. Viability of iron-deficient dams and fetuses and pups from iron-deficient dams was affected by the 0.100 mmole cadmium dose to a greater degree than was that in comparable normal animals. Although calculated amounts of cadmium deposited in the dam's liver, kidney, blood, tibia, and fetuses were greater in iron-deficient than in normal animals at all doses, differences were not significant except in the amount of cadmium accumulated in the placenta at the highest cadmium doses. Total deposition in the placentas/litter was similar for normal and iron-deficient groups at each dose level. The decreased viability may have been due to the dam's decreased food intake; blockage of nutrients, especially minerals, by cadmium--protein complexes in the placenta; or hormonal interruptions of pregnancy by steroid--cadmium complexes

  6. Novel Cadmium Resistance Determinant in Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Cameron; Lee, Sangmi; Jayeola, Victor; Kathariou, Sophia

    2017-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that can cause severe disease (listeriosis) in susceptible individuals. It is ubiquitous in the environment and often exhibits resistance to heavy metals. One of the determinants that enables Listeria to tolerate exposure to cadmium is the cadAC efflux system, with CadA being a P-type ATPase. Three different cadA genes (designated cadA1 to cadA3 ) were previously characterized in L. monocytogenes A novel putative cadmium resistance gene ( cadA4 ) was recently identified through whole-genome sequencing, but experimental confirmation for its involvement in cadmium resistance is lacking. In this study, we characterized cadA4 in L. monocytogenes strain F8027, a cadmium-resistant strain of serotype 4b. By screening a mariner-based transposon library of this strain, we identified a mutant with reduced tolerance to cadmium and that harbored a single transposon insertion in cadA4 The tolerance to cadmium was restored by genetic complementation with the cadmium resistance cassette ( cadA4C ), and enhanced cadmium tolerance was conferred to two unrelated cadmium-sensitive strains via heterologous complementation with cadA4C Cadmium exposure induced cadA4 expression, even at noninhibitory levels. Virulence assessments in the Galleria mellonella model suggested that a functional cadA4 suppressed virulence, potentially promoting commensal colonization of the insect larvae. Biofilm assays suggested that cadA4 inactivation reduced biofilm formation. These data not only confirm cadA4 as a novel cadmium resistance determinant in L. monocytogenes but also provide evidence for roles in virulence and biofilm formation. IMPORTANCE Listeria monocytogenes is an intracellular foodborne pathogen causing the disease listeriosis, which is responsible for numerous hospitalizations and deaths every year. Among the adaptations that enable the survival of Listeria in the environment are the abilities to persist in biofilms, grow in the cold, and

  7. Latex-mediated synthesis of ZnS nanoparticles: green synthesis approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudlikar, Manish; Joglekar, Shreeram [University of Pune, Division of Biochemistry, Department of Chemistry (India); Dhaygude, Mayur [National Chemical Laboratory, Polymer Science and Engineering Division (India); Kodam, Kisan, E-mail: kodam@chem.unipune.ac.in [University of Pune, Division of Biochemistry, Department of Chemistry (India)

    2012-05-15

    A low-cost, green synthesis of ZnS nanoparticles is reported using 0.3 % latex solution prepared from Jatropha curcas L. ZnS nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, selected area electron diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive analysis of X-rays, UV-vis optical absorption and photoluminescence techniques. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy was performed to find the role of cyclic peptides namely curcacycline A (an octapeptide), curcacycline B (a nonapeptide) and curcain (an enzyme) as a possible reducing and stabilizing agents present in the latex of J. curcas L. The average size of ZnS nanoparticles was found to be 10 nm. Latex of J. curcas L. itself acts as a source of sulphide (S{sup -2}) ions that are donated to Zn ions under present experimental conditions. Source of sulphide (S{sup -2}) ions is still unclear, but we speculate that cysteine or thiol residues present in enzyme curcain may be donating these sulphide (S{sup -2}) ions.

  8. Latex-mediated synthesis of ZnS nanoparticles: green synthesis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudlikar, Manish; Joglekar, Shreeram; Dhaygude, Mayur; Kodam, Kisan

    2012-05-01

    A low-cost, green synthesis of ZnS nanoparticles is reported using 0.3 % latex solution prepared from Jatropha curcas L. ZnS nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, selected area electron diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive analysis of X-rays, UV-vis optical absorption and photoluminescence techniques. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy was performed to find the role of cyclic peptides namely curcacycline A (an octapeptide), curcacycline B (a nonapeptide) and curcain (an enzyme) as a possible reducing and stabilizing agents present in the latex of J. curcas L. The average size of ZnS nanoparticles was found to be 10 nm. Latex of J. curcas L. itself acts as a source of sulphide (S-2) ions that are donated to Zn ions under present experimental conditions. Source of sulphide (S-2) ions is still unclear, but we speculate that cysteine or thiol residues present in enzyme curcain may be donating these sulphide (S-2) ions.

  9. Latex-mediated synthesis of ZnS nanoparticles: green synthesis approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudlikar, Manish; Joglekar, Shreeram; Dhaygude, Mayur; Kodam, Kisan

    2012-01-01

    A low-cost, green synthesis of ZnS nanoparticles is reported using 0.3 % latex solution prepared from Jatropha curcas L. ZnS nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, selected area electron diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive analysis of X-rays, UV–vis optical absorption and photoluminescence techniques. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy was performed to find the role of cyclic peptides namely curcacycline A (an octapeptide), curcacycline B (a nonapeptide) and curcain (an enzyme) as a possible reducing and stabilizing agents present in the latex of J. curcas L. The average size of ZnS nanoparticles was found to be 10 nm. Latex of J. curcas L. itself acts as a source of sulphide (S −2 ) ions that are donated to Zn ions under present experimental conditions. Source of sulphide (S −2 ) ions is still unclear, but we speculate that cysteine or thiol residues present in enzyme curcain may be donating these sulphide (S −2 ) ions.

  10. Liquid scintillation counting analysis of cadmium-109

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, M.K.; Barfuss, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    Recently the authors have used radiolabled cadmium-109 to measure the transport of inorganic cadmium in renal proximal tubules. An anomaly discovered in the liquid scintillation counting analysis of Cd-109 which is not attributable to normal decay; it consists of a significant decrease in the measured count rate of small amounts of sample. The objective is to determine whether the buffer solution used in the membrane transport studies is causing precipitation of the cadmium or whether cadmium is being adsorbed by the glass. It was important to determine whether the procedure could be modified to correct this problem. The problem does not appear to be related to the use of the buffer or to adsorption of Cd onto glass. Correction based on using triated L-glucose in all of these experiments and calculating a correction factor for the concentration of cadmium

  11. (BDMCA) Nanoparticles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Available online at http://www.tjpr.org. Research Article ... Methods: Nanoparticle formulations were fabricated by a double emulsion solvent evaporation technique using .... Characterization of BDMCA nanoparticles. The nanoparticle ...

  12. Molecular and cellular mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waisberg, Michael; Joseph, Pius; Hale, Beverley; Beyersmann, Detmar

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium is a heavy metal, which is widely used in industry, affecting human health through occupational and environmental exposure. In mammals, it exerts multiple toxic effects and has been classified as a human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Cadmium affects cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and other cellular activities. Cd 2+ does not catalyze Fenton-type reactions because it does not accept or donate electrons under physiological conditions, and it is only weakly genotoxic. Hence, indirect mechanisms are implicated in the carcinogenicity of cadmium. In this review multiple mechanisms are discussed, such as modulation of gene expression and signal transduction, interference with enzymes of the cellular antioxidant system and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inhibition of DNA repair and DNA methylation, role in apoptosis and disruption of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion. Cadmium affects both gene transcription and translation. The major mechanisms of gene induction by cadmium known so far are modulation of cellular signal transduction pathways by enhancement of protein phosphorylation and activation of transcription and translation factors. Cadmium interferes with antioxidant defense mechanisms and stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species, which may act as signaling molecules in the induction of gene expression and apoptosis. The inhibition of DNA repair processes by cadmium represents a mechanism by which cadmium enhances the genotoxicity of other agents and may contribute to the tumor initiation by this metal. The disruption of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion by cadmium probably further stimulates the development of tumors. It becomes clear that there exist multiple mechanisms which contribute to the carcinogenicity of cadmium, although the relative weights of these contributions are difficult to estimate

  13. Cadmium safety rod thermal tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.K.; Iyer, N.C.; Peacock, H.B.

    1992-01-01

    Thermal testing of cadmium safety rods was conducted as part of a program to define the response of Savannah River Site (SRS) production reactor core components to a hypothetical LOCA leading to a drained reactor tank. The safety rods are present in the reactor core only during shutdown and are not used as a control mechanism during operation; thus, their response to the conditions predicted for the LOCA is only of interest to the extent that it could impact the progression of the accident. This document provides a description of this testing

  14. Testing Cadmium-Free Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    Secretary of Defense Directive • “Approve the use of alternatives [to hexavalent chromium (Cr6+)] where they can perform adequately for the intended...Effect of corrosion on breakaway torque 12 OPSEC approved for public release Fastener Finish Study FINISH POST-TREATMENT LUBRICANT Cadmium Hexavalent ...Past Testing Electrical Connectors Coatings Al / TCP ZnNi / TCP ZnNi / Non- Chrome Passivation (NCP) Ni-PTFE 1 Ni-PTFE 2 Note: SnZn tested on flat

  15. New insights into the sorption mechanism of cadmium on red mud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Lei; Ma Chenyan; Ma Yibing; Zhang Shuzhen; Lv Jitao; Cui Mingqi

    2011-01-01

    Effectiveness and mechanism of cadmium (Cd) sorption on original, acidified and ball milling nano-particle red muds were investigated using batch sorption experiments, sequential extraction analysis and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The maximum sorption capacity of Cd was 0.16, 0.19, and 0.21 mol/kg for the original, acidified, and nano-particle red muds at pH 6.5, respectively. Both acidification and ball-milling treatments significantly enhanced Cd sorption and facilitated transformation of Cd into less extractable fractions. The Cd L III -edge XANES analysis indicated the formation of inner-sphere complexes of Cd similar to XCdOH (X represents surface groups on red mud) on the red mud surfaces although outer-sphere complexes of Cd were the primary species. This work shed light on the potential application of red mud to remediate Cd-contaminated soils and illustrated the promising tool of XANES spectroscopy for speciation of multicomponent systems of environmental relevance. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: → Red mud has a strong affinity for Cd contaminants. → Ball-milling treatments significantly enhance Cd sorption on red mud. → Cadmium partially formed inner-sphere complexes on the red mud surfaces. → Red mud can be used to remediate Cd contaminated soils effectively. - Cadmium can be strongly sorbed and partially forms inner-sphere complexes on red mud.

  16. Alcohol vapor sensing by cadmium-doped zinc oxide thick films based chemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargar, R. A.; Arora, M.; Chackrabarti, S.; Ahmad, S.; Kumar, J.; Hafiz, A. K.

    2016-04-01

    Cadmium-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles were derived by simple chemical co-precipitation route using zinc acetate dihydrate and cadmium acetate dihydrate as precursor materials. The thick films were casted from chemical co-precipitation route prepared nanoparticles by economic facile screen printing method. The structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of the film were characterized relevant to alcohol vapor sensing application by powder XRD, SEM, UV-VIS and DC conductivity techniques. The response and sensitivity of alcohol (ethanol) vapor sensor are obtained from the recovery curves at optimum working temperature range from 20∘C to 50∘C. The result shows that maximum sensitivity of the sensor is observed at 25∘C operating temperature. On varying alcohol vapor concentration, minor variation in resistance has been observed. The sensing mechanism of sensor has been described in terms of physical adsorption and chemical absorption of alcohol vapors on cadmium-doped zinc oxide film surface and inside film lattice network through weak hydrogen bonding, respectively.

  17. Homogenisation of sulphide inclusions within diamonds: A new approach to diamond inclusion geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Iain; Hughes, Hannah S. R.; Butler, Ian B.; Harris, Jeffrey W.; Muir, Duncan

    2017-11-01

    Base metal sulphide (BMS) inclusions in diamonds provide a unique insight into the chalcophile and highly siderophile element composition of the mantle. Entombed within their diamond hosts, these provide a more robust (closed system) sample, from which to determine the trace element, Re-Os and S-isotopic compositions of the mantle than mantle xenoliths or orogenic peridotites, as they are shielded from alteration during ascent to the Earth's crust and subsequent surface weathering. However, at temperatures below 1100 °C some BMS inclusions undergo subsolidus re-equilibration from an original monosulphide solid solution (Mss) and this causes fractionation of the major and trace elements within the inclusions. Thus to study the subjects noted above, current techniques require the entire BMS inclusion to be extracted for analyses. Unfortunately, 'flaking' of inclusions during break-out is a frequent occurrence and hence the risk of accidentally under-sampling a portion of the BMS inclusion is inherent in current practices. This loss may have significant implications for Re-Os isotope analyses where incomplete sampling of a Re-rich phase, such as chalcopyrite that typically occurs at the outer margins of BMS inclusions, may induce significant bias in the Re-Os and 187Os/188Os measurements and resulting model and isochron ages. We have developed a method for the homogenisation of BMS inclusions in diamond prior to their break-out from the host stone. Diamonds are heated to 1100 °C and then quenched to chemically homogenise any sulphide inclusions for both major and trace elements. Using X-ray Computed Microtomography (μCT) we determine the shape and spatial setting of multiple inclusions within a host stone and crucially show that the volume of a BMS inclusion is the same both before and after homogenisation. We show that the homogenisation process significantly reduces the inherent variability of in situ analysis when compared with unhomogenised BMS, thereby

  18. The properties of protective oxide scales containing cerium on alloy 800H in oxidizing and oxidizing/sulphidizing environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haanappel, V.A.C.; Haanappel, V.A.C.; Fransen, T.; Geerdink, Bert; Gellings, P.J.; Stroosnijder, M.F.

    1991-01-01

    The corrosion protection of oxide scales formed by electrophoretic deposition in a cerium-containing sol on Alloy 800H, a 32Ni-20Cr steel, followed by firing in air at 1123 K was studied in oxidizing and mixed oxidizing/sulphidizing environments at elevated temperatures. In particular, the influence

  19. Performance evaluation of oxygen, air and nitrate for the microaerobic removal of hydrogen sulphide in biogas from sludge digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, I; Lopes, A C; Pérez, S I; Fdz-Polanco, M

    2010-10-01

    The removal performance of hydrogen sulphide in severely polluted biogas produced during the anaerobic digestion of sludge was studied by employing pure oxygen, air and nitrate as oxidant reactives supplied to the biodigester. Research was performed in a 200-L digester with an hydraulic retention time (HRT) of ∼20 days under mesophilic conditions. The oxygen supply (0.25 N m³/m³ feed) to the bioreactor successfully reduced the hydrogen sulphide content from 15,811 mg/N m³ to less than 400 mg/N m³. The introduction of air (1.27 N m³/m³ feed) removed more than 99% of the hydrogen sulphide content, with a final concentration of ∼55 mg/N m³. COD removal, VS reduction and methane yield were not affected under microaerobic conditions; however, methane concentration in the biogas decreased when air was employed as a result of nitrogen dilution. The nitrate addition was not effective for hydrogen sulphide removal in the biogas. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Utilization of X-ray computed micro-tomography to evaluate iron sulphide distribution in roofing slates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vavro, Martin; Souček, Kamil; Daněk, T.; Matýsek, D.; Georgiovská, Lucie; Zajícová, Vendula

    (2018) ISSN 1470-9236 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : roofing slate * iron sulphides * X-ray CT * slate pathologies * dimension stone Subject RIV: JN - Civil Engineering Impact factor: 1.102, year: 2016 http://qjegh.lyellcollection.org/

  1. Enzymatic exchange of sulphur between cysteine and hydrogen sulphide in the yolk sac of an incubated bird's egg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapeville, F.; Fromageot, P.

    1960-01-01

    Previous work has shown that the formation of cysteic acid from sulphate in incubated hen's eggs is due to the following reactions: a) reduction of sulphate to sulphite by the yolk sac endoderm cells; b) synthesis of cysteic acid from the sulphite in the presence of cysteine with liberation of hydrogen sulphide: HS-CH 2 -CH(NH 2 )-COOH + SO 3 H - → H 2 S + - O 3 S-CH 2 -CH(NH 2 )-COOH (1). The enzymatic system responsible for this reaction is localized on the yolk sac endoderm and in the yolk. It may be wondered whether reaction (1) is not made up of two consecutive reactions, one of which is reversible: HS-CH 2 -CH(NH 2 )-COOH ↔ H 2 S + organic chain (2) and organic chain + SO 3 H - → - O 3 S-CH 2 -CH(NH 2 )-COOH (3). It would then be clear why the addition of sulphite displaces the equilibrium towards the production of cysteic acid and hydrogen sulphide. If this is the case, the addition of ordinary cysteine and of marked hydrogen sulphide to the biological medium should make it possible to detect the formation of 35 S cysteine. The present work shows that the desulphurization of the cysteine (reaction 2) by the yolk sac + the yolk is in fact a reversible reaction, and that an enzymatic exchange occurs between the sulphur of the cysteine and that of the hydrogen sulphide. (author) [fr

  2. Computational study of the hydrolysis of carbonyl sulphide: Thermodynamics and kinetic constants estimation using ab initio calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal-Vidal, Á.; Pérez-Rodríguez, M.; Piñeiro, M.M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • OCS hydrolysis equilibrium constants were calculated using QM composite methods. • CBS-QB3 was found to be the most adequate method for OCS thermodynamic calculations. • Calculated hydrolysis yields decrease when temperature increases. • The isotopic effect is less significant than temperature or initial concentration dependences. - Abstract: Carbonyl sulphide is the predominant sulphur compound in the atmosphere, contributing to the formation of aerosol particles affecting global climate. Human activity has significantly increased its total amount since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution due to its presence in petroleum and coal, reason why it is necessary to understand and control its emissions. On the other hand, carbonyl sulphide is an undesired substance for catalysis in important industrial processes. Hydrolysis is the most promising among the different strategies to reduce its presence, giving as products carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide. In the present work, the mechanism of reaction of carbonyl sulphide hydrolysis process in gas phase was studied from 400 K to 1500 K, equilibrium constants were obtained and reaction yields were estimated, by means of composite quantum-computational methods. Good agreement with literature experimental results confirms the suitability of the chosen methods, specially CBS-QB3, in supporting the reaction mechanism, giving accurate equilibrium constant values, and obtaining realistic yields. The effect of isotopic substitution in OCS was also studied, from 300 K to 1500 K, being much less significant than temperature dependence.

  3. Stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons by lead-sulphide quantum dots at near infra-red wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radko, Ilya P.; Nielsen, Michael Grøndahl; Albrektsen, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Amplification of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in planar metal-dielectric structure through stimulated emission is investigated using leakage-radiation microscopy configuration. The gain medium is a thin polymethylmethacrylate layer doped with lead-sulphide nanocrystals emitting at near-infrared...

  4. Relation between dietary cadmium intake and biomarkers of cadmium exposure in premenopausal women accounting for body iron stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julin Bettina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cadmium is a widespread environmental pollutant with adverse effects on kidneys and bone, but with insufficiently elucidated public health consequences such as risk of end-stage renal diseases, fractures and cancer. Urinary cadmium is considered a valid biomarker of lifetime kidney accumulation from overall cadmium exposure and thus used in the assessment of cadmium-induced health effects. We aimed to assess the relationship between dietary cadmium intake assessed by analyses of duplicate food portions and cadmium concentrations in urine and blood, taking the toxicokinetics of cadmium into consideration. Methods In a sample of 57 non-smoking Swedish women aged 20-50 years, we assessed Pearson's correlation coefficients between: 1 Dietary intake of cadmium assessed by analyses of cadmium in duplicate food portions collected during four consecutive days and cadmium concentrations in urine, 2 Partial correlations between the duplicate food portions and urinary and blood cadmium concentrations, respectively, and 3 Model-predicted urinary cadmium concentration predicted from the dietary intake using a one-compartment toxicokinetic model (with individual data on age, weight and gastrointestinal cadmium absorption and urinary cadmium concentration. Results The mean concentration of cadmium in urine was 0.18 (+/- s.d.0.12 μg/g creatinine and the model-predicted urinary cadmium concentration was 0.19 (+/- s.d.0.15 μg/g creatinine. The partial Pearson correlations between analyzed dietary cadmium intake and urinary cadmium or blood concentrations were r = 0.43 and 0.42, respectively. The correlation between diet and urinary cadmium increased to r = 0.54 when using a one-compartment model with individual gastrointestinal cadmium absorption coefficients based on the women's iron status. Conclusions Our results indicate that measured dietary cadmium intake can reasonably well predict biomarkers of both long-term kidney accumulation

  5. Influence of protein deficiency on cadmium toxicity in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewari, P C; Jain, V K; Ashquin, M; Tandon, S K

    1986-07-01

    The effects of a low protein diet on the body uptake and retention of cadmium, levels of essential trace elements, and cadmium-induced biochemical alterations in liver and kidneys of the rat were investigated. Low dietary protein disturbs cadmium induced alterations in carbohydrate metabolism, essential trace elements metabolism and offsets the hepatic and renal process of cadmium detoxification. Protein malnutrition enhances the susceptibility to cadmium intoxication.

  6. Cadmium Exposure is Associated with the Prevalence of Dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhou; Lu, Yong-Hui; Pi, Hui-Feng; Gao, Peng; Li, Min; Zhang, Lei; Pei, Li-Ping; Mei, Xiang; Liu, Lin; Zhao, Qi; Qin, Qi-Zhong; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Yue-Ming; Zhang, Zhao-Hui; Yu, Zheng-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium is a widespread environmental and occupational pollutant that accumulates in human body with a biological half-life exceeding 10 years. Cadmium exposure has been demonstrated to increase rates of cardiovascular diseases. Whether occupational cadmium exposure is associated with the increase in the prevalence of dyslipidemia and hence contributes to the risk of cardiovascular diseases is still equivocal. To test the hypothesis that exposure to cadmium is related to the prevalence of dyslipidemia, we examined the associations between blood cadmium concentration and the prevalence of dyslipidemia in workers occupationally exposed to cadmium in China. A cross-sectional survey on demographic data, blood cadmium level and lipid profile in cadmium exposed workers from seven cadmium smelting factories in central and southwestern China was conducted. We measured blood cadmium concentration and lipid components of 1489 cadmium exposed workers. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was compared across blood cadmium quartiles. Associations between the blood cadmium concentrations and the prevalence of dyslipidemia were assessed using confounder adjusted linear and logistic regressions. The blood cadmium concentration was 3.61±0.84µg/L ( mean ±SD). The prevalence of dyslipidemia in this occupational population was 66.3%. Mean blood cadmium concentration of workers with dyslipedemia was significantly higher than that of workers without dyslipidemia (p dyslipidemia increased dose-dependently with elevations in blood cadmium concentrations (p for trend dyslipidemia across the increasing blood cadmium quartiles were 1.21(1.16-1.55), 1.56(1.11-1.87), 1.79(1.26-2.25) respectively (referencing to 1.00; p for trend dyslipidemia remained unchanged (all p for trend dyslipidemia. Cadmium exposure could alter lipid metabolism in humans. It is imperative to control cadmium exposure of occupational population in cadmium related industries and reduce adverse health effects. © 2016 The

  7. The electronic structure of rare-earth luminescent centre in alkaline-earth sulphides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Qingqi; Pan Wei; Huang Maichun; He Xiaoguang

    1988-09-01

    The cluster method is used to investigate the electronic structure of rare-earth Eu 2+ and Ce 3+ doped SrS and CaS alkaline-earth sulphides in the local density theory regime. The ground state is obtained self-consistently by the DV-X α method, while the transition state theory is used to calculate the excited states. The energy difference between ground state and excited state is 2.95 eV (420 nm) for CaS:Eu is in good agreement with the experimental data of 430 nm for the absorption peak in SrS:Cu. The composition of ground state and excited state is also calculated which can give information about the EL excitation mechanism. (author). 7 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  8. Bacterial consortium for copper extraction from sulphide ore consisting mainly of chalcopyrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Romo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The mining industry is looking forward for bacterial consortia for economic extraction of copper from low-grade ores. The main objective was to determine an optimal bacterial consortium from several bacterial strains to obtain copper from the leach of chalcopyrite. The major native bacterial species involved in the bioleaching of sulphide ore (Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, Leptospirillum ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferriphilum were isolated and the assays were performed with individual bacteria and in combination with At. thiooxidans. In conclusion, it was found that the consortium integrated by At. ferrooxidans and At. thiooxidans removed 70% of copper in 35 days from the selected ore, showing significant differences with the other consortia, which removed only 35% of copper in 35 days. To validate the assays was done an escalation in columns, where the bacterial consortium achieved a higher percentage of copper extraction regarding to control.

  9. Probabilistic consequence assessment of hydrogen sulphide releases from a heavy water plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baynes, C.J.

    1986-05-01

    This report provides a summary of work carried out on behalf of the Atomic Energy Control Board, concerned with the consequences of accidental releases to the atmosphere of hydrogen sulphide (H 2 S) at a heavy water plant. In this study, assessments of consequences are made in terms of the probabilities of a range of possible outcomes, i.e., numbers of fatalities, given a certain release scenario. The report describes the major features of a computer model which was developed to calculate the consequences and their associated probabilities, and the major input data used in applying the model to a consequence assessment of the Bruce heavy water plant (HWP) in Ontario. The results of the sensitivity analyses of the model are summarized. Finally, the results of the consequence assessments of 43 accidental release scenarios at the Bruce HWP are summarized, together with a number of conclusions which were drawn from these results regarding the predicted consequences and the factors which influence them

  10. Synthesis and characterisation of co-evaporated tin sulphide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koteeswara Reddy, N.; Ramesh, K.; Ganesan, R.; Ramakrishna Reddy, K. T.; Gunasekhar, K. R.; Gopal, E. S. R.

    2006-04-01

    Tin sulphide films were grown at different substrate temperatures by a thermal co-evaporation technique. The crystallinity of the films was evaluated from X-ray diffraction studies. Single-phase SnS films showed a strong (040) orientation with an orthorhombic crystal structure and a grain size of 0.12 μm. The films showed an electrical resistivity of 6.1 Ω cm with an activation energy of 0.26 eV. These films exhibited an optical band gap of 1.37 eV and had a high optical absorption coefficient (>104 cm-1) above the band-gap energy. The results obtained were analysed to evaluate the potentiality of the co-evaporated SnS films as an absorber layer in solar photovoltaic devices.

  11. Photofragmentation of water and hydrogen sulphide in the first continuum: A critical survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, K.A.

    1987-06-01

    Photofragmentation of H 2 O and H 2 S in the first absorption continuum has been investigated experimentally and theoretically by several authors. The fragmentation dynamics of both molecules are reviewed in this article. While the excited 1 B 1 state in H 2 O is responsible for the first continuum, ambiguity exists in the true nature of the upper state of the first continuum in H 2 S. From the evidence available so far, it is proposed that both in water and hydrogen sulphide, a single state of B 1 symmetry, which is of Rydberg type for short internuclear distances and of valence type for large internuclear distances, is the possible upper state which dissociates to produce the absorption continuum. (author). Refs

  12. Preparation and characterization of zinc sulphide nanocomposites based on acrylonitrile butadiene rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesan, M. T.; Nihmath, A.; Francis, Joseph

    2013-06-01

    Rubber composite based on acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) reinforced with nano zinc sulphide (ZnS) have been prepared via vulcanization process and characterized by several techniques. Processing characteristics such as scorch time, optimum cure time decreases with increase in concentration of nano filler in acrylonitrile butadiene rubber. Mechanical properties such as tensile and tear strength increases with increase in concentration of nano filler up to 7 phr of loading thereafter the value decreases, whereas hardness, and flame resistance increases with the dosage of fillers. These enhanced properties are due to the homogenous dispersion of nano fillers in NBR matrix, which is evidenced from the structure that evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  13. Chemical bath deposition of indium sulphide thin films: preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokhande, C.D.; Ennaoui, A.; Patil, P.S.; Giersig, M.; Diesner, K.; Muller, M.; Tributsch, H. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany). Bereich Physikalische Chemie

    1999-02-26

    Indium sulphide (In{sub 2}S{sub 3}) thin films have been successfully deposited on different substrates under varying deposition conditions using chemical bath deposition technique. The deposition mechanism of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films from thioacetamide deposition bath has been proposed. Films have been characterized with respect to their crystalline structure, composition, optical and electrical properties by means of X-ray diffraction, TEM, EDAX, optical absorption, TRMC (time resolved microwave conductivity) and RBS. Films on glass substrates were amorphous and on FTO (flourine doped tin oxide coated) glass substrates were polycrystalline (element of phase). The optical band gap of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin film was estimated to be 2.75 eV. The as-deposited films were photoactive as evidenced by TRMC studies. The presence of oxygen in the film was detected by RBS analysis. (orig.) 27 refs.

  14. Effect of microstructure on the sulphide stress cracking susceptibility of a high strength pipeline steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, E. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas-UAEM, Av. Universidad 1001, 62209-Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico); Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J.G. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas-UAEM, Av. Universidad 1001, 62209-Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico)], E-mail: ggonzalez@uaem.mx; Torres-Islas, A.; Serna, S. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas-UAEM, Av. Universidad 1001, 62209-Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico); Campillo, B. [Intituto de Ciencias Fisicas-Facultad de Quimicas-Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico); Dominguez-Patino, G. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas-UAEM, Av. Universidad 1001, 62209-Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico); Juarez-Islas, J.A. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales-Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior S/N, Cd. Universitaria, C.P. 04510, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-12-15

    The sulphide stress cracking (SSC) susceptibility of a newly developed high strength microalloyed steel with three different microstructures has been evaluated using the slow strain rate testing (SSRT) technique. Studies were complemented with potentiodynamic polarization curves and hydrogen permeation measurements. Material included a C-Mn steel having Ni, Cu, and Mo as main microalloying elements with three microstructures: martensitic, ferritic and ferritic + bainitic. Testing temperatures included 25, 50, 70 and 90 deg. C. Detailed SEM observations of the microstructure and fracture surfaces were done to identify possible degradation mechanisms. The results showed that in all cases, the corrosion rate, number of hydrogen atoms at the surface and the percentage reduction in area increased with temperature. The steel with a martensitic microstructure had the highest SSC susceptibility at all temperatures, whereas the ferritic steels were susceptible only at 25 deg. C, and the most likely mechanism is hydrogen embrittlement assisted by anodic dissolution.

  15. Heat Exchange and Fouling Analysis on a Set of Hydrogen Sulphide Gas Coolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Adrian Sánchez-Escalona

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The sulphide acid coolers are tube and shell jacketed heat exchangers designed to cool down the produced gas from 416,15 K to 310,15 K in addition to separate the sulphur carried over by the outlet gas from the reactor tower. The investigation was carried out by applying the passive experimentation process in an online cooler set in order to determine the heat transfer rates and fouling based on heat resistance. It was corroborated that the operation of this equipment outside design parameters increases outlet gas temperature and liquid sulphur carryovers. Efficiency loss is caused by fouling elements in the fluid, which results in changes in the overall heat transfer rate. The linear tendency of the fouling heat resistance based on time for three gas flowrates.

  16. Studies on electrodeposited silver sulphide thin films by double exposure holographic interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhune, V.B.; Shinde, N.S.; Fulari, V.J.

    2008-01-01

    Silver sulphide (Ag 2 S) thin films have been deposited on to stainless steel and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates by the electrodeposition process, in potentiostatic mode using silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ), sodium thiosulphate (Na 2 S 2 O 3 ) as a precursor sources and Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic Acid (EDTA) was used as a complexing agent. The deposition potential of the compound was investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The structural and optical properties of the deposited films have been studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical absorption techniques, respectively. XRD studies reveal that the films are polycrystalline with monoclinic crystal structure. Optical absorption study shows the presence of direct transition with bandgap energy 1.1 eV. The determination of thickness and stress of the Ag 2 S thin films was carried out by Double Exposure Holographic Interferometry (DEHI) technique.

  17. Metal-organic framework based highly selective fluorescence turn-on probe for hydrogen sulphide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarkar, Sanjog S.; Saha, Tanmoy; Desai, Aamod V.; Talukdar, Pinaki; Ghosh, Sujit K.

    2014-11-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is known to play a vital role in human physiology and pathology which stimulated interest in understanding complex behaviour of H2S. Discerning the pathways of H2S production and its mode of action is still a challenge owing to its volatile and reactive nature. Herein we report azide functionalized metal-organic framework (MOF) as a selective turn-on fluorescent probe for H2S detection. The MOF shows highly selective and fast response towards H2S even in presence of other relevant biomolecules. Low cytotoxicity and H2S detection in live cells, demonstrate the potential of MOF towards monitoring H2S chemistry in biological system. To the best of our knowledge this is the first example of MOF that exhibit fast and highly selective fluorescence turn-on response towards H2S under physiological conditions.

  18. Sulphide phases in Y zeolite for hydro-treatment reactions; Phase sulfures dans une zeolithe Y pour l'hydrotraitement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyrit, P

    1999-06-28

    Several types of single (Mo, Co, Pd, Pt) or binary (MoCo, PdCo, PtCo) sulphides phases supported on a HY zeolite were studied. The catalysts were first prepared and characterised in the oxide form. Their reactivity was then evaluated in toluene hydrogenation and 4.6-dimethyl-dibenzo-thiophene hydro-desulfurization reactions. Characterisation of sulphide phases supported on HY zeolite was carried out by elemental analysis, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM), Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) and Temperature Programmed Reduction coupled with HS analysis. The results show that. compared with alumina supported catalysts, zeolite used as a support enables extremely active catalysts to be obtained. It appears in particular that molybdenum sulphide phases inside the zeolite have a very high intrinsic activity at low molybdenum content. This activity is attributed to highly dispersed molybdenum sulphide phases differing from MoS{sub 2} slabs and probably present as clusters. The influence of cobalt depends of its concentration. Thus at low loadings cobalt has a strong negative effect. It has been shown, in the molybdenum case, that cobalt interaction leads to an increase in the sulphur content of the molybdenum phases. At higher cobalt loading, the formation of a mixed phase is possible but the degree of promotion remains limited. This work emphasises the advantages of using zeolite supported sulphide phases, and especially Mo and Pd phases, in the hydro-treatment reactions. It seems however that single phases present a greater interest than binary phases. (author)

  19. Radiochemical separation of cadmium-109

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egamediev, S.; Mukhtarov, A.; Nurbaeva, D.; Rakhmanov, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Cadmium-109 has a half-life of 461.9 days and decays by electron capture to 109 Ag with the emission of 88 keV γ-ray (3.79%) along with the characteristic X-ray from the K level of Ag, with energy of 22.5 keV. This radionuclide has found widespread use as a photon source in x-ray fluorescence analysis devices employed in industry for numerous applications such as the direct determination of gold in ores, the analysis of metals and identification of steels. Other applications range from its use as an electron source for measurement of densities of air-pollution samples, to tracer studies in mushrooms and mice and rats. In the nuclear medicine field there is growing interest in employing 109 Cd in a 109 Cd/ 109mA g generator, as an alternative to other biomedical generators of ultra short-lived gamma emitters. There are several methods for the production of 109 Cd in literature: 1. Bombardment of silver cyclotron target via 109 Ag(d,2n) 109 Cd reaction with 16 MeV deuterons. 2. Bombardment of natural silver target via 109 Ag(p,n) 109 Cd reaction with 14 MeV protons. 3. Proton bombardment of natural indium target with 96 MeV protons. 4. Irradiation of enriched 107 Ag target in high-flux nuclear reactor at neutron flux 2x10 15 n·cm -2 ·s -1 via 107 Ag(n,γ) 108 Ag → 108 Cd (n,γ) 109 Cd reaction. 5. Irradiation of enriched 108 Cd target in nuclear reactor at neutron flux 1x10 14 n·cm -2 ·s -1 via 108 Cd (n,γ) 109 Cd reaction. The production of 109 Cd with proton beam via 109 Ag(p,n) 109 Cd reaction is ideal for the cyclotron U-150, since it is not required the change of the regime for the machine functioning. Because of its relatively long half-life the time required for separation is also not an important factor, but its use as an X-ray source requires a very high radiochemical purity. In the present work we studied two methods for separation of 109 Cd from model solution of silver targets. First method is based on precipitation of silver as

  20. Cadmium action in synapses in the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, Akira; Takeda, Atsushi; Nishibaba, Daisuke; Tekefuta, Sachiyo; Oku, Naoto [Department of Radiobiochemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2001-05-01

    Chronic exposure to cadmium causes central nervous system disorders, e.g., olfactory dysfunction. To clarify cadmium toxicity in synaptic neurotransmission in the brain, the movement and action of cadmium in the synapses was examined using in vivo microdialysis. One and 24 h after injection of {sup 109}CdCl{sub 2} into the amygdala of rats, {sup 109}Cd release into the extracellular space was facilitated by stimulation with high K{sup +}, suggesting that cadmium taken up in amygdalar neurons is released into the synaptic clefts in a calcium- and impulse-dependent manner. To examine the action of cadmium in the synapses, the amygdala was perfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid containing 10-30 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2}. The release of excitatory neurotransmitters, i.e., glutamate and aspartate, into the extracellular space was decreased during perfusion with cadmium, while the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters, i.e., glycine and {gamma}-amino butyric acid (GABA), into the extracellular space was increased during the period. These results suggest that cadmium released from the amygdalar neuron terminals affects the degree and balance of excitation-inhibition in synaptic neurotransmission. (author)

  1. Cadmium action in synapses in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Akira; Takeda, Atsushi; Nishibaba, Daisuke; Tekefuta, Sachiyo; Oku, Naoto

    2001-01-01

    Chronic exposure to cadmium causes central nervous system disorders, e.g., olfactory dysfunction. To clarify cadmium toxicity in synaptic neurotransmission in the brain, the movement and action of cadmium in the synapses was examined using in vivo microdialysis. One and 24 h after injection of 109 CdCl 2 into the amygdala of rats, 109 Cd release into the extracellular space was facilitated by stimulation with high K + , suggesting that cadmium taken up in amygdalar neurons is released into the synaptic clefts in a calcium- and impulse-dependent manner. To examine the action of cadmium in the synapses, the amygdala was perfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid containing 10-30 μM CdCl 2 . The release of excitatory neurotransmitters, i.e., glutamate and aspartate, into the extracellular space was decreased during perfusion with cadmium, while the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters, i.e., glycine and γ-amino butyric acid (GABA), into the extracellular space was increased during the period. These results suggest that cadmium released from the amygdalar neuron terminals affects the degree and balance of excitation-inhibition in synaptic neurotransmission. (author)

  2. Cadmium - a case of mistaken identity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, D

    1984-05-01

    New evidence is presented which describes the impact of cadmium in the environment. Cadmium is a persistent material, although its compounds may undergo a range of chemical changes in the environment. In soluble form cadmium and its compounds are toxic at relatively low concentrations to aquatic animals although their bioconcentrations in such animals is in general low, and there is no evidence of biomagnification. In insoluble form cadmium and its compounds are relatively non-toxic to aquatic animals and are unlikely to be bioconcentrated. As such, cadmium is similar to most other heavy metals. Recent studies indicate that cadmium is not implicated in Itai-Itai disease and does not appear to cause hypertension or cancer. In addition, the accepted critical level in the kidney may have been underestimated. Thus, the hazard to man appears to be considerably less than the original estimates. In view of these data, there seems little justification in treating cadmium in any way differently from the other metals and hence no reason for retaining it on the Black List of the international conventions. 19 references.

  3. Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cadmium stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Luciana Mara Costa; Ribeiro, Frederico Haddad; Neves, Maria Jose; Porto, Barbara Abranches Araujo; Amaral, Angela M.; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C.; Rosa, Carlos Augusto

    2009-01-01

    The intensification of industrial activity has been greatly contributing with the increase of heavy metals in the environment. Among these heavy metals, cadmium becomes a serious pervasive environmental pollutant. The cadmium is a heavy metal with no biological function, very toxic and carcinogenic at low concentrations. The toxicity of cadmium and several other metals can be mainly attributed to the multiplicity of coordination complexes and clusters that they can form. Some aspects of the cellular response to cadmium were extensively investigated in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The primary site of interaction between many toxic metals and microbial cells is the plasma membrane. Plasma-membrane permeabilisation has been reported in a variety of microorganisms following cadmium exposure, and is considered one mechanism of cadmium toxicity in the yeast. In this work, using the yeast strain S. cerevisiae W303-WT, we have investigated the relationships between Cd uptake and release of cellular metal ions (K + and Na + ) using neutron activation technique. The neutron activation was an easy, rapid and suitable technique for doing these metal determinations on yeast cells; was observed the change in morphology of the strains during the process of Cd accumulation, these alterations were observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) during incorporation of cadmium. (author)

  4. Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cadmium stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Luciana Mara Costa; Ribeiro, Frederico Haddad; Neves, Maria Jose [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia], e-mail: luamatu@uol.com.br; Porto, Barbara Abranches Araujo; Amaral, Angela M.; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Ativacao Neutronica], e-mail: menezes@cdtn.br; Rosa, Carlos Augusto [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia], e-mail: carlrosa@icb.ufmg

    2009-07-01

    The intensification of industrial activity has been greatly contributing with the increase of heavy metals in the environment. Among these heavy metals, cadmium becomes a serious pervasive environmental pollutant. The cadmium is a heavy metal with no biological function, very toxic and carcinogenic at low concentrations. The toxicity of cadmium and several other metals can be mainly attributed to the multiplicity of coordination complexes and clusters that they can form. Some aspects of the cellular response to cadmium were extensively investigated in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The primary site of interaction between many toxic metals and microbial cells is the plasma membrane. Plasma-membrane permeabilisation has been reported in a variety of microorganisms following cadmium exposure, and is considered one mechanism of cadmium toxicity in the yeast. In this work, using the yeast strain S. cerevisiae W303-WT, we have investigated the relationships between Cd uptake and release of cellular metal ions (K{sup +} and Na{sup +}) using neutron activation technique. The neutron activation was an easy, rapid and suitable technique for doing these metal determinations on yeast cells; was observed the change in morphology of the strains during the process of Cd accumulation, these alterations were observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) during incorporation of cadmium. (author)

  5. Epidemiological approach to cadmium pollution in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigematsu, I.

    1984-04-01

    The study of health problems due to cadmium pollution in Japan originated from an endemic episode of Itai-itai disease in a rural area in north-central Japan after World War II. The disease was defined as osteomalacia with tubular changes in the kidney and considered to be associated with excess intake of cadmium. This episode motivated the Japanese Government to conduct health examinations on the general population in cadmium-polluted and non-polluted areas throughout the country since 1969. Although Itai-itai disease-like bone changes were rarely found, these studies revealed a higher prevalence of renal tubular dysfunction among elderly people in the cadmium-polluted areas. No significant difference was noted in cancer mortality, but mortality from cardiovascular diseases and all causes tended to be lower in cadmium-polluted areas. Clinical and pathological studies in man as well as experiments on primates have recently been made to elucidate the pathogenesis of Itai-itai disease and the health effects of cadmium. The lack of knowledge on the ecological and biological complex of cadmium resulted in the impediment of studies on this problem. The lesson from this experience is that basic research is essential for promoting the study of pollutants such as heavy metals, though pollution problems usually require urgent solutions.

  6. Fabrication, thermal and electrical properties of polyphenylene sulphide/copper composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, R.K.; Kambale, K.R.; Nene, S.S.; Selukar, B.S.; Arbuj, S.; Mulik, U.P.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Polyphenylene sulphide/copper composites show a low percolation threshold, i.e., about 6 vol% Cu. → Both pre- and post- glass transition coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of composites decreased significantly. → The microhardness was increased by more than 50% compared to pure PPS matrix. → The electrical conductivity was increased by about eight orders of magnitude for 18 vol% Cu composite. → Dielectric constant and dissipation factor of composites measured at MHz was increased to about 6-fold and 70-fold compared to PPS matrix. - Abstract: The thermal and electrical properties of high performance poly(phenylene sulphide) (PPS) composites reinforced up to 31 vol% Cu particles were investigated to be used as materials for electronic applications. The thermal stability and char yield of the composites increased significantly. Both pre- and post- glass transition coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of composites decreased significantly. The microhardness was increased by more than 50% compared to pure PPS matrix. Microhardness and CTE of composites correlated well with the rule of mixtures. A percolation threshold about 6 vol% Cu was obtained. The electrical conductivity was increased by about eight orders of magnitude for 18 vol% composite. Dielectric constant and dissipation factor of composites at 1 MHz was increased by about 6-fold and 70-fold compared to matrix, respectively. They decreased gradually with increasing frequency up to 1 MHz and thereafter, there was insignificant change. The scanning electron microscope showed almost uniform distribution of Cu particles in the matrix. Owing to better dimensional stability and good electrical properties, these composites are very promising for electronic applications.

  7. Hydrogen sulphide in the RVLM and PVN has no effect on cardiovascular regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloise eStreeter

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S is now recognised as an important signalling molecule and has been shown to have vasodilator and cardio-protectant effects. More recently it has been suggested that H2S may also act within the brain to reduce blood pressure. In the present study we have demonstrated the presence of the H2S producing enzyme, cystathionine  synthase (CBS in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN, brain regions with key cardiovascular regulatory functions. The cardiovascular role of H2S was investigated by determining the blood pressure (BP, heart rate (HR and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity (LSNA responses elicited by a H2S donor (NaHS, sodium hydrogen sulphide or inhibitors of CBS, microinjected into the RVLM and PVN. In anaesthetised WKY rats bilateral microinjections of NaHS (0.2 – 2000 pmol/side into the RVLM did not significantly affect BP, HR or LSNA, compared to vehicle. Similarly, when the CBS inhibitors, amino-oxyacetate (AOA (0.1 – 1.0 nmol/side or hydroxylamine (HA (0.2 – 2.0 nmol/side, were administered into the RVLM, there were no significant effects on the cardiovascular variables compared to vehicle. Microinjections into the PVN of NaHS, HA and AOA had no consistent significant effects on BP, HR or LSNA compared to vehicle. We also investigated the cardiovascular responses to NaHS microinjected into the RVLM and PVN in SHR rats. Again, there were no significant effects on BP, HR and LSNA. Together, these results suggest that H2S in the RVLM and PVN does not have a major role in cardiovascular regulation.

  8. Optimization of Cu-Zn Massive Sulphide Flotation by Selective Reagents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, F.; Koleini, S. M. J.; Abdollahy, M.

    2014-10-01

    Selective floatation of base metal sulphide minerals can be achieved by using selective reagents. Sequential floatation of chalcopyrite-sphalerite from Taknar (Iran) massive sulphide ore with 3.5 % Zn and 1.26 % Cu was studied. D-optimal design of response surface methodology was used. Four mixed collector types (Aer238 + SIPX, Aero3477 + SIPX, TC1000 + SIPX and X231 + SIPX), two depressant systems (CuCN-ZnSO4 and dextrin-ZnSO4), pH and ZnSO4 dosage were considered as operational factors in the first stage of flotation. Different conditions of pH, CuSO4 dosage and SIPX dosage were studied for sphalerite flotation from first stage tailings. Aero238 + SIPX induced better selectivity for chalcopyrite against pyrite and sphalerite. Dextrin-ZnSO4 was as effective as CuCN-ZnSO4 in sphalerite-pyrite depression. Under optimum conditions, Cu recovery, Zn recovery and pyrite content in Cu concentrate were 88.99, 33.49 and 1.34 % by using Aero238 + SIPX as mixed collector, CuCN-ZnSO4 as depressant system, at ZnSO4 dosage of 200 g/t and pH 10.54. When CuCN was used at the first stage, CuSO4 consumption increased and Zn recovery decreased during the second stage. Maximum Zn recovery was 72.19 % by using 343.66 g/t of CuSO4, 22.22 g/t of SIPX and pH 9.99 at the second stage.

  9. AN APPLICATION OF FLOW INJECTION ANALYSIS WITH GAS DIFFUSION AND SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETECTION FOR THE MONITORING OF DISSOLVED SULPHIDE CONCENTRATION IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malwina Cykowska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of the concentration of sulphide is very important from the environment point of view because of high toxicity of hydrogen sulphide. What is more hydrogen sulphide is an important pollution indicator. In many cases the determination of sulphide is very difficult due to complicated matrix of some environmental samples, which causes that most analytical methods cannot be used. Flow injection analysis allows to avoid matrix problem what makes it suitable for a wide range of applications in analytical laboratories. In this paper determination of dissolved sulphide in environmental samples by gas-diffusion flow injection analysis with spectrophotometric detection was presented. Used gas-diffusion separation ensures the elimination of interferences caused by sample matrix and gives the ability of determination of sulphides in coloured and turbid samples. Studies to optimize the measurement conditions and to determine the value of the validation parameters (e.g. limit of detection, limit of quantification, precision, accuracy were carried out. Obtained results confirm the usefulness of the method for monitoring the concentration of dissolved sulphides in water and waste water. Full automation and work in a closed system greatly reduces time of analysis, minimizes consumption of sample and reagents and increases safety of analyst’s work.

  10. Structural, Optical, and Morphological Properties of the Cadmium Oxide Thin Film Taif S. Almaadhede

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taif S. Almaadhede

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium oxide nanoparticles CdO NPS has been prepared by laser ablation in ethanol at 600 pulses and 600 mJ as laser energy. The structural, optical, and morphological properties of the cadmium oxide CdO thin film deposited on a glass substrate have been studied. X-ray diffrac-tometer (XRD 6000, Shimadzu, X-ray, diffractometer with Cukα radiation at a wavelength of ( = 0.154056 nm was utilized to investigate the structural properties of CdO NPs. The optical absorption of colloidal CdO NPs was measured using a spectrophotometer (Cary, 100 cans plus, UV-Vis-NIR, Split Beam Optics, Dual detectors in the range of (200–900 nm. The morpholo-gy of the CdO NPs was investigated by using AFM (AA 3000 Scanning Probe Microscope. The thickness of the films was measured using ellipsometer (Angstrom sun Technologies Ins.

  11. Cadmium decontamination using in-house resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Sangita; Thalor, K.L; Prabhakar, S.; Srivastava, V.K.; Goswami, J.L.; Tewari, P.K.; Dhanpal, Pranav; Goswami, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    A selective and strong in-house chelator has been studied w.r.t. basic parameters like concentration, time, and elution. De-contamination of cadmium, mercury, chromium, lead etc by using high uptake values fro cadmium ions proves its selectivity with high elution ratio ensures further decontamination of run-off water during natural calamities. In three step cascade use the concentration of original cadmium solution (500 ppm) decocted to safe disposable attribute. This polymeric ligand exchanger displayed outlet effluent concentration to 1 ppm and less than 200 ppb when treated for inlet feed concentration of 50 ppm and 500 ppm respectively. (author)

  12. Lead and cadmium content of spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bielig, H J; Dreyer, H; Askar, A

    1977-02-02

    The lead and cadmium content of various spices was determined by flameless atomic absorption (AAS). With the exception of one sample, the lead content was lower than 5 ppm, averaging a value of 2,2 ppm Pb. Thus, the maximum permissible level of 5 ppm Pb as recommended by different DIN standards, is not exceeded. The cadmium content was - except for one sample - lower than 0,5 ppm averaging a value of 0,23 ppm Cd. It can be assumed, that by spicing our dishes, the ingestion of lead and cadmium stays at a low level.

  13. Cadmium Exposure is Associated with the Prevalence of Dyslipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Zhou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cadmium is a widespread environmental and occupational pollutant that accumulates in human body with a biological half-life exceeding 10 years. Cadmium exposure has been demonstrated to increase rates of cardiovascular diseases. Whether occupational cadmium exposure is associated with the increase in the prevalence of dyslipidemia and hence contributes to the risk of cardiovascular diseases is still equivocal. To test the hypothesis that exposure to cadmium is related to the prevalence of dyslipidemia, we examined the associations between blood cadmium concentration and the prevalence of dyslipidemia in workers occupationally exposed to cadmium in China. Methods: A cross-sectional survey on demographic data, blood cadmium level and lipid profile in cadmium exposed workers from seven cadmium smelting factories in central and southwestern China was conducted. We measured blood cadmium concentration and lipid components of 1489 cadmium exposed workers. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was compared across blood cadmium quartiles. Associations between the blood cadmium concentrations and the prevalence of dyslipidemia were assessed using confounder adjusted linear and logistic regressions. Results: The blood cadmium concentration was 3.61±0.84µg/L ( mean ±SD. The prevalence of dyslipidemia in this occupational population was 66.3%. Mean blood cadmium concentration of workers with dyslipedemia was significantly higher than that of workers without dyslipidemia (p Conclusion: Elevated blood cadmium concentration is associated with prevalence of dyslipidemia. Cadmium exposure could alter lipid metabolism in humans. It is imperative to control cadmium exposure of occupational population in cadmium related industries and reduce adverse health effects.

  14. Gold nanoparticles on MoS2 layered crystal flakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Wei; Pankratov, Vladimir; Huttula, Marko; Shi, Xinying; Saukko, Sami; Huang, Zhongjia; Zhang, Meng

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic layered crystal MoS 2 is considered as one of the most promising and efficient semiconductor materials for future transistors, photoelectronics, and electrocatalysis. To boost MoS 2 -based material applications, one direction is to grow physically and chemically reactive nanoparticles onto MoS 2 . Here we report on a simple route to synthesis crystalized MoS 2 –Au complexes. The gold nanoparticles were grown on MoS 2 flakes through a wet method in the oxygen free environment at room temperature. Nanoparticles with diameters varying from 9 nm to 429 nm were controlled by the molar ratios of MoS 2 and HAuCl 4 precursors. MoS 2 host flakes keep intrinsic honeycomb layered structures and the Au nanoparticles cubic-center crystal microstructures. From product chemical states analysis, the synthesis was found driven by redox reactions between the sulphide and the chloroauric acid. Photoluminescence measurement showed that introducing Au nanoparticles onto MoS 2 stacks substantially prompted excitonic transitions of stacks, as an analogy for doping Si wafers with dopants. Such composites may have potential applications in wide ranges similar as the doped Si. - Highlights: • The Au nanoparticles were decorated on MoS 2 in oxygen free ambiences via a wet method. • The Au nanoparticles are size-controllable and crystalized. • Chemical reaction scheme was clarified. • The MoS 2 –Au complexes have strong photoluminescent properties

  15. Rising environmental cadmium levels in developing countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Cadmium (Cd) is a non essential heavy metal belonging to group ... Cd from a contaminated environment leads to various pathological ..... interact with genes that are involved in human ..... Tolonen, M. (1990) Vitamins and minerals in Health.

  16. Large silver-cadmium technology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlip, S.; Lerner, S.

    1971-01-01

    The effects of varying cell design on operation factors on the electrochemical performance of sealed, silver-cadmium cells were determined. A factorial experiment was conducted for all test cells constructed with organic separators. Three operating factors were evaluated: temperature, depth of discharge, and charge rate. The six construction factors considered were separator, absorber, electrolyte quantity, cadmium electrode type, cadmium-to-silver ratio, and auxiliary electrode. Test cells of 4 ampere-hour capacity were fabricated and cycled. The best performing cells, on a 94 minute orbit, at 40% depth of discharge, were those containing silver-treated fibrous sausage casings as the separator, and Teflon-ated, pressed cadmium electrodes. Cycling data of cells with inorganic separators (Astroset) are given. Best performance was shown by cells with nonwoven nylon absorbers. Rigid inorganic separators provided the best barrier to silver migration.

  17. Studies on Characterization, Optical Absorption, and Photoluminescence of Yttrium Doped ZnS Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranganaik Viswanath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pure ZnS and ZnS:Y nanoparticles were synthesized by a chemical coprecipitation route using EDTA-ethylenediamine as a stabilizing agent. X-ray diffraction (XRD, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR, thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC, and UV-visible and photoluminescence (PL spectroscopy were employed to characterize the as-synthesized ZnS and ZnS:Y nanoparticles, respectively. XRD and TEM studies show the formation of cubic ZnS:Y particles with an average size of ~4.5 nm. The doping did not alter the phase of the zinc sulphide, as a result the sample showed cubic zincblende structure. The UV-visible spectra of ZnS and ZnS:Y nanoparticles showed a band gap energy value, 3.85 eV and 3.73 eV, which corresponds to a semiconductor material. A luminescence characteristics such as strong and stable visible-light emissions in the orange region alone with the blue emission peaks were observed for doped ZnS nanoparticles at room temperature. The PL intensity of orange emission peak was found to be increased with an increase in yttrium ions concentration by suppressing blue emission peaks. These results strongly propose that yttrium doped zinc sulphide nanoparticles form a new class of luminescent material.

  18. Cadmium poisoning. Knowledge of the risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltier, A.; Demange, M.; Carton, M.B.

    1979-01-01

    This data sheet provides an up-to-date summary of information on cadmium poisoning. The following points are examined: - the problem of increasing pollution of soil, water and the food chain; - physical and chemical properties, manufacture, industrial applications; - the toxic action of cadmium and its derivatives; - methods and apparatus for taking and analysis samples from the atmosphere and from body fluids; - existing French regulations; - technical control and medical surveillance [fr

  19. Biological monitoring results for cadmium exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDiarmid, M A; Freeman, C S; Grossman, E A; Martonik, J

    1996-11-01

    As part of a settlement agreement with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) involving exposure to cadmium (Cd), a battery production facility provided medical surveillance data to OSHA for review. Measurements of cadmium in blood, cadmium in urine, and beta 2-microglobulin in urine were obtained for more than 100 workers over an 18-month period. Some airborne Cd exposure data were also made available. Two subpopulations of this cohort were of primary interest in evaluating compliance with the medical surveillance provisions of the Cadmium Standard. These were a group of 16 workers medically removed from cadmium exposure due to elevations in some biological parameter, and a group of platemakers. Platemaking had presented a particularly high exposure opportunity and had recently undergone engineering interventions to minimize exposure. The effect on three biological monitoring parameters of medical removal protection in the first group and engineering controls in platemakers is reported. Results reveal that both medical removal from cadmium exposures and exposure abatement through the use of engineering and work practice controls generally result in declines in biological monitoring parameters of exposed workers. Implications for the success of interventions are discussed.

  20. Cadmium affects retinogenesis during zebrafish embryonic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hen Chow, Elly Suk; Yu Hui, Michelle Nga; Cheng, Chi Wa; Cheng, Shuk Han

    2009-01-01

    Ocular malformations are commonly observed in embryos of aquatic species after exposure to toxicants. Using zebrafish embryos as the model organism, we showed that cadmium exposure from sphere stage (4 hpf) to end of segmentation stage (24 hpf) induced microphthalmia in cadmium-treated embryos. Embryos with eye defects were then assessed for visual abilities. Cadmium-exposed embryos were behaviorally blind, showing hyperpigmentation and loss of camouflage response to light. We investigated the cellular basis of the formation of the small eyes phenotype and the induction of blindness by studying retina development and retinotectal projections. Retinal progenitors were found in cadmium-treated embryos albeit in smaller numbers. The number of retinal ganglion cells (RGC), the first class of retinal cells to differentiate during retinogenesis, was reduced, while photoreceptor cells, the last batch of retinal neurons to differentiate, were absent. Cadmium also affected the propagation of neurons in neurogenic waves. The neurons remained in the ventronasal area and failed to spread across the retina. Drastically reduced RGC axons and disrupted optic stalk showed that the optic nerves did not extend from the retina beyond the chiasm into the tectum. Our data suggested that impairment in neuronal differentiation of the retina, disruption in RGC axon formation and absence of cone photoreceptors were the causes of microphthalmia and visual impairment in cadmium-treated embryos

  1. Human health effects of exposure to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallenbeck, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    The health effects of human exposure to cadmium are discussed with emphases on intake, absorption, body burden, and excretion; osteomalacia in Japan; hypertension; and proteinuria, emphysema, osteomalacia, and cancer in workers. Elevated blood pressure has not been observed as a result of excessive exposures to cadmium in Japan or the workplace. Renal tubular dysfunction and consequent proteinuria is generally accepted as the main effect following long-term, low-level exposure to cadmium. Studies of workers show that proteinuria may develop after the first year of exposure or many years after the last exposure. Proteinuria and deterioration of renal function may continue even after cessation of exposure. The immediate health significance of low-level proteinuria is still under debate. However, there is evidence that long-term renal tubular dysfunction may lead to abnormalities of calcium metabolism and osteomalacia. The few autopsy and cross-sectional studies of workers do not permit conclusions to be drawn regarding the relationship between cadmium exposure and emphysema. Retrospective and historical-prospective studies are needed to settle this important question. No conclusive evidence has been published regarding cadmium-induced cancer in humans. However, there is sufficient evidence to regard cadmium as a suspect renal and prostate carcinogen. Because of equivocal results and the absence of dose-response relationships, the studies reviewed should be used with caution in making regulatory decisions and low-dose risk assessments. 62 references.

  2. Human health effects of exposure to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallenbeck, W.H.

    1984-02-15

    The health effects of human exposure to cadmium are discussed with emphasis on intake, absorption, body burden, and excretion; osteomalacia in Japan; hypertension; and proteinuria, emphysema, osteomalacia, and cancer in workers. Elevated blood pressure has not been observed as a result of excessive exposures to cadmium in Japan or the workplace. Renal tubular dysfunction and consequent proteinuria is generally accepted as the main effect following long-term, low-level exposure to cadmium. Studies of workers show that proteinuria may develop after the first year of exposure or many years after the last exposure. Proteinuria and deterioration of renal function may continue even after cessation of exposure. The immediate health significance of low-level proteinuria is still under debate. However, there is evidence that long-term renal tubular dysfunction may lead to abnormalities of calcium metabolism and osteomalacia. The few autopsy and cross-sectional studies of workers do not permit conclusions to be drawn regarding the relationship between cadmium exposure and emphysema. Retrospective and historical-prospective studies are needed to settle this important question. No conclusive evidence has been published regarding cadmium-induced cancer in humans. However, there is sufficient evidence to regard cadmium as a suspect renal and prostate carcinogen. Because of equivocal results and the absence of dose-response relationships, the studies reviewed should be used with caution in making regulatory decisions and low-dose risk assessments.

  3. Study on concentration nonlinearity of interacting acoustic flows in cadmium sulfide and tellurium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilisavskij, Yu.V.; Kulakova, L.A.; Yakhkind, Eh.Z.

    1976-01-01

    The ratio of an one-mode (self-action of an external monochromatic sound wave) and a many-mode (interaction of an external wave with crystal thermal phonons) concentration nonlinearity has been experimentally investigated on sound amplification in cadmium sulphide and tellurium. It has been shown that in a strong piezoelectric the main part in the nonlinear limitation of the sound amplification in a drift field is played by the wave interaction, i.e., the transfer of the sound wave energy into the crystal sound modes starts before the nonlinear self-action of a wave. In Te characterized by a large value of the electromechanical coupling constant value at the sound frequency of about 250 MHz the threshold of many-mode nonlinearity is achieved in fields much below the critical one, and corresponds to the sound intensity as low as 10 -7 W/cm 2 , as compared with 10 -2 W/cm 2 -the threshold of the one-mode nonlinearity

  4. Induction of Localized Hyperthermia by Millisecond Laser Pulses in the Presence of Gold-Gold Sulphide Nanoparticles in a Phantom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Shahamat

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Application of near-infrared absorbing nanostructures can induce hyperthermia, in addition to providing more efficient  photothermal effects. Gold-gold sulfide (GGS is considered as one of these nanostructures. This study was performed on a tissue-equivalent optical-thermal phantom to determine the temperature profile in the presence and absence of GGS and millisecond pulses of a near-infrared laser. Moreover, the feasibility of hyperthermia induction was investigated in a simulated tumor. Materials and Methods A tumor with its surrounding tissues was simulated in a phantom made of Agarose and Intralipid. The tumor was irradiated by 30 laser pulses with durations of 30, 100, and 400 ms and fluences of 40 and 60 J/cm2. Temperature variations in the phantom with and without GGS were recorded, using fast-response sensors of a digital thermometer, placed at different distances from the central axis at three depths. The temperature rise was recorded by varying duration and fluence of the laser pulses. Results The rise in temperature was recorded by increasing laser fluence and number of pulses for three durations. The temperature profile was obtained at each depth. The presence of GGS resulted in a significant increase in temperature in all cases (P

  5. Antimicrobial Effects of Gold/Copper Sulphide (Au/Cus) Core/Shell Nanoparticles on Bacillus Anthracis Spores and Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    On tryptose broth, it flocculates and eventually settles to the bottom leaving a clear liquid above. It does not cause hemolysis on blood agar as...host through shock [3]. Symptoms of inhalational anthrax include fever, rapid and faint pulses, cyanosis, tachycardia and pleural effusion [3]. 10...in liquid LB medium was measured by optical density readings at 600 nm. They found that, 10, 50, and 100 µg/cm3 silver NPs slowed growth of 107E. coli

  6. Considerations on the analytic control of sulphide tracks in metal uranium; Consideraciones osbre el control analitico de trazas de azufre (sulfuro) en uranio metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Cellini, R; Gasco Sanchez, C

    1956-07-01

    Volumetric and colorimetric determinations of sulphur (sulphide) in uranium have been carried out by acid treatment and evaluation of SH{sub 2}. According to the experimental results a discussion of both methods has been made. (Author)

  7. Recovery of yttrium from fluorescent powder of cathode ray tube, CRT: Zn removal by sulphide precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innocenzi, Valentina; De Michelis, Ida; Ferella, Francesco; Beolchini, Francesca; Kopacek, Bernd; Vegliò, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Treatment of fluorescent powder of CRT waste. • Factorial experimental designs to study acid leaching of fluorescent powder and the purification of leach liquors. • Recover of yttrium by precipitation using oxalic acid. • Suitable flowsheet to recover yttrium from fluorescent powder. - Abstract: This work is focused on the recovery of yttrium and zinc from fluorescent powder of cathode ray tube (CRT). Metals are extracted by sulphuric acid in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Leaching tests are carried out according to a 2 2 full factorial plan and the highest extraction yields for yttrium and zinc equal to 100% are observed under the following conditions: 3 M of sulphuric acid, 10% v/v of H 2 O 2 concentrated solution at 30% v/v, 10% w/w pulp density, 70 °C and 3 h of reaction. Two series of precipitation tests for zinc are carried out: a 2 2 full factorial design and a completely randomized factorial design. In these series the factors investigated are pH of solution during the precipitation and the amount of sodium sulphide added to precipitate zinc sulphide. The data of these tests are used to describe two empirical mathematical models for zinc and yttrium precipitation yields by regression analysis. The highest precipitation yields for zinc are obtained under the following conditions: pH equal to 2–2.5% and 10–12% v/v of Na 2 S concentrated solution at 10% w/v. In these conditions the coprecipitation of yttrium is of 15–20%. Finally further yttrium precipitation experiments by oxalic acid on the residual solutions, after removing of zinc, show that yttrium could be recovered and calcined to obtain the final product as yttrium oxide. The achieved results allow to propose a CRT recycling process based on leaching of fluorescent powder from cathode ray tube and recovery of yttrium oxide after removing of zinc by precipitation. The final recovery of yttrium is 75–80%

  8. Enhanced protection of PDMS-embedded palladium catalysts by co-embedding of sulphide-scavengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comandella, Daniele; Ahn, Min Hyung; Kim, Hojeong; Mackenzie, Katrin

    2017-12-01

    For Pd-containing hydrodechlorination catalysts, coating with poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) was proposed earlier as promising protection scheme against poisoning. The PDMS coating can effectively repel non-permeating poisons (such as SO 3 2- ) retaining the hydrodechlorination Pd activity. In the present study, the previously achieved protection efficiency was enhanced by incorporation of sulphide scavengers into the polymer. The embedded scavengers were able to bind permeating non-ionic poisons (such as H 2 S) during their passage through PDMS prior to Pd contact which ensured an extended catalyst lifetime. Three scavenger types forming non-permeable sulphur species from H 2 S - alkaline, oxidative or iron-based compounds - were either incorporated into single-layer coats around individual Pd/Al 2 O 3 particles or into a second layer above Pd-containing PDMS films (Pd-PDMS). Hydrodechlorination and hydrogenation were chosen as model reactions, carried out in batch and continuous-flow reactors. Batch tests with all scavenger-containing catalysts showed extended Pd protection compared to scavenger-free catalysts. Solid alkaline compounds (Ca(OH) 2 , NaOH, CaO) and MnO 2 showed the highest instantaneous scavenger efficiencies (retained Pd activity=30-60%), while iron-based catalysts, such as nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) or ferrocene (FeCp 2 ), proved less efficient (1-10%). When stepwise poisoning was applied, the protection efficiency of iron-based and oxidizing compounds was higher in the long term than that of alkaline solids. Long-term experiments in mixed-flow reactors were performed with selected scavengers, revealing the following trend of protection efficiency: CaO 2 >Ca(OH) 2 >FeCp 2 . Under field-simulating conditions using a fixed-bed reactor, the combination of sulphide pre-oxidation in the water phase by H 2 O 2 and local scavenger-enhanced Pd protection was successful. The oxidizing agent H 2 O 2 does not disturb the Pd-catalysed reduction, while the

  9. Radioguided sentinel node biopsy with 99mTc colloidal (Re) sulphide: Our experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lago, G.; Alonso, O.; Aizen, B.; Juri, C.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: It has been demonstrated that nodal metastases from different solid tumors are not random events. Tumour spread within the regional draining basin has been shown to progress in an orderly fashion with first draining basin (sentinel node) most likely to have metastatic involvement. Thus, the sentinel node examination accurately reflects the histology of the remainder of the lymphatic basin. Sentinel node biopsy (SLB) with previous lymphatic mapping by means of radiocolloid lymphoscintraphy has been proposed by many authors as a routine method for staging the regional lymph nodes in patients with cutaneous melanoma and breast cancer. A positive SLB is found to carry high prognostic significance and identifies those patients who might benefit from early therapeutic lymph node dissection and adjuvant treatment. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate our experience with radioguided SLB in patients with different tumours. We studied 154 patients between 1998-2003, with clinically localized breast cancer (n=45), melanoma (n=82), cervix carcinoma (n=22) and penis carcinoma (n=5). Lymphoscintigraphy was performed 6-18 hours before surgery using a LFOV gamma camera equipped with a LEHR collimator. A dose of 111-185 MBq of 99mTc colloidal sulphide (Nanocis, Cis bio international, Gif-Sur-Yvette, France) was injected around the primary lesion (melanoma, breast cancer, and penis carcinoma) and into the four quadrants of the cervix (cervix carcinoma). All basins identified by lymphoscintigraphy were explored through incisions directed by the use of a gamma probe. Radioactivity (counts /sec) of the sentinel node(s) and the adjacent tissues was measured in-vivo and verified ex-vivo after removal. A signal to background ratio higher than 2 to 3 in-vivo and higher than 10 ex-vivo was considered significant. Blue dye mapping was performed in all cases of breast cancer but left at discretion of the surgeon for the remaining tumours. Serial sections of the

  10. Recovery of yttrium from fluorescent powder of cathode ray tube, CRT: Zn removal by sulphide precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Innocenzi, Valentina, E-mail: valentina.innocenzi1@univaq.it [Department of Industrial Engineering and Information and Economy, University of L’Aquila, Via Giovanni Gronchi n.18, Nucleo Ind.le di Pile, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy); De Michelis, Ida; Ferella, Francesco [Department of Industrial Engineering and Information and Economy, University of L’Aquila, Via Giovanni Gronchi n.18, Nucleo Ind.le di Pile, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy); Beolchini, Francesca [Department of Marine Sciences, Polytechnic Institute of Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Kopacek, Bernd [SAT, Austrian Society for Systems Engineering and Automation, Gurkasse 43/2, A-1140 Vienna (Austria); Vegliò, Francesco [Department of Industrial Engineering and Information and Economy, University of L’Aquila, Via Giovanni Gronchi n.18, Nucleo Ind.le di Pile, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Treatment of fluorescent powder of CRT waste. • Factorial experimental designs to study acid leaching of fluorescent powder and the purification of leach liquors. • Recover of yttrium by precipitation using oxalic acid. • Suitable flowsheet to recover yttrium from fluorescent powder. - Abstract: This work is focused on the recovery of yttrium and zinc from fluorescent powder of cathode ray tube (CRT). Metals are extracted by sulphuric acid in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Leaching tests are carried out according to a 2{sup 2} full factorial plan and the highest extraction yields for yttrium and zinc equal to 100% are observed under the following conditions: 3 M of sulphuric acid, 10% v/v of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrated solution at 30% v/v, 10% w/w pulp density, 70 °C and 3 h of reaction. Two series of precipitation tests for zinc are carried out: a 2{sup 2} full factorial design and a completely randomized factorial design. In these series the factors investigated are pH of solution during the precipitation and the amount of sodium sulphide added to precipitate zinc sulphide. The data of these tests are used to describe two empirical mathematical models for zinc and yttrium precipitation yields by regression analysis. The highest precipitation yields for zinc are obtained under the following conditions: pH equal to 2–2.5% and 10–12% v/v of Na{sub 2}S concentrated solution at 10% w/v. In these conditions the coprecipitation of yttrium is of 15–20%. Finally further yttrium precipitation experiments by oxalic acid on the residual solutions, after removing of zinc, show that yttrium could be recovered and calcined to obtain the final product as yttrium oxide. The achieved results allow to propose a CRT recycling process based on leaching of fluorescent powder from cathode ray tube and recovery of yttrium oxide after removing of zinc by precipitation. The final recovery of yttrium is 75–80%.

  11. SULPHIDE MINERALIZATION IN UPPER WESTPHALIAN COAL SEAMS FROM THE EASTERN PART OF THE UPPER SILESIAN COAL BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipiarski Ireneusz

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Morphologically diversified sulphide mineralization has been found in No. 301 and 302 coal seams (Westphalian B. The main sulphide is pyrite which forms veinlets cross-cutting the sedimentary fabrics of the coal, encrusts the cellular structures and intergrowths with oxysulphides. Two generations of pyrites were observed: the preceding and the following the oxysulphides. Pyrite composition is stoichiometric, rare admixtures are up to(in wt.%: Mn - 0.19, Co - 0.48, Ni - 0.42 and As - 1.41. Iron oxysulphides contain up to 35.06 wt.% oxygen. Their composition varies between FeS2O and FeS2O3. Increased contents of As (up to 1.46 wt.% and Pb (up to 0.96 wt.% were detected.

  12. In-situ XRD and EDS method study on the oxidation behaviour of Ni-Cu sulphide ore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangshi; Cheng, Hongwei; Xiong, Xiaolu; Lu, Xionggang; Xu, Cong; Lu, Changyuan; Zou, Xingli; Xu, Qian

    2017-06-12

    The oxidation mechanism of sulfides is the key issue during the sulphide-metallurgy process. In this study, the phase transformation and element migration were clearly demonstrated by in-situ laboratory-based X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. The reaction sequence and a four-step oxidation mechanism were proposed and identified. The elemental distribution demonstrated that at a low temperature, the Fe atoms diffused outward and the Ni/Cu atoms migrated toward the inner core, whereas the opposite diffusion processes were observed at a higher temperature. Importantly, the unique visual presentation of the oxidation behaviour provided by the combination of in-situ XRD and EDS might be useful for optimising the process parameters to improve the Ni/Cu extraction efficiency during Ni-Cu sulphide metallurgy.

  13. Assessment of the flotability of chalcopyrite, molybdenite and pyrite using biosolids and their main components as collectors for greening the froth flotation of copper sulphide ores.

    OpenAIRE

    Sobarzo, Francisco; Herrera Urbina, Ronaldo; Higueras Higueras, Pablo Leon; Sáez Navarrete, César; Godoy Faúndez, Alex; Reyes Bozo, Lorenzo; Vásquez Bestagno, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Biosolids and representative compounds of their main components ? humic acids, sugars, and proteins ? have been tested as possible environment-friendly collectors and frothers for the flotation of copper sulphide ores. The floatability of chalcopyrite and molybdenite ? both valuable sulphide minerals present in these ores ? as well as non-valuable pyrite was assessed through Hallimond tube flotation tests. Humic acids exhibit similar collector ability for chalcopyrite and molybdenite as that ...

  14. Enhanced performance of hybrid solar cells using longer arms of quantum cadmium selenide tetrapods

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2011-12-01

    We demonstrate that enhanced device performance of hybrid solar cells based on tetrapod (TP)-shaped cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles and conjugated polymer of poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) can be obtained by using longer armed tetrapods which aids in better spatial connectivity, thus decreasing charge hopping events which lead to better charge transport. Longer tetrapods with 10 nm arm length lead to improved power conversion efficiency of 1.12% compared to 0.80% of device having 5 nm short-armed tetrapods:P3HT photoactive blends.

  15. Enhanced performance of hybrid solar cells using longer arms of quantum cadmium selenide tetrapods

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Kyu-Sung; Kim, Inho; Gullapalli, Sravani; Wong, Michael S.; Jabbour, Ghassan E.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that enhanced device performance of hybrid solar cells based on tetrapod (TP)-shaped cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles and conjugated polymer of poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) can be obtained by using longer armed tetrapods which aids in better spatial connectivity, thus decreasing charge hopping events which lead to better charge transport. Longer tetrapods with 10 nm arm length lead to improved power conversion efficiency of 1.12% compared to 0.80% of device having 5 nm short-armed tetrapods:P3HT photoactive blends.

  16. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles using microbes- a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulkoti, Nasreen I; Taranath, T C

    2014-09-01

    The biosynthesis of nanoparticles by microorganism is a green and eco-friendly technology. This review focuses on the use of consortium of diverse microorganisms belonging to both prokaryotes and eukaryotes for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles viz. silver, gold, platinum, zirconium, palladium, iron, cadmium and metal oxides such as titanium oxide, zinc oxide, etc. These microorganisms include bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi and algae. The synthesis of nanoparticles may be intracellular or extracellular. The several workers have reported that NADH dependent nitrate reductase enzyme plays a vital role in the conversion of metallic ions to nanoparticles. The FTIR study reveals that diverse biomolecules viz. carboxyl group, primary and secondary amines, amide I, II, and III bands etc serve as a tool for bioreduction and capping agents there by offering stability to particles by preventing agglomeration and growth. The size and shape of the nanoparticles vary with the organism employed and conditions employed during the synthesis which included pH, temperature and substrate concentration. The microorganisms provide diverse environment for biosynthesis of nanoparticles. These particles are safe and eco-friendly with a lot of applications in medicine, agriculture, cosmetic industry, drug delivery and biochemical sensors. The challenges for redressal include optimal production and minimal time to obtain desired size and shape, to enhance the stability of nanoparticles and optimization of specific microorganisms for specific application. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Reviews of the environmental effects of pollutants: IV. Cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammons, A.S.; Huff, J.E.; Braunstein, H.M.; Drury, J.S.; Shriner, C.R.; Lewis, E.B.; Whitfield, B.L.; Towill, L.E.

    1978-06-01

    This report is a comprehensive, multidisciplinary review of the health and environmental effects of cadmium and specific cadmium derivatives. More than 500 references are cited. The cadmium body burden in animals and humans results mainly from the diet. In the United States, the normal intake of cadmium for adult humans is estimated at about 50 ..mu..g per day. Tobacco smoke is a significant additional source of cadmium exposure. The kidneys and liver together contain about 50% of the total cadmium body burden. Acute cadmium poisoning is primarily an occupational problem, generally from inhalation of cadmium fumes or dusts. In the general population, incidents of acute poisoning by inhaled or ingested cadmium or its compounds are relatively rare. The kidney is the primary target organ for toxicity from prolonged low-level exposure to cadmium. No causal relationship has been established between cadmium exposure and human cancer, although a possible link between cadmium and prostate cancer has been indicated. Cadmium has been shown to be teratogenic in rats, hamsters, and mice, but no such effects have been proven in humans. Cadmium has been reported to increase the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells and in human peripheral leukocytes. The major concern about environmental cadmium is the potential effects on the general population. There is no substantial evidence of hazard from current levels of cadmium in air, water, or food. However, because cadmium is a cumulative poison and because present intake provides a relatively small safety margin, there are adequate reasons for concern over possible future increases in background levels.

  18. Reviews of the environmental effects of pollutants: IV. Cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammons, A.S.; Huff, J.E.; Braunstein, H.M.; Drury, J.S.; Shriner, C.R.; Lewis, E.B.; Whitfield, B.L.; Towill, L.E.

    1978-06-01

    This report is a comprehensive, multidisciplinary review of the health and environmental effects of cadmium and specific cadmium derivatives. More than 500 references are cited. The cadmium body burden in animals and humans results mainly from the diet. In the United States, the normal intake of cadmium for adult humans is estimated at about 50 μg per day. Tobacco smoke is a significant additional source of cadmium exposure. The kidneys and liver together contain about 50% of the total cadmium body burden. Acute cadmium poisoning is primarily an occupational problem, generally from inhalation of cadmium fumes or dusts. In the general population, incidents of acute poisoning by inhaled or ingested cadmium or its compounds are relatively rare. The kidney is the primary target organ for toxicity from prolonged low-level exposure to cadmium. No causal relationship has been established between cadmium exposure and human cancer, although a possible link between cadmium and prostate cancer has been indicated. Cadmium has been shown to be teratogenic in rats, hamsters, and mice, but no such effects have been proven in humans. Cadmium has been reported to increase the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells and in human peripheral leukocytes. The major concern about environmental cadmium is the potential effects on the general population. There is no substantial evidence of hazard from current levels of cadmium in air, water, or food. However, because cadmium is a cumulative poison and because present intake provides a relatively small safety margin, there are adequate reasons for concern over possible future increases in background levels

  19. Cadmium removal by Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Devaleena; Majumder, Arunabha; Misra, Amal K; Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the ability of two genus of duckweed (Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza) to phytoremediate cadmium from aqueous solution. Duckweed was exposed to six different cadmium concentrations, such as, 0.5,1.0,1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 mg/L and the experiment was continued for 22 days. Water samples were collected periodically for estimation of residual cadmium content in aqueous solution. At the end of treatment period plant samples were collected and accumulated cadmium content was measured. Cadmium toxicity was observed through relative growth factor and changes in chlorophyll content Experimental results showed that Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza were capable of removing 42-78% and 52-75% cadmium from media depending upon initial cadmium concentrations. Cadmium was removed following pseudo second order kinetic model Maximum cadmium accumulation in Lemna minor was 4734.56 mg/kg at 2 mg/L initial cadmium concentration and 7711.00 mg/kg in Spirodela polyrhiza at 3 mg/L initial cadmium concentration at the end of treatment period. Conversely in both cases maximum bioconcentration factor obtained at lowest initial cadmium concentrations, i.e., 0.5 mg/L, were 3295.61 and 4752.00 for Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza respectively. The present study revealed that both Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza was potential cadmium accumulator.

  20. Study by vibration spectrometry of addition compounds of boron fluoride with some alkyl oxides, sulphides and selenides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Calve, Jacques

    1966-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of the vibration spectrum of some addition compounds of boron fluoride with alkyl oxides, sulphides and selenides. The objective was first the assignment of spectra, and then the study of the influence of the formation of a coordination bound on boron fluoride vibrations and on that of its donor. The author also tried to define correlations between spectrum and structures, and studied the effects of physical status and solvents [fr

  1. Non-destructive γ-spectrometric determination of mercury and gold in sea water after preconcentration by lead sulphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrov, S.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for determination of mercury and gold in sea-water, based on preconcentration of these elements by retention on a column of lead sulphide at pH1 (nitric and sulphuric acids), and γ-spectrometry. Mercury (0.8 +-0.2 μg/l) and gold (6 +- 3 ng/l) have been determined in a sample from the Black Sea, taken near Varna. (author)

  2. Efficacy of scalp hair decontamination following exposure to vapours of sulphur mustard simulants 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulphide and methyl salicylate

    OpenAIRE

    Spiandore , Marie; Piram , Anne; Lacoste , Alexandre; Prevost , P.; Maloni , Pascal; TORRE , Franck; Asia , L.; Josse , D.; Doumenq , Pierre

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Chemical warfare agents are an actual threat and victims' decontamination is a main concern when mass exposure occurs. Skin decontamination with current protocols has been widely documented, as well as surface decontamination. However, considering hair ability to trap chemicals in vapour phase, we investigated hair decontamination after exposure to sulphur mustard simulants methyl salicylate and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulphide. Four decontamination protocols were tested o...

  3. Understanding the shrinkage of optical absorption edges of nanostructured Cd-Zn sulphide films for photothermal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Md. Sohrab [Department of Physics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka 1342 (Bangladesh); Kabir, Humayun [Department of Physics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka 1342 (Bangladesh); School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Rahman, M. Mahbubur, E-mail: M.Rahman@Murdoch.edu.au [Department of Physics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka 1342 (Bangladesh); Surface Analysis and Materials Engineering Research Group, School of Engineering & Information Technology, Murdoch University, Perth, Western Australia 6150 (Australia); Hasan, Kamrul [Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, University of Sharjah, P.O. Box 27272, Sharjah (United Arab Emirates); Bashar, Muhammad Shahriar; Rahman, Mashudur [Institute of Fuel and Research Development, Bangladesh Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Dhanmondi, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Gafur, Md. Abdul [Pilot Plant and Process Development Center, Bangladesh Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Dhanmondi, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Islam, Shariful [Department of Physics, Comilla University, Comilla (Bangladesh); Amri, Amun [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitas Riau, Pekanbaru (Indonesia); Jiang, Zhong-Tao [Surface Analysis and Materials Engineering Research Group, School of Engineering & Information Technology, Murdoch University, Perth, Western Australia 6150 (Australia); Altarawneh, Mohammednoor; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z. [School of Engineering & Information Technology, Murdoch University, Murdoch, WA 6150 (Australia)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Cd-Zn sulphide films synthesized via chemical bath deposition technique. • Nanocrystalline phase of Cd-Zn sulphide films were seen in XRD studies. • Nanocrystalline structures of the films were also confirmed by the SEM. • The band gap of these films is a combination of composition and size. • E{sub U} and σ studies ascribed the shrinkage of absorption edges around the optical band-gaps. - Abstract: In this article Cd-Zn sulphide thin films deposited onto soda lime glass substrates via chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique were investigated for photovoltaic applications. The synthesized films were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and ultraviolet visible (UV–vis) spectroscopic methodologies. A higher degree of crystallinity of the films was attained with the increase of film thicknesses. SEM micrographs exhibited a partial crystalline structure with a particulate appearance surrounded by the amorphous grain boundaries. The optical absorbance and absorption coefficient of the films were also enhanced significantly with the increase in film thicknesses. Optical band-gap analysis indicated a monotonic decrease in direct and indirect band-gaps with the increase of thicknesses of the films. The presence of direct and indirect transitional energies due to the exponential falling edges of the absorption curves may either be due to the lack of long-range order or to the existence of defects in the films. The declination of the optical absorption edges was also confirmed via Urbach energy and steepness parameters studies.

  4. The environmental context of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and its potential role as an ecosystem engineer in sulphidic mine waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebenaa, Gustav

    2001-06-01

    Microorganisms are the causative agent of the environmental problems since they catalyse the weathering of the (sulphidic) waste. The chemical oxidation alone is not fast enough to create any severe environmental problems. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans is thought to be a key organism in weathering of sulphide minerals. A. ferrooxidans is affected by several more or less abiotic factors. The influence of temperature, pH and nutrient deficiency as potentially limiting factors for the activity of A. ferrooxidans has been investigated. It seems that temperature has less influence on its activity, but rather reflects the origin of the bacterial isolate. An alkaline pH seems enough to hinder growth and activity. The nutrients do not seem to be a limiting factor in the studied environment. The possible regulation of the activity of A. ferrooxidans is therefore a way to, at least partly, mitigate the environmental impact from mine waste. Waste from the mining industry is the largest waste problem in Sweden. With amounts over 600 million tonnes one could easily imagine the tremendous cost involved in the abatement. The MiMi-programme, with researchers from several relevant fields, has as its aim to evaluate present and to find alternative techniques to mitigate the environmental impact from mine waste. The understanding of A. ferrooxidans and its role as an ecosystem engineer is essential both in evaluating present techniques and even more so in finding alternative abatement techniques for sulphidic mine waste.

  5. Long-Term Planning for Open Pits for Mining Sulphide-Oxide Ores in Order to Achieve Maximum Profit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kržanović, Daniel; Conić, Vesna; Stevanović, Dejan; Kolonja, Božo; Vaduvesković, Jovan

    2017-12-01

    Profitable exploitation of mineralised material from the earth's crust is a complex and difficult task that depends on a comprehensive planning process. Answering the question of how to plan production depends on the geometry of the deposit, as well as the concentration, distribution, and type of minerals in it. The complex nature of mineral deposits largely determines the method of exploitation and profitability of mining operations. In addition to unit operating costs and metal prices, the optimal recovery of and achievement of maximum profit from deposits of sulphide-oxide ores also depend, to a significant extent, on the level of technological recovery achieved in the ore processing procedure. Therefore, in defining a long-term development strategy for open pits, special attention must be paid to the selection of an optimal procedure for ore processing in order to achieve the main objective: maximising the Net Present Value (NPV). The effect of using two different processes, flotation processing and hydrometallurgical methods (bioleaching acid leaching), on determining the ultimate pit is shown in the case of the Kraku Bugaresku-Cementacija sulphide-oxide ore deposit in eastern Serbia. Analysis shows that the application of hydrometallurgical methods of processing sulphide-oxide ore achieved an increase in NPV of 20.42%.

  6. Interacting effects of sulphate pollution, sulphide toxicity and eutrophication on vegetation development in fens: A mesocosm experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geurts, Jeroen J.M.; Sarneel, Judith M.; Willers, Bart J.C.; Roelofs, Jan G.M.; Verhoeven, Jos T.A.; Lamers, Leon P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Both eutrophication and SO 4 pollution can lead to higher availability of nutrients and potentially toxic compounds in wetlands. To unravel the interaction between the level of eutrophication and toxicity at species and community level, effects of SO 4 were tested in nutrient-poor and nutrient-rich fen mesocosms. Biomass production of aquatic and semi-aquatic macrophytes and colonization of the water layer increased after fertilization, leading to dominance of highly competitive species. SO 4 addition increased alkalinity and sulphide concentrations, leading to decomposition and additional eutrophication. SO 4 pollution and concomitant sulphide production considerably reduced biomass production and colonization, but macrophytes were less vulnerable in fertilized conditions. The experiment shows that competition between species, vegetation succession and terrestrialization are not only influenced by nutrient availability, but also by toxicity, which strongly interacts with the level of eutrophication. This implies that previously neutralized toxicity effects in eutrophied fens may appear after nutrient reduction measures have been taken. - Interspecific competition, vegetation succession and terrestrialization in fens depend on the interacting effects of SO 4 pollution, sulphide toxicity and nutrient availability.

  7. Interacting effects of sulphate pollution, sulphide toxicity and eutrophication on vegetation development in fens: A mesocosm experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geurts, Jeroen J.M., E-mail: j.geurts@b-ware.e [Aquatic Ecology and Environmental Biology, Institute for Wetland and Water Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, Toernooiveld 1, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); B-WARE Research Centre, Radboud University Nijmegen, Toernooiveld 1, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); Sarneel, Judith M. [Landscape Ecology, Institute of Environmental Biology, Utrecht University, Sorbonnelaan 16, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands); Willers, Bart J.C.; Roelofs, Jan G.M. [Aquatic Ecology and Environmental Biology, Institute for Wetland and Water Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, Toernooiveld 1, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); Verhoeven, Jos T.A. [Landscape Ecology, Institute of Environmental Biology, Utrecht University, Sorbonnelaan 16, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands); Lamers, Leon P.M. [Aquatic Ecology and Environmental Biology, Institute for Wetland and Water Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, Toernooiveld 1, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2009-07-15

    Both eutrophication and SO{sub 4} pollution can lead to higher availability of nutrients and potentially toxic compounds in wetlands. To unravel the interaction between the level of eutrophication and toxicity at species and community level, effects of SO{sub 4} were tested in nutrient-poor and nutrient-rich fen mesocosms. Biomass production of aquatic and semi-aquatic macrophytes and colonization of the water layer increased after fertilization, leading to dominance of highly competitive species. SO{sub 4} addition increased alkalinity and sulphide concentrations, leading to decomposition and additional eutrophication. SO{sub 4} pollution and concomitant sulphide production considerably reduced biomass production and colonization, but macrophytes were less vulnerable in fertilized conditions. The experiment shows that competition between species, vegetation succession and terrestrialization are not only influenced by nutrient availability, but also by toxicity, which strongly interacts with the level of eutrophication. This implies that previously neutralized toxicity effects in eutrophied fens may appear after nutrient reduction measures have been taken. - Interspecific competition, vegetation succession and terrestrialization in fens depend on the interacting effects of SO{sub 4} pollution, sulphide toxicity and nutrient availability.

  8. Study of new rubber to steel adhesive systems based on Co(II and Cu(II sulphides coats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labaj Ivan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper deals with the preparation of new rubber to steel adhesive systems using the steel surface treatment with deposition of adhesive coats based on Co(II and Cu(II sulphides. Efficiency of new prepared adhesive systems containing Co(II and Cu(II sulphides has been compared with the efficiency of double layer adhesive system commonly used in industry. The chemical composition of prepared adhesive systems was determined using the EDX analysis. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM was used for study of topography and microstructure of prepared rubber to steel adhesive systems (Co(II, Cu(II sulphide, double layer adhesive system. For determination of adhesion strength between rubber blends and metal pieces with various adhesive systems deposited on these pieces, the test according to ASTM D429 standard relating to Rubber to metal adhesion, method A was used. For all test samples, the same type of rubber blend and the same curing conditions have been used.

  9. Cadmium exposure induces hematuria in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seung Seok [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myounghee, E-mail: dkkim73@gmail.com [Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Eulji University, Gyeonggi-do 461-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su Mi [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Pyo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sejoong [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Kwon Wook [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chun Soo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    Introduction: Toxic heavy metals have adverse effects on human health. However, the risk of hematuria caused by heavy metal exposure has not been evaluated. Methods: Data from 4701 Korean adults were obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008–2010). Blood levels of the toxic heavy metals cadmium, lead, and mercury were measured. Hematuria was defined as a result of ≥+1 on a urine dipstick test. The odds ratios (ORs) for hematuria were measured according to the blood heavy metal levels after adjusting for multiple variables. Results: Individuals with blood cadmium levels in the 3rd and 4th quartiles had a greater OR for hematuria than those in the 1st quartile group: 3rd quartile, 1.35 (1.019–1.777; P=0.037); 4th quartile, 1.52 (1.140–2.017; P=0.004). When blood cadmium was considered as a log-transformed continuous variable, the correlation between blood cadmium and hematuria was significant: OR, 1.97 (1.224–3.160; P{sub trend}=0.005). In contrast, no significant correlations between hematuria and blood lead or mercury were found in the multivariate analyses. Discussion: The present study shows that high cadmium exposure is associated with a risk of hematuria. -- Highlights: • A high level of blood cadmium is associated with a high risk of hematuria. • This correlation is independent of several confounding factors. • Blood levels of lead and mercury are not associated with risk of hematuria. • This is the first study on the correlation between cadmium exposure and hematuria risk.

  10. From lithotroph- to organotroph-dominant: directional shift of microbial community in sulphidic tailings during phytostabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofang; Bond, Philip L.; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhou, Jizhong; Huang, Longbin

    2015-01-01

    Engineering microbial diversity to enhance soil functions may improve the success of direct revegetation in sulphidic mine tailings. Therefore, it is essential to explore how remediation and initial plant establishment can alter microbial communities, and, which edaphic factors control these changes under field conditions. A long-term revegetation trial was established at a Pb-Zn-Cu tailings impoundment in northwest Queensland. The control and amended and/or revegetated treatments were sampled from the 3-year-old trial. In total, 24 samples were examined using pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes and various chemical properties. The results showed that the microbial diversity was positively controlled by soil soluble Si and negatively controlled by soluble S, total Fe and total As, implying that pyrite weathering posed a substantial stress on microbial development in the tailings. All treatments were dominated by typical extremophiles and lithotrophs, typically Truepera, Thiobacillus, Rubrobacter; significant increases in microbial diversity, biomass and frequency of organotrophic genera (typically Nocardioides and Altererythrobacter) were detected in the revegetated and amended treatment. We concluded that appropriate phytostabilization options have the potential to drive the microbial diversity and community structure in the tailings toward those of natural soils, however, inherent environmental stressors may limit such changes. PMID:26268667

  11. Optical and electrical properties of chemical bath deposited cobalt sulphide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govindasamy, Geetha [R& D Centre, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore (India); Murugasen, Priya, E-mail: priyamurugasen15@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Saveetha Engineering, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India); Sagadevan, Suresh [Department of Physics, AMET University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2017-01-15

    Cobalt sulphide (CoS) thin films were synthesized using the Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was used to study the structure and the crystallite size of CoS thin film. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) studies reveal the surface morphology of these films. The optical properties of the CoS thin films were determined using UV-Visible absorption spectrum. The optical band gap of the thin films was found to be 1.6 eV. Optical constants such as the refractive index, the extinction coefficient and the electric susceptibility were determined. The dielectric studies were carried out at different frequencies and at different temperatures for the prepared CoS thin films. In addition, the plasma energy of the valence electron, Penn gap or average energy gap, the Fermi energy and electronic polarizability of the thin films were determined. The AC electrical conductivity measurement was also carried out for the thin films. The activation energy was determined by using DC electrical conductivity measurement. (author)

  12. Diffusion in copper sulphides. An experimental study of chalcocite, chalcopyrite and bornite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, R.; Bucur, R.V.

    1996-01-01

    Diffusion measurements on three copper-containing sulphides have been performed by an electrochemical potentiometric method. Chalcocite (Cu 2 S), Chalcopyrite (CuFeS 2 ) and Bornite (Cu 5 FeS 4 ) were synthesized and fully characterized by X-ray diffraction. The diffusivities were measured on compacted powders yielding both the chemical and the component diffusion coefficients in the temperature range 5-50 C. The chemical diffusion coefficients found were: for Chalcocite 38.7*exp (-5600/T), for Chalcopyrite 15.4*exp(-6000/T) and for Bornite 14.4*exp(-4900/T). The diffusion coefficient for Chalcocite is in good agreement with values found previously, and a reasonable agreement is also found for Chalcopyrite and Bornite when our data are compared with values acquired at much higher temperatures with a different technique. The activation energies (here on a Kelvin scale) are remarkably similar for the three sulfides, considering that their relative errors are of a 10% magnitude, which indicates that the bonding strengths and the diffusion mechanisms are similar. The chemical diffusion coefficients which enter the empirical Fick's diffusion laws that describe concentration changes, are of the order of exp(-8) to exp (-7) cm 2 /s at room temperature. Such values bring the ion mobilities near values found for solid state 'fast ion conductors', used as electrolytes at elevated temperatures. 17 refs, 8 figs, 5 tabs

  13. Synthesis and characterization of copper antimony tin sulphide thin films for solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, N., E-mail: nisar.ali@utm.my [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM Skudai, 81310 Johor (Malaysia); Department of Physics, Govt. Post Graduate Jehanzeb College Saidu Sharif, Swat, 19200 (Pakistan); Hussain, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM Skudai, 81310 Johor (Malaysia); Ahmed, R., E-mail: rashidahmed@utm.my [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM Skudai, 81310 Johor (Malaysia); Wan Shamsuri, W.N. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM Skudai, 81310 Johor (Malaysia); Fu, Y.Q., E-mail: richard.fu@northumbria.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Environment, University of Northumbria, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 8ST (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • A new and novel material for solar cell applications is demonstrated as a replacement for toxic and expansive compounds. • The materials used in this compound are abundant and low cost. • Compound exhibit unusual optical and electrical properties. • The band gap was found to be comparable with that of GaAs. - Abstract: Low price thin film modules based on Copper antimony tin sulphide (CATS) are introduced for solar harvesting to compete for the already developed compound semiconductors. Here, CATS thin films were deposited on soda lime glass by thermal evaporation technique followed by a rapid thermal annealing in an argon atmosphere. From Our XRD analysis, it was revealed that the annealed samples were poly-crystalline and their crystallinity was improved with increasing annealing temperature. The constituent elements and their corresponding chemical states were identified using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The obtained optical band gap of 1.4 eV for CATS thin film is found nearly equal to GaAs – one of the highly efficient thin film material for solar cell technology. Furthermore, our observed good optical absorbance and low transmittance for the annealed CATS thin films in the visible region of light spectrum assured the aptness of the CATS thin films for solar cell applications.

  14. Probabilistic consequence assessment of hydrogen sulphide releases from a heavy water plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    This report is the second in a series concerned with the evaluation of the consequences to the public of an accidental release of hydrogen sulphide (H 2 S) to the atmosphere following a pipe or pressure envelope failure, or some other process upset, at a heavy water plant. It consists of documentation of the code GASPROB, which has been developed to provide consequence probabilities for a range of postulated releases. The code includes mathematical simulations of initial gas behaviour upon release to the atmosphere, such as gravitational settling of a cold release and the rise of jets and flares, subsequent atmospheric dispersion under a range of weather conditions, and the toxic effects on the exposed population. The code makes use of the site-specific dispersion climatology, topography and population distribution, as well as the probabilistic lethal dose data for the released gas. Output for a given postulated release can be provided in terms of the concentration of the gas at ground level around the point of release, projected numbers of fatalities within specified areas and the projected total fatalities regardless of location. This report includes a general description of GASPROB, and specifics of the code structure, the function of each subroutine, input and output data, and the permanent data files established. Three appendices to the report contain a complete code listing, detailed subroutine descriptions and a sample output

  15. Optical properties of silver sulphide thin films formed on evaporated Ag by a simple sulphurization method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera-Calva, E., E-mail: ebc@xanum.uam.m [Departamento de Ingenieria de Procesos e hidraulica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Iztapalapa, Av. Purisima Esq. Michoacan, Col. Vicentina, Mexico, D.F., 09340 (Mexico); Ortega-Lopez, M.; Avila-Garcia, A.; Matsumoto-Kwabara, Y. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Mexico DF 07360 (Mexico)

    2010-01-31

    Silver sulphide (Ag{sub 2}S) thin films were grown on the surface of silver films (Ag) deposited on glass substrate by using a simple chemical sulphurization method. According to X-ray diffraction analysis, the Ag{sub 2}S thin films display low intensity peaks at 34.48{sup o}, 36.56{sup o}, and 44.28{sup o}, corresponding to diffraction from (100), (112) and (103) planes of the acanthite phase (monoclinic). A model of the type Ag{sub 2}S/Ag/glass was deduced from spectroscopic ellipsometric measurements. Also, the optical constants (n, k) of the system were determined. Furthermore, the optical properties as solar selective absorber for collector applications were assessed. The optical reflectance of the Ag{sub 2}S/Ag thin film systems exhibits the expected behavior for an ideal selective absorber, showing a low reflectance in the wavelength range below 2 {mu}m and a high reflectance for wavelengths higher than that value. An absorptance about 70% and an emittance about 3% or less were calculated for several samples.

  16. Determination of iron sulphides in roofing slates from the north west of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Guinea, J.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The most important production of roofing slates in the world is quarried from the Ordovician formations of the Truchas Syncline, which have the largest amount of working quarries. Roofing slates, sometimes, have crystallized iron sulphides such as pyrite, pyrrhotite and other minerals. These iron sulphides oxidise and stain the tiles when are exposed to atmospheric conditions, so much oxidized how much more inclined is the roof. Galician quarrymen distinguish between harmless pyrite (i.e., resistant cubes of pyrite and damaging pyrite (i.e., other alterable metallic minerals such as pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, marcasite and arsenopyirite. An improved identification method is proposed using both methods (a chemical element ratios of samples under electron microprobes and (b quantitative determination of the iron sulphides in the slate measuring the oxidized areas by digital camera. The analysed Fe/S ratios, in an XY plot, of seventy metallic samples, define three separated zones: pyrite, pyrrhotite and iron oxi-hydroxides. Quantitative determination of iron sulphides in the slate tile were performed by sinking the tile horizontally for six hours in oxygen peroxide (3% diluted and capturing the oxidation areas with a magnetic camera and analysing the bitmap images with Sigma-Scan 5 software. The proposed method is faster than the Spanish UNE norm (UNE-EN- 12326-2 Sept.2000, which requires thermal strike cycles for a month. The necessary use of heavy analytical equipment such as electron microprobes can be facilitated by installing it in the Slate Technological Centre of Sobradelo de Valdeorras (Orense or by using a simple optical stereoscopic zoom microscope to classify the iron minerals.

    Las formaciones ordovícicas del Sinclinal de Duchas concentran la mayor producción mundial de pizarra para cubiertas y el mayor número de canteras en producción. Las pizarras para cubiertas muchas veces contienen sulfuros de hierro cristalizados en forma

  17. Probabilistic consequence assessment of hydrogen sulphide releases from a heavy water plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This report is concerned with the evaluation of the consequences to the public of an accidental release of hydrogen sulphide (H 2 S) to the atmosphere following a pipe or pressure envelope failure, or some other process upset, at a heavy water plant. It covers the first stage of a programme in which the nature of the problem was analyzed and recommendations made for the implementation of a computer model. The concepts of risk assessment and consequence assessment are discussed and a methodology proposed for combining the various elements of the problem into an overall consequence model. These elements are identified as the 'Initiating Events', 'Route to Receptor' and 'Receptor Response' and each is studied in detail in the report. Such phenomena as the blowdown of H 2 S from a rupture, the initial gas cloud behaviour, atmospheric dispersion and the toxicity of H 2 S and sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) are addressed. Critical factors are identified and modelling requirements specified, with special reference to the Bruce heavy water plant. Finally, an overall model is recommended for implementation at the next stage of the programme, together with detailed terms of reference for the remaining work

  18. Environmental Benign Process for Production of Molybdenum Metal from Sulphide Based Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Priyanka; Janakiram, Vangada; Jayasankar, Kalidoss; Angadi, Shivakumar; Bhoi, Bhagyadhar; Mukherjee, Partha Sarathi

    2017-10-01

    Molybdenum is a strategic and high temperature refractory metal which is not found in nature in free state, it is predominantly found in earth's crust in the form of MoO3/MoS2. The main disadvantage of the industrial treatment of Mo concentrate is that the process contains many stages and requires very high temperature. Almost in every step many gaseous, liquid, solid chemical substances are formed which require further treatment. To overcome the above drawback, a new alternative one step novel process is developed for the treatment of sulphide and trioxide molybdenum concentrates. This paper presents the results of the investigations on molybdenite dissociation (MoS2) using microwave assisted plasma unit as well as transferred arc thermal plasma torch. It is a single step process for the preparation of pure molybdenum metal from MoS2 by hydrogen reduction in thermal plasma. Process variable such as H2 gas, Ar gas, input current, voltage and time have been examined to prepare molybdenum metal. Molybdenum recovery of the order of 95% was achieved. The XRD results confirm the phases of molybdenum metal and the chemical analysis of the end product indicate the formation of metallic molybdenum (Mo 98%).

  19. Vibrationally elastic and inelastic scattering of electrons by hydrogen sulphide molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Tamio; Itikawa, Yukikazu

    1996-01-01

    Vibrationally elastic and inelastic cross sections (differential and integral ones) are calculated for electron scattering from hydrogen sulphide (H 2 S) at the collision energies 3-30 eV. Vibrational excitation of all three fundamental modes is considered. The calculation is based on the rotationally sudden and a vibrationally close-coupling method using an ab initio electrostatic potential. The effects of electron exchange and target polarization are taken into account approximately. The resulting cross sections are compared with the experimental data available. The present differential cross sections (DCS) for the elastic scattering reproduce the experimental data well. For the inelastic scattering, the present DCS is too small at 3 eV, compared with the experimental data. This is probably due to a shape resonance, which the present calculation would not be sufficiently accurate to produce. In the higher energy region (i.e. above about 10 eV), the present vibrational cross section should be more reliable, but no experimental data are available so far. (Author)

  20. MULTI-ZONE ANTIREFLECTION COATING ON A SUBSTRATE MADE OF OPTICAL ZINC SULPHIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Tan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with creation technique for a multi-zone antireflection coating on a substrate made of the optical zinc sulphide ZnS. The coating effectively operates simultaneously in the following spectral ranges: visible region of 450 - 700 nm, in the near infrared region of 1000 - 1100 nm, at the wavelength of 1.55 μm, and in the mid-infrared (IR spectrum of 3 - 5 microns. Reflection coefficient in the range of 450 - 700 nm is not more than 2%, in the range of 1000 - 1100 nm is less than 0.5%, in the range of 1500 - 1700 nm is close to 1.5% and in the range of 3 - 5 μm is equal to 0.6%. Analysis results of the deviation impact in the thickness of layers on the value changing of the energy reflection coefficient in the considered areas are given. Deviation in the thickness of the layer, contiguous with the air, is shown to have the greatest effect on the spectral characteristics of the obtained coating. Refractive index deviation for this layer influences the magnitude of the residual reflection.

  1. Diffusion in copper sulphides. An experimental study of chalcocite, chalcopyrite and bornite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, R; Bucur, R V [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Inst. of Chemistry

    1996-01-01

    Diffusion measurements on three copper-containing sulphides have been performed by an electrochemical potentiometric method. Chalcocite (Cu{sub 2}S), Chalcopyrite (CuFeS{sub 2}) and Bornite (Cu{sub 5}FeS{sub 4}) were synthesized and fully characterized by X-ray diffraction. The diffusivities were measured on compacted powders yielding both the chemical and the component diffusion coefficients in the temperature range 5-50 C. The chemical diffusion coefficients found were: for Chalcocite 38.7*exp (-5600/T), for Chalcopyrite 15.4*exp(-6000/T) and for Bornite 14.4*exp(-4900/T). The diffusion coefficient for Chalcocite is in good agreement with values found previously, and a reasonable agreement is also found for Chalcopyrite and Bornite when our data are compared with values acquired at much higher temperatures with a different technique. The activation energies (here on a Kelvin scale) are remarkably similar for the three sulfides, considering that their relative errors are of a 10% magnitude, which indicates that the bonding strengths and the diffusion mechanisms are similar. The chemical diffusion coefficients which enter the empirical Fick`s diffusion laws that describe concentration changes, are of the order of exp(-8) to exp (-7) cm{sup 2}/s at room temperature. Such values bring the ion mobilities near values found for solid state `fast ion conductors`, used as electrolytes at elevated temperatures. 17 refs, 8 figs, 5 tabs.

  2. Uptake of cadmium from hydroponic solutions by willows ( Salix spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salix integra 'Weishanhu') and Yizhibi (S. integra 'Yizhibi') were chosen as model plants to evaluate their potential for uptake of cadmium from hydroponic culture and relative uptake mechanism. Cadmium uptake showed a linear increase in the ...

  3. SUBSTITUTION OF CADMIUM CYANIDE ELECTROPLATING WITH ZINC CHLORIDE ELECTROPLATING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study evaluated the zinc chloride electroplating process as a substitute for cadmium cyanide electroplating in the manufacture of industrial connectors and fittings at Aeroquip Corporation. The process substitution eliminates certain wastes, specifically cadmium and cyanide, ...

  4. Cadmium Exposure is Associated with the Prevalence of Dyslipidemia

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Zhou; Yong-hui Lu; Hui-feng Pi; Peng Gao; Min Li; Lei Zhang; Li-ping Pei; Xiang Mei; Lin Liu; Qi Zhao; Qi-Zhong Qin; Yu Chen; Yue-ming Jiang; Zhao-hui Zhang; Zheng-ping Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cadmium is a widespread environmental and occupational pollutant that accumulates in human body with a biological half-life exceeding 10 years. Cadmium exposure has been demonstrated to increase rates of cardiovascular diseases. Whether occupational cadmium exposure is associated with the increase in the prevalence of dyslipidemia and hence contributes to the risk of cardiovascular diseases is still equivocal. To test the hypothesis that exposure to cadmium is related to the preva...

  5. An assessment of the effects of a cadmium discharge ordinance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, J.H.; Schultz, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    The problem facing the MMSD was high levels of cadmium in Milorganite fertilizer. The cause was determined to be discharges from industry, primarily electroplaters. The solution was the cooperative development of an ordinance to limit the discharge of cadmium. Because the dischargers acted responsibly to comply with the ordinance, the ordinance succeeded in achieving its objective of significantly reducing the cadmium loading to the municipal sewerage system and subsequently reducing the cadmium concentration in Milorganite fertilizer

  6. Cadmium exposure and health risks: Recent findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elinder, C.G. [Huddinge Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Renal Medicine; Jaerup, L. [Stockholm City Council (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Health

    1996-08-01

    Environmental and/or occupational exposure to cadmium give rise to a tubular kidney dysfunction which may proceed to more generalized renal damage and bone disease if exposure has been high and prolonged. Recent scientific work shows that early renal effects develop at lower levels of exposure than previously anticipated. Previous risk assessments for cadmium were mainly based on studies on healthy male workers. The general population, however, also include particularly susceptible groups such as elderly and individuals with illnesses (e.g. diabetes) that may predispose to cadmium-induced health effects. A significant proportion of the general population displays early signs of toxicity already at urinary cadmium concentrations around 3 nmol mmol{sup -1} creatinine. In addition to early tubular effects, cadmium may exert direct or indirect effects on mineral metabolism and the mineralization of the skeleton at relatively low levels of exposure. This may have important health implications, as poor and easily fractured bone is a major problem among the elderly in all industrialized countries. 41 refs, 4 figs

  7. Preparation and characterization of polyaniline-cadmium sulfide nanocomposite for gas sensor application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jawad, Selma M. H.; Rafic, Sewench N.; Muhsen, Mustafa M.

    2017-09-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) was prepared by chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline monomers as emeraldine salt form. By the same method, polyaniline-cadmium sulfide nanocomposites were synthesized in the presence of different percentages (10-50 wt.%) of cadmium sulfide (CdS) which was prepared by using sol-gel method. The optical band gap was decrease with increasing of CdS concentration, that is obtained from UV-VIS measurements. From SEM and AFM, there is uniform distribution for cadmium sulfide nanoparticles in the PANI matrix. The electrical measurements of nanocomposites exhibit the effect of crystallite size and the high resistivity of CdS on the resistivity of nanocomposites. Emeraldine salt PANI, CdS and PANI-CdS nanocomposites were investigated as gas sensors. From this investigation, the sensitivity of PANI-CdS for NO2 gas increase with the increasing of operation temperature and the optimum sensitivity was obtained at 200∘C. The sensitivity of nanocomposites at best temperature (200∘C) was increased and faster response time with the increasing of CdS contents.

  8. Uptake of cadmium from hydroponic solutions by willows (Salix spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2011-11-16

    Nov 16, 2011 ... which indicated that cadmium uptake across the plasma membrane was ... to cadmium pollution in water-soil-plant systems because .... plants were separated into roots and shoots, blotted dry with paper tissue .... Analysis of the kinetic constants for cadmium uptake ..... proteins (Welch and Norvell, 1999).

  9. Cadmium affects the social behaviour of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloman, Katherine A.; Scott, Graham R.; Diao Zhongyu; Rouleau, Claude; Wood, Chris M.; McDonald, D. Gord

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigated both the effects of cadmium on the social interactions of rainbow trout and the differential accumulation of waterborne cadmium among social ranks of fish. Fish exposed to waterborne cadmium concentrations of 2 μg l -1 for 24 h, followed by a 1, 2 or 3 day depuration period in clean water, had a decreased ability to compete with non-exposed fish. However, the competitive ability of exposed fish given a 5 day depuration period was not significantly impaired. Cadmium accumulated in the olfactory apparatus of fish exposed to waterborne cadmium for 24 h and decreased significantly only after 5 days depuration in clean water. Among groups of ten fish held in stream tanks, where all fish were exposed to cadmium, there were significant effects on social behaviour and growth rate. Dominance hierarchies formed faster among fish exposed to cadmium than among control fish, and overall growth rates were higher in the cadmium treatment. In groups of ten fish, social status also affected tissue accumulation of cadmium during waterborne exposure, with dominant fish accumulating more cadmium at the gill. In conclusion, exposure to low levels of cadmium, affects the social behaviour of fish, in part due to accumulation in the olfactory apparatus, and dominant fish accumulate more gill cadmium than subordinates during chronic waterborne exposure

  10. Modeling cadmium in the feed chain and cattle organs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.; Franz, E.; Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate cadmium contamination levels in different scenarios related to soil characteristics and assumptions regarding cadmium accumulation in the animal tissues, using quantitative supply chain modeling. The model takes into account soil cadmium levels, soil pH,

  11. Cadmium induces cadmium-tolerant gene expression in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciola, Santa O; Puglisi, Ivana; Faedda, Roberto; Sanzaro, Vincenzo; Pane, Antonella; Lo Piero, Angela R; Evoli, Maria; Petrone, Goffredo

    2015-11-01

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum, strain IMI 393899, was able to grow in the presence of the heavy metals cadmium and mercury. The main objective of this research was to study the molecular mechanisms underlying the tolerance of the fungus T. harzianum to cadmium. The suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method was used for the characterization of the genes of T. harzianum implicated in cadmium tolerance compared with those expressed in the response to the stress induced by mercury. Finally, the effects of cadmium exposure were also validated by measuring the expression levels of the putative genes coding for a glucose transporter, a plasma membrane ATPase, a Cd(2+)/Zn(2+) transporter protein and a two-component system sensor histidine kinase YcbA, by real-time-PCR. By using the aforementioned SSH strategy, it was possible to identify 108 differentially expressed genes of the strain IMI 393899 of T. harzianum grown in a mineral substrate with the addition of cadmium. The expressed sequence tags identified by SSH technique were encoding different genes that may be involved in different biological processes, including those associated to primary and secondary metabolism, intracellular transport, transcription factors, cell defence, signal transduction, DNA metabolism, cell growth and protein synthesis. Finally, the results show that in the mechanism of tolerance to cadmium a possible signal transduction pathway could activate a Cd(2+)/Zn(2+) transporter protein and/or a plasma membrane ATPase that could be involved in the compartmentalization of cadmium inside the cell.

  12. Analysis of cadmium in high alpha solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Overman, L.A.; Hodgens, H.F.

    1977-07-01

    Cadmium nitrate is occasionally used as a neutron poison for convenience in the separation of uranium, neptunium, and plutonium. As the classical methods of analysis for cadmium are very time-consuming, a method to isolate it in solution using solvent extraction of uranium, neptunium, and plutonium with TBP in an n-paraffin hydrocarbon was investigated. After removal of the radionuclides, the cadmium is determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Precision of the method at the 95 percent confidence level is +-2.4 percent. Alpha content of the solutions was typically reduced from 1-10 x 10 11 dis/(min ml) 238 Pu to 1-15 x 10 4 dis/(min ml). Analysis time was typically reduced from approximately 24 hours per sample to less than 1 hour

  13. Bireactor Electronuclear Systems with Liquid Cadmium Valve

    CERN Document Server

    Bznuni, S A; Zhamkochyan, V M; ASosnin, A N; Polanski, A; Khudaverdyan, A H

    2002-01-01

    Three main types of bireactor electronuclear systems are discussed. From the point of view of assuring high level of functional characteristics and safety bireactor electronuclear systems with booster using enriched uranium (20 %) and with a liquid cadmium valve appears to be the most effective. It is shown by means of Monte-Carlo modeling that such operation conditions can be achieved which lead to the destruction of the intermediate cadmium layer making the systems supercritical (k_{eff}>1). One can avoid the problem by using a special design of the liquid cadmium valve. In comparison with other nuclear systems (critical reactors, one-reactor electronuclear systems) cascade electronuclear systems have essential advantages allowing the decrease of the proton beam current by one order of magnitude and providing at same time the necessary level of power generation and neutron flux. Availability of both the thermal and fast cones allows one to transmute not only transuranics but also the fission products - cesi...

  14. Cadmium accumulation by Axonopus compressus (Sw. P. Beauv and Cyperus rotundas Linn growing in cadmium solution and cadmium-zinc contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paitip Thiravetyan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the phyto-remediation potentials of Cyperus rotundas Linn (Nutgrass and Axonopus compressus (Sw. P. Beauv (Carpetgrass for cadmium removal from cadmium solution andcadmium-zinc contaminated soil. Plants growth in the solution showed that cadmium decreased the relative growth rate of both grasses. However, the amount of cadmium accumulated in shoot and root was increasedwith the increase in cadmium concentration and exposure time. Growth in fertile soil mixed with Cd-contaminated zinc silicate residue (65% Si, 19% Ca, 2% Zn, 1% Mg and 0.03% Cd at the ratio of 50:50 (w/wfor 30 days showed that C. rotundas Linn accumulated cadmium in root and shoot to 2,178 and 1,144 mg kg-1 dry weight, respectively. A. compressus (Sw. P. Beauv accumulated cadmium in root and shoot to 1,965and 669 mg kg-1 dry weight, respectively. Scanning electron microscope connected to energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy suggested that the mechanism of cadmium accumulation by both grasses involved thecadmium precipitation in the stable form of cadmium silicate, which indicated that C. rotundas Linn and A. compressus (Sw. P. Beauv could be grown to prevent soil erosion and to remediate cadmium-contaminatedsoil.

  15. Reduction of Cadmium Uptake of Rice Plants Using Soil Amendments in High Cadmium Contaminated Soil: A Pot Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Siswanto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of agricultural residues on reducing cadmium uptake in rice plants. The rice plants growing on no cadmium/free cadmium soils (N, Cd soils (Cds, and Cd soils each amended with 1% w/w of coir pith (CP, coir pith modified with sodium hydroxide (CPm and corncob (CC under high cadmium contaminated soil with an average 145 mg Cd kg-1 soil were investigated. The results showed that the cumulative transpiration of rice grown in various treatments under high cadmium contaminated soil followed the order: Cds > CPm ≥ CP ≥ CC. These transpirations directly influenced cadmium accumulation in shoots and husks of rice plants. The CC and CP seemed to work to reduce the cadmium uptake by rice plants indicated by accumulated cadmium in the husk that were 2.47 and 7.38 mg Cd kg-1 dry weight, respectively. Overall, transpiration tended to drive cadmium accumulation in plants for rice grown in high cadmium contaminated soil. The more that plants uptake cadmium, the lower cadmium that remains in the soil.

  16. Effects of cadmium and mycorrhizal fungi on growth, fitness, and cadmium accumulation in flax (Linum usitatissimum; Linaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Laura M S; Ernst, Charlotte L; Charneskie, Rebecca; Ruane, Lauren G

    2012-09-01

    Agricultural soils have become contaminated with a variety of heavy metals, including cadmium. The degree to which soil contaminants affect plants may depend on symbiotic relationships between plant roots and soil microorganisms. We examined (1) whether mycorrhizal fungi counteract the potentially negative effects of cadmium on the growth and fitness of flax (Linum usitatissimum) and (2) whether mycorrhizal fungi affect the accumulation of cadmium within plant parts. Two flax cultivars (Linott and Omega) were grown in three soil cadmium environments (0, 5, and 15 ppm). Within each cadmium environment, plants were grown in either the presence or absence of mycorrhizal fungi. Upon senescence, we measured growth and fitness and quantified the concentration of cadmium within plants. Soil cadmium significantly decreased plant fitness, but did not affect plant growth. Mycorrhizal fungi, which were able to colonize roots of plants growing in all cadmium levels, significantly increased plant growth and fitness. Although mycorrhizal fungi counteracted the negative effects of cadmium on fruit and seed production, they also enhanced the concentration of cadmium within roots, fruits, and seeds. The degree to which soil cadmium affects plant fitness and the accumulation of cadmium within plants depended on the ability of plants to form symbiotic relationships with mycorrhizal fungi. The use of mycorrhizal fungi in contaminated agricultural soils may offset the negative effects of metals on the quantity of seeds produced, but exacerbate the accumulation of these metals in our food supply.

  17. Enhancing Photocatalytic Degradation of Methyl Blue Using PVP-Capped and Uncapped CdSe Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Chepape, Kgobudi Frans; Mofokeng, Thapelo Prince; Nyamukamba, Pardon; Mubiayi, Kalenga Pierre; Moloto, Makwena Justice

    2017-01-01

    Quantum confinement of semiconductor nanoparticles is a potential feature which can be interesting for photocatalysis, and cadmium selenide is one simple type of quantum dot to use in the following photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes. CdSe nanoparticles capped with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) in various concentration ratios were synthesized by the chemical reduction method and characterized. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of the samples showed that 50% PVP-capped Cd...

  18. Solvent extraction studies on cadmium Part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alian, A.; El-Kot, A.

    1976-01-01

    An extraction study was performed on various concentrations of cadmium, zinc and cobalt halides in the presence of sulphuric acid. A long chain amine (Amberlite LA-2) and an organophosphorus solvent (TBP) were used. In most cases the value of the distribution ratio decreases with the increase of metal concentration in the aqueous phase. The various possibilities of chemical and radiochemical separations of cadmium from accompanying metal species are reported: separation of (sup109m)Ag from irradiated Cd targets, separation of (sup115m)In using HDEHP, separation of Cd and Zn from their mixtures. (T.G.)

  19. Environmental cadmium and breast cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Carolyn M.; Chen, John J.; Kovach, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent women's cancer, with an age-adjusted incidence of 122.9 per 100,000 US women. Cadmium, a ubiquitous carcinogenic pollutant with multiple biological effects, has been reported to be associated with breast cancer in one US regional case-control study. We examined the association of breast cancer with urinary cadmium (UCd), in a case-control sample of women living on Long Island (LI), NY (100 with breast cancer and 98 without), a region with an especially high...

  20. Microbial ecology of Rum Jungle, III. Leaching behaviour of sulphidic waste material under controlled conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babij, T.; Goodman, A.; Khalid, A.M.; Ralph, B.J.

    1981-12-01

    The discharge, into river systems, of acid and heavy metals generated by leaching of sulphidic waste materials at the abandoned opencut uranium mine at Rum Jungle, Northern Territory, is causing continuing pollution of the surrounding environment. The maximum effects of acid and microorganisms on samples from the overburden dump material, under defined and controlled environmental conditions, were assessed using reactor systems. These samples came from the overburden dump resulting from the mining of White's orebody. Similarly, the stability of tailings material under conditions of flooding and increasing acidity was determined. At ph 2.5, metals in White's dump material were solubilised by acid attack only, whereas at pH 3.5, bacterial activity (principally that of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans) generated acidity and contributed significantly to metal release. Under microaerophilic conditions Thiobacillus ferrooxidans continued to effect metal release from the ore, but did not produce further acidity. If White's overburden is returned to the acidic, flooded opencuts, complete solubilisation of the material will occur. The exclusion of oxygen from the dump will not necessarily stop bacterially catalysed leaching processes. Under highly aerated and agitated flooded conditions the tailings material was not active, except for copper release of about 2 g kg -1 ore at pH 4.0. The only deleterious element released by increasing acidity was copper, which was 100 per cent solubilised at pH 2.5. Uranium was always lss than 3 μg kg -1 ore, and lead was detected only at pH 2.5. Indigenous leaching bacteria did not develop

  1. CARIBIC observations of short-lived halocarbons and carbonyl sulphide over Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leedham, E.; Wisher, A.; Oram, D.; Baker, A. K.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    The CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container, www.caribic-atmospheric.com) aims to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of a wide-range of compounds, including those of marine origin/influence, via ~monthly flights to collect in situ data and whole air samples aboard a commercial Lufthansa aircraft. CARIBIC measures up to an altitude of 12 km, allowing the influence of marine compounds on the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS) to be explored. In particular, CARIBIC is a useful tool for exploring the impact of very short lived halocarbons (e.g. CH2Br2, CHBr3), whose impact on stratospheric ozone is dependent on convective uplift to the UTLS, a process which is not yet fully quantified. As part of the suite of CARIBIC measurements, whole air samples are analysed at the University of East Anglia (UEA) via gas chromatography mass spectrometry for carbonyl sulphide (OCS) and up to 40 halocarbons (accounting for virtually 100% of organic chlorine, bromine and iodine in the UTLS). Here we present an overview of short-lived halocarbons and OCS measured by CARIBIC. We focus on two regions of particular interest. (1) measurements made in 2012 over the tropical west Pacific to link with UEA measurements made during the SHIVA campaign. (2) measurements made during a collection of flights over India in 2008. Flights over India investigated the impact of monsoon circulation on the distribution of these compounds; for example, elevated concentrations of OCS were seen in CARIBIC samples taken over India during the summer monsoon (July - September). These flights, along with a wider range of flights over Asia (from Frankfurt to Guangzhou, Manila, Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur) can provide unique information on the influence of tropical convection and monsoon circulation on halocarbon and OCS transport within this region.

  2. Hydrogen sulphide improves adaptation of Zea mays seedlings to iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Wu, Fei-Hua; Shang, Yu-Ting; Wang, Wen-Hua; Hu, Wen-Jun; Simon, Martin; Liu, Xiang; Shangguan, Zhou-Ping; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2015-11-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is emerging as a potential molecule involved in physiological regulation in plants. However, whether H2S regulates iron-shortage responses in plants is largely unknown. Here, the role of H2S in modulating iron availability in maize (Zea mays L. cv Canner) seedlings grown in iron-deficient culture solution is reported. The main results are as follows: Firstly, NaHS, a donor of H2S, completely prevented leaf interveinal chlorosis in maize seedlings grown in iron-deficient culture solution. Secondly, electron micrographs of mesophyll cells from iron-deficient maize seedlings revealed plastids with few photosynthetic lamellae and rudimentary grana. On the contrary, mesophyll chloroplasts appeared completely developed in H2S-treated maize seedlings. Thirdly, H2S treatment increased iron accumulation in maize seedlings by changing the expression levels of iron homeostasis- and sulphur metabolism-related genes. Fourthly, phytosiderophore (PS) accumulation and secretion were enhanced by H2S treatment in seedlings grown in iron-deficient solution. Indeed, the gene expression of ferric-phytosiderophore transporter (ZmYS1) was specifically induced by iron deficiency in maize leaves and roots, whereas their abundance was decreased by NaHS treatment. Lastly, H2S significantly enhanced photosynthesis through promoting the protein expression of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase large subunit (RuBISCO LSU) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and the expression of genes encoding RuBISCO large subunit (RBCL), small subunit (RBCS), D1 protein (psbA), and PEPC in maize seedlings grown in iron-deficient solution. These results indicate that H2S is closely related to iron uptake, transport, and accumulation, and consequently increases chlorophyll biosynthesis, chloroplast development, and photosynthesis in plants. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  3. Leaching of a gold bearing partially roasted sulphide. Laboratory scale studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Almeida

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed at defining a route for recovering precious metals from a very heterogeneous gold bearing sulphide and arsenide concentrate that was partially roasted and dumped by the 1960s when Santo António mine closed. Gold occurs in this concentrate as free particles in the range of 10-100 mum, most of them still enclosed in the pyrite and arsenopyrite matrix. Its content varies from 20 to 150 g of Au/ton, being higher at the dump upper levels and in the finer concentrate fractions. Preliminary tests demonstrated the refractoriness of this product, since the leaching with conventional cyanide solutions and with other leaching solutions gave very low recoveries. However, high concentrated cyanide solutions recover more than 60% of Au, although with high NaCN and lime consumptions and poor settling characteristics. Iron was shown to be highly dissolved in these solutions. Some prior treatments clearly favoured the cyanidation process, in particular a roasting step. Thus, a large number of roasting experiments was carried out to define the most favourable conditions for recovering gold. However, no clear relationship between roasting conditions and gold dissolution was found due to the heterogeneity of the product and high variance of gold experimental recoveries. These recoveries were calculated considering gold contained in both the leaching residues and leachates, and uncertainties of these results are relatively high. Roasting the product at 450-700 °C for 1 h guarantees a high probability to dissolve at least 74% Au in a highly concentrated NaCN solution stirred for 24 h. The 600-700 °C roasting range is clearly preferable for consuming less cyanide and lime. Pre-washing the roasted product seems not to reduce the cyanide consumption. Regarding the silver recovery, the NaCN and lime consumption are higher while using the products roasted at the lowest tested temperatures. Products roasted at higher temperatures have better settling

  4. Well materials durability in case of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide geological sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquemet, N.

    2006-01-01

    The geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and hydrogen sulphide (H 2 S) is a promising solution for the long-term storage of these undesirable gases. It consists in injecting them via wells into deep geological reservoirs. The steel and cement employed in the well casing can be altered and provide pathways for leakage with subsequent human and environmental consequences. The materials ageing was investigated by laboratory experiments in geologically relevant P-T conditions. A new experimental and analysis procedure was designed for this purpose. A numerical approach was also done. The cement and steel were altered in various fluid phases at 500 bar-120 C and 500 bar-200 C: a brine, a brine saturated with H 2 S-CO 2 , a mixture of brine saturated with H 2 S-CO 2 and of supercritical H 2 S-CO 2 phase, a dry supercritical H 2 S-CO 2 phase without liquid water. In all cases, two distinct reactions are observed: the cement carbonation by the CO 2 and the steel sulfidation by the H 2 S. The carbonation and sulfidation are respectively maximal and minimal when they occur within the dry supercritical phase without liquid water. The textural and porosity properties of the cement are weakly affected by all the treatments at 120 C. The porosity even decreases in presence of H 2 S-CO 2 . But these properties are affected at 200 C when liquid water is present in the system. At this temperature, the initial properties are only preserved or improved by the treatments within the dry supercritical phase. The steel is corroded in all cases and thus is the vulnerable material of the wells. (author)

  5. Eddy covariance carbonyl sulphide flux measurements with a quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdel, Katharina; Spielmann, Felix Maximilian; Hammerle, Albin; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2017-09-26

    The trace gas carbonyl sulphide (COS) has lately received growing interest in the eddy covariance (EC) community due to its potential to serve as an independent approach for constraining gross primary production and canopy stomatal conductance. Thanks to recent developments of fast-response high-precision trace gas analysers (e.g. quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometers (QCLAS)), a handful of EC COS flux measurements have been published since 2013. To date, however, a thorough methodological characterisation of QCLAS with regard to the requirements of the EC technique and the necessary processing steps has not been conducted. The objective of this study is to present a detailed characterization of the COS measurement with the Aerodyne QCLAS in the context of the EC technique, and to recommend best EC processing practices for those measurements. Data were collected from May to October 2015 at a temperate mountain grassland in Tyrol, Austria. Analysis of the Allan variance of high-frequency concentration measurements revealed sensor drift to occur under field conditions after an averaging time of around 50 s. We thus explored the use of two high-pass filtering approaches (linear detrending and recursive filtering) as opposed to block averaging and linear interpolation of regular background measurements for covariance computation. Experimental low-pass filtering correction factors were derived from a detailed cospectral analysis. The CO 2 and H 2 O flux measurements obtained with the QCLAS were compared against those obtained with a closed-path infrared gas analyser. Overall, our results suggest small, but systematic differences between the various high-pass filtering scenarios with regard to the fraction of data retained in the quality control and flux magnitudes. When COS and CO 2 fluxes are combined in the so-called ecosystem relative uptake rate, systematic differences between the high-pass filtering scenarios largely cancel out, suggesting that this

  6. Fuel conditioning facility electrorefiner cadmium vapor trap operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaden, D. E.

    1998-01-01

    Processing sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel at the Fuel Conditioning Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West involves an electrometallurgical process employing a molten LiCl-KCl salt covering a pool of molten cadmium. Previous research has shown that the cadmium dissolves in the salt as a gas, diffuses through the salt layer and vaporizes at the salt surface. This cadmium vapor condenses on cool surfaces, causing equipment operation and handling problems. Using a cadmium vapor trap to condense the cadmium vapors and reflux them back to the electrorefiner has mitigated equipment problems and improved electrorefiner operations

  7. Effect of cadmium on myocardial contractility and calcium fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilati, C.F.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of cadmium on myocardial mechanical performance and calcium fluxes was studied in kitten isometric papillary muscles and in isovolumic Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts. Therefore, it is concluded that cadmium-induced decreases in contractility are not primarily the result of cadmium interference with ATP metabolic processes. Furthermore, these results imply that cadmium causes no structural alterations of the contractile proteins. These data suggest that cadmium may be competing with the calcium needed for excitation-contraction coupling. During experiments using radioisotopic calcium, a statistically significant cellular influx of calcium was observed following the onset of 100 μM Cd ++ perfusion of isolated, Langendorff-prepared rabbit hearts

  8. Effects of cadmium electrode properties on nickel-cadmium cell performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    Tests have been conducted on a number of nickel-cadmium cells that have exhibited a variety of performance problems, ranging from high voltages and pressures during overcharge to low capacity. The performance problems that have been specifically linked to the cadmium electrode are primarily related to two areas, poor sinter and the buildup of excessive pressure during overcharge. A number of specific nickel-cadmium cell and cadmium electrode characterists have been studied in this work to determine what the effects of poor sinter are, and to determine what factors are important in causing excessive pressures during overcharge in cells that otherwise appear normal. Several of the tests appear suitable for screening cells and electrodes for such problems

  9. Effects of Different Dietary Cadmium Levels on Growth and Tissue Cadmium Content in Juvenile Parrotfish,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okorie E. Okorie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This feeding trial was carried out to evaluate the effects of different dietary cadmium levels on growth and tissue cadmium content in juvenile parrotfish, Oplegnathus fasciatus, using cadmium chloride (CdCl2 as the cadmium source. Fifteen fish averaging 5.5±0.06 g (mean±SD were randomly distributed into each of twenty one rectangular fiber tanks of 30 L capacity. Each tank was then randomly assigned to one of three replicates of seven diets containing 0.30 (C0, 21.0 (C21, 40.7 (C41, 83.5 (C83, 162 (C162, 1,387 (C1,387 and 2,743 (C2,743 mg cadmium/kg diet. At the end of sixteen weeks of feeding trial, weight gain (WG, specific growth rate (SGR and feed efficiency (FE of fish fed C21 were significantly higher than those of fish fed C83, C162, C1,387 and C2,743 (p<0.05. Weight gain, SGR and FE of fish fed C0, C21 and C41 were significantly higher than those of fish fed C162, C1,387 and C2,743. Protein efficiency ratio of fish fed C0, C21 and C41 were significantly higher than those of fish fed C1,387 and C2,743. Average survival of fish fed C0, C21, C41 and C162 were significantly higher than that of fish fed C2,743. Tissue cadmium concentrations increased with cadmium content of diets. Cadmium accumulated the most in liver, followed by gill and then muscle. Muscle, gill and liver cadmium concentrations of fish fed C0, C21, C41 and C83 were significantly lower than those of fish fed C162, C1,387 and C2,743. Based on the ANOVA results of growth performance and tissue cadmium concentrations the safe dietary cadmium level could be lower than 40.7 mg Cd/kg diet while the toxic level could be higher than 162 mg Cd/kg diet.

  10. Remediation of cadmium by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) from cadmium contaminated soil: a phytoextraction study

    OpenAIRE

    Rajeev Kumar Bhadkariya; VK Jain; GPS Chak; SK Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium is a toxic metal for living organisms and an environmental contaminant. Soils in many parts of the world are slightly too moderately contaminated by Cd due to long term use and disposal of Cd-contaminated wastes. Cost effective technologies are needed to remove cadmium from the contaminated sites. Soil phytoextraction is engineering based, low cost and socially accepted developing technology that uses plants to clean up contaminants in soils. This technology can be adopted as a remedi...

  11. Cadmium in Salix. A study to show the capacity of Salix to remove cadmium from farmland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oestman, G.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this report has been to show the ability of Salix to take up cadmium and how the uptake varies between different types of soil. The information that the results are based on has been obtained from analyses of soil and Salix. The samples were taken at five sites in the district around Lake Maelaren. Two or three stands were taken at each place. The factors studied were the pH, the organic matter content, and the concentration of cadmium in the soil. Salix has a good ability, relative to other crops, to remove cadmium from arable land. The cadmium uptake is 35 times higher with Salix than with straw or energy grass. Salix uptake of cadmium varies between 3 and 14% of the cadmium content in the soil that is accessible to plants. The present annual increase of cadmium in arable land is 1 g/ha, whereas the removal in a Salix plantation is 21 g Cd/ha, yr at an annual growth of 10 tonnes DM. If the Cd uptake is the same each year, then a total of 420 g Cd/ha is removed when Salix is grown over a 20-year period. This is a very large part of the topsoil's total cadmium content, which is 550 g/ha on average in Sweden. The investigation reveals no clear relationship between the Cd concentration in Salix and the concentration of Cd in the soil, the organic matter content or the pH. 22 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  12. Murine strain differences and the effects of zinc on cadmium concentrations in tissues after acute cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, L.M. [ARS USDA, Germplasm and Gamete Physiology Lab., Beltsville, MD (United States); Anderson, M.B. [Dept. of Anatomy, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); Sikka, S.C. [Dept. of Urology, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); George, W.J. [Dept. of Pharmacology, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1998-10-01

    The role of strain differences in cadmium tissue distribution was studied using sensitive (129/J) and resistant (A/J) mice. These murine strains have previously been shown to differ in their susceptibility to cadmium-induced testicular toxicity. Cadmium concentration was measured in testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, liver, and kidney at 24 h after cadmium chloride exposure (4, 10, and 20 {mu}mol/kg CdCl{sub 2}). The 129/J mice exhibited a significant increase in cadmium concentration in testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle at all cadmium doses used, compared to A/J mice. However, cadmium concentrations in liver and kidney were not different between the strains, at any dose, indicating that cadmium uptake is similar in these organs at 24 h. These murine strains demonstrate similar hepatic and renal cadmium uptake but significantly different cadmium accumulation in the reproductive organs at 24 h. The mechanism of the protective effect of zinc on cadmium toxicity was studied by assessing the impact of zinc acetate (ZnAc) treatment on cadmium concentrations in 129/J mice after 24 h. Zinc pretreatment (250 {mu}mol/kg ZnAc), given 24 h prior to 20 {mu}mol/kg CdCl{sub 2} administration, significantly decreased the amount of cadmium in the testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle of 129/J mice, and significantly increased the cadmium content of the liver after 24 h. Cadmium levels in the kidney were unaffected at this time. Zinc pretreatment also prevented the cadmium-induced decrease in testicular sperm concentration and epididymal sperm motility seen in 129/J mice. These findings suggest that the differences in the two murine strains may be attributed partly to the differential accumulation of cadmium in murine gonads. This may be caused by strain differences in the specificity of cadmium transport mechanisms. The protective role of zinc in cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in the sensitive strain may be due to an interference in the cadmium uptake by susceptible

  13. Geochemical processes in acidic water caused by the weathering of metal sulphides; Procesos geoquimicos en aguas acidas por meteorizacion de sulfuros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asta Andres, M. P.; Acero Salazar, P.; Auque Sanz, L. F.; Gimeno Serrano, M. J.; Gomez Jimenez, J. B.

    2011-07-01

    Acid generated by the oxidative dissolution of metal sulphides is one of the main sources of pollution in runoff water, groundwater, soils and sediments throughout the world. These types of water are very acidic and contain high concentrations of sulphate and other potentially contaminating elements such Fe, As, Cd, Sb, Zn and Cu. The acidity generated by sulphide oxidation processes is mainly controlled by the type, quantity and distribution of the sulphide-rich rocks, by the physical characteristics of the rocks (since they determine the accessibility of aqueous solutions and gases to the sulphides), by the presence of microorganisms able to catalyze the main chemical reactions involved in the formation of acid drainage, and by the existence of minerals capable of neutralizing acidity. As a result, the generation of acidic water is a very complex problem, the study of which must be undertaken via a multidisciplinary approach, taking into account geological, geochemical, mineralogical and microbiological aspects among others. The aim of our work is to provide a general overview of these processes and other factors that influence the generation and evolution of these systems, together with information concerning current scientific knowledge about each of these approaches. Thus we hope to provide a basic background to the understanding and study of acid-water systems associated with the weathering of metal sulphides and the processes involved in the generation, migration, evolution and natural attenuation of acidic waters in these environments. (Author) 65 refs.

  14. Remediation of cadmium by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. from cadmium contaminated soil: a phytoextraction study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Kumar Bhadkariya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a toxic metal for living organisms and an environmental contaminant. Soils in many parts of the world are slightly too moderately contaminated by Cd due to long term use and disposal of Cd-contaminated wastes. Cost effective technologies are needed to remove cadmium from the contaminated sites. Soil phytoextraction is engineering based, low cost and socially accepted developing technology that uses plants to clean up contaminants in soils. This technology can be adopted as a remediation of cadmium from Cd-contaminated soils with the help of Brassica juncea plant. The objective of this work was to evaluate the cadmium (Cd accumulate and the tolerance of Brassica juncea. The Cd accumulates in all parts of plants (roots, stems and leaves. It was found that accumulating efficiency increased with the increase in the concentration of applied cadmium metal solution. Maximum accumulation of cadmium was found in roots than stem and leaves. Phytoextraction coefficient and translocation factor were highest to show the validity of the Brassica juncea species for hyperaccumulation of the Cd metal. These results suggested that Brassica juncea has a high ability to tolerate and accumulate Cd, so it might be a promising plant to be used for phytoextraction of Cd contaminated soil. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i2.10533 International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2 2014: 229-237

  15. Subcellular localization of cadmium in hyperaccumulator Populus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, subcellular localization of cadmium in hyperaccumulator grey poplar (Populus × canescens) was investigated by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) method. Young Populus × canescens were grown and hydroponic experiments were conducted under four Cd2+ concentrations (10, 30, 50, and 70 μM) ...

  16. Rise time spectroscopy in cadmium telluride detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharager, Claude; Siffert, Paul; Carnet, Bernard; Le Meur, Roger.

    1980-11-01

    By a simultaneous analysis of rise time and pulse amplitude distributions of the signals issued from various cadmium telluride detectors, it is possible to obtain informations about surface and bulk trapping, field distribution within the detectors, as well as charge collection and transport properties. These investigations have been performed on both pure and chlorine doped and materials for various surfaces preparation conditions [fr

  17. Bioavailability of cadmium from linseed and cocoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    The exposure of the European population to cadmium from food is high compared with the tolerable weekly intake of 2.5 μg/kg bodyweight set by EFSA in 2009. Only few studies on the bioavailability of cadmium from different food sources has been performed but this information in very important...... for the food authorities in order to give correct advises to the population. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioavailability of cadmium from whole linseed, crushed linseed, cocoa and cadmium chloride in rats. An experiment where 40 rats were divided into 4 groups and a control group and dosed...... be measured in the kidney compared to the calculated total intake was as follows: Control 2.0 %, Crushed linseed 0.9 %, whole linseed, 1.5 %, cocoa 0.7 % and CdCl2 4.6 %. Based on this study it could not be concluded that the bioavailability in rats form whole linseed is lower that for crushed linseed...

  18. Cadmium versus phosphate in the world ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baar, Hein J.W. de; Saager, Paul M.; Nolting, Rob F.; Meer, Jaap van der

    1994-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the best studied trace metals in seawater and at individual stations exhibits a more or less linear relation with phosphate. The compilation of all data from all oceans taken from over 30 different published sources into one global dataset yields only a broad scatterplot of Cd

  19. PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF CADMIUM MOBILITY IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT. Cadmium is a toxic metal often found with a strong enrichment factor in coastal sediments. ... into the food chain, which could result in a wide variety of adverse effects in animals and ... Sampling scheme and sample conservation ..... of Cd with Fe and Mn oxides has also been reported in others studies [38, 39].

  20. Phytochelatin and cadmium accumulation in wheat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolt, J.P.; Sneller, F.E.C.; Bryngelson, T.; Lundborg, T.; Schat, H.

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a nonessential heavy metal that can be harmful at low concentrations in organisms. Therefore, it is necessary to decrease Cd accumulation in the grains of wheats aimed for human consumption. In response to Cd, higher plants synthesize sulphur-rich peptides, phytochelatins (PCs).