WorldWideScience

Sample records for cadmium sulfate potassium

  1. Solubility in aqueous system of potassium sulfate, cadmium sulfate at 50 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solubility in system potassium sulfate-cadmium sulfate-water at 50 deg C is studied using isothermal method. Crystallization limits of K2SO4, CdSO4x8/3H2O double salt 2K2SO4x2CdSO4x3H2O at 50 deg C are determined

  2. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... hydroxide or potassium carbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the “Food Chemicals Codex... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  3. Potassium aquaterbium(III oxalate sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Guang Sun

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of KTb(C2O4(SO4(H2O, potassium aquaterbium(III oxalate sulfate, were obtained under hydrothermal conditions. In the crystal structure, the Tb(III atom is coordinated by four O atoms from two oxalate anions, three O atoms from three sulfate anions and one O atom from a water molecule within a TbO8 distorted square antiprismatic coordination. The potassium and terbium(III atoms are bridged by the oxalate and sulfate groups, forming a three-dimensional structure. The coordination mode of the oxalate has not yet been reported. O—H...O hydrogen bonding between the water molecules and the oxygen atoms of oxalate and sulfate anions is also observed.

  4. Tripolyphosphates of potassium-cadmium and ammonium-cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formation of barely soluble compounds during interaction of ammonium and potassium tripolyphosphates with cadmium nitrate in aqueous solutions (0.1-2.0 mol% concentration, the temperature 20 deg C), is investigated. KCd2P3O10x7H2O, NH4Cd2P3O10x7H2O crystallohydrates and Cd5(P3O10)2xhH2O (x=10-13) X-ray amorphous salt, that are dissolved in potassium and ammonium tripolyphosphate solution with formation of Cd2+:P3O105-=1:1 and 1:2 complexes, are separated. In K5P3O10-Cd(NO3)2-H2O system Cd2+:P3O105-=1:1 complex is crystallized in a mixture with varied composition amorphous phase

  5. Effects of Aluminium Sulfate on Cadmium Accumulation in Rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Cadmium accumulation in Pathum Thani 1 and Suphan Buri 60 rice cultivars was investigated upon treatment with aluminium sulfate as a precipitant. Rice was grown hydroponically in a medium containing 4 ppm cadmium nitrate with or without 4 ppm aluminium sulfate. Root, stem with leaves and grain samples were collected and analyzed for cadmium content using atomic absorption spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Without the addition of aluminium sulfate, Pathum Thani 1 and Suphan Buri 60 accumulated 24.71∫ 3.14 ppm and 34.43 ∫ 4.51 ppm (dry weight of whole plant) of cadmium, respectively. With aluminium sulfate, cadmium accumulation increased to 40.66 ∫ 2.47 ppm and 62.94 ∫ 10.69 ppm, respectively. The addition of aluminium sulfate to the planting medium did not reduce cadmium accumulation but caused the rice to accumulate more cadmium especially in the shoots and grains. This observation might serve as the basis for future research on the management of agricultural areas that are contaminated with cadmium and aluminium

  6. Modeling of ferric sulfate decomposition and sulfation of potassium chloride during grate‐firing of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Jespersen, Jacob Boll; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming;

    2013-01-01

    Ferric sulfate is used as an additive in biomass combustion to convert the released potassium chloride to the less harmful potassium sulfate. The decomposition of ferric sulfate is studied in a fast heating rate thermogravimetric analyzer and a volumetric reaction model is proposed to describe the...... process. The yields of sulfur oxides from ferric sulfate decomposition under boiler conditions are investigated experimentally, revealing a distribution of approximately 40% SO3 and 60% SO2. The ferric sulfate decomposition model is combined with a detailed kinetic model of gas‐phase KCl sulfation and a...... model of K2SO4 condensation to simulate the sulfation of KCl by ferric sulfate addition. The simulation results show good agreements with experiments conducted in a biomass grate‐firing reactor. The results indicate that the SO3 released from ferric sulfate decomposition is the main contributor to KCl...

  7. Transmission spectra study of sulfate substituted potassium dihydrogen phosphate

    KAUST Repository

    LI, LIANG

    2013-04-18

    Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals with different amounts of sulfate concentration were grown and the transmittance spectrum was studied. A crystal with high sulfate replacement density exhibits heavy absorption property in the ultraviolet region which confirms and agrees well with former results. © 2013 Astro Ltd.

  8. Potassium aqua­terbium(III) oxalate sulfate

    OpenAIRE

    Ya-Guang Sun; Mei-yan Guo; Gang Xiong; Bing Jiang; Lei Wang

    2009-01-01

    Single crystals of KTb(C2O4)(SO4)(H2O), potassium aquaterbium(III) oxalate sulfate, were obtained under hydrothermal conditions. In the crystal structure, the Tb(III) atom is coordinated by four O atoms from two oxalate anions, three O atoms from three sulfate anions and one O atom from a water molecule within a TbO8 distorted square antiprismatic coordination. The potassium and terbium(III) atoms are bridged by the oxalate and sulfate groups, forming a three-dimensional structure. The coordi...

  9. Temperature dependence of crystals conductivity both potassium sulfates and ammonium sulfates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the work the results of temperature dependence of conductivity of crystals both potassium sulfate and ammonium sulfate are given. The superficial specific conductivity and its dependence on width of a backlash between the central and ring electrodes are determined. (author)

  10. Modeling of sulfation of potassium chloride by ferric sulfate addition during grate-firing of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Jespersen, Jacob Boll; Aho, Martti;

    2013-01-01

    Potassium chloride, KCl, formed from critical ash-forming elements released during combustion may lead to severe ash deposition and corrosion problems in biomass-fired boilers. Ferric sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3 is an effective additive, which produces sulfur oxides (SO2 and SO3) to convert KCl to the less...... order to simulate the sulfation of KCl by ferric sulfate addition during grate-firing of biomass. The simulation results show good agreements with the experimental data obtained in a pilot-scale biomass grate-firing reactor, where different amounts of ferric sulfate was injected on the grate or into the...... freeboard. In addition, the simulations of elemental sulfur addition on the grate fit well with the experimental data. The results suggest that the SO3 released from ferric sulfate decomposition is the main contributor to KCl sulfation, and that the effectiveness of the ferric sulfate addition is sensitive...

  11. Cadmium sulfate complexing with thiourea during preparation of cadmium sulfide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Composition of complexes deposited from cadmium sulfate and thiourea(TU) aqueous solution is studied. Its influence on cadmium sulfide film deposition during solution spraying is ascertained. It is shown that with increase of TU concentration in aqueous solution gradual substitution of TU molecules for the first sphere SO42- ions takes place. As a result CdS deposition from these solutions is initiated when the ratio of CdSO4:TU concentrations is 1:2 and for prepartation of uniform films a five-fold TU excess as a minimum is necessary

  12. Evaluation of liquid structure for potassium, zinc and cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aim of this work is to give a theoretical interpretation for the 'anomalous' liquid structure factors of Zinc and Cadmium near freezing and for their variation with temperature, as contrasted with the 'normal' behaviour of a liquid metal such as Potassium. Using an ab initio Generalised Nonlocal Model Pseudopotential and with two alternative exchange-correlation functions for electronic screening, we construct interionic pair potentials for the above metals. These are then used for liquid structure calculations within two alternative integral-equation schemes of considerable refinement, namely the modified hypernetted chain approach of Y. Rosenfeld and N.W. Ashcroft (Phys. Rev. A 20, 1208 (1979)) and the hybridization of the hypernetted chain and the soft-core mean spherical approximations as proposed by G. Zerah and J.P. Hansen (J. Chem. Phys. 84, 2336 (1986)). The comparison between the theoretical results for the temperature dependence of the liquid structure factor of Potassium and very recent neutron diffraction data gives us confidence on the high reliability of the pseudopotential in the present integral-equation schemes. The same approach is then extended to investigate the liquid structure factors for Zinc and Cadmium near their freezing temperature and at a few temperatures above freezing. We find that the asymmetric shape of the main peak in the structure factor of these elements near freezing can be understood in terms of the role of the medium and long-range interaction parts in the pair potential. Our results also shed some light on the subtle changes of the liquid structure of these divalent metals with temperature, and specifically on the thermal influence in restoring the skewed shape of the main peak back to a normal symmetric shape at much higher temperatures. (author). 67 refs, 15 figs, 5 tabs

  13. Modeling the Use of Sulfate Additives for Potassium Chloride Destruction in Biomass Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Pedersen, Morten Nedergaard; Jespersen, Jacob Boll;

    2014-01-01

    Potassium chloride, KCl, formed from biomass combustion may lead to ash deposition and corrosion problems in boilers. Sulfates are effective additives for converting KCl to the less harmful K2SO4 and HCl. In the present study, the rate constants for decomposition of ammonium sulfate and aluminum......-dependent distribution of SO2 and SO3 from ammonium sulfate decomposition. On the basis of these data as well as earlier results, a detailed chemical kinetic model for sulfation of KCl by a range of sulfate additives was established. Modeling results were compared to biomass combustion experiments in a bubbling...... fluidized-bed reactor using ammonium sulfate, aluminum sulfate, and ferric sulfate as additives. The simulation results for ammonium sulfate and ferric sulfate addition compared favorably to the experiments. The predictions for aluminum sulfate addition were only partly in agreement with the experimental...

  14. Modeling the use of sulfate additives for potassium chloride destruction in biomass combustion

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Hao; Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Jespersen, Jacob Boll; Aho, Martti; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Glarborg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Potassium chloride, KCl, formed from biomass combustion may lead to ash deposition and corrosion problems in boilers. Sulfates are effective additives for converting KCl to the less harmful K2SO4. In the present study, the decomposition of ammonium sulfate, aluminum sulfate and ferric sulfate was studied respectively in a fast-heating rate thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) for deriving a kinetic model. The yields of SO2 and SO3 from the decomposition were studied in a tube reactor, revealing t...

  15. Zinc-Nickel Codeposition in Sulfate Solution Combined Effect of Cadmium and Boric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Addi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined effect of cadmium and boric acid on the electrodeposition of zinc-nickel from a sulfate has been investigated. The presence of cadmium ion decreases zinc in the deposit. In solution, cadmium inhibits the zinc ion deposition and suppresses it when deposition potential value is more negative than −1.2 V. Low concentration of CdSO4 reduces the anomalous nature of Zn-Ni deposit. Boric acid decreases current density and shifts potential discharge of nickel and hydrogen to more negative potential. The combination of boric acid and cadmium increases the percentage of nickel in the deposit. Boric acid and cadmium.

  16. Raman scattering spectra and crystal structure of acid potassium-lithium sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paper presents the results of the comprehensive investigation into Raman scattering in potassium-lithium acid sulfate crystal. A model of crystal structure is suggested on the basis of the study data. The suggested consistent model of the crystalline structure of potassium-lithium acid sulfate crystal describes well both spectrum high-frequency and low-frequency sections and may be used to analyze models of phase transformation

  17. Modeling the use of sulfate additives for potassium chloride destruction in biomass combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Jespersen, Jacob Boll;

    2013-01-01

    Potassium chloride, KCl, formed from biomass combustion may lead to ash deposition and corrosion problems in boilers. Sulfates are effective additives for converting KCl to the less harmful K2SO4. In the present study, the decomposition of ammonium sulfate, aluminum sulfate and ferric sulfate was...... studied respectively in a fast-heating rate thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) for deriving a kinetic model. The yields of SO2 and SO3 from the decomposition were studied in a tube reactor, revealing that the ratio of the SO3/SO2 released varied for different sulfate and for ammonium sulfate the ratio was...... affected by the decomposition temperature. Based on the experimental data, a model was proposed to simulate the sulfation of KCl by different sulfate addition, and the simulation results were compared with pilot-scale experiments conducted in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor. The simulation results of...

  18. Cadmium Accumulation and DNA Homology with Metal Resistance Genes in Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Naz, Naghma; Young, Hilary K.; Ahmed, Nuzhat; Gadd, Geoffrey M.

    2005-01-01

    Cadmium resistance (0.1 to 1.0 mM) was studied in four pure and one mixed culture of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The growth of the bacteria was monitored with respect to carbon source (lactate) oxidation and sulfate reduction in the presence of various concentrations of cadmium chloride. Two strains Desulfovibrio desulfuricans DSM 1926 and Desulfococcus multivorans DSM 2059 showed the highest resistance to cadmium (0.5 mM). Transmission electron microscopy of the two strains showed intra...

  19. Kinetics of Reductive Acid Leaching of Cadmium-Bearing Zinc Ferrite Mixture Using Hydrazine Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun; Zhang, Jianqiang; Min, Xiaobo; Wang, Mi; Zhou, Bosheng; Shen, Chen

    2015-09-01

    The reductive acid leaching kinetics of synthetic cadmium-bearing zinc ferrite was investigated, and the influence of reaction temperature, sulfuric acid and hydrazine sulfate were studied. The results illustrated that an increase in the reaction temperature, initial sulfuric acid and hydrazine sulfate significantly enhanced the extraction efficiencies of cadmium, zinc and iron. The leaching kinetics were controlled by a surface chemical reaction based on a shrinking core model. The empirical equation applied was found to fit well with the kinetics analysis; the leaching processes of cadmium, zinc and iron were similar and the activation energies were 79.9 kJ/mol, 77.9 kJ/mol and 79.7 kJ/mol, respectively. The apparent orders of cadmium-bearing zinc ferrite dissolution with respect to sulfuric acid concentration were 0.83, 0.83 and 0.84 for Cd, Zn and Fe, respectively.

  20. Anode oxidation of cadmium in acid and that of zinc in neutral sulfate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By the method of anode polarization curves on rotary disc electrode there have been studied kinetics and mechanism of zinc and cadmium dissolution in 0.1-2.0 N sulfate solutions. There have been determined exchange currents of the first and second stages of ionization and transfer coefficients. Cadmium anode dissolution takes place in sequent single-electron stages with diffusion stage of reaction being superimposed

  1. Sulfation of Condensed Potassium Chloride by SO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengeløv, Louise With; Hansen, Troels Bruun; Bartolomé, Carmen; Wu, Hao; Pedersen, Kim H.; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Jensen, Anker Degn; Glarborg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between alkali chloride and sulfur oxides has important implications for deposition and corrosion in combustion of biomass. In the present study, the sulfation of particulate KCl (90–125 μm) by SO2 was studied in a fixed bed reactor in the temperature range 673–1023 K and with rea...

  2. Treating a natural outbreak of columnaris in channel catfish with copper sulfate and potassium permanganate

    Science.gov (United States)

    An F. Columnare-exclusive epizootic occurred in fingerling channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) during normal tank culture practices at SNARC. Fish were transferred to the ultra low-flow system and 2.1 mg/L copper sulfate or 3 mg/L potassium permanganate was administered; an untreated control was ...

  3. The effect of copper sulfate, potassium permanganate, and peracetic acid on Ichthyobodo necator in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichthyobodo necator is a single celled biflagellate that can cause significant mortalities in fish, particularly young, tank-reared fish. Copper sulfate (CuSO4), potassium permanganate (KMnO4) and peracetic acid (PAA) were evaluated for effectiveness against Ichthybodosis in juvenile channel catfis...

  4. Effectiveness of copper sulfate and potassium permanganate on channel catfish infected with Flavobacterium columnare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper sulfate (CuSO4) and potassium permanganate (KMnO4) were evaluated for their effectiveness to curtail mortality and decrease bacterial load in fish tissues and water in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus naturally infected with Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris. Fis...

  5. Potassium alum and aluminum sulfate micro-inclusions in polar ice from Dome Fuji, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Hiroshi; Iizuka, Yoshinori; Horikawa, Shinichiro; Sakurai, Toshimitsu; Hondoh, Takeo; Motoyama, Hideaki

    2014-03-01

    Water-soluble trace constituents affect the physicochemical properties of polar ice. Their structural distribution provides important insights into the formation history of ice and inclusions. We report the first finding of KAl(SO4)2·12H2O (potassium alum) and Al2(SO4)3·nH2O (aluminum sulfate) micro-inclusions in the Dome Fuji ice core, East Antartica, using a micro-Raman technique. Eutectic temperatures of these water-soluble species determined using thermal analysis were -0.4 °C for potassium alum and -8.0 °C for aluminum sulfate. Although the formation process of the aluminum-bearing sulfates remains unclear, the occurrence of these salts largely depends on ice depth.

  6. Post-flame gas-phase sulfation of potassium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bo; Sun, Zhiwei; Li, Zhongshan;

    2013-01-01

    homogeneous systems are required to characterize the gas-phase formation of alkali sulfates. We have measured the temperature and gas-phase concentrations of KCl and HCl, and detected the presence of aerosols in the post-flame region of a range of hydrocarbon flames seeded with KCl, with and without the...... addition of SO2. Dilution of the flame products with different amounts of N2 ensured post-flame temperatures in the range 950–1400K. In the absence of SO2, KCl levels were constant in the post-flame zone and no aerosols were formed, even at the lowest temperatures. In the presence of SO2, KCl was consumed...... and HCl and aerosols formed, most pronounced in flames with the lowest post-flame temperatures. This shows that KCl is sulfated in the gas phase to K2SO4, and this is followed by homogeneous nucleation of K2SO4 to form aerosols. Predictions from a kinetic model of the S/Cl/K chemistry agreed well with...

  7. Vanadia-based SCR Catalysts Supported on Tungstated and Sulfated Zirconia: Influence of Doping with Potassium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due-Hansen, Johannes; Boghosian, Soghomon; Kustov, Arkadii;

    2007-01-01

    A series of vanadium-based SCR catalysts supported on sulfated or tungstated ZrO2 were synthesized and characterized by means of N2-BET, XRD, NH3-TPD and in situ Raman spectroscopy. The effect of potassium doping on the properties of vanadia species is studied in detail. A number of catalyst...... preparation parameters were examined, including the choice of precipitant, variation of carrier surface area, potassium poisoning, crystallinity, and ZrO2-phase composition. The results show that the catalysts structure and SCR activity is affected from the synthesis route by means of support crystallinity...

  8. Formation of Cadmium Selenide Containing Layers on the Polyamide Film Surface by the Use of Potassium Selenotrithionate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neringa PETRASAUSKIENE

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The layers containing cadmium selenide, CdxSe, were formed on the surface of semi hydrophilic polymer – polyamide 6 (PA for the first time by sorption-diffusion method using acidified solution of potassium selenotrithionate, K2SeS2O6, as a precursor of selenium. The concentration of sorbed selenium increases with the increase of the duration of PA treatment in K2SeS2O6 solution. The cadmium selenide containing layers form on the surface of PA after the treatment of seleniumized polymer with cadmium acetate, Cd(CH3COO2·2H2O, solution: the anions SeS2O62– containing selenium atoms of low oxidation state react with the cadmium(II ions. The conditions of a polymer initial seleniumization and of seleniumized PA treatment with cadmium acetate solution determine the concentration of cadmium and the composition of chalcogenide layer. The concentration of cadmium in the chalcogenide layer increases with the increase of initial chalcogenization duration only up to about 2 h and the temperature of selenotrithionate solution. XRD confirmed the formation of cadmium selenide containing layers on the surface of PA. The results of XPS and XRD patterns study of not earlier studied CdSe containing layers on PA showed their phase composition of two cadmium selenide phases – zinc blende (cubic CdSe, wurtzite (hexagonal CdSe, cadmium(II oxide, CdO, and cadmium(II hydroxide, Cd(OH2. Accordingly data of XRD and XPS analysis the composition of CdSe containing layers depends on the conditions of these layers formation. The data determined enable formation of the layers containing cadmium selenide on the surface of PA by the sorption-diffusion method using the solution of potassium selenotrithionate as a precursor of selenium.

  9. Single crystal EPR study of VO(II)-doped cadmium potassium phosphate hexahydrate: A substitutional incorporation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I Sougandi; T M Rajendiran; R Venkatesan; P Sambasiva Rao

    2002-10-01

    Single crystal EPR studies of VO(II)-doped cadmium potassium phosphate hexahydrate (CPPH) have been carried out at room temperature. The angular variation spectra in the three orthogonal planes indicate that the paramagnetic impurity has entered the lattice only substitutionally in place of Cd(II). Spin Hamiltonian parameters have been obtained from single crystal data. Powder spectra show a set of eight parallel and perpendicular features indicating the presence of only one site. The admixture coefficients have been calculated from the data, which agree well with the literature values.

  10. 乙醇-硫酸铵双水相萃取镉-碘化钾-罗丹明B离子缔合物%Extraction of cadmium-potassium iodide-rhodamine B ion association complex by alcohol-ammonium sulfate aqueous two-phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾云; 覃事栋; 姚康康; 王影; 肖苗

    2012-01-01

    In the presence of ammonium sulphate, the extraction behavior of Cd (Ⅱ) based on potassium iodide-Rhodamine B-alcohol system was studied and the optimal condition of phase separation was selected. Results showed that in the pH1 ~3 media, the extraction rate of [CdI4]2- by alcohol-ammonium sulfate aqueous two-phase system is only 35.5% , and the ion association complex, which is formed by adding rhodamine B, can be extracted completely by the aqueous two-phase system. In the system, Cd2+ can be dissociated completely from Zn2+, Fe3+, Co2+, Cu2+, and Ni2+.%研究了在( NH4) 2SO4存在下,碘化钾-罗丹明B-乙醇体系萃取Cd(Ⅱ)的行为及最佳分相条件.实验表明,在pH 1~3时,乙醇-( NH4 )2SO4双水相体系对[ CdI4]2-络阴离子的萃取率只有35.5%;加入罗丹明B后,该体系能完全萃取镉-碘化钾-罗丹明B形成的离子缔合物,而干扰离子Zn2+、Fe3+、Co2+、Cu2+、Ni2+不被萃取,实现Cd2+与上述离子的分离.

  11. Synthesis of potassium ferrate using residual ferrous sulfate as iron bearing material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the results obtained during potassium ferrate (K2FeVIO4) synthesis which is a high added value material. This compound that contains iron in the rare hexavalent state is becoming a substance of growing importance for the water and effluent treatment industries. This is due to its multi-functional nature (oxidation, flocculation, elimination of heavy metals, decomposition of organic matter, etc.). The most well known synthesis methods for potassium ferrate synthesis are those involving the chemical and/or electrochemical oxidation of iron (II) and (III) from aqueous solutions having a high alkali concentration. These methods are generally characterized by a low FeVI efficiency due to the reaction of the potassium ferrate with water, leading to the reduction of FeVI into FeIII. Concerning the work pertinent to this paper, the synthesis of K2FeVIO4 was achieved by a simultaneous reaction of two solids (iron sulfate and KOH) and one gaseous oxidant (chlorine). The synthesis process is performed in a rotary reactor at room temperature and the global synthesis reaction is exothermic. The effects of different experimental parameters on the potassium ferrate synthesis are investigated to determine the optimal conditions for the process.

  12. Optimization for Preparation of Potassium Sulfate by Sodium Sulfate and Potassium Chloride%氯化钾与硫酸钠制硫酸钾工艺的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屠兰英; 赵启文

    2000-01-01

    根据K+,Na+∥Cl-,SO42-—H2O体系相图,提出了氯化钾与芒硝制备硫酸 钾工艺中新的工业化生产循环和解决钾芒硝富集问题的具体方案,取得良好效果。%Accordinh to the study and analysis on phase diagram of the Na+,K+∥Cl-, SO42--H2O system, new cycle for preparation of potassium sulfate by sodium sulfate and potassium chloride and treatment of surplus sodium sulfate.3p otassium sulfate (Na2SO4.3K2SO4) are presented, achieve good results.

  13. Potassium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stimulation and in the contraction of muscles. Cellular enzymes need potassium to work properly. A potassium deficiency ... or prune juice, honeydew melons, prunes, molasses and potatoes. Some foods high in potassium are also high ...

  14. Effect of abietic acid addition on anodic dissolution of zinc- cadmium- and thallium amalgams in sodium sulfate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of inversion voltametry with a stationary mercury drop electrode has been applied to investigate the effect of abietic acid (AA) on anodic oxidation of cadmium, zinc, thallium from their amalgams as well as from mixed cadmium-thallium and zinc-thallium amalgams against the background of 0.5 M sodium sulfate at 298 K. Constants of peak of analgam anodic oxidation in the background solution and with additions of different AA concentrations are calculated. It is established that AA has the inhibiting effect on the processes of oxidation of cadmium- and zinc amalgams and does not produce the inhibiting effect on the oxidation of thallium amalgam

  15. Comparative effects of copper sulfate or potassium permanganate on channel catfish concurrently infected with Flavobacterium columnare and Ichthyobodo necator

    Science.gov (United States)

    An opportunistic study was conducted to determine the effects of two chemical therapeutants on channel catfish (CCF) Ictalurus punctatus concurrently infected Flavobacterium columnare and Ichthyobodo necator. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) and potassium permanganate (KMnO4) were investigated for their abil...

  16. Application of multiwalled carbon nanotubes treated by potassium permanganate for determination of trace cadmium prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this study we investigated the enrichment ability of oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and established a new method for the determination of trace cadmium in environment with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The MWCNTs were oxidized by potassium permanganate under appropriate conditions before use as preconcentration packing. Parameters influencing the recoveries of target analytes were optimized. Under optimal conditions, the target analyte exhibited a good linearity (R2=0.9992)over the concentration range 0.5-50 ng/ml. The detection limit and precision of the proposed method were 0.15 ng/ml and 2.06%,respectively. The proposed method was applied to the determination of cadmium in real-world environmental samples and the recoveries were in the range of 91.3%-108.0%. All these experimental results indicated that this new procedure could be applied to the determination of trace cadmium in environmental waters.

  17. Synthesis and crystal structures of coordination compounds of pyridoxine with zinc and cadmium sulfates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pyridoxine complexes with zinc and cadmium sulfates are synthesized. The IR absorption spectra and thermal behavior of the synthesized compounds are described. Crystals of the [M(C8H11O3N)2(H2O)2]SO4 . 3H2O (M = Zn, Cd) compounds are investigated using X-ray diffraction. In the structures of both compounds, the M atoms are coordinated by the oxygen atoms of the deprotonated OH group and the CH2OH group retaining its own hydrogen atom, as well as by two H2O molecules, and have an octahedral coordination. The nitrogen atom of the heterocycle is protonated, so that the heterocycle acquires a pyridinium character. The cationic complexes form layers separated by the anions and crystallization water molecules located in between. The structural units of the crystals are joined together by a complex system of hydrogen bonds.

  18. Potassium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potassium is a mineral that the body needs to work normally. It helps nerves and muscles communicate. ... products out of cells. A diet rich in potassium helps to offset some of sodium's harmful effects ...

  19. Protective effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) against the clastogenic acitivity of cadmium chloride and potassium dichromate in hamster ovary cells

    OpenAIRE

    Grillo Claudia A.; Seoane Analía I.; Dulout Fernando N.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), a widely used food additive, on chromosomal alterations induced by cadmium chloride (CC) and potassium dichromate (PD) in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells was studied both at metaphase and anaphase-telophase. CHO cells were cultured for 15-16 h in the presence of PD (6.0, 9.0 or 12.0 mM), BHT (1.0 mg/ml), or PD plus BHT as well as CC (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mM), BHT or CC plus BHT for the analysis of chromosomal aberrations. To perform the anaphase-tel...

  20. Influence of potassium permanganate, cobalt chloride, and dietary supplement of vitamin B complex on the histopathological changes in gill epithelium of common carp exposed to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, B.K.; Kaviraj, A. [Univ. of Kalyani, West Bengal (India)

    1994-10-01

    Fry of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were chronically exposed to 2.5 mg Cd/L alone and in combination with 1.0 mg KMnO{sub 4}/L or 2.0 mg CoCl{sub 2}/L or a dietary supplement of vitamin B complex at the rate of 26.5 mg/100 g food. Cadmium induced edema of primary and secondary gill lamellae, nuclear swelling, and necrosis and hypertrophy of epithelial cells of the secondary gill lamellae. Similar or more severe lamellar damages were observed with exposure to cadmium together with potassium permanganate and to cadmium together with cobalt chloride. Potassium permanganate alone was also found to produce severe edema of the gill lamellae. A dietary supplement of vitamin B complex reduced the cadmium-induced gill damages and resulted in a normal gill in exposed fish. 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Potassium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Take all forms of potassium with a full glass of water or fruit juice.Add the liquid ... to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in ...

  2. Regeneration of FGD waste liquors: Production of ammonium and potassium sulfate mixed fertilizer. Quarterly technical report, July 1993--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randolph, A.D.; Kwon, T.M.

    1993-12-01

    Regeneration of the Fe{sup II}-EDTA scrubbing liquors for simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} in flue gas involves removing the nitrogen-sulfur (N-S) compounds accumulated in the liquor. In this paper, the authors investigated a simple regeneration process which selectively precipitates the N-S compounds as potassium salts and then hydrolyzes them to yield ammonium/potassium sulfate as a marketable byproduct. They believe this is the first report on precipitation and hydrolysis characteristics of the N-S compounds in actual waste scrubbing liquor. Precipitation of the N-S compounds was achieved by adding K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} to the scrubbing liquor. Effects of the amount of added K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} on the amount of removed N-S compounds, precipitated crystals, and the potassium left over in the scrubbing liquor were studied. Hydrolysis of the precipitated N-S compounds to ammonium sulfate was performed in a sulfuric acid environment. Effects of acidity, concentration of N-S compounds, and temperature on the hydrolysis are discussed. Analysis of the observed hydrolysis pattern showed that the reaction proceeded following first order kinetics in terms of N-S compound concentration.

  3. Vapor Pressure of Saturated Aqueous Solutions of Potassium Sulfate from 310 K to 345 K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias O. Maggiolo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental evaluation of the vapor pressure of saturated aqueous solutions of potassium sulfate was carried out in the range of temperatures 310 K≤T≤345 K. The experimental data were used to determine the corresponding values of the water activity in such solutions. The analytical expressions as a function of temperature of both, vapor pressure and water activity, were obtained from the correlation of the experimental results. The vapor pressure expression was also extrapolated to a different temperature range in order to make a comparison with the results obtained by other authors.

  4. Speciation and Structural Properties of Hydrothermal Solutions of Sodium and Potassium Sulfate Studied by Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Joachim; Vogel, Frédéric; Steele-MacInnis, Matthew

    2016-05-18

    Aqueous solutions of salts at elevated pressures and temperatures play a key role in geochemical processes and in applications of supercritical water in waste and biomass treatment, for which salt management is crucial for performance. A major question in predicting salt behavior in such processes is how different salts affect the phase equilibria. Herein, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to investigate molecular-scale structures of solutions of sodium and/or potassium sulfate, which show contrasting macroscopic behavior. Solutions of Na-SO4 exhibit a tendency towards forming large ionic clusters with increasing temperature, whereas solutions of K-SO4 show significantly less clustering under equivalent conditions. In mixed systems (Nax K2-x SO4 ), cluster formation is dramatically reduced with decreasing Na/(K+Na) ratio; this indicates a structure-breaking role of K. MD results allow these phenomena to be related to the characteristics of electrostatic interactions between K(+) and SO4 (2-) , compared with the analogous Na(+) -SO4 (2-) interactions. The results suggest a mechanism underlying the experimentally observed increasing solubility in ternary mixtures of solutions of Na-K-SO4 . Specifically, the propensity of sodium to associate with sulfate, versus that of potassium to break up the sodium-sulfate clusters, may affect the contrasting behavior of these salts. Thus, mutual salting-in in ternary hydrothermal solutions of Na-K-SO4 reflects the opposing, but complementary, natures of Na-SO4 versus K-SO4 interactions. The results also provide clues towards the reported liquid immiscibility in this ternary system. PMID:26888426

  5. A comparative study of pure and potassium doped cadmium mercury thiocyanate single crystals grown in silica gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumari, P.N.S. [Department of Physics, Auxilium College, Vellore (India); Margaret, M.B. [Department of Physics, Arignar Anna Govt. College for Women, Walajapet (India); Kalainathan, S. [School of Science and Humanities, VIT University, Vellore (India)

    2009-02-15

    Pure and potassium doped cadmium mercury thiocyanate single crystals have been obtained from silica gel by the process of diffusion. The X-ray diffraction studies reveal the crystal lattice of both pure and doped crystals to be tetragonal. The crystalline perfection of the grown crystals were investigated by high resolution X-ray diffraction analysis and the quality of the crystals are found to be extremely good. Transmission and Fourier transform infrared spectra were recorded for the grown crystals. The TG/DTA analyses show that the crystals are highly thermally stable. The mechanical strength of the crystals were studied by Vickers microhardness test and a study of their second harmonic generation efficiency in comparison with urea has been made by performing Kurtz powder test. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Comparison of tank treatments with copper sulfate and potassium permanganate for sunshine bass with ichthyobodosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The biflagellated single-cell parasite Ichthyobodo nectator can cause significant losses among fish populations, particularly those cultured in tanks. Potassium permanganate and CuSO4 treatments were evaluated against a naturally-occurring I. nectator infestation on sunshine bass raised in tanks. F...

  7. Effectiveness of copper sulfate, potassium permanganate, and peracetic acid to reduce mortality and infestation of Ichthyobodo nector in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque 1818)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichthyobodo necator is a single celled bi-flagellate parasite, and in high density can causes significant mortality in young fish. Copper sulfate (CuSO4), potassium permanganate (KMnO4) and peracetic acid (PAA) were evaluated for effectiveness against ichthyobodosis. Treatments were: untreated con...

  8. Crystal structure of anhydrous double potassium neodymium sulfate KNd(SO4)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The X-ray structural investigation of KNd(SO4)2 monocrystals obtained by the crystallization from solution in the melt has been carried out. The monocrystals relate to the triclinic crystal lographic system with the lattice parameters: a=6.91+-0.03, b=5.30+-0.02, c=9.05+-0.03 A. Polyhedrons [NdO8] bonded by tetrahedrons SO4 form an infinite three-dimensional carcass in the voids of which potassium atoms are located

  9. Cadmium poisoning of oxygen reduction on platinum electrode in potassium hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. O.

    1972-01-01

    Experiment with a rotating disk and ring apparatus showed no poisoning by cadmium in 8.5 M KOH, alone or with Cl(-) or CO3(=). Poisoning does not occur either in 0.1 M KOH supernatant at CdO, but a partially reversible poisoning results from .0001 M CdCl2 and traces of fatty acid are present. Evidence indicates that the catastrophic poisoning affects the four-electron O2 reduction more than it does the one-electron H3O(+) discharge.

  10. Influence of sulfate, Ca, and Mg on the acute toxicity of potassium dichromate to Daphnia similis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosokawa, Mamoru; Kuroda, Koichi (Osaka City Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Sciences (Japan)); Endo, Ginji; Horiguchi, Shunichi (Osaka City Univ. Medical School (Japan))

    1991-03-01

    In the Daphnia test which is commonly employed for assessing effects of chemicals to aquatic environments, it is well known that the toxicity of chemicals is variable with test animals and also with the chemistry of test waters. However, it is not clear what constituents in water affect toxicity of chemicals. The authors report here experimental results which show that sulfate, calcium and magnesium, commonly contained in aquatic environments, decrease the toxicity of K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} which is recommended as a reference toxicant in the acute toxicity test.

  11. Effect of Calcium and Potassium on Antioxidant System of Vicia faba L. Under Cadmium Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayssam M. Ali

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd in soil poses a major threat to plant growth and productivity. In the present experiment, we studied the effect of calcium (Ca2+ and/or potassium (K+ on the antioxidant system, accumulation of proline (Pro, malondialdehyde (MDA, and content of photosynthetic pigments, cadmium (Cd and nutrients, i.e., Ca2+ and K+ in leaf of Vicia faba L. (cv. TARA under Cd stress. Plants grown in the presence of Cd exhibited reduced growth traits [root length (RL plant−1, shoot length (SL plant−1, root fresh weight (RFW plant−1, shoot fresh weight (SFW plant−1, root dry weight (RDW plant−1 and shoot dry weight (SDW plant−1] and concentration of Ca2+, K+, Chlorophyll (Chl a and Chl b content, except content of MDA, Cd and (Pro. The antioxidant enzymes [peroxidase (POD and superoxide dismutase (SOD] slightly increased as compared to control under Cd stress. However, a significant improvement was observed in all growth traits and content of Ca2+, K+, Chl a, Chl b ,Pro and activity of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT, POD and SOD in plants subjected to Ca2+ and/or K+. The maximum alleviating effect was recorded in the plants grown in medium containing Ca2+ and K+ together. This study indicates that the application of Ca2+ and/or K+ had a significant and synergistic effect on plant growth. Also, application of Ca2+ and/or K+ was highly effective against the toxicity of Cd by improving activity of antioxidant enzymes and solute that led to the enhanced plant growth of faba bean plants.

  12. Protective effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT against the clastogenic acitivity of cadmium chloride and potassium dichromate in hamster ovary cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grillo Claudia A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, a widely used food additive, on chromosomal alterations induced by cadmium chloride (CC and potassium dichromate (PD in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells was studied both at metaphase and anaphase-telophase. CHO cells were cultured for 15-16 h in the presence of PD (6.0, 9.0 or 12.0 mM, BHT (1.0 mg/ml, or PD plus BHT as well as CC (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mM, BHT or CC plus BHT for the analysis of chromosomal aberrations. To perform the anaphase-telophase test, cells were cultured in cover glasses and treated 8 h before fixation with the same chemicals. An extra dose of CC (4 mM was used in this test. Both metal salts significantly increased chromosomal aberration frequencies in relation to untreated controls, and to DMSO- and BHT-treated cells. Post-treatment with BHT decreased the yield of chromosomal damage in relation to treatments performed with CC and PD. However, chromosomal aberration frequencies were significantly higher than those of the controls. In the anaphase-telophase test, CC significantly increased the yield of lagging chromosomes with the four doses employed and the frequency of lagging fragments with the highest dose. In combined treatments of CC and BHT, frequencies of the two types of alterations decreased significantly in relation to the cells treated with CC alone. No significant variation was found in the frequencies of chromatin bridges. Significant increases of numbers of chromatin bridges, lagging chromosomes and lagging fragments were found in cells treated with PD. The protective effect of BHT in combined treatments was evidenced by the significant decrease of chromatid bridges and lagging chromosomes in relation to PD-treated cells. Whereas BHT is able to induce chromosomal damage, it can also protect against oxidative damage induced by other genotoxicants.

  13. Effects of de-icing chemicals sodium chloride and potassium formate on cadmium solubility in a coarse mineral soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excessive use of sodium chloride (NaCl) as de-icing chemical causes environmental problems, such as elevated chloride concentrations in groundwater. On vulnerable sites, this can be avoided by using alternative organic de-icing chemicals, such as potassium formate (KHCOO). The environmental impacts of KCHOO are, however, not well known. This study reports the potential effects of NaCl and KCHOO on mechanisms controlling the mobility of cadmium (Cd) in roadside soils as a result of vehicular traffic. Changes in the solubility of Cd in a coarse mineral soil treated with these two de-icing chemicals were studied in a 50-day incubation experiment under four different moisture and temperature combinations and an initial soil Cd concentration of 3 mg kg-1. After incubation, the distribution of soil Cd into different fractions was analyzed using a sequential extraction method. Soil pH and soil redox potential were recorded and the occurrence of Cd-Cl complexes in the soil was estimated using published stability constants. During incubation, KCHOO lowered the soil redox potential, but this was not accompanied by a decrease in the sorption capacity of oxides and the release of oxide-bound Cd into soil solution. On the other hand, elevated pH (from 4.3 to 6.7-8.5) in the formate treatments increased the sorption of Cd onto the oxide surfaces (up to 80% of total sorbed Cd). In the NaCl treatments, cation competition and formation of Cd-Cl complexes increased the water-soluble Cd fraction. Consequently, the amount of bioavailable Cd was 3.5 times smaller in the KCHOO than in the NaCl treatments

  14. Kinetic studies of cadmium ions adsorption on the ionic exchanger based on manganese and potassium; Estudos cineticos da adsorcao de ions de cadmio no trocador ionico a base de manganes e potassio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Jacinete Lima dos; Felinto, Maria Claudia Franca da Cunha [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    This work presents the synthesis and characterization of the inorganic ion exchanger in base of manganese and potassium and the Cd{sup 2+} adsorption studies in this exchanger. The maximum adsorption properties in pH function and cadmium concentration were studied. The adsorption kinetic of this metal in this exchanger was appraised too. (author)

  15. Extraction and characterization of lignin from oil palm biomass via ionic liquid dissolution and non-toxic aluminium potassium sulfate dodecahydrate precipitation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtar, S S; Tengku Malim Busu, T N Z; Md Noor, A M; Shaari, N; Yusoff, N A; Bustam Khalil, M A; Abdul Mutalib, M I; Mat, H B

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study is to extract and characterize lignin from oil palm biomass (OPB) by dissolution in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([bmim][Cl]), followed by the lignin extraction through the CO2 gas purging prior to addition of aluminum potassium sulfate dodecahydrate (AlK(SO4)2 · 12H2O). The lignin yield, Y(L) (%wt.) was found to be dependent of the types of OPB observed for all precipitation methods used. The lignin recovery, RL (%wt.) obtained from CO2-AlK(SO4)2 · 12H2O precipitation was, however dependent on the types of OPB, which contradicted to that of the acidified H2SO4 and HCl solutions of pH 0.7 and 2 precipitations. Only about 54% of lignin was recovered from the OPB. The FTIR results indicate that the monodispersed lignin was successfully extracted from the OPT, OPF and OPEFB having a molecular weight (MW) of 1331, 1263 and 1473 g/mol, and degradation temperature of 215, 207.5 and 272 °C, respectively. PMID:26038325

  16. Experimental Research on Roasting-Water Leaching-Crystallization Process to Produce Alumina and Potassium Sulfate from Alum%明矾制备氧化铝和硫酸钾的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞永

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, using alum as raw materials, and the roasting - water leaching - crystallization process were carried out to produce alumina and potassium sulfate. The factors impact on the quality and recoveries of alumina were studied, such as the roasting temperature and time, leaching temperature, time and liquid solid ratio of alum calcine, etc. In the optimum conditions, the experiment results showed that recoveries of alumina and potassium sulfate were more than 90% , and the chemical composition of α - alumina and potassium sulfate prepared in laboratory respectively conform the GB/T 24487 -2009( AO -3)and GB 20406 -2006's requirements.%以明矾为原料,采用焙烧—浸出—结晶的工艺路线制备氧化铝和硫酸钾,研究了明矾焙烧过程温度、时间及明矾焙砂浸出温度、时间、液固比等因素对氧化铝产品质量及回收率的影响.优化工艺条件下试验结果表明,氧化铝和硫酸钾的回收率均在90%以上,得到的α-氧化铝、硫酸钾化学成分分别符合GB/T 24487-2009(AO-3)、GB 20406-2006的要求.

  17. Effects of tire rubber ash and zinc sulfate on crop productivity and cadmium accumulation in five rice cultivars under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahad, Shah; Hussain, Saddam; Khan, Fahad; Wu, Chao; Saud, Shah; Hassan, Shah; Ahmad, Naeem; Gang, Deng; Ullah, Abid; Huang, Jianliang

    2015-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is among the most widespread and toxic heavy metals becoming a severe threat to humans. A field study was conducted to examine the role of various zinc (Zn) fertilization treatments and cultivars on crop productivity and Zn and Cd concentrations in brown rice and rice straw. The Zn fertilization treatments included an unfertilized control, foliar applied Zn sulfate (ZnSO4) at panicle initiation stage, foliar applied ZnSO4 at milky stage, soil application of rubber ash, and soil-applied ZnSO4, while five rice cultivars were Swat-1, Shadab, Shua-92, Swat-2, and Sada Hayat. All the Zn fertilization treatments resulted in significantly higher number of panicles, number of spikelets per panicles, spikelet fertility, 1,000-grain weight, grain yield, brown rice and rice straw Zn concentrations, and significantly lower Cd concentrations. Soil application of rubber ash remained the best among all Zn fertilization treatments as it resulted in 73% higher grain yield and reduced Cd concentration by 51% as compared with control. Variations were also apparent among cultivars, and Shua-92 and Swat-2 performed better in terms of all studied attributes as compared with other cultivars. Conclusively, cultivar selection and Zn application are effective strategies to improve rice grain yield as well as quality. Rubber ash appeared a viable source of Zn having the ability to increase yield along with reducing Cd accumulation. PMID:25903182

  18. Cadmium sulfate and CdTe-quantum dots alter DNA repair in zebrafish (Danio rerio) liver cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Song; Cai, Qingsong [The Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79416 (United States); Chibli, Hicham [Department of Biomedical Engineering, McGill University, Montréal, QC H3A 2B4 (Canada); Allagadda, Vinay [The Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79416 (United States); Nadeau, Jay L. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, McGill University, Montréal, QC H3A 2B4 (Canada); Mayer, Gregory D., E-mail: greg.mayer@ttu.edu [The Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79416 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Increasing use of quantum dots (QDs) makes it necessary to evaluate their toxicological impacts on aquatic organisms, since their contamination of surface water is inevitable. This study compares the genotoxic effects of ionic Cd versus CdTe nanocrystals in zebrafish hepatocytes. After 24 h of CdSO{sub 4} or CdTe QD exposure, zebrafish liver (ZFL) cells showed a decreased number of viable cells, an accumulation of Cd, an increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and an induction of DNA strand breaks. Measured levels of stress defense and DNA repair genes were elevated in both cases. However, removal of bulky DNA adducts by nucleotide excision repair (NER) was inhibited with CdSO{sub 4} but not with CdTe QDs. The adverse effects caused by acute exposure of CdTe QDs might be mediated through differing mechanisms than those resulting from ionic cadmium toxicity, and studying the effects of metallic components may be not enough to explain QD toxicities in aquatic organisms. - Highlights: • Both CdSO{sub 4} and CdTe QDs lead to cell death and Cd accumulation. • Both CdSO{sub 4} and CdTe QDs induce cellular ROS generation and DNA strand breaks. • Both CdSO{sub 4} and CdTe QDs induce the expressions of stress defense and DNA repair genes. • NER repair capacity was inhibited with CdSO{sub 4} but not with CdTe QDs.

  19. Cadmium sulfate and CdTe-quantum dots alter DNA repair in zebrafish (Danio rerio) liver cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing use of quantum dots (QDs) makes it necessary to evaluate their toxicological impacts on aquatic organisms, since their contamination of surface water is inevitable. This study compares the genotoxic effects of ionic Cd versus CdTe nanocrystals in zebrafish hepatocytes. After 24 h of CdSO4 or CdTe QD exposure, zebrafish liver (ZFL) cells showed a decreased number of viable cells, an accumulation of Cd, an increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and an induction of DNA strand breaks. Measured levels of stress defense and DNA repair genes were elevated in both cases. However, removal of bulky DNA adducts by nucleotide excision repair (NER) was inhibited with CdSO4 but not with CdTe QDs. The adverse effects caused by acute exposure of CdTe QDs might be mediated through differing mechanisms than those resulting from ionic cadmium toxicity, and studying the effects of metallic components may be not enough to explain QD toxicities in aquatic organisms. - Highlights: • Both CdSO4 and CdTe QDs lead to cell death and Cd accumulation. • Both CdSO4 and CdTe QDs induce cellular ROS generation and DNA strand breaks. • Both CdSO4 and CdTe QDs induce the expressions of stress defense and DNA repair genes. • NER repair capacity was inhibited with CdSO4 but not with CdTe QDs

  20. Calcium and Potassium Supplementation Enhanced Growth, Osmolyte Secondary Metabolite Production, and Enzymatic Antioxidant Machinery in Cadmium-Exposed Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Parvaiz; Abdel Latef, Arafat A.; Abd_Allah, Elsayed F.; Hashem, Abeer; Sarwat, Maryam; Anjum, Naser A.; Gucel, Salih

    2016-01-01

    This work examined the role of exogenously applied calcium (Ca; 50 mM) and potassium (K; 10 mM) (alone and in combination) in alleviating the negative effects of cadmium (Cd; 200 μM) on growth, biochemical attributes, secondary metabolites and yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Cd stress significantly decreased the length and weight (fresh and dry) of shoot and root and yield attributes in terms of number of pods and seed yield (vs. control). Exhibition of decreases in chlorophyll (Chl) a, Chl b, and total Chl was also observed with Cd-exposure when compared to control. However, Cd-exposure led to an increase in the content of carotenoids. In contrast, the exogenous application of Ca and K individually as well as in combination minimized the extent of Cd-impact on previous traits. C. arietinum seedlings subjected to Cd treatment exhibited increased contents of organic solute (proline, Pro) and total protein; whereas, Ca and K-supplementation further enhanced the Pro and total protein content. Additionally, compared to control, Cd-exposure also caused elevation in the contents of oxidative stress markers (hydrogen peroxidase, H2O2; malondialdehyde, MDA) and in the activity of antioxidant defense enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; ascorbate peroxidase, APX; glutathione reductase, GR). Ca, K, and Ca + K supplementation caused further enhancements in the activity of these enzymes but significantly decreased contents of H2O2 and MDA, also that of Cd accumulation in shoot and root. The contents of total phenol, flavonoid and mineral elements (S, Mn, Mg, Ca and K) that were also suppressed in Cd stressed plants in both shoot and root were restored to appreciable levels with Ca- and K-supplementation. However, the combination of Ca + K supplementation was more effective in bringing the positive response as compared to individual effect of Ca and K on Cd-exposed C. arietinum. Overall, this investigation suggests that application of Ca and/or K can

  1. Effectiveness of acidic calcium sulfate with propionic and lactic acid and lactates as postprocessing dipping solutions to control Listeria monocytogenes on frankfurters with or without potassium lactate and stored vacuum packaged at 4.5 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez de Gonzalez, Maryuri T; Keeton, Jimmy T; Acuff, Gary R; Ringer, Larry J; Lucia, Lisa M

    2004-05-01

    The safety of ready-to-eat meat products such as frankfurters can be enhanced by treating with approved antimicrobial substances to control the growth of Listeria monocytogenes. We evaluated the effectiveness of acidic calcium sulfate with propionic and lactic acid, potassium lactate, or lactic acid postprocessing dipping solutions to control L. monocytogenes inoculated (ca. 10(8) CFU/ml) onto the surface of frankfurters with or without potassium lactate and stored in vacuum packages at 4.5 degrees C for up to 12 weeks. Two frankfurter formulations were manufactured without (control) or with potassium lactate (KL, 3.3% of a 60% [wt/wt] commercially available syrup). After cooking, chilling, and peeling, each batch was divided into inoculated (four strains of L. monocytogenes mixture) and noninoculated groups. Each group was treated with four different dips: (i) control (saline solution), (ii) acidic calcium sulfate with propionic and lactic acid (ACS, 1:2 water), (iii) KL, or (iv) lactic acid (LA, 3.4% of a 88% [wt/wt] commercially available syrup) for 30 s. Noninoculated frankfurters were periodically analyzed for pH, water activity, residual nitrite, and aerobic plate counts (APCs), and L. monocytogenes counts (modified Oxford medium) were determined on inoculated samples. Surface APC counts remained at or near the lower limit of detection (dip, which indicated a residual bactericidal effect when L. monocytogenes populations were monitored over 12 weeks. L. monocytogenes numbers were also reduced, but not to the same degree in franks made without or with KL and treated with LA. These results revealed the effectiveness of ACS (bactericidal effect) or LA (bacteriostatic effect) as postprocessing dipping solutions to inhibit or control the growth of L. monocytogenes on vacuum-packaged frankfurters stored at 4.5 degrees C for up to 12 weeks. PMID:15151227

  2. Assessment of Aquaflor (c), copper sulfate and potassium permanganate for control of Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare infection in sunshine bass, Morone chrysops female x Morone saxatilis male

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two experiments were conducted to assess different therapeutants against a mixed infection of Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare in sunshine bass (SB) (Morone chrysops female x Morone saxatilis male). Experiment 1 assessed the efficacy of copper sulfate (CuSO4), florfenicol-medicated...

  3. Determination of plutonium in nitric acid solutions - Method by oxidation by cerium(IV), reduction by iron(II) ammonium sulfate and amperometric back-titration with potassium dichromate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This International Standard specifies a precise and accurate analytical method for determining plutonium in nitric acid solutions. Plutonium is oxidized to plutonium(VI) in a 1 mol/l nitric acid solution with cerium(IV). Addition of sulfamic acid prevents nitrite-induced side reactions. The excess of cerium(IV) is reduced by adding a sodium arsenite solution, catalysed by osmium tetroxide. A slight excess of arsenite is oxidized by adding a 0.2 mol/l potassium permanganate solution. The excess of permanganate is reduced by adding a 0.1 mol/l oxalic acid solution. Iron(III) is used to catalyse the reduction. A small excess of oxalic acid does not interfere in the subsequent plutonium determination. These reduction and oxidation stages can be followed amperometrically and the plutonium is left in the hexavalent state. The sulfuric acid followed by a measured amount of standardized iron(II) ammonium sulfate solution in excess of that required to reduce the plutonium(VI) to plutonium(IV) is added. The excess iron(II) and any plutonium(III) formed to produce iron(III) and plutonium(IV) is amperometrically back-titrated using a standard potassium dichromate solution. The method is almost specifically for plutonium. It is suitable for the direct determination of plutonium in materials ranging from pure product solutions, to fast reactor fuel solutions with a uranium/plutonium ratio of up to 10:1, either before or after irradiation

  4. Modification of cyanobacterial bloom-derived biomass using potassium permanganate enhanced the removal of microcystins and adsorption capacity toward cadmium (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Jihai [College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Farmland Pollution Control and Agricultural Resources Use, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Gu, Ji-Dong [Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Farmland Pollution Control and Agricultural Resources Use, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology and Toxicology, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Peng, Liang; Luo, Si; Luo, Huili [College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Yan, Zhiyong, E-mail: zhyyan111@163.com [College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Wu, Genyi, E-mail: wugenyi99@163.com [College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Potassium permanganate removed microcystins in the cyanobacterial bloom-derived biomass (CBDB). • Potassium permanganate oxidation caused the transformation of hydroxyl to carboxyl on the CBDB. • Manganese dioxide was formed on the surface of CBDB. • Potassium permanganate oxidation process increased the adsorption capacity of CBDB toward Cd(II). - Abstract: Cyanobacterial biomass shows high adsorption capacity toward heavy metal ions. However, the cyanotoxins in the cyanobacterial biomass inhibit its application in heavy metals removal. In order to safely and effectively remove Cd(II) from water using cyanobacterial bloom-derived biomass (CBDB), KMnO{sub 4} was used to modify CBDB. The results indicated that the microcystins in the CBDB were successfully removed by KMnO{sub 4}. Potassium permanganate oxidation caused the transformation of hydroxyl to carboxyl on the CBDB, and formed manganese dioxide on the surface of CBDB. The oxidized CBDB showed higher adsorption capacity toward Cd(II) than that of unoxidized treatment. The optimal KMnO{sub 4} concentration for increasing the adsorption capacity of CBDB toward Cd(II) was 0.2 g/L. The adsorption isotherm of Cd(II) by oxidized- or unoxidized-CBDB was well fitted by Langmuir model, indicating that the adsorption of Cd(II) by CBDB was monolayer adsorption. The desorption ratio of Cd(II) from oxidized CBDB was higher than that from unoxidized CBDB in the desorption process using NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} and EDTA as desorbent. The results presented in this study suggest that KMnO{sub 4} modified CBDB may be used as a safe and high efficient adsorbent in Cd(II) removal from water.

  5. Modification of cyanobacterial bloom-derived biomass using potassium permanganate enhanced the removal of microcystins and adsorption capacity toward cadmium (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Potassium permanganate removed microcystins in the cyanobacterial bloom-derived biomass (CBDB). • Potassium permanganate oxidation caused the transformation of hydroxyl to carboxyl on the CBDB. • Manganese dioxide was formed on the surface of CBDB. • Potassium permanganate oxidation process increased the adsorption capacity of CBDB toward Cd(II). - Abstract: Cyanobacterial biomass shows high adsorption capacity toward heavy metal ions. However, the cyanotoxins in the cyanobacterial biomass inhibit its application in heavy metals removal. In order to safely and effectively remove Cd(II) from water using cyanobacterial bloom-derived biomass (CBDB), KMnO4 was used to modify CBDB. The results indicated that the microcystins in the CBDB were successfully removed by KMnO4. Potassium permanganate oxidation caused the transformation of hydroxyl to carboxyl on the CBDB, and formed manganese dioxide on the surface of CBDB. The oxidized CBDB showed higher adsorption capacity toward Cd(II) than that of unoxidized treatment. The optimal KMnO4 concentration for increasing the adsorption capacity of CBDB toward Cd(II) was 0.2 g/L. The adsorption isotherm of Cd(II) by oxidized- or unoxidized-CBDB was well fitted by Langmuir model, indicating that the adsorption of Cd(II) by CBDB was monolayer adsorption. The desorption ratio of Cd(II) from oxidized CBDB was higher than that from unoxidized CBDB in the desorption process using NH4NO3 and EDTA as desorbent. The results presented in this study suggest that KMnO4 modified CBDB may be used as a safe and high efficient adsorbent in Cd(II) removal from water

  6. Analysis of potassium-40 in fertilizers containing potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remarking on gamma emitters, and making use of a pure germanium detector and a multichannel pulse-height-analyzer, analysis of natural radioactive nuclides in several fertilizers containing potassium was carried out. As the result of analyses on five samples, 228>Th, 226Ra, 235U and 40K were observed in all of the three compound-fertilizers, but no nuclide excepting 40Kwas observed in potassium chloride and potassium sulfate. 40K was fixed to be the most abundant nuclide, and the others were observed only in trace amounts. The activities of 40K in these fertilizers were nearly proportional to the contents of potassium in the samples. Contents of potassium in the fertilizers were obviously estimated from the values of 40K activities on the basis of natural abundance of 40K in potassium, and the contents estimated were in good agreement with the values determined by a chemical method

  7. Demonstration of the Enhanced Disinfection of E. coli Water Con¬tamination by Associated Solar Irradiation with Potassium Per¬sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghader GHANIZADEH

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available  Background: Tremendous amount of researches have investigated the issue of water photodisnfection. The aim of this research is to illustrate the influences of bacterial density, turbidity, exposure time and potassium persulfate (KPS dosage on the efficacy of associated solar disinfection (SODIS with KPS for E. coli (ATCC: 25922 eradication as an efficient and inexpensive process.Methods: Desired bacterial density and turbidity was achieved by spiking of 0.5 Mc Farland (1.5×108 cell/ml and sterile soil slurry in 1 liter of the commercially bottled water.Results: The highest value of UVA solar irradiation measured at 13.30 p.m was 5510 µW/Cm2. Increase of bacterial density from 1000 to 1500 cell/ml led to an increase in disinfection lapse time, except in 2 mMol/l KPS. Spiking of 0.1 mMol/l of KPS was not effective; however, increase of KPS dosage from 0.1 mMol/l to 0.7, 1.5 and 2 mMol/l led to the enhancement of disinfection time from 4 h to 3 h and 1 h, respectively. For bacterial density of 1000 cell/ml, increasing KPS dosage up to 0.7 mMol/l had no improved effect; however, beyond this dosage the disinfection time decreased to 1 h. Without KPS and up to 150 NTU within 4 h exposure time, E. coli disinfection was completed. In 2 mMol/l KPS and 1000 and 1500 cell/ml, the 2 h contact time was sufficient up to 150 and 100 NTU, respectively; moreover, complete disinfection was not achieved at higher turbidity.Conclusion: Association of KPS with SODIS can lead to decreasing of water disinfection time. Keywords: Disinfection, Solar irradiation, Potassium persulfate, Water, E. coli

  8. Effect of potassium permanganate, cobalt chloride and vitamin B complex on the haematological parameters of cadmium treated common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviraj, A; Das, B K

    1995-01-01

    Effect of potassium permanganate, cobalt chloride and vitamin B complex on the haematological parameters of common carp Cyprinus carpio were markedly influenced by a treatment of 2.5 mg/l Cd in the laboratory for 96 hours. Hb% and ESR values were increased but the RBC and PCV values were reduced. Treatment of KMnO4 (1 mg/l) or CoCl2 (2 mg/l) induced a further reduction of RBC of the Cd treated fish. But parameters like PCV, MCV and MCH of Cd treated fish were not affected by the treatment of KMnO4 and CoCl2. Intramuscular injection of vitamin B complex did not produce any impact on ESR and MCV values of the Cd treated exposed fish but most of the other parameters of such fish were found comparable to control indicating that vitamin B complex could counteract Cd to reduce its ill effect. PMID:8580524

  9. Potassium Iodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potassium iodide is used to protect the thyroid gland from taking in radioactive iodine that may be released during ... the thyroid gland. You should only take potassium iodide if there is a nuclear radiation emergency and ...

  10. Chondroitin sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in combination with glucosamine sulfate, shark cartilage, and camphor. Some people also inject chondroitin sulfate into the ... in combination with glucosamine sulfate, shark cartilage, and camphor seems to reduce arthritis symptoms. However, any symptom ...

  11. Critical review of animal carcinogenesis by cadmium and its inorganic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animal carcinogenic biassays relative to 6 inorganic cadmium substances (cadmium metal, cadmium oxide, cadmium sulfide, cadmium sulfate, cadmium chloride and cadmium acetate) are reviewed (speciation). Critical evaluation of literature data on carcinogenicity has been performed by making reference to E.C. guidelines of good laboratory practice. There are few data on routes relevant for human risk assessment: experiments on inhalation demonstrate lung carcinogenicity of cadmium oxide, cadmium sulfide, cadmium sulfate and cadmium chloride in rats but not in mice nor in hamsters; no carcinogenic effects of cadmium compounds are observed following oral administration. For routes of less or no relevance for human risk assessment, some results are clearly positive: subcutaneous injection induces cancers in situ (various cadmium compounds), testicular tumours (cadmium sulfate and cadmium chloride) and prostatic tumours (cadmium chloride) but such effects are not observed using relevant malignancies in rats. With respect to other no relevant routes (intraperitoneal, intrarenal...) tumours are incidentally produced in situ, but not in remote organs. Numerous studies fail to demonstrate cadmium carcinogenicity, but methodologically acceptable negative ones are very limited in number. Accordingly strain dependent effects and dose effect relationship could not be thoroughly assessed

  12. Cadmium carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waalkes, Michael P

    2003-12-10

    Cadmium is a heavy metal of considerable environmental and occupational concern. Cadmium compounds are classified as human carcinogens by several regulatory agencies. The most convincing data that cadmium is carcinogenic in humans comes from studies indicating occupational cadmium exposure is associated with lung cancer. Cadmium exposure has also been linked to human prostate and renal cancer, although this linkage is weaker than for lung cancer. Other target sites of cadmium carcinogenesis in humans, such as liver, pancreas and stomach, are considered equivocal. In animals, cadmium effectively induces cancers at multiple sites and by various routes. Cadmium inhalation in rats induces pulmonary adenocarcinomas, in accord with its role in human lung cancer. Cadmium can induce tumors and/or preneoplastic lesions within the rat prostate after ingestion or injection. At relatively high doses, cadmium induces benign testicular tumors in rats, but these appear to be due to early toxic lesions and loss of testicular function, rather than from a specific carcinogenic effect of cadmium. Like many other metals, cadmium salts will induce mesenchymal tumors at the site of subcutaneous (s.c.) or intramuscular (i.m.) injections, but the human relevance of these is dubious. Other targets of cadmium in rodents include the liver, adrenal, pancreas, pituitary, and hematopoietic system. With the exception of testicular tumors in rodents, the mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis are poorly defined. Cadmium can cause any number of molecular lesions that would be relevant to oncogenesis in various cellular model systems. Most studies indicate cadmium is poorly mutagenic and probably acts through indirect or epigenetic mechanisms, potentially including aberrant activation of oncogenes and suppression of apoptosis.

  13. Cadmium carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium is a heavy metal of considerable environmental and occupational concern. Cadmium compounds are classified as human carcinogens by several regulatory agencies. The most convincing data that cadmium is carcinogenic in humans comes from studies indicating occupational cadmium exposure is associated with lung cancer. Cadmium exposure has also been linked to human prostate and renal cancer, although this linkage is weaker than for lung cancer. Other target sites of cadmium carcinogenesis in humans, such as liver, pancreas and stomach, are considered equivocal. In animals, cadmium effectively induces cancers at multiple sites and by various routes. Cadmium inhalation in rats induces pulmonary adenocarcinomas, in accord with its role in human lung cancer. Cadmium can induce tumors and/or preneoplastic lesions within the rat prostate after ingestion or injection. At relatively high doses, cadmium induces benign testicular tumors in rats, but these appear to be due to early toxic lesions and loss of testicular function, rather than from a specific carcinogenic effect of cadmium. Like many other metals, cadmium salts will induce mesenchymal tumors at the site of subcutaneous (s.c.) or intramuscular (i.m.) injections, but the human relevance of these is dubious. Other targets of cadmium in rodents include the liver, adrenal, pancreas, pituitary, and hematopoietic system. With the exception of testicular tumors in rodents, the mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis are poorly defined. Cadmium can cause any number of molecular lesions that would be relevant to oncogenesis in various cellular model systems. Most studies indicate cadmium is poorly mutagenic and probably acts through indirect or epigenetic mechanisms, potentially including aberrant activation of oncogenes and suppression of apoptosis

  14. Luminescence and bio-imaging response of thio-glycolic acid (TGA) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated fluorescent cadmium selenide quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate the usefulness of surfactant coated CdSe quantum dots in bio-imaging applications after evaluating their steady state and time resolved emission responses. The surfactant coated QDs, with the respective sizes of ~14 nm and 10 nm are synthesized considering two different types of coating agents, namely, thio-glycolic acid (TGA) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The steady state luminescence response is characterized by both near band edge (NBE) and defect-related emissions, but with a strong dependency on the nature of surfactant coating. Time resolved photoluminescence (TR-PL) studies have revealed bi-exponential characteristics with CdSe–TGA QDs exhibiting longer life time decay parameters than those of CdSe–SDS QDs. To be specific, the fast (τ1) and the slow (τ2) components are characterized by ~10 and 30 times larger values in the former than the latter case. In the FT-IR spectra, several stretching and bending vibrations are observed to be adequately influenced by the nature of surfactant coating. The availability of plentiful Na+ counter ions around SDS coated QDs, as evident from the FT-IR spectroscopy studies, can also be responsible for obtaining reduced size of the QDs. In contrast, Raman active modes are apparently distinguishable in TGA coated QDs, with LO and TO mode positions significantly blue-shifted from the bulk values. While attributing to the intense defect mediated emission of TGA coated QDs, the effect of TGA coating presented a stronger fluorescence imaging capability over the SDS coated ones. A detailed assessment of fluorescent counts, as a basis of bio-imaging response, is being discussed on a comparative basis. - Highlights: • Fluorescent CdSe quantum dots are synthesized with two different kinds of surfactant coatings. • Time resolved photoluminescence (TR-PL) studies have revealed bi-exponential decay characteristics. • Both slow and fast decay parameters are found to be longer in CdSe QDs with TGA coating.

  15. Luminescence and bio-imaging response of thio-glycolic acid (TGA) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated fluorescent cadmium selenide quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarma, Runjun; Mohanta, Dambarudhar, E-mail: best@tezu.ernet.in

    2015-05-15

    We demonstrate the usefulness of surfactant coated CdSe quantum dots in bio-imaging applications after evaluating their steady state and time resolved emission responses. The surfactant coated QDs, with the respective sizes of ~14 nm and 10 nm are synthesized considering two different types of coating agents, namely, thio-glycolic acid (TGA) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The steady state luminescence response is characterized by both near band edge (NBE) and defect-related emissions, but with a strong dependency on the nature of surfactant coating. Time resolved photoluminescence (TR-PL) studies have revealed bi-exponential characteristics with CdSe–TGA QDs exhibiting longer life time decay parameters than those of CdSe–SDS QDs. To be specific, the fast (τ{sub 1}) and the slow (τ{sub 2}) components are characterized by ~10 and 30 times larger values in the former than the latter case. In the FT-IR spectra, several stretching and bending vibrations are observed to be adequately influenced by the nature of surfactant coating. The availability of plentiful Na{sup +} counter ions around SDS coated QDs, as evident from the FT-IR spectroscopy studies, can also be responsible for obtaining reduced size of the QDs. In contrast, Raman active modes are apparently distinguishable in TGA coated QDs, with LO and TO mode positions significantly blue-shifted from the bulk values. While attributing to the intense defect mediated emission of TGA coated QDs, the effect of TGA coating presented a stronger fluorescence imaging capability over the SDS coated ones. A detailed assessment of fluorescent counts, as a basis of bio-imaging response, is being discussed on a comparative basis. - Highlights: • Fluorescent CdSe quantum dots are synthesized with two different kinds of surfactant coatings. • Time resolved photoluminescence (TR-PL) studies have revealed bi-exponential decay characteristics. • Both slow and fast decay parameters are found to be longer in CdSe QDs

  16. Potassium test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also be done if your provider suspects metabolic acidosis (for example, caused by uncontrolled diabetes) or alkalosis ( ... Hypoaldosteronism (very rare) Kidney failure Metabolic or respiratory acidosis Red blood cell destruction Too much potassium in ...

  17. Barium Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barium sulfate is used to help doctors examine the esophagus (tube that connects the mouth and stomach), ... dimensional pictures of the inside of the body). Barium sulfate is in a class of medications called ...

  18. Glucosamine sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to control arthritis pain. These creams usually contain camphor and other ingredients in addition to glucosamine. Glucosamine ... in combination with chondroitin sulfate, shark cartilage, and camphor for up to 8 weeks. Glucosamine sulfate can ...

  19. Potassium Iodide (KI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Planning Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Potassium Iodide (KI) Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... I get KI (potassium iodide)? What is Potassium Iodide (KI)? KI (potassium iodide) is a salt of ...

  20. Separation of 35S-sulfate on neutral aluminium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of 35S-sulfate chromatography on neutral aluminium oxide (γ-Al2O3) are presented. Possibility of quantitative adsorption of 35S-sulfate on Al2O3 from acidic or neutral potassium chloride solutions of high concentration is shown. Dynamic adsorption capacity of neutral aluminium oxide with respect to sulfate from weakly acidic potassium chloride solution equals near 10 μmol/ml of adsorbent. Optimal parameters for chromatographic isolation of 35S-sulfate without carrier from irradiated KCl target are determined. (author)

  1. Potassium clavulanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro Fujii

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The title salt, K+·C8H8NO5− [systematic name: potassium (2R,5R,Z-3-(2-hydroxyethylidene-7-oxo-4-oxa-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylate], a widely used β-lactam antibiotic, is usually chemically unstable even in the solid state owing to its tendency to be hydrolysed. In the crystal structure, the potassium cations are arranged along the a axis, forming interactions to the carboxylate and hydroxy groups, resulting in one-dimensional ionic columns. These columns are arranged along the b axis, connected by O—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a layer in the ab plane.

  2. Efficacy of florfenicol, copper sulfate and potassium permanganate in controlling a natural infection of Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare in sunshine bass, Morone chrysops female x Morone saxatilis male

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunshine bass (Morone chrysops female ' Morone saxatilis male) naturally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare were randomly assigned to six treatments: 1) two treatments of waterborne exposures to copper sulfate (CuSO4), at 2.1 and at 4.2 mg/L (approximately one and two pe...

  3. Potassium sorbate-A new aqueous copper corrosion inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abelev, Esta [Department of Materials Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Starosvetsky, David [Department of Materials Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Ein-Eli, Yair [Department of Materials Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)]. E-mail: eineli@tx.technion.ac.il

    2007-01-01

    This work presents the novel nature of 2,4-hexadienoic acid potassium salt (potassium sorbate (KCH{sub 3}CH=CHCH=CHCO{sub 2})) as an effective copper aqueous corrosion inhibitor. The influence of pH and potassium sorbate concentration on copper corrosion in aerated sulfate and chloride solutions is reported. Degree of copper protection was found to increase with an increase in potassium sorbate concentration; an optimum concentration of this inhibitor in sulfate solutions was found to be 10 g/L. Copper is highly resistant to corrosion attacks by chloride ions in the presence of potassium sorbate. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies suggest that copper protection is achieved via the formation of a mixed layer of cuprous oxide, cupric hydroxide and copper(II)-sorbate at the metal surface.

  4. Surfactant Mediated Cadmium Determination with Dithizone in Aqueous Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Ismael, Fouad Jawad

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Cadmium is a toxic and hazardous trace metal that has become a serious environmental pollutant since industrialization and intensive farming began in late 19th century. Although there are many established wet-chemical and instrumental methods for qualitative and quantitative determination of cadmium, most involve the formation of the Cd-dithizone complex in the presence of the highly toxic potassium cyanide which is then extracted into carcinogenic chlorinated organic solvents such ...

  5. Barium Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... using x-rays or computed tomography (CAT scan, CT scan; a type of body scan that uses ... be clearly seen by x-ray examination or CT scan. ... more times before an x-ray examination or CT scan.If you are using a barium sulfate ...

  6. Penicillin V Potassium Oral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penicillin V potassium is an antibiotic used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as pneumonia, ... Penicillin V potassium comes as a tablet and liquid to take by mouth. It is usually taken ...

  7. Potassium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potassium carbonate is a white powder used to make soap, glass, and other items. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or breathing in potassium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  8. Intercomparison 9711. pH, conductivity, alkalinity, nitrate + nitrite, chloride, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, total aluminium, reactive and non-labile aluminium, dissolved organic carbon, and chemical oxygen demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovind, Haavard

    1997-09-22

    The work described in this report was a part of an international cooperative programme for assessment and monitoring of acidification of rivers and lakes. Two sample sets were prepared for intercomparison, one for determination of the major ions, the other for determination of aluminium fractions and unspecified organic matter. The samples were sent to 50 laboratories and 47 laboratories from 22 countries submitted results. Good agreement was found for chloride, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, sodium and the unspecific organic compounds, dissolved organic carbon and chemical oxygen demand, more than 80% being evaluated as acceptable for these analytic variables. The results for nitrate + nitrite and aluminium species did not agree well, probably because different methods were used to determine the aluminium species. On the whole, 78% of the results were within the general target accuracy of plus or minus 20%. Laboratories with results outside this accuracy should improve their methods if they want to analyse low-concentration samples. To improve the compatibility of the analytical results for aluminium fractions, it seems necessary to normalize the analytical methods and determination techniques used for these determinations. A total error of plus minus 0.2 pH units seems to be a reasonable assessment of the accuracy for pH measurements when weakly acid or neutral water samples not in CO{sub 2} equilibrium are analyzed. 7 refs., 1 fig., 34 tabs.

  9. KV7 potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Jennifer B; Jepps, Thomas Andrew; Greenwood, Iain A

    2014-01-01

    Potassium channels are key regulators of smooth muscle tone, with increases in activity resulting in hyperpolarisation of the cell membrane, which acts to oppose vasoconstriction. Several potassium channels exist within smooth muscle, but the KV7 family of voltage-gated potassium channels have been...

  10. Sodium and potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to sodium and potassium content in fluoride. In order to obtain the comprehensive view on sodium and potassium distribution in fluorite 892 mono mineral samples of various geologic deposits and ores of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan were analyzed. The content of sodium and potassium in fluorite of geologic deposits of various mineralogical and genetic type was defined.

  11. Correlative characteristic of cadmium in soils of steppe Dnieper region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Tsvetkova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Much attention is paid to searching for methods of establishing environmental standards for objective assessment of admissibility of anthropogenic load on the biosphere. The main pollutants of the environment are xenobiotics; heavy metals such as cadmium occupy hold a special place among them. Cadmium is one of the most dangerous environmental toxic agents, belonging to the 1stclass of hazard. Due to insufficient and fragmented information available on the distribution of cadmium in the city edaphotopes, it’s necessary to conduct additional research, taking into account the properties of soils and the biological characteristics of every element. The paper shows the ratio of cadmium in soils and soil-forming rocks of steppe Dnieper region. Environmental assessment of cadmium content in Dniprodzerzhinsk city soilsis made, and the problem of topsoil contamination of the city as a territory of high anthropogenic load is considered. It is found that the content of cadmium down the profile in natural soil increases. Enrichment of the topsoil with cadmium occurs due to contamination. The value of movable forms content, expressed as a percentage of the total content, varies from 12% to 70%, providing the evidence of the technogenic origin of cadmium in Dniprodzerzhinsk city topsoil. General and proximate correlation analyses of interrelation of soil cadmium and specifically selected characteristics of soil (pH, humus, sulfate ions, dry solid, chloride ions, total alkalinity, hygroscopic moisture were made. It is established that cadmium concentration in the movable forms of natural soils of the steppe Dnieper region depends primarily on pH value. With the increase in pH value, concentration of movable cadmium in soil increases.

  12. Reduced cadmium-induced cytotoxicity in cultured liver cells following 5-azacytidine pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waalkes, M.P.; Wilson, M.J.; Poirier, L.A.

    1985-11-01

    Recent work indicated that administration of the pyrimidine analog 5-azacytidine (AZA), either to cells in culture or to rats, results in an enhancement of expression of the metallothionein (MT) gene. Since MT is thought to play a central role in the detoxification of cadmium, the present study was designed to assess the effect of AZA pretreatment on cadmium cytotoxicity. Cultured rat liver cells in log phase of growth were first exposed to AZA (8 microM). Forty-eight hours later, cadmium was added. A modest increase in MT amounts over control was detected after AZA treatment alone. Cadmium alone resulted in a 10-fold increase in MT concentrations. The combination of AZA pretreatment followed by cadmium exposure caused a 23-fold increase in MT concentrations over control. Treatment with the DNA synthesis inhibitor hydroxyurea (HU) eliminated the enhancing effect of AZA pretreatment on cadmium induction of MT, indicating that cell division is required. AZA-pretreated cells were also harvested and incubated in suspension with cadmium for 0 to 90 min. AZA-pretreated cells showed marked reductions in cadmium-induced cytotoxicity as reflected by reduced intracellular potassium loss, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase loss, and lipid peroxidation following cadmium exposure. Results suggest that AZA pretreatment induces tolerance to cadmium cytotoxicity which appears to be due to an increased capacity to synthesize MT rather than high quantities of preexisting MT at the time of cadmium exposure.

  13. Reduced cadmium-induced cytotoxicity in cultured liver cells following 5-azacytidine pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent work indicated that administration of the pyrimidine analog 5-azacytidine (AZA), either to cells in culture or to rats, results in an enhancement of expression of the metallothionein (MT) gene. Since MT is thought to play a central role in the detoxification of cadmium, the present study was designed to assess the effect of AZA pretreatment on cadmium cytotoxicity. Cultured rat liver cells in log phase of growth were first exposed to AZA (8 microM). Forty-eight hours later, cadmium was added. A modest increase in MT amounts over control was detected after AZA treatment alone. Cadmium alone resulted in a 10-fold increase in MT concentrations. The combination of AZA pretreatment followed by cadmium exposure caused a 23-fold increase in MT concentrations over control. Treatment with the DNA synthesis inhibitor hydroxyurea (HU) eliminated the enhancing effect of AZA pretreatment on cadmium induction of MT, indicating that cell division is required. AZA-pretreated cells were also harvested and incubated in suspension with cadmium for 0 to 90 min. AZA-pretreated cells showed marked reductions in cadmium-induced cytotoxicity as reflected by reduced intracellular potassium loss, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase loss, and lipid peroxidation following cadmium exposure. Results suggest that AZA pretreatment induces tolerance to cadmium cytotoxicity which appears to be due to an increased capacity to synthesize MT rather than high quantities of preexisting MT at the time of cadmium exposure

  14. Potassium and Health123

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, Connie M.

    2013-01-01

    Potassium was identified as a shortfall nutrient by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 Advisory Committee. The committee concluded that there was a moderate body of evidence of the association between potassium intake and blood pressure reduction in adults, which in turn influences the risk of stroke and coronary heart disease. Evidence is also accumulating of the protective effect of adequate dietary potassium on age-related bone loss and reduction of kidney stones. These benefits dep...

  15. Potassium food supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourland, C. T.; Huber, C. S.; Rambaut, C.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.

    1973-01-01

    Potassium gluconate is considered best supplementary source for potassium. Gluconate consistently received highest taste rating and was indistinguishable from nonsupplemented samples. No unfavorable side effects were found during use, and none are reported in literature. Gluconate is normal intermediary metabolite that is readily adsorbed and produces no evidence of gastrointestinal ulcerations.

  16. Penicillin V Potassium Oral

    Science.gov (United States)

    V-Cillin K® ... Penicillin V potassium is an antibiotic used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as pneumonia, scarlet fever, ... Penicillin V potassium comes as a tablet and liquid to take by mouth. It is usually taken every 6 ...

  17. Formation of Cadmium Selenide Layers on the Polyamide Film Surface by Sorption-Diffusion Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neringa Petrašauskienė

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The layers containing cadmium selenide, CdxSe,were formed on the surface of semihydrophilic polymer – polyamide 6 (PA using acidified 0.10 mol/dm3 solution of potassium selenotrithionate, K2SeS2O6,as precursor of selenium. The concentration of sorbed selenium (at 60 oC increases with the increase of the duration of PA treatment in K2SeS2O6solution. The cadmium selenide containing layers are formed on the surface of PA after the treatment of seleniumized polymer with cadmium acetate, (Cd(CH3COO2·2H2O, solution (60–80 oC:the anions SeS2O62– containing selenium atoms of low oxidation state react with the cadmium(II ions. The conditions of a polymer initial seleniumization and of seleniumized PA treatment with cadmium acetate solution determine the concentration of cadmium and the composition of chalcogenide layer. The concentration of cadmium in the chalcogenide layer increases with the increase of initial chalcogenization duration only up to about 2 h and the temperature of selenotrithionate solution. The results of XPS and XRD confirmed the formation of cadmium selenide layers on the surface of PA. XRD patterns study of not earlier studied CdSe layers on PA showed their phase composition of two cadmium selenides phases – Zinc blende (cubic CdSe,wurtzite (hexagonal CdSe and cadmium(II hydroxide, Cd(OH2. Accordingly data of XRD and XPS analysis the macrostructure and composition ofCuSe layers depends on the conditions of these layers formation. The data determined enable formation of the layers of cadmium selenide on the surface of PA by thesorption-diffusion method using the solution of potassium selenotrithionate as a precursor of selenium.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.1.5097

  18. Sulfated glycans in inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomin, Vitor H

    2015-03-01

    Sulfated glycans such as glycosaminoglycans on proteoglycans are key players in both molecular and cellular events of inflammation. They participate in leukocyte rolling along the endothelial surface of inflamed sites; chemokine regulation and its consequential functions in leukocyte guidance, migration and activation; leukocyte transendothelial migration; and structural assembly of the subendothelial basement membrane responsible to control tissue entry of cells. Due to these and other functions, exogenous sulfated glycans of various structures and origins can be used to interventionally down-regulate inflammation processes. In this review article, discussion is given primarily on the anti-inflammatory functions of mammalian heparins, heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate and related compounds as well as the holothurian fucosylated chondroitin sulfate and the brown algal fucoidans. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of action of these sulfated glycans in inflammation, helps research programs involved in developing new carbohydrate-based drugs aimed to combat acute and chronic inflammatory disorders. PMID:25576741

  19. Adsorption of Potassium and Calcium Ions by Variable Charge Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIHONG-YAN; JIGUO-LIANG

    1992-01-01

    Interactions of potassium and calcium ions with four typical variable charge soils in South China were examined by measuring pK-0.5pCa value with a potassium ion-selective electrode and a calcium ion-selective electrode,and pK value with a potassium ion-selective electrode.The results showed that adsorption of potassium and calcium ions increased with soil suspension pH,and the tendency of the pK-0.5pCa value changing with pH differed with respect to pH range and potassium to calcium ratio.Adsorption of equal amount of calcium and potassium ions led to release of an identical number of protons,suggesting similar adsorption characteristics of these two ions when adsorbed by variable charge soils.Compared with red soil,latosol and lateritic red soil had higher adsorption selectivities for calcium ion.The red soil had a greater affinity for potassium ion than that for calcium ion at low concentration,which seems to result from its possession of 2:1 type minerals,such as vermiculite and mica with a high affinity for potassium ion.The results indicated that adsorption of potassium and calcium ions by the variable charge soils was chiefly caused by the electrostatic attraction between the cations and the soil surfaces.Moreover,it was found that sulfate could affect the adsorption by changing soil surface properties and by forming ion-pair.

  20. Adsorption of Potassium and Sodium Ions by Variable Charge Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIHONG-YAN; JIGUO-LIANG

    1992-01-01

    Adsorption of potassium and sodium ions by four typical variable charge soils of South China was studied.The results indicated that the variable charge soils saturated with H and Al showed a much higher preference for potassium ions relative to sodium ions,and this tendence could not be changed by such factors as the pH,the concentration of the cations,the dielectric constant of solvent,the accompanying anions and the iron oxide content etc.,suggesting that this difference in affinity is caused by the difference in the nature of the two cations.It was observed that a negative adsorption of sodium ions by latosol and lateritic red soil in a mixed system containing equal amount of potassium and sodium ions at low pH,which is caused by a competitive adsorption of potassium and sodium ions and repulsion of positive charge on the surfaces of soil particles for cations.The adsorption of potassium and sodium ions increased with the decreases in the dielectric constant of solvent and the iron oxide content.Sulfate affected the adsorption of potassium and sodium ions through changing the surface properties of the soils.

  1. High Temperature Stability of Potassium Beta Alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R. M.; Kisor, A.; Ryan, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    None. From Objectives section: Evaluate the stability of potassium beta alumina under potassium AMTEC operating conditions. Evaluate the stability regime in which potassium beta alumina can be fabricated.

  2. Analysis Of The Underpotential Deposition Of Cadmium On Copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalik R.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study the process of deposition of cadmium on polycrystalline copper electrode in sulfate solution was investigated. The process of underpotential and bulk deposition was analyzed by classical electrochemical method: cyclic voltammetry(CV, anodic stripping voltammetry(ASV and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance(EQCM. The obtained results were compared with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy(EIS measurements. CV, EQCM and EIS results suggest that the UPD of cadmium starts below potential −0.4 V vs Ag/AgCl. Additionally the stripping analysis indicates the formation of cadmium monolayer with different density of deposited atoms depending on the applied potential. The transition from UPD to bulk deposition occurs below potential −0,7 V.

  3. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of cadmium chloride, cadmium bromide, cadmium iodide, cadmium nitrate, and cadmium sulphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apelblat, Alexander [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)]. E-mail: apelblat@bgu.ac.il; Korin, Eli [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2007-07-15

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of cadmium salts (chloride, bromide, iodide, nitrate, and sulphate) were determined over the temperature range 280 K to 322 K and compared with the literature data. The vapour pressures determined were used to obtain the water activities, osmotic coefficients and the molar enthalpies of vaporization in the (cadmium salt + water) systems.

  4. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of cadmium chloride, cadmium bromide, cadmium iodide, cadmium nitrate, and cadmium sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of cadmium salts (chloride, bromide, iodide, nitrate, and sulphate) were determined over the temperature range 280 K to 322 K and compared with the literature data. The vapour pressures determined were used to obtain the water activities, osmotic coefficients and the molar enthalpies of vaporization in the (cadmium salt + water) systems

  5. [The favorable effect of humic acid based complex micro-element preparations in cadmium exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudák, A; Náray, M; Nagy, I; Molnár, M; Gömöry, I; Ungváry, G

    1997-06-01

    The authors have studied the effect of consumption of a humic acid based complex microelement preparation (potassium, magnesium, iron, zinc, manganese, copper, vanadium, cobalt, molibden, selenium bound to humic acids) for six weeks (10 ml daily) on the biological exposure indices (blood and urine cadmium levels) and clinical laboratory parameters (liver and kidney tests, blood picture) of men (n = 18; 39.7 +/- 10.4 years of age;) working in cadmium exposure for 8.3 +/- 5.0 years. The initial mean blood and urine cadmium levels of the non-smoking subjects was twice higher than that of the non-smoking male controls living in the same urban area (n = 35), and significantly correlated with the length of exposure. Their mean serum alanin-aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl-transferase, creatinine, uric acid and urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase levels were significantly higher than that of the controls. After the six-week treatment blood cadmium level, activity of serum alanin-aminotransferase, serum uric acid and urinary protein concentrations decreased significantly, the abnormal serum iron levels normalized. According to this results, the absorption of cadmium decreased on the effect of the complex microelement supplementation and the adverse laboratory changes attributable partly to cadmium exposure improved. Therefore humic acid based complex microelement supplementation is recommended as an effective tool for prevention and health protection in occupational cadmium exposure as well as for smokers known to be considerably burdened by cadmium. PMID:9254361

  6. Cadmium status in Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It is inferred from these studies that releases of Cd are still increasing and it is recommended that measures must be taken to reduce emissions of cadmium. Any cadmium discharged into the Egyptian environment may move from one compartment to another at varying rates,resulting in an accumulation in compartments such as soils and biota. Such accumulation can be expected to increase with continued emissions,and attention should be given to all sources of cadmium, natural as well as anthropogenic especially in the industrial cities in Egypt. Cadmium present in sewage, as well as industrial effluent (also, other liquid and solid wastes) and sewage sludge will increase levels in soils and is xpected to contribute to dietary levels and body burdens. The current information indicates that such effects may have to be evaluated over long periods of time, possibly as long as 50 - 100 years.

  7. Extraction-spectrophotometric determination of cadmium(II) by high molecular weight amine - application to industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation of the complex formation between Cadmium (II) and Potassium iodide in Sulphuric acid solution has been carried out and its extractability by high molecular weight tertiary amine (HMWA) in organic solvent was examined. The yellow colored complex of Cd(II)-I/sub 2/ is quantitatively extractable into organic phase containing tribenzyle amine. On the basis of this extractability a method has been developed for the spectrophotometer determination of Cadmium in the presence of many other interfering radicals. The extractability of the Potassium iodide complex by HMWA suggests that the colored species is anionic. (author)

  8. Sulfate metabolism in mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelle, Michael W; Bertozzi, Carolyn R

    2006-10-01

    Pathogenic bacteria have developed numerous mechanisms to survive inside a hostile host environment. The human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) is thought to control the human immune response with diverse biomolecules, including a variety of exotic lipids. One prevalent M. tb-specific sulfated metabolite, termed sulfolipid-1 (SL-1), has been correlated with virulence though its specific biological function is not known. Recent advances in our understanding of SL-1 biosynthesis will help elucidate the role of this curious metabolite in M. tb infection. Furthermore, the study of SL-1 has led to questions regarding the significance of sulfation in mycobacteria. Examples of sulfated metabolites as mediators of interactions between bacteria and plants suggest that sulfation is a key modulator of extracellular signaling between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The discovery of novel sulfated metabolites in M. tb and related mycobacteria strengthens this hypothesis. Finally, mechanistic and structural data from sulfate-assimilation enzymes have revealed how M. tb controls the flux of sulfate in the cell. Mutants with defects in sulfate assimilation indicate that the fate of sulfur in M. tb is a critical survival determinant for the bacteria during infection and suggest novel targets for tuberculosis drug therapy. PMID:16933356

  9. The ceric sulfate dosimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbakke, Erling

    The process employed for the determination of absorbed dose is the reduction of ceric ions to cerous ions in a solution of ceric sulfate and cerous sulfate in 0.8N sulfuric acid: Ce4+→Ce 3+ The absorbed dose is derived from the difference in ceric ion concentration before and after irradiation. The...

  10. Data on electrical properties of nickel modified potassium polytitanates compacted powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Goffman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Potassium polytitanates are new promising type of ferroelectric ceramic materials with high ionic conductivity, highly polarizable structure and extremely high permittivity. Its structure is formed by [TiO6] octahedral units to layers with mobile potassium and hydroxonium ions in-between. The treatment in solutions containing nickel ions allows forming heterostructured materials which consist of potassium polytitanate particles intercalated by Ni2+ ions and/or decorated by nickel oxides NiOx. This modification route is fully dependant on solution pH, i.e. in acidic solutions the intercalation process prevails, in alkaline solutions potassium polytitanate is mostly decorated by the oxides. Therefore, electronic structure and electrical properties can be regulated depending on modification conditions, pH and ions concentration. Here we report the data on electric properties of potassium titanate modified in nickel sulfate solutions at different pH.

  11. Data on electrical properties of nickel modified potassium polytitanates compacted powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, V G; Gorokhovsky, A V; Gorshkov, N V; Fedorov, F S; Tretychenko, E V; Sevrugin, A V

    2015-09-01

    Potassium polytitanates are new promising type of ferroelectric ceramic materials with high ionic conductivity, highly polarizable structure and extremely high permittivity. Its structure is formed by [TiO6] octahedral units to layers with mobile potassium and hydroxonium ions in-between. The treatment in solutions containing nickel ions allows forming heterostructured materials which consist of potassium polytitanate particles intercalated by Ni(2+) ions and/or decorated by nickel oxides NiO x . This modification route is fully dependant on solution pH, i.e. in acidic solutions the intercalation process prevails, in alkaline solutions potassium polytitanate is mostly decorated by the oxides. Therefore, electronic structure and electrical properties can be regulated depending on modification conditions, pH and ions concentration. Here we report the data on electric properties of potassium titanate modified in nickel sulfate solutions at different pH. PMID:26217788

  12. Potassium bis(μ-sulfato-1κO:2κO')bis[cis-dioxido-cis-bis(sulfato-κO)tungstate(VI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäffer, Susan Jeanne Cline; Berg, Rolf W.

    2005-01-01

    The title compound, K8[{WO2(SO4)2}2(μ-SO4)2], precipitated from a melt of tungsten trioxide and potassium sulfate in potassium disulfate. The W(VI) coordination sphere in the independent K4[WO2(SO4)3] moiety is completed by inversion symmetry, resulting in a dimer with two bridging sulfato ligand...

  13. Heparan sulfate biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Multhaupt, Hinke A B; Couchman, John R

    2012-01-01

    Heparan sulfate is perhaps the most complex polysaccharide known from animals. The basic repeating disaccharide is extensively modified by sulfation and uronic acid epimerization. Despite this, the fine structure of heparan sulfate is remarkably consistent with a particular cell type. This suggests...... apparatus has not been carried out in a detailed way using high-resolution microscopy. We have begun this process, using well-known markers for the various Golgi compartments, coupled with the use of characterized antibodies and cDNA expression. Laser scanning confocal microscopy coupled with line scanning...

  14. Holothurian Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor H. Pomin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FucCS is a structurally distinct glycosaminoglycan found in sea cucumber species. It has the same backbone composition of alternating 4-linked glucuronic acid and 3-linked N-acetyl galactosamine residues within disaccharide repeating units as regularly found in mammalian chondroitin sulfates. However, FucCS has also sulfated fucosyl branching units 3-O-linked to the acid residues. The sulfation patterns of these branches vary accordingly with holothurian species and account for different biological actions and responses. FucCSs may exhibit anticoagulant, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiviral, and pro-angiogenic activities, besides its beneficial effects in hemodialysis, cellular growth modulation, fibrosis and hyperglycemia. Through an historical overview, this document covers most of the science regarding the holothurian FucCS. Both structural and medical properties of this unique GAG, investigated during the last 25 years, are systematically discussed herein.

  15. Potassium toxicity at low serum potassium levels with refeeding syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemula, Praveen; Abela, Oliver G; Narisetty, Keerthy; Rhine, David; Abela, George S

    2015-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome is a life-threatening condition occurring in severely malnourished patients after initiating feeding. Severe hypophosphatemia with reduced adenosine triphosphate production has been implicated, but little data are available regarding electrolyte abnormalities. In this case, we report electrocardiographic changes consistent with hyperkalemia during potassium replacement after a serum level increase from 1.9 to 2.9 mEq/L. This was reversed by lowering serum potassium back to 2.0 mEq/L. In conclusion, the patient with prolonged malnutrition became adapted to low potassium levels and developed potassium toxicity with replacement. PMID:25456880

  16. Direct Sulfation of Limestone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Guilin; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Wedel, Stig

    2007-01-01

    %) becomes negligible. In the temperature interval from 723 K to 973 K, an apparent activation energy of about 104 kJ/mol is observed for the direct sulfation of limestone. At low temperatures and low conversions, the sulfation process is most likely under mixed control by chemical reaction and solid......The direct sulfation of limestone was studied in a laboratory fixed-bed reactor. It is found that the direct sulfation of limestone involves nucleation and crystal grain growth of the solid product (anhydrite). At 823 K and at low-conversions (less than about 0.5 %), the influences of SO2, O-2 and...... CO2 on the direct sulfation of limestone corresponds to apparent reaction orders of about 0.2, 0.2 and -0.5, respectively. Water is observed to promote the sulfation reaction and increase the apparent reaction orders of SO2 and O-2. The influence of O-2 at high O-2 concentrations (> about 15...

  17. Potassium-Related Periodic Paralysis

    OpenAIRE

    A Lesani; MH Moradi Nejad

    1995-01-01

    Potassium-related periodic paralysis may be associated with hypo, normo, or hyperkalemic disturbance of the Potassium level. Clinical features, laboratory findings and ECG as well as EMG changes are different in the 3 types of the disease. The treatment demands correction of the Potassium level of the blood serum. The disease is normally transferred as an autosomal dominant trait. In this article we present a 9-year old girl who suffered from hypokalemic paralysis since she was 4 years old.

  18. Recipe for potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I investigate favorable conditions for producing potassium (K). Observations show [K/Fe] > 0 at low metallicities, while zero-metal supernova models show low [K/Fe] (e (from 0.51 to 0.60), the initial density ρmax (107, 108, and 109 [g/cm3]), and the e-fold time τ for the density (0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 [sec]). Among 90 models I have calculated, only 26 models show [K/Fe] > 0, and they all have ρmax = 109[g/cm3]. I discuss parameter dependence of [K/Fe].

  19. Positron scattering by potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coupled-state calculations in a K(4s, 4p, 5s, 5p, 3d) + Ps(1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 3d) approximation are reported for positron scattering by ground-state potassium in the energy range 0.5-60.0 eV. Comparison is made with the earlier work of Hewitt et al (1993, 1994) in a K(4s, 4p, 5s, 5p) + Ps(1s, 2s, 2p) approximation. For the first time cross sections for positronium formation in n = 3 states are obtained. (author)

  20. Cadmium-sulfide crystallites in Cd-(. gamma. EC) sub n G peptide complexes from tomato. [Lycopersicon esculentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reese, R.N.; White, C.A.; Winge, D.R. (South Dakota State Univ., Brookings (United States) Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Hydroponically grown tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum P. Mill cv Golden Boy) exposed to 100 micromolar cadmium sulfate produced metal-({gamma}EC){sub n}G peptide complexes containing acid-labile sulfur. The properties of the complexes resemble those of the cadmium-({gamma}EC){sub n}G peptide complexes from Schizo-saccharomyces pombe and Candida glabrata known to contain a cadmium sulfide crystallite core. The crystallite is stabilized by a sheath of peptides of general structure ({gamma}Glu-Cys){sub n}-Gly. The cadmium-peptide complexes of tomato contained predominantly peptides of n{sub 3}, n{sub 4}, and n{sub 5}. Spectroscopic analyses indicated that the tomato cadmium-sulfide-peptide complex contained CdS crystallite core particles smaller than 2.0 nanometers in diameter.

  1. Potassium in milk and milk products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount of potassium in imported processed milk was determined by gamma spectral analysis. The results show that the potassium content of diluted infant formula milk is closest to the reported mean concentration of potassium in human milk while other milk types have potassium values similar to the potassium content of cow milk. (Auth.). 2 figs., 5 refs

  2. Nephrotoxicity of cadmium & lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonick, H C

    2008-10-01

    Cadmium and lead are divalent cations with a propensity to settle in the proximal tubule of the nephron, leading to nephrotoxicity. The pathophysiological results, however, tend to diverge. Cadmium in sufficient cumulative dosage leads to the production of the Fanconi syndrome, a generalized proximal tubular reabsorptive defect thought to be related to inhibition of both ATP production and Na-K-ATPase activity. On the other hand, lead accumulation in the proximal tubule leads to hyperuricaemia and gout, presumably by inhibiting uric acid secretion, and diminished glomerular filteration rate (GFR). Fanconi syndrome is seen unusually only in children and experimental animals. Cadmium nephrotoxicity is heralded by increased excretion of beta2-microglobulin, retinol binding protein and alpha1-microglobulin, indicative of decreased proximal tubule function. Beta2-microglobulinuria is not found in lead nephropathy. In lead nephropathy albuminuria is absent or minimal whereas in cadmium nephropathy albuminuria is variable. From the standpoint of pathology, both entities are characterized by tubulointerstitial disease and fibrosis, but only early lead nephropathy is characterized by the presence of proximal tubule nuclear inclusion bodies, due to the combination of lead with a lead binding-protein. PMID:19106433

  3. Determination method of methanol and ethanol in the uranium-bearing waste water with potassium dichromic oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe the method for determining the contents of methanol and ethanol which are containing in the uranium-bearing waste water. The method is based on the oxidation of methanol and ethanol by the potassium dichromic in a suitable content of sulfonic acid, and the excess of residual potassium dichromic will be titrated by the standard solution of ammonium ferrous sulfate. For this method, the precision is better than 5%, the recovery rate is about 95%-104%

  4. Neural synchronization via potassium signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, Dmitry E; Ryazanova, Ludmila S; Mosekilde, Erik;

    2006-01-01

    Using a relatively simple model we examine how variations of the extracellular potassium concentration can give rise to synchronization of two nearby pacemaker cells. With the volume of the extracellular space and the rate of potassium diffusion as control parameters, the dual nature of this reso...

  5. Sulfate attack expansion mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müllauer, Wolfram, E-mail: wolf_m@gmx.at; Beddoe, Robin E.; Heinz, Detlef

    2013-10-15

    A specially constructed stress cell was used to measure the stress generated in thin-walled Portland cement mortar cylinders caused by external sulfate attack. The effects of sulfate concentration of the storage solution and C{sub 3}A content of the cement were studied. Changes in mineralogical composition and pore size distribution were investigated by X-ray diffraction and mercury intrusion porosimetry, respectively. Damage is due to the formation of ettringite in small pores (10–50 nm) which generates stresses up to 8 MPa exceeding the tensile strength of the binder matrix. Higher sulfate concentrations and C{sub 3}A contents result in higher stresses. The results can be understood in terms of the effect of crystal surface energy and size on supersaturation and crystal growth pressure.

  6. Over-expression of human endosulfatase-1 exacerbates cadmium-induced injury to transformed human lung cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Huiying [Department of Molecular Biomedical Sciences, Center for Comparative Molecular Translational Research, College of Veterinary Medicine, NC State University, Raleigh, NC 27607 (United States); Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, NC State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Newman, Donna R. [Department of Molecular Biomedical Sciences, Center for Comparative Molecular Translational Research, College of Veterinary Medicine, NC State University, Raleigh, NC 27607 (United States); Bonner, James C. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, NC State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Sannes, Philip L., E-mail: philip_sannes@ncsu.edu [Department of Molecular Biomedical Sciences, Center for Comparative Molecular Translational Research, College of Veterinary Medicine, NC State University, Raleigh, NC 27607 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Environmental exposure to cadmium is known to cause damage to alveolar epithelial cells of the lung, impair their capacity to repair, and result in permanent structural alterations. Cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) can modulate cell responses to injury through their interactions with soluble effector molecules. These interactions are often sulfate specific, and the removal of sulfate groups from HS side chains could be expected to influence cellular injury, such as that caused by exposure to cadmium. The goal of this study was to define the role 6-O-sulfate plays in cellular responses to cadmium exposure in two pulmonary epithelial cancer cell lines (H292 and A549) and in normal human primary alveolar type II (hAT2) cells. Sulfate levels were modified by transduced transient over-expression of 6-O-endosulfatase (HSulf-1), a membrane-bound enzyme which specifically removes 6-O-sulfate groups from HSPG side chains. Results showed that cadmium decreased cell viability and activated apoptosis pathways at low concentrations in hAT2 cells but not in the cancer cells. HSulf-1 over-expression, on the contrary, decreased cell viability and activated apoptosis pathways in H292 and A549 cells but not in hAT2 cells. When combined with cadmium, HSulf-1 over-expression further decreased cell viability and exacerbated the activation of apoptosis pathways in the transformed cells but did not add to the toxicity in hAT2 cells. The finding that HSulf-1 sensitizes these cancer cells and intensifies the injury induced by cadmium suggests that 6-O-sulfate groups on HSPGs may play important roles in protection against certain environmental toxicants, such as heavy metals. -- Highlights: ► Primary human lung alveolar type 2 (hAT2) cells and H292 and A549 cells were used. ► Cadmium induced apoptosis in hAT2 cells but not in H292 or A549 cells. ► HSulf-1exacerbates apoptosis induced by cadmium in H292 and A549 but not hAT2 cells.

  7. Contacting cadmium deposition from spent industrial solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium metal deposition from spent industrial solutions by cadmium (2) reduction with dispersed aluminium is studied. The influence of temperature, reagent concentration and the presence of complexing agents on the yield and purity of isolated cadmium metal is examined

  8. Cardiac potassium channel subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Nicole; Grunnet, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2014-01-01

    About 10 distinct potassium channels in the heart are involved in shaping the action potential. Some of the K(+) channels are primarily responsible for early repolarization, whereas others drive late repolarization and still others are open throughout the cardiac cycle. Three main K(+) channels...... drive the late repolarization of the ventricle with some redundancy, and in atria this repolarization reserve is supplemented by the fairly atrial-specific KV1.5, Kir3, KCa, and K2P channels. The role of the latter two subtypes in atria is currently being clarified, and several findings indicate that...... they could constitute targets for new pharmacological treatment of atrial fibrillation. The interplay between the different K(+) channel subtypes in both atria and ventricle is dynamic, and a significant up- and downregulation occurs in disease states such as atrial fibrillation or heart failure. The...

  9. Crystal structure of tris­(piperidinium) hydrogen sulfate sulfate

    OpenAIRE

    Lukianova, Tamara J.; Kinzhybalo, Vasyl; Pietraszko, Adam

    2015-01-01

    A novel mixed hydrogen sulfate–sulfate piperidinium salt comprises three protonated piperidinium cations, one hydrogen sulfate anion and one sulfate anion in the asymmetric unit. Strong hydrogen bonds exist between the cations and the anions giving rise to a three-dimensional structure.

  10. Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkman, H.; Iverfeldt, Aa. [Swedish Environmental Research Inst. (Sweden); Borg, H.; Lithner, G. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Inst. for Applied Environmental Research

    1998-03-01

    This report aims at assessing possible effects of cadmium in the Swedish environment. Swedish soils and soft freshwater systems are, due to a generally poor buffering capacity, severely affected by acidification. In addition, the low salinity in the Baltic Sea imply a naturally poor organism structure, with some important organisms living close to their limit of physiological tolerance. Cadmium in soils is mobilized at low pH, and the availability and toxicity of cadmium in marine systems are enhanced at low salinity. The Swedish environment is therefore extra vulnerable to cadmium pollution. The average concentrations of cadmium in the forest mor layers, agricultural soils, and fresh-waters in Sweden are enhanced compared to `back-ground concentrations`, with a general increasing trend from the north to the south-west, indicating strong impact of atmospheric deposition of cadmium originating from the central parts of Europe. In Swedish sea water, total cadmium concentrations, and the fraction of bio-available `free` cadmium, generally increases with decreasing salinity. Decreased emissions of cadmium to the environment have led to decreasing atmospheric deposition during the last decade. The net accumulation of cadmium in the forest mor layer has stopped, and even started to decrease. In northern Sweden, this is due to the decreased deposition, but in southern Sweden the main reason is increased leakage of cadmium from the topsoil as a consequence of acidification. As a result, cadmium in the Swedish environments is undergoing an extended redistribution between different soil compartments, and from the soils to the aquatic systems. 90 refs, 23 figs, 2 tabs. With 3 page summary in Swedish

  11. Hydrazine Sulfate (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use of hydrazine sulfate as a complementary or alternative treatment for cancer? It has been known since the early 1900s ... of CAM therapies originally considered to be purely alternative approaches are finding a place in cancer treatment—not as cures, but as complementary therapies that ...

  12. Aluminum Sulfate 18 Hydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) of the chemical, aluminum sulfate 18 hydrate, is presented. The profile lists physical and harmful properties, exposure limits, reactivity risks, and symptoms of major exposure for the benefit of teachers and students using the chemical in the laboratory.

  13. Acute and chronic toxicity of sodium sulfate to four freshwater organisms in water-only exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Consbrock, Rebecca A.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Hardesty, Douglas K.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Hammer, Edward J.; Bauer, Candice R.; Mount, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of sulfate (tested as sodium sulfate) was determined in diluted well water (hardness of 100 mg/L and pH 8.2) with a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia; 2-d and 7-d exposures), a midge (Chironomus dilutus; 4-d and 41-d exposures), a unionid mussel (pink mucket, Lampsilis abrupta; 4-d and 28-d exposures), and a fish (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; 4-d and 34-d exposures). Among the 4 species, the cladoceran and mussel were acutely more sensitive to sulfate than the midge and fathead minnow, whereas the fathead minnow was chronically more sensitive than the other 3 species. Acute-to-chronic ratios ranged from 2.34 to 5.68 for the 3 invertebrates but were as high as 12.69 for the fish. The fathead minnow was highly sensitive to sulfate during the transitional period from embryo development to hatching in the diluted well water, and thus, additional short-term (7- to 14-d) sulfate toxicity tests were conducted starting with embryonic fathead minnow in test waters with different ionic compositions at a water hardness of 100 mg/L. Increasing chloride in test water from 10 mg Cl/L to 25 mg Cl/L did not influence sulfate toxicity to the fish, whereas increasing potassium in test water from 1mg K/L to 3mg K/L substantially reduced the toxicity of sulfate. The results indicate that both acute and chronic sulfate toxicity data, and the influence of potassium on sulfate toxicity to fish embryos, need to be considered when environmental guidance values for sulfate are developed or refined.

  14. Cadmium Induced Changes in Metabolic Function of Mitochondrial Isolated from Potato Tissue (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chagra Ali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Cadmium is highly toxic at low concentrations, but the mechanism of its toxicity is still not understood particularly at the cellular and subcellular level. Approach: In this study we examined the effects of cadmium on the oxidophosphorylation properties of mitochondria isolated from potatoes. Results: Cadmium strongly disturbed the respiratory metabolism of mitochondria isolated especially in the transfer of electrons by cyanide pathway. Meanwhile, cadmium altered the composition of lipid fatty acids polar while inhibiting catalase activity, a key enzyme in the detoxification (antioxidant process. In addition, cadmium caused an increase in mitochondrial volume associated with strong inhibition of ATPase activity, which could be explained by a transport of the potassium ion stimulation at the origin of the massive influx of H+ by antiport through the K+/H+ leading to a decoupling (cut of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. The swelling of mitochondria was accompanied by the rupture of the mitochondrial outer membrane and thus the release of Cytochrome C, which appears to be the initial phase of apoptosis. Conclusion: Following this study, it appeared that cadmium generates in potato the isolated mitochondria a concentration-dependent oxidative stress.

  15. Immunological, hematological and biochemical changes induced by short term exposure to cadmium in catfish (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed El-Said El-Boshy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the hematological, biochemical and immunological changes in catfish (Clarias gariepinus (C. gariepinus experimental exposed to cadmium. Methods: C. gariepinus were exposed to different concentrations of cadmium (Cd (0, 2, 5, and 10 mg/L for 3 weeks. Blood samples were collected for assessing some hematological, biochemical and immunological studies at the end of experiment. Results: The results showed marked normocytic normochromic anemia, leukocytosis, neutrophilia and lymphopenia in 5, 10 mg/L in cadmium exposed fish. Also the blood level activities of ALT and AST significantly increased, as well as glucose, creatinine, urea, potassium and uric acid. Meanwhile total protein, albumin and sodium were significantly decreased at 5, 10 mg/L of cadmium exposed fish. The immunological parameters in cadmium exposed experimental dose groups decreased serum bactericidal activity, lysozyme, neutrophils adhesion test as well as decreased resistance to Aeromonas hydrophilla with increasing exposure dose seemed to correspond with suppressive of non-specific immune functions. Conclusions: The treatment of C. gariepinus with cadmium under the same conditions had immunosuppressive and decrease diseases resistance in a dose-dependent effect

  16. Impact of potassium bromate and potassium iodate in a pound cake system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilderjans, Edith; Lagrain, Bert; Brijs, Kristof; Delcour, Jan A

    2010-05-26

    This study investigates the impact of the oxidants potassium bromate and potassium iodate (8, 16, 32, 64, and 128 micromol/g dry matter of egg white protein) on pound cake making. The impact of the oxidants on egg white characteristics was studied in a model system. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that the oxidants caused egg white to denature later. During heating in a rapid visco analyzer, the oxidants caused the free sulfhydryl (SH) group levels to decrease more intensively and over a smaller temperature range. The oxidants made the proteins more resistant to decreases in protein extractability in sodium dodecyl sulfate containing buffer during cake recipe mixing and less resistant to such decreases during cake baking. We assume that, during baking, the degree to which SH/disulfide exchange and SH oxidation can occur depends on the properties of the protein at the onset of the process. In our view, the prevention of extractability loss during mixing increased the availability of SH groups and caused more such loss during baking. During cooling, all cakes baked with added oxidants showed less collapse. On the basis of the presented data, we put forward that only those protein reactions that occur during baking contribute to the formation of a network that supports final cake structure and prevents collapse. PMID:20423045

  17. Sulfate metabolism. I. Sulfate uptake and redistribution of acid rain sulfate by edible plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulfur is the major component of polluted air in industrialized societies. Atmospheric sulfur is converted to sulfuric acid through a series of chemical reactions which can eventually reenter many ecosystems. When edible plants are grown in soils containing varying amounts of sulfate, the roots take up and transport inorganic sulfate to the stems and leaves. The sulfate taken up by the roots and the amount transported to the stem and leaves was found to be a function of the concentration of sulfate in the soil. Inorganic sulfate taken up by a corn plant seedling can be rapidly converted to organic sulfate by the root system. Nine days after one of a pair of pea plants was inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate (dilute H235SO4) it was found that the sulfate was translocated not only in the inoculated plant, but also to the uninoculated pea plant in the same container. Also, when the leaves of a mature potato plant were inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate it was found that the sulfate was translocated into the edible potatoes. Fractionation of the potatoes showed that most of the sulfate was water soluble of which 30% was inorganic sulfate and 70% was in the form of organic sulfur. One third of the non-water soluble translocated acid rain sulfate was equally divided between lipid and non-lipid organic sulfur of the potato. 9 references, 2 figures, 5 tables

  18. Cadmium sulfite hexahydrate revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Baggio

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The present structural revision of the title compound, tetracadmium tetrasulfite hexahydrate, [Cd4(SO34(H2O5]·H2O, is a low-temperature upgrade (T = 100 K and R = 0.017 of the original room-temperature structure reported by Kiers & Vos [Cryst. Struct. Commun. (1978. 7, 399–403; T = 293 K and R = 0.080. The compound is a three-dimensional polymer with four independent cadmium centres, four sulfite anions and six water molecules, five of them coordinated to two cadmium centres and the remaining one an unbound solvent molecule which completes the asymmetric unit. There are two types of cadmium environment: CdO8 (through four chelating sulfite ligands and CdO6 (by way of six monocoordinated ligands. The former groups form planar arrays [parallel to (001 and separated by half a unit cell translation along c], made up of chains running along [110] and [overline{1}10], respectively. These chains are, in turn, interconnected both in an intraplanar as well as in an interplanar fashion by the latter CdO6 polyhedra into a tight three-dimensional framework. There is, in addition, an extensive network of hydrogen bonds, in which all 12 water H atoms act as donors and eight O atoms from all four sulfite groups and two water molecules act as acceptors.

  19. Surface structure of potassium sulphate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: It is known, that the surface structure of crystals differs from crystal structure far from a surface. It is connected to that on a surface there is a necessity of indemnification of charges of surface ions. In this connection occurs either a relaxation, or reorganization of surface structure. As many electronic processes, including a luminescence and processes of energy transfer, can be subject to influence of the surface phenomena, the knowledge of structure of a surface can be crucial. Objects of research in the present work are the crystal K2SO4, and also the activated crystal K2SO4-Tl. Potassium sulfate has ionic type of connection between metal ions and oxi-anionic group. Inside oxi-anionic groups four atoms of oxygen and one atom of sulfur are connected by covalent connection. The atom of sulfur is located in the center of tetrahedral pyramids on which tops atoms of oxygen settle down. It agrees to the data of X-ray structural analysis an ion SO4- has correct a tetrahedral structure. The formula of such connection can be written down as AIAIIX4, where AI and AII - potassium ions in positions I and II, and X - SO4- -anion. Monocrystals of researched sulfates were raised from water solutions by a method of slow evaporation. Crystals - the columns extended along one direction have been chosen. Measurements on a scanning electronic microscope were carried out on the natural raw side. For this purpose on this side the corresponding covering was rendered. The surface of crystals has been covered with set of 'tracks' in width about 10 microns. Tracks represented long bent raised roads above a surface of constant width and constant height. In directions of tracks there is no system. They are frequently crossed; some tracks come to an end, being gradually narrowed on distance 10-15 microns. All tracks have in the middle a failure of constant width about 1 micron. Such system of tracks is present as on a surface of a pure crystal, and a crystal an impurity

  20. 21 CFR 172.375 - Potassium iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium iodide. 172.375 Section 172.375 Food and... Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.375 Potassium iodide. The food additive potassium iodide may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Potassium iodide may be...

  1. A two-dimensional cadmium(II) polymer based on nicotinic acid and thiocyanate ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lin; Wang, Hui-Ting

    2015-09-01

    A cadmium-thiocyanate complex, poly[[bis(nicotinic acid-κN)di-μ-thiocyanato-κ(2)N:S;κ(2)S:N-cadmium(II)] monohydrate], {[Cd(NCS)2(C6H5NO2)2]·H2O}n, was synthesized by the reaction of nicotinic acid, cadmium nitrate tetrahydrate and potassium thiocyanide in aqueous solution. In the crystal structure, each Cd(II) cation is in a distorted octahedral coordination environment, coordinated by the N and S atoms of nicotinic acid and thiocyanate ligands. Neighbouring Cd(II) cations are linked together by thiocyanate bridges to form a two-dimensional network. Hydrogen-bond interactions between the uncoordinated solvent water molecules and the organic ligands result in the formation of the three-dimensional supramolecular network. PMID:26322616

  2. Effect of organic matter and liming on the reduction of cadmium uptake from soil by triticale and spring oilseed rape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciecko, Zdzislaw; Wyszkowski, Miroslaw; Krajewski, Wladyslaw; Zabielska, Jadwiga [Department of Environmental Chemistry, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Plac Lodzki 4, 10-718 Olsztyn (Poland)

    2001-12-17

    The aim of the study conducted on triticale and spring oilseed rape was to determine the role of liming, brown coal and compost medium in reducing the effect of cadmium contamination (at the rates of 0, 7.5, 15 and 22.5 mg Cd kg{sup -1} of soil) on yield and chemical composition of the crop. In the series of experiments without liming, a considerable decline in the yield of spring triticale grain, straw, root weight and green mass yield of rape was observed in response to the soil contamination with cadmium. Brown coal and especially compost medium added to soil neutralised the negative effect of cadmium on the grain yield and reduced a decrease in the yield of straw and roots of triticale. Soil liming proved to reduce the yield drop in oilseed rape caused by the contamination of soil with cadmium. The content of cadmium in roots and grain of spring triticale far exceeded that determined in triticale straw. The pollution of soil with cadmium caused a 26-fold increase in the content of this metal in grain, a 10-fold increase in roots of triticale and a twofold in oil-seed rape. Application of compost medium, brown coal and, to a smaller extent, liming reduced the level of cadmium in the parts of triticale brought to investigation. The soil contamination with cadmium caused certain modifications in the content of nitrogen, potassium, magnesium, calcium and sodium in spring triticale and in the content of N-total, potassium and magnesium in spring oilseed rape.

  3. Indirect Complexometric Determination of Mercury Using Potassium Iodide as Selective Masking Agent

    OpenAIRE

    RAO, B. Muralidhara

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a indirect complexometric method for the determination of mercury in the presence of co-ions, based on the selective masking ability of potassium iodide. To the mixture of mercury (II) and other metal ion solution, EDTA solution was added in excess of the metal ions present. The pH of the solution was adjusted to 5.0-6.0 using solid hexamine (10 \\pm 2 g) and surplus EDTA was titrated with zinc sulfate solution using xylenol orange indicator. An excess of solid potassium i...

  4. Radioimmunoassay of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a radioimmunological method for the measurement of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in serum is described. For the immunization of rabbits, a DHA-3-hemissuccinate-bovine serum albumin conjugate was synthetized and a highly specific anti-serum was produced. The method developed requires only simple dilution prior to assay and the normal values for the different age groups were determined in 146 normal individuals. (Author)

  5. Cadmium in blood and hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eum, Ki-Do; Lee, Mi-Sun [Department of Environmental Health, Graduate School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paek, Domyung [Department of Environmental Health, Graduate School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: paekdm@snu.ac.kr

    2008-12-15

    Objectives:: This study is to examine the effect of cadmium exposure on blood pressure in Korean general population. Methods:: The study population consisted of 958 men and 944 women who participated in the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), in which blood pressure and blood cadmium were measured from each participant. Results:: The mean blood cadmium level was 1.67 {mu}g/L (median level 1.55). The prevalence of hypertension was 26.2%. The blood cadmium level was significantly higher among those subjects with hypertension than those without (mean level 1.77 versus 1.64 {mu}g/dL). After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratio of hypertension comparing the highest to the lowest tertile of cadmium in blood was 1.51 (95% confidence interval 1.13 to 2.05), and a dose-response relationship was observed. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure were all positively associated with blood cadmium level, and this effect of cadmium on blood pressure was markedly stronger when the kidney function was reduced. Conclusions:: Cadmium exposures at the current level may have increased the blood pressure of Korean general population.

  6. Cadmium in blood and hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives:: This study is to examine the effect of cadmium exposure on blood pressure in Korean general population. Methods:: The study population consisted of 958 men and 944 women who participated in the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), in which blood pressure and blood cadmium were measured from each participant. Results:: The mean blood cadmium level was 1.67 μg/L (median level 1.55). The prevalence of hypertension was 26.2%. The blood cadmium level was significantly higher among those subjects with hypertension than those without (mean level 1.77 versus 1.64 μg/dL). After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratio of hypertension comparing the highest to the lowest tertile of cadmium in blood was 1.51 (95% confidence interval 1.13 to 2.05), and a dose-response relationship was observed. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure were all positively associated with blood cadmium level, and this effect of cadmium on blood pressure was markedly stronger when the kidney function was reduced. Conclusions:: Cadmium exposures at the current level may have increased the blood pressure of Korean general population

  7. Projectbeschrijving Cadmium-informatiepunt (CIP)

    OpenAIRE

    Meijer PJ

    1989-01-01

    To minimize the use of cadmium the Central Government has decided to perform the purchase of products and materials within the Central Government as much as possible within the Draft Cadmium Decree. The activities to achieve this are as far as could be seen at the start of the project in june 1989, mentioned in this report.

  8. Simultaneous removal of cadmium and turbidity in contaminated soil-washing water by DAF and electroflotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J; Jung, Y; Han, M; Lee, S

    2002-01-01

    The removal of cadmium and turbidity from contaminated soil-washing water was studied by dissolved air flotation (DAF) and electroflotation at laboratory scale by using sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) as an anionic surfactant, and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) as a coagulant. Using DAF, and in the presence of SLS or Ca(OH)2, the maximum recovery rate of cadmium obtained at a stoichiometric cadmium to collector and coagulant ratio of 1:4.5 was 51.1% and 80.8%, while the removal rate of turbidity was 18.4% and 19.2%. However, satisfactory cadmium and turbidity removal was not obtained by DAF. Much more significant removal of cadmium (100%, not detected in the residual) and turbidity (95.7%) was obtained by electroflotation using an aluminium metal plate as electrode, which generated hydroxide and aluminum ion. As a consequence, electroflotation is considered an effective method to separate cadmium and turbidity from contaminated soil-washing water. The electroflotation process may have practical applications for the removal of other hazardous metals from contaminated soil-washing water. PMID:12523758

  9. Extraction of Cadmium-Potassium Iodide- Butyl Rhodamine B Ion Association Complex by Alcohol-Ammonium Sulfate Aqueous Two-Phase%乙醇-硫酸铵双水相萃取镉-碘化钾-丁基罗丹明B离子缔合物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾云; 覃事栋; 陈腾; 姚康康; 王影

    2012-01-01

    以紫外-可见分光光度法为检测手段,研究了乙醇-硫酸铵双水相体系萃取镉-碘化钾-丁基罗丹明B的离子缔合物的最佳条件.在0.5mol·L-1 H2SO4介质中,镉-碘化钾-丁基罗丹明B在乙醇-硫酸铵双水相体系中形成稳定的蓝紫色缔合物.Cd2+在0-3μg/10mL范围内呈线性关系,相关系数r=0.9984,表观摩尔吸光系数ε=1.28×106L·mol-1·cm-1.在最佳萃取条件下,离子缔合物的最大萃取率可达98%,Cd2+能与干扰离子Zn2+、Fe3+、Co2+、Cu2+、Ni2+分离完全.该法不仅灵敏度高、选择性好,而且环保、简便快速、分相清晰,无需进行反萃取,具有很强的实用性.

  10. Sulfation of chondroitin. Specificity, degree of sulfation, and detergent effects with 4-sulfating and 6-sulfating microsomal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microsomal preparations from chondroitin 6-sulfate-producing chick embryo epiphyseal cartilage, and from chondroitin 4-sulfate-producing mouse mastocytoma cells, were incubated with UDP-[14C]glucuronic acid and UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine to form non-sulfated proteo[14C]chondroitin. Aliquots of the incubations were then incubated with 3'-phosphoadenylylphosphosulfate (PAPS) in the presence or absence of various detergents. In the absence of detergents, there was good sulfation of this endogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin by the original microsomes from both sources. Detergents, with the exception of Triton X-100, markedly inhibited sulfation in the mast cell system but not in the chick cartilage system. These results indicate that sulfation and polymerization are closely linked on cell membranes and that in some cases this organization can be disrupted by detergents. When aliquots of the original incubation were heat inactivated, and then reincubated with new microsomes from chick cartilage and/or mouse mastocytoma cells plus PAPS, there was no significant sulfation of this exogenous proteo[14C] chondroitin with either system unless Triton X-100 was added. Sulfation of exogenous chondroitin and chondroitin hexasaccharide was compared with sulfation of endogenous and exogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin. Sulfate incorporation into hexasaccharide and chondroitin decreased as their concentrations (based on uronic acid) approached that of the proteo[14C]chondroitin. At the same time, the degree of sulfation in percent of substituted hexosamine increased. However, the degree of sulfation did not reach that of the endogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin. Hexasaccharide and chondroitin sulfation were stimulated by the presence of Triton X-100. However, in contrast to the exogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin, there was some sulfation of hexasaccharide and chondroitin in the absence of this detergent

  11. Pilot-plant study of wastewater sludge decontamination using a ferrous sulfate bioleaching process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Guy; Drogui, Patrick; Blais, Jean-François; Chartier, Myriam

    2006-08-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the performance of the ferrous sulfate bioleaching (FSBL) process in a pilot plant for decontamination and stabilization of wastewater sludge. Batch and continuous experiments, conducted with two 4-m3 bioreactors using indigenous iron-oxidizing bacteria (20% v/v of inoculum) with addition of 4.0 g ferrous sulfate heptahydrate per liter of sludge initially acidified to pH 4.0, were sufficient for effective heavy metal (cadmium, copper, manganese, zinc, and lead) removal yields. The average metal removal yields during the FSBL process were as follows: cadmium (69 to 75%), copper (68 to 70%), manganese (72 to 73%), zinc (65 to 66%), and lead (16%). The FSBL process was also found to be effective in removing both fecal and total coliforms (abatement > 5 to 6 log units). The nutrients content (nitrogen, phosphorus, and magnesium) were also preserved in decontaminated sludge. PMID:17059142

  12. 29 CFR 1926.1127 - Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... containment of cadmium or materials containing cadmium on the site or location at which construction...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1127 Cadmium. (a... forms, in all construction work where an employee may potentially be exposed to cadmium....

  13. Cadmium exposure in the Swedish environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report gives a thorough description of cadmium in the Swedish environment. It comprises three parts: Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks;, Cadmium in goods - contribution to environmental exposure;, and Cadmium in fertilizers, soil, crops and foods - the Swedish situation. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all three parts

  14. Potassium 4-(hydroxymethyl)-benzenosulfonate: a novel metabolite isolated from the marine red alga Bostrychia tenella (Rhodomelaceae, ceramiales)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical investigation of the dichloromethane/methanol extract of the marine alga Bostrychia tenella has led to the isolation of two aromatic compounds, the new sulfate metabolite potassium 4-(hydroxymethyl)-benzenosulfonate (1) and the compound 1-methoxyphenethyl alcohol (2), described previously as a synthetic product. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods including NMR, MS, IR and by comparison with literature data. (author)

  15. Cadmium in newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Eklund, Gunilla

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a well-known nephrotoxic environmental contaminant but there are indications that the developing nervous system might be even more sensitive to Cd than the kidneys in adults. Infants are exposed to Cd from various formulas and infant diets and the gastrointestinal Cd uptake is believed to be higher in newborns than in adults. Cd levels monitored in infant foods ranged between 0.74 and 27.0 µg/kg. Cow's milk formulas had the lowest levels and cereal-based formulas had up to 21 ...

  16. Cadmium sulfite hexahydrate revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Baggio; Andrés Ibáñez; Ricardo Baggio

    2008-01-01

    The present structural revision of the title compound, tetracadmium tetrasulfite hexahydrate, [Cd4(SO3)4(H2O)5]·H2O, is a low-temperature upgrade (T = 100 K and R = 0.017) of the original room-temperature structure reported by Kiers & Vos [Cryst. Struct. Commun. (1978). 7, 399–403; T = 293 K and R = 0.080). The compound is a three-dimensional polymer with four independent cadmium centres, four sulfite anions and six water molecules, five of them coordinated to two c...

  17. Cadmium and zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium and zinc are naturally occurring trace metals that are often considered together because of their close geochemical association and similarities in chemical reactivity. The loss of two electrons from an atom of Cd or Zn imparts to each an electron configuration with completely filled d orbitals; this results in a highly stable 2/sup +/ oxidation state. But Cd and Zn differ greatly in their significance to biological systems. Whereas Zn is an essential nutrient for plants, animals, and humans, Cd is best known for its toxicity to plants and as a causative agent of several disease syndromes in animals and humans

  18. Enhanced sulfate reduction with acidogenic sulfate-reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulfate reduction in a continuous flow, acidogenic reactor using molasses wastewater as the carbon source was studied at varying chemical oxygen demand/sulfate (COD/SO42-) ratios. At a critical COD/SO42- ratio of 2.7, neither COD nor sulfate were in excess for extra production of ethanol or acetate in the reactor. An acetic-type microbial metabolism was established with sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) significantly consuming hydrogen and volatile fatty acids produced by acidogenic bacteria and hydrogen producing acetogens in degrading COD, thereby yielding sulfate removal rate >94.6%. A low critical COD/SO42- ratio of 1.6 was also observed with the enriched ASRB population in reactor which overcomes the barrier to the treatment capability of sulfate-laden wastewater treatment with limited COD supply

  19. Biomonitoring of cadmium in pig production

    OpenAIRE

    Lindén, Anna

    2002-01-01

    Cadmium is a nephrotoxic metal with increasing levels in arable soils. The non-smoking population is exposed to cadmium mainly from vegetable food, especially cereal products. The major part of pig feed is cereals, and accumulated cadmium in pig kidney could reflect cadmium in the local agricultural environment. In this thesis, the possibility to use pig kidney as a bioindicator of the availability of cadmium in the agricultural environment was evaluated. There were significant correlations b...

  20. The Protective Roles of Zinc and Magnesium in Cadmium-Induced Renal Toxicity in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Babaknejad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cadmium (Cd is a heavy metal that has widespread use. It enters the food chain in different ways, including soil and water. Cadmium can cause dysfunction of different body organs. Zinc (Zn and magnesium (Mg supplementation can have protective effects against cadmium toxicity due to their antagonistic and antioxidants properties. This study examines the influence of supplemental Zn and Mg on Cd renal toxicity. Methods: Young male Wistar rats were divided into six groups of five. The Cd group received 1 mg Cd/kg and the control group received 0.5 mg/kg normal saline (i.p.. The other four groups were administered 1 mg/kg Cd+0.5 mg/kg Zn, 1 mg/kg Cd+1.5 mg/kg Zn, 1 mg/kg Cd+ 0.5 mg/kg Mg, and 1 mg/kg Cd+ 1.5 mg/kg Mg (i.p. for 21 days. Then, serum sodium, potassium, urea, creatinine, and protein levels were measured. Results: The results indicated that creatinine and protein levels decreased while urea, sodium, and potassium levels increased as a result of Cd exposure. Co-administered Cd and Zn and Mg decreased urea and increased sodium serum level in comparison to the cadmium group. Treatment by Mg, contrary to co-administered Cd and Zn, reduced serum protein level compared to the cadmium group. Compared to the cadmium treated group, Zn and Mg treatment enhanced serum creatinine level and reduced serum potassium level. Conclusion: The findings seem to suggest that zinc and magnesium compounds, due to their antagonistic and antioxidant activities, can protect Cd renal toxic effects in a dose-dependent manner.

  1. Crystal structure of tris­(piperidinium) hydrogen sulfate sulfate

    OpenAIRE

    Tamara J. Lukianova; Vasyl Kinzhybalo; Adam Pietraszko

    2015-01-01

    In the title molecular salt, 3C5H12N+·HSO4−·SO42−, each cation adopts a chair conformation. In the crystal, the hydrogen sulfate ion is connected to the sulfate ion by a strong O—H...O hydrogen bond. The packing also features a number of N—H...O hydrogen bonds, which lead to a three-dimensional network structure. The hydrogen sulfate anion accepts four hydrogen bonds from two cations, whereas the sulfate ion, as an acceptor, binds to five separate piperidinium cations, forming seven hydrogen ...

  2. Indirect complexometric determination of mercury(II) using potassium bromide as selective masking agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complexometric method for the determination of mercury in presence of other metal ions based on the selective masking ability of potassium bromide towards mercury is described. Mercury(II) present in a given sample solution is first complexed with a known excess of EDTA and the surplus EDTA is titrated against zinc sulfate solution at pH 5-6 using xylenol orange as the indicator. A known excess of 10 % solution of potassium bromide is then added and the EDTA released from Hg-EDTA complex is titrated against standard zinc sulfate solution. Reproducible and accurate results are obtained for 8 mg to 250 mg of mercury(II) with a relative error ±0.28 % and standard deviations /leg 0.5 mg. The interference of various ions is studied. This method was applied to the determination of mercury(II) in its alloys. (author)

  3. OXIDATIVE POLYMERIZATION BEHAVIOR OF 2,6-DIMETHYLPHENOL IN AQUEOUS MEDIA WITH POTASSIUM FERRICYANIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Gu; Jin-hua Zhu; Bao-qing Shentu; Qun Liu; Zhi-xue Weng

    2009-01-01

    The effects of potassium ferricyanide, sodium n-dodecyl sulfate, sodium hydroxide and temperature on the molecular weight and the yield of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) synthesized in an aqueous medium were studied. It was found that oxygen in air had little influence on the oxidative polymerization of 2,6-dimethylphenol (DMP) in the aqueous medium, and potassium ferricyanide was only an oxidant during the oxidative polymerization of DMP. Sodium n-dodecyl sulfate could stabilize polymer particles and facilitate the oxidative polymerization of DMP on the surface of polymer particles, which resulted in the increase of the molecular weight of PPO. The yield and molecular weight of PPO increased significantly with NaOH concentration at first and then decreased with NaOH concentration. The high molecular weight PPO with high yield was obtained at 50℃, but both the yield and molecular weight of PPO decreased with the further increase of temperature.

  4. Inorganic ion exchangers based on manganese and potassium for recovery and removal of pollutant metals of aqueous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents a study on the synthesis, characterization and ion exchange properties of inorganic ion exchangers based on manganese and potassium. The ion exchangers were synthesized by calcination of the mixture of manganese(II) oxalate and potassium oxalate and were characterized by granulometer distribution analysis, X-ray powder diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopic. From the data obtained in characterization it was observed that exist two distinguished groups of these materials. The first group belong to ion exchangers with up to 30% w/w potassium and the second group formed by the ion exchangers with more than 30% w / w of content of potassium in their compositions. The studies of adsorption of these materials showed that the adsorption of Cd2+ is a function of the following parameters as pH, concentration of Cd2+, time of contact between the ion exchangers the concentration of the Cd2+ solution and the interference of other ions like Ni2+. The great pH of adsorption for these materials occur in pH 9, the study of the influence of the cadmium concentration in the adsorption showed that for a group of exchangers the adsorption decreases with the increase of cadmium concentration and for the other group the adsorption increases with the increase of cadmium concentration. The kinetics of adsorption occur in a contact time between the ion exchangers and the Cd2+ solutions relatively short, at about 15 minutes is necessary to establish the equilibrium. The presence of Ni2+ as interfering ion decreases the adsorption of cadmium of 99,7% to 65%. These inorganic ion exchangers showed be good exchangers for Cd2+. (author)

  5. Microbial fuel cell based on electroactive sulfate-reducing biofilm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Regulation and management of electricity generation by variation of residence time. ► Design of microbial fuel cell based on electroactive biofilm on zeolite. ► Engineering solution for removing of the obtained elemental sulfur. - abstract: A two chambered laboratory scale microbial fuel cell (MFC) has been developed, based on natural sulfate-reducing bacterium consortium in electroactive biofilm on zeolite. The MFC utilizes potassium ferricyanide in the cathode chamber as an electron acceptor that derives electrons from the obtained in anode chamber H2S. The molecular oxygen is finally used as a terminal electron acceptor at cathode compartment. The generated power density was 0.68 W m−2 with current density of 3.2 A m−2 at 150 Ω electrode resistivity. The hydrogen sulfide itself is produced by microbial dissimilative sulfate reduction process by utilizing various organic substrates. Finally, elemental sulfur was identified as the predominant final oxidation product in the anode chamber. It was removed from MFC through medium circulation and gathering in an external tank. This report reveals dependence relationship between the progress of general electrochemical parameters and bacterial sulfate-reduction rate. The presented MFC design can be used for simultaneous sulfate purification of mining drainage wastewater and generation of renewable electricity

  6. Binding of heparan sulfate to Staphylococcus aureus.

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, O D; Ascencio, F; Fransson, L A; Wadström, T

    1992-01-01

    Heparan sulfate binds to proteins present on the surface of Staphylococcus aureus cells. Binding of 125I-heparan sulfate to S. aureus was time dependent, saturable, and influenced by pH and ionic strength, and cell-bound 125I-heparan sulfate was displaced by unlabelled heparan sulfate or heparin. Other glycosaminoglycans of comparable size (chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate), highly glycosylated glycoprotein (hog gastric mucin), and some anionic polysaccharides (dextran sulfate and RNA...

  7. Removal of sulfate interference in the determination of indium and gallium by graphite furnace AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mixture of ammonium-EDTA, nickel and aluminium nitrates is suitable as a matrix modifier for the removal of sulfate interference in the determination of indium and gallium by graphite furnace AAS. Nickel and aluminium nitrates act as a thermal stabilizer for the analyte in the furnace before atomization. Since analyte and other cations are masked by EDTA, the coexisting sulfates are converted to ammonium salt, which is readily decomposed and eliminated from the furnace during the ashing step. In the presence of 0.1 M nickel nitrate, 0.001 M aluminium nitrate and 0.1 M ammonium-EDTA, when the concentration of sodium and potassium sulfates are below 0.02 M, the interferences of these sulfates are completely removed. (author)

  8. Characterization of a cadmium-binding complex of cabbage leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, G.J.

    1984-11-01

    The chemical nature of a principle, inducible cadmium-binding complex which accumulates in cabbage leaves was studied and compared with that of animal metallothionein and copper-binding proteins isolated from various organisms. The apparent molecular weight of native cabbage complex and carboxymethylated ligand of the complex under native conditions as determined by gel filtration was about 10,000 daltons. Under denaturing conditions their apparent molecular weights were about 2000 daltons. Ligand of native complex contained 37, 28, and 9 residue per cent of glutamic acid-glutamine, cysteine, and glycine, respectively, and low aromatic residue, serine and lysine content. The high acidic and low hydrophobic residue content explain the behavior of complex on electrophoresis in the presence and absence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Its isoelectric point was below 4.0 and it bound 4 to 6 moles cadmium per mole ligand in what appear to be cadmium-mercaptide chromophores. The complex was found to be heat stable, relatively protease insensitive, and lacking in disulfide bonds. Attempts to determine the primary sequence of reduced native complex and carboxymethylated, cleaved ligand using the Edman degradation procedure were unsuccessful. An electrophoretic procedure is described for preparative isolation of purified complex and a method is described for monitoring ligand of complex as its fluorescent dibromobimane adduct. 31 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  9. Potentiometric titration of excess cadmium in cadmium selenide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and rapid potentiometric technique for determining excess cadmium in CdSe has been developed. Reaction with AgNO3 is used for sample treatment. Silver, formed in the AgNO3 reaction with excess Cd is determined with the help of KI. When using the given method of analysis the relative standard deviation is equal to 0.08-0.21. The real detection limit of excess cadmium is 9x10-7 g

  10. Cadmium uptake by rat red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rat red blood cells were employed to study the uptake of cadmium (109Cd). Suspensions of red blood cells were exposed to Cd concentrations (both bound and free) observed following in vivo Cd administration. Cd uptake was biphasic with an initial rapid phase (0C was one-fourth of that at 370C. The metabolic inhibitors: sodium fluoride (1mM), potassium cyanide (1mM) and carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (2μM) and the Na+-K+-ATPase inhibitor, ouabain (1mM) did not reduce Cd (50μM) uptake into red blood cells. This suggests that the uptake of Cd into red blood cells was not an active process. Incubation of Cd (10μM) with an equimolar concentration of Zn did not alter uptake of Cd into red blood cells, but at 5 and 10 times higher concentrations of Zn, Cd uptake was enhanced 5-fold. Mercury at one-tenth and equimolar concentrations of Cd increased Cd uptake by red blood cells 2-fold. N-Ethylmaleimide (0.5-5mM), which irreversibly inactivates membrane sulfhydryl groups, decreased Cd uptake. The data indicate that Cd uptake into rat red blood cells occurs by passive transport and that alterations of sulfhydryls of red blood cell membrane may modulate the process. (author)

  11. Cadmium(2) complexes of cytosine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complexes of cadmium(2) with cytosine obtained from aqueous or physiological solutions at room temperature are reported. The complexes were characterized by spectroscopic, conductometric, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR measurements and also by thermogravimetry. (Authors)

  12. Discovery of the Cadmium Isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Amos, S.; Thoennessen, M

    2009-01-01

    Thirty-seven cadmium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  13. Cadmium telluride nuclear radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics and performance of undoped high resistivity cadmium telluride detectors are compared to chlorine lifted counters. It is shown, in particular, that Undodep CdTe is in fact aluminium doped and that compensation occurs, as an silicon or germanium, by pair and triplet formation between the group III donor and the doubly charged cadmium vacancy acceptor. Furthermore, in chlorine doped samples, the polarization effect results from the unpaired level at Esub(c)-0,6eV

  14. Speciation of Dissolved Cadmium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Peter Engelund; Andersen, Sjur; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1995-01-01

    Equilibrium dialysis and ion exchange methods, as well as computer calculations (GEOCHEM), were applied for speciation of dissolved cadmium (Cd) in test solutions and leachate samples. The leachate samples originated from soil, compost, landfill waste and industrial waste. The ion exchange (IE......) method separates dissolved Cd into free divalent Cd (Cd 2+) and complexed Cd and furthermore separates the latter into the operationally defined forms: labile, slowly labile and stable complexes. The dialysis (ED) method determines high molecular weight Cd complexes (above 1000mol. wt). For both methods...... the reproducibility was good. By combining the results of the GEOCHEM calculations in terms of the inorganic complexes, and the IE results, the fractions of free and inorganically complexed Cd were estimated. The IE and ED results furthermore provided information about the organic complexes. Selected...

  15. The heart and potassium: a banana republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ehsan; Spiers, Christine; Khan, Maria

    2013-03-01

    The importance of potassium in maintaining stable cardiac function is a clinically understood phenomenon. Physiologically the importance of potassium in cardiac function is described by the large number of different kinds of potassium ions channels found in the heart compared to channels and membrane transport mechanisms for other ions such as sodium and calcium. Potassium is important in physiological homeostatic control of cardiac function, but is also of relevance to the diseased state, as potassium-related effects may stabilize or destabilize cardiac function. This article aims to provide a detailed understanding of potassium-mediated cardiac function. This will help the clinical practitioner evaluate how modulation of potassium ion channels by disease and pharmacological manipulation affect the cardiac patient, thus aiding in decision making when faced with clinical problems related to potassium. PMID:23425010

  16. VALIDATION OF ABACAVIR SULFATE IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE BY REVERSE PHASE HPLC WITH INTERNAL STANDARD METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    Battula Sreenivasa Rao

    2012-01-01

    A rapid, specific and accurate isocratic HPLC method was developed and validated for the assay of abacavir sulfate in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The assay involved an isocratic – elution of abacavir sulfate in Grace C18 column using mobile phase composition consists of (38:62 v/v) of methanol and 10ml of potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate. The wavelength of detection is 255nm.The method showed good linearity in the range of 10-50.0mg/mL. The runtime of the method is 8 mins. The proposed me...

  17. Increased serum potassium affects renal outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miao, Y; Dobre, D; Heerspink, H J Lambers; Brenner, B M; Cooper, M E; Parving, Hans-Henrik Dyring; Shahinfar, S; Grobbee, D; de Zeeuw, D

    2011-01-01

    To assess the effect of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) on serum potassium and the effect of a serum potassium change on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy.......To assess the effect of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) on serum potassium and the effect of a serum potassium change on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy....

  18. Potassium and High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Potassium and High Blood Pressure Updated:Mar 1,2016 A diet that includes ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  19. Status of potassium permanganate - 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a brief overview of the Technical Sections completed and being worked on for the New Animal Drug Application (NADA) for potassium permanganate will be presented. Initial Label Claim (Columnaris on catfish/HSB): 1) Human Food Safety - Complete for all fin fish (June 1999). A hazard charac...

  20. Cadmium accumulation and depuration in Anodonta anatina exposed to cadmium chloride or cadmium-EDTA complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holwerda, D.A.; Hemelraad, J.; Veenhof, P.R.; Zandee, D.I.

    1988-03-01

    The authors have previously reported on the uptake and distribution of cadmium in unionids, experimentally exposed to cadmium chloride. The purpose of the present investigation was to study the effect of metal chelation on cadmium kinetics, including metal elimination in the post-exposure phase. Generally, chelation of ionic metal by natural substances like humic acids or by synthetic compounds like EDTA decreases its environmental toxicity through a diminished rate of uptake, as compared with the free ion. The influences of metal chelation on bioconcentration and on toxicity do not always run parallel. To their knowledge, there are no data on the effect of chelation on metal kinetics in freshwater clams. Data on rates of cadmium elimination from aquatic invertebrates are highly divergent, but Cd excretion is invariably found to be smaller than uptake.

  1. 21 CFR 172.730 - Potassium bromate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium bromate. 172.730 Section 172.730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Specific Usage Additives § 172.730 Potassium bromate. The food additive potassium bromate may be...

  2. 21 CFR 182.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium sorbate. 182.3640 Section 182.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  3. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely used as a...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 582.5634 Section 582.5634 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5634 Potassium iodide. (a) Product. Potassium iodide. (b) Tolerance. 0.01 percent....

  5. 75 FR 51112 - Potassium Permanganate From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... COMMISSION Potassium Permanganate From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of an expedited five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on potassium permanganate... whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on potassium permanganate from China would be likely...

  6. Removal of Cadmium (II from Simulated Wastewater by Ion Flotation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A separation technique which has recently received a sharp increase in research activities is “ion flotation”. This technique has four important advantages for treating wastewaters: low energy consumption, small space requirements, small volume of sludge and acting selectively. The present study aims to optimize parameters of ion flotation for cadmium removal in simulated wastewater at laboratory scale. It was obtained on the reaction between Cd2+ and sodium dodecylesulfate (SDS collector followed by flotation with ethanol as frother. Test solution was prepared by combining the required amount of cadmium ion, SDS and necessary frother or sodium sulfate solution. All experiments were carried out in a flotation column at laboratory temperature (27°C, adjusted pH = 4 and 120 minutes. The different parameters (namely: flow rate, cadmium, SDS and frother concentrations and ionic strength influencing the flotation process were examined. The best removal efficiency obtained at a collector-metal ratio of 3:1 in 60 min with flow rate of 150 mL/min was 84%. The maximum cadmium removal was 92.1% where ethanol was introduced at a concentration 0.4% to flotation column with above conditions. The obtained results were promising, as both cadmium and collector were effectively removed from wastewater. Hence, the application of ion flotation for metal ions removal from effluents seems to be efficient.

  7. Mechanical Activation-Assisted Reductive Leaching of Cadmium from Zinc Neutral Leaching Residue Using Sulfur Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun; Min, Xiaobo; Chai, Liyuan; Zhang, Jianqiang; Wang, Mi

    2015-12-01

    In this work, zinc neutral leaching residue was mechanically activated by ball-milling. The subsequent leaching behavior and kinetics of cadmium extraction in a mixed SO2-H2SO4 system were studied. Changes in the crystalline phase, lattice distortion, particle size and morphology, which were induced by mechanical activation, were also investigated. The activated samples showed different physicochemical characteristics, and cadmium extraction was found to be easier than for the un-activated samples. Under the same conditions, mechanical activation contributed to higher cadmium leaching. The cadmium extraction kinetics at 75-95°C was found to fit the shrinking core model. The raw neutral leaching residue, and the samples activated for 60 min and 120 min had a calculated activation energy of 65.02 kJ/mol, 59.45 kJ/mol and 53.46 kJ/mol, respectively. The leaching residue was characterized by ICP, XRD and SEM analysis. According to XRD analysis, the main phases in the residue were lead sulfate (PbSO4), zinc sulfide (ZnS) and cadmium sulfide (CdS).

  8. Studies on voltammetric determination of cadmium in samples containing native and digested proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozd, Marcin; Pietrzak, Mariusz, E-mail: mariusz@ch.pw.edu.pl; Malinowska, Elżbieta

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Proteins exhibit diverse impact on the DPASV cadmium signals. • Proteins subjected to HNO{sub 3} introduce less interference, than the native ones. • Optimal amount of SDS depends on the kind of protein. • Presence of thiolated coating agents of QDs do not influence the analysis. - Abstract: This work focuses on determination of cadmium ions using anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) on thin film mercury electrode in conditions corresponding to those obtained after digestion of cadmium-based quantum dots and their conjugates. It presents the impact of selected proteins, including potential receptors and surface blocking agents on the voltammetric determination of cadmium. Experiments regarding elimination of interferences related to proteins presence using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) are also shown. Effect of SDS on selected analytical parameters and simplicity of analyses carried out was investigated in the framework of current studies. The significant differences of influence among tested proteins on ASV cadmium determination, as well as the variability in SDS effectiveness as the antifouling agent were observed and explained. This work is especially important for those, who design new bioassays and biosensors with a use of quantum dots as electrochemical labels, as it shows what problems may arise from presence of native and digested proteins in tested samples.

  9. Separation and concentration of hazardous metals from aqueous solutions using sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, W.A.; Wiebe, M.R.; Dugan, P.R.

    1990-01-01

    The removal of metals from aqueous solutions using sulfate-reducing bacteria was investigated. The sulfate-reducing bacteria utilized consisted of a consortium isolated from oil well brine. The consortium was capable of using lactate as a carbon and energy source and producing significant quantities of sulfide which reacted with solubilized metals to form insoluble metal sulfides. After formation, the metal sulfides were removed from solution via filtration. A variety of solubilized metals including lead, cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, and chromium were removed from solution using sulfate-reducing bacteria. Removal efficiencies varied from metal to metal with lead exhibiting the highest levels of removal and chromium the lowest. 13 refs., 9 figs.

  10. Electroprecipitation of potassium americyl carbonate from potassium carbonate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precipitation of potassium americyl carbonate was carried out at multigram scale by oxidizing americium(III) at the platinum anode in 3M K2CO3 solutions. Early investigations were conducted on pure americium 241 solutions on the 10 to 40 mg scale, in order to study the different parameters of the electrolysis, and to prove the feasibility of the process. Further experiments were performed on the 20 g scale, in impure americium 241 solutions. Electrolysis performed at 600C with a platinum grid as the anode, and a tantalum rod immersed in a cathodic compartment, precipitated 20 g of americium 241 with yields above 99% in 2 h. The electroprecipitation process presents the advantage of being clean and suitable for automation techniques in comparison with the chemical oxidation process using potassium persulphate. (orig.)

  11. Electroprecipitation of potassium americyl carbonate from potassium carbonate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precipitation of potassium americyl carbonate was carried out at multigram scale by oxidizing at platinum anode Am(III) in 3 M K2CO3 solutions. Early investigations were conducted on pure americium 241 solutions on 10 to 40 mg scale, in order to study the different parameters of the electrolysis, and to prove the faisability of the process. Further experiments have been performed on the 20 grams scale, in impure americium 241 solutions. Electrolysis performed at 600C with platinum grid as anode, and tantalum rod immersed in a cathodic compartment, precipitates 20 grams of americium 241 with yields above 99% in two hours. The electroprecipitation process presents the advantage to be clean and suitable for automation technique in comparison with the chemical oxidation process using potassium persulfate

  12. Zinc-induced protection against cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Early, J.L.; Schnell, R.C.

    1978-02-01

    Pretreatment of male rats with cadmium acetate potentiates the duration of hexobarbital hypnosis and inhibits the rate of hepatic microsomal drug metabolism. Pretreatment of rats with zinc acetate protects against these alterations in drug action elicited by cadmium.

  13. Formulasi Sediaan Deodoran Antiperspiran Bentuk Batang (Stick) Dengan Aluminium Kalium Sulfat (Tawas)

    OpenAIRE

    Lase, Bertha Dwi Julinta

    2015-01-01

    Background: Antiperspirant is a cosmetic which is used to suppress sweating by stricted pores of sweat glands, including eccrine and apocrine. Alum (potassium aluminum sulfate) is a traditional antiperspirant, which serves to improve body odor works by inhibiting the secretion of sweat with narrow the pores. In trade, alum is available in powder form antiperspirant deodorant. This form is less effective because it can be dissolved with sweat. Deodorant cosmetic preparations have several forms...

  14. Sulfated Zirconia as Alkali-Resistant Support for Catalytic NOx Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The use of bio-fuels as alternatives to traditional fossil fuels has attracted much attention recent years since bio-fuels belong to a family of renewable types of energy sources and do not contribute to the green-house effect. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with ammonia as reductant ...... interact with potassium stronger than active metal species. Among potential carriers, sulfated zirconia is of high interest because its acidic and textural properties can be modified by varying preparation conditions....

  15. Multistage Tandem Mass Spectrometry of Chondroitin Sulfate and Dermatan Sulfate

    OpenAIRE

    Bielik, Alicia M.; Zaia, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Chondroitin/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) is a glycosaminoglycan (GAG) found in abundance in extracellular matrices. In connective tissue, CS/DS proteoglycans play structural roles in maintaining viscoelasticity through the large number of immobilized sulfate groups on CS/DS chains. CS/DS chains also bind protein families including growth factors and growth factor receptors. Through such interactions, CS/DS chains play important roles in neurobiochemical processes, connective tissue homeostasis, c...

  16. Bioavailability of cadmium from linseed and cocoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Rasmussen, Rie Romme

    In Denmark and EU the exposure of cadmium from food is at a level that is relatively close to the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI). This report describes an investigation of the bioavailability of cadmium in selected food items known to contain high levels of cadmium. The purpose was to provide data ...... crushed linseed nor the intake of cocoa and chocolate....

  17. Cadmium purification and quantification using immunochromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Yongvongsoontorn, Nunnarpas; Tawarada, Kei; Ohnishi, Yoshikazu; Arakane, Tamami; Kayama, Fujio; Abe, Kaoru; Oguma, Shinichi; Ohmura, Naoya

    2009-06-10

    One of the pathways by which cadmium enters human beings is through the consumption of agricultural products. The monitoring of cadmium has a significant role in the management of cadmium intake. Cadmium purification and quantification using immunochromatography were conducted in this study as an alternative means of cadmium analysis. The samples used in this study were rice, tomato, lettuce, garden pea, Arabidopsis thaliana (a widely used model organism for studying plants), soil, and fertilizer. The cadmium immunochromatography has been produced from the monoclonal antibody Nx2C3, which recognize the chelate form of cadmium, Cd.EDTA. The immunochromatography can be used for quantification of cadmium in a range from 0.01 to 0.1 mg/L at 20% mean coefficient of variance. A chelate column employing quaternary ammonium salts was used for the purification of cadmium from HCl extracts of samples. Recoveries of cadmium were near 100%, and the lowest recovery was 76.6% from rice leaves. The estimated cadmium concentrations from the immunochromatography procedure were evaluated by comparison with the results of instrumental analysis (ICP-AES or ICP-MS). By comparison of HCl extracts analyzed by ICP-MS and column eluates analyzed by immunochromatography of the samples, the estimated cadmium concentrations were closely similar, and their recoveries were from 98 to 116%. PMID:19489614

  18. Preparation Of Glucosamine Hydrochloride And Glucosamine Sulfate From Irradiated Chitin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glucosamine hydrochloride is an amino sugar which is incorporated into the structure of body tissues. It comprises about 80% glucosamine, a compound helpful in maintaining joint health in individuals suffering from degenerative conditions such as arthritis. When orally ingested, it is selectively taken up by joint tissues to exert beneficial effects. Glucosamine may also have other therapeutic effects such as antiviral, anti-cancer, anti-aging, immune boosting or cholesterol lowering activity. Glucosamine may be obtained by hydrolysis and deacetylation of chitin, a polymer of N-acetyl glucosamine with hydrochloric acid. In this work we prepare glucosamine hydrochloride and glucosamine sulfate from irradiated chitin in order to produce high-purity product with good yield. The method consists of the following steps: 1/ Grinding the chitin; 2/ Irradiation the chitin using gamma Co-60 source at 30 kGy; 3/ Digesting the chitin with prewarmed, concentrated HCl, by mixing the chitin with the HCl, and heating to 95oC for 2 hours to produce a slurry; 4/ Cooling the slurry to room temperature and filtering the precipitate; 5/ Dissolving the precipitate in hot water with activated charcoal at room temperature; 6/ Filtering the solution and discarding the solids; 7/ Evaporating the solution to recover glucosamine solids; 8/ Washing the glucosamine solids with ethanol; 9/ Drying the glucosamine solids. Glucosamine sulfate is very hygroscopic and degrades rapidly when exposed to moisture. To avoid this problem, glucosamine sulfate is made from glucosamine hydrochloride by adding potassium sulfate and co-crystallizing the resulting mixture. The method comprising the following steps:1/ Dissolving 25.9 g of glucosamine hydrochloride in 84 g of distilled water with stirring; 2/ Adding 10.6 g of potassium sulfate and stirring was continued for about one hour at temperature of from 35oC to 45oC to complete the reaction; 3/ Precipitating the stable crystalline form by addition of a

  19. Mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium (Cd), a heavy metal of considerable occupational and environmental concern, has been classified as a human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The carcinogenic potential of Cd as well as the mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis following exposure to Cd has been studied using in vitro cell culture and in vivo animal models. Exposure of cells to Cd results in their transformation. Administration of Cd in animals results in tumors of multiple organs/tissues. Also, a causal relationship has been noticed between exposure to Cd and the incidence of lung cancer in human. It has been demonstrated that Cd induces cancer by multiple mechanisms and the most important among them are aberrant gene expression, inhibition of DNA damage repair, induction of oxidative stress, and inhibition of apoptosis. The available evidence indicates that, perhaps, oxidative stress plays a central role in Cd carcinogenesis because of its involvement in Cd-induced aberrant gene expression, inhibition of DNA damage repair, and apoptosis.

  20. Cadmium uptake by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghiri, F.

    1973-01-01

    Absorption of /sup 115m/Cd by soybean (Gylcine max l.) plants via foliar and root systems and translocation into the seed was determined. The uptake of /sup 115m/Cd by soybeans via the root system was more efficient than that of the foliar placement. Growth and Cd concentrations of soybean and wheat (Triticum aestivum l.) tops were influenced by soil-applied Cd. In both crops, the Cd concentration of plant tops increased while yield decreased with increasing levels of applied Cd. Cadmium toxicitiy began to occur in both crops at the lowest level of soil applied Cd (2.5 ppM). With soybean plants, Cd toxicity symptoms resembled fe chlorosis. For wheat plants there were no visual symptoms other than the studied growth. The relative concentration of Cd found in several vegetable crops varied depending on the plant species. The relative Cd concentration in descending order for various vegetables was lettuce (Lactuca sativa l.) > radish top (Raphanus sativus l.) > celery stalk (Apium graveolens l.) > celery leaves greater than or equal to green pepper (Capsicum frutescens l.) > radish roots.

  1. Flotation isolation of uranium(6) from acidic waste waters with the use of potassium soaps of dialkylphosphinic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The applicability of potassium soaps of dialkylphosphinic acids of R2POOH type where R is C3-C10 hydrocarbon radical as uranium flotation collectors is investigated. Under similar conditions the degree of uranium flotation isolation from nitrate solutions is notably higher than from chloride solutions, and from the latter is higher than from sulfate solutions. The method of uranium flotation isolation using dialkylphosphinic acid soaps was tested in synthetic solutions simulating acid (pH = 2-5) waste waters. Possibility of flotation method to isolate 95-99% of uranium from acid solutions using potassium soaps of dialkylphosphinic acids is demonstrated

  2. The inhibitory effects of potassium chloride versus potassium silicate application on (137)Cs uptake by rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Shigeto; Yoshioka, Kunio; Ota, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Sato, Makoto; Satou, Mutsuto

    2016-03-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant owned by the Tokyo Electric Power Company on 11 March 2011, potassium fertilizer was applied to agricultural fields in the southern Tohoku and northern Kanto regions of Japan to reduce the uptake of radiocesium by crops. In this study, we examined the effects of two types of potassium fertilizers, potassium chloride (a readily available potassium fertilizer) and potassium silicate (a slow-release potassium fertilizer), as well as a split application of potassium, on the accumulation of (137)Cs by rice plants in two pot experiments. The (137)Cs concentrations in the brown rice and in the above-ground plants were significantly lower after potassium chloride application than after potassium silicate application. The potassium ion (K(+)) concentrations in soil solutions sampled 9 and 21 d after transplanting were significantly higher for the potassium chloride application than for the potassium silicate application. The K(+) concentrations in soil solutions observed in the application of potassium silicate were similar to those in the treatment when no potassium was applied. This finding indicates that the application of potassium silicate did not sufficiently increase the available K(+) for rice plants in the soil, which led to a greater uptake of (137)Cs after the potassium silicate application than after the application of potassium chloride. The (137)Cs concentration in brown rice was higher in the split application of potassium fertilizer with the second application at the full heading stage than that without split application and the split application with the second application before heading. PMID:26773513

  3. Sulfated compounds from marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornprobst, J M; Sallenave, C; Barnathan, G

    1998-01-01

    More than 500 sulfated compounds have been isolated from marine organisms so far but most of them originate from two phyla only, Spongia and Echinodermata. The sulfated compounds are presented according to the phyla they have been identified from and to their chemical structures. Biological activities, when available, are also given. Macromolecules have also been included in this review but without structural details. PMID:9530808

  4. Potassium Intake, Bioavailability, Hypertension, and Glucose Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Michael S; Martyn, Lisa; Weaver, Connie M

    2016-01-01

    Potassium is an essential nutrient. It is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid where it plays a key role in maintaining cell function. The gradient of potassium across the cell membrane determines cellular membrane potential, which is maintained in large part by the ubiquitous ion channel the sodium-potassium (Na+-K+) ATPase pump. Approximately 90% of potassium consumed (60-100 mEq) is lost in the urine, with the other 10% excreted in the stool, and a very small amount lost in sweat. Little is known about the bioavailability of potassium, especially from dietary sources. Less is understood on how bioavailability may affect health outcomes. Hypertension (HTN) is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and a major financial burden ($50.6 billion) to the US public health system, and has a significant impact on all-cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. The relationship between increased potassium supplementation and a decrease in HTN is relatively well understood, but the effect of increased potassium intake from dietary sources on blood pressure overall is less clear. In addition, treatment options for hypertensive individuals (e.g., thiazide diuretics) may further compound chronic disease risk via impairments in potassium utilization and glucose control. Understanding potassium bioavailability from various sources may help to reveal how specific compounds and tissues influence potassium movement, and further the understanding of its role in health. PMID:27455317

  5. Potassium Intake, Bioavailability, Hypertension, and Glucose Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Stone

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Potassium is an essential nutrient. It is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid where it plays a key role in maintaining cell function. The gradient of potassium across the cell membrane determines cellular membrane potential, which is maintained in large part by the ubiquitous ion channel the sodium-potassium (Na+-K+ ATPase pump. Approximately 90% of potassium consumed (60–100 mEq is lost in the urine, with the other 10% excreted in the stool, and a very small amount lost in sweat. Little is known about the bioavailability of potassium, especially from dietary sources. Less is understood on how bioavailability may affect health outcomes. Hypertension (HTN is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD and a major financial burden ($50.6 billion to the US public health system, and has a significant impact on all-cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. The relationship between increased potassium supplementation and a decrease in HTN is relatively well understood, but the effect of increased potassium intake from dietary sources on blood pressure overall is less clear. In addition, treatment options for hypertensive individuals (e.g., thiazide diuretics may further compound chronic disease risk via impairments in potassium utilization and glucose control. Understanding potassium bioavailability from various sources may help to reveal how specific compounds and tissues influence potassium movement, and further the understanding of its role in health.

  6. Potassium Intake, Bioavailability, Hypertension, and Glucose Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Michael S.; Martyn, Lisa; Weaver, Connie M.

    2016-01-01

    Potassium is an essential nutrient. It is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid where it plays a key role in maintaining cell function. The gradient of potassium across the cell membrane determines cellular membrane potential, which is maintained in large part by the ubiquitous ion channel the sodium-potassium (Na+-K+) ATPase pump. Approximately 90% of potassium consumed (60–100 mEq) is lost in the urine, with the other 10% excreted in the stool, and a very small amount lost in sweat. Little is known about the bioavailability of potassium, especially from dietary sources. Less is understood on how bioavailability may affect health outcomes. Hypertension (HTN) is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and a major financial burden ($50.6 billion) to the US public health system, and has a significant impact on all-cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. The relationship between increased potassium supplementation and a decrease in HTN is relatively well understood, but the effect of increased potassium intake from dietary sources on blood pressure overall is less clear. In addition, treatment options for hypertensive individuals (e.g., thiazide diuretics) may further compound chronic disease risk via impairments in potassium utilization and glucose control. Understanding potassium bioavailability from various sources may help to reveal how specific compounds and tissues influence potassium movement, and further the understanding of its role in health. PMID:27455317

  7. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Extended Equilibrium Modeling of Cesium and Potassium Distribution Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delmau, L.H.

    2002-06-13

    An extension of the model developed in FY01 for predicting equilibrium distribution ratios in the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process is presented here. Motivation for extending the model arose from the need to predict extraction performance of the recently optimized solvent composition and the desire to include additional waste components. This model involves the extraction of cesium and potassium from different cesium, potassium, and sodium media over a large range of concentrations. Those different media include a large variety of anions such as nitrate, hydroxide, nitrite, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, and carbonate. The model was defined based on several hundreds of experimental data points and predicted satisfactorily the cesium extraction from five different SRS waste simulants. This process model encompassed almost exclusively 1:1:1 metal:anion:ligand species. Fluoride, sulfate, and carbonate species were found to be very little extractable, and their main impact is reflected through their activity effects. This model gave a very good cesium and potassium extraction prediction from sodium salts, which is what is needed when trying to predict the behavior from actual waste. However, the extraction from potassium or cesium salts, and the extraction of sodium could be improved, and some additional effort was devoted to improve the thermodynamic rigor of the model. Toward this end, more detailed anion-specific models were developed based on the cesium, potassium, and sodium distribution ratios obtained with simple systems containing single anions, but it has not yet proven possible to combine those models to obtain better predictions than provided by the process model.

  8. Nickel cadmium battery expert system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The applicability of artificial intelligence methodologies for the automation of energy storage management, in this case, nickel cadmium batteries, is demonstrated. With the Hubble Space Telescope Electrical Power System (HST/EPS) testbed as the application domain, an expert system was developed which incorporates the physical characterization of the EPS, in particular, the nickel cadmium batteries, as well as the human's operational knowledge. The expert system returns not only fault diagnostics but also status and advice along with justifications and explanations in the form of decision support.

  9. Localization and toxic effects of cadmium, copper, and uranium in Azolla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sela, M.; Tel-Or, E.; Fritz, E.; Huttermann, A.

    1988-09-01

    The storage and distribution of copper, cadmium, and uranium and their effects on ionic contents in roots and shoots of Azolla filiculoides has been studied by x-ray microanalysis. The relative content of copper was eightfold higher in the root than in the shoot, suggesting low mobility of this metal in Azolla plant. Cadmium relative content in the shoot was similar to its content in the root, hence its mobility was relatively high. The absence of significant uranium quantities in the shoot and its relative high content in the root suggest the immobility of this metal from Azolla root. Cadmium formed precipitates with phosphate and calcium in xylem cells of the shoot bundle and caused a two- to threefold increase in the content of phosphate in the root. Uranium in roots and cadmium in shoots were associated with calcium. All three treatments caused losses of potassium, chloride, and magnesium from Azolla roots. Accumulation of heavy metals in Azolla and their mobility from the root to the shoot can be correlated with damage caused by the loss of essential nutrients.

  10. Insulin Expression in Rats Exposed to Cadmium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effects of cadmium exposure on insulin expression in rats. Methods Eighteen adult SD assessed. The levels of cadmium and zinc in pancreas, blood and urine glucose, serum insulin and urine NAG (N-acyetyl-β-glucosaminidase) were determined. The gene expressions of metallothionein (MT) and insulin were also measured,and the oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were carried out. Results The contents of cadmium in pancreas in cadmium-treated rats were higher than that in the control group, which was associated with slight increase of zinc in pancreas.not change significantly after cadmium administration, and the UNAG had no change in Cd-treated group. The gene expression the change of the expression of insulin, MT-Ⅰ and MT-Ⅱ genes. Cadmium can influence the biosynthesis of insulin, but does not induce the release of insulin. The dysfunction of pancreas occurs earlier than that of kidney after administration of cadmium.

  11. Effect of potassium supply on drought resistance in sorghum: plant growth and macronutrient content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays, the main limiting natural resource is widely considered to be water. Therefore, research into crop management practices that enhance drought resistance and plant growth when water supply is limited has become increasingly essential. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of potassium (K) nutritional status on the drought resistance of grain sorghum during 2009. Drought stress by reducing the yield components, especially the number of panicle per plant and one-hundred grain weight reduced grain yield and greatest yield (3499 kg ha/sup -1/) obtained at full irrigation. Potassium sulfate increased grain and biological yield by 28% and 22%, respectively compared to control through improving growth conditions. Drought stress increased the N content, while reduced water availability decreased the K and Na in plant. No K fertilized plants had the lowest leaf K and N and highest Na concentrations. Chlorophyll content increased significantly with increase in K supply and increased frequency of irrigation. Interaction effect of drought stress and potassium sulfate on all studied traits except chlorophyll content was significant and optimum soil K levels protects plants from drought. These observations indicate that adequate K nutrition can improve drought resistance of sorghum. (author)

  12. Ultratrace potassium determination in plutonium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method improving the detection limit for potassium in plutonium oxide samples in a high acid matrix was developed. Ultratrace detection limits (sub parts per million) for potassium in plutonium oxide digestate were achieved by optimizing several instrument parameters. Using the Horiba Jobin-Yvon Ultima 2 ICP-AES spectrometer different settings and conditions were examined to improve the detection limit for potassium. The optimized parameters of 0.875 L min-1 sheath gas flow, 20/80 µm entrance/exit slit, 8 s MAX mode signal integration, and blank subtraction were able to lower the potassium reporting limit to 10 ng mL-1. (author)

  13. Cadmium in jamaican bush teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoo Fung, L A; Rattray, V R; Lalor, G C

    2014-01-01

    Samples of Jamaican plants used as bush teas were collected from households in high soil-cadmium (Cd) areas of central Jamaica and analysed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry for total cadmium and for cadmium extractable with a hot water brew as prepared for human consumption to determine their contribution to dietary cadmium exposure. The concentrations ranged from < 0.03 to 6.85 µg/g for total Cd, between 1 and 15% of which was extracted with a hot water brew. One cup (200 ml) of the teas examined was found to contain < 0.04-1.18 µg of Cd and would contribute 0.1-0.3 µg of Cd to a person's dietary intake. This is significantly below the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of 7 µg Cd/kg body weight established by the World Health Organization (WHO). While this suggests that bush tea consumption does not contribute significantly to the PTWI, some of the teas examined exceed the WHO recommendation of less than 0.3 mg/kg Cd for medicinal plants. PMID:25303189

  14. [Norfloxacin Solution Degradation Under Ultrasound, Potassium Persulfate Collaborative System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hong; Shi, Jing-zhuan; Li, Jia-lin; Li, Ke-bin; Zhao, Lin; Han, Kai

    2015-11-01

    High oxidative sulfate radicals can be produced by potassium persulfate (K2S2O8). The integrated effect of ultrasonic and K2S2O8, on norfloxacin degradation was investigated. The experimental parameters such as K2S2O8 concentration, norfloxacin initial concentration, initial pH value, free radicals quenching agents such as methanol and tert-butyl on norfloxacin degradation were discussed. The results indicated that ultrasonic/K2S2O8, system had an obvious degradation and mineralization effect on norfloxacin. Norfloxacin removal efficiencies were 3.2 and 8.9 times in ultrasonic/K2S2O8 system than those in single K252O8 and ultrasonic oxidation system, respectively. And the reaction followed the first-order kinetics. Norfloxacin removal efficiency varied gently with K2S2O8 concentration. Solution initial pH had a significant effect on norfloxacin degradation, which was attributed to the different oxidizing species under different pH values. The radicals were sulfate radicals under acidic and neutral conditions, and was the combination of sulfate and hydroxyl radicals under alkaline conditions. TOC and agar diffusion test with E. coli showed that 49.12% norfloxacin was mineralized and antibacterial activity was completely removed, with the diameter of E. coli inhibition zone decreased from 45 mm to 14 mm (filter paper diameter). The result implied that ultrasound/K2S2O8 showed promising results as a possible application for treatment of norfloxacin antibiotics wastewater. PMID:26910998

  15. Impaired homeostatic mechanism of potassium handling after acute oral potassium load in diabetes mellitus.

    OpenAIRE

    H.J. Kim; Ahn, Y. H.; Park, C H; Kang, C M; Park, H C; Bae, H. Y.; Choi, S. D.

    1993-01-01

    Chronic stable diabetic patients (n = 6) were compared with healthy control subjects (n = 5) after acute oral intake of 50 mEq of potassium chloride (KCl) to investigate for possible derangements of homeostatic responses for acute term (3 hrs) to acute potassium load. Plasma renin activity (PRA), plasma aldosterone (PA), and transtubular potassium concentration gradient (TTKG) known as a useful semiquantative index of distal nephron potassium secretion were measured. All the baseline paramete...

  16. Bioengineered heparins and heparan sulfates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Li; Suflita, Matthew; Linhardt, Robert J

    2016-02-01

    Heparin and heparan sulfates are closely related linear anionic polysaccharides, called glycosaminoglycans, which exhibit a number of important biological and pharmacological activities. These polysaccharides, having complex structures and polydispersity, are biosynthesized in the Golgi of animal cells. While heparan sulfate is a widely distributed membrane and extracellular glycosaminoglycan, heparin is found primarily intracellularly in the granules of mast cells. While heparin has historically received most of the scientific attention for its anticoagulant activity, interest has steadily grown in the multi-faceted role heparan sulfate plays in normal and pathophysiology. The chemical synthesis of these glycosaminoglycans is largely precluded by their structural complexity. Today, we depend on livestock animal tissues for the isolation and the annual commercial production of hundred ton quantities of heparin used in the manufacture of anticoagulant drugs and medical device coatings. The variability of animal-sourced heparin and heparan sulfates, their inherent impurities, the limited availability of source tissues, the poor control of these source materials and their manufacturing processes, suggest a need for new approaches for their production. Over the past decade there have been major efforts in the biotechnological production of these glycosaminoglycans, driven by both therapeutic applications and as probes to study their natural functions. This review focuses on the complex biology of these glycosaminoglycans in human health and disease, and the use of recombinant technology in the chemoenzymatic synthesis and metabolic engineering of heparin and heparan sulfates. PMID:26555370

  17. Tris(diisopropylammonium hydrogensulfate sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhossein Sh. Mohammadnezhad

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The cations and anions of the title salt, 3C6H16N+·HSO4−·SO42−, are linked by N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional network. The hydrogensulfate ion, with a single S—O(H bond of 1.563 (2 Å, forms a short O—H...O hydrogen bond [O...O = 2.609 (2 Å] to the sulfate ion. The hydrogensulfate ion accepts two hydrogen bonds from two cations, whereas the sulfate ion, as an acceptor, binds to four cations. The sulfate ion is disordered approximately equally over two sites related by rotation around one of the O—S bonds.

  18. Protective Effect of Humic acid and Chitosan on Radish (Raphanus sativus, L. var. sativus Plants Subjected to Cadmium Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. EL-Gahmery

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHumic acid or chitosan has been shown to increase plant growth, yield and improving physiological processes in plant, but its roles on alleviating the harmful effect of cadmium on plant growth and some physiological processes in plants is very rare. Pot experiments were conducted to study the role of 100 and 200 mg/kg dry soil from either humic acid or chitosan on counteracted the harmful effects of cadmium levels (100 and 150 mg/kg dry soil on radish plant growth and some physiological charactersResultsCadmium at 100 and 150 mg kg-1 soil decreased significantly length, fresh and dry weights of shoot and root systems as well as leaf number per plant in both seasons. Chlorophyll, total sugars, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, relative water content, water deficit percentage and soluble proteins as well as total amino acids contents were also decreased. Meanwhile, cadmium concentration in plants was increased. On the other hand, application of chitosan or humic acid as soil addition at the concentration of 100 or 200 mg kg-1 increased all the above mentioned parameters and decreased cadmium concentrations in plant tissues. Chitosan at 200 mg kg-1 was the most effective than humic acid at both concentrations in counteracting the harmful effect of cadmium stress on radish plant growth.ConclusionIn conclusion, both natural chelators, in particular, chitosan at 200 mg/kg dry soil can increase the capacity of radish plant to survive under cadmium stress due to chelating the Cd in the soil, and then reduced Cd bio-availability.

  19. Sulfate reduction in freshwater peatlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This text consist of two parts: Part A is a literature review on microbial sulfate reduction with emphasis on freshwater peatlands, and part B presents the results from a study of the relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane formation for the anaerobic decomposition in a boreal peatland. The relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane production for the anaerobic decomposition was studied in a small raised bog situated in the boreal zone of southern Sweden. Depth distribution of sulfate reduction- and methane production rates were measured in peat sampled from three sites (A, B, and C) forming an minerotrophic-ombrotrophic gradient. SO42- concentrations in the three profiles were of equal magnitude and ranged from 50 to 150 μM. In contrast, rates of sulfate reduction were vastly different: Maximum rates in the three profiles were obtained at a depth of ca. 20 cm below the water table. In A it was 8 μM h-1 while in B and C they were 1 and 0.05 μM h-1, respectively. Methane production rates, however, were more uniform across the three nutrient regimes. Maximum rates in A (ca. 1.5 μg d-1 g-1) were found 10 cm below the water table, in B (ca. 1.0 μg d-1 g-1) in the vicinity of the water table, and in C (0.75 μg d-1 g-1) 20 cm below the water table. In all profiles both sulfate reduction and methane production rates were negligible above the water table. The areal estimates of methane production for the profiles were 22.4, 9.0 and 6.4 mmol m-2 d-1, while the estimates for sulfate reduction were 26.4, 2.5, and 0.1 mmol m-2 d-1, respectively. The calculated turnover times at the sites were 1.2, 14.2, and 198.7 days, respectively. The study shows that sulfate reducing bacteria are important for the anaerobic degradation in the studied peatland, especially in the minerotrophic sites, while methanogenic bacteria dominate in ombrotrophic sites Examination paper. 67 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  20. Acid Sulfate Alteration on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of mineralogical and geochemical indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination of surface and orbital robotic missions, telescopic observations, characterization of Martian meteorites, and laboratory and terrestrial analog studies. Acid sulfate alteration has been identified at all three landing sites visited by NASA rover missions (Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity). Spirit landed in Gusev crater in 2004 and discovered Fe-sulfates and materials that have been extensively leached by acid sulfate solutions. Opportunity landing on the plains of Meridiani Planum also in 2004 where the rover encountered large abundances of jarosite and hematite in sedimentary rocks. Curiosity landed in Gale crater in 2012 and has characterized fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine sediments. Jarosite and hematite were discovered in some of the lacustrine sediments. The high elemental abundance of sulfur in surface materials is obvious evidence that sulfate has played a major role in aqueous processes at all landing sites on Mars. The sulfate-rich outcrop at Meridiani Planum has an SO3 content of up to 25 wt.%. The interiors of rocks and outcrops on the Columbia Hills within Gusev crater have up to 8 wt.% SO3. Soils at both sites generally have between 5 to 14 wt.% SO3, and several soils in Gusev crater contain around 30 wt.% SO3. After normalization of major element compositions to a SO3-free basis, the bulk compositions of these materials are basaltic, with a few exceptions in Gusev crater and in lacustrine mudstones in Gale crater. These observations suggest that materials encountered by the rovers were derived from basaltic precursors by acid sulfate alteration under nearly isochemical conditions (i.e., minimal leaching). There are several cases, however, where acid sulfate alteration minerals (jarosite and hematite) formed in open hydrologic systems, e.g., in Gale crater lacustrine mudstones. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the

  1. CADMIUM SULFATE APPLICATION TO SLUDGE-AMENDED SOILS. 1. EFFECT ON YIELD AND CADMIUM AVAILABILITY TO PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twelve paired soils (only one of each pair having a history of sludge application) with pH values ranging from 3.9 to 7.4 were amended with CdSO4 in a growth chamber experiment. Three crops of Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla) and one crop of corn (Zea mays L) were sequentia...

  2. Cadmium detoxification processes in the digestive gland of cephalopods in relation to accumulated cadmium concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Bustamante, Paco; Cosson, Richard; Gallien, Isabelle; Caurant, Florence; Miramand, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    International audience The high concentrations of cadmium recorded in the digestive gland of cephalopods from various temperate and subpolar waters suggest that these molluscs have developed efficient cadmium detoxification mechanisms. The subcellular distribution of cadmium in the digestive gland cells was investigated in seven cephalopod species from the Bay of Biscay (France) and the Faroe Islands. In most species, cadmium was mainly found in the cytosolic fraction of the digestive glan...

  3. Cadmium content of plants as affected by soil cadmium concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehoczky, E. [Pannon Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Keszthely (Hungary); Szabados, I.; Marth, P. [Plant Health and Soil Conservation Station, Higany (Hungary)

    1996-12-31

    Pot experiments were conducted in greenhouse conditions to study the effects of increasing cadmium (Cd) levels on biomass production and Cd contents in corn, (Zea mays L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Plants were grown in two soil types: Eutric cambisol soil and A gleyic luvisol soil. Spinach proved to be the most sensitive to Cd treatments as its biomass considerably decreased with the increasing Cd levels. Cadmium contents of the three crops increased with increasing levels of Cd applications. Statistical differences were observed in the Cd contents of crops depending on soil type. With the same Cd rates, Cd tissue concentration of test plants grown in the strongly acidic Gleyic luvisol soil were many times higher than that of plants grown in a neutral Eutric cambisol soil. 14 refs., 4 tabs.

  4. Rare, severe hypersensitivity reaction to potassium iodide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Sofie Korsholm; Ebbehøj, Eva; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2014-01-01

    The literature reports a large variety of adverse reactions to potassium iodide. A severe hypersensitivity reaction to potassium iodide in a 51-year-old woman with Graves' thyrotoxicosis is described. Following administration the patient developed sialadenitis, conjunctivitis, stomatitis and acne...

  5. Neutron diffraction studies of potassium thiocyanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of some low frequency phonon dispersion curves in potassium thiocyanate have been made using inelastic neutron scattering techniques. Elastic neutron powder diffraction measurements have also been made on potassium thiocyanate to resolve discrepancies in the literature concerning its structure. (author) 11 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  6. Status of potassium permanganate label claim - 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brief overview of the Technical Sections completed and being worked on for the New Animal Drug Application (NADA) for potassium permanganate will be presented. Various aspects of these technical sections will be open for discussion. Potassium Permanganate Initial Label Claim (Columnaris on cat...

  7. 75 FR 23298 - Potassium Permanganate From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... potassium permanganate from China (70 FR 35630). The Commission is now conducting a third review to... permanganate from China (64 FR 66166). Following second five-year reviews by Commerce and the Commission... COMMISSION Potassium Permanganate From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission....

  8. Cadmium-induced Cancers in Animals and in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Huff, James; Lunn, Ruth M.; Waalkes, Michael P.; Tomatis, Lorenzo; Infante, Peter F.

    2007-01-01

    Discovered in the early 1800s, the use of cadmium and various cadmium salts started to become industrially important near the close of the 19th century, rapidly thereafter began to flourish, yet has diminished more recently. Most cadmium used in the United States is a byproduct from the smelting of zinc, lead, or copper ores, and is used to manufacture batteries. Carcinogenic activity of cadmium was discovered first in animals and only subsequently in humans. Cadmium and cadmium compounds hav...

  9. Cadmium Exposure and Pancreatic Cancer in South Louisiana

    OpenAIRE

    Luckett, Brian G.; L. Joseph Su; Rood, Jennifer C.; Elizabeth T. H. Fontham

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium has been hypothesized to be a pancreatic carcinogen. We test the hypothesis that cadmium exposure is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer with a population-based case-control study sampled from a population with persistently high rates of pancreatic cancer (south Louisiana). We tested potential dietary and nondietary sources of cadmium for their association with urinary cadmium concentrations which reflect long-term exposure to cadmium due to the accumulation of cadmium in the kidney c...

  10. A survey of Io's potassium cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trafton, L.

    1981-08-01

    Io's potassium cloud exhibits spatial and temporal variations similar to those observed for Io's sodium cloud. Spectra from five apparitions show that the potassium cloud is elongated so that it extends forward from Io's leading, inner hemisphere and makes an angle with Io's orbit of 10-30 deg, slightly less than the angle for the sodium cloud. The potassium cloud is a long-lived phenomenon which undergoes periodic fluctuations in response to solar radiation pressure and the ionizing influence of Jupiter's plasma torus. These give rise to east-west and north-south asymmetry variations similar to those observed for the sodium cloud. Evidence for temporary jets of potassium streaming from Io have also been observed. These similarities with the sodium cloud suggest that both sodium and potassium are ejected from nearly the same regions of Io by the same physical mechanism.

  11. Extracellular potassium inhibits Kv7.1 potassium channels by stabilizing an inactivated state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Peter; Steffensen, Annette Buur; Grunnet, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2011-01-01

    Kv7.1 (KCNQ1) channels are regulators of several physiological processes including vasodilatation, repolarization of cardiomyocytes, and control of secretory processes. A number of Kv7.1 pore mutants are sensitive to extracellular potassium. We hypothesized that extracellular potassium also...... modulates wild-type Kv7.1 channels. The Kv7.1 currents were measured in Xenopus laevis oocytes at different concentrations of extracellular potassium (1-50 mM). As extracellular potassium was elevated, Kv7.1 currents were reduced significantly more than expected from theoretical calculations based on the...... Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz flux equation. Potassium inhibited the steady-state current with an IC(50) of 6.0 ± 0.2 mM. Analysis of tail-currents showed that potassium increased the fraction of channels in the inactivated state. Similarly, the recovery from inactivation was slowed by potassium, suggesting that...

  12. Aluminium-based Coatings for Cadmium Replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Cardilli , Emanuele

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium electroplating is widely used in the aerospace industry for the corrosion protection of high strength steels. Cadmium is also used as compatible coating to reduce the galvanic corrosion generated in the assembly of components manufactured with different materials. However, environmental and safety concerns over the high toxicity of cadmium has led to the investigation of suitable replacements. Aluminium coatings are promising coatings for the replacement of electropl...

  13. Zone refining of cadmium and related characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N R Munirathnam; D S Prasad; Ch Sudheer; J V Rao; T L Prakash

    2005-06-01

    We present the zone refining results of cadmium using horizontal resistive zone refiner under constant flow of moisture free hydrogen gas. The boron impurity in cadmium can be avoided using quartz (GE 214 grade) boat in lieu of high pure graphite boat. The analytical results using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICPOES) show that majority of the impurities are less than the detection limits. Comparatively, zinc is the most difficult impurity element to remove in cadmium matrix by zone refining.

  14. Brittlestars contain highly sulfated chondroitin sulfates/dermatan sulfates that promote fibroblast growth factor 2-induced cell signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandra, Rashmi; Namburi, Ramesh B; Ortega-Martinez, Olga; Shi, Xiaofeng; Zaia, Joseph; Dupont, Sam T.; Thorndyke, Michael C; Lindahl, Ulf; Spillmann, Dorothe

    2013-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) isolated from brittlestars, Echinodermata class Ophiuroidea, were characterized, as part of attempts to understand the evolutionary development of these polysaccharides. A population of chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) chains with a high overall degree of sulfation and hexuronate epimerization was the major GAG found, whereas heparan sulfate (HS) was below detection level. Enzymatic digestion with different chondroitin lyases revealed exceptionally high p...

  15. Reduced Sulfation of Chondroitin Sulfate but Not Heparan Sulfate in Kidneys of Diabetic db/db Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Reine, Trine M.; Grøndahl, Frøy; Jenssen, Trond G.; Hadler-Olsen, Elin; Prydz, Kristian; Kolset, Svein O.

    2013-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are hypothesized to contribute to the filtration barrier in kidney glomeruli and the glycocalyx of endothelial cells. To investigate potential changes in proteoglycans in diabetic kidney, we isolated glycosaminoglycans from kidney cortex from healthy db/+ and diabetic db/db mice. Disaccharide analysis of chondroitin sulfate revealed a significant decrease in the 4-O-sulfated disaccharides (D0a4) from 65% to 40%, whereas 6-O-sulfated disaccharides (D0a6) were redu...

  16. Status of copper sulfate - 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is brief overview of the Technical Sections completed and being worked on for the New Animal Drug Application (NADA) for copper sulfate. Initial Label Claim (Ich on catfish): 1) Human Food Safety - Complete for all fin fish – February 2004. This includes human intestinal microflora issues,...

  17. Sulfate transport in toad skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Simonsen, K

    1988-01-01

    1. In short-circuited toad skin preparations exposed bilaterally to NaCl-Ringer's containing 1 mM SO2(-4), influx of sulfate was larger than efflux showing that the skin is capable of transporting sulfate actively in an inward direction. 2. This active transport was not abolished by substituting...... apical Na+ for K+. 3. Following voltage activation of the passive Cl- permeability of the mitochondria-rich (m.r.) cells sulfate flux-ratio increased to a value predicted from the Ussing flux-ratio equation for a monovalent anion. 4. In such skins, which were shown to exhibit vanishingly small leakage...... conductances, the variation of the rate coefficient for sulfate influx (y) was positively correlated with the rate coefficient for Cl- influx (x), y = 0.035 x - 0.0077 cm/sec (r = 0.9935, n = 15). 5. Addition of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine to the serosal bath of short...

  18. Calculation of potassium critical temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the algorithm of the functional prediction which is based on the selforganization of nonlinear algebraic models. The calculation procedure includes the module for the recognition of the dependence type hitch allows to restrict the number of choice of the prediction functions at the each step of the model building. The characteristic property of this algorithm is bootstrap method application as the external criteria of the selforganization. The calculation module is built using APL*PLUS and the user-friendly interface is implemented using Clipper 5.01 under Windows control. When using the algorithm and the programs, the critical point of potassium has been predicted on the base of the solubility curves of liquid and steam. 9 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  19. Bioavailability of cadmium from linseed and cocoa

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Max; Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    The exposure of the European population to cadmium from food is high compared with the tolerable weekly intake of 2.5 μg/kg bodyweight set by EFSA in 2009. Only few studies on the bioavailability of cadmium from different food sources has been performed but this information in very important for the food authorities in order to give correct advises to the population. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioavailability of cadmium from whole linseed, crushed linseed, cocoa and cadmium ...

  20. Lead and cadmium in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amounts of lead and cadmium produced and processed in these days are considerable. As a result, our environment is increasingly polluted by heavy metals and industrial installations, motor vehicles or incinerating plants appear to be among the main culprits here. Air and water are the media permitting the entry of heavy metals into our natural environment where they accumulate in the soil and then gradually migrate into the plants. Their further transport in the food constitutes the third step in the environmental spread of heavy metals. The consumption of muscle and organ meats, of vegetables, fruits, canned food and drinking water is unavoidably associated with some ingestion of lead and cadmium. The degree to which they are taken up and stored in different tissues is determined by absorption properties and the nutritional state of the organism. Cadmium tends to accumulate in the kidneys, lead is mainly stored in the bones. A continuously increasing uptake finally results in health injuries that range from unspecific complaints to damaged kidneys or bones and disorders of liver function. Children and elderly people are at a particular risk here. The level of food contamination is such that screening for heavy metals must be rigorously carried out once appropriate legal thresholds have been set, which ought to be based on proven detrimental effects of lead and cadmium on our health and also take account of infants and children or any other risk groups, where particular caution must be exercised. It should be pointed out that such thresholds have so far not been determined. (orig./MG)

  1. Historical perspectives on cadmium toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first health effects of cadmium (Cd) were reported already in 1858. Respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms occurred among persons using Cd-containing polishing agent. The first experimental toxicological studies are from 1919. Bone effects and proteinuria in humans were reported in the 1940's. After World War II, a bone disease with fractures and severe pain, the itai-itai disease, a form of Cd-induced renal osteomalacia, was identified in Japan. Subsequently, the toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of Cd were described including its binding to the protein metallothionein. International warnings of health risks from Cd-pollution were issued in the 1970's. Reproductive and carcinogenic effects were studied at an early stage, but a quantitative assessment of these effects in humans is still subject to considerable uncertainty. The World Health Organization in its International Program on Chemical Safety, WHO/IPCS (1992) (Cadmium. Environmental Health Criteria Document 134, IPCS. WHO, Geneva, 1-280.) identified renal dysfunction as the critical effect and a crude quantitative evaluation was presented. In the 1990's and 2000 several epidemiological studies have reported adverse health effects, sometimes at low environmental exposures to Cd, in population groups in Japan, China, Europe and USA (reviewed in other contributions to the present volume). The early identification of an important role of metallothionein in cadmium toxicology formed the basis for recent studies using biomarkers of susceptibility to development of Cd-related renal dysfunction such as gene expression of metallothionein in peripheral lymphocytes and autoantibodies against metallothionein in blood plasma. Findings in these studies indicate that very low exposure levels to cadmium may give rise to renal dysfunction among sensitive subgroups of human populations such as persons with diabetes.

  2. Metabolic Flexibility of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Plugge, Caroline M.; Zhang, Weiwen; Scholten, Johannes C. M.; Stams, Alfons J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Dissimilatory sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRB) are a very diverse group of anaerobic bacteria that are omnipresent in nature and play an imperative role in the global cycling of carbon and sulfur. In anoxic marine sediments sulfate reduction accounts for up to 50% of the entire organic mineralization in coastal and shelf ecosystems where sulfate diffuses several meters deep into the sediment. As a consequence, SRB would be expected in the sulfate-containing upper sediment layers, whereas me...

  3. Sulfate reduction and methanogenesis in marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremland, R. S.; Taylor, B. F.

    1978-01-01

    Methanogenesis and sulfate-reduction were followed in laboratory incubations of sediments taken from tropical seagrass beds. Methanogenesis and sulfate-reduction occurred simultaneously in sediments incubated under N2, thereby indicating that the two processes are not mutually exclusive. Sediments incubated under an atmosphere of H2 developed negative pressures due to the oxidation of H2 by sulfate-respiring bacteria. H2 also stimulated methanogenesis, but methanogenic bacteria could not compete for H2 with the sulfate-respiring bacteria.

  4. Conversion of phosphogypsum to potassium sulfate and calcium carbonate in aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ennaciri Y.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The dissociation of the phosphogysum by the liquid route which is the object of our work, is most appropriate and little expensive. Indeed, it leads to materials of direct application. The present work has for objective to study the decomposition of the phosphogypsum by the soft chemistry into valuable products such as K2SO4 and CaCO3. K2SO4 is a fertilizer which is highly recommended in the field of the agriculture, while CaCO3 can be used in the fields of the industry (cement and the environment. According to the obtained results, we notice that the decomposition of the phosphogypsum in aqueous solution is very workable, reproducible, inexpensive and it is an ecologically interesting reaction. This reaction is made at room temperature and in aqueous environment, by giving two valuable products K2SO4 and CaCO3. The reaction is total after one hour and a half.

  5. Synthesis of 2- (perfluoroalkyl)ethyl potassium sulfates based on perfluorinated Grignard reagents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paterová, J.; Skalický, M.; Rybáčková, M.; Kvíčalová, Magdalena; Cvačka, Josef; Kvíčala, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 131, č. 12 (2010), s. 1338-1343. ISSN 0022-1139 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06070; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/06/1511 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : fluoro Grignard reagent * nucleophilic substitution * DFT Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.719, year: 2010

  6. Cadmium accumulation by Axonopus compressus (Sw.) P. Beauv and Cyperus rotundas Linn growing in cadmium solution and cadmium-zinc contaminated soil

    OpenAIRE

    Paitip Thiravetyan; Vibol Sao; Woranan Nakbanpote

    2007-01-01

    This research investigated the phyto-remediation potentials of Cyperus rotundas Linn (Nutgrass) and Axonopus compressus (Sw.) P. Beauv (Carpetgrass) for cadmium removal from cadmium solution andcadmium-zinc contaminated soil. Plants growth in the solution showed that cadmium decreased the relative growth rate of both grasses. However, the amount of cadmium accumulated in shoot and root was increasedwith the increase in cadmium concentration and exposure time. Growth in fertile soil mixed with...

  7. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  9. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  10. Sulfate-reducing prokaryotes in river floodplains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miletto, M.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis constitutes a pioneer attempt at elucidating the ecology of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes in river floodplains. These are non-typical sulfate-reducing environmental settings, given the generally low sulfate concentration that characterize freshwater habitats, and river flow regulation tha

  11. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese sulfate. 582.5461 Section 582.5461 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Product. Manganese sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  12. 21 CFR 184.1461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Manganese sulfate. 184.1461 Section 184.1461 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Manganese sulfate (MnSO4·H2O, CAS... manganese compounds with sulfuric acid. It is also obtained as a byproduct in the manufacture...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 582.5443 Section 582.5443 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  15. VKCDB: Voltage-gated potassium channel database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallin Warren J

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family of voltage-gated potassium channels comprises a functionally diverse group of membrane proteins. They help maintain and regulate the potassium ion-based component of the membrane potential and are thus central to many critical physiological processes. VKCDB (Voltage-gated potassium [K] Channel DataBase is a database of structural and functional data on these channels. It is designed as a resource for research on the molecular basis of voltage-gated potassium channel function. Description Voltage-gated potassium channel sequences were identified by using BLASTP to search GENBANK and SWISSPROT. Annotations for all voltage-gated potassium channels were selectively parsed and integrated into VKCDB. Electrophysiological and pharmacological data for the channels were collected from published journal articles. Transmembrane domain predictions by TMHMM and PHD are included for each VKCDB entry. Multiple sequence alignments of conserved domains of channels of the four Kv families and the KCNQ family are also included. Currently VKCDB contains 346 channel entries. It can be browsed and searched using a set of functionally relevant categories. Protein sequences can also be searched using a local BLAST engine. Conclusions VKCDB is a resource for comparative studies of voltage-gated potassium channels. The methods used to construct VKCDB are general; they can be used to create specialized databases for other protein families. VKCDB is accessible at http://vkcdb.biology.ualberta.ca.

  16. Improvement of cadmium phytoremediation after soil inoculation with a cadmium-resistant Micrococcus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangthong, Chirawee; Setkit, Kunchaya; Prapagdee, Benjaphorn

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium-resistant Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221, a plant growth-promoting bacterium, has stimulatory effects on the root lengths of Zea mays L. seedlings under toxic cadmium conditions compared to uninoculated seedlings. The performance of Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221 on promoting growth and cadmium accumulation in Z. mays L. was investigated in a pot experiment. The results indicated that Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221significantly promoted the root length, shoot length, and dry biomass of Z. mays L. transplanted in both uncontaminated and cadmium-contaminated soils. Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221 significantly increased cadmium accumulation in the roots and shoots of Z. mays L. compared to uninoculated plants. At the beginning of the planting period, cadmium accumulated mainly in the shoots. With a prolonged duration of cultivation, cadmium content increased in the roots. As expected, little cadmium was found in maize grains. Soil cadmium was significantly reduced with time, and the highest percentage of cadmium removal was found in the bacterial-inoculated Z. mays L. after transplantation for 6 weeks. We conclude that Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221 is a potent bioaugmenting agent, facilitating cadmium phytoextraction in Z. mays L. PMID:26336850

  17. Molten salt synthesis of potassium hexatitanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaremba, T.

    2012-09-01

    Potassium hexatitanate fibrous crystals have been synthesized by a conventional solid-state reaction and via molten salt process. The molten salt process has been shown to be effective in preparing fine and non-agglomerated K2Ti6O13 whiskers. The type of molten salt (KCl, NaCl-KCl) has a significant effect on the chemical composition of the whiskers. By using a eutectic mixture of NaCl and KCl, the replacement of potassium ions in solid potassium hexatitanate by smaller sodium ions from the chloride flux can be achieved. The characterization of the samples was carried out by means of XRD, SEM, EDX and WDX.

  18. Nutritional potassium requirement for laying Japanese quails

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa; Ladyanne Raia Rodrigues; Cláudia de Castro Goulart; Cleber Franklin Santos de Oliveira; Valéria Pereira Rodrigues; José Humberto Vilar da Silva

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potassium requirement for laying Japanese quails. Two hundred and forty quails were distributed in a randomized block design, with five treatments and six replicates, with eight birds each. The treatments consisted of a basal diet deficient in potassium (K) (2.50 g/kg), supplemented with potassium carbonate, to replace the inert, to reach levels of 2.50, 3.50, 4.50, 5.50 and 6.50 (g/kg) of K in the diet. There was a quadratic effect of K levels ...

  19. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B; Svendsen, P

    1988-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) is known to alleviate acute toxicity due to injection of cadmium salts. However, when cadmium chloride was administered by the oral route, DDC enhanced rather than alleviated the acute toxicity; both oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of DDC had this effec...

  20. Cadmium Modulates Biofilm Formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Xueqing; Santos, Regiane R.; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of cadmium exposure on Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 35984) biofilm formation. Bacteria were cultured in the absence or presence of different concentrations (0-50 mu M) of cadmium. Biofilm formation and bacterial viability were assessed. Quantitativ

  1. Cadmium Toxicity to Ringed Seals (Phoca hispida)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, R.; Riget, F. F.;

    Cadmium concentrations in kidneys from ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from North West Greenland (Qaanaaq) are high. Concentrations range at level known to induce renal toxic effects (mainly tubulopathy) and demineralisation (osteopenia) of the skeletal system (Fanconi's Syndrome) in humans as well...... the absence of toxic effects of cadmium in ringed seal...

  2. Electrodialytic Removal of Cadmium from Straw Ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne;

    1999-01-01

    A problem with flyash from straw and wood combustion is the high level of heavy metals, especially cadmium. Two electrodialytic remediation experiments were carried out on cadmium polluted flyash from straw combustion. The flyash could be cleaned to 1/3 of its initial level after 24 days of...

  3. Sulfates on Mars: Indicators of Aqueous Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Lane, Melissa D.; Dyar, M. Darby; Brown, Adrian J.

    2006-01-01

    Recent analyses by MER instruments at Meridiani Planum and Gusev crater and the OMEGA instrument on Mars Express have provided detailed information about the presence of sulfates on Mars [1,2,3]. We are evaluating these recent data in an integrated multi-disciplinary study of visible-near-infrared, mid-IR and Mossbauer spectra of several sulfate minerals and sulfate-rich analog sites. Our analyses suggest that hydrated iron sulfates may account for features observed in Mossbauer and mid-IR spectra of Martian soils [4]. The sulfate minerals kieserite, gypsum and other hydrated sulfates have been identified in OMEGA spectra in the layered terrains in Valles Marineris and Terra Meridiani [2]. These recent discoveries emphasize the importance of studying sulfate minerals as tracers of aqueous processes. The sulfate-rich rock outcrops observed in Meridiani Planum may have formed in an acidic environment similar to acid rock drainage environments on Earth [5]. Because microorganisms typically are involved in the oxidation of sulfides to sulfates in terrestrial sites, sulfate-rich rock outcrops on Mars may be a good location to search for evidence of past life on that planet. Whether or not life evolved on Mars, following the trail of sulfate minerals will lead to a better understanding of aqueous processes and chemical weathering.

  4. Suicidal Ingestion of Potassium Permanganate Crystals: A Rare Encounter

    OpenAIRE

    Karthik, Ravikanti; Veerendranath, Hari Prasad Kanakapura; Wali, Siddraj; Mohan, Murali N T; Kumar, Praveen A. C.; Trimurty, Gaganam

    2014-01-01

    Potassium permanganate poisoning is not common. Although Symptoms of potassium permanganate ingestion are gastrointestinal and Complications due to ingestion of potassium permanganate include cardiovascular depression, hepatic and renal damage, upper airway obstruction, bleeding tendency and methemoglobinemia. Gastric damage due to potassium permanganate has rarely been reported previously. We are reporting a 34-year old female patient who presented to our Emergency Department after suicidal ...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: potassium-aggravated myotonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... myotonia Patient Support and Advocacy Resources (2 links) Muscular Dystrophy Association Resource list from the University of Kansas Medical Center Genetic Testing Registry (1 link) Potassium aggravated myotonia ClinicalTrials. ...

  6. Low Potassium Diet (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 120 mL/min) . A registered dietitian or nutritionist can help to create a low-potassium meal ... volumes. You agree to comply with all applicable laws, including all US export laws and regulations, in ...

  7. Transition properties of potassium atom

    CERN Document Server

    Nandy, D K; Shah, B P; Sahoo, B K

    2012-01-01

    We report here oscillator strengths, transition rates, branching ratios and lifetimes due to allowed transitions in potassium (K) atom. We evaluate electric dipole (E1) amplitudes using an all order relativistic many-body perturbation method. The obtained results are compared with previously available experimental and theoretical studies. Using the E1 matrix elements mentioned above and estimated from the lifetimes of the 4P states, we determine precise values of static and dynamic polarizabilities for the first five low-lying states in the considered atom. The static polarizabilities of the ground and 4P states in the present work are more precise than the available measurements in these states. Only the present work employs relativistic theory to evaluate polarizabilities in the 3D states for which no experimental results are known to compare with. We also reexamine "magic wavelengths" for the $4P_{1/2} \\rightarrow 4S$ and $4P_{3/2} \\rightarrow 4S$ transitions due to the linearly polarized light which are u...

  8. Independent effects of aldosterone and potassium on induction of potassium adaptation in rat kidney.

    OpenAIRE

    Stanton, B.; Pan, L.; Deetjen, H; Guckian, V; Giebisch, G

    1987-01-01

    We examined the independent effects of a high potassium diet and increased aldosterone levels on the development of renal potassium adaptation. This condition is defined by the increased ability of the kidneys to excrete an acute infusion of potassium. Rats were adrenalectomized (ADX) and received aldosterone at basal levels (0.5 microgram/100 g X d) or at high levels (2.0 micrograms/100 g X d) for 10 d. In each experimental group, animals received either a control diet or a high potassium di...

  9. The Effect of Cadmium on Physiological Indices, Growth Parameters and Nutrient Concentration in Tomato in Soilless Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ghasemi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the effects of cadmium on growth, physiological parameters, and nutritional elements’ concentration in tomato organs in a soilless system, an experiment was conducted in greenhouse of Isfahan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center in 2008 with a complete randomized block design with two treatments and 6 replications. The treatments were nutritional solutions of Hoagland with and without cadmium (20 µM. The measured indices included: RGR, NAR, RLGR, LAR, SLA, LWR, LWCA, length of the stem, fresh and dry weight of root and shoot, amount of sugar, photosynthetic pigments, and concentration of nitrogen, potassium, phosphorous, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, manganese, and cadmium in root, stem, leaves and fruit. The results showed that cadmium (20 µM had significant effects on some measured growth indices. Growth parameters such as RGR, NAR, RLGR, Ls, RDW, RFW, SFW and SDW decreased 13.3, 19.1, 13.3, 18.8, 59.5, 58.7, 53.9 and 65.3%, respectively, and SLA increased 12.2%. But physiological parameters were not significantly affected by cadmium. The Cd concentration in all organs increased except fruit, compared with control which was Cd free. High cadmium concentration had significant effects on concentration of Mn and Cu in the root, Mn and P in the stem and Mn in the leaves. Concentration of Mn increased 5.3 and 87.6% in the leaves and stem, respectively, while it decreased 58.4% in the root. Concentration of P increased 33.3% and Cu increased 2times more in the stem. However, Ca concentration decreased 76.7% in the fruit, compared with the control. In conclusion, it is not recommended to grow tomato in the soils with high Cd concentration (polluted soil because of its negative effects on tomato growth.

  10. The effect of different annealing temperatures on tin and cadmium telluride phases obtained by a modified chemical route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Synthesis of cadmium and tin telluride. ► Chemical route to obtain pure crystalline cadmium and tin telluride. ► Effect of the annealing temperature on the crystalline phases. ► Removal of tin oxide as side product through thermal treatment. -- Abstract: In this work tin and cadmium telluride were prepared by a modification of a chemical route reported in the literature to obtain metallacycles formed by oxidative addition of tin-tellurium bonds to platinum (II). Through this procedure it was possible to obtain tin and cadmium telluride. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to identify the crystalline phases obtained as well as the presence of side products. In the case of tin telluride it was identified potassium chloride, metallic tellurium and tin oxide as contaminants. The tin oxidation states were also monitored by 119Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy. The annealing in hydrogen atmosphere was chosen as a strategy to reduce the tin oxide and promote its reaction with the excess of tellurium present in the medium. The evolution of this tin oxide phase was studied through the annealing of the sample at different temperatures. Cadmium telluride was obtained with high degree of purity (98.5% relative weight fraction) according to the Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction data. The modified procedure showed to be very effective to obtain amorphous tin and cadmium telluride and the annealing at 450 °C has proven to be useful to reduce the amount of oxide produced as side product.

  11. Molecular and cellular mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium is a heavy metal, which is widely used in industry, affecting human health through occupational and environmental exposure. In mammals, it exerts multiple toxic effects and has been classified as a human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Cadmium affects cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and other cellular activities. Cd2+ does not catalyze Fenton-type reactions because it does not accept or donate electrons under physiological conditions, and it is only weakly genotoxic. Hence, indirect mechanisms are implicated in the carcinogenicity of cadmium. In this review multiple mechanisms are discussed, such as modulation of gene expression and signal transduction, interference with enzymes of the cellular antioxidant system and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inhibition of DNA repair and DNA methylation, role in apoptosis and disruption of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion. Cadmium affects both gene transcription and translation. The major mechanisms of gene induction by cadmium known so far are modulation of cellular signal transduction pathways by enhancement of protein phosphorylation and activation of transcription and translation factors. Cadmium interferes with antioxidant defense mechanisms and stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species, which may act as signaling molecules in the induction of gene expression and apoptosis. The inhibition of DNA repair processes by cadmium represents a mechanism by which cadmium enhances the genotoxicity of other agents and may contribute to the tumor initiation by this metal. The disruption of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion by cadmium probably further stimulates the development of tumors. It becomes clear that there exist multiple mechanisms which contribute to the carcinogenicity of cadmium, although the relative weights of these contributions are difficult to estimate

  12. Cadmium blood concentrations in relation to nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcovicová-Kudládková, Marica; Ursínyová, Monika; Masánová, Vlasta; Béderová, Alzbeta; Valachovicová, Martina

    2006-09-01

    Cadmium is a toxic element ubiquitous in the environment, which damages biological systems in various ways. The major source of cadmium exposure is food. High cadmium content in the soil leads to high cadmium concentrations in certain plants such as grains (above all surface layers and germs), oil or non-oil seeds, fruit and vegetables. These food commodities are the crucial components of a vegetarian nutrition. Blood cadmium concentrations were measured in two non-smoking population groups: the vegetarian group (n = 80) and the non-vegetarian (control) group of general population on traditional mixed diet (n = 84). The significantly higher blood cadmium content (1.78 +/- 0.22 vs. 0.45 +/- 0.04 microg/l) was measured in vegetarian group. Healthy risk values > 5 microg/l were found in 6 vegetarians vs. no non-vegetarian. The highest cadmium concentration (3.15 +/- 0.77 microg/l) was measured in vegan subgroup (plant food only, n = 10) and that value decreased with increasing animal food consumption (1.75 +/- 0.36 microg/l, lactovegetarian and lactoovovegetarian subgroup/added dairy products and eggs, n = 41/, 1.34 +/- 0.21 microg/I, semivegetarian subgroup /as a previous subgroup and added white meat, n = 291). Risk vegetarians vs. non-risk vegetarians consume significantly higher amounts of whole grain products, grain sprouts and oil seeds. Blood cadmium content is directly influenced by age (r = 0.32, p vegetarianism (r = 0.5, p Vegetarians have significantly higher plasma concentrations of natural antioxidants. The sufficient antioxidative protection against cadmium induced free radical formation in vegetarians may inhibit the harmful effects of greater cadmium intake from plant food. PMID:17152224

  13. POTASSIUM MEASUREMENT: CAUSES OF ERRORS IN MEASUREMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Kavitha; Omprakash

    2014-01-01

    It is not a easy task to recognize the errors in potassium measurement in the lab. Falsely elevated potassium levels if goes unrecognized by the lab and clinician, it is difficult to treat masked hypokalemic state, which is again a medical emergency. Such cases require proper monitoring by the clinician, so that cases with such history of pseudohyperkalemia which cannot be easily identified in the laboratory should not go unrecognized by clinician. The aim of this article is t...

  14. Potassium permanganate ingestion as a suicide attempt

    OpenAIRE

    Tuba Cimilli Ozturk; Ozlem Guneysel; Onur Yesil; Sebnem Eren Cevik

    2012-01-01

    Potassium permanganate is a highly corrosive, water-soluble oxidizing antiseptic. A 68- year-old female patient was admitted to our Emergency Department after ingestion of 3 tablets of 250 mg potassium permanganate as a suicide attempt. The physical exam revealed brown stained lesions in the oropharynx. Emergency endoscopy was performed by the gastroenterologist after the third hour of ingestion. Emergency endoscopy revealed multiple superficial (Grade I-II) lesions on the esophagus and cardi...

  15. Potassium Permanganate Poisoning: A Nonfatal Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Eteiwi, Suzan M.; Al-Eyadah, Abdallah A.; Al-Sarihin, Khaldon K.; Ahmad A. Al-Omari; Rania A. Al-Asaad; Haddad, Fares H.

    2015-01-01

    Acute poisoning by potassium permanganate is a rare condition with high morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of the condition relies on a history of exposure or ingestion and a high degree of clinical suspicion. Oxygen desaturation and the presence of methemoglobin are also helpful indicators. Since no specific antidote is available, treatment is mainly supportive. Few cases have been reported in the literature following potassium permanganate ingestion, whether intentional or accidental, and m...

  16. Radioactivity measurements in potassium enriched vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of radioactivity in food stuffs/vegetation is important because radiation dose to human population due to inhalation and ingestion (external and internal exposure) poses health hazard and contribute significantly to the total dose from natural sources. The radium and thorium isotopes always present in the body are measured in units of a millionth or a billionth of a gram, but when it comes to potassium we are talking about grams of material. The 2.5 g of potassium ingested each day contains 80 Becquerel (Bq) (or 2100 pCi) of 40K that quantity which produces 80 radioactive decays each second. The 140 g of potassium in a normal male contains about 4400 Bq (or 120,000 pCi) of 40K; that quantity produces a decay rate of about 4400 disintegrations per second. That means that 4400 radioactive 40K atoms decay and emit radiation in our bodies each second for as long as we live. Since potassium is found in the intracellular fluids, about 98 % of the potassium in the body is within cells. Thus at least 98 % of these disintegrations take place within body cells, and are potentially capable of altering the cell's DNA. Therefore, it is very essential to measure the activity concentration in the potassium enriched food stuffs. Knowledge of radioactivity present in potassium enriched food stuffs enables one to assess any possible radiological hazard to mankind by the use of such materials. In the light of the above mentioned facts, it is, therefore, fundamental to assess the radioactivity in commonly available potassium enriched foods. (author)

  17. On specific radioactivity of potassium in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To check up the validity of an assumption on the constancy of potassium specific radioactivity Asub(k) in seawater, 14 samples selected from the Pacific Ocean in 1982 at different depths and geographic coordinates have been investigated. The Asub(k) mean value in these samples is shown to coincide with the potassium aspecific activity in terrestrial rocks. However some deviations related to sampling latitude and deoth have been observed. The deviations are associated with the entries of cosmic and volcanic substances

  18. Peculiarities of preparation of cadmium isotopes of high enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cascade equipped by gas centrifuges with regard for requirements to structural materials operating with chemically active compounds (dimethylcadmium) was devised for preparation of high-enriched cadmium isotopes. Solutions of such problems as overcoming of isotope memory, compensation of the effect of isotope overlapping, operative analytical accompanying permitted to optimize separation process and to obtain cadmium isotopes of high enrichment degree: cadmium-116 ∼98.9 %, cadmium-114 ∼98.7 %, cadmium-113 ∼93.3 %, cadmium-112 ∼99.1 %, cadmium-110 ∼95.8 %

  19. Potassium chloride production by microcline chlorination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Use of chlorination for the KCl production. • The reagents used were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. • Isothermal and non-isothermal assays were performed in Cl2–N2 mixture. • The chlorination generated KCl at 700 °C. • The chlorination products promote KCl formation. - Abstract: The potassium chloride is one of the most important fertilizers used in agriculture. The current demand of this salt makes interesting the study of potassium chloride production from unconventional potassium resources. In this work the potassium chloride production by chlorination of microcline was investigated. The starting reagents were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. Non-isothermal and isothermal chlorination assays were carried out in a thermogravimetric device adapted to work in corrosive atmospheres. The temperature effect on potassium extraction and the phase transformations produced during chlorination of microcline were studied. The reagents and reaction products were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experimental results indicated that by chlorination of microcline an important extraction of potassium in the temperature range from 800 to 900 °C was produced. Moreover, at 800 °C the forsterite, enstatite and magnesium aluminate spinel phases were generated

  20. Estimated potassium content in Hanford workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potassium content in male and female workers at the US Dept. of Energy Hanford Site was estimated based on measurements made in 2002 of 40K activity in the body. The 40K activity in females ranged from 2.1 to 4.1 kBq with an average of 3.1 ± 0.02 kBq. The total body potassium (TBK) content in females averaged 98 ± 0.6 g. The 40K activity in males ranged from 2.8 to 6.6 kBq with an average of 4.2 ± 0.01 kBq and the average TBK was 136 ± 0.3 g. The average TBK value for males aged 20-49 y was 140 g. The average TBK values for both genders decreased with age. The average potassium concentrations calculated for the different age ranges for males were 15-25% less than the value (1.9 gK per kg) obtained using the reported ICRP reference potassium and reference weight values. Potassium concentrations were inversely correlated with body-build index, body-mass index and body weight. These correlations could possibly be utilised to help assess the risk for disease. Future work is planned to evaluate whether monitoring of potassium concentrations could be used as a tool for the detection of diabetes and hypertension. (authors)

  1. Estimated Potassium Content in Hanford Workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potassium content in male and female workers at the Department of Energy Hanford Site was estimated based on measurements made in 2002 of 40K activity in the body. A coaxial germanium detection system was used for the measurements. The activity in female workers ranged from 2.1 to 4.1 kBq with an average of 3.1 ± 0.02 kBq. Total body potassium (TBK) content in female workers averaged 96 ± 0.3 g. The activity in male workers ranged from 2.8 to 6.6 kBq with an average of 4.3 ± 0.01 kBq and the average TBK was 136 ± 0.3 g. The average potassium concentration decreased with age in both males and females. The average potassium content and potassium concentrations for both males and females were less than the corresponding reference values. Potassium concentrations were inversely correlated with body-build index, body-mass index, and body weight for both males and females

  2. Potassium chloride production by microcline chlorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orosco, Pablo, E-mail: porosco@unsl.edu.ar [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Facultad de Química, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Ruiz, María del Carmen [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina)

    2015-08-10

    Highlights: • Use of chlorination for the KCl production. • The reagents used were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. • Isothermal and non-isothermal assays were performed in Cl{sub 2}–N{sub 2} mixture. • The chlorination generated KCl at 700 °C. • The chlorination products promote KCl formation. - Abstract: The potassium chloride is one of the most important fertilizers used in agriculture. The current demand of this salt makes interesting the study of potassium chloride production from unconventional potassium resources. In this work the potassium chloride production by chlorination of microcline was investigated. The starting reagents were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. Non-isothermal and isothermal chlorination assays were carried out in a thermogravimetric device adapted to work in corrosive atmospheres. The temperature effect on potassium extraction and the phase transformations produced during chlorination of microcline were studied. The reagents and reaction products were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experimental results indicated that by chlorination of microcline an important extraction of potassium in the temperature range from 800 to 900 °C was produced. Moreover, at 800 °C the forsterite, enstatite and magnesium aluminate spinel phases were generated.

  3. Heparin cofactor II is degraded by heparan sulfate and dextran sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Akio

    2015-02-20

    Heparan sulfate normally binds to heparin cofactor II and modulates the coagulation pathway by inhibiting thrombin. However, when human heparin cofactor II was incubated with heparan sulfate, heparin cofactor II became degraded. Other glycosaminoglycans were tested, including hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfates, dermatan sulfate, and heparin, but only dextran sulfate also degraded heparin cofactor II. Pretreatment of heparan sulfate with heparinase reduced its heparin cofactor II-degrading activity. Heparan sulfate and dextran sulfate diminished the thrombin inhibitory activity of heparin cofactor II. Other serpins, including antithrombin III and pigment epithelium-derived factor, were also degraded by heparan sulfate. This is the first evidence of acidic polysaccharides exhibiting protein-degrading activity without the aid of other proteins. PMID:25600805

  4. Transverse thermal magnetoresistance of potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented of extensive thermal magnetoresistance measurements on single-crystal and polycrystalline specimens of potassium having residual resistance ratios (RRR) ranging from 1100 to 5300. Measurements were made between 2 and 90K for magnetic fields up to 1.8 T. The observed thermal magnetoresistance cannot be understood on the basis of either semiclassical theories or from the electrical magnetoresistance and the Wiedemann-Franz law. A number of relationships are observed between the thermal and electrical magnetoresistances, many of which are not immediately obvious when comparing direct experimental observations. The thermal magnetoresistance W(T,H) is given reasonably well by W(T,H)T = W(T,0)T + AH + BH2, where both A and B are temperature-dependent coefficients. Results show that A = A0 + A1T3, while B(T) cannot be expressed as any simple power law. A0 is dependent on the RRR, while A1 is independent of the RRR. Two relationships are found between corresponding coefficients in the electrical and thermal magnetoresistance: (i) the Wiedmann--Franz law relates A0 to the Kohler slope of the electrical magnetoresistance and (ii) the temperature-dependent portions of the electrical and thermal Kohler slopes are both proportional to the electron--phonon scattering contribution to the corresponding zero-field resistance. The latter provides evidence that inelastic scattering is very important in determining the temperature-dependent linear magnetoresistances. Part, but by no means all, of the quadratic thermal resistance is accounted for by lattice thermal conduction. It is concluded that at least a portion of the anomalous electrical and thermal magnetoresistances is due to intrinsic causes and not inhomogeneities or other macroscopic defects

  5. Potassium 4-(hydroxymethyl)-benzenosulfonate: a novel metabolite isolated from the marine red alga Bostrychia tenella (Rhodomelaceae, ceramiales); 4-(Hidroximetil)-Benzenossulfonato de potassio: metabolito inedito isolado da alga marinha Bostrychia tenella (Rhodomelaceae, ceramiales)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felicio, Rafael de; Debonsi, Hosana Maria [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Fisica e Quimica]. E-mail: hosana@fcfrp.usp.br; Yokoya, Nair Sumie [Instituto de Botanica de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Ficologia

    2008-07-01

    Chemical investigation of the dichloromethane/methanol extract of the marine alga Bostrychia tenella has led to the isolation of two aromatic compounds, the new sulfate metabolite potassium 4-(hydroxymethyl)-benzenosulfonate (1) and the compound 1-methoxyphenethyl alcohol (2), described previously as a synthetic product. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods including NMR, MS, IR and by comparison with literature data. (author)

  6. Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cadmium stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Luciana Mara Costa; Ribeiro, Frederico Haddad; Neves, Maria Jose [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia], e-mail: luamatu@uol.com.br; Porto, Barbara Abranches Araujo; Amaral, Angela M.; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Ativacao Neutronica], e-mail: menezes@cdtn.br; Rosa, Carlos Augusto [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia], e-mail: carlrosa@icb.ufmg

    2009-07-01

    The intensification of industrial activity has been greatly contributing with the increase of heavy metals in the environment. Among these heavy metals, cadmium becomes a serious pervasive environmental pollutant. The cadmium is a heavy metal with no biological function, very toxic and carcinogenic at low concentrations. The toxicity of cadmium and several other metals can be mainly attributed to the multiplicity of coordination complexes and clusters that they can form. Some aspects of the cellular response to cadmium were extensively investigated in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The primary site of interaction between many toxic metals and microbial cells is the plasma membrane. Plasma-membrane permeabilisation has been reported in a variety of microorganisms following cadmium exposure, and is considered one mechanism of cadmium toxicity in the yeast. In this work, using the yeast strain S. cerevisiae W303-WT, we have investigated the relationships between Cd uptake and release of cellular metal ions (K{sup +} and Na{sup +}) using neutron activation technique. The neutron activation was an easy, rapid and suitable technique for doing these metal determinations on yeast cells; was observed the change in morphology of the strains during the process of Cd accumulation, these alterations were observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) during incorporation of cadmium. (author)

  7. Potassium acetate and potassium lactate enhance the microbiological and physical properties of marinated catfish fillets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium or potassium salts such as lactate and acetate can be used to inhibit the growth of spoilage bacteria and food-borne pathogens, and thereby prolong the shelf-life of refrigerated seafood. However, minimal information is available regarding the combined effects of potassium salts (acetate and ...

  8. Cadmium - a complex environmental problem. Part II. Cadmium in sludges used as fertilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.D.

    1984-02-15

    Utilisation of sewage sludge as a fertilizer is the most economic disposal route for inland sewage-treatment works. Much of the cadmium in wastewater is concentrated into sludge. It is impracticable to reduce cadmium concentrations in sludge below certain levels. Cadmium is a principal factor limiting the use of sludge on land. Investigations are described which have attempted to identify and to determine the availability of forms of cadmium in soil. There is considerable research interest in cadmium in soil solution which is likely to be directly available for crop uptake. Another area of interest is the apparent disappearance of cadmium from sludge-treated soil. Soil analysis often cannot fully account for the cadmium added in sludge. Apart from the effect of soil conditions, especially pH value, crop uptake varies according to the particular crop examined. Highest concentrations of cadmium occur in tobacco, lettuce, spinach and other leafy vegetables. Using crop uptake data from field trials it is possible to relate potential human dietary intake of cadmium, on which hazard depends, to soil concentrations of cadmium, which can be controlled by regulating applications of sludge. This provides an objective basis for limits for cadmium concentrations in soils receiving sludge. Transfer of cadmium via farm animals to meat and dairy products for human consumption is thought to be minimal, even allowing for some direct ingestion of sludge-treated soil by the animals. Evidence from these and other investigations suggests that a loading rate limit of 5 kg Cd/ha (equivalent to a soil concentration of about 3.5 mg Cd/kg) affords adequate protection to the foodchain where sludge is used on agricultural land.

  9. Kinetics of sulfuric acid leaching of cadmium from Cd-Ni zinc plant residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarzadeh, Mohammad Sadegh; Moradkhani, Davood; Ojaghi-Ilkhchi, Mehdi

    2009-04-30

    Cd-Ni filtercakes are produced continuously at the third purification step in the electrolytic production of zinc in the National Iranian Lead and Zinc Company (NILZ) in northwestern Iran. In this research, the dissolution kinetics of cadmium from Cd-Ni residues produced in NILZ plant has been investigated. Hence, the effects of temperature, sulfuric acid concentration, particle size and stirring speed on the kinetics of cadmium dissolution in sulfuric acid were studied. The dissolution kinetics at 25-55 degrees C and tshrinking core model, with inter-diffusion of cadmium and sulfate ions through the porous region of alloying layer (Cd(5)Ni, Cd(2)Ni(1.9) and Cd(10)Cu(3)) as the rate determining step. This finding is in accordance with the apparent activation energy (E(a)) of 13.363 kJ/mol and a linear relationship between the rate constant and the reciprocal of squared particle size. Arrhenius constant was calculated as 6.3942 min(-1). The order of reaction with respect to sulfuric acid concentration, solid/liquid ratio and particle size were also achieved. The rate of reaction at first 5 min based on diffusion-controlled process can be expressed by a semi-empirical equation as:It was determined that the dissolution rate increased with increasing sulfuric acid concentration and decreasing particle size. PMID:18755541

  10. Characterization of a Cadmium-Binding Complex of Cabbage Leaves 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, George J.

    1984-01-01

    The chemical nature of a principal, inducible cadmium-binding complex which accumulates in cabbage leaves (Wagner and Trotter 1982 Plant Physiol 69: 804-809) was studied and compared with that of animal metallothionein and copper-binding proteins isolated from various organisms. The apparent molecular weight of native cabbage complex and carboxymethylated ligand of the complex under native conditions as determined by gel filtration was about 10,000 daltons. Under denaturing conditions their apparent molecular weights were about 2000 daltons. Ligand of native complex contained 37, 28, and 9 residue per cent of glutamic acid-glutamine, cysteine, and glycine, respectively, and low aromatic residue, serine and lysine content. The high acidic and low hydrophobic residue content explain the behavior of complex on electrophoresis in the presence and absence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Its isoelectric point was below 4.0 and it bound 4 to 6 moles cadmium per mole ligand in what appear to be cadmium-mercaptide chromophores. The complex was found to be heat stable, relatively protease insensitive, and lacking in disulfide bonds. Attempts to determine the primary sequence of reduced native complex and carboxymethylated, cleaved ligand using the Edman degradation procedure were unsuccessful. An electrophoretic procedure is described for preparative isolation of purified complex and a method is described for monitoring ligand of complex as its fluorescent dibromobimane adduct. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:16663927

  11. Acidification of musts in warm regions with tartaric acid and calcium sulfate at industrial scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Juan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acidification of musts is necessary in warm areas where high temperatures during ripening accelerate breathing com- bustion of tartaric acid and, in particular, malic acid in the berries. L(+ tartaric acid, L(- or D,L malic acid and lactic acids are the only chemical acidifiers authorized by the OIV and European Community regulations. The use of calcium sulfate (gypsum: CaSO4·2H2O is also authorized in the European Community as a complementary acidifier in generous and generous liquor 42 wines from Spain (a practice known as plastering, provided that the residual sulfate content in the wine does not exceed 2.5 g/L expressed as potassium sulfate. However, this practice is not yet approved by OIV. To predict the effect on pH of different acidi- fiers, several chemical modeling approaches have been described in the literature, in particular a simplified model where the acidity of wine is considered to be due to a monoprotic acid. The aim of this work is to verify this model at pilot and industrial scale in the acidification of musts with tartaric and calcium sulfate, added either individually and in combination, using doses up to 3 g/L and to study the modifications that these practices produce on the compositions of the resulting wines. This work sup- plies useful information to study this practice in OIV in order to consider its approval.

  12. VALIDATION OF ABACAVIR SULFATE IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE BY REVERSE PHASE HPLC WITH INTERNAL STANDARD METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Battula Sreenivasa Rao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, specific and accurate isocratic HPLC method was developed and validated for the assay of abacavir sulfate in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The assay involved an isocratic – elution of abacavir sulfate in Grace C18 column using mobile phase composition consists of (38:62 v/v of methanol and 10ml of potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate. The wavelength of detection is 255nm.The method showed good linearity in the range of 10-50.0mg/mL. The runtime of the method is 8 mins. The proposed method can be used for routine quality control samples in industry in bulk and in finished dosage forms. In present study, a rapid specific precise and validated HPLC method for the quantitative estimation of abacavir sulfate in pharmaceutical dosage forms has been reported. The developed method can be applied to directly and easily to the analysis of the pharmaceutical tablet preparations. The percentage recoveries were near 100% for given methods. The method was completely validated and proven to be rugged. The excipients did not interfere in the analysis. The results showed that this method can be used for rapid determination of abacavir sulfate in pharmaceutical tablet with precision, accuracy and specificity.

  13. Evaluating Deterioration of Concrete by Sulfate Attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Effects of factors such as water to cement ratio, fly ash and silica fume on the resistance of concrete to sulfate attack were investigated by dry-wet cycles and immersion method. The index of the resistance to sulfate attack was used to evaluate the deterioration degree of concrete damaged by sulfate. The relationship between the resistance of concrete to sulfate attack and its permeability/porosity were analyzed as well as its responding mechanism. Results show that the depth of sulfate crystal attack from surface to inner of concrete can be reduced by decreasing w/c and addition of combining fly ash with silica fume. The variation of relative elastic modulus ratio and relative flexural strength ratio of various specimens before and after being subjected to sulfate attack was compared.

  14. Chondroitin Sulfate Perlecan Enhances Collagen Fibril Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, A. J.; Johnson, A. E.; Mörgelin, M.;

    2006-01-01

    disaccharides typical for chondroitin sulfate E. Indeed, purified glycosaminoglycans from perlecan-enriched fractions of cartilage extracts contain elevated levels of 4,6-disulfated chondroitin sulfate disaccharides and enhance collagen fibril formation. The effect on collagen assembly is proportional to the...... content of the 4,6-disulfated disaccharide in the different cartilage extracts, with growth plate cartilage glycosaminoglycan being the most efficient enhancer. These findings demonstrate a role for perlecan chondroitin sulfate side chains in cartilage extracellular matrix assembly and provide an...... collagen type II fibril assembly by perlecan-null chondrocytes. Cartilage perlecan is a heparin sulfate or a mixed heparan sulfate/chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. The latter form binds collagen and accelerates fibril formation in vitro, with more defined fibril morphology and increased fibril diameters...

  15. Development of potassium ion conducting hollow glass fibers. [potassium sulfur battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, F. Y.

    1974-01-01

    Potassium ion conducting glasses, chemically resistant to potassium, potassium sulfide and sulfur, were made and their possible utility as the membrane material for a potassium/sulfur battery was evaluated. At least one satisfactory candidate was found. It possesses an electrical resistance which makes it usable as a membrane in the form of a fine hollow fiber. It's chemical and electrochemical resistances are excellent. The other aspects of the possible potassium sulfur battery utilizing such fine hollow fibers, including the header (or tube sheet) and a cathode current collector were studied. Several cathode materials were found to be satisfactory. None of the tube sheet materials studied possessed all the desired properties. Multi-fiber cells had very limited life-time due to physical failure of fibers at the fiber/tube sheet junctions.

  16. Effect of iron upon cadmium-manganese and cadmium-iron interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increase cadmium production has enhanced the potential danger of this toxic metal including its effect upon the metabolism of some essential elements as, for instance, manganese of some essential elements as, for instance, manganese and iron. Relevant data about the cadmium-manganese interaction are rather scanty. Since there are more data of the effect of iron on the metabolism of either of these ions independently. The authors decided to investigate how the presence of iron affected the interaction between cadmium and manganese and how cadmium alone or in combination with the additional iron affected iron transfer and retention in the intestinal wall

  17. Sulfate-reducing bacteria in anaerobic bioreactors.

    OpenAIRE

    Oude Elferink, S.J.W.H.

    1998-01-01

    The treatment of industrial wastewaters containing high amounts of easily degradable organic compounds in anaerobic bioreactors is a well-established process. Similarly, wastewaters which in addition to organic compounds also contain sulfate can be treated in this way. For a long time, the occurrence of sulfate reduction was considered to be undesired. However, there are some recent developments in which sulfate reduction is optimized for the removal of sulfur compounds from waste streams. In...

  18. CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION IN ACID SULFATE LANDSCAPES

    OpenAIRE

    Chuxia Lin

    2012-01-01

    Oxidation of sulfide minerals produces sulfuric acid and consequently creates Acid Sulfate Landscapes (ASLs), which represent one of the most degraded types of land-surface environments. Although acid sulfate-producing weathering is a naturally occurring process, it is markedly facilitated by human intervention. Mining is by far the dominant anthropogenic cause for the creation of inland acid sulfate footprints while land reclamation in coastal lowlands is the driver for the formation of coas...

  19. Methods for sulfate air quality management

    OpenAIRE

    Cass, Glen R.; McMurry, Pamela S.; Houseworth, James E

    1980-01-01

    Executive Summary Abstract: A study of methods for sulfate air quality control strategy design has been conducted. Analytical tools developed were tested within a case study of the nature and causes of the high sulfate concentrations observed in the Los Angeles area. A principal objective was to investigate the least costly means for sulfate air quality improvement in that locale. A long-run average emissions to air quality model was derived which computes pollutant concentrations fr...

  20. Role of potassium-40 in evolutionary mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive isotope 40k is the largest source of natural radioactivity within living cells. Although 40K occurs naturally in low abundance (0.01% of all potassium), it represents approximately 40% of the internal radiation dose in man. It has been suggested that decay of 40K by electron capture has played a significant role in gene mutation and evolution. The authors examined cell growth and mutagenicity in several strains of E. coli grown in Tris medium containing natural potassium or potassium greatly depleted in 40K. Doubling times were the same in both media. In glucose limited chemostat cultures containing natural potassium or depleted potassium, there was no significant difference in mutation rate to bacteriophage T5 resistance, within standard errors of about 15%. In all cases, the mutation rate to T5 resistance was approximately 3 x 10-8 mutants cell-1 generation-1. The authors conclude that for mutation to T5 resistance, there was no measurable contribution of naturally occurring 40K to the spontaneous mutation rate

  1. Electrical properties of the potassium polytitanate compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Quasi-static permittivity of potassium polytitanates compacts achieves 104–105. • Observed Maxwell–Wagner polarization attributes to layered structure of polytitanates. • The conductivity varies from 5 × 10−2 to 10−6–10−7 Sm/m in a wide range of temperatures. - Abstract: Titanates of alkali metals are widely applied materials as they are relatively low in cost and might be easily synthesized. They are utilized as adsorbents, catalysts, solid state electrolytes, superconductors. Here we report our results on electrical properties of the compacted amorphous potassium polytitanates powders. The electrical properties of the compacts were studied by means of complex impedance spectroscopy in a wide range of frequencies at different temperatures using two-electrode configuration. The frequency dependences of conductivity for the investigated potassium polytitanates compacts varies in the range from 5 × 10−2 Sm/m (high frequencies, ion conductivity) up to 10−6–10−7 Sm/m (low frequencies, electron conductivity) for a wide range of temperatures (19–150 °C). According to the results, at low frequencies quasi-static permittivity of the stabilized PPT compacts achieves high values of 104–105. This might be explained by Maxwell–Wagner polarization attributed to the layered structure of the potassium polytitanates particles containing potassium and hydronium ions together with crystallization water in the interlayer and is very promising for solid state electrolyte applications for moderate temperatures

  2. Potassium leakage and maize seed physiological potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mariane Victorio de Carvalho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed production usually requires fast decisions to improve the efficacy of seed handling during harvesting, processing and storage. Seed technologists have focused on the development or improvement of procedures which allow rapid and consistent identification of higher quality seed lots. This research verified the effectiveness of the potassium leachate test on the evaluation of the physiological potential of maize seeds in comparison to recommended seed vigor tests. Five seed lots of the hybrid Avant were submitted to the potassium leachate, standard germination, first count, accelerated aging, electrical conductivity, field emergence and cold tests. The amount of potassium leachate was determined after seed imbibition for 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 minutes, at 25°C; a flame photometer adjusted to 50 mug K+ mL-1 pattern and reading 50 was used to determine the amount of leached potassium. The potassium leachate test consistently ranked the seed lots according to their physiological quality in comparison to other tests, and is a new alternative test for maize seed quality control programs.

  3. Inorganic ion exchangers based on manganese and potassium for recovery and removal of pollutant metals of aqueous effluents; Trocadores ionicos inorganicos a base de manganes e potassio para recuperacao e remocao de metais poluentes de efluentes aquosos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Jacinete Lima dos

    2001-07-01

    This work presents a study on the synthesis, characterization and ion exchange properties of inorganic ion exchangers based on manganese and potassium. The ion exchangers were synthesized by calcination of the mixture of manganese(II) oxalate and potassium oxalate and were characterized by granulometer distribution analysis, X-ray powder diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopic. From the data obtained in characterization it was observed that exist two distinguished groups of these materials. The first group belong to ion exchangers with up to 30% w/w potassium and the second group formed by the ion exchangers with more than 30% w / w of content of potassium in their compositions. The studies of adsorption of these materials showed that the adsorption of Cd{sup 2+} is a function of the following parameters as pH, concentration of Cd{sup 2+}, time of contact between the ion exchangers the concentration of the Cd{sup 2+} solution and the interference of other ions like Ni{sup 2+}. The great pH of adsorption for these materials occur in pH 9, the study of the influence of the cadmium concentration in the adsorption showed that for a group of exchangers the adsorption decreases with the increase of cadmium concentration and for the other group the adsorption increases with the increase of cadmium concentration. The kinetics of adsorption occur in a contact time between the ion exchangers and the Cd{sup 2+} solutions relatively short, at about 15 minutes is necessary to establish the equilibrium. The presence of Ni{sup 2+} as interfering ion decreases the adsorption of cadmium of 99,7% to 65%. These inorganic ion exchangers showed be good exchangers for Cd{sup 2+}. (author)

  4. Market for nickel-cadmium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putois, F.

    Besides the lead/acid battery market, which has seen a tremendous development linked with the car industry, the alkaline rechargeable battery market has also been expanded for more than twenty years, especially in the field of portable applications with nickel-cadmium batteries. Today, nickel-cadmium batteries have to face newcomers on the market, such as nickel-metal hydride, which is another alkaline couple, and rechargeable lithium batteries; these new battery systems have better performances in some areas. This work illustrates the status of the market for nickel-cadmium batteries and their applications. Also, for two major applications—the cordless tool and the electric vehicles—the competitive situation of nickel-cadmium batteries; facing new systems such as nickel-metal hydride and lithium ion cells are discussed.

  5. External costs of cadmium emissions to soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Smart, James C. R.; Thomsen, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    concentration to be calculated for each scenario. Human exposure was determined based on soil-crop bioconcentration factors for cadmium and dietary intake rates of Danish food crops. Updated dose-response functions linking lifetime cadmium intake to the probability of developing cadmium-induced renal disease...... and osteoporosis were applied. These impacts were converted into monetary values by using the EU standard value of a life-year adjusted for quality of life experience. Annualized cost per unit of phosphorus and cadmium are presented, discounted and undiscounted, for comparison. Application of struvite (magnesium...... ammonium phosphate) and mineral fertilizer produced the lowest external health costs, followed by the fertilizer products wastewater sludge and pig manure. The external cost estimates produced in this study could be used to design economic policy instruments to encourage use of cleaner fertilizer products....

  6. Expanding the 3-O-Sulfate Proteome-Enhanced Binding of Neuropilin-1 to 3-O-Sulfated Heparan Sulfate Modulates Its Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Bryan E; Seamen, Emylie; Lawrence, Roger; Parker, Matthew W; Xu, Yongmei; Liu, Jian; Vander Kooi, Craig W; Esko, Jeffrey D

    2016-04-15

    Binding of proteins to heparan sulfate is driven predominantly by electrostatic interactions between positively charged amino acid residues in the protein and negatively charged sulfate groups located at various positions along the polysaccharide chain. Although many heparin/heparan-sulfate-binding proteins have been described, few exhibit preferential binding for heparan sulfates containing relatively rare 3-O-sulfated glucosamine residues. To expand the "3-O-sulfate proteome," affinity matrices were created from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell heparan sulfate engineered in vitro with and without 3-O-sulfate groups. Fractionation of different animal sera yielded several proteins that bound specifically to columns containing 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate modified by two members of the heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfotransferase superfamily, Hs3st1 and Hs3st2. Neuropilin-1 was analyzed in detail because it has been implicated in angiogenesis and axon guidance. We show that 3-O-sulfation enhanced the binding of neuropilin-1 to heparan sulfate immobilized on plastic plates and to heparan sulfate present on cultured cells. Chemoenzymatically synthesized 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate dodecamers protected neuropilin-1 from thermal denaturation and inhibited neuropilin-1-dependent, semaphorin-3a-induced growth cone collapse of neurons derived from murine dorsal root ganglia. The effect of 3-O-sulfation was cell autonomous and specific to Hs3st2 based on collapse assays of neurons derived from Hs3st1- and Hs3st2-deficient mice. Finally, 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate enhanced the inhibition of endothelial cell sprouting by exogenous heparan sulfate. These findings demonstrate a reliable method to identify members of the 3-O-sulfate proteome and that 3-O-sulfation of heparan sulfate can modulate axonal growth cone collapse and endothelial cell sprouting. PMID:26731579

  7. Potassium permanganate ingestion as a suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Cimilli Ozturk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium permanganate is a highly corrosive, water-soluble oxidizing antiseptic. A 68- year-old female patient was admitted to our Emergency Department after ingestion of 3 tablets of 250 mg potassium permanganate as a suicide attempt. The physical exam revealed brown stained lesions in the oropharynx. Emergency endoscopy was performed by the gastroenterologist after the third hour of ingestion. Emergency endoscopy revealed multiple superficial (Grade I-II lesions on the esophagus and cardia, which were considered secondary to the caustic substance. The mainstay in the treatment of potassium permanganate is supportive and the immediate priority is to secure the airway. Emergency endoscopy is an important tool used to evaluate the location and severity of injury to the esophagus, stomach and duodenum after caustic ingestion. Patients with signs and symptoms of intentional ingestion should undergo endoscopy within 12 to 24 h to define the extent of the disease.

  8. Emission infrared spectra of molten potassium heptafluoroniobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agulyanskij, A.I.; Bessonova, V.A. (AN SSSR, Apatity. Kol' skij Filial)

    1984-01-01

    Emission infrared spectra of potassium heptafluoroniobate molten in the air, vacuum and inert gas atmosphere are obtained. The analysis of different sections of the in got as well as potassium heptafluoroniobate condensate obtained upon long remelting in the air has shown that the investigated phases have complex composition. Along with the heptafluoroniobate potassium oxyfluoroniobate, mainly K/sub 2/NbOF/sub 5/ is present in them, in case of condensate-KNbOF/sub 4/. The pyrohydrolysis process consists of two-mutually compensating each other stages, that is parallel to the oxyfluoroniobate production the process of their destruction and partial removal from the melting surface takes place. It is shown that hydrogen fluoride produced as a result of KNbF/sub 5/ pyrohydrolysis can affect to considerable extent the ion structure of the melt.

  9. Potassium Permanganate Poisoning: A Nonfatal Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eteiwi, Suzan M; Al-Eyadah, Abdallah A; Al-Sarihin, Khaldon K; Al-Omari, Ahmad A; Al-Asaad, Rania A; Haddad, Fares H

    2015-07-01

    Acute poisoning by potassium permanganate is a rare condition with high morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of the condition relies on a history of exposure or ingestion and a high degree of clinical suspicion. Oxygen desaturation and the presence of methemoglobin are also helpful indicators. Since no specific antidote is available, treatment is mainly supportive. Few cases have been reported in the literature following potassium permanganate ingestion, whether intentional or accidental, and most of the patients in these cases had unfavorable outcomes, which was not the case in our patient. Our patient, a 73-year-old male, purchased potassium permanganate over the counter mistaking it for magnesium salt, which he frequently used as a laxative. Several hours after he ingested it, he was admitted to the endocrine department at King Hussein Medical Center, Jordan, with acute rapidly evolving shortness of breath. During hospitalization, his liver function tests deteriorated. Since he was diagnosed early and managed promptly he had a favorable outcome. PMID:26366264

  10. Soybean phytoremediation of cadmium polluted agricultural soils

    OpenAIRE

    Mihajlov, Ljupco; Zajkova-Paneva, Vesna; Balabanova, Biljana

    2015-01-01

    Soil pollution with cadmium is a result of the strengthened industrial development, especially in the areas of drilling, exploitation and processing of mineral raw materials. On the territory of the Republic of Macedonia there are several areas with significant higher content of cadmium in the soil, including the vicinity of the mine lead and zinc “Zletovo” near the town of Probištip. Phytoremediation is one of the most convenient techniques for remediation of heavy metals from conta...

  11. Cadmium poisoning. Knowledge of the risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This data sheet provides an up-to-date summary of information on cadmium poisoning. The following points are examined: - the problem of increasing pollution of soil, water and the food chain; - physical and chemical properties, manufacture, industrial applications; - the toxic action of cadmium and its derivatives; - methods and apparatus for taking and analysis samples from the atmosphere and from body fluids; - existing French regulations; - technical control and medical surveillance

  12. Cathodoluminescence of cadmium diphosphide crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation is made of the cathodoluminescence spectra of CdP2 crystals in the temperature range 6 to 300 K. A pulsing beam of high energy electrons (40 kV) is used in the experiment. The samples investigated are undoped, heat annealed in vacuum or saturated vapours of cadmium, and also doped with As and Bi, elements isoelectronic to phosphorus. The experimental results show that the fine structure present in the higher energywing (2.02 to 2.14 eV) depends on the concentration of the uncontrolled nitrogen impurity in CdP2. Atoms of nitrogen give rise to exciton-impurity complexes, leading to intense narrow peaks in the spectrum of cathodoluminescence. Their location and nature are shown in a table. (author)

  13. Cadmium zinc telluride spectral modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors are the highest resolution room temperature gamma-ray detectors available for isotopic analysis. As with germanium detectors, accurate isotopic analysis using spectra requires peak deconvolution. The CZT peak shapes are asymmetric, with a long low energy tail. The asymmetry is a result of the physics of the electron/hole transport in the semiconductor. An accurate model of the physics of the electron/hole transport through an electric field will allow the parameterization of the peak shapes as a function of energy. In turn this leads to the ability to perform accurate spectral deconvolution and therefore accurate isotopic analysis. The model and the peak-shape parameterization as a function of energy will be presented

  14. Studies of potassium-promoted nickel catalysts for methane steam reforming: Effect of surface potassium location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowiecki, Tadeusz; Denis, Andrzej; Rawski, Michał; Gołębiowski, Andrzej; Stołecki, Kazimierz; Dmytrzyk, Jaromir; Kotarba, Andrzej

    2014-05-01

    The effect of potassium addition to the Ni/Al2O3 steam reforming catalyst has been investigated on several model systems, including K/Al2O3 with various amounts of alkali promoters (1-4 wt% of K2O), a model catalyst 90%NiO-10%Al2O3 promoted with potassium and a commercial catalyst. The potassium surface state and stability were investigated by means of the Species Resolved Thermal Alkali Desorption method (SR-TAD). The activity of the catalysts in the steam reforming of methane and their coking-resistance were also evaluated. The results reveal that the beneficial effect of potassium addition is strongly related to its location in the catalysts. The catalyst surface should be promoted with potassium in order to obtain high coking-resistant catalysts. Moreover, the catalyst preparation procedure should ensure a direct interaction of potassium with the Al2O3 support surface. Due to the low stability of potassium on θ-Al2O3 this phase is undesirable during the preparation of a stable steam reforming catalyst.

  15. Cadmium leaching from thermal treated and gamma irradiated Mexican aluminosilicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal and radiation effects on the leaching of cadmium from two cadmium exchanged zeolitic tuffs and one clay were determined. The cadmium exchanged aluminosilicates were heated at different temperatures (500, 700, 900 and 1100 oC), and the materials were then treated with NaCl (1 M and 5 M) and HNO3 (0.001 M and 1 M) solutions to determine the leaching behaviour of cadmium from the materials. The stability of cadmium in the materials increased as the heating temperature was increased. Cadmium leaching from gamma irradiated and heated materials at 1100 oC was higher than leaching from non-irradiated samples

  16. Improved Synthesis Of Potassium Beta' '-Alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Roger M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara; Ryan, Margaret A.; O'Connor, Dennis E.; Kisor, Adam; Underwood, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Improved formulations of precursor materials synthesize nearly-phase-pure potassium beta' '-alumina solid electrolyte (K-BASE) powder. Materials are microhomogeneous powders (or, alternatively, gels) containing K(+,) Mg(2+), and Al(3+). K-BASE powder produced used in potassium-working-fluid alkali-metal thermal-to-electric conversion (K-AMTEC), in which heat-input and heat-rejection temperatures lower than sodium-working-fluid AMTEC (Na-AMTEC). Additional potential use lies in purification of pottassium by removal of sodium and calcium.

  17. Cadmium affects retinogenesis during zebrafish embryonic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocular malformations are commonly observed in embryos of aquatic species after exposure to toxicants. Using zebrafish embryos as the model organism, we showed that cadmium exposure from sphere stage (4 hpf) to end of segmentation stage (24 hpf) induced microphthalmia in cadmium-treated embryos. Embryos with eye defects were then assessed for visual abilities. Cadmium-exposed embryos were behaviorally blind, showing hyperpigmentation and loss of camouflage response to light. We investigated the cellular basis of the formation of the small eyes phenotype and the induction of blindness by studying retina development and retinotectal projections. Retinal progenitors were found in cadmium-treated embryos albeit in smaller numbers. The number of retinal ganglion cells (RGC), the first class of retinal cells to differentiate during retinogenesis, was reduced, while photoreceptor cells, the last batch of retinal neurons to differentiate, were absent. Cadmium also affected the propagation of neurons in neurogenic waves. The neurons remained in the ventronasal area and failed to spread across the retina. Drastically reduced RGC axons and disrupted optic stalk showed that the optic nerves did not extend from the retina beyond the chiasm into the tectum. Our data suggested that impairment in neuronal differentiation of the retina, disruption in RGC axon formation and absence of cone photoreceptors were the causes of microphthalmia and visual impairment in cadmium-treated embryos

  18. Toxicity of cadmium to Schistosoma mansoni cercariae: effects on vitality and developmental ability in white mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holliman, R.B. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg); Esham, L.P.

    1977-09-29

    Time-until-death studies were run on cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni in 8 concentrations of cadmium (from cadmium sulfate) ranging from 100 ppM to 0.0001 ppM. All concentrations used were found to be toxic, and at 10 ppM all cercariae were dead within 4 hours, which coincides with their period of maximum infectability following emergence from the snail host. At 2 ppM, all cercariae died within 8 hours, and at 1 ppM all died within 16 hours. In addition, groups of cercariae were exposed to cadmium concentrations of 10, 1, and 0.1 ppM for periods of 30, 20, and 10 minutes. Thereafter, cercariae from these groups were allowed to penetrate the tails of white mice or were injected subcutaneously into mice. After 8 weeks, these mice were autopsied and the adult worms collected by perfusion. Maturation of cercariae from both methods of invasion was seriously impaired. Statistical analysis using a 3 x 4 x 2 factoral design for analysis of variance showed both time of exposure and concentration of cadmium ion to be significant factors in determining number of worms developing at p = 0.01. A significant interaction between time of exposure and concentration was found to exist. The two methods of infection did not have a significant effect on the number of worms recovered. Therefore, it appears that those toxicant-exposed cercariae capable of maturing do not need assistance in transversing the skin barrier but can penetrate and migrate to reach the mesenteric venules for maturation.

  19. CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION IN ACID SULFATE LANDSCAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuxia Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation of sulfide minerals produces sulfuric acid and consequently creates Acid Sulfate Landscapes (ASLs, which represent one of the most degraded types of land-surface environments. Although acid sulfate-producing weathering is a naturally occurring process, it is markedly facilitated by human intervention. Mining is by far the dominant anthropogenic cause for the creation of inland acid sulfate footprints while land reclamation in coastal lowlands is the driver for the formation of coastal ASLs. The projected climate change highlights the possibility of an increase in the frequency and severity of extreme weather events such as droughts and heavy rains, which is likely to accelerate the acid generation in some circumstances and increase the frequency and magnitude of acid discharge. Sea level rise as a result of global warming will cause additional problems with the coastal ASLs. This is a review article. The following aspects are covered: (a the overriding biogeochemical processes leading to acid sulfate-producing weathering, (b a brief introduction to the inland acid sulfate landscapes, (c a brief introduction to the coastal acid sulfate landscapes, (d the likely impacts of climate change on ASLs and (e the possible measures to combat climate change-induced environmental degradation in the identified key acid sulfate footprints. The projected climate change is like to significantly affect the acid sulfate landscapes in different ways. Appropriate management strategies and cost-effective technologies need to be developed in order to minimize the climate change-induced ecological degradation.

  20. Rat pro-opiomelanocortin contains sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshina, H.; Hortin, G.; Boime, I.

    1982-07-02

    Intermediate lobes isolated from rat pituitary glands incorporated (/sup 35/S)sulfate into pro-opiomelanocortin and other adrenocorticotropic hormone-containing peptides. Incubation of intermediate lobes in medium containing the arginine analog canavanine inhibited the cleavage of pro-opiomelanocortin into smaller products. Pro-opiomelanocortin that accumulated in the presence of canavanine was also sulfated.

  1. On the mechanism of cadmium toxicity: Suppression of mitochondrial respiration by an organic complex of cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korotkov, S.M.; Rozengart, E.V.; Suvorov, A.A.; Nesterov, V.P.; Khovanskikh, A.E. [Setchenow Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1994-09-01

    Mitochondria are the main targets of the deleterious effect of cadmium. It was found that 94% of cadmium in mitochondria exists as a soluble complex with low-molecular-weight proteins, i.e., metallothioneins. The remaining 6% of cadmium is bound to protein structures of the mitochondrial matrix and, thereby cause the dysfunction of subcellular organelles in vivo. The mechanism of direct interaction of cadmium with the target protein is unknown; however, it is evident that the incorporation of cadmium into a complex with an organic ligand can significantly affect this process and eventually affect the interaction of cadmium with matrix proteins. It was of interest to compare the effects of an inorganic cadmium salt (hydrated Cd{sup 2+} cation) and an organic complex of cadmium [Cd(II)-1,3-bis-(chlorobenzylidenamino)guanidine, CBG] on rat liver mitochondrial respiration. This complex was earlier shown to display a wide range of biological activities. Particularly, it appeared to be more potent than Cd{sup 2+} in inhibiting monoamine oxidase.

  2. Scintillation properties of lead sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the scintillation properties of lead sulfate (PbSO4), a scintillator that show promise as a high energy photon detector. It physical properties are well suited for gamma detection, as its has a density of 6.4 gm/cm3, a 1/e attenuation length for 511 keV photons of 1.2 cm, is not affected by air or moisture, and is cut and polished easily. In 99.998% pure PbSO4 crystals at room temperature excited by 511 keV annihilation photons, the fluorescence decay lifetime contains significant fast components having 1.8 ns (5%) and 19 ns (36%) decay times, but with longer components having 95 ns (36%) and 425 ns (23%) decays times. The peak emission wavelength is 335 nm, which is transmitted by borosilicate glass windowed photomultiplier tubes. The total scintillation light output increases with decreasing temperature fro 3,200 photons/MeV at +45 degrees C to 4, 900 photons/MeV at room temperature (+25 degrees C) and 68,500 photons/MeV at -145 degrees C. In an imperfect, 3 mm cube of a naturally occurring mineral form of PbSO4 (anglesite) at room temperature, a 511 keV photopeak is seen with a total light output of 60% that BGO. There are significant sample to sample variations of the light output among anglesite samples, so the light output of lead sulfate may improve when large synthetic crystals become available. 10 refs

  3. Analysis of tyrosine-O-sulfation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, J.R.; Sen, J.W.; Johnsen, A.H.; Rehfeld, Jens Frederik

    2008-01-01

    Tyrosine O-sulfation was first described about 50 years ago as a post-translational modification of fibrinogen. In the following 30 years it was considered to be a rare modification affecting only a few proteins and peptides. However, in the beginning of the 1980s tyrosine (Tyr) sulfation was shown...... to be a common modification and since then an increasing number of proteins have been identified as sulfated. The target proteins belong to the classes of secretory, plasma membrane, and lysosomal proteins, which reflects the intracellular localization of the enzymes catalyzing Tyr sulfation, the...... to demonstrate the presence of radioactively labeled tyrosine. These techniques have been described in detail previously. The aim of this chapter is to present alternative analytical methods of Tyr sulfation than radioisotope incorporation before analysis Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  4. Gaseous Sulfate Solubility in Glass: Experimental Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliss, Mary

    2013-11-30

    Sulfate solubility in glass is a key parameter in many commercial glasses and nuclear waste glasses. This report summarizes key publications specific to sulfate solubility experimental methods and the underlying physical chemistry calculations. The published methods and experimental data are used to verify the calculations in this report and are expanded to a range of current technical interest. The calculations and experimental methods described in this report will guide several experiments on sulfate solubility and saturation for the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Enhanced Waste Glass Models effort. There are several tables of sulfate gas equilibrium values at high temperature to guide experimental gas mixing and to achieve desired SO3 levels. This report also describes the necessary equipment and best practices to perform sulfate saturation experiments for molten glasses. Results and findings will be published when experimental work is finished and this report is validated from the data obtained.

  5. Reviews of the environmental effects of pollutants: IV. Cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammons, A.S.; Huff, J.E.; Braunstein, H.M.; Drury, J.S.; Shriner, C.R.; Lewis, E.B.; Whitfield, B.L.; Towill, L.E.

    1978-06-01

    This report is a comprehensive, multidisciplinary review of the health and environmental effects of cadmium and specific cadmium derivatives. More than 500 references are cited. The cadmium body burden in animals and humans results mainly from the diet. In the United States, the normal intake of cadmium for adult humans is estimated at about 50 ..mu..g per day. Tobacco smoke is a significant additional source of cadmium exposure. The kidneys and liver together contain about 50% of the total cadmium body burden. Acute cadmium poisoning is primarily an occupational problem, generally from inhalation of cadmium fumes or dusts. In the general population, incidents of acute poisoning by inhaled or ingested cadmium or its compounds are relatively rare. The kidney is the primary target organ for toxicity from prolonged low-level exposure to cadmium. No causal relationship has been established between cadmium exposure and human cancer, although a possible link between cadmium and prostate cancer has been indicated. Cadmium has been shown to be teratogenic in rats, hamsters, and mice, but no such effects have been proven in humans. Cadmium has been reported to increase the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells and in human peripheral leukocytes. The major concern about environmental cadmium is the potential effects on the general population. There is no substantial evidence of hazard from current levels of cadmium in air, water, or food. However, because cadmium is a cumulative poison and because present intake provides a relatively small safety margin, there are adequate reasons for concern over possible future increases in background levels.

  6. Reviews of the environmental effects of pollutants: IV. Cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a comprehensive, multidisciplinary review of the health and environmental effects of cadmium and specific cadmium derivatives. More than 500 references are cited. The cadmium body burden in animals and humans results mainly from the diet. In the United States, the normal intake of cadmium for adult humans is estimated at about 50 μg per day. Tobacco smoke is a significant additional source of cadmium exposure. The kidneys and liver together contain about 50% of the total cadmium body burden. Acute cadmium poisoning is primarily an occupational problem, generally from inhalation of cadmium fumes or dusts. In the general population, incidents of acute poisoning by inhaled or ingested cadmium or its compounds are relatively rare. The kidney is the primary target organ for toxicity from prolonged low-level exposure to cadmium. No causal relationship has been established between cadmium exposure and human cancer, although a possible link between cadmium and prostate cancer has been indicated. Cadmium has been shown to be teratogenic in rats, hamsters, and mice, but no such effects have been proven in humans. Cadmium has been reported to increase the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells and in human peripheral leukocytes. The major concern about environmental cadmium is the potential effects on the general population. There is no substantial evidence of hazard from current levels of cadmium in air, water, or food. However, because cadmium is a cumulative poison and because present intake provides a relatively small safety margin, there are adequate reasons for concern over possible future increases in background levels

  7. Cadmium removal by Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Devaleena; Majumder, Arunabha; Misra, Amal K; Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the ability of two genus of duckweed (Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza) to phytoremediate cadmium from aqueous solution. Duckweed was exposed to six different cadmium concentrations, such as, 0.5,1.0,1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 mg/L and the experiment was continued for 22 days. Water samples were collected periodically for estimation of residual cadmium content in aqueous solution. At the end of treatment period plant samples were collected and accumulated cadmium content was measured. Cadmium toxicity was observed through relative growth factor and changes in chlorophyll content Experimental results showed that Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza were capable of removing 42-78% and 52-75% cadmium from media depending upon initial cadmium concentrations. Cadmium was removed following pseudo second order kinetic model Maximum cadmium accumulation in Lemna minor was 4734.56 mg/kg at 2 mg/L initial cadmium concentration and 7711.00 mg/kg in Spirodela polyrhiza at 3 mg/L initial cadmium concentration at the end of treatment period. Conversely in both cases maximum bioconcentration factor obtained at lowest initial cadmium concentrations, i.e., 0.5 mg/L, were 3295.61 and 4752.00 for Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza respectively. The present study revealed that both Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza was potential cadmium accumulator. PMID:24933906

  8. Effects of cadmium on nickel electrodes in nickel-cadmium cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel cadmium battery cells containing nicel electrodes that are not treated with cadmium during the manufacturing process have a history of performance variability and capacity problems in various cell test programs. In this work cadmium additions to the nickel electrode are examined to determine the effects on the fundamental electrochemical processes occurring at this electrode. The results indicate that cadmium treatments improve recharge efficiency by increasing the potential required for oxygen evolution from the nickel electrode, thus decreasing the overcharge rate at a given voltage and allowing the nickel electrode to attain a higher state of charge. The effects of cadmium treatment become particularly important for stable cell operation at temperatures above 10 C, and for capacity maintenance under conditions of long term, low rate trickle charge

  9. Metabolic Flexibility of Sulfate Reducing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M. Plugge

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Dissimilatory sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRB are a very diverse group of anaerobic bacteria that are omnipresent in nature and play an imperative role in the global cycling of carbon and sulfur. In anoxic marine sediments sulfate reduction accounts for up to 50% of the entire organic mineralization in coastal and shelf ecosystems where sulfate diffuses several meters deep into the sediment. As a consequence, SRB would be expected in the sulfate-containing upper sediment layers, whereas methanogenic Archaea would be expected to succeed in the deeper sulfate-depleted layers of the sediment. Where sediments are high in organic matter, sulfate is depleted at shallow sediment depths, and biogenic methane production will occur. In the absence of sulfate, many SRB ferment organic acids and alcohols, producing hydrogen, acetate, and carbon dioxide, and may even rely on hydrogen- and acetate-scavenging methanogens to convert organic compounds to methane. SRB can establish two different life styles, and these can be termed as sulfidogenic and acetogenic, hydrogenogenic metabolism. The advantage of having different metabolic capabilities is that it raises the chance of survival in environments when electron acceptors become depleted. In marine sediments, SRB and methanogens do not compete but rather complement each other in the degradation of organic matter.Also in freshwater ecosystems with sulfate concentrations of only 10-200 μM, sulfate is consumed efficiently within the top several cm of the sediments. Here, many of the δ-Proteobacteria present have the genetic machinery to perform dissimilatory sulfate reduction, yet they have an acetogenic, hydrogenogenic way of life.In this review we evaluate the physiology and metabolic mode of SRB in relation with their environment.

  10. Activation and transfer of sulfate in biological systems (1960)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It examines in this review the successive stages of active sulfate formation and its role in biological synthesis of sulfuric esters. The possible role of active sulfate as intermediary in sulfate reduction is also discussed. (author)

  11. The Use of Seaweed and Sugarcane Bagasse for the Biological Treatment of Metal-contaminated Waters Under Sulfate-reducing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Márcia Monteiro Machado; de Mello, Luiz Antonio Oliveira; da Costa, Antonio Carlos Augusto

    When wetlands reach maximum treatment capacity to remove heavy metals, removal can still take place through precipitation as sulfide because of the biological reduction of sulfate. To achieve this goal, anaerobic conditions must be attained, a sulfate source must exist, and an adequate substrate for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is also required. In the present work, two ligneous-cellulosic materials, a brown seaweed and sugarcane bagasse, have been selected as substrates for SRB growth. Experiments were simultaneously conducted in continuous operation in two columns (0.57 L each), one containing the ligneous-cellulosic material plus inoculum and another containing only the ligneous-cellulosic material. In this work, the removal of cadmium and zinc was studied because of their presence in effluents from mining/metallurgy operations. Results obtained indicated that the inoculated reactor was able to treat the effluent more efficiently than the noninoculated reactor considering the time course of the tests.

  12. Production of potassium manganate and barium manganate from spent zinc-MnO2 dry cells via fusion with potassium hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha, Renan Azevedo; Quintanilha, Carolina Leão; Lanxin, Thayná Viana; Afonso, Júlio Carlos; Vianna, Cláudio Augusto; Gante, Valdir; Mantovano, José Luiz

    2014-12-01

    This work describes a route for extracting manganese and zinc from spent zinc-manganese dioxide dry cells via fusion of the electroactive components with potassium hydroxide to form potassium manganate (K2MnO4) and soluble zincates. The fused mass was dissolved in aqueous KOH and the insoluble matter was separated. Under the best optimal conditions, 70-78 wt% of manganese was solubilized as K2MnO4 whereas 30-44 wt% of zinc was solubilized as [Zn(OH)4]2- ions. Lead was the only minor component dissolved in detectable amounts. Manganese was isolated by a one-step precipitation procedure as barium manganate (BaMnO4) or via crystallization of K2MnO4. Lead and excess barium were isolated as sulfate by adding K2SO4. Zinc was precipitated as hydroxide after neutralizing the alkaline solution with H2SO4. pH control is essential to avoid decomposition of manganate ions and for the sequential precipitation of leached elements. K2SO4 was partially recovered as by-product after partial evaporation of the neutralized solution.

  13. Astrocytic Potassium Channels in CNS Disorders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anděrová, Miroslava; Pivoňková, Helena

    New York : Nova Science Publishers, 2012 - (González-Pérez, O.), s. 17-36 ISBN 978-1-62081-585-4 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512; CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : astroglia * potassium ion channels * CNS pathology Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  14. Potassium - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) Spanish (español) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Potassium Content of Common Foods (High) English 含高量钾质的食品(每份所含钾质多过200毫克) - 简体中文 (Chinese - Simplified) PDF ...

  15. Nutritional potassium requirement for laying Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the potassium requirement for laying Japanese quails. Two hundred and forty quails were distributed in a randomized block design, with five treatments and six replicates, with eight birds each. The treatments consisted of a basal diet deficient in potassium (K (2.50 g/kg, supplemented with potassium carbonate, to replace the inert, to reach levels of 2.50, 3.50, 4.50, 5.50 and 6.50 (g/kg of K in the diet. There was a quadratic effect of K levels on feed intake, egg production, egg mass and feed conversion per egg mass and per egg dozen, estimating the requirements of 4.26, 4.41, 4.38, 4.43 and 4.48 (g/kg of K diet, respectively. There was no significant effect on the levels of K in the diet on egg weight, albumen weight, percentage of yolk or shell and yolk color. However, yolk and shell weights reduced and the albumen percentage increased linearly with increasing levels of K in the diet. Despite the reduction of shell weight, the increased levels of K did not influence the specific gravity and shell thickness. The use of 4.41 g/kg of potassium is recommended in the diet for laying Japanese quails.

  16. Spectrophotometric Determination of Losartan Potassium in Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianne Diane A. Aniñon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the quality control of pharmaceutical products, it is of utmost importance that validated analytical methods are used to ensure the credibility of the results generated. At the time of the study, official monographs from the United States Pharmacopeia and National Formulary (USP-NF for the quantification of Losartan potassium in tablets were unavailable, denoting the need for a validated analytical procedure for the analysis of the drug. The study adapted direct and first-derivative UV spectrophotometry methods proposed by Bonfilio and others (2010 for the assay of Losartan potassium in Losartan 50 mg. capsules, then modified and validated the said procedures for the assay of Losartan potassium in Losartan 100 mg. tablets following the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH guidelines on method validation for accuracy, precision, specificity, linearity, limit of detection, and limit of quantitation. Results demonstrated that all the performance characteristics of both methods were highly satisfactory and confirmed the possible application of the methods in routine analysis of Losartan potassium tablets.

  17. Hg(0) absorption in potassium persulfate solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qun-feng; Wang, Cheng-yun; Wang, Da-hui; Sun, Guan; Xu, Xin-hua

    2006-05-01

    The aqueous phase oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg(0)) by potassium persulfate (KPS) catalyzed by Ag(+) was investigated using a glass bubble column reactor. Concentration of gaseous mercury and potassium persulfate were measured by cold vapor atom absorption (CVAA) and ion chromatograph (IC), respectively. The effects of pH value, concentration of potassium persulfate and silver nitrate (SN), temperature, Hg(0) concentration in the reactor inlet and tertiary butanol (TBA), free radical scavenger, on the removal efficiency of Hg(0) were studied. The results showed that the removal efficiency of Hg(0) increased with increasing concentration of potassium persulfate and silver nitrate, while temperature and TBA were negatively effective. Furthermore, the removal efficiency of Hg(0) was much better in neutral solution than in both acidic and alkaline solution. But the influence of pH was almost eliminated by adding AgNO(3). High Hg(0) concentration has positive effect. The possible reaction mechanism of gaseous mercury was also discussed. PMID:16615172

  18. 21 CFR 184.1635 - Potassium iodate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) The ingredient meets the specifications of the “Food Chemicals Codex,” 3d Ed. (1981), pp. 245-246... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium iodate. 184.1635 Section 184.1635 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d ed. (1981), p. 242, which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1610 - Potassium alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... control agents. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium alginate. 184.1610 Section 184.1610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... dioxide. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 239... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredient meets the specifications of the “Food Chemicals Codex,” 3d Ed. (1981), pp. 246-247, which is... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  3. Altered potassium homeostasis in Crohn's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total body potassium (TBK), serum potassium, and the number of red blood cell ouabain-binding sites was studied in 94 patients with Crohn's diease. TBK was measured by counting the endogenous 40K in a whole body counter. TBK was 87%+-13% in 94 patients was Crohn's disease, while in control subjects, it was 97%+-12% (n=24). This significant reduction in TBK was accompanied by normal serum potassium levels (4.4+-0.5 mM). TBK was significantly correlated with the Crohn's disease activity index (r=0.79, n=113, P3H-ouabain showed a significant increse in the number of Na-K pumps in Crohn's disease (396+-65, n=27) compared with the control group. 290+-45 (n=24). These results support the suggestion that changes in TBK may regulate the synthesis of Na-K pump molecules. The total body potassium depletion and the need for a preoperative nutritional support in Crohn's disease are discussed. (orig.)

  4. Potassium ferrate treatment of RFETS' contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potassium ferrate treatment study of Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) groundwater was performed under the Sitewide Treatability Studies Program (STSP). This study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of potassium ferrate in a water treatment system to remove the contaminants of concern (COCS) from groundwater at the RFETS. Potassium ferrate is a simple salt where the iron is in the plus six valence state. It is the iron at the plus six valence state (Fe +6) that makes it an unique water treatment chemical, especially in waters where the pH is greater than seven. In basic solutions where the solubility of the oxides/hydroxides of many of the COCs is low, solids are formed as the pH is raised. By using ferrate these solids are agglomerated so they can be effectively removed by sedimentation in conventional water treatment equipment. The objective of this study was to determine the quality of water after treatment with potassium ferrate and to determine if the Colorado Water Quality Control Commission (CWQCC) discharge limits for the COCs listed in Table 1.0-1 could be met. Radionuclides in the groundwater were of special concern

  5. Calcium, magnesium, and potassium in food

    Science.gov (United States)

    The biochemical and physiological functions and consequences of deficient intakes, which show the nutritional importance of calcium, magnesium and potassium for humans, are reviewed. The dietary recommendations and food sources for these essential mineral elements for humans are presented. Factors t...

  6. Surfen, a small molecule antagonist of heparan sulfate

    OpenAIRE

    Schuksz, Manuela; Fuster, Mark M.; Brown, Jillian R.; Crawford, Brett E.; Ditto, David P.; Lawrence, Roger; Glass, Charles A; Wang, Lianchun; Tor, Yitzhak; Esko, Jeffrey D

    2008-01-01

    In a search for small molecule antagonists of heparan sulfate, we examined the activity of bis-2-methyl-4-amino-quinolyl-6-carbamide, also known as surfen. Fluorescence-based titrations indicated that surfen bound to glycosaminoglycans, and the extent of binding increased according to charge density in the order heparin > dermatan sulfate > heparan sulfate > chondroitin sulfate. All charged groups in heparin (N-sulfates, O-sulfates, and carboxyl groups) contributed to binding, consistent with...

  7. Cadmium exposure induces hematuria in Korean adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Toxic heavy metals have adverse effects on human health. However, the risk of hematuria caused by heavy metal exposure has not been evaluated. Methods: Data from 4701 Korean adults were obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008–2010). Blood levels of the toxic heavy metals cadmium, lead, and mercury were measured. Hematuria was defined as a result of ≥+1 on a urine dipstick test. The odds ratios (ORs) for hematuria were measured according to the blood heavy metal levels after adjusting for multiple variables. Results: Individuals with blood cadmium levels in the 3rd and 4th quartiles had a greater OR for hematuria than those in the 1st quartile group: 3rd quartile, 1.35 (1.019–1.777; P=0.037); 4th quartile, 1.52 (1.140–2.017; P=0.004). When blood cadmium was considered as a log-transformed continuous variable, the correlation between blood cadmium and hematuria was significant: OR, 1.97 (1.224–3.160; Ptrend=0.005). In contrast, no significant correlations between hematuria and blood lead or mercury were found in the multivariate analyses. Discussion: The present study shows that high cadmium exposure is associated with a risk of hematuria. -- Highlights: • A high level of blood cadmium is associated with a high risk of hematuria. • This correlation is independent of several confounding factors. • Blood levels of lead and mercury are not associated with risk of hematuria. • This is the first study on the correlation between cadmium exposure and hematuria risk

  8. Cadmium exposure induces hematuria in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seung Seok [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myounghee, E-mail: dkkim73@gmail.com [Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Eulji University, Gyeonggi-do 461-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su Mi [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Pyo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sejoong [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Kwon Wook [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chun Soo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    Introduction: Toxic heavy metals have adverse effects on human health. However, the risk of hematuria caused by heavy metal exposure has not been evaluated. Methods: Data from 4701 Korean adults were obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008–2010). Blood levels of the toxic heavy metals cadmium, lead, and mercury were measured. Hematuria was defined as a result of ≥+1 on a urine dipstick test. The odds ratios (ORs) for hematuria were measured according to the blood heavy metal levels after adjusting for multiple variables. Results: Individuals with blood cadmium levels in the 3rd and 4th quartiles had a greater OR for hematuria than those in the 1st quartile group: 3rd quartile, 1.35 (1.019–1.777; P=0.037); 4th quartile, 1.52 (1.140–2.017; P=0.004). When blood cadmium was considered as a log-transformed continuous variable, the correlation between blood cadmium and hematuria was significant: OR, 1.97 (1.224–3.160; P{sub trend}=0.005). In contrast, no significant correlations between hematuria and blood lead or mercury were found in the multivariate analyses. Discussion: The present study shows that high cadmium exposure is associated with a risk of hematuria. -- Highlights: • A high level of blood cadmium is associated with a high risk of hematuria. • This correlation is independent of several confounding factors. • Blood levels of lead and mercury are not associated with risk of hematuria. • This is the first study on the correlation between cadmium exposure and hematuria risk.

  9. 21 CFR 520.1696d - Penicillin V potassium tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penicillin V potassium tablets. 520.1696d Section... Penicillin V potassium tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains penicillin V potassium equivalent to 125 milligrams (200,000 units) or 250 milligrams (400,000 units) of penicillin V. (b) Sponsors....

  10. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite are subject to prior sanctions issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for use as...

  11. Copper-cadmium interaction in mice: effects of copper status on retention and distribution of cadmium after cadmium exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of increased dietary copper in altering the accumulation of cadmium and other metals in tissues, was investigated. Female Swiss-Webster mice were pretreated with cadmium or copper in drinking water for three weeks prior to cadmium exposure for an additional nine weeks, with sub groups from each dose level receiving Cu additions to the Cd supplemented water. In Cd pretreated animals, a significant decrease was observed in Cd concentrations in liver and kidney when Cu was added to Cd in drinking water. Cadmium levels in soluble protein fractions of liver of animals administered 5 ppm Cd were approximately three fold greater than that for the same Cd dose when Cu was added. The same was the case for the metallothionein-like protein fraction (MTP) of the liver cytosol. In copper pretreated animals similar trends were noted in that brain, spleen, liver (but not kidney) Cd levels were decreased in animals receiving Cu additions to the Cd dose. Increased binding of Cd to the MTP fraction was observed after both in vivo and in vitro exposure of intestinal mucosal cells to cadmium

  12. Electrical properties of the potassium polytitanate compacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goffman, V.G.; Gorokhovsky, A.V. [NanoTechProm Ltd., Saratov (Russian Federation); Saratov State Technical University, Saratov (Russian Federation); Kompan, M.M. [Physico-Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Science, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Tretyachenko, E.V.; Telegina, O.S.; Kovnev, A.V. [NanoTechProm Ltd., Saratov (Russian Federation); Saratov State Technical University, Saratov (Russian Federation); Fedorov, F.S., E-mail: fedorov_fs@daad-alumni.de [NanoTechProm Ltd., Saratov (Russian Federation); Saratov State Technical University, Saratov (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Quasi-static permittivity of potassium polytitanates compacts achieves 10{sup 4}–10{sup 5}. • Observed Maxwell–Wagner polarization attributes to layered structure of polytitanates. • The conductivity varies from 5 × 10{sup −2} to 10{sup −6}–10{sup −7} Sm/m in a wide range of temperatures. - Abstract: Titanates of alkali metals are widely applied materials as they are relatively low in cost and might be easily synthesized. They are utilized as adsorbents, catalysts, solid state electrolytes, superconductors. Here we report our results on electrical properties of the compacted amorphous potassium polytitanates powders. The electrical properties of the compacts were studied by means of complex impedance spectroscopy in a wide range of frequencies at different temperatures using two-electrode configuration. The frequency dependences of conductivity for the investigated potassium polytitanates compacts varies in the range from 5 × 10{sup −2} Sm/m (high frequencies, ion conductivity) up to 10{sup −6}–10{sup −7} Sm/m (low frequencies, electron conductivity) for a wide range of temperatures (19–150 °C). According to the results, at low frequencies quasi-static permittivity of the stabilized PPT compacts achieves high values of 10{sup 4}–10{sup 5}. This might be explained by Maxwell–Wagner polarization attributed to the layered structure of the potassium polytitanates particles containing potassium and hydronium ions together with crystallization water in the interlayer and is very promising for solid state electrolyte applications for moderate temperatures.

  13. On the effect of thallium additions on cadmium amalgam potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been made of the influence of additives of thallium on potentials of cadmium amalgams with thallium contents of 10, 20, 30, and 40 at.% at 20, 40, 60, and 80 deg C. Additives of thallium have been found to shift the potential of cadmium amalgams towards the range of negative values which indicates an increase in the activity of cadmium. A possibility of calculation of the potential shift for heterogeneous cadmium amalgams on introducing thallium has been shown

  14. Development of an accelerated test for Internal Sulfate Attack study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khelil Nacim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Internal Sulfate Attack (ISA is a pathology that occurs under certain conditions in concrete having undergone heating above 70 °C at early age (through heating in pre-casting industry or due to hydration in large concrete parts. This reaction deemed very slow, numerous methods to speed up reactions leading to delayed ettringite formation have been developed. These methods are all based on the material damage. Another type of test is currently under development. It is based on rehabilitation techniques such as electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE in order to accelerate the leaching of alkalis that could be one of the triggers of the pathology. The study presented in this paper focused on concrete specimens prepared from cement (CEM I 52.5 N enriched with Na2SO4. These concretes have undergone a heat treatment typical of those used in precast plants (up to 24 hours with a maximum temperature of 80 °C. Various paths were explored for the development of the accelerated test. The first results showed that it was necessary to use a removable titanium anode ruthenium anode instead of stainless steel embedded in the concrete. Then tests with de-ionized water as the solute to the cathode did not accelerate the onset of expansions. The experiment has been modified and potassium carbonate was added to the solution. This modification didn’t show any significant improvement, and other experiments are being carried out to explain this result.

  15. Essential elements and cadmium and lead in fresh and canned peas (Pisum sativum L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, A.; Williams, H.L.; Cooler, F.W.

    Sixteen essential elements along with cadmium and lead were determined in fresh and canned peas (Pisum sativum L.). Samples were taken during the canning process to determine where changes in element content occurred. The concentration of each sample was compared statistically to other samples taken at different stages of the process. Canned peas contained significantly lower concentrations of calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, silicon, and zinc than fresh peas. As sodium chloride was added during the canning process, higher concentrations of chloride and sodium were found in the canned product. A 100g serving of drained canned peas supplied less than 11% of the RDAs or of the estimated safe and adequate daily dietary intakes except chloride and sodium, ranged from 24-86%.

  16. Sulfide Oxidation in Marine Sedimentary Rocks as a Source of Trace Metals and Sulfate to Urban California Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardsley, A.; Hammond, D. E.; von Bitner, T.

    2013-12-01

    Watersheds in southern Orange County, CA have received regulatory scrutiny for elevated levels of total dissolved solids (TDS) along with cadmium, nickel, and sulfate as threats to in-stream and marine ecology. Multiple source investigations have failed to attribute these chronic contaminants to anthropogenic sources. Patterns of high TDS in the study region's surface waters correlate poorly with landuse and instead appear to follow geologic substrate. Measurements of springs and seeps reveal groundwater pH as low as 4.8, TDS as high as 8700 mg/L, dissolved concentrations of sulfate up to 50 mM, cadmium up to 1.8 uM, selenium up to 2.4 uM, and nickel up to 14.8 uM flowing directly into creeks. We suggest that subsurface oxidation of sulfide in prevalent Neogene marine sedimentary rock formations is the key weathering mechanism behind this phenomenon. Bulk analysis of the Capistrano and other local formations indicates that they are enriched in select trace metals up to two orders of magnitude relative to average crustal abundance, making them a plausible source of contamination to groundwater, and ultimately, surface water. Though carbonate dissolution in these same formations may offset the acidity at some sites, many groundwater samples were substantially undersaturated in calcite and capable of maintaining low pH and high dissolved metals concentration. While sulfide mineral weathering has been invoked as the cause of significant contamination at former mining sites and undeveloped mineralized regions, our findings indicate this same weathering mechanism may have implications for urbanized catchments that contain marine sedimentary units. Sulfide mineral oxidation can result in substantial sulfate loading, acid production and subsequent mobilization of trace metals and other ions from the surrounding rock matrix, leading to high dissolved contaminant levels. To evaluate water and sulfate sources to these high TDS springs, we measured stable isotopes of water and

  17. Heparan sulfate in skeletal muscle development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noonan, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    In this study, chick breast skeletal muscle cells developing in vitro from myoblasts to myotubes were found to synthesize heparan sulfate (HS), chrondroitin-6-sulfate, chrondroitin-4-sulfate, dermatan sulfate, unsulfated chrondroitin and hyaluronic acid in both the substratum attached material (SAM) and the cellular fraction. SAM was found to contain predominantly chrondroitin-6-sulfate and relatively little HS whereas the cellular fraction contained relatively higher levels of HS and lower levels of chrondroitin-6-sulfate. Hyaluronic acid was also a major component in both fractions with the other glycosaminoglycan isomers present as minor components. Muscle derived fibroblast cultures had higher levels of dermatan sulfate in the cell layer and higher levels of HS in the SAM fraction than did muscle cultures. The structure of the proteoglycans were partially characterized in /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ radio-labeled cultures which indicated an apparent increase in the hydrodynamic size of the cell fraction heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HS PG). Myotubes incorporated /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ into HS PG at a rate 3 times higher than myoblasts. The turnover rate of HS in the cellular fraction was the same for myoblasts and myotubes, with a t/sub 1/2/ of approximately 5 hours. Fibroblasts in culture synthesized the smallest HS PG, and incorporated /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ into HS PG at a rate lower than that of myotubes. Studies in which fusion was reversibly inhibited with decreased medium (Ca/sup + +/) closely linked the increased synthesis of cell fraction, but not SAM fraction, HS with myotube formation. However, decreasing medium calcium appeared to cause significant alterations in the metabolism of inorganic sulfate.

  18. Heparan sulfate in skeletal muscle development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, chick breast skeletal muscle cells developing in vitro from myoblasts to myotubes were found to synthesize heparan sulfate (HS), chrondroitin-6-sulfate, chrondroitin-4-sulfate, dermatan sulfate, unsulfated chrondroitin and hyaluronic acid in both the substratum attached material (SAM) and the cellular fraction. SAM was found to contain predominantly chrondroitin-6-sulfate and relatively little HS whereas the cellular fraction contained relatively higher levels of HS and lower levels of chrondroitin-6-sulfate. Hyaluronic acid was also a major component in both fractions with the other glycosaminoglycan isomers present as minor components. Muscle derived fibroblast cultures had higher levels of dermatan sulfate in the cell layer and higher levels of HS in the SAM fraction than did muscle cultures. The structure of the proteoglycans were partially characterized in 35SO42- radio-labeled cultures which indicated an apparent increase in the hydrodynamic size of the cell fraction heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HS PG). Myotubes incorporated 35SO42- into HS PG at a rate 3 times higher than myoblasts. The turnover rate of HS in the cellular fraction was the same for myoblasts and myotubes, with a t/sub 1/2/ of approximately 5 hours. Fibroblasts in culture synthesized the smallest HS PG, and incorporated 35SO42- into HS PG at a rate lower than that of myotubes. Studies in which fusion was reversibly inhibited with decreased medium [Ca++] closely linked the increased synthesis of cell fraction, but not SAM fraction, HS with myotube formation. However, decreasing medium calcium appeared to cause significant alterations in the metabolism of inorganic sulfate

  19. Physicochemical action of potassium-magnesium citrate in nephrolithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, C. Y.; Koenig, K.; Khan, R.; Haynes, S.; Padalino, P.

    1992-01-01

    Effect of potassium-magnesium citrate on urinary biochemistry and crystallization of stone-forming salts was compared with that of potassium citrate at same dose of potassium in five normal subjects and five patients with calcium nephrolithiasis. Compared to the placebo phase, urinary pH rose significantly from 6.06 +/- 0.27 to 6.48 +/- 0.36 (mean +/- SD, p less than 0.0167) during treatment with potassium citrate (50 mEq/day for 7 days) and to 6.68 +/- 0.31 during therapy with potassium-magnesium citrate (containing 49 mEq K, 24.5 mEq Mg, and 73.5 mEq citrate per day). Urinary pH was significantly higher during potassium-magnesium citrate than during potassium citrate therapy. Thus, the amount of undissociated uric acid declined from 118 +/- 61 mg/day during the placebo phase to 68 +/- 54 mg/day during potassium citrate treatment and, more prominently, to 41 +/- 46 mg/day during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy. Urinary magnesium rose significantly from 102 +/- 25 to 146 +/- 37 mg/day during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy but not during potassium citrate therapy. Urinary citrate rose more prominently during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy (to 1027 +/- 478 mg/day from 638 +/- 252 mg/day) than during potassium citrate treatment (to 932 +/- 297 mg/day). Consequently, urinary saturation (activity product) of calcium oxalate declined significantly (from 1.49 x 10(-8) to 1.03 x 10(-8) M2) during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy and marginally (to 1.14 x 10(-8) M2) during potassium citrate therapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  20. Effect of anions on Toxicity of Cadmium Applied to MIcrobial Biomass in Red Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.S.KHAN; XIEZHENGMIAO; 等

    1997-01-01

    A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted to elucidat the effects of associated anions on toxicity of cadmium applied to microbial biomass in the red soil. Cadmium was applied at six different levels,i.e.,O(background),5,15,30,60 and 100μg g-1 soil in the form of either cadmium acetate or cadmium chloride. Application of cadmium as cadmium acetate markedly reduced the soil microbial biomass carbon compared to cadmium applied as cadmium chlorde at all the tested levels.Similarly,organic carbon to biomass carbon ration in the soil was markedly increased by increasing the level of the cadmium in the soil as cadmium acetate,while the change wa much smaller in the case of cadmium chloride at the same cadmium levels.The results suggested that due consideration should be given to the source of cadmium while deciding the cadmium levles in experiments.

  1. Recrystallization of 223Ra with barium sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the kinetics of barium sulfate recrystallization has been studied in acidic 0.01 mol dm-3 sodium sulfate solution using 223Ra and 133Ba tracers at very low total radium concentration, i.e. less than 10-13 mol dm-3. It was found that the system follows the homogeneous recrystallization model and that recrystallization rates, inferred by the decrease of 223Ra and 133Ba in the aqueous solution, are fast. Therefore, even at very low concentrations, below the solubility limit, radium will be retained by barium sulfate-a mineral present in the deep underground repository. (author)

  2. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary T. Rochelle; Andrew Sexton; Jason Davis; Marcus Hilliard; Qing Xu; David Van Wagener; Jorge M. Plaza

    2007-03-31

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. The best K{sup +}/PZ solvent, 4.5 m K{sup +}/4.5 m PZ, requires equivalent work of 31.8 kJ/mole CO{sub 2} when used with a double matrix stripper and an intercooled absorber. The oxidative degradation of piperazine or organic acids is reduced significantly by inhibitor A, but the production of ethylenediamine is unaffected. The oxidative degradation of piperazine in 7 m MEA/2 m PZ is catalyzed by Cu{sup ++}. The thermal degradation of MEA becomes significant at 120 C. The solubility of potassium sulfate in MEA/PZ solvents is increased at greater CO{sub 2} loading. The best solvent and process configuration, matrix with MDEA/PZ, offers 22% and 15% energy savings over the baseline and improved baseline, respectively, with stripping and compression to 10 MPa. The energy requirement for stripping and compression to 10 MPa is about 20% of the power output from a 500 MW power plant with 90% CO{sub 2} removal. The stripper rate model shows that a ''short and fat'' stripper requires 7 to 15% less equivalent work than a ''tall and skinny'' one. The stripper model was validated with data obtained from pilot plant experiments at the University of Texas with 5m K{sup +}/2.5m PZ and 6.4m K{sup +}/1.6m PZ under normal pressure and vacuum conditions using Flexipac AQ Style 20 structured packing. Experiments with oxidative degradation at low gas rates confirm the effects of Cu{sup +2} catalysis; in MEA/PZ solutions more formate and acetate is produced in the presence of Cu{sup +2}. At 150 C, the half life of 30% MEA with 0.4 moles CO{sub 2}/mole amine is about 2 weeks. At 100 C, less than 3% degradation occurred in two weeks. The solubility of potassium sulfate in MEA solution increases significantly with CO{sub 2} loading and decreases with MEA

  3. Cadmium-113m as a biogeochemical tracer for cadmium in Lake Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Lake Michigan watershed has been sampled for 113mCd. This long-lived metastable isotope of cadmium allowed independent evaluation of cadmium distribution in this dynamic ecosystem. 113mCd analysis was not hampered by contamination or loss. These are problems which have plagued stable cadmium measurements. Sensitivity and specificity were necessary concerns. 113mCd has been preconcentrated from large samples in order to obtain sufficient activity for quantification. Specificity for the gross beta activity measured was secured in a rigorous ion exchange decontamination. Confirmation of the suspected 113mCd beta source was checked by reverse tracer analysis and modified Feather analysis range-energy relationships. The 113mCd activities confirm the expected semiconservative behavior for cadmium. This behavior manifests itself in a long residence time for cadmium in Lake Michigan. The inefficiency of outflow removal, the low sedimentation rate and the unquantified sediment resuspension and release of cadmium are factors contributing to this residence time. Steady state concentration of cadmium in Lake Michigan will increase if present input rates persist

  4. Effects of cisplatin on potassium currents in CT26 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Potassium currents were detected in CT26 cells and the currents were reduced by the application of tetraethylammonium (TEA chloride, iberiotoxin, a big conductance calcium-activated potassium channel blocker and barium. The potassium currents were enhanced to 192< by the application of cisplatin (0.5 mM. Moreover, the increase of potassium currents by cisplatin was further inhibited by the application of TEA confirming the action of cisplatin on potassium channels. In addition, relative current induced by cisplatin in CT26 cells was bit larger than in normal IEC-6 cells.

  5. Novel alkylsulfatases required for biodegradation of the branched primary alkyl sulfate surfactant 2-butyloctyl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Andrew J; Hales, Stephen G; Ur-Rehman, Naheed G A; White, Graham F

    2002-01-01

    Recent reports show that contrary to common perception, branched alkyl sulfate surfactants are readily biodegradable in standard biodegradability tests. We report here the isolation of bacteria capable of biodegrading 2-butyloctyl sulfate and the identification of novel enzymes that initiate the process. Enrichment culturing from activated sewage sludge yielded several strains capable of growth on 2-butyloctyl sulfate. Of these, two were selected for further study and identified as members of the genus Pseudomonas. Strain AE-A was able to utilize either sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or 2-butyloctyl sulfate as a carbon and energy source for growth, but strain AE-D utilized only the latter. Depending on growth conditions, strain AE-A produced up to three alkylsulfatases, as shown by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis zymography. Growth on either SDS or 2-butyloctyl sulfate or in nutrient broth produced an apparently constitutive, nonspecific primary alkylsulfatase, AP1, weakly active on SDS and on 2-butyloctyl sulfate. Growth on 2-butyloctyl sulfate produced a second enzyme, AP2, active on 2-butyloctyl sulfate but not on SDS, and growth on SDS produced a third enzyme, AP3, active on SDS but not on 2-butyloctyl sulfate. In contrast, strain AE-D, when grown on 2-butyloctyl sulfate (no growth on SDS), produced a single enzyme, DP1, active on 2-butyloctyl sulfate but not on SDS. DP1 was not produced in broth cultures. DP1 was induced when residual 2-butyloctyl sulfate was present in the growth medium, but the enzyme disappeared when the substrate was exhausted. Gas chromatographic analysis of products of incubating 2-butyloctyl sulfate with DP1 in gels revealed the formation of 2-butyloctanol, showing the enzyme to be a true sulfatase. In contrast, Pseudomonas sp. strain C12B, well known for its ability to degrade linear SDS, was unable to grow on 2-butyloctyl sulfate, and its alkylsulfatases responsible for initiating the degradation of SDS by releasing the parent

  6. CONTROL OF CADMIUM CARBONATE PRECIPITATION INTERFERENCES DURING THE DIALYSIS OF CADMIUM IN HIGH BICARBONATE ALKALINITY AQUATIC-LIFE BIOASSAY WATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The precipitation of cadmium carbonate during the dialysis of cadmium in a high bicarbonate alkalinity natural water, was linked to a significant source of error when determining dialyzate cadmium concentrations. The relative standard deviation was reduced by approximately four-f...

  7. Cadmium accumulation by Axonopus compressus (Sw. P. Beauv and Cyperus rotundas Linn growing in cadmium solution and cadmium-zinc contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paitip Thiravetyan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the phyto-remediation potentials of Cyperus rotundas Linn (Nutgrass and Axonopus compressus (Sw. P. Beauv (Carpetgrass for cadmium removal from cadmium solution andcadmium-zinc contaminated soil. Plants growth in the solution showed that cadmium decreased the relative growth rate of both grasses. However, the amount of cadmium accumulated in shoot and root was increasedwith the increase in cadmium concentration and exposure time. Growth in fertile soil mixed with Cd-contaminated zinc silicate residue (65% Si, 19% Ca, 2% Zn, 1% Mg and 0.03% Cd at the ratio of 50:50 (w/wfor 30 days showed that C. rotundas Linn accumulated cadmium in root and shoot to 2,178 and 1,144 mg kg-1 dry weight, respectively. A. compressus (Sw. P. Beauv accumulated cadmium in root and shoot to 1,965and 669 mg kg-1 dry weight, respectively. Scanning electron microscope connected to energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy suggested that the mechanism of cadmium accumulation by both grasses involved thecadmium precipitation in the stable form of cadmium silicate, which indicated that C. rotundas Linn and A. compressus (Sw. P. Beauv could be grown to prevent soil erosion and to remediate cadmium-contaminatedsoil.

  8. Body potassium measurement by 40K gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 150 normal Indian adult males were studied for their total body potassium using the whole body counter of the Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Delhi. The potassium values were found to vary between 1.69 to 1.89 with average of 1.73 g. of potassium per kilogram of body weight. There was poor correlation between total body potassium and body weight. The body build index was found to be anthropometric parameter which is better correlated with the estimated values of total body potassium. The study further pointed out the important role of variable body fat on the estimation of total body potassium by whole body counter. The effect of age and the nature of physical activity of the subject on total body potassium were also investigated. The importance of an independent method for fast estimation is indicated. (auth.)

  9. ELECTROKINETIC REMEDIATION STUDY FOR CADMIUM CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bala Ramudu

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental research undertaken to evaluate different purging solutions to enhance the removal of cadmium from spiked contaminated field soil by electrokinetic remediation. Three experiments were conducted when soil was saturated with deionised water and subsequently deionised water, ammonium citrate and sodium citrate were used as purging solutions at anode end. One experiment was conducted when the soil was saturated with ammonium citrate and itself was used as the purging solution. Results showed that 49% reduction of cadmium concentration was achieved in the case of soil saturated (washed with ammonium citrate as well as purging solution also was ammonium citrate. The soil pH and washing solutions were the most important factors in controlling the removal of cadmium in electrokinetic remediation process.

  10. Bireactor Electronuclear Systems with Liquid Cadmium Valve

    CERN Document Server

    Bznuni, S A; Zhamkochyan, V M; ASosnin, A N; Polanski, A; Khudaverdyan, A H

    2002-01-01

    Three main types of bireactor electronuclear systems are discussed. From the point of view of assuring high level of functional characteristics and safety bireactor electronuclear systems with booster using enriched uranium (20 %) and with a liquid cadmium valve appears to be the most effective. It is shown by means of Monte-Carlo modeling that such operation conditions can be achieved which lead to the destruction of the intermediate cadmium layer making the systems supercritical (k_{eff}>1). One can avoid the problem by using a special design of the liquid cadmium valve. In comparison with other nuclear systems (critical reactors, one-reactor electronuclear systems) cascade electronuclear systems have essential advantages allowing the decrease of the proton beam current by one order of magnitude and providing at same time the necessary level of power generation and neutron flux. Availability of both the thermal and fast cones allows one to transmute not only transuranics but also the fission products - cesi...

  11. Cadmium tungstate ceramics for application as scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present work is the production of cadmium tungstate scintillator ceramics (CdWO4 - CWO). The route of production employed was the solid state synthesis. Before the calcination, the precursors cadmium oxide and tungsten oxide were homogenized in an agate mortar. Bismuth oxide was used in the production of doped ceramics with 1% in mol of bismuth, in order to improve de efficiency of the scintillators. Since there is a possibility of Cd2+ loss at temperatures above 1000 deg C, ceramics with 1% of cadmium oxide excess were also produced. The crystalline phase was obtained after two calcination, according to X-Ray diffraction results. For the characterization, radioluminescence measurements were performed under β and X-radiation. Images of the surface of the sintered ceramic were registered by Atomic Force Microscopy. The density of ceramics bodies was calculated by the Archimedes' method and compared with the theoretical density (7.99 g/cm3). (author)

  12. ROE Wet Sulfate Deposition 2009-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The raster data represent the amount of wet sulfate deposition in kilograms per hectare from 2009 to 2011. Summary data in this indicator were provided by EPA’s...

  13. Sulfated cellulose thin films with antithrombin affinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose thin films were chemically modified by in situ sulfation to produce surfaces with anticoagulant characteristics. Two celluloses differing in their degree of polymerization (DP: CEL I (DP 215–240 and CEL II (DP 1300–1400 were tethered to maleic anhydride copolymer (MA layers and subsequently exposed to SO3•NMe3 solutions at elevated temperature. The impact of the resulting sulfation on the physicochemical properties of the cellulose films was investigated with respect to film thickness, atomic composition, wettability and roughness. The sulfation was optimized to gain a maximal surface concentration of sulfate groups. The scavenging of antithrombin (AT by the surfaces was determined to conclude on their potential anticoagulant properties.

  14. Integration of nitrogen and potassium signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Yi-Fang; Ho, Cheng-Hsun; Chen, Hui-Yu; Lin, Shan-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Sensing and responding to soil nutrient fluctuations are vital for the survival of higher plants. Over the past few years, great progress has been made in our understanding of nitrogen and potassium signaling. Key components of the signaling pathways including sensors, kinases, miRNA, ubiquitin ligases, and transcriptional factors. These components mediate the transcriptional responses, root-architecture changes, and uptake-activity modulation induced by nitrate, ammonium, and potassium in the soil solution. Integration of these responses allows plants to compete for limited nutrients and to survive under nutrient deficiency or toxic nutrient excess. A future challenge is to extend the present fragmented sets of data to a comprehensive signaling network. Then, such knowledge and the accompanying molecular tools can be applied to improve the efficiency of nutrient utilization in crops. PMID:21495843

  15. Increased cadmium and lead uptake of a cadmium hyperaccumulator tomato by cadmium-resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lin-Yan; Chen, Zhao-Jin; Ren, Gai-Di; Zhang, Yan-Feng; Qian, Meng; Sheng, Xia-Fang

    2009-07-01

    Two cadmium (Cd)-resistant strains Pseudomonas sp. RJ10 and Bacillus sp. RJ16 were investigated for their effects on the soil Cd and lead (Pb) solubilization and promotion of plant growth and Cd and Pb uptakes of a Cd-hyperaccumulator tomato. In the heavy metal-contaminated inoculated soil, the CaCl(2)-extractable Cd and Pb were increased by 58-104% and 67-93%, respectively, compared to the uninoculation control. The bacteria produced indole acetic acid, siderophore and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase. Root elongation assay conducted on tomato under gnotobiotic conditions demonstrated increase in root elongation of inoculated tomato seedlings compared to the control plants. An increase in Cd and Pb contents of above-ground tissues varied from 92% to 113% and from 73% to 79% in inoculated plants growing in heavy metal-contaminated soil compared to the uninoculation control, respectively. These results show that the bacteria could be exploited for bacteria enhanced-phytoextraction of Cd- and Pb-polluted soils. PMID:19368973

  16. Chemiluminescence determination of potassium bromate in flour based on flow injection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhengyu; Zhang, Zhengwei; Yu, Yan; Liu, Zhen; Chen, Jianqiu

    2016-01-01

    A novel and highly sensitive flow-injection chemiluminescence method for the determination of potassium bromate (KBrO3) has been developed. This method is based on the luminescence properties of the KBrO3-Na2SO3-quinine sulfate system in acid medium. Optimized experimental conditions and a possible mechanism were investigated. The relative chemiluminescence intensity responded linearly to the concentration of KBrO3 in the range of 7.054 × 10(-6)-1.008 × 10(-4) mol/L with a detection limit of 2.116 × 10(-6) mol/L. The relative standard deviation (RSD) at 5.0 × 10(-5) mol/L KBrO3 (n = 12) was 2.3%. The proposed method was applied successfully to the determination of KBrO3 in flour. PMID:26212936

  17. Chlorophenol Degradation Coupled to Sulfate Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Häggblom, M M; Young, L. Y.

    1991-01-01

    We studied chlorophenol degradation under sulfate-reducing conditions with an estuarine sediment inoculum. These cultures degraded 0.1 mM 2-, 3-, and 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol within 120 to 220 days, but after refeeding with chlorophenols degradation took place in 40 days or less. Further refeeding greatly enhanced the rate of degradation. Sulfate consumption by the cultures corresponded to the stoichiometric values expected for complete oxidation of the chlorophenol to CO2. Forma...

  18. Heparan Sulfate Dependent Mechanisms of Amyloidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Noborn, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    A common theme in amyloid disorders is the deposition of disease-specific protein aggregates in tissues. Amyloid proteins bind to heparan sulfate (HS), a sulfated glycosaminoglycan, and HS has been found to promote the aggregation process. The present work relates to HS mediated mechanisms of amyloidosis, particularly transthyretin (TTR) amyloidosis, AA-amyloidosis and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). TTR is a transport protein present in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid, which under unclear circum...

  19. Treatment of cadmium dust with two-stage leaching process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The treatment of cadmium dust with a two-stage leaching process was investigated to replace the existing sulphation roast-leaching processes. The process parameters in the first stage leaching were basically similar to the neutralleaching in zinc hydrometallurgy. The effects of process parameters in the second stage leaching on the extraction of zincand cadmium were mainly studied. The experimental results indicated that zinc and cadmium could be efficiently recoveredfrom the cadmium dust by two-stage leaching process. The extraction percentages of zinc and cadmium in two stage leach-ing reached 95% and 88% respectively under the optimum conditions. The total extraction percentage of Zn and Cdreached 94%.

  20. Thermodynamic properties of cadmium in lead amalgam dilute solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation of thermodynamic properties of cadmium dilute solutions in lead amalgam is carried out by means of electromotive force technique within 453-523 K temperature range. Cadmium thermodynamic functions are calculated: activity, activity ratio, Libbs partial energy and its excess value and integral characteristics, respectively. When changing cadmium content from 0.01 up to 0.1 χcd at T=473 K, logarithm of activity ratio does not depend on alloy composition, that is, Heury's law is fulfilled. Increase of cadmium content in amalgam results in the essential reduction of mercury and cadmium reaction

  1. Urinary excretion of cadmium and zinc among persons from Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elinder, C.G.; Kjellstrom, T.; Linnman, L.; Pershagen, G.

    1978-06-01

    Cadmium and zinc concentrations in the urine of 132 Swedes, including 50 pairs of identical twins, were measured. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry procedures were developed for the analysis. Cadmium concentration increased with age and was higher among smokers than among nonsmokers. Estimated 24-hr excretion of cadmium among nonsmokers increased from about 0.25 to 0.40 ..mu..g in persons from 20 to 70 years old. The 24-hr cadmium excretions among nonsmokers in different age-groups fitted better to total kidney burden than to daily cadmium intake from food. Zinc excretion, on the other hand, decreased after the age of 20.

  2. Spectrophotometric Determination of Losartan Potassium in Tablets

    OpenAIRE

    Arianne Diane A. Aniñon; Richard Simon R. Binos; Karen Mae M. Brizuela; Willison John C. de Luna; Regine Philline S. del Rosario; Jesus John C. Dimalala; Timothy Joseph P. Dueñas; Isaac Ireneo B. Linatoc; Juan Paolo D. Recto; Melanie V. Salinas; West Kristian D. Paraiso

    2014-01-01

    In the quality control of pharmaceutical products, it is of utmost importance that validated analytical methods are used to ensure the credibility of the results generated. At the time of the study, official monographs from the United States Pharmacopeia and National Formulary (USP-NF) for the quantification of Losartan potassium in tablets were unavailable, denoting the need for a validated analytical procedure for the analysis of the drug. The study adapted direct and first-derivative UV sp...

  3. Tune-out wavelengths for potassium

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Jun; Mitroy, J

    2013-01-01

    The five longest tune-out wavelengths for the potassium atom are determined using a relativistic structure model which treats the atom as consisting of a single valence electron moving outside a closed shell core. The importance of various terms in the dynamic polarizability in the vicinity of the $4p_J$, $5p_J$ and $6p_J$ transitions are discussed.

  4. Potassium leakage and maize seed physiological potential

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Mariane Victorio de Carvalho; Marcos Filho Julio

    2002-01-01

    Seed production usually requires fast decisions to improve the efficacy of seed handling during harvesting, processing and storage. Seed technologists have focused on the development or improvement of procedures which allow rapid and consistent identification of higher quality seed lots. This research verified the effectiveness of the potassium leachate test on the evaluation of the physiological potential of maize seeds in comparison to recommended seed vigor tests. Five seed lots of the hyb...

  5. Cadmium telluride quantum dots advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Donegan, John

    2013-01-01

    Optical Properties of Bulk and Nanocrystalline Cadmium Telluride, Núñez Fernández and M.I. VasilevskiyAqueous Synthesis of Colloidal CdTe Nanocrystals, V. Lesnyak, N. Gaponik, and A. EychmüllerAssemblies of Thiol-Capped CdTe Nanocrystals, N. GaponikFörster Resonant Energy Transfer in CdTe Nanocrystal Quantum Dot Structures, M. Lunz and A.L. BradleyEmission of CdTe Nanocrystals Coupled to Microcavities, Y.P. Rakovich and J.F. DoneganBiological Applications of Cadmium Telluride Semiconductor Quantum Dots, A. Le Cign

  6. Hormonal control of sulfate uptake and assimilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprivova, Anna; Kopriva, Stanislav

    2016-08-01

    Plant hormones have a plethora of functions in control of plant development, stress response, and primary metabolism, including nutrient homeostasis. In the plant nutrition, the interplay of hormones with responses to nitrate and phosphate deficiency is well described, but relatively little is known about the interaction between phytohormones and regulation of sulfur metabolism. As for other nutrients, sulfate deficiency results in modulation of root architecture, where hormones are expected to play an important role. Accordingly, sulfate deficiency induces genes involved in metabolism of tryptophane and auxin. Also jasmonate biosynthesis is induced, pointing to the need of increase the defense capabilities of the plants when sulfur is limiting. However, hormones affect also sulfate uptake and assimilation. The pathway is coordinately induced by jasmonate and the key enzyme, adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase, is additionally regulated by ethylene, abscisic acid, nitric oxid, and other phytohormones. Perhaps the most intriguing link between hormones and sulfate assimilation is the fact that the main regulator of the response to sulfate starvation, SULFATE LIMITATION1 (SLIM1) belongs to the family of ethylene related transcription factors. We will review the current knowledge of interplay between phytohormones and control of sulfur metabolism and discuss the main open questions. PMID:26810064

  7. Divergent Synthesis of Heparan Sulfate Oligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulaney, Steven B; Xu, Yongmei; Wang, Peng; Tiruchinapally, Gopinath; Wang, Zhen; Kathawa, Jolian; El-Dakdouki, Mohammad H; Yang, Bo; Liu, Jian; Huang, Xuefei

    2015-12-18

    Heparan sulfates are implicated in a wide range of biological processes. A major challenge in deciphering their structure and activity relationship is the synthetic difficulties to access diverse heparan sulfate oligosaccharides with well-defined sulfation patterns. In order to expedite the synthesis, a divergent synthetic strategy was developed. By integrating chemical synthesis and two types of O-sulfo transferases, seven different hexasaccharides were obtained from a single hexasaccharide precursor. This approach combined the flexibility of chemical synthesis with the selectivity of enzyme-catalyzed sulfations, thus simplifying the overall synthetic operations. In an attempt to establish structure activity relationships of heparan sulfate binding with its receptor, the synthesized oligosaccharides were incorporated onto a glycan microarray, and their bindings with a growth factor FGF-2 were examined. The unique combination of chemical and enzymatic approaches expanded the capability of oligosaccharide synthesis. In addition, the well-defined heparan sulfate structures helped shine light on the fine substrate specificities of biosynthetic enzymes and confirm the potential sequence of enzymatic reactions in biosynthesis. PMID:26574650

  8. A double-suicide autopsy case of potassium poisoning by intravenous administration of potassium aspartate after intake of some psychopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, K; Hasegawa, K; Suzuki, O

    2011-07-01

    We report a curious double-suicide autopsy case of both male and female who died of potassium poisoning by intravenous administration of concentrated potassium aspartate solution. The plasma concentrations of potassium of the male and female subjects were as high as 49.7 and 62.8 mEq/L, respectively. In addition to the high concentrations of potassium, toxic levels of phenobarbital, promethazine and chlorpromazine, and relatively low levels of etizolam and brotizolam were also detected from whole blood and urine specimens of both cadavers. Twenty empty plastic bottles (10-mL capacity) labeled 'ASPARA® Potassium Injection 10 mEq' were found at the suicide spot. To our knowledge, this is the first description for suicidal death by potassium aspartate; in all of the previous literature, they used potassium chloride intravenously or per os. PMID:20670988

  9. A novel potassium channel in photosynthetic cyanobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Zanetti

    Full Text Available Elucidation of the structure-function relationship of a small number of prokaryotic ion channels characterized so far greatly contributed to our knowledge on basic mechanisms of ion conduction. We identified a new potassium channel (SynK in the genome of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, a photosynthetic model organism. SynK, when expressed in a K(+-uptake-system deficient E. coli strain, was able to recover growth of these organisms. The protein functions as a potassium selective ion channel when expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. The location of SynK in cyanobacteria in both thylakoid and plasmamembranes was revealed by immunogold electron microscopy and Western blotting of isolated membrane fractions. SynK seems to be conserved during evolution, giving rise to a TPK (two-pore K(+ channel family member which is shown here to be located in the thylakoid membrane of Arabidopsis. Our work characterizes a novel cyanobacterial potassium channel and indicates the molecular nature of the first higher plant thylakoid cation channel, opening the way to functional studies.

  10. Potassium Permanganate Poisoning: A Nonfatal Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan M. Eteiwi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Acute poisoning by potassium permanganate is a rare condition with high morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of the condition relies on a history of exposure or ingestion and a high degree of clinical suspicion. Oxygen desaturation and the presence of methemoglobin are also helpful indicators. Since no specific antidote is available, treatment is mainly supportive. Few cases have been reported in the literature following potassium permanganate ingestion, whether intentional or accidental, and most of the patients in these cases had unfavorable outcomes, which was not the case in our patient. Our patient, a 73-year-old male, purchased potassium permanganate over the counter mistaking it for magnesium salt, which he frequently used as a laxative. Several hours after he ingested it, he was admitted to the endocrine department at King Hussein Medical Center, Jordan, with acute rapidly evolving shortness of breath. During hospitalization, his liver function tests deteriorated. Since he was diagnosed early and managed promptly he had a favorable outcome.

  11. Metallothionein protection of cadmium toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovery of the cadmium (Cd)-binding protein from horse kidney in 1957 marked the birth of research on this low-molecular weight, cysteine-rich protein called metallothionein (MT) in Cd toxicology. MT plays minimal roles in the gastrointestinal absorption of Cd, but MT plays important roles in Cd retention in tissues and dramatically decreases biliary excretion of Cd. Cd-bound to MT is responsible for Cd accumulation in tissues and the long biological half-life of Cd in the body. Induction of MT protects against acute Cd-induced lethality, as well as acute toxicity to the liver and lung. Intracellular MT also plays important roles in ameliorating Cd toxicity following prolonged exposures, particularly chronic Cd-induced nephrotoxicity, osteotoxicity, and toxicity to the lung, liver, and immune system. There is an association between human and rodent Cd exposure and prostate cancers, especially in the portions where MT is poorly expressed. MT expression in Cd-induced tumors varies depending on the type and the stage of tumor development. For instance, high levels of MT are detected in Cd-induced sarcomas at the injection site, whereas the sarcoma metastases are devoid of MT. The use of MT-transgenic and MT-null mice has greatly helped define the role of MT in Cd toxicology, with the MT-null mice being hypersensitive and MT-transgenic mice resistant to Cd toxicity. Thus, MT is critical for protecting human health from Cd toxicity. There are large individual variations in MT expression, which might in turn predispose some people to Cd toxicity.

  12. Chemical characterization of a potassium hydroxyapatite prepared by soaking in potassium chloride and carbonate solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordström, E G; Karlsson, K H

    1992-01-01

    A potassium-doped synthetic apatite was prepared by soaking hydroxyapatite in potassium carbonate and potassium chloride solutions. The hydroxyapatite was prepared by firing slip cast ceramic bodies in vacuum at 1100 degrees C. The conical ceramic samples and a crushed material of this were soaked in carbonate and chloride solutions for 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks. Potassium, calcium, and phosphate were determined by direct current plasma emission spectroscopy. The carbonate content was determined by thermogravimetric analysis and chloride titrimetrically. After 2 weeks, one potassium ion substituted one calcium ion when soaked in a carbonate solution. When soaked in the chloride solution substitution occurred to the same extent. At phosphate sites the substitution of phosphate for carbonate occurred at one sixth of the sites after 2 weeks. Chloride incorporated one half of the OH-sites after 2 weeks. After 4 weeks about one chloride ion was found in the apatite, and after 6 weeks one and a half of the OH-sites were occupied by chloride ions. PMID:1483120

  13. Cadmium exposure and pancreatic cancer in south Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Brian G; Su, L Joseph; Rood, Jennifer C; Fontham, Elizabeth T H

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium has been hypothesized to be a pancreatic carcinogen. We test the hypothesis that cadmium exposure is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer with a population-based case-control study sampled from a population with persistently high rates of pancreatic cancer (south Louisiana). We tested potential dietary and nondietary sources of cadmium for their association with urinary cadmium concentrations which reflect long-term exposure to cadmium due to the accumulation of cadmium in the kidney cortex. Increasing urinary cadmium concentrations were significantly associated with an increasing risk of pancreatic cancer (2nd quartile OR = 3.34, 3rd = 5.58, 4th = 7.70; test for trend P ≤ 0.0001). Potential sources of cadmium exposure, as documented in the scientific literature, found to be statistically significantly associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer included working as a plumber, pipefitter or welder (OR = 5.88) and high consumption levels of red meat (4th quartile OR = 6.18) and grains (4th quartile OR = 3.38). Current cigarette smoking, at least 80 pack years of smoking, occupational exposure to cadmium and paints, working in a shipyard, and high consumption of grains were found to be statistically significantly associated with increased concentrations of urinary cadmium. This study provides epidemiologic evidence that cadmium is a potential human pancreatic carcinogen. PMID:23319964

  14. Cadmium Exposure and Pancreatic Cancer in South Louisiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian G. Luckett

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium has been hypothesized to be a pancreatic carcinogen. We test the hypothesis that cadmium exposure is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer with a population-based case-control study sampled from a population with persistently high rates of pancreatic cancer (south Louisiana. We tested potential dietary and nondietary sources of cadmium for their association with urinary cadmium concentrations which reflect long-term exposure to cadmium due to the accumulation of cadmium in the kidney cortex. Increasing urinary cadmium concentrations were significantly associated with an increasing risk of pancreatic cancer (2nd quartile OR = 3.34, 3rd = 5.58, 4th = 7.70; test for trend P≤0.0001. Potential sources of cadmium exposure, as documented in the scientific literature, found to be statistically significantly associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer included working as a plumber, pipefitter or welder (OR = 5.88 and high consumption levels of red meat (4th quartile OR = 6.18 and grains (4th quartile OR = 3.38. Current cigarette smoking, at least 80 pack years of smoking, occupational exposure to cadmium and paints, working in a shipyard, and high consumption of grains were found to be statistically significantly associated with increased concentrations of urinary cadmium. This study provides epidemiologic evidence that cadmium is a potential human pancreatic carcinogen.

  15. Cadmium isotope fractionation during adsorption to Mn-oxyhydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasylenki, L. E.; Swihart, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    The heavy metal cadmium is of interest both as a toxic contaminant in groundwater and as a critical nutrient for some marine diatoms [1], yet little is known about the biogeochemistry of this element. Horner et al. [2] suggested that Cd stable isotopes could potentially enable reconstruction of biological use of Cd in the marine realm: since cultured diatoms fractionate Cd isotopes [3], and ferromanganese crusts appear to incorporate a faithful record of deepwater Cd isotopes [2], depth profiles in such crusts may yield information about the extent of Cd assimilation of isotopically light Cd by diatoms over time. Although no work has yet been published regarding the use of stable isotopes to track reactive transport of Cd in contaminated aquifers, others have recently demonstrated the potential of isotopes to track reactions affecting the mobility of other toxic metals (e.g., [4]). With both of these potential applications in mind, we conducted two sets of experiments, at low and high ionic strength, in which Cd partially adsorbed to potassium birnessite. Our goals are to quantify the fractionations and to constrain the mechanisms governing Cd isotope behavior during adsorption to an environmentally abundant scavenger of Cd. Suspensions of synthetic birnessite were doped with various amounts of dissolved Cd2+ at pH ~8.3. Following reaction, the dissolved and adsorbed pools of Cd were separated by filtration, purified by anion exchange chromatography, and analyzed by multicollector ICP-MS using a double-spike routine. In all cases, lighter isotopes preferentially adsorbed to the birnessite particles. At low ionic strength (ILacan et al. (2006) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 70, 5104. [4] Berna et al. (2010) Env. Sci. & Tech. 44, 1043.

  16. A two-dimensional cadmium(II) coordination polymer based on 1-cyanomethyl-4-aza-1-azoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane and thiocyanate ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Ting; Li, Qiang; Zhou, Lin

    2015-09-01

    A cadmium-thiocyanate complex, poly[(1-cyanomethyl-4-aza-1-azoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane-κ(4)N)octakis-μ2-thiocyanato-κ(8)N:S;κ(8)S:N-tricadmium(II)], [Cd3(C8H14N3)2(NCS)8]n, was synthesized by the reaction of 1-cyanomethyl-4-aza-1-azoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane chloride, cadmium nitrate tetrahydrate and potassium thiocyanide in aqueous solution. In the crystal structure, there are two independent types of Cd(II) cation (one on a centre of inversion and one in a general position) and both are in distorted octahedral coordination environments, coordinated by N and S atoms from different ligands. Neighbouring Cd(II) cations are linked together by thiocyanate bridges to form a two-dimensional network. Hydrogen-bonding interactions are involved in the formation of a three-dimensional supramolecular network. PMID:26322607

  17. European Union Summary Risk Assessment Report - Cadmium Metal and Cadmium Oxide

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This report provides a summary, with conclusions, of the risk assessment report of the substances cadmium metal and cadmium oxide that has been prepared by Belgium in the context of Council Regulation (EEC) No. 793/93 on the evaluation and control of existing substances. For detailed information on the risk assessment principles and procedures followed, the underlying data and the literature references, the reader is referred to the comprehensive Final Risk Assessment Report (Final RAR) t...

  18. Effects of bacteria on cadmium bioaccumulation in the cadmium hyperaccumulator plant Beta vulgaris var. cicla L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Su; Chao, Lei; Sun, Lina; Sun, Tieheng

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of two cadmium-tolerant bacteria, Staphylococcus pasteuri (S. pasteuri X1) and Agrobacterium tumefaciens (A. tumefaciens X2), on cadmium uptake by the cadmium hyperaccumulator plant Beta vulgaris var. cicla L., a pot experiment with artificially contaminated soil was conducted. The results demonstrated that both cadmium-tolerant bacteria enhanced the dry weight of Beta vulgaris var. cicla L. The total dry weights of plants in the control CK20, S. pasteuri X1 and A. tumefaciens X2 treatments were 0.85, 1.13, and 1.38 g/pot, respectively. Compared with the control CK20 findings, the total dry weight of plants was increased by 32.8 and 61.1% after inoculation with S. pasteuri X1 and A. tumefaciens X2, respectively, indicating that A. tumefaciens X2 more strongly promoted the growth of Beta vulgaris var. cicla L. than S. pasteuri X1. In addition, inoculation with S. pasteuri X1 and A. tumefaciens X2 significantly (p < 0.05) promoted cadmium uptake by plants and improved the bioaccumulation of cadmium by the plants from the soil. Moreover, the inoculation of S. pasteuri X1 and A. tumefaciens X2 effectively facilitated the transfer of cadmium in the soil from the Fe-Mn oxide and residual fractions to the soluble plus exchangeable and weakly specially adsorbed fractions in the rhizosphere soils of plants. The bacterial enhancement of cadmium phytoavailability might provide a potential and promising method to increase the efficiency of phytoextraction. PMID:23488173

  19. Impact of iron status on cadmium uptake in suckling piglets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low iron status is known to increase the uptake of dietary cadmium in both adolescents and adults and there are indications that cadmium is absorbed from the intestine by the two major iron transporters divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and ferroportin 1 (FPN1). In addition, it has been suggested that duodenal metallothionein (MT) may limit the transport of cadmium across the intestinal epithelium. The present investigation was undertaken to examine whether iron status influences cadmium absorption in newborns by applying a model of suckling piglets and the possible roles of duodenal DMT1, FPN1 and MT. An oral cadmium dose (20 μg/kg body weight) was given daily for 6 consecutive days on postnatal days (PNDs) 10-15 to iron-deficient or iron-supplemented piglets. The cadmium dose was chosen to keep the cadmium level at a realistically low but still detectable level, and without inducing any adverse health effects in the piglets. As indicators of cadmium uptake, cadmium levels in blood and kidneys were measured on PND 16 by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Cadmium levels in blood were statistically significantly correlated with cadmium levels in kidneys. The cadmium uptake was not higher in iron-deficient suckling piglets; rather, we detected a higher cadmium uptake in the iron-supplemented ones. The expression and localisation of DMT1, FPN1 and MT were not affected by iron status and could therefore not explain the findings. Our results suggest that there are developmental differences in the handling of both iron and cadmium in newborns as compared to adults

  20. Proapoptotic Role of Potassium Ions in Liver Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhenglin; Huang, Xusen; Chen, Kaiyun; Wang, Hanning; Xiao, Jinfeng; He, Ke; Huang, Rui; Duan, Xiaopeng; Liu, Hao; Zhang, Jinqian; Xiang, Guoan

    2016-01-01

    Potassium channels are transmembrane proteins that selectively promote the infiltration of potassium ions. The significance of these channels for tumor biology has become obvious. However, the effects of potassium ions on the tumor or normal cells have seldom been studied. To address this problem, we studied the biological effects of L02 and HepG2 cells with ectogenous potassium ions. Cell proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis rate were analyzed. Our results indicated that potassium ions inhibited proliferation of L02 and HepG2 cells and promoted their apoptosis. Potassium ions induced apoptosis through regulating Bcl-2 family members and depolarized the mitochondrial membrane, especially for HepG2 cell. These biological effects were associated with channel protein HERG. By facilitating expression of channel protein HERG, potassium ions may prevent it from being shunted to procancerous pathways by inducing apoptosis. These results demonstrated that potassium ions may be a key regulator of liver cell function. Thus, our findings suggest that potassium ions could inhibit tumorigenesis through inducing apoptosis of hepatoma cells by upregulating potassium ions transport channel proteins HERG and VDAC1. PMID:27069917

  1. Proapoptotic Role of Potassium Ions in Liver Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenglin Xia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium channels are transmembrane proteins that selectively promote the infiltration of potassium ions. The significance of these channels for tumor biology has become obvious. However, the effects of potassium ions on the tumor or normal cells have seldom been studied. To address this problem, we studied the biological effects of L02 and HepG2 cells with ectogenous potassium ions. Cell proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis rate were analyzed. Our results indicated that potassium ions inhibited proliferation of L02 and HepG2 cells and promoted their apoptosis. Potassium ions induced apoptosis through regulating Bcl-2 family members and depolarized the mitochondrial membrane, especially for HepG2 cell. These biological effects were associated with channel protein HERG. By facilitating expression of channel protein HERG, potassium ions may prevent it from being shunted to procancerous pathways by inducing apoptosis. These results demonstrated that potassium ions may be a key regulator of liver cell function. Thus, our findings suggest that potassium ions could inhibit tumorigenesis through inducing apoptosis of hepatoma cells by upregulating potassium ions transport channel proteins HERG and VDAC1.

  2. Accumulation of cadmium by transgenic tobacco

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macek, Tomáš; Macková, M.; Pavlíková, D.; Száková, J.; Truks, M.; Singh Cundy, A.; Kotrba, P.; Yancey, N.; Scouten, W. H.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 22, 1/2 (2002), s. 101-106. ISSN 0138-4988 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/02/0293 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : phytoremediation * cadmium Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 0.542, year: 2002

  3. Cadmium isotope variations in the Southern Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xue, Z.; Rehkämper, M.; Horner, T.J.; Abouchami, W.; Middag, R.; van de Flierd, T.; de Baar, H.J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium concentrations and isotope compositions were determined for 47 seawater samples from the high nutrient low chlorophyll (HNLC) zone of the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. The samples include 13 surface waters from a transect of the Weddell Gyre and 3 depth profiles from the Weddell Sea

  4. Physicochemical properties of a cadmium telluride surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Change of chemical state of cadmium telluride surface is investigated after different treatments (exposure in air, vacuum, gaseous media, γ- and IR-irradiation). The results of these investigations are of great interest for clarifying the nature of active surface of diamond-like semiconductors, the mechanism of its interaction with different media and the possibilities of surface properties regulation

  5. The effect of cadmium on plant metabolism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlíková, D.; Pavlík, Milan; Vokáč, Karel; Balík, J.; Szaková, J.; Tlustoš, P.

    Budapest : Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, 2006. s. 71. [International Symposium on Trace Element in the Food Chain . 25.05.2006-27.05.2006, Budapest] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : cadmium * plant metabolism * glutamate kinase Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides

  6. The effect of cadmium on plant metabolism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlíková, D.; Pavlík, Milan; Vokáč, Karel; Staszková, L.; Balík, J.; Szaková, J.; Tlustoš, P.

    Budapest : Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, 2006 - (Szilágyi, M.; Szentmihályi, K.), 256-260 [Trace Elements in the food chain . Budapest (HU), 25.05.2006-27.05.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : cadmium * plant metabolism * glutamate kinase Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides

  7. Poisoning of vanadia based SCR catalysts by potassium:influence of catalyst composition and potassium mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Brian Kjærgaard; Kügler, Frauke; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2016-01-01

    The deactivation of V2O5–(WO3)/TiO2 catalysts for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx upon exposure to aerosols of KCl or K2SO4, at different temperatures, has been studied. All samples exposed for more than 240 hours lost a substantial fraction of their initial activity although lower...... the transport of potassium. Using a newly developed experimental protocol consisting of two-layer pellets of SCR catalysts, where one side is impregnated with KCl or K2SO4, the potassium transport in such systems, which is assumed to take place through reactionand diffusion over acid sites, was investigated...

  8. 21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ophthalmic solution. 524.1484e Section 524.1484e Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484e Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution....

  9. Testicular toxicity and sperm quality following cadmium exposure in rats: Ameliorative potentials of Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serah F Ige

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of Allium cepa crude extract on cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 4 groups (n = 6. Group 1 was used as control, group 2 was administered 0.3 mg/kgBW of cadmium sulfate (CdSO 4 intraperitoneally for 3 days, group 3 was pretreated with 1 ml/100 g BW of Allium cepa (AcE for 8 weeks followed by intraperitoneal administration of 0.3 mg/kgBW of CdSO 4 in the last 3 days of experiment, and group 4 was administered 1 ml/100 g BW of AcE throughout the experiment. Testicular weight and semen analysis revealing the sperm count, sperm motility, and sperm morphology was carried out. Superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase activities, and lipid peroxidation status were also carried out in testes. Results: The study demonstrated that Allium cepa ameliorated CdSO 4 -induced alteration in testicular weight, sperm count, sperm motility, and sperm morphology. It also showed that Allium cepa attenuated the derangement of lipid peroxidation profile in testicular tissues caused by CdSO 4 exposure. Conclusions: The findings in the study showed that pre-treatment of rat model with Allium cepa extract prevented CdSO 4 -induced reproductive toxicity by improving sperm quality and enhancing testicular lipid peroxidation status.

  10. Sanfilippo disease type D: deficiency of N-acetylglucosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase required for heparan sulfate degradation.

    OpenAIRE

    Kresse, H.; Paschke, E; von Figura, K; Gilberg, W; Fuchs, W

    1980-01-01

    Skin fibroblasts from two patients who had symptoms of the Sanfilippo syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis III) accumulated excessive amounts of heparan sulfate and were unable to release sulfate from N-acetylglucosamine-6-sulfate linkages in heparan sulfate-derived oligosaccharides. Keratan sulfate-derived oligosaccharides bearing the same residue at the nonreducing end and p-nitrophenyl-6-sulfo-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranoside were degraded normally. Kinetic differences between th sulf...

  11. A novel potassium deficiency-induced stimulon in Anabaena torulosa

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anuradha Alahari; Shree Kumar Apte

    2004-06-01

    Potassium deficiency enhanced the synthesis of fifteen proteins in the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena torulosa and of nine proteins in Escherichia coli. These were termed potassium deficiency-induced proteins or PDPs and constitute hitherto unknown potassium deficiency–induced stimulons. Potassium deficiency also enhanced the synthesis of certain osmotic stress-induced proteins. Addition of K+ repressed the synthesis of a majority of the osmotic stress-induced proteins and of PDPs in these bacteria. These proteins contrast with the dinitrogenase reductase of A. torulosa and the glycine betaine-binding protein of E. coli, both of which were osmo-induced to a higher level in potassium-supplemented conditions. The data demonstrate the occurrence of novel potassium deficiency-induced stimulons and a wider role of K+ in regulation of gene expression and stress responses in bacteria.

  12. Periodic paralysis and the sodium-potassium pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layzer, R B

    1982-06-01

    Analysis of the pathophysiology of hypokalemic paralysis, as it occurs in barium poisoning, chronic potassium deficiency, and thyrotoxicosis, suggests that these disorders may have a similar mechanism. An increased ratio of muscle sodium permeability to potassium permeability reduces the ionic diffusion potential, while the resting membrane potential is sustained by an increase of Na-K pump electrogenesis. The result is that potassium entry (the sum of active and passive influx) exceeds potassium efflux; this causes a large shift of extracellular potassium into muscle until the Na-K pump turns off, leading to depolarization and paralysis. The primary defect in familial hypokalemic periodic paralysis, as in the example of barium poisoning, may be a marked reduction of muscle permeability to potassium. PMID:6287910

  13. Cadmium phytoextraction potential of different Alyssum species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The possibility of using serpentine plants for phytoextraction of Cd was investigated. ► Variation in Cd tolerance, accumulation and translocation in three Alyssum plants with different phenotypes were found. ► Alyssum montanum showed higher Cd tolerance and accumulation than the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssum bertolonii. ► As for the kinetic parameters of the Cd uptake system, A. montanum presented a low apparent Km value. ► The Vmax values were not significantly different among the plants. - Abstract: This work was planned for providing useful information about the possibility of using serpentine adapted plants for phytoextraction of cadmium, element scarcely represented in such metalliferous environment. To this aim, we investigated variation in cadmium tolerance, accumulation and translocation in three Alyssum plants with different phenotypes: Alyssum bertolonii, that is a serpentine endemic nickel hyperaccumulator, and two populations of Alyssum montanum, one adapted and one not adapted to serpentine soils. Plants were hydroponically cultivated in presence of increasing concentrations of CdSO4 for two weeks. For the metal concentration used in the experiments, the three different Alyssum populations showed variation in cadmium tolerance, accumulation and content. The serpentine adapted population of A. montanum showed statistically higher cadmium tolerance and accumulation than A. bertolonii and the population of A. montanum not adapted to serpentine soil thus deserving to be investigated for phytoextraction purposes. Furthermore, as for the kinetic parameters of the cadmium uptake system, A. montanum serpentine population presented a low apparent Km value, suggesting a high affinity for this metal of its uptake system, whereas the Vmax values were not significantly different among the plants. Present data revealed metallicolous plants are also suitable for the phytoremediation of metals underrepresented in the environment of their initial

  14. Cadmium and Chrome Concentrations in Human Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Nazarpour

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nutrition of children has the highest priority in any program aimed at children's health care. Milk contaminated with various toxic elements can have adverse effects on children's health. This study aimed to determine the concentration of heavy metals including cadmium(Cd and chromium (Cr of breast feeding women’s milk in Varamin. Methods: This is a cross sectional study. In the present study, chromium and cadmium levels in milk of 100 mothers attending clinics in the city of Varamin were measured in four to eight weeks after delivery, using atomic absorption spectrometry. Results: The mean values (±SD of Cd and Cr in human milk were 5±6.9 μg/ml and 3±2.7 μg/ml respectively. Result of Linear regression showed that cadmium levels were higher in breast milk of people living close to the factory or industrial center. Also, the chromium levels were higher in the breast milk of women in cases of: Smoking by spouses, consumption of imported rice, consumption of mineral water, and living close to the factory or an industrial center. Conclusion: This study showed that the relationship of some factors such as living near a factory or an industrial center, smoking by spouse, the type of consumed rice and water, with the level of cadmium and chromium. Cadmium and chromium levels of breast milk in this study were higher than the levels of these elements mentioned in the reviewed articles and international standard. Because some variables, such as living near a factory or an industrial center, smoking by spouse, the type of consumed rice and water can affect the amount of entering elements in breast milk. Actions can be taken to reduce or eliminate these variables in order to decrease the mentioned elements in human milk.

  15. Cadmium phytoextraction potential of different Alyssum species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barzanti, R., E-mail: rbarzanti@supereva.it [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Colzi, I., E-mail: ilariacolzi@hotmail.it [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Arnetoli, M., E-mail: miluscia@gmail.com [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Gallo, A., E-mail: galloalessia@hotmail.com [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Pignattelli, S., E-mail: sara.pignattelli@gmail.com [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Gabbrielli, R., E-mail: gabbrielli@unifi.it [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Gonnelli, C., E-mail: cristina.gonnelli@unifi.it [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The possibility of using serpentine plants for phytoextraction of Cd was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Variation in Cd tolerance, accumulation and translocation in three Alyssum plants with different phenotypes were found. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alyssum montanum showed higher Cd tolerance and accumulation than the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssum bertolonii. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As for the kinetic parameters of the Cd uptake system, A. montanum presented a low apparent K{sub m} value. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The V{sub max} values were not significantly different among the plants. - Abstract: This work was planned for providing useful information about the possibility of using serpentine adapted plants for phytoextraction of cadmium, element scarcely represented in such metalliferous environment. To this aim, we investigated variation in cadmium tolerance, accumulation and translocation in three Alyssum plants with different phenotypes: Alyssum bertolonii, that is a serpentine endemic nickel hyperaccumulator, and two populations of Alyssum montanum, one adapted and one not adapted to serpentine soils. Plants were hydroponically cultivated in presence of increasing concentrations of CdSO{sub 4} for two weeks. For the metal concentration used in the experiments, the three different Alyssum populations showed variation in cadmium tolerance, accumulation and content. The serpentine adapted population of A. montanum showed statistically higher cadmium tolerance and accumulation than A. bertolonii and the population of A. montanum not adapted to serpentine soil thus deserving to be investigated for phytoextraction purposes. Furthermore, as for the kinetic parameters of the cadmium uptake system, A. montanum serpentine population presented a low apparent K{sub m} value, suggesting a high affinity for this metal of its uptake system, whereas the V{sub max} values were not significantly different among the

  16. Synthesis, growth, characterization and crystal structure of zinc cadmium thiourea complex Zn0.625Cd1.375(CS(NH2)2)9.4(SO4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, G.; Meenakshisundaram, Subbiah

    2013-08-01

    Single crystals of zinc cadmium thiourea complex Zn0.625Cd1.375(CS(NH2)2)9.4(SO4) (ZCTS) are grown by slow evaporation of aqueous solution containing zinc sulfate, cadmium sulfate and thiourea in the ratio 1:1:6. Crystal composition as determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that it belongs to the monoclinic system with space group P21 and cell parameters are a=13.263(5) Å, b=11.886(5) Å, c=27.215(5) Å, α=γ=90.000(5)°, β=96.586(5)°, V=4262(3) Å3 and Z=2. The presence of zinc and cadmium in the final product is further confirmed by inductively coupled plasma (ICP), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The vibrational patterns in FT-IR are used for identifying the material and the thermal analysis by TG/DTA indicates the stability of the mixed crystal. The surface morphology changes of the mixed crystal are studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). High transmittance in the visible region is observed with a lower optical cut-off at ˜260 nm. The change in intensity patterns in XRD profiles indicates lattice distortion. The relative second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency measurements reveal that the mixed crystal has a superior activity than that of tris(thiourea)zinc(II) sulfate (ZTS).

  17. Cadmium-induced fetal toxicity in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium, a heavy metal environment contaminant, induces fetal death and placental necrosis in the Wistar rat. This study investigated fetal, maternal, and placental responses to cadmium intoxication. Subcutaneous injection of CdCl2 to dams on day 18 of pregnancy produced a high incidence of fetal death (75%) and placental necrosis. Death in the fetus was produced despite limited fetal accumulations of cadmium. Distribution studies using 109Cd-labeled CdCl2 demonstrated that less than 0.1% of the injected dose was associated with the fetus. To determine if fetuses were sensitive to these low levels of cadmium, direct injections of CdCl2 into fetuses were performed in utero. Direct injections produced fetal accumulations 8-fold greater than those following maternal injections. The 8-fold greater fetal accumulations following direct injection were associated with only a 12% fetal mortality compared to the 75% mortality following maternal injections. The data indicated that the fetal toxicity of cadmium following maternal injections was not the result of direct effects of cadmium on the fetus. In conclusion, cadmium-induced fetal death was not the result of direct effects of cadmium on the fetus but may have been induced by placental cellular injury resulting from high accumulations of cadmium in the placenta. A vascular response to placental injury, leading to decreased utero-placental bood flow and cadmium-induced alterations in trophoblastic function, resulted in fetal death

  18. Cadmium and lead elimination through milk in the ewe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houpert, P.; Mehennaoui, S.; Federspiel, B.; Milhaud, G. [Equipe associee INRA-ENV Alfort, 94 - Maisons-Alfort (France)

    1997-12-31

    Cadmium and lead are heavy metals widely distributed in industrialized countries, and known for their cumulative properties in continental ecological cycling. The purpose of the experiments was to study lead and cadmium transfer from ewe feed to their milk and meat, in view of protecting human consumers. Ewes were given daily oral administrations of lead, cadmium or associations of lead-cadmium, lead-cadmium-zinc for 52 days. Lead and cadmium were measured in blood, milk and tissues. About 0.1 pc of the total lead and 0.002-0.004 pc of the total cadmium dose was excreted via milk during the lactation, with milk concentrations of about 120 microgram per liter for lead and about 3.5 micro-g./l for cadmium. Sixty days after the last administration, 0.16 pc of the total cadmium dose was retained in liver and 0.09 pc in kidneys. Cadmium and lead concentrations in the muscle remained low

  19. Modelling of Cadmium Transport in Soil-Crop System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A model for simulating cadmium transport in a soil-plant system was built using a commercial simu lating program named Powersim on the basis of input-output processes happening in the soil-plant system.Convective and dispersive transport processes of cadmium in soil profile are embedded. Simulations on a daily base have been done up to a total simulating time of 250 years. Results show that applications of sewage sludge and fertilizer at the simulated rates would only cause slight cadmium accumulations in each layer of the soil, and cadmium accumulation would be levelling off, reaching an equilibrium concentrations layer by layer downward after certain time. The time scale to reach an equilibrium concentration varies from 10 years for the top three layers to over 250 years for the bottom layers. Plant cadmium uptake would increase from 52 ug m-2 under initial soil cadmium concentrations to 65 μg m-2 under equilibrium soil cadmium concentrations, which would not exceed the maximum allowable cadmium concentration in wheat grains. Main parameters which influence cadmium accumulation and transport in soil are total cadmium input, rainfall, evaporation, plant uptake and soil properties.

  20. Accumulation of cadmium in livers and kidneys in Greenlanders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Arctic, the traditional diet exposes its people to a very high intake of cadmium because it is highly concentrated in the liver and kidneys of commonly eaten marine mammals. In one study in Greenland, the cadmium intake was estimated to 182 μg/day/person in the fall and 346 in the spring. To determine whether the cadmium is accumulated in humans, we analyzed autopsy samples of liver and kidneys from 95 ethnic Greenlanders (aged 19-89) who died from a wide range of causes. The cadmium concentration in liver (overall mean 1.97 μg/g wet wt) appeared to be unrelated to any particular age group, whereas the concentrations in the kidneys peaked in Greenlanders between 40 and 50 years of age (peak concentration 22.3 μg/g wet wt). Despite the high cadmium levels in the typical Greenlander diet, we found that the cadmium concentrations in livers and kidneys were comparable to those reported from Denmark, Sweden, Australia and Great Britain. Furthermore, even though the mean cadmium intake from the diet was estimated to be 13-25 times higher in Greenlanders than in Danes, we found similar cadmium levels in the kidneys of both. Seal livers and kidneys are the main source of cadmium in the diet of Greenlanders, but these tissues are not eaten in Denmark. Thus, our results suggest that the accumulation of cadmium from Greenlander's marine diet is very low

  1. Changes in potassium and sodium concentrations in stored blood

    OpenAIRE

    Opoku-Okrah, Clement; Acquah, Benjamin Kojo Safo; Dogbe, Elliot Eli

    2015-01-01

    Potassium is the principal intracellular cation with sodium being the principal extracellular cation. Maintenance of the distribution of potassium and sodium between the intracellular and the extracellular compartments relies on several homeostatic mechanisms. This study analysed the effect of blood storage on the concentrations of potassium and sodium in stored blood and also determine any variations that may exist in their concentrations. 50mls of blood was sampled each from 28 units of eve...

  2. Potassium emission absorption system. Topical report 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, L.E.

    1995-04-01

    The Potassium Emission Absorption System is one of the advanced optical diagnostics developed at Mississippi State University to provide support for the demonstration of prototype-scale coal-fired combustion magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electrical power generation. Intended for application in the upstream of an MHD flow, the system directly measures gas temperature and neutral potassium atom number density through spectroscopic emission absorption techniques. From these measurements the electron density can be inferred from a statistical equilibrium calculation and the electron conductivity in the MHD channel found by use of an electron mobility model. The instrument has been utilized for field test measurements on MHD facilities for almost a decade and has been proven to provide useful measurements as designed for MHD nozzle, channel, and diffuser test sections. The theory of the measurements, a system description, its capabilities, and field test measurement results are reported here. During the development and application of the instrument several technical issues arose which when addressed advanced the state of the art in emission absorption measurement. Studies of these issues are also reported here and include: two-wavelength measurements for particle-laden flows, potassium D-line far wing absorption coefficient, bias in emission absorption measurements arising from dirty windows and misalignments, non-coincident multiwavelength emission absorption sampling errors, and lineshape fitting for boundary layer flow profile information. Although developed for NLHD application, the instrument could be applied to any high temperature flow with a resonance line in the 300 to 800 nm range, for instance other types of flames, rocket plumes or low temperature plasmas.

  3. High rates of sulfate reduction in a low-sulfate hot spring microbial mat are driven by a low level of diversity of sulfate-respiring microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dillon, Jesse G; Fishbain, Susan; Miller, Scott R;

    2007-01-01

    The importance of sulfate respiration in the microbial mat found in the low-sulfate thermal outflow of Mushroom Spring in Yellowstone National Park was evaluated using a combination of molecular, microelectrode, and radiotracer studies. Despite very low sulfate concentrations, this mat community...

  4. Antemortem vitreous potassium may strengthen postmortem interval estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokavec, Jan; Min, San H; Tan, Mei H; Gilhotra, Jagjit S; Newland, Henry S; Durkin, Shane R; Casson, Robert J

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this letter is to highlight that postmortem interval estimates using vitreous potassium concentrations may be further optimised by calibration against antemortem vitreous samples. PMID:27080618

  5. Elastic Properties of Potassium Halides under Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.Haddadi; L.Louail; D.Maouche

    2008-01-01

    The moderate-pressure elastic properties of potassium halides KX (X=F, CI, Br) was studied theoretically using the density functional theory (DFT) with normconserving pseudopotentials method. The phase transfor- mation from the B1 phase (NaCl-type structure) to the denser B2 phase (CsCl-type structure) occurred at 7.7, 3.46 and 2.96 GPa for KF, KCl and KBr, respectively. The elastic stiffness coefficients and bulk modulus of these materials were calculated as function of hydrostatic pressure and compared with both the experimental and theoretical values.

  6. High dose potassium-nitrate chemical dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dosimeter is used to control 10 kGY-order doses (1 Mrad). Nitrate suffers a radiolitic reduction phenomena, which is related to the given dose. The method to use potassium nitrate as dosimeter is described, as well as effects of the temperature of irradiation, pH, nitrate concentration and post-irradiation stability. Nitrate powder was irradiated at a Semi-Industrial Plant, at Centro Atomico Ezeiza, and also in a Gammacell-220 irradiator. The dose rates used were 2,60 and 1,80 KGY/hour, and the given doses varied between 1,0 and 150 KGY. The uncertainty was +-3% in all the range. (author)

  7. Natural potassium as a teaching material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experience of an educational experiment is presented with results and discussion. It was performed in the introductory course of nuclear energy in the Nuclear Education Center of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Purpose of the experiment is understanding disintegration rate (Bq, radioactivity or λN) through measurement of low radioactivity of natural potassium. It was accomplished through calculation of the radioactivity of a measuring known sample and counting efficiency during measurement. The students in the training course had great variety and most students did not have preliminary knowledge. But they said in the questionnaire having almost understood the experiment; and some students enjoyed it. (author)

  8. Effect of operating conditions and potassium content on Fischer-Tropsch liquid products produced by potassium-promoted iron catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francisco E. M. Farias; Fernando G. Sales; Fabiano A. N. Fernandes

    2008-01-01

    The dependencies of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis liquid hydrocarbon product distribution on operating pressure and temperature have been studied over three potassium-promoted iron catalysts with increasing potassium molar content. The study followed an experimental planning and the results were analyzed based on surface response methodology. The effects of different operating conditions and potassium contents on the liquid product distribution were compared based on number average carbon number and dispersion. Results showed that high pressures (25 to 30 atm) favored the production of waxes that could be converted into liquid fuels through hydrocracking, while greater direct selectivity towards diesel was favored by low pressure (20 atm) using catalysts with low potassium to iron molar ratios. The liquid product distribution produced using an iron catalyst with high potassium content presented higher number-average number of carbons when compared to the distribution obtained using an iron catalyst with low potassium content.

  9. Reaction mechanism of active carbon manufactured by chemicals activation method using potassium carbonate from a raw material of tofu refuse; Okara wo genryo toshi tansankariumu wo mochiita yakuhinfukatsuho niyoru kasseitan seizo niokeru hannokiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Jun' ichi; Muroyama, Katsuhiko; Furukawa, Akira; Takemoto, Shin [Kasai University, Osaka (Japan)

    1999-02-05

    The authors attempted to manufacture active carbon using potassium carbonate as an activator from a raw material of tofu refuse. As the results, the active carbon having a large specific surface area of 2,656 m{sup 2}/g at a carbide and an activation temperature of 800 degrees C could be manufactured. It was clarified as follows after investigating the activation mechanism: potassium carbonate changed to potassium peroxide and potassium sulfate in the reaction of tofu refuse and potassium carbonate in the impregnation and dry process. The tofu refuse was changed into a low molecular weight component and a water soluble organic constituent increased. As the results, the weight loss behavior of he tofu refuse changed up to the carbonization - activation temperature of 500 degrees C and then the carbide having a large specific surface area which had a different pore structure of carbide made independently from the tofu refuse was generated. With further increasing the temperature up to 700 degrees C, it was considered that carbon consumed due to a reduction of potassium carbonate by carbon of carbide, the specific surface area was greatly increased, and active carbon having a high specific surface area was manufactured. (translated by NEDO)

  10. Formation of the natural sulfate aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerminen, V.M.; Hillamo, R.; Maekinen, M.; Virkkula, A.; Maekelae, T.; Pakkanen, T. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Anthropogenic sulfate aerosol, together with particles from biomass burning, may significantly reduce the climatic warming due to man-made greenhouse gases. The radiative forcing of aerosol particles is based on their ability to scatter and absorb solar radiation (direct effect), and on their influences on cloud albedos and lifetimes (indirect effect). The direct aerosol effect depends strongly on the size, number and chemical composition of particles, being greatest for particles of 0.1-1 {mu}m in diameter. The indirect aerosol effect is dictated by the number of particles being able to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). For sulfate particles, the minimum CCN size in tropospheric clouds is of the order of 0.05-0.2 {mu}m. To improve aerosol parameterizations in future climate models, it is required that (1) both primary and secondary sources of various particle types will be characterized at a greater accuracy, and (2) the influences of various atmospheric processes on the spatial and temporal distribution of these particles and their physico-chemical properties are known much better than at the present. In estimating the climatic forcing due to the sulfate particles, one of the major problems is to distinguish between sulfur from anthropogenic sources and that of natural origin. Global emissions of biogenic and anthropogenic sulfate pre-cursors are comparable in magnitude, but over regional scales either of these two source types may dominate. The current presentation is devoted to discussing the natural sulfate aerosol, including the formation of sulfur-derived particles in the marine environment, and the use of particulate methanesulfonic acid (MSA) as a tracer for the natural sulfate

  11. 2-Amino­pyrimidinium hydrogen sulfate

    OpenAIRE

    Elboulali, Adel; Akriche, Samah Toumi; Salem S. Al-Deyab; Rzaigui, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, C4H6N3 +·HSO4 −, hydrogen sulfate anions self-assemble through O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming chains along the b axis, while the cations form centrosymmetric pairs via N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds. The 2-amino­pyrimidinium pairs are linked to the sulfate anions via N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to (10 ). In addition, weak inter­molecular C—H⋯O contacts generate a three-dimensional network.

  12. On the evaporation of ammonium sulfate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drisdell, Walter S.; Saykally, Richard J.; Cohen, Ronald C.

    2009-07-16

    Aqueous evaporation and condensation kinetics are poorly understood, and uncertainties in their rates affect predictions of cloud behavior and therefore climate. We measured the cooling rate of 3 M ammonium sulfate droplets undergoing free evaporation via Raman thermometry. Analysis of the measurements yields a value of 0.58 {+-} 0.05 for the evaporation coefficient, identical to that previously determined for pure water. These results imply that subsaturated aqueous ammonium sulfate, which is the most abundant inorganic component of atmospheric aerosol, does not affect the vapor-liquid exchange mechanism for cloud droplets, despite reducing the saturation vapor pressure of water significantly.

  13. Cadmium uptake in oyster isognomon alatus under laboratory condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake of cadmium in Flat tree oyster Isognomon alatus was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions for two weeks. Oysters were exposed to 100 μg 1'-1 cadmium and the accumulation of cadmium in the tissues was measured for every two days. Soft tissues of oyster were digested in concentrated acid and cadmium concentrations were determined by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The accumulation of cadmium in the soft tissues of oysters was increased during the first six days from 0.73 μg g- 1 to 10.77 μg g'-1, and remaining constant for four days at average level of 10.96 μg g'-1. The Cl concentrations was increased to 32.70 μg g'-1 until the end of experiment. There was no sign of cadmium accumulation approaching saturation for the period of exposure. (author)

  14. Study on electrokinetic remediation of cadmium contaminated soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Wen-xin; CUI Chong-wei; YU Shui-li; FENG Wei-ming

    2007-01-01

    Kaolinite from a lead-zinc mining district, which was spiked with cadmium, has been treated by electrokinetics to investigate effects of treatment time and applied voltage gradient. The results showed that the increased test duration had induced a higher removal rate of cadmium. Being treated for 7 days, cadmium was removed from kaolinite dramatically. It was also found that higher removal rate happened when a higher voltage gradient was applied and cadmium accumulated near the cathode because pH increased. Increase of pH near the cathode caused accumulation of cadmium. Moreover, it was observed that cation exchange membrane which was placed between kaolinite and cathode could make pH lower than the initial value and avoid the higher pH near the cathode. As a result, the high concentration accumulation of cadmium near the cathode was avoided.

  15. Assessment and management of risk to wildlife from cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium, a nonessential heavy metal that comes from natural and anthropogenic sources, is a teratogen, carcinogen, and a possible mutagen. Assessment of potential risk from cadmium requires understanding environmental exposure, mainly from ingestion, although there is some local exposure through inhalation. Chronic exposure is more problematic than acute exposure for wildlife. There is evidence for bioaccumulation, particularly in freshwater organisms, but evidence for biomagnification up the food chain is inconsistent; in some bird studies, cadmium levels were higher in species that are higher on the food chain than those that are lower. Some freshwater and marine invertebrates are more adversely affected by cadmium exposure than are birds and mammals. There is very little experimental laboratory research on the effects of cadmium in amphibians, birds and reptiles, and almost no data from studies of wildlife in nature. Managing the risk from cadmium to wildlife involves assessment (including ecological risk assessment), biomonitoring, setting benchmarks of effects, regulations and enforcement, and source reduction

  16. Research and Development of Cadmium Sulphoselenide Red Pigment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jianfeng; LI Kun; XU Xiaohong; ZHANG Yaxiang; XU Xiaoyang; LAO Xinbin

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium sulphoselenide was synthesized continuous substitution solid solution and the only known pigment to yield bright red color on ceramic decoration. Encapsulated cadmium sulphoselenide pigments could yield abundant hues from yellow to red with high opacity at high temperature. The color generation has a linear function relation with the substitution rate. The encapsulation formation process of zirconium silicate encapsulated cadmium sulphoselenide was shown. Insufifcient encapsulation efifciency and potential hazard to human and environment had limited the industrial application of cadmium sulphoselenide red pigment. Ink-jet printing decoration required ifne size cadmium sulphoselenide red pigment on ceramic decoration. The review mainly focused on the synthesis techniques and industrial application of cadmium sulphoselenide red pigment.

  17. Cadmium filtered neutron flux determination. Comparison of activation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron fluxes under cadmium filters are determined by the cadmium ratio and sandwich activation methods. The thermal neutron flux levels obtained with 7 detectors of different kinds: In, Au, Ag, W, Co, Mn, Zn are compared. The cadmium ratio method was used in locations for which the epithermal and thermal neutron flux ratio are quite different. By irradiating materials under different thicknesses of cadmium it was possible to establish experimental curves from which the flux depression factors for intermediate neutrons may be determined whatever the thickness of the filter used. Whereas the cadmium ratio method can only measure the mean flux above the cadmium cut-off energy the sandwich method enables the flux value to be determined in a narrow band around the resonance energy of each detector used

  18. Acid-permanganate oxidation of potassium tetraphenylboron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scoping experiments have been performed which show that potassium tetraphenylboron (KTPB) is rapidly oxidized by permanganate in acidic solutions at room temperature. The main Products are CO2, highly oxidized organic compounds related to tartaric and tartronic acids, boric acid, and potassium phosphate (when phosphoric acid is used as the source of acid). One liter of 0.6M NaMnO4/2.5M H3PO4 solution will destroy up to 8 grams of KTPB. The residual benzene concentration has been measured to be less than the RCRA limit of 0.5 ppm. Approximately 30% of the organic material is released as CO2 (trace CO) and 0.16% as benzene vapor. The reaction is well behaved, no foaming or spattering. Tests were performed from .15M to near 1M permanganate. The phosphoric acid concentration was maintained at a concentration at least three times that of the permanganate since an excess of acid was desired and this is the ratio that these two reagents are consumed in the oxidation

  19. In search of biomonitors for cadmium: cadmium content of wild Swedish fauna during 1973-1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, A

    1986-12-01

    Forty-five species of birds and 22 species of mammals of the terrestrial and aquatic fauna, herbivores as well as carnivores, were investigated during the period 1973-1976 for cadmium-accumulating properties in order to find biomonitors for cadmium in the Swedish environment. The herbivores of the terrestrial fauna, birds as well as mammals, are preferred to carnivores, since they demonstrate generally higher renal Cd levels. The moose (Alces alces), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and hare (Lepus europeus and Lepus timidus) were found to be suitable as biomonitors because of their common occurrence and uniform geographical distribution. The eider duck (Somateria mollissima), although a short-distance migrating bird whose diet is composed mainly of mussels and crustaceans, and which lives along a great part of the Swedish coastline, is suggested as a biomonitor of cadmium for the aquatic environment. The accumulation rate of cadmium in the kidneys is rapid. Renal levels of cadmium in the parts per million range are reached 10 weeks after hatching. Juvenile birds should be collected for monitoring purposes before leaving their feeding domains at the end of the summer. PMID:3810147

  20. Growth of cadmium oxide whiskers on cadmium sulphide single crystals with copper as growth activator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some results on the growth and morphology of cadmium oxide whiskers, obtained on cadmium sulphide single crystals with copper as a growth activator, are presented in this work. Cadmium oxide whiskers have been obtained on brace 112-bar0 brace faces of cadmium sulphide plates with a copper layer deposited in advance. The whiskers grew during the annealing of the plates in a weak stream of technically pure argon at temperatures 670 to 730 deg C for 15 min to 3.5 h. Details about the procedure have been given elsewhere. The composition and morphology of the whiskers have been studied by an X-ray microanalyser JEOL 35 DDS and a scanning electron microscope JEOL, JSM 35. The optical microscopic observations have shown that after annealing, a gray-black granular layer is formed on the cadmium sulphide single crystals and this layer can easily be separated from the crystal substrate. Under the granular layer the crystal is heavily damaged. The whiskers grow on the granular layer and they are coloured yellow-brown or red-brown. The maximum whisker length attains several hundreds of micrometres and in some cases up to 1 mm or more. (author)

  1. Growth of cadmium oxide whiskers on cadmium sulphide single crystals with copper as growth activator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koparanova, N.; Simov, S. (Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia. Inst. po Fizika na Tvyrdoto Tyalo); Genchev, D. (Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia. Inst. za Yadrena Izsledvaniya i Yadrena Energetika); Metchenov, G. (Research Inst. of Criminalistics and Criminology, Sofia (Bulgaria))

    1985-02-01

    Some results on the growth and morphology of cadmium oxide whiskers, obtained on cadmium sulphide single crystals with copper as a growth activator, are presented in this work. Cadmium oxide whiskers have been obtained on brace 112-bar0 brace faces of cadmium sulphide plates with a copper layer deposited in advance. The whiskers grew during the annealing of the plates in a weak stream of technically pure argon at temperatures 670 to 730 deg C for 15 min to 3.5 h. Details about the procedure have been given elsewhere. The composition and morphology of the whiskers have been studied by an X-ray microanalyser JEOL 35 DDS and a scanning electron microscope JEOL, JSM 35. The optical microscopic observations have shown that after annealing, a gray-black granular layer is formed on the cadmium sulphide single crystals and this layer can easily be separated from the crystal substrate. Under the granular layer the crystal is heavily damaged. The whiskers grow on the granular layer and they are coloured yellow-brown or red-brown. The maximum whisker length attains several hundreds of micrometres and in some cases up to 1 mm or more.

  2. Oral cadmium exposure of adults in Germany. 1: Cadmium content of foodstuffs and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M; Anke, M; Hartmann, E; Illing-Günther, H

    1996-04-01

    The cadmium contents of 94 and 105 foodstuffs bought in six-fold repetition in 1988 and in nine-fold repetition in 1991, respectively were analysed within the framework of a market-basket study. These foodstuffs were typical of German eating habits. Additionally, 170 samples of drinking water were investigated. The cadmium concentrations of the foodstuffs were comparable with results of recent studies carried out in Europe and North America. Fruit, milk and dairy products, sugar and sugar-rich foodstuffs as well as beverages showed mean cadmium contents cakes and pastries as well as farinaceous products were within the range of 20-40 ng/g. The most important bread, cakes and pastries (wheat and rye bread, toasted bread, rolls) contained 25-35 ng/g. A median cadmium concentration of 0.2 micrograms/l was found in the drinking water. As expected, liver and kidneys showed the highest cadmium levels of 73 and 204 ng/g, respectively on average. PMID:8718751

  3. Urinary cadmium and mammographic density in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Scott V; Newcomb, Polly A; Shafer, Martin M; Atkinson, Charlotte; Bowles, Erin J Aiello; Newton, Katherine M; Lampe, Johanna W

    2011-08-01

    Mammographic density (MD), a strong marker of breast cancer risk, is influenced by genetic, environmental, and hormonal factors. Cadmium, a persistent and widespread environmental pollutant, has been associated with risk of breast cancer, and laboratory evidence suggests cadmium is a carcinogen in the breast. We investigated the hypothesis that cadmium exposure is associated with higher MD. In a cross-sectional study of MD and urinary cadmium concentration, percentage MD (MD%) and Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data Systems (BI-RADS®) density category were determined from screening mammograms of 190 premenopausal women ages 40-45 years. Women completed a health questionnaire, and the cadmium content of spot urine samples was measured with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and corrected for urine creatinine. Urinary cadmium concentrations are thought to reflect exposure to cadmium during a period of 20-30 years. Multivariable linear regression and logistic regression were used to estimate the strength of association between urinary cadmium and mammographic breast density. Adjusted mean MD% among women in the upper tertile of creatinine-corrected urinary cadmium was 4.6% higher (95% CI: -2.3 to 11.6%) than in women in the lowest cadmium tertile. Each twofold increase in urinary cadmium was associated with higher odds of MD% in the upper tertile (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 0.82-2.02) or a BI-RADS category rating of "extremely dense" (OR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.14-2.70). Stronger associations were observed among nulliparous women, and current or former smokers. Exposure to cadmium may be associated with increased breast density in premenopausal women. PMID:21327468

  4. The effects of low environmental cadmium exposure on bone density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent epidemiological data indicate that low environmental exposure to cadmium, as shown by cadmium body burden (Cd-U), is associated with renal dysfunction as well as an increased risk of cadmium-induced bone disorders. The present study was designed to assess the effects of low environmental cadmium exposure, at the level sufficient to induce kidney damage, on bone metabolism and mineral density (BMD). The project was conducted in the area contaminated with cadmium, nearby a zinc smelter located in the region of Poland where heavy industry prevails. The study population comprised 170 women (mean age=39.7; 18-70 years) and 100 men (mean age=31.9; 18-76 years). Urinary and blood cadmium and the markers of renal tubular dysfunction (β2M-U RBP, NAG), glomerular dysfunction (Alb-U and β2M-S) and bone metabolism markers (BAP-S, CTX-S) as well as forearm BMD, were measured. The results of this study based on simple dose-effect analysis showed the relationship between increasing cadmium concentrations and an increased excretion of renal dysfunction markers and decreasing bone density. However, the results of the multivariate analysis did not indicate the association between exposure to cadmium and decrease in bone density. They showed that the most important factors that have impact on bone density are body weight and age in the female subjects and body weight and calcium excretion in males. Our investigation revealed that the excretion of low molecular weight proteins occurred at a lower level of cadmium exposure than the possible loss of bone mass. It seems that renal tubular markers are the most sensitive and significant indicators of early health effects of cadmium intoxication in the general population. The correlation of urinary cadmium concentration with markers of kidney dysfunction was observed in the absence of significant correlations with bone effects. Our findings did not indicate any effects of environmental cadmium exposure on bone density.

  5. Evaluation of aluminium–based coatings for cadmium replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Chalaftris, George

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium electroplating is widely used in the aerospace industry for the corrosion protection of aircraft components like fasteners manufactured from non corrosion resisting high strength steels. However, environmental and safety concerns over the high toxicity of cadmium and its compounds have led to the investigation of suitable replacements. Alternatives to cadmium should offer effective corrosion protection and have no detrimental effects on the steel substrate. Hydrogen is known to be abs...

  6. Hepatotoxicity of Cadmium and Roles of Mitigating Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Adikwu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There are increasing reports on cadmium associated hepatotoxicity, due to these reports this study reviewed relevant literature on cadmium associated hepatotoxicity with emphasis on doses, route of administration, salt forms (cadmium compounds and the roles of mitigating agents. Reports have shown that continuous exposure of the liver to cadmium has led to hepatotoxicity. Humans are generally exposed to cadmium by two main routes, inhalation and ingestion. In this study, evaluation of relevant literature showed that irrespective of route of administration and salt forms cadmium hepatotoxicity is dose and time dependent. Cadmium associated hepatotoxicity manifested through impaired functions of hepatic biomarkers (transaminases, enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidants. Histopathological damage to liver architecture manifested as swelling of hepatocytes, focal necrosis, hepatocytes degeneration, dilatation of ribosomes, damage of membrane-bounded lysosomes, nuclear pyknosis and cytoplasm vacuolization. Deterioration of mitochondrial cristae, deposition of collagen fibrils, hypertrophy of kuffer cells, congestion in central veins and sinusoids, infiltration of mixed inflammatory cells and peripheral hemorrhage also occurred. Hepatotoxic effect of cadmium was mitigated by Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Manganese (11 Chloride, N-acetylcysteine and Selenium. Extracts of plant origin including Solanum tuberosum, Calycopteris floribunda Hibiscus sabdariffa mitigated cadmium induced hepatotoxicity. Chemical substances of animal origin including honey and camel milk were reported to have ameliorated cadmium induced hepatotoxicity. One of the mechanisms of cadmium induced hepatotoxicity is reported to be associated with the up regulation of reactive oxygen species (oxidative stress which caused oxidative damage to lipid contents of membranes and direct liver injury. Conclusion cadmium is dose and time dependently hepatotoxic irrespective of route of administration

  7. Cadmium burden and the risk and phenotype of prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Tony T; Wu Hsi-Chin; Pu Yeong S; Chen Yi-Chun; Lai Ming; Yang Chun Y; Sung Fung-Chang

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies on the association between prostate cancer and cadmium exposure have yielded conflicting results. This study explored cadmium burden on the risk and phenotype of prostate cancer in men with no evident environmental exposure. Methods Hospital-based 261 prostate cancer cases and 267 controls with benign diseases were recruited from four hospitals in Taiwan. Demographic, dietary and lifestyle data were collected by standardized questionnaires. Blood cadmium (BCd) and ...

  8. Association of Environmental Cadmium Exposure with Pediatric Dental Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Manish; Weuve, Jennifer Lynn; Schwartz, Joel David; Wright, Robert O.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure results in severe dental caries, limited epidemiologic data are available on this issue. Objectives: We aimed to examine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and dental caries in children 6–12 years of age. Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional data, including urine cadmium concentrations and counts of decayed or filled tooth surfaces, from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We ...

  9. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; Babatunde Oyenekan; Andrew Sexton; Jason Davis; Marus Hiilliard; Qing Xu; David Van Wagener; Jorge M. Plaza

    2006-12-31

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. The best solvent and process configuration, matrix with MDEA/PZ, offers 22% and 15% energy savings over the baseline and improved baseline, respectively, with stripping and compression to 10 MPa. The energy requirement for stripping and compression to 10 MPa is about 20% of the power output from a 500 MW power plant with 90% CO{sub 2} removal. The stripper rate model shows that a ''short and fat'' stripper requires 7 to 15% less equivalent work than a ''tall and skinny'' one. The stripper model was validated with data obtained from pilot plant experiments at the University of Texas with 5m K{sup +}/2.5m PZ and 6.4m K{sup +}/1.6m PZ under normal pressure and vacuum conditions using Flexipac AQ Style 20 structured packing. Experiments with oxidative degradation at low gas rates confirm the effects of Cu{sup +2} catalysis; in MEA/PZ solutions more formate and acetate is produced in the presence of Cu{sup +2}. At 150 C, the half life of 30% MEA with 0.4 moles CO{sub 2}/mole amine is about 2 weeks. At 100 C, less than 3% degradation occurred in two weeks. The solubility of potassium sulfate in MEA solution increases significantly with CO{sub 2} loading and decreases with MEA concentration. The base case corrosion rate in 5 M MEA/1,2M PZ is 22 mpy. With 1 wt% heat stable salt, the corrosion rate increases by 50% to 160% in the order: thiosulfate< oxalate

  10. Extraction-photometric determination of cadmium in meat products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krylova, A.N.; Malyarova, M.A.; Zhulenko, V.N.

    1986-06-01

    As a result of industrial discharges, burning of solid and liquid fuels, and recycling of metal scrap, cadmium compounds enter the atmosphere and drop into the water and soil causing contamination. In this paper, a method was developed for determining cadmium in meat products. It involves wet ashing the sample, extractive separation of the cadmium as the diethyldithiocarbamate, reextraction, and determination as cadmium dithizonate or as a complex with 2,2'-dipyridyl. The detection limit with dithizone is 0.005 mg/kg and with 2,2'-dipyridyl 0.05 mg/kg. An analysis is shown to take less than 60 minutes.

  11. Effects of Cadmium on BMP Induced Bone Formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秋生; 徐顺清

    2003-01-01

    To demonstrate the direct effects of cadmium on activities of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), a complex containing BMP and cadmium chloride (CdCl2) was implanted beneath the abdominal skin of young male Wistar rats. The activity of BMP was studied by observing the histological changes, and measuring the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and acid phosphatase (ACP) and calcium content of the implants at different time points. Our results showed that during bone formation induced by BMP, cadmium inhibited the activities of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, and slowed the deposition of calcium. It is concluded that cadmium can directly affect biological activities of BMP directly.

  12. Bioremoval of cadmium by lemna minor in different aquatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uysal, Yagmur [Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaras (Turkey); Taner, Fadime [Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Mersin University, Mersin (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    This study was undertaken to determine the cadmium removal efficiency of Lemna minor when it was used for treatment of wastewater having different characteristics, i. e., pH, temperature and cadmium concentration. Plants were cultivated in different pH solutions (4.5-8.0) and temperatures (15-35 C) in the presence of cadmium (0.1-10.0 mg/L) for 168 h. The amount of biomass obtained in the study period, the concentrations of cadmium in the tissues and in the media and net uptake of cadmium by Lemna have been determined for each condition. The percentages of cadmium uptake (PMU) and bioconcentration factors (BCF) were also calculated. The highest accumulation was obtained for the highest cadmium concentration of 10.0 mg Cd/L as 11.668 mg Cd/g at pH 6.0, and as 38.650 mg Cd/g at 35 C and pH 5.0. The cadmium accumulation gradually increased with initial concentration of the medium, but the opposite trend was observed for the PMU. However, the maximum PMU was obtained as 52.2% in the solution with the lowest concentration of 0.1 mg Cd/L. A mathematical model was used to describe the cadmium uptake and the equation obtained was seen to fit the experimental data very well. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Kinetic studies of cadmium sulfide precipitation from aqueous thiourea solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinetics of cadmium sulfide precipitation by thiourea from aqueous solutions containing ammonia complexes of cadmium(II) under conditions of spontaneous initiation of solid phase within solution volume at temperatures of 298-318 K was studied. It was ascertained that the process activation energy is 77843 J/mol, while the reaction order by initial cadmium complex equals unity. Kinetic equation, which permits control over cadmium sulfide precipitation and preparation of CdS films of desired morphology was derived on the basis of the experimental data

  14. Cadmium elemination from phosphoric acid by ionic flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ion flotation process for the recovery of cadmium from wet phosphoric acid (30%P2O5) has been studied. This technique combines a chemical recation between the collector and the cadmium to form a precipitate (sublate) which is carried to the surface of the solution by air bubbles. the resulting foam containing the cadmium may then separated from solution. The influence of parameters such as collector and cadmium concentration as well as iron content have been investigated for the case a synthetic acid (30% P2O5). The result have been applied to the industrial phosphoric acid produced from Djebel Onk's phosphates (Algeria)

  15. Cadmium in milk and mammary gland in rats and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the present investigation was to study the uptake of cadmium in mammary tissue, effects on milk secretion and composition, and lactational transport of cadmium to the sucklings. Cadmium exposure during lactation resulted in retention of cadmium in the mammary tissue in mice and rats. The uptake of cadmium in the mammary tissue was rapid, as shown in lactating mice by whole-body autoradiography 4 h after an intravenous injection of a tracer dose of 109CdCl2. Retention of cadmium in kidneys of suckling pups was observed in the autoradiograms at 7 days after exposure of the dams. Lactating rats were intravenously infused with 109CdCl2 in 0.9% saline via osmotic minipumps from day 3 to day 16 after parturition. The cadmium dose given was 0, 8.8, 62 and 300 μg Cd/kg body wt. per day. Plasma and milk were collected at day 10 and 16 after parturition. Plasma cadmium levels in dams increased from day 10 to day 16. Cadmium levels were higher in milk than in plasma, with milk/plasma ratios varying from 2 to 6. Zinc levels in milk were positively correlated to cadmium levels in milk (r2=0.26; P=0.03). In milk, 109Cd was distributed in fat (46-52%), casein fraction (40-46%), and whey fraction (6-8%). There was a high correlation between cadmium concentrations in pups' kidney and cadmium concentrations in dam's milk (r2=0.98; P 109Cd was bound to metallothionein in mammary tissue. The fraction of radiolabelled cadmium bound to metallothionein increased in a dose-dependent manner in both the liver (88-98%) and mammary tissue (57-80%). The present results indicate a low transfer of cadmium to the suckling pup, which might be due to binding of cadmium to metallothionein in the mammary tissue. However, during the susceptible developmental period even a low cadmium exposure may be of concern. (orig.)

  16. Phytoremediation of cadmium contaminated soils by tuberose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential of three varieties of tuberose (Prajwal, Shringar and Mexican single) for phytoremediation of soil contaminated with cadmium was evaluated by subjecting the plants to five levels of Cd (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg kg-1 soil). Applied Cd did not produce any toxic symptoms in all the three varieties of tuberose except marginal reduction in the photosynthesis rate and total dry weight beyond 50 mg Cd kg-1 soil. The study showed that tuberose possessed the typical ability of Cd hyper accumulator characterized by (1) accumulation of Cd in the shoots of the plant exceeding the critical judging standard i.e., 100 μg g-1 DW and (2) ratio of Cd in the shoots to bulbs >1. It was concluded that tuberose may be an effective accumulator plant for phytoremediation of cadmium polluted soils. (author)

  17. Response and Resistance Mechanisms of Plants to Cadmium%植物对Cd2+胁迫的调控机理研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马艳华; 宋瑜; 杨亮

    2014-01-01

    重金属Cd作为非必需微量元素,经根系吸收并累积时对植物具有很强的毒性,因而开展植物对Cd的响应途径及其调控机理研究,对改良植物对Cd的耐受性以及开发超累积植物均具有重要意义。植物硫代谢、抗氧化系统和Cd2+跨膜运输是植物对重金属镉响应的主要途径,以上3种耐受机制的研究进展包括Cd2+诱导植物硫转运蛋白、硫还原相关酶类以及半胱氨酸、谷胱甘肽和植物螯合肽合成及其基因表达调控, Cd2+诱发的植物抗氧化反应及其基因表达,质膜和液泡转运蛋白促进Cd2+运输和隔离的基因调控。%Cadmium is a non-essential micronutrient with strong phytotoxicity to plants when absorbed through the root system and accumulated in the plant tissues. It is significant to improve the plants' tolerance to cadmium and develop a series of hyperaccumulation in plants. Sulfate metabolism, oxidation resistance systems and trans-membrane transport of cadmium are the main channels of plants response to cadmium. Three kinds of mechanisms of heavy metal cadmium tole-rance in plants were summarized, including cadmium-induced generation of sulfur transporters, sulfur reductase, cysteine, glutathione, phytochelatins, and gene expression and regulation. Cadmium-induced oxidation resistance response and gene expression, plasma and vacuole memb-rane transporters can accelerate the gene regulation of transport and isolation of cadmium.

  18. 75 FR 76016 - Determination That AUGMENTIN `125' (Amoxicillin; Clavulanate Potassium) Chewable Tablet and Six...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That AUGMENTIN `125' (Amoxicillin; Clavulanate Potassium) Chewable Tablet and Six Other AUGMENTIN (Amoxicillin; Clavulanate Potassium) Drug Products Were... (amoxicillin; clavulanate potassium) drug products listed in this notice were not withdrawn from sale...

  19. 75 FR 65448 - Potassium Permanganate From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... reasonably foreseeable future. See Potassium Permanganate From China Determination, 75 FR 63856 (October 18... International Trade Administration Potassium Permanganate From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of... the antidumping duty order on potassium permanganate from the People's Republic of China...

  20. Intravenous magnesium sulfate therapy in severe asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Al-Ajmi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A 22-year-old female, known asthmatic since seven years, developed severe bronchospasm in the preop-erative period. Bronchospasm remained unresponsive to the inhaled beta-agonist plus anticholinergic, IV ami-nophylline and hydrocortisone but responded quickly with magnesium sulfate® ( PSI, KSA infusion 1.25gm in 100ml normal saline over 20 minutes and another 1.25 gm over next 30 minutes as the initial infusion showed improvement in her clinical symptoms. Within half an hour of administering the 1st infusion of magnesium sulfate (1.25 gm the respiratory rate started reducing, rhonchi became less, SpO 2 came upto 92% and re-mained always above 90%. Encouraged by this result IV magnesium sulfate 2.5 gm in 500 ml normal saline was infused over next 24 hours along with alternate salbutamol and ipratropium nebulization every 6 hourly. With this treatment regimen the patient became asymptomatic within next 24 hours with normal clinical parameters and FEV 1 value. Hence it may be concluded that IV magnesium sulfate can be considered for patients with acute severe asthma who do not respond to standard therapeutic medications.

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Nanostructured Sulfated Zirconias

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lutecki, M.; Šolcová, Olga; Werner, S.; Breitkopf, C.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2010), s. 13-20. ISSN 0928-0707 Grant ostatní: DFG(DE) BR2068/2-1; DFG(DE) BR2068/2-2 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : sulfated zirconia * template assisted synthesis * porous materials Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.525, year: 2010

  2. Sulfate-reducing bacteria in anaerobic bioreactors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Elferink, S.J.W.H.

    1998-01-01

    The treatment of industrial wastewaters containing high amounts of easily degradable organic compounds in anaerobic bioreactors is a well-established process. Similarly, wastewaters which in addition to organic compounds also contain sulfate can be treated in this way. For a long time, the occurrenc

  3. Radioprotective properties of the polysaccharide dextran sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments have been conducted on mice-hydrides (SFUxS57BI)F1. Dextran sulfate (mol. w. 500000) has been injected once intraperitoneally at the dose of 60 mg/ml before exposure. The following conclusions are made: 1) highly molecular dextran sulfate injected during 1-3 days before exposure of mice at lethal doses of 9.57, 9 and 15.86 Gr at the corresponding dose rates of 8x10-3, 3x10-3 and 8x10-4 Gr/s increases radioresistance of animals increasing their 30 day survival up to 45-70%; 2) when injecting dextran sulfate a day before exposure increase of the organism radioresistance is followed by acceleration of postradiation restoration of the number of blood leukocytes, nucleus hearing cells of bone marrow and mass of spleen; 3) dextrain sulfate injected 3 days before irradiation does not produce any effect on expressiveness of postradiation leukopenia and bone marrow cytopenia

  4. Sulfate reduction and methanogenesis at a freshwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Vibeke Margrethe Nyvang; Andersen, Martin Søgaard; Jakobsen, Rasmus

    enriched in dissolved sulfide, methane and bicarbonate. Under normal conditions the seawater-freshwater interface is found at a depth of 4 m at the coastline and reaches the bottom of the aquifer 40 m inland. However, occasional flooding of the area occurs, introducing sulfate to the aquifer. Groundwater...

  5. Determination of boron spectrophotometry in thorium sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure for the determination of microquantities of boron in nuclear grade thorium sulfate is described. The method is based on the extraction of BF-4 ion associated to monomethylthionine (MMT) in 1,2 - dichloroethane. The extraction of the colored BF-4-MMT complex does not allow the presence of sulfuric and phosphoric acids; other anions interfere seriously. This fact makes the dissolution of the thorium sulfate impracticable, since it is insoluble in both acids. On the other hand, the quantitative separation of thorium is mandatory, to avoid the precipitation of ThF4. To overcome this difficulty, the thorium sulfate is dissolved using a strong cationic ion exchanger, Th4+ being totally retained into the resin. Boron is then analysed in the effluent. The procedure allows the determination of 0.2 to 10.0 microgramas of B, with a maximum error of 10%. Thorium sulfate samples with contents of 0.2 to 2.0μg B/gTh have being analysed

  6. 21 CFR 184.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the specifications of the “Food Chemicals Codex,” 3d Ed. (1981), pp. 22-23, which is incorporated by... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium sulfate. 184.1143 Section 184.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  7. STUDIES INTO THE MECHANISMS OF POTASSIUM BROMATE INDUCED THYROID CARCINOGENESIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies into the Mechanisms of Potassium Bromate Induced Thyroid Carcinogenesis. Potassium bromate (KBrO3) occurs in finished drinking water as a by-product of the ozonation disinfection process and has been found to induce thyroid follicular cell tumors in the rat after ...

  8. Process for preparation of potassium-38. [DOE patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrecht, R.M.; Wolf, A.P.

    A solution of potassium-38 suitable for use as a radiopharmaceutical and a method for its production. Argon is irradiated with protons having energies above the threshold for the /sup 40/Ar(p,3n)/sup 38/K reaction. The resulting potassium-38 is dissolved in a sterile water and any contaminating chlorine-38 is removed.

  9. Potassium cycling and losses in grassland systems : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayser, M; Isselstein, J

    2005-01-01

    Cycling of potassium in grassland systems has received relatively little attention in research and practice in recent years. Balanced nutrient systems require consideration of nutrients other than nitrogen (N). Potassium (K) is needed in large amounts and is closely related to N nutrition. In intens

  10. 40 CFR 721.10021 - Magnesium potassium titanium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 721.63 respirator requirements may request to do so under 40 CFR 721.30. Persons whose § 721.30... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Magnesium potassium titanium oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10021 Magnesium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10031 - Lithium potassium titanium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements may request to do so under 40 CFR 721.30. Persons whose § 721.30 requests to use the NCELs... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lithium potassium titanium oxide. 721... Substances § 721.10031 Lithium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new...

  12. 75 FR 63856 - Potassium Permanganate From China Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... COMMISSION Potassium Permanganate From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty order on potassium permanganate from China would be likely to lead to continuation or....2(f)). Background The Commission instituted this review on May 3, 2010 (75 FR 23298) and...

  13. Crystal structure of the sodium-potassium pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morth, J Preben; Pedersen, Bjørn Panyella; Toustrup-Jensen, Mads S;

    2007-01-01

    The Na+,K+-ATPase generates electrochemical gradients for sodium and potassium that are vital to animal cells, exchanging three sodium ions for two potassium ions across the plasma membrane during each cycle of ATP hydrolysis. Here we present the X-ray crystal structure at 3.5 A resolution of the...

  14. Prevention of cadmium bioaccumulation by herbal adaptogens

    OpenAIRE

    K Bharavi; A. Gopala Reddy; G S Rao; Ravi Kumar, P.; D Srinivas Kumar; P Prabhu Prasadini

    2011-01-01

    Objectives : To evaluate the effect of various herbal adaptogens such as shade-dried powders of Withania somnifera, Ocimum sanctum, Asperagus recemosus, Andrographis paniculata, Asphaltum panjabinum (Shilajith), Gymnema sylvestre, Spirulina platensis, and Panex ginseng on cadmium (Cd)-induced oxidative stress and its accumulation in broiler chicken. Materials and Methods : A total of 80 male broiler chicks of day old age were randomly assigned to 10 equal groups. Group 1 birds were fed wi...

  15. ELECTROKINETIC REMEDIATION STUDY FOR CADMIUM CONTAMINATED SOIL

    OpenAIRE

    P. Bala Ramudu; R. P. Tiwari; Srivastava, R. K.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental research undertaken to evaluate different purging solutions to enhance the removal of cadmium from spiked contaminated field soil by electrokinetic remediation. Three experiments were conducted when soil was saturated with deionised water and subsequently deionised water, ammonium citrate and sodium citrate were used as purging solutions at anode end. One experiment was conducted when the soil was saturated with ammonium citrate and itself wa...

  16. Electron mobility in mercury cadmium telluride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, James D.

    1988-01-01

    A previously developed program, which includes all electronic interactions thought to be important, does not correctly predict the value of electron mobility in mercury cadmium telluride particularly near room temperature. Part of the reason for this discrepancy is thought to be the way screening is handled. It seems likely that there are a number of contributors to errors in the calculation. The objective is to survey the calculation, locate reasons for differences between experiment and calculation, and suggest improvements.

  17. Bioaugmentation with cadmium-resistant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria to assist cadmium phytoextraction by Helianthus annuus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prapagdee, Benjaphorn; Chanprasert, Maesinee; Mongkolsuk, Skorn

    2013-07-01

    Micrococcus sp. MU1 and Klebsiella sp. BAM1, the cadmium-resistant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), produce high levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) during the late stationary phase of their growth. The ability of PGPR to promote root elongation, plant growth and cadmium uptake in sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) was evaluated. Both species of bacteria were able to remove cadmium ions from an aqueous solution and enhanced cadmium mobilization in contaminated soil. Micrococcus sp. and Klebsiella sp. use aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid as a nitrogen source to support their growth, and the minimum inhibitory concentrations of cadmium for Micrococcus sp. and Klebsiella sp. were 1000 and 800mM, respectively. These bacteria promoted root elongation in H. annuus seedlings in both the absence and presence of cadmium compared to uninoculated seedlings. Inoculation with these bacteria was found to increase the root lengths of H. annuus that had been planted in cadmium-contaminated soil. An increase in dry weight was observed for H. annuus inoculated with Micrococcus sp. Moreover, Micrococcus sp. enhanced the accumulation of cadmium in the root and leaf of H. annuus compared to untreated plants. The highest cadmium accumulation in the whole plant was observed when the plants were treated with EDTA following the treatment with Micrococcus sp. In addition, the highest translocation of cadmium from root to the above-ground tissues of H. annuus was found after treatment with Klebsiella sp. in the fourth week after planting. Our results show that plant growth and cadmium accumulation in H. annuus was significantly enhanced by cadmium-resistant PGPRs, and these bacterial inoculants are excellent promoters of phytoextraction for the rehabilitation of heavy metal-polluted environments. PMID:23478127

  18. Bioavailability of cadmium from linseed and cocoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    the food authorities in order to give correct advises to the population. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioavailability of cadmium from whole linseed, crushed linseed, cocoa and cadmium chloride in rats. An experiment where 40 rats were divided into 4 groups and a control group and dosed...... with whole linseed, crushed linseed, cocoa and CdCl2 for 3 weeks was performed. Linseed or cocoa made up 10% of the feed (by weight) and was added as a replacement for carbohydrate source. The rats were dosed for 3 weeks and the cadmium content in the rats' kidneys was measured by ICPMS as a biomarker...... which could be measured in the kidney compared to the calculated total intake was as follows: Control 2.0 %, Crushed linseed 0.9 %, whole linseed, 1.5 %, cocoa 0.7 % and CdCl2 4.6 %. Based on this study it could not be concluded that the bioavailability in rats form whole linseed is lower that for...

  19. Soil ecotoxicity assessment using cadmium sensitive plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crop plants, sorghum and cucumber, can be used as indicator species to assess ecotoxicity of soils contaminated by cadmium. - Four crop plant species (sweet corn, Zea may; wheat, Triticum aestivum; cucumber, Cucumis sativus; and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor) were tested to assess an ecotoxicity in cadmium-amended soils. The measurement endpoints used were seed germination and seedling growth (shoot and root). The presence of cadmium decreased the seedling growth. The medium effective concentration values (EC50) for shoot or root growth were calculated by the Trimmed Spearman-Karber method. Due to the greater accumulation of Cd to the roots, root growth was a more sensitive endpoint than shoot growth. Bioavailability and transport of Cd within plant were related to concentration and species. The ratio of bioaccumulation factor (BAF) in the shoots to the roots indicated high immobilization of Cd in the roots. Seed germination was insensitive to Cd toxicity, and is not recommended for a suitable assay. Among the test plants and test endpoints, root growth of sorghum and cucumber appears to be a good protocol to assess ecotoxicity of soils contaminated by Cd

  20. Soil ecotoxicity assessment using cadmium sensitive plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Youn-Joo

    2004-01-01

    The crop plants, sorghum and cucumber, can be used as indicator species to assess ecotoxicity of soils contaminated by cadmium. - Four crop plant species (sweet corn, Zea may; wheat, Triticum aestivum; cucumber, Cucumis sativus; and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor) were tested to assess an ecotoxicity in cadmium-amended soils. The measurement endpoints used were seed germination and seedling growth (shoot and root). The presence of cadmium decreased the seedling growth. The medium effective concentration values (EC50) for shoot or root growth were calculated by the Trimmed Spearman-Karber method. Due to the greater accumulation of Cd to the roots, root growth was a more sensitive endpoint than shoot growth. Bioavailability and transport of Cd within plant were related to concentration and species. The ratio of bioaccumulation factor (BAF) in the shoots to the roots indicated high immobilization of Cd in the roots. Seed germination was insensitive to Cd toxicity, and is not recommended for a suitable assay. Among the test plants and test endpoints, root growth of sorghum and cucumber appears to be a good protocol to assess ecotoxicity of soils contaminated by Cd.

  1. Mass transport in aqueous zinc chloride-potassium chloride electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leaist, D.G.

    1986-09-01

    Conductimetric and diaphragm cell techniques have been used to measure ternary diffusion coefficients for aqueous zinc chloride-potassium chloride solutions at 25/sup 0/C. At low concentrations where Zn/sup 2 +/ is the major zinc-transporting species, the diffusion-induced electric field along zinc chloride concentration gradients drives large co-current flows of potassium chloride. In concentrated solutions where a large proportion of zinc diffusses as anionic ZnCl/sub 3//sup -/ and ZnCl/sub 4//sup 2 -/ complexes, flow of zinc chloride generates counterflow of potassium chloride. If a sharp zinc chloride is formed in an otherwise uniform solution of potassium chloride, coupled diffusion can concentrate potassium ions within the diffusion boundary. Equations are developed to predict multicomponent transport coefficients for zinc chloride in supporting electrolytes.

  2. Multimegawatt potassium Rankine power for nuclear electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cermet fueled potassium rankine power system concept has been developed for various power ranges and operating lifetimes. This concept utilizes a single primary lithium loop to transport thermal energy from the reactor to the boiler. Multiple, independent potassium loops are employed to achieve the required reliability of 99 percent. The potassium loops are two phase systems which expand heated potassium vapor through multistage turboalternators to produce a 10-kV dc electrical output. Condensation occurs by-way-of a shear-flow condenser, producing a 100 percent liquid potassium stream which is pumped back to the boiler. Waste heat is rejected by an advanced carbon-carbon radiator at approximately 1000 K. Overall system efficiencies of 19.3 percent to 20.5 percent were calculated depending on mission life and power level

  3. Use of cadmium in solution in the EL 4 reactor moderator irreversible fixing of cadmium on the metallic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of research into the poisoning of the EL-4 reactor by cadmium sulphate, measurements have been made by two different methods of the residual amounts of cadmium liable to be fixed irreversibly on the surfaces in contact with the heavy water. A marked influence of the pH has been noticed. The mechanism of the irreversible fixing is compatible with the hypothesis of an ion-exchange in the surface oxide layer. In a sufficiently wide range of pH the cadmium thus fixed causes very little residual poisoning. The stability of the cadmium sulphate solutions is however rather low in the conditions of poisoning. (authors)

  4. Reduction of Cadmium Uptake of Rice Plants Using Soil Amendments in High Cadmium Contaminated Soil: A Pot Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Dian Siswanto; Parinda Suksabye; Paitip Thiravetyan

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of agricultural residues on reducing cadmium uptake in rice plants. The rice plants growing on no cadmium/free cadmium soils (N), Cd soils (Cds), and Cd soils each amended with 1% w/w of coir pith (CP), coir pith modified with sodium hydroxide (CPm) and corncob (CC) under high cadmium contaminated soil with an average 145 mg Cd kg-1 soil were investigated. The results showed that the cumulative transpiration of rice grown in various treatm...

  5. Burning characteristics of potassium and lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of laboratory scale tests has been carried out in which lithium and potassium were burnt in trays in atmospheres of air and nitrogen. The test results are compared with those from literature. The maximum weight of metal in a test was 200 gram. The tests were carried out in a glove box which allowed the atomospheric composition to be varied to some extent. The initial temperature was varied to determine its effect on the course of the reaction. The temperature and the composition of the atmosphere were recorded during the tests. After each test the reaction products were weighed and chemically analysed. A good insight into the course of the reaction was obtained from the results. The main phases of the reaction are illustrated by a series of photographs. (orig.)

  6. TREATMENT AND PREVENTION OF ATRIAL TACHYARRHYTHMIAS IN CRITICALLY ILL PATIENT: THE ROLEOF MAGNESIUM SULFATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. MOJTAHEDZADEH

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available In this prospective, randomized study, in the general intensive care unit at Shanatee teaching hospital, we evaluated twenty patients, mean age 52+18 years and mean acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II score of 20±8, who were experiencing atrial tachyarrhythmias for more than 1 hour. After correction of their plasma potassium concentration to more than 4.0 mmof/1, patients were randomized to receive either 40 mg/kg magnesium sulfate bolus followed by 30 mg/kg/hr or 5mg/kg amiodarone bolus and 10 mg/kg/24hr infusion. Therapeutic end point was conversion to sinus rhythm over 24 hours. By logistic regression, the probability of conversion to sinus rhythm was significantly better for magnesium than for amiodarone at time 0-4 (0.6 vs.0.4, 12 (0.72 vs 0.45, and 24 (0.72vs.0.45 hours. In patients not converting to sinus rhythm, a significant decrease in ventricular response rate occurred at time zero to 0.5 hour (mean decrease 22 beats/min, P=0.0001, but there was no specific treatment effect between the magnesium and the amiodarone groups. Magnesium sulfate is superior to amiodarone in the conversion of acute atrial tachyarrhythmias, while initial slowing of ventricular response rate in non-converters appears equally efficacious with both agents.

  7. Bioinspired Artificial Sodium and Potassium Ion Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Vázquez, Nuria; Fuertes, Alberto; Amorín, Manuel; Granja, Juan R

    2016-01-01

    In Nature, all biological systems present a high level of compartmentalization in order to carry out a wide variety of functions in a very specific way. Hence, they need ways to be connected with the environment for communication, homeostasis equilibrium, nutrition, waste elimination, etc. The biological membranes carry out these functions; they consist of physical insulating barriers constituted mainly by phospholipids. These amphipathic molecules spontaneously aggregate in water to form bilayers in which the polar groups are exposed to the aqueous media while the non-polar chains self-organize by aggregating to each other to stay away from the aqueous media. The insulating properties of membranes are due to the formation of a hydrophobic bilayer covered at both sides by the hydrophilic phosphate groups. Thus, lipophilic molecules can permeate the membrane freely, while the small charged or very hydrophilic molecules require the assistance of other membrane components in order to overcome the energetic cost implied in crossing the non-polar region of the bilayer. Most of the large polar species (such as oligosaccharides, polypeptides or nucleic acids) cross into and out of the cell via endocytosis and exocytosis, respectively. Nature has created a series of systems (carriers and pores) in order to control the balance of small hydrophilic molecules and ions. The most important structures to achieve these goals are the ionophoric proteins that include the channel proteins, such as the sodium and potassium channels, and ionic transporters, including the sodium/potassium pumps or calcium/sodium exchangers among others. Inspired by these, scientists have created non-natural synthetic transporting structures to mimic the natural systems. The progress in the last years has been remarkable regarding the efficient transport of Na(+) and K(+) ions, despite the fact that the selectivity and the ON/OFF state of the non-natural systems remain a present and future challenge

  8. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  9. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  10. Water absorbance and thermal properties of sulfated wheat gluten films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat gluten films of varying thicknesses formed at 30C to 70C were treated with cold sulfuric acid to produce sulfated gluten films. Chemical, thermal, thermal stability, and water uptake properties were characterized for neat and sulfated films. The sulfated gluten films were able ...

  11. In vitro comparisons of the inhibitory activity of florfenicol copper sulfate and potassium permanganate towards Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare, the etiological agents of motile aeromonas septicemia (MAS) and columnaris disease, respectively, have been recently causing crippling moralities to the sunshine bass, Morone chrysops female X Morone saxatilis male (Percichthyidae), industry in the ...

  12. Comparing the effectiveness of two applications of copper sulfate and potassium permanganate against Ichthyobodosis (Costiosis) on sunshine bass in tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    The biflagellated single-cell parasite Ichthyobodo nectator, more commonly known as Costia, can cause significant fish losses among fish populations, particularly those cultured in tanks. It is often associated with young fish that have been crowded, underfed, and held in waters with low flow, but ...

  13. Acid Sulfate Alteration in Gusev Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Catalano, J. G.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit landed on the Gusev Crater plains west of the Columbia Hills in January, 2004, during the Martian summer (sol 0; sol = 1 Martian day = 24 hr 40 min). Spirit explored the Columbia Hills of Gusev Crater in the vicinity of Home Plate at the onset on its second winter (sol approximately 900) until the onset of its fourth winter (sol approximately 2170). At that time, Spirit became mired in a deposit of fined-grained and sulfate-rich soil with dust-covered solar panels and unfavorable pointing of the solar arrays toward the sun. Spirit has not communicated with the Earth since sol 2210 (January, 2011). Like its twin rover Opportunity, which landed on the opposite side of Mars at Meridiani Planum, Spirit has an Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument for chemical analyses and a Moessbauer spectrometer (MB) for measurement of iron redox state, mineralogical speciation, and quantitative distribution among oxidation (Fe(3+)/sigma Fe) and coordination (octahedral versus tetrahedral) states and mineralogical speciation (e.g., olivine, pyroxene, ilmenite, carbonate, and sulfate). The concentration of SO3 in Gusev rocks and soils varies from approximately 1 to approximately 34 wt%. Because the APXS instrument does not detect low atomic number elements (e.g., H and C), major-element oxide concentrations are normalized to sum to 100 wt%, i.e., contributions of H2O, CO2, NO2, etc. to the bulk composition care not considered. The majority of Gusev samples have approximately 6 plus or minus 5 wt% SO3, but there is a group of samples with high SO3 concentrations (approximately 30 wt%) and high total iron concentrations (approximately 20 wt%). There is also a group with low total Fe and SO3 concentrations that is also characterized by high SiO2 concentrations (greater than 70 wt%). The trend labeled "Basaltic Soil" is interpreted as mixtures in variable proportions between unaltered igneous material and oxidized and SO3-rich basaltic

  14. Synthesis, crystal growth and characterizations of bis ( l-proline) cadmium iodide: a new semi-organic nonlinear optical material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boopathi, K.; Jagan, R.; Ramasamy, P.

    2016-07-01

    Novel semi-organic single crystals of bis ( l-proline) cadmium iodide (BLPC) were grown by slow evaporation technique. The crystal structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction study shows that [BLPC] crystallizes in orthorhombic system with space group P212121. 1H NMR and 13C NMR studies were conducted for the grown crystal. Functional groups present in the compound were identified by FTIR spectral studies. The UV-Vis-NIR spectrum was studied to analyse the optical properties of the grown crystals. Thermogravimetric analysis was carried out to study thermal behaviour of the materials. Vickers microhardness measurement was carried out for different loads. Etching studies were carried out using water as etchant. The second harmonic generation efficiency was determined by the Kurtz powder method and it was found to be higher than that of potassium dihydrogen phosphate.

  15. Synthesis, crystal growth and characterization of a chiral compound (triphenylphosphine oxide cadmium iodide): A new semiorganic nonlinear optical material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthesis of semiorganic material, triphenylphosphine oxide cadmium iodide (TPPOCdI), is reported for the first time. Employing the temperature reduction method, a crystal of size 16x7x6 mm3 was grown from dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution. Three dimensional crystal structure of the grown crystal was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction study. The complex crystallizes in the chiral orthorhombic space group P212121. FTIR study was carried out in order to confirm the presence of the functional groups. UV-vis-NIR spectral studies show that the crystal is transparent in the wavelength range of 290-1100 nm. The microhardness test was carried out, and the load hardness was measured. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses reveal the thermal stability of the crystal. Second harmonic generation efficiency of the powdered TPPOCdI, tested using Nd: YAG laser, is ∼0.65 times that of potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate.

  16. Mechanisms involved in the induction of aneuploidy: the significance of chromosome loss

    OpenAIRE

    A.I. Seoane; Güerci, A.M; F.N. Dulout

    2000-01-01

    The induction of aneuploidy by physical and chemical agents using different test systems was evaluated. The effect of X-rays, caffeine, acetaldehyde, ethanol, diethylstilbestrol, propionaldehyde, and chloral hydrate was studied by chromosome counting in Chinese hamster embryonic diploid cells. Aneugenic ability of cadmium chloride, cadmium sulfate, potassium dichromate, chromium chloride, nickel chloride, and nickel sulfate was assessed by means of anaphase-telophase analysis in Chinese hamst...

  17. 21 CFR 524.155 - Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate ophthalmic ointment. 524.155 Section 524.155 Food and... zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate ophthalmic ointment... 10 milligrams of hydrocortisone acetate. (b) Conditions of use. Dogs and cats—(1) Amount. Apply...

  18. Phytoremediation of cadmium and nickel by Spirodela polyrhiza

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy metal pollution in surface and groundwater has considerably increased in the last few years. It is essential to have an effective removal mechanism of these toxic metals. Current research includes the need to develop environment friendly and cost effective technologies for removing heavy metals from water. In several studies cadmium and nickel have been considerably removed using phytoremediation. The removal efficiency of cadmium and nickel by Spirodela polyrhiza, common duckweed has been examined in the present study for 3 different concentrations of cadmium (1, 2 and 3 mg/L) and nickel (4, 5 and 6 mg/L). Two sets of experiments for cadmium and nickel were conducted separately. Effect of metal toxicity on Spirodela polyrhiza was evaluated in terms of relative growth factor and cadmium was found to be more toxic than nickel. Under experimental condition BCF value for cadmium removal was more than >1000 in all the 3 concentrations of cadmium. But the BCF value was found to be more than > 1000 only when input nickel concentration was 4 mg/L during phytoremediation process. Experimental results suggest that Spirodela polyrhiza has the potential of accumulating cadmium and nickel from aqueous solution at lower metal concentration. (author)

  19. Cadmium inhibits neurogenesis in zebrafish embryonic brain development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, Elly Suk Hen [Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, 1200 California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hui, Michelle Nga Yu; Lin Chunchi [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Cheng Shukhan [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: bhcheng@cityu.edu.hk

    2008-05-01

    Cadmium is a non-essential heavy metal found abundantly in the environment. Children of women exposed to cadmium during pregnancy display lower motor and perceptual abilities. High cadmium body burden in children is also related to impaired intelligence and lowered school achievement. However, little is known about the molecular and cellular basis of developmental neurotoxicity in the sensitive early life stages of animals. In this study, we explore neurological deficits caused by cadmium during early embryonic stages in zebrafish by examining regionalization of the neural tube, pattern formation and cell fate determination, commitment of proneural genes and induction of neurogenesis. We show that cadmium-treated embryos developed a smaller head with unclear boundaries between the brain subdivisions, particularly in the mid-hindbrain region. Embryos display normal anterior to posterior regionalization; however, the commitment of neural progenitor cells was affected by cadmium. We observe prominent reductions in the expression of several proneuronal genes including ngn1 in cell clusters, zash1a in the developing optic tectum, and zash1b in the telencephalon and tectum. Cadmium-treated embryos also have fewer differentiated neurons and glia in the facial sensory ganglia as indicated by decreased zn-12 expression. Also, a lower transcription level of neurogenic genes, ngn1 and neuroD, is observed in neurons. Our data suggest that cadmium-induced neurotoxicity can be caused by impaired neurogenesis, resulting in markedly reduced neuronal differentiation and axonogenesis.

  20. Epigenetic Effects of Cadmium [Abstract and Poster 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have reviewed the literature on in vitro and in vivo experiments as well as human studies on cadmium to understand the epigenetic mechanisms involved in cadmium- induced toxicity and carcinogenicity. This presentation will identify gaps in our current understanding and suggest...