Sample records for cadmium sulfate potassium

  1. 21 CFR 582.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 582.1129 Section 582.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  2. 21 CFR 182.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum potassium sulfate. 182.1129 Section 182.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b...

  3. Modeling of ferric sulfate decomposition and sulfation of potassium chloride during grate‐firing of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Jespersen, Jacob Boll; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming


    Ferric sulfate is used as an additive in biomass combustion to convert the released potassium chloride to the less harmful potassium sulfate. The decomposition of ferric sulfate is studied in a fast heating rate thermogravimetric analyzer and a volumetric reaction model is proposed to describe...... the process. The yields of sulfur oxides from ferric sulfate decomposition under boiler conditions are investigated experimentally, revealing a distribution of approximately 40% SO3 and 60% SO2. The ferric sulfate decomposition model is combined with a detailed kinetic model of gas‐phase KCl sulfation...... and a model of K2SO4 condensation to simulate the sulfation of KCl by ferric sulfate addition. The simulation results show good agreements with experiments conducted in a biomass grate‐firing reactor. The results indicate that the SO3 released from ferric sulfate decomposition is the main contributor to KCl...

  4. Transmission spectra study of sulfate substituted potassium dihydrogen phosphate

    KAUST Repository



    Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals with different amounts of sulfate concentration were grown and the transmittance spectrum was studied. A crystal with high sulfate replacement density exhibits heavy absorption property in the ultraviolet region which confirms and agrees well with former results. © 2013 Astro Ltd.

  5. Modeling of sulfation of potassium chloride by ferric sulfate addition during grate-firing of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Jespersen, Jacob Boll; Aho, Martti


    Potassium chloride, KCl, formed from critical ash-forming elements released during combustion may lead to severe ash deposition and corrosion problems in biomass-fired boilers. Ferric sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3 is an effective additive, which produces sulfur oxides (SO2 and SO3) to convert KCl to the less...... harmful K2SO4. In the present study the decomposition of ferric sulfate is studied in a fast-heating rate thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), and a kinetic model is proposed to describe the decomposition process. The yields of SO2 and SO3 from ferric sulfate decomposition are investigated in a laboratory......-scale tube reactor. It is revealed that approximately 40% of the sulfur is released as SO3, the remaining fraction being released as SO2. The proposed decomposition model of ferric sulfate is combined with a detailed gas phase kinetic model of KCl sulfation, and a simplified model of K2SO4 condensation...

  6. Neurobehavioral toxicity of cadmium sulfate to the planarian Dugesia dorotocephala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grebe, E.; Schaeffer, D.J. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (United States))


    The authors are developing bioassays which use planarians (free-living platyhelminthes) for the rapid determination of various types of toxicity, including acute mortality, tumorigenicity, and short-term neurobehavioral responses. Their motivation for using these animals is due to their importance as components of the aquatic ecology of unpolluted streams their sensitivity to low concentrations of environmental toxicants and the presence of a sensitive neurological system with a true brain which allows for complex social behavior. A previous paper described the results of a neurobehavioral bioassay using phenol in a crossover study. This paper reports a similar crossover study using cadmium sulfate.

  7. Determination of metastable zone width of potassium sulfate in aqueous solution by ultrasonic sensor and FBRM (United States)

    Luo, Mengjie; Liu, Chenglin; Xue, Jin; Li, Ping; Yu, Jianguo


    The metastable zone width (MSZW) and nucleation kinetics of potassium sulfate in the aqueous solution were investigated. MSZW was measured using both the ultrasonic velocity sensor and the focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) at different cooling rate, stirring rate and impurities concentration (aluminum ions and silicon ions), and the effects of these conditions on MSZW were discussed in details. In addition, the accuracy and sensitivity of detectors to measure the nucleation temperature of potassium sulfate in the aqueous solution were compared between the ultrasonic velocity sensor and FBRM over a wider range of operating conditions. Although two detectors measured MSZW with an acceptable accuracy, the ultrasonic velocity sensor had a higher sensitivity to the phase transition of potassium sulfate in solution since it directly detected the concentration change of potassium sulfate in solution. Furthermore, both self-consistent Nývlt-like equation method and classical 3D nucleation theory approach were applied to estimate MSZW of potassium sulfate in aqueous solution. According to these classical theories, the nucleation kinetics parameters were calculated based on the measured MSZW data for potassium sulfate aqueous solution with 40 °C, 50 °C and 60 °C saturation temperature, respectively. It was found two approaches could describe MSZW of potassium sulfate aqueous system very well.

  8. Cadmium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbelt, Jan


    Together with zinc and mercury, cadmium belongs to group IIb of the periodic table. It can be found in rocks, soil, water, coal, zinc ore, lead ore, and copper ore. In the environment, cadmium is present predominantly as the oxide or as the chloride, sulfide, or sulfate salt. It has no recognizable

  9. Zinc-Nickel Codeposition in Sulfate Solution Combined Effect of Cadmium and Boric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Addi


    Full Text Available The combined effect of cadmium and boric acid on the electrodeposition of zinc-nickel from a sulfate has been investigated. The presence of cadmium ion decreases zinc in the deposit. In solution, cadmium inhibits the zinc ion deposition and suppresses it when deposition potential value is more negative than −1.2 V. Low concentration of CdSO4 reduces the anomalous nature of Zn-Ni deposit. Boric acid decreases current density and shifts potential discharge of nickel and hydrogen to more negative potential. The combination of boric acid and cadmium increases the percentage of nickel in the deposit. Boric acid and cadmium.

  10. Modeling the Use of Sulfate Additives for Potassium Chloride Destruction in Biomass Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Pedersen, Morten Nedergaard; Jespersen, Jacob Boll


    -dependent distribution of SO2 and SO3 from ammonium sulfate decomposition. On the basis of these data as well as earlier results, a detailed chemical kinetic model for sulfation of KCl by a range of sulfate additives was established. Modeling results were compared to biomass combustion experiments in a bubbling......Potassium chloride, KCl, formed from biomass combustion may lead to ash deposition and corrosion problems in boilers. Sulfates are effective additives for converting KCl to the less harmful K2SO4 and HCl. In the present study, the rate constants for decomposition of ammonium sulfate and aluminum...... fluidized-bed reactor using ammonium sulfate, aluminum sulfate, and ferric sulfate as additives. The simulation results for ammonium sulfate and ferric sulfate addition compared favorably to the experiments. The predictions for aluminum sulfate addition were only partly in agreement with the experimental...

  11. Modeling the use of sulfate additives for potassium chloride destruction in biomass combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Jespersen, Jacob Boll


    was affected by the decomposition temperature. Based on the experimental data, a model was proposed to simulate the sulfation of KCl by different sulfate addition, and the simulation results were compared with pilot-scale experiments conducted in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor. The simulation results...... of ammonium sulfate addition and ferric sulfation addition compared favorably with the experimental results. However, the model for aluminum sulfate addition under-predicted significantly the high sulfation degree of KCl observed in the experiments, possibly because of an under-estimation of the decomposition......Potassium chloride, KCl, formed from biomass combustion may lead to ash deposition and corrosion problems in boilers. Sulfates are effective additives for converting KCl to the less harmful K2SO4. In the present study, the decomposition of ammonium sulfate, aluminum sulfate and ferric sulfate...

  12. Single crystal EPR study of VO (II)-doped cadmium potassium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Single crystal EPR studies of VO(II)-doped cadmium potassium phosphate hexahydrate (CPPH) have been carried out at room temperature. The angular variation spectra in the three orthogonal planes indicate that the paramagnetic impurity has entered the lattice only substitutionally in place of Cd(II). Spin Hamiltonian ...

  13. Dietary reference intakes for water, potassium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Panel on Dietary Reference Intakes for Electrolytes and Water


    ... intake to the risk of high blood pressure and hypertension as well as other diseases and the amounts of water from beverages and foods needed to maintain hydration. In addition, since requirements for sulfur can be met by inorganic sulfate in the diets of animals, a review of the role in inorganic sulfur in the form of sulfate is included. The gro...

  14. Vanadia-based SCR Catalysts Supported on Tungstated and Sulfated Zirconia: Influence of Doping with Potassium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due-Hansen, Johannes; Boghosian, Soghomon; Kustov, Arkadii


    A series of vanadium-based SCR catalysts supported on sulfated or tungstated ZrO2 were synthesized and characterized by means of N2-BET, XRD, NH3-TPD and in situ Raman spectroscopy. The effect of potassium doping on the properties of vanadia species is studied in detail. A number of catalyst...... and morphology, the surface composition and the molecular configuration of the dispersed vanadates. It was observed that poisoning with potassium had a negligible effect on the surface vanadate species (especially the V=O stretching frequency observed by in situ Raman spectroscopy) if supported on the sulfated...... the observed decrease in V=O stretching frequency and the higher proportion of dimers and higher polymers through coordination between K+ and two neighbouring V=O. The results suggest an increased resistance towards potassium doping for the vanadia-based catalysts supported on sulfated zirconia....

  15. Inhibition of sulfate reduction by iron, cadmium and sulfide in granular sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Silva, Blanca M. [Division de Ciencias Ambientales, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Lomas 4a. Seccion, 78216, San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. (Mexico); Briones-Gallardo, Roberto [Facultad de Ingenieria-Instituto de Metalurgia, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Sierra Leona 550, Lomas 2a. Seccion, 78210, San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. (Mexico); Razo-Flores, Elias [Division de Ciencias Ambientales, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Lomas 4a. Seccion, 78216, San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. (Mexico); Celis, Lourdes B., E-mail: [Division de Ciencias Ambientales, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Lomas 4a. Seccion, 78216, San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. (Mexico)


    This study investigated the inhibition effect of iron, cadmium and sulfide on the substrate utilization rate of sulfate reducing granular sludge. A series of batch experiments in a UASB reactor were conducted with different concentrations of iron (Fe{sup 2+}, 4.0-8.5 mM), cadmium (Cd{sup 2+}, 0.53-3.0 mM) and sulfide (4.2-10.6 mM), the reactor was fed with ethanol at 1 g chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L and sulfate to yield a COD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} (g/g) ratio of 0.5. The addition of iron, up to a concentration of 8.1 mM, had a positive effect on the substrate utilization rate which increased 40% compared to the rate obtained without metal addition (0.25 g COD/g VSS-d). Nonetheless, iron concentration of 8.5 mM inhibited the specific substrate utilization rate by 57% compared to the substrate utilization rate obtained in the batch amended with 4.0 mM Fe{sup 2+} (0.44 g COD/g VSS-d). Cadmium had a negative effect on the specific substrate utilization rate at the concentrations tested; at 3.0 mM Cd{sup 2+} the substrate utilization rate was inhibited by 44% compared with the substrate utilization rate without metal addition. Cadmium precipitation with sulfide did not decrease the inhibition of cadmium on sulfate reduction. These results could have important practical implications mainly when considering the application of the sulfate reducing process to treat effluents with high concentrations of sulfate and dissolved metals such as iron and cadmium.

  16. Sulfation of Condensed Potassium Chloride by SO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengeløv, Louise With; Hansen, Troels Bruun; Bartolomé, Carmen


    The interaction between alkali chloride and sulfur oxides has important implications for deposition and corrosion in combustion of biomass. In the present study, the sulfation of particulate KCl (90–125 μm) by SO2 was studied in a fixed bed reactor in the temperature range 673–1023 K and with rea......The interaction between alkali chloride and sulfur oxides has important implications for deposition and corrosion in combustion of biomass. In the present study, the sulfation of particulate KCl (90–125 μm) by SO2 was studied in a fixed bed reactor in the temperature range 673–1023 K...... and with reactant concentrations of 500–3000 ppm SO2, 1–20% O2, and 4–15% H2O. The degree of sulfation was monitored by measuring the formation of HCl. Analysis of the solid residue confirmed that the reaction proceeds according to a shrinking core model and showed the formation of an eutectic at higher...... temperatures. On the basis of the experimental results, a rate expression for the sulfation reaction was derived. The model compared well with literature data for sulfation of KCl and NaCl, and the results indicate that it may be applied at even higher SO2 concentrations and temperatures than those...

  17. Post-flame gas-phase sulfation of potassium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bo; Sun, Zhiwei; Li, Zhongshan


    The sulfation of KCl during biomass combustion has implications for operation and emissions: it reduces the rates of deposition and corrosion, it increases the formation of aerosols, and it leads to higher concentrations of HCl and lower concentrations of SO2 in the gas phase. Rigorously homogene......The sulfation of KCl during biomass combustion has implications for operation and emissions: it reduces the rates of deposition and corrosion, it increases the formation of aerosols, and it leads to higher concentrations of HCl and lower concentrations of SO2 in the gas phase. Rigorously...... homogeneous systems are required to characterize the gas-phase formation of alkali sulfates. We have measured the temperature and gas-phase concentrations of KCl and HCl, and detected the presence of aerosols in the post-flame region of a range of hydrocarbon flames seeded with KCl, with and without...... and HCl and aerosols formed, most pronounced in flames with the lowest post-flame temperatures. This shows that KCl is sulfated in the gas phase to K2SO4, and this is followed by homogeneous nucleation of K2SO4 to form aerosols. Predictions from a kinetic model of the S/Cl/K chemistry agreed well...

  18. Effect of Nitrogen, Potassium, Magnesium and Zinc Sulfates on Yield and Some Characteristics of Biodiesel Produced from Safflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ranjbar


    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of different amounts of nitrogen fertilizer, potassium sulfate, magnesium sulfate and zinc sulfate on biodiesel produced from safflower, a field experiment was carried out as completely randomized blocks design with three replications, at Research Farm of Shahrekord University in 2010. Treatments included nitrogen fertilizer at three levels (150, 200 and 300 kg/ha, potassium, magnesium and zinc sulfates at 150, 100 and 50 kg/ha, respectively, and control (no fertilizer application. By nourishing the safflower plants, the seed yield and biodiesel traits such as density, iodine value and saponification value were measured. The results showed that the seed yield under treatment of 300 kg/ha nitrogen (913 kg/ha was greater than other treatments. Magnesium sulfate and potassium sulfate produced the highest oil percentage (32.84 and 32.5, respectively. The biodiesel production under utilization of potassium sulfate had greater density, iodine value and saponification value (867.25 kg/m3, 139.7 mg iodine per 100 g oil, and 190.6 mg sodium hydroxide per g oil, respectively compared to other treatments. In general, it was concluded that application of micronutrient fertilizers (especially potassium sulfate improves seed-oil and biodiesel characteristics of safflower.

  19. Liver injury after aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid treatment of hemorrhoids. (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Kenichi; Kawashima, Reimi; Hirose, Yuki; Shibata, Keiko; Akasu, Takafumi; Hagiwara, Noriko; Yokota, Takeharu; Imai, Nami; Iwaku, Akira; Kobayashi, Go; Kobayashi, Hirohiko; Kinoshita, Akiyoshi; Fushiya, Nao; Kijima, Hiroyuki; Koike, Kazuhiko; Saruta, Masayuki


    We are reporting a rare case of acute liver injury that developed after an internal hemorrhoid treatment with the aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid (ALTA) regimen. A 41-year-old man developed a fever and liver injury after undergoing internal hemorrhoid treatment with a submucosal injection of ALTA with lidocaine. The acute liver injury was classified clinically as hepatocellular and pathologically as cholestastic. We could not classify the mechanism of injury. High eosinophil and immunoglobulin E levels characterized the injury, and a drug lymphocyte stimulation test was negative on postoperative day 25. Fluid replacement for two weeks after hospitalization improved the liver injury. ALTA therapy involves injecting chemicals into the submucosa, from the rectum to the anus, and this is the first description of a case that developed a severe liver disorder after this treatment; hence, an analysis of future cases as they accumulate is desirable.

  20. Toxicity detection of sodium nitrite, borax and aluminum potassium sulfate using electrochemical method. (United States)

    Yu, Dengbin; Yong, Daming; Dong, Shaojun


    Based on the inhibition effect on the respiratory chain activity of microorganisms by toxicants, an electrochemical method has been developed to measure the current variation of a mediator in the presence of microorganisms contacted with a toxicant. Microelectrode arrays were adopted in this study, which can accelerate the mass transfer rate of an analyte to the electrode and also increase the total current signal, resulting in an improvement in detection sensitivity. We selected Escherichia coli as the testee and the standard glucose-glutamic acid as an exogenous material. Under oxygen restriction, the experiments in the presence of toxicant were performed at optimum conditions (solution pH 7.0, 37 degrees C and reaction for 3 hr). The resulting solution was then separated from the suspended microorganisms and was measured by an electrochemical method, using ferricyanide as a mediator. The current signal obtained represents the reoxidation of ferrocyanide, which was transformed to inhibiting efficiency, IC50, as a quantitative measure of toxicity. The IC50 values measured were 410, 570 and 830 mg/L for sodium nitrite, borax and aluminum potassium sulfate, respectively. The results show that the toxicity sequence for these three food additives is consistent with the value reported by other methods. Furthermore, the order of damage degree to the microorganism was also observed to be: sodium nitrite > borax > aluminum potassium sulfate > blank, according to the atomic force microscopy images of E. coli after being incubated for 3 hr with the toxic compound in buffer solutions. The electrochemical method is expected to be a sensitive and simple alternative to toxicity screening for chemical food additives.

  1. Cadmium Immobilization in Soil using Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Stabilized Magnetite Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Farrokhian Firouzi


    Full Text Available Introduction Some methods of contaminated soils remediation reduces the mobile fraction of trace elements, which could contaminate groundwater or be taken up by soil organisms. Cadmium (Cd as a heavy metal has received much attention in the past few decades due to its potential toxic impact on soil organism activity and compositions. Cadmium is a soil pollutant of no known essential biological functions, and may pose threats to soil-dwelling organisms and human health. Soil contamination with Cd usually originates from mining and smelting activities, atmospheric deposition from metallurgical industries, incineration of plastics and batteries, land application of sewage sludge, and burning of fossil fuels. Heavy metal immobilization using amendments is a simple and rapid method for the reduction of heavy metal pollution. One way of the assessment of contaminated soils is sequential extraction procedure. Sequential extraction of heavy metals in soils is an appropriate way to determine soil metal forms including soluble, exchangeable, carbonate, oxides of iron and manganese, and the residual. Its results are valuable in prediction of bioavailability, leaching rate and elements transformation in contaminated agricultural soils. Materials and Methods The objective of this study was to synthesize magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4 stabilized with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS and to investigate the effect of its different percentages (0, 1, 2.5, 5, and 10% on the different fractions of cadmium in soil by sequential extraction method. The nanoparticles were synthesized following the protocol described by Si et al. (19. The investigations were carried out with a loamy sand topsoil. Before use, the soil was air-dried, homogenized and sieved (

  2. The Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungi on Dry Matter and Concentrations of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium in Berseem Clover, by Cadmium stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hashem aram


    Zanjan, after the complete analysis of soil and obtaining the chemical and physical properties in the laboratory. 6 kg of soil was weighed for each pot and then the soil was contaminated. Cadmium sulfate was used in this experiment. The mycorrhizal fungi weighed 150 grams and was mixed with the soil. After mixing the soil with mycorrhizal fungi, the soil was put in pots and then it was cultivated with clover. In this study, clover seeds weighed 0/5 grams and were disinfected with 10% hydrogen peroxide solution and were added to each pot. Distilled water was used for irrigation. After the completion of growth of plants (about 70 day, plant aerial parts and roots were harvested and before measuring, they were washed with distilled water and then were dried in the oven for 72 hours. Plant aerial parts were harvested. Data were analyzed by SAS (version 9 and MSTATC (version 2.10 software, and obtained variance analysis tables. Mean comparison of different treatments was conducted by Duncan test. Charts were obtained by excel software. Results and Discussion: The results showed that the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were significant on all traits measured (P< 0.01. With increasing cadmium concentration in soil, dry matter of 37% and 39%, nitrogen concentration of 35% and 28%, Potassium 9/27% and 37%, and phosphorus concentration of 37% and 39%, reduced in root and aerial, respectively. Also the results showed that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increased dry matter amount by 42% and 26%, nitrogen concentration by 40.3% and 30%, phosphorus concentration by 6% and 15.4%, potassium concentrations by 54% and 91.2% in root and aerial, respectively. Interaction between cadmium levels and mycorrhizal fungi in statistics was significant on dry matter aerial, nitrogen concentration in aerial and root, and potassium concentrations in plant root (P< 0.01. Conclusion: The results showed that mycorrhizal fungi were significant on all traits measured in one percent level. Cadmium

  3. Potassium (United States)

    ... and blackberries Root vegetables, such as carrots and potatoes Citrus fruits, such as oranges and grapefruit Your kidneys help to keep the right amount of potassium in your body. If you have chronic kidney disease, your kidneys may not remove extra potassium from ...

  4. Combined aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid sclerosing therapy and anal encirclement using an elastic artificial ligament for rectal prolapse. (United States)

    Abe, Tatsuya; Hachiro, Yoshikazu; Kunimoto, Masao


    Aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid is a sclerosant used for sclerosing therapy in the treatment of hemorrhoids, and a Leeds-Keio artificial ligament is a new anal-encircling material for the management of rectal prolapse. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical data and recurrence rates in patients with rectal prolapse undergoing combined aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid injection and anal encirclement using the Leeds-Keio artificial ligament. This was a retrospective review of patients who underwent this procedure. This study was conducted at a community-based hospital within a specialized colorectal unit. A total of 23 patients (20 women; median age, 83 years) with full-thickness rectal prolapse underwent treatment between 2005 and 2010. The main outcome measures were morbidity and recurrence rate. The median duration of surgery was 36 minutes. Mean total injection dose of aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid was 30 mL. There were no postoperative deaths. Wound infection occurred in 2 patients (9%), and new or worsening symptoms of constipation after surgery occurred in 6 patients (26%). There were 3 recurrences at a median follow-up of 36 months (range, 7-86 months). Recurrence rate at 5 years was 14% (95% CI, 5%-35%). The limitations of this study include its retrospective nature, the potential for selection bias, and lack of a control group. This procedure is quick and easy to perform, with no formidable morbidity, and the recurrence rate is reasonably low. Therefore, it seems to be a reasonable alternative for rectal prolapse in frail, elderly, and high-risk patients.

  5. Different mechanisms for lead acetate, aluminum and cadmium sulfate in rat corpus cavernosum. (United States)

    Senbel, Amira M; Saad, Evan I; Taha, Safaa S; Mohamed, Hosny F


    Some heavy metals show adverse vascular and neurological effects, however, their effect on erection is underestimated. This study aims to investigate the effect of Pb, Cd and Al on erectile function and their potential mechanism of action in rats. Measurement of intracavernosal pressure/mean arterial pressure (ICP/MAP) changes elicited by electrical stimulation of cavernous nerve in anesthetized rats treated with Pb-acetate, Al-sulfate, or Cd-sulfate acutely, and subacutely for 7 days. Serum creatinine, testosterone, TBARs, GSH levels and metal accumulation in corpus cavernosum were measured. Pb, Al and Cd significantly reduced ICP/MAP in rats after acute (2,10-2,10 and 1,3 mg/kg respectively) and sub-acute (3, 3, and 1mg/kg/day respectively) treatments. They selectively accumulated in the corpus cavernosum reaching 25.107 ± 2.081 μg/g wet weight for Pb, 1.029 ± 0.193 for Cd, 31.343 ± 1.991 for Al, compared to 7.084 ± 1.517, 0.296 ± 0.067, and 8.86 ± 1.115 as controls respectively. Serum creatinine levels were not altered. Cd and Al significantly reduced testosterone level to 0.483 ± 0.059 and 0.419 ± 0.037 ng/ml respectively compared to 0.927 ± 0.105 ng/ml as control. Aluminum elevated TBARs significantly by 27.843%. The acute anti-erectile action of Pb was blocked by non-selective NOS and GC inhibitors and potassium channel blocker. Lead also masked the potentiatory effect of l-arginine and diazoxide on ICP/MAP. No interaction with muscarinic or nicotinic modulators was observed. Pb, Cd and Al show anti-erectile effect independent on renal injury. They don not modulate cholinergic nor ganglionic transmission in corpus cavernosum. Pb may inhibit NO/cGMP/K+channel pathway. The effect of Cd and Al but not Pb seems to be hormonal dependent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Biotoxicité hématologique du sulfate de cadmium chez les rats Wistar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le sang a servi à l'hémogramme avec le Sysmex XN-1000. Les résultats ont montré que le cadmium a entrainé une augmentation des globules blancs, une diminution des globules rouges, de l'hémoglobine et des hématocrites chez les mâles comme chez les femelles par rapport au témoin. Le cadmium a entrainé une ...

  7. Preliminary Studies of Acute Cadmium Administration Effects on the Calcium-Activated Potassium (SKCa and BKCa) Channels and Na+/K+-ATPase Activity in Isolated Aortic Rings of Rats. (United States)

    Vassallo, Dalton V; Almenara, Camila C P; Broseghini-Filho, Gilson Brás; Teixeira, Ariane Calazans; da Silva, David Chaves F; Angeli, Jhuli K; Padilha, Alessandra S


    Cadmium is an environmental pollutant closely linked with cardiovascular diseases that seems to involve endothelium dysfunction and reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Knowing that NO causes dilatation through the activation of potassium channels and Na+/K+-ATPase, we aimed to determine whether acute cadmium administration (10 μM) alters the participation of K+ channels, voltage-activated calcium channel, and Na+/K+-ATPase activity in vascular function of isolated aortic rings of rats. Cadmium did not modify the acetylcholine-induced relaxation. After L-NAME addition, the relaxation induced by acetylcholine was abolished in presence or absence of cadmium, suggesting that acutely, this metal did not change NO release. However, tetraethylammonium (a nonselective K+ channels blocker) reduced acetylcholine-induced relaxation but this effect was lower in the preparations with cadmium, suggesting a decrease of K+ channels function in acetylcholine response after cadmium incubation. Apamin (a selective blocker of small Ca2+-activated K+ channels-SKCa), iberiotoxin (a selective blocker of large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels-BKCa), and verapamil (a blocker of calcium channel) reduced the endothelium-dependent relaxation only in the absence of cadmium. Finally, cadmium decreases Na+/K+-ATPase activity. Our results provide evidence that the cadmium acute incubation unaffected the calcium-activated potassium channels (SKCa and BKCa) and voltage-calcium channels on the acetylcholine vasodilatation. In addition, acute cadmium incubation seems to reduce the Na+/K+-ATPase activity.

  8. Effect of Calcium and Potassium on Antioxidant System of Vicia faba L. Under Cadmium Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayssam M. Ali


    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd in soil poses a major threat to plant growth and productivity. In the present experiment, we studied the effect of calcium (Ca2+ and/or potassium (K+ on the antioxidant system, accumulation of proline (Pro, malondialdehyde (MDA, and content of photosynthetic pigments, cadmium (Cd and nutrients, i.e., Ca2+ and K+ in leaf of Vicia faba L. (cv. TARA under Cd stress. Plants grown in the presence of Cd exhibited reduced growth traits [root length (RL plant−1, shoot length (SL plant−1, root fresh weight (RFW plant−1, shoot fresh weight (SFW plant−1, root dry weight (RDW plant−1 and shoot dry weight (SDW plant−1] and concentration of Ca2+, K+, Chlorophyll (Chl a and Chl b content, except content of MDA, Cd and (Pro. The antioxidant enzymes [peroxidase (POD and superoxide dismutase (SOD] slightly increased as compared to control under Cd stress. However, a significant improvement was observed in all growth traits and content of Ca2+, K+, Chl a, Chl b ,Pro and activity of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT, POD and SOD in plants subjected to Ca2+ and/or K+. The maximum alleviating effect was recorded in the plants grown in medium containing Ca2+ and K+ together. This study indicates that the application of Ca2+ and/or K+ had a significant and synergistic effect on plant growth. Also, application of Ca2+ and/or K+ was highly effective against the toxicity of Cd by improving activity of antioxidant enzymes and solute that led to the enhanced plant growth of faba bean plants.

  9. Serum aluminum levels in dialysis patients after sclerotherapy of internal hemorrhoids with aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid. (United States)

    Tsunoda, Akira; Nakagi, Masafumi; Kano, Nobuyasu; Mizutani, Masahiko; Yamaguchi, Kenji


    Aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid (ALTA) is an effective sclerosing agent for internal hemorrhoids. However, it is contraindicated for patients with chronic renal failure on dialysis, because the aluminum in ALTA can cause aluminum encephalopathy when it is not excreted effectively. We conducted this study to measure the serum aluminum concentrations and observe for symptoms relating to aluminum encephalopathy in dialysis patients after ALTA therapy. Ten dialysis patients underwent ALTA therapy for hemorrhoids. We measured their serum aluminum concentrations and observed them for possible symptoms of aluminum encephalopathy. The total injection volume of ALTA solution was 31 mL (24-37). The median serum aluminum concentration before ALTA therapy was 9 μg/L, which increased to 741, 377, and 103 μg/L, respectively, 1 h, 1 day, and 1 week after ALTA therapy. These levels decreased rapidly, to 33 μg/L by 1 month and 11 μg/L by 3 months after ALTA therapy. No patient suffered symptoms related to aluminum encephalopathy. Although the aluminum concentrations increased temporarily after ALTA therapy, dialysis patients with levels below 150 μg/L by 1 week and thereafter are considered to be at low risk of the development of aluminum encephalopathy.

  10. Potentiometric titration of polyhexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride with potassium poly(vinyl sulfate) solution using a cationic surfactant-selective electrode. (United States)

    Masadome, Takashi; Yamagishi, Yuichi; Takano, Masaki; Hattori, Toshiaki


    A potentiometric titration method using a cationic surfactant as an indicator cation and a plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) membrane electrode sensitive to the cationic surfactant is proposed for the determination of polyhexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride (PHMB-HCl), which is a cationic polyelectrolyte. A sample solution of PHMB-HCl containing an indicator cation (hexadecyltrimethylammonium ion, HTA) was titrated with a standard solution of an anionic polyelectrolyte, potassium poly(vinyl sulfate) (PVSK). The end-point was detected as a sharp potential change due to an abrupt decrease in the concentration of the indicator cation, HTA, which is caused by its association with PVSK. The effects of the concentrations of HTA ion and coexisting electrolytes in the sample solution on the degree of the potential change at the end-point were examined. A linear relationship between the concentration of PHMB-HCl and the end-point volume of the titrant exists in the concentration range from 2.0 x 10(-5) to 4.0 x 10(-4) M in the case that the concentration of HTA is 1.0 x 10(-5) M, and that from 1.0 x 10(-6) to 1.2 x 10(-5) M in the case that the concentration of HTA is 5.0 x 10(-6) M, respectively. The proposed method was applied to the determination of PHMB-HCl in some contact-lens detergents.

  11. Genetic and environmental effects on urinary kallikrein, catecholamines, sodium, potassium, urea nitrogen and inorganic sulfate sulfur levels in school-age twins. (United States)

    Kagamimori, S; Naruse, Y; Matsubara, I; Li Fu, B; Sokejima, S; Yamagami, T


    A genetic analysis of twins at school was undertaken using as variables urinary concentrations of kallikrein, catecholamines, sodium and potassium which have been demonstrated to be associated with blood pressure levels. In addition to these variables, urinary concentrations of urea nitrogen and inorganic sulfate sulfur which are indices of protein intake were investigated. 35 pairs of monozygotic twins and 19 pairs of dizygotic twins aged from 6 to 14 years were examined. Variance and correlation tests for genetic analysis indicated that in school children, hereditary factors play a role in the control of urinary potassium, sodium and kallikrein excretion. However, with regard to the urinary excretion of catecholamines, urea nitrogen and inorganic sulfate sulfur, hereditary control is not so apparent.

  12. Feedback inhibition by thiols outranks glutathione depletion: a luciferase-based screen reveals glutathione-deficient γ-ECS and glutathione synthetase mutants impaired in cadmium-induced sulfate assimilation. (United States)

    Jobe, Timothy O; Sung, Dong-Yul; Akmakjian, Garo; Pham, Allis; Komives, Elizabeth A; Mendoza-Cózatl, David G; Schroeder, Julian I


    Plants exposed to heavy metals rapidly induce changes in gene expression that activate and enhance detoxification mechanisms, including toxic-metal chelation and the scavenging of reactive oxygen species. However, the mechanisms mediating toxic heavy metal-induced gene expression remain largely unknown. To genetically elucidate cadmium-specific transcriptional responses in Arabidopsis, we designed a genetic screen based on the activation of a cadmium-inducible reporter gene. Microarray studies identified a high-affinity sulfate transporter (SULTR1;2) among the most robust and rapid cadmium-inducible transcripts. The SULTR1;2 promoter (2.2 kb) was fused with the firefly luciferase reporter gene to quantitatively report the transcriptional response of plants exposed to cadmium. Stably transformed luciferase reporter lines were ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenized, and stable M(2) seedlings were screened for an abnormal luciferase response during exposure to cadmium. The screen identified non-allelic mutant lines that fell into one of three categories: (i) super response to cadmium (SRC) mutants; (ii) constitutive response to cadmium (CRC) mutants; or (iii) non-response and reduced response to cadmium (NRC) mutants. Two nrc mutants, nrc1 and nrc2, were mapped, cloned and further characterized. The nrc1 mutation was mapped to the γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase gene and the nrc2 mutation was identified as the first viable recessive mutant allele in the glutathione synthetase gene. Moreover, genetic, HPLC mass spectrometry, and gene expression analysis of the nrc1 and nrc2 mutants, revealed that intracellular glutathione depletion alone would be insufficient to induce gene expression of sulfate uptake and assimilation mechanisms. Our results modify the glutathione-depletion driven model for sulfate assimilation gene induction during cadmium stress, and suggest that an enhanced oxidative state and depletion of upstream thiols, in addition to glutathione depletion

  13. Injection sclerotherapy using aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid in the treatment of symptomatic rectocele: A prospective case series. (United States)

    Abe, Tatsuya; Kunimoto, Masao; Hachiro, Yoshikazu; Ebisawa, Yoshiaki


    Although various surgical techniques have been described for the treatment of rectocele, there is currently no method exhibiting overall superiority because of the different types of complications and varying rate of recurrence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of injection sclerotherapy using aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid in the management of symptomatic rectocele. Twelve patients were recruited and treated using injection sclerotherapy. Efficacy measures included changes in the Constipation Scoring System value and rectocele size. The median operative duration was 7.5 min (range, 3-16 min). Three months after treatment, the mean Constipation Scoring System value decreased significantly in comparison with the baseline value (8.9 ± 4.1 vs. 4.9 ± 2.8, P = 0.0014) and the mean rectocele size reduced significantly in comparison with the baseline size (3.8 ± 0.5 vs. 1.7 ± 0.9, P < 0.001). Regarding complications, a patient showed temporary fecal impaction after treatment. The recurrence rate at 4 years was 29% (95% confidence interval, 10%-66%). Injection sclerotherapy is quick, easy to perform, and offers reasonable mid-term outcomes; furthermore, it is associated with a low rate of complications. Therefore, it appears to be a reasonable alternative for patients with symptomatic rectocele. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Germination and seedling characteristics of drought-stressed corn seed as influenced by seed priming with potassium nano-chelate and sulfate fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam ZAHEDIFAR


    Full Text Available Effect of seed-priming with potassium (K sources (K-nano-chelate, KNC, and sulfate (0, 2 and 4 % under drought stress (DS conditions (0, -0.3, -0.6, -0.9, -1.2 and -1.5 MPa water potential on the corn seedling traits was studied. Drought stress decreased the germination indices and seedling vigor. The highest germination, seminal root fresh and dry mass (RFM and RDM was obtained in KNC primed seeds at -0.3 MPa DS. Mean germination time increased under DS conditions mainly in non-primed seeds. Increasing DS to -1.2 MPa led to decrease in RFM and RDM. Influence of DS on the fresh mass of shoots was more severe than on seminal roots. The highest shoots and seminal roots length was observed in 4 % KNC without any DS. Proper priming can be suggested to increase the plant tolerance under DS.

  15. Effects of tire rubber ash and zinc sulfate on crop productivity and cadmium accumulation in five rice cultivars under field conditions. (United States)

    Fahad, Shah; Hussain, Saddam; Khan, Fahad; Wu, Chao; Saud, Shah; Hassan, Shah; Ahmad, Naeem; Gang, Deng; Ullah, Abid; Huang, Jianliang


    Cadmium (Cd) is among the most widespread and toxic heavy metals becoming a severe threat to humans. A field study was conducted to examine the role of various zinc (Zn) fertilization treatments and cultivars on crop productivity and Zn and Cd concentrations in brown rice and rice straw. The Zn fertilization treatments included an unfertilized control, foliar applied Zn sulfate (ZnSO4) at panicle initiation stage, foliar applied ZnSO4 at milky stage, soil application of rubber ash, and soil-applied ZnSO4, while five rice cultivars were Swat-1, Shadab, Shua-92, Swat-2, and Sada Hayat. All the Zn fertilization treatments resulted in significantly higher number of panicles, number of spikelets per panicles, spikelet fertility, 1,000-grain weight, grain yield, brown rice and rice straw Zn concentrations, and significantly lower Cd concentrations. Soil application of rubber ash remained the best among all Zn fertilization treatments as it resulted in 73% higher grain yield and reduced Cd concentration by 51% as compared with control. Variations were also apparent among cultivars, and Shua-92 and Swat-2 performed better in terms of all studied attributes as compared with other cultivars. Conclusively, cultivar selection and Zn application are effective strategies to improve rice grain yield as well as quality. Rubber ash appeared a viable source of Zn having the ability to increase yield along with reducing Cd accumulation.

  16. Selection of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii strains resistant to cadmium with improved removal abilities through ultraviolet-diethyl sulfate cooperative mutagenesis. (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Xu, Ying; Wang, Dongfeng; Jiang, Wei


    Cd 2+ resistance and bioaccumulation capacity were selected from parental Zygosaccharomyces rouxii (CRZ-0) while maintaining NaCl tolerance using protoplast mutagenesis technology. Ultraviolet-diethyl sulfate (UV-DES) cooperative mutagenesis, followed by preliminary screening and rescreening, was used to select the mutant strain CRZ-9. CRZ-9 grew better than CRZ-0 in YPD medium with 20 or 50 mg L -1 of Cd 2+ . Scanning electron microscopy observations and flow cytometry tests indicated that CRZ-9 was more effective at eliminating reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by Cd 2+ , which led to less cellular structural damage and lower lethality. Furthermore, compared with CRZ-0, CRZ-9 exhibited increased potential for application with higher Cd 2+ removal ratio, wider working pH range, and lower biomass dosage in Cd 2+ bioaccumulation. The mutant strain CRZ-9 possessed improved Cd 2+ resistance and bioaccumulation capacity and therefore is a promising strain to remove Cd 2+ from wastewater.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The uptake of cadmium from aqueous solution appeared to follow adsorption mechanism and not ion exchange as characteristic of many other divalent hexacyanoferrates. The sorption data were fitted with Langmuir adsorption isotherm. KEY WORDS: Cadmium removal, Potassium manganese hexacynoferrates(II)/(III) Bull.

  18. The synthesis and characterization of complexes of zinc(II, cadmium(II, platinum(II and palladium(II with potassium 3-dithiocarboxy-3-aza-5-aminopentanoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Complexes of zinc(II, cadmium(II, platinum(II and palladium(II with a new polydentate dithiocarbamate ligand, 3-dithiocarboxy-3-aza-5-aminopentanoate (daap-, of the type M(daap2·nH2O (M = Zn(II, Cd(II, n = 2, or M = Pt(II, Pd(II, n = 0, have been prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and UV/VIS spectroscopy, as well as magnetic measurements. The spectra of the complexes suggest a bidentate coordination of the daap- ligand to the metal ions via the sulfur atoms of the deprotonated dithiocarbamato group. The fact that under the same experimental conditions its S-methyl ester does not form complexes could be taken as proof of the suggested coordination mode.

  19. Cadmium Alternatives (United States)


    using for commercial applications Other zinc alloys Zinc cobalt , tin zinc, zinc iron Passivation Cadmium, ZnNi, SnZn, ZnCo, ZnFe, and...for Change Cadmium passivated with hexavalent chromium has been in use for many decades Cadmium is toxic, and is classified as a priority...Executive Orders 13514 & 13423 DoD initiatives – Young memo (April 2009) DFAR restricting use of hexavalent chromium Allows the use of hexavalent

  20. Luminescence and bio-imaging response of thio-glycolic acid (TGA) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated fluorescent cadmium selenide quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarma, Runjun; Mohanta, Dambarudhar, E-mail:


    We demonstrate the usefulness of surfactant coated CdSe quantum dots in bio-imaging applications after evaluating their steady state and time resolved emission responses. The surfactant coated QDs, with the respective sizes of ~14 nm and 10 nm are synthesized considering two different types of coating agents, namely, thio-glycolic acid (TGA) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The steady state luminescence response is characterized by both near band edge (NBE) and defect-related emissions, but with a strong dependency on the nature of surfactant coating. Time resolved photoluminescence (TR-PL) studies have revealed bi-exponential characteristics with CdSe–TGA QDs exhibiting longer life time decay parameters than those of CdSe–SDS QDs. To be specific, the fast (τ{sub 1}) and the slow (τ{sub 2}) components are characterized by ~10 and 30 times larger values in the former than the latter case. In the FT-IR spectra, several stretching and bending vibrations are observed to be adequately influenced by the nature of surfactant coating. The availability of plentiful Na{sup +} counter ions around SDS coated QDs, as evident from the FT-IR spectroscopy studies, can also be responsible for obtaining reduced size of the QDs. In contrast, Raman active modes are apparently distinguishable in TGA coated QDs, with LO and TO mode positions significantly blue-shifted from the bulk values. While attributing to the intense defect mediated emission of TGA coated QDs, the effect of TGA coating presented a stronger fluorescence imaging capability over the SDS coated ones. A detailed assessment of fluorescent counts, as a basis of bio-imaging response, is being discussed on a comparative basis. - Highlights: • Fluorescent CdSe quantum dots are synthesized with two different kinds of surfactant coatings. • Time resolved photoluminescence (TR-PL) studies have revealed bi-exponential decay characteristics. • Both slow and fast decay parameters are found to be longer in CdSe QDs

  1. Potassium test (United States)

    ... also be done if your provider suspects metabolic acidosis (for example, caused by uncontrolled diabetes) or alkalosis ( ... Hypoaldosteronism (very rare) Kidney failure Metabolic or respiratory acidosis Red blood cell destruction Too much potassium in ...





    In this article the findings on the production of complex phosphorus-potassium and nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizer by decomposition of washed and dried phosphoconcentrate from Central Kyzylkum phosphorite with incomplete norms of sulfuric acid with the addition of potassium chloride, sulfate, ammonium nitrate and urea have been given. It has been revealed that the addition of potassium chloride and ammonium salts significantly affect on expansion coefficient and NP and NPK fertilizer...

  3. Chondroitin Sulfate (United States)

    ... a complex with iron for treating iron-deficiency anemia. Chondroitin sulfate is available as an eye drop ... chondroitin sulfate together with xanthan gum (PRO-148, Laboratorios Sophia, SA de CV, Guadalajara, Mexico) four times ...

  4. Potassium in diet (United States)

    ... diet; Hypokalemia - potassium in the diet; Chronic kidney disease - potassium in diet; Kidney failure - potassium in diet ... potassium. Vegetables including broccoli, peas, lima beans, tomatoes, potatoes (especially their skins), sweet potatoes, and winter squash ...

  5. Potassium Blood Test (United States)

    ... page: Potassium Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Potassium Blood Test? A potassium blood test measures the amount of ...

  6. Intercomparison 9711. pH, conductivity, alkalinity, nitrate + nitrite, chloride, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, total aluminium, reactive and non-labile aluminium, dissolved organic carbon, and chemical oxygen demand (ICP Waters report)


    Hovind, H.


    47 laboratories in 22 countries participated in intercomparison 9711. One sample set for the determination of major ions, organic matter and aluminium fractions, were used. Based on the general target accuracy of + 20%, 78% of the results were acceptable. More than 80% of the result pairs were acceptable for chloride, sulfate, calcium, mangnesium, sodium, dissolved organic carbon and chemical oxygen demand. For pH only 43% of the result pairs were acceptable in relation to the extended target...

  7. Intercomparison 9812. pH, conductivity, alkalinity, nitrate + nitrite, chloride, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, total aluminium, reactive and non-labile aluminium, dissolved organic carbon, and chemical oxygen demand (ICP Waters report 49/1998)


    Hovind, H.


    43 laboratories in 20 countries participated in intercomparison 9812. One sample set for the determination of major ions, organic matter and aluminium fractions, were used. Based on the general target accuracy of * 20 %, 74 % of the results were acceptable. More than 80 % of the result pairs were acceptable for conductivity, nitrate + nitrite, sulfate, sodium, and dissolved organic carbon. For pH only 55 % of the result pairs were acceptable in relation to the extended target accuracy of * 0....

  8. Barium Sulfate (United States)

    ... uses a computer to put together x-ray images to create cross-sectional or three dimensional pictures of the inside of the body). Barium sulfate is in a class of medications called radiopaque contrast media. It works by coating the esophagus, stomach, or ...

  9. Penicillin V Potassium (United States)

    Penicillin V potassium is an antibiotic used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as pneumonia, ... Penicillin V potassium comes as a tablet and liquid to take by mouth. It is usually taken ...

  10. Cadmium sulfide membranes (United States)

    Spanhel, Lubomir; Anderson, Marc A.


    A method is described for the creation of novel q-effect cadmium sulfide membranes. The membranes are made by first creating a dilute cadmium sulfide colloid in aqueous suspension and then removing the water and excess salts therefrom. The cadmium sulfide membrane thus produced is luminescent at room temperature and may have application in laser fabrication.

  11. Correlative characteristic of cadmium in soils of steppe Dnieper region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Tsvetkova


    Full Text Available Much attention is paid to searching for methods of establishing environmental standards for objective assessment of admissibility of anthropogenic load on the biosphere. The main pollutants of the environment are xenobiotics; heavy metals such as cadmium occupy hold a special place among them. Cadmium is one of the most dangerous environmental toxic agents, belonging to the 1stclass of hazard. Due to insufficient and fragmented information available on the distribution of cadmium in the city edaphotopes, it’s necessary to conduct additional research, taking into account the properties of soils and the biological characteristics of every element. The paper shows the ratio of cadmium in soils and soil-forming rocks of steppe Dnieper region. Environmental assessment of cadmium content in Dniprodzerzhinsk city soilsis made, and the problem of topsoil contamination of the city as a territory of high anthropogenic load is considered. It is found that the content of cadmium down the profile in natural soil increases. Enrichment of the topsoil with cadmium occurs due to contamination. The value of movable forms content, expressed as a percentage of the total content, varies from 12% to 70%, providing the evidence of the technogenic origin of cadmium in Dniprodzerzhinsk city topsoil. General and proximate correlation analyses of interrelation of soil cadmium and specifically selected characteristics of soil (pH, humus, sulfate ions, dry solid, chloride ions, total alkalinity, hygroscopic moisture were made. It is established that cadmium concentration in the movable forms of natural soils of the steppe Dnieper region depends primarily on pH value. With the increase in pH value, concentration of movable cadmium in soil increases.

  12. KV7 potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Jennifer B; Jepps, Thomas Andrew; Greenwood, Iain A


    Potassium channels are key regulators of smooth muscle tone, with increases in activity resulting in hyperpolarisation of the cell membrane, which acts to oppose vasoconstriction. Several potassium channels exist within smooth muscle, but the KV7 family of voltage-gated potassium channels have been...

  13. Potassium Secondary Batteries. (United States)

    Eftekhari, Ali; Jian, Zelang; Ji, Xiulei


    Potassium may exhibit advantages over lithium or sodium as a charge carrier in rechargeable batteries. Analogues of Prussian blue can provide millions of cyclic voltammetric cycles in aqueous electrolyte. Potassium intercalation chemistry has recently been demonstrated compatible with both graphite and nongraphitic carbons. In addition to potassium-ion batteries, potassium-O2 (or -air) and potassium-sulfur batteries are emerging. Additionally, aqueous potassium-ion batteries also exhibit high reversibility and long cycling life. Because of potentially low cost, availability of basic materials, and intriguing electrochemical behaviors, this new class of secondary batteries is attracting much attention. This mini-review summarizes the current status, opportunities, and future challenges of potassium secondary batteries.

  14. A Facile Conversion of Alcohols to Esters Mediated by Potassium Ferrate


    Kooti, M.; A. Tarassoli; H. H. Javadi; M. Jorfi


    Potassium ferrate in the presence of copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate can convert 1-phenyl ethanol, 4-chloro-1-phenyl ethanol and 2-phenyl ethanol into ester products with good or excellent yields.The reactions have been carried out in n-hexane at room temprature.The effect of other metal salts, as activators, have been also examined instead of copper sulfate.

  15. Potassium maldistribution revisited

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medication errors contribute significantly to human and financial costs.1-4 One of these errors involves incorrect identification of concentrated potassium chloride ampoules. After coronary artery bypass grafting, potassium concentrations lower and higher than 3.3 and 5.2 mmol per liter respectively have been associated ...

  16. Potassium food supplement (United States)

    Bourland, C. T.; Huber, C. S.; Rambaut, C.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.


    Potassium gluconate is considered best supplementary source for potassium. Gluconate consistently received highest taste rating and was indistinguishable from nonsupplemented samples. No unfavorable side effects were found during use, and none are reported in literature. Gluconate is normal intermediary metabolite that is readily adsorbed and produces no evidence of gastrointestinal ulcerations.

  17. Characterization of the physico-chemical properties of polymeric materials for aerospace flight. [differential thermal and atomic absorption spectroscopic analysis of nickel cadmium batteries (United States)

    Rock, M.


    Electrodes and electrolytes of nickel cadmium sealed batteries were analyzed. Different thermal analysis of negative and positive battery electrodes was conducted and the temperature ranges of occurrence of endotherms indicating decomposition of cadmium hydroxide and nickel hydroxide are identified. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to analyze electrodes and electrolytes for traces of nickel, cadmium, cobalt, and potassium. Calibration curves and data are given for each sample analyzed. Instrumentation and analytical procedures used for each method are described.


    Daniel, Jon C.; Kosher, Robert A.; Hamos, James E.; Lash, James W.


    The effect of a high external potassium concentration on the synthesis and deposition of matrix components by chondrocytes in cell culture was determined. There is a twofold increase in the amount of chondroitin 4- and 6-sulfate accumulated by chondrocytes grown in medium containing a high potassium concentration. There is also a comparable increase in the production of other sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAG) including heparan sulfate and uncharacterized glycoprotein components. The twofold greater accumulation of GAG in the high potassium medium is primarily the result of a decrease in their rate of degradation. In spite of this increased accumulation of GAG, the cells in high potassium fail to elaborate appreciable quantities of visible matrix, although they do retain the typical chondrocytic polygonal morphology. Although most of the products are secreted into the culture medium in the high potassium environment, the cell layer retains the same amount of glycosaminoglycan as the control cultures. The inability of chondrocytes grown in high potassium to elaborate the typical hyaline cartilage matrix is not a consequence of an impairment in collagen synthesis, since there is no difference in the total amount of collagen synthesized by high potassium or control cultures. There is, however, a slight increase in the proportion of collagen that is secreted into the medium by chondrocytes in high potassium. Synthesis of the predominant cartilage matrix molecules is not sufficient in itself to ensure that these molecules will be assembled into a hyaline matrix. PMID:4279924

  19. What is Potassium? (United States)

    ... Workout Nutrition Timing Your Pre- and Post-Workout Nutrition weights and fruits Building Muscle on a Vegetarian Diet For Kids For Parents For Men For Women For Seniors What Is Potassium? Reviewed by Taylor Wolfram, MS, ...

  20. Calcium enhances cadmium tolerance and decreases cadmium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These results suggest that cadmium uptake in lettuce plants is negatively associated with the presence of calcium in the culture medium, maybe due to a competition between these two cations for binding and absorption sites in roots. In conclusion, the results suggest that fertilization with Ca2+ appears to be a promising ...

  1. Analysis Of The Underpotential Deposition Of Cadmium On Copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalik R.


    Full Text Available In this study the process of deposition of cadmium on polycrystalline copper electrode in sulfate solution was investigated. The process of underpotential and bulk deposition was analyzed by classical electrochemical method: cyclic voltammetry(CV, anodic stripping voltammetry(ASV and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance(EQCM. The obtained results were compared with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy(EIS measurements. CV, EQCM and EIS results suggest that the UPD of cadmium starts below potential −0.4 V vs Ag/AgCl. Additionally the stripping analysis indicates the formation of cadmium monolayer with different density of deposited atoms depending on the applied potential. The transition from UPD to bulk deposition occurs below potential −0,7 V.

  2. Neural synchronization via potassium signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, Dmitry E; Ryazanova, Ludmila S; Mosekilde, Erik


    Using a relatively simple model we examine how variations of the extracellular potassium concentration can give rise to synchronization of two nearby pacemaker cells. With the volume of the extracellular space and the rate of potassium diffusion as control parameters, the dual nature...... junctional coupling, potassium signaling gives rise to considerable changes of the cellular response to external stimuli....

  3. A Facile Conversion of Alcohols to Esters Mediated by Potassium Ferrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kooti


    Full Text Available Potassium ferrate in the presence of copper(II sulfate pentahydrate can convert 1-phenyl ethanol, 4-chloro-1-phenyl ethanol and 2-phenyl ethanol into ester products with good or excellent yields.The reactions have been carried out in n-hexane at room temprature.The effect of other metal salts, as activators, have been also examined instead of copper sulfate.

  4. Toxicity of cadmium to grapevine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupp, D.; Ruehl, E.; Alleweldt, G.


    Cuttings of the cv. Riesling were cultivated in nutrient solutions with different amounts of cadmium. Cadmium inhibited the growth of shoot and of leaf area and produced chlorosis, necroses and leaf deformations. Old leaves showed no symptoms at all, but with high cadmium levels leaf fall occurred. The threshold of cadmium damage was beneath a level of 0.1 ppm Cd of the nutrient solution. The dry matter production of the plants was reduced by cadmium: 0.66 mg Cd/l of nutrient solution caused an inhibition of 50%. Cadmium reduced the chlorophyll content of the leaves. The transport of iron from roots to leaves was inhibited nearly completely by medium to high levels of cadmium (1.0, 3.0, 10.0 ppm). Iron was accumulated in the roots. Thus cadmium may have caused an iron deficiency chlorosis in grapevines. The uptake of cadmium showed a clear dependence on the amount of cadmium in the nutrient solution. Within the plants, decreasing amounts of cadmium were found following the pattern roots - stem - leaves.

  5. Characteristics, Control and Treatment of Leachate at Military Installations. (United States)


    cyanide triethylamine) Cadmium cyanide Sodium monofluoro- Nitroglycerin Cadmium nitrate acetate Organic mercury Cadmium oxide Tetraborane compounds...Demeton Mercuric nitrate Dinitrophenol Dieldrin Mercuric sulfate Dinitrotoluene Endrin Mercury Dipentaerythritol Ethylene bromide Nickel carbonyl...parathion Potassium arsenite Gold fulminate Parathion Potassium chromate Lead 2,4-dinitroresor- Polychlorinated- Potassium cyanide cinate (LDNR

  6. 29 CFR 1910.1027 - Cadmium. (United States)


    ... battery Plate making, plate preparation 50 All other processes 15 Zinc/Cadmium refining* Cadmium refining... as an airborne concentration of cadmium of 2.5 micrograms per cubic meter of air (2.5 µg/m3... air cadmium level to which an employee is exposed means the exposure to airborne cadmium that would...

  7. Data on electrical properties of nickel modified potassium polytitanates compacted powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Goffman


    Full Text Available Potassium polytitanates are new promising type of ferroelectric ceramic materials with high ionic conductivity, highly polarizable structure and extremely high permittivity. Its structure is formed by [TiO6] octahedral units to layers with mobile potassium and hydroxonium ions in-between. The treatment in solutions containing nickel ions allows forming heterostructured materials which consist of potassium polytitanate particles intercalated by Ni2+ ions and/or decorated by nickel oxides NiOx. This modification route is fully dependant on solution pH, i.e. in acidic solutions the intercalation process prevails, in alkaline solutions potassium polytitanate is mostly decorated by the oxides. Therefore, electronic structure and electrical properties can be regulated depending on modification conditions, pH and ions concentration. Here we report the data on electric properties of potassium titanate modified in nickel sulfate solutions at different pH.

  8. Soil salinity and yield of mango fertigated with potassium sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio A. Carneiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Irrigated fruit crops have an important role in the economic and social aspects in the region of the Sub-middle São Francisco River Valley. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate soil salinity and the productive aspects of the mango crop, cv. Tommy Atkins, fertigated with doses of potassium chloride (KCl and potassium sulfate (K2SO4 during two crop cycles (from January to March 2014 and from January to March 2015. The experiment was carried out in a strip-split-plot design and five potassium doses (50, 75, 100, 125 and 150% of the recommended dose as plots and two potassium sources (KCl and K2SO4 as subplots, with four replicates. Soil electrical conductivity (EC, exchangeable sodium (Na+ and potassium (K+ contents and pH were evaluated. In addition, the number of commercial fruits and yield were determined. The fertilization with KCl resulted in higher soil EC compared with K2SO4 fertigation. Soil Na+ and K+ contents increased with increasing doses of fertilizers. K2SO4 was more efficient for the production per plant and yield than KCl. Thus, under the conditions of this study, the K2SO4 dose of 174.24 g plant-1 (24.89 kg ha-1 or 96.8% of recommendation, spacing of 10 x 7 m was recommended for a yield of 23.1 t ha-1 of mango fruits, cv. Tommy Atkins.

  9. Potassium bis(μ-sulfato-1κO:2κO')bis[cis-dioxido-cis-bis(sulfato-κO)tungstate(VI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäffer, Susan Jeanne Cline; Berg, Rolf W.


    The title compound, K8[{WO2(SO4)2}2(μ-SO4)2], precipitated from a melt of tungsten trioxide and potassium sulfate in potassium disulfate. The W(VI) coordination sphere in the independent K4[WO2(SO4)3] moiety is completed by inversion symmetry, resulting in a dimer with two bridging sulfato ligands...

  10. The ceric sulfate dosimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbakke, Erling


    The process employed for the determination of absorbed dose is the reduction of ceric ions to cerous ions in a solution of ceric sulfate and cerous sulfate in 0.8N sulfuric acid: Ce4+→Ce 3+ The absorbed dose is derived from the difference in ceric ion concentration before and after irradiation...

  11. Heparan sulfate biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Multhaupt, Hinke A B; Couchman, John R


    Heparan sulfate is perhaps the most complex polysaccharide known from animals. The basic repeating disaccharide is extensively modified by sulfation and uronic acid epimerization. Despite this, the fine structure of heparan sulfate is remarkably consistent with a particular cell type. This suggests...... that the synthesis of heparan sulfate is tightly controlled. Although genomics has identified the enzymes involved in glycosaminoglycan synthesis in a number of vertebrates and invertebrates, the regulation of the process is not understood. Moreover, the localization of the various enzymes in the Golgi apparatus has......-quality resolution of the distribution of enzymes. The EXT2 protein, which when combined as heterodimers with EXT1 comprises the major polymerase in heparan sulfate synthesis, has been studied in depth. All the data are consistent with a cis-Golgi distribution and provide a starting point to establish whether all...

  12. Mechanistic study of the influence of pyrolysis conditions on potassium speciation in biochar "preparation-application" process. (United States)

    Tan, Zhongxin; Liu, Liyun; Zhang, Limei; Huang, Qiaoyun


    Biochar samples produced from rice straw by pyrolysis at different temperatures (400°C and 800°C) and under different atmospheres (N2 and CO2) were applied to lettuce growth in a 'preparation-application' system. The conversion of potassium in the prepared biochar and the effect of the temperature used for pyrolysis on the bioavailability of potassium in the biochar were investigated. Root samples from lettuce plants grown with and without application of biochar were assayed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The optimal conditions for preparation of biochar to achieve the maximum bioavailability of potassium (i.e. for returning biochar to soil) were thus determined. Complex-K, a stable speciation of potassium in rice straw, was transformed into potassium sulfate, potassium nitrate, potassium nitrite, and potassium chloride after oxygen-limited pyrolysis. The aforementioned ionic-state potassium species can be directly absorbed and used by plants. Decomposition of the stable speciation of potassium during the pyrolysis process was more effective at higher temperature, whereas the pyrolysis atmosphere (CO2 and N2) had little effect on the quality of the biochar. Based on the potassium speciation in the biochar, the preparation cost, and the plant growth and rigor after the application of returning biochar to soil, 400°C and CO2 atmosphere were the most appropriate conditions for preparation of biochar. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Cadmium hazard in silver brazing. (United States)

    Gan, S L; Tan, S H; Pinnagoda, J; Tan, K T


    This study evaluates the usage of cadmium-containing silver brazing alloys in Singapore and the potential cadmium hazard from its use. Of the 137 factories which responded to the survey questionnaire, only 28 (20.4%) carried out brazing. Of these, only 7 factories used cadmium-containing filler alloys. One hundred and six out of 123 workers from one of these factories had cadmium-in-blood concentrations exceeding 10 mcg/l. Thirty-one (29.2%) of the workers with excessive cadmium absorption had urinary beta-2 microglobulin levels exceeding 28 mcg/g creat. Workers in the other factories who were intermittently exposed had cadmium-in-blood concentrations of 10 mcg/l and below.

  14. Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkman, H.; Iverfeldt, Aa. [Swedish Environmental Research Inst. (Sweden); Borg, H.; Lithner, G. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Inst. for Applied Environmental Research


    This report aims at assessing possible effects of cadmium in the Swedish environment. Swedish soils and soft freshwater systems are, due to a generally poor buffering capacity, severely affected by acidification. In addition, the low salinity in the Baltic Sea imply a naturally poor organism structure, with some important organisms living close to their limit of physiological tolerance. Cadmium in soils is mobilized at low pH, and the availability and toxicity of cadmium in marine systems are enhanced at low salinity. The Swedish environment is therefore extra vulnerable to cadmium pollution. The average concentrations of cadmium in the forest mor layers, agricultural soils, and fresh-waters in Sweden are enhanced compared to `back-ground concentrations`, with a general increasing trend from the north to the south-west, indicating strong impact of atmospheric deposition of cadmium originating from the central parts of Europe. In Swedish sea water, total cadmium concentrations, and the fraction of bio-available `free` cadmium, generally increases with decreasing salinity. Decreased emissions of cadmium to the environment have led to decreasing atmospheric deposition during the last decade. The net accumulation of cadmium in the forest mor layer has stopped, and even started to decrease. In northern Sweden, this is due to the decreased deposition, but in southern Sweden the main reason is increased leakage of cadmium from the topsoil as a consequence of acidification. As a result, cadmium in the Swedish environments is undergoing an extended redistribution between different soil compartments, and from the soils to the aquatic systems. 90 refs, 23 figs, 2 tabs. With 3 page summary in Swedish

  15. Speciation of Dissolved Cadmium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Peter Engelund; Andersen, Sjur; Christensen, Thomas Højlund


    Equilibrium dialysis and ion exchange methods, as well as computer calculations (GEOCHEM), were applied for speciation of dissolved cadmium (Cd) in test solutions and leachate samples. The leachate samples originated from soil, compost, landfill waste and industrial waste. The ion exchange (IE...... leachates showed different Cd speciation patterns as expected. Some leachates were dominated by free divalent Cd (1-70%), some by inorganic complexes (1-87%), and some by organic complexes (7-98%)....

  16. Effects of Potash Fertilizer on Cabbage' s Quality in CadmiumPolluted Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Xiao-jing


    Full Text Available In order to further explain how potassium affect the quality of cabbage growing in cadmium contaminated soils, a pot experiment was carried out to study the effect of different dosages of potash fertilizer on the cabbage yield, physiological characteristics(the concentration of chlorophyll and the activity of antioxidative enzymeand heavy metal concentration in two cadmium contaminated soils. The result showed that cabbage' s fresh weight above ground and underground decreased 2.6% and 19.8% respectively in low cadmium stress, while decreased 7.1%and 45.5%in high cadmiumstress. After increasing the dosage of potash fertilizer in low concentration cadmium polluted soil, cabbage' s fresh weight above ground increased by 0.3%~34.0%and the underground part decreased by 1.2%~7.4%. At the same time, after application of potash fertilizer in high concentration stress, cabbage' s fresh weight above ground had no significant change while the underground part significantly increased by 41.8%~87.3%. The concentration of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b in cabbage leaves increased slightly in low cadmium stress, after application of potash fertilizer, the concentration of chlorophyll a increased greatly but chlorophyll b had no obvious change. The concentration of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b in cabbage leaves decreased greatly in high cadmiumstress and it had no tremen-dous change after application of potash fertilizer. The activity of antioxidative enzymes(CAT, SOD and PODin cabbage leaves were strength-ened in low cadmium stress while the activity of kinds of antioxidative enzymes in cabbage leaves were weakened in high cadmium stress. Af-ter application of potash fertilizer in two cadmium polluted soils, all kinds of enzyme activity had a trend to increase. Applying potash fertiliz-er into the cadmium contaminated soils could effectively increase the concentration of vitamin C, reducing sugar and promote the free amino acids transforming into crude

  17. The Effect of Halopriming and Salicylic Acid on the Germination of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum under Different Cadmium Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo ESPANANY


    Full Text Available The hereby study was based on a factorial experiment conducted in a completely randomized design with four replications, at Agriculture College, Shahrekord University, Iran, in 2014. The role of salicylic acid (SA, potassium nitrate (KNO3 and potassium chloride (KCl was evaluated on seed germination of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. under different cadmium concentrations. Treatments included four levels of seed priming (no priming, potassium chloride, potassium nitrate, salicylic acid and four levels of cadmium concentration (0, 10, 20, 30 mg/L. Cadmium chloride caused a significant inhibition in germination percentage, root elongation, shoot elongation and seedling dry weight. The shoot length was more sensitive to cadmium concentrations than the root length. Primed seeds with SA (100 mg/L proved protection against Cd stress and increased the germination percentage, root elongation, shoot elongation and dry weight of seedlings compared to the control treatment. Seeds treated with SA alleviated the Cd negative effect on germination parameters. In conclusion, using seed priming with salicylic acid can be recommended as a good technique for fenugreek crop on fields exposed to high cadmium toxicity.

  18. Protective role of pectin against cadmium-induced testicular toxicity and oxidative stress in rats. (United States)

    Koriem, Khaled M M; Fathi, Gamal E; Salem, Huda A; Akram, Nabil H; Gamil, Sofie A


    Cadmium has been classified as an environmental pollutant and human carcinogen. Pectin is a family of complex polysaccharides that function as hydrating agents and cementing materials for the cellulosic network. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective role of pectin against cadmium-induced testicular toxicity and oxidative stress in rats. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into five equal groups. Groups 1 and 2 were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) saline (1 mg/kg) and pectin (50 mg/kg), respectively, two days/weeks over three weeks period. Groups 3-5 were injected i.p. with 1 mg/kg cadmium two days/week while groups 4 and 5 co-administrated i.p. with 25 and 50 mg/kg pectin, respectively, three days/week over three weeks period. The results of the present work revealed that cadmium-exposed rats showed decrease in serum testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and lactate dehydrogenase. Testicular cholesterol, total protein, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and reduced glutathione levels were also decreased while testicular malondialdehyde level was increased after cadmium injection. On the other hand, serum luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, sex hormone binding globulin and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase were increased after cadmium exposure. Cadmium also induced sperms loss. Co-administration of pectin with cadmium restores all the above parameters and sperms to the normal levels where pectin at higher dose was more effective than lower one. These results were supported by histochemical investigations. In conclusion, pectin can counteract the testicular toxicity and oxidative stress induced by cadmium and the effect was dose-dependent.

  19. Electrolyte Management Considerations in Modern Nickel Hydrogen and Nickel Cadmium Cell and Battery Designs (United States)

    Thaller, Lawrence H.; Zimmerman, Albert H.


    This paper reviews three general areas where the potassium ion content can impact the performance and life of nickel hydrogen and nickel cadmium cells. Sample calculations of the concentration or volume changes that can take place within operating cells are presented. With the aid of an accurate model of an operating cell or battery, the impact of changes of potassium ion content within a potential cell design can be estimated. All three of these areas are directly related to the volume tolerance and pore size engineering aspects of the components used in the cell or battery design.

  20. Dietary reference values for potassium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael


    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives dietary reference values (DRVs) for potassium. The Panel decides to set DRVs on the basis of the relationships between potassium intake and blood pressure and stroke...

  1. Potassium supplementation and heart rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbers, L.; Molenberg, Famke; Bakker, S.J.L.; Geleijnse, J.M.


    Background and aims: Increasing the intake of potassium has been shown to lower blood pressure, but whether it also affects heart rate (HR) is largely unknown. We therefore assessed the effect of potassium supplementation on HR in a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Methods and

  2. Cadmium in blood and hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eum, Ki-Do; Lee, Mi-Sun [Department of Environmental Health, Graduate School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paek, Domyung [Department of Environmental Health, Graduate School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail:


    Objectives:: This study is to examine the effect of cadmium exposure on blood pressure in Korean general population. Methods:: The study population consisted of 958 men and 944 women who participated in the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), in which blood pressure and blood cadmium were measured from each participant. Results:: The mean blood cadmium level was 1.67 {mu}g/L (median level 1.55). The prevalence of hypertension was 26.2%. The blood cadmium level was significantly higher among those subjects with hypertension than those without (mean level 1.77 versus 1.64 {mu}g/dL). After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratio of hypertension comparing the highest to the lowest tertile of cadmium in blood was 1.51 (95% confidence interval 1.13 to 2.05), and a dose-response relationship was observed. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure were all positively associated with blood cadmium level, and this effect of cadmium on blood pressure was markedly stronger when the kidney function was reduced. Conclusions:: Cadmium exposures at the current level may have increased the blood pressure of Korean general population.

  3. Direct Sulfation of Limestone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Guilin; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Wedel, Stig


    The direct sulfation of limestone was studied in a laboratory fixed-bed reactor. It is found that the direct sulfation of limestone involves nucleation and crystal grain growth of the solid product (anhydrite). At 823 K and at low-conversions (less than about 0.5 %), the influences of SO2, O-2...... and CO2 on the direct sulfation of limestone corresponds to apparent reaction orders of about 0.2, 0.2 and -0.5, respectively. Water is observed to promote the sulfation reaction and increase the apparent reaction orders of SO2 and O-2. The influence of O-2 at high O-2 concentrations (> about 15...... %) becomes negligible. In the temperature interval from 723 K to 973 K, an apparent activation energy of about 104 kJ/mol is observed for the direct sulfation of limestone. At low temperatures and low conversions, the sulfation process is most likely under mixed control by chemical reaction and solid...

  4. Cardiac potassium channel subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Nicole; Grunnet, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter


    About 10 distinct potassium channels in the heart are involved in shaping the action potential. Some of the K(+) channels are primarily responsible for early repolarization, whereas others drive late repolarization and still others are open throughout the cardiac cycle. Three main K(+) channels...... drive the late repolarization of the ventricle with some redundancy, and in atria this repolarization reserve is supplemented by the fairly atrial-specific KV1.5, Kir3, KCa, and K2P channels. The role of the latter two subtypes in atria is currently being clarified, and several findings indicate...... that they could constitute targets for new pharmacological treatment of atrial fibrillation. The interplay between the different K(+) channel subtypes in both atria and ventricle is dynamic, and a significant up- and downregulation occurs in disease states such as atrial fibrillation or heart failure...

  5. Cadmium exposure in the Swedish environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report gives a thorough description of cadmium in the Swedish environment. It comprises three parts: Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks;, Cadmium in goods - contribution to environmental exposure;, and Cadmium in fertilizers, soil, crops and foods - the Swedish situation. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all three parts

  6. Cloning and occurrence of czrC, a gene conferring cadmium and zinc resistance in MRSA CC398 Isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaco, Lina; Hasman, Henrik; Stegger, Marc


    determinant, czrC, by PCR. The cloning of czrC confirmed that the zinc chloride and cadmium acetate MICs for isogenic constructs carrying this gene were increased compared to those for S. aureus RN4220. No difference in susceptibility to sodium arsenate, copper sulfate, or silver nitrate was observed. Seventy...

  7. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B; Svendsen, P


    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) is known to alleviate acute toxicity due to injection of cadmium salts. However, when cadmium chloride was administered by the oral route, DDC enhanced rather than alleviated the acute toxicity; both oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of DDC had this effect....... Thus, orally administered DDC enhanced cadmium-induced duodenal and ileal tissue damage and inhibition of peristalsis, as indicated by an increased intestinal transit time. At low cadmium doses, the whole-body retention of cadmium was increased by oral DDC administration. Intraperitoneally administered...... DDC increased cadmium-induced acute mortality and testicular necrosis, and it enhanced cadmium-induced reduction of intestinal motility and increased the whole-body retention of cadmium, indicating increased intestinal cadmium absorption. Also, DDC changed the organ distribution of absorbed cadmium...

  8. Cadmium immobilization by hydroxyapatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smičiklas Ivana D.


    Full Text Available The contamination of air, soil and water by cadmium is a great environmental problem. If cadmium occurs in nature in ionic form, soluble in water, it easily enters into the food chain. Hydroxyapatite (HAP, Ca-o(POAe(OH2 is a sparingly soluble salt and an excellent matrix for the removal of heavy metals from solutions. Considerable research attention has been paid to the bond between Cc/2+ ions and synthetic hydroxyapatite of known composition. The sorption mechanism is complex. The dominant process is ion exchange, but surface adsorption, surface complexation and coprecipitation can also contribute to the overall mechanism. The sorption capacity depends on the characteristics of hydroxyapatite itself and on the experimental conditions. Under optimum conditions a maximum capacity of 0.8 mol Cd2+/mol HAP can be achieved. HAP is a potential sorbent for the remediation of contaminated water and soil, for industrial waste treatment, and it is also referenced as a material that can be used as a barrier around waste depositories.

  9. Cadmium colours: composition and properties (United States)

    Paulus, J.; Knuutinen, U.

    The composition and the properties of cadmium aquarelle colours are discussed. The examined colours were 24 different aquarelle cadmium colours from six different manufacturers. The colours ranged from light, bright yellows to dark, deep-red tones. The aim of this research was to find out if the pigments contain cadmium salts: sulphides and/or selenides. This information will help in choosing watercolours in conservation processes. Today, aquarelle colours not containing cadmium pigments are being sold as cadmium colours; thus their properties might be different from actual cadmium colours. The aim of the research was to verify that the colour samples contained cadmium pigments and to estimate their compositions and ageing properties. Element analyses were performed from colour samples using micro-chemical tests and X-ray fluorescence measurements. Thin-layer chromatography was used for analysing gum Arabic as a possible binding medium in the chosen colour samples. Through ageing tests, the resistance of the colour samples to the exposure to light, heat and humidity was studied. Visible-light spectroscopy was used in determining the hues and hue changes of the aquarelle colour samples. The spectrophotometer used the CIE L*a*b* tone colour measuring system. From the colour measurements the changes in the lightness/darkness, the redness, the yellowness and the saturation of the samples were examined.

  10. Syndecan heparan sulfate proteoglycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Angélica Maciel; Sinkeviciute, Dovile; Multhaupt, Hinke A.B.


    Virtually all animal cells express heparan sulfate proteoglycans on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix. Syndecans are a major group of transmembrane proteoglycans functioning as receptors that mediate signal transmission from the extracellular microenvironment to the cell. Their hep......Virtually all animal cells express heparan sulfate proteoglycans on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix. Syndecans are a major group of transmembrane proteoglycans functioning as receptors that mediate signal transmission from the extracellular microenvironment to the cell....... Their heparan sulfate chains, due to their vast structural diversity, interact with a wide array of ligands including potent regulators of adhesion, migration, growth and survival. Frequently, ligands interact with cell surface heparan sulfate in conjunction with high affinity receptors. The consequent...... signaling can therefore be complex, but it is now known that syndecans are capable of independent signaling. This review is divided in two sections, and will first discuss how the assembly of heparan sulfate, the anabolic process, encodes information related to ligand binding and signaling. Second, we...

  11. Genetic disorders of potassium homeostasis. (United States)

    Jain, Gaurav; Ong, Song; Warnock, David G


    Hereditary disorders of potassium homeostasis are an interesting group of disorders, affecting people from the newborn period to adults of all ages. The clinical presentation varies from severe hypotension at birth to uncontrolled hypertension in adults, often associated with abnormal potassium values, although many patients may have a normal serum potassium concentration despite being affected by the genetic disorder. A basic understanding of these disorders and their underlying mechanisms has significant clinical implications, especially in the few patients with subtle clinical signs and symptoms. We present a summary of these disorders, with emphasis on the clinical presentation and genetic mechanisms of these disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Potassium 4-azidobenzenesulfonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Biesemeier


    Full Text Available In, K+·SO3–p-C6H4–N3−, the conformation angle of the azido group with respect to the benzene ring is 19.1 (3°, so that the anion is chiral within the crystal structure. In addition, the crystal structure is also chiral (Sohncke space group. The potassium ion is coordinated by three closer O atoms from three different sulfonyl groups [K...O 2.6486 (17 to 2.7787 (17 Å], three more distant O atoms [K...O 2.959 (2 to 3.206 (2 Å] and three N atoms at 3.073 (2 to 3.268 (2 Å. The anions are packed into layers perpendicular to b, only O and N atoms being at the surface of the layers. The K+ ions are located between the layers.

  13. Potassium Channels in Neurofbromatosis-1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Mingkui


    .... We were the first to investigate potential mechanisms of cognitive impairment in NF-1 at the molecular level involving potassium channels, and demonstrated a possible mechanism for the learning deficits seen in NF1...

  14. The Protective Roles of Zinc and Magnesium in Cadmium-Induced Renal Toxicity in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Babaknejad


    Full Text Available Background: Cadmium (Cd is a heavy metal that has widespread use. It enters the food chain in different ways, including soil and water. Cadmium can cause dysfunction of different body organs. Zinc (Zn and magnesium (Mg supplementation can have protective effects against cadmium toxicity due to their antagonistic and antioxidants properties. This study examines the influence of supplemental Zn and Mg on Cd renal toxicity. Methods: Young male Wistar rats were divided into six groups of five. The Cd group received 1 mg Cd/kg and the control group received 0.5 mg/kg normal saline (i.p.. The other four groups were administered 1 mg/kg Cd+0.5 mg/kg Zn, 1 mg/kg Cd+1.5 mg/kg Zn, 1 mg/kg Cd+ 0.5 mg/kg Mg, and 1 mg/kg Cd+ 1.5 mg/kg Mg (i.p. for 21 days. Then, serum sodium, potassium, urea, creatinine, and protein levels were measured. Results: The results indicated that creatinine and protein levels decreased while urea, sodium, and potassium levels increased as a result of Cd exposure. Co-administered Cd and Zn and Mg decreased urea and increased sodium serum level in comparison to the cadmium group. Treatment by Mg, contrary to co-administered Cd and Zn, reduced serum protein level compared to the cadmium group. Compared to the cadmium treated group, Zn and Mg treatment enhanced serum creatinine level and reduced serum potassium level. Conclusion: The findings seem to suggest that zinc and magnesium compounds, due to their antagonistic and antioxidant activities, can protect Cd renal toxic effects in a dose-dependent manner.

  15. Characterization of a cadmium-binding complex of cabbage leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, G.J.


    The chemical nature of a principle, inducible cadmium-binding complex which accumulates in cabbage leaves was studied and compared with that of animal metallothionein and copper-binding proteins isolated from various organisms. The apparent molecular weight of native cabbage complex and carboxymethylated ligand of the complex under native conditions as determined by gel filtration was about 10,000 daltons. Under denaturing conditions their apparent molecular weights were about 2000 daltons. Ligand of native complex contained 37, 28, and 9 residue per cent of glutamic acid-glutamine, cysteine, and glycine, respectively, and low aromatic residue, serine and lysine content. The high acidic and low hydrophobic residue content explain the behavior of complex on electrophoresis in the presence and absence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Its isoelectric point was below 4.0 and it bound 4 to 6 moles cadmium per mole ligand in what appear to be cadmium-mercaptide chromophores. The complex was found to be heat stable, relatively protease insensitive, and lacking in disulfide bonds. Attempts to determine the primary sequence of reduced native complex and carboxymethylated, cleaved ligand using the Edman degradation procedure were unsuccessful. An electrophoretic procedure is described for preparative isolation of purified complex and a method is described for monitoring ligand of complex as its fluorescent dibromobimane adduct. 31 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  16. 21 CFR 184.1610 - Potassium alginate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium alginate. 184.1610 Section 184.1610 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1610 Potassium alginate. (a) Potassium alginate (CAS Reg. No... algae. Potassium alginate is prepared by the neutralization of purified alginic acid with appropriate pH...

  17. Use of Biomass as a Sustainable and Green Fuel with Alkali-Resistant DeNOx Catalysts based on Sulfated or Tungstated Zirconia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due-Hansen, Johannes; Fehrmann, Rasmus; Christensen, Claus H.

    poisons is the use of supports with highly acidic properties, which would interact stronger with potassium than the vanadium species. Among those, sulfated and tungstated zirconica appears very attractive, since their surface acidity can be tuned in a wide range by varying the preparation procedure, WOX......, sulfated, and tungstated zirconia were prepared and tested. The influence of potassium additives on the acidity and activity was studied and the results were compared with traditional V2O5-WO3/TiO2 catalyst. Resistance of the catalysts towards poisoning with potassium was found to depend dramatically...... on the crystallinity and surface acidity of the support used. Better resistance of the samples based on sulfated and tungstated zirconia seems to be connected with the fact that a significant part of the potassium on the surface of the catalyst preferentially interact with strong acid sites of the support thus...

  18. Aluminum Sulfate 18 Hydrate (United States)

    Young, Jay A.


    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) of the chemical, aluminum sulfate 18 hydrate, is presented. The profile lists physical and harmful properties, exposure limits, reactivity risks, and symptoms of major exposure for the benefit of teachers and students using the chemical in the laboratory.

  19. Determination of chlorate in potassium perchlorate pyrotechnic material by specific ion electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yates, W.G.


    A method for the determination of chlorate ion in potassium perchlorate was developed. The analytical method utilized a reduction of the chlorate ion to the chloride ion with ferrous ammonium sulfate. The chloride ions produced by this reduction step were then determined with a specific ion electrode technique. The amount of chlorate ion was determined by calculating how much chlorate ion was represented by the analyzed chloride ion making an appropriate adjustment for the amount of free chloride ion found in the potassium perchlorate and deionized water.

  20. Studies on voltammetric determination of cadmium in samples containing native and digested proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozd, Marcin; Pietrzak, Mariusz, E-mail:; Malinowska, Elżbieta


    Highlights: • Proteins exhibit diverse impact on the DPASV cadmium signals. • Proteins subjected to HNO{sub 3} introduce less interference, than the native ones. • Optimal amount of SDS depends on the kind of protein. • Presence of thiolated coating agents of QDs do not influence the analysis. - Abstract: This work focuses on determination of cadmium ions using anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) on thin film mercury electrode in conditions corresponding to those obtained after digestion of cadmium-based quantum dots and their conjugates. It presents the impact of selected proteins, including potential receptors and surface blocking agents on the voltammetric determination of cadmium. Experiments regarding elimination of interferences related to proteins presence using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) are also shown. Effect of SDS on selected analytical parameters and simplicity of analyses carried out was investigated in the framework of current studies. The significant differences of influence among tested proteins on ASV cadmium determination, as well as the variability in SDS effectiveness as the antifouling agent were observed and explained. This work is especially important for those, who design new bioassays and biosensors with a use of quantum dots as electrochemical labels, as it shows what problems may arise from presence of native and digested proteins in tested samples.

  1. Mechanical Activation-Assisted Reductive Leaching of Cadmium from Zinc Neutral Leaching Residue Using Sulfur Dioxide (United States)

    Zhang, Chun; Min, Xiaobo; Chai, Liyuan; Zhang, Jianqiang; Wang, Mi


    In this work, zinc neutral leaching residue was mechanically activated by ball-milling. The subsequent leaching behavior and kinetics of cadmium extraction in a mixed SO2-H2SO4 system were studied. Changes in the crystalline phase, lattice distortion, particle size and morphology, which were induced by mechanical activation, were also investigated. The activated samples showed different physicochemical characteristics, and cadmium extraction was found to be easier than for the un-activated samples. Under the same conditions, mechanical activation contributed to higher cadmium leaching. The cadmium extraction kinetics at 75-95°C was found to fit the shrinking core model. The raw neutral leaching residue, and the samples activated for 60 min and 120 min had a calculated activation energy of 65.02 kJ/mol, 59.45 kJ/mol and 53.46 kJ/mol, respectively. The leaching residue was characterized by ICP, XRD and SEM analysis. According to XRD analysis, the main phases in the residue were lead sulfate (PbSO4), zinc sulfide (ZnS) and cadmium sulfide (CdS).

  2. Zinc-induced protection against cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Early, J.L.; Schnell, R.C.


    Pretreatment of male rats with cadmium acetate potentiates the duration of hexobarbital hypnosis and inhibits the rate of hepatic microsomal drug metabolism. Pretreatment of rats with zinc acetate protects against these alterations in drug action elicited by cadmium.

  3. Cadmium uptake by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghiri, F.


    Absorption of /sup 115m/Cd by soybean (Gylcine max l.) plants via foliar and root systems and translocation into the seed was determined. The uptake of /sup 115m/Cd by soybeans via the root system was more efficient than that of the foliar placement. Growth and Cd concentrations of soybean and wheat (Triticum aestivum l.) tops were influenced by soil-applied Cd. In both crops, the Cd concentration of plant tops increased while yield decreased with increasing levels of applied Cd. Cadmium toxicitiy began to occur in both crops at the lowest level of soil applied Cd (2.5 ppM). With soybean plants, Cd toxicity symptoms resembled fe chlorosis. For wheat plants there were no visual symptoms other than the studied growth. The relative concentration of Cd found in several vegetable crops varied depending on the plant species. The relative Cd concentration in descending order for various vegetables was lettuce (Lactuca sativa l.) > radish top (Raphanus sativus l.) > celery stalk (Apium graveolens l.) > celery leaves greater than or equal to green pepper (Capsicum frutescens l.) > radish roots.

  4. Bioavailability of cadmium from linseed and cocoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Rasmussen, Rie Romme

    In Denmark and EU the exposure of cadmium from food is at a level that is relatively close to the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI). This report describes an investigation of the bioavailability of cadmium in selected food items known to contain high levels of cadmium. The purpose was to provide data ...... or crushed linseed nor the intake of cocoa and chocolate....

  5. Determination of silver, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in geologic materials by atomic absorption spectrometry with tricaprylylmethylammonium chloride (United States)

    Viets, J.G.


    Interferences commonly encountered in the determination of silver, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc at crustal abundance levels are effectively eliminated using a rapid, sensitive, organic extraction technique. A potassium chlorate-hydrochloric acid digestion solubilizes the metals not tightly bound in the silicate lattice of rocks, soils, and stream sediments. The six metals are selectively extracted into a 10% Aliquat 336-MIBK organic phase in the presence of ascorbic acid and potassium iodide. Metals in the organic extract are determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry to the 0.02-ppm level for silver, cadmium, copper, and zinc and to the 0.2-ppm level for bismuth and lead with a maximum relative standard deviation of 18.8% for known reference samples. An additional hydrofluoric acid digestion may be used to determine metals substituted in the silicate lattice.

  6. Barium toxicity and the role of the potassium inward rectifier current. (United States)

    Bhoelan, B S; Stevering, C H; van der Boog, A T J; van der Heyden, M A G


    Barium is a stable divalent earth metal and highly toxic upon acute and chronic exposure. Barium is present in many products and involved in a number of industrial processes. Barium targets the potassium inward rectifier channels (IRCs) of the KCNJx gene family. Extracellular barium enters and strongly binds the potassium selectivity filter region resulting in blockade of the potassium conducting pore. IRCs are involved in numerous physiological processes of the human body and the most barium sensitive IRCs are highly expressed in all muscle types. Our purpose was correlate to the clinical outcome of acute barium poisoning in man to current knowledge on IRC function. The primary literature search was performed using Medline, Scopus and Google Scholar using search terms "barium AND poisoning"; "barium AND intoxication"; "barium AND case report" and retrieved publications from 1945 through 2012. Additional case reports were retrieved based on the reference lists of the primary hits. Duplicate publications, or publications presenting identical cases were omitted. A total of 39 case reports on acute barium poisoning containing 226 human subjects were identified for review. BaCO3 was the most frequent source and food the most frequent mode of poisoning. Patients suffered from gastrointestinal (vomiting, diarrhea), cardiovascular (arrhythmias, hypertension), neuromuscular (abnormal reflexes, paralysis), respiratory (respiratory arrest/failure) and metabolic (hypokalemia) symptoms. Severe hypokalemia (barium serum concentrations greater than or equal to 0.0025 mM. Review of the ECG outcomes demonstrated ventricular extrasystoles, ST changes and profound U-waves to be associated strongly with poisoning. Most common treatment modalities were gastric lavage, oral sulfates, potassium i.v. and cardiorespiratory support. 27 patients (12%) died from barium poisoning. Barium is a potent, non-specific inhibitor of the potassium IRC current and affects all types of muscle at

  7. Can Diuretics Decrease Your Potassium Level? (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions High blood pressure (hypertension) Can diuretics decrease your potassium level? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Yes, some diuretics — also called water pills — decrease potassium in the ...

  8. Radiation dosimetry by potassium feldspar

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Radiation dosimetry by potassium feldspar. ARUN PANDYA*, S G VAIJAPURKAR and P K BHATNAGAR. Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur 342 011, India. MS received 12 July 1999; revised 15 February 2000. Abstract. The thermoluminescence (TL) properties of raw and annealed feldspar have been studied for their.

  9. Crystal structure of tris(piperidinium hydrogen sulfate sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara J. Lukianova


    Full Text Available In the title molecular salt, 3C5H12N+·HSO4−·SO42−, each cation adopts a chair conformation. In the crystal, the hydrogen sulfate ion is connected to the sulfate ion by a strong O—H...O hydrogen bond. The packing also features a number of N—H...O hydrogen bonds, which lead to a three-dimensional network structure. The hydrogen sulfate anion accepts four hydrogen bonds from two cations, whereas the sulfate ion, as an acceptor, binds to five separate piperidinium cations, forming seven hydrogen bonds.

  10. Removal of cadmium from acidic phosphatic solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankenfeld, K.; Brodt, P.; Eich, G.; Ruschke, P.


    The invention is concerned with a process of removing cadmium from acid, especially P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-containing solutions by liquid/liquid extraction with the aid of alkyl amine salts that are dissolved in an inert, organic solvent. The cadmium ions are removed from the acid, aqueous phase and are enriched in the organic phase. The cadmium-containing organic phase, subsequently, is re-extracted with an aqueous salt solution, with the cadmium ions migrating from the organic phase into the aqueous phase. The process is particularly suitable for extracting cadmium from concentrated, highly acid aqueous solutions.

  11. Increased serum potassium affects renal outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miao, Y; Dobre, D; Heerspink, H J Lambers


    To assess the effect of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) on serum potassium and the effect of a serum potassium change on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy.......To assess the effect of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) on serum potassium and the effect of a serum potassium change on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy....

  12. Magnesium supplements affect selected cadmium toxic actions and uptake of repeated doses of cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grosicki Andrzej


    Full Text Available The importance of magnesium supplements on organ retention of cadmium and allometric parameters after repeated exposure to cadmium chloride were studied in male Wistar rats. Magnesium chloride was given via drinking water (500 mg Mg/L to rats exposed intragastrically to cadmium chloride (labelled with cadmium 109 at a daily dose corresponding to 25 mg/kg diet for 7, 14, 21, and 28 d. Supplements of magnesium temporarily decreased cadmium retention in the duodenum and liver. No significant differences in cadmium retention were evidenced in the kidneys and testicles. The supplements of magnesium also retain more of the body weight gains and restore the relative liver and testicle weight in rats intoxicated with cadmium. Comparison of the present results with earlier reports suggests a relationship between doses of magnesium and cadmium; higher doses of cadmium need more magnesium to overcome toxic action of the heavy metal.

  13. Isolation, identification and cadmium adsorption of a high cadmium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 27, 2010 ... P. chrysosporium was used to biosorp cadmium (II), lead (II), copper (II) and the adsorption capacities reached 23.04, 69.77 and 20.33mg/g dry biomass, respectively (Say et al. 2001). The maximum experimental biosorption capacities for entrapped live and dead fungal mycelia of L. sajur-caju were found ...

  14. 21 CFR 582.7610 - Potassium alginate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 582.7610 Section 582.7610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium alginate. (a) Product. Potassium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 582.1613 Section 582.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Potassium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 298-14-6) is made by the following processes: (1) By treating a solution of...

  17. 21 CFR 172.730 - Potassium bromate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium bromate. 172.730 Section 172.730 Food and... Specific Usage Additives § 172.730 Potassium bromate. The food additive potassium bromate may be safely... malt from the treatment does not exceed 75 parts per million of bromate (calculated as Br), and the...

  18. Thanatochemistry: Study of vitreous humor potassium | Tumram ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study has been carried out to determine the death interval from the biochemical parameter of vitreous potassium. In 308 medicolegal cases vitreous humor was taken and analyzed for potassium with known time of death. There was a linear rise in potassium concentration with increasing death interval. Regression ...

  19. 2-Amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob T; Andersen, Klaus E


    positive patch test reactions to the coupler 2-amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate 2% pet. from 2005 to 2014. METHODS: Patch test results from the Allergen Bank database for eczema patients patch tested with 2-amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate 2% pet. from 2005 to 2014 were reviewed. RESULTS......: A total of 902 dermatitis patients (154 from the dermatology department and 748 from 65 practices) were patch tested with amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate 2% pet. from 2005 to 2014. Thirteen (1.4%) patients had a positive patch test reaction. Our results do not indicate irritant reactions....... CONCLUSIONS: 2-Amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate is a new but rare contact allergen....

  20. Functional characterization of a cadmium resistance operon in Staphylococcus aureus ATCC12600: CadC does not function as a repressor. (United States)

    Hoogewerf, Arlene J; Dyk, Lisa A Van; Buit, Tyler S; Roukema, David; Resseguie, Emily; Plaisier, Christina; Le, Nga; Heeringa, Lee; Griend, Douglas A Vander


    Sequencing of a cadmium resistance operon from a Staphylococcus aureus ATCC12600 plasmid revealed that it is identical to a cadCA operon found in MRSA strains. Compared to plasmid-cured and cadC-mutant strains, cadC-positive ATCC12600 cells had increased resistance to cadmium (1 mg ml(-1) cadmium sulfate) and zinc (4 mg ml(-1) zinc sulfate), but not to other metal ions. After growth in media containing 20 µg ml(-1) cadmium sulfate, cadC-mutant cells contained more intracellular cadmium than cadC-positive ATCC12600 cells, suggesting that cadC absence results in impaired cadmium efflux. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays were performed with CadC proteins encoded by the S. aureus ATCC12600 plasmid and by the cadC gene of pI258, which is known to act as a transcriptional repressor and shares only 47% protein sequence identity with ATCC12600 CadC. Mobility shifts occurred when pI258 CadC protein was incubated with the promoter DNA-regions from the pI258 and S. aureus ATCC12600 cadCA operons, but did not occur with S. aureus ATCC12600 CadC protein, indicating that the ATCC12600 CadC protein does not interact with promoter region DNA. This cadCA operon, found in MRSA strains and previously functionally uncharacterized, increases resistance to cadmium and zinc by an efflux mechanism, and CadC does not function as a transcriptional repressor. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Study on the Effect of Calcium and Potassium Spray on Date Bunch Fading Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Shekofteh


    Full Text Available Introduction: Date bunch fading disorder has been one of the most important problems, which caused economic damage to date plantation area of Iran. It has been first reported on Mozafti cultivar in Kahnuj area, Kerman province. It has often been observed on soft and mid ripening cultivars such as Mozafti, Mordaseng and Kalote. Furthermore, it usually appears on Mozafti cultivar when fruits change from Khalal to Rutab stage. The most important symptoms of this disorder are sudden wilting of fruits and necrotic strips on the upper surface of the main bunch stalk. Incidence and development of these symptoms increase by high temperature, low relative humidity, and hot and dry wind. Several research studies have been carried out on this disorder so far, but the only research about the effect of nutrition on disorder was performed by Rosta (2003. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of calcium and potassium spray on date bunch fading and some traits of date fruit in Rigan region, Kerman province. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block designs with three replicates in Rigan located in east south of Kerman province, Iran, in 2012. Treatments were: T1: control, T2: spray of calcium nitrate at the concentration of 5 ppm, T3: spray of potassium sulfate at the concentration of 5 ppm, and T4: combined spray of calcium nitrate and potassium sulfate at the concentration of 5 ppm. Treatments were applied at Kimri, Hobabok and Khalal stages. Sampling was performed from 3 date palms (3 bunches from each date palm were selected randomly at the second date harvest. Totally, the traits of 200 fruits were measured in each date palm. The traits measured in the present study were: fruit length, fruit diameter, fruit weight, stone weight, stone diameter, and bunch fading percentage. Results and Discussions: According to the data of variance analysis, treatments had a significant effect on wet fruit

  2. Mechanisms of cadmium induced genomic instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filipic, Metka, E-mail: [National Institute of Biology, Department for Genetic Toxicology and Cancer Biology, Ljubljana (Slovenia)


    Cadmium is an ubiquitous environmental contaminant that represents hazard to humans and wildlife. It is found in the air, soil and water and, due to its extremely long half-life, accumulates in plants and animals. The main source of cadmium exposure for non-smoking human population is food. Cadmium is primarily toxic to the kidney, but has been also classified as carcinogenic to humans by several regulatory agencies. Current evidence suggests that exposure to cadmium induces genomic instability through complex and multifactorial mechanisms. Cadmium dose not induce direct DNA damage, however it induces increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which in turn induce DNA damage and can also interfere with cell signalling. More important seems to be cadmium interaction with DNA repair mechanisms, cell cycle checkpoints and apoptosis as well as with epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression control. Cadmium mediated inhibition of DNA repair mechanisms and apoptosis leads to accumulation of cells with unrepaired DNA damage, which in turn increases the mutation rate and thus genomic instability. This increases the probability of developing not only cancer but also other diseases associated with genomic instability. In the in vitro experiments cadmium induced effects leading to genomic instability have been observed at low concentrations that were comparable to those observed in target organs and tissues of humans that were non-occupationally exposed to cadmium. Therefore, further studies aiming to clarify the relevance of these observations for human health risks due to cadmium exposure are needed.

  3. Bioaccumulation of cadmium by growing Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (United States)

    Li, Chunsheng; Jiang, Wei; Ma, Ning; Zhu, Yinglian; Dong, Xiaoyan; Wang, Dongfeng; Meng, Xianghong; Xu, Ying


    Bioaccumulation via growing cells is a potential technique for heavy metal removal from food materials. The cadmium bioaccumulation characteristics by growing Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated. Z. rouxii displayed powerful cadmium removal ability at low cadmium concentrations, which mainly depended on the intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation. The percentage of intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation of both yeasts obviously decreased with the increase of initial biomass and cadmium concentrations. Low pH and elevated concentrations of zinc and copper significantly decreased the intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation of both yeasts but improved the cadmium tolerance and the cell-surface cadmium bioaccumulation of Z. rouxii. Cadmium removal of Z. rouxii was improved by zinc and copper conditionally. Z. rouxii that possessed more powerful cadmium tolerance and removal ability at low pH and high concentration of competing ions can be developed into a potential cadmium removal agent using in complex food environment in future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cadmium content of plants as affected by soil cadmium concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehoczky, E. [Pannon Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Keszthely (Hungary); Szabados, I.; Marth, P. [Plant Health and Soil Conservation Station, Higany (Hungary)


    Pot experiments were conducted in greenhouse conditions to study the effects of increasing cadmium (Cd) levels on biomass production and Cd contents in corn, (Zea mays L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Plants were grown in two soil types: Eutric cambisol soil and A gleyic luvisol soil. Spinach proved to be the most sensitive to Cd treatments as its biomass considerably decreased with the increasing Cd levels. Cadmium contents of the three crops increased with increasing levels of Cd applications. Statistical differences were observed in the Cd contents of crops depending on soil type. With the same Cd rates, Cd tissue concentration of test plants grown in the strongly acidic Gleyic luvisol soil were many times higher than that of plants grown in a neutral Eutric cambisol soil. 14 refs., 4 tabs.

  5. The inhibitory effects of potassium chloride versus potassium silicate application on (137)Cs uptake by rice. (United States)

    Fujimura, Shigeto; Yoshioka, Kunio; Ota, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Sato, Makoto; Satou, Mutsuto


    After the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant owned by the Tokyo Electric Power Company on 11 March 2011, potassium fertilizer was applied to agricultural fields in the southern Tohoku and northern Kanto regions of Japan to reduce the uptake of radiocesium by crops. In this study, we examined the effects of two types of potassium fertilizers, potassium chloride (a readily available potassium fertilizer) and potassium silicate (a slow-release potassium fertilizer), as well as a split application of potassium, on the accumulation of (137)Cs by rice plants in two pot experiments. The (137)Cs concentrations in the brown rice and in the above-ground plants were significantly lower after potassium chloride application than after potassium silicate application. The potassium ion (K(+)) concentrations in soil solutions sampled 9 and 21 d after transplanting were significantly higher for the potassium chloride application than for the potassium silicate application. The K(+) concentrations in soil solutions observed in the application of potassium silicate were similar to those in the treatment when no potassium was applied. This finding indicates that the application of potassium silicate did not sufficiently increase the available K(+) for rice plants in the soil, which led to a greater uptake of (137)Cs after the potassium silicate application than after the application of potassium chloride. The (137)Cs concentration in brown rice was higher in the split application of potassium fertilizer with the second application at the full heading stage than that without split application and the split application with the second application before heading. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cadmium and Cadmium/Zinc Ratios and Tobacco-Related Morbidities (United States)

    Richter, Patricia; Faroon, Obaid; Pappas, R. Steven


    Metals are one of five major categories of carcinogenic or toxic constituents in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Cadmium is highly volatile and a higher percentage of the total tobacco cadmium content is efficiently transferred to mainstream tobacco smoke than many other toxic metals in tobacco. Inhaled cadmium bioaccumulates in the lungs and is distributed beyond the lungs to other tissues, with a total body biological half-life of one to two decades. Chronic cadmium exposure through tobacco use elevates blood and urine cadmium concentrations. Cadmium is a carcinogen, and an inducer of proinflammatory immune responses. Elevated exposure to cadmium is associated with reduced pulmonary function, obstructive lung disease, bronchogenic carcinoma, cardiovascular diseases including myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, pancreatic cancer, and various oral pathologies. Cadmium and zinc have a toxicologically inverse relationship. Zinc is an essential element and is reportedly antagonistic to some manifestations of cadmium toxicity. This review summarizes associations between blood, urine, and tissue cadmium concentrations with emphasis on cadmium exposure due to tobacco use and several disease states. Available data about zinc and cadmium/zinc ratios and tobacco-related diseases is summarized from studies reporting smoking status. Collectively, data suggest that blood, urine, and tissue cadmium and cadmium/zinc ratios are often significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers and they are also different in smokers for several diseases and cancers. Additional biomonitoring data such as blood or serum and urine zinc and cadmium levels and cadmium/zinc ratios in smokers may provide further insight into the development and progression of diseases of the lung, cardiovascular system, and possibly other organs. PMID:28961214

  7. Cadmium and Cadmium/Zinc Ratios and Tobacco-Related Morbidities. (United States)

    Richter, Patricia; Faroon, Obaid; Pappas, R Steven


    Metals are one of five major categories of carcinogenic or toxic constituents in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Cadmium is highly volatile and a higher percentage of the total tobacco cadmium content is efficiently transferred to mainstream tobacco smoke than many other toxic metals in tobacco. Inhaled cadmium bioaccumulates in the lungs and is distributed beyond the lungs to other tissues, with a total body biological half-life of one to two decades. Chronic cadmium exposure through tobacco use elevates blood and urine cadmium concentrations. Cadmium is a carcinogen, and an inducer of proinflammatory immune responses. Elevated exposure to cadmium is associated with reduced pulmonary function, obstructive lung disease, bronchogenic carcinoma, cardiovascular diseases including myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, pancreatic cancer, and various oral pathologies. Cadmium and zinc have a toxicologically inverse relationship. Zinc is an essential element and is reportedly antagonistic to some manifestations of cadmium toxicity. This review summarizes associations between blood, urine, and tissue cadmium concentrations with emphasis on cadmium exposure due to tobacco use and several disease states. Available data about zinc and cadmium/zinc ratios and tobacco-related diseases is summarized from studies reporting smoking status. Collectively, data suggest that blood, urine, and tissue cadmium and cadmium/zinc ratios are often significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers and they are also different in smokers for several diseases and cancers. Additional biomonitoring data such as blood or serum and urine zinc and cadmium levels and cadmium/zinc ratios in smokers may provide further insight into the development and progression of diseases of the lung, cardiovascular system, and possibly other organs.

  8. Cadmium and Cadmium/Zinc Ratios and Tobacco-Related Morbidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Richter


    Full Text Available Metals are one of five major categories of carcinogenic or toxic constituents in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Cadmium is highly volatile and a higher percentage of the total tobacco cadmium content is efficiently transferred to mainstream tobacco smoke than many other toxic metals in tobacco. Inhaled cadmium bioaccumulates in the lungs and is distributed beyond the lungs to other tissues, with a total body biological half-life of one to two decades. Chronic cadmium exposure through tobacco use elevates blood and urine cadmium concentrations. Cadmium is a carcinogen, and an inducer of proinflammatory immune responses. Elevated exposure to cadmium is associated with reduced pulmonary function, obstructive lung disease, bronchogenic carcinoma, cardiovascular diseases including myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, pancreatic cancer, and various oral pathologies. Cadmium and zinc have a toxicologically inverse relationship. Zinc is an essential element and is reportedly antagonistic to some manifestations of cadmium toxicity. This review summarizes associations between blood, urine, and tissue cadmium concentrations with emphasis on cadmium exposure due to tobacco use and several disease states. Available data about zinc and cadmium/zinc ratios and tobacco-related diseases is summarized from studies reporting smoking status. Collectively, data suggest that blood, urine, and tissue cadmium and cadmium/zinc ratios are often significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers and they are also different in smokers for several diseases and cancers. Additional biomonitoring data such as blood or serum and urine zinc and cadmium levels and cadmium/zinc ratios in smokers may provide further insight into the development and progression of diseases of the lung, cardiovascular system, and possibly other organs.

  9. Relations between liver cadmium, cumulative exposure, and renal function in cadmium alloy workers.


    Mason, H. J.; Davison, A G; Wright, A. L.; Guthrie, C J; Fayers, P M; Venables, K M; Smith, N J; Chettle, D R; Franklin, D M; Scott, M. C.


    Detailed biochemical investigations of renal function were made on 75 male workers exposed to cadmium and an equal number of referents matched for age, sex, and employment status. The exposed group consisted of current and retired workers who had been employed in the manufacture of copper-cadmium alloy at a single factory in the United Kingdom for periods of up to 39 years and for whom cumulative cadmium exposure indices could be calculated. In vivo measurements of liver and kidney cadmium bu...

  10. Effect of copper and cadmium on three Malaysian tropical estuarine invertebrate larvae. (United States)

    Ramachandran, S; Patel, T R; Colbo, M H


    Three species of tropical estuarine invertebrates were exposed to copper sulfate and cadmium chloride to investigate their potential as test specimens for sediment toxicity assays in the South-east Asian regions. The larvae of the reef sea urchin (Diadema setosum), the oyster (Crassostrea iradalei), and the mud crab (Scylla seratta Forskall) were used in the 48-hr assays with copper and cadmium as reference toxicants. In addition the sea urchin were tested for end point measurements at different stages of the larval development and a 60-min sperm bioassay. The study revealed that the sea urchin first cleavage, which is an assay end point and which takes place about 1 hr after fertilization, was the most sensitive stage for both toxicants, with copper being more toxic than cadmium. Sensitivity comparisons between the three invertebrate larvae revealed the mud crab zoea larvae to be most sensitive for cadmium with an LC50 value of 0.078 microgram/ml, while the sea urchin was more sensitive for copper, with EC50 values of 0.01 microgram/ml at the first cleavage stage and 0.04 microgram/ml at the pluteus larva stage. All the invertebrates tested gave responses that made them suitable test organisms for metal bioassays in the tropical estuarine environment.

  11. Cadmium resistance in Drosophila: a small cadmium binding substance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, K.B.; Williams, M.W.; Richter, L.J.; Holt, S.E.; Hook, G.J.; Knoop, S.M.; Sloop, F.V.; Faust, J.B.


    A small cadmium-binding substance (CdBS) has been observed in adult Drosophila melanogaster that were raised for their entire growth cycle on a diet that contained 0.15 mM CdCl/sub 2/. Induction of CdBS was observed in strains that differed widely in their sensitivity of CdCl/sub 2/. This report describes the induction of CdBS and some of its characteristics. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. [Effects of cadmium on testis function]. (United States)

    Martynowicz, Helena; Skoczyńska, Anna; Karczmarek-Wdowiak, Beata; Andrzejak, Ryszard


    The deterioration of male fertility, reported in numerous epidemiological studies over past decades, can be connected with growing exposure to environmental toxins. Heavy metals, especially cadmium, is widely spread and extremely toxic. The mechanisms of cadmium toxic effects vary and involve the damage of vascular endothelium, intracellular junctions, germ cells, Leydig and Sertoli cells. Cadmium can increase activity of reactive oxygen species and induce changes in activity of enzymatic systems and inflammatory reactions. The morphological changes caused by cadmium included the necrosis of seminiferous tubiles and interstitial edema. This metal can reduce testosterone synthesis at various levels and deteriorate spermatogenesis. Cadmium is also acknowledged carcinogen with confirmed mutagenic and genotoxic activity. Increasing environmental exposure to cadmium, currently existing occupational exposure and the prevalence of tobacco smoking results in constant increase in the number of diagnosed fertility impairments.

  13. Potassium Intake, Bioavailability, Hypertension, and Glucose Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Stone


    Full Text Available Potassium is an essential nutrient. It is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid where it plays a key role in maintaining cell function. The gradient of potassium across the cell membrane determines cellular membrane potential, which is maintained in large part by the ubiquitous ion channel the sodium-potassium (Na+-K+ ATPase pump. Approximately 90% of potassium consumed (60–100 mEq is lost in the urine, with the other 10% excreted in the stool, and a very small amount lost in sweat. Little is known about the bioavailability of potassium, especially from dietary sources. Less is understood on how bioavailability may affect health outcomes. Hypertension (HTN is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD and a major financial burden ($50.6 billion to the US public health system, and has a significant impact on all-cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. The relationship between increased potassium supplementation and a decrease in HTN is relatively well understood, but the effect of increased potassium intake from dietary sources on blood pressure overall is less clear. In addition, treatment options for hypertensive individuals (e.g., thiazide diuretics may further compound chronic disease risk via impairments in potassium utilization and glucose control. Understanding potassium bioavailability from various sources may help to reveal how specific compounds and tissues influence potassium movement, and further the understanding of its role in health.

  14. Evaluation of the potassium adsorption capacity of a potassium adsorption filter during rapid blood transfusion. (United States)

    Matsuura, H; Akatsuka, Y; Muramatsu, C; Isogai, S; Sugiura, Y; Arakawa, S; Murayama, M; Kurahashi, M; Takasuga, H; Oshige, T; Yuba, T; Mizuta, S; Emi, N


    The concentration of extracellular potassium in red blood cell concentrates (RCCs) increases during storage, leading to risk of hyperkalemia. A potassium adsorption filter (PAF) can eliminate the potassium at normal blood transfusion. This study aimed to investigate the potassium adsorption capacity of a PAF during rapid blood transfusion. We tested several different potassium concentrations under a rapid transfusion condition using a pressure bag. The adsorption rates of the 70-mEq/l model were 76·8%. The PAF showed good potassium adsorption capacity, suggesting that this filter may provide a convenient method to prevent hyperkalemia during rapid blood transfusion. © 2015 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  15. Sulfated Zirconia as Alkali-Resistant Support for Catalytic NOx Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The use of bio-fuels as alternatives to traditional fossil fuels has attracted much attention recent years since bio-fuels belong to a family of renewable types of energy sources and do not contribute to the green-house effect. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with ammonia as reductant ...... interact with potassium stronger than active metal species. Among potential carriers, sulfated zirconia is of high interest because its acidic and textural properties can be modified by varying preparation conditions....

  16. Protective Effect of Humic acid and Chitosan on Radish (Raphanus sativus, L. var. sativus Plants Subjected to Cadmium Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. EL-Gahmery


    Full Text Available BackgroundHumic acid or chitosan has been shown to increase plant growth, yield and improving physiological processes in plant, but its roles on alleviating the harmful effect of cadmium on plant growth and some physiological processes in plants is very rare. Pot experiments were conducted to study the role of 100 and 200 mg/kg dry soil from either humic acid or chitosan on counteracted the harmful effects of cadmium levels (100 and 150 mg/kg dry soil on radish plant growth and some physiological charactersResultsCadmium at 100 and 150 mg kg-1 soil decreased significantly length, fresh and dry weights of shoot and root systems as well as leaf number per plant in both seasons. Chlorophyll, total sugars, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, relative water content, water deficit percentage and soluble proteins as well as total amino acids contents were also decreased. Meanwhile, cadmium concentration in plants was increased. On the other hand, application of chitosan or humic acid as soil addition at the concentration of 100 or 200 mg kg-1 increased all the above mentioned parameters and decreased cadmium concentrations in plant tissues. Chitosan at 200 mg kg-1 was the most effective than humic acid at both concentrations in counteracting the harmful effect of cadmium stress on radish plant growth.ConclusionIn conclusion, both natural chelators, in particular, chitosan at 200 mg/kg dry soil can increase the capacity of radish plant to survive under cadmium stress due to chelating the Cd in the soil, and then reduced Cd bio-availability.

  17. Electrodialytic Removal of Cadmium from Straw Ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne


    A problem with flyash from straw and wood combustion is the high level of heavy metals, especially cadmium. Two electrodialytic remediation experiments were carried out on cadmium polluted flyash from straw combustion. The flyash could be cleaned to 1/3 of its initial level after 24 days of remed......A problem with flyash from straw and wood combustion is the high level of heavy metals, especially cadmium. Two electrodialytic remediation experiments were carried out on cadmium polluted flyash from straw combustion. The flyash could be cleaned to 1/3 of its initial level after 24 days...

  18. Interplay of calcium and cadmium in mediating cadmium toxicity. (United States)

    Choong, Grace; Liu, Ying; Templeton, Douglas M


    The environmentally important toxic metal, cadmium, exists as the Cd(2+) ion in biological systems, and in this state structurally resembles Ca(2+). Thus, although cadmium exerts a broad range of adverse actions on cells by virtue of its propensity to bind to protein thiol groups, it is now well appreciated that Cd(2+) participates in a number of Ca(2+)-dependent pathways, attributable to its actions as a Ca(2+) mimetic, with a central role for calmodulin, and the Ca(2+)/calmodlin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK-II) that mediates effects on cytoskeletal dynamics and apoptotic cell death. Cadmium interacts with receptors and ion channels on the cell surface, and with the intracellular estrogen receptor where it binds competitively to residues shared by Ca(2+). It increases cytosolic [Ca(2+)] through several mechanisms, but also decreases transcript levels of some Ca(2+)-transporter genes. It initiates mitochondrial apoptotic pathways, and activates calpains, contributing to mitochondria-independent apoptosis. However, the recent discovery of the role CaMK-II plays in Cd(2+)-induced cell death, and subsequent implication of CaMK-II in Cd(2+)-dependent alterations of cytoskeletal dynamics, has opened a new area of mechanistic cadmium toxicology that is a focus of this review. Calmodulin is necessary for induction of apoptosis by several agents, yet induction of apoptosis by Cd(2+) is prevented by CaMK-II block, and Ca(2+)-dependent phosphorylation of CaMK-II has been linked to increased Cd(2+)-dependent apoptosis. Calmodulin antagonism suppresses Cd(2+)-induced phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and the Akt survival pathway. The involvement of CaMK-II in the effects of Cd(2+) on cell morphology, and particularly the actin cytoskeleton, is profound, favouring actin depolymerization, disrupting focal adhesions, and directing phosphorylated FAK into a cellular membrane. CaMK-II is also implicated in effects of Cd(2+) on microtubules and cadherin junctions. A key question for

  19. Potassium (United States)

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  20. Heparan sulfate and cell division

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porcionatto M.A.


    Full Text Available Heparan sulfate is a component of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues which appears during the cytodifferentiation stage of embryonic development. Its structure varies according to the tissue and species of origin and is modified during neoplastic transformation. Several lines of experimental evidence suggest that heparan sulfate plays a role in cellular recognition, cellular adhesion and growth control. Heparan sulfate can participate in the process of cell division in two distinct ways, either as a positive or negative modulator of cellular proliferation, or as a response to a mitogenic stimulus.

  1. p-Cresyl Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Gryp


    Full Text Available If chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with an impairment of kidney function, several uremic solutes are retained. Some of these exert toxic effects, which are called uremic toxins. p-Cresyl sulfate (pCS is a prototype protein-bound uremic toxin to which many biological and biochemical (toxic effects have been attributed. In addition, increased levels of pCS have been associated with worsening outcomes in CKD patients. pCS finds its origin in the intestine where gut bacteria metabolize aromatic amino acids, such as tyrosine and phenylalanine, leading to phenolic end products, of which pCS is one of the components. In this review we summarize the biological effects of pCS and its metabolic origin in the intestine. It appears that, according to in vitro studies, the intestinal bacteria generating phenolic compounds mainly belong to the families Bacteroidaceae, Bifidobacteriaceae, Clostridiaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcaceae, Eubacteriaceae, Fusobacteriaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Lactobacillaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, Staphylococcaceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Veillonellaceae. Since pCS remains difficult to remove by dialysis, the gut microbiota could be a future target to decrease pCS levels and its toxicity, even at earlier stages of CKD, aiming at slowing down the progression of the disease and decreasing the cardiovascular burden.

  2. [Norfloxacin Solution Degradation Under Ultrasound, Potassium Persulfate Collaborative System]. (United States)

    Wei, Hong; Shi, Jing-zhuan; Li, Jia-lin; Li, Ke-bin; Zhao, Lin; Han, Kai


    High oxidative sulfate radicals can be produced by potassium persulfate (K2S2O8). The integrated effect of ultrasonic and K2S2O8, on norfloxacin degradation was investigated. The experimental parameters such as K2S2O8 concentration, norfloxacin initial concentration, initial pH value, free radicals quenching agents such as methanol and tert-butyl on norfloxacin degradation were discussed. The results indicated that ultrasonic/K2S2O8, system had an obvious degradation and mineralization effect on norfloxacin. Norfloxacin removal efficiencies were 3.2 and 8.9 times in ultrasonic/K2S2O8 system than those in single K252O8 and ultrasonic oxidation system, respectively. And the reaction followed the first-order kinetics. Norfloxacin removal efficiency varied gently with K2S2O8 concentration. Solution initial pH had a significant effect on norfloxacin degradation, which was attributed to the different oxidizing species under different pH values. The radicals were sulfate radicals under acidic and neutral conditions, and was the combination of sulfate and hydroxyl radicals under alkaline conditions. TOC and agar diffusion test with E. coli showed that 49.12% norfloxacin was mineralized and antibacterial activity was completely removed, with the diameter of E. coli inhibition zone decreased from 45 mm to 14 mm (filter paper diameter). The result implied that ultrasound/K2S2O8 showed promising results as a possible application for treatment of norfloxacin antibiotics wastewater.

  3. Interactions between bicarbonate, potassium, and magnesium, and sulfur-dependent induction of luminescence in Vibrio fischeri. (United States)

    Tabei, Yosuke; Era, Mariko; Ogawa, Akane; Morita, Hiroshi


    In spite of its central importance in research efforts, the relationship between seawater compounds and bacterial luminescence has not previously been investigated in detail. Thus, in this study, we investigated the effect of cations (Na(+) , K(+) , NH(4) (+) , Mg(2+) , and Ca(2+) ) and anions (Cl(-) , HCO(3) (-) , CO(3) (2-) , and NO(3) (-) ) on the induction of both inorganic (sulfate, sulfite, and thiosulfate) and organic (L-cysteine and L-cystine) sulfur-dependent luminescence in Vibrio fischeri. We found that HCO(3) (-) (bicarbonate) and CO(3) (2-) (carbonate), in the form of various compounds, had a stimulatory effect on sulfur-dependent luminescence. The luminescence induced by bicarbonate was further promoted by the addition of magnesium. Potassium also increased sulfur-dependent luminescence when sulfate or thiosulfate was supplied as the sole sulfur source, but not when sulfite, L-cysteine, or L-cystine was supplied. The positive effect of potassium was accelerated by the addition of magnesium and/or calcium. Furthermore, the additional supply of magnesium improved the induction of sulfite- or L-cysteine-dependent luminescence, but not the l-cystine-dependent type. These results suggest that sulfur-dependent luminescence of V. fischeri under nutrient-starved conditions is mainly controlled by bicarbonate, carbonate, and potassium. In addition, our results indicate that an additional supply of magnesium is effective for increasing V. fischeri luminescence. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Detection of Mercury's Potassium Tail (United States)

    Schmidt, Carl; Leblanc, Francois; Moore, Luke; Bida, Thomas A.


    Ground-based observations of Mercury's exosphere bridge the gap between the MESSENGER and BepiColombo missions and provide a broad counterpart to their in situ measurements. Here we report the first detection of Mercury's potassium tail in both emission lines of the D doublet. The sodium to potassium abundance ratio at 5 planetary radii down-tail is approximately 95, near the mid-point of a wide range of values that have been quoted over the planet's disk. This is several times the Na/K present in atmospheres of the Galilean satellites and more than an order of magnitude above Mercury's usual analogue, the Moon. The observations confirm that Mercury's anomalously high Na/K ratios cannot be explained by differences in neutral loss rates. The width and structure of the Na and K tails is comparable and both exhibit a persistent enhancement in their northern lobe. We interpret this as a signature of Mercury's offset magnetosphere; the exosphere's source rates are locally enhanced at the southern surface, and sloshing from radiation pressure and gravity guides this population into the northern region of the tail.

  5. Sulfate decomposition by bacterial leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deveci, N.; Delaloglu, C.G. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey)


    Sulfate disposal is the main problem of many industrial effluents, such as excess sulfuric acid, gypsum, coal desulfurization byproducts, acid-mine waters, and general metallurgical effluents. It has been established that sulfate present in wastes can be converted to elemental sulfur by bacterial mutualism. This study presents the results of an investigation of the industrial feasibility of utilizing a biological system capable of converting hydrous calcium sulfate (gypsum) to elemental sulfur. Gypsum, which was used in this study, is a byproduct of the fertilizer industry. The biological system is referred to as a bacterial mutualism, and involves Desulfovibrio desulfuricans for sulfate conversion and Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum for hydrogen sulfide conversion. Bacterial mutualism and utilization of sulfate were investigated by means of a two-stage anaerobic system. In the first stage, a gas purge system was used for sulfate conversion to sulfide, and it was found that maximum conversion is 34%. In the second stage, a static culture system was used for sulfide conversion to sulfur with a conversion of 92%. 14 refs., 5 tabs.

  6. Zone refining of cadmium and related characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 28; Issue 3. Zone refining of cadmium and related characterization. N R Munirathnam ... The boron impurity in cadmium can be avoided using quartz (GE 214 grade) boat in lieu of high pure graphite boat. The analytical results using inductively coupled plasma optical ...

  7. Cadmium Toxicity to Ringed Seals (Phoca hispida)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, R.; Riget, F. F.

    Cadmium concentrations in kidneys from ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from North West Greenland (Qaanaaq) are high. Concentrations range at level known to induce renal toxic effects (mainly tubulopathy) and demineralisation (osteopenia) of the skeletal system (Fanconi's Syndrome) in humans as well...... the absence of toxic effects of cadmium in ringed seal...

  8. Subcellular localization of cadmium in hyperaccumulator Populus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of damage to organs of grey poplar was as follows: root > stem> leaves. It was suggested that the Populus × canescens as a renewable resource has the potential to decontaminate cadmium stress development, accumulation and distribution. Key words: Cadmium, phytoremediation, hyperaccumulator, grey poplar, organ.

  9. Zone refining of cadmium and related characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. We present the zone refining results of cadmium using horizontal resistive zone refiner under constant flow of moisture free hydrogen gas. The boron impurity in cadmium can be avoided using quartz (GE 214 grade) boat in lieu of high pure graphite boat. The analytical results using inductively coupled plasma ...

  10. Potassium loss with tissue potassium deficiency in rats during hypokinesia. (United States)

    Tsiamis, Costas B; Kakuris, Kostas K; Deogenov, Viktor A; Yerullis, Kosmas B


    This study aims at showing the effect of hypokinesia (HK) on tissue potassium (K(+)) loss with different tissue K(+) depletion and tissue K(+) deficiency with different K(+) intake. To this end, tissue K(+) content, plasma K(+) level, and K(+) loss with and without K(+) supplements during HK were measured. Studies were conducted on male Wistar rats during a pre-experimental and an experimental period. Animals were equally divided into four groups: unsupplemented vivarium control rats (UVCR), unsupplemented hypokinetic rats (UHKR), supplemented vivarium control rats (SVCR), and supplemented hypokinetic rats (SHKR). SVCR and SHKR were supplemented daily with 2.50 mEq potassium chloride (KCl). Gastrocnemius muscle and right femur bone K(+) content reduced significantly, whereas plasma K(+) level and urine and fecal K(+) loss increased significantly in SHKR and UHKR compared with their pre-experimental values and the values in their respective vivarium controls (SVCR and UVCR). Bone and muscle K(+) content decreased more significantly, and plasma K(+) level and urine and fecal K(+) loss increased more significantly in SHKR than in UHKR. The greater tissue K(+) deficiency with higher than lower K(+) intake shows that the risk of higher tissue K(+) deficiency is directly related to K(+) intake. The higher K(+) loss with higher tissue K(+) deficiency and the lower K(+) loss with lower K(+) tissue deficiency shows that the risk of greater K(+) loss is directly related to tissue K(+) deficiency. Tissue K(+) deficiency increases more when the K(+) intake is higher and K(+) loss increases more with higher than lower tissue K(+) deficiency indicating that, during HK, tissue K(+) deficiency is due to the inability of the body to use K(+) but not to K(+) shortage in the diet.

  11. Novel Cadmium Resistance Determinant in Listeria monocytogenes. (United States)

    Parsons, Cameron; Lee, Sangmi; Jayeola, Victor; Kathariou, Sophia


    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that can cause severe disease (listeriosis) in susceptible individuals. It is ubiquitous in the environment and often exhibits resistance to heavy metals. One of the determinants that enables Listeria to tolerate exposure to cadmium is the cadAC efflux system, with CadA being a P-type ATPase. Three different cadA genes (designated cadA1 to cadA3) were previously characterized in L. monocytogenes A novel putative cadmium resistance gene (cadA4) was recently identified through whole-genome sequencing, but experimental confirmation for its involvement in cadmium resistance is lacking. In this study, we characterized cadA4 in L. monocytogenes strain F8027, a cadmium-resistant strain of serotype 4b. By screening a mariner-based transposon library of this strain, we identified a mutant with reduced tolerance to cadmium and that harbored a single transposon insertion in cadA4 The tolerance to cadmium was restored by genetic complementation with the cadmium resistance cassette (cadA4C), and enhanced cadmium tolerance was conferred to two unrelated cadmium-sensitive strains via heterologous complementation with cadA4C Cadmium exposure induced cadA4 expression, even at noninhibitory levels. Virulence assessments in the Galleria mellonella model suggested that a functional cadA4 suppressed virulence, potentially promoting commensal colonization of the insect larvae. Biofilm assays suggested that cadA4 inactivation reduced biofilm formation. These data not only confirm cadA4 as a novel cadmium resistance determinant in L. monocytogenes but also provide evidence for roles in virulence and biofilm formation.IMPORTANCEListeria monocytogenes is an intracellular foodborne pathogen causing the disease listeriosis, which is responsible for numerous hospitalizations and deaths every year. Among the adaptations that enable the survival of Listeria in the environment are the abilities to persist in biofilms, grow in the cold, and tolerate

  12. Radiolysis of Potassium Picrate in 77 K (United States)

    Yakubik, D. G.; Pak, V. Kh; Anan'ev, V. A.; Ghyngazov, S. A.


    The formation of paramagnetic centers in potassium picrate under irradiation at low temperature was investigated. The heating irradiated at 77 K potassium picrate crystal to room temperature results in paramagnetic centers - 2,6-dinitro-para-quinone radicals, ortho- and para-iminoxyl radicals and atomic oxygen. These products are formed under irradiation at room temperature.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: potassium-aggravated myotonia (United States)

    ... eating potassium-rich foods such as bananas and potatoes. Stiffness occurs in skeletal muscles throughout the body. Potassium-aggravated myotonia ranges in severity from mild episodes of muscle stiffness to severe, disabling disease with frequent attacks. Unlike some other forms of ...

  14. Potassium nutrition of heat-stressed lactating

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    measure of dry bulb air temperature, wind velocity and solar radiation ... high milk potassium content (0,15-0,17%), (b) heat stress owing to increased ... level) as sub plots. All cows received different dietary potassium treatments in each 30-day period. Basal diet was 52% ground corn, 9,5% corn gluten meal, 1,0% urea,.

  15. Erythrocyte potassium and glutathione polymorphism determination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research is aimed at determining the erythrocyte potassium and glutathione polymorphisms and also to identify the relationship among the various blood parameters in Saanen x Malta crossbred goat raised in Turkey. The allele gene frequencies of KH and KL associated with the potassium concentration were ...

  16. Thanatochemistry: Study of synovial fluid potassium | Tumram ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this paper is to test previously developed regression formulae for estimating death interval based on synovial fluid potassium and to assess its reliability in estimating death interval. Synovial fluid potassium was measured on a sample of 308 individuals. Death interval was regressed on synovial fluid ...

  17. Cadmium mobility and accumulation in soils of the European Communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraters B; van Beurden AUCJ


    In this overview of the effects of cadmium pollution on agricultural soils in the European Community, both the cadmium loads on agricultural land and the soil sensitivity to cadmium accumulation have been estimated. Cadmium loads have been estimated separately for arable land and grassland. The

  18. [Topology of the mitochondrial potassium ion channels]. (United States)

    Laskowski, Michał; Kulawiak, Bogusz

    In the inner mitochondrial membrane several potassium channels have been identified whose activation lead to cytoprotection during ischemic event. It was found that activation of mitochondrial large conductance calcium activated potassium channel (mitoBKCa) and ATP regulated potassium channel (mitoKATP) preserves brain and heart muscle cells against ischemia/reperfusion induced damage. However the detailed cytoprotection mechanism remains unclear. Similarly, the molecular structures and protein interactions of the mitochondrial potassium channels are still unknown. In this article, we summarize the current knowledge of the mitoKATP and mitoBKCa channels topology. Different aspects of this topic are discussed like import and assembly of the channel subunits and biophysical properties of mitochondrial compartments. Additionally, the consequences of different topology models on the cytoprotective function of the mitochondrial potassium channels were analyzed.

  19. A possible low intracellular potassium in obesity. (United States)

    Colt, E W; Wang, J; Stallone, F; Van Itallie, T B; Pierson, R N


    In comparison with lean marathon runners whose fat content was 15%, obese subjects with a fat content of 55% showed a 36% reduction in intracellular potassium. It is hypothesized that as much as 60% of this decrease may have been due to the lower proportion of muscle (which has the highest intracellular potassium of any tissue) in the fat free mass of very obese subjects. The remainder of the decrease seems to have been a measurement artefact owing to self-absorption of gamma rays by adipose tissue, most of which is distributed over potassium rich lean tissue. The low intracellular potassium values found in obesity should not be interpreted as necessarily signifying potassium deficiency.

  20. Single crystal EPR study of VO(II)-doped cadmium potassium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    symmetry of the central metal ion and the nature of the bonding with the ligands and this has also been used as an impurity for understanding the defect, structural, phase transition and orientation properties of the host lattice 1–5. Studies of VO(II) in glasses and other systems have attracted attention very recently6–8.

  1. Removal of cadmium from aqueous solution using manganese hexacyanoferrates(II/(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Adekola


    Full Text Available A series of solid insoluble mixed potassium manganese hexacynoferrates (II and (III of the general formula KyMnxFeII/III(CN6.zH2O were prepared by classical precipitation and local growth methods. All synthesized products were thermally stable up to 300 oC and were highly insoluble in most mineral acids except hot perchloric acid. The sorption of cadmium ion from 0.1 M HNO3 solutions on manganese hexacyanoferrates (II and (III was investigated. Both sorption kinetics and isotherms were studied. The sorption kinetics for cadmium uptake was observed to follow two steps with fast kinetics in the first step within 5 min. The manganese hexacyanoferrate(III was found to exhibit higher sorption capacities than manganese hexacynoferrates(II. The highest sorption capacity was achieved with manganese hexacyanoferrate(III prepared by local growth method. The uptake of cadmium from aqueous solution appeared to follow adsorption mechanism and not ion exchange as characteristic of many other divalent hexacyanoferrates. The sorption data were fitted with Langmuir adsorption isotherm.

  2. The effect of different annealing temperatures on tin and cadmium telluride phases obtained by a modified chemical route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesquita, Anderson Fuzer [Departamento de Química, CCE, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Campus Goiabeiras, 29075-910 Vitória, Espírito Santo (Brazil); Porto, Arilza de Oliveira, E-mail: [Departamento de Química, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Magela de Lima, Geraldo [Departamento de Química, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Paniago, Roberto [Departamento de Física, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Ardisson, José Domingos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, CDTN/CNEN, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)


    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Synthesis of cadmium and tin telluride. ► Chemical route to obtain pure crystalline cadmium and tin telluride. ► Effect of the annealing temperature on the crystalline phases. ► Removal of tin oxide as side product through thermal treatment. -- Abstract: In this work tin and cadmium telluride were prepared by a modification of a chemical route reported in the literature to obtain metallacycles formed by oxidative addition of tin-tellurium bonds to platinum (II). Through this procedure it was possible to obtain tin and cadmium telluride. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to identify the crystalline phases obtained as well as the presence of side products. In the case of tin telluride it was identified potassium chloride, metallic tellurium and tin oxide as contaminants. The tin oxidation states were also monitored by {sup 119}Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy. The annealing in hydrogen atmosphere was chosen as a strategy to reduce the tin oxide and promote its reaction with the excess of tellurium present in the medium. The evolution of this tin oxide phase was studied through the annealing of the sample at different temperatures. Cadmium telluride was obtained with high degree of purity (98.5% relative weight fraction) according to the Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction data. The modified procedure showed to be very effective to obtain amorphous tin and cadmium telluride and the annealing at 450 °C has proven to be useful to reduce the amount of oxide produced as side product.

  3. Chondroitin Sulfate Perlecan Enhances Collagen Fibril Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, A. J.; Johnson, A. E.; Mörgelin, M.


    in collagen type II fibril assembly by perlecan-null chondrocytes. Cartilage perlecan is a heparin sulfate or a mixed heparan sulfate/chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. The latter form binds collagen and accelerates fibril formation in vitro, with more defined fibril morphology and increased fibril diameters...... produced in the presence of perlecan. Interestingly, the enhancement of collagen fibril formation is independent on the core protein and is mimicked by chondroitin sulfate E but neither by chondroitin sulfate D nor dextran sulfate. Furthermore, perlecan chondroitin sulfate contains the 4,6-disulfated...... disaccharides typical for chondroitin sulfate E. Indeed, purified glycosaminoglycans from perlecan-enriched fractions of cartilage extracts contain elevated levels of 4,6-disulfated chondroitin sulfate disaccharides and enhance collagen fibril formation. The effect on collagen assembly is proportional...

  4. Cadmium action in synapses in the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, Akira; Takeda, Atsushi; Nishibaba, Daisuke; Tekefuta, Sachiyo; Oku, Naoto [Department of Radiobiochemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka (Japan)


    Chronic exposure to cadmium causes central nervous system disorders, e.g., olfactory dysfunction. To clarify cadmium toxicity in synaptic neurotransmission in the brain, the movement and action of cadmium in the synapses was examined using in vivo microdialysis. One and 24 h after injection of {sup 109}CdCl{sub 2} into the amygdala of rats, {sup 109}Cd release into the extracellular space was facilitated by stimulation with high K{sup +}, suggesting that cadmium taken up in amygdalar neurons is released into the synaptic clefts in a calcium- and impulse-dependent manner. To examine the action of cadmium in the synapses, the amygdala was perfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid containing 10-30 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2}. The release of excitatory neurotransmitters, i.e., glutamate and aspartate, into the extracellular space was decreased during perfusion with cadmium, while the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters, i.e., glycine and {gamma}-amino butyric acid (GABA), into the extracellular space was increased during the period. These results suggest that cadmium released from the amygdalar neuron terminals affects the degree and balance of excitation-inhibition in synaptic neurotransmission. (author)

  5. Response of Pleurotus ostreatus to cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favero, N.; Bressa, G.; Costa, P. (Univ. of Padua (Italy))


    The possibility of utilizing agroindustrial wastes in the production of edible, high-quality products (e.g., mushrooms) implies the risk of bringing toxic substances, such as heavy metals, into the human food chain. Thus, growth in the presence of cadmium and cadmium accumulation limits have been studied in the industrially cultivated fungus P. ostreatus. Fruit body production is substantially unaffected in the presence of 25, 139, and 285 mg Cd/kg of dried substrate. Cadmium concentration in fruit bodies is related to cadmium substrate level, the metal being present at higher levels in caps (22-56 mg/kg dry wt) than in stems (13-36 mg/kg dry wt). Concentration factor (CF), very low in the controls (about 2), further decreases in treated specimens. The presence of a cadmium control mechanism in this fungi species is suggested. Fruit body cadmium levels could, however, represent a risk for P. ostreatus consumers, according to FAO/WHO limits related to weekly cadmium intake.

  6. Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cadmium stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Luciana Mara Costa; Ribeiro, Frederico Haddad; Neves, Maria Jose [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia], e-mail:; Porto, Barbara Abranches Araujo; Amaral, Angela M.; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Ativacao Neutronica], e-mail:; Rosa, Carlos Augusto [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia], e-mail: carlrosa@icb.ufmg


    The intensification of industrial activity has been greatly contributing with the increase of heavy metals in the environment. Among these heavy metals, cadmium becomes a serious pervasive environmental pollutant. The cadmium is a heavy metal with no biological function, very toxic and carcinogenic at low concentrations. The toxicity of cadmium and several other metals can be mainly attributed to the multiplicity of coordination complexes and clusters that they can form. Some aspects of the cellular response to cadmium were extensively investigated in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The primary site of interaction between many toxic metals and microbial cells is the plasma membrane. Plasma-membrane permeabilisation has been reported in a variety of microorganisms following cadmium exposure, and is considered one mechanism of cadmium toxicity in the yeast. In this work, using the yeast strain S. cerevisiae W303-WT, we have investigated the relationships between Cd uptake and release of cellular metal ions (K{sup +} and Na{sup +}) using neutron activation technique. The neutron activation was an easy, rapid and suitable technique for doing these metal determinations on yeast cells; was observed the change in morphology of the strains during the process of Cd accumulation, these alterations were observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) during incorporation of cadmium. (author)

  7. [Cadmium and selenium interaction in mammals]. (United States)

    Lazarus, Maja


    Cadmium occurs in the environment naturally and as a pollutant. Its exposure is inevitable and may produce toxic effects in many organs and organ systems through binding to biological structures, accumulation in internal organs or induction of free radical production. Another important aspect of Cd toxicity is its interaction, often anthagonistic, with essential elements. Vice versa, additional intake of the essential elements may have beneficial influence on distribution and toxic effects of cadmium. Selenium is an essential microelement and a constituent of many selenoproteins with antioxidant properties that bind cadmium (and other toxic elements such as mercury or arsenic). This review summarizes results, to date, of cadmium toxicokinetics and toxicodinamics, selenium biokinetics and biodinamics, as well as mechanisms of cadmium-selenium interaction and their impact on the oxidative status derived from the studies based upon mainly on animal experiments and on limited number of human studies. The wide variety of different doses, dose ratios, element administration modes and exposure lenghts of cadmium and selenium often yielded contradictory results. Future studies should be focused on assessment of effects of cadmium and selenium interaction in sensitive population groups and mechanisms of that interaction. Regarding animal studies, doses and exposure should be adjusted to long-term low exposure levels that are usually found in human population.

  8. VKCDB: Voltage-gated potassium channel database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallin Warren J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family of voltage-gated potassium channels comprises a functionally diverse group of membrane proteins. They help maintain and regulate the potassium ion-based component of the membrane potential and are thus central to many critical physiological processes. VKCDB (Voltage-gated potassium [K] Channel DataBase is a database of structural and functional data on these channels. It is designed as a resource for research on the molecular basis of voltage-gated potassium channel function. Description Voltage-gated potassium channel sequences were identified by using BLASTP to search GENBANK and SWISSPROT. Annotations for all voltage-gated potassium channels were selectively parsed and integrated into VKCDB. Electrophysiological and pharmacological data for the channels were collected from published journal articles. Transmembrane domain predictions by TMHMM and PHD are included for each VKCDB entry. Multiple sequence alignments of conserved domains of channels of the four Kv families and the KCNQ family are also included. Currently VKCDB contains 346 channel entries. It can be browsed and searched using a set of functionally relevant categories. Protein sequences can also be searched using a local BLAST engine. Conclusions VKCDB is a resource for comparative studies of voltage-gated potassium channels. The methods used to construct VKCDB are general; they can be used to create specialized databases for other protein families. VKCDB is accessible at

  9. Sulfate reduction in freshwater peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oequist, M.


    This text consist of two parts: Part A is a literature review on microbial sulfate reduction with emphasis on freshwater peatlands, and part B presents the results from a study of the relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane formation for the anaerobic decomposition in a boreal peatland. The relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane production for the anaerobic decomposition was studied in a small raised bog situated in the boreal zone of southern Sweden. Depth distribution of sulfate reduction- and methane production rates were measured in peat sampled from three sites (A, B, and C) forming an minerotrophic-ombrotrophic gradient. SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentrations in the three profiles were of equal magnitude and ranged from 50 to 150 {mu}M. In contrast, rates of sulfate reduction were vastly different: Maximum rates in the three profiles were obtained at a depth of ca. 20 cm below the water table. In A it was 8 {mu}M h{sup -1} while in B and C they were 1 and 0.05 {mu}M h{sup -1}, respectively. Methane production rates, however, were more uniform across the three nutrient regimes. Maximum rates in A (ca. 1.5 {mu}g d{sup -1} g{sup -1}) were found 10 cm below the water table, in B (ca. 1.0 {mu}g d{sup -1} g{sup -1}) in the vicinity of the water table, and in C (0.75 {mu}g d{sup -1} g{sup -1}) 20 cm below the water table. In all profiles both sulfate reduction and methane production rates were negligible above the water table. The areal estimates of methane production for the profiles were 22.4, 9.0 and 6.4 mmol m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, while the estimates for sulfate reduction were 26.4, 2.5, and 0.1 mmol m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, respectively. The calculated turnover times at the sites were 1.2, 14.2, and 198.7 days, respectively. The study shows that sulfate reducing bacteria are important for the anaerobic degradation in the studied peatland, especially in the minerotrophic sites, while methanogenic bacteria dominate in ombrotrophic sites Examination

  10. Acid Sulfate Alteration on Mars (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.


    A variety of mineralogical and geochemical indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination of surface and orbital robotic missions, telescopic observations, characterization of Martian meteorites, and laboratory and terrestrial analog studies. Acid sulfate alteration has been identified at all three landing sites visited by NASA rover missions (Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity). Spirit landed in Gusev crater in 2004 and discovered Fe-sulfates and materials that have been extensively leached by acid sulfate solutions. Opportunity landing on the plains of Meridiani Planum also in 2004 where the rover encountered large abundances of jarosite and hematite in sedimentary rocks. Curiosity landed in Gale crater in 2012 and has characterized fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine sediments. Jarosite and hematite were discovered in some of the lacustrine sediments. The high elemental abundance of sulfur in surface materials is obvious evidence that sulfate has played a major role in aqueous processes at all landing sites on Mars. The sulfate-rich outcrop at Meridiani Planum has an SO3 content of up to 25 wt.%. The interiors of rocks and outcrops on the Columbia Hills within Gusev crater have up to 8 wt.% SO3. Soils at both sites generally have between 5 to 14 wt.% SO3, and several soils in Gusev crater contain around 30 wt.% SO3. After normalization of major element compositions to a SO3-free basis, the bulk compositions of these materials are basaltic, with a few exceptions in Gusev crater and in lacustrine mudstones in Gale crater. These observations suggest that materials encountered by the rovers were derived from basaltic precursors by acid sulfate alteration under nearly isochemical conditions (i.e., minimal leaching). There are several cases, however, where acid sulfate alteration minerals (jarosite and hematite) formed in open hydrologic systems, e.g., in Gale crater lacustrine mudstones. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the

  11. Serum potassium concentrations: Importance of normokalaemia. (United States)

    Heras, Manuel; Fernández-Reyes, María José


    Abnormalities in potassium concentrations are associated with morbidity and mortality. In recent years it has been considered that small variations in serum potassium concentrations within normal intervals may also be associated with mortality. Strategies for achieving normokalaemia include dietary measures, limiting the use of potassium retaining drugs, and use of conventional cation exchange resins (calcium/sodium polystyrene sulfonate) and/or the new non-absorbed cation exchange polymer (patiromer). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate. Chapter 4 - Water (United States)


    Reprint- ed with permission, from Heller et al. (1999). Copyright 1999 by the American Association of Public Health Dentistry . 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40...rate and skin blood flow in full term infants nursed in a warm environment before and after feeding cold water. Acta Paediatr 86:1085–1089. Ahlman K...Acta Paediatr 89:550– 552. Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 1988. The Report of the Investigation of Attorney General James M. Shannon of the Class 12

  13. Modeling Spatio-vertical Distribution of Sulfate and Total Sulfide along the Mangrove Intertidal Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasicha Chaikaew,


    Full Text Available Given the complexity and heterogeneity of mangrove conservation landscape, research gaps still exists to quantify sulfate and total sulfide and their relationships with sediment properties and environmental covariates. Thirty-two sediment samples in the top layers (0-10 cm were analyzed to assess biochemical properties, sulfate and total sulfide contents. With an average±SD value of 0.62±0.36 mg/g, the total sulfide content from the study site was high compared to the southern part of Thailand. The distribution of sulfate content exhibited high values in nearby land area which gradually reduced in seaward discharges/runoff, whereas high concentrations of total sulfide were highlighted around the center of the study site and vertically accumulated in the top few centimeters of soil and decreased with depth. The most pronounced factor affecting the amount of sulfate and total sulfide content was organic matter, while pH, organic carbon, potassium, salinity, and sediment-mangrove conditions correlated with sulfate and sulfide at different levels. Total sulfides concentration can be considered as indicator of over nutrient-rich sediments for assessing environmental quality perhaps the die-back of mangroves. Concerns about high total sulfide concentrations across mangrove conservation areas should receive more attention, in particular the reduction of OM from the anthropogenic source.

  14. Sulfate transport in toad skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Simonsen, K


    1. In short-circuited toad skin preparations exposed bilaterally to NaCl-Ringer's containing 1 mM SO2(-4), influx of sulfate was larger than efflux showing that the skin is capable of transporting sulfate actively in an inward direction. 2. This active transport was not abolished by substituting...... apical Na+ for K+. 3. Following voltage activation of the passive Cl- permeability of the mitochondria-rich (m.r.) cells sulfate flux-ratio increased to a value predicted from the Ussing flux-ratio equation for a monovalent anion. 4. In such skins, which were shown to exhibit vanishingly small leakage...... conductances, the variation of the rate coefficient for sulfate influx (y) was positively correlated with the rate coefficient for Cl- influx (x), y = 0.035 x - 0.0077 cm/sec (r = 0.9935, n = 15). 5. Addition of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine to the serosal bath of short...

  15. Chiral Crystallization of Ethylenediamine Sulfate (United States)

    Koby, Lawrence; Ningappa, Jyothi B.; Dakesssian, Maria; Cuccia, Louis A.


    The optimal conditions for the crystallization of achiral ethylenediamine sulfate into large chiral crystals that are ideal for polarimetry studies and observation using Polaroid sheets are presented. This experiment is an ideal undergraduate experiment, which clearly demonstrates the chiral crystallization of an achiral molecule.

  16. Low level determinations of environmental cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosman, K.J.R.; De Laeter, J.R.


    An isotope dilution technique has been developed to measure the concentration of cadmium in aqueous solutions with a sensitivity of 0.003 micrograms per liter. The concentrations of cadmium in two river systems in Western Australia has been measured to establish an accurate set of low level reference determinations in a region which is relatively free of sources of industrial pollution. The results of the study demonstrate that the cadmium content in the two major river systems in western Australia is about 100 times lower than the World Health Organization limits. The data indicate that the cadmium content tends to decrease upstream from the mouth of the river, and that in the reservoir areas the content is as low as 0.02 micrograms per liter. These values are substantially lower than waterways in other parts of the world. 13 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  17. Cadmium substituted high permeability lithium ferrite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , 0.5 and 0.6 were prepared by a double sintering ceramic technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The lattice parameter is found to increase monotonically with the cadmium content.

  18. Market for nickel-cadmium batteries (United States)

    Putois, F.

    Besides the lead/acid battery market, which has seen a tremendous development linked with the car industry, the alkaline rechargeable battery market has also been expanded for more than twenty years, especially in the field of portable applications with nickel-cadmium batteries. Today, nickel-cadmium batteries have to face newcomers on the market, such as nickel-metal hydride, which is another alkaline couple, and rechargeable lithium batteries; these new battery systems have better performances in some areas. This work illustrates the status of the market for nickel-cadmium batteries and their applications. Also, for two major applications—the cordless tool and the electric vehicles—the competitive situation of nickel-cadmium batteries; facing new systems such as nickel-metal hydride and lithium ion cells are discussed.

  19. Qualitative Carbohydrate Analysis using Alkaline Potassium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 3. Qualitative Carbohydrate Analysis using Alkaline Potassium Ferricyanide. Sangeeta Pandita Saral Baweja. Classroom Volume 21 Issue 3 March 2016 pp 285-288 ...

  20. Sulfation of thyroid hormone by estrogen sulfotransferase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H.A. Kester (Monique); T.J. Visser (Theo); C.H. van Dijk (Caren); D. Tibboel (Dick); A.M. Hood (Margaret); N.J. Rose; W. Meinl; U. Pabel; H. Glatt; C.N. Falany; M.W. Coughtrie


    textabstractSulfation is one of the pathways by which thyroid hormone is inactivated. Iodothyronine sulfate concentrations are very high in human fetal blood and amniotic fluid, suggesting important production of these conjugates in utero. Human estrogen

  1. Connexin 43 impacts on mitochondrial potassium uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin eBoengler


    Full Text Available In cardiomyocytes, connexin 43 (Cx43 forms gap junctions and unopposed hemichannels at the plasma membrane, but the protein is also present at the inner membrane of subsarcolemmal mitochondria. Both inhibition and genetic ablation of Cx43 reduce ADP-stimulated complex 1 respiration. Since mitochondrial potassium influx impacts on oxygen consumption, we investigated whether or not inhibition or ablation of mitochondrial Cx43 alters mitochondrial potassium uptake.Subsarcolemmal mitochondria were isolated from rat left ventricular (LV myocardium and loaded with the potassium-sensitive dye PBFI. Intramitochondrial potassium was replaced by TEA (tetraethylammonium. Mitochondria were incubated under control conditions or treated with 250 µM Gap19, a peptide that specifically inhibits Cx43-dependent hemichannels at plasma membranes. Subsequently, 140 mM KCl was added and the slope of the increase in PBFI fluorescence over time was calculated. The slope of the PBFI fluorescence of the control mitochondria was set to 100%. In the presence of Gap19, the mitochondrial potassium influx was reduced from 100±11.6 % in control mitochondria to 65.5±10.7 % (n=6, p<0.05. In addition to the pharmacological inhibition of Cx43, potassium influx was studied in mitochondria isolated from conditional Cx43 knockout mice. Here, the ablation of Cx43 was achieved by the injection of 4-hydroxytamoxifen (Cx43Cre-ER(T/fl + 4-OHT. The mitochondria of the Cx43Cre-ER(T/fl + 4-OHT mice contained 3±1% Cx43 (n=6 of that in control mitochondria (100±11%, n=8, p<0.05. The ablation of Cx43 (n=5 reduced the velocity of the potassium influx from 100±11.2 % in control mitochondria (n=9 to 66.6±5.5 % (p<0.05.Taken together, our data indicate that both pharmacological inhibition and genetic ablation of Cx43 reduce mitochondrial potassium influx.

  2. The Ketogenic Diet and Potassium Channel Function (United States)


    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0463 TITLE: The Ketogenic Diet and Potassium Channel Function PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Geoffrey Murphy...NUMBER The Ketogenic Diet and Potassium Channel Function 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0463 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Geoffrey Murphy...The overall objective of this Discovery Award was to explore the hypothesis the ketogenic diet (KD) regulates neuronal excitability by influencing

  3. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. (United States)


    ... fixatives and preservative agents, with or without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red meat... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium...

  4. Sulfate reduction and methanogenesis in marine sediments (United States)

    Oremland, R. S.; Taylor, B. F.


    Methanogenesis and sulfate-reduction were followed in laboratory incubations of sediments taken from tropical seagrass beds. Methanogenesis and sulfate-reduction occurred simultaneously in sediments incubated under N2, thereby indicating that the two processes are not mutually exclusive. Sediments incubated under an atmosphere of H2 developed negative pressures due to the oxidation of H2 by sulfate-respiring bacteria. H2 also stimulated methanogenesis, but methanogenic bacteria could not compete for H2 with the sulfate-respiring bacteria.

  5. Male infertility and environmental exposure to lead and cadmium. (United States)

    Benoff, S; Jacob, A; Hurley, I R


    Humans are exposed occupationally and environmentally to metal aerosols including lead (Pb2+) and cadmium (Cd2+). These toxicants accumulate in male reproductive organs. Epidemiological studies have been equivocal about effects of Pb2+ and Cd2+ on hormone concentrations, male fertility and sperm parameters. Comparison of Pb2+ and Cd2+ concentrations in fertile and infertile men are problematic. Problem areas include failure to control confounding variables, but genetic polymorphisms as in somatic diseases may modulate Pb2+ and Cd2+ damage. Multiple calcium (Ca2+) and potassium (K+) channel isoforms have been identified in human testes and spermatozoa. These Ca2+ and K+ channels are involved in early events of acrosome reactions. Ca2+ channel are susceptible to Cd2+ poisoning and K+ channels to Pb2+. These channels offer entry paths for metallic toxicants into mature spermatozoa. Ion channel polymorphisms may cause differential sensitivities to Cd2+ and Pb2+, explaining in part prospective blinded studies showing high Cd2+ in varicocele-related human infertility and high Pb2+ in unexplained infertility. In both forms of male infertility the ability to undergo an acrosome reaction decreases. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assays for Ca2+ and K+ channel isoforms may identify susceptibility subgroups with lower resistance to environmental exposures.

  6. Potassium chloride production by microcline chlorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orosco, Pablo, E-mail: [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Facultad de Química, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Ruiz, María del Carmen [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina)


    Highlights: • Use of chlorination for the KCl production. • The reagents used were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. • Isothermal and non-isothermal assays were performed in Cl{sub 2}–N{sub 2} mixture. • The chlorination generated KCl at 700 °C. • The chlorination products promote KCl formation. - Abstract: The potassium chloride is one of the most important fertilizers used in agriculture. The current demand of this salt makes interesting the study of potassium chloride production from unconventional potassium resources. In this work the potassium chloride production by chlorination of microcline was investigated. The starting reagents were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. Non-isothermal and isothermal chlorination assays were carried out in a thermogravimetric device adapted to work in corrosive atmospheres. The temperature effect on potassium extraction and the phase transformations produced during chlorination of microcline were studied. The reagents and reaction products were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experimental results indicated that by chlorination of microcline an important extraction of potassium in the temperature range from 800 to 900 °C was produced. Moreover, at 800 °C the forsterite, enstatite and magnesium aluminate spinel phases were generated.

  7. Cadmium leaching from thermal treated and gamma irradiated Mexican aluminosilicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davila-Rangel, J.I. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, Mexico 11801, D.F. (Mexico); Unidad Academica Centro Regional de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas Cipres 10, Frac. La Penuela, Zacatecas, Zacatecas 98068 (Mexico); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Instituto Literario No. 100 Col. Centro C.P. 50000, Toluca, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico); Solache-Rios, M. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, Mexico 11801, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail:


    Thermal and radiation effects on the leaching of cadmium from two cadmium exchanged zeolitic tuffs and one clay were determined. The cadmium exchanged aluminosilicates were heated at different temperatures (500, 700, 900 and 1100 {sup o}C), and the materials were then treated with NaCl (1 M and 5 M) and HNO{sub 3} (0.001 M and 1 M) solutions to determine the leaching behaviour of cadmium from the materials. The stability of cadmium in the materials increased as the heating temperature was increased. Cadmium leaching from gamma irradiated and heated materials at 1100 {sup o}C was higher than leaching from non-irradiated samples.

  8. 21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution. 524.1484e Section 524.1484e Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484e Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution. (a...

  9. Modeling and minimization of barium sulfate scale (United States)

    Alan W. Rudie; Peter W. Hart


    The majority of the barium present in the pulping process exits the digester as barium carbonate. Barium carbonate dissolves in the bleach plant when the pH drops below 7 and, if barium and sulfate concentrations are too high, begins to precipitate as barium sulfate. Barium is difficult to control because a mill cannot avoid this carbonate-to-sulfate transition using...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  11. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  12. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans in glomerular inflammation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rops, A.L.; Vlag, J. van der; Lensen, J.F.M.; Wijnhoven, T.J.M.; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van; Berden, J.H.M.


    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are glycoproteins consisting of a core protein to which linear heparan sulfate side chains are covalently attached. These heparan sulfate side chains can be modified at different positions by several enzymes, which include N-deacetylases, N- and

  13. 21 CFR 184.1461 - Manganese sulfate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Manganese sulfate. 184.1461 Section 184.1461 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Manganese sulfate (MnSO4·H2O, CAS... manganese compounds with sulfuric acid. It is also obtained as a byproduct in the manufacture of...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese sulfate. 582.5461 Section 582.5461 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Product. Manganese sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate. (United States)


    ... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to crystallization... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS...

  16. Thermodynamic properties of potassium oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byker, H.J. (Montana State Univ., Bozeman); Eliezer, I.; Howald, R.C.; Ehlert, T.C.


    KO/sub 0/ /sub 5/ has been prepared by the reaction of excess potassium with KNO/sub 3/ in an effusion cell. Observations of the 2KO/sub 0/ /sub 5/ ..-->.. K/sub 2/O(g) equilibrium mass spectrometrically give a new value for the enthalpy of solid KO/sub 0/ /sub 5/, f,298//sup 0/ = -170 +- 5 kJ mol/sup -1/. Observations on KO/sup +/ in the same series of experiments give good estimates for the thermodynamic properties of K/sub 2/O/sub 2/(g). This leads to an improved interpretation of data on the vaporization of KO/sub 0/ /sub 5/-K/sub 2/O/sub 2/ mixtures and solutions. Similarly literature data on the K/sub 2/O/sub 2/-KO/sub 2/ system have been collected and reexamined, leading to the values f,298//sup 0/ = -495.4 kJ mol/sup -1/ and S/sub 298//sup 0/ = 110.1 J mol/sup -1/ K/sup -1/ for K/sub 2/O/sub 2/(s). We have calculated a preliminary phase diagram for the entire region from KO/sub 0/ /sub 5/ to KO/sub 2/, treating the liquid as solutions of O (1) in KO/sub 0/ /sub 5/ (1). Differential thermal analysis data supporting the calculated phase diagram are reported.

  17. Determination of arsenic, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, molybdenum, silver and zinc in geological materials by atomic-absorption spectrometry (United States)

    Viets, J.G.; O'Leary, R. M.; Clark, Robert J.


    Arsenic, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, molybdenum, silver and zinc are very useful elements in geochemical exploration. In the proposed method, geological samples are fused with potassium pyrosulphate and the fusate is dissolved in a solution of hydrochloric acid, ascorbic acid and potassium iodide. When this solution is shaken with a 10% V/V Aliquat 336 - isobutyl methyl ketone organic phase, the nine elements of interest are selectively partitioned in the organic phase. All nine elements can then be determined in the organic phase using flame atomic-absorption spectrometry. The method is rapid and allows the determination of Ag and Cd at levels down to 0.1 p.p.m., Cu, Mo, and Zn down to 0.5 p.p.m., Pb, Bi and Sb down to 1 p.p.m. and As down to 5 p.p.m. in geological materials.

  18. Reviews of the environmental effects of pollutants: IV. Cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammons, A.S.; Huff, J.E.; Braunstein, H.M.; Drury, J.S.; Shriner, C.R.; Lewis, E.B.; Whitfield, B.L.; Towill, L.E.


    This report is a comprehensive, multidisciplinary review of the health and environmental effects of cadmium and specific cadmium derivatives. More than 500 references are cited. The cadmium body burden in animals and humans results mainly from the diet. In the United States, the normal intake of cadmium for adult humans is estimated at about 50 per day. Tobacco smoke is a significant additional source of cadmium exposure. The kidneys and liver together contain about 50% of the total cadmium body burden. Acute cadmium poisoning is primarily an occupational problem, generally from inhalation of cadmium fumes or dusts. In the general population, incidents of acute poisoning by inhaled or ingested cadmium or its compounds are relatively rare. The kidney is the primary target organ for toxicity from prolonged low-level exposure to cadmium. No causal relationship has been established between cadmium exposure and human cancer, although a possible link between cadmium and prostate cancer has been indicated. Cadmium has been shown to be teratogenic in rats, hamsters, and mice, but no such effects have been proven in humans. Cadmium has been reported to increase the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells and in human peripheral leukocytes. The major concern about environmental cadmium is the potential effects on the general population. There is no substantial evidence of hazard from current levels of cadmium in air, water, or food. However, because cadmium is a cumulative poison and because present intake provides a relatively small safety margin, there are adequate reasons for concern over possible future increases in background levels.

  19. Cadmium removal by Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza. (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Devaleena; Majumder, Arunabha; Misra, Amal K; Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik


    The present study investigates the ability of two genus of duckweed (Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza) to phytoremediate cadmium from aqueous solution. Duckweed was exposed to six different cadmium concentrations, such as, 0.5,1.0,1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 mg/L and the experiment was continued for 22 days. Water samples were collected periodically for estimation of residual cadmium content in aqueous solution. At the end of treatment period plant samples were collected and accumulated cadmium content was measured. Cadmium toxicity was observed through relative growth factor and changes in chlorophyll content Experimental results showed that Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza were capable of removing 42-78% and 52-75% cadmium from media depending upon initial cadmium concentrations. Cadmium was removed following pseudo second order kinetic model Maximum cadmium accumulation in Lemna minor was 4734.56 mg/kg at 2 mg/L initial cadmium concentration and 7711.00 mg/kg in Spirodela polyrhiza at 3 mg/L initial cadmium concentration at the end of treatment period. Conversely in both cases maximum bioconcentration factor obtained at lowest initial cadmium concentrations, i.e., 0.5 mg/L, were 3295.61 and 4752.00 for Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza respectively. The present study revealed that both Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza was potential cadmium accumulator.

  20. Cigarette Smoke Cadmium Breakthrough from Traditional Filters: Implications for Exposure (United States)

    Pappas, R. Steven; Fresquez, Mark R.; Watson, Clifford H.


    Cadmium, a carcinogenic metal, is highly toxic to renal, skeletal, nervous, respiratory, and cardiovascular systems. Accurate and precise quantification of mainstream smoke cadmium levels in cigarette smoke is important because of exposure concerns. The two most common trapping techniques for collecting mainstream tobacco smoke particulate for analysis are glass fiber filters and electrostatic precipitators. We observed that a significant portion of total cadmium passed through standard glass fiber filters that are used to trap particulate matter. We therefore developed platinum traps to collect the cadmium that passed through the filters and tested a variety of cigarettes with different physical parameters for quantities of cadmium that passed though the filters. We found less than 1% cadmium passed through electrostatic precipitators. In contrast, cadmium that passed through 92 mm glass fiber filters on a rotary smoking machine was significantly higher, ranging from 3.5% to 22.9% of total smoke cadmium deliveries. Cadmium passed through 44 mm filters typically used on linear smoking machines to an even greater degree, ranging from 13.6% to 30.4% of the total smoke cadmium deliveries. Differences in the cadmium that passed through from the glass fiber filters and electrostatic precipitator could be explained in part if cadmium resides in the smaller mainstream smoke aerosol particle sizes. Differences in particle size distribution could have toxicological implications and could help explain the pulmonary and cardiovascular cadmium uptake in smokers. PMID:25313385

  1. Extracellular potassium inhibits Kv7.1 potassium channels by stabilizing an inactivated state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Peter; Steffensen, Annette Buur; Grunnet, Morten


    Kv7.1 (KCNQ1) channels are regulators of several physiological processes including vasodilatation, repolarization of cardiomyocytes, and control of secretory processes. A number of Kv7.1 pore mutants are sensitive to extracellular potassium. We hypothesized that extracellular potassium also...

  2. Dynamic of cadmium accumulation in the internal organs of rats after exposure to cadmium chloride and cadmium sulphide nanoparticules of various sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apykhtina O.L.


    Full Text Available The article presents the results of study of cadmium accumulation in the internal organs of Wistar rats after prolonged intraperitoneal administration of cadmium chloride and cadmium sulphide nanoparticles of 4-6 nm and 9-11 nm in size in a dose of 0.08 mg /kg/day calculated as cadmium. Toxic effects were evaluated after 30 injections (1.5 months, 60 injections (3 months, and 1.5 months after the exposure has been ceased. The results of the study showed that the most intensive accumulation of cadmium was observed in the kidneys and liver of experimental animals, which is due to the peculiarities of the toxicokinetics and the route of administration of cadmium compounds. In the kidneys, spleen and thymus of animals exposed to cadmium sulphide nanoparticles, a greater concentration of cadmium than in the organs of animals exposed to cadmium chloride was found. Cadmium accumulated more intensively in the spleen after exposure to larger nanoparticles, than in the kidneys and thymus. In the liver, heart, aorta and brain significant accumulation was observed after cadmium chloride exposure.

  3. Cadmium exposure induces hematuria in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seung Seok [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myounghee, E-mail: [Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Eulji University, Gyeonggi-do 461-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su Mi [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Pyo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sejoong [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Kwon Wook [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chun Soo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)


    Introduction: Toxic heavy metals have adverse effects on human health. However, the risk of hematuria caused by heavy metal exposure has not been evaluated. Methods: Data from 4701 Korean adults were obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008–2010). Blood levels of the toxic heavy metals cadmium, lead, and mercury were measured. Hematuria was defined as a result of ≥+1 on a urine dipstick test. The odds ratios (ORs) for hematuria were measured according to the blood heavy metal levels after adjusting for multiple variables. Results: Individuals with blood cadmium levels in the 3rd and 4th quartiles had a greater OR for hematuria than those in the 1st quartile group: 3rd quartile, 1.35 (1.019–1.777; P=0.037); 4th quartile, 1.52 (1.140–2.017; P=0.004). When blood cadmium was considered as a log-transformed continuous variable, the correlation between blood cadmium and hematuria was significant: OR, 1.97 (1.224–3.160; P{sub trend}=0.005). In contrast, no significant correlations between hematuria and blood lead or mercury were found in the multivariate analyses. Discussion: The present study shows that high cadmium exposure is associated with a risk of hematuria. -- Highlights: • A high level of blood cadmium is associated with a high risk of hematuria. • This correlation is independent of several confounding factors. • Blood levels of lead and mercury are not associated with risk of hematuria. • This is the first study on the correlation between cadmium exposure and hematuria risk.

  4. Toxicity of cadmium to the developing lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daston, G.P.


    The effects of cadmium on the developing lung and pulmonary surfactant were studied. Pregnant rats received subcutaneous injections of cadmium chloride on days 12 to 15 of gestation and were sacrificed throughout late gestation. The treatment resulted in high embryonic mortality and growth regardation. Fetal lung weight was reduced 20 to 30% due to hypoplasia, as the number of lung cells (DNA/lung) but not cell size (protein/cell) was lowered. The ultrastructural development of alveolar epithelium was altered; cytodifferentiation was delayed; and the cytoplasmic inclusions which contain pulmonary surfactant, were reduced in the term fetus. Accumulation of phosphatidylcholine (PC), the major component of pulmonary surfactant, was diminished in the lungs of treated fetuses. The immediate cause of this lowered accumulation was a decreased rate of synthesis of PC from choline. Carbohydrates probably represent a major source of PC precursors and are present in large quantities in the fetal lung as glycogen. The pulmonary glycogen content of cadmium-exposed fetuses was diminished. It is postulated that this is a reason for the lowered rate of PC synthesis. Maternally administered cadmium did not pass through the placenta; thus, the mechanism of fetotoxicity was indirect. Maternal cadmium exposure did result in lowered fetal zinc levels. Coadministration of zinc with cadmium raised fetal zinc concentration to control values and alleviated all fetotoxicity. Fetal zinc deficiency is a possible mechanism for the toxic effects on the developing lung. Several dams were allowed to give birth and their offspring were observed for respiratory problems. Cadmium treatment delayed parturition by about a day. Symptoms of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) were observed in 11% of the treated neonates. All but one of these individuals died and had lungs with hyaline membranes. This is the only known case of an environmental agent causing neonatal RDS.

  5. Electroplating of CdTe Thin Films from Cadmium Sulphate Precursor and Comparison of Layers Grown by 3-Electrode and 2-Electrode Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imyhamy M. Dharmadasa


    Full Text Available Electrodeposition of CdTe thin films was carried out from the late 1970s using the cadmium sulphate precursor. The solar energy group at Sheffield Hallam University has carried out a comprehensive study of CdTe thin films electroplated using cadmium sulfate, cadmium nitrate and cadmium chloride precursors, in order to select the best electrolyte. Some of these results have been published elsewhere, and this manuscript presents the summary of the results obtained on CdTe layers grown from cadmium sulphate precursor. In addition, this research program has been exploring the ways of eliminating the reference electrode, since this is a possible source of detrimental impurities, such as K+ and Ag+ for CdS/CdTe solar cells. This paper compares the results obtained from CdTe layers grown by three-electrode (3E and two-electrode (2E systems for their material properties and performance in CdS/CdTe devices. Thin films were characterized using a wide range of analytical techniques for their structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties. These layers have also been used in device structures; glass/FTO/CdS/CdTe/Au and CdTe from both methods have produced solar cells to date with efficiencies in the region of 5%–13%. Comprehensive work carried out to date produced comparable and superior devices fabricated from materials grown using 2E system.

  6. Potassium 4-(hydroxymethyl)-benzenosulfonate: a novel metabolite isolated from the marine red alga Bostrychia tenella (Rhodomelaceae, ceramiales); 4-(Hidroximetil)-Benzenossulfonato de potassio: metabolito inedito isolado da alga marinha Bostrychia tenella (Rhodomelaceae, ceramiales)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felicio, Rafael de; Debonsi, Hosana Maria [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Fisica e Quimica]. E-mail:; Yokoya, Nair Sumie [Instituto de Botanica de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Ficologia


    Chemical investigation of the dichloromethane/methanol extract of the marine alga Bostrychia tenella has led to the isolation of two aromatic compounds, the new sulfate metabolite potassium 4-(hydroxymethyl)-benzenosulfonate (1) and the compound 1-methoxyphenethyl alcohol (2), described previously as a synthetic product. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods including NMR, MS, IR and by comparison with literature data. (author)

  7. Effects of barium, lanthanum and gadolinium on endogenous chloride and potassium currents in Xenopus oocytes. (United States)

    Tokimasa, T; North, R A


    1. The effects of multivalent cations on membrane currents recorded from Xenopus oocytes were studied. 2. The hyperpolarization-activated chloride current was reversibly blocked by lanthanum; half-maximal block occurred at a concentration of 8 microM. Zinc, cadmium, cobalt and nickel were less potent than lanthanum, and gadolinium, manganese, barium and strontium had no effect at a concentration of 100 microM. 3. The calcium-activated chloride current was blocked by gadolinium (50 microM), and lanthanum, cadmium, cobalt, nickel and manganese were equally effective. The actions of gadolinium and lanthanum were almost irreversible, while partial (30-80%) recovery was observed with the other cations. Zinc (100 microM) had no effect. 4. In lanthanum (100 microM), membrane depolarizations from -70 mV activated an outward potassium current that was partially blocked by barium (0.1-2 mM). The barium-sensitive current was confined to potentials less negative than -70 mV. The current consisted of a time-independent as well as a time-dependent component, the latter of which had voltage dependence similar to the M-current. 5. It is proposed that lanthanum, gadolinium and barium can usefully separate these endogenous membrane currents in Xenopus oocytes. PMID:8930835

  8. Inorganic ion exchangers based on manganese and potassium for recovery and removal of pollutant metals of aqueous effluents; Trocadores ionicos inorganicos a base de manganes e potassio para recuperacao e remocao de metais poluentes de efluentes aquosos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Jacinete Lima dos


    This work presents a study on the synthesis, characterization and ion exchange properties of inorganic ion exchangers based on manganese and potassium. The ion exchangers were synthesized by calcination of the mixture of manganese(II) oxalate and potassium oxalate and were characterized by granulometer distribution analysis, X-ray powder diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopic. From the data obtained in characterization it was observed that exist two distinguished groups of these materials. The first group belong to ion exchangers with up to 30% w/w potassium and the second group formed by the ion exchangers with more than 30% w / w of content of potassium in their compositions. The studies of adsorption of these materials showed that the adsorption of Cd{sup 2+} is a function of the following parameters as pH, concentration of Cd{sup 2+}, time of contact between the ion exchangers the concentration of the Cd{sup 2+} solution and the interference of other ions like Ni{sup 2+}. The great pH of adsorption for these materials occur in pH 9, the study of the influence of the cadmium concentration in the adsorption showed that for a group of exchangers the adsorption decreases with the increase of cadmium concentration and for the other group the adsorption increases with the increase of cadmium concentration. The kinetics of adsorption occur in a contact time between the ion exchangers and the Cd{sup 2+} solutions relatively short, at about 15 minutes is necessary to establish the equilibrium. The presence of Ni{sup 2+} as interfering ion decreases the adsorption of cadmium of 99,7% to 65%. These inorganic ion exchangers showed be good exchangers for Cd{sup 2+}. (author)

  9. Uptake of cadmium from hydroponic solutions by willows ( Salix spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salix integra 'Weishanhu') and Yizhibi (S. integra 'Yizhibi') were chosen as model plants to evaluate their potential for uptake of cadmium from hydroponic culture and relative uptake mechanism. Cadmium uptake showed a linear increase in the ...


    The study evaluated the zinc chloride electroplating process as a substitute for cadmium cyanide electroplating in the manufacture of industrial connectors and fittings at Aeroquip Corporation. The process substitution eliminates certain wastes, specifically cadmium and cyanide, ...

  11. Genotoxic Effect of Atrazine, Arsenic, Cadmium and Nitrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ATZ), Cadmium (Cd), Arsenic (As) and Nitrate (NO3) have both estrogenic activity and carcinogenic potential. Atrazine has clastogenic effects and may also act as tumor promoter as it induces the aromatase enzyme. Arsenic and Cadmium ...

  12. Effects of top excision on the potassium accumulation and expression of potassium channel genes in tobacco. (United States)

    Dai, Xiao Yan; Su, Yi Rong; Wei, Wen Xue; Wu, Jin Shui; Fan, Ye Kuan


    The effects of the removal of the shoot apex of tobacco on the relative transcript levels of potassium channel genes, determined by real-time PCR, and on the relationship between the expression of genes encoding potassium channels and potassium concentration, were studied. The results from the study indicated that comparatively more assimilates of photosynthesis were allocated to the apex in control plants than in both decapitated and IAA-treated decapitated plants. By contrast, dry matter in the upper leaves, roots, and stems in both decapitated and IAA-treated plants was significantly increased relative to control plants. The potassium level in whole plants decreased post-decapitation compared with control plants, and so did the potassium concentration in middle and upper leaves, stem, and roots. Expression of NKT1, NtKC1, NTORK1, and NKT2 was inhibited by decapitation in tobacco leaves with a gradual reduction after decapitation, but was induced in roots. The relative expression of NKT1, NTORK1, and NKT2 in tobacco leaves was higher than that in roots, whereas the expression of NtKC1 was higher in roots. The levels of inhibition and induction of NKT1, NtKC1, NTORK1, and NKT2 in leaves and roots, respectively, associated with decapitation were reduced by the application of IAA on the cut surface of the decapitated stem. Further results showed that the level of endogenous auxin IAA in decapitated plants, which dropped in leaves and increased in roots by 140.7% at 14 d compared with the control plant, might be attributed to the change in the expression of potassium channel genes. The results suggest that there is a reciprocal relationship among endogenous auxin IAA, expression of potassium channel genes and potassium accumulation. They further imply that the endogenous IAA probably plays a role in regulating the expression of potassium channel genes, and that variations in expression of these genes affected the accumulation and distribution of potassium in tobacco.

  13. Cadmium exposure and health risks: Recent findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elinder, C.G. [Huddinge Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Renal Medicine; Jaerup, L. [Stockholm City Council (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Health


    Environmental and/or occupational exposure to cadmium give rise to a tubular kidney dysfunction which may proceed to more generalized renal damage and bone disease if exposure has been high and prolonged. Recent scientific work shows that early renal effects develop at lower levels of exposure than previously anticipated. Previous risk assessments for cadmium were mainly based on studies on healthy male workers. The general population, however, also include particularly susceptible groups such as elderly and individuals with illnesses (e.g. diabetes) that may predispose to cadmium-induced health effects. A significant proportion of the general population displays early signs of toxicity already at urinary cadmium concentrations around 3 nmol mmol{sup -1} creatinine. In addition to early tubular effects, cadmium may exert direct or indirect effects on mineral metabolism and the mineralization of the skeleton at relatively low levels of exposure. This may have important health implications, as poor and easily fractured bone is a major problem among the elderly in all industrialized countries. 41 refs, 4 figs

  14. Cadmium recycling in the United States in 2000 (United States)

    Plachy, Jozef


    Recycling of cadmium is a young and growing industry that has been influenced by environmental concerns and regulatory constraints. Domestic recycling of cadmium began in 1989 as a byproduct of processing of spent nickel-cadmium batteries. In 1995, International Metals Reclamation Co. Inc. expanded its operations by building a dedicated cadmium recycling plant. In 2000, an estimated 13 percent of cadmium consumption in the United States was sourced from recycled cadmium, which is derived mainly from old scrap or, to lesser degree, new scrap. The easiest forms of old scrap to recycle are small spent nickel-cadmium batteries followed by flue dust generated during recycling of galvanized steel and small amounts of alloys that contain cadmium. Most of new scrap is generated during manufacturing processes, such as nickel-cadmium battery production. All other uses of cadmium are in low concentrations and, therefore, difficult to recycle. Consequently, much of this cadmium is dissipated and lost. The amount of cadmium in scrap that was unrecovered in 2000 was estimated to be 2,030 metric tons, and an estimated 285 tons was recovered. Recycling efficiency was estimated to be about 15 percent.

  15. Cadmium uptake by the green alga Chlorella emersonii | Arikpo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigations were carried out on the uptake of the heavy metal cadmium (Cd) by the green alga Chlorella emersonii with the aid of an ion selective electrode. Cadmium uptake by Chlorella was very rapid with 70% of total uptake occurring during the first 10 seconds. Uptake of cadmium by Chlorella showed a direct ...

  16. Cadmium affects the social behaviour of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloman, Katherine A.; Scott, Graham R.; Diao Zhongyu; Rouleau, Claude; Wood, Chris M.; McDonald, D. Gord


    The present study investigated both the effects of cadmium on the social interactions of rainbow trout and the differential accumulation of waterborne cadmium among social ranks of fish. Fish exposed to waterborne cadmium concentrations of 2 {mu}g l{sup -1} for 24 h, followed by a 1, 2 or 3 day depuration period in clean water, had a decreased ability to compete with non-exposed fish. However, the competitive ability of exposed fish given a 5 day depuration period was not significantly impaired. Cadmium accumulated in the olfactory apparatus of fish exposed to waterborne cadmium for 24 h and decreased significantly only after 5 days depuration in clean water. Among groups of ten fish held in stream tanks, where all fish were exposed to cadmium, there were significant effects on social behaviour and growth rate. Dominance hierarchies formed faster among fish exposed to cadmium than among control fish, and overall growth rates were higher in the cadmium treatment. In groups of ten fish, social status also affected tissue accumulation of cadmium during waterborne exposure, with dominant fish accumulating more cadmium at the gill. In conclusion, exposure to low levels of cadmium, affects the social behaviour of fish, in part due to accumulation in the olfactory apparatus, and dominant fish accumulate more gill cadmium than subordinates during chronic waterborne exposure.

  17. Potassium permanganate ingestion as a suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Cimilli Ozturk


    Full Text Available Potassium permanganate is a highly corrosive, water-soluble oxidizing antiseptic. A 68- year-old female patient was admitted to our Emergency Department after ingestion of 3 tablets of 250 mg potassium permanganate as a suicide attempt. The physical exam revealed brown stained lesions in the oropharynx. Emergency endoscopy was performed by the gastroenterologist after the third hour of ingestion. Emergency endoscopy revealed multiple superficial (Grade I-II lesions on the esophagus and cardia, which were considered secondary to the caustic substance. The mainstay in the treatment of potassium permanganate is supportive and the immediate priority is to secure the airway. Emergency endoscopy is an important tool used to evaluate the location and severity of injury to the esophagus, stomach and duodenum after caustic ingestion. Patients with signs and symptoms of intentional ingestion should undergo endoscopy within 12 to 24 h to define the extent of the disease.

  18. [The technological progress in haemodialysis: potassium profiling]. (United States)

    Kes, Petar; Racki, Sanjin; Basić-Jukić, Nikolina; Ratković-Gusić, Iva


    Patients with the end-stage renal disease often suffer from numerous concomitant diseases. The most common are complications of the cardiovascular system. During the haemodialysis treatment, rapid changes in volume status, osmolality and electrolyte composition of the blood, cause disturbances which manifest as haemodynamic instability, hypotension and cardiac arrhythmias. Especially vulnerable are elderly patients and patients with generalized atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, and severe anaemia. Rapid decrease in serum potassium concentration may cause fatal arrhythmias. Contemporary dialysis machines enable slow lowering of potassium concentration during the haemodialysis session (or during the acetate-free biofiltration), what significantly decreases incidence of cardiac arrhythmias and improve cardiovascular stability.

  19. Improved Synthesis Of Potassium Beta' '-Alumina (United States)

    Williams, Roger M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara; Ryan, Margaret A.; O'Connor, Dennis E.; Kisor, Adam; Underwood, Mark


    Improved formulations of precursor materials synthesize nearly-phase-pure potassium beta' '-alumina solid electrolyte (K-BASE) powder. Materials are microhomogeneous powders (or, alternatively, gels) containing K(+,) Mg(2+), and Al(3+). K-BASE powder produced used in potassium-working-fluid alkali-metal thermal-to-electric conversion (K-AMTEC), in which heat-input and heat-rejection temperatures lower than sodium-working-fluid AMTEC (Na-AMTEC). Additional potential use lies in purification of pottassium by removal of sodium and calcium.

  20. Hydroponic technology for lily flowers and bulbs production using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    , Ferric sulfate, magnesium sulfate anhydrous, manganese sulfate monohydrate, potassium chloride, potassium iodide, potassium nitrate, sodium phosphate monobasic, sodium sulfate anhydrous, zinc sulfate heptahydrate ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bala Ramudu


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental research undertaken to evaluate different purging solutions to enhance the removal of cadmium from spiked contaminated field soil by electrokinetic remediation. Three experiments were conducted when soil was saturated with deionised water and subsequently deionised water, ammonium citrate and sodium citrate were used as purging solutions at anode end. One experiment was conducted when the soil was saturated with ammonium citrate and itself was used as the purging solution. Results showed that 49% reduction of cadmium concentration was achieved in the case of soil saturated (washed with ammonium citrate as well as purging solution also was ammonium citrate. The soil pH and washing solutions were the most important factors in controlling the removal of cadmium in electrokinetic remediation process.

  2. Cadmium chloride treatment of rats significantly impairs membrane integrity of mesenchymal stem cells via electrolyte imbalance and lipid peroxidation, a possible explanation of Cd related osteoporosis. (United States)

    Abnosi, Mohammad Husein; Golami, Someyeh


    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play an important role in bone health. Cadmium causes osteoporosis, but the exact mechanisms of its effect on MSCs are not known. Rats were treated with cadmium chloride (40 mg/l) in drinking water for six weeks, and then the biochemical and morphological studies on MSCs were carried out as a cellular backup for osteoblasts. Viability and proliferation properties of the cells were evaluated using MTT assay, trypan blue, population doubling number, and colony forming assay. Morphology of the cells and biochemical parameters including activity of metabolic (ALP, AST, and ALT) and antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, and POX) as well as the MDA level (as an indication of lipid peroxidation) were investigated. In addition, intracellular calcium, potassium, and sodium content were estimated. Data was analyzed statistically and P<0.05 was taken as the level of significance. The results showed a significant reduction in viability and proliferation ability of extracted cells when compared to the controls. In addition, it was revealed that the cadmium treatment of rats caused a significant reduction in nuclear diameter and cytoplasm area. Also, there was significant increase in (ALT) and (AST) activity and intracellular calcium and potassium content but no change was observed with sodium content and ALP activity. The results showed [a] significant reduction in the antioxidant enzyme activity and increases in the MDA level. Based on the present study, reduction of viability and proliferation ability of MSCs might be a causative factor of osteoporosis in industrial areas.

  3. Acidification of musts in warm regions with tartaric acid and calcium sulfate at industrial scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Juan


    Full Text Available Acidification of musts is necessary in warm areas where high temperatures during ripening accelerate breathing com- bustion of tartaric acid and, in particular, malic acid in the berries. L(+ tartaric acid, L(- or D,L malic acid and lactic acids are the only chemical acidifiers authorized by the OIV and European Community regulations. The use of calcium sulfate (gypsum: CaSO4·2H2O is also authorized in the European Community as a complementary acidifier in generous and generous liquor 42 wines from Spain (a practice known as plastering, provided that the residual sulfate content in the wine does not exceed 2.5 g/L expressed as potassium sulfate. However, this practice is not yet approved by OIV. To predict the effect on pH of different acidi- fiers, several chemical modeling approaches have been described in the literature, in particular a simplified model where the acidity of wine is considered to be due to a monoprotic acid. The aim of this work is to verify this model at pilot and industrial scale in the acidification of musts with tartaric and calcium sulfate, added either individually and in combination, using doses up to 3 g/L and to study the modifications that these practices produce on the compositions of the resulting wines. This work sup- plies useful information to study this practice in OIV in order to consider its approval.

  4. Analysis of tyrosine-O-sulfation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, J.R.; Sen, J.W.; Johnsen, A.H.


    Tyrosine O-sulfation was first described about 50 years ago as a post-translational modification of fibrinogen. In the following 30 years it was considered to be a rare modification affecting only a few proteins and peptides. However, in the beginning of the 1980s tyrosine (Tyr) sulfation was shown...... to be a common modification and since then an increasing number of proteins have been identified as sulfated. The target proteins belong to the classes of secretory, plasma membrane, and lysosomal proteins, which reflects the intracellular localization of the enzymes catalyzing Tyr sulfation, the tyrosylprotein...... sulfotransferases (TPSTs).Traditionally, Tyr sulfation has been analyzed by incorporation of radiolabeled sulfate into target cells followed by purification of the target protein. Subsequently, the protein is degraded enzymatically or by alkaline hydrolysis followed by thin-layer electrophoresis to demonstrate...

  5. Cadmium telluride quantum dots advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Donegan, John


    Optical Properties of Bulk and Nanocrystalline Cadmium Telluride, Núñez Fernández and M.I. VasilevskiyAqueous Synthesis of Colloidal CdTe Nanocrystals, V. Lesnyak, N. Gaponik, and A. EychmüllerAssemblies of Thiol-Capped CdTe Nanocrystals, N. GaponikFörster Resonant Energy Transfer in CdTe Nanocrystal Quantum Dot Structures, M. Lunz and A.L. BradleyEmission of CdTe Nanocrystals Coupled to Microcavities, Y.P. Rakovich and J.F. DoneganBiological Applications of Cadmium Telluride Semiconductor Quantum Dots, A. Le Cign

  6. Toxic effects of Cadmium on the garden snail (Helix aspersa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, L.K. (Northrop Services Inc., Corvallis, OR); DeHaven, J.I.; Botts, R.P.


    Spreading treated municipal wastes on agricultural and forest lands is becoming an established method of disposal. However, there is concern about the deleterious effects of toxicants, particularly cadmium, in the sludges. Cadmium concentrations in sewage sludge have been reported as high as 1500 ppM. The work reported here is a part of a larger project to investigate the ecological effects of municipal wastes on forest lands. Snails, Helix aspersa, were chosen to examine the entrance of cadmium into terrestrial food chains. This experiment was designed to determine cadmium accumulation, acute toxicity, and behavioral, reproductive and growth responses with increasing levels of cadmium.

  7. Differential sexual survival of Drosophila melanogaster on copper sulfate. (United States)

    Balinski, Michael A; Woodruff, Ronny C


    Based on studies of the influence of X-chromosomes on the viability of Drosophila melanogaster exposed to cadmium, and on the role of X-linked genes on copper homeostasis, we examined the effect of copper sulfate (CuSO4) on offspring viability using three independent, inbred D. melanogaster crosses (ensuring identical autosomes for males and females within each cross). Each cross was performed with attached X-chromosome females and males with a single X-chromosome. As female D. melanogaster have less metallothionein RNA expression than males, we predicted fewer female offspring than male offspring in crosses exposed to CuSO4, even though females have two copies of X-chromosome genes, possibly resulting in overdominant heterozygosity. In two of three crosses, CuSO4 caused significantly higher numbers of male offspring compared to female offspring. We hypothesized that these gender-based viability differences to copper exposure are caused by X-chromosome ploidy and X-linked genetic variation affecting metallothionein expression. Observed differential offspring viability responses among crosses to copper exposure also showed that different genetic backgrounds (autosomal and/or X-chromosome) can result in significant differences in heavy metal and metallothionein regulation. These results suggest that the effect of copper on offspring viability depends on both genetic background and gender, as both factors can affect the regulation of metallothionein proteins as well as homeostasis of biologically necessary heavy metals.

  8. Cadmium-induced testicular injury. (United States)

    Siu, Erica R; Mruk, Dolores D; Porto, Catarina S; Cheng, C Yan


    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental toxicant and an endocrine disruptor in humans and rodents. Several organs (e.g., kidney, liver) are affected by Cd and recent studies have illustrated that the testis is exceedingly sensitive to Cd toxicity. More important, Cd and other toxicants, such as heavy metals (e.g., lead, mercury) and estrogenic-based compounds (e.g., bisphenols) may account for the recent declining fertility in men among developed countries by reducing sperm count and testis function. In this review, we critically discuss recent data in the field that have demonstrated the Cd-induced toxicity to the testis is probably the result of interactions of a complex network of causes. This is likely to involve the disruption of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) via specific signal transduction pathways and signaling molecules, such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). We also summarize current studies on factors that confer and/or regulate the testis sensitivity to Cd, such as Cd transporters and metallothioneins, the impact of Cd on the testis as an endocrine disruptor and oxidative stress inducer, and how it may disrupt the Zn(2+) and/or Ca(2+) mediated cellular events. While much work is needed before a unified mechanistic pathway of Cd-induced testicular toxicity emerges, recent studies have helped to identify some of the likely mechanisms and/or events that take place during Cd-induced testis injury. Furthermore, some of the recent studies have shed lights on potential therapeutic or preventive approaches that can be developed in future studies by blocking or minimizing the destructive effects of Cd to testicular function in men.

  9. Cadmium Exposure and Pancreatic Cancer in South Louisiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian G. Luckett


    Full Text Available Cadmium has been hypothesized to be a pancreatic carcinogen. We test the hypothesis that cadmium exposure is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer with a population-based case-control study sampled from a population with persistently high rates of pancreatic cancer (south Louisiana. We tested potential dietary and nondietary sources of cadmium for their association with urinary cadmium concentrations which reflect long-term exposure to cadmium due to the accumulation of cadmium in the kidney cortex. Increasing urinary cadmium concentrations were significantly associated with an increasing risk of pancreatic cancer (2nd quartile OR = 3.34, 3rd = 5.58, 4th = 7.70; test for trend P≤0.0001. Potential sources of cadmium exposure, as documented in the scientific literature, found to be statistically significantly associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer included working as a plumber, pipefitter or welder (OR = 5.88 and high consumption levels of red meat (4th quartile OR = 6.18 and grains (4th quartile OR = 3.38. Current cigarette smoking, at least 80 pack years of smoking, occupational exposure to cadmium and paints, working in a shipyard, and high consumption of grains were found to be statistically significantly associated with increased concentrations of urinary cadmium. This study provides epidemiologic evidence that cadmium is a potential human pancreatic carcinogen.

  10. 186 183 Potassium Bromate Content of Bread

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dec 2, 2008 ... This study has shown that in spite of National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control. (NAFDAC) campaign for bromate-free ... agents' flavourings, yeasts, and bread improver. Yeast feed on sugar to produce .... mutagenic studies show that potassium bromate is a potential cancer initiator.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Thus, it is considered important to study methods of available K extraction for better understanding of the ... response to potassium, soil test methods should have a high correlation with crop performance. (Ekpete, 1972). Also ... The bulk samples were air-dried, ground and sieved to pass through 2 mm sieve. Sub samples of.

  12. Photoconductivity and dielectric studies of potassium pentaborate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Single crystal of potassium pentaborate (KB5) has been grown by solution growth technique. FTIR and laser Raman measurements are carried out to make a qualitative analysis on KB5 crystal. Dielectric behaviour of the KB5 crystal has been studied in the microwave region using K-band microwave bench equipped with ...

  13. 186 183 Potassium Bromate Content of Bread

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dec 2, 2008 ... that potassium bromate affects the nutritional quality of bread as the main vitamins available in bread are ... inhalation, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, kidney failure, hearing loss as well as ... because a cancer warning is required on the label (Starr, 2002). The World Health. Organisation in ...

  14. Spectrophotometric Determination of Losartan Potassium in Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianne Diane A. Aniñon


    Full Text Available In the quality control of pharmaceutical products, it is of utmost importance that validated analytical methods are used to ensure the credibility of the results generated. At the time of the study, official monographs from the United States Pharmacopeia and National Formulary (USP-NF for the quantification of Losartan potassium in tablets were unavailable, denoting the need for a validated analytical procedure for the analysis of the drug. The study adapted direct and first-derivative UV spectrophotometry methods proposed by Bonfilio and others (2010 for the assay of Losartan potassium in Losartan 50 mg. capsules, then modified and validated the said procedures for the assay of Losartan potassium in Losartan 100 mg. tablets following the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH guidelines on method validation for accuracy, precision, specificity, linearity, limit of detection, and limit of quantitation. Results demonstrated that all the performance characteristics of both methods were highly satisfactory and confirmed the possible application of the methods in routine analysis of Losartan potassium tablets.

  15. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5628 - Potassium glycerophosphate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium glycerophosphate. 582.5628 Section 582.5628 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 582.5634 Section 582.5634 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...

  18. Acute Renal Failure following Accidental Potassium Bromate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accidental poisoning is common in children. Potassium bromate is a commonly used additive and raising agent in many edibles particularly bread, a staple food worldwide, yet its accidental poisoning has hitherto, not been documented in Nigeria. We report an unusual case of acute renal failure following accidental ...

  19. 21 CFR 172.375 - Potassium iodide. (United States)


    ... added to a food as a source of the essential mineral iodine, provided the maximum intake of the food as... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium iodide. 172.375 Section 172.375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  20. Nutritional potassium requirement for laying Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the potassium requirement for laying Japanese quails. Two hundred and forty quails were distributed in a randomized block design, with five treatments and six replicates, with eight birds each. The treatments consisted of a basal diet deficient in potassium (K (2.50 g/kg, supplemented with potassium carbonate, to replace the inert, to reach levels of 2.50, 3.50, 4.50, 5.50 and 6.50 (g/kg of K in the diet. There was a quadratic effect of K levels on feed intake, egg production, egg mass and feed conversion per egg mass and per egg dozen, estimating the requirements of 4.26, 4.41, 4.38, 4.43 and 4.48 (g/kg of K diet, respectively. There was no significant effect on the levels of K in the diet on egg weight, albumen weight, percentage of yolk or shell and yolk color. However, yolk and shell weights reduced and the albumen percentage increased linearly with increasing levels of K in the diet. Despite the reduction of shell weight, the increased levels of K did not influence the specific gravity and shell thickness. The use of 4.41 g/kg of potassium is recommended in the diet for laying Japanese quails.

  1. Acute Renal Failure following Accidental Potassium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Summary. Okeniyi JAO, Aladekomo TA, Oyelami 0A. Acute Renal Failure following Accidental. Potassium ... Serum Electrvgyte and Urea lef in the Patient '. ' D91 4 Dry 7 D49! ... determination of bromate residues with accuracy in a variety of ...

  2. Effect of potassium on micromorphological and chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan to study the effect of potassium on yield and internal leaf tissues composition of cotton varieties, CIM-443, CIM-109 and CIM-446. Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) were applied at 150 mg N/kg soil and 75 mg P 2O5/kg soil ...

  3. Catalytic decomposition of potassium monopersulfate: the kinetics


    Borralho, Maria Teresa; Gimeno, Olga; RIVAS, Javier; Carbajo, Maria


    Potassium monopersulfate has been decomposed in aqueous solution in the presence of Co(II). The process has been simulated by means of a mechanism based on elementary reactions. Rate constants have been taken from literature reports or, alternatively, assimilated to analogous reactions occurring in Fenton´s chemistry. Several operating conditions have been successfully applied.

  4. Qualitative Carbohydrate Analysis using Alkaline Potassium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Carbohydrates form a distinct class of organic compounds often identified by their characteristic behaviour towards a host of reagents [1–4]. Based on a kinetic study on the oxidation of carbohydrates with alkaline potassium ferricyanide [5], we had reported, in the April 2007 issue of Resonance, an unambiguous.

  5. Selective Monohydrocyanation of Diimine using Potassium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 128; Issue 12. Selective Monohydrocyanation of Diimine using Potassium Hexacyanoferrate(II)-Benzoyl Chloride Reagent System as a Cyanide Source. ZHENG LI FEI WEN JINGYA YANG. Regular Article Volume 128 Issue 12 December 2016 pp 1849-1853 ...

  6. Effect of potassium on micromorphological and chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 4, 2009 ... observed in plant leaves grown without potassium application while in leaves supplied with K their ... available level of its cations in soil and fixation capacity of soil. ... two-third of the total K uptake occurs during a 6-week ...

  7. Relationship Between Extractable Potassium And Phosphorus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of laboratory soil sample preparation on level of extractable Potassium (K) and Phosphorus (P) was studied on various soil types collected at Magoebaskloof pine farm (MPF), Tshiombho irrigation scheme (TIS), Dal water farm (DWF) and Syferkuil experimental farm (SEF). Twenty soil samples were collected at ...

  8. Effect Of Virkon Disinfectant Brand Of Potassium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the Nigerian market are many brands of disinfectants with varying efficacy against bacteria, fungi and viruses. Recently Virkon brand of potassium monoperoxysulphate (Antec, UK) was introduced. The Kelsey -Sykes test was carried out to determine the efficacy of Virkon against standard bacterial strains and ...

  9. Murine strain differences and the effects of zinc on cadmium concentrations in tissues after acute cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, L.M. [ARS USDA, Germplasm and Gamete Physiology Lab., Beltsville, MD (United States); Anderson, M.B. [Dept. of Anatomy, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); Sikka, S.C. [Dept. of Urology, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); George, W.J. [Dept. of Pharmacology, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States)


    The role of strain differences in cadmium tissue distribution was studied using sensitive (129/J) and resistant (A/J) mice. These murine strains have previously been shown to differ in their susceptibility to cadmium-induced testicular toxicity. Cadmium concentration was measured in testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, liver, and kidney at 24 h after cadmium chloride exposure (4, 10, and 20 {mu}mol/kg CdCl{sub 2}). The 129/J mice exhibited a significant increase in cadmium concentration in testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle at all cadmium doses used, compared to A/J mice. However, cadmium concentrations in liver and kidney were not different between the strains, at any dose, indicating that cadmium uptake is similar in these organs at 24 h. These murine strains demonstrate similar hepatic and renal cadmium uptake but significantly different cadmium accumulation in the reproductive organs at 24 h. The mechanism of the protective effect of zinc on cadmium toxicity was studied by assessing the impact of zinc acetate (ZnAc) treatment on cadmium concentrations in 129/J mice after 24 h. Zinc pretreatment (250 {mu}mol/kg ZnAc), given 24 h prior to 20 {mu}mol/kg CdCl{sub 2} administration, significantly decreased the amount of cadmium in the testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle of 129/J mice, and significantly increased the cadmium content of the liver after 24 h. Cadmium levels in the kidney were unaffected at this time. Zinc pretreatment also prevented the cadmium-induced decrease in testicular sperm concentration and epididymal sperm motility seen in 129/J mice. These findings suggest that the differences in the two murine strains may be attributed partly to the differential accumulation of cadmium in murine gonads. This may be caused by strain differences in the specificity of cadmium transport mechanisms. The protective role of zinc in cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in the sensitive strain may be due to an interference in the cadmium uptake by susceptible

  10. Cadmium-109 Radioisotope Adsorption onto Polypyrrole Coated Sawdust of Dryobalanops aromatic: Kinetics and Adsorption Isotherms Modelling (United States)

    Olatunji, Michael Adekunle; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Amin, Yusoff Mohd; Mahmud, Habibun Nabi Muhammad Ekramul


    A radiotracer study was conducted to investigate the removal characteristics of cadmium (109Cd) from aqueous solution by polypyrrole/ sawdust composite. Several factors such as solution pH, sorbent dosage, initial concentration, contact time, temperature and interfering metal ions were found to have influence on the adsorption process. The kinetics of adsorption was relatively fast, reaching equilibrium within 3 hours. A lowering of the solution pH reduced the removal efficiency from 99.3 to ~ 46.7% and an ambient temperature of 25°C was found to be optimum for maximum adsorption. The presence of sodium and potassium ions inhibited 109Cd removal from its aqueous solution. The experimental data for 109Cd adsorption showed a very good agreement with the Langmuir isotherm and a pseudo-first order kinetic model. The surface condition of the adsorbent before and after cadmium loading was investigated using BET, FESEM and FTIR. Considering the low cost of the precursor’s materials and the toxicity of 109Cd radioactive metal, polypyrrole synthesized on the sawdust of Dryobalanops aromatic could be used as an efficient adsorbent for the removal of 109Cd radioisotope from radionuclide-containing effluents. PMID:27706232

  11. Significant role of organic sulfur in supporting sedimentary sulfate reduction in low-sulfate environments (United States)

    Fakhraee, Mojtaba; Li, Jiying; Katsev, Sergei


    Dissimilatory sulfate reduction (DSR) is a major carbon mineralization pathway in aquatic sediments, soils, and groundwater, which regulates the production of hydrogen sulfide and the mobilization rates of biologically important elements such as phosphorus and mercury. It has been widely assumed that water-column sulfate is the main sulfur source to fuel this reaction in sediments. While this assumption may be justified in high-sulfate environments such as modern seawater, we argue that in low-sulfate environments mineralization of organic sulfur compounds can be an important source of sulfate. Using a reaction-transport model, we investigate the production of sulfate from sulfur-containing organic matter for a range of environments. The results show that in low sulfate environments (50%) of sulfate reduction. In well-oxygenated systems, porewater sulfate profiles often exhibit sub-interface peaks so that sulfate fluxes are directed out of the sediment. Our measurements in Lake Superior, the world's largest lake, corroborate this conclusion: offshore sediments act as sources rather than sinks of sulfate for the water column, and sediment DSR is supported entirely by the in-sediment production of sulfate. Sulfate reduction rates are correlated to the depth of oxygen penetration and strongly regulated by the supply of reactive organic matter; rate co-regulation by sulfate availability becomes appreciable below 500 μM level. The results indicate the need to consider the mineralization of organic sulfur in the biogeochemical cycling in low-sulfate environments, including several of the world's largest freshwater bodies, deep subsurface, and possibly the sulfate-poor oceans of the Early Earth.

  12. Remediation of cadmium by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. from cadmium contaminated soil: a phytoextraction study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Kumar Bhadkariya


    Full Text Available Cadmium is a toxic metal for living organisms and an environmental contaminant. Soils in many parts of the world are slightly too moderately contaminated by Cd due to long term use and disposal of Cd-contaminated wastes. Cost effective technologies are needed to remove cadmium from the contaminated sites. Soil phytoextraction is engineering based, low cost and socially accepted developing technology that uses plants to clean up contaminants in soils. This technology can be adopted as a remediation of cadmium from Cd-contaminated soils with the help of Brassica juncea plant. The objective of this work was to evaluate the cadmium (Cd accumulate and the tolerance of Brassica juncea. The Cd accumulates in all parts of plants (roots, stems and leaves. It was found that accumulating efficiency increased with the increase in the concentration of applied cadmium metal solution. Maximum accumulation of cadmium was found in roots than stem and leaves. Phytoextraction coefficient and translocation factor were highest to show the validity of the Brassica juncea species for hyperaccumulation of the Cd metal. These results suggested that Brassica juncea has a high ability to tolerate and accumulate Cd, so it might be a promising plant to be used for phytoextraction of Cd contaminated soil. DOI: International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2 2014: 229-237

  13. Determinants of renal potassium excretion in critically ill patients : The role of insulin therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Miriam; Yeh, Lu; Oude Lansink, Annemieke; Vogelzang, Mathijs; Stegeman, Coen A.; Rodgers, Michael G. G.; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; Wietasch, Gotz; Zijlstra, Felix; Nijsten, Maarten W. N.

    Objectives: Insulin administration lowers plasma potassium concentration by augmenting intracellular uptake of potassium. The effect of insulin administration on renal potassium excretion is unclear. Some studies suggest that insulin has an antikaliuretic effect although plasma potassium levels were

  14. Development of a new photorefractive and photovoltaic potassium niobate crystal (United States)

    Evans, D. R.; Basun, S. A.; Seim, J. M.


    Photovoltaic measurements have been made on a new doped potassium niobate crystal that yields significantly larger photovoltaic fields than other doped potassium niobate crystals. Contra-directional two-beam coupling efficiencies and Raman spectroscopy measurements have also been conducted, which show major differences with respect to the published results for other doped potassium niobate materials.

  15. 21 CFR 184.1077 - Potassium acid tartrate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium acid tartrate. 184.1077 Section 184.1077... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1077 Potassium acid tartrate. (a) Potassium acid... accordance with § 184.1(b)(1), the ingredient is used in food with no limitation other than current good...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10031 - Lithium potassium titanium oxide. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lithium potassium titanium oxide. 721... Substances § 721.10031 Lithium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as lithium potassium titanium oxide (PMN P-02...

  17. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for use as sources of...

  18. Phytotoxicity of cadmium on peroxidation, superoxide dismutase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results indicated that Cd destroyed the balance of free radical metabolisms, which resulted in increasing malondialdehyde (MDA) content and the relative cell membrane permeability (RMP). The kernel yield and kernel rate per pot showed significant decrease under cadmium stress (P < 0.05). The varieties FengHua3 ...

  19. Combustion synthesis of cadmium sulphide nanomaterials for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anion-doped cadmium sulphide nanomaterials have been synthesized by using combustionmethod at normal atmospheric conditions. Oxidant/fuel ratios have been optimized in order to obtain CdS with best characteristics. Formation of CdS and size of crystallite were identified by X-ray diffraction and confirmed by ...

  20. Mobiliteit van cadmium in de bodem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chardon, W.J.


    The adsorption of cadmium by twelve Dutch soils was investigated under widely varying circumstances. The adsorption can be described with the Freundlich equation; the parameters of this equation can be predicted using the properties of the soil (pH, organic carbon and clay

  1. Cadmium versus phosphate in the world ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baar, Hein J.W. de; Saager, Paul M.; Nolting, Rob F.; Meer, Jaap van der


    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the best studied trace metals in seawater and at individual stations exhibits a more or less linear relation with phosphate. The compilation of all data from all oceans taken from over 30 different published sources into one global dataset yields only a broad scatterplot of Cd

  2. Enhanced Electrokinetic Remediation of Cadmium Contaminated Soil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an attempt to remediate contaminated soil, a new technique of purging cadmium from soil is examined by enhanced electrokinetic method. It involves the passage of low level direct current between two electrodes in the soil to remove contaminant. An apparatus consisting of four principal parts; soil cell, electrode ...

  3. ( Rattus norvegicus ) Fed with Dietary Cadmium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histological changes in the kidney tissues of albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) fed 100mg/kg body weight of cadmium sulphate incorporated as food material has been studied in vivo in an acute toxicological experiment. The behavioural pattern and physical changes in the rats were also investigated. Loss of weight and ...

  4. Combustion synthesis of cadmium sulphide nanomaterials for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The observed enhanced photocatalytic activity of the CdS nanomaterials for the hydrogen production from water (2120 μmol/h) can be attributed to high crystallinity, low band gap and less exciton recombination due to the C and N doping. Keywords. Cadmium sulphide; combustion synthesis; anion doping; water splitting; ...


    Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) were used to compare the effects of environmentally relevant cadmium (Cd) exposure on reproduction in adult animals previously exposed in ovo or as hatchlings. Adults were raised either from eggs produced during a two week exposure to 0, 1, 5, o...


    A series of assays were modified or developed to use with small fish species, specifically Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). These assays were used to compare the effects of environmentally relevant cadmium (Cd) exposure on indicators of endocrine function in adult animals previ...

  7. Characterization of nanocrystalline cadmium telluride thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    tion method, successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR), are described. For deposition of CdTe thin films, cadmium ... By conducting several trials optimization of the adsorption, reaction and rinsing time duration for CdTe thin film deposition was ... 3.1 Reaction mechanism. CdTe thin films were grown on micro ...

  8. antioxidants, cadmium-induced toxicity, serum biochemical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel Owu

    (1.51/gm) and selenium (0.25mg) which on their own had little or no effects on the serum basal phosphatases, hormonal and histological stability caused a reversal of the cadmium-induced biochemical, hormonal and histological toxicities of the ..... accessory sex tissues atrophy such as the prostate. (Waalkes et al 1997a).

  9. Rising environmental cadmium levels in developing countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: Cadmium (Cd) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant of increasing worldwide concern. It is thought to be of greater concern to rapidly industrializing developing countries because of the increasing pace of industrial activities in these countries with increasing consumption and release into the environment.

  10. Physicochemical action of potassium-magnesium citrate in nephrolithiasis (United States)

    Pak, C. Y.; Koenig, K.; Khan, R.; Haynes, S.; Padalino, P.


    Effect of potassium-magnesium citrate on urinary biochemistry and crystallization of stone-forming salts was compared with that of potassium citrate at same dose of potassium in five normal subjects and five patients with calcium nephrolithiasis. Compared to the placebo phase, urinary pH rose significantly from 6.06 +/- 0.27 to 6.48 +/- 0.36 (mean +/- SD, p less than 0.0167) during treatment with potassium citrate (50 mEq/day for 7 days) and to 6.68 +/- 0.31 during therapy with potassium-magnesium citrate (containing 49 mEq K, 24.5 mEq Mg, and 73.5 mEq citrate per day). Urinary pH was significantly higher during potassium-magnesium citrate than during potassium citrate therapy. Thus, the amount of undissociated uric acid declined from 118 +/- 61 mg/day during the placebo phase to 68 +/- 54 mg/day during potassium citrate treatment and, more prominently, to 41 +/- 46 mg/day during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy. Urinary magnesium rose significantly from 102 +/- 25 to 146 +/- 37 mg/day during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy but not during potassium citrate therapy. Urinary citrate rose more prominently during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy (to 1027 +/- 478 mg/day from 638 +/- 252 mg/day) than during potassium citrate treatment (to 932 +/- 297 mg/day). Consequently, urinary saturation (activity product) of calcium oxalate declined significantly (from 1.49 x 10(-8) to 1.03 x 10(-8) M2) during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy and marginally (to 1.14 x 10(-8) M2) during potassium citrate therapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  11. A two-dimensional cadmium(II) coordination polymer based on 1-cyanomethyl-4-aza-1-azoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane and thiocyanate ligands. (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Ting; Li, Qiang; Zhou, Lin


    A cadmium-thiocyanate complex, poly[(1-cyanomethyl-4-aza-1-azoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane-κ(4)N)octakis-μ2-thiocyanato-κ(8)N:S;κ(8)S:N-tricadmium(II)], [Cd3(C8H14N3)2(NCS)8]n, was synthesized by the reaction of 1-cyanomethyl-4-aza-1-azoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane chloride, cadmium nitrate tetrahydrate and potassium thiocyanide in aqueous solution. In the crystal structure, there are two independent types of Cd(II) cation (one on a centre of inversion and one in a general position) and both are in distorted octahedral coordination environments, coordinated by N and S atoms from different ligands. Neighbouring Cd(II) cations are linked together by thiocyanate bridges to form a two-dimensional network. Hydrogen-bonding interactions are involved in the formation of a three-dimensional supramolecular network.

  12. Sulfate removal from waste chemicals by precipitation. (United States)

    Benatti, Cláudia Telles; Tavares, Célia Regina Granhen; Lenzi, Ervim


    Chemical oxidation using Fenton's reagent has proven to be a viable alternative to the oxidative destruction of organic pollutants in mixed waste chemicals, but the sulfate concentration in the treated liquor was still above the acceptable limits for effluent discharge. In this paper, the feasibility of sulfate removal from complex laboratory wastewaters using barium and calcium precipitation was investigated. The process was applied to different wastewater cases (two composite samples generated in different periods) in order to study the effect of the wastewater composition on the sulfate precipitation. The experiments were performed with raw and oxidized wastewater samples, and carried out according to the following steps: (1) evaluate the pH effect upon sulfate precipitation on raw wastewaters at pH range of 2-8; (2) conduct sulfate precipitation experiments on raw and oxidized wastewaters; and (3) characterize the precipitate yielded. At a concentration of 80 g L(-1), barium precipitation achieved a sulfate removal up to 61.4% while calcium precipitation provided over 99% sulfate removal in raw and oxidized wastewaters and for both samples. Calcium precipitation was chosen to be performed after Fenton's oxidation; hence this process configuration favors the production of higher quality precipitates. The results showed that, when dried at 105 degrees C, the precipitate is composed of hemidrate and anhydrous calcium sulfate ( approximately 99.8%) and trace metals ( approximately 0.2%: Fe, Cr, Mn, Co, Ag, Mg, K, Na), what makes it suitable for reuse in innumerous processes.

  13. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product...

  14. The anaerobic treatment of sulfate containing wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.


    In the anaerobic treatment of sulfate containing wastewater sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) will compete with methanogenic- (MB) and acetogenic bacteria (AB) for the available substrates such as hydrogen, acetate, propionate and butyrate. The outcome of this competition will

  15. Metabolic flexibility of sulfate-reducing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plugge, C.M.; Zhang, Weinwen; Scholten, J.C.M.; Stams, A.J.M.


    Dissimilatory sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRB) are a very diverse group of anaerobic bacteria that are omnipresent in nature and play an imperative role in the global cycling of carbon and sulfur. In anoxic marine sediments sulfate reduction accounts for up to 50% of the entire organic

  16. Sulfation of naringenin by Cunninghamella elegans. (United States)

    Ibrahim, A R


    A new flavonoid sulfate, naringenin-7-sulfate, was obtained by fermentation of naringenin using the fungus Cunninghamella elegans NRRL 1392 in 23% yield. Structural elucidation of the metabolite was achieved using EIMS, UV, IR, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy beside acid and enzyme hydrolyses.

  17. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary T. Rochelle; Andrew Sexton; Jason Davis; Marcus Hilliard; Qing Xu; David Van Wagener; Jorge M. Plaza


    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. The best K{sup +}/PZ solvent, 4.5 m K{sup +}/4.5 m PZ, requires equivalent work of 31.8 kJ/mole CO{sub 2} when used with a double matrix stripper and an intercooled absorber. The oxidative degradation of piperazine or organic acids is reduced significantly by inhibitor A, but the production of ethylenediamine is unaffected. The oxidative degradation of piperazine in 7 m MEA/2 m PZ is catalyzed by Cu{sup ++}. The thermal degradation of MEA becomes significant at 120 C. The solubility of potassium sulfate in MEA/PZ solvents is increased at greater CO{sub 2} loading. The best solvent and process configuration, matrix with MDEA/PZ, offers 22% and 15% energy savings over the baseline and improved baseline, respectively, with stripping and compression to 10 MPa. The energy requirement for stripping and compression to 10 MPa is about 20% of the power output from a 500 MW power plant with 90% CO{sub 2} removal. The stripper rate model shows that a ''short and fat'' stripper requires 7 to 15% less equivalent work than a ''tall and skinny'' one. The stripper model was validated with data obtained from pilot plant experiments at the University of Texas with 5m K{sup +}/2.5m PZ and 6.4m K{sup +}/1.6m PZ under normal pressure and vacuum conditions using Flexipac AQ Style 20 structured packing. Experiments with oxidative degradation at low gas rates confirm the effects of Cu{sup +2} catalysis; in MEA/PZ solutions more formate and acetate is produced in the presence of Cu{sup +2}. At 150 C, the half life of 30% MEA with 0.4 moles CO{sub 2}/mole amine is about 2 weeks. At 100 C, less than 3% degradation occurred in two weeks. The solubility of potassium sulfate in MEA solution increases significantly with CO{sub 2} loading and decreases with MEA

  18. Foliar application with nano-silicon reduced cadmium accumulation in grains by inhibiting cadmium translocation in rice plants. (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Zhang, Changbo; Zhao, Yanling; Huang, Yongchun; Liu, Zhongqi


    Nano-silicon (Si) may be more effective than regular fertilizers in protecting plants from cadmium (Cd) stress. A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of nano-Si on Cd accumulation in grains and other organs of rice plants (Oryza sativa L. cv. Xiangzaoxian 45) grown in Cd-contaminated farmland. Foliar application with 5~25 mM nano-Si at anthesis stage reduced Cd concentrations in grains and rachises at maturity stage by 31.6~64.9 and 36.1~60.8%, respectively. Meanwhile, nano-Si application significantly increased concentrations of potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), and iron (Fe) in grains and rachises, but imposed little effect on concentrations of calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn), and manganese (Mn) in them. Uppermost nodes under panicles displayed much higher Cd concentration (4.50~5.53 mg kg-1) than other aerial organs. After foliar application with nano-Si, translocation factors (TFs) of Cd ions from the uppermost nodes to rachises significantly declined, but TFs of K, Mg, and Fe from the uppermost nodes to rachises increased significantly. High dose of nano-Si (25 mM) was more effective than low dose of nano-Si in reducing TFs of Cd from roots to the uppermost nodes and from the uppermost nodes to rachises. These findings indicate that nano-Si supply reduces Cd accumulation in grains by inhibiting translocation of Cd and, meanwhile, promoting translocation of K, Mg, and Fe from the uppermost nodes to rachises in rice plants.

  19. Hepatoprotective activity of Moringa oleifera against cadmium toxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reetu Toppo


    Full Text Available Aim: The present investigation has been conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Moringa oleifera against cadmium-induced toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: For this study, 18 Wistar albino rats were taken. Control group, Group I rats were given cadmium chloride @ 200 ppm per kg and Group II rats were treated with M. oleifera extract @ 500 mg/kg along with cadmium chloride @ 200 ppm per kg (daily oral for 28 days. On 29th day, animals were slaughtered and various parameters were determined. Serum biomarkers, oxidative stress parameters, histomorphological examination were carried out with estimation of cadmium concentration in liver tissues. Results: Oral administration of cadmium chloride @ 200 ppm/kg for 28 days resulted in a significant increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, significant (p≤0.01 increase of lipid peroxidation (LPO and decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD, and increase in cadmium accumulation in liver. Treatment with M. oleifera @ 500 mg/kg significantly (p<0.01 decreased the elevated ALP, AST, ALT, LPO levels and increase in SOD levels, and as compared to cadmium chloride treated group. However, there was no significant difference in cadmium concentration in liver when compared with cadmium chloride treated group. Conclusion: The study conclude that supplementation of M. oleifera (500 mg/kg, daily oral for 28 days has shown protection against cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity.

  20. Sulfhaemoglobinaemia caused by ferrous sulfate. (United States)

    Derbas, Laith; Warsame, Mohamed; Omar, Mohannad Abu; Zafar, Yousaf; Howell, Gregory


    A 78-year-old man was referred from his primary care clinic to the emergency department due to bluish discolouration of his lips and decreased oxygen saturation on pulse oximetry. The patient was asymptomatic. Physical exam was normal except for lip cyanosis. A CT pulmonary angiogram was negative for pulmonary embolism. Arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis with co-oximetry showed low oxyhaemoglobin, normal partial pressure of oxygen and methaemoglobinaemia, but an unexplained 'gap' in total haemoglobin saturation. This gap was felt to be due to sulfhaemoglobinaemia. After a thorough review of his medications, ferrous sulfate was stopped which resulted in resolution in patient's cyanosis and normalisation of his ABG after 7 weeks. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Effects of cisplatin on potassium currents in CT26 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Sharma


    Conclusion: Potassium currents were detected in CT26 cells and the currents were reduced by the application of tetraethylammonium (TEA chloride, iberiotoxin, a big conductance calcium-activated potassium channel blocker and barium. The potassium currents were enhanced to 192< by the application of cisplatin (0.5 mM. Moreover, the increase of potassium currents by cisplatin was further inhibited by the application of TEA confirming the action of cisplatin on potassium channels. In addition, relative current induced by cisplatin in CT26 cells was bit larger than in normal IEC-6 cells.

  2. Gaseous Sulfate Solubility in Glass: Experimental Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliss, Mary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    Sulfate solubility in glass is a key parameter in many commercial glasses and nuclear waste glasses. This report summarizes key publications specific to sulfate solubility experimental methods and the underlying physical chemistry calculations. The published methods and experimental data are used to verify the calculations in this report and are expanded to a range of current technical interest. The calculations and experimental methods described in this report will guide several experiments on sulfate solubility and saturation for the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Enhanced Waste Glass Models effort. There are several tables of sulfate gas equilibrium values at high temperature to guide experimental gas mixing and to achieve desired SO3 levels. This report also describes the necessary equipment and best practices to perform sulfate saturation experiments for molten glasses. Results and findings will be published when experimental work is finished and this report is validated from the data obtained.

  3. Testicular toxicity and sperm quality following cadmium exposure in rats: Ameliorative potentials of Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serah F Ige


    Full Text Available Aims: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of Allium cepa crude extract on cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 4 groups (n = 6. Group 1 was used as control, group 2 was administered 0.3 mg/kgBW of cadmium sulfate (CdSO 4 intraperitoneally for 3 days, group 3 was pretreated with 1 ml/100 g BW of Allium cepa (AcE for 8 weeks followed by intraperitoneal administration of 0.3 mg/kgBW of CdSO 4 in the last 3 days of experiment, and group 4 was administered 1 ml/100 g BW of AcE throughout the experiment. Testicular weight and semen analysis revealing the sperm count, sperm motility, and sperm morphology was carried out. Superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase activities, and lipid peroxidation status were also carried out in testes. Results: The study demonstrated that Allium cepa ameliorated CdSO 4 -induced alteration in testicular weight, sperm count, sperm motility, and sperm morphology. It also showed that Allium cepa attenuated the derangement of lipid peroxidation profile in testicular tissues caused by CdSO 4 exposure. Conclusions: The findings in the study showed that pre-treatment of rat model with Allium cepa extract prevented CdSO 4 -induced reproductive toxicity by improving sperm quality and enhancing testicular lipid peroxidation status.

  4. Determination of silver, antimony, bismuth, copper, cadmium and indium in ores, concentrates and related materials by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry after methyl isobutyl ketone extraction as iodides. (United States)

    Donaldson, E M; Wang, M


    Methods for determining ~ 0.2 mug g or more of silver and cadmium, ~ 0.5 mug g or more of copper and ~ 5 mug g or more of antimony, bismuth and indium in ores, concentrates and related materials are described. After sample decomposition and recovery of antimony and bismuth retained by lead and calcium sulphates, by co-precipitation with hydrous ferric oxide at pH 6.20 +/- 0.05, iron(III) is reduced to iron(II) with ascorbic acid, and antimony, bismuth, copper, cadmium and indium are separated from the remaining matrix elements by a single methyl isobutyl ketone extraction of their iodides from ~2M sulphuric acid-0.1M potassium iodide. The extract is washed with a sulphuric acid-potassium iodide solution of the same composition to remove residual iron and co-extracted zinc, and the extracted elements are stripped from the extract with 20% v v nitric acid-20% v v hydrogen peroxide. Alternatively, after the removal of lead sulphate by filtration, silver, copper, cadmium and indium can be extracted under the same conditions and stripped with 40% v v nitric acid-25% v v hydrochloric acid. The strip solutions are treated with sulphuric and perchloric acids and ultimately evaporated to dry ness. The individual elements are determined in a 24% v v hydrochloric acid medium containing 1000 mug of potassium per ml by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry with an air-acetylene flame. Tin, arsenic and molybdenum are not co-extracted under the conditions above. Results obtained for silver, antimony, bismuth and indium in some Canadian certified reference materials by these methods are compared with those obtained earlier by previously published methods.

  5. Metabolic Flexibility of Sulfate Reducing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M. Plugge


    Full Text Available Dissimilatory sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRB are a very diverse group of anaerobic bacteria that are omnipresent in nature and play an imperative role in the global cycling of carbon and sulfur. In anoxic marine sediments sulfate reduction accounts for up to 50% of the entire organic mineralization in coastal and shelf ecosystems where sulfate diffuses several meters deep into the sediment. As a consequence, SRB would be expected in the sulfate-containing upper sediment layers, whereas methanogenic Archaea would be expected to succeed in the deeper sulfate-depleted layers of the sediment. Where sediments are high in organic matter, sulfate is depleted at shallow sediment depths, and biogenic methane production will occur. In the absence of sulfate, many SRB ferment organic acids and alcohols, producing hydrogen, acetate, and carbon dioxide, and may even rely on hydrogen- and acetate-scavenging methanogens to convert organic compounds to methane. SRB can establish two different life styles, and these can be termed as sulfidogenic and acetogenic, hydrogenogenic metabolism. The advantage of having different metabolic capabilities is that it raises the chance of survival in environments when electron acceptors become depleted. In marine sediments, SRB and methanogens do not compete but rather complement each other in the degradation of organic matter.Also in freshwater ecosystems with sulfate concentrations of only 10-200 μM, sulfate is consumed efficiently within the top several cm of the sediments. Here, many of the δ-Proteobacteria present have the genetic machinery to perform dissimilatory sulfate reduction, yet they have an acetogenic, hydrogenogenic way of life.In this review we evaluate the physiology and metabolic mode of SRB in relation with their environment.

  6. Adaptation of Bacillus subtilis to Life at Extreme Potassium Limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Gundlach


    Full Text Available Potassium is the most abundant metal ion in every living cell. This ion is essential due to its requirement for the activity of the ribosome and many enzymes but also because of its role in buffering the negative charge of nucleic acids. As the external concentrations of potassium are usually low, efficient uptake and intracellular enrichment of the ion is necessary. The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis possesses three transporters for potassium, KtrAB, KtrCD, and the recently discovered KimA. In the absence of the high-affinity transporters KtrAB and KimA, the bacteria were unable to grow at low potassium concentrations. However, we observed the appearance of suppressor mutants that were able to overcome the potassium limitation. All these suppressor mutations affected amino acid metabolism, particularly arginine biosynthesis. In the mutants, the intracellular levels of ornithine, citrulline, and arginine were strongly increased, suggesting that these amino acids can partially substitute for potassium. This was confirmed by the observation that the supplementation with positively charged amino acids allows growth of B. subtilis even at the extreme potassium limitation that the bacteria experience if no potassium is added to the medium. In addition, a second class of suppressor mutations allowed growth at extreme potassium limitation. These mutations result in increased expression of KtrAB, the potassium transporter with the highest affinity and therefore allow the acquisition and accumulation of the smallest amounts of potassium ions from the environment.

  7. Potassium tetracyanidoaurate(III monohydrate: a redetermination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Matsushita


    Full Text Available The structure of the title metal complex salt, K[Au(CN4]·H2O, has been redetermined using X-ray diffraction data at 173 K in order to improve the precision. The previous determination was based on neutron diffraction data [Bertinotti & Bertinotti (1970. Acta Cryst. B26, 422–428]. The title compound crystallizes in the space group P212121 with one potassium cation, one [Au(CN4]− anion and one water molecule in the asymmetric unit. The AuIII atom lies on a general position and has an almost square-planar coordination sphere defined by four cyanide ligands. Interactions between the potassium cation and N atoms of the complex anion, as well as O—H...N hydrogen bonds, lead to the formation of a three-dimensional framework structure.

  8. Enhanced cadmium phytoremediation of Glycine max L. through bioaugmentation of cadmium-resistant bacteria assisted by biostimulation. (United States)

    Rojjanateeranaj, Pongsarun; Sangthong, Chirawee; Prapagdee, Benjaphorn


    This study examined the potential of three strains of cadmium-resistant bacteria, including Micrococcus sp., Pseudomonas sp. and Arthrobacter sp., to promote root elongation of Glycine max L. seedlings, soil cadmium solubility and cadmium phytoremediation in G. max L. planted in soil highly polluted with cadmium with and without nutrient biostimulation. Micrococcus sp. promoted root length in G. max L. seedlings under toxic cadmium conditions. Soil inoculation with Arthrobacter sp. increased the bioavailable fraction of soil cadmium, particularly in soil amended with a C:N ratio of 20:1. Pot culture experiments observed that the highest plant growth was in Micrococcus sp.-inoculated plants with nutrient biostimulation. Cadmium accumulation in the roots, stems and leaves of G. max L. was significantly enhanced by Arthrobacter sp. with nutrient biostimulation. A combined use of G. max L. and Arthrobacter sp. with nutrient biostimulation accelerated cadmium phytoremediation. In addition, cadmium was retained in roots more than in stems and leaves and G. max L. had the lowest translocation factor at all growth stages, suggesting that G. max L. is a phytostabilizing plant. We concluded that biostimulation-assisted bioaugmentation is an important strategy for improving cadmium phytoremediation efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A novel potassium channel in photosynthetic cyanobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Zanetti

    Full Text Available Elucidation of the structure-function relationship of a small number of prokaryotic ion channels characterized so far greatly contributed to our knowledge on basic mechanisms of ion conduction. We identified a new potassium channel (SynK in the genome of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, a photosynthetic model organism. SynK, when expressed in a K(+-uptake-system deficient E. coli strain, was able to recover growth of these organisms. The protein functions as a potassium selective ion channel when expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. The location of SynK in cyanobacteria in both thylakoid and plasmamembranes was revealed by immunogold electron microscopy and Western blotting of isolated membrane fractions. SynK seems to be conserved during evolution, giving rise to a TPK (two-pore K(+ channel family member which is shown here to be located in the thylakoid membrane of Arabidopsis. Our work characterizes a novel cyanobacterial potassium channel and indicates the molecular nature of the first higher plant thylakoid cation channel, opening the way to functional studies.

  10. Potassium Permanganate Poisoning: A Nonfatal Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan M. Eteiwi


    Full Text Available Acute poisoning by potassium permanganate is a rare condition with high morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of the condition relies on a history of exposure or ingestion and a high degree of clinical suspicion. Oxygen desaturation and the presence of methemoglobin are also helpful indicators. Since no specific antidote is available, treatment is mainly supportive. Few cases have been reported in the literature following potassium permanganate ingestion, whether intentional or accidental, and most of the patients in these cases had unfavorable outcomes, which was not the case in our patient. Our patient, a 73-year-old male, purchased potassium permanganate over the counter mistaking it for magnesium salt, which he frequently used as a laxative. Several hours after he ingested it, he was admitted to the endocrine department at King Hussein Medical Center, Jordan, with acute rapidly evolving shortness of breath. During hospitalization, his liver function tests deteriorated. Since he was diagnosed early and managed promptly he had a favorable outcome.

  11. Chemiluminescence determination of potassium bromate in flour based on flow injection analysis. (United States)

    Yan, Zhengyu; Zhang, Zhengwei; Yu, Yan; Liu, Zhen; Chen, Jianqiu


    A novel and highly sensitive flow-injection chemiluminescence method for the determination of potassium bromate (KBrO3) has been developed. This method is based on the luminescence properties of the KBrO3-Na2SO3-quinine sulfate system in acid medium. Optimized experimental conditions and a possible mechanism were investigated. The relative chemiluminescence intensity responded linearly to the concentration of KBrO3 in the range of 7.054 × 10(-6)-1.008 × 10(-4) mol/L with a detection limit of 2.116 × 10(-6) mol/L. The relative standard deviation (RSD) at 5.0 × 10(-5) mol/L KBrO3 (n = 12) was 2.3%. The proposed method was applied successfully to the determination of KBrO3 in flour. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment and management of risk to wildlife from cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna [Division of Life Sciences, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey, 08854-8082 (United States)], E-mail:


    Cadmium, a nonessential heavy metal that comes from natural and anthropogenic sources, is a teratogen, carcinogen, and a possible mutagen. Assessment of potential risk from cadmium requires understanding environmental exposure, mainly from ingestion, although there is some local exposure through inhalation. Chronic exposure is more problematic than acute exposure for wildlife. There is evidence for bioaccumulation, particularly in freshwater organisms, but evidence for biomagnification up the food chain is inconsistent; in some bird studies, cadmium levels were higher in species that are higher on the food chain than those that are lower. Some freshwater and marine invertebrates are more adversely affected by cadmium exposure than are birds and mammals. There is very little experimental laboratory research on the effects of cadmium in amphibians, birds and reptiles, and almost no data from studies of wildlife in nature. Managing the risk from cadmium to wildlife involves assessment (including ecological risk assessment), biomonitoring, setting benchmarks of effects, regulations and enforcement, and source reduction.

  13. Treatment of acid rock drainage using a sulfate-reducing bioreactor with zero-valent iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayala-Parra, Pedro; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, James A., E-mail:


    Highlights: • Electron donor from zero-valent iron (ZVI) drives sulfate reduction to sulfide. • Sulfide converts soluble heavy metals into sulfide minerals. • Excess sulfide is sequestered by iron preventing discharge. • Corrosion of ZVI consumes acidity in acid rock drainage. • ZVI as reactive material outlasted limestone in removing heavy metals. - Abstract: This study assessed the bioremediation of acid rock drainage (ARD) in flow-through columns testing zero-valent iron (ZVI) for the first time as the sole exogenous electron donor to drive sulfate-reducing bacteria in permeable reactive barriers. Columns containing ZVI, limestone or a mixture of both materials were inoculated with an anaerobic mixed culture and fed a synthetic ARD containing sulfuric acid and heavy metals (initially copper, and later also cadmium and lead). ZVI significantly enhanced sulfate reduction and the heavy metals were extensively removed (>99.7%). Solid-phase analyses showed that heavy metals were precipitated with biogenic sulfide in the columns packed with ZVI. Excess sulfide was sequestered by iron, preventing the discharge of dissolved sulfide. In the absence of ZVI, heavy metals were also significantly removed (>99.8%) due to precipitation with hydroxide and carbonate ions released from the limestone. Vertical-profiles of heavy metals in the columns packing, at the end of the experiment, demonstrated that the ZVI columns still had excess capacity to remove heavy metals, while the capacity of the limestone control column was approaching saturation. The ZVI provided conditions that enhanced sulfate reduction and generated alkalinity. Collectively, the results demonstrate an innovative passive ARD remediation process using ZVI as sole electron-donor.

  14. Growth of cadmium oxide whiskers on cadmium sulphide single crystals with copper as growth activator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koparanova, N.; Simov, S. (Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia. Inst. po Fizika na Tvyrdoto Tyalo); Genchev, D. (Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia. Inst. za Yadrena Izsledvaniya i Yadrena Energetika); Metchenov, G. (Research Inst. of Criminalistics and Criminology, Sofia (Bulgaria))


    Some results on the growth and morphology of cadmium oxide whiskers, obtained on cadmium sulphide single crystals with copper as a growth activator, are presented in this work. Cadmium oxide whiskers have been obtained on brace 112-bar0 brace faces of cadmium sulphide plates with a copper layer deposited in advance. The whiskers grew during the annealing of the plates in a weak stream of technically pure argon at temperatures 670 to 730 deg C for 15 min to 3.5 h. Details about the procedure have been given elsewhere. The composition and morphology of the whiskers have been studied by an X-ray microanalyser JEOL 35 DDS and a scanning electron microscope JEOL, JSM 35. The optical microscopic observations have shown that after annealing, a gray-black granular layer is formed on the cadmium sulphide single crystals and this layer can easily be separated from the crystal substrate. Under the granular layer the crystal is heavily damaged. The whiskers grow on the granular layer and they are coloured yellow-brown or red-brown. The maximum whisker length attains several hundreds of micrometres and in some cases up to 1 mm or more.

  15. Development of an accelerated test for Internal Sulfate Attack study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khelil Nacim


    Full Text Available Internal Sulfate Attack (ISA is a pathology that occurs under certain conditions in concrete having undergone heating above 70 °C at early age (through heating in pre-casting industry or due to hydration in large concrete parts. This reaction deemed very slow, numerous methods to speed up reactions leading to delayed ettringite formation have been developed. These methods are all based on the material damage. Another type of test is currently under development. It is based on rehabilitation techniques such as electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE in order to accelerate the leaching of alkalis that could be one of the triggers of the pathology. The study presented in this paper focused on concrete specimens prepared from cement (CEM I 52.5 N enriched with Na2SO4. These concretes have undergone a heat treatment typical of those used in precast plants (up to 24 hours with a maximum temperature of 80 °C. Various paths were explored for the development of the accelerated test. The first results showed that it was necessary to use a removable titanium anode ruthenium anode instead of stainless steel embedded in the concrete. Then tests with de-ionized water as the solute to the cathode did not accelerate the onset of expansions. The experiment has been modified and potassium carbonate was added to the solution. This modification didn’t show any significant improvement, and other experiments are being carried out to explain this result.

  16. [Aluminum forms in acid sulfate soils]. (United States)

    Wang, J; Luo, S; Feng, Y


    With the method of sequential extraction, the extractable noncrystalline aluminum in Acid Sulfate Soils was fractionized into exchangeable Al (ExAl), absorbed inorganic hydroxy-Al(HyAl), organic complexed Al(OrAl), Fe oxide bound Al (DCBAl), interlayered Al(InAl) and noncrystalline aluminosilicate(NcAl) with average of 1.79, 2.51, 4.17, 4.14, 4.31 and 8.66 g, respectively. In actual Acid Sulfate Soils, the amount of different forms Al followed the order of NcAl > OrAl > InAl > DCBAl > ExAl > HyAl, but in potential acid sulfate soils, NcAl > InAl > DCBAl > HyAl > OrAl > ExAl. The average of the total extractable noncrystalline Al was 35.57 g, which covered 25.04% of the total amount of Al in Acid Sulfate Soils. The characteristic of extractable noncrystalline Al in Acid Sulfate Soils was the high proportion of active aluminum, such as ExAl, HyAl and OrAl. All forms of Al were closely related to the corresponding properties and ecological characteristics of Acid Sulfate Soils. The strong acid environment of actual Acid Sulfate Soils induced over-released Al, which transformed to active Al and resulted in Al toxicity.

  17. Association of Environmental Cadmium Exposure with Pediatric Dental Caries


    Arora, Manish; Weuve, Jennifer Lynn; Schwartz, Joel David; Robert O Wright


    Background: Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure results in severe dental caries, limited epidemiologic data are available on this issue. Objectives: We aimed to examine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and dental caries in children 6–12 years of age. Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional data, including urine cadmium concentrations and counts of decayed or filled tooth surfaces, from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We ...

  18. Race, Serum Potassium, and Associations With ESRD and Mortality. (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Sang, Yingying; Ballew, Shoshana H; Tin, Adrienne; Chang, Alex R; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Coresh, Josef; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Molnar, Miklos Z; Grams, Morgan E


    Recent studies suggest that potassium levels may differ by race. The basis for these differences and whether associations between potassium levels and adverse outcomes differ by race are unknown. Observational study. Associations between race and potassium level and the interaction of race and potassium level with outcomes were investigated in the Racial and Cardiovascular Risk Anomalies in Chronic Kidney Disease (RCAV) Study, a cohort of US veterans (N=2,662,462). Associations between African ancestry and potassium level were investigated in African Americans in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study (N=3,450). Race (African American vs non-African American and percent African ancestry) for cross-sectional analysis; serum potassium level for longitudinal analysis. Potassium level for cross-sectional analysis; mortality and end-stage renal disease for longitudinal analysis. The RCAV cohort was 18% African American (N=470,985). Potassium levels on average were 0.162mmol/L lower in African Americans compared with non-African Americans, with differences persisting after adjustment for demographics, comorbid conditions, and potassium-altering medication use. In the ARIC Study, higher African ancestry was related to lower potassium levels (-0.027mmol/L per each 10% African ancestry). In both race groups, higher and lower potassium levels were associated with mortality. Compared to potassium level of 4.2mmol/L, mortality risk associated with lower potassium levels was lower in African Americans versus non-African Americans, whereas mortality risk associated with higher levels was slightly greater. Risk relationships between potassium and end-stage renal disease were weaker, with no difference by race. No data for potassium intake. African Americans had slightly lower serum potassium levels than non-African Americans. Consistent associations between potassium levels and percent African ancestry may suggest a genetic component to these differences. Higher and

  19. Nitrate reduction in sulfate-reducing bacteria. (United States)

    Marietou, Angeliki


    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRBs) gain their energy by coupling the oxidation of organic substrate to the reduction of sulfate to sulfide. Several SRBs are able to use alternative terminal electron acceptors to sulfate such as nitrate. Nitrate-reducing SRBs have been isolated from a diverse range of environments. In order to be able to understand the significance of nitrate reduction in SRBs, we need to examine the ecology and physiology of the nitrate-reducing SRB isolates. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  20. Bioremoval of cadmium by lemna minor in different aquatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uysal, Yagmur [Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaras (Turkey); Taner, Fadime [Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Mersin University, Mersin (Turkey)


    This study was undertaken to determine the cadmium removal efficiency of Lemna minor when it was used for treatment of wastewater having different characteristics, i. e., pH, temperature and cadmium concentration. Plants were cultivated in different pH solutions (4.5-8.0) and temperatures (15-35 C) in the presence of cadmium (0.1-10.0 mg/L) for 168 h. The amount of biomass obtained in the study period, the concentrations of cadmium in the tissues and in the media and net uptake of cadmium by Lemna have been determined for each condition. The percentages of cadmium uptake (PMU) and bioconcentration factors (BCF) were also calculated. The highest accumulation was obtained for the highest cadmium concentration of 10.0 mg Cd/L as 11.668 mg Cd/g at pH 6.0, and as 38.650 mg Cd/g at 35 C and pH 5.0. The cadmium accumulation gradually increased with initial concentration of the medium, but the opposite trend was observed for the PMU. However, the maximum PMU was obtained as 52.2% in the solution with the lowest concentration of 0.1 mg Cd/L. A mathematical model was used to describe the cadmium uptake and the equation obtained was seen to fit the experimental data very well. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  1. Short Communication Acute toxicity of cadmium against catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short Communication Acute toxicity of cadmium against catfish Heteropneustes Fossilis (Siluriformes: Heteropneustidae) in static renewal bioassays. Rubi Rai, Diwakar Mishra, Sunil Kumar Srivastav, Ajai Kumar Srivastav ...

  2. Inactivation of cadmium in contaminated soils using synthetic zeolites. (United States)

    Gworek, B


    The addition of synthetic zeolite pellets to soils contaminated with cadmium significantly reduced the concentrations of cadmium in the roots and shoots of a range of crop plants. Use of synthetic foyazite group zeolites types 4A and 13X, at application rates of 1% by soil weight, caused reductions in cadmium concentrations of up to 86% in leaves of lettuce grown in pots, compared to controls with no added zeolites. The potential of these substances to reduce cadmium entry into the food chain, and as a clean up method, is noted.

  3. Isohydric regulation of plasma potassium by bicarbonate in the rat. (United States)

    Fraley, D S; Adler, S


    pH and bicarbonate affect many metabolic reactions but each may change independently. To study bicarbonate's effect onplasma potassium, blood bicarbonate in normal, hypokalemic or hyperkalemic rats was either maintained constant, lowered by hydrochloric acid or raised by sodium bicarbonate administraion. Blood pH was maintained constant by changing PCO2. In normokalemia lowering bicarbonate increased plasma potassium 2.0mEq above values obtained in the other groups. To eliminate urinary potassium losses, experiments were also performed in rats with bilateral ureteral ligation. Again, plasma potassium concentration rose significantly more in the lowered bicarbonate group. Similarly, in hypokalemia, plasma potassium rose 1.2 and 0.4mEq in the lowered and unchanged groups, but fell 0.2mEq/liter in the elevated group. Differences could not be ascribed to renal potassium losses as potassium excretion was essentially zero in each group. In hyperkalemia, plasma potassium concentration remained elevated for 150 min in the lowered bicarbonate group but fell 1.3 and 2.0mEq in the unchanged and elevated groups, respectively. Urinary potassium losses in the three groups were statistically identical. In all experiments blood pH was maintained unchanged during the experiment. The data show that bicarbonate, independent of blood pH, alters transcellular potassium distribution suggesting the usefulness of bicarbonate therapy in hyperkalemia even at a compensated blood pH.

  4. Proapoptotic Role of Potassium Ions in Liver Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenglin Xia


    Full Text Available Potassium channels are transmembrane proteins that selectively promote the infiltration of potassium ions. The significance of these channels for tumor biology has become obvious. However, the effects of potassium ions on the tumor or normal cells have seldom been studied. To address this problem, we studied the biological effects of L02 and HepG2 cells with ectogenous potassium ions. Cell proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis rate were analyzed. Our results indicated that potassium ions inhibited proliferation of L02 and HepG2 cells and promoted their apoptosis. Potassium ions induced apoptosis through regulating Bcl-2 family members and depolarized the mitochondrial membrane, especially for HepG2 cell. These biological effects were associated with channel protein HERG. By facilitating expression of channel protein HERG, potassium ions may prevent it from being shunted to procancerous pathways by inducing apoptosis. These results demonstrated that potassium ions may be a key regulator of liver cell function. Thus, our findings suggest that potassium ions could inhibit tumorigenesis through inducing apoptosis of hepatoma cells by upregulating potassium ions transport channel proteins HERG and VDAC1.

  5. Mercury Cadmium Selenide for Infrared Detection (United States)


    were grown using elemental mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and selenium (Se) sources. The beam equiva- lent pressure ( BEP ) emanating from all sources was...flux), the BEP measured for the cracker source was found to vary with the cracking zone temperature, tracking with the data found in Ref. 7. This sug...The Se BEP measured for the typical cracking zone temperature of 800 C was found to be close to a factor of two lower than at the typical effusion cell

  6. The Effects of Different Tillage Methods on Available Soil Potassium Measured by Various Extractors in a Soil with High Specific Surface Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hosseini


    are preferred. Otherwise no choice but to continue conventional tillage. The second objective is to assess the effects of the treatments (different tillage systems on the growth and size of the roots and to predict nutrient uptake by plants. Materials and Methods: This research was a field experiment during 2009-2010 in estates of Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources (Seyed Miran Area with 5 treatments and 4 replications which used completely randomized block design. Treatments were 5 tillage methods including moldboard-ploughing (20-25 cm depth followed by disking, rotivator (12-17 cm depth, disking (8-10 cm depth, chisel (25- 30 cm depth and no-tillage. Row spacing, distance between seeds in a rowand the amount of seeding was 20 cm 1.5 cm and 268.5 kg ha respectively (planting was done by hands. The consumption of fertilizers based on soil test results and the results reported by other researchers were added to the soil surface before planting (54. In all treatments, 350 kg per hectare of ammonium phosphate and 200 kg of potassium sulfate before planting and by hands were added. For treated moldboard,rotary cultivator, disc and chisel were used, and for no-tillage system by disc plow and sweep were used.Main parameters measured were soil mechanical resistance at 6 stages during wheat growth using a cone penetrometer (0-8 cm soil depth, soil potassium at two stages during plant growth (before heading and harvest using sodium tetraphenyl boron(12, ammonium acetate(28 and ammonium nitrate as extractents and using potassium surface excess(8 determination method and also bulk soil solution potassium concentration(2. Yield of wheat and its components were also determined at harvest. Data analysis include the analysis of variance and mean comparisons using LSD and correlations which carried out using SAS software. Results and Discussion: Results show there was a significant difference between treatments with respect to extractible soil potassium

  7. Cadmium-binding proteins from blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) environmentally exposed to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedow, M.A.; Kneip, T.J.; Garte, S.J.


    Two heat-stable (90/sup 0/C) cadmium-binding proteins were isolated from the hepatopancreas of Hudson River blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) by Sephadex G-75 gel filtration chromatography. These proteins have molecular weights of 10,600 and 9,400, and ultraviolet absorbance ratios at 250/280 nm of 12.4 and 5.4, respectively. Repeated freezing and thawing and prolonged (3-6 weeks) storage resulted in protein degradation or loss of Cd-binding activity. These proteins were induced by laboratory injection of CdCl/sub 2/ in blue crabs from pristine (Chesapeake Bay) areas; however, injection of CdCl/sub 2/ into Hudson River animals yielded anomalous chromatography profiles. Cadmium-binding proteins were also identified in blue crab thoracic muscle and gill. The possibility is discussed that these proteins are a type of metallothionein and could contribute to the human toxicity of this cadmium-contaminated edible crustacean.

  8. Cadmium concentrations in the testes, sperm, and spermatids of mice subjected to long-term cadmium chloride exposure. (United States)

    Bench, G; Corzett, M H; Martinelli, R; Balhorn, R


    Exposures to cadmium have been reported to reduce male fertility and there are several hypotheses that suggest how reduced male fertility may result from incorporation of cadmium into sperm chromatin. The purpose of this study was to determine whether mice subjected to long-term intraperitoneal cadmium exposure incorporated cadmium into their sperm chromatin. Male mice were exposed to 0.1 mg/kg body weight cadmium in the form of CdCl2 via intraperitoneal injection once per week for 4, 10, 26, and 52 weeks and then sacrificed. The cadmium contents of the liver, testes, pooled sperm, and pooled spermatids from dosed and control animals were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Cadmium and zinc contents in individual sperm and spermatid heads were determined by particle-induced x-ray emission. Atomic absorption spectroscopy revealed that although cadmium accumulated in the liver and testes, cadmium was not detected in pooled sperm or spermatid samples down to minimum detectable limits of 0.02 microg/g dry weight. Particle-induced x-ray emission analyses did not show the presence of cadmium in any sperm or spermatid head down to minimum detectable limits of 15 microg/g dry weight. Particle-induced x-ray emission analyses also demonstrated that phosphorus, sulfur, and zinc concentrations in individual sperm and spermatid heads were not altered by exposure to CdCl2. Because cadmium was not incorporated into sperm chromatin at levels above 0.02 microg/g dry weight, the data cast doubt on hypotheses that suggest that reduced male fertility may result from incorporation of cadmium into sperm chromatin.

  9. Bioaugmentation with cadmium-resistant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria to assist cadmium phytoextraction by Helianthus annuus. (United States)

    Prapagdee, Benjaphorn; Chanprasert, Maesinee; Mongkolsuk, Skorn


    Micrococcus sp. MU1 and Klebsiella sp. BAM1, the cadmium-resistant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), produce high levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) during the late stationary phase of their growth. The ability of PGPR to promote root elongation, plant growth and cadmium uptake in sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) was evaluated. Both species of bacteria were able to remove cadmium ions from an aqueous solution and enhanced cadmium mobilization in contaminated soil. Micrococcus sp. and Klebsiella sp. use aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid as a nitrogen source to support their growth, and the minimum inhibitory concentrations of cadmium for Micrococcus sp. and Klebsiella sp. were 1000 and 800mM, respectively. These bacteria promoted root elongation in H. annuus seedlings in both the absence and presence of cadmium compared to uninoculated seedlings. Inoculation with these bacteria was found to increase the root lengths of H. annuus that had been planted in cadmium-contaminated soil. An increase in dry weight was observed for H. annuus inoculated with Micrococcus sp. Moreover, Micrococcus sp. enhanced the accumulation of cadmium in the root and leaf of H. annuus compared to untreated plants. The highest cadmium accumulation in the whole plant was observed when the plants were treated with EDTA following the treatment with Micrococcus sp. In addition, the highest translocation of cadmium from root to the above-ground tissues of H. annuus was found after treatment with Klebsiella sp. in the fourth week after planting. Our results show that plant growth and cadmium accumulation in H. annuus was significantly enhanced by cadmium-resistant PGPRs, and these bacterial inoculants are excellent promoters of phytoextraction for the rehabilitation of heavy metal-polluted environments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bioavailability of cadmium from linseed and cocoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Sloth, Jens Jørgen


    for the food authorities in order to give correct advises to the population. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioavailability of cadmium from whole linseed, crushed linseed, cocoa and cadmium chloride in rats. An experiment where 40 rats were divided into 4 groups and a control group and dosed...... with whole linseed, crushed linseed, cocoa and CdCl2 for 3 weeks was performed. Linseed or cocoa made up 10% of the feed (by weight) and was added as a replacement for carbohydrate source. The rats were dosed for 3 weeks and the cadmium content in the rats' kidneys was measured by ICPMS as a biomarker...... be measured in the kidney compared to the calculated total intake was as follows: Control 2.0 %, Crushed linseed 0.9 %, whole linseed, 1.5 %, cocoa 0.7 % and CdCl2 4.6 %. Based on this study it could not be concluded that the bioavailability in rats form whole linseed is lower that for crushed linseed...

  11. Acute fatal occupational cadmium poisoning by inhalation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, K.; Ueda, M.; Kikuchi, H.; Hattori, H.; Hiraoka, Y.


    A 43-year-old male smelter was admitted to a hospital on account of severe dyspnea about 2 days after exposure to brownish-yellow smoke produced by melting of ''copper'' scrap. On admission pronounced hypoxemia was revealed, and an oxygen-enriched gas was administered after intubation. Although inspired oxygen concentration was gradually increased, hypoxemia progressed and he died on day 11 in hospital. The principal autopsy finding was chiefly confined to the lungs. Both lungs were heavy (the left weighing 1,470 g; the right 1,710 g) and firm to the touch. Histologically, no normal alveoli were found throughout the entire lung. Some alveolar spaces were occupied by pneumocytes, others by organized exudate with fibrosis. Interstitial fibrosis was present. Patchy areas of inflammatory cell infiltrations as well as intra-alveolar hemorrhages were observed. On the basis of the above findings a diagnosis of diffuse alveolar damage was made. Based on the available evidence (presence of cadmium in the ''copper'' scrap, feature of the smoke, clinical signs with latent time, and high cadmium concentration of the lung), the diffuse alveolar damage was considered to have been caused by inhaled cadmium. The pulmonary change of the present case was more advanced in pathologic stage in comparison with those reported in the literature.

  12. Adaptation of Bacillus subtilis to Life at Extreme Potassium Limitation. (United States)

    Gundlach, Jan; Herzberg, Christina; Hertel, Dietrich; Thürmer, Andrea; Daniel, Rolf; Link, Hannes; Stülke, Jörg


    Potassium is the most abundant metal ion in every living cell. This ion is essential due to its requirement for the activity of the ribosome and many enzymes but also because of its role in buffering the negative charge of nucleic acids. As the external concentrations of potassium are usually low, efficient uptake and intracellular enrichment of the ion is necessary. The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis possesses three transporters for potassium, KtrAB, KtrCD, and the recently discovered KimA. In the absence of the high-affinity transporters KtrAB and KimA, the bacteria were unable to grow at low potassium concentrations. However, we observed the appearance of suppressor mutants that were able to overcome the potassium limitation. All these suppressor mutations affected amino acid metabolism, particularly arginine biosynthesis. In the mutants, the intracellular levels of ornithine, citrulline, and arginine were strongly increased, suggesting that these amino acids can partially substitute for potassium. This was confirmed by the observation that the supplementation with positively charged amino acids allows growth of B. subtilis even at the extreme potassium limitation that the bacteria experience if no potassium is added to the medium. In addition, a second class of suppressor mutations allowed growth at extreme potassium limitation. These mutations result in increased expression of KtrAB, the potassium transporter with the highest affinity and therefore allow the acquisition and accumulation of the smallest amounts of potassium ions from the environment.IMPORTANCE Potassium is essential for every living cell as it is required for the activity for many enzymes and for maintaining the intracellular pH by buffering the negative charge of the nucleic acids. We have studied the adaptation of the soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis to life at low potassium concentrations. If the major high-affinity transporters are missing, the bacteria are unable to grow unless


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. A series of solid insoluble mixed potassium manganese hexacynoferrates (II) and. (III) of the general formula KyMnxFeII/III(CN)6.zH2O were prepared by classical precipitation and local growth methods. All synthesized products were thermally stable up to 300 oC and were highly insoluble in most mineral acids ...

  14. Sulfated cellulose thin films with antithrombin affinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Cellulose thin films were chemically modified by in situ sulfation to produce surfaces with anticoagulant characteristics. Two celluloses differing in their degree of polymerization (DP: CEL I (DP 215–240 and CEL II (DP 1300–1400 were tethered to maleic anhydride copolymer (MA layers and subsequently exposed to SO3•NMe3 solutions at elevated temperature. The impact of the resulting sulfation on the physicochemical properties of the cellulose films was investigated with respect to film thickness, atomic composition, wettability and roughness. The sulfation was optimized to gain a maximal surface concentration of sulfate groups. The scavenging of antithrombin (AT by the surfaces was determined to conclude on their potential anticoagulant properties.

  15. Sulfate reduction and methanogenesis at a freshwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Vibeke Margrethe Nyvang; Andersen, Martin Søgaard; Jakobsen, Rasmus

    The freshwater-seawater interface was studied in a ~9-m thick anaerobic aquifer located in marine sand and gravel with thin peat lenses. Very limited amounts of iron-oxides are present. Consequently, the dominating redox processes are sulfate reduction and methanogenesis, and the groundwater...... is enriched in dissolved sulfide, methane and bicarbonate. Under normal conditions the seawater-freshwater interface is found at a depth of 4 m at the coastline and reaches the bottom of the aquifer 40 m inland. However, occasional flooding of the area occurs, introducing sulfate to the aquifer. Groundwater...... chemistry was studied in a 120 m transect perpendicular to the coast. Cores were taken for radiotracer rate measurements of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis. In the saline part of the aquifer 35 m inland, sulfate reduction was the dominant process with rates of 0.1-10 mM/year. In the freshwater part 100...

  16. ROE Wet Sulfate Deposition 2009-2011 (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The raster data represent the amount of wet sulfate deposition in kilograms per hectare from 2009 to 2011. Summary data in this indicator were provided by EPA’s...

  17. Can magnesium sulfate therapy impact lactogenesis? (United States)

    Haldeman, W


    This case report describes a patient who ingested magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) for approximately four days as a treatment for pregnancy-induced hypertension. Stage II lactogenesis was delayed until the tenth postpartum day at which point the patient's breasts became fully engorged. No explanation for this delay was found, other than the possibility that magnesium sulfate treatment impeded lactogenesis. Implications for professionals who care for lactating women are discussed.

  18. Electrolyte management considerations in modern nickel hydrogen and nickel cadmium cell and battery designs (United States)

    Thaller, L. H.; Zimmerman, A. H.


    In the early 1980's the NASA Lewis group addressed the topic of designing nickel hydrogen cells for LEO applications. As published in 1984, the design addressed the topics of gas management, liquid management, plate expansion, and the recombination of oxygen during overcharge. This design effort followed principles set forth in an earlier Lewis paper that addressed the topic of pore size engineering. At about that same time, the beneficial effect on cycle life of lower electrolyte concentrations was verified by Hughes Aircraft as part of a Lewis funded study. A succession of life cycle tests of these concepts have been carried out that essentially verified all of this earlier work. During these past two decades, some of the mysteries involved in the active material of the nickel electrode have been resolved by careful research efforts carried out at several laboratories. At The Aerospace Corporation, Dr. Zimmerman has been developing a sophisticated model of an operating nickel hydrogen cell which will be used to model certain mechanisms that have contributed to premature failures in nickel hydrogen and nickel cadmium cells. During the course of trying to understand and model abnormal nickel hydrogen cell behaviors, we have noted that not enough attention has been paid to the potassium ion content in these cells, and more recently batteries. Several of these phenomenon have been well known in the area of alkaline fuel cells, but only recently have they been examined as they might impact alkaline cell designs. This paper will review three general areas where the potassium ion content can impact the performance and life of nickel hydrogen and nickel cadmium devices, Once these phenomenon are understood conceptually, the impact of potassium content on a potential cell design can be evaluated with the aid of an accurate model of an operating cell or battery. All three of these areas are directly related to the volume tolerance and pore size engineering aspects of the

  19. Mutagenic effect of cadmium on tetranucleotide repeats in human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slebos, Robbert J.C. [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States) and Department of Otolaryngology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)]. E-mail:; Li Ming [Department of Biostatistics, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Evjen, Amy N. [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Coffa, Jordy [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Shyr, Yu [Department of Biostatistics, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Yarbrough, Wendell G. [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Otolaryngology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)


    Cadmium is a human carcinogen that affects cell proliferation, apoptosis and DNA repair processes that are all important to carcinogenesis. We previously demonstrated that cadmium inhibits DNA mismatch repair (MMR) in yeast cells and in human cell-free extracts (H.W. Jin, A.B. Clark, R.J.C. Slebos, H. Al-Refai, J.A. Taylor, T.A. Kunkel, M.A. Resnick, D.A. Gordenin, Cadmium is a mutagen that acts by inhibiting mismatch repair, Nat. Genet. 34 (3) (2003) 326-329), but cadmium also inhibits DNA excision repair. For this study, we selected a panel of three hypermutable tetranucleotide markers (MycL1, D7S1482 and DXS981) and studied their suitability as readout for the mutagenic effects of cadmium. We used a clonal derivative of the human fibrosarcoma cell line HT1080 to assess mutation levels in microsatellites after cadmium and/or N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) exposure to study effects of cadmium in the presence or absence of base damage. Mutations were measured in clonally expanded cells obtained by limiting dilution after exposure to zero dose, 0.5 {mu}M cadmium, 5 nM MNNG or a combination of 0.5 {mu}M cadmium and 5 nM MNNG. Exposure of HT1080-C1 to cadmium led to statistically significant increases in microsatellite mutations, either with or without concurrent exposure to MNNG. A majority of the observed mutant molecules involved 4-nucleotide shifts consistent with DNA slippage mutations that are normally repaired by MMR. These results provide evidence for the mutagenic effects of low, environmentally relevant levels of cadmium in intact human cells and suggest that inhibition of DNA repair is involved.

  20. Cadmium induces transcription independently of intracellular calcium mobilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke E Tvermoes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exposure to cadmium is associated with human pathologies and altered gene expression. The molecular mechanisms by which cadmium affects transcription remain unclear. It has been proposed that cadmium activates transcription by altering intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+](i and disrupting calcium-mediated intracellular signaling processes. This hypothesis is based on several studies that may be technically problematic; including the use of BAPTA chelators, BAPTA-based fluorescent sensors, and cytotoxic concentrations of metal. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: In the present report, the effects of cadmium on [Ca(2+](i under non-cytotoxic and cytotoxic conditions was monitored using the protein-based calcium sensor yellow cameleon (YC3.60, which was stably expressed in HEK293 cells. In HEK293 constitutively expressing YC3.60, this calcium sensor was found to be insensitive to cadmium. Exposing HEK293::YC3.60 cells to non-cytotoxic cadmium concentrations was sufficient to induce transcription of cadmium-responsive genes but did not affect [Ca(2+](i mobilization or increase steady-state mRNA levels of calcium-responsive genes. In contrast, exposure to cytotoxic concentrations of cadmium significantly reduced intracellular calcium stores and altered calcium-responsive gene expression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data indicate that at low levels, cadmium induces transcription independently of intracellular calcium mobilization. The results also support a model whereby cytotoxic levels of cadmium activate calcium-responsive transcription as a general response to metal-induced intracellular damage and not via a specific mechanism. Thus, the modulation of intracellular calcium may not be a primary mechanism by which cadmium regulates transcription.

  1. Toxicity of copper sulfate and zinc sulfate to Macrobrachium lamarrel (H. Miline Edwards) (Decapoda, Palaemonidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murti, R.; Shukla, G.S.


    Macrobrachium lamarrei were exposed to six different concentrations of copper sulfate and zinc sulfate solutions. The specimens showed increased activity immediately after their transfer to the test solutions. They subside their activity very soon in copper sulfate, whereas in zinc sulfate they remain active for about 2 hr frequently coming to the surface of the toxic solution. In both cases, profuse secretion of mucus has been noted on the whole body surface, but most pronounced in the gill region. The 96 h LC/sub 50/ values of copper sulfate (0.247 mg/l) and zinc sulfate (3.188 mg/l) show that copper is thirteen times more toxic to this species than zinc. The minimum concentration of zinc sulfate to initiate slight mortality was 1 mg/l while for copper the corresponding value was as low as 0.01 mg/l. The first mortality in copper sulfate solution of 0.5 mg/l was noted after 4 hr exposure in contrast to zinc sulfate where it required 6 hr in 15 mg/l solutions. 27 references, 2 tables.

  2. Biogenic barite preciptiation at micromolar ambient sulfate (United States)

    Horner, T. J.; Pryer, H. V.; Nielsen, S.; Ricketts, R. D.


    Earth's early oceans were essentially devoid of sulfate, yet barium sulfate (barite) deposits are common to ancient sediments. Most explanations for this `barite paradox' overlook biogenic barite precipitation—the dominant vector of particulate barium cycling in modern seawater—as the ancient oceans were presumably strongly undersaturated with respect to barite. We tested whether biogenic barite could indeed precipitate at trace sulfate by examining the particulate multi-element and Ba-isotopic geochemistry of one of the largest trace-sulfate ecosystems on Earth: Lake Superior. Despite exceptional levels of barite undersaturation in Lake Superior, we find unambiguous evidence of biogenic barite precipitation that is correlated with the depths of greatest organic matter remineralization in the water column. The overall pattern of particulate barium cycling in Lake Superior is strikingly similar to that seen in the open ocean, supporting the critical role of particle-associated `microenvironments' that become rich in respired sulfate as protected sites of biogenic barite formation. Our observations offer a microbially-mediated mechanism for barite formation at micromolar ambient sulfate and thus also a potential resolution to the barite paradox in the ancient oceans.

  3. Ammonium sulfate preparation from phosphogypsum waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Hakim T. Kandil


    Full Text Available The Egyptian phosphogypsum waste is treated using sulfuric acid prior the ammonium sulfate production. The relevant factors that would affect the removal efficiencies of some impurities are studied. The optimum conditions of the treatment are 8 M sulfuric acid solution and 1/4 solid/liquid ratio for 30 min contact time at 80 °C. Moreover, the optimum conditions of the ammonium sulfate preparation are 10 g of the suspended impure or purified phosphogypsum in 40 ml of 3% ammonium sulfate solution (as initiator, 1/4 solid/liquid ratio at pH7 at an addition of an excess ammonium carbonate, and 150 rpm stirring speed for 4.0 h contact time at 55 °C as well as the 5 mg of barium chloride is added to remove the radium in the ammonium sulfate product. Finally, the ammonium sulfate is crystallized and the chemical analysis of the product shows 20% nitrogen and 23.6% sulfur. Therefore, the purity of the obtained ammonium sulfate is 95% from the purified phosphogypsum.

  4. Cefadroxil iodometric determination by potassium hydrogenperoxomonosulfate reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юлія Юріївна Сердюкова


    Full Text Available Aim. Simple methods of oxidimetric determination of β-lactam antibiotic cefadroxil in pure powder and in capsules, that are based on S-oxidation reactions by potassium hydrogenperoxomonosulphate acid in weak acid medium to S- oxide with following iodometric quantitative determination of the oxydator reagent excess were developed.Materials and methods. A triple potassium salt of caroate acid, 2KHSO5•KHSO4•K2SO4 (commercial «Oxone®» DuPont, production was used as oxidizing agent.Results. By the results of reaction kinetics using iodometric titration it was determined that redox reaction between cefadroxil and potassium hydrogenperoxomonosulfate is quantified and a stoichiometric: 1 mol of cefadroxil is per 1 mol of potassium hydrogen. Quantitative oxidation of Sulfur atom was finished in the time that is less than 1 min. The mean recovery of the main substance in the cefadroxil pure substance was 97.76%, RSD=1.33 % (δ=1.31 %, 1 mL of the standard 0.0200 mol L-1 sodium tiosulphate solution corresponds to 0.003634 g of sodium cefadroxil (C16H17N3O5S which should be 95–102 % in the pure anhydrous substance. The mean recovery of medical preparation “Cefadroxil”, 500 mg is 100.06 %, RSD=0.96 % (δ=1.01 %, which should be 92.5–107.5 %, in anhydrous preparation. The limit detection is С=0.05 mg mL-1. The advantages of the proposed procedure are the ability to assay cefadroxil by the biologically active part of the molecule (alicyclic and tiomethyl sulfur, good recovery and the accuracy of results.Conclusions. The obtained validation data meet the requirements of the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine, which indicates the possibility of its introduction in the practice of analytical laboratories analysis, or application during the stepwise control process or manufacturing of drugs quality control during equipment washing

  5. Modeling removal of accumulated potassium from T-tubules by inward rectifier potassium channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallinga, W.; Vliek, M.; Wienk, E.D.; Alberink, M.J.; Ypey, D.L.; Ypey, D.L.


    The membrane models of Cannon et al. (1993) and Alberink et al. (1995) for mammalian skeletal muscle fibers are based upon Hodgkin-Huxley descriptions of sodium, potassium delayed rectifier and leak conductances and the capacitive current taking into account fast inactivation of sodium channels. Now

  6. Role of hemolysis in potassium release by iodinated contrast medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, K.; Nakamura, T.; Shimizu, Y. [Department of Radiology, Kyoto City Hospital (Japan)


    It has been demonstrated that an iodinated contrast medium (CM) causes release of potassium into blood vessel lumina, resulting in an increase in serum potassium. The purpose of the present study was to assess whether this potassium release is due to hemolysis. Fresh human blood was mixed in vitro with CM at a ratio of 10:2. Potassium release rates were determined, and serum haptoglobin and free hemoglobin were measured after 30 min of exposure to CM. To compare the potassium release curve between CM exposure and true hemolysis induced by distilled water, fresh human blood was also mixed with distilled water. The level of serum haptoglobin decreased due to hemodilution. Changes in haptoglobin were not correlated with potassium release rates. The serum free hemoglobin level did not increase significantly, and there was no correlation between changes in the free hemoglobin level and the rate of potassium release. Hemolysis caused by water occurred instantaneously, whereas potassium release caused by CM was a slow response, which was linearly correlated with exposure time. Potassium release from blood cannot be explained by hemolysis. (orig.) With 4 figs., 4 tabs., 3 refs.

  7. Determination of cadmium, lead and mercury residual levels in meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of cadmium, lead and mercury residual levels in meat of canned light tuna ( Katsuwonus pelamis and Thunnus albacares ) and fresh little tunny ( Euthynnus alletteratus ) in Libya. ... Surveillance for mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contamination in tuna products is crucial for consumer food safety.

  8. Biosorption of arsenic and cadmium from aqueous solutions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biosorption of cadmium and arsenic from aqueous solutions onto the unmodified compact biomass of microscopic filamentous fungus Aspergillus clavatus DESM. was studied in the concentration range of 0.25 – 100 mg.l-1. The experimental biosorption results for arsenic and cadmium followed well the Freundlich ...

  9. Synthesis and characterization of cadmium doped lead–borate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    No boroxol ring formation was observed in the structure of these glasses. Furthermore, doped cadmium atoms were not seen in tetrahedral coordination. But the conversion of three-fold to four-fold coordination of boron atoms in the structure of glasses was observed. Keywords. Cadmium; lead borate glasses. 1. Introduction.

  10. Cadmium ion removal using biosorbents derived from fruit peel wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanna Saikaew


    Full Text Available The ability of fruit peel wastes, corn, durian, pummelo, and banana, to remove cadmium ions from aqueous solution by biosorption were investigated. The experiments were carried out by batch method at 25oC. The influence of particle sizes, solution pH, and initial cadmium ion concentrations were evaluated on the biosorption studies. The result showed that banana peel had the highest cadmium ions removal followed by durian, pummelo, and corn peels at cadmium ions removal of 73.15, 72.17, 70.56, and 51.22%, respectively. There was a minimal effect when using different particle sizes of corn peel as biosorbent, while the particle size of the others had no influence on the removal of cadmium ions. The cadmium ions removal increased significantly as the pH of the solution increased rapidly from 1 to 5. At pH 5, the cadmium ions removal reached a maximum value. The equilibrium process was best described by the Langmuir isotherms, with maximum biosorption capacities of durian, pummelo, and banana peel of 18.55, 21.83, and 20.88 mg/g respectively. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy revealed that carboxyl, hydroxyl, and amide groups on the fruit peels’ surface and these groups were involved in the adsorption of the cadmium ions.

  11. Levels of cadmium in cigarette brands found in Zamfara state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The levels of cadmium were determined in some cigarette brands found in Zamfara state, North-west Nigeria. The solutions of the samples were prepared using the dry-ash method. The levels of cadmium in the solution were determined using atomic absorption spectrometer. The absorbance readings of the elements were ...

  12. Levels of Lead, Cadmium and Chromium in Oreochromis Niloticus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd) and Chromium (Cr) levels in Oreochromis niloticus, aquatic plants, water and sawdust were collected and analyzed for Lead, Cadmium and Chromium using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results obtained showed that sawdust had the highest Lead and Chromium contents of 32.0 + 0.99 μg/g ...

  13. Evaluation of serum levels of cadmium and Lead in occupationally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cadmium and Lead are extremely toxic metals found in industrial workplaces. They are also found in some industrial paints and may represent hazards when sprayed.Exposure to Cadmium fumes may cause flu-like symptoms including chills, fever and muscle ache sometimes reffered to as "the cadium blues." Occupational ...

  14. Cadmium verification measurements of HFIR shroud assembly 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, J.A.; Schultz, F.J.


    This report discusses radiation-based nondestructive examination methods which have been used to successfully verify the presence of cadmium in High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) spent-fuel shroud assembly number 22 (SA22). These measurements show, in part, that SA22 is certified to meet the criticality safety specifications for a proposed reconfiguration of the HFIR spent-fuel storage array. Measurement of the unique 558.6-keV gamma-ray from neutron radiative capture on cadmium provided conclusive evidence for the presence of cadmium in the outer shroud of the assembly. Cadmium verification in the center post and outer shroud was performed by measuring the degree of neutron transmission in SA22 relative to two calibration shroud assemblies. Each measurement was performed at a single location on the center post and outer shroud. These measurements do not provide information on the spatial distribution or uniformity of cadmium within an assembly. Separate measurements using analog and digital radiography were performed to (a) globally map the continuity of cadmium internal mass, and (b) locally determine the thickness of cadmium. Radiography results will be reported elsewhere. The measurements reported here should not be used to infer the thickness of cadmium in either the center post or outer shroud of an assembly.

  15. The relationship between maternal blood cadmium, zinc levels and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The delivery of babies with low birth weight is a prognosis of neonatal mortality, morbidity and poor health outcomes later in life. This study evaluates the levels of cadmium, zinc and calculated cadmium/zinc ratio in non-occupationally exposed pregnant women at delivery and their relationship with birth weight of babies.

  16. Elevated cadmium exposure may be associated with periodontal bone loss. (United States)

    Dye, Bruce A; Dillon, Charles F


    Association of environmental cadmium exposure with periodontal disease in US adults. Arora M, Weuve J, Schwartz J, Wright RO. Environ Health Perspect 2009;117:739-44. Bruce A. Dye, DDS, MPH, Charles F. Dillon, MD, PhD. Is environmental cadmium associated with periodontal disease? Information not available. Cross-sectional study. Level 3: Other evidence. Not applicable.

  17. Cadmium, an Environmental Pollutant: A Review | Adedapo | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal and is considered to be an environmental pollutant. Cadmium levels in the environment vary widely. Several sources of human exposure to Cd, including employment in primary metal industries, production of certain batteries, foods, soil and cigarette smoke, are known. Its inhalation has ...

  18. Comparative Hepatotoxicity Test of Cadmium and Lead in Rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Studies indicate that liver function is impeded particularly with respect to protein synthesis, detoxification processes and the cellular integrity of the organ is damaged in the group that cadmium and lead were added (p<0.05). But the water sample from the mining pond, though containing higher cadmium and ...

  19. Effect of cadmium stress on antioxidative enzymes during the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, the influence of high cadmium concentrations on percentage germination, specific activities and isoenzyme patterns of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and peroxidase (POD) during the germination of Serbian spruce [Picea omorika (Pan..) Purkynĕ] was studied. Cadmium chloride concentrations ...

  20. Levels of Cadmium and Lead in Water, Sediments and Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: heavy metals, cadmium, lead, water, sediment, fish, Kenya coast. Flame absorption spectrophotometry was used to investigate the concentration and distribution of cadmium and lead in water, sediments and selected fish species in Makupa and Tudor creeks in Mombasa, Kenya between May 1997 and March ...

  1. Determination and estimation of Cadmium intake from Tarom rice 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Malaysia. 27.74. Spain. 0.85. Philippines. 20.14. USA. 7.43. Dietary intake of Cadmium: The intake of Cd was estimated by multiplication of daily consumption ... cereals such as rice. JECFA has set PTWI for the. Cadmium at 7 µg/kg of body weight (WHO., 2004). According to the published papers, daily consumption of rice ...

  2. nitrosoguanidine-induced cadmium resistant mutants of Aspergillus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    of S. cerevisiae (Inouhe et al 1989) were used for under- standing the molecular genetics of cadmium toxicity and ... The pH of the medium was adjusted to 6⋅4 before autoclaving. Cadmium-resistant mutants after isolation ..... Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Biochem. Biophys. Acta 993 51–55. Kimura M, Otaki N and Imano M ...

  3. induced by cadmium using random amplified polymorphic DNA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Apr 17, 2013 ... Jin YH, Clark AB, Slebos, RJC, Al-Refai H, Taylor JA, Kunkel TA,. Resnick MA, Gordenin DA (2003). Cadmium is a mutagen that acts by inhibiting mismatch repair. Nat. Genet. 34(3):326-329. Joseph P (2009). Mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 238:272-279. Azimi et al.

  4. Effects of Cadmium Exposure on Bone and Kidney Alkaline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the effects of varying doses of cadmium on bone and kidney alkaline phosphatase and on testis and prostate acid phosphatase after 4 weeks of administration to separate groups of rats. Relative to the cadmium-free control rats femur bone alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly (P<0.05) ...

  5. Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Ground Pine Cone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Izanloo, S Nasseri


    Full Text Available A study on the removal of cadmium ions from aqueous solutions by pine cone was conducted in batch conditions. Kinetic data and equilibrium removal isotherms were obtained. The influence of different experimental parameters such as contact time, initial concentration of cadmium, pine cone mass and particle size, and temperature on the kinetics of cadmium removal was studied. Results showed that the main parameters that played an important role in removal phenomenon were initial cadmium concentration, particle size and pine cone mass. The necessary time to reach equilibrium was between 4 and 7 hours based on the initial concentration of cadmium. The capacity of cadmium adsorption at equilibrium increased with the decrease of pine cone particle size. The capacity of cadmium adsorption at equilibrium by pine cone increased with the quantity of pine cone introduced (1–4 g/L. Temperature in the range of 20-30°C showed a restricted effect on the removal kinetics (13.56 mg/g at 20°C and a low capacity of adsorption about 11.48 mg/g at 30°C. The process followed pseudo second-order kinetics. The cadmium uptake of pine cone was quantitatively evaluated using adsorption isotherms. Results indicated that the Langmuir model gave a better fit to the experimental data in comparison with the Freundlich equation.

  6. Transformation of potassium Lindquist hexaniobate to various potassium niobates: solvothermal synthesis and structural evolution mechanism. (United States)

    Kong, Xingang; Hu, Dengwei; Wen, Puhong; Ishii, Tomohiko; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Feng, Qi


    This paper introduces the formation reactions and reaction mechanisms of a series of potassium niobates from a potassium salt of the Lindquist hexaniobate [Nb6O19](8-) ion under solvothermal conditions. The structure and particle morphology of the potassium niobate product can be controlled easily with the reaction solution alkalinity using this solvothermal process. KNb3O8 with a plate-like morphology, K4Nb6O17·4.5H2O with a plate-like morphology, a new phase of K2Nb2O6·H2O with fibrous morphology, KNbO3 perovskites with cubic morphology are obtained at pH = 5.5, and in 0.3, 0.5, 1.0 mol L(-1) KOH solutions at 230 °C, respectively. The reaction conditions are much milder than those in the normal hydrothermal process. Furthermore, the K2Nb2O6·H2O fibers can be topotactically transformed into KNbO3 fibers, Nb2O5 fibers after H(+)-exchange-treatment, and LiNbO3 fibers after Li(+)-exchange-treatment by heat-treatments at 730, 560, and 520 °C, respectively. The formation reaction and structure of these potassium niobates were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected-area electron diffraction (SAED), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Raman spectra and TG-DTA. The formation mechanism of this series of potassium niobates from the [Nb6O19](8-) precursor is systematically explained via the correlation between the octahedrons [NbO6] sharing forms in the precursor structure and in the product structures.

  7. Cadmium chronic administration to lactating ewes. Reproductive performance, cadmium tissue accumulation and placental transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floris, B.; Bomboi, G.; Sechi, P.; Marongiu, M. L. [Sassari Univ., Sassari (Italy). Dipt. di Biologia Animale; Pirino, S. [Sassari Univ., Sassari (Italy). Ist. di Patologia Generale, Anatomia Patologica e Clinica Ostetrico-chirurgica Veterinaria


    20 lactating ewes were allotted to two groups: 10 subjects received orally 100 mg/day of CdCl{sub 2} for 108 consecutive days, and the remaining 10 acted as control. Reproductive performance in ewes and cadmium tissue accumulation, both in ewes and their lambs, were investigated. The results showed that in ewes: 1) the regular cadmium intestinal intake negatively influences all reproductive parameters; 2) cadmium is particularly accumulated in kidney and liver, bur also in mammary gland, although at distinctly lower level; 3) chronic administration does not increase cadmium placental transfer in lactating pregnant subjects. [Italian] 20 pecore in lattazione sono state suddivise in 2 gruppi: 10 soggetti ricevettero per os 100 mg/giorno di CdCl{sub 2} per 108 giorni consecutivi, e i restanti 10 funsero da controllo. Sono stati studiati i parametri riproduttivi delle pecore e l'accumulo di cadmio nei tessuti, sia delle pecore che dei loro agnelli. I risultati hanno mostrato che negli ovini: 1) il regolare assorbimento intestinale di cadmio influenza negativamente tutti i parametri riproduttivi; 2) il cadmio viene accumulato principalmente nei reni e nel fegato, ma anche dalla ghiandola mammaria, sebbene in misura nettamente inferiore; 3) la somministrazione cronica di cadmio nei soggetti gravidi non incrementa il suo passaggio transplacentare.

  8. The effect of phosphate fertilizer cadmium on cadmium in soils and crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smilde, K.W.; Luit, van B.


    Een van de oorzaken, waardoor bodemvervuiling met cadmium optreedt en dus een bevordering van cadmiumopname door het gewas, is toepassing van fosfaatkunstmest, waarin zich verschillende gehaltes van dit zware metaal bevinden. Dit rapport behandelt het onderzoek naar de stijging van het

  9. Cadmium content in soil at Heirisson Island, Western Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosie, D.J.; Bogoiais, A.; De Laeter, J.R.; Rosman, K.J.R.


    A study was initiated to determine the cadmium level of soil samples from Heirisson Island, western Australia. Cadmium is a particularly toxic element considered harmful to humans and vegetation. Experimental methods and materials are described. Results indicate that cadmium concentrations decrease markedly with distance from road edges, where the cadmium is thought to originate from automobile tires. Other results are detailed. Despite the fact that the amount of cadmium fallout from vehicular traffic is considerably smaller in Australia than was expected on the basis of overseas studies, it is still apparent that the accession rate in soil adjoining busy highways is sufficiently large to demand that care is taken to avoid growing vegetation for human consumption too close to such roadside locations. (3 graphs, 8 references)

  10. Effect of cadmium chloride on hepatic lipid peroxidation in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H R; Andersen, O


    Intraperitoneal administration of cadmium chloride to 8-12 weeks old CBA-mice enhanced hepatic lipid peroxidation. A positive correlation between cadmium chloride dose and level of peroxidation was observed in both male and female mice. A sex-related difference in mortality was not observed...... but at a dose of 25 mumol CdCl2/kg the level of hepatic lipid peroxidation was higher in male mice than in female mice. The hepatic lipid peroxidation was not increased above the control level in 3 weeks old mice, while 6 weeks old mice responded with increased peroxidation as did 8-12 weeks old mice....... The mortality after an acute toxic dose of cadmium chloride was the same in the three age groups. Pretreatment of mice with several low intraperitoneal doses of cadmium chloride alleviated cadmium induced mortality and lipid peroxidation. The results demonstrate both age dependency and a protective effect...

  11. Synthesis of cadmium chalcogenide nanotubes at room temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Jun


    Cadmium chalcogenide (CdE, E=S, Se, Te) polycrystalline nanotubes have been synthesized from precursor of CdS/cadmium thiolate complex at room temperature. The precursor was hydrothermally synthesized at 180 °C using thioglycolic acid (TGA) and cadmium acetate as starting materials. The transformation from the rod-like precursor of CdS/cadmium thiolate complex to CdS, CdSe and CdTe nanotubes were performed under constant stirring at room temperature in aqueous solution containing S 2-, Se 2- and Te 2-, respectively. The nanotube diameter can be controlled from 150 to 400 nm related to the dimension of templates. The XRD patterns show the cadmium chalcogenide nanotubes all corresponding to face-centered cubic structure. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Adsorption of cadmium from aqueous solutions by perlite. (United States)

    Mathialagan, T; Viraraghavan, T


    The present study examined the use of perlite for the removal of cadmium from aqueous solutions. The effects of pH and contact time on the adsorption process were examined. The optimum pH for adsorption was found to be 6.0. Residual cadmium concentration reached equilibrium in 6h and the rate of cadmium adsorption by perlite was rapid in the first hour of the reaction time. Ho's pseudo-second-order model best described the kinetics of the reaction. Batch adsorption experiments conducted at room temperature (22+/-1 degrees C) showed that the adsorption pattern followed the Freundlich isotherm model. The maximum removal of cadmium obtained from batch studies was 55%. Thomas model was used to describe the adsorption data from column studies. The results generally showed that perlite could be considered as a potential adsorbent for cadmium removal from aqueous solutions.

  13. Effect of pregnancy on cadmium-treated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takizama, Y. (Akita Univ. School of Medicine, Japan); Nakamura, I.; Kurayama, R.; Hirasawa, F.; Kawai, K.


    It is well known that itai-itai disease with the osteopathy is broken out among multiparas, 40 years of age and up Japanese residents. In this paper we described an experimental study of effect of pregnancy on cadmium treated rats. Female mature rats were administered drinking water containing 50 and 200 ppm cadmium as CdCl/sub 2/. During 180 days of the experiment, three times of pregnancy were succesful, though slight depression of body weight gain was noticed in the 200 ppm group. The cadmium was accumulated in the kidneys, liver and bone proportionally to the amount of cadmium administered. No significant change was recognized in serum calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels after 180 days. Though cadmium 200 ppm treated rats showed slight histological lesions in the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidney, there appeared to be no osteomalacia including excess formation of osteoid tissue.

  14. Biochemical responses and accumulation of cadmium in Spirodela polyrhiza. (United States)

    Rolli, N M; Suvarnakhandi, S S; Mulgund, G S; Ratageri, R H; Taranath, T C


    The present study focused on biochemical responses of Spirodela polyrhiza to cadmium stresses and its accumulation. The laboratory experiments were conducted for the assessment of biochemical responses and accumulation of cadmium in plants at its various concentrations (0.1, 0.5, 1.5 and 2.0 ppm) at the regular interval for twelve days exposure. Spirodela showed visible symptoms like withering of roots and chlorosis at higher concentration (2.0 ppm), however the plant showed normal growth at lower concentration (0.1 ppm). The estimation of biochemical parameters (total chlorophyll, protein and carbohydrate) of test plants showed a significant increase at lower concentration (0.1 ppm) of cadmium. The biochemical changes decrease with increase in exposure concentration and duration. The toxic effect of cadmium is directly proportional to its concentration and duration. The accumulation of cadmium by Spirodela polyrhiza was maximum at four days exposure duration and gradually decreases.

  15. Possible mechanism for cadmium-induced hypertension in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revis, N.


    The mechanism of cadmium-induced hypertension was explored by measuring noradrenaline metabolism. Cadmium in vitro was shown to inhibit both monoamine oxidase and catechol-O-methyltransferase, the two enzymes which inactivate the neurotransmitters noradrenaline and adrenaline. However, rats which were injected or fed (via the drinking water) with cadmium showed that, among the tissues surveyed, these two enzymes were inhibited significantly only in the aorta. In vitro, cadmium was found to inhibit noradrenaline binding to membranes from the heart, lung, and kidney, while stimulating binding to aortic membranes, which suggests that the effects may be specific. These results suggest that, in the aorta, cadmium may inhibit the two catabolic enzymes of noradrenaline, while at the same time stimulating noradrenaline-binding. Thus the effects of noradrenaline on vascular smooth muscle would be increased as well as prolonged.

  16. Possible mechanism for cadmium-induced hypertension in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revis, N.


    The mechanism of cadmium-induced hypertension was explored by measuring noradrenaline metabolism. Cadmium in vitro was shown to inhibit both monoamine oxidase and catechol-O-methyltransferase, the two enzymes which inactivate the neurotransmitters noradrenaline and adrenaline. However, rats which were injected or fed (via the drinking water) with cadmium showed that, among the tissues surveyed, these two enzymes were inhibited significantly only in the aorta. In vitro, cadmium was found to inhibit noradrenaline binding to membranes from the heart, lung, and kidney, while stimulating binding to aortic membranes, which suggests that the effects may be specific. These results suggest that, in the aorta, cadmium may inhibit the two catabolic enzymes of noradrenaline, while at the same time stimulating noradrenaline-binding. Thus the effects of noradrenaline on vascular smooth muscle would be increased as well as prolonged.

  17. Potassium Iodide ("KI"): Instructions to Make Potassium Iodide Solution for Use During a Nuclear Emergency (Liquid Form) (United States)

    ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products ... it Email Print Instructions to Make Potassium Iodide Solution for Use During a Nuclear ...

  18. Dialysate Potassium, Serum Potassium, Mortality, and Arrhythmia Events in Hemodialysis: Results From the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS). (United States)

    Karaboyas, Angelo; Zee, Jarcy; Brunelli, Steven M; Usvyat, Len A; Weiner, Daniel E; Maddux, Franklin W; Nissenson, Allen R; Jadoul, Michel; Locatelli, Francesco; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C; Port, Friedrich K; Robinson, Bruce M; Tentori, Francesca


    Sudden death is a leading cause of death in patients on maintenance hemodialysis therapy. During hemodialysis sessions, the gradient between serum and dialysate levels results in rapid electrolyte shifts, which may contribute to arrhythmias and sudden death. Controversies exist about the optimal electrolyte concentration in the dialysate; specifically, it is unclear whether patient outcomes differ among those treated with a dialysate potassium concentration of 3 mEq/L compared to 2 mEq/L. Prospective cohort study. 55,183 patients from 20 countries in the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) phases 1 to 5 (1996-2015). Dialysate potassium concentration at study entry. Cox regression was used to estimate the association between dialysate potassium concentration and both all-cause mortality and an arrhythmia composite outcome (arrhythmia-related hospitalization or sudden death), adjusting for potential confounders. During a median follow-up of 16.5 months, 24% of patients died and 7% had an arrhythmia composite outcome. No meaningful difference in clinical outcomes was observed for patients treated with a dialysate potassium concentration of 3 versus 2 mEq/L (adjusted HRs were 0.96 [95% CI, 0.91-1.01] for mortality and 0.98 [95% CI, 0.88-1.08] for arrhythmia composite). Results were similar across predialysis serum potassium levels. As in prior studies, higher serum potassium level was associated with adverse outcomes. However, dialysate potassium concentration had only minimal impact on serum potassium level measured predialysis (+0.09 [95% CI, 0.05-0.14] mEq/L serum potassium per 1 mEq/L greater dialysate potassium concentration). Data were not available for delivered (vs prescribed) dialysate potassium concentration and postdialysis serum potassium level; possible unmeasured confounding. In combination, these results suggest that approaches other than altering dialysate potassium concentration (eg, education on dietary potassium sources and

  19. Evolution-based strategy to generate non-genetically modified organisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains impaired in sulfate assimilation pathway. (United States)

    De Vero, L; Solieri, L; Giudici, P


    An evolution-based strategy was designed to screen novel yeast strains impaired in sulfate assimilation. Specifically, molybdate and chromate resistance was used as selectable phenotype to select sulfate permease-deficient variants that unable to produce sulfites and hydrogen sulfide (H(2) S). Four Saccharomyces cerevisiae parent strains were induced to sporulate. After tetrad digestion, spore suspensions were observed under the microscope to monitor the conjugation of gametes. Then, the cell suspension was inoculated in tubes containing YPD medium supplemented with ammonium molybdate or potassium chromate. Forty-four resistant strains were obtained and then tested in microvinifications. Three strains with a low sulfite production (SO2 < 10 mg l(-1)) and with an impaired H2S production in grape must without added sulfites were selected. Our strategy enabled the selection of improved yeasts with desired oenological characteristics. Particularly, resistance to toxic analogues of sulfate allowed us to detect strains that unable to assimilate sulfates. This strategy that combines the sexual recombination of spores and application of a specific selective pressure provides a rapid screening method to generate genetic variants and select improved wine yeast strains with an impaired metabolism regarding the production of sulfites and H2S. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. On the roles and regulation of chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate in zebrafish pharyngeal cartilage morphogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmborn, Katarina; Habicher, Judith; Kasza, Zsolt


    The present study addresses the roles of heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans and chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycans in the development of zebrafish pharyngeal cartilage structures. uxs1 and b3gat3 mutants, predicted to have impaired biosynthesis of both HS and CS because of defective formation...

  1. The efficacy of nebulized salbutamol, magnesium sulfate, and salbutamol/magnesium sulfate combination in moderate bronchiolitis. (United States)

    Kose, Mehmet; Ozturk, Mehmet Adnan; Poyrazoğlu, Hakan; Elmas, Tuba; Ekinci, Duygu; Tubas, Filiz; Kurt, Tuba; Goktas, Mehmet Akif


    The aim of this paper is to compare the effect of nebulized magnesium sulfate to nebulized salbutamol and salbutamol/magnesium sulfate on successful discharge from the emergency department. A total of 56 infants were included in this double-blinded, prospective study. Infants were grouped according to the nebulized treatment they received: group 1-salbutamol/normal saline, group 2-magnesium sulfate and normal saline, and group 3-salbutamol plus magnesium sulfate. Heart beat, bronchiolitis, clinical severity scores (CSS), and oxygen saturation of the patients were determined before and after nebulization (0, 1, 4 h). The patients were monitored for adverse reactions. Post-treatment mean CSS results were significantly lower than pre-treatment scores in all groups at 4 h with no significant difference within groups. CSS scores were lower in the salbutamol/magnesium sulfate group when compared with the magnesium sulfate and salbutamol groups (3.4 (2.4-4.3), 4.7 (3.8-5.7), 4.0 (3.2-4.3)). CSS were significantly lower than those from the magnesium sulfate group. Nebulized magnesium sulfate plus salbutamol may have additive effects for improving the short-term CSS.

  2. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; Babatunde Oyenekan; Andrew Sexton; Jason Davis; Marus Hiilliard; Qing Xu; David Van Wagener; Jorge M. Plaza


    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. The best solvent and process configuration, matrix with MDEA/PZ, offers 22% and 15% energy savings over the baseline and improved baseline, respectively, with stripping and compression to 10 MPa. The energy requirement for stripping and compression to 10 MPa is about 20% of the power output from a 500 MW power plant with 90% CO{sub 2} removal. The stripper rate model shows that a ''short and fat'' stripper requires 7 to 15% less equivalent work than a ''tall and skinny'' one. The stripper model was validated with data obtained from pilot plant experiments at the University of Texas with 5m K{sup +}/2.5m PZ and 6.4m K{sup +}/1.6m PZ under normal pressure and vacuum conditions using Flexipac AQ Style 20 structured packing. Experiments with oxidative degradation at low gas rates confirm the effects of Cu{sup +2} catalysis; in MEA/PZ solutions more formate and acetate is produced in the presence of Cu{sup +2}. At 150 C, the half life of 30% MEA with 0.4 moles CO{sub 2}/mole amine is about 2 weeks. At 100 C, less than 3% degradation occurred in two weeks. The solubility of potassium sulfate in MEA solution increases significantly with CO{sub 2} loading and decreases with MEA concentration. The base case corrosion rate in 5 M MEA/1,2M PZ is 22 mpy. With 1 wt% heat stable salt, the corrosion rate increases by 50% to 160% in the order: thiosulfate< oxalate

  3. Mono- and Polyhydrated Sulfates in Tithonium Chasma (United States)


    This image of sulfate-containing deposits in Tithonium Chasma was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 1538 UTC (11:38 a.m. EDT) on August 31, 2007 near 5.22 degrees south latitude, 270.48 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 40 meters (132 feet) across. The region covered is just over 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) wide at its narrowest point. Tithonium Chasma lies at the western end of the Valles Marineris canyon system. It extends approximately east-west for roughly 810 kilometers (503 miles), varies in width from approximately 10 to 110 kilometers (6 to 68 miles), and cuts into the Martian surface to a maximum depth of roughly 6 kilometers (4 miles). The top panel in the montage above shows the location of the CRISM image on a mosaic taken by the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). The CRISM data covers an area centered on a ridge of erosion-resistant rock. The center left image, an infrared false color image, reveals banded, light-colored material draped on the ridge. The center right image unveils the mineralogical composition of the area, with yellow representing monohydrated sulfates (sulfates with one water molecule incorporated into each molecule of the mineral) and purple polyhydrated sulfates (sulfates with multiple waters per mineral molecule). The lower two images are renderings of data draped over topography with 7 times vertical exaggeration. These images provide a view of the topography and reveal how the sulfate deposits both cover and flank the ridge. Brighter, monohydrated sulfate (yellow) deposits revealed in the lower right image lies along the ridge's northwest side and fall off into a small valley or depression, while darker polyhydrated sulfates (purple) lie along the ridge's northeast flank. A deposit of both mono- and polyhydrated sulfates spanning the ridge near its crest also appears

  4. Dislocation Etching Solutions for Mercury Cadmium Selenide (United States)


    mercury cadmium telluride (Hg1–xCdxTe) for infrared (IR) sensor applications, but etch pit density ( EPD ) measurements are required to measure...dislocations that affect device performance. No EPD solutions have been reported for Hg1–xCdxSe, and standard EPD solutions for Hg1–xCdxTe have proved...ineffective. Thus, a new etching solution is required for EPD measurements of Hg1–xCdxSe. Samples were etched in various solutions and the resulting pits

  5. Co-existence of Methanogenesis and Sulfate Reduction with Common Substrates in Sulfate-Rich Estuarine Sediments. (United States)

    Sela-Adler, Michal; Ronen, Zeev; Herut, Barak; Antler, Gilad; Vigderovich, Hanni; Eckert, Werner; Sivan, Orit


    The competition between sulfate reducing bacteria and methanogens over common substrates has been proposed as a critical control for methane production. In this study, we examined the co-existence of methanogenesis and sulfate reduction with shared substrates over a large range of sulfate concentrations and rates of sulfate reduction in estuarine systems, where these processes are the key terminal sink for organic carbon. Incubation experiments were carried out with sediment samples from the sulfate-methane transition zone of the Yarqon (Israel) estuary with different substrates and inhibitors along a sulfate concentrations gradient from 1 to 10 mM. The results show that methanogenesis and sulfate reduction can co-exist while the microbes share substrates over the tested range of sulfate concentrations and at sulfate reduction rates up to 680 μmol L-1 day-1. Rates of methanogenesis were two orders of magnitude lower than rates of sulfate reduction in incubations with acetate and lactate, suggesting a higher affinity of sulfate reducing bacteria for the available substrates. The co-existence of both processes was also confirmed by the isotopic signatures of δ34S in the residual sulfate and that of δ13C of methane and dissolved inorganic carbon. Copy numbers of dsrA and mcrA genes supported the dominance of sulfate reduction over methanogenesis, while showing also the ability of methanogens to grow under high sulfate concentration and in the presence of active sulfate reduction.

  6. Cadmium uptake by cocoa trees in agroforestry and monoculture systems under conventional and organic management. (United States)

    Gramlich, A; Tandy, S; Andres, C; Chincheros Paniagua, J; Armengot, L; Schneider, M; Schulin, R


    Cadmium (Cd) uptake by cocoa has recently attracted attention, after the European Union (EU) decided to establish values for tolerable Cd concentrations in cocoa products. Bean Cd concentrations from some cocoa provenances, especially from Latin America, were found to exceed these values. Cadmium uptake by cocoa is expected not only to depend on a variety of soil factors, but also on plant and management factors. In this study, we investigated the influence of different production systems on Cd uptake by cocoa in a long-term field trial in the Alto Beni Region of Bolivia, where cocoa trees are grown in monocultures and in agroforestry systems, both under organic and conventional management. Leaf, fruits and roots of two cultivars were sampled from each production system along with soil samples collected around these trees. Leaf, pod husk and bean samples were analysed for Cd, iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn), the roots for mycorrhizal abundance and the soil samples for 'total' and 'available' Cd, Fe and Zn as well as DGT-available Cd and Zn, pH, organic matter, texture, 'available' phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Only a small part of the variance in bean and pod husk Cd was explained by management, soil and plant factors. Furthermore, the production systems and cultivars alone had no significant influence on leaf Cd. However, we found lower Cd leaf contents in agroforestry systems than in monocultures when analysed in combination with DGT-available soil Cd, cocoa cultivar and soil organic matter. Overall, this model explained 60% of the variance of the leaf Cd concentrations. We explain lower leaf Cd concentrations in agroforestry systems by competition for Cd uptake with other plants. The cultivar effect may be explained by cultivar specific uptake capacities or by a growth effect translating into different uptake rates, as the cultivars were of different size. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Changes in erythrocyte contents of potassium, sodium and magnesium and Na, K-pump activity after the administration of potassium and magnesium salts. (United States)

    Sriboonlue, Pote; Jaipakdee, Sudjai; Jirakulsomchok, Dusit; Mairiang, Eimorn; Tosukhowong, Piyaratana; Prasongwatana, Vitoon; Savok, Sompong


    Low potassium and magnesium status and decreased Na, K-pump activity is an endemic condition among rural Northeast Thais. The authors examined the effect of supplementing potassium and magnesium on erythrocyte potassium, sodium and magnesium content and on Na, K-pump activity. Rural Northeast Thai renal stone patients (62) were recruited, divided into four groups and supplemented for one month with potassium chloride (Group1, n = 16), potassium-sodium citrate (Group2, n = 15), chelated magnesium (Group 3, n =16) and potassium-magnesium citrate (Group 4, n =15) in order to achieve 40 mmol potassium, 10 mmol magnesium and 60 mmol citrate daily. After supplementation with potassium (Groups 1, 2 and 4), plasma potassium and Na, K-pump activity rose significantly in Groups 1, 2 and 4, but erythrocyte potassium rose only in Groups 2 and 4. When supplementing elemental magnesium (Groups 3 and 4), the chelated magnesium caused a significant increase in plasma potassium, erythrocyte potassium, sodium and magnesium without a significant increase in Na, K-pump activity. By contrast, potassium-magnesium citrate caused a significant increase in erythrocyte potassium and magnesium and Na, K-pump activity, but depressed erythrocyte sodium. These results suggest the forms of potassium and /or magnesium salts being supplemented should be considered because they affect erythrocyte potassium, sodium and magnesium content and Na, K-pump activity differently.

  8. LASL bismuth sulfate thermochemical hydrogen cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, K.E.; Jones, W.M.; Peterson, C.L.


    The LASL bismuth sulfate cycle is one of a generic class of solid sulfate cycles in which a metal sulfate is substituted for sulfuric acid in a hybrid (partly electrochemical) cycle. This technique avoids the serious materials and heat penalty problems associated with the handling of concentrated acid solutions, and if the electrolyzer is operated at acid concentrations below 50% it may, in principle, lead to a lower cell voltage with subsequent energy savings. Experiment verification of all steps in the cycle has been obtained, particularly for the decomposition of normal bismuth sulfate and lower bismuth oxysulfates. For the substance, Bi/sub 2/O/sub 3/ 2SO/sub 3/, an endothermic requirement of 172 kJ/mol was obtained, which is considerably less than that for other metal sulfate systems. A rotary kiln was used for continuous experiments and our results show decomposition of this compound to Bi/sub 2/O/sub 3/ SO/sub 3/ in under 8 minutes residence time at 1023 K. Preliminary analysis of the cycle's energy balance shows an overall thermal efficiency of greater than 50% when the maximum cycle reaction temperature is 1500 K. The cycle has potential for hydrogen production when coupled with an energy source such as solar or fusion energy.

  9. Acetate Production from Oil under Sulfate-Reducing Conditions in Bioreactors Injected with Sulfate and Nitrate (United States)

    Callbeck, Cameron M.; Agrawal, Akhil


    Oil production by water injection can cause souring in which sulfate in the injection water is reduced to sulfide by resident sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Sulfate (2 mM) in medium injected at a rate of 1 pore volume per day into upflow bioreactors containing residual heavy oil from the Medicine Hat Glauconitic C field was nearly completely reduced to sulfide, and this was associated with the generation of 3 to 4 mM acetate. Inclusion of 4 mM nitrate inhibited souring for 60 days, after which complete sulfate reduction and associated acetate production were once again observed. Sulfate reduction was permanently inhibited when 100 mM nitrate was injected by the nitrite formed under these conditions. Pulsed injection of 4 or 100 mM nitrate inhibited sulfate reduction temporarily. Sulfate reduction resumed once nitrate injection was stopped and was associated with the production of acetate in all cases. The stoichiometry of acetate formation (3 to 4 mM formed per 2 mM sulfate reduced) is consistent with a mechanism in which oil alkanes and water are metabolized to acetate and hydrogen by fermentative and syntrophic bacteria (K. Zengler et al., Nature 401:266–269, 1999), with the hydrogen being used by SRB to reduce sulfate to sulfide. In support of this model, microbial community analyses by pyrosequencing indicated SRB of the genus Desulfovibrio, which use hydrogen but not acetate as an electron donor for sulfate reduction, to be a major community component. The model explains the high concentrations of acetate that are sometimes found in waters produced from water-injected oil fields. PMID:23770914

  10. The Effect of Selenium and +(-)Catechin on Lipid Peroxidation and Glutathione in Cadmium Fed Rats (United States)

    Özdemir, Semra; Dursun, Şefik


    Cadmium performs its effect on living organisms by accumulating in various tissues and effects tissue antioxidant enzyme systems. The testes are critical target organ following cadmium exposure. The present study was planned to determine the possible protective roles of selenium and +(-) catechin against the toxic effects of cadmium. The study has been performed in Wistar Albino rats which divided into four groups as control, cadmium, cadmium+selenium and cadmium+ catechin received groups. Each experimental group consisted of ten rats. The experimental group rats have received cadmium sulphate, sodium selenite and +(-) catechin via there drinking water for thirty days. Cadmium concentration, lipid peroxidation and glutathione were measured in the homogenate of testes and blood. As a result of the study it may be said that: The cadmium accumulates in testes and its concentration increases in blood and possibly selenium administration is helpful against cadmium but not +(-)catechin.

  11. Potassium cycling and losses in grassland systems : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayser, M; Isselstein, J

    Cycling of potassium in grassland systems has received relatively little attention in research and practice in recent years. Balanced nutrient systems require consideration of nutrients other than nitrogen (N). Potassium (K) is needed in large amounts and is closely related to N nutrition. In

  12. A novel potassium deficiency-induced stimulon in Anabaena torulosa

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These proteins contrast with the dinitrogenase reductase of A. torulosa and the glycine betaine-binding protein of E. coli, both of which were osmo-induced to a higher level in potassium-supplemented conditions. The data demonstrate the occurrence of novel potassium deficiency-induced stimulons and a wider role of K+ in ...

  13. Sodium and potassium concentrations in floral nectars in relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sodium and potassium concentrations have been measured in nectar from a variety of flowering plants visited by honey bees (Apis mellifera capensis). In 18 plant species the mean sodium concentration was 9,8 ± 1,4 mmol (± S.E.), and the mean potassium concentration was 18,7 ± 4,3 mmol. These results are compared ...

  14. Sodium and potassium concentrations in floral nectars in relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Aug 3, 1989 ... Sodium and potassium concentrations have been measured in nectar from a variety of flowering plants visited by honey bees fApis me/litera capensis). In 18 plant species the mean sodium concentration was 9,8 ± 1,4 mmol (± S.E.), and the mean potassium concentration was 18,7 ± 4,3 mmol.

  15. Potassium Concentration in Blood of Brazilian Athletes Using NAA (United States)

    Kovacs, Luciana; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Lourenço, Thiago F.; Nunes, Lázaro A. S.; Macedo, Denise V.


    In this study the potassium levels in blood were determined in male athletes, age 18 to 26 years, before, during and after the tread mill exercise protocol using Neutron Activation Analyses (NAA). These data are important to check the potassium imbalance in blood during the period of competition preparation.

  16. Haemoglobin and potassium polymorphism in agro-pastoral goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Chi-square test revealed that the population of goats in the study area was in Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium. The gene frequencies of potassium polymorphism were 0.844 and 0.156 for high (HK) and low potassium (LK) types, respectively. The genotypic frequencies were 0.91 for HK and 0.01 for LK in the overall ...

  17. Evaluation of in vitro antifungal activity of potassium bicarbonate on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of increased concentrations of potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3) as a possible alternative to synthetic fungicides for controlling Rhizoctonia solani AG 4 HG-I and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was evaluated in vitro, in this study. In addition, the effect of potassium bicarbonate on Trichoderma sp., a natural antagonist on ...

  18. Relationship between serum total magnesium and serum potassium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Potassium and magnesium are the two most abundant intra cellular cations. They play pivotal roles in many essential biological processes. Deficiencies of these electrolytes are of clinical importance in hospitalised patients. Aim: To determine the relationship between serum total magnesium and potassium ...

  19. Potassium silicate-zinc oxide solution for metal finishes (United States)

    Schutt, J. B.


    Examples of zinc dust formulations, which are not subject to cracking or crazing, are fire retardant, and have high adhesive qualities, are listed. The potassium silicate in these formulations has mol ratios of dissolved silica potassium oxide in the range 4.8 to 1 - 5.3 to 1.

  20. Potassium bromate content of some baked breads sold in Kano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Potassium bromate is an additive used by some bakers to make the bread rise rapidly, create a good texture in the finished product and to give bulkiness to the dough. Objective: The main objective of this work was to assess the potassium bromate residues of some baked breads sold in some selected local ...

  1. Determination and comparison of vitamin C, calcium and potassium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vitamin C content was determined by 2,6-dichloroindophenol titrimetric method while calcium and potassium were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results from the study showed inconsistent pattern with respect to vitamin C, calcium and potassium contents in the conventionally and organically grown ...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10021 - Magnesium potassium titanium oxide. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Magnesium potassium titanium oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10021 Magnesium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and... titanium oxide (PMN P-01-764; CAS No. 39290-90-9) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  3. Potassium Bromate Content of Bread Produced in Sokoto Metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifteen different bread samples were randomly collected from various local bakeries located in Sokoto metropolis. The samples were analysed for presence and quantity of potassium bromate. All the samples were analysed using the redox titrimetric method for the detection of potassium bromate. All the samples contained ...

  4. Accidental Potassium Bromate Poisoning Causing Acute Renal Failure


    Adeleke SI; Asani MO


    Accidental poisoning is common in children. Potassium bromate is commonly used additive and raising agent in many edibles especially bread which is a staple food in Nigeria. This communication is that of an unusual case of acute renal failure following accidental ingestion of potassium bromate tablets.

  5. Top-dressing of Potassium Fertilizers on Safflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neginsadat Amir Khalili


    Full Text Available To determine the effects of potassium foliar application (with two levels, use and non-use from potassium sulphate source and top-dressing application of potassium fertilizer (with two levels, use and non-use from potassium chloride source on number of seeds per capitulum, number of side branch per plant, seed yield, seed oil content, oil yield, seed to coat ratio, plant height and shoot dry weight in three safflower, genotypes including KW.2, Padideh and Goldasht a factorial experiment based on the randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications, was conducted during 2013 growing season at the Agricultural Research Center of Semnan province (Shahroud. Results showed that the highest average of number of seeds per capitulum (28.70, number of side branch per plant (17.83 and seed to coat ratio (1.47 were found in KW.2 genotype. The highest seed yield (2627.7 kg/ha and oil yield (1350.5 kg/ha were found from potassium sulphate foliar application in Padideh and KW.2 genotypes respectively. The interaction effect of genotype × potassium foliar application was significant for seed and oil yields. In conclusion, it was determined that potassium sulphate foliar application has better impacts on seed and oil yield of safflower genotypes than potassium top-dressing application.

  6. Crystal structure of the sodium-potassium pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morth, J Preben; Pedersen, Bjørn Panyella; Toustrup-Jensen, Mads S


    The Na+,K+-ATPase generates electrochemical gradients for sodium and potassium that are vital to animal cells, exchanging three sodium ions for two potassium ions across the plasma membrane during each cycle of ATP hydrolysis. Here we present the X-ray crystal structure at 3.5 A resolution of the...

  7. Accidental Potassium Bromate Poisoning Causing Acute Renal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeleke SI


    Full Text Available Accidental poisoning is common in children. Potassium bromate is commonly used additive and raising agent in many edibles especially bread which is a staple food in Nigeria. This communication is that of an unusual case of acute renal failure following accidental ingestion of potassium bromate tablets

  8. Effects of Nitrogen, Potassium and Weed Interference on Yield of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parameters studied included bulb weight (g), bulb diameter (cm) and bulb heights (cm). The result indicated significant (P<0.05) effect of potassium, nitrogen and weed interference on the yield of onion. Highest bulb yield was obtained with 250 kg/ha potassium, 150 kg/ha nitrogen and the 4 WAT weeding regime. No bulbs ...

  9. The Effect Of Potassium Bromate On Some Haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: Potassium bromate used widely in foods has been associated with various complications in humans. However there is paucity of literature on adverse effects on haematological parameters. Thus we decided to carry out an experimental study to determine the effects of potassium bromate on some blood indices ...

  10. Extractability of Potassium from Some Organic Manures in Aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of pH, time and concentration on the extractability of potassium from five types of organic manures (cow dung, local chickens, duck and commercial chickens, faeces on bedded and unbedded floor) were studied. Experiments were conducted in water at 40oC. Cumulative extraction curves of potassium resulting ...

  11. Acute toxicity studies of potassium permanganate in Swiss albino mice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute toxicity study of potassium permanganate was carried out in Swiss albino mice. Potassium permanganate was administered at dose rate of 0.0, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500, 3000 and 3500mg/kg body weight to groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8, ten per group for LD50 determination. The dead animals were posted for ...

  12. Immunohistochemical localization of chondroitin sulfate, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, heparan sulfate proteoglycan, entactin, and laminin in basement membranes of postnatal developing and adult rat lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannes, P L; Burch, K K; Khosla, J


    Histologic preparations of lungs from 1-, 5-, 10-, 18-, and 25-day-old postnatal and adult rats were examined immunohistochemically with antibodies specific against chondroitin sulfate (CS), basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (BM-CSPG), heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), entactin...

  13. High rates of sulfate reduction in a low-sulfate hot spring microbial mat are driven by a low level of diversity of sulfate-respiring microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dillon, Jesse G; Fishbain, Susan; Miller, Scott R


    The importance of sulfate respiration in the microbial mat found in the low-sulfate thermal outflow of Mushroom Spring in Yellowstone National Park was evaluated using a combination of molecular, microelectrode, and radiotracer studies. Despite very low sulfate concentrations, this mat community...

  14. Sources of cadmium exposure among healthy premenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Scott V., E-mail: [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Newcomb, Polly A. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Shafer, Martin M. [Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, University of Wisconsin and Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, Madison, WI (United States); Atkinson, Charlotte [Department of Oral and Dental Science, Bristol Dental School, Bristol (United Kingdom); Bowles, Erin J. Aiello [Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA (United States); Newton, Katherine M. [Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA (United States); Lampe, Johanna W. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)


    Background: Cadmium, a persistent and widespread environmental pollutant, has been associated with kidney function impairment and several diseases. Cigarettes are the dominant source of cadmium exposure among smokers; the primary source of cadmium in non-smokers is food. We investigated sources of cadmium exposure in a sample of healthy women. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 191 premenopausal women completed a health questionnaire and a food frequency questionnaire. The cadmium content of spot urine samples was measured with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and normalized to urine creatinine content. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the strength of association between smoking habits and, among non-smokers, usual foods consumed and urinary cadmium, adjusted for age, race, multivitamin and supplement use, education, estimated total energy intake, and parity. Results: Geometric mean urine creatinine-normalized cadmium concentration (uCd) of women with any history of cigarette smoking was 0.43 {mu}g/g (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38-0.48 {mu}g/g) and 0.30 {mu}g/g (0.27-0.33 {mu}g/g) among never-smokers, and increased with pack-years of smoking. Analysis of dietary data among women with no reported history of smoking suggested that regular consumption of eggs, hot cereals, organ meats, tofu, vegetable soups, leafy greens, green salad, and yams was associated with uCd. Consumption of tofu products showed the most robust association with uCd; each weekly serving of tofu was associated with a 22% (95% CI: 11-33%) increase in uCd. Thus, uCd was estimated to be 0.11 {mu}g/g (95% CI: 0.06-0.15 {mu}g/g) higher among women who consumed any tofu than among those who consumed none. Conclusions: Cigarette smoking is likely the most important source of cadmium exposure among smokers. Among non-smokers, consumption of specific foods, notably tofu, is associated with increased urine cadmium concentration. - Research highlights: {yields

  15. Sulfate reduction and anaerobic methane oxidation in Black Sea sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, BB; Weber, A.; Zopfi, J.


    Beyond the shelf break at ca. 150 m water depth, sulfate reduction is the only important process of organic matter oxidation in Black Sea sediments from the surface down to the sulfate-methane transition at 2-4 m depth. Sulfate reduction rates were measured experimentally with (SO42-)-S-35...... the process was very sluggish with turnover times of methane within the sulfate-methane transition zone of 20 yr or more. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.Beyond the shelf break at ca. 150 m water depth, sulfate reduction is the only important process of organic matter oxidation in Black Sea...... oxidation accounted for 7-11% of the total sulfate reduction in slope and deep-sea sediments. Although this methane-driven sulfate reduction shaped the entire sulfate gradient, it was only equivalent to the sulfate reduction in the uppermost 1.5 cm of surface sediment. Methane oxidation was complete, yet...

  16. 75 FR 76016 - Determination That AUGMENTIN `125' (Amoxicillin; Clavulanate Potassium) Chewable Tablet and Six... (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That AUGMENTIN `125' (Amoxicillin; Clavulanate Potassium) Chewable Tablet and Six Other AUGMENTIN (Amoxicillin; Clavulanate Potassium) Drug Products Were... (amoxicillin; clavulanate potassium) drug products listed in this notice were not withdrawn from sale for...

  17. Potassium bromide, KBr/ ε: New Force Field (United States)

    Fuentes-Azcatl, Raúl; Barbosa, Marcia C.


    We propose a new force field for the Potassium Bromide, the KBr/ ε. The crystal density and structure, as well as, the density, the viscosity and the dielectric constant of the solution in water were computed and compared with the experiments and other atomistic models. Next, the transferability of the KBr/ ε and of the NaCl/ ε models is verified by creating the KCl/ ε and the NaBr/ ε models. The strategy was to employ the same parameters obtained for the NaCl/ ε and for the KBr/ ε force fields for the building up of the KCl/ ε and the NaBr/ ε models . The thermodynamic and dynamic properties of these two new models were compared with the experimental

  18. Potassium Capture by Kaolin, Part 1: KOH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Guoliang; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao


    The reaction of gaseous KOH with kaolin and mullite powder under suspension-fired conditions was studied by entrained flow reactor (EFR) experiments. A water-based slurry containing kaolin/mullite and KOH was fed into the reactor and the reacted solid samples were analyzed to quantify the K.......47 μm) and fine(D50 = 3.51 μm) kaolin powder at1100 and 1300 °C. The difference was less significant at 900°C. Mullite generated from kaolin captured KOH less effectively than kaolin at temperatures below 1100 °C. However, at 1300 and1450 °C, the amount of potassium captured by mullite became comparable...

  19. Sulfated glycopeptide nanostructures for multipotent protein activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sungsoo S.; Fyrner, Timmy; Chen, Feng; Álvarez, Zaida; Sleep, Eduard; Chun, Danielle S.; Weiner, Joseph A.; Cook, Ralph W.; Freshman, Ryan D.; Schallmo, Michael S.; Katchko, Karina M.; Schneider, Andrew D.; Smith, Justin T.; Yun, Chawon; Singh, Gurmit; Hashmi, Sohaib Z.; McClendon, Mark T.; Yu, Zhilin; Stock, Stuart R.; Hsu, Wellington K.; Hsu, Erin L.; Stupp , Samuel I. (NWU)


    Biological systems have evolved to utilize numerous proteins with capacity to bind polysaccharides for the purpose of optimizing their function. A well-known subset of these proteins with binding domains for the highly diverse sulfated polysaccharides are important growth factors involved in biological development and tissue repair. We report here on supramolecular sulfated glycopeptide nanostructures, which display a trisulfated monosaccharide on their surfaces and bind five critical proteins with different polysaccharide-binding domains. Binding does not disrupt the filamentous shape of the nanostructures or their internal β-sheet backbone, but must involve accessible adaptive configurations to interact with such different proteins. The glycopeptide nanostructures amplified signalling of bone morphogenetic protein 2 significantly more than the natural sulfated polysaccharide heparin, and promoted regeneration of bone in the spine with a protein dose that is 100-fold lower than that required in the animal model. These highly bioactive nanostructures may enable many therapies in the future involving proteins.

  20. Effects of potassium peroxydiphosphate on bone resorption. (United States)

    Gaffar, A; Alander, C B; Raisz, L G


    Potassium peroxydiphosphate (KPDP) is a slowly hydrolyzed pyrophosphate analog that can release hydrogen peroxide during hydrolysis. We tested its effects on the resorption of cultured fetal rat long bones as measured by the release of previously incorporated 45Ca, both by direct addition of KPDP to the medium and after preincubation of KPDP with large-molecular-weight resorbing factors followed by dialysis to reduce the KPDP concentration. With direct addition, KPDP at a concentration of 1 mM could inhibit the resortive response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), parathyroid hormone (PTH), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and mouse recombinant interleukin-1 (mrIL-1). The response to LPS was partially inhibited at 0.3 mM KPDP. Control resorption in the absence of stimulators was also inhibited. Potassium pyrophosphate at 1 mM was less effective as an inhibitor of bone resorption. The inhibitory effects of KPDP did not appear to be due entirely to nonspecific toxicity since partial recovery occurred after it was removed. There was no significant decrease in [3H]thymidine or [3H]proline incorporation into bones incubated with KPDP at 1 mM for 5 days, but [3H]proline incorporation was decreased at 24 h, suggesting that KPDP may have a general inhibitory effect on bone cells. When media with and without stimulators of resorption were incubated overnight at 4 degrees C with KPDP at 5.8 mM and then dialyzed to bring the concentration to below 0.3 mM, the bone-resorbing activity of PTH, LPS, and mrIL-1 was completely lost. This may have been due to the slow release of hydrogen peroxide; however, preincubation with equimolar concentrations of H2O3 caused only partial inactivation of PTH and LPS. LPS.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Bioinspired Artificial Sodium and Potassium Ion Channels. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Vázquez, Nuria; Fuertes, Alberto; Amorín, Manuel; Granja, Juan R


    In Nature, all biological systems present a high level of compartmentalization in order to carry out a wide variety of functions in a very specific way. Hence, they need ways to be connected with the environment for communication, homeostasis equilibrium, nutrition, waste elimination, etc. The biological membranes carry out these functions; they consist of physical insulating barriers constituted mainly by phospholipids. These amphipathic molecules spontaneously aggregate in water to form bilayers in which the polar groups are exposed to the aqueous media while the non-polar chains self-organize by aggregating to each other to stay away from the aqueous media. The insulating properties of membranes are due to the formation of a hydrophobic bilayer covered at both sides by the hydrophilic phosphate groups. Thus, lipophilic molecules can permeate the membrane freely, while the small charged or very hydrophilic molecules require the assistance of other membrane components in order to overcome the energetic cost implied in crossing the non-polar region of the bilayer. Most of the large polar species (such as oligosaccharides, polypeptides or nucleic acids) cross into and out of the cell via endocytosis and exocytosis, respectively. Nature has created a series of systems (carriers and pores) in order to control the balance of small hydrophilic molecules and ions. The most important structures to achieve these goals are the ionophoric proteins that include the channel proteins, such as the sodium and potassium channels, and ionic transporters, including the sodium/potassium pumps or calcium/sodium exchangers among others. Inspired by these, scientists have created non-natural synthetic transporting structures to mimic the natural systems. The progress in the last years has been remarkable regarding the efficient transport of Na(+) and K(+) ions, despite the fact that the selectivity and the ON/OFF state of the non-natural systems remain a present and future challenge.

  2. Amiodarone Inhibits Apamin-Sensitive Potassium Currents (United States)

    Turker, Isik; Yu, Chih-Chieh; Chang, Po-Cheng; Chen, Zhenhui; Sohma, Yoshiro; Lin, Shien-Fong; Chen, Peng-Sheng; Ai, Tomohiko


    Background Apamin sensitive potassium current (IKAS), carried by the type 2 small conductance Ca2+-activated potassium (SK2) channels, plays an important role in post-shock action potential duration (APD) shortening and recurrent spontaneous ventricular fibrillation (VF) in failing ventricles. Objective To test the hypothesis that amiodarone inhibits IKAS in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK-293) cells. Methods We used the patch-clamp technique to study IKAS in HEK-293 cells transiently expressing human SK2 before and after amiodarone administration. Results Amiodarone inhibited IKAS in a dose-dependent manner (IC50, 2.67±0.25 µM with 1 µM intrapipette Ca2+). Maximal inhibition was observed with 50 µM amiodarone which inhibited 85.6±3.1% of IKAS induced with 1 µM intrapipette Ca2+ (n = 3). IKAS inhibition by amiodarone was not voltage-dependent, but was Ca2+-dependent: 30 µM amiodarone inhibited 81.5±1.9% of IKAS induced with 1 µM Ca2+ (n = 4), and 16.4±4.9% with 250 nM Ca2+ (n = 5). Desethylamiodarone, a major metabolite of amiodarone, also exerts voltage-independent but Ca2+ dependent inhibition of IKAS. Conclusion Both amiodarone and desethylamiodarone inhibit IKAS at therapeutic concentrations. The inhibition is independent of time and voltage, but is dependent on the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. SK2 current inhibition may in part underlie amiodarone's effects in preventing electrical storm in failing ventricles. PMID:23922993

  3. Amiodarone inhibits apamin-sensitive potassium currents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isik Turker

    Full Text Available Apamin sensitive potassium current (I KAS, carried by the type 2 small conductance Ca(2+-activated potassium (SK2 channels, plays an important role in post-shock action potential duration (APD shortening and recurrent spontaneous ventricular fibrillation (VF in failing ventricles.To test the hypothesis that amiodarone inhibits I KAS in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK-293 cells.We used the patch-clamp technique to study I KAS in HEK-293 cells transiently expressing human SK2 before and after amiodarone administration.Amiodarone inhibited IKAS in a dose-dependent manner (IC50, 2.67 ± 0.25 µM with 1 µM intrapipette Ca(2+. Maximal inhibition was observed with 50 µM amiodarone which inhibited 85.6 ± 3.1% of IKAS induced with 1 µM intrapipette Ca(2+ (n = 3. IKAS inhibition by amiodarone was not voltage-dependent, but was Ca(2+-dependent: 30 µM amiodarone inhibited 81.5±1.9% of I KAS induced with 1 µM Ca(2+ (n = 4, and 16.4±4.9% with 250 nM Ca(2+ (n = 5. Desethylamiodarone, a major metabolite of amiodarone, also exerts voltage-independent but Ca(2+ dependent inhibition of I KAS.Both amiodarone and desethylamiodarone inhibit I KAS at therapeutic concentrations. The inhibition is independent of time and voltage, but is dependent on the intracellular Ca(2+ concentration. SK2 current inhibition may in part underlie amiodarone's effects in preventing electrical storm in failing ventricles.

  4. Effects of intravenous injection of small amounts of copper sulfate in Nubian goats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasfi, I.A.; Adam, S.E.I.


    Fifty mg. of copper sulfate was administered intravenously on each of three consecutive days to five Nubian goats. Three goats died within 3 to 4 days and the remaining two survived and were killed after 38 days. Anorexia, hemoglobinuria, jaundice, weakness and dyspnoea were the main clinical signs of acute copper toxicity. Hematological changes indicated the development of hemolytic jaundice and leukocytosis. An increase in the concentrations of bilirubin, ammonia, sodium and potassium and a decrease in total protein were detected in the serum. The outstanding pathological changes were necrosis and fatty change in the liver, dilatation and necrosis of the kidney tubules, tetechial hemorrhage on the heart and splenic hemosiderosis. 7 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  5. Infant sex-specific placental cadmium and DNA methylation associations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, April F., E-mail: [Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, University of Washington, 1730 Minor Ave, Seattle, WA 98101 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Farin, Fred M., E-mail: [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way N.E., Suite #100, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Bammler, Theo K., E-mail: [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way N.E., Suite #100, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); MacDonald, James W., E-mail: [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way N.E., Suite #100, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Afsharinejad, Zahra, E-mail: [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way N.E., Suite #100, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Burbacher, Thomas M., E-mail: [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Box: 357234, 1705 N.E. Pacific Street, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Siscovick, David S., E-mail: [Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, University of Washington, 1730 Minor Ave, Seattle, WA 98101 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); and others


    Background: Recent evidence suggests that maternal cadmium (Cd) burden and fetal growth associations may vary by fetal sex. However, mechanisms contributing to these differences are unknown. Objectives: Among 24 maternal-infant pairs, we investigated infant sex-specific associations between placental Cd and placental genome-wide DNA methylation. Methods: We used ANOVA models to examine sex-stratified associations of placental Cd (dichotomized into high/low Cd using sex-specific Cd median cutoffs) with DNA methylation at each cytosine-phosphate-guanine site or region. Statistical significance was defined using a false discovery rate cutoff (<0.10). Results: Medians of placental Cd among females and males were 5 and 2 ng/g, respectively. Among females, three sites (near ADP-ribosylation factor-like 9 (ARL9), siah E3 ubiquitin protein ligase family member 3 (SIAH3), and heparin sulfate (glucosamine) 3-O-sulfotransferase 4 (HS3ST4) and one region on chromosome 7 (including carnitine O-octanoyltransferase (CROT) and TP5S target 1 (TP53TG1)) were hypomethylated in high Cd placentas. Among males, high placental Cd was associated with methylation of three sites, two (hypomethylated) near MDS1 and EVI1 complex locus (MECOM) and one (hypermethylated) near spalt-like transcription factor 1 (SALL1), and two regions (both hypomethylated, one on chromosome 3 including MECOM and another on chromosome 8 including rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 10 (ARHGEF10). Differentially methylated sites were at or close to transcription start sites of genes involved in cell damage response (SIAH3, HS3ST4, TP53TG1) in females and cell differentiation, angiogenesis and organ development (MECOM, SALL1) in males. Conclusions: Our preliminary study supports infant sex-specific placental Cd-DNA methylation associations, possibly accounting for previously reported differences in Cd-fetal growth associations across fetal sex. Larger studies are needed to replicate and extend these

  6. Formation of the natural sulfate aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerminen, V.M.; Hillamo, R.; Maekinen, M.; Virkkula, A.; Maekelae, T.; Pakkanen, T. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics


    Anthropogenic sulfate aerosol, together with particles from biomass burning, may significantly reduce the climatic warming due to man-made greenhouse gases. The radiative forcing of aerosol particles is based on their ability to scatter and absorb solar radiation (direct effect), and on their influences on cloud albedos and lifetimes (indirect effect). The direct aerosol effect depends strongly on the size, number and chemical composition of particles, being greatest for particles of 0.1-1 {mu}m in diameter. The indirect aerosol effect is dictated by the number of particles being able to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). For sulfate particles, the minimum CCN size in tropospheric clouds is of the order of 0.05-0.2 {mu}m. To improve aerosol parameterizations in future climate models, it is required that (1) both primary and secondary sources of various particle types will be characterized at a greater accuracy, and (2) the influences of various atmospheric processes on the spatial and temporal distribution of these particles and their physico-chemical properties are known much better than at the present. In estimating the climatic forcing due to the sulfate particles, one of the major problems is to distinguish between sulfur from anthropogenic sources and that of natural origin. Global emissions of biogenic and anthropogenic sulfate pre-cursors are comparable in magnitude, but over regional scales either of these two source types may dominate. The current presentation is devoted to discussing the natural sulfate aerosol, including the formation of sulfur-derived particles in the marine environment, and the use of particulate methanesulfonic acid (MSA) as a tracer for the natural sulfate

  7. How Does Oyster Shell Immobilize Cadmium? (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Ho; Kim, Sang Yoon; Owens, Vance N; Park, Sungkyun; Kim, Jiwoong; Hong, Chang Oh


    The exact mechanism of cadmium (Cd) immobilization by oyster shell (OS) has not been reported. The effect of OS on Cd immobilization and the exact mechanism should be known before applying remediation technology using OS to Cd contaminated soils. Therefore, the objective of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of Cd immobilization by OS. Three grams of OS (< 0.84 mm) was reacted with 30 mL of 0-3.56 mg Cd L-1 solution at 25 °C for 48 h. Cadmium adsorption increased with increasing initial concentration of Cd in solution. The X-ray diffraction patterns clearly demonstrated that precipitation of CdCO3 did not take place in suspensions of OS after reacting with up to 3.56 mol Cd L-1. Interestingly, we found formation of Ca0.67Cd0.33CO3 crystalline in suspension of OS after reacting with maximum initial Cd concentrations. Precipitation and chemisorption might contribute to Cd immobilization together. However, we feel confident that chemisorption is the major mechanism by which Cd immobilization occurs with OS. In conclusion, OS could be an effective bioadsorbent to immobilize Cd through formation of geochemically stable Cd mineral.

  8. Cadmium hampers salt tolerance of Sesuvium portulacastrum. (United States)

    Wali, Mariem; Martos, Soledad; Pérez-Martín, Laura; Abdelly, Chedly; Ghnaya, Tahar; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Gunsé, Benet


    It is well known that salinity reduces cadmium toxicity in halophytes. However, the possible interference of Cd with the mechanisms of salt tolerance is poorly explored. The aim of this study was to see whether Cd affects salt tolerance mechanisms in the halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum. S. portulacastrum plants obtained from cuttings were grown in hydroponics for 3 weeks and then exposed to low (0.09 mM) or moderate (200 mM) NaCl concentrations, alone or in combination with 25 μM CdCl 2 . Microscopy observation revealed two strategies of salt tolerance: euhalophytism and secretion of salt by bladder cells. Cadmium exposure hardly influenced the total leaf Na + concentrations. However, Cd supply delayed the salt-induced upregulation of AHA1 (plasma membrane H + -ATPase 1) and SOS1 (plasma membrane Na + transporter "Salt Overly Sensitive 1"), genes that are essential for salt tolerance. Moreover, Cd induced the activation of BADH, coding for betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase, indicating enhanced osmotic stress due to Cd. Sodium-green fluorescence in protoplasts from plants grown with low or high NaCl, alone or in combination with Cd, revealed higher Na + concentrations in the cytoplasm of Cd-exposed plants. Taken together the results indicate interference of Cd with salt tolerance mechanisms in S. portulacastrum. This may have consequences for the efficient use of halophytes in phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated saline soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Cadmium-Sensitive Mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana. (United States)

    Howden, R; Cobbett, C S


    A screening procedure for identifying Cd-sensitive mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana is described. With this procedure, two Cd-sensitive mutants were isolated. These represent independent mutations in the same locus, referred to as CAD1. Genetic analysis has shown that the sensitive phenotype is recessive to the wild type and segregates as a single Mendelian locus. Crosses of the mutant to marker strains showed that the mutation is closely linked to the tt3 locus on chromosome 5. In addition to Cd, the mutants are also significantly more sensitive to mercuric ions and only slightly more sensitive to Cu and Zn, while being no more sensitive than the wild type to Mn, thus indicating a degree of specificity in the mechanism affected by the mutation. Undifferentiated callus tissue is also Cd sensitive, suggesting that the mutant phenotype is expressed at the cellular level. Both wild-type and mutant plants showed increased sensitivity to Cd in the presence of buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of the biosynthesis of the cadmium-binding (gamma-glutamylcysteine)(n)-glycine peptides, suggesting that the mutant is still able to synthesize these peptides. However, the effects of a cad1 mutation and buthionine sulfoximine together on cadmium sensitivity are essentially nonadditive, indicating that they may affect different aspects of the same detoxification mechanism. Assays of Cd uptake by intact plants indicate that the mutant is deficient in its ability to sequester Cd.

  10. Cadmium minimization in wheat: A critical review. (United States)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Abbas, Tahir; Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Hannan, Fakhir; Keller, Catherine; Al-Wabel, Mohammad I; Ok, Yong Sik


    Cadmium (Cd) accumulation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and its subsequent transfer to food chain is a major environmental issue worldwide. Understanding wheat response to Cd stress and its management for aiming to reduce Cd uptake and accumulation in wheat may help to improve wheat growth and grain quality. This paper reviewed the toxic effects, tolerance mechanisms, and management of Cd stress in wheat. It was concluded that Cd decreased germination, growth, mineral nutrients, photosynthesis and grain yield of wheat and plant response to Cd toxicity varies with cultivars, growth conditions and duration of stress applied. Cadmium caused oxidative stress and genotoxicity in wheat plants. Stimulation of antioxidant defense system, osmoregulation, ion homeostasis and over production of signalling molecules are important adaptive strategies of wheat under Cd stress. Exogenous application of plant growth regulators, inorganic amendments, proper fertilization, silicon, and organic, manures and biochar, amendments are commonly used for the reduction of Cd uptake in wheat. Selection of low Cd-accumulating wheat cultivars, crop rotation, soil type, and exogenous application of microbes are among the other agronomic practices successfully employed in reducing Cd uptake by wheat. These management practices could enhance wheat tolerance to Cd stress and reduce the transfer of Cd to the food chain. However, their long-term sustainability in reducing Cd uptake by wheat needs further assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cadmium determination in Lentinus edodes mushroom species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Akiko Maihara


    Full Text Available Many studies have drawn attention to the occurrence and concentration of toxic elements found in the fruiting body of mushrooms. Some edible mushroom species are known to accumulate high levels of inorganic contaminants, mainly cadmium, mercury, and lead. There are about 2,000 known edible mushroom species, but only 25 of them are cultivated and used as food. In Brazil, the most marketed and consumed mushroom species are Agaricus bisporus, known as Paris champignon, Lentinus edodes, or Shitake and Pleurotus sp, also called Shimeji or Hiratake. In this study, the concentration of cadmium was determined in Lentinus edodes mushrooms from different cities in São Paulo state and some samples imported from Japan and China. The analyses were performed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after HNO3-H2O2 digestion. The results showed a lower concentration of Cd in the mushrooms cultivated in São Paulo (0.0079 to 0.023 in natura than that of the mushrooms cultivated abroad (0.125 to 0.212 in natura. Although there is no tolerance limit for Cd in mushrooms in Brazil, the results show that Lentinus edodes mushrooms can be safely consumed.

  12. Protective effect of cannabidiol against cadmium hepatotoxicity in rats. (United States)

    Fouad, Amr A; Al-Mulhim, Abdulruhman S; Gomaa, Wafaey


    The protective effect of cannabidiol, the non-psychoactive component of Cannabis sativa, against liver toxicity induced by a single dose of cadmium chloride (6.5 mgkg(-1) i.p.) was investigated in rats. Cannabidiol treatment (5 mgkg(-1)/day, i.p.) was applied for five days starting three days before cadmium administration. Cannabidiol significantly reduced serum alanine aminotransferase, and suppressed hepatic lipid peroxidation, prevented the depletion of reduced glutathione and nitric oxide, and catalase activity, and attenuated the elevation of cadmium level in the liver tissue resulted from cadmium administration. Histopathological examination showed that cadmium-induced liver tissue injury was ameliorated by cannabidiol treatment. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that cannabidiol significantly decreased the cadmium-induced expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, cyclooxygenase-2, nuclear factor-κB, caspase-3, and caspase-9, and increased the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in liver tissue. It was concluded that cannabidiol may represent a potential option to protect the liver tissue from the detrimental effects of cadmium toxicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Blood cadmium concentration and lipid profile in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kisok, E-mail: [Department of Public Health, Keimyung University, 1000 Shindang-dong, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of)


    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure induces alterations in lipid profiles, no epidemiological study of this relationship has been performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between blood cadmium concentration and blood lipid levels in Korean adults. A cross-sectional study comprising participants (n=3903) aged 20 years or older from the 2005, 2008, and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted. Demographic characteristics and dietary intake were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and cadmium and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors, blood concentration of cadmium was positively associated with the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner (p for trend <0.001). In addition, the odds ratios (ORs) of a high triglyceride to HDL-C ratio was significantly increased in the high blood cadmium groups [OR=1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.79 for fourth quintile and OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.07-1.86 for fifth quintile] compared with the lowest quintile group. However, high blood cadmium was not associated with a risk of high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high triglycerides. These data suggest that an increased cadmium body burden increases the risk of dyslipidemia, mainly due to the increased risk of low HDL-C and the high ratio of triglycerides to HDL-C.

  14. Accumulation and distribution of arsenic and cadmium by tea plants* (United States)

    Shi, Yuan-zhi; Ruan, Jian-yun; Ma, Li-feng; Han, Wen-yan; Wang, Fang


    It is important to research the rules about accumulation and distribution of arsenic and cadmium by tea plants, which will give us some scientific ideas about how to control the contents of arsenic and cadmium in tea. In this study, by field investigation and pot trial, we found that mobility of arsenic and cadmium in tea plants was low. Most arsenic and cadmium absorbed were fixed in feeding roots and only small amount was transported to the above-ground parts. Distribution of arsenic and cadmium, based on their concentrations of unit dry matter, in tea plants grown on un-contaminated soil was in the order: feeding roots>stems≈main roots>old leaves>young leaves. When tea plants were grown on polluted soils simulated by adding salts of these two metals, feeding roots possibly acted as a buffer and defense, and arsenic and cadmium were transported less to the above-ground parts. The concentration of cadmium in soil significantly and negatively correlated with chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and biomass production of tea plants. PMID:18357630

  15. Absorption of cadmium in bean cultivars variety black Jamapa (United States)

    Ibarra, M. C. V.; Gomez, R.; Arriaga, R. M.


    (4) The cadmium is highly toxic and for all biota in very small concentrations, these study was to know the limit of phitotoxicity and nutrition of cadmium in bean cultivars variety black Jamapa, and to measure absorption of cadmium in roots, stem, leaves and grain. The experiment was carried out in plots with bean of the black variety Jamapa, in greenhouse, 6 treatments in the water of irrigation with 0, 25, 50, 100 y 200 micromoles of cadmium, to quantification of cadmium in plant, is carried out with ICP previous acid digest(I) method D4638-86 of ASTM 1990. Was carried out analysis of variation and results indicate that, there were been significant for the variables : number of leaves, foliate area, dry weight from root, height of plant; the threshold of toxicity for the plant in the condition that it was carried out the experiment were 100 200micromoles of cadmium applied in water of irrigation weekly, the visual symptom were: yellow of leaves, morphologic changes in leaves showed leaves bi-foliate and tetra-foliate in treatments upper of 100micromoles of cadmium.

  16. On the evaporation of ammonium sulfate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drisdell, Walter S.; Saykally, Richard J.; Cohen, Ronald C.


    Aqueous evaporation and condensation kinetics are poorly understood, and uncertainties in their rates affect predictions of cloud behavior and therefore climate. We measured the cooling rate of 3 M ammonium sulfate droplets undergoing free evaporation via Raman thermometry. Analysis of the measurements yields a value of 0.58 {+-} 0.05 for the evaporation coefficient, identical to that previously determined for pure water. These results imply that subsaturated aqueous ammonium sulfate, which is the most abundant inorganic component of atmospheric aerosol, does not affect the vapor-liquid exchange mechanism for cloud droplets, despite reducing the saturation vapor pressure of water significantly.

  17. Diaqua(triethanolaminecopper(II sulfate monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Zhong Li


    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Cu(C6H15NO3(H2O2]SO4·H2O, contains a complex cation, a sulfate anion and one uncoordinated water molecule. In the complex cation, the CuII ion is coordinated by five O atoms (three of which are from the triethanolamine ligand and two from coordinated water molecules and one N atom of the triethanolamine ligand in a typical Jahn–Teller-distorted octahedral geometry. Classical intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds link the cation, the sulfate anion and the water molecule into a two-dimensional network.

  18. [Discussion on barium sulfate turbidity as arbitration inspection method for sulfate in drinking water]. (United States)

    Wei, Bin; Wang, Qin; He, Yi; Wang, Yang; Wang, Min; Liu, Yueyue


    To evaluate the suitability of barium sulfate turbidity in Standard examination methods for drinking water (GB/T 5750.5-2006) as arbitration inspection method of sulfate in drinking water by evaluation of uncertainty. The expanded uncertainty of determination result for the unknown water sample was given by evaluating all uncertainty components in process of determination of barium sulfate turbidity. The determination result of the unknown water sample is 250 mg/L , with the expanded uncertainty of 42 mg/L (kappa = 2). This method could not accurately determine the amount of sulfate which is close to health standard limited in drinking water, at the same time, it' s unsuitable as arbitration inspection method of sulfate in drinking water. Because the expanded uncertainty of determination results of the unknown water sample by barium sulfate turbidity is so big, with the confidence regions of sulfate of 208-292 mg/L. So, evaluating uncertainty of the determination results is helpful to choose the suitable arbitration inspection method.

  19. Association of environmental cadmium exposure with pediatric dental caries. (United States)

    Arora, Manish; Weuve, Jennifer; Schwartz, Joel; Wright, Robert O


    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure results in severe dental caries, limited epidemiologic data are available on this issue. We aimed to examine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and dental caries in children 6-12 years of age. We analyzed cross-sectional data, including urine cadmium concentrations and counts of decayed or filled tooth surfaces, from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We used logistic and zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regression to estimate the association between urine cadmium concentrations and caries experience, adjusting these analyses for potential confounders including environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Urine cadmium concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 3.38 ng/mL. Approximately 56% of children had experienced caries in their deciduous teeth, and almost 30% had been affected by caries in their permanent dentition. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in creatinine-corrected cadmium concentrations (0.21 microg/g creatinine) corresponded to a 16% increase in the odds of having experienced caries in deciduous teeth [prevalence odds ratio (OR)=1.16; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.96-1.40]. This association was statistically significant in children with low ETS exposure (prevalence OR=1.30; 95% CI, 1.01-1.67). The results from the ZINB regression indicated that, among children with any caries history in their deciduous teeth, an IQR increase in cadmium was associated with 17% increase in the number of decayed or filled surfaces. We observed no association between cadmium and caries experience in permanent teeth. Environmental cadmium exposure may be associated with increased risk of dental caries in deciduous teeth of children.

  20. Removal of cadmium and cyanide from aqueous solutions through electrodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marder Luciano


    Full Text Available The discharge of galvanic industry wastewaters containing heavy metals and cyanide is one of the largest sources of water pollution. The use of the electrodialysis technique for the treatment of a synthetic wastewater containing approximately 0.0089 mol L-1 cadmium and 0.081 mol L-1 cyanide was studied using a five-compartment electrodialysis cell. The results demonstrate that the removal of cadmium and cyanide depends on the applied current density and it is limited by the precipitation of cadmium on the cation-exchange membrane in the diluate central cell compartment.

  1. Cadmium free lead alloy for reusable radiotherapy shielding. (United States)

    Blackwell, C R; Amundson, K D


    A low melting point cadmium free fusible lead alloy suitable for custom radiotherapy shielding blocks is described. The alloy, referred to here as Alloy-203, differs in composition from the more common Lipowitz's metal (Cerrobend) by being cadmium free, having a slightly higher lead content and a 203 degrees F melting temperature. Attenuation properties have been studied for 4-18 MV X-rays. Alloy-203 has lower transmission than Lipowitz's metal, primarily due to the higher content of lead and bismuth. Daily use for the past 2 years at Mayo Clinic has not indicated any major problems associated with the use of this cadmium free alloy for custom shield fabrication.

  2. Effect of Chlorella intake on Cadmium metabolism in rats


    Shim, Jee Ae; Son, Young Ae; Park, Ji Min; Kim, Mi Kyung


    This study was performed to investigate the effect of chlorella on cadmium (Cd) toxicity in Cd- administered rats. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats (14 week-old) were blocked into 6 groups. Cadmium chloride was given at levels of 0 or 325 mg (Cd: 0, 160 ppm), and chlorella powder at levels of 0, 3 and 5%. Cadmium was accumulated in blood and tissues (liver, kidney and small intestine) in the Cd-exposed groups, while the accumulation of Cd was decreased in the Cd-exposed chlorella groups. Fecal ...

  3. Exposure dose response relationships of the freshwater bivalve Hyridella australis to cadmium spiked sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marasinghe Wadige, Chamani P.M., E-mail:; Maher, William A.; Taylor, Anne M.; Krikowa, Frank


    Highlights: • The exposure–dose–response approach was used to assess cadmium exposure and toxicity. • Accumulated cadmium in H. australis reflected the sediment cadmium exposure. • Spill over of cadmium into the biologically active pool was observed. • Increased cadmium resulted in measurable biological effects. • H. australis has the potential to be a cadmium biomonitor in freshwater environments. - Abstract: To understand how benthic biota may respond to the additive or antagonistic effects of metal mixtures in the environment it is first necessary to examine their responses to the individual metals. In this context, laboratory controlled single metal-spiked sediment toxicity tests are useful to assess this. The exposure–dose–response relationships of Hyridella australis to cadmium-spiked sediments were, therefore, investigated in laboratory microcosms. H. australis was exposed to individual cadmium spiked sediments (<0.05 (control), 4 ± 0.3 (low) and 15 ± 1 (high) μg/g dry mass) for 28 days. Dose was measured as cadmium accumulation in whole soft body and individual tissues at weekly intervals over the exposure period. Dose was further examined as sub-cellular localisation of cadmium in hepatopancreas tissues. The biological responses in terms of enzymatic and cellular biomarkers were measured in hepatopancreas tissues at day 28. H. australis accumulated cadmium from spiked sediments with an 8-fold (low exposure organisms) and 16-fold (high exposure organisms) increase at day 28 compared to control organisms. The accumulated tissue cadmium concentrations reflected the sediment cadmium exposure at day 28. Cadmium accumulation in high exposure organisms was inversely related to the tissue calcium concentrations. Gills of H. australis showed significantly higher cadmium accumulation than the other tissues. Accumulated cadmium in biologically active and biologically detoxified metal pools was not significantly different in cadmium exposed

  4. Changes in potassium pools in Paraná soils under successive cropping and potassium fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Steiner


    Full Text Available The changes in soil potassium pools under intense cropping and fertilized with potash fertilizer are still little known to the soils of Paraná State. The effects of potassium fertilization and successive cropping on changes in K pools in different soils of Paraná, Brazil, were investigated in this study. Twelve soil samples, collected from the upper layer 0–0.20 m, were fertilized or not with K and subjected to six successive cropping (i.e., soybean, pearl millet, wheat, common beans, soybean and maize. All the crops were grown for 45 days, and at the end of the second, fourth and sixth cropping, the soil from each pot was sampled to determination of the total K, non-exchangeable K, exchangeable K and solution K. The result showed that the soil potassium pools varied widely. Total K concentration ranged from 547 to 15,563 mg kg–1 (4,714 mg kg–1, on average. On the average, structural K, non-exchangeable K, exchangeable K and solution K of the soils constituted 84.0, 11.3, 4.6 and 0.1% of the total K, respectively. Soils differ in the ability to supply potassium to the plants in the short to medium term, due to the wide range of parent material and the degree of soil weathering. When the soils were not fertilized with K, the successive cropping of plants resulted in a continuous process of depletion of non-exchangeable K and exchangeable K pools; however, this depletion was less pronounced in soils with higher potential buffer capacity of K. The concentrations of K non-exchangeable and exchangeable K were increased with the addition of potassium fertilizers, indicating the occurrence of K fixation in soil. After the second cropping, the soil exchangeable K levels remained constant with values of 141 and 36 mg kg–1, respectively, with and without the addition of K fertilizer, reflecting in establishing of a new dynamic equilibrium of K in the soil.

  5. A simple chemical method for the determination of dermatan sulfate in the presence of chondroitin 4-sulfate and chondroitin 6-sulfate. (United States)

    Kinoshita, T; Kanada, K; Tsuji, A


    A simple chemical method for the determination of individual mucopolysaccharides in mixtures of dermatan sulfate and chondroitin sulfates by means of a single reagent was established, utilizing the difference in reaction rates of these polysaccharides with orcinol. To each 1 ml of a sample mixture of standard dermatan sulfate and standard chondroitin sulfate (either 4- or 6-sulfate) was added 3 ml of orcinol reagent and the resulting solution was heated in a boiling-water bath. After 20 and 60 min reaction, absorbances at 660 nm were measured and the concentrations of individual mucopolysaccharides were calculated. High reproducibility was observed for the determination of dermatan sulfate in the presence of chondroitin sulfates. In addition, orcinol reaction for 90 min employing D-glucuronolactone as a standard appeared to be of practical value in the estimation of the uronic acid content of these mucopolysaccharides.

  6. Inclusion free cadmium zinc tellurium and cadmium tellurium crystals and associated growth method (United States)

    Bolotnikov, Aleskey E [South Setauket, NY; James, Ralph B [Ridge, NY


    The present disclosure provides systems and methods for crystal growth of cadmium zinc tellurium (CZT) and cadmium tellurium (CdTe) crystals with an inverted growth reactor chamber. The inverted growth reactor chamber enables growth of single, large, high purity CZT and CdTe crystals that can be used, for example, in X-ray and gamma detection, substrates for infrared detectors, or the like. The inverted growth reactor chamber enables reductions in the presence of Te inclusions, which are recognized as an important limiting factor in using CZT or CdTe as radiation detectors. The inverted growth reactor chamber can be utilized with existing crystal growth techniques such as the Bridgman crystal growth mechanism and the like. In an exemplary embodiment, the inverted growth reactor chamber is a U-shaped ampoule.

  7. Studies on growth and nucleation kinetics of cadmium thiourea sulphate and magnesium cadmium thiourea sulphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Mekala [Quaid-e-Milleth College, Chennai 600002 (India)], E-mail:; Malliga, M. Jeyarani [Bharathi Women College, Chennai 600108 (India); Sankar, R. [Kings Engineering College, Irungatukottai, Sriperumbudhur, Chennai 602105 (India); Jayaraman, D. [Presidency College, Chennai 600 004 (India)


    Semiorganic materials, in general possess high non-linear coefficient and mechanical strength which will be more applicable for device fabrication. Cadmium thiourea sulphate (CTS) and magnesium cadmium thiourea sulphate (MCTS) are better semiorganic materials which find applications in the field of optoelectronics. Single crystals of CTS and MCTS have been successfully grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation technique using predetermined solubility data. The basic growth parameters of the crystal nuclei of the grown crystals of CTS and MCTS were evaluated based on the classical theory of homogeneous nucleation. The classical nucleation theory makes use of capillarity approximation which has certain limitations. A correction has to be applied for it and the classical nucleation theory has been suitably modified in order to calculate the critical nucleus parameters.

  8. Blood and urine cadmium and bioelements profile in nickel-cadmium battery workers in Serbia. (United States)

    Bulat, Z Plamenac; Dukic-Cosic, D; Dokic, M; Bulat, P; Matovic, V


    Although cadmium (Cd) is extensively used for nickel-cadmium battery production, few recent reports are available on the effect of this toxic metal on the imbalance of biometals in occupational exposure. The current study was carried out to determine the Cd level and its effect on the content of bioelements: zinc, cooper, magnesium, and iron in blood and urine of workers exposed to Cd during nickel-cadmium battery production. beta(2)-microglobulins (beta(2)-MG), as indicators of kidney damage, were determined in urine.The study group comprised 32 male nickel-cadmium battery workers, and the control group had 15 male construction workers with no history of Cd exposure. Levels of Cd and bioelements were determined in blood and urine by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.Cd concentration in blood of exposed workers was around 10 microg/L and in urine ranged from 1.93 to 8.76 microg/g creatinine (cr). Urine Cd concentration was significantly higher in exposed workers than in the controls, although no statistical difference in beta(2)-MG content was observed in urine between the two groups. Blood Zn and Mg level were significantly reduced and urine Zn level was increased in Cd-exposed group when compared with controls.The mean Cd concentrations in blood and urine did not exceed the recommended reference values of 10 microg/L in blood and 10 microg/g cr in urine. Cd exposure resulted in disturbances of Zn in blood and urine and Mg in blood but had no effect on Cu and Fe content in biological fluids.

  9. Structural, dielectric and vibrational studies of the new mixed solid solution of thallium potassium sulfate selenate tellurate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elferjani, A.; Abdelhedi, M.; Dammak, M.; Kolsi, A.W. [University of Sfax, Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, UR 11ES73, B. P. 1171, Sfax (Tunisia)


    The new mixed compound Tl{sub 1.89}K{sub 0.11}(SO{sub 4}){sub 0.9}(SeO{sub 4}){sub 0.1}Te(OH){sub 6} which is crystallized in the monoclinic system with space group P2{sub 1}/c was analyzed at room temperature using X-ray diffractometer data. The unit cell parameters are a = 12.3308(7), b = 7.2011(4), c = 12.0298(8) Aa, β = 110.755(4) , V = 998.87(11) Aa{sup 3} and Z = 4. The final refinement led to R = 0.035 and Rw = 0.038. The main feature of these atomic arrangements is the coexistence of three and different anions (SO{sub 4} {sup 2-}, SeO{sub 4} {sup 2-} and TeO{sub 6} {sup 6-} groups) in the unit cell, connected by hydrogen bonds (O-H..O) which make the building of the crystal. The Tl{sup +} and K{sup +} cations, occupying the same positions, are located between these polyhedral. The crystals of Tl{sub 1.89}K{sub 0.11}(SO{sub 4}){sub 0.9}(SeO{sub 4}){sub 0.1}Te(OH){sub 6} underwent three endothermic peaks at 377, 466 and 472 K. These transitions were detected by DSC and analyzed by dielectric measurements using the impedance and modulus spectroscopy techniques. The IR and Raman spectra recorded at room temperature in the frequency ranges (50-1200) and (400-4000) cm{sup -1}, respectively, have confirmed the presence of TeO{sub 6} {sup 6-}, SO{sub 4} {sup 2-} and SeO{sub 4} {sup 2-} groups in the crystal. (orig.)

  10. Plasmin Regulation through Allosteric, Sulfated, Small Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami A. Al-Horani


    Full Text Available Plasmin, a key serine protease, plays a major role in clot lysis and extracellular matrix remodeling. Heparin, a natural polydisperse sulfated glycosaminoglycan, is known to allosterically modulate plasmin activity. No small allosteric inhibitor of plasmin has been discovered to date. We screened an in-house library of 55 sulfated, small glycosaminoglycan mimetics based on nine distinct scaffolds and varying number and positions of sulfate groups to discover several promising hits. Of these, a pentasulfated flavonoid-quinazolinone dimer 32 was found to be the most potent sulfated small inhibitor of plasmin (IC50 = 45 μM, efficacy = 100%. Michaelis-Menten kinetic studies revealed an allosteric inhibition of plasmin by these inhibitors. Studies also indicated that the most potent inhibitors are selective for plasmin over thrombin and factor Xa, two serine proteases in coagulation cascade. Interestingly, different inhibitors exhibited different levels of efficacy (40%–100%, an observation alluding to the unique advantage offered by an allosteric process. Overall, our work presents the first small, synthetic allosteric plasmin inhibitors for further rational design.

  11. Treating poultry litter with aluminum sulfate (alum) (United States)

    This is a USDA/ARS factsheet on how to treat poultry litter with aluminum sulfate (alum) to reduce ammonia emissions. Over half of the nitrogen excreted from chickens is lost to the atmosphere as ammonia before the manure is removed from the poultry houses. Research has shown that additions of alu...

  12. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four strains of eri, Samia cynthia ricini Lepidoptera: Saturniidae that can be identified morphologically and maintained at North East Institute of Science and Technology, Jorhat were characterized based on their protein profile by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and DNA by random ...

  13. Intravenous magnesium sulfate therapy in severe asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Al-Ajmi


    Full Text Available A 22-year-old female, known asthmatic since seven years, developed severe bronchospasm in the preop-erative period. Bronchospasm remained unresponsive to the inhaled beta-agonist plus anticholinergic, IV ami-nophylline and hydrocortisone but responded quickly with magnesium sulfate® ( PSI, KSA infusion 1.25gm in 100ml normal saline over 20 minutes and another 1.25 gm over next 30 minutes as the initial infusion showed improvement in her clinical symptoms. Within half an hour of administering the 1st infusion of magnesium sulfate (1.25 gm the respiratory rate started reducing, rhonchi became less, SpO 2 came upto 92% and re-mained always above 90%. Encouraged by this result IV magnesium sulfate 2.5 gm in 500 ml normal saline was infused over next 24 hours along with alternate salbutamol and ipratropium nebulization every 6 hourly. With this treatment regimen the patient became asymptomatic within next 24 hours with normal clinical parameters and FEV 1 value. Hence it may be concluded that IV magnesium sulfate can be considered for patients with acute severe asthma who do not respond to standard therapeutic medications.

  14. Sulfate reducing potential in an estuarine beach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; Chandramohan, D.

    Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and their activity (SRA) together with total anaerobic and aerobic bacterial flora were estimated during July 1982-April 1983 and July-August 1984 from 1, 3 and 5 cm depths using core samples. The average number (no...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5230 - Calcium sulfate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium sulfate. 582.5230 Section 582.5230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 582.5443 Section 582.5443 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5315 - Ferrous sulfate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferrous sulfate. 582.5315 Section 582.5315 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    community level. KEY WORDS: Nalgonda Technique, Aluminium sulfate, Aluminium hydroxide, Fluoride, Drinking water. INTRODUCTION. Fluoride is a common constituent in natural waters or wastewaters. It may originate from either natural geological sources or industries that use fluoride-containing compounds as raw.

  20. Thermophilic methanol utilization by sulfate reducing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goorissen, Helene Petronel


    The deposition of sulfuroxyaninons like sulfate, sulfite, and thiosulfate by man causes severe environmental problems like anaerobiosis of surface water and acid rain. The classical way of treatment of sulfuroxyanions containing waste streams like flue- gases is a chemical process in which the


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These effects were found to be significant (P<0.05). Eye care practitioners should advise their patients to desist from abusing laxatives and other over-the-counter drugs and should consider its effects during analysis of visual test finding for effective patient care. Magnesium sulfate, Laxatives, Accommodation, Convergence, ...

  2. Sulfate-reducing bacteria in anaerobic bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Elferink, S.J.W.H.


    The treatment of industrial wastewaters containing high amounts of easily degradable organic compounds in anaerobic bioreactors is a well-established process. Similarly, wastewaters which in addition to organic compounds also contain sulfate can be treated in this way. For a long time, the


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Dissimilatory sulfate reduction is carried out by a heterogeneous group of bacteria and archaea that occur in environments with temperatures up to 105 degrees C. As a group together they have the capacity to metabolize a wide variety of compounds ranging from hydrogen via typical organic

  4. Mechanisms and Effectivity of Sulfate Reducing Bioreactors ... (United States)

    Mining-influenced water (MIW) is the main environmental challenges associated with the mining industry. Passive MIW remediation can be achieved through microbial activity in sulfate-reducing bioreactors (SRBRs), but their actual removal rates depend on different factors, one of which is the substrate composition. Chitinous materials have demonstrated high metal removal rates, particularly for the two recalcitrant MIW contaminants Zn and Mn, but their removal mechanisms need further study. We studied Cd, Fe, Zn, and Mn removal in bioactive and abiotic SRBRs to elucidate the metal removal mechanisms and the differences in metal and sulfate removal rates using a chitinous material as substrate. We found that sulfate-reducing bacteria are effective in increasing metal and sulfate removal rates and duration of operation in SRBRs, and that the main mechanism involved was metal precipitation as sulfides. The solid residues provided evidence of the presence of sulfides in the bioactive column, more specifically ZnS, according to XPS analysis. The feasibility of passive treatments with a chitinous substrate could be an important option for MIW remediation. Mining influenced water (MIW) remediation is still one of the top priorities for the agency because it addresses the most important environmental problem associated with the mining industry and that affects thousands of communities in the U.S. and worldwide. In this paper, the MIW bioremediation mechanisms are studied

  5. Hygroscopicity and optical properties of alkylaminium sulfates. (United States)

    Hu, Dawei; Li, Chunlin; Chen, Hui; Chen, Jianmin; Ye, Xingnan; Li, Ling; Yang, Xin; Wang, Xinming; Mellouki, Abdelwahid; Hu, Zhongyang


    The hygroscopicity and optical properties of alkylaminium sulfates (AASs) were investigated using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer coupled to a cavity ring-down spectrometer and a nephelometer. AAS particles do not exhibit a deliquescence phenomenon and show a monotonic increase in diameter as the relative humidity (RH) ascends. Hygroscopic growth factors (GFs) for 40, 100 and 150 nm alkylaminium sulfate particles do not show an apparent Kelvin effect when RH is less than 45%, whereas GFs of the salt aerosols increase with initial particle size when RH is higher than 45%. Calculation using the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson mixing rule suggests that hygroscopic growth of triethylaminium sulfate-ammonium sulfate mixtures is non-deliquescent, occurring at very low RH, implying that the displacement of ammonia by amine will significantly enhance the hygroscopicity of (NH4)2SO4 aerosols. In addition, light extinction of AAS particles is a combined effect of both scattering and absorption under dry conditions, but is dominated by scattering under wet conditions.

  6. Potassium Silicate Foliar Fertilizer Grade from Geothermal Sludge and Pyrophyllite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muljani Srie


    Full Text Available Potassium silicate fertilizer grade were successfully produced by direct fusion of silica (SiO2 and potasium (KOH and K2CO3 in furnaces at temperatures up to melting point of mixture. The geothermal sludge (98% SiO2 and the pyrophyllite (95% SiO2 were used as silica sources. The purposes of the study was to synthesise potassium silicate fertilizer grade having solids concentrations in the range of 31-37% K2O, and silica in the range of 48-54% SiO2. The weight ratio of silicon dioxide/potasium solid being 1:1 to 5:1. Silica from geothermal sludge is amorphous, whereas pyrophylite is crystalline phase. The results showed that the amount of raw materials needed to get the appropriate molar ratio of potassium silicate fertilizer grade are different, as well as the fusion temperature of the furnace. Potassium silicate prepared from potassium hydroxide and geothermal sludge produced a low molar ratio (2.5: 1 to 3: 1. The potassium required quite small (4:1 in weight ratio, and on a fusion temperature of about 900 °C. Meanwhile, the potassium silicate prepared from pyrophyllite produced a high molar ratio (1.4 - 9.4 and on a fusion temperature of about 1350 °C, so that potassium needed large enough to meet the required molar ratio for the fertilizer grade. The product potassium silicate solid is amorphous with a little trace of crystalline.

  7. Effects of Long-term Fertilization on Potassium Fixation Capacity in Brown Soil (United States)

    Li, Na; Guo, Chunlei; Wang, Yue; Gao, Tianyi; Yang, Jinfeng; Han, Xiaori


    This study concentrated on the research of features of fixation. The objective of this study was to provide theoretical foundation of rational application of potassium fertilizer along with improving fertilizer availability ratio. A 32 years long-term experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of fertilizer application on potassium changes and the factors affecting K fixation on brown soil by simulation in laboratory. When the concentration of exogenous potassium was in range of 400∼4000 mg·kg-1, potassium fixation capacity increased along with the rise of concentration of exogenous potassium, whereas K fixation rate reduced; Compared with no-potassium fertilizer, application of potassium fertilizer and organic fertilizer reduced soil potassium fixation capacity. Potassium rate and fixation-release of potassium character in soil should be taken into comprehensive consideration for rational fertilization to maintain or improve soil fertility for increasing potassium fertilizers efficiency in agriculture.

  8. Interactive effects of cadmium and Microcystis aeruginosa (cyanobacterium) on the growth, antioxidative responses and accumulation of cadmium and microcystins in rice seedlings. (United States)

    Kuang, Xiaolin; Gu, Ji-Dong; Tie, BaiQing; Yao, Bangsong; Shao, Jihai


    Cadmium pollution and harmful cyanobacterial blooms are two prominent environmental problems. The interactive effects of cadmium(II) and harmful cyanobacteria on rice seedlings remain unknown. In order to elucidate this issue, the interactive effects of cadmium(II) and Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB905 on the growth and antioxidant responses of rice seedling were investigated in this study, as well as the accumulation of cadmium(II) and microcystins. The results showed that the growth of rice seedlings was inhibited by cadmium(II) stress but promoted by inoculation of M. aeruginosa FACHB905. cadmium(II) stress induced oxidative damage on rice seedlings. Inoculation of M. aeruginosa FACHB905 alleviated the toxicity of cadmium(II) on rice seedlings. The accumulation of cadmium(II) in rice seedlings was decreased by M. aeruginosa FACHB905, but the translocation of cadmium(II) from root to shoot was increased by this cyanobacterium. The accumulation of microcystins in rice seedlings was decreased by cadmium(II). Results presented in this study indicated that cadmium(II) and M. aeruginosa had antagonistic toxicity on rice seedlings. The findings of this study throw new light on evaluation of ecological- and public health-risks for the co-contamination of cadmium(II) and harmful cyanobacteria.

  9. Intractable hyperkalemia due to nicorandil induced potassium channel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Chowdhry


    Full Text Available Nicorandil is a commonly used antianginal agent, which has both nitrate-like and ATP-sensitive potassium (K ATP channel activator properties. Activation of potassium channels by nicorandil causes expulsion of potassium ions into the extracellular space leading to membrane hyperpolarization, closure of voltage-gated calcium channels and finally vasodilatation. However, on the other hand, being an activator of K ATP channel, it can expel K + ions out of the cells and can cause hyperkalemia. Here, we report a case of nicorandil induced hyperkalemia unresponsive to medical treatment in a patient with diabetic nephropathy.

  10. Study on workers exposed to cadmium in alkaline storage battery manufacturing and PVC compounding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, O.Y.; Tan, K.T.; Kwok, S.F.; Chio, L.F.


    The extent of cadmium exposure was studied in a cadmium-nickel battery factory and 8 PVC factories using cadmium stabilisers in the compounding of PVC. A total of 101 cadmium-exposed workers and 21 control subjects matched by sex, age, ethnic group and smoking history was investigated. Blood and urine cadmium levels were considerably elevated in the battery workers but were not raised in the PVC workers. These findings were consistent with the results of cadmium-in-air assessments. Among the female battery workers, urine cadmium excretion increased significantly with employment time. There was good correlation between blood and urine cadmium levels among the female subjects. A significant association between blood cadmium levels and prevalence of chest pain was also noted among the females. No low molecular weight proteinuria was detected, but two female battery workers had slight albuminuria and one male PVC worker had glucosuria but had abnormal GTT results.

  11. Patterns in potassium dynamics in forest ecosystems. (United States)

    Tripler, Christopher E; Kaushal, Sujay S; Likens, Gene E; Walter, M Todd


    The biotic cycling of potassium (K) in forest systems has been relatively understudied in comparison with nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) despite its critical roles in maintaining the nutrition of primary production in forests. We investigated the ecological significance of K in forests from a literature review and data synthesis. We focused on (1) describing patterns of the effects of K availability on aboveground growth and change in foliar tissue of tree species from a variety of forests; and (2) documenting previously unreported relationships between hydrologic losses of K and N in forested watersheds from the Americas. In a review of studies examining tree growth under K manipulations/fertilizations, a high percentage (69% of studies) showed a positive response to increases in K availability in forest soils. In addition, 76% of the tree studies reviewed showed a positive and significant increase in K concentrations in plant tissue after soil K manipulation/fertilization. A meta-analysis on a subset of the reviewed studies was found to provide further evidence that potassium effects tree growth and increased tissue [K] with an effect size of 0.709 for growth and an overall effect size of 0.56. In our review of watershed studies, we observed that concentrations of K typically decreased during growing seasons in streams draining forested areas in the Temperate Zones and were responsive to vegetation disturbance in both temperate and tropical regions. We found a strong relationship (r2 = 0.42-0.99) between concentrations of K and N (another critical plant nutrient) in stream water, suggesting that similar mechanisms of biotic retention may control the flow of these nutrients. Furthermore, K dynamics appear to be unique among the base cations, e.g. calcium, magnesium, and sodium, because the others do not show similar seasonal patterns to K. We suggest that K may be important to the productivity and sustenance of many forests, and its dynamics and ecological

  12. The Importance of Sulfate Adenylyl Transferase in S and O Fractionation by Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (United States)

    Smith, D. A.; Johnston, D. T.; Bradley, A. S.


    Microbial sulfate reduction (MSR) is critical to the oxidation of organic matter in modern and ancient oceans, and plays an important role in regulating the redox state of the Earth's surface. The sulfur and oxygen isotopic composition of seawater sulfate and of sulfate minerals reflect the biogeochemical processes that cycle sulfur, of which MSR is among the most important. MSR is a multi-enzymatic reaction network that partitions the isotopes of sulfur and oxygen as a consequence of both the flux of sulfate through this biochemical network and the fractionation imposed by each individual enzyme. MSR affects the δ18O of residual, extracellular sulfate mainly by the equilibration of the MSR intermediate sulfite with extracellular water (Antler et al., 2013 GCA, Wankel et al., 2013 Geobiol). A series of oxidative and exchange reactions catalyzed by APS reductase (APSr), sulfate adenylyl transferase (Sat), and sulfate transporters promote the conversion of water-equilibrated intracellular sulfite to extracellular sulfate. The flux of sulfoxy anions via these proteins will be, at least in part, dependent on the activity of these enzymes. To test this, we examined sulfur and oxygen isotope fractionation in genetically engineered mutants of the sulfate reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (DvH). In these mutants, the activity of Sat has been artificially increased by perturbing the (i) transcriptional repressor Rex and (ii) its binding site upstream of the gene encoding Sat (Christensen et al., 2015 J. Bacteriol). It was predicted that this would minimize the back reaction of Sat, enhance the intracellular pool of APS, and minimize the equilibration between sulfite and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). Both mutants, along with the wild type DvH were grown in batch culture made with water enriched in 18O. Samples were collected throughout batch growth, and we report the evolution of the S and O isotopic composition of sulfate, and of the S isotopic

  13. Integrated photovoltaics in nickel cadmium battery electric vehicles. (United States)


    This research report presents Connecticut Department of Transportations (ConnDOTs) : evaluation of preproduction prototype nickel-cadmium (NiCd) battery-powered electric : vehicles (BEVs) as an alternative-fuel (alt-fuel) option for local trips...

  14. Low molecular weight organic acids in root exudates and cadmium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi


    –234. Cieslinski G, Van Rees KCJ, Szmigielska AM, Krishnamurti GSR,. Huang PM (1998). Lowmolecular-weight organic acids in rhizosphere soils of durum wheat and their effect on cadmium bioaccumulation. Plant Soil, 203: ...

  15. Protective effect of zinc against cadmium toxicity on pregnant rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protective effect of zinc against cadmium toxicity on pregnant rats and their fetuses at morphological, physiological and molecular level. Ashraf El-Sayed, Salem M Salem, Amany A El-Garhy, Zeinab A Rahman, Asmaa M Kandil ...

  16. Two new hexacoordinated coordination polymers of cadmium (II ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Two new hexacoordinated coordination polymers of cadmium(II) containing bridging units only: Syntheses, structures and molecular properties. DIPU SUTRADHAR HABIBAR CHOWDHURY SUSHOVAN KONER SUBHASIS ROY BARINDRA KUMAR GHOSH. Regular Article Volume 128 Issue 9 September 2016 pp 1377- ...

  17. Transfer and accumulation of lead, zinc, cadmium and copper in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transfer and accumulation of lead, zinc, cadmium and copper in plants growing in abandoned mining-district area. HK Chakroun, F Souissi, JL Bouchardon, R Souissi, J Moutte, O Faure, E Remon, S Abdeljaoued ...

  18. Cadmium affects the mitochondrial viability and the acid soluble ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cadmium affects the mitochondrial viability and the acid soluble thiols concentration in liver, kidney, heart and gills of Ancistrus brevifilis (Eigenmann, 1920). P Velasquez-Vottelerd, Y Anton, R Salazar-Lugo ...

  19. Analysis and determination of mercury, cadmium and lead in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis and determination of mercury, cadmium and lead in canned tuna fish marketed in Iran. E Rahimi, M Hajisalehi, HR Kazemeini, A Chakeri, A Khodabakhsh, M Derakhshesh, M Mirdamadi, AG Ebadi, A Rezvani, FM Kashkahi ...


    Cadmium (Cd) is a ubquitous element and a significant inorganic pollutant that has previously been found to bioaccumulate in reproductive organs of fish and disrupt important endocrine processes, especially those involved in synthesis, release and metabolism of hormones. Clearly,...

  1. Cadmium-binding in the pregnant and fetal rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelman, B.J.; Ozga, J.A.; Walter, B.K.; Sasser, L.B.


    A cadmium-binding moiety with properties in common with adult cadmium-thionein was identified in the livers of fetal rats at day 18 of gestation. Pregnant rats (approx. 200 g) were subcutaneously injected with 50 of radiolabeled cadmium in the form of /sup 115m/CdCl/sub 2/ daily from days 11 through 15 of gestation. Maternal liver contained 14 to 18 Cd/g tissue; fetal liver contained 44 to 70 ng Cd/g tissue. A soluble (aqueous), heat stable, cadmium-binding molecule(s) was found which had an apparent molecular weight of approx. 10,000 in adult livers and 6000 in fetal livers by gel filtration chromatography. Both fetal and adult proteins absorbed maximally at 254 but not 280 nm.

  2. Polycrystalline Thin-Film Research: Cadmium Telluride (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Capabilities fact sheet that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information for Polycrystalline Thin-Film Research: Cadmium Telluride at the National Center for Photovoltaics.

  3. Polycrystalline Thin-Film Research: Cadmium Telluride (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This National Center for Photovoltaics sheet describes the capabilities of its polycrystalline thin-film research in the area of cadmium telluride. The scope and core competencies and capabilities are discussed.

  4. Levels of Cadmium and Lead in Water, Sediments and Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daisy Ouya

    Key words: heavy metals, cadmium, lead, water, sediment, fish, Kenya coast. Abstract—Flame absorption ... known essential role in living organisms, and are toxic at even low ... Changes in. pH and electrode potential (Eh) can mobilise heavy.

  5. Electrodialytic removal of cadmium from straw combustion fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne


    Fly ash from straw combustion contains valuable nutrients when returned to agricultural soils. In many instances, however, this fly ash may contain heavy metals, such as cadmium, at levels which often exceed the limits given by the Danish legislation. Thus before utilizing the nutrients, cadmium...... must be removed from these ashes. The use of an electrodialytic remediation method to remove cadmium from fly ash arising from straw combustion and containing 11.2 mg Cd kg$+-1$/ DM (dry matter) was accessed. After 36 days of remediation at a constant current density of 5.6 mA cm$+-2$/ more than 97......% of the cadmium had been removed from around 150 g ash on a dry basis. $CPY 2004 Society of Chemical Industry....

  6. Soil biogeochemistry, plant physiology and phytoremediation of cadmium contaminated soils (United States)

    Cadmium (Cd) loading in soil and the environment has been accelerated worldwide due to enhanced industrialization and intensified agricultural production, particularly in the developing countries. Soil Cd pollution, resulting from both anthropogenic and geogenic sources, has posed an increasing chal...

  7. Role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Trk1 in stabilization of intracellular potassium content upon changes in external potassium levels. (United States)

    Herrera, Rito; Alvarez, María C; Gelis, Samuel; Kodedová, Marie; Sychrová, Hana; Kschischo, Maik; Ramos, José


    Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells are able to grow at very different potassium concentrations adapting its intracellular cation levels to changes in the external milieu. Potassium homeostasis in wild type cells resuspended in media with low potassium is an example of non-perfect adaptation since the same intracellular concentration is not approached irrespective of the extracellular levels of the cation. By using yeasts lacking the Trk1,2 system or expressing different versions of the mutated main plasma membrane potassium transporter (Trk1), we show that Trk1 is not essential for adaptation to potassium changes but the dynamics of potassium loss is very different in the wild type and in trk1,2 mutant or in yeasts expressing Trk1 versions with highly impaired transport characteristics. We also show that the pattern here described can be also fulfilled by heterologous expression of NcHAK1, a potassium transporter not belonging to the TRK family. Hyperpolarization and cationic drugs sensitivity in mutants with defective transport capacity provide additional support to the hypothesis of connections between the activity of the Trk system and the plasma membrane H(+) ATPase (Pma1) in the adaptive process. © 2013.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this prospective, randomized study, in the general intensive care unit at Shanatee teaching hospital, we evaluated twenty patients, mean age 52+18 years and mean acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II score of 20±8, who were experiencing atrial tachyarrhythmias for more than 1 hour. After correction of their plasma potassium concentration to more than 4.0 mmof/1, patients were randomized to receive either 40 mg/kg magnesium sulfate bolus followed by 30 mg/kg/hr or 5mg/kg amiodarone bolus and 10 mg/kg/24hr infusion. Therapeutic end point was conversion to sinus rhythm over 24 hours. By logistic regression, the probability of conversion to sinus rhythm was significantly better for magnesium than for amiodarone at time 0-4 (0.6 vs.0.4, 12 (0.72 vs 0.45, and 24 (0.72vs.0.45 hours. In patients not converting to sinus rhythm, a significant decrease in ventricular response rate occurred at time zero to 0.5 hour (mean decrease 22 beats/min, P=0.0001, but there was no specific treatment effect between the magnesium and the amiodarone groups. Magnesium sulfate is superior to amiodarone in the conversion of acute atrial tachyarrhythmias, while initial slowing of ventricular response rate in non-converters appears equally efficacious with both agents.

  9. Comparison of magnesium sulfate and sodium sulfate for removal of water from pesticide extracts of foods. (United States)

    Schenck, Frank J; Callery, Patrick; Gannett, Peter M; Daft, Jonathan R; Lehotay, Steven J


    Water-miscible solvents, such as acetone and acetonitrile, effectively extract both polar and nonpolar pesticide residues from nonfatty foods. The addition of sodium chloride to the resulting acetonitrile-water or acetone-water extract (salting out) results in the separation of the water from the organic solvent. However, the organic solvent layer (pesticide extract) still contains some residual water, which can adversely affect separation procedures that follow, such as solid-phase extraction and/or gas chromatography. Drying agents, such as sodium sulfate or magnesium sulfate, are used to remove the water from the organic extracts. In the present study, we used nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to study the composition of the phases resulting from salting out and to compare the effectiveness of sodium sulfate and magnesium sulfate as drying agents. The study showed that considerable amounts of water remained in the organic phase after phase separation. Sodium sulfate was a relatively ineffective drying agent, removing little or no residual water from the organic solvent. Magnesium sulfate proved to be a much more effective drying agent.

  10. Cadmium-induced oxidative stress in potato tuber


    Andrzej Stroiński; Monika Kozłowska


    Short-term treatment of tuber discs of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) with cadmium chloride elevated the concentration of active oxygen species (.O-2, H202) and activated the antioxidative system. Two cultivars, Bintje and Bzura, susceptible and tolerant, respectively, to cadmium were examined. In more tolerant, control tissues the activity of ascorbic acid peroxidase (AAP) and catalase (CAT) was higher than in the sensitive ones. During first hours of stress, the inhibition of superoxide dism...

  11. Protective effect of pre-supplementation with selenium on cadmium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of the antioxidant nutrient selenium, Se, on biologic response to cadmium-induced oxidative cytotoxicity was investigated in rats pretreated with Se prior to exposure to mild doses of Cd. Male wistar strain rats (200-250 g b.wt) were exposed to a single daily oral dose of cadmium (3 mg CdCl2/kg) in drinking water ...

  12. Diazinon and Cadmium Neurotoxicity in Rats after an Experimental Administration


    Róbert Toman; Svätoslav Hluchý; Jozef Golian; Michal Cabaj; Mária Adamkovičová


    The aim of this study was to describe the changes in cholinesterase activity in separate doses and after coadministration of cadmium and diazinon intraperitoneally and to assess toxicity and interactions of diazinon and cadmium on the nervous system in male rats. 40 male rats were randomly divided into three experimental and one control group (10 rats in each group). Blood analyzes were performed 36 hours after an intraperitoneal administration of observed compounds. The statistical evaluatio...

  13. 21 CFR 522.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate injection. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Kanamycin sulfate injection. 522.1204 Section 522.1204 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....1204 Kanamycin sulfate injection. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of kanamycin sulfate injection...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section 582.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  15. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section 182.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use...

  17. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use...

  18. Citric acid wastewater as electron donor for biological sulfate reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stams, A.J.M.; Huisman, J.; Garcia Encia, P.A.; Muyzer, G.


    Citrate-containing wastewater is used as electron donor for sulfate reduction in a biological treatment plant for the removal of sulfate. The pathway of citrate conversion coupled to sulfate reduction and the microorganisms involved were investigated. Citrate was not a direct electron donor for the

  19. The role of sulfated steroid hormones in reproductive processes. (United States)

    Geyer, Joachim; Bakhaus, Katharina; Bernhardt, Rita; Blaschka, Carina; Dezhkam, Yaser; Fietz, Daniela; Grosser, Gary; Hartmann, Katja; Hartmann, Michaela F; Neunzig, Jens; Papadopoulos, Dimitrios; Sánchez-Guijo, Alberto; Scheiner-Bobis, Georgios; Schuler, Gerhard; Shihan, Mazen; Wrenzycki, Christine; Wudy, Stefan A; Bergmann, Martin


    Sulfated steroid hormones, such as dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate or estrone-3-sulfate, have long been regarded as inactive metabolites as they cannot activate classical steroid receptors. Some of them are present in the blood circulation at quite high concentrations, but generally sulfated steroids exhibit low membrane permeation due to their hydrophilic properties. However, sulfated steroid hormones can actively be imported into specific target cells via uptake carriers, such as the sodium-dependent organic anion transporter SOAT, and, after hydrolysis by the steroid sulfatase (so-called sulfatase pathway), contribute to the overall regulation of steroid responsive organs. To investigate the biological significance of sulfated steroid hormones for reproductive processes in humans and animals, the research group "Sulfated Steroids in Reproduction" was established by the German Research Foundation DFG (FOR1369). Projects of this group deal with transport of sulfated steroids, sulfation of free steroids, desulfation by the steroid sulfatase, effects of sulfated steroids on steroid biosynthesis and membrane receptors as well as MS-based profiling of sulfated steroids in biological samples. This review and concept paper presents key findings from all these projects and provides a broad overview over the current research on sulfated steroid hormones in the field of reproduction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 21 CFR 529.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate solution. (United States)


    ... gentamicin solution for approximately 10 minutes at atmospheric pressure. Eggs can also be treated by warming... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate solution. 529.1044b Section 529... Gentamicin sulfate solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains gentamicin sulfate...

  1. 21 CFR 520.2158a - Streptomycin sulfate oral solution. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Streptomycin sulfate oral solution. 520.2158a... Streptomycin sulfate oral solution. (a) Specifications. Solution containing 25 percent streptomycin sulfate. (b... administer for more than 4 days. Prepare fresh solution daily. Calves: Withdraw 2 days before slaughter. As...

  2. 21 CFR 522.1484 - Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. 522.1484... § 522.1484 Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 50 milligrams of neomycin sulfate (equivalent to 35 milligrams of neomycin base).1 1...

  3. 21 CFR 520.1044c - Gentamicin sulfate soluble powder. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate soluble powder. 520.1044c Section 520.1044c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Gentamicin sulfate soluble powder. (a) Specifications. Each gram of gentamicin sulfate soluble powder...

  4. Cadmium, lead and bromine in beached microplastics. (United States)

    Massos, Angelo; Turner, Andrew


    Samples of microplastic (n = 924) from two beaches in south west England have been analysed by field-portable-x-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF) spectrometry, configured in a low-density mode and with a small-spot facility, for the heavy metals, Cd and Pb, and the halogen, Br. Primary plastics in the form of pre-production pellets were the principal type of microplastic (>70%) on both beaches, with secondary, irregularly-shaped fragments representing the remainder of samples. Cadmium and Pb were detected in 6.9% and 7.5% of all microplastics, respectively, with concentrations of either metal that exceeded 103 μg g-1 usually encountered in red and yellow pellets or fragments. Respective correlations of Cd and Pb with Se and Cr were attributed to the presence of the coloured, inorganic pigments, cadmium sulphoselenide and lead chromate. Bromine, detected in 10.4% of microplastics and up to concentrations of about 13,000 μg g-1, was mainly encountered in neutrally-coloured pellets. Its strong correlation with Sb, whose oxides are effective fire suppressant synergists, suggests the presence of a variety of brominated flame retardants arising from the recycling of plastics originally used in casings for heat-generating electrical equipment. The maximum bioaccessible concentrations of Cd and Pb, evaluated using a physiological extraction based on the chemical characteristics of the proventriculus-gizzard of the northern fulmar, were about 50 μg g-1 and 8 μg g-1, respectively. These concentrations exceed those estimated for the diet of local seabirds by factors of about 50 and 4, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cadmium in goods - contribution to environmental exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergbaeck, B.; Jonsson, Arne [Kalmar Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Natural Science


    The total amount of Cd used in Sweden since 1940 is approximately 5000 tonnes, including alloys, fertilizers and impurities in zinc. The stock of Cd in goods in the Swedish anthroposphere is dominated by NiCd-batteries. However, when one considers the degree of exposure to corrosion, Cd stabilizers are dominant. Emissions of Cd from industrial plants and other point sources have been historically important. However, these point source emissions must be seen in relation to the increasingly significant fugitive `consumption emissions`, from the use and/or end-use of various goods. In this study, methods of reconstructing the flows of cadmium (Cd) and estimating the emissions over time are discussed. This is done through studies of the development of production, technology, trade and the longevity of metals in Swedish society. This last part in the chain will form the `consumption emissions` calculated from emission factors giving the proportion of the cadmium content in goods that eventually will reach the environment. The main accumulation of metals in the anthroposphere occurs in urban areas where the influx of metals is greatest. Urban areas probably represent `hot spots` as far as this type of environmental impact is concerned. Extreme Cd concentrations in surface sediments in central Stockholm indicate an ongoing release of Cd from the anthroposphere. The sources are so far unknown, i.e. this Cd flow to the biosphere cannot be explained in terms of deposition or emissions from point sources. Approximately 40 tonnes of Cd in goods are exposed to corrosion in varying degrees. This stock is dominated by Cd in stabilizers and pigments, and as impurities in Zn 15 refs, 2 figs, 8 tabs

  6. The Effect of Potassium on the Controlling of Salt in Evening Primrose (Oenothera macrocarpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Goldani


    simultaneously with irrigation water applied. 6 weeks after the treatments, the rate of photosynthesis, chlorophyll relative content and stomata conductance was measured. The analysis of variance was estimated using SAS software. The statistical comparison was done by Duncan's multiple range tests. Charts were drawn using Excel software. Results and Discussion: According to the result of the analysis of variance, increasing the density of sodium chloride in the planting areas had a special effect on the size of the leaves and the weight of dried plant and the weight of each leaf and dried root. This effect showed a meaningful variation between the weight of dried leaves and its dried root and shoots. The salty areas have a lot of negative ions like Magnesium, Chlorine, sodium and sulfate. These materials are harmful by themselves or cause effective disorder in the plants metabolism. Salinity treatments applied to significant influence (01/0> p on the characteristics of photosynthesis, stomata conductance and numbers were read out by spade. For example, sodium and potassium competition and competition between chlorine and nitrate impairs the absorption of nutrients. The result of this reaction is that the plant needs more energy for producing organic matter so it loses most of its energy to resist against salt. This situation of the plant causes a low activity of the root and the growing of the shoot consequently reduce. At this situation the weight and length of the plant reduce too. For example existing potassium in salty lands cause the reduction of sodium in the shoot of the plants. This research was done in a pot with the same amount of salt. Potassium causes the reduction of Toxicity effects of sodium. Research has shown that the potassium in regulating osmotic pressure and permeability of plant cell membranes is effective and cause Increase plant tolerance to salinity. Conclusion: Some biological indexes of evening primrose plant were negatively affected by increasing

  7. Preparation of Highly Pure Vanadyl Sulfate from Sulfate Solutions Containing Impurities of Iron and Aluminum by Solvent Extraction Using EHEHPA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dan Li; Desheng Chen; Guozhi Zhang; Hongxin Zhao; Tao Qi; Weijing Wang; Lina Wang; Yahui Liu


    The preparation of highly pure vanadyl sulfate from sulfate solutions containing impurities of iron and aluminumwas investigated by solvent extraction with 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (EHEHPA...

  8. Bromide, Chloride, and Sulfate Concentrations, and Specific Conductance, Lake Texoma, Texas and Oklahoma, 2007-08 (United States)

    Baldys, Stanley


    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Dallas Water Utilities Division, collected water-quality data from 11 sites on Lake Texoma, a reservoir on the Texas-Oklahoma border, during April 2007-September 2008. At 10 of the sites, physical properties (depth, specific conductance, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and alkalinity) were measured and samples were collected for analysis of selected dissolved constituents (bromide, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate); at one site, only physical properties were measured. The primary constituent of interest was bromide. Bromate can form when ozone is used to disinfect raw water containing bromide, and bromate is a suspected human carcinogen. Chloride and sulfate were of secondary interest. Only the analytical results for bromide, chloride, sulfate, and measured specific conductance are discussed in this report. Median dissolved bromide concentrations ranged from 0.28 to 0.60 milligrams per liter. The largest median dissolved bromide concentration (0.60 milligram per liter at site 11) was from the Red River arm of Lake Texoma. Dissolved bromide concentrations generally were larger in the Red River arm of Lake Texoma than in the Washita arm of the lake. Median dissolved chloride concentrations were largest in the Red River arm of Lake Texoma at site 11 (431 milligrams per liter) and smallest at site 8 (122 milligrams per liter) in the Washita arm. At site 11 in the Red River arm, the mean and median chloride concentrations exceeded the secondary maximum contaminant level of 300 milligrams per liter for chloride established by the 'Texas Surface Water Quality Standards' for surface-water bodies designated for the public water supply use. Median dissolved sulfate concentrations ranged from 182 milligrams per liter at site 4 in the Big Mineral arm to 246 milligrams per liter at site 11 in the Red River arm. None of the mean or median sulfate concentrations

  9. Cadmium effects on growth and mineral nutrition of two halophytes: Sesuvium portulacastrum and Mesembryanthemum crystallinum. (United States)

    Ghnaya, Tahar; Nouairi, Issam; Slama, Inès; Messedi, Dorsaf; Grignon, Claude; Abdelly, Chedly; Ghorbel, Mohamed Habib


    Growth, cadmium accumulation and potassium and calcium status were studied in two halophytes from Aizoaceae family: Sesuvium portulacastrum and Mesembryanthemum crystallinum. After multiplication, the seedlings were cultivated on nutrient solution supplemented with NaCl (100mM) and CdCl2 (0, 50, 100, 200 and 300 microM). After 1 month of treatment, plants were harvested and the dry weight, as well as the Cd, K and Ca concentrations in tissues were determined. Results showed that S. portulacastrum, a perennial halophyte with slow growth, is significantly more tolerant to Cd than M. crystallinum, an annual plant. Cd severely inhibited Mesembryanthemum growth even at the lowest Cd concentration in culture medium (50 microM), and did not modify significantly that of Sesuvium. For both halophytes, Cd accumulation was significantly higher in the roots than in the shoots. However, Cd concentration reached 350-700 microg g(-1) DM in the shoots, values characteristic of Cd hyperaccumulator plants. The addition of Cd in the culture medium led to a disturbance of Ca and especially K nutrition, suggesting the possibility to improve plant growth and Cd phytoextraction of both halophytes by increasing nutrient availability in the culture medium.

  10. Biology of the KCNQ1 Potassium Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey W. Abbott


    Full Text Available Ion channels are essential for basic cellular function and for processes including sensory perception and intercellular communication in multicellular organisms. Voltage-gated potassium (Kv channels facilitate dynamic cellular repolarization during an action potential, opening in response to membrane depolarization to facilitate K+ efflux. In both excitable and nonexcitable cells other, constitutively active, K+ channels provide a relatively constant repolarizing force to control membrane potential, ion homeostasis, and secretory processes. Of the forty known human Kv channel pore-forming α subunits that coassemble in various combinations to form the fundamental tetrameric channel pore and voltage sensor module, KCNQ1 is unique. KCNQ1 stands alone in having the capacity to form either channels that are voltage-dependent and require membrane depolarization for activation, or constitutively active channels. In mammals, KCNQ1 regulates processes including gastric acid secretion, thyroid hormone biosynthesis, salt and glucose homeostasis, and cell volume and in some species is required for rhythmic beating of the heart. In this review, the author discusses the unique functional properties, regulation, cell biology, diverse physiological roles, and involvement in human disease states of this chameleonic K+ channel.

  11. Incommensurate lattice modulations in Potassium Vanadate (United States)

    Chakoumakos, Bryan; Banerjee, Arnab; Mark, Lumsden; Cao, Huibo; Kim, Jong-Woo; Hoffman, Christina; Wang, Xiaoping

    Potassium Vanadate (K2V3O8) is an S = 1/2 2D square lattice antiferromagnet that shows spin reorientation indicating a strong coupling between the magnetism and its dielectric properties with a promise of rich physics that promises multiferroicity. These tangible physical properties are strongly tied through a spin-lattice coupling to the underlying lattice and superlattice behavior. It has a superlattice (SL) onsetting below Tc = 115 K with an approximate [3 x 3 x 2] modulation. Here we present our recent experiments at TOPAZ beamline at SNS which for the first time proves conclusively that the lattice modulations are incommensurate, with an in-plane Q of 0.315. We will also show our attempts to refine the data using JANA which requires a redefinition of the lattice, as well as the temperature and Q dependence of the superlattice modulation measured using neutrons at HFIR and synchrotron x-rays at APS. Our results are not only relevant for the ongoing search of multifunctional behavior in K2V3O8 but also generally for the superlattice modulations observed in a large family of fresnoites. Work performed at ORNL and ANL is supported by U.S. Dept. of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences and Office of User Facilities Division.

  12. Sea Anemone Toxins Affecting Potassium Channels (United States)

    Diochot, Sylvie; Lazdunski, Michel

    The great diversity of K+ channels and their wide distribution in many tissues are associated with important functions in cardiac and neuronal excitability that are now better understood thanks to the discovery of animal toxins. During the past few decades, sea anemones have provided a variety of toxins acting on voltage-sensitive sodium and, more recently, potassium channels. Currently there are three major structural groups of sea anemone K+ channel (SAK) toxins that have been characterized. Radioligand binding and electrophysiological experiments revealed that each group contains peptides displaying selective activities for different subfamilies of K+ channels. Short (35-37 amino acids) peptides in the group I display pore blocking effects on Kv1 channels. Molecular interactions of SAK-I toxins, important for activity and binding on Kv1 channels, implicate a spot of three conserved amino acid residues (Ser, Lys, Tyr) surrounded by other less conserved residues. Long (58-59 amino acids) SAK-II peptides display both enzymatic and K+ channel inhibitory activities. Medium size (42-43 amino acid) SAK-III peptides are gating modifiers which interact either with cardiac HERG or Kv3 channels by altering their voltage-dependent properties. SAK-III toxins bind to the S3C region in the outer vestibule of Kv channels. Sea anemones have proven to be a rich source of pharmacological tools, and some of the SAK toxins are now useful drugs for the diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune diseases.

  13. Implementation and evaluation of a nurse-centered computerized potassium regulation protocol in the intensive care unit - a before and after analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Miriam; Vogelzang, Mathijs; Drost, Jose T.; Janse, Marcel; Loef, Bert G.; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; Zijlstra, Felix; Nijsten, Maarten W. N.


    Background: Potassium disorders can cause major complications and must be avoided in critically ill patients. Regulation of potassium in the intensive care unit (ICU) requires potassium administration with frequent blood potassium measurements and subsequent adjustments of the amount of potassium

  14. Mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenicity in the gastrointestinal tract. (United States)

    Bishak, Yaser Khaje; Payahoo, Laleh; Osatdrahimi, Alireza; Nourazarian, Alireza


    Cancer, a serious public health problem in worldwide, results from an excessive and uncontrolled proliferation of the body cells without obvious physiological demands of organs. The gastrointestinal tract, including the esophagus, stomach and intestine, is a unique organ system. It has the highest cancer incidence and cancer- related mortality in the body and is influenceed by both genetic and environmental factors. Among the various chemical elements recognized in the nature, some of them including zinc, iron, cobalt, and copper have essential roles in the various biochemical and physiological processes, but only at low levels and others such as cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic, and nickel are considered as threats for human health especially with chronic exposure at high levels. Cadmium, an environment contaminant, cannot be destroyed in nature. Through impairment of vitamin D metabolism in the kidney it causes nephrotoxicity and subsequently bone metabolism impairment and fragility. The major mechanisms involved in cadmium carcinogenesis could be related to the suppression of gene expression, inhibition of DNA damage repair, inhibition of apoptosis, and induction of oxidative stress. In addition, cadmium may act through aberrant DNA methylation. Cadmium affects multiple cellular processes, including signal transduction pathways, cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Down-regulation of methyltransferases enzymes and reduction of DNA methylation have been stated as epigenetic effects of cadmium. Furthermore, increasing intracellular free calcium ion levels induces neuronal apoptosis in addition to other deleterious influence on the stability of the genome.

  15. Human seminal plasma cadmium: comparison with fertility and smoking habits. (United States)

    Saaranen, M; Kantola, M; Saarikoski, S; Vanha-Perttula, T


    Cadmium, selenium and zinc were determined in seminal plasma and serum of 64 men by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The mean (+/- SD) cadmium concentrations in seminal plasma and serum were 0.22 +/- 0.22 micrograms and 0.28 +/- 0.10 micrograms, respectively, but they did not correlate with each other. Smokers (n = 31) had significantly (p less than 0.01) higher serum cadmium concentrations than non-smokers (n = 31). Also seminal plasma cadmium in smokers was elevated, but a significant difference to non-smokers was only found if more than 20 cigarettes were consumed daily. No differences were found in semen quality and fertility between smokers and non-smokers. The seminal plasma cadmium had no correlation to selenium or zinc which, however, displayed a positive correlation (r = 0.852, p less than 0.001) to each other. It is concluded that smoking increases the exposure to cadmium. Although no obvious reproductive suppression was observed, heavy smoking may possibly enhance toxic effects in men under other detrimental exposures.

  16. Influence of combined antioxidants against cadmium induced testicular damage. (United States)

    Koyuturk, Meral; Yanardag, Refiye; Bolkent, Sehnaz; Tunali, Sevim


    Acute effects of cadmium (Cd) and combined antioxidants were evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rat testes. The rats were subdivided into four groups. Cadmium chloride (2mg/kgday) injected intraperitoneally during 8 days. Vitamin C (250mg/kgday), vitamin E (250mg/kgday) and sodium selenate (0.25mg/kgday) were pretreated by gavage in both of control and cadmium injected rats. Testis lipid peroxidation and glutathione levels were determined by spectrophotometrically. In Cd treated rats, lipid peroxidation levels were increased and glutathione levels were decreased and combined antioxidants treatment was effective in preventing of lipid peroxidation and normalizing glutathione. In Cd treated animals, the degenerative changes were observed, but not observed in the administrated rats with Cd and antioxidants under the light microscope. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen, metallothionein and caspase-3 activities were evaluated by immunohistochemically. Proliferation activity was not seen in the spermatogonial cells of cadmium treated testis. Treatment with antioxidants in cadmium administrated testis leads to pronounced increase in proliferation activity. Cytoplasmic caspase-3 activity was determined in the spermatogenic cells but not spermatogonia in treatment of antioxidants with Cd. In control and treated with antioxidants animals, metallothionein expressions were localized in the cells of seminiferous tubules, although the expression only was observed in the interstitial cells of cadmium treated rats. Results demonstrated beneficial effects of combined vitamin C, vitamin E and selenium treatment in Cd toxicity.

  17. Trichosporon jirovecii-mediated synthesis of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles. (United States)

    El-Baz, Ashraf Farag; Sorour, Noha Mohamed; Shetaia, Youssria Mohamed


    Cadmium sulphide is one of the most promising materials for solar cells and of great interest due to its useful applications in photonics and electronics, thus the development of bio-mediated synthesis of cadmium sulphide nanoparticles (CdS NPs) is one of the essential areas in nanoparticles. The present study demonstrates for the first time the eco-friendly biosynthesis of CdS NPs using the yeast Trichosporon jirovecii. The biosynthesis of CdS NPs were confirmed by UV-Vis spectrum and characterized by X-ray diffraction assay and electron microscopy. Scanning and transmission electron microscope analyses shows the formation of spherical CdS NPs with a size range of about 6-15 nm with a mean Cd:S molar ratio of 1.0:0.98. T. jirovecii produced hydrogen sulfide on cysteine containing medium confirmed by positive cysteine-desulfhydrase activity and the colony color turned yellow on 0.1 mM cadmium containing medium. T. jirovecii tolerance to cadmium was increased by the UV treatment and three 0.6 mM cadmium tolerant mutants were generated upon the UV radiation treatment. The overall results indicated that T. jirovecii could tolerate cadmium toxicity by its conversion into CdS NPs on cysteine containing medium using cysteine-desulfhydrase as a defense response mechanism. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Acid Sulfate Alteration in Gusev Crater, Mars (United States)

    Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Catalano, J. G.


    The Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit landed on the Gusev Crater plains west of the Columbia Hills in January, 2004, during the Martian summer (sol 0; sol = 1 Martian day = 24 hr 40 min). Spirit explored the Columbia Hills of Gusev Crater in the vicinity of Home Plate at the onset on its second winter (sol approximately 900) until the onset of its fourth winter (sol approximately 2170). At that time, Spirit became mired in a deposit of fined-grained and sulfate-rich soil with dust-covered solar panels and unfavorable pointing of the solar arrays toward the sun. Spirit has not communicated with the Earth since sol 2210 (January, 2011). Like its twin rover Opportunity, which landed on the opposite side of Mars at Meridiani Planum, Spirit has an Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument for chemical analyses and a Moessbauer spectrometer (MB) for measurement of iron redox state, mineralogical speciation, and quantitative distribution among oxidation (Fe(3+)/sigma Fe) and coordination (octahedral versus tetrahedral) states and mineralogical speciation (e.g., olivine, pyroxene, ilmenite, carbonate, and sulfate). The concentration of SO3 in Gusev rocks and soils varies from approximately 1 to approximately 34 wt%. Because the APXS instrument does not detect low atomic number elements (e.g., H and C), major-element oxide concentrations are normalized to sum to 100 wt%, i.e., contributions of H2O, CO2, NO2, etc. to the bulk composition care not considered. The majority of Gusev samples have approximately 6 plus or minus 5 wt% SO3, but there is a group of samples with high SO3 concentrations (approximately 30 wt%) and high total iron concentrations (approximately 20 wt%). There is also a group with low total Fe and SO3 concentrations that is also characterized by high SiO2 concentrations (greater than 70 wt%). The trend labeled "Basaltic Soil" is interpreted as mixtures in variable proportions between unaltered igneous material and oxidized and SO3-rich basaltic

  19. Aerobic sulfide production and cadmium precipitation by Escherichia coli expressing the Treponema denticola cysteine desulfhydrase gene. (United States)

    Wang, C L; Lum, A M; Ozuna, S C; Clark, D S; Keasling, J D


    The cysteine desulfhydrase gene of Treponema denticola was over-expressed in Escherichia coli to produce sulfide under aerobic conditions and to precipitate metal sulfide complexes on the cell wall. When grown in a defined salts medium supplemented with cadmium and cysteine, E. coli producing cysteine desulfhydrase secreted sulfide and removed nearly all of the cadmium from solution after 48 h. A control strain produced significantly less sulfide and removed significantly less cadmium. Measurement of acid-labile sulfide and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy indicated that cadmium was precipitated as cadmium sulfide. Without supplemental cysteine, both the E. coli producing cysteine desulfhydrase and the control E. coli demonstrated minimal cadmium removal.

  20. Gene expression analysis in cadmium-stressed roots of a low cadmium-accumulating solanaceous plant, Solanum torvum

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hirotaka Yamaguchi; Hiroyuki Fukuoka; Tomohito Arao; Akio Ohyama; Tsukasa Nunome; Koji Miyatake; Satomi Negoro


    Solanum torvum Sw. cv. Torubamubiga (TB) is a low cadmium (Cd)-accumulating plant. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the Cd acclimation process in TB roots, transcriptional regulation was analysed in response to mild Cd treatment...