WorldWideScience

Sample records for cadmium sealed cells

  1. Study of process variables associated with manufacturing hermetically-sealed nickel-cadmium cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L.; Doan, D. J.; Carr, E. S.

    1971-01-01

    A program to determine and study the critical process variables associated with the manufacture of aerospace, hermetically-sealed, nickel-cadmium cells is described. The determination and study of the process variables associated with the positive and negative plaque impregnation/polarization process are emphasized. The experimental data resulting from the implementation of fractional factorial design experiments are analyzed by means of a linear multiple regression analysis technique. This analysis permits the selection of preferred levels for certain process variables to achieve desirable impregnated plaque characteristics.

  2. Cadmium Toxicity to Ringed Seals (Phoca hispida)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, R.; Riget, F. F.

    Cadmium concentrations in kidneys from ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from North West Greenland (Qaanaaq) are high. Concentrations range at level known to induce renal toxic effects (mainly tubulopathy) and demineralisation (osteopenia) of the skeletal system (Fanconi's Syndrome) in humans as well...... the absence of toxic effects of cadmium in ringed seal...

  3. Cadmium toxicity to ringed seals (Phoca hispida): an epidemiological study of possible cadmium-induced nephropathy and osteodystrophy in ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from Qaanaaq in Northwest Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne-Hansen, C; Dietz, R; Leifsson, P S

    2002-01-01

    of the study was to determine whether cadmium-induced damage in the kidneys and the skeletal system could be detected among 100 ringed seals from Northwest Greenland. The cadmium concentrations in the kidney cortex ranged from 0 to 248 microg/g wet weight (mean=44.5, N=100) in the 99 kidneys examined...... or osteodystrophy. This might be explained by the composition of the ringed seals diet, which contains high levels of vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, selenium and protein. These elements are all likely to counteract cadmium-induced damage. It is speculated that ringed seal are not particularly vulnerable......The Greenland marine food chains contain high levels of cadmium, mercury and selenium. Concentrations of cadmium in the kidney of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the municipalities of Qaanaaq and Upernavik (Northwest Greenland) are among the highest recorded in the Arctic. The purpose...

  4. Cadmium toxicity to ringed seals (Phoca hispida): an epidemiological study of possible cadmium-induced nephropathy and osteodystrophy in ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from Qaanaaq in Northwest Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne-Hansen, C; Dietz, R; Leifsson, P S

    2002-01-01

    The Greenland marine food chains contain high levels of cadmium, mercury and selenium. Concentrations of cadmium in the kidney of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the municipalities of Qaanaaq and Upernavik (Northwest Greenland) are among the highest recorded in the Arctic. The purpose of the st......The Greenland marine food chains contain high levels of cadmium, mercury and selenium. Concentrations of cadmium in the kidney of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the municipalities of Qaanaaq and Upernavik (Northwest Greenland) are among the highest recorded in the Arctic. The purpose....... Experience from cadmium-poisoned humans and laboratory mammals indicates that concentrations above 50-200 microg/g wet wt. may induce histopathological changes. Overall, 31 of the ringed seals had cadmium concentrations in the kidney cortex above 50 microg/g wet wt., 11 had concentrations above 100 and one...

  5. Mercury and cadmium in ringed seals in the Canadian Arctic: Influence of location and diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Tanya M., E-mail: tanya.brown@mun.ca [Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s, Newfoundland A1B 3X9 (Canada); Fisk, Aaron T. [Great Lakes Institute of Environmental Research, University of Windsor, 401 Sunset Avenue, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada); Wang, Xiaowa [Environment Canada, Canada Centre for Inland Waters, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, Ontario L7R 4A6 (Canada); Ferguson, Steven H. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Young, Brent G. [University of Manitoba, 500 University Crescent, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Reimer, Ken J. [Environmental Sciences Group, Royal Military College of Canada, PO Box 17000, Stn Forces, Kingston, Ontario K7K 7B4 (Canada); Muir, Derek C.G. [Environment Canada, Canada Centre for Inland Waters, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, Ontario L7R 4A6 (Canada)

    2016-03-01

    Concentrations of total mercury (THg) and total cadmium (TCd) were determined in muscle and liver of ringed seals (Pusa hispida) from up to 14 locations across the Canadian Arctic. Location, trophic position (TP) and relative carbon source best predicted the THg and TCd concentrations in ringed seals. THg concentrations in ringed seals were highest in the western Canadian Arctic (Beaufort Sea), whereas TCd was highest in the eastern Canadian Arctic (Hudson Bay and Labrador). A positive relationship between THg and TP and a negative relationship between THg and relative carbon source contributed to the geographical patterns observed and elevated THg levels at certain sites. In contrast, a negative relationship between TCd and TP was found, indicating that high TCd concentrations are related to seals feeding more on invertebrates than fish. Feeding ecology appears to play an important role in THg and TCd levels in ringed seals, with biomagnification driving elevated THg levels and a dependence on low-trophic position prey resulting in high TCd concentrations. The present study shows that both natural geological differences and diet variability among regions explain the spatial patterns for THg and TCd concentrations in ringed seals. - Highlights: • Diet and location influenced THg and Cd in ringed seals across the Canadian Arctic. • Biomagnification processes contribute to elevated THg levels in the western Arctic. • Consuming low-trophic position prey explains high Cd levels in the eastern Arctic.

  6. Fuel cell cassette with compliant seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Haltiner, Jr. J.; Anthony, Derose J.; Klotzbach, Darasack C.; Schneider, Jonathan R.

    2017-11-07

    A fuel cell cassette for forming a fuel cell stack along a fuel cell axis includes a cell retainer, a plate positioned axially to the cell retainer and defining a space axially with the cell retainer, and a fuel cell having an anode layer and a cathode layer separated by an electrolyte layer. The outer perimeter of the fuel cell is positioned in the space between the plate and the cell retainer, thereby retaining the fuel cell and defining a cavity between the cell retainer, the fuel cell, and the plate. The fuel cell cassette also includes a seal disposed within the cavity for sealing the edge of the fuel cell. The seal is compliant at operational temperatures of the fuel cell, thereby allowing lateral expansion and contraction of the fuel cell within the cavity while maintaining sealing at the edge of the fuel cell.

  7. Cadmium sulfide solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, A. G.

    1975-01-01

    Development, fabrication and applications of CdS solar cells are reviewed in detail. The suitability of CdS cells for large solar panels and microcircuitry, and their low cost, are emphasized. Developments are reviewed by manufacturer-developer. Vapor phase deposition of thin-film solar cells, doping and co-evaporation, sputtering, chemical spray, and sintered layers are reviewed, in addition to spray deposition, monograin layer structures, and silk screening. Formation of junctions by electroplating, evaporation, brushing, CuCl dip, and chemiplating are discussed, along with counterelectrode fabrication, VPD film structures, the Cu2S barrier layer, and various photovoltaic effects (contact photovoltage, light intensity variation, optical enhancement), and various other CdS topics.

  8. Improved Gas Seal for Electrolytic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, R.

    1984-01-01

    Breakage by differential thermal expansion reduced. Cells for hot electrolysis of gases improved by design that reduces vulnerability of gas seals to breakage at operating temperature of about 1000 degrees C.

  9. Sealed source dismantling hot cell - startup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellamano, Jose Claudio; Ferreira, Robson de Jesus, E-mail: jcdellam@ipen.br, E-mail: rojefer@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Gerencia de Rejeitos radioativos

    2013-07-01

    Sealed radioactive sources are widely used in many applications of nuclear technology and at the end of the useful life, most sources become radioactive waste. In Brazil, this waste is received by the Institutes of the National Nuclear Energy Commission and kept under centralized storage. The Waste Management Department at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute is the main storage center, having received around 20,000 disused sources. A hot cell was designed and constructed to manage Co-60 spent sealed sources with activity up to 3.7 10{sup 1}0 Bq and other sources with equivalent activities. In the hot cell the sources are withdraw from their original shielding and transferred to a standard shielding for further disposal off. The original shielding disassembling is made outside the hot cell and after opening, it is transferred inside the hot cell and the sealed source is removed remotely. The source is checked in relation to external contamination and its activity is checked. After this, the source is positioned in the standard shielding located inside an overpack at the bottom of the hot cell. This paper describes some pre-operational tests carried out in it, that include: opening and closing doors and locks, checking of all electrical and pneumatic controls, the original shielding movement inside the hot-cell, dose rate measurements outside the hot-cell, insertion of the sealed sources inside the activity meter chamber, transferring the sealed source to the standard shielding, movement of the overpack with the standard shielding to outside of the hot-cell and plugging of the standard shielding. (author)

  10. Sealing materials for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, P.H.

    1999-02-01

    A major obstacle in the achievement of high electrical efficiency for planar solid oxide fuel cell stacks (SOFC) is the need for long term stable seals at the operational temperature between 850 and 1000 deg. C. In the present work the formation and properties of sealing materials for SOFC stacks that fulfil the necessary requirements were investigated. The work comprises analysis of sealing material properties independently, in simple systems as well as tests in real SOFC stacks. The analysed sealing materials were based on pure glasses or glass-ceramic composites having B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, P{sub 2}O{sub 5} or siO{sub 2} as glass formers, and the following four glass systems were investigated: MgO/caO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, MgO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, MgO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-SiO{sub 2} and BaO/Na{sub 2}O-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}. (au) 32 tabs., 106 ills., 107 refs.

  11. Solid oxide fuel cell having a glass composite seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rose, Anthony J.; Mukerjee, Subhasish; Haltiner, Jr., Karl Jacob

    2013-04-16

    A solid oxide fuel cell stack having a plurality of cassettes and a glass composite seal disposed between the sealing surfaces of adjacent cassettes, thereby joining the cassettes and providing a hermetic seal therebetween. The glass composite seal includes an alkaline earth aluminosilicate (AEAS) glass disposed about a viscous glass such that the AEAS glass retains the viscous glass in a predetermined position between the first and second sealing surfaces. The AEAS glass provides geometric stability to the glass composite seal to maintain the proper distance between the adjacent cassettes while the viscous glass provides for a compliant and self-healing seal. The glass composite seal may include fibers, powders, and/or beads of zirconium oxide, aluminum oxide, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), or mixtures thereof, to enhance the desirable properties of the glass composite seal.

  12. Manifold seal structure for fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, William P.

    1988-01-01

    The seal between the sides of a fuel cell stack and the gas manifolds is improved by adding a mechanical interlock between the adhesive sealing strip and the abutting surface of the manifolds. The adhesive is a material which can flow to some extent when under compression, and the mechanical interlock is formed providing small openings in the portion of the manifold which abuts the adhesive strip. When the manifolds are pressed against the adhesive strips, the latter will flow into and through the manifold openings to form buttons or ribs which mechanically interlock with the manifolds. These buttons or ribs increase the bond between the manifolds and adhesive, which previously relied solely on the adhesive nature of the adhesive.

  13. Computer simulation of Sealed NiCad Cells for space application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, John R.; Hargreaves, Neil J.; Hay, John L.

    A computer simulation has been developed for the behavior of Sealed Nickel Cadmium cells operating in a low earth orbit satellite. The model incorporates elements to allow for energy losses due to electrolyte resistance, electrode overpotentials and charge leakage. A thermal sub-model simulates the cell temperature and automatically sets the loss elements to fit data collected in tests at variable temperature and charging parameters. The complete model provides the recharge efficiency, power loss and state of charge as a function of the solar power input and load.

  14. Mutagenic effect of cadmium on tetranucleotide repeats in human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slebos, Robbert J.C. [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States) and Department of Otolaryngology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)]. E-mail: r.slebos@vanderbilt.edu; Li Ming [Department of Biostatistics, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Evjen, Amy N. [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Coffa, Jordy [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Shyr, Yu [Department of Biostatistics, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Yarbrough, Wendell G. [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Otolaryngology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)

    2006-12-01

    Cadmium is a human carcinogen that affects cell proliferation, apoptosis and DNA repair processes that are all important to carcinogenesis. We previously demonstrated that cadmium inhibits DNA mismatch repair (MMR) in yeast cells and in human cell-free extracts (H.W. Jin, A.B. Clark, R.J.C. Slebos, H. Al-Refai, J.A. Taylor, T.A. Kunkel, M.A. Resnick, D.A. Gordenin, Cadmium is a mutagen that acts by inhibiting mismatch repair, Nat. Genet. 34 (3) (2003) 326-329), but cadmium also inhibits DNA excision repair. For this study, we selected a panel of three hypermutable tetranucleotide markers (MycL1, D7S1482 and DXS981) and studied their suitability as readout for the mutagenic effects of cadmium. We used a clonal derivative of the human fibrosarcoma cell line HT1080 to assess mutation levels in microsatellites after cadmium and/or N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) exposure to study effects of cadmium in the presence or absence of base damage. Mutations were measured in clonally expanded cells obtained by limiting dilution after exposure to zero dose, 0.5 {mu}M cadmium, 5 nM MNNG or a combination of 0.5 {mu}M cadmium and 5 nM MNNG. Exposure of HT1080-C1 to cadmium led to statistically significant increases in microsatellite mutations, either with or without concurrent exposure to MNNG. A majority of the observed mutant molecules involved 4-nucleotide shifts consistent with DNA slippage mutations that are normally repaired by MMR. These results provide evidence for the mutagenic effects of low, environmentally relevant levels of cadmium in intact human cells and suggest that inhibition of DNA repair is involved.

  15. Integral edge seals for phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, Jr., Samuel J. (Inventor); Woodle, Boyd M. (Inventor); Dunyak, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A phosphoric acid fuel cell having integral edge seals formed by an elastomer permeating an outer peripheral band contiguous with the outer peripheral edges of the cathode and anode assemblies and the matrix to form an integral edge seal which is reliable, easy to manufacture and has creep characteristics similar to the anode, cathode and matrix assemblies inboard of the seals to assure good electrical contact throughout the life of the fuel cell.

  16. Cadmium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbelt, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Together with zinc and mercury, cadmium belongs to group IIb of the periodic table. It can be found in rocks, soil, water, coal, zinc ore, lead ore, and copper ore. In the environment, cadmium is present predominantly as the oxide or as the chloride, sulfide, or sulfate salt. It has no recognizable

  17. Dry compliant seal for phosphoric acid fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, Jr., Samuel J. (Inventor); Woodle, Boyd M. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A dry compliant overlapping seal for a phosphoric acid fuel cell preformed f non-compliant Teflon to make an anode seal frame that encircles an anode assembly, a cathode seal frame that encircles a cathode assembly and a compliant seal frame made of expanded Teflon, generally encircling a matrix assembly. Each frame has a thickness selected to accommodate various tolerances of the fuel cell elements and are either bonded to one of the other frames or to a bipolar or end plate. One of the non-compliant frames is wider than the other frames forming an overlap of the matrix over the wider seal frame, which cooperates with electrolyte permeating the matrix to form a wet seal within the fuel cell that prevents process gases from intermixing at the periphery of the fuel cell and a dry seal surrounding the cell to keep electrolyte from the periphery thereof. The frames may be made in one piece, in L-shaped portions or in strips and have an outer perimeter which registers with the outer perimeter of bipolar or end plates to form surfaces upon which flanges of pan shaped, gas manifolds can be sealed.

  18. Engineered glass seals for solid-oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surdoval, Wayne; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; Stevenson, Jeffry; Muth, Joseph Thomas; Armstrong, Beth L.; Shyam, Amit; Trejo, Rosa M.; Wang, Yanli; Chou, Yeong Shyung; Shultz, Travis Ray

    2017-02-07

    A seal for a solid oxide fuel cell includes a glass matrix having glass percolation therethrough and having a glass transition temperature below 650.degree. C. A deformable second phase material is dispersed in the glass matrix. The second phase material can be a compliant material. The second phase material can be a crushable material. A solid oxide fuel cell, a precursor for forming a seal for a solid oxide fuel cell, and a method of making a seal for a solid oxide fuel cell are also disclosed.

  19. ALTERNATIVE METHODS OF SEALING PLANAR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weil, K. Scott; Coyle, Christopher A.; Hardy, John S.; Kim, Jin Yong Y.; Xia, Gordon

    2005-03-01

    One of the key limiting issues in designing and fabricating a high performance planar solid oxide fuel cell (pSOFC) stack is the development of the appropriate materials and techniques for hermetically sealing the metal and ceramic components. There are essentially two standard methods of sealing: (1) by forming a rigid joint or (2) by constructing a compressive “sliding” seal. While short-term success has been achieved with both techniques, it is apparent that to meet the long-term operational needs of stack designers, alternative sealing concepts will need to be conceived. Described below are two alternative pSOFC sealing methods that have been developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  20. A Model of Cadmium Uptake and Transport in Caco-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimenko, T N; Senyavina, N V; Anisimov, N U; Tonevitskaya, S A

    2016-05-01

    We created a physiologically substantiated kinetic model of cadmium transport and toxicity in intestinal cell model (Caco-2 cells). Transcriptome profiling of Caco-2 cells revealed high content of transporter DMT1 and ZIP14 and intensive expression of some calcium channels of the CACN family. The mathematical model describing three types of transporters, as well as intracellular cadmium binding with metallothionein and excretion through the basolateral membrane allowed us to construct cadmium uptake and transport curves that approximated the previously obtained experimental data. Using the proposed model, we determined toxic intracellular cadmium concentration leading to cell death and impairing the integrity of cell monolayer and described cadmium transport in this case.

  1. One-Dimensional Fast Transient Simulator for Modeling Cadmium Sulfide/Cadmium Telluride Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Da

    Solar energy, including solar heating, solar architecture, solar thermal electricity and solar photovoltaics, is one of the primary alternative energy sources to fossil fuel. Being one of the most important techniques, significant research has been conducted in solar cell efficiency improvement. Simulation of various structures and materials of solar cells provides a deeper understanding of device operation and ways to improve their efficiency. Over the last two decades, polycrystalline thin-film Cadmium-Sulfide and Cadmium-Telluride (CdS/CdTe) solar cells fabricated on glass substrates have been considered as one of the most promising candidate in the photovoltaic technologies, for their similar efficiency and low costs when compared to traditional silicon-based solar cells. In this work a fast one dimensional time-dependent/steady-state drift-diffusion simulator, accelerated by adaptive non-uniform mesh and automatic time-step control, for modeling solar cells has been developed and has been used to simulate a CdS/CdTe solar cell. These models are used to reproduce transients of carrier transport in response to step-function signals of different bias and varied light intensity. The time-step control models are also used to help convergence in steady-state simulations where constrained material constants, such as carrier lifetimes in the order of nanosecond and carrier mobility in the order of 100 cm2/Vs, must be applied.

  2. Viscous sealing glass compositions for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Woon; Brow, Richard K.

    2016-12-27

    A sealant for forming a seal between at least two solid oxide fuel cell components wherein the sealant comprises a glass material comprising B.sub.2O.sub.3 as a principal glass former, BaO, and other components and wherein the glass material is substantially alkali-free and contains less than 30% crystalline material.

  3. SOFC seal and cell thermal management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potnis, Shailesh Vijay [Neenah, WI; Rehg, Timothy Joseph [Huntington Beach, CA

    2011-05-17

    The solid oxide fuel cell module includes a manifold, a plate, a cathode electrode, a fuel cell and an anode electrode. The manifold includes an air or oxygen inlet in communication with divergent passages above the periphery of the cell which combine to flow the air or oxygen radially or inwardly for reception in the center of the cathode flow field. The latter has interconnects providing circuitous cooling passages in a generally radial outward direction cooling the fuel cell and which interconnects are formed of different thermal conductivity materials for a preferential cooling.

  4. Glass sealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brow, R.K.; Kovacic, L.; Chambers, R.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Hernetic glass sealing technologies developed for weapons component applications can be utilized for the design and manufacture of fuel cells. Design and processing of of a seal are optimized through an integrated approach based on glass composition research, finite element analysis, and sealing process definition. Glass sealing procedures are selected to accommodate the limits imposed by glass composition and predicted calculations.

  5. Oxidative stress and DNA damage induced by cadmium in the human keratinocyte HaCaT cell line: role of glutathione in the resistance to cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzengue, Yves; Steiman, Régine; Garrel, Catherine; Lefèbvre, Emmanuel; Guiraud, Pascale

    2008-01-14

    Cadmium affects the cellular homeostasis and generates damage via complex mechanisms involving interactions with other metals and oxidative stress induction. In this work we used a human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) as a model to study the oxidative damage induced by cadmium to cellular macromolecules, its effect on the antioxidant systems and the role of glutathione in cell protection toward cadmium toxicity. The cells were incubated for 24 and 48 h with cadmium (3, 15, 50 and 100 microM). High doses of cadmium were required to induce a cytotoxicity: 100 microM lead to 30% mortality after 24h and 50% after 48 h. The oxidation of lipids and proteins and the DNA damage, respectively, assessed by thiobarbituric acid reactants determination, thiol group measurement and comet assay, were observed for 50-100 microM cadmium. The cytotoxic effects were strongly correlated to the cellular cadmium content. The glutathione peroxidase and the catalase activities were decreased, while the glutathione reductase activity and the glutathione concentration were increased after cadmium treatment. The superoxide dismutases activities were unchanged. A depletion in glutathione prior to cadmium exposure increased the cytotoxic effects and provoked DNA damage. Our results suggested that the hydroxyl radical could be the major compound involved in the oxidative stress generated by cadmium and that glutathione could play a major role in the protection of HaCaT cells from cytotoxicity but mostly from DNA damage induced by cadmium.

  6. Cadmium-induced programmed cell death signaling in tomato suspension cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakimova, E.T.; Woltering, E.J.; Kapchina-Toteva, V.M.

    2009-01-01

    Here we present a summary of our study on cadmium-induced cell death signaling in a model system of suspension-cultured tomato cells. Exposure of the cells to CdSO4 induced typical for PCD (cytoplasm shrinkage and nuclear condensation) morphological changes of the dead cells. Ethylene and hydrogen

  7. Curcumin regulates airway epithelial cell cytokine responses to the pollutant cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rennolds, Jessica; Malireddy, Smitha; Hassan, Fatemat; Tridandapani, Susheela; Parinandi, Narasimham [Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Boyaka, Prosper N. [Department of Veterinary Biosciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Cormet-Boyaka, Estelle, E-mail: Estelle.boyaka@osumc.edu [Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cadmium induces secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 by two distinct pathways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cadmium increases NAPDH oxidase activity leading to Erk activation and IL-8 secretion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Curcumin prevents cadmium-induced secretion of both IL-6 and IL-8 by airway cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Curcumin could be use to suppress lung inflammation due to cadmium inhalation. -- Abstract: Cadmium is a toxic metal present in the environment and its inhalation can lead to pulmonary disease such as lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These lung diseases are characterized by chronic inflammation. Here we show that exposure of human airway epithelial cells to cadmium promotes a polarized apical secretion of IL-6 and IL-8, two pivotal pro-inflammatory cytokines known to play an important role in pulmonary inflammation. We also determined that two distinct pathways controlled secretion of these proinflammatory cytokines by human airway epithelial cells as cadmium-induced IL-6 secretion occurs via an NF-{kappa}B dependent pathway, whereas IL-8 secretion involves the Erk1/2 signaling pathway. Interestingly, the natural antioxidant curcumin could prevent both cadmium-induced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion by human airway epithelial cells. In conclusion, curcumin could be used to prevent airway inflammation due to cadmium inhalation.

  8. Nickel-cadmium battery cell reversal from resistive network effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, A. H.

    1985-07-01

    During the individual cell short-down procedures often used for storing or reconditioning nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) batteries, it is possible for significant reversal of the lowest capacity cells to occur. The reversal is caused by the finite resistance of the common current-carrying leads in the resistive network that is generally used during short-down. A model is developed to evaluate the extent of such a reversal in any specific battery, and the model is verified by means of data from the short-down of a f-cell, 3.5-Ah battery. Computer simulations of short-down on a variety of battery configurations indicate the desirability of controlling capacity imbalances arising from cell configuration and battery management, limiting variability in the short-down resistors, minimizing lead resistances, and optimizing lead configurations.

  9. Analysis of aerospace nickel-cadmium battery cells. [cadmium migration as seen by scanning electron microscopy and metallographic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliason, R. R.

    1977-01-01

    Various steps followed in analyzing the electrolyte, separator, and electrodes are reviewed. Specific emphasis is given to scanning electron microscopic and metallographic analysis of the plates. Cadmium migration is defined, its effects and causes are examined, and methods for its reduction in cells are suggested.

  10. Cadmium suppresses the proliferation of piglet Sertoli cells and causes their DNA damage, cell apoptosis and aberrant ultrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ming

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Very little information is known about the toxic effects of cadmium on somatic cells in mammalian testis. The objective of this study is to explore the toxicity of cadmium on piglet Sertoli cells. Methods Sertoli cells were isolated from piglet testes using a two-step enzyme digestion and followed by differential plating. Piglet Sertoli cells were identified by oil red O staining and Fas ligand (FasL expression as assayed by immunocytochemistry and expression of transferrin and androgen binding protein by RT-PCR. Sertoli cells were cultured in DMEM/F12 supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum in the absence or presence of various concentrations of cadmium chloride, or treatment with p38 MAPK inhibitor SB202190 and with cadmium chloride exposure. Apoptotic cells in seminiferous tubules of piglets were also performed using TUNEL assay in vivo. Results Cadmium chloride inhibited the proliferation of Piglet Sertoli cells as shown by MTT assay, and it increased malondialdehyde (MDA but reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD and Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activity. Inhibitor SB202190 alleviated the proliferation inhibition of cadmium on piglet Sertoli cells. Comet assay revealed that cadmium chloride caused DNA damage of Piglet Sertoli cells and resulted in cell apoptosis as assayed by flow cytometry. The in vivo study confirmed that cadmium induced cell apoptosis in seminiferous tubules of piglets. Transmission electronic microscopy showed abnormal and apoptotic ultrastructure in Piglet Sertoli cells treated with cadmium chloride compared to the control. Conclusion cadmium has obvious adverse effects on the proliferation of piglet Sertoli cells and causes their DNA damage, cell apoptosis, and aberrant morphology. This study thus offers novel insights into the toxicology of cadmium on male reproduction.

  11. Cadmium suppresses the proliferation of piglet Sertoli cells and causes their DNA damage, cell apoptosis and aberrant ultrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Objective Very little information is known about the toxic effects of cadmium on somatic cells in mammalian testis. The objective of this study is to explore the toxicity of cadmium on piglet Sertoli cells. Methods Sertoli cells were isolated from piglet testes using a two-step enzyme digestion and followed by differential plating. Piglet Sertoli cells were identified by oil red O staining and Fas ligand (FasL) expression as assayed by immunocytochemistry and expression of transferrin and androgen binding protein by RT-PCR. Sertoli cells were cultured in DMEM/F12 supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum in the absence or presence of various concentrations of cadmium chloride, or treatment with p38 MAPK inhibitor SB202190 and with cadmium chloride exposure. Apoptotic cells in seminiferous tubules of piglets were also performed using TUNEL assay in vivo. Results Cadmium chloride inhibited the proliferation of Piglet Sertoli cells as shown by MTT assay, and it increased malondialdehyde (MDA) but reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity. Inhibitor SB202190 alleviated the proliferation inhibition of cadmium on piglet Sertoli cells. Comet assay revealed that cadmium chloride caused DNA damage of Piglet Sertoli cells and resulted in cell apoptosis as assayed by flow cytometry. The in vivo study confirmed that cadmium induced cell apoptosis in seminiferous tubules of piglets. Transmission electronic microscopy showed abnormal and apoptotic ultrastructure in Piglet Sertoli cells treated with cadmium chloride compared to the control. Conclusion cadmium has obvious adverse effects on the proliferation of piglet Sertoli cells and causes their DNA damage, cell apoptosis, and aberrant morphology. This study thus offers novel insights into the toxicology of cadmium on male reproduction. PMID:20712887

  12. Self-Sealing Wet Chemistry Cell for Field Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, Luther W.; Soto, Juancarlos; Lasnik, James; Roark, Shane

    2012-01-01

    In most analytical investigations, there is a need to process complex field samples for the unique detection of analytes, especially when detecting low concentration organic molecules that may identify extraterrestrial life. Wet chemistry based instruments are the techniques of choice for most laboratory- based analysis of organic molecules due to several factors including less fragmentation of fragile biomarkers, and ability to concentrate target species resulting in much lower limits of detection. Development of an automated wet chemistry preparation system that can operate autonomously on Earth and is also designed to operate under Martian ambient conditions will demonstrate the technical feasibility of including wet chemistry on future missions. An Automated Sample Processing System (ASPS) has recently been developed that receives fines, extracts organics through solvent extraction, processes the extract by removing non-organic soluble species, and delivers sample to multiple instruments for analysis (including for non-organic soluble species). The key to this system is a sample cell that can autonomously function under field conditions. As a result, a self-sealing sample cell was developed that can autonomously hermetically seal fines and powder into a container, regardless of orientation of the apparatus. The cap is designed with a beveled edge, which allows the cap to be self-righted as the capping motor engages. Each cap consists of a C-clip lock ring below a crucible O-ring that is placed into a groove cut into the sample cap.

  13. WESF hot cells waste minimization criteria hot cells window seals evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walterskirchen, K.M.

    1997-03-31

    WESF will decouple from B Plant in the near future. WESF is attempting to minimize the contaminated solid waste in their hot cells and utilize B Plant to receive the waste before decoupling. WESF wishes to determine the minimum amount of contaminated waste that must be removed in order to allow minimum maintenance of the hot cells when they are placed in ''laid-up'' configuration. The remaining waste should not cause unacceptable window seal deterioration for the remaining life of the hot cells. This report investigates and analyzes the seal conditions and hot cell history and concludes that WESF should remove existing point sources, replace cerium window seals in F-Cell and refurbish all leaded windows (except for A-Cell). Work should be accomplished as soon as possible and at least within the next three years.

  14. Cadmium Chloride Induces DNA Damage and Apoptosis of Human Liver Carcinoma Cells via Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Skipper

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a heavy metal that has been shown to cause its toxicity in humans and animals. Many documented studies have shown that cadmium produces various genotoxic effects such as DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations. Ailments such as bone disease, renal damage, and several forms of cancer are attributed to overexposure to cadmium.  Although there have been numerous studies examining the effects of cadmium in animal models and a few case studies involving communities where cadmium contamination has occurred, its molecular mechanisms of action are not fully elucidated. In this research, we hypothesized that oxidative stress plays a key role in cadmium chloride-induced toxicity, DNA damage, and apoptosis of human liver carcinoma (HepG2 cells. To test our hypothesis, cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Lipid hydroperoxide content stress was estimated by lipid peroxidation assay. Genotoxic damage was tested by the means of alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet assay. Cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry assessment (Annexin-V/PI assay. The result of MTT assay indicated that cadmium chloride induces toxicity to HepG2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, showing a 48 hr-LD50 of 3.6 µg/mL. Data generated from lipid peroxidation assay resulted in a significant (p < 0.05 increase of hydroperoxide production, specifically at the highest concentration tested. Data obtained from the Comet assay indicated that cadmium chloride causes DNA damage in HepG2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. A strong concentration-response relationship (p < 0.05 was recorded between annexin V positive cells and cadmium chloride exposure. In summary, these in vitro studies provide clear evidence that cadmium chloride induces oxidative stress, DNA damage, and programmed cell death in human liver carcinoma (HepG2 cells.

  15. Vaccinium corymbosum L. (blueberry) extracts exhibit protective action against cadmium toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprea, Eliza; Ruta, Lavinia L; Nicolau, Ioana; Popa, Claudia V; Neagoe, Aurora D; Farcasanu, Ileana C

    2014-01-01

    Blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) are a rich source of antioxidants and their consumption is believed to contribute to food-related protection against oxidative stress. In the present study, the chemoprotective action of blueberry extracts against cadmium toxicity was investigated using a cadmium-hypersensitive strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Four varieties of blueberries were used in the study, and it was found that the extracts with high content of total anthocyanidins exhibited significant protective effect against the toxicity of cadmium and H2O2. Both the blueberry extracts and pure cyanidin exhibited protective effects against cadmium in a dose-dependent manner, but without significantly interfering with the cadmium accumulation by the yeast cells. The results imply that the blueberry extracts might be a potentially valuable food supplement for individuals exposed to high cadmium. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Acute Toxicity of Cadmium in Mice Kidney Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Masoomi Karimi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cadmium is one of the most toxic heavy metals in our environment having a very strong ability to accumulate in body organs, especially in kidney. The present study was done to determine the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in kidneys of rats exposed to cadmium. Methods: Male rats (n=30, kept in standard conditions were used in this study. The animals were randomly divided into 2 groups (control and treatment. The treatment group was intraperitoneally injected with Cd (300µm/kg at hours 0, 6, 12, 24, 48. Twenty four hours after the last injection, the rats were sacrificed and their kidneys were obtained. Then oxidative stress markers, malondialdehide (MDA, glutathione (GSH, and superoxide dismutase (SOD, were assayed in homogenized kidney for studying their cytotoxicity. For genotoxicity and DNA damage studies, Comet assay was run on isolated kidney cells. Data analysis was done by t-test and ANOVA using SPSS software version 15. Results: MDA and GSH concentrations in normal and Cd exposed kidney cells were 287.01±37.30nmol/g.pr and 15.61±3.89µmol/g.pr and 609.24±87.87nmol/g.pr and 28.52±5.22µmol/g.pr, respectively. In addition, SOD activity in normal and Cd exposed kidney cells were 77.75±4.12 and 218.91±5.40 U/mg.pr, respectively. Comet assay results (content comet length, tail length, and head diameter showed DNA breakage in the treatment group that was stimulated by Cd which was not seen in the control group. Conclusion: The results demonstrated the genotoxicity effect of Cd on kidney cells as well as the ability of Cd to producing cytotoxicity.

  17. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Seal Glass - BN Nanotubes Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Choi, Sung R.; Hurst, Janet B.; Garg, Anita

    2005-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cell seal glass G18 composites reinforced with approx.4 weight percent of BN nanotubes were fabricated via hot pressing. Room temperature strength and fracture toughness of the composite were determined by four-point flexure and single edge V-notch beam methods, respectively. The strength and fracture toughness of the composite were higher by as much as 90% and 35%, respectively, than those of the glass G18. Microscopic examination of the composite fracture surfaces using SEM and TEM showed pullout of the BN nanotubes, similar in feature to fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites with weak interfaces. Other mechanical and physical properties of the composite will also be presented.

  18. Sensitivity to cadmium-induced genotoxicity in rat testicular cells is associated with minimal expression of the metallothionein gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, N; Hochadel, J F; Coogan, T P; Koropatnick, J; Waalkes, M P

    1995-02-01

    Cadmium is a carcinogenic metal. Although the mechanism of tumor induction is unknown, DNA/metal interactions may be involved. Metallothionein can protect against cadmium toxicity in our previous work it was shown to reduce cadmium genotoxicity in cultured cells. To extend these results, the genotoxicity of cadmium was studied in R2C cells, a rat testicular Leydig cell line. The R2C cells were very sensitive to cadmium-induced single-strand DNA damage (SSD), as measured by alkaline elution. SSD occurred in R2C cells after treatment with 25 and 50 microM CdCl2 for 2 hr. Prior work showed other cells required much higher levels of cadmium (approximately 500 microM) to induce genotoxicity. The genotoxic levels of cadmium (25-50 microM) were not cytotoxic in R2C cells as assessed by a metabolic activity (MTT) assay. Pretreatment of R2C cells with a low cadmium dose (2 microM, 24 hr) had no effect on cadmium-induced SSD, in contrast to prior work in other cells where such pretreatments reduced SSD through metallothionein gene activation. In fact, cadmium or zinc treatments resulted in little or no increase in metallothionein gene expression in R2C cells as determined by Northern blot analysis for metallothionein mRNA using cDNA or oligonucleotide probes and radioimmunoassay for metallothionein protein production. Basal metallothionein mRNA was essentially nondetectable. Induction of a cadmium-binding protein in R2C cells did occur, as determined by Cd-heme assay, but did not induce tolerance to SSD. In vivo, the Leydig cell is a target for cadmium carcinogenicity and its cadmium-binding protein is thought not to be a true metallothionein. These results indicate that R2C cells are sensitive to cadmium-induced genotoxicity and that this sensitivity is associated with minimal expression of the metallothionein gene.

  19. AN ENGINEERING TEST USEFUL IN DEVELOPING GLASS SEALS FOR PLANAR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weil, K. Scott; Deibler, John E.; Hardy, John S.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Xia, Gordon; Coyle, Christopher A.

    2005-03-01

    Developing reliable, hermetic ceramic-to-metal seals has become a key issue to the future success of planar solid oxide fuel cell (pSOFC) technology. In the course of designing and fabricating operating pSOFC stacks at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory over the past several years, we have relied on a simple, but extremely useful seal testing technique that allows us to screen through the numerous variables involved in developing glass seals. Here we discuss the design of the test apparatus and the procedure we employed when using the test to analyze the effects of various processing parameters on the hermeticity and durability of our glass seals.

  20. DNA Damage of Lung Cells from Immature Cadmium-Ingested Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-feng Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cadmium on DNA damage of lung cells in immature animals. Seventy-two immature mice were randomly divided into twelve cadmium-ingested groups including low dose (1/100 LD50, 1.87 mg/kg BW, middle dose (1/50 LD50, 3.74 mg/kg BW, high dose (1/25 LD50, 7.48 mg/kg BW and control group, and exposed to cadmium chloride for 10, 20 and 30 days, respectively. Mice were sacrificed after cadmium exposure for different time, and lung cells were collected to investigate DNA damage by comet assay. The results showed that comet tailing ratio, tail length, comet length, tail moment, Olive tail moment and damaged grade of lung cells from immature mice increased along with increasing of cadmium exposure dose and time. In low dose group treated for 30 days, there was significance (P<0.05 in comet length or high significance (P<0.01 in other parameters compared with control group or low dose group treated for 10 days. When mice were exposed to cadmium at high dose for 30 days, DNA of lung cells was damaged most seriously. Our results indicate that cadmium can induce DNA damage of lung cells from immature mice in dose- dependent and time-dependent manners, and DNA will be damaged when immature mice exposed to cadmium for long time even at low dose. Meanwhile, comet assay can be considered as a powerful and sensitive biomarker assay in risk assessment of immature animals exposed to cadmium.

  1. Cadmium Chloride Induces DNA Damage and Apoptosis of Human Liver Carcinoma Cells via Oxidative Stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Skipper, Anthony; Sims, Jennifer N; Yedjou, Clement G; Tchounwou, Paul B

    2016-01-01

    ... mechanisms of action are not fully elucidated. In this research, we hypothesized that oxidative stress plays a key role in cadmium chloride-induced toxicity, DNA damage, and apoptosis of human liver carcinoma (HepG₂) cells...

  2. Glass/Ceramic Composites for Sealing Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Choi, Sung R.

    2007-01-01

    A family of glass/ceramic composite materials has been investigated for use as sealants in planar solid oxide fuel cells. These materials are modified versions of a barium calcium aluminosilicate glass developed previously for the same purpose. The composition of the glass in mole percentages is 35BaO + 15CaO + 5Al2O3 + 10B2O3 + 35SiO2. The glass seal was found to be susceptible to cracking during thermal cycling of the fuel cells. The goal in formulating the glass/ ceramic composite materials was to (1) retain the physical and chemical advantages that led to the prior selection of the barium calcium aluminosilicate glass as the sealant while (2) increasing strength and fracture toughness so as to reduce the tendency toward cracking. Each of the composite formulations consists of the glass plus either of two ceramic reinforcements in a proportion between 0 and 30 mole percent. One of the ceramic reinforcements consists of alumina platelets; the other one consists of particles of yttria-stabilized zirconia wherein the yttria content is 3 mole percent (3YSZ). In preparation for experiments, panels of the glass/ceramic composites were hot-pressed and machined into test bars.

  3. Thermal Cyclability of Reactive Air Braze Seals in Anode Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, John S.; Darsell, Jens T.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Weil, K. Scott

    2004-12-31

    The popularity of anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) has increased in tandem with the ability to fabricate thinner gas-tight yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte layers, which can now be routinely produced on the order of 7 to 10 μm thick. While this has significantly improved power output and decreased the required fuel cell operating temperatures, the ability to reliably seal fuel cells remains a concern. The seals must be hermetic and be robust enough to retain their hermeticity even under the extreme operating conditions of SOFCs. Perhaps the largest contributor to stresses experienced by the seal is the fact that the SOFC is an assembly of many different materials with different thermal expansion properties. Although every effort is made to minimize thermal expansion mismatches across the seals, the stresses developed during thermal cycling still jeopardize seal integrity. Reactive air brazing (RAB), a method of joining that employs a metallic, and therefore non-brittle, seal material has been used to seal electrolyte/anode bilayers, such as those in anode-supported SOFCs, to Crofer-22 alloy. The results of rupture strength testing will be reported for as-brazed and thermally cycled samples and the effect of thermal cycling on the RAB seal microstructure will be shown

  4. Molecular Mechanisms of Malignant Transformation by Low Dose Cadmium in Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cartularo

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a carcinogenic metal, the mechanisms of which are not fully understood. In this study, human bronchial epithelial cells were transformed with sub-toxic doses of cadmium (0.01, 0.05, and 0.1 μM and transformed clones were characterized for gene expression changes using RNA-seq, as well as other molecular measurements. 440 genes were upregulated and 47 genes were downregulated in cadmium clones relative to control clones over 1.25-fold. Upregulated genes were associated mostly with gene ontology terms related to embryonic development, immune response, and cell movement, while downregulated genes were associated with RNA metabolism and regulation of transcription. Several embryonic genes were upregulated, including the transcription regulator SATB2. SATB2 is critical for normal skeletal development and has roles in gene expression regulation and chromatin remodeling. Small hairpin RNA knockdown of SATB2 significantly inhibited growth in soft agar, indicating its potential as a driver of metal-induced carcinogenesis. An increase in oxidative stress and autophagy was observed in cadmium clones. In addition, the DNA repair protein O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase was depleted by transformation with cadmium. MGMT loss caused significant decrease in cell viability after treatment with the alkylating agent temozolomide, demonstrating diminished capacity to repair such damage. Results reveal various mechanisms of cadmium-induced malignant transformation in BEAS-2B cells including upregulation of SATB2, downregulation of MGMT, and increased oxidative stress.

  5. Service life estimation of liquid silicone rubber seals in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Tong; Van Zee, J.W. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Lin, C.-W. [Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Chien, C.H. [Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University (China); Chao, Y.J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is a promising power source for many applications such as automobiles. Sealing around the perimeter of the cell is required to prevent the gases/liquids inside the cell from leaking and polymers are usually used for the seal or gasket materials. They in general possess the viscoelastic property which induces stress relaxation of the material under constant strain. The stress relaxation behavior of liquid silicone rubber, a type of polymer used as seals in PEMFCs, is studied in this work. A Prony series is used to predict the compression stress relaxation curve at different strain levels. Applying the time-temperature superposition, master curves are generated and used for predicting the service life of this material as seals in PEMFCs. The estimated lives in water and in air are compared. (author)

  6. Service life estimation of liquid silicone rubber seals in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Tong; Lin, C.-W.; Chien, C. H.; Chao, Y. J.; Van Zee, J. W.

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is a promising power source for many applications such as automobiles. Sealing around the perimeter of the cell is required to prevent the gases/liquids inside the cell from leaking and polymers are usually used for the seal or gasket materials. They in general possess the viscoelastic property which induces stress relaxation of the material under constant strain. The stress relaxation behavior of liquid silicone rubber, a type of polymer used as seals in PEMFCs, is studied in this work. A Prony series is used to predict the compression stress relaxation curve at different strain levels. Applying the time-temperature superposition, master curves are generated and used for predicting the service life of this material as seals in PEMFCs. The estimated lives in water and in air are compared.

  7. The fatty acid profile of rainbow trout liver cells modulates their tolerance to methylmercury and cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferain, Aline, E-mail: aline.ferain@uclouvain.be [Institute of Life Sciences, Université catholique de Louvain, Place Croix du Sud 2/L7.05.08, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Bonnineau, Chloé [Institute of Life Sciences, Université catholique de Louvain, Place Croix du Sud 2/L7.05.08, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Irstea, UR MALY, Centre de Lyon-Villeurbanne, rue de la Doua 5/32108, F-69616 Villeurbanne (France); Neefs, Ineke; Rees, Jean François; Larondelle, Yvan [Institute of Life Sciences, Université catholique de Louvain, Place Croix du Sud 2/L7.05.08, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Schamphelaere, Karel A.C.De [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, Environmental Toxicology Unit, Ghent University, J. Plateaustraat 22, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Debier, Cathy [Institute of Life Sciences, Université catholique de Louvain, Place Croix du Sud 2/L7.05.08, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • The phospholipid composition of rainbow trout liver cells was successfully changed. • Cell phospholipids influenced methylmercury (MeHg) and cadmium (Cd) toxicity. • Cells enriched in 18:3n-3, 20:5n-3 or 22:5n-6 were more resistant to MeHg and Cd. • Cell enrichment in 22:6n-3 increased resistance to Cd but not MeHg. - Abstract: The polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition of fish tissues, which generally reflects that of the diet, affects various cellular properties such as membrane structure and fluidity, energy metabolism and susceptibility to oxidative stress. Since these cellular parameters can play an important role in the cellular response to organic and inorganic pollutants, a variation of the PUFA supply might modify the toxicity induced by such xenobiotics. In this work, we investigated whether the cellular fatty acid profile has an impact on the in vitro cell sensitivity to two environmental pollutants: methylmercury and cadmium. Firstly, the fatty acid composition of the rainbow trout liver cell line RTL-W1 was modified by enriching the growth medium with either alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6), arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) or docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5n-6). These modified cells and their control (no PUFA enrichment) were then challenged for 24 h with increasing concentrations of methylmercury or cadmium. We observed that (i) the phospholipid composition of the RTL-W1 cells was profoundly modulated by changing the PUFA content of the growth medium: major modifications were a high incorporation of the supplemented PUFA in the cellular phospholipids, the appearance of direct elongation and desaturation metabolites in the cellular phospholipids as well as a change in the gross phospholipid composition (PUFA and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) levels and n-3/n-6 ratio); (ii) ALA, EPA and DPA enrichment significantly

  8. Rupture Testing as a Tool for Developing Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Seals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weil, K. Scott; Deibler, John E.; Hardy, John S.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Xia, Gordon; Chick, Lawrence A.; Coyle, Christopher A.

    2004-06-01

    One of the critical issues in designing and fabricating high performance planar solid oxide fuel cell (pSOFC) stacks is the ability to hermetically seal adjacent metal and ceramic components. In our pSOFC development program, we have designed a testing technique that allows us to screen through the numerous variables involved in developing glass seals. Using this test for example, we have found that the composition of the metal component plays an important role in the strength of the seal. Microstructural analysis of the as-tested specimen sealing revealed that an interfacial reaction zone forms during joining and it appears that the thickness and composition of this layer are the dominant parameters that control joint strength. In this paper we report the details of the seal test and present results that have proven particularly significant as we develop our next generation stack design. Supporting microstructural and chemical analyses collected on the test specimens are also presented and used to interpret the results from our seal tests in an effort to identify the necessary steps in improving glass pSOFC seals.

  9. Cadmium toxicity in cultured tomato cells - Role of ethylene, proteases and oxidative stress in cell death signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iakimova, E.T.; Woltering, E.J.; Kapchina-Toteva, V.M.; Harren, F.J.M.; Cristescu, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the ability of cadmium to induce programmed cell death in tomato suspension cells and to determine the involvement of proteolysis, oxidative stress and ethylene. Tomato suspension cells were exposed to treatments with CdSO4 and cell death was calculated after fluorescein

  10. New Sealed Cells for Realization of Cryogenic Fixed Points at NMIJ/AIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Tohru; Tamura, Osamu; Sakurai, Hirohisa

    2003-09-01

    New sealed cells have been developed at the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ), which are used for realization of the cryogenic fixed points of the International Temperature Scale of 1990. A metal O-ring made of stainless steel is introduced as a sealing device for the sealed cells. The triple point of equilibrium hydrogen (e-H2) is realized using the new sealed cells containing hydrogen and ferric oxy-hydroxide as a catalyst for the ortho-para equilibration. Double anomalous peaks on the heat capacity curves are observed at temperatures just below the triple point, but they are suppressed by reducing the amount of the catalyst. The reduction of the amount of catalyst allows one to obtain more reliable melting curves for e-H2. The triple-point temperature of e-H2 obtained by the new sealed cells is in good agreement with those reported previously in measurements of open cells by assuming that the dependence of the triple-point temperature on the deuterium content is 5.4 μK per ppm of deuterium in hydrogen.

  11. Apoptosis and necroptosis are induced in rainbow trout cell lines exposed to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumschnabel, Gerhard, E-mail: Gerhard.Krumschnabel@i-med.ac.at [Division of Developmental Immunology, Biocenter, Medical University Innsbruck, Fritz-Preglstr. 3, Innsbruck (Austria); Ebner, Hannes L.; Hess, Michael W. [Division of Histology and Embryology, Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck (Austria); Villunger, Andreas [Division of Developmental Immunology, Biocenter, Medical University Innsbruck, Fritz-Preglstr. 3, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2010-08-01

    Cadmium is an important environmental toxicant that can kill cells. A number of studies have implicated apoptosis as well as necrosis and, most recently, a form of programmed necrosis termed necroptosis in the process of cadmium-mediated toxicity, but the exact mechanism remains ill-defined and may depend on the affected cell type. This study investigated which mode of cell death may be responsible for cell death induction in cadmium-exposed trout cell lines from gill and liver and if this cell death was sensitive to inhibitors of necroptosis or apoptosis, respectively. It was observed that intermediate levels of cadmium that killed approximately 50% of the cells over 96-120 h of exposure caused cell death that morphologically resembled apoptosis and was associated with an increase of apoptotic markers such as the number of cells with diminished DNA content (sub-G1 cells), condensed or fragmented nuclei, and elevation of caspase-3 activity. At the same time, however, cells also lost plasma membrane integrity, as indicated by uptake of propidium iodide, showed a decrease of ATP levels and mitochondrial membrane potential, and displayed cell swelling, signs associated with secondary necrosis, or equally possible, necroptotic cell death. Importantly, many of these alterations were at least partly inhibited by the necroptosis inhibitor necrostatin-1 and were to a lesser extent also sensitive to the pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk, indicating that multiple modes of cell death are concurrently induced in cadmium-exposed trout cells, including necroptosis and apoptosis. Cell death appeared to lack concurrent radical formation, consistent with genetically regulated necroptotic cell death, but was characterized by the rapid induction of DNA damage markers, and the early onset of disintegration of the Golgi complex. Comparative experiments evaluating copper-toxicity indicated that in comparison to cadmium much higher concentrations of this metal were required to induce cell

  12. Hibiscus sabdariffa extractivities on cadmium-mediated alterations of human U937 cell viability and activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoko, Tebekeme; Ere, Diepreye

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effect of the anthocyanin-rich extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (H. sabdariffa) calyx on the viability of cadmium-treated U937 cells and cadmium-mediated activation of U937-derived macrophages. The macrophage cell line U937 was treated with cadmium (0.1 μ mol/L) and later incubated with the anthocyanin-rich extract and cell viability was assessed via trypan blue staining. In the other experiment, the U937 cells were transformed to the macrophage form by treatment with phorbol 12, myristate 13, and acetate and incubated with cadmium (10 μ mol/L). The anthocyanin-rich extract was added to the cells later and subsequently, the supernatant of each cell culture was analysed for the production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 (IL-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6), nitric oxide, and catalase activity as indices for the activation of macrophages. It revealed that the anthocynanin-rich extract significantly (P sabdariffa possesses significant immunoprotective effect. These corroborate the immense reported antioxidant and medicinal potential of the calyces of the plant which could be exploited for pharmacological and neutraceutical advantages. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Seals and sealing handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Flitney, Robert K

    2014-01-01

    Seals and Sealing Handbook, 6th Edition provides comprehensive coverage of sealing technology, bringing together information on all aspects of this area to enable you to make the right sealing choice. This includes detailed coverage on the seals applicable to static, rotary and reciprocating applications, the best materials to use in your sealing systems, and the legislature and regulations that may impact your sealing choices. Updated in line with current trends this updated reference provides the theory necessary for you to select the most appropriate seals for the job and with its 'Failur

  14. Characterization of ceramic/glass composite seals for solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Bodhayan

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) require seals that can function in harsh, elevated temperature environments. Comprehensive characterization and understanding of seals is needed for commercially viable SOFCs. The present research focuses on a novel ceramic/glass composite seal that is produced by roller compaction or tape casting of glass and ceramic powders and a proprietary organic binder. Upon heat treatment, micro-voids and surface anomalies are formed. Increased heating and cooling rates during the heat treatment resulted in more and larger voids. The first goal of the current research is to suggest an appropriate heating and cooling rate to minimize the formation of microstructural defects. After identifying an appropriate cure cycle, seals were thermally cycled and then characterized with laser dilatometry, X-Ray diffraction, and sonic resonance. From these experiments the crystalline phases, thermal expansion, and elastic properties were determined. Subsequently compression testing with an acoustic emission (AE) sensor and post-test microstructural analysis were used to identify the formation of damage. The research also focuses on the study of Weibull statistics and thermal responses for cured seals. The green seal was initially cured for 1 thermal cycle based on the aforementioned appropriate thermal cycle. The cycled seal was then characterized with a laser dilatometer to identify the glass transition, softening temperature and thermal expansion properties. High temperature ring-on-ring tests were also performed to study the effect of glass transition and softening temperatures on mechanical responses. In addition, Weibull statistics were conducted to determine the cumulative probability of failure/damage in seals. The third part of the research focuses on the construction and use of a controlled leak testing facility for investigating different interfaces involved in sealing electrolyte-supported cells. Simultaneous leak testing with an acoustic emission

  15. Innovative Self-Healing Seals for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj Singh

    2012-06-30

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology is critical to several national initiatives. Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) addresses the technology needs through its comprehensive programs on SOFC. A reliable and cost-effective seal that works at high temperatures is essential to the long-term performance of the SOFC for 40,000 hours at 800°C. Consequently, seals remain an area of highest priority for the SECA program and its industry teams. An innovative concept based on self-healing glasses was advanced and successfully demonstrated through seal tests for 3000 hours and 300 thermal cycles to minimize internal stresses under both steady state and thermal transients for making reliable seals for the SECA program. The self-healing concept requires glasses with low viscosity at the SOFC operating temperature of 800°C but this requirement may lead to excessive flow of the glass in areas forming the seal. To address this challenge, a modification to glass properties by addition of particulate fillers is pursued in the project. The underlying idea is that a non-reactive ceramic particulate filler is expected to form glass-ceramic composite and increase the seal viscosity thereby increasing the creep resistance of the glass-composite seals under load. The objectives of the program are to select appropriate filler materials for making glass-composite, fabricate glass-composites, measure thermal expansion behaviors, and determine stability of the glass-composites in air and fuel environments of a SOFC. Self-healing glass-YSZ composites are further developed and tested over a longer time periods under conditions typical of the SOFCs to validate the long-term stability up to 2000 hours. The new concepts of glass-composite seals, developed and nurtured in this program, are expected to be cost-effective as these are based on conventional processing approaches and use of the inexpensive materials.

  16. Entrance and Survival of Brucella pinnipedialis Hooded Seal Strain in Human Macrophages and Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briquemont, Benjamin; Sørensen, Karen K.; Godfroid, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Marine mammal Brucella spp. have been isolated from pinnipeds (B. pinnipedialis) and cetaceans (B. ceti) from around the world. Although the zoonotic potential of marine mammal brucellae is largely unknown, reports of human disease exist. There are few studies of the mechanisms of bacterial intracellular invasion and multiplication involving the marine mammal Brucella spp. We examined the infective capacity of two genetically different B. pinnipedialis strains (reference strain; NTCT 12890 and a hooded seal isolate; B17) by measuring the ability of the bacteria to enter and replicate in cultured phagocytes and epithelial cells. Human macrophage-like cells (THP-1), two murine macrophage cell lines (RAW264.7 and J774A.1), and a human malignant epithelial cell line (HeLa S3) were challenged with bacteria in a gentamicin protection assay. Our results show that B. pinnipedialis is internalized, but is then gradually eliminated during the next 72 – 96 hours. Confocal microscopy revealed that intracellular B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain colocalized with lysosomal compartments at 1.5 and 24 hours after infection. Intracellular presence of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain was verified by transmission electron microscopy. By using a cholesterol-scavenging lipid inhibitor, entrance of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain in human macrophages was significantly reduced by 65.8 % (± 17.3), suggesting involvement of lipid-rafts in intracellular entry. Murine macrophages invaded by B. pinnipedialis do not release nitric oxide (NO) and intracellular bacterial presence does not induce cell death. In summary, B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain can enter human and murine macrophages, as well as human epithelial cells. Intracellular entry of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain involves, but seems not to be limited to, lipid-rafts in human macrophages. Brucella pinnipedialis does not multiply or survive for prolonged periods intracellulary. PMID:24376851

  17. Evaluation of Hybridoma B9 cell line handling of Cadmium in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    6 (IL-6) was one of the responses examined to identify the mechanism by which IL-6 (at high concentration) was able to reverse cadmium inhibition of B9 cell line proliferation. Cellular metallothionein was assayed by Cd-haem method.

  18. An Evaluation of Kinetic Parameters of Cadmium and Copper Biosorption by Immobilized Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Georgieva

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation is the use of living organisms to reduce or eliminate environmental hazards resulting from the accumulation of toxic chemicals and other hazardous wastes. This technology is based on the utilization of microorganisms to transform organic and inorganic compounds. The filamentous yeast Trichosporon cutaneum strain R57, immobilized and free cells was cultivated as batch culture on a liquid medium in the presence of various concentrations of cadmium and copper ions. The simultaneous uptake and accumulation of Cd2+ and Cu2+ ions by Tr. cutaneum cells depending on the initial concentration of Cd2+ and Cu2+ in the medium were studied. The potential use of the free and immobilized cells of Trichosporon cutaneum to remove cadmium and copper ions, from aqueous solutions was evaluated. Two important physicochemical aspects for the evaluation of the sorption process as a unit operation are the equilibrium of sorption and the kinetics. The Cd2+ and Cu2+ ions biosorption capacities of all tested adsorbent were presented as a function of the initial concentration of metal ions within the aqueous biosorption medium. The individual, as well as bicomponent sorption kinetics of copper and cadmium ions by immobilised cells of Trichosporon cutaneum R57 is presented. A second order kinetic model obtains kinetic parameters for the copper and cadmium ions.

  19. Stability and sealing of PEC solar cells; Stabilitet og forsegling af PEC solceller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, H.

    2009-06-15

    A requirement for success of the DSC technology on the market for building-integrated PV is visually attractive DSC panels holding a lifetime comparable to alternative facade materials and delivering electricity at reasonable prices. This project concerns the stability and durability of the DSC panel as these are decisive factors for the lifetime of the panels and the price of the produced electricity. The largest challenge of the DSC sealing is the high-performing well-documented - but also aggressive and volatile - iodine/triiodide electrolyte. The heat-sensitive Ru-dyes represent another challenge, as the dye should not be exposed to temperatures above approx. 100 deg. C during the sealing process. Despite the fact that less aggressive electrolytes and more stable dyes are highly focused R and D tasks, the work in the actual project has been carried out according to a 'worst case' strategy, i.e. the search has been for a sealing which is compatible with the iodine/triiodide electrolyte and the Ru-dyes. The rationale behind this strategy is the demanding lifetime requirement s for building-integrated products, which requires the ultimate sealing. In addition to the focus on the DSC sealing, work has been dedicated to the development of a more encapsulation-friendly electrolyte, in which the electrolyte's volatile component has been replaced by an ionic liquid. The ultimate result of the project is an improved polymer edge sealing for DSC cells. The sealant is - contrary to Surlyn and Bynel - stable in contact with the aggressive iodine/ triiodide electrolyte. The sealing is formed by lamination at elevated temperature and under controlled conditions. The robustness and capacity of the sealing process need to be further improved in order to fulfill the laboratories ambitions with regard to volume production of DSC cells and modules. Furthermore should the new sealing be compared both stability-wise and cost-wise with the lead-free solder glass

  20. Effect of binder burnout on the sealing performance of glass ceramics for solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertugrul, Tugrul Y.; Celik, Selahattin; Mat, Mahmut D.

    2013-11-01

    The glass ceramics composite sealants are among few materials suitable for the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) due to their high operating temperatures (600 °C-850 °C). The glass ceramics chemically bond to both the metallic interconnector and the ceramic electrolyte and provide a gas tight connection. A careful and several stages manufacturing procedure is required to obtain a gas tight sealing. In this study, effects of binder burnout process on the sealing performance are investigated employing commercially available glass ceramic powders. The glass ceramic laminates are produced by mixing glass ceramic powders with the organic binders and employing a tape casting method. The laminates are sandwiched between the metallic interconnectors of an SOFC cell. The burnout and subsequent sealing quality are analyzed by measuring leakage rate and final macrostructure of sealing region. The effects of heating rate, dead weight load, solid loading, carrier gas and their flow rates are investigated. It is found that sealing quality is affected from all investigated parameters. While a slower heating rate is required for a better burnout, the mass flow rate of sweep gas must be adequate for removal of the burned gas. The leakage rate is reduced to 0.1 ml min-1 with 2 °C min-1 + 1 °C min-1 heating rate, 86.25% solid loading, 200 N dead weight load and 500 ml min-1 sweep gas flow rate.

  1. Influence of a front buffer layer on the performance of flexible Cadmium sulfide/Cadmium telluride solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabaduge, Hasitha Padmika

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) solar cells have been developing as a promising candidate for large-scale application of photovoltaic energy conversion and have become the most commercially successful polycrystalline thin-film solar module material. In scaling up from small cells to large-area modules, inevitably non-uniformities across the large area will limit the performance of the large cell or module. The effects of these non-uniformities can be reduced by introducing a thin, high-resistivity transparent buffer layer between the conductive electrodes and the semiconductor diode. ZnO is explored in this dissertation as a high-resistivity transparent buffer layer for sputtered CdTe solar cells and efficiencies over 15% have been achieved on commercially available Pilkington TEC15M glass substrates. The highest open-circuit voltage of 0.858V achieved using the optimized ZnO buffer layer is among the best reported in the literature. The properties of ZnO:Al as a buffer are also investigated. We have shown that ZnO:Al can serve both as a transparent conducting oxide layer as well as a high-resistivity transparent layer for CdTe solar cells. ZnO:Al reactively sputtered with oxygen can give the necessary resistivities that allow it to be used as a high-resistivity transparent layer. Glass is the most common choice as the substrate for solar cells fabricated in the superstrate configuration due to its transparency and mechanical rigidity. However flexible substrates offer the advantages of light weight, high flexibility, ease of integrability and higher throughput through roll-to-roll processing over glass. This dissertation presents significant improvements made to flexible CdTe solar cells reporting an efficiency of 14% on clear KaptonRTM flexible polyimide substrates. Our efficiency of 14% is, to our knowledge, the best for any flexible CdTe cell reported in literature.

  2. Cadmium interaction with microalgal cells, cyanobacterial cells, and seaweeds; toxicology and biotechnological potential for wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Antonio Carlos Augusto; de França, Francisca Pessôa

    2003-01-01

    The accumulation of cadmium (Cd) by Tetraselmis chuii and Spirulina maxima was studied with dead and growing cells. Results indicated that the 2 microorganisms accumulated Cd by 2 different means according to the mechanisms involved-metabolism-dependent or metabolism-independent sorption. The mechanism involved in Cd accumulation on Tetraselmis chuii was restricted to surface phenomena, while in Spirulina maxima, Cd was accumulated on different layers of the cyanobacterium surface. In order to select a suitable immobilization support for the cells, several seaweeds were tested. Two types of seaweed were selected for experiments, using a small continuous pilot unit: Sargassum sp., a strong Cd adsorber, and Ulva sp., a poor one. The column reactors of the continuous system were filled with the algal supports and covered with dense microbial biofilms of Tetraselmis chuii or Spirulina maxima. The results obtained proved the success of the association between living microbial cells and dead seaweeds for operation of the continuous system.

  3. A Sealed Preparation for Long-Term Observations of Cultured Cells

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Authors: Greenfield Sluder, Joshua J. Nordberg, Frederick J. Miller and Edward H. Hinchcliffe This protocol was adapted from “A Sealed Preparation for Long-Term Observations of Cultured Cells,” Chapter 18, in *Live Cell Imaging* (eds. Goldman and Spector). Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY, USA, 2005. ### INTRODUCTION The continuous long-term observation of cultured cells on the microscope has always been a technically demanding undertaking. This protocol...

  4. Fine structure of Leydig cells in crabeater, leopard and Ross seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, A A; Erickson, A W; Seal, U S

    1977-01-01

    Ultrastructural study of the Leydig cells of nonbreeding crabeater, leopard and Ross seals showed that three types of cells could be distinguished. Type I cells possessed the cytological features typical of steroid-secreting cells. Type II cells exhibited various features of degeneration, e.g. accumulation of large amounts of lipofuscin granules (residual bodies), lipid droplets, secondary lysosomes, rectangular crystalloids, and previously undescribed 'peculiar bodies'. These cellular inclusions and debris were released into the interstitium to be phagocytosed by macrophages and/or resorbed by the lymphatics. Type III Leydig cells contained large amounts of lipid droplets, sparse cytoplasmic organelles and essentially became lipid storage cells.

  5. Effects of cadmium on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and proto-oncogene expression in zebrafish liver cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ying Ying; Zhu, Jin Yong; Chan, King Ming, E-mail: kingchan@cuhk.edu.hk

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Cd stimulated ZFL cell proliferation with decreasing apoptotic cell numbers. • Cd down regulated p53 and RAD51. • Cd up regulated immediate early cancer genes of GADD45 and growth factors. • Cd promoted tumorigenic effects in ZFL cells. - Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) is one of the major transitional metal that has toxic effects in aquatic organisms and their associated ecosystem; however, its hepatic toxicity and carcinogenicity are not very well characterized. We used a zebrafish liver (ZFL) cell line as a model to investigate the mechanism of Cd-induced toxicity on hepatocytes. Our results showed that Cd can be effectively accumulated in ZFL cells in our exposure experiments. Cell cytotoxicity assays and flow cytometer measurements revealed that Cd{sup 2+} stimulated ZFL cell proliferation with decreasing apoptotic cell numbers indicating potentially tumorigenic effects of Cd in ZFL cells. Gene expression profiles also indicated that Cd downregulated oncogenes p53 and rad51 and upregulated immediate response oncogenes, growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible (gadd45) genes, and growth factors. We also found dramatic changes in the gene expression of c-jun and igf1rb at different exposure time points, supporting the notion that potentially tumorigenic of Cd-is involved in the activation of immediate early genes or genes related to apoptosis in cancer promotion.

  6. The effects of cadmium chloride on secondary metabolite production in Vitis vinifera cv. cell suspension cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Emine Sema; Babalik, Zehra; Hallac-Turk, Filiz; Gokturk-Baydar, Nilgun

    2014-09-23

    Plant secondary metabolites are possess several biological activities such as anti-mutagenic, anti-carcinogenic, anti-aging, etc. Cell suspension culture is one of the most effective systems to produce secondary metabolites. It is possible to increase the phenolic compounds and tocopherols by using cell suspensions. Studies on tocopherols production by cell suspension cultures are seldom and generally focused on seed oil plants. Although fresh grape, grape seed, pomace and grape seed oil had tocopherols, with our best knowledge, there is no research on tocopherol accumulation in the grape cell suspension cultures. In this study, it was aimed to determine the effects of cadmium chloride treatments on secondary metabolite production in cell suspension cultures of grapevine. Cell suspensions initiated from callus belonging to petiole tissue was used as a plant material. Cadmium chloride was applied to cell suspension cultures in different concentration (1.0 mM and 1.5 mM) to enhance secondary metabolite (total phenolics, total flavanols, total flavonols, trans-resveratrol, and α-, β-, γ- δ-tocopherols) production. Cells were harvested at two days intervals until the 6th day of cultures. Amounts of total phenolics, total flavanols and total flavonols; trans-resveratrol and tocopherols (α-, β-, γ- and δ-tocopherols) and dry cell weights were determined in the harvested cells. Phenolic contents were significantly affected by the sampling time and cadmium concentrations. The highest values of total phenolic (168.82 mg/100 g), total flavanol (15.94 mg/100 g), total flavonol (14.73 mg/100 g) and trans-resveratrol (490.76 μg/100 g) were found in cells treated with 1.0 mM CdCl2 and harvested at day 2. Contents of tocopherols in the cells cultured in the presence of 1.0 mM CdCl2 gradually increased during the culture period and the highest values of α, β and γ tocopherols (145.61, 25.52 and 18.56 μg/100 g) were detected in the cell cultures collected at day 6

  7. The effects of cadmium chloride on secondary metabolite production in Vitis vinifera cv. cell suspension cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Sema Cetin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plant secondary metabolites are possess several biological activities such as anti-mutagenic, anti-carcinogenic, anti-aging, etc. Cell suspension culture is one of the most effective systems to produce secondary metabolites. It is possible to increase the phenolic compounds and tocopherols by using cell suspensions. Studies on tocopherols production by cell suspension cultures are seldom and generally focused on seed oil plants. Although fresh grape, grape seed, pomace and grape seed oil had tocopherols, with our best knowledge, there is no research on tocopherol accumulation in the grape cell suspension cultures. In this study, it was aimed to determine the effects of cadmium chloride treatments on secondary metabolite production in cell suspension cultures of grapevine. Cell suspensions initiated from callus belonging to petiole tissue was used as a plant material. Cadmium chloride was applied to cell suspension cultures in different concentration (1.0 mM and 1.5 mM to enhance secondary metabolite (total phenolics, total flavanols, total flavonols, trans-resveratrol, and α-, β-, γ- δ-tocopherols production. Cells were harvested at two days intervals until the 6th day of cultures. Amounts of total phenolics, total flavanols and total flavonols; trans-resveratrol and tocopherols (α-, β-, γ- and δ-tocopherols and dry cell weights were determined in the harvested cells. RESULTS: Phenolic contents were significantly affected by the sampling time and cadmium concentrations. The highest values of total phenolic (168.82 mg/100 g, total flavanol (15.94 mg/100 g, total flavonol (14.73 mg/100 g and trans-resveratrol (490.76 µg/100 g were found in cells treated with 1.0 mM CdCl2 and harvested at day 2. Contents of tocopherols in the cells cultured in the presence of 1.0 mM CdCl2 gradually increased during the culture period and the highest values of α, β and γ tocopherols (145.61, 25.52 and 18.56 µg/100 g were detected in the cell

  8. Electrolyte Management Considerations in Modern Nickel Hydrogen and Nickel Cadmium Cell and Battery Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaller, Lawrence H.; Zimmerman, Albert H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews three general areas where the potassium ion content can impact the performance and life of nickel hydrogen and nickel cadmium cells. Sample calculations of the concentration or volume changes that can take place within operating cells are presented. With the aid of an accurate model of an operating cell or battery, the impact of changes of potassium ion content within a potential cell design can be estimated. All three of these areas are directly related to the volume tolerance and pore size engineering aspects of the components used in the cell or battery design.

  9. Hydrogen sulfide alleviates cadmium toxicity through regulations of cadmium transport across the plasma and vacuolar membranes in Populus euphratica cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian; Wang, Ruigang; Zhang, Xuan; Yu, Yicheng; Zhao, Rui; Li, Zongyun; Chen, Shaoliang

    2013-04-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is emerging as a novel signalling molecule involved in plant growth and responses against abiotic stresses. However, little information is known about its role in cadmium (Cd) detoxification. In the present study, the effects of H2S on Cd toxicity were investigated in Populus euphratica cells using fluorescence imaging technique and a non-invasive vibrating ion-selective microelectrode. Pretreatment with a H2S donor, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), significantly mitigated the Cd-induced programmed cell death in P. euphratica cells. The alleviation effect of NaHS was more pronounced at 50-100 μM as compared to low (25 μM) and high doses (200 μM). Under Cd stress, total activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase, were significantly enhanced in NaHS-treated cells, leading to a decline of H2O2 accumulation and lipid peroxidation. Moreover, NaHS reduced Cd accumulation in the cytoplasm but increased the fraction of Cd in the vacuole. Cd flux profiles revealed that H2S inhibited the Cd influx through the plasma membrane (PM) calcium channels that activated by H2O2. NaHS enhanced Cd influx into the vacuole, and the Cd influx was dependent on the pH gradients across the tonoplast. Taken together, these results suggest that H2S alleviates Cd toxicity via the improvement of antioxidant system and cellular Cd homeostasis. The up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes by H2S reduced the accumulation of H2O2, and thus decreased Cd influx through the H2O2-activated PM calcium channels. The H2S-simulated vacuolar Cd sequestration was presumably due to the activation of tonoplast Cd(2+)/H(+) antiporters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Luminescence-based whole-cell-sensing systems for cadmium and lead using genetically engineered bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Ranjit S; Deo, Sapna K; Shah, Puja; Sun, Yan; Rosen, Barry P; Daunert, Sylvia

    2003-05-01

    Whole-cell-based sensing systems that respond to cadmium and lead ions have been designed and developed using genetically engineered bacteria. These systems take advantage of the ability of certain bacteria to survive in environments polluted with cadmium and lead ions. The bacteria used in this investigation have been genetically engineered to produce reporter proteins in response to the toxic ions. This was achieved by modifying a strain of Escherichia colito harbor plasmids pYSC1 and pYS2/pYSG1. In these dual-plasmid-based sensing systems, the expression of the reporters beta-galactosidase and red-shifted green fluorescent protein (rs-GFP) was controlled by CadC, the regulatory protein of the cad operon. Regulation of the expression of the reporter proteins is related to the amount of cadmium and lead ions employed to induce the bacteria. The bacterial sensing systems were found to respond to cadmium, lead, and zinc ions, and had no significant response to nickel, copper, manganese, and cobalt.

  11. Lifetime Prediction and Durability of Elastomeric Seals for Fuel Cell Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Hitendra Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell (FC) stacks require elastomeric gaskets for each cell to keep the reactant gases within their respective regions[1]. If any gasket degrades or fails, the reactant gases can leak or mix with each other directly during operation or standby, affecting the overall operation and performance of the FC. The elastomeric gaskets used as FC seals are exposed to a range of environmental conditions, and concurrently, subjected to mechanical compression betwee...

  12. Glucose alleviates cadmium toxicity by increasing cadmium fixation in root cell wall and sequestration into vacuole in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuan-Zhi; Zhu, Xiao-Fang; Wan, Jiang-Xue; Li, Gui-Xin; Zheng, Shao-Jian

    2015-10-01

    Glucose (Glu) is involved in not only plant physiological and developmental events but also plant responses to abiotic stresses. Here, we found that the exogenous Glu improved root and shoot growth, reduced shoot cadmium (Cd) concentration, and rescued Cd-induced chlorosis in Arabidopsis thaliana (Columbia ecotype, Col-0) under Cd stressed conditions. Glucose increased Cd retained in the roots, thus reducing its translocation from root to shoot significantly. The most Cd retained in the roots was found in the hemicellulose 1. Glucose combined with Cd (Glu + Cd) treatment did not affect the content of pectin and its binding capacity of Cd while it increased the content of hemicelluloses 1 and the amount of Cd retained in it significantly. Furthermore, Leadmium Green staining indicated that more Cd was compartmented into vacuoles in Glu + Cd treatment compared with Cd treatment alone, which was in accordance with the significant upregulation of the expression of tonoplast-localized metal transporter genes, suggesting that compartmentation of Cd into vacuoles also contributes to the Glu-alleviated Cd toxicity. Taken together, we demonstrated that Glu-alleviated Cd toxicity is mediated through increasing Cd fixation in the root cell wall and sequestration into the vacuoles. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  13. Edge sealing for low cost stability enhancement of roll-to-roll processed flexible polymer solar cell modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanenbaum, David M.; Dam, Henrik Friis; Rösch, R.

    2012-01-01

    Fully roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules were prepared, characterized, and laminated. Cell modules were cut from the roll and matched pairs were selected, one module with exposed cut edges, the other laminated again with the same materials and adhesive sealing fully around the cut...... edges. The edge sealing rim was 10 mm wide. Cell modules were characterized by periodic measurements of IV curves over extended periods in a variety of conditions, as well as by a variety of spatial imaging techniques. Data show significant stability benefits of the edge sealing process. The results...

  14. Calculation of dose rates during replacement of the 3CL seal tube in the FFTF IEM cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, J.V.

    1997-11-12

    In September 1996, the seal tube at the 3CL window of the Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM) Cell at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) failed. Replacement of the seal tube required removing the 3CL master slave manipulator (MSM) and shielding creating a streaming path for radiation from irradiated fuel and activated hardware in the IEM Cell. As a part of the preparation for the seal tube replacement, expected dose rates in the IEM Cell gallery outside the open 3CL penetration during the repair work were evaluated.

  15. Cadmium-induced malignant transformation in rat liver cells: role of aberrant oncogene expression and minimal role of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wei; Diwan, Bhalchandra A; Reece, Jeffrey M; Bortner, Carl D; Pi, Jingbo; Liu, Jie; Waalkes, Michael P

    2005-04-10

    Our study examined the role of oxidative stress and aberrant gene expression in malignant transformation induced by chronic, low-level cadmium exposure in non-tumorigenic rat liver epithelial cell line, TRL 1215. Cells were cultured in 1.0 microM cadmium (as CdCl(2)) for up to 28 weeks and compared to passage-matched control cells. The level of cadmium used for transformation produced no evidence of increased superoxide (O(2) (-*.)) or hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) levels in the early stages of exposure (hr). The chronic cadmium exposed liver epithelial cells (CCE-LE) were hyperproliferative with a growth rate about 3-fold higher than control cells. CCE-LE cells produced highly aggressive tumors upon inoculation into mice confirming malignant transformation. Analysis of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) showed that CCE-LE cells possessed markedly lower basal levels of intracellular O(2) (-*.)and H(2)O(2) and were very tolerant to high-dose (50 microM) cadmium-induced ROS. Time course studies showed the production of ROS by high-dose cadmium was abolished well in advance of malignant transformation. In contrast, marked overexpression of the oncogenes c-myc and c-jun occurred in transformed CCE-LE cells as evidenced by up to 10-fold increases in both transcript and protein. A significant increase in DNA-binding activity of the transcription factors AP-1 and NF-kappaB occurred in CCE-LE cells. Increases in oncogene expression and transcription factor activity occurred concurrently with malignant transformation. Thus, cadmium-induced ROS occurs as an early, high-dose event but is abolished well in advance of malignant transformation. Low-level chronic cadmium triggers oncogene overexpression possibly by altering critical transcription factor activity. Such changes in cellular gene expression likely culminate in the loss of growth control and cadmium-induced neoplastic transformation in CCE-LE cells, whereas generation of ROS by cadmium seemed to play a minimal role

  16. Effect of cadmium on the nucleoli of meristematic cells of onion Allium cepa L: an ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcano, L; Carruyo, I; Del Campo, A; Montiel, X

    2002-01-01

    This study of the effect of cadmium on nucleolar ultrastructure was carried out with meristematic cell populations of Allium cepa L. Meristems, grown at 25 degrees C, were treated with 10 ppm cadmium chloride. Conventional and silver staining techniques were carried out, and the ultrastructure was analyzed using electron microscopy. Observation showed alterations in the nucleoli of the cells that had been treated with cadmium and this effect varied according to the time of exposure to the metal. After 4h of treatment, nucleolar segregation was observed in interphase, probably because of the effect of cadmium on the synthesis of ribosomal RNA precursors. A decrease in the fibrillar to granular component ratio also occurred in the cells exposed to Cd2+ for 8 h. Some changes were observed in the G1 cells; their chromatin still remained very condensed, and prenucleolus bodies remained scattered within the nucleus. At the same time, there was a large amount of interchromatin granules. These changes produced by cadmium resembled those produced during inhibition of RNA synthesis. The fibrillar bodies, another morphologic feature, resulting from a blocked transcription, were also evidenced. All these observations suggest that one of the ways that cadmium exercises its toxicity is by altering the biosynthesis of the preribosomal RNA precursor.

  17. Use of solar cell in electrokinetic remediation of cadmium-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Songhu; Zheng, Zhonghua; Chen, Jing; Lu, Xiaohua

    2009-03-15

    This preliminary study used a solar cell, instead of direct current (DC) power supply, to generate electric field for electrokinetic (EK) remediation of cadmium-contaminated soil. Three EK tests were conducted and compared; one was conducted on a cloudy and rainy day with solar cell, one was conducted on a sunny day with solar cell and another was conducted periodically with DC power supply. It was found that the output potential of solar cell depended on daytime and was influenced by weather conditions; the applied potential in soil was affected by the output potential and weather conditions, and the current achieved by solar cell was comparable with that achieved by DC power supply. Solar cell could be used to drive the electromigration of cadmium in contaminated soil, and removal efficiency achieved by solar cell was comparable with that achieved by DC power supply. Compared with traditional DC power supply, using solar cell as power supply for EK remediation can greatly reduce energy expenditure. This study provided an alternative to improve the EK soil remediation and expanded the use of solar cell in environmental remediation.

  18. Toxic effects of tributyltin and its metabolites on harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) immune cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frouin, Heloise [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique - Institut Armand-Frappier, Laval, Quebec H7V 1B7 (Canada); Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Maurice Lamontagne Institute, Mont-Joli, Quebec G5H 3Z4 (Canada)], E-mail: heloise.frouin@iaf.inrs.ca; Lebeuf, Michel [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Maurice Lamontagne Institute, Mont-Joli, Quebec G5H 3Z4 (Canada); Saint-Louis, Richard [Institut des Sciences de la Mer de Rimouski (ISMER), Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, Rimouski, Quebec G5L 3A1 (Canada); Hammill, Mike [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Maurice Lamontagne Institute, Mont-Joli, Quebec G5H 3Z4 (Canada); Pelletier, Emilien [Institut des Sciences de la Mer de Rimouski (ISMER), Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, Rimouski, Quebec G5L 3A1 (Canada); Fournier, Michel [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique - Institut Armand-Frappier, Laval, Quebec H7V 1B7 (Canada)

    2008-11-21

    The widespread environmental contamination, bioaccumulation and endocrine disruptor effects of butyltins (BTs) to wildlife are well documented. Although suspected, potential effects of BTs exposure on the immune system of marine mammals have been little investigated. In this study, we assessed the effects of tributyltin (TBT) and its dealkylated metabolites dibutyltin (DBT) and monobutyltin (MBT) on the immune responses of harbour seals. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from pup and adult harbour seals were exposed in vitro to varying concentrations of BTs. DBT resulted in a significant decrease at 100 and 200 nM of phagocytotic activity and reduced significantly phagocytic efficiency at 200 nM in adult seals. There was no effect in phagocytosis with TBT and MBT. In pups, the highest concentration (200 nM) of DBT inhibited phagocytic efficiency. A reduction of tumor-killing capacity of adult natural killer (NK) cells occurred when leukocytes were incubated in vitro with 50 nM DBT and 200 nM TBT for 24 h. In adult seals, T-lymphocyte proliferation was significantly suppressed when the cells were exposed to 200 nM TBT and 100 nM DBT. In pups, the proliferative response increased after an exposure to 100 nM TBT and 50 nM DBT, but decreased with 200 nM TBT and 100 nM DBT. The immune functions were more affected by BTs exposure in adults than in pups, suggesting that other unsuspected mechanisms could trigger immune parameters in pups. The toxic potential of BTs followed the order of DBT > TBT > MBT. BT concentrations of harbour seal pups from the St. Lawrence Estuary (Bic National Park) ranged between 0.1-0.4 ng Sn/g wet weight (ww) and 1.2-13.4 ng Sn/g ww in blood and blubber, respectively. For these animals, DBT concentrations were consistently below the quantification limit of 0.04 ng Sn/g ww in blood and 0.2 ng Sn/g ww in blubber. Results suggest that concentrations measured in pups are considered too low to induce toxic effects to their immune system

  19. Low-Dose Cadmium Upregulates VEGF Expression in Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuhong Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is a heavy metal and environmental toxin. Exposure to Cd has been associated with a variety of human cancers. In this study, we performed in vitro assays to examine the effects of cadmium chloride (CdCl2 on A549 cells, a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line. Cd does not affect proliferation, migration, or apoptosis of A549 cells at concentrations of 0.1–10 μM. At 0.5 and 1 μM, Cd increases the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, respectively, but not basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF in A549 cells. The conditioned media were collected from the A549 cells treated with 1 μM Cd and were co-cultured with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Upon treatment with the conditioned media, the proliferation and migration of HUVECs significantly increased (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, respectively, while apoptosis remained unchanged. In addition, 1 μM Cd increases the level of hypoxia inducible factor 1-α (HIF1-α, which is a positive regulator of VEGF expression. Although low-dose Cd does not directly affect the growth of lung adenocarcinoma cells, it might facilitate the development of tumors through its pro-angiogenic effects.

  20. Seals and sealing handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Flitney, Robert K

    2007-01-01

    Wherever machinery operates there will be seals of some kind ensuring that the machine remains lubricated, the fluid being pumped does not leak, or the gas does not enter the atmosphere. Seals are ubiquitous, in industry, the home, transport and many other places. This 5th edition of a long-established title covers all types of seal by application: static, rotary, reciprocating etc. The book bears little resemblance to its predecessors, and Robert Flitney has re-planned and re-written every aspect of the subject. No engineer, designer or manufacturer of seals can afford to be without this uniq

  1. Gene expression and pathway analysis of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells treated with cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartularo, Laura; Laulicht, Freda; Sun, Hong; Kluz, Thomas; Freedman, Jonathan H; Costa, Max

    2015-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic and carcinogenic metal naturally occurring in the Earth's crust. A common route of human exposure is via diet and cadmium accumulates in the liver. The effects of Cd exposure on gene expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells were examined in this study. HepG2 cells were acutely-treated with 0.1, 0.5, or 1.0 μM Cd for 24h; or chronically-treated with 0.01, 0.05, or 0.1 μM Cd for three weeks and gene expression analysis was performed using Affymetrix GeneChip® Human Gene 1.0 ST Arrays. Acute and chronic exposures significantly altered the expression of 333 and 181 genes, respectively. The genes most upregulated by acute exposure included several metallothioneins. Downregulated genes included the monooxygenase CYP3A7, involved in drug and lipid metabolism. In contrast, CYP3A7 was upregulated by chronic Cd exposure, as was DNAJB9, an anti-apoptotic J protein. Genes downregulated following chronic exposure included the transcriptional regulator early growth response protein 1. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that the top networks altered by acute exposure were lipid metabolism, small molecule biosynthesis, cell morphology, organization, and development; while top networks altered by chronic exposure were organ morphology, cell cycle, cell signaling, and renal and urological diseases/cancer. Many of the dysregulated genes play important roles in cellular growth, proliferation, and apoptosis, and may be involved in carcinogenesis. In addition to gene expression changes, HepG2 cells treated with cadmium for 24h indicated a reduction in global levels of histone methylation and acetylation that persisted 72 h post-treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cell-surface changes in cadmium-resistant Euglena: Studies using lectin-binding techniques and flow cytometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonaly, J.; Brochiero, E. [Faculte de Pharmacie, Chatenay-Malabry (France)

    1994-01-01

    Most in vitro studies on contaminants focus on the short-term effects of pollutants on cells, without regard to long-term effects and the ability of cells or microorganisms to develop a specific resistance to a pollutant. Cadmium is ubiquitous environmental contaminant. This heavy metal enters the aquatic environment mainly through vapor emissions and fallout during smelting operations. Diverse mechanisms of algal resistance to toxic metals are known. Among these, the most general mechanism is the development of metal-binding proteins. In cadmium-resistant unicellular Euglena gracilis Z algae cells, the metal did not appear to be sequestered on soluble metal-binding ligands. Previous experiments have shown that resistance development is related to a diminution of cadmium penetration into cells, implicating cell surface or membrane alteration. This research investigates the mechanisms of development of cadmium resistance in Euglena cells at the cell-surface level. Sugar chains of glycoproteins and glycolipids are a predominant feature of the surface of cells. Moreover, the cell-response to environmental changes is often orchestrated through surface macromolecules such as glycoproteins. In this study, we applied this lectin method to investigate surface carbohydrate expression during and after resistance development. Our interest was twofold: (1) to learn more about the carbohydrate composition of the cell-surface of Euglena; and (2) to determine whether transition from wild cells to Cd-resistant cells changes the expression of cell-surface carbohydrates. 13 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Gradient Meshed and Toughened SOEC (Solid Oxide Electrolyzer Cell) Composite Seal with Self-Healing Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathy Lu; W. T. Reynolds, Jr.

    2010-06-08

    High-temperature electrolysis of water steam is a promising approach for hydrogen production. The potential is even more promising when abundant heat source from nuclear power reactors can be efficiently utilized. Hydrogen production through the above approach also allows for low electric consumption. Overall energy conversion efficiencies for high temperature electrolysis are in the 45-50% range compared to ~30% for the conventional electrolysis. Under such motivation, this research is focused on increasing the operation time and high temperature stability of solid oxide electrolyzer cells (SOEC) for splitting water into hydrogen. Specifically, our focus is to improve the SOEC seal thermal stability and performances by alleviating thermal stress and seal cracking issues.

  4. Effects of exposure to cadmium in sperm cells of zebrafish, Danio rerio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izani Bonel Acosta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a natural element found in the earth’s crust; it is usually associated with other metals, but due to the impacts caused by human activity, its concentration has increased in the aquatic environment. This metal may damage aquatic animal reproduction, decreasing the rate of fertilization of organisms such as fish. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the in vitro toxicity of different concentrations of cadmium (0 (control, 0.5, 5, and 10 μg/L using sperm cells of model organism zebrafish, Danio rerio. Structural parameters, including integrity and fluidity of the plasma membrane, concentration of oxygen species, mitochondrial function and DNA fragmentation were measured by flow cytometry. The following sperm movement parameters were also measured using the computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA system: motility, time of motility, curvilinear velocity, average path velocity and straight line velocity in μm/s. Significant effects were observed on path speed, straight speed, curvilinear velocity, motility time, progressive and total motility, and plasma and DNA integrity. The results showed that cadmium can negatively affect some reproductive parameters in D. rerio, which may reduce the fertility rate of these animals.

  5. Effect of cadmium chloride on the distal retinal pigment cells of the fiddler crab, Uca pugilator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, P.S.; Fingerman, M. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States); Nguyen, L.K.; Obih, P. [Xavier Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Crustaceans have two sets of pigmentary effectors, chromatophores and retinal pigment cells. Retinal pigments control the amount of light striking the rhabdom, the photosensitive portion of each ommatidium, screening the rhabdom in bright light and uncovering it in darkness or dim light. Migration of the distal pigment in the fiddler crab, Uca pugilalor, is regulated by a light-adapting hormone and a dark-adapting hormone. The black chromatophores of this crab are also controlled by a pair of hormones. Both pigmentary effectors exhibit circadian rhythms. The effects of some organic and inorganic pollutants on the ability of Uca pugilator to change color have been described. Exposure of this crab to naphthalene or cadmium results in decreased ability to disperse the pigment in their black chromatophores, the exposed crabs becoming paler than the unexposed crabs. Norepinephrine triggers release of both the black pigment-dispersing hormone and the light-adapting hormone. In view of the facts that (a) these hormones which regulate the black chromatophores and distal pigment are synthesized in and released from the eyestalk neuroendocrine complex, (b) the black pigment-dispersing hormone and the light-adapting hormone may actually be the same hormone. having two different activities and (c) release of both the black pigment-dispersing hormone and the light-adapting hormone is triggered by norepinephrine, the present investigation was carried out to determine the effect of cadmium on distal pigment migration in Uca pugilator. More specifically, for comparison with the previously reported effect of cadmium on pigment migration in the black chromatophores, we wished to determine whether the distal pigment of fiddler crabs exposed to cadmium chloride is capable of as wide a range of movement as in unexposed crabs, and if not what might be the explanation. This is the first report of the effect of a pollutant on a retinal pigment of any crustacean. 12 refs., 3 tabs.

  6. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells repair cadmium-induced rat testis injury by inhibiting mitochondrial apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Jie; Yan, Jun; Zou, Xiao-Li; Guo, Ke-Jun; Zhao, Yue; Meng, Chun-Yang; Yin, Fei; Guo, Li

    2017-06-01

    Cadmium is a highly toxic metal with widespread exposure to people that can cause tissue injuries that lack effective treatment. The aim of this project was to uncover whether bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) can repair cadmium-induced rat testis injury and to explore the role of mitochondrial apoptosis in this process. To this end, 21 adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, model and therapy groups, 7 each, and were administered 0, 0.4 and 0.4 mg/kg body weight CdCl2 saline solution, respectively, by intraperitoneal injection 5 times per week for 5 weeks. Then, rats in the therapy group were treated with 10(7) BMSCs by retro-orbital injections, while the others were given equal volumes of phosphate buffered saline. Following 2-week BMSCs-treatment, the therapy rats were heavier than the model rats, despite there being no difference in testicular cadmium contents between these groups, which were both significantly higher than the control group. BMSCs were observed in the testis of the therapy rats, in which pathological changes improved significantly compared with the model group. Expression of the apoptosis-associated proteins Bim, Bax, Cytochrome C, Caspase-3, active-Caspase-3 and AIF increased, while Bcl-2 was reduced significantly in rat testes of model group compared with the other groups. Based on these findings, we conclude that cadmium can accumulate in rat testes where it caused severe tissue injury, BMSCs can be localized to the injured testicular tissue of rats and repair the tissue injury, these reparative effects may be highly related with mitochondrial apoptosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Cadmium on Macrophage U937 Cell Proliferation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    chloride (CdCl2) obtained from Merck. (Germany), cell line U937 was obtained from the. European collection of cell cultures (Salisbury,. UK). Fetal calf serum, phorbol 12-myristate 13- acetate, L-glutamate, streptomycin, extravidin- horse raddish peroxidase conjugate (extravidin-. HRP) and trypan blue were purchased from.

  8. Cadmium induces carcinogenesis in BEAS-2B cells through ROS-dependent activation of PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Young-Ok; Wang, Lei; Poyil, Pratheeshkumar; Budhraja, Amit; Hitron, J. Andrew; Zhang, Zhuo [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Lee, Jeong-Chae [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); School of Dentistry and Institute of Oral Biosciences (BK21 program), Research Center of Bioactive Materials, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Shi, Xianglin, E-mail: xshi5@email.uky.edu [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Cadmium has been widely used in industry and is known to be carcinogenic to humans. Although it is widely accepted that chronic exposure to cadmium increases the incidence of cancer, the mechanisms underlying cadmium-induced carcinogenesis are unclear. The main aim of this study was to investigate the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cadmium-induced carcinogenesis and the signal transduction pathways involved. Chronic exposure of human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells to cadmium induced cell transformation, as evidenced by anchorage-independent growth in soft agar and clonogenic assays. Chronic cadmium treatment also increased the potential of these cells to invade and migrate. Injection of cadmium-stimulated cells into nude mice resulted in the formation of tumors. In contrast, the cadmium-mediated increases in colony formation, cell invasion and migration were prevented by transfection with catalase, superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1), or SOD2. In particular, chronic cadmium exposure led to activation of signaling cascades involving PI3K, AKT, GSK-3β, and β-catenin and transfection with each of the above antioxidant enzymes markedly inhibited cadmium-mediated activation of these signaling proteins. Inhibitors specific for AKT or β-catenin almost completely suppressed the cadmium-mediated increase in total and active β-catenin proteins and colony formation. Moreover, there was a marked induction of AKT, GSK-3β, β-catenin, and carcinogenic markers in tumor tissues formed in mice after injection with cadmium-stimulated cells. Collectively, our findings suggest a direct involvement of ROS in cadmium-induced carcinogenesis and implicate a role of AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling in this process. -- Highlights: ► Chronic exposure to cadmium induces carcinogenic properties in BEAS-2B cells. ► ROS involved in cadmium-induced tumorigenicity of BEAS-2B cells. ► Cadmium activates ROS-dependent AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin-mediated signaling. ► ROS

  9. Metabolic Profiling in Association with Vascular Endothelial Cell Dysfunction Following Non-Toxic Cadmium Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofei; Nong, Qingjiao; Mao, Baoyu; Pan, Xue

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the metabolic profile of non-toxic cadmium (Cd)-induced dysfunctional endothelial cells using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECs (n = 6 per group) were treated with 0, 1, 5, or 10 μM cadmium chloride (CdCl2) for 48 h. Cell phenotypes, including nitric oxide (NO) production, the inflammatory response, and oxidative stress, were evaluated in Cd-exposed and control HUVECs. Cd-exposed and control HUVECs were analysed using gas chromatography time-of-flight/mass spectrometry. Compared to control HUVECs, Cd-exposed HUVECs were dysfunctional, exhibiting decreased NO production, a proinflammatory state, and non-significant oxidative stress. Further metabolic profiling revealed 24 significantly-altered metabolites in the dysfunctional endothelial cells. The significantly-altered metabolites were involved in the impaired tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, activated pyruvate metabolism, up-regulated glucogenic amino acid metabolism, and increased pyrimidine metabolism. The current metabolic findings further suggest that the metabolic changes linked to TCA cycle dysfunction, glycosylation of the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP), and compensatory responses to genomic instability and energy deficiency may be generally associated with dysfunctional phenotypes, characterized by decreased NO production, a proinflammatory state, and non-significant oxidative stress, in endothelial cells following non-toxic Cd exposure. PMID:28872622

  10. Protective effect of boric acid on lead- and cadmium-induced genotoxicity in V79 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustündağ, Aylin; Behm, Claudia; Föllmann, Wolfram; Duydu, Yalçin; Degen, Gisela H

    2014-06-01

    The toxic heavy metals cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are important environmental pollutants which can cause serious damage to human health. As the metal ions (Cd(2+) and Pb(2+)) accumulate in the organism, there is special concern regarding chronic toxicity and damage to the genetic material. Metal-induced genotoxicity has been attributed to indirect mechanisms, such as induction of oxidative stress and interference with DNA repair. Boron is a naturally occurring element and considered to be an essential micronutrient, although the cellular activities of boron compounds remain largely unexplored. The present study has been conducted to evaluate potential protective effects of boric acid (BA) against genotoxicity induced by cadmium chloride (CdCl2) and lead chloride (PbCl2) in V79 cell cultures. Cytotoxicity assays (neutral red uptake and cell titer blue assay) served to determine suitable concentrations for subsequent genotoxicity assays. Chromosomal damage and DNA strand breaks were assessed by micronucleus tests and comet assays. Both PbCl2 and CdCl2 (at 3, 5 and 10 µM) were shown to induce concentration-dependent increases in micronucleus frequencies and DNA strand breaks in V79 cells. BA itself was not cytotoxic (up to 300 µM) and showed no genotoxic effects. Pretreatment of cells with low levels of BA (2.5 and 10 µM) was found to strongly reduce the genotoxic effects of the tested metals. Based on the findings of this in vitro study, it can be suggested that boron provides an efficient protection against the induction of DNA strand breaks and micronuclei by lead and cadmium. Further studies on the underlying mechanisms for the protective effect of boron are needed.

  11. Cycle life status of SAFT VOS nickel-cadmium cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goualard, Jacques

    1993-01-01

    The SAFT prismatic VOS Ni-Cd cells have been flown in geosynchronous orbit since 1977 and in low earth orbit since 1983. Parallel cycling tests are performed by several space agencies in order to determine the cycle life for a wide range of temperature and depth of discharge (DOD). In low Earth orbit (LEO), the ELAN program is conducted on 24 Ah cells by CNES and ESA at the European Battery Test Center at temperatures ranging from 0 to 27 C and DOD from 10 to 40 percent. Data are presented up to 37,000 cycles. One pack (X-80) has achieved 49,000 cycles at 10 C and 23 percent DOD. The geosynchronous orbit simulation of a high DOD test is conducted by ESA on 3 batteries at 10 C and 70, 90, and 100 percent DOD. Thirty-one eclipse seasons are completed, and no signs of degradation have been found. The Air Force test at CRANE on 24 Ah and 40 Ah cells at 20 C and 80 percent DOD has achieved 19 shadow periods. Life expectancy is discussed. The VOS cell technology could be used for the following: (1) in geosynchronous conditions--15 yrs at 10-15 C and 80 percent DOD; and (2) in low earth orbit--10 yrs at 5-15 C and 25-30 percent DOD.

  12. Glass and glass-derivative seals for use in energy-efficient fuel cells and lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Misture; Arun Varshineya; Matthew Hall; Sylvia DeCarr; Steve Bancheri

    2005-07-28

    For solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), a series of 18 sealing glasses have been prepared and characterized. From the whole design space, several glasses were ''downselected'' and studied in detail to describe their behaviors in simulated fuel cell environments. One of the glasses was found to outperform all others, including the well-known G18 sealant developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The new glass composition showed lower bulk electrical conductivity, excellent sealing and wetting behavior when sealing under applied load, and qualitatively superior performance when exposed to wet hydrogen for 800 hours. Traditional melting was used to prepare all of the glasses that were studied in detail. The sol-gel approach was used to synthesize several compositions, but it was found that the glasses crystallized very rapidly during heating, precluding sealing. The glass characterization included measurements of the viscosity and thermal expansion of the glasses, as well as the thermal expansion of the partly crystalline glass ceramics. In addition, the wetting and sintering behavior of all glasses has been measured, as well as the crystallization behavior. The time and temperature at which crystalline phases form from the glasses has been determined for all of the glasses. Each glass ceramic contains at least two crystalline phases, and most of the crystalline phases have been positively identified. The body of fundamental data provides a platform for future developments for high temperature sealants, and the newly-developed glass compositions appear promising for large-scale testing. The second component of the work, focused on seals for higher-temperature discharge lighting, has focused on determining the phase relations in the yttria-alumina-silica system at various silica levels. Functional testing of one of the candidate sealants demonstrated that it performs well in current HID lighting applications. Further testing is required to

  13. Enhanced performance of hybrid solar cells using longer arms of quantum cadmium selenide tetrapods

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2011-12-01

    We demonstrate that enhanced device performance of hybrid solar cells based on tetrapod (TP)-shaped cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles and conjugated polymer of poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) can be obtained by using longer armed tetrapods which aids in better spatial connectivity, thus decreasing charge hopping events which lead to better charge transport. Longer tetrapods with 10 nm arm length lead to improved power conversion efficiency of 1.12% compared to 0.80% of device having 5 nm short-armed tetrapods:P3HT photoactive blends.

  14. Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cell Imaging Using Cadmium-Free Quantum Dots

    OpenAIRE

    Miyazaki, Yoshiyuki; Yukawa, Hiroshi; Nishi, Hiroyasu; Okamoto, Yukihiro; Kaji, Noritada; Torimoto, Tsukasa; Baba, Yoshinobu

    2013-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) have received much attention for biomolecule and cell imaging applications because of their superior optical properties such as high quantum efficiency, size-tunable emission, and resistance to photobleaching process. However, QDs that are commercially available contain cadmium (Cd), a highly toxic element. Thus, the development of Cd-free and less toxic QDs is strongly desired. In this study, we developed Cd-free QDs (ZnS-coated ZnS-AgInS2 solid solution nanoparticles with...

  15. Photoluminescence Excitation Spectroscopy Characterization of Cadmium Telluride Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, James E.; Wang, Xufeng; Grubbs, Elizabeth K.; Drayton, Jennifer; Johnston, Steve; Levi, Dean; Lundstrom, Mark S.; Bermel, Peter

    2016-11-21

    The use of steady-state photoluminescence spectroscopy as a contactless characterization tool, suitable for inline optical characterization, has been previously demonstrated for high efficiency solar cells such as GaAs. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of PLE characterization on a thin film CdS/CdTe np heterojunction solar cell, and compare the results to measured EQE and I-V data. In contrast to previous work on high-quality GaAs, the PLE and EQE spectra do not match closely here. We still find, however, that reliable material parameters can be extracted from the PLE measurements. We also provide a physical explanation of the limits defining the cases when the PLE and EQE spectra may be expected to match.

  16. Back contact formation in thin cadmium telluride solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haedrich, M., E-mail: mathias.haedrich@uni-jena.de; Heisler, C.; Reisloehner, U.; Kraft, C.; Metzner, H.

    2011-08-31

    We present a model describing the undesired roll-over which is a well-known phenomenon in the current-voltage characteristics of CdTe solar cells. Therein, the roll-over is ascribed to a Schottky barrier at the back contact which is effective as a reverse diode. The formation of this barrier is investigated depending on the CdTe absorber thickness as well as on the employed back contact metal. Computer simulations of the energy band diagram reveal that the back contact barrier can be reduced and even eliminated for sufficiently thin absorbers. The reason is the spatial overlap between the space-charge regions of the p-n heterojunction with the one of the back contact. This behaviour correlates with experimental current-voltage data of solar cells with a simple gold back contact. In the latter, the roll-over is considerable for absorbers with 3 to 5 {mu}m thickness, diminishes when the absorber thickness is reduced and finally vanishes when the absorber thickness is approximately 1 {mu}m. The investigations show that thickness reduction can be employed in order to suppress the roll-over phenomenon in CdTe solar cells.

  17. Low Cost, Durable Seal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, George; Parsons, Jason; Friedman, Jake

    2010-12-17

    Seal durability is critical to achieving the 2010 DOE operational life goals for both stationary and transportation PEM fuel cell stacks. The seal material must be chemically and mechanically stable in an environment consisting of aggressive operating temperatures, humidified gases, and acidic membranes. The seal must also be producible at low cost. Currentlyused seal materials do not meet all these requirements. This project developed and demonstrated a high consistency hydrocarbon rubber seal material that was able to meet the DOE technical and cost targets. Significant emphasis was placed on characterization of the material and full scale molding demonstrations.

  18. New adiabatic calorimeter for realization the triple point of water in metallic-sealed cell at NIS-Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Matarawy Ahmed Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal metrology laboratory, at the National Institute for Standards (NIS-Egypt, has been working during the last three years on the development of metallic-sealed cells for the realization of the triple point of water (TPW, 273.16 K [H. Preston-Thomas, Metrologia 27, 3 (1990]. A metallic-sealed cell has been already developed and characterized in the past [A. El Matarawy, M.G. Ahmed, Int. J. Metrol. Qual. Eng. 5, 401 (2014, M.G. Ahmed, A. El Matarawy, H.M. Abo Dorra, J. Phys. Sci. Appl. 1 (2015]. The classical large triple point of water cell and metallic-sealed cell showed a discrepancy of 0.7 mK [A. El Matarawy, M.G. Ahmed, Int. J. Metrol. Qual. Eng. 5, 401 (2014]. The main target of this work is to get the lowest possible uncertainty in calibrating Capsule Standard Platinum Resistance Thermometers (CSPRTs under adiabatic conditions. The full system is composed of a metallic-sealed cell and an improved adiabatic calorimeter to increase as much as possible the thermal resistance between the cell and the inner adiabatic shield of the calorimeter. It gives also a reliable calculation of the heat capacity of the cell and the comparison copper block which accommodates several CSPRTs. With this new system the reproducibility of metallic-sealed cell was found to be 0.7 mK as described below. reproducibility of metallic-sealed cells is found to be less than 0.7 mK.

  19. The effects of parathyroid hormone and estradiol on cadmium accumulation by Madin-Darby canine kidney cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Chronic exposure to the toxic metal cadmium causes osteomalacia, osteoporosis, increased serum parathyroid hormone, renal stone formation, hypercalciuria and renal tubular dysfunction, reflecting one or more disturbances of calcium homeostasis. Since renal cadmium (Cd[sup 2+]) transport proceeds in both proximal and distal tubules and parathyroid hormone (PTH) regulates calcium reabsorption at distal nephron sites, it was postulated that PTH may also stimulate Cd[sup 2+] transport in distal tubules. Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, which express a distal phenotype including PTH-sensitive adenylate cyclase and calcium transport, were used as the cell model for the present study. Cadmium uptake was measured using [[sup 109]Cd[sup 2+

  20. Inhibiting Cadmium Transport Process in Root Cells of Plants: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Yan-ling

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium(Cd is the most common element found in the heavy-metal contaminated soils in China. Roots of rice and vegetables can concentrate Cd from acid soils, and then transport Cd to above-ground parts. Cd in edible part of plants directly influences the food safety. Cellwall, plasma membrane and organells of root cells in plant can discriminate Cd from other elements. A lot of Cd can be fixed in root cells by precipitation, complexation, compartmentation, and so on, to inhibit its transport from roots to shoot and guarantee the physiological activities in above-ground parts carrying out normally. This paper summarized recent advance on inhibiting Cd transport process in subcellular fractions of root cells of plants, which is in advantage of exploring excellent germplasms and gene resources in the future.

  1. Cadmium uptake by Caco-2 cells: effects of Cd complexation by chloride, glutathione, and phytochelatins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumarie, C; Fortin, C; Houde, M; Campbell, P G; Denizeau, F

    2001-01-01

    Short-term cadmium uptake by the highly differentiated TC7 clone of enterocytic-like Caco-2 cells was studied as a function of Cd speciation. For low metal concentrations and with a constant free [Cd(2+)] = 43 nM, initial uptake rates of (109)Cd increased linearly as a function of increasing concentration of chlorocomplexes (Sigma[(109)CdCl(2-n)(n)]) over the range from 0 to 250 nM. When normalized as a function of the metal concentration, the absorption rate for the chlorocomplexes was less than that estimated for uptake of the free Cd(2+) cation. Metal absorption decreased upon organic ligand addition in the exposure media, but much less than predicted from the assumption that only inorganic metal species would be transported. Under exposure conditions where the concentration of each of the inorganic species was kept constant, (109)Cd uptake increased with increasing concentrations of cadmium glutathione ((109)Cd-GSH) or phytochelatin ((109)Cd-hmPC(3)) complexes. A specific system of very high affinity but low capacity has been characterized for (109)Cd-GSH transport, whereas accumulation data increased linearly with (109)Cd-hmPC(3) up to 6 microM. Comparison among uptake data for 0.3 microM inorganic (109)Cd, (109)Cd-GSH, or (109)Cd-hmPC(3) yields the following accumulation ratios: Cd-GSH/Cd(inorg) = 0.2; Cd-hmPC(3)/Cd(inorg) = 0.5. These results clearly show that Cd(2+) is not the exclusive metal species participating in Cd absorption, though, for comparable Cd concentrations, its contribution to transport would be more important than that of other species. Cadmium bound to thiol-containing peptides may be absorbed via transport systems that differ from those involved in absorption of the inorganic metal species. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  2. Development of Hermetic Sealing Glasses for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sealing glasses, either rigid glass-ceramics or viscous, non-crystallizing compositions, will be developed and sealing processes will be optimized based on NASA's...

  3. Genotoxic effects of cadmium chloride on human amniotic fluid cells cultured in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogu, G. [Sassari Univ., Sassari (Italy). Dept. of Physiological, Biochemical and Cellular sciences; Sassari Univ., Sassari (Italy). Centre of Clinical Genetics; Congiu, A. M.; Sini, M. C.; Ladu, R. [Sassari Univ., Sassari (Italy). Dept. of Physiological, Biochemical and Cellular sciences; Campus, P. M.; Sanna, R.; Soro, G. [Sassari Univ., Sassari (Italy). Centre of Clinical Genetics

    2000-12-01

    In this study it has been reported the results of cytogenetic tests, namely a search for chromosome aberrations (CA) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), performed on human amniotic fluid cells cultured and treated with Cadmium chloride. The cells from primary cultures were exposed to CdCl{sub 2} at 1 {mu}M and 10 {mu}M for 24 h. At the higher dose, no metaphases were scored and at the lower dose (1 {mu}M) no effects were evident on cell proliferation, and no chromosome aberrations were found. In the subsequent experiments were used cells from subcultures exposed to 1 {mu}M and 5 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2}. At the 5 {mu}M dose was evident the induction of chromatid breaks, while the frequency of sister chromatid exchanges shows a small increase, not statistically significant at the dose of 1 {mu}M. In this study it was positively demonstrated that amniotic fluid cells grown in vitro are reliable for testing various mutagenic or teratogenic substances. With regard to cadmium treatment results, it is evident a clastogenic effect of cadmium chloride but not a significant induction of SCEs. [Italian] In questo studio abbiamo riportato i risultati dei tests citogenici di valutazione degli scambi fra cromatidi fratelli (SCEs) e di induzione di aberrazioni cromosomiche (CA) condotti su colture cellulari di liquido amniotico umano, trattate con cloruro di cadmio. Le cellule delle colture primarie venivano esposte al CdCl{sub 2} a concentrazioni di 1 {mu}M 10 {mu}M per 24 h. Alla dose piu' alta (10 {mu}M) non sono state osservate metafasi, mentre alla dose piu' bassa (1 {mu}M) non sono stati evidenziati ne' effetti sulla proliferazione cellulare ne' CA. Nei successivi esperimenti il CdC{sub 2} e' stato testato su subcolture cellulari alle dosi di 1 {mu}M e 5 {mu}M. Alla dose di 5 {mu}M sono state evidenziate rotture cromatidiche, mentre la frequenza di SCE alla dose di 1 {mu}M ha mostrato un piccolo incremento, statisticamente non significativo. In questo

  4. Effect of cadmium ions on dioxygen affinity and polyphosphate activity of human red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkowitz, R; Gersonde, K

    1988-04-01

    The effect of cadmium ions on the dioxygen affinity, the time-dependent depletion of intracellular polyphosphates, and the elongation of human red blood cells (RBC's) was examined. The incubation of RBC's in the presence of 1 mM Cd2+ at 37 degrees C for more than one hour results in a decrease of the p50 value by 2.5-3.0 mmHg in comparison to controls. The p50 of stripped (phosphate-free) hemoglobin is not affected by the presence of 1 mM Cd2+ (p50 = 4.8 mmHg at pH 7.2 and 37 degrees C). Experiments with RBC cryolysates demonstrate an apparently competitive effect of 2.3-bisphosphoglycerate (DPG) with cadmium ions on the dioxygen affinity. From 31P NMR spectra, 31P T1 relaxation, and 31P T2 relaxation behavior a more direct evidence for DPG-Cd2+ complexation is obtained. 31P NMR spectra of RBC cryolysates also indicate DPG-Cd2+ complexation. The hydrolysis of free polyphosphates in RBC's incubated at 37 degrees C as monitored by 31P NMR spectra can be noticed after a three-hour lag phase (constant polyphosphate level). This lag phase is lengthened from three hours to four hours in the presence of Cd2+ ions. RBC elongation, as a measure of deformability, decreases slightly upon incubation with 1 mM Cd2+.

  5. COMSAT's destructive physical analysis of aerospace nickel-cadmium cells for NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Kathleen M. B.; Rao, Gopalakrishna M.; Yi, Thomas Y.

    1993-01-01

    Over the past 5 years, COMSAT has performed numerous destructive physical analyses (DPA's) on NASA-Goddard-supplied nickel-cadmium (Ni/Cd) cells. The samples included activated but uncycled cells, wet stored cells, cycled cells, and anomalous cells. The DPA's provided visual, morphological, and chemical analyses of the cell components. The DPA data for the analyzed cells are presented. For the cells investigated, the leading cause of poor performance, as determined by DPA, has been poor negative electrode utilization, which resulted in negative-electrode-limiting operation.

  6. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SILICON AND CADMIUM TELLURIDE BASED SOLAR CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad Al QASSEM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A compartive analzsis of silicon solar cells and of those containing a CdTe thin film which are widely used in solar energetics, particullarilly, in photovoltaic modules fabrication, is brought in this paper. The silicon is largely used in solar cells fabrication due to the low cost of solar cells production related to the low cost of the semiconductor fabrication and to the advanced material processing technology, when at the same time cadmium telluride has the wide use due to the fact that its fundamental parameters can provide theoretically a high value of efficiency of solar energy conversion into electrical one of 30%. The structure and photoelectrical parameters of silicon solar cells and of those cotaining a thin cadmium telluride layer are considered.ANALIZA COMPARATIVĂ A CELULELOR SOLARE DIN SILICIU ŞI TELURURA DE CADMIUÎn lucrarea de faţă este prezentată analiza comparativă a celulelor solare fabricate din siliciu şi a celor cu strat subţire de CdTe, care sunt pe larg utilizate în energetica solară, în particular la producerea modulelor fotovoltaice. Siliciul este intens folosit în fabricarea celulelor solare datorită costului redus al materialului semiconductor şi tehnologiei avansate de procesare, pe când telurura de cadmiu are o utilizare tot mai largă care, datorită parametrilor fundamentali, poate asigura teoretic o valoare înaltă a eficienţei conversiei energiei solare în cea electrică de (30%. Sunt considerate structura şi parametrii fotoelectrici ai celulelor solare din siliciu şi ai celor cu strat subţire de telurură de cadmiu.

  7. Modulation of the stress response during apoptosis and necrosis induction in cadmium-treated U-937 human promonocytic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, A; Troyano, A; Vilaboa, N E; Fernández, C; de Blas, E; Aller, P

    2001-02-05

    Treatment for 2 h with 200 microM cadmium chloride, followed by recovery, caused apoptosis and induced heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression in U-937 promonocytic cells. However, pre-incubation with the GSH depleting agent L-buthionine-[S,R]-sulfoximine (BSO, 1 mM for 24 h) caused necrosis instead of apoptosis and failed to induce HSP70 expression. This failure was a consequence of necrosis instead of GSH depletion, since BSO allowed or even potentiated HSP70 induction when used in combination with heat shock (2 h at 42.5 degrees C) or with 50 microM cadmium, which caused apoptosis. The administration of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) at the beginning of recovery after BSO/200 microM cadmium treatment prevented the execution of necrosis and restored the execution of apoptosis, but did not restore HSP70 induction, indicating that the inhibition by BSO of HSP70 expression is an early regulated event. This contrasted with the capacity of NAC to prevent the alterations caused by BSO/200 microM cadmium in other proteins, namely the suppression of Bax expression and the increase in Bcl-2 and HSP-60 expression. Finally, it was observed that treatment with 200 microM cadmium rapidly increased the HSP70 mRNA level and stimulated heat-shock factor 1 (HSF1) trimerization and binding, and that these effects were prevented by pre-incubation with BSO. Taken together, these results indicate that the stress response is compatible with apoptosis but not with necrosis in cadmium-treated promonocytic cells. The suppression of the stress response is specifically due to the early inhibition of HSF1 activation.

  8. Pharmacologic modification of the cytotoxic effects of cadmium in LLC-PK sub 1 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, D.R.; Kahan, B.S.; Niewenhuis, R.J.; Prozialeck, W.C. (Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine, PA (USA))

    1989-02-09

    Recent results from our laboratories have shown that exposure to cadmium causes LLC-PK{sub 1} cells to shrink, detach and assume a spherical shape. The purpose of the present studies was to determine whether various pharmacologic agents can reduce or prevent these cytotoxic effects of Cd{sup 2+}. Confluent monolayers of LLC-PK{sub 1} cells were incubated with the drugs of interest (50 microM final concentration) for 2 hours. CadCl{sub 2} (final concentration = 75 microM) was then added and the cells were incubated for another 20 hours. Morphologic changes were assessed qualitatively by viewing the cells with a phase contrast microscope. The extent of Cd{sup 2+}-induced cellular damage was also quantified by staining the cells that remained on the growing surface with methylene blue, solubilizing the stained cells, and determining the absorbance at 660 nm. The results showed that several drugs, particularly the calmodulin antagonists trifluoperazine chlorpromazine, and the calcium channel blocker verapamil, significant reduced the severity of Cd{sup 2+}-induced cytotoxicity. By contrast, a variety of other agents, such as chlorpromazine sulfoxide, trifluoperazine sulfoxide, phenytoin and zinc, had no such protective effect. These findings indicate that Ca{sup 2+} antagonists can attenuate the cytotoxic effects of Cd{sup 2+} and that Cd{sup 2+} may produce some of its effects by activating Ca{sup 2+} -dependent systems.

  9. Reciprocal Interactions between Cadmium-Induced Cell Wall Responses and Oxidative Stress in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loix, Christophe; Huybrechts, Michiel; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Gielen, Marijke; Keunen, Els; Cuypers, Ann

    2017-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) pollution renders many soils across the world unsuited or unsafe for food- or feed-orientated agriculture. The main mechanism of Cd phytotoxicity is the induction of oxidative stress, amongst others through the depletion of glutathione. Oxidative stress can damage lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, leading to growth inhibition or even cell death. The plant cell has a variety of tools to defend itself against Cd stress. First and foremost, cell walls might prevent Cd from entering and damaging the protoplast. Both the primary and secondary cell wall have an array of defensive mechanisms that can be adapted to cope with Cd. Pectin, which contains most of the negative charges within the primary cell wall, can sequester Cd very effectively. In the secondary cell wall, lignification can serve to immobilize Cd and create a tougher barrier for entry. Changes in cell wall composition are, however, dependent on nutrients and conversely might affect their uptake. Additionally, the role of ascorbate (AsA) as most important apoplastic antioxidant is of considerable interest, due to the fact that oxidative stress is a major mechanism underlying Cd toxicity, and that AsA biosynthesis shares several links with cell wall construction. In this review, modifications of the plant cell wall in response to Cd exposure are discussed. Focus lies on pectin in the primary cell wall, lignification in the secondary cell wall and the importance of AsA in the apoplast. Regarding lignification, we attempt to answer the question whether increased lignification is merely a consequence of Cd toxicity, or rather an elicited defense response. We propose a model for lignification as defense response, with a central role for hydrogen peroxide as substrate and signaling molecule. PMID:29163592

  10. Reciprocal Interactions between Cadmium-Induced Cell Wall Responses and Oxidative Stress in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Loix

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd pollution renders many soils across the world unsuited or unsafe for food- or feed-orientated agriculture. The main mechanism of Cd phytotoxicity is the induction of oxidative stress, amongst others through the depletion of glutathione. Oxidative stress can damage lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, leading to growth inhibition or even cell death. The plant cell has a variety of tools to defend itself against Cd stress. First and foremost, cell walls might prevent Cd from entering and damaging the protoplast. Both the primary and secondary cell wall have an array of defensive mechanisms that can be adapted to cope with Cd. Pectin, which contains most of the negative charges within the primary cell wall, can sequester Cd very effectively. In the secondary cell wall, lignification can serve to immobilize Cd and create a tougher barrier for entry. Changes in cell wall composition are, however, dependent on nutrients and conversely might affect their uptake. Additionally, the role of ascorbate (AsA as most important apoplastic antioxidant is of considerable interest, due to the fact that oxidative stress is a major mechanism underlying Cd toxicity, and that AsA biosynthesis shares several links with cell wall construction. In this review, modifications of the plant cell wall in response to Cd exposure are discussed. Focus lies on pectin in the primary cell wall, lignification in the secondary cell wall and the importance of AsA in the apoplast. Regarding lignification, we attempt to answer the question whether increased lignification is merely a consequence of Cd toxicity, or rather an elicited defense response. We propose a model for lignification as defense response, with a central role for hydrogen peroxide as substrate and signaling molecule.

  11. Cadmium activates CaMK-II and initiates CaMK-II-dependent apoptosis in mesangial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Templeton, Douglas M

    2007-04-03

    Cadmium is a toxic metal that initiates both mitogenic responses and cell death. We show that Cd(2+) increases phosphorylation and activity of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK-II) in mesangial cells, in a concentration-dependent manner. Activation is biphasic with peaks at 1-5 min and 4-6 h. Cadmium also activates Erk, but this appears to be independent of CaMK-II. At 10-20 microM, Cd(2+) initiates apoptosis in 25-55% of mesangial cells by 6h. Inhibition of CaMK-II, but not of Erk, suppresses Cd(2+)-induced apoptosis. We conclude that activation of CaMK-II by Cd(2+) contributes to apoptotic cell death, independent of Erk activation.

  12. Kinetics of cadmium accumulation and its effects on microtubule integrity and cell viability in the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malea, Paraskevi, E-mail: malea@bio.auth.gr [Department of Botany, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece); Adamakis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis S. [Department of Botany, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kevrekidis, Theodoros [Laboratory of Environmental Research and Education, Democritus University of Thrace, Nea Hili, GR-68100 Alexandroupolis (Greece)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •Cd effect on microtubules and viability of seagrass leaf cells was assessed. •The Michaelis–Menten equation satisfactorily dercribed the kinetics of Cd uptake. •Cd depolymerized MTs after 3–9 d of exposure, cell death occurred at later time. •Toxicity appeared to depend on Cd uptake rate rather than on tissue Cd content. •MTs can be used as biomarker of Cd stress and uptake rate for predicting effects. -- Abstract: The kinetics of cadmium accumulation and its effects on microtubule cytoskeleton and cell viability in leaf blades of the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa were investigated under laboratory conditions in exposure concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 40 mg L{sup −1}. An initial rapid accumulation of cadmium was followed by a steady state. The Michaelis–Menten model adequately described metal accumulation; equilibrium concentration and uptake velocity tended to increase, whereas bioconcentration factor at equilibrium to decrease, as the exposure concentration increased. Cadmium depolymerized microtubules after 3–9 d of exposure, depending on trace metal concentration, indicating that microtubules could be used as an early biomarker of cadmium stress; cell death, occurring at later time than microtubule disturbance, was also observed. Microtubule depolymerization expressed as percentage of reduction of fluorescence intensity and cell mortality expressed as percentage of live cells increased with time. The lowest experimental tissue concentration associated with the onset of microtubule depolymerization and cell death (98.5–128.9 μg g{sup −1} dry wt, 0.5 mg L{sup −1} treatment, 7th and 9th d) was within the wide range of reported cadmium concentrations in leaves of seagrass species from various geographical areas. This lowest tissue concentration was exceeded up to the 3rd d at higher exposure concentrations, but toxic effects were generally detected at later time. The time periods required for the onset of depolymerization and

  13. A hemicellulose-bound form of silicon inhibits cadmium ion uptake in rice (Oryza sativa) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Cai, Hongmei; He, Congwu; Zhang, Wenjun; Wang, Lijun

    2015-05-01

    Silicon (Si) alleviates cadmium (Cd) toxicity in rice (Oryza sativa). However, the chemical mechanisms at the single-cell level are poorly understood. Here, a suspension of rice cells exposed to Cd and/or Si treatments was investigated using a combination of plant cell nutritional, molecular biological, and physical techniques including in situ noninvasive microtest technology (NMT), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) in Kelvin probe mode (KPFM). We found that Si-accumulating cells had a significantly reduced net Cd(2+) influx, compared with that in Si-limited cells. PCR analyses of the expression levels of Cd and Si transporters in rice cells showed that, when the Si concentration in the medium was increased, expression of the Si transporter gene Low silicon rice 1 (Lsi1) was up-regulated, whereas expression of the gene encoding the transporter involved in the transport of Cd, Natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 5 (Nramp5), was down-regulated. ICP-MS results revealed that 64% of the total Si in the cell walls was bound to hemicellulose constituents following the fractionation of the cell walls, and consequently inhibited Cd uptake. Furthermore, AFM in KPFM demonstrated that the heterogeneity of the wall surface potential was higher in cells cultured in the presence of Si than in those cultured in its absence, and was homogenized after the addition of Cd. These results suggest that a hemicellulose-bound form of Si with net negative charges is responsible for inhibition of Cd uptake in rice cells by a mechanism of [Si-hemicellulose matrix]Cd complexation and subsequent co-deposition. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Low Doses of Cadmium Chloride and Methallothionein-1-Bound Cadmium Display Different Accumulation Kinetics and Induce Different Genes in Cells of the Human Nephron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Cucu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The present study was conducted to investigate the renal tubular handling of inorganic cadmium (Cd2+ by exposing primary human tubular cell cultures to physiologically relevant doses of cadmium chloride (CdCl2. Furthermore, the cellular accumulation of Cd2+ was compared to that of metallothionein-1-bound Cd (Cd7MT-1. Finally, this study aimed to investigate the effect of the accumulation of Cd (both Cd2+ and Cd7MT-1 in renal cells on the expression of genes relevant to nephrotoxic processes. Methods: Cd concentration was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. mRNA expression was evaluated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Results: Cd2+ accumulated into human tubular cells in a concentration- and time-dependent way. Furthermore, cellular accumulation of Cd2+ was different from the cellular accumulation of Cd7MT-1, indicative for different uptake routes. Finally, mRNA expression of the genes encoding the anti-oxidative proteins metallothionein-1 (MT-1 and heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1 as well as the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax were upregulated by CdCl2 and not by Cd7MT1. Conclusion: In the presence of physiologically relevant Cd concentrations, tubular accumulation of the element in its inorganic form is different from that of Cd7MT-1. Furthermore, the tubular accumulation of inorganic Cd induces mRNA expression of genes of which the protein products may play a role in Cd-associated renal toxicity.

  15. Heme oxygenase-1-mediated autophagy protects against pulmonary endothelial cell death and development of emphysema in cadmium-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surolia, Ranu; Karki, Suman; Kim, Hyunki; Yu, Zhihong; Kulkarni, Tejaswini; Mirov, Sergey B; Carter, A Brent; Rowe, Steven M; Matalon, Sadis; Thannickal, Victor J; Agarwal, Anupam; Antony, Veena B

    2015-08-01

    Pulmonary exposure to cadmium, a major component of cigarette smoke, has a dramatic impact on lung function and the development of emphysema. Cigarette smoke exposure induces heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a cytoprotective enzyme. In this study, we employed a truncated mouse model of emphysema by intratracheal instillation of cadmium (CdCl2) solution (0.025% per 1 mg/kg body wt) in HO-1(+/+), HO-1(-/-), and overexpressing humanized HO-1 bacterial artificial chromosome (hHO-1BAC) mice. We evaluated the role of HO-1 in cadmium-induced emphysema in mice by analyzing histopathology, micro-computed tomography scans, and lung function tests. CdCl2-exposed HO-1(-/-) mice exhibited more severe emphysema compared with HO-1(+/+) or hHO-1BAC mice. Loss of pulmonary endothelial cells (PECs) from the alveolar capillary membrane is recognized to be a target in emphysema. PECs from HO-1(+/+), HO-1(-/-), and hHO-1BAC were employed to define the underlying molecular mechanism for the protection from emphysema by HO-1. Electron microscopy, expression of autophagic markers (microtubule-associated protein 1B-light chain 3 II, autophagy protein 5, and Beclin1) and apoptotic marker (cleaved caspase 3) suggested induction of autophagy and apoptosis in PECs after CdCl2 treatment. CdCl2-treated HO-1(-/-) PECs exhibited downregulation of autophagic markers and significantly increased cleaved caspase 3 expression and activity (∼4-fold higher). Moreover, hHO-1BAC PECs demonstrated upregulated autophagy and absence of cleaved caspase 3 expression or activity. Pretreatment of HO-1(+/+) PECs with rapamycin induced autophagy and resulted in reduced cell death upon cadmium treatment. Induction of autophagy following CdCl2 treatment was found to be protective from apoptotic cell death. HO-1 induced protective autophagy in PECs and mitigated cadmium-induced emphysema. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  16. [Effect of cadmium on TET enzymes and DNA methylation changes in human embryonic kidney cell].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhui; Li, Wenxue; Yin, Hua; Zhang, Bo; Zhu, Wei

    2015-09-01

    To detect the expression changes of the demethylase TETs (Ten-eleven translocation enzymes) in human embryonic kidney cell (HEK293) exposed to high dose cadmium chloride (CdCl2), and to investigate the regulation effects of TETs on global genomic methylation. HEK293 cells were exposed to CdCl2 for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h, the survival rate was tested by CCK-8 (cell counting kit-8) method, and the cell morphology was observed. The levels of TETs mRNA and protein were detected by fluorescence quantitative PCR and Western blot, respectively. The genomic DNA methylation level was detectedby pyro sequencing assay. CdCl2 had toxic effects on HEK293 cells, and the half inhibitory concentration (IC50) was 1.78 µmol/L. After exposure of CdCl2 for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h, the morphology of HEK293 cells was altered, and the high dose group (2.0 µmol/L) showed vacuolar changes and fuzzy appearance. The level of TET1 mRNA in groups of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 µmol/L were 0.23 ± 0.13, 0.48 ± 0.12, 0.59 ± 0.16 and 0.95 ± 0.39, respectively (F = 182.89, P = 0.002); The level of TET2 mRNA in groups of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 µmol/L were 0.23 ± 0.12, 0.32 ± 0.02,0.31 ± 0.10 and 0.34 ± 0.07, respectively (F = 27.94, P trend as mRNA levels. In 24 h (55.01 ± 3.62)%, 48 h (48.31 ± 8.99)%, 72 h (48.76 ± 6.60)%, the DNA methylation had significant differences (F = 18.50, P trend of increase according to the exposure time and dose, and the methylation level of whole genomic DNA was also altered. The demethylase TETs may play a role in regulating the genomic methylation level of HEK293 exposed to cadmium.

  17. Target or barrier? The cell wall of early- and later- diverging plants vs cadmium toxicity: differences in the response mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi eParrotta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing industrialization and urbanization result in emission of pollutants in the environment including toxic heavy metals, as cadmium and lead. Among the different heavy metals contaminating the environment, cadmium raises great concern, as it is ecotoxic and as such can heavily impact ecosystems. The cell wall is the first structure of plant cells to come in contact with heavy metals. Its composition, characterized by proteins, polysaccharides and in some instances lignin and other phenolic compounds, confers the ability to bind non-covalently and/or covalently heavy metals via functional groups. A strong body of evidence in the literature has shown the role of the cell wall in heavy metal response: it sequesters heavy metals, but at the same time its synthesis and composition can be severely affected. The present review analyzes the dual property of plant cell walls, i.e. barrier and target of heavy metals, by taking Cd toxicity as example. Following a summary of the known physiological and biochemical responses of plants to Cd, the review compares the wall-related mechanisms in early- and later-diverging land plants, by considering the diversity in cell wall composition. By doing so, common as well as unique response mechanisms to metal/cadmium toxicity are identified among plant phyla and discussed. After discussing the role of hyperaccumulators’ cell walls as a particular case, the review concludes by considering important aspects for plant engineering.

  18. Mechanical seals

    CERN Document Server

    Mayer, E

    1977-01-01

    Mechanical Seals, Third Edition is a source of practical information on the design and use of mechanical seals. Topics range from design fundamentals and test rigs to leakage, wear, friction and power, reliability, and special designs. This text is comprised of nine chapters; the first of which gives a general overview of seals, including various types of seals and their applications. Attention then turns to the fundamentals of seal design, with emphasis on six requirements that must be considered: sealing effectiveness, length of life, reliability, power consumption, space requirements, and c

  19. Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cell Imaging Using Cadmium-Free Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yoshiyuki; Yukawa, Hiroshi; Nishi, Hiroyasu; Okamoto, Yukihiro; Kaji, Noritada; Torimoto, Tsukasa; Baba, Yoshinobu

    2013-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) have received much attention for biomolecule and cell imaging applications because of their superior optical properties such as high quantum efficiency, size-tunable emission, and resistance to photobleaching process. However, QDs that are commercially available contain cadmium (Cd), a highly toxic element. Thus, the development of Cd-free and less toxic QDs is strongly desired. In this study, we developed Cd-free QDs (ZnS-coated ZnS-AgInS2 solid solution nanoparticles with a sulfo group: ZnS-ZAIS-SO3H) and investigated the ability of this material to label stem cells. ZnS-ZAIS-SO3H could be transduced into mouse adipose tissue-derived stem cells (mASCs) using octaarginine peptides (R8), known as cell-penetrating peptides. The optimal ratio of ZnS-ZAIS-SO3H:R8 was found to be 1:100 for labeling mASCs. More than 80% of mASCs labeled with 500 nM ZnS-ZAIS-SO3H were found to be alive, and the proliferation rates of labeled mASCs were maintained at the same rate as that of nonlabeled mASCs. In addition, no abnormalities in the morphology of mASCs labeled with ZnS-ZAIS-SO3H could be observed. These data suggest that ZnS-ZAIS-SO3H may be effective for the labeling of mASCs. PMID:26858885

  20. Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cell Imaging Using Cadmium-Free Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yoshiyuki; Yukawa, Hiroshi; Nishi, Hiroyasu; Okamoto, Yukihiro; Kaji, Noritada; Torimoto, Tsukasa; Baba, Yoshinobu

    2013-12-30

    Quantum dots (QDs) have received much attention for biomolecule and cell imaging applications because of their superior optical properties such as high quantum efficiency, size-tunable emission, and resistance to photobleaching process. However, QDs that are commercially available contain cadmium (Cd), a highly toxic element. Thus, the development of Cd-free and less toxic QDs is strongly desired. In this study, we developed Cd-free QDs (ZnS-coated ZnS-AgInS2 solid solution nanoparticles with a sulfo group: ZnS-ZAIS-SO3H) and investigated the ability of this material to label stem cells. ZnS-ZAIS-SO3H could be transduced into mouse adipose tissue-derived stem cells (mASCs) using octaarginine peptides (R8), known as cell-penetrating peptides. The optimal ratio of ZnS-ZAIS-SO3H:R8 was found to be 1:100 for labeling mASCs. More than 80% of mASCs labeled with 500 nM ZnS-ZAIS-SO3H were found to be alive, and the proliferation rates of labeled mASCs were maintained at the same rate as that of nonlabeled mASCs. In addition, no abnormalities in the morphology of mASCs labeled with ZnS-ZAIS-SO3H could be observed. These data suggest that ZnS-ZAIS-SO3H may be effective for the labeling of mASCs.

  1. Cadmium Sulfide Nanoparticles Synthesized by Microwave Heating for Hybrid Solar Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Martínez-Alonso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium sulfide nanoparticles (CdS-n are excellent electron acceptor for hybrid solar cell applications. However, the particle size and properties of the CdS-n products depend largely on the synthesis methodologies. In this work, CdS-n were synthetized by microwave heating using thioacetamide (TA or thiourea (TU as sulfur sources. The obtained CdS-n(TA showed a random distribution of hexagonal particles and contained TA residues. The latter could originate the charge carrier recombination process and cause a low photovoltage (Voc, 0.3 V in the hybrid solar cells formed by the inorganic particles and poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT. Under similar synthesis conditions, in contrast, CdS-n synthesized with TU consisted of spherical particles with similar size and contained carbonyl groups at their surface. CdS-n(TU could be well dispersed in the nonpolar P3HT solution, leading to a Voc of about 0.6–0.8 V in the resulting CdS-n(TU : P3HT solar cells. The results of this work suggest that the reactant sources in microwave methods can affect the physicochemical properties of the obtained inorganic semiconductor nanoparticles, which finally influenced the photovoltaic performance of related hybrid solar cells.

  2. GLASS AND GLASS-DERIVATIVE SEALS FOR USE IN ENERGY-EFFICIENT FUEL CELLS AND LAMPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Misture; Arun Varshneya; Matthew Hall; Sylvia DeCarr; Steve Bancheri

    2004-08-15

    As the project approaches the end of the first year, the materials screening components of the work are ahead of schedule, while all other tasks are on schedule. For solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), a series of 16 sealing glasses have been prepared and characterized. Traditional melting was used to prepare all of the glasses, and the sol-gel approach has been used to prepare some of the glasses as well as other compositions that might be viable because of the low processing temperatures afforded by the sol-gel method. The glass characterization included measurements of the viscosity and thermal expansion of the glasses, as well as the thermal expansion of the partly crystalline glass ceramics. In addition, the wetting and sintering behavior of all glasses has been measured, as well as the crystallization behavior. The time and temperature at which crystalline phases form from the glasses has been determined for all of the glasses. Each glass ceramic contains at least two crystalline phases, and most of the crystalline phases have been positively identified. Room temperature leak testing has been completed for all sealants, and experiments are in progress to determine the DC electrochemical degradation and degradation in wet hydrogen. The second component of the work, focused on seals for higher-temperature discharge lighting, has focused on determining the phase relations in the yttria--alumina--silica system at various silica levels. Again, traditional melting and sol-gel synthesis have been employed, and the sol-gel method was successful for preparing new phases that were discovered during the work. High temperature diffraction and annealing studies have clarified the phase relations for the samples studies, although additional work remains. Four new phases have been identified and synthesized in pure form, from which full structure solutions were obtained as well as the anisotropic thermal expansion for each phase. Functional testing of lamps are on on-going and

  3. Electrolyte management considerations in modern nickel hydrogen and nickel cadmium cell and battery designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaller, L. H.; Zimmerman, A. H.

    1995-04-01

    In the early 1980's the NASA Lewis group addressed the topic of designing nickel hydrogen cells for LEO applications. As published in 1984, the design addressed the topics of gas management, liquid management, plate expansion, and the recombination of oxygen during overcharge. This design effort followed principles set forth in an earlier Lewis paper that addressed the topic of pore size engineering. At about that same time, the beneficial effect on cycle life of lower electrolyte concentrations was verified by Hughes Aircraft as part of a Lewis funded study. A succession of life cycle tests of these concepts have been carried out that essentially verified all of this earlier work. During these past two decades, some of the mysteries involved in the active material of the nickel electrode have been resolved by careful research efforts carried out at several laboratories. At The Aerospace Corporation, Dr. Zimmerman has been developing a sophisticated model of an operating nickel hydrogen cell which will be used to model certain mechanisms that have contributed to premature failures in nickel hydrogen and nickel cadmium cells. During the course of trying to understand and model abnormal nickel hydrogen cell behaviors, we have noted that not enough attention has been paid to the potassium ion content in these cells, and more recently batteries. Several of these phenomenon have been well known in the area of alkaline fuel cells, but only recently have they been examined as they might impact alkaline cell designs. This paper will review three general areas where the potassium ion content can impact the performance and life of nickel hydrogen and nickel cadmium devices, Once these phenomenon are understood conceptually, the impact of potassium content on a potential cell design can be evaluated with the aid of an accurate model of an operating cell or battery. All three of these areas are directly related to the volume tolerance and pore size engineering aspects of the

  4. The growth inhibitory effects of cadmium and copper on the MDA-MB468 human breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Panjehpour

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cadmium chloride is an important occupational and environmental pollutant. However, it can also be anti-carcinogenic under certain conditions. Copper, an essential trace element, has the ability to generate reactive oxygen species and induce cell apoptosis. This study was aimed to determine the growth inhibitory effects of cadmium and copper on the MDA-MB468 human breast cancer cells. Methods: By using MTT cell viability test, treatment of monolayer cell cultures with different metal concentrations (1-1000 μM showed a significant dose dependent decrease (p < 0.05 of viable cells in different times. Results: A considerable cytotoxicity was observed for CdCl2 at 200 μM and 1 μM after 48 and 72 hours incubations, respectively. The highest concentration of CuCl2 (1000 μM had little cytotoxic effects after 48 hours incubation period, but 1 μM of CuCl2 revealed a considerable cytotoxicity after 72 hours. The maximum synergic cytotoxic effect was observed at 0.5 μM of both metals. Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate that cytotoxic effect of CuCl2 is somehow lesser than that of CdCl2. This may be due to vital role of copper which is not known for cadmium so far.

  5. Characterization of cadmium transport in hepatopancreatic cells of a mangrove crab Ucides cordatus: The role of calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Priscila; Custódio, Marcio R; Zanotto, Flavia P

    2017-07-01

    Cadmium is a toxic metal, present in batteries and discarded in estuaries and mangrove habitats. Apart from that, it is a non-essential metal that causes toxic effects in many organisms. Cadmium accumulates in gills and hepatopancreas of crustaceans and its route into the cell is unknown. It is possible that occurs by calcium channels or calcium transporters. The objective of this study was to characterize the transport of cadmium and the role of calcium in different cell types from hepatopancreas of the mangrove crab Ucides cordatus. For this, the hepatopancreas was dissociated by magnetic stirring and after that separated by a sucrose gradient. Then, the cells were labeled with FluoZin-3 AM and different CdCl2 concentrations were added together with a variety of inhibitors. The results showed that Cd(2+) transport occurs differently in each cell type from hepatopancreas and is partially explained by the function the cells perform in this organ. Embryonic (E) and Resorptive (R) cells transported more Cd(2+) compared to Fibrillar (F) and Blister (B) cells. R cells responded to Ca(2+) channel inhibitors and intracellular Ca(2+) manipulations positively, as the other cell types and in a stronger way. B cells were the least responsive to Ca(2+) channel inhibitors and, unlike the other cells, showed a competition of Cd(2+) with intracellular Ca(2+) manipulations. The results indicate that Ca(2+) affects the transport of Cd(2+) in hepatopancreatic cells of Ucides cordatus and uses Ca(2+) channels to enter these cells. In addition, information about Ca concentration could be used as a mitigating factor for Cd accumulation in crabs' hepatopancreas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Organization of amplified metallothionein (MT) genes in cadmium-resistant Chinese hamster cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrand, C.; Grady, D.; Meincke, L.; Clark, L.; Qui, X.; Fehrenbach, S.; Brown, N.; Jones, M.; Longmire, J.; Moyzis, R.

    1987-05-01

    In the parental, cadmium-sensitive, CHO cells, two MT genes (MT-I and II) have been cloned and shown to encompass approx.9 Kb of DNA. Both genes demonstrate the canonical intron-exon organization observed for other mammalian MT genes. Chromosome walking has been employed to study the organization of the MT genes in amplified cell lines. Using DNA from a highly-amplified cell line, Cd/sup r/ 200 T1, a genomic library was constructed in lambda Ch35 by standard procedures. Recombinants containing sequences complementary to a MT-II cDNA probe were isolated and characterized. Restriction enzyme analyses of these recombinants have extended the map of the MT-I and II gene region to encompass approx.35 Kb of DNA and indicate stability of the amplified genome over this region. A single SacII restriction site has been identified at the extreme 3' end of the cloned region. Since SacII is an infrequently-cutting restriction enzyme, accelerated long-range restriction mapping of the amplified MT gene region will be possible by combining chromosome walking in the MT gene region with large fragment separation using field-in-version gel electrophoresis.

  7. N-acetylcysteine effectively mitigates cadmium-induced oxidative damage and cell death in Leydig cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Smita; Mitra, Sumonto; Lakhera, Pramesh C; Khandelwal, Shashi

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is known to cause severe damage to various organs including lung, liver, kidney, brain and reproductive system. Several studies have reported the induction of oxidative stress pathways following Cd exposure. Since oxidative stress is also deemed responsible for inducing male infertility, a growing worldwide concern, we tried to understand whether the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) can be a potential therapeutic agent to counter Cd toxicity using primary Leydig cells. This study highlights the initial cellular alterations which culminate in cell death induction. Primary Leydig cells were isolated from 28-day-old male Wistar rats, exposed to various concentrations of Cd in vitro and biochemical and cell death parameters were evaluated to understand the effect of Cd. NAC pre-treatment was done to understand its protective efficacy. Following Cd exposure to Leydig cells in vitro, we found simultaneous intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) increase and reduction in mitochondrial membrane polarization at 30 min, followed by significant induction of reactive oxygen species and MAPK-extracellular-regulated kinases with concurrent glutathione depletion at 1 h, and significant cell death (both necrotic and apoptotic) at 6 and 18 h, respectively. Pre-treatment with NAC abrogated all these toxic manifestations and showed significantly reduced cell death. NAC also rescued the expression of 3-βHSD, a major steroidogenic protein. Taken together, these data illustrated that NAC can be used as a potential protective agent against Cd-induced testicular toxicity, especially with regards to oxidative stress-induced Leydig cell toxicity.

  8. Zinc supplementation protects against cadmium accumulation and cytotoxicity in Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Zhang

    Full Text Available Cadmium ions (Cd2+ have been reported to accumulate in bovine tissues, although Cd2+ cytotoxicity has not been investigated thoroughly in this species. Zinc ions (Zn2+ have been shown to antagonize the toxic effects of heavy metals such as Cd2+ in some systems. The present study investigated Cd2+ cytotoxicity in Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK epithelial cells, and explored whether this was modified by Zn2+. Exposure to Cd2+ led to a dose- and time-dependent increase in apoptotic cell death, with increased intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial damage. Zn2+ supplementation alleviated Cd2+-induced cytotoxicity and this protective effect was more obvious when cells were exposed to a lower concentration of Cd2+ (10 μM, as compared to 50 μM Cd2+. This indicated that high levels of Cd2+ accumulation might induce irreversible damage in bovine kidney cells. Metallothioneins (MTs are metal-binding proteins that play an essential role in heavy metal ion detoxification. We found that co-exposure to Zn2+ and Cd2+ synergistically enhanced RNA and protein expression of MT-1, MT-2, and the metal-regulatory transcription factor 1 in MDBK cells. Notably, addition of Zn2+ reduced the amounts of cytosolic Cd2+ detected following MDBK exposure to 10 μM Cd2+. These findings revealed a protective role of Zn2+ in counteracting Cd2+ uptake and toxicity in MDBK cells, indicating that this approach may provide a means to protect livestock from excessive Cd2+ accumulation.

  9. Bioaccumulation of cadmium by growing Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunsheng; Jiang, Wei; Ma, Ning; Zhu, Yinglian; Dong, Xiaoyan; Wang, Dongfeng; Meng, Xianghong; Xu, Ying

    2014-03-01

    Bioaccumulation via growing cells is a potential technique for heavy metal removal from food materials. The cadmium bioaccumulation characteristics by growing Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated. Z. rouxii displayed powerful cadmium removal ability at low cadmium concentrations, which mainly depended on the intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation. The percentage of intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation of both yeasts obviously decreased with the increase of initial biomass and cadmium concentrations. Low pH and elevated concentrations of zinc and copper significantly decreased the intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation of both yeasts but improved the cadmium tolerance and the cell-surface cadmium bioaccumulation of Z. rouxii. Cadmium removal of Z. rouxii was improved by zinc and copper conditionally. Z. rouxii that possessed more powerful cadmium tolerance and removal ability at low pH and high concentration of competing ions can be developed into a potential cadmium removal agent using in complex food environment in future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Intake of Boron, Cadmium, and Molybdenum enhances rat thyroid cell transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, Emilia; Fici, Laura; Ronchi, Anna; Marandino, Ferdinando; Rossi, Esther Diana; Caristo, Maria Emiliana; Malandrino, Pasqualino; Russo, Marco; Pontecorvi, Alfredo; Vigneri, Riccardo; Moretti, Fabiola

    2017-06-02

    Epidemiologic data in volcanic areas suggest that environmental factors might be involved in the increase of thyroid cancer (TC) incidence. Recent reports indicate that several heavy metals and metalloids are increased in volcanic areas. This study aims to evaluate the combined effect of three of these elements Boron (B), Cadmium (Cd), and Molybdenum (Mo) - all increased in the volcanic area of Mt. Etna, in Italy - on thyroid tumorigenesis in the rat. Female Wistar rats prone to develop thyroid tumors by low-iodine diet and methimazole treatment received ad libitum drinking water supplemented with B, Cd, and Mo at concentrations in the range found in the urine samples of residents of the volcanic area. At 5 and 10 months animals were euthanized, and their thyroid analysed. Statistical analysis was performed with a 2-way unpaired t-test. No toxic effect of the three elements on the growth of the animals was observed. A significant increase of histological features of transformation was observed in thyroid follicular cells of rats treated with B, Cd, and Mo compared with those of control group. These abnormalities were associated with decreased iodine content in the thyroid. This study provides the evidence that slightly increased environmental concentrations of B, Cd, and Mo can accelerate the appearance of transformation marks in the thyroid gland of hypothyroid rats.

  11. Efficient solution-processed small molecule: Cadmium selenide quantum dot bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Vinay, E-mail: drvinaygupta@netscape.net [Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, Organic and Hybrid Solar Cell Group, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi-110012 (India); Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Upreti, Tanvi; Chand, Suresh [Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, Organic and Hybrid Solar Cell Group, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi-110012 (India)

    2013-12-16

    We report bulk heterojunction solar cells based on blends of solution-processed small molecule [7,7′-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-silolo[3,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-2,6-diyl) bis(6-fluoro-4-(5′-hexyl-[2,2′-bithiophen]-5yl)benzo[c] [1,2,5] thiadiazole)] p-DTS(FBTTh{sub 2}){sub 2}: Cadmium Selenide (CdSe) (70:30, 60:40, 50:50, and 40:60) in the device configuration: Indium Tin Oxide /poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/p-DTS(FBTTh{sub 2}){sub 2}: CdSe/Ca/Al. The optimized ratio of p-DTS(FBTTh{sub 2}){sub 2}:CdSe::60:40 leads to a short circuit current density (J{sub sc}) = 5.45 mA/cm{sup 2}, open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) = 0.727 V, and fill factor (FF) = 51%, and a power conversion efficiency = 2.02% at 100 mW/cm{sup 2} under AM1.5G illumination. The J{sub sc} and FF are sensitive to the ratio of p-DTS(FBTTh{sub 2}){sub 2}:CdSe, which is a crucial factor for the device performance.

  12. Biosorption of Cadmium and Manganese Using Free Cells of Klebsiella sp. Isolated from Waste Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yunnan; Cheng, Keke; Li, Zehua; Ma, Xiaohui; Wei, Yahong; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yao

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated a bacterium that was isolated from waste water for its ability to take up cadmium and manganese. The strain, identified both biochemically and by its 16S rRNA gene sequence as Klebsiella, was named Yangling I2 and was found to be highly resistant to heavy metals. Surface characterization of the bacterium via SEM revealed gross morphological changes, with cells appearing as biconcave discs after metal exposure rather than their typical rod shape. The effects of pH, temperature, heavy metal concentration, agitation and biomass concentration on the uptake of Cd(II) and Mn(II) was measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results showed that the biosorption was most affected by pH and incubation temperature, being maximized at pH 5.0 and 30°C, with absorption capacities of 170.4 and 114.1 mg/g for Cd(II) and Mn(II), respectively. Two models were investigated to compare the cells’ capacity for the biosorption of Cd and Mn, and the Langmuir model based on fuzzy linear regression was found to be close to the observed absorption curves and yield binding constants of 0.98 and 0.86 for Cd and Mn, respectively. This strain of Klebsiella has approximately ten times the absorption capacity reported for other strains and is promising for the removal of heavy metals from waste water. PMID:26505890

  13. Synthesis of mercaptosuccinic acid/MercaptoPolyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane coated cadmium telluride quantum dots in cell labeling applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi, Shirin; Ramesh, Bala; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2012-06-01

    An aqueous synthesis method to obtain highly luminescent cadmium telluride nanocrystals is described. We have shown water-soluble semi-conductor quantum dots with high photoluminescence quantum yield have great potential for biological applications. The spectral properties of these nanocrystals can be easily tuned according to their particle size to yield multicolours simultaneously by a single excitation light source. A stable precursor material sodium tellurite is utilised instead of the traditional oxygen sensitive NaHTe or H2Te as Te source. We have introduced mercaptosuccinic acid and propylisobutyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane nanoparticles as novel capping agents to stabilize the nanocrystals, synthesized in borate-citrate buffering system. Inclusion of propylisobutyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane nanoparticles in the capping procedure showed enhanced stability and biocompatibility. The presence of mercaptosuccinic acid/propylisobutyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane coatings was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and average sizes of 2-5 nm by transmission electron microscopy measurements. The functionalized and targeted quantum dots detected cancer cell death on exposure to some anticancer drugs. Studies have indicated that apoptotic cells can activate signaling pathways in dendritic cells via ligation of surface receptors. Cells treated with specific class of pro-apototic drug such as anthracyclines mount an anti-tumour immune response when introduced into mice. Apoptotic cells may be immunogenic or non-immunogenic depending on the presence of calreticulin on the plasma membrane of dying tumour cells. Here the confocal microscopy showed localization of conjugated mercaptosuccinic acid/propylisobutyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane cadmium telluride quantum dots on MCF-7 cells when exposed to cadmium ions at 50 microM, compared to coated quantum dots. We have used cadmium ions as a model drug as certain anticancer

  14. Cadmium Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    using for commercial applications Other zinc alloys Zinc cobalt , tin zinc, zinc iron Passivation Cadmium, ZnNi, SnZn, ZnCo, ZnFe, and...for Change Cadmium passivated with hexavalent chromium has been in use for many decades Cadmium is toxic, and is classified as a priority...Executive Orders 13514 & 13423 DoD initiatives – Young memo (April 2009) DFAR restricting use of hexavalent chromium Allows the use of hexavalent

  15. Exogenous auxin alleviates cadmium toxicity in Arabidopsis thaliana by stimulating synthesis of hemicellulose 1 and increasing the cadmium fixation capacity of root cell walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiao Fang [Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Wang, Zhi Wei [Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Dong, Fang; Lei, Gui Jie [State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Shi, Yuan Zhi [The Key Laboratory of Tea Chemical Engineering, Ministry of Agriculture, Yunqi Road 1, Hangzhou 310008 (China); Li, Gui Xin, E-mail: guixinli@zju.edu.cn [College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zheng, Shao Jian [Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Cd reduces endogenous auxin levels in Arabidopsis. • Exogenous applied auxin NAA increases Cd accumulation in the roots but decreases in the shoots. • NAA increases cell wall hemicellulose 1 content. • Hemicellulose 1 retains Cd and makes it difficult to be translocated to shoots. • NAA rescues Cd-induced chlorosis. -- Abstract: Auxin is involved in not only plant physiological and developmental processes but also plant responses to abiotic stresses. In this study, cadmium (Cd{sup 2+}) stress decreased the endogenous auxin level, whereas exogenous auxin (α-naphthaleneacetic acid, NAA, a permeable auxin analog) reduced shoot Cd{sup 2+} concentration and rescued Cd{sup 2+}-induced chlorosis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Under Cd{sup 2+} stress conditions, NAA increased Cd{sup 2+} retention in the roots and most Cd{sup 2+} in the roots was fixed in hemicellulose 1 of the cell wall. NAA treatment did not affect pectin content and its binding capacity for Cd{sup 2+}, whereas it significantly increased the content of hemicellulose 1 and the amount of Cd{sup 2+} retained in it. There were highly significant correlations between Cd{sup 2+} concentrations in the root, cell wall and hemicellulose 1 when the plants were subjected to Cd{sup 2+} or NAA + Cd{sup 2+} treatment for 1 to 7 d, suggesting that the increase in hemicellulose 1 contributes greatly to the fixation of Cd{sup 2+} in the cell wall. Taken together, these results demonstrate that auxin-induced alleviation of Cd{sup 2+} toxicity in Arabidopsis is mediated through increasing hemicellulose 1 content and Cd{sup 2+} fixation in the root, thus reducing the translocation of Cd{sup 2+} from roots to shoots.

  16. The role of intracellular oxidation in death induction (apoptosis and necrosis) in human promonocytic cells treated with stress inducers (cadmium, heat, X-rays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, A; García-Bermejo, L; Troyano, A; Vilaboa, N E; Fernández, C; de Blas, E; Aller, P

    2001-04-01

    Treatment of U-937 human promonocytic cells with the stress inducers cadmium chloride (2 h at 200 microM), heat (2 h at 42.5 C) or X-rays (20 Gy), followed by recovery, caused death by apoptosis and stimulated caspase-3 activity. In addition, all stress agents caused intracellular oxidation, as measured by peroxide and/or anion superoxide accumulation. However, while pre-incubation with antioxidants (N-acetyl-L-cysteine or butylated hydroxyanisole) inhibited the induction of apoptosis by cadmium and X-rays, it did not affect the induction by heat-shock. Pre-incubation for 24 h with the GSH-depleting agent L-buthionine-[S,R]-sulfoximine (BSO) switched the mode of death from apoptosis to necrosis in cadmium-treated cells. By contrast, BSO only caused minor modifacions in the rate of apoptosis without affecting the mode of death in heat- and X-rays-treated cells. BSO potentiated peroxide accumulation in cells treated with both cadmium and X-rays. However, while the accumulation of peroxides was stable in the case of cadmium, it was transient in the case of X-rays. Moreover, the administration of antioxidants during the recovery period sufficed to prevent necrosis and restore apoptosis in BSO plus cadmium-treated cells. Cadmium and X-rays caused a decrease in intracellular ATP levels, but the decrease was similar in both apoptotic and necrotic cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that (i) stress inducers cause intracellular oxidation, but oxidation is not a general requirement for apoptosis; and (ii) the duration of the oxidant state seems to be critical in determining the mode of death.

  17. Cytocompatibility of direct water synthesized cadmium selenide quantum dots in colo-205 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Torres, Marcos R. [Universidad Metropolitana, Nanomaterials Science Laboratory, School of Science and Technology (United States); Velez, Christian; Zayas, Beatriz [Universidad Metropolitana, ChemTox Laboratory, School of Environmental Affairs (United States); Rivera, Osvaldo [Universidad Metropolitana, Nanomaterials Science Laboratory, School of Science and Technology (United States); Arslan, Zikri [Jackson State University, Department of Chemistry (United States); Gonzalez-Vega, Maxine N. [Universidad Metropolitana, Nanomaterials Science Laboratory, School of Science and Technology (United States); Diaz-Diestra, Daysi; Beltran-Huarac, Juan; Morell, Gerardo [University of Puerto Rico, Molecular Science Research Center (United States); Primera-Pedrozo, Oliva M., E-mail: oprimera1@suagm.edu [Universidad Metropolitana, Nanomaterials Science Laboratory, School of Science and Technology (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Cadmium selenide quantum dots (CdSe QDs), inorganic semiconducting nanocrystals, are alluring increased attraction due to their highly refined chemistry, availability, and super tunable optical properties suitable for many applications in different research areas, such as photovoltaics, light-emitting devices, environmental sciences, and nanomedicine. Specifically, they are being widely used in bio-imaging in contrast to organic dyes due to their high brightness and improved photo-stability, and their ability to tune their absorption and emission spectra upon changing the crystal size. The production of CdSe QDs is mostly assisted by trioctylphosphine oxide compound, which acts as solvent or solubilizing agent and renders the QDs soluble in organic compounds (such as toluene, chloroform, and hexane) that are highly toxic. To circumvent the toxicity-related factor in CdSe QDs, we report the synthesis of CdSe QDs capped with thioglycolic acid (TGA) in an aqueous medium, and their biocompatibility in colo-205 cancer cells. In this study, the [Cd{sup 2+}]/[TGA] ratio was adjusted to 11:1 and the Se concentration (10 and 15 mM) was monitored in order to evaluate its influence on the optical properties and cytocompatibility. QDs resulted to be quite stable in water (after purification) and RPMI cell medium and no precipitation was observed for long contact times, making them appealing for in vitro experiments. The spectroscopy analysis, advanced electron microscopy, and X-ray diffractometry studies indicate that the final products were successfully formed exhibiting an improved optical response. Colo-205 cells being exposed to different concentrations of TGA-capped CdSe QDs for 12, 24, and 48 h with doses ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 mM show high tolerance reaching cell viabilities as high as 93 %. No evidence of cellular apoptotic pathways was observed as pointed out by our Annexin V assays at higher concentrations. Moreover, confocal microscopy analysis conducted to

  18. Oxidative injury induced by cadmium sulfide nanoparticles in A549 cells and rat lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junfeng; Jiang, Chunyang; Alattar, Mohamed; Hu, Xiaoli; Ma, Dong; Liu, Huibin; Meng, Chunyan; Cao, Fuyuan; Li, Weihong; Li, Qingzhao

    2015-01-01

    Rod-shaped cadmium sulfide nanoparticles (CdS NPs) are becoming increasingly important in many industrial fields, but their potential hazards remain unknown. This study aimed to explore the patterns and mechanisms of lung injury induced by CdS NPs. A549 cells and rats were exposed to two types of CdS NPs with a same diameter of 20-30 nm but different lengths, CdS1 (80-100 nm) and CdS2 (110-130 nm). The using doses were included 10 μg/ml and 20 μg/ml two types of CdS NPs for cellular experiments and five times dose of 20 mg/kg body weight for rats' exposure. Methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and trypan blue staining were used to detect the A549 cell mortality percentage. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined in A549 cell. The vigor of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the contents of catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were detected both in A549 cells and in rats' serum and lung tissues. The cellular morphological changes were observed under transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the pathological changes were observed in rats' lung tissue. CdS NPs significantly increased A549 cell mortality percentage. The CdS NPs also increased the levels of ROS and MDA content, whereas they decreased SOD and CAT activities. In parallel, similar changes of the contents of MDA, SOD and CAT were also observed in the sera and lung tissues of CdS NP-treated rats. The cellular TEM detection revealed that two types of CdS nanorods appeared as orderly arranged rounded fat droplets separately and leading to nucleus condensation (CdS1). These cellular and rats' tissues changes in the group treated with CdS1 were more significant than the CdS2 groups. Furthermore, CdS NPs induced many pathological changes, including emphysematous changes in rat lung tissue. Especially visible lung consolidation can be observed in the CdS1 group. CdS NPs induce oxidative injury in the respiratory system, and their toxic effects may be related to grain length.

  19. Synthesis, characterization and toxicological evaluation of maltodextrin capped cadmium sulfide nanoparticles in human cell lines and chicken embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Fragoso Patricia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Semiconductor Quantum dots (QDs have become quite popular thanks to their properties and wide use in biological and biomedical studies. However, these same properties entail new challenges in understanding, predicting, and managing potential adverse health effects following exposure. Cadmium and selenium, which are the major components of the majority of quantum dots, are known to be acutely and chronically toxic to cells and organisms. Protecting the core of nanoparticles can, to some degree, control the toxicity related to cadmium and selenium leakage. Results This study successfully synthesized and characterized maltodextrin coated cadmium sulfide semiconductor nanoparticles. The results show that CdS-MD nanoparticles are cytotoxic and embryotoxic. CdS-MD nanoparticles in low concentrations (4.92 and 6.56 nM lightly increased the number of HepG2 cell. A reduction in MDA-MB-231 cells was observed with concentrations higher than 4.92 nM in a dose response manner, while Caco-2 cells showed an important increase starting at 1.64 nM. CdS-MD nanoparticles induced cell death by apoptosis and necrosis in MDA-MD-231 cells starting at 8.20 nM concentrations in a dose response manner. The exposure of these cells to 11.48-14.76 nM of CdS-MD nanoparticles induced ROS production. The analysis of cell proliferation in MDA-MB-231 showed different effects. Low concentrations (1.64 nM increased cell proliferation (6% at 7 days (p 4.92 nM increased cell proliferation in a dose response manner (15-30% at 7 days. Exposures of chicken embryos to CdS-MD nanoparticles resulted in a dose-dependent increase in anomalies that, starting at 9.84 nM, centered on the heart, central nervous system, placodes, neural tube and somites. No toxic alterations were observed with concentrations of  Conclusions Our results indicate that CdS-MD nanoparticles induce cell death and alter cell proliferation in human cell lines at concentrations higher than 4.92 n

  20. Toxic effects of cadmium on flatworm stem cell dynamics: A transcriptomic and ultrastructural elucidation of underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plusquin, Michelle; De Mulder, Katrien; Van Belleghem, Frank; DeGheselle, Olivier; Pirotte, Nicky; Willems, Maxime; Cuypers, Ann; Salvenmoser, Willi; Ladurner, Peter; Artois, Tom; Smeets, Karen

    2016-10-01

    Stem cells or undifferentiated cells can cope more easily with external stresses. To evaluate the impact of toxic compounds on stem cell dynamics in vivo, in relation to other biological responses, we use the carcinogenic element cadmium and the regenerating model organism Macrostomum lignano. Through both BrdU and anti-histone H3 immunostainings, cadmium-induced effects were investigated at different stages of the stem cell cycle. A 24-h exposure to 100 and 250 μM CdCl2 significantly decreased the number of stem cells (neoblasts) in mitosis, whereas the number of cells in the S phase remained unchanged. After this short-term exposure, the ultrastructure of the neoblasts was minimally affected in contrast to the epidermal tissues. These results were supported by gene expression data: transcripts of cdc2 and pig3 were significantly upregulated during all treatments. Both genes are involved in the cell cycle progression and are transcribed in the gonadal region, where stem cells are highly represented. Based on a substantial increase in gene expression of heat shock proteins (HSP) and their high activity in the gonadal region, we hypothesize that these proteins are key players in the protection of stem cells against external stresses. Apart from the strong HSP induction, other protective processes including cell division, apoptosis and anti-oxidative defence, were also activated. We, therefore, conclude that the protection of stem cells against external stressors may be based on the interplay between stem cell maintenance, i.e. repair and recovery through division, on one hand and apoptosis on the other hand. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1217-1228, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Ferrules seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.L.

    1984-07-10

    A device is provided for sealing an inner tube and an outer tube without excessively deforming the tubes. The device includes two ferrules which cooperate to form a vacuum-tight seal between the inner tube and outer tube and having mating surfaces such that overtightening is not possible. 3 figs.

  2. Ceramic Seal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smartt, Heidi A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Romero, Juan A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Custer, Joyce Olsen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hymel, Ross W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Krementz, Dan [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Gobin, Derek [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Harpring, Larry [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Martinez-Rodriguez, Michael [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Varble, Don [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); DiMaio, Jeff [Tetramer Technologies, Pendleton, SC (United States); Hudson, Stephen [Tetramer Technologies, Pendleton, SC (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Containment/Surveillance (C/S) measures are critical to any verification regime in order to maintain Continuity of Knowledge (CoK). The Ceramic Seal project is research into the next generation technologies to advance C/S, in particular improving security and efficiency. The Ceramic Seal is a small form factor loop seal with improved tamper-indication including a frangible seal body, tamper planes, external coatings, and electronic monitoring of the seal body integrity. It improves efficiency through a self-securing wire and in-situ verification with a handheld reader. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), under sponsorship from the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development (DNN R&D), have previously designed and have now fabricated and tested Ceramic Seals. Tests have occurred at both SNL and SRNL, with different types of tests occurring at each facility. This interim report will describe the Ceramic Seal prototype, the design and development of a handheld standalone reader and an interface to a data acquisition system, fabrication of the seals, and results of initial testing.

  3. Determination of Zinc, Cadmium and Lead Bioavailability in Contaminated Soils at the Single-Cell Level by a Combination of Whole-Cell Biosensors and Flow Cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Hurdebise

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Zinc, lead and cadmium are metallic trace elements (MTEs that are widespread in the environment and tend to accumulate in soils because of their low mobility and non-degradability. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the applicability of biosensors as tools able to provide data about the bioavailability of such MTEs in contaminated soils. Here, we tested the genetically-engineered strain Escherichia coli pPZntAgfp as a biosensor applicable to the detection of zinc, lead and cadmium by the biosynthesis of green fluorescent protein (GFP accumulating inside the cells. Flow cytometry was used to investigate the fluorescence induced by the MTEs. A curvilinear response to zinc between 0 and 25 mg/L and another curvilinear response to cadmium between 0 and 1.5 mg/L were highlighted in liquid media, while lead did not produce exploitable results. The response relating to a Zn2+/Cd2+ ratio of 10 was further investigated. In these conditions, E. coli pPZntAgfp responded to cadmium only. Several contaminated soils with a Zn2+/Cd2+ ratio of 10 were analyzed with the biosensor, and the metallic concentrations were also measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Our results showed that E. coli pPZntAgfp could be used as a monitoring tool for contaminated soils being processed.

  4. Cadmium Modifies the Cell Cycle and Apoptotic Profiles of Human Breast Cancer Cells Treated with 5-Fluorouracil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Madeddu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Industrialisation, the proximity of factories to cities, and human work activities have led to a disproportionate use of substances containing heavy metals, such as cadmium (Cd, which may have deleterious effects on human health. Carcinogenic effects of Cd and its relationship with breast cancer, among other tumours, have been reported. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU is a fluoropyrimidine anticancer drug used to treat solid tumours of the colon, breast, stomach, liver, and pancreas. The purpose of this work was to study the effects of Cd on cell cycle, apoptosis, and gene and protein expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells treated with 5-FU. Cd altered the cell cycle profile, and its effects were greater when used either alone or in combination with 5-FU compared with 5-FU alone. Cd significantly suppressed apoptosis of MCF-7 cells pre-treated with 5-FU. Regarding gene and protein expression, bcl2 expression was mainly upregulated by all treatments involving Cd. The expression of caspase 8 and caspase 9 was decreased by most of the treatments and at all times evaluated. C-myc expression was increased by all treatments involving Cd, especially 5-FU plus Cd at the half time of treatment. Cd plus 5-FU decreased cyclin D1 and increased cyclin A1 expression. In conclusion, our results indicate that exposure to Cd blocks the anticancer effects of 5-FU in MCF-7 cells. These results could have important clinical implications in patients treated with 5-FU-based therapies and who are exposed to high levels of Cd.

  5. Inhibitory effect of plant-originated glycoprotein (27 kDa) on expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in cadmium chloride-induced BNL CL.2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin; Lim, Kye-Taek

    2011-12-01

    Cadmium is very harmful to the environment and to human beings because of its long lifetime. The toxicity of cadmium as an industrial pollutant and a food contaminant, and as one of the major components in cigarette smoke is well known. Cadmium can cause a number of lesions in many organs, such as the kidney, the lung, the liver, the brain, the blood system. However, the mechanism of toxicity of cadmium is not yet clear. Also, it has been well known as human carcinogen which is indirectly caused inflammation-mediated hepatocarcinoma. In the present study it was demonstrated that glycoprotein (27 kDa) isolated from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (GJE) protects BNL CL.2 cells from expression of inflammation-related factors stimulated by cadmium chloride (10 μM). Intracellular ROS and intracellular Ca(2+) using fluorescence, activities of activator protein (AP)-1, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, and arachidonic acid (AA) using immunoblot analysis or radioactivity were evaluated. The results obtained from this experiment indicated that GJE glycoprotein (100 μg/mL) inhibits the production of intracellular ROS, and intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization. Also, it significantly suppressed inflammatory factors [expression of AP-1 (c-Jun and c-Fos), arachidonic acid, COX-2, and MMP-9]. Taken together, these findings suggest that GJE glycoprotein might be used for protection of inflammation caused by cadmium ion as one of natural compounds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Fuel cell integral bundle assembly including ceramic open end seal and vertical and horizontal thermal expansion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafred, Paolo R [Murrysville, PA; Gillett, James E [Greensburg, PA

    2012-04-24

    A plurality of integral bundle assemblies contain a top portion with an inlet fuel plenum and a bottom portion containing a base support, the base supports a dense, ceramic air exhaust manifold having four supporting legs, the manifold is below and connects to air feed tubes located in a recuperator zone, the air feed tubes passing into the center of inverted, tubular, elongated, hollow electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells having an open end above a combustion zone into which the air feed tubes pass and a closed end near the inlet fuel plenum, where the open end of the fuel cells rest upon and within a separate combination ceramic seal and bundle support contained in a ceramic support casting, where at least one flexible cushion ceramic band seal located between the recuperator and fuel cells protects and controls horizontal thermal expansion, and where the fuel cells operate in the fuel cell mode and where the base support and bottom ceramic air exhaust manifolds carry from 85% to all of the weight of the generator.

  7. Data on HepG2 cells changes following exposure to cadmium sulphide quantum dots (CdS QDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Paesano

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The data included in this paper are associated with the research article entitled "Markers for toxicity to HepG2 exposed to cadmium sulphide quantum dots; damage to mitochondria" (Paesano et al. [1]. The article concerns the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of CdS QDs in HepG2 cells and the mechanisms involved. In this dataset, changes in expression levels of candidate genes are reported, together with details concerning synthesis and properties of CdS QDs, additional information obtained through literature survey, measures of the mitochondrial membrane potential and the glutathione redox state.

  8. Stimulation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase is an early regulatory event for the cadmium-induced apoptosis in human promonocytic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, A; García-Bermejo, M L; Troyano, A; Vilaboa, N E; de Blas, E; Kazanietz, M G; Aller, P

    2000-04-14

    Pulse treatment of U-937 promonocytic cells with cadmium chloride (2 h at 200 microM) provoked apoptosis and induced a rapid phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38(MAPK)) as well as a late phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK1/2). However, although the p38(MAPK)-specific inhibitor SB203580 attenuated apoptosis, the process was not affected by the ERK-specific inhibitor PD98059. The attenuation of the cadmium-provoked apoptosis by SB203580 was a highly specific effect. In fact, the kinase inhibitor did not prevent the generation of apoptosis by heat shock and camptothecin, nor the generation of necrosis by cadmium treatment of glutathione-depleted cells, nor the cadmium-provoked activation of the stress response. The generation of apoptosis was preceded by intracellular H(2)O(2) accumulation and was accompanied by the disruption of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, both of which were inhibited by SB203580. On the other hand, the antioxidant agent butylated hydroxyanisole-inhibited apoptosis but did not prevent p38(MAPK) phosphorylation. In a similar manner, p38(MAPK) phosphorylation was not affected by the caspase inhibitors Z-VAD and DEVD-CHO, which nevertheless prevented apoptosis. These results indicate that p38(MAPK) activation is an early and specific regulatory event for the cadmium-provoked apoptosis in promonocytic cells.

  9. Fabrication and sealing performance of rare-earth containing glass–ceramic seals for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdoli, H.; Alizadeh, P.; Agersted, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    The opportunity of using two rare-earth metal oxides in an aluminosilicate glass for seal applications was investigated in this work. Substitution of La2O3 with Y2O3 in the system changed thermal and physical properties such as transition temperature, flowing behavior, and thermal expansion...... containing strontium in the composition, well bonded interface was obtained in contact with 8YSZ and SS430 ferritic stainless steel. The hermeticity of the glass seals was maintained after 100h isothermal aging at 800°C. Also the OCV showed insignificant fluctuations with stable average values after 24...

  10. Prospects of novel front and back contacts for high efficiency cadmium telluride thin film solar cells from numerical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matin, M.A. [Department of Electrical, Electronic and System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Chittagong University of Engineering and Technology (CUET), Chittagong (Bangladesh); Mannir Aliyu, M.; Quadery, Abrar H. [Department of Electrical, Electronic and System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Amin, Nowshad [Department of Electrical, Electronic and System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Solar Energy Research Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Center of Excellence for Research in Engineering Materials (CEREM), College of Engineering, King Saud University, Riyadh 11421 (Saudi Arabia)

    2010-09-15

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin film solar cell has long been recognized as a leading photovoltaic candidate for its high efficiency and low cost. A numerical simulation has been performed using AMPS-1D simulator to explore the possibility of higher efficiency and stable CdS/CdTe cell among several cell structures with indium tin oxide (ITO) and cadmium stannate (Cd{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}) as front contact material, tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}), zinc oxide (ZnO) and zinc stannate (Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}) as buffer layer, and silver (Ag) or antimony telluride (Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}) with molybdenum (Mo) or zinc telluride (ZnTe) with aluminium (Al) as back contact material. The cell structure ITO/i-ZnO/CdS/CdS{sub x}Te{sub 1-x}/CdTe/Ag has shown the best conversion efficiency of 16.9% (Voc=0.9 V, Jsc=26.35 mA/cm{sup 2}, FF=0.783). This analysis has shown that ITO as front contact material, ZnO as buffer layer and ZnTe or Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} back surface reflector (BSR) are suitable material system for high efficiency (>15%) and stable CdS/CdTe cells. The cell normalized efficiency linearly decreased at a temperature gradient of -0.25%/ C for ZnTe based cells, and at -0.40%/ C for other cells. (author)

  11. Seal Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Database of seal counts from aerial photography. Counts by image, site, species, and date are stored in the database along with information on entanglements and...

  12. [Christmas seals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loytved, G

    2006-11-01

    Christmas seals, i. e., special stamps used to decorate or seal Christmas and New Year's mail, were created by the Danish post office clerk E. Holboell. The proceeds from the sale of the stickers were meant to alleviate the suffering of children sick with tuberculosis. The first Christmas seal, showing a portrait of Queen Louise of Denmark, was issued on December 10, 1904. The demand at the post office was enormous. The funds raised exceeded all expectations and made it possible to finance the construction of a sanatorium for tuberculosis children. The idea of Christmas seals spread quickly around the world and ended up being copied in 130 countries. At the beginning of the 20 (th) century, the small stamp with the red double-barred cross became a banner for the crusade against tuberculosis. For many patients, it also represented a symbol of hope for recovery even though this hope, given the cure rates of a sanatorium treatment, only became a reality for a few. Worldwide, Christmas seals were and are colourful and imaginatively designed, mostly with Christmas symbols or motives relating to the fight against tuberculosis. The funds raised through the sale of the seals initially helped to build hospitals and were later also used to screen persons at risk for tuberculosis, to improve housing conditions of patients and for other measures of support. With the decrease of tuberculosis, some organisations discontinued fundraising through Christmas seals while others widened their intended purpose and supported, for example, the prevention of and research on lung diseases. In Germany, Christmas seals are closely connected with the German Central Committee against Tuberculosis. Today the "Kuratorium Tuberkulose in der Welt" is the only organisation in this country that still raises funds by this means. The funds are mostly used to assist developing countries with a high burden of tuberculosis.

  13. Impact of cadmium, cobalt and nickel on sequence-specific DNA binding of p63 and p73 in vitro and in cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adámik, Matej [Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Královopolská 135, 612 65 Brno (Czech Republic); Bažantová, Pavla [Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Královopolská 135, 612 65 Brno (Czech Republic); Department of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of Ostrava, Chittussiho 10, 701 03 Ostrava (Czech Republic); Navrátilová, Lucie; Polášková, Alena [Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Královopolská 135, 612 65 Brno (Czech Republic); Pečinka, Petr [Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Královopolská 135, 612 65 Brno (Czech Republic); Department of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of Ostrava, Chittussiho 10, 701 03 Ostrava (Czech Republic); Holaňová, Lucie [Department of Chemical Drugs, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Palackého 1/3, 61242 Brno (Czech Republic); Tichý, Vlastimil [Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Královopolská 135, 612 65 Brno (Czech Republic); Brázdová, Marie, E-mail: maruska@ibp.cz [Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Královopolská 135, 612 65 Brno (Czech Republic); Department of Chemical Drugs, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Palackého 1/3, 61242 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • DNA binding of p53 family core domains is inhibited by cadmium, cobalt and nickel. • Binding to DNA protects p53 family core domains from metal induced inhibition. • Cadmium, cobalt and nickel induced inhibition was reverted by EDTA in vitro. - Abstract: Site-specific DNA recognition and binding activity belong to common attributes of all three members of tumor suppressor p53 family proteins: p53, p63 and p73. It was previously shown that heavy metals can affect p53 conformation, sequence-specific binding and suppress p53 response to DNA damage. Here we report for the first time that cadmium, nickel and cobalt, which have already been shown to disturb various DNA repair mechanisms, can also influence p63 and p73 sequence-specific DNA binding activity and transactivation of p53 family target genes. Based on results of electrophoretic mobility shift assay and luciferase reporter assay, we conclude that cadmium inhibits sequence-specific binding of all three core domains to p53 consensus sequences and abolishes transactivation of several promoters (e.g. BAX and MDM2) by 50 μM concentrations. In the presence of specific DNA, all p53 family core domains were partially protected against loss of DNA binding activity due to cadmium treatment. Effective cadmium concentration to abolish DNA–protein interactions was about two times higher for p63 and p73 proteins than for p53. Furthermore, we detected partial reversibility of cadmium inhibition for all p53 family members by EDTA. DTT was able to reverse cadmium inhibition only for p53 and p73. Nickel and cobalt abolished DNA–p53 interaction at sub-millimolar concentrations while inhibition of p63 and p73 DNA binding was observed at millimolar concentrations. In summary, cadmium strongly inhibits p53, p63 and p73 DNA binding in vitro and in cells in comparison to nickel and cobalt. The role of cadmium inhibition of p53 tumor suppressor family in carcinogenesis is discussed.

  14. Study of the Stability of Copper Fixed Point in Sealed Cells for Calibration of Noble Metal Thermocouples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser A. Abdel-Aziz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the realization and stability of the freezing point of high purity copper (99.9999% Cu (1084.62 °C in a sealed cell by noble metal thermocouples of Pt-l0%Rh/Pt (type S and Pt-30%Rh/Pt-6%Rh (type B, using a three zone heating furnace. The graphite crucible in the sealed cell is made of ultra high purity carbon to contain 99.9999 % purity Cu metal. The individual difference at Cu freezing point, measured by each thermocouple at the National Institute for Standards (NIS with respect to the value as stated in the ITS-90, is lying within the overall uncertainty of measurements. The expanded uncertainty of measurements was evaluated and expressed as 95% confidence level. The Cu freezing point as measured with type-S thermocouple was found to be 1084.62 °C ± 0.666 °C and that with type B thermocouple was found to be 1084.62 °C ± 0.532 °C.

  15. Investigation on limbal stem cell transplantation with sealing fascial bursa clearance to prevent recurrence of pterygium after excision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Hua Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To explore the clinical effect of pterygium excision combined with autologous conjunctiva graft containing corneal limbal stem cells to seal the clearance between conjunctiva and Tenon capsule for the treatment of pterygium.METHODS:Totally 128 eyes of 110 cases underwent pterygium excision with the operation mentioned above. The recovery of corneal epithelium and the recurrence of pterygium were observed after surgeries.RESULTS:The cases were followed up for 12 or 24mo and the pterygium recurrence rate was 2.3% and 3.9% respectively. Corneal epithelium recovered within 2~3d. There were not any complications.CONCLUSION:Pterygium excision combined with autologous conjunctiva graft containing corneal limbal stem cells to seal the clearance between conjunctiva and Tenon capsule has reliable curative effect and the autologous grafts can be easily obtained. This method can significantly reduce recurrence of pterygium and make the appearance and position of lacrimal caruncles normal. It can decrease postoperative inflammation and improve postoperative recovery. It is an ideal method for pterygium treatment.

  16. Theoretical simulation of performances in CIGS thin-film solar cells with cadmium-free buffer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kang; Sun, Yulin; Zhou, Liyu; Wang, Fang; Wu, Fang

    2017-08-01

    Copper indium gallium selenium (CIGS) thin film solar cells have become one of the hottest topics in solar energy due to their high photoelectric transformation efficiency. To real applications, CIGS thin film is covered by the buffer layer and absorption layer. Traditionally, cadmium sulfide (CdS) is inserted into the middle of the window layer (ZnO) and absorption layer (CIGS) as a buffer layer. However, the application of the GIGS/CdS thin film solar cells has been limited because of the environmental pollution resulting from the toxic cadmium atom. Although zinc sulfide (ZnS) has been proposed to be one of the candidates, the performance of such battery cells has not been investigated. Here, in this paper, we systematically study the possibility of using zinc sulfide (ZnS) as a buffer layer. By including the effects of thickness, concentration of a buffer layer, intrinsic layer and the absorbing layer, we find that photoelectric transformation efficiency of ZnO/ZnS(n)/CIGS(i)/CIGS(p) solar cell is about 17.22%, which is qualified as a commercial solar cell. Moreover, we also find that the open-circuit voltage is ∼0.60 V, the short-circuit current is ∼36.99 mA/cm2 and the filled factor is ∼77.44%. Therefore, our results suggest that zinc sulfide may be the potential candidate of CdS as a buffer layer. Project supported by the NSF of Jiangsu Province (No. BK20131420), the Postgraduate Innovation Project of Jiangsu Province (No. KYLX15_0926), and the NJFU Outstanding Young Scholars Funding.

  17. Prenatal cadmium exposure produces persistent changes to thymus and spleen cell phenotypic repertoire as well as the acquired immune response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holásková, Ida; Elliott, Meenal; Hanson, Miranda L.; Schafer, Rosana [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Cell Biology, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Barnett, John B., E-mail: jbarnett@hsc.wvu.edu [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Cell Biology, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a common environmental contaminant. Adult exposure to Cd alters the immune system, however, there are limited studies on the effects of prenatal exposure to Cd. Pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to an environmentally relevant dose of CdCl{sub 2} (10 ppm) and the effects on the immune system of the offspring were assessed at 20 weeks of age. Prenatal Cd exposure caused an increase in the percent of CD4{sup −}CD8{sup −}CD44{sup +}CD25{sup −} (DN1) thymocytes in both sexes and a decrease in the percent of CD4{sup −}CD8{sup −}CD44{sup −}CD25{sup +} (DN3) thymocytes in females. Females had an increase in the percent of splenic CD4{sup +} T cells, CD8{sup +} T cells, and CD45R/B220{sup +} B cells and a decrease in the percent of NK cells and granulocytes (Gr-1{sup +}). Males had an increase in the percent of splenic CD4{sup +} T cells and CD45R/B220{sup +} B cells and a decrease in the percent of CD8{sup +} T cells, NK cells, and granulocytes. The percentage of neutrophils and myeloid-derived suppressor cells were reduced in both sexes. The percent of splenic nTreg cells was decreased in all Cd-exposed offspring. Cd-exposed offspring were immunized with a streptococcal vaccine and the antibody response was determined. PC-specific serum antibody titers were decreased in Cd exposed female offspring but increased in the males. PspA-specific serum IgG titers were increased in both females and males compared to control animals. Females had a decrease in PspA-specific serum IgM antibody titers. Females and males had a decrease in the number of splenic anti-PspA antibody-secreting cells when standardized to the number of B cells. These findings demonstrate that very low levels of Cd exposure during gestation can result in long term sex-specific alterations on the immune system of the offspring. -- Highlights: ► Prenatal exposure to cadmium alters the immune system of 20 week old offspring. ► The percentage of DN1 and DN3 thymocytes was changed

  18. Mechanisms of cadmium induced genomic instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filipic, Metka, E-mail: metka.filipic@nib.si [National Institute of Biology, Department for Genetic Toxicology and Cancer Biology, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2012-05-01

    Cadmium is an ubiquitous environmental contaminant that represents hazard to humans and wildlife. It is found in the air, soil and water and, due to its extremely long half-life, accumulates in plants and animals. The main source of cadmium exposure for non-smoking human population is food. Cadmium is primarily toxic to the kidney, but has been also classified as carcinogenic to humans by several regulatory agencies. Current evidence suggests that exposure to cadmium induces genomic instability through complex and multifactorial mechanisms. Cadmium dose not induce direct DNA damage, however it induces increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which in turn induce DNA damage and can also interfere with cell signalling. More important seems to be cadmium interaction with DNA repair mechanisms, cell cycle checkpoints and apoptosis as well as with epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression control. Cadmium mediated inhibition of DNA repair mechanisms and apoptosis leads to accumulation of cells with unrepaired DNA damage, which in turn increases the mutation rate and thus genomic instability. This increases the probability of developing not only cancer but also other diseases associated with genomic instability. In the in vitro experiments cadmium induced effects leading to genomic instability have been observed at low concentrations that were comparable to those observed in target organs and tissues of humans that were non-occupationally exposed to cadmium. Therefore, further studies aiming to clarify the relevance of these observations for human health risks due to cadmium exposure are needed.

  19. Immobilization of Trichosporon cutaneum R 57 Cells onto Methylcellulose/SiO2 Hybrids and Biosorption of Cadmium and Copper Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgieva N.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Methylcellulose/Silica (MC/SiO2 hybrids were synthesized via poly step sol-gel method. SiO2 was included into the hybrids from two silica precursors - methyltriethoxysilane (MTES and ethyltrimethoxysilane (ETMS with different quantity of organic part-5, 20 and 50 wt.%. The filamentous yeasts Trichosporon cutaneum strain R 57 was immobilized onto the synthesized MC/SiO2 hybrids. After immobilization the hybrid materials were used in the processes of sorption of cadmium and copper ions. The obtained results of protein content analysis indicated that the amount of protein increased with increasing of MC in the hybrids. It was established that the maximal efficiency of copper and cadmium removal were observed for hybrid materials containing MTES and 50 wt.% MC - 66% and 26% respectively. For ETMS and 50 wt.% MC a high value of copper removal was 56% and for cadmium - 45% removal, respectively. FTIR analysis of free and immobilized cells with metal ions was conducted. SEM images showed successful immobilization of the yeasts cells. Second order model was employed in order to investigate the kinetics of copper and cadmium biosorption.

  20. Caspase-Dependent and Caspase-Independent Pathways Are Involved in Cadmium-Induced Apoptosis in Primary Rat Proximal Tubular Cell Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Zou, Hui; Luo, Tongwang; Long, Mengfei; Bian, Jianchun; Liu, Xuezhong; Gu, Jianhong; Yuan, Yan; Song, Ruilong; Wang, Yi; Zhu, Jiaqiao; Liu, Zongping

    2016-01-01

    We designed this study to investigate whether cadmium induces caspase-independent apoptosis and to investigate the relationship between the caspase-dependent and caspase-independent apoptotic pathways. Cadmium (1.25-2.5 μM) induced oxidative stress in rat proximal tubular (rPT) cells, as seen in the reactive oxygen species levels; N-acetylcysteine prevented this. Cyclosporin A (CsA) prevented mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening and apoptosis; there was mitochondrial ultrastructural disruption, mitochondrial cytochrome c (cyt c) translocation to the cytoplasm, and subsequent caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation. Z-VAD-FMK prevented caspase-3 activation and apoptosis and decreased BNIP-3 (Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19-kDa interacting protein 3) expression levels and apoptosis-inducing factor/endonuclease G (AIF/Endo G) translocation. Simultaneously, cadmium induced prominent BNIP-3 expression in the mitochondria and cytoplasmic AIF/Endo G translocation to the nucleus. BNIP-3 silencing significantly prevented AIF and Endo G translocation and decreased the apoptosis rate, cyt c release, and caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation. These results suggest that BNIP-3 is involved in the caspase-independent apoptotic pathway and is located upstream of AIF/Endo G; both the caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways are involved in cadmium-induced rPT cell apoptosis and act synergistically.

  1. Python fiber optic seal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ystesund, K.; Bartberger, J.; Brusseau, C.; Fleming, P.; Insch, K.; Tolk, K.

    1993-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a high security fiber optic seal that incorporates tamper resistance features that are not available in commercial fiber optic seals. The Python Seal is a passive fiber optic loop seal designed to give indication of unauthorized entry. The seal includes a fingerprint feature that provides seal identity information in addition to the unique fiber optic pattern created when the seal is installed. The fiber optic cable used for the seal loop is produced with tamper resistant features that increase the difficulty of attacking that component of a seal. A Seal Reader has been developed that will record the seal signature and the fingerprint feature of the seal. A Correlator software program then compares seal images to establish a match or mismatch. SNL is also developing a Polaroid reader to permit hard copies of the seal patterns to be obtained directly from the seal.

  2. Occupational exposure to arsenic and cadmium in thin-film solar cell production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinazzè, Andrea; Cattaneo, Andrea; Monticelli, Damiano; Recchia, Sandro; Rovelli, Sabrina; Fustinoni, Silvia; Cavallo, Domenico M

    2015-06-01

    Workers involved in the production of Cd/As-based photovoltaic modules may be routinely or accidentally exposed to As- or Cd-containing inorganic compounds. Workers' exposure to As and Cd was investigated by environmental monitoring following a worst-case approach and biological monitoring from the preparation of the working facility to its decommissioning. Workplace surface contamination was also evaluated through wipe-test sampling. The highest mean airborne concentrations were found during maintenance activities (As = 0.0068 µg m(-3); Cd = 7.66 µg m(-3)) and laboratory simulations (As = 0.0075 µg m(-3); Cd = 11.2 µg m(-3)). These types of operations were conducted for a limited time during a typical work shift and only in specifically suited containment areas, where the highest surface concentrations were also found (laboratory: As = 2.94 µg m(-2), Cd = 167 µg m(-2); powder containment booth: As = 4.35 µg m(-2), Cd = 1500 µg m(-2)). The As and Cd urinary levels (As_u; Cd_u) were not significantly different for exposed (As_u = 6.11±1.74 µg l(-1); Cd_u = 0.24±2.36 µg g(-1) creatinine) and unexposed workers (As_u = 6.11±1.75 µg l(-1); Cd_u = 0.22±2.08 µg g(-1) creatinine). Despite airborne arsenic and cadmium exposure well below the threshold limit value (TLV) when the operation is appropriately maintained in line, workers who are involved in various operations (maintenance, laboratory test) could potentially be at risk of significant exposure, well in excess of the TLV. Nevertheless, the biological monitoring data did not show significant occupationally related arsenic and cadmium intake in workers and no significant changes or differences in arsenic and cadmium urinary level among the exposed and unexposed workers were found. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  3. [Effects of cadmium on testis function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynowicz, Helena; Skoczyńska, Anna; Karczmarek-Wdowiak, Beata; Andrzejak, Ryszard

    2005-01-01

    The deterioration of male fertility, reported in numerous epidemiological studies over past decades, can be connected with growing exposure to environmental toxins. Heavy metals, especially cadmium, is widely spread and extremely toxic. The mechanisms of cadmium toxic effects vary and involve the damage of vascular endothelium, intracellular junctions, germ cells, Leydig and Sertoli cells. Cadmium can increase activity of reactive oxygen species and induce changes in activity of enzymatic systems and inflammatory reactions. The morphological changes caused by cadmium included the necrosis of seminiferous tubiles and interstitial edema. This metal can reduce testosterone synthesis at various levels and deteriorate spermatogenesis. Cadmium is also acknowledged carcinogen with confirmed mutagenic and genotoxic activity. Increasing environmental exposure to cadmium, currently existing occupational exposure and the prevalence of tobacco smoking results in constant increase in the number of diagnosed fertility impairments.

  4. Plastic-bonded electrodes for nickel-cadmium accumulators. Pt. 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrha, J.; Musilova, M.; Jindra, J.; Polydorova, M.; Peizker, J.; Garche, J.; Hauptmann, M.

    1982-07-01

    The oxygen recombination (reduction) rate on plastic-bonded cadmium electrodes in sealed Ni-Cd systems can be controlled by the use of a catalytic mix consisting of active carbon and carbon black either in the pure state or mixed with PTFE. This catalytic mix is either rolled onto the gas side of the plastic-bonded cadmium electrode or added to the active material prior to the preparation of the electrode by a rolling technique. The highest oxygen recombination rate, which surpassed that obtained with commercial pocket-type electrodes, was obtained in both cases by the use of an active carbon, carbon black and PTFE catalytic mix. In this case an optimum three-phase boundary, well known from oxygen electrodes for fuel cells, was established.

  5. Histological and immunohistochemical effects of Curcuma longa on activation of rat hepatic stellate cells after cadmium induced hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mansy, A A; Mazroa, S A; Hamed, W S; Yaseen, A H; El-Mohandes, E A

    2016-01-01

    The liver is a target for toxic chemicals such as cadmium (Cd). When the liver is damaged, hepatic stellate cells (HSC) are activated and transformed into myofibroblast-like cells, which are responsible for liver fibrosis. Curcuma longa has been reported to exert a hepato-protective effect under various pathological conditions. We investigated the effects of C. longa administration on HSC activation in response to Cd induced hepatotoxicity. Forty adult male albino rats were divided into: group 1 (control), group 2 (Cd treated), group 3 (C. longa treated) and group 4 (Cd and C. longa treated). After 6 weeks, liver specimens were prepared for light and electron microscopy examination of histological changes and immunohistochemical localization of alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA) as a specific marker for activated HSC. Activated HSC with a positive αSMA immune reaction were not detected in groups 1 and 3. Large numbers of activated HSC with αSMA immune reactions were observed in group 2 in addition to Cd induced hepatotoxic changes including excess collagen deposition in thickened portal triads, interlobular septa with hepatic lobulation, inflammatory cell infiltration, a significant increase in Kupffer cells and degenerated hepatocytes. In group 4, we observed a significant decrease in HSC that expressed αSMA with amelioration of the hepatotoxic changes. C. longa administration decreased HSC activation and ameliorated hepatotoxic changes caused by Cd in adult rats.

  6. A Comparison between Cytotoxicity Induced by Two Resin Based Sealers (2Seal and AH Plus) in Saos-2 and MG-63 Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, Maryam; Zabihi, Ebrahim; Gharouee, Hamed

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the cytotoxicity induced by two resin-based sealers, 2Seal and AH Plus, in two osteoblast-like cell lines, MG-63 and Saos-2. Using sterile discs of both sealers in complete media, 24- and 72-h extracts were prepared. The extracts were exchanged with Saos-2 or MG-63 cell culture media at 75% confluence, and after 24 h incubation, cell viability tests were performed for each extract and cell line using MTT and trypan blue dye exclusion assays. Corresponding incubated media were used as negative control groups. For both extracts and sealers, cytotoxicity was observed in both cell lines. For Saos-2, there was no statistical difference in toxicity between the sealers for either extract (p > 0.05). For MG-63, the 2Seal 24-h extract and the AH Plus 72-h extract had greater cytotoxicity than the other extracts (p extraction time from 24 to 72 h. The AH Plus and 2Seal 24-h extracts showed different levels of cytotoxicity in the MG-63 cell line, while in the Saos-2 cell line there were no detectable differences. This may reflect higher sensitivity of the MG-63 cell line compared to Saos-2 toward cytotoxicity induced by these two sealers, or different kinetics of toxicant release from the sealers. PMID:24551778

  7. iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis reveals the mechanisms of silicon-mediated cadmium tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Sheng, Huachun; Li, Xiuli; Wang, Lijun

    2016-07-01

    Silicon (Si) can alleviate cadmium (Cd) stress in rice (Oryza sativa) plants, however, the understanding of the molecular mechanisms at the single-cell level remains limited. To address these questions, we investigated suspension cells of rice cultured in the dark environment in the absence and presence of Si with either short- (12 h) or long-term (5 d) Cd treatments using a combination of isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ), fluorescent staining, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). We identified 100 proteins differentially regulated by Si under the short- or long-term Cd stress. 70% of these proteins were down-regulated, suggesting that Si may improve protein use efficiency by maintaining cells in the normal physiological status. Furthermore, we showed two different mechanisms for Si-mediated Cd tolerance. Under the short-term Cd stress, the Si-modified cell walls inhibited the uptake of Cd ions into cells and consequently reduced the expressions of glycosidase, cell surface non-specific lipid-transfer proteins (nsLTPs), and several stress-related proteins. Under the long-term Cd stress, the amount of Cd in the cytoplasm in Si-accumulating (+Si) cells was decreased by compartmentation of Cd into vacuoles, thus leading to a lower expression of glutathione S-transferases (GST). These results provide protein-level insights into the Si-mediated Cd detoxification in rice single cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterization of bacterial and archaeal communities in air-cathode microbial fuel cells, open circuit and sealed-off reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Chehab, Noura A.

    2013-06-18

    A large percentage of organic fuel consumed in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) is lost as a result of oxygen transfer through the cathode. In order to understand how this oxygen transfer affects the microbial community structure, reactors were operated in duplicate using three configurations: closed circuit (CC; with current generation), open circuit (OC; no current generation), and sealed off cathodes (SO; no current, with a solid plate placed across the cathode). Most (98 %) of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) was removed during power production in the CC reactor (maximum of 640 ± 10 mW/m 2), with a low percent of substrate converted to current (coulombic efficiency of 26.5 ± 2.1 %). Sealing the cathode reduced COD removal to 7 %, but with an open cathode, there was nearly as much COD removal by the OC reactor (94.5 %) as the CC reactor. Oxygen transfer into the reactor substantially affected the composition of the microbial communities. Based on analysis of the biofilms using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, microbes most similar to Geobacter were predominant on the anodes in the CC MFC (72 % of sequences), but the most abundant bacteria were Azoarcus (42 to 47 %) in the OC reactor, and Dechloromonas (17 %) in the SO reactor. Hydrogenotrophic methanogens were most predominant, with sequences most similar to Methanobacterium in the CC and SO reactor, and Methanocorpusculum in the OC reactors. These results show that oxygen leakage through the cathode substantially alters the bacterial anode communities, and that hydrogenotrophic methanogens predominate despite high concentrations of acetate. The predominant methanogens in the CC reactor most closely resembled those in the SO reactor, demonstrating that oxygen leakage alters methanogenic as well as general bacterial communities. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  9. Differential DNA methylation profile of key genes in malignant prostate epithelial cells transformed by inorganic arsenic or cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelch, Katherine E.; Tokar, Erik J. [National Toxicology Program Laboratory, Division of the National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Merrick, B. Alex [Molecular Toxicology and Informatics Group, Biomolecular Screening Branch, Division of the National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Morrisville, NC 27560 (United States); Waalkes, Michael P., E-mail: waalkes@niehs.nih.gov [National Toxicology Program Laboratory, Division of the National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Previous work shows altered methylation patterns in inorganic arsenic (iAs)- or cadmium (Cd)-transformed epithelial cells. Here, the methylation status near the transcriptional start site was assessed in the normal human prostate epithelial cell line (RWPE-1) that was malignantly transformed by 10 μM Cd for 11 weeks (CTPE) or 5 μM iAs for 29 weeks (CAsE-PE), at which time cells showed multiple markers of acquired cancer phenotype. Next generation sequencing of the transcriptome of CAsE-PE cells identified multiple dysregulated genes. Of the most highly dysregulated genes, five genes that can be relevant to the carcinogenic process (S100P, HYAL1, NTM, NES, ALDH1A1) were chosen for an in-depth analysis of the DNA methylation profile. DNA was isolated, bisulfite converted, and combined bisulfite restriction analysis was used to identify differentially methylated CpG sites, which was confirmed with bisulfite sequencing. Four of the five genes showed differential methylation in transformants relative to control cells that was inversely related to altered gene expression. Increased expression of HYAL1 (> 25-fold) and S100P (> 40-fold) in transformants was correlated with hypomethylation near the transcriptional start site. Decreased expression of NES (> 15-fold) and NTM (> 1000-fold) in transformants was correlated with hypermethylation near the transcriptional start site. ALDH1A1 expression was differentially expressed in transformed cells but was not differentially methylated relative to control. In conclusion, altered gene expression observed in Cd and iAs transformed cells may result from altered DNA methylation status. - Highlights: • Cd and iAs are known human carcinogens, yet neither appears directly mutagenic. • Prior data suggest epigenetic modification plays a role in Cd or iAs induced cancer. • Altered methylation of four misregulated genes was found in Cd or iAs transformants. • The resulting altered gene expression may be relevant to cellular

  10. Fixed-bed biosorption of cadmium using immobilized Scenedesmus obliquus CNW-N cells on loofa (Luffa cylindrica) sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bor-Yann; Chen, Chun-Yen; Guo, Wan-Qian; Chang, Hao-Wei; Chen, Wen-Ming; Lee, Duu-Jong; Huang, Chieh-Chen; Ren, Nan-Qi; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2014-05-01

    A continuous fixed-bed biosorption process was established for cadmium (Cd) removal by Scenedesmus obliquus CNW-N (isolated from southern Taiwan) cells immobilized onto loofa sponge. This immobilized-cell biosorption process allows better recovery and reusability of the microalgal biomass. The growth of microalgae on the matrix support with appropriate nutrient supplementation could enhance the overall metal removal activity. Major operating parameters (e.g., feeding flow rate, cycle number of medium replacement, and particle diameter of the sponge) were studied for treatability evaluation. The most promising cell growth on the sponge support was obtained at a flow rate of 0.284 bed volume (BV)/min, sponge particle diameter of 1 cm, and with one cycle of medium replacement. The performance of fixed-bed biosorption (adsorption capacity of 38.4 mg, breakthrough time at 15.5 h) was achieved at a flow rate of 5 ml/min with an influent concentration of 7.5 mg Cd/l. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cadmium affects focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in mesangial cells: involvement of CaMK-II and the actin cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Grace; Liu, Ying; Templeton, Douglas M

    2013-08-01

    The toxic metal ion cadmium (Cd(2+)) induces pleiotropic effects on cell death and survival, in part through effects on cell signaling mechanisms and cytoskeletal dynamics. Linking these phenomena appears to be calmodulin-dependent activation of the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK-II). Here we show that interference with the dynamics of the filamentous actin cytoskeleton, either by stabilization or destabilization, results in disruption of focal adhesions at the ends of organized actin structures, and in particular the loss of vinculin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) from the contacts is a result. Low-level exposure of renal mesangial cells to CdCl2 disrupts the actin cytoskeleton and recapitulates the effects of manipulation of cytoskeletal dynamics with biological agents. Specifically, Cd(2+) treatment causes loss of vinculin and FAK from focal contacts, concomitant with cytoskeletal disruption, and preservation of cytoskeletal integrity with either a calmodulin antagonist or a CaMK-II inhibitor abrogates these effects of Cd(2+). Notably, inhibition of CaMK-II decreases the migration of FAK-phosphoTyr925 to a membrane-associated compartment where it is otherwise sequestered from focal adhesions in a Cd(2+)-dependent manner. These results add further insight into the mechanism of the CaMK-II-dependent effects of Cd(2+) on cellular function. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Influence of Arsenic (III, Cadmium (II, Chromium (VI, Mercury (II, and Lead (II Ions on Human Triple Negative Breast Cancer (HCC1806 Cell Cytotoxicity and Cell Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsdale F. Mehari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The hazardous consequences of heavy metal ions (HMIs on human health necessitate the immediate need to probe fundamentally the interactions and cytotoxic effects of HMIs on humans. This study investigated the influence of five toxic HMIs (arsenic (As (III, cadmium (Cd (II, chromium (Cr (VI, mercury (Hg (II, and lead (Pb (II on human TNBC (HCC 1806 cell viability using optical microscopy, trypan blue dye-exclusion assays, and flow cytometry. The TNBC cells were exposed to varying concentrations of HMIs for 24 and 48 hours. We evaluated the influence of the concentrations and duration of HMIs exposure on TNBC cell viability. Light microscopy, cell viability assays, revealed that after 48-hour treatment of TNBC cells with 1 x 10-5 M of As (III, Cd (II, Hg (II, Cr (IV, and Pb (II resulted in cell viabilities of 23%, 34%, 35%, 56%, 91% respectively, suggesting that As (III has the greatest cytotoxicity (77% cell death while Pb (II showed the least (9% cell death. Furthermore, flow cytometry revealed that while Pb (II, As (III and Cr (IV had significant increases in cell death, Hg (II caused a G1 arrest. Together, this study revealed that HMIs cause a differential cytotoxic effect on TNBC cells and suggest that they may have very different genotoxic targets and implications in their mutagenic potential.

  13. Strong, Tough Glass Composites Developed for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Choi, Sung R.

    2005-01-01

    A fuel cell is an electrochemical device that continuously converts the chemical energy of a fuel directly into electrical energy. It consists of an electrolyte, an anode, and a cathode. Various types of fuel cells are available, such as direct methanol fuel cells, alkaline fuel cells, proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells, phosphoric acid fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The salient features of an SOFC are all solid construction and high-temperature electrochemical-reaction-based operation, resulting in clean, efficient power generation from a variety of fuels. SOFCs are being developed for a broad range of applications, such as portable electronic devices, automobiles, power generation, and aeronautics.

  14. Cadmium chloride treatment of rats significantly impairs membrane integrity of mesenchymal stem cells via electrolyte imbalance and lipid peroxidation, a possible explanation of Cd related osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abnosi, Mohammad Husein; Golami, Someyeh

    2017-03-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play an important role in bone health. Cadmium causes osteoporosis, but the exact mechanisms of its effect on MSCs are not known. Rats were treated with cadmium chloride (40 mg/l) in drinking water for six weeks, and then the biochemical and morphological studies on MSCs were carried out as a cellular backup for osteoblasts. Viability and proliferation properties of the cells were evaluated using MTT assay, trypan blue, population doubling number, and colony forming assay. Morphology of the cells and biochemical parameters including activity of metabolic (ALP, AST, and ALT) and antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, and POX) as well as the MDA level (as an indication of lipid peroxidation) were investigated. In addition, intracellular calcium, potassium, and sodium content were estimated. Data was analyzed statistically and P<0.05 was taken as the level of significance. The results showed a significant reduction in viability and proliferation ability of extracted cells when compared to the controls. In addition, it was revealed that the cadmium treatment of rats caused a significant reduction in nuclear diameter and cytoplasm area. Also, there was significant increase in (ALT) and (AST) activity and intracellular calcium and potassium content but no change was observed with sodium content and ALP activity. The results showed [a] significant reduction in the antioxidant enzyme activity and increases in the MDA level. Based on the present study, reduction of viability and proliferation ability of MSCs might be a causative factor of osteoporosis in industrial areas.

  15. MAPK/JNK1 activation protects cells against cadmium-induced autophagic cell death via differential regulation of catalase and heme oxygenase-1 in oral cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Keum-Young; Kim, Sang-Hun; Jung, Ki-Tae; Lee, Hyun-Young; Oh, Seon-Hee

    2017-10-01

    Antioxidant enzymes are related to oral diseases. We investigated the roles of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and catalase in cadmium (Cd)-induced oxidative stress and the underlying molecular mechanism in oral cancer cells. Exposing YD8 cells to Cd reduced the expression levels of catalase and superoxide dismutase 1/2 and induced the expression of HO-1 as well as autophagy and apoptosis, which were reversed by N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC). Cd-exposed YD10B cells exhibited milder effects than YD8 cells, indicating that Cd sensitivity is associated with antioxidant enzymes and autophagy. Autophagy inhibition via pharmacologic and genetic modulations enhanced Cd-induced HO-1 expression, caspase-3 cleavage, and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Ho-1 knockdown increased autophagy and apoptosis. Hemin treatment partially suppressed Cd-induced ROS production and apoptosis, but enhanced autophagy and CHOP expression, indicating that autophagy induction is associated with cellular stress. Catalase inhibition by pharmacological and genetic modulations increased Cd-induced ROS production, autophagy, and apoptosis, but suppressed HO-1, indicating that catalase is required for HO-1 induction. p38 inhibition upregulated Cd-induced phospho-JNK and catalase, but suppressed HO-1, autophagy, apoptosis. JNK suppression exhibited contrary results, enhancing the expression of phospho-p38. Co-suppression of p38 and JNK1 failed to upregulate catalase and procaspase-3, which were upregulated by JNK1 overexpression. Overall, the balance between the responses of p38 and JNK activation to Cd appears to have an important role in maintaining cellular homeostasis via the regulation of antioxidant enzymes and autophagy induction. In addition, the upregulation of catalase by JNK1 activation can play a critical role in cell protection against Cd-induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Turbine with radial acting seal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eng, Darryl S; Ebert, Todd A

    2016-11-22

    A floating brush seal in a rim cavity of a turbine in a gas turbine engine, where the floating brush seal includes a seal holder in which the floating brush seal floats, and a expandable seal that fits within two radial extending seal slots that maintains a seal with radial displacement of the floating brush seal and the seal holder.

  17. Autophagy and gap junctional intercellular communication inhibition are involved in cadmium-induced apoptosis in rat liver cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Hui [College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, and Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, 225009 (China); Zhuo, Liling [College of Life Science, Zaozhuang University, Zaozhuang, Shandong, 277160 (China); Han, Tao; Hu, Di; Yang, Xiaokang; Wang, Yi; Yuan, Yan; Gu, Jianhong; Bian, Jianchun; Liu, Xuezhong [College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, and Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, 225009 (China); Liu, Zongping, E-mail: liuzongping@yzu.edu.cn [College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, and Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, 225009 (China)

    2015-04-17

    Cadmium (Cd) is known to induce hepatotoxicity, yet the underlying mechanism of how this occurs is not fully understood. In this study, Cd-induced apoptosis was demonstrated in rat liver cells (BRL 3A) with apoptotic nuclear morphological changes and a decrease in cell index (CI) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The role of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) and autophagy in Cd-induced apoptosis was investigated. Cd significantly induced GJIC inhibition as well as downregulation of connexin 43 (Cx43). The prototypical gap junction blocker carbenoxolone disodium (CBX) exacerbated the Cd-induced decrease in CI. Cd treatment was also found to cause autophagy, with an increase in mRNA expression of autophagy-related genes Atg-5, Atg-7, Beclin-1, and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) conversion from cytosolic LC3-I to membrane-bound LC3-II. The autophagic inducer rapamycin (RAP) prevented the Cd-induced CI decrease, while the autophagic inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) caused a further reduction in CI. In addition, CBX promoted Cd-induced autophagy, as well as changes in expression of Atg-5, Atg-7, Beclin-1 and LC3. CQ was found to block the Cd-induced decrease in Cx43 and GJIC inhibition, whereas RAP had opposite effect. These results demonstrate that autophagy plays a protective role during Cd-induced apoptosis in BRL 3A cells during 6 h of experiment, while autophagy exacerbates Cd-induced GJIC inhibition which has a negative effect on cellular fate. - Highlights: • GJIC and autophagy is crucial for biological processes. • Cd exposure causes GJIC inhibition and autophagy increase in BRL 3A cells. • Autophagy protects Cd induced BRL 3A cells apoptosis at an early stage. • Autophagy exacerbates Cd-induced GJIC inhibition. • GJIC plays an important role in autophagy induced cell death or survival.

  18. Exposure to Nickel, Chromium, or Cadmium Causes Distinct Changes in the Gene Expression Patterns of a Rat Liver Derived Cell Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    cocarcinogenesis: nickel, arsenic , and chromium. Chem Res Toxicol 21: 28-44. 6. Jarup L, Akesson A (2009) Current status of cadmium as an environmental health...Hickey RJ, Schnaper L, Yue W, Brodie AM, Uitto L, Syvaoja JE, Malkas LH (1996) The human breast cell DNA synthesome: its purification from tumor tissue...synthesome. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 236: 154-165. 38. Gordan JD, Thompson CB, Simon MC (2007) HIF and c-Myc: sibling rivals for control of cancer

  19. Evidence of active transport of cadmium complexing dithiocarbamates into renal and hepatic cells in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gale, G.R. (The Ralph H. Johnson Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Charleston, SC (United States) Department of Pharmacology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States)); Smith, A.B. (The Ralph H. Johnson Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Charleston, SC (United States)); Jones, M.M.; Singh, P.K. (Department of Chemistry and Center in Molecular Toxicology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States))

    1992-01-01

    A study was made of the effects of certain inhibitors of transport systems on the actions of four cadmium (Cd) complexing N,N-disubstituted dithiocarbamates (DTCs) in mobilizing murine renal and hepatic Cd in vivo. Probenecid, the prototypical antagonist of organic anion transport in the kidney, when given 1 hr prior to each DTC, sharply suppressed the DTC-induced reduction of renal Cd but was virtually without effect on mobilization of Cd from liver. Sulfinpyrazone, which blocks tubular reabsorption of uric acid and also inhibits transport of a variety of organic acids, inhibited markedly the mobilization of both renal and hepatic Cd by DTCs. Phlorizin, an inhibitor of tubular sugar reabsorption, did not affect the Cd mobilizing actions of DTCs in any consistent fashion. We propose that the high degree of selectivity of DTCs in mobilizing renal hepatic Cd is dependent, at lest in part, upon active transport of DTCs into these tissues via the organic anion transport systems. This report presents the first evidence that compounds of the (R)[sub 2]NCSS[sup -] class may gain access to intracellular space by an active, carrier-mediated process. (au).

  20. A hemicellulose‐bound form of silicon inhibits cadmium ion uptake in rice (Oryza sativa) cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ma, Jie; Cai, Hongmei; He, Congwu; Zhang, Wenjun; Wang, Lijun

    2015-01-01

    ...‐cell level are poorly understood. Here, a suspension of rice cells exposed to C d and/or S i treatments was investigated using a combination of plant cell nutritional, molecular biological, and physical techniques including in situ...

  1. Triple acting radial seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Todd A [West Palm Beach, FL; Carella, John A [Jupiter, FL

    2012-03-13

    A triple acting radial seal used as an interstage seal assembly in a gas turbine engine, where the seal assembly includes an interstage seal support extending from a stationary inner shroud of a vane ring, the interstage seal support includes a larger annular radial inward facing groove in which an outer annular floating seal assembly is secured for radial displacement, and the outer annular floating seal assembly includes a smaller annular radial inward facing groove in which an inner annular floating seal assembly is secured also for radial displacement. A compliant seal is secured to the inner annular floating seal assembly. The outer annular floating seal assembly encapsulates the inner annular floating seal assembly which is made from a very low alpha material in order to reduce thermal stress.

  2. Damper Spring For Omega Seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclaughlin, Scott T.; Montgomery, Stuart K.

    1993-01-01

    Damper spring reduces deflections of omega-cross-section seal, reducing probability of failure and extending life of seal. Spring is split ring with U-shaped cross section. Placed inside omega seal and inserted with seal into seal cavity. As omega seal compressed into cavity, spring and seal make contact near convolution of seal, and spring becomes compressed also. During operation, when seal dynamically loaded, spring limits deflection of seal, reducing stress on seal.

  3. Comparative In Vitro Toxicity Evaluation of Heavy Metals (Lead, Cadmium, Arsenic, and Methylmercury) on HT-22 Hippocampal Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karri, Venkatanaidu; Kumar, Vikas; Ramos, David; Oliveira, Eliandre; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2017-10-09

    Heavy metals are considered some of the most toxic environmental pollutants. Exposure to heavy metals including lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), and methyl mercury (MeHg) has long been known to cause damage to human health. Many recent studies have supported the hippocampus as the major target for these four metals for inflicting cognitive dysfunction. In the present study, we proposed hippocampal relevant in vitro toxicity of Pb, Cd, As, and MeHg in HT-22 cell line. This study reports, initially, cytotoxic effects in acute, subchronic, chronic exposures. We further investigated the mechanistic potency of DNA damage and apoptosis damage with the observed cytotoxicity. The genotoxicity and apoptosis were measured by using the comet assay, annexin-V FTIC / propidium iodide (PI) assay, respectively. The results of cytotoxicity assay clearly demonstrated significant concentration and time-dependent effects on HT-22 cell line. The genotoxic and apoptosis effects also concentration-dependent fashion with respect to their potency in the range of IC10-IC30, maximal level of damage observed in MeHg. In conclusion, the obtained result suggests concentration and potency-dependent response; the maximal level of toxicity was observed in MeHg. These novel findings support that Pb, Cd, As, and MeHg induce cytotoxic, genotoxic, and apoptotic effects on HT-22 cells in potency-dependent manner; MeHg> As> Cd> Pb. Therefore, the toxicity of Pb, Cd, As, and MeHg could be useful for knowing the common underlying molecular mechanism, and also for estimating the mixture impacts on HT-22 cell line.

  4. Exposure of cultured human proximal tubular cells to cadmium, mercury, zinc and bismuth: toxicity and metallothionein induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodilla, V; Miles, A T; Jenner, W; Hawksworth, G M

    1998-08-14

    The kidney, in particular the proximal convoluted tubule, is a major target site for the toxic effects of various metals. However, little is known about the early effects of these metals after acute exposure in man. In the present study we have evaluated the toxicity of several inorganic metal compounds (CdCl2, HgCl2, ZnCl2, and Bi(NO3)3) and the induction of metallothionein by these compounds in cultured human proximal tubular (HPT) cells for up to 4 days. The results showed that bismuth was not toxic even at the highest dose (100 microM) used, while zinc, cadmium and mercury exhibited varying degrees of toxicity, zinc being the least toxic and mercury the most potent. A significant degree of interindividual variation between the different isolates used in these experiments was also observed. All metals used in the present study induced MT, as revealed by immunocytochemistry. All metals showed maximal induction between 1 and 3 days after treatment. Although a certain amount of constitutive MT was present in the cultures, the intensity of the staining varied with time in culture and between the different isolates studied. No correlation could be made between the intensity of the staining in control cultures (indicating total amount of constitutive MT) and the susceptibility of a given isolate to metal toxicity. Furthermore, no correlation could be made between metal-induced MT and the susceptibility of a given isolate to that particular metal.

  5. Cadmium bioavailability from vegetable and animal-based foods assessed with in vitro digestion/caco-2 cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunhabundit, Rodjana; Srianujata, Songsak; Bunyaratvej, Ahnond; Kongkachuichai, Ratchanee; Satayavivad, Jutamadd; Kaojarern, Sming

    2011-02-01

    Chronic dietary cadmium (Cd) exposure results in kidney dysfunction and decrease in bone mineral density. To determine and compare the bioavailability of Cd from vegetable and animal-based foods. Caco-2 cells were exposed to Cd in boiled pig kidney, ark shell, kale, raw kale, mixed boiled pig kidney with raw kale and CdCl2 after in vitro digestion. Then cellular Cd uptake from the digests and reference CdCl2 solution was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. Cd bioavailability from animal-based foods was higher than that from vegetable-based foods. In addition, raw kale exhibited an inhibitory effect on Cd bioavailability when mixed with boiled pig kidney. However Cd in kale was increasingly absorbed after boiling. Cd binding to different molecular species, other food components in vegetable and animal-based foods, food combination, as well as cooking processes influenced the uptake of dietary Cd. A relative bioavailability factor accounted for the food matrix might be necessary for exposure assessment and consequently for estimation and prevention of the risk of dietary Cd.

  6. Reviews of the environmental effects of pollutants: IV. Cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammons, A.S.; Huff, J.E.; Braunstein, H.M.; Drury, J.S.; Shriner, C.R.; Lewis, E.B.; Whitfield, B.L.; Towill, L.E.

    1978-06-01

    This report is a comprehensive, multidisciplinary review of the health and environmental effects of cadmium and specific cadmium derivatives. More than 500 references are cited. The cadmium body burden in animals and humans results mainly from the diet. In the United States, the normal intake of cadmium for adult humans is estimated at about 50 ..mu..g per day. Tobacco smoke is a significant additional source of cadmium exposure. The kidneys and liver together contain about 50% of the total cadmium body burden. Acute cadmium poisoning is primarily an occupational problem, generally from inhalation of cadmium fumes or dusts. In the general population, incidents of acute poisoning by inhaled or ingested cadmium or its compounds are relatively rare. The kidney is the primary target organ for toxicity from prolonged low-level exposure to cadmium. No causal relationship has been established between cadmium exposure and human cancer, although a possible link between cadmium and prostate cancer has been indicated. Cadmium has been shown to be teratogenic in rats, hamsters, and mice, but no such effects have been proven in humans. Cadmium has been reported to increase the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells and in human peripheral leukocytes. The major concern about environmental cadmium is the potential effects on the general population. There is no substantial evidence of hazard from current levels of cadmium in air, water, or food. However, because cadmium is a cumulative poison and because present intake provides a relatively small safety margin, there are adequate reasons for concern over possible future increases in background levels.

  7. Cytotoxic effects of cadmium and zinc co-exposure in PC12 cells and the underlying mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mostafizur; Ukiana, Junki; Uson-Lopez, Rachael; Sikder, Md Tajuddin; Saito, Takeshi; Kurasaki, Masaaki

    2017-05-01

    Cadmium (Cd(2+)) is a well studied inducer of cellular necrosis and apoptosis. Zinc (Zn(2+)) is known to inhibit apoptosis induced by toxicants including Cd(2+) both in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism of Zn(2+)-mediated protection from Cd(2+)-induced cytotoxicity is not established. In this study, we aimed to understand the effects of Zn(2+) on Cd(2+)-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis using PC12 cells. Cell viability and DNA fragmentation assays in PC12 cells exposed to Cd(2+) and/or Zn(2+) revealed that Cd(2+) (5 and 10 μmol/L) alone induced significant cell death, and co-exposure to Zn(2+) (5, 10, and 100 μmol/L) for 48 h had a protective effect. Assessment of intracellular free sulfhydryl levels and lactate dehydrogenase activity suggested that Cd(2+) (10 μmol/L) induced oxidative stress and disrupted cell membrane integrity. Addition of Zn(2+) (10 and 100 μmol/L) reduced Cd(2+)-mediated cytotoxicity. Changes in expression of the apoptotic factors Bax, Bcl-2, Bcl-x, and cytochrome c were measured via western blot and expression of caspase 9 was detected via reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Western blots showed that Zn(2+) (10 and 100 μmol/L) suppressed Cd(2+)-induced apoptosis (10 μmol/L) by reducing cytochrome c release into the cytosol, and downregulating the proapoptotic protein, Bax. In addition, expression of caspase 9 was lower in Cd(2+) (5 μmol/L)-treated PC12 cells when co-treated with Zn(2+) (2 and 5 μmol/L). These findings suggest that the effective inhibition of Cd(2+)-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells by Zn(2+) might be due to suppression of mitochondrial apoptosis pathway and inhibition of Cd(2+)-induced production of reactive oxygen species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A reliable sealing method for microbatteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuxing; Cartmell, Samuel; Li, Qiuyan; Xiao, Jie; Li, Huidong; Deng, Zhiqun Daniel; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2017-02-01

    With continuous downsizing of electronic devices, lithium batteries of traditional shapes cannot meet the demand where small-size high energy density batteries are needed. Conventional sealing methods become increasingly difficult to apply and impose high processing cost as the size of batteries decreases. In this report, a facile sealing method is proposed and demonstrated in CFx/Li mini-batteries. The method employs a temporary barrier to liquid electrolytes while relies on the epoxies/cell casings bond for the hermetic sealing. Cells sealed by this method show no degradation for an extended period of storage time.

  9. Evolution of oxygenated cadmium sulfide (CdS:O) during high-temperature CdTe solar cell fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meysing, Daniel M.; Reese, Matthew O.; Warren, Charles W.; Abbas, Ali; Burst, James M.; Mahabaduge, Hasitha P.; Metzger, Wyatt K.; Walls, John M.; Lonergan, Mark C.; Barnes, Teresa M.; Wolden, Colin A.

    2016-12-01

    Oxygenated cadmium sulfide (CdS:O) produced by reactive sputtering has emerged as a promising alternative to conventional CdS for use as the n-type window layer in CdTe solar cells. Here, complementary techniques are used to expose the window layer (CdS or CdS:O) in completed superstrate devices and combined with a suite of materials characterization to elucidate its evolution during high temperature device processing. During device fabrication amorphous CdS:O undergoes significant interdiffusion with CdTe and recrystallization, forming CdS1-yTey nanocrystals whose Te fraction approaches solubility limits. Significant oxygen remains after processing, concentrated in sulfate clusters dispersed among the CdS1-yTey alloy phase, accounting for ~30% of the post-processed window layer based on cross-sectional microscopy. Interdiffusion and recrystallization are observed in devices with un-oxygenated CdS, but to a much lesser extent. Etching experiments suggest that the CdS thickness is minimally changed during processing, but the CdS:O window layer is reduced from 100 nm to 60-80 nm, which is confirmed by microscopy. Alloying reduces the band gap of the CdS:O window layer to 2.15 eV, but reductions in thickness and areal density improve its transmission spectrum, which is well matched to device quantum efficiency. The changes to the window layer in the reactive environments of device fabrication are profoundly different than what occurs by thermal annealing in an inert environment, which produced films with a band gap of 2.4 eV for both CdS and CdS:O. These results illustrate for the first time the significant changes that occur to the window layer during processing that are critical to the performance of CdTe solar cells.

  10. Cadmium-free sugar-chain-immobilized fluorescent nanoparticles containing low-toxicity ZnS-AgInS2 cores for probing lectin and cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinchi, Hiroyuki; Wakao, Masahiro; Nagata, Nonoka; Sakamoto, Masaya; Mochizuki, Eiko; Uematsu, Taro; Kuwabata, Susumu; Suda, Yasuo

    2014-02-19

    Sugar chains play a significant role in various biological processes through sugar chain-protein and sugar chain-sugar chain interactions. To date, various tools for analyzing sugar chains biofunctions have been developed. Fluorescent nanoparticles (FNPs) functionalized with carbohydrate, such as quantum dots (QDs), are an attractive imaging tool for analyzing carbohydrate biofunctions in vitro and in vivo. Most FNPs, however, consist of highly toxic elements such as cadmium, tellurium, selenium, and so on, causing problems in long-term bioimaging because of their cytotoxicity. In this study, we developed cadmium-free sugar-chain-immobilized fluorescent nanoparticles (SFNPs) using ZnS-AgInS2 (ZAIS) solid solution nanoparticles (NPs) of low or negligible toxicity as core components, and investigated their bioavailability and cytotoxicity. SFNPs were prepared by mixing our originally developed sugar-chain-ligand conjugates with ZAIS/ZnS core/shell NPs. In binding experiments with lectin, the obtained ZAIS/ZnS SFNPs interacted with an appropriate lectin to give specific aggregates, and their binding interaction was visually and/or spectroscopically detected. In addition, these SFNPs were successfully utilized for cytometry analysis and cellular imaging in which the cell was found to possess different sugar-binding properties. The results of the cytotoxicity assay indicated that SFNPs containing ZAIS/ZnS have much lower toxicity than those containing cadmium. These data strongly suggest that our designed SFNPs can be widely utilized in various biosensing applications involved in carbohydrates.

  11. Dose-response relationships in gene expression profiles in a harbor seal B lymphoma cell line exposed to 17α-ethinyl estradiol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Kleinert

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The determination of changes in gene expression profiles with xenobiotic dose will allow identifying biomarkers and modes of toxicant action. The harbor seal (Phoca vitulina 11B7501 B lymphoma cell line was exposed to 1, 10, 100, 1000, 10,000, or 25,000 μg/L 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2, the active compound of the contraceptive pill for 24 h. Following exposure, RNA was extracted and transformed into cDNA. Transcript expression in exposed vs. control lymphocytes was analyzed via RT-qPCR to identify genes with altered expression. Our analysis indicates that gene expression for all but the reference gene varied with dose, suggesting that different doses induce distinct physiological responses. These findings demonstrate that RT-qPCR could be used to identify immunotoxicity and relative dose in harbor seal leukocytes.

  12. Flexible sliding seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallenhorst, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    Circular seal both slides and flexes to accomodate relative motion between two sealed members. Originally developed for Space Shuttle orbiter, it contains sliding seal to accommodate engine gimbaling and flexible seal that absorbs forward motion at high thrust of engine heat shield relative to airframe. Other possible applications are in support structures of heavy machinery and vehicle engines. Flexible sliding seal is ring about 7 feet in diameter and can withstand temperatures up to 1,600 F.

  13. Enhanced Performance of Nanoporous Titanium Dioxide Solar Cells Using Cadmium Sulfide and Poly(3-hexylthiophene Co-Sensitizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugathas Thanihaichelvan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the effect of co-sensitization of nanoporous titanium dioxide using Cadmium Sulfide (CdS and poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT on the performance of hybrid solar cells. CdS nanolayer with different thicknesses was grown on Titanium Dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticles by chemical bath deposition technique with varying deposition times. Both atomic force microscopy (AFM and UV–Vis–NIR spectroscopy measurements of TiO2 electrode sensitized with and without CdS layer confirm that the existence of CdS layer on TiO2 nanoparticles. AFM images of CdS-coated TiO2 nanoparticles show that the surface roughness of the TiO2 nanoparticle samples decreases with increasing CdS deposition times. Current density–voltage and external quantum efficiency (EQE measurements were carried out for corresponding solar cells. Both short circuit current density (JSC and fill factor were optimized at the CdS deposition time of 12 min. On the other hand, a steady and continuous increment in the open circuit voltage (VOC was observed with increasing CdS deposition time and increased up to 0.81 V when the deposition time was 24 min. This may be attributed to the increased gradual separation of P3HT and TiO2 phases and their isolation at the interfaces. The higher VOC of 0.81 V was due to the higher built-in voltage at the CdS–P3HT interface when compared to that at the TiO2–P3HT interface. Optimized nanoporous TiO2 solar cells with CdS and P3HT co-sensitizers showed external quantum efficiency (EQE of over 40% and 80% at the wavelengths corresponding to strong absorption of the polymer and CdS, respectively. The cells showed an overall average efficiency of over 2.4% under the illumination of 70 mW/cm2 at AM 1.5 condition.

  14. Emergence of Form from Function - Mechanical Engineering Approaches to Probe the Role of Stem Cell Mechanoadaptation in Sealing Cell Fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knothe Tate, Melissa L; Gunning, Peter W; Sansalone, Vittorio

    2016-10-14

    Stem cell "mechanomics" refers to the effect of mechanical cues on stem cell and matrix biology, where cell shape and fate are intrinsic manifestations of form and function. Before specialization, the stem cell itself serves as a sensor and actuator; its structure emerges from its local mechanical milieu as the cell adapts over time. Coupling of novel spatiotemporal imaging and computational methods allows for linking of the energy of adaptation to the structure, biology and mechanical function of the cell. Cutting edge imaging methods enable probing of mechanisms by which stem cells' emergent anisotropic architecture and fate commitment occurs. A novel cell-scale model provides a mechanistic framework to describe stem cell growth and remodeling through mechanical feedback; making use of a generalized virtual power principle, the model accounts for the rate of doing work or the rate of using energy to effect the work. This coupled approach provides a basis to elucidate mechanisms underlying the stem cell's innate capacity to adapt to mechanical stimuli as well as the role of mechanoadaptation in lineage commitment. An understanding of stem cell mechanoadaptation is key to deciphering lineage commitment, during prenatal development, postnatal wound healing, and engineering of tissues.

  15. Superstrate and substrate type cadmium telluride solar cells and monolithic integration of photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matulionis, Ilvydas

    This dissertation describes the fabrication of polycrystalline CdTe-based solar cells and monolithic integration of photovoltaic devices into modules using laser scribing. We have improved the efficiency of sputtered superstrate type CdTe solar cells, including devices with unconventionally thin absorber, built world-record efficiency substrate type CdTe solar cells, observed effects related to interfacial layers, and investigated the use of 7 different types of lasers for scribing of materials used for CdTe and CuInGaSe2 solar cells. We have fabricated CdTe/CdS solar cells using magnetron sputtering with conversion efficiencies of 12.5%. As the thickness of CdTe is reduced to less than 1 mum, devices still maintain efficiencies near 10%. Thinning of the CdTe layer would make manufacturing of solar modules more economical. We have built inverted (substrate) configuration CdTe solar cells with state-of-the-art efficiencies of 7.8%. We find that tellurium and sulfur interdiffusion is strongly inhibited in substrate type cells due to the fact that the CdS is grown on fully formed CdTe grains. We have optimized a sputtering process for aluminum-doped ZnO, achieved a resistivity of 5 x 10-4 O-cm, and fabricated 5.8% efficient substrate type CdTe solar cells with the ZnO:Al top contact. We have researched the effect of a high resistivity (HR) layer between the CdS and a transparent conducting oxide. Cells with the HR layer maintain higher efficiencies as the thickness of the CdS is reduced to 60 nm and less. We have investigated the use of 7 different types of lasers for scribing of the polycrystalline materials used for CdTe and CuIn(Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin-film solar cells. The lasers included four different Nd:YAG (532 and 1064 nm), a Cu vapor (511 and 578 nm) and two excimers (308 and 248 nm). Pulse durations ranged from 0.1 to 250 ns. We find that most wavelength and pulse duration combinations work well for the thin-film materials. ZnO should be scribed with an

  16. Rotary shaft sealing assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietle, Lannie L.; Schroeder, John E.; Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Alvarez, Patricio D.

    2010-09-21

    A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be used to define a lubricant-filled region with each of the seals having hydrodynamic inlets facing the lubricant-filled region. Another aspect of the sealing assembly is having a seal to contain pressurized lubricant while withstanding high rotary speeds. Another rotary shaft sealing assembly embodiment includes a lubricant supply providing a lubricant at an elevated pressure to a region between a lip seal and a hydrodynamic seal with a flow control regulating the flow of lubricant past the lip seal. The hydrodynamic seal may include an energizer element having a modulus of elasticity greater than the modulus of elasticity of a sealing lip of the hydrodynamic seal.

  17. Cadmium sulfide/copper sulfide heterojunction cell research. Technical progress report, September 1-November 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, W.W.; Jonath, A.D.

    1980-02-01

    Several all sputter deposited Cu/sub 2/S/CdS cells have been prepared to date with J/sub SC/ approx. = 3 mA/cm/sup 2/ under simulated AM1 illumination. The best AM1 conversion efficiency obtained is 0.6%. This is shown to be typical of sputtered CdS in Cu/sub 2/S/CdS cells investigated to date. The sputtered Cu/sub 2/S appears to be satisfactory for solar cell applications. Presented evidence indicates that the poor conversion efficiency is due to a low-junction electric field intensity on the CdS side of the heterojunction. A multilayer CdS structure has been developed which may allow the tailoring of the junction electric field intensity to a selected high value to obtain high-junction collection efficiency. Other areas of cell development advances included: (1) determination of effect of Cu cones in Cu/sub 2/S on Cu/sub 2/S/CdS cell performance; (2) solution of CdS pinhole problem; and (3) open circuit voltage improvement by heat treatment.

  18. Development of copper sulfide/cadmium sulfide thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szedon, J.R.; Biter, W.J.; Abel, J.A.; Dickey, H.C.; Shirland, F.A.

    1981-02-27

    The purpose of this work has been to identify aspects of cell fabrication and treatment which are critical for achieving high efficiency Cu/sub 2/S/CdS solar cells. In approaching the problem several comparisons were made of the effects of specific steps in two methods of cell fabrication. These methods had previously given cells of about 6% and a maximum of 9% efficiency. Three areas requiring special attention and specific means to achieve acceptable results were identified. (1) The Cu/sub 2/S/CdS heterojunction area must be minimized. If single source evaporations of CdS are made on substrates whose temperatures (approx. 220/sup 0/C) are monitored and controlled using welded thermocouples, the CdS films will have adequately large grains (grain diameter greater than or equal to 2 ..mu..m) and will not develop significant etch pits during texturing in a mild etchant solution. (2) The termination of the wet barrier processing steps must be done carefully. An acceptable termination involves minimizing the amount of cuprous chloride retained on the cell surface during transfer to a rinsing stage while providing adequate exclusion of air from the space above the surface of the cuprous chloride solution. (3) Once formed, the Cu/sub 2/S layer should not be exposed to high temperatures (>100/sup 0/C) for long periods of time (> 5 min) if surface adsorbed moisture or oxygen are present. Heat treatments in ampoules under flowing hydrogen atmospheres should be preceded and followed by periods of at least 30 minutes at room temperature in the reducing ambient. If all these precautions are taken, wet chemical barrier processing of thermally evaporated CdS films on zinc-plated copper foil substrates yields cells of nearly 8% conversion efficiency without AR coating.

  19. Expression of lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 and relation with cell proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis on preneoplastic changes induced by cadmium chloride in the rat ventral prostate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riánsares Arriazu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA is a phospholipid growth factor involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, inflammation, angiogenesis, wound healing, cancer invasion, and survival. This study was directed to evaluate the immunoexpression of LPA-1, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis markers in preneoplastic lesions induced with cadmium chloride in rat prostate. METHODS: The following parameters were calculated in ventral prostate of normal rats and rats that received Cd in drinking water during 24 months: percentages of cells immunoreactive to LPA-1 (LILPA1, PCNA (LIPCNA, MCM7 (LIMCM7, ubiquitin (LIUBI, apoptotic cells (LIAPO, and p53 (LIp53; volume fraction of Bcl-2 (VFBcl-2; and length of microvessels per unit of volume (LVMV/mm3. Data were analyzed using Student's t-test and Pearson correlation test. RESULTS: The LILPA1 in dysplastic lesions and normal epithelium of Cd-treated rats was significantly higher than those in the control group. Markers of proliferation were significantly increased in dysplastic lesions, whereas some apoptotic markers were significantly decreased. No significant differences between groups were found in VFBcl-2. Dysplastic lesions showed a significant increase of LIp53. The length of microvessels per unit of volume was elevated in dysplastic acini. Statistically significant correlations were found only between LILPA1 and LIUBI. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that LPA-1 might be implicated in dysplastic lesions induced by cadmium chloride development. More studies are needed to confirm its potential contribution to the disease.

  20. Effects of cadmium chloride on the paracellular barrier function of intestinal epithelial cell lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duizer, E.; Gilde, A.J.; Versantvoort, C.H.M.; Groten, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    In the present study we characterized the functional and structural disruption of the paracellular barrier of intestinal epithelium in vitro in relation to cytotoxicity after apical Cd2+ exposure. For that purpose filter-grown Caco-2 and IEC-18 cells were apically exposed to 5 to 100 μM CdCl2 for 4

  1. Subcellular localization of cadmium in the root cells of Allium cepa ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The results indicated that Cd induced several obvious ultrastructural changes such as increased vacuolation, condensed cytoplasm with increased density of the matrix, reduction of mitochondrial cristae, severe plasmolysis and highly condensed nuclear chromatin. Electron dense granules appeared between the cell wall ...

  2. High efficiency cadmium telluride and zinc telluride based thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohatgi, A.; Sudharsanan, R.; Ringel, S.A.; Chou, H.C. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States))

    1992-10-01

    This report describes work to improve the basic understanding of CdTe and ZnTe alloys by growing and characterizing these films along with cell fabrication. The major objective was to develop wide-band-gap (1.6--1.8 eV) material for the top cell, along with compatible window material and transparent ohmic contacts, so that a cascade cell design can be optimized. Front-wall solar cells were fabricated with a glass/SnO{sub 2}/CdS window, where the CdS film is thin to maximize transmission and current. Wide-band-gap absorber films (E{sub g} = 1.75 eV) were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) techniques, which provided excellent control for tailoring the film composition and properties. CdZnTe films were grown by both MBE and MOCVD. All the as-grown films were characterized by several techniques (surface photovoltage spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)) for composition, bulk uniformity, thickness, and film and interface quality. Front-wall-type solar cells were fabricated in collaboration with Ametek Materials Research Laboratory using CdTe and CdZnTe polycrystalline absorber films. The effects of processing on ternary film were studied by AES and XPS coupled with capacitance voltage and current voltage measurements as a function of temperature. Bias-dependent spectral response and electrical measurements were used to test some models in order to identify and quantify dominant loss mechanisms.

  3. Nuclear reactor sealing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEdwards, James A.

    1983-01-01

    A liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor sealing system. The nuclear reactor includes a vessel sealed at its upper end by a closure head. The closure head comprises at least two components, one of which is rotatable; and the two components define an annulus therebetween. The sealing system includes at least a first and second inflatable seal disposed in series in an upper portion of the annulus. The system further includes a dip seal extending into a body of insulation located adjacent a bottom portion of the closure head. The dip seal comprises a trough formed by a lower portion of one of the components, and a seal blade pendently supported from the other component and extending downwardly into the trough. A body of liquid metal is contained in the trough which submerges a portion of the seal blade. The seal blade is provided with at least one aperture located above the body of liquid metal for providing fluid communication between the annulus intermediate the dip seal and the inflatable seals, and a body of cover gas located inside the vessel. There also is provided means for introducing a purge gas into the annulus intermediate the inflatable seals and the seal blade. The purge gas is introduced in an amount sufficient to substantially reduce diffusion of radioactive cover gas or sodium vapor up to the inflatable seals. The purge gas mixes with the cover gas in the reactor vessel where it can be withdrawn from the vessel for treatment and recycle to the vessel.

  4. Inboard seal mounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, John R. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A regenerator assembly for a gas turbine engine has a hot side seal assembly formed in part by a cast metal engine block having a seal recess formed therein that is configured to supportingly receive ceramic support blocks including an inboard face thereon having a regenerator seal face bonded thereto. A pressurized leaf seal is interposed between the ceramic support block and the cast metal engine block to bias the seal wear face into sealing engagement with a hot side surface of a rotary regenerator matrix.

  5. Non-Uniformities in Thin-Film Cadmium Telluride Solar Cells Using Electroluminescence and Photoluminescence: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaunbrecher, K.; Johnston, S.; Yan, F.; Sites, J.

    2011-07-01

    It is the purpose of this research to develop specific imaging techniques that have the potential to be fast, in-line tools for quality control in thin-film CdTe solar cells. Electroluminescence (EL) and photoluminescence (PL) are two techniques that are currently under investigation on CdTe small area devices made at Colorado State University. It is our hope to significantly advance the understanding of EL and PL measurements as applied to CdTe. Qualitative analysis of defects and non-uniformities is underway on CdTe using EL, PL, and other imaging techniques.

  6. Cadmium sulfide membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanhel, Lubomir; Anderson, Marc A.

    1991-10-22

    A method is described for the creation of novel q-effect cadmium sulfide membranes. The membranes are made by first creating a dilute cadmium sulfide colloid in aqueous suspension and then removing the water and excess salts therefrom. The cadmium sulfide membrane thus produced is luminescent at room temperature and may have application in laser fabrication.

  7. A peptide-based fluorescent chemosensor for measuring cadmium ions in aqueous solutions and live cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Wu, Jiang; Liu, Lixuan; Zhou, Panpan; Ge, Yushu; Liu, Dan; Liu, Weisheng; Tang, Yu

    2015-11-07

    A novel peptide fluorescent chemosensor (H2L) with a lysine backbone and both -NH2 sites conjugated with cysteine and dansyl groups has been designed and synthesized by solid phase peptide synthesis with Fmoc chemistry. This chemosensor is a promising analytical tool for detecting Cd(2+) based on the photo-induced electron transfer (PET) effect by turn-on response in 100% aqueous solutions. As designed, H2L exhibits excellent cell permeation and low biotoxicity as well as displaying relatively high selectivity and sensitivity. The chemosensor penetrated live HeLa cells and detected intracellular Cd(2+) by turn-on response. The binding stoichiometry and affinity, interference test, pH sensitivity, fluorescence quantum yield, quantum mechanical calculations, lifetimes, and cytotoxicity of the chemosensor H2L to Cd(2+) were also investigated. Moreover, H2L exhibits low biotoxicity with a limit of detection (LOD) for Cd(2+) of about 52 nM, implying that H2L can be used as a highly selective and sensitive peptide fluorescent chemosensor in biological systems.

  8. Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cadmium stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Luciana Mara Costa; Ribeiro, Frederico Haddad; Neves, Maria Jose [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia], e-mail: luamatu@uol.com.br; Porto, Barbara Abranches Araujo; Amaral, Angela M.; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Ativacao Neutronica], e-mail: menezes@cdtn.br; Rosa, Carlos Augusto [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia], e-mail: carlrosa@icb.ufmg

    2009-07-01

    The intensification of industrial activity has been greatly contributing with the increase of heavy metals in the environment. Among these heavy metals, cadmium becomes a serious pervasive environmental pollutant. The cadmium is a heavy metal with no biological function, very toxic and carcinogenic at low concentrations. The toxicity of cadmium and several other metals can be mainly attributed to the multiplicity of coordination complexes and clusters that they can form. Some aspects of the cellular response to cadmium were extensively investigated in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The primary site of interaction between many toxic metals and microbial cells is the plasma membrane. Plasma-membrane permeabilisation has been reported in a variety of microorganisms following cadmium exposure, and is considered one mechanism of cadmium toxicity in the yeast. In this work, using the yeast strain S. cerevisiae W303-WT, we have investigated the relationships between Cd uptake and release of cellular metal ions (K{sup +} and Na{sup +}) using neutron activation technique. The neutron activation was an easy, rapid and suitable technique for doing these metal determinations on yeast cells; was observed the change in morphology of the strains during the process of Cd accumulation, these alterations were observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) during incorporation of cadmium. (author)

  9. Development of copper sulfide/cadmium sulfide thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szedon, J.R.; Biter, W.J.; Dickey, H.C.

    1982-03-01

    Unencapsulated thin-film solar cells of the Cu/sub 2/S/CdS type have been aged in controlled flowing-gas ambients to characterize changes in their photovoltaic properties. Severe degradation occurring in wet O/sub 2/ ambients at room temperature probably accounts for the large short-circuit current losses reported earlier. Limited loss (<15% of initial values) in J/sub sc/ occurs at RT in dry oxygen. No loss can be attributed to moisture in Ar or N/sub 2/ ambients for exposure times greater than approx. 2 hrs. Direct measurements of optical absorption in the front Cu/sub 2/S layer would be facilitated by an integral CdS/Cu/sub 2/S detector on the back surface. Several techniques for making such a detector were successfully demonstrated.

  10. Effect of cadmium and lead on the membrane potential and photoelectric reaction of Nitellopsis obtusa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtyka, Renata; Burdach, Zbigniew; Karcz, Waldemar

    2011-03-01

    The effects of Cd and Pb on membrane potential (E(m)) and photoelectric reaction of Nitellopsis obtusa cells were investigated. It was found that Cd and Pb at 1.0 mM caused a depolarization of the E(m), whereas both metals at lower concentrations changed the E(m) in a different way. Pb at 0.1 mM and 0.01 mM hyperpolarized the E(m), whereas Cd at the same concentrations depolarized and did not change the E(m), respectively. In the presence of 0.01 mM Pb, the light-induced hyperpolarization of the E(m) was by 18% higher as compared to the control, whereas at 1.0 mM Pb it was by 40% lower. Pb at 0.1 mM and Cd at 0.01 mM or 5 × 0.01 mM did not change the light-induced membrane hyperpolarization. However, in the presence of Cd at 0.1 mM and 1.0 mM this hyperpolarization was 2-fold lower or was completely abolished, respectively. These results suggest that at high Cd and Pb concentrations both depolarization of the E(m) and decrease of light-induced membrane hyperpolarization in Nitellopsis obtusa cells are probably due to inhibition of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity, whereas both metals at lower concentrations differ in mechanism of membrane potential changes.

  11. Comparison of chemical washing and physical cell-disruption approaches to assess the surface adsorption and internalization of cadmium by Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desaunay, Aurélien; Martins, Jean M.F., E-mail: jean.martins@ujf-grenoble.fr

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Subcellular distribution of cadmium in Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 cells. • Comparison of a chemical (EDTA washing) and a physical method (physical disruption). • EDTA washings strongly overestimated membrane-bound Cd concentrations. • The physical method revealed surprisingly over 80% of Cd internalization in the cells. • Metal biosorption by bacteria cannot be considered as a surface complexation process. - Abstract: Bacterial biosorption of heavy metals is often considered as a surface complexation process, without considering other retention compartments than cell walls. Although this approach gives a good description of the global biosorption process, it hardly permits the prediction of the fate of biosorbed metals in the environment. This study examines the subcellular distribution of cadmium (Cd) in the metal-tolerant bacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 through the comparison of an indirect chemical method (washing cells with EDTA) and a direct physical method (physical disruption of cells). The chemical washing approach presented strong experimental biases leading to the overestimation of washed amount of Cd, supposedly bound to cell membranes. On the contrary, the physical disruption approach gave reproducible and robust results of Cd subcellular distribution. Unexpectedly, these results showed that over 80% of passively biosorbed Cd is internalized in the cytoplasm. In disagreement with the common concept of surface complexation of metals onto bacteria the cell wall was poorly reactive to Cd. Our results indicate that metal sorption onto bacterial surfaces is only a first step in metal management by bacteria and open new perspectives on metal biosorption by bacteria in the environment, with implications for soil bioremediation or facilitated transport of metals by bacteria.

  12. Magnetically Actuated Seal Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FTT proposes development of a magnetically actuated dynamic seal. Dynamic seals are used throughout the turbopump in high-performance, pump-fed, liquid rocket...

  13. Magnetically Actuated Seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinera, Alex

    2013-01-01

    This invention is a magnetically actuated seal in which either a single electromagnet, or multiple electromagnets, are used to control the seal's position. This system can either be an open/ close type of system or an actively controlled system.

  14. Skew resisting hydrodynamic seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, William T.; Dietle, Lannie L.; Gobeli, Jeffrey D.; Kalsi, Manmohan S.

    2001-01-01

    A novel hydrodynamically lubricated compression type rotary seal that is suitable for lubricant retention and environmental exclusion. Particularly, the seal geometry ensures constraint of a hydrodynamic seal in a manner preventing skew-induced wear and provides adequate room within the seal gland to accommodate thermal expansion. The seal accommodates large as-manufactured variations in the coefficient of thermal expansion of the sealing material, provides a relatively stiff integral spring effect to minimize pressure-induced shuttling of the seal within the gland, and also maintains interfacial contact pressure within the dynamic sealing interface in an optimum range for efficient hydrodynamic lubrication and environment exclusion. The seal geometry also provides for complete support about the circumference of the seal to receive environmental pressure, as compared the interrupted character of seal support set forth in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,873,576 and 6,036,192 and provides a hydrodynamic seal which is suitable for use with non-Newtonian lubricants.

  15. Seals in motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brasseur, Sophie Marie Jacqueline Michelle

    2017-01-01

    The harbour seal Phoca vitulina and the grey seal Halichoerus grypus have been inhabitants of the Wadden Sea since millennia. Prehistoric findings indicate the presence of both species around 5000 BC. This changed dramatically in the mid Middle-Ages as around 1500 AC, the grey seal disappeared from

  16. Autophagy regulated by prolyl isomerase Pin1 and phospho-Ser-GSK3αβ involved in protection of oral squamous cell carcinoma against cadmium toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, Keum-Young [Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine College of Dentistry, Chosun University, 309 Pilmundaero, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sang-Gun [Department of Pathology, College of Dentistry, Chosun University, 309 Pilmundaero, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Seon-Hee, E-mail: seonh@chosun.ac.kr [Department of Premedicine, School of Medicine, College of Dentistry, Chosun University, 309 Pilmundaero, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-23

    Prolyl isomerase Pin1 plays an important role in cell proliferation and is overexpressed in many human tumors. However, its role in autophagy induction remains undefined. Here we show that Pin1 regulates cell survival via autophagy in cadmium (Cd)-exposed oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). OSCC exposure to Cd induced autophagy, as demonstrated by the formation of green fluorescent punctae in transfected cells expressing GFP-conjugated microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) and by LC3 flux in the presence of autophagy inhibitors. Suppression of Atg5 enhanced Cd-induced apoptosis, indicating that autophagy is involved in cell protection. In dose–response experiments, cleavage of procaspase-3, PARP-1, and LC3-II was induced by Cd with an IC{sub 50} of 45 μM. Expression of Pin1 was decreased at or above the Cd IC{sub 50} value and was inversely correlated with the level of phospho(p)-Ser-GSK3αβ. Genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of Pin1 suppressed Cd-induced autophagy, but increased p-Akt-mediated p-Ser-GSK3αβ; this was reversed by overexpression of Pin1. However, suppression of GSK3αβ inhibited Cd-induced autophagy and induced apoptosis, which could be reversed by overexpression of GSK3β. The PI3K inhibitor Ly294002 blocked p-Akt-mediated increases in p-Ser-GSK3αβ and autophagy and induced apoptosis. Therefore, p-Ser-GSK3αβ can directly regulate Cd-induced autophagy, although its function is suppressed by Pin1. Collectively, the present results indicate that targeting Pin1 and GSK3αβ at the same time could be an effective therapeutic tool for Cd-induced carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Pin1 regulated autophagy to protect cells from cadmium toxicity. • Pin1 suppression inhibited cadmium-induced autophagy and induced apoptosis. • Pin1 inhibited the function of p-Ser-GSK3αβ in autophagy regulation. • p-Ser-GSK3αβ regulated autophagy independently of Pin1.

  17. In vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model to estimate cadmium and lead bioaccessibility/bioavailability in two vegetables: the influence of cooking and additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jin; Cui, Yanshan

    2013-09-01

    The estimation of heavy metal bioaccessibility and bioavailability in vegetables is helpful for human health risk assessment. Using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model, the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in raw/cooked pakchoi (Brassica rapa L., Chinensis Group) and Malabar spinach (Basella rubra L.) were studied. The effect of the addition of iron, calcium and acetic acid to the samples was also determined. The results indicated that Cd bioaccessibility was higher in the gastric phase and Pb bioaccessibility was higher in the small intestinal phase. Cadmium and Pb bioavailability were 11.2% and 9.4% in the raw vegetables, respectively, and found to be higher significantly than the cooked vegetables with 6.1% for Cd and 3.2% for Pb. The results showed that it will be overestimating the risk of Pb and Cd based on the data of raw vegetables ingestion. Using bioavailability values, average Cd and Pb daily intake by adult were 23% and 28% respectively, of the base bioaccessibility values. Our study will be better understanding the possible health risks of some vegetables base on the bioaccessibility or bioavailability. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cadmium telluride quantum dots cause oxidative stress leading to extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kathy C; Willmore, William G; Tayabali, Azam F

    2013-04-05

    The mechanisms of toxicity related to human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell exposures to cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe-QDs) were investigated. CdTe-QDs caused cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Treated cells showed an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS). Altered antioxidant levels were demonstrated by depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), a decreased ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) and an increased NF-E2-related Factor 2 (Nrf2) activation. Enzyme assays showed that superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was elevated whereas catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities were depressed. Further analyses revealed that CdTe-QD exposure resulted in apoptosis, indicated by changes in levels of caspase-3 activity, poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage and phosphatidylserine externalization. Extrinsic apoptotic pathway markers such as Fas levels and caspase-8 activity increased as a result of CdTe-QD exposure. Involvement of the intrinsic/mitochondrial apoptotic pathway was indicated by decreased levels of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2) protein and mitochondrial cytochrome c, and by increased levels of mitochondrial Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and cytosolic cytochrome c. Further, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) such as c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (Erk1/2), and p38 were all activated. Our findings reveal that CdTe-QDs cause oxidative stress, interfere with antioxidant defenses and activate protein kinases, leading to apoptosis via both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. Since the effects of CdTe-QDs on selected biomarkers were similar or greater compared to those of CdCl2 at equivalent concentrations of cadmium, the study suggests that the toxicity of CdTe-QDs arises from a combination of the effects of cadmium and ROS generated from the NPs. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Market for nickel-cadmium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putois, F.

    Besides the lead/acid battery market, which has seen a tremendous development linked with the car industry, the alkaline rechargeable battery market has also been expanded for more than twenty years, especially in the field of portable applications with nickel-cadmium batteries. Today, nickel-cadmium batteries have to face newcomers on the market, such as nickel-metal hydride, which is another alkaline couple, and rechargeable lithium batteries; these new battery systems have better performances in some areas. This work illustrates the status of the market for nickel-cadmium batteries and their applications. Also, for two major applications—the cordless tool and the electric vehicles—the competitive situation of nickel-cadmium batteries; facing new systems such as nickel-metal hydride and lithium ion cells are discussed.

  20. Aerobic sulfide production and cadmium precipitation by Escherichia coli expressing the Treponema denticola cysteine desulfhydrase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C L; Lum, A M; Ozuna, S C; Clark, D S; Keasling, J D

    2001-08-01

    The cysteine desulfhydrase gene of Treponema denticola was over-expressed in Escherichia coli to produce sulfide under aerobic conditions and to precipitate metal sulfide complexes on the cell wall. When grown in a defined salts medium supplemented with cadmium and cysteine, E. coli producing cysteine desulfhydrase secreted sulfide and removed nearly all of the cadmium from solution after 48 h. A control strain produced significantly less sulfide and removed significantly less cadmium. Measurement of acid-labile sulfide and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy indicated that cadmium was precipitated as cadmium sulfide. Without supplemental cysteine, both the E. coli producing cysteine desulfhydrase and the control E. coli demonstrated minimal cadmium removal.

  1. Sealing materials seals for arctic applications

    OpenAIRE

    Eichstaedt, Joanna Anna

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is about exploring the performance of rubber O-ring seals made of materials such as: ELAST-O-LION 101, base HNBR and HNBR 50 CB, under cold temperatures and compressions equal to 10% and 20%. Initially a test apparatus with cooling chamber was built to evaluate seal performance at different temperatures and contact pressures. This part of the project included building the environmental chamber in which the mechanical compression rig is located, as well as connecting the circulatin...

  2. Indium seals for low-temperature and moderate-pressure applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, C. C.

    1986-01-01

    Some ideas as to what the important factors are that will produce a reliable indium O-ring seal are discussed. Four novel indium seal designs which are based on these ideas are presented. Three of these seals have been incorporated in a Brillouin cell. They include a simple sapphire window seal, a filling line union, and a flange seal. All of them have withstood low temperatures down to 77 K and moderate pressures up to 177 bar. The fourth seal described is a Pyrex tube seal for a Raman cell.

  3. High-mobility group box 1 regulates cytoprotective autophagy in a mouse spermatocyte cell line (GC-2spd) exposed to cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Z; Chen, Y; Niu, X; He, W; Song, B; Fan, D; Sun, X

    2017-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental and industrial pollutant that induces a broad spectrum of toxicological effects, influences a variety of human organs, and is associated with poor semen quality and male infertility. Increasing evidence demonstrates that Cd induces testicular germ cell apoptosis in rodent animals. However, the specific effect of Cd exposure on autophagy in germ cells is poorly understood. We investigate the role of high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), a ubiquitous nuclear protein, on Cd-evoked autophagy in a mouse spermatocyte cell line (GC-2spd). Our data have shown that autophagy was significantly elevated in GC-2spd cells exposed to Cd. Furthermore, there was a reduction in rapamycin (RAP)-mediated apoptosis. In addition, Cd exposure reduced cell viability, which is an effect that could be significantly inhibited by RAP treatment. These results indicate that autophagy appears to serve a positive function in reducing Cd-induced cytotoxicity. In addition, HMGB1 increased coincident with the processing of LC3-I to LC3-II. Thus, the upregulation of HMGB1 increases LC3-II levels. Our data suggest that HMGB1-induced autophagy appears to act as a defense/survival mechanism against Cd cytotoxicity in GC-2spd cells.

  4. Inflatable traversing probe seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimarchi, Paul A.

    1991-01-01

    An inflatable seal acts as a pressure-tight zipper to provide traversing capability for instrumentation rakes and probes. A specially designed probe segment with a teardrop cross-section in the vicinity of the inflatable seal minimizes leakage at the interface. The probe is able to travel through a lengthwise slot in a pressure vessel or wind tunnel section, while still maintaining pressure integrity. The design uses two commercially available inflatable seals, opposing each other, to cover the probe slot in a wind tunnel wall. Proof-of-concept tests were conducted at vessel pressures up to 30 psig, with seals inflated to 50 psig, showing no measurable leakage along the seal's length or around the probe teardrop cross-section. This seal concept can replace the existing technology of sliding face plate/O-ring systems in applications where lengthwise space is limited.

  5. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkor, Mati

    1981-01-01

    This disclosure is directed to an improvement in a sodium sulfur battery construction in which a seal between various battery compartments is made by a structure in which a soft metal seal member is held in a sealing position by holding structure. A pressure applying structure is used to apply pressure on the soft metal seal member when it is being held in sealing relationship to a surface of a container member of the sodium sulfur battery by the holding structure. The improvement comprises including a thin, well-adhered, soft metal layer on the surface of the container member of the sodium sulfur battery to which the soft metal seal member is to be bonded.

  6. Interplay of calcium and cadmium in mediating cadmium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Grace; Liu, Ying; Templeton, Douglas M

    2014-03-25

    The environmentally important toxic metal, cadmium, exists as the Cd(2+) ion in biological systems, and in this state structurally resembles Ca(2+). Thus, although cadmium exerts a broad range of adverse actions on cells by virtue of its propensity to bind to protein thiol groups, it is now well appreciated that Cd(2+) participates in a number of Ca(2+)-dependent pathways, attributable to its actions as a Ca(2+) mimetic, with a central role for calmodulin, and the Ca(2+)/calmodlin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK-II) that mediates effects on cytoskeletal dynamics and apoptotic cell death. Cadmium interacts with receptors and ion channels on the cell surface, and with the intracellular estrogen receptor where it binds competitively to residues shared by Ca(2+). It increases cytosolic [Ca(2+)] through several mechanisms, but also decreases transcript levels of some Ca(2+)-transporter genes. It initiates mitochondrial apoptotic pathways, and activates calpains, contributing to mitochondria-independent apoptosis. However, the recent discovery of the role CaMK-II plays in Cd(2+)-induced cell death, and subsequent implication of CaMK-II in Cd(2+)-dependent alterations of cytoskeletal dynamics, has opened a new area of mechanistic cadmium toxicology that is a focus of this review. Calmodulin is necessary for induction of apoptosis by several agents, yet induction of apoptosis by Cd(2+) is prevented by CaMK-II block, and Ca(2+)-dependent phosphorylation of CaMK-II has been linked to increased Cd(2+)-dependent apoptosis. Calmodulin antagonism suppresses Cd(2+)-induced phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and the Akt survival pathway. The involvement of CaMK-II in the effects of Cd(2+) on cell morphology, and particularly the actin cytoskeleton, is profound, favouring actin depolymerization, disrupting focal adhesions, and directing phosphorylated FAK into a cellular membrane. CaMK-II is also implicated in effects of Cd(2+) on microtubules and cadherin junctions. A key question for

  7. Cadmium induces cytotoxicity in human bronchial epithelial cells through upregulation of eIF5A1 and NF-kappaB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, De-Ju; Xu, Yan-Ming; Du, Ji-Ying [Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Epigenetics, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong 515041 (China); Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong 515041 (China); Huang, Dong-Yang [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong 515041 (China); Lau, Andy T.Y., E-mail: andytylau@stu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Epigenetics, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong 515041 (China); Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong 515041 (China)

    2014-02-28

    Highlights: • Normal human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) were dosed with cadmium (Cd). • A low level (2 μM) of Cd treatment for 36 h elicited negligible cytotoxicity. • High levels (20 or 30 μM) of Cd treatment for 36 h induced cell death. • High levels of Cd can upregulate the protein levels of eIF5A1 and NF-κB p65. • We suggest that eIF5A1 level is possibly modulated by NF-κB. - Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) and Cd compounds are widely-distributed in the environment and well-known carcinogens. Here, we report that in CdCl{sub 2}-exposed human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B), the level of p53 is dramatically decreased in a time- and dose-dependent manner, suggesting that the observed Cd-induced cytotoxicity is not likely due to the pro-apoptotic function of p53. Therefore, this prompted us to further study the responsive pro-apoptotic factors by proteomic approaches. Interestingly, we identified that high levels (20 or 30 μM) of Cd can significantly upregulate the protein levels of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A1 (eIF5A1) and redox-sensitive transcription factor NF-κB p65. Moreover, there is an enhanced NF-κB nuclear translocation as well as chromatin-binding in Cd-treated BEAS-2B cells. We also show that small interfering RNA-specific knockdown of eIF5A1 in Cd-exposed cells attenuated the Cd cytotoxicity, indicating the potential role of eIF5A1 in Cd cytotoxicity. As eIF5A1 is reported to be related with cell apoptosis but little is known about its transcriptional control, we hypothesize that NF-κB might likely modulate eIF5A1 gene expression. Notably, by bioinformatic analysis, several potential NF-κB binding sites on the upstream promoter region of eIF5A1 gene can be found. Subsequent chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that indeed there is enhanced NF-κB binding on eIF5A1 promoter region of Cd-treated BEAS-2B cells. Taken together, our findings suggest for the first time a regulatory mechanism for the pro

  8. Foil Face Seal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, John

    2009-01-01

    In the seal literature you can find many attempts by various researchers to adapt film riding seals to the gas turbine engine. None have been successful, potential distortion of the sealing faces is the primary reason. There is a film riding device that does accommodate distortion and is in service in aircraft applications, namely the foil bearing. More specifically a foil thrust bearing. These are not intended to be seals, and they do not accommodate large axial movement between shaft & static structure. By combining the 2 a unique type of face seal has been created. It functions like a normal face seal. The foil thrust bearing replaces the normal primary sealing surface. The compliance of the foil bearing allows the foils to track distortion of the mating seal ring. The foil seal has several perceived advantages over existing hydrodynamic designs, enumerated in the chart. Materials and design methodology needed for this application already exist. Also the load capacity requirements for the foil bearing are low since it only needs to support itself and overcome friction forces at the antirotation keys.

  9. Characterization of the physico-chemical properties of polymeric materials for aerospace flight. [differential thermal and atomic absorption spectroscopic analysis of nickel cadmium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, M.

    1981-01-01

    Electrodes and electrolytes of nickel cadmium sealed batteries were analyzed. Different thermal analysis of negative and positive battery electrodes was conducted and the temperature ranges of occurrence of endotherms indicating decomposition of cadmium hydroxide and nickel hydroxide are identified. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to analyze electrodes and electrolytes for traces of nickel, cadmium, cobalt, and potassium. Calibration curves and data are given for each sample analyzed. Instrumentation and analytical procedures used for each method are described.

  10. Environmental contaminants in the food chain, NWS Seal Beach and Seal Beach NWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Byron, E.R. [CH2M Hill, Sacramento, CA (United States); Freas, K.E. [CH2M Hill, San Jose, CA (United States); Casados, E.M.; Kidwell, J.J. [Naval Facilities Engineering Command, San Diego, CA (United States). SW Division

    1994-12-31

    The authors conducted a study to determine whether environmental contaminants occurred in fish and invertebrates at concentrations that could be harmful to birds feeding in the estuarine salt marsh at Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), which is part of Naval Weapons Station (NWS) Seal Beach. Management of the refuge is focused primarily on endangered species, especially the light-footed clapper rail and the California least tern. Important food-chain organisms taken by rails (e.g., crabs and snails) and least terns (small fish) were sampled and analyzed for inorganic and organic contaminants that might be related to Navy activities at the Station. Results indicated that those contaminants are not likely to have lethal effects on rails or terns, although some chemicals (including cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, zinc and DDE) occurred at elevated concentrations in portions of the marsh. Possible sublethal effects also were evaluated and will be discussed.

  11. Subcellular Localization of Cadmium in Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck Strain Bt-09

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.B. Lintongan

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth response curves of Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck strain Bt-09 to sublethal concentrations of cadmium were evaluated. The growth responses of this microalgal isolate was determined through analysis of chlorophyll a levels. Cadmium was effectively taken up by the cells as determined by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (F-AAS. Subcellular fractionation was undertaken to locate sites that accumulate cadmium.

  12. Biosorption of Cd(II) by live and dead cells of Bacillus cereus RC-1 isolated from cadmium-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fei; Dang, Zhi; Guo, Chu-Ling; Lu, Gui-Ning; Gu, Roy R; Liu, Hong-Juan; Zhang, Hui

    2013-07-01

    The present study investigated the biosorption capacity of live and dead cells of Bacillus cereus RC-1 for Cd(II). The biosorption characteristics were investigated as a function of initial pH, contact time, and initial cadmium concentration. Equilibrium biosorption was modeled using Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson isotherm equations. It was found that the maximum biosorption capacities calculated from Langmuir isotherm were 31.95 mg/g and 24.01 mg/g for dead cells and live cells, respectively. The kinetics of the biosorption was better described by pseudo-second order kinetic model. Desorption efficiency of biosorbents was investigated at various pH values. These results indicated that dead cells have higher Cd(II) biosorption capacity than live cells. Furthermore, zeta potential, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) studies were carried out to understand the differences in the Cd(II) biosorption behavior for the both biosorbents. The bioaccumulation of Cd(II) by B. cereus RC-1 was found to depend largely on extracellular biosorption rather than intracellular accumulation. Based on the above studies, dead biomass appears to be a more efficient biosorbent for the removal of Cd(II) from aqueous solution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The aquatic hyphomycete Heliscus lugdunensis protects its hyphae tip cells from cadmium: A micro X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaure, Marie-Pierre; Leyh, Benjamin; Salomé, Murielle; Krauss, Gerd-Joachim; Schaumlöffel, Dirk; Dobritzsch, Dirk

    2017-11-01

    Aquatic fungi can be used to evaluate the functioning of natural ecosystems. Heliscus lugdunensis is an early colonizer of allochthone leafs. Since this aquatic hyphomycete is able to develop in metal contaminated habitats and tolerates cadmium, it appears to be a good candidate to investigate adaptation to metal pollution. This study aimed at examining the sequestration of Cd in the hyphae of H. lugdunensis, and particularly the role of the tip cells. For that, H. lugdunensis growth was evaluated under various Cd concentrations, and a combination of synchrotron micro X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy was carried out to determine the compartments of Cd accumulation and the Cd chemical species, respectively. Results showed that the hyphal tip cells were depleted in Cd, and that the metal was stored in older cells. Cd was mainly associated with sulfur ligands and to a lesser extent bound to phosphates and carboxyl/hydroxyl groups from cell wall and/or organic acids. Finally, the aquatic fungus was able to maintain the tip cell as a functional system, thus allowing the colonization of contaminated environments.

  14. High Test Peroxide High Sealing Conical Seal Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High Test Peroxide (HTP) Highly Compatible High Sealing Conical Seals are necessary for ground test operations and space based applications. Current conical seals...

  15. Toxicity of cadmium to the developing lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daston, G.P.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of cadmium on the developing lung and pulmonary surfactant were studied. Pregnant rats received subcutaneous injections of cadmium chloride on days 12 to 15 of gestation and were sacrificed throughout late gestation. The treatment resulted in high embryonic mortality and growth regardation. Fetal lung weight was reduced 20 to 30% due to hypoplasia, as the number of lung cells (DNA/lung) but not cell size (protein/cell) was lowered. The ultrastructural development of alveolar epithelium was altered; cytodifferentiation was delayed; and the cytoplasmic inclusions which contain pulmonary surfactant, were reduced in the term fetus. Accumulation of phosphatidylcholine (PC), the major component of pulmonary surfactant, was diminished in the lungs of treated fetuses. The immediate cause of this lowered accumulation was a decreased rate of synthesis of PC from choline. Carbohydrates probably represent a major source of PC precursors and are present in large quantities in the fetal lung as glycogen. The pulmonary glycogen content of cadmium-exposed fetuses was diminished. It is postulated that this is a reason for the lowered rate of PC synthesis. Maternally administered cadmium did not pass through the placenta; thus, the mechanism of fetotoxicity was indirect. Maternal cadmium exposure did result in lowered fetal zinc levels. Coadministration of zinc with cadmium raised fetal zinc concentration to control values and alleviated all fetotoxicity. Fetal zinc deficiency is a possible mechanism for the toxic effects on the developing lung. Several dams were allowed to give birth and their offspring were observed for respiratory problems. Cadmium treatment delayed parturition by about a day. Symptoms of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) were observed in 11% of the treated neonates. All but one of these individuals died and had lungs with hyaline membranes. This is the only known case of an environmental agent causing neonatal RDS.

  16. Structural Design and Sealing Performance Analysis of Biomimetic Sealing Ring

    OpenAIRE

    Chuanjun Han; Han Zhang; Jie Zhang

    2015-01-01

    In order to reduce the failure probability of rubber sealing rings in reciprocating dynamic seal, a new structure of sealing ring based on bionics was designed. The biomimetic ring has three concave ridges and convex bulges on each side which are very similar to earthworms. Bulges were circularly designed and sealing performances of the biomimetic ring in both static seal and dynamic seal were simulated by FEM. In addition, effects of precompression, medium pressure, speed, friction coefficie...

  17. The ROOT MERISTEMLESS1/CADMIUM SENSITIVE2 Gene Defines a Glutathione-Dependent Pathway Involved in Initiation and Maintenance of Cell Division during Postembryonic Root Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernoux, Teva; Wilson, Robert C.; Seeley, Kevin A.; Reichheld, Jean-Philippe; Muroy, Sandra; Brown, Spencer; Maughan, Spencer C.; Cobbett, Christopher S.; Van Montagu, Marc; Inzé, Dirk; May, Mike J.; Sung, Zinmay R.

    2000-01-01

    Activation of cell division in the root apical meristem after germination is essential for postembryonic root development. Arabidopsis plants homozygous for a mutation in the ROOT MERISTEMLESS1 (RML1) gene are unable to establish an active postembryonic meristem in the root apex. This mutation abolishes cell division in the root but not in the shoot. We report the molecular cloning of the RML1 gene, which encodes the first enzyme of glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis, γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase, and which is allelic to CADMIUM SENSITIVE2. The phenotype of the rml1 mutant, which was also evident in the roots of wild-type Arabidopsis and tobacco treated with an inhibitor of GSH biosynthesis, could be relieved by applying GSH to rml1 seedlings. By using a synchronized tobacco cell suspension culture, we showed that the G1-to-S phase transition requires an adequate level of GSH. These observations suggest the existence of a GSH-dependent developmental pathway essential for initiation and maintenance of cell division during postembryonic root development. PMID:10634910

  18. Spectral analysis of the effects of 1.7 MeV electron irradiation on the current transfer characteristic of cadmium telluride solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jin-Xiu; Zeng, Guang-Gen; He, Xu-Lin; Zhang, Jing-Quan; Wu, Li-Li; Li, Wei; Li, Bing; Wang, Wen-Wu; Feng, Liang-Huan

    2014-04-01

    The effects of device performance of 1.7 MeV electron irradiation on cadmium telluride polycrystalline thin film solar cells with the structure of anti-radiation glass/ITO/ZnO/CdS/CdTe/ZnTe/ZnTe : Cu/Ni have been studied. Light and dark I-V characteristics, dark C-V characteristics, quantum efficiency (QE), admittance spectrum (AS) and other testing methods were used to analyze cells performance such as the open-circuit voltage (Voc), short-circuit current (Isc), fill factor (FF) and conversion efficiency (eta). It was explored to find out the effects of irradiation on the current transfer characteristic of solar cells combined with the dark current density (Jo), diode ideal factor (A), quantum efficiency, carrier concentration and the depletion layer width. The decline in short-circuit current was very large and the efficiency of solar cells decreased obviously after irradiation. Reverse saturation current density increased, which indicates that p-n junction characteristics of solar cells were damaged, and diode ideal factor was almost the same, so current transport mechanism of solar cells has not changed. Quantum efficiency curves proved that the damage of solar cells' p-n junction influenced the collection of photo-generated carriers. Irradiation made carrier concentration reduce to 40.6%. The analyses have shown that. A new defect was induced by electron irradiation, whose position is close to 0.58 eV above the valence band in the forbidden band, and capture cross section is 1.78 x 10(-16) cm2. These results indicate that irradiation influences the generation of photo-generated carriers, increases the risk of the carrier recombination and the reverse dark current, and eventually makes the short-circuit current of solar cells decay.

  19. Rotary shaft seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langebrake, C.O.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a novel rotary shaft seal assembly which provides positive-contact sealing when the shaft is not rotated and which operates with its sealing surfaces separated by a film of compressed ambient gas whose width is independent of the speed of shaft rotation. In a preferred embodiment, the assembly includes a disc affixed to the shaft for rotation therewith. Axially movable, non-rotatable plates respectively supported by sealing bellows are positioned on either side of the disc to be in sealing engagement therewith. Each plate carries piezoelectric transucer elements which are electrically energized at startup to produce films of compressed ambient gas between the confronting surfaces of the plates and the disc. Following shutdown of the shaft, the transducer elements are de-energized. A control circuit responds to incipient rubbing between the plate and either disc by altering the electrical input to the transducer elements to eliminate rubbing.

  20. Single or combined cadmium and aluminum intoxication of mice liver and kidney with possible effect of zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Ibraheem

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we planned to test toxic effects of cadmium, aluminum either alone or combined with each other on sensitive organs as kidney and liver. The cadmium alone decreased the animal’s body weight. Meanwhile, aluminum did not affect the changes in body weight of cadmium treated animals; adding the zinc significantly reduced the loss of body weight. Serum creatinine and urea were significantly lower in treated group than in control group. Cadmium aluminum or combination of them resulted in a significant increase in serum GPT and GOT activity. Zinc did not prevent the changes caused by aluminum, however, the changes resulted by cadmium intoxication were almost healed or ameliorated by zinc. Treating with Zn alone resulted in drastic effects on kidney tissues more than either cadmium or aluminum. Treating with cadmium or aluminum resulted in infiltration of the liver parenchyma with lymphocytes, fibrosis, micro vesicular steatosis of the hepatocytes for both and appearance of many phagocytic cells, pyknotic cells and vacuolation for cadmium. Combined cadmium and aluminum treatment resulted in less damage than cadmium alone with exception of fatty degeneration. Unexpectedly, zinc induced acute cell vacuolation and steatosis. Cadmium and aluminum combined together did not worsen the situation as expected but was less damaging than cadmium alone, which suggests a possible synergistic effect of combination. Meanwhile, zinc failed to protect kidney from aluminum intoxication, which strengthens the suggestion of two different pathways of cadmium and aluminum intoxication. This finding meant that cadmium is more hepatotoxic than aluminum.

  1. Performance evaluation of fog seals on chip seals and verification of fog seal field tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Y. Richard; Im, Jeong Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    .... To mitigate a major problem with chip seals, i.e., the loose aggregate particles, fog seals, which are composed of an emulsified product placed on top of the chip seal, can be used to help control the loose aggregate...

  2. Coordinate amplification of metallothionein I and II genes in cadmium-resistant Chinese hamster cells: implications for mechanisms regulating metallothionein gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, B.D.; Enger, M.D.; Griffith, B.B.; Griffith, J.K.; Hanners, J.L.; Longmire, J.L.; Munk, A.C.; Stallings, R.L.; Tesmer, J.G.; Walters, R.A.; Hildebrand, C.E.

    1985-02-01

    The authors describe here the derivation, characterization, and use of clonal cadmium-resistance (Cd/sup r) strains of the Chinese hamster cell line CHO which differ in their metallothionein (MT) induction capacity. By nondenaturing polyacrylaminde gel electrophoresis, the authors showed that the stable Cd/sup r/ phenotype is correlated with the augmented expression of both isometallothioneins (MTI and MTII). In cells resistant to concentrations of CdCl2 exceeding 20 M, coordinate amplifications of genes encoding both isometallothioneins was demonstrated by using cDNA MT-coding sequence probes and probes specific for 3'-noncoding regions of Chinese hamster MTI and MTII genes. Molecular and in situ hybridization analyses supported close linkage of Chinese hamster MTI and MTII genes, which the authors have mapped previously to Chinese hamster chromosome 3. This suggests the existence of a functionally related MT gene cluster in this species. Amplified Cd/sup r/ variants expressing abundant MT and their corresponding Cd/sup s/ parental CHO cells should be useful for future studies directed toward elucidating the mechanisms that regulate expressions of the isometallothioneins. 59 references, 8 figures.

  3. Effects of Long-term exposure of Gelatinated and Non-gelatinated Cadmium Telluride Quantum Dots on Differentiated PC12 cells

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Prasad, Babu R

    2012-01-20

    Abstract Background The inherent toxicity of unmodified Quantum Dots (QDs) is a major hindrance to their use in biological applications. To make them more potent as neuroprosthetic and neurotherapeutic agents, thioglycolic acid (TGA) capped CdTe QDs, were coated with a gelatine layer and investigated in this study with differentiated pheochromocytoma 12 (PC12) cells. The QD - cell interactions were investigated after incubation periods of up to 17 days by MTT and APOTOX-Glo Triplex assays along with using confocal microscopy. Results Long term exposure (up to 17 days) to gelatinated TGA-capped CdTe QDs of PC12 cells in the course of differentiation and after neurites were grown resulted in dramatically reduced cytotoxicity compared to non-gelatinated TGA-capped CdTe QDs. Conclusion The toxicity mechanism of QDs was identified as caspase-mediated apoptosis as a result of cadmium leaking from the core of QDs. It was therefore concluded that the gelatine capping on the surface of QDs acts as a barrier towards the leaking of toxic ions from the core QDs in the long term (up to 17 days).

  4. A flow cell for transient voltammetry and in situ grazing incidence X-ray diffraction characterization of electrocrystallized cadmium(II) tetracyanoquinodimethane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veder, Jean-Pierre [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Department of Chemistry, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, Western Australia 6845 (Australia); Nafady, Ayman [School of Chemistry, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Clarke, Graeme [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Department of Chemistry, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, Western Australia 6845 (Australia); Williams, Ross P. [Centre for Materials Research, Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, Western Australia 6845 (Australia); De Marco, Roland, E-mail: r.demarco@curtin.edu.a [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Department of Chemistry, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, Western Australia 6845 (Australia); Bond, Alan M. [School of Chemistry, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2011-01-01

    An easy to fabricate and versatile cell that can be used with a variety of electrochemical techniques, also meeting the stringent requirement for undertaking cyclic voltammetry under transient conditions in in situ electrocrystallization studies and total external reflection X-ray analysis, has been developed. Application is demonstrated through an in situ synchrotron radiation-grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (SR-GIXRD) characterization of electrocrystallized cadmium (II)-tetracyanoquinodimethane material, Cd(TCNQ){sub 2}, from acetonitrile (0.1 mol dm{sup -3} [NBu{sub 4}][PF{sub 6}]). Importantly, this versatile cell design makes SR-GIXRD suitable for almost any combination of total external reflection X-ray analysis (e.g., GIXRF and GIXRD) and electrochemical perturbation, also allowing its application in acidic, basic, aqueous, non-aqueous, low and high flow pressure conditions. Nevertheless, the cell design separates the functions of transient voltammetry and SR-GIXRD measurements, viz., voltammetry is performed at high flow rates with a substantially distended window to minimize the IR (Ohmic) drop of the electrolyte, while SR-GIXRD is undertaken using stop-flow conditions with a very thin layer of electrolyte to minimize X-ray absorption and scattering by the solution.

  5. Effects of long-term exposure of gelatinated and non-gelatinated cadmium telluride quantum dots on differentiated PC12 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Babu R

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inherent toxicity of unmodified Quantum Dots (QDs is a major hindrance to their use in biological applications. To make them more potent as neuroprosthetic and neurotherapeutic agents, thioglycolic acid (TGA capped CdTe QDs, were coated with a gelatine layer and investigated in this study with differentiated pheochromocytoma 12 (PC12 cells. The QD - cell interactions were investigated after incubation periods of up to 17 days by MTT and APOTOX-Glo Triplex assays along with using confocal microscopy. Results Long term exposure (up to 17 days to gelatinated TGA-capped CdTe QDs of PC12 cells in the course of differentiation and after neurites were grown resulted in dramatically reduced cytotoxicity compared to non-gelatinated TGA-capped CdTe QDs. Conclusion The toxicity mechanism of QDs was identified as caspase-mediated apoptosis as a result of cadmium leaking from the core of QDs. It was therefore concluded that the gelatine capping on the surface of QDs acts as a barrier towards the leaking of toxic ions from the core QDs in the long term (up to 17 days.

  6. Cadmium induces transcription independently of intracellular calcium mobilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke E Tvermoes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exposure to cadmium is associated with human pathologies and altered gene expression. The molecular mechanisms by which cadmium affects transcription remain unclear. It has been proposed that cadmium activates transcription by altering intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+](i and disrupting calcium-mediated intracellular signaling processes. This hypothesis is based on several studies that may be technically problematic; including the use of BAPTA chelators, BAPTA-based fluorescent sensors, and cytotoxic concentrations of metal. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: In the present report, the effects of cadmium on [Ca(2+](i under non-cytotoxic and cytotoxic conditions was monitored using the protein-based calcium sensor yellow cameleon (YC3.60, which was stably expressed in HEK293 cells. In HEK293 constitutively expressing YC3.60, this calcium sensor was found to be insensitive to cadmium. Exposing HEK293::YC3.60 cells to non-cytotoxic cadmium concentrations was sufficient to induce transcription of cadmium-responsive genes but did not affect [Ca(2+](i mobilization or increase steady-state mRNA levels of calcium-responsive genes. In contrast, exposure to cytotoxic concentrations of cadmium significantly reduced intracellular calcium stores and altered calcium-responsive gene expression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data indicate that at low levels, cadmium induces transcription independently of intracellular calcium mobilization. The results also support a model whereby cytotoxic levels of cadmium activate calcium-responsive transcription as a general response to metal-induced intracellular damage and not via a specific mechanism. Thus, the modulation of intracellular calcium may not be a primary mechanism by which cadmium regulates transcription.

  7. Calcium enhances cadmium tolerance and decreases cadmium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These results suggest that cadmium uptake in lettuce plants is negatively associated with the presence of calcium in the culture medium, maybe due to a competition between these two cations for binding and absorption sites in roots. In conclusion, the results suggest that fertilization with Ca2+ appears to be a promising ...

  8. SEALING SIMULATED LEAKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael A. Romano

    2004-09-01

    This report details the testing equipment, procedures and results performed under Task 7.2 Sealing Simulated Leaks. In terms of our ability to seal leaks identified in the technical topical report, Analysis of Current Field Data, we were 100% successful. In regards to maintaining seal integrity after pigging operations we achieved varying degrees of success. Internal Corrosion defects proved to be the most resistant to the effects of pigging while External Corrosion proved to be the least resistant. Overall, with limitations, pressure activated sealant technology would be a viable option under the right circumstances.

  9. Sealing device for providing a seal in a turbomachine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Kottilingam, Srikanth Chandrudu; Porter, Christopher Donald; Schick, David Edward; Weber, David Wayne

    2016-08-16

    Sealing device for providing seals between adjacent components, and turbomachines utilizing such sealing devices, are provided. A sealing device includes a seal plate insertable between the adjacent components, the seal plate comprising a first face and an opposing second face. The sealing device further includes a plurality of pins extending from one of the first face or the second face, the plurality of pins configured to space the one of the first face or the second face from contact surfaces of the adjacent components.

  10. Effects of individual and combined toxicity of bisphenol A, dibutyl phthalate and cadmium on oxidative stress and genotoxicity in HepG 2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohui; Yin, Pinghe; Zhao, Ling

    2017-07-01

    Bisphenol A, dibutyl phthalate and cadmium can be found in environment simultaneously. Several studies suggested that they had genotoxic effect. In this study, mono-exposure and co-exposure treatments, designed by 3 × 3 full factorial, were established to determine the individual toxicity and binary mixtures' combined effects on the oxidative stress and genotoxicity in HepG 2 cells. The highest oxidative damage was observed in the Cd treatments groups. Compared with control groups, the maximum level of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde were ∼1.4 fold and ∼2.22 fold respectively. And a minimum level of superoxide dismutase activity was found with the decrease of 43%. The mechanism that excessive oxidative stress led to the DNA damage was inferred. However, cells treated with BPA showed the worst DNA damage rather than Cd, which may because Cd mainly damages DNA repairing mechanism. For the joint effect, different interactions can be found in different biological endpoints for different combinations since different mechanisms have been clarified in mixture toxicity studies. It is sure that the co-exposure groups enhanced cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and genotoxicity compared to the mono-exposures. Synergistic and additive interactions were considered, which means greater threat to organisms when exposed to multiple estrogenic endocrine disruptors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Properties of reactively sputtered oxygenated cadmium sulfide (CdS:O) and their impact on CdTe solar cell performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meysing, Daniel M., E-mail: dmeysing@mines.edu; Wolden, Colin A. [Chemical and Biological Engineering Department, Colorado School of Mines, 1613 Illinois St., Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Griffith, Michelle M. [Department of Physics, Colorado School of Mines, 1523 Illinois St., Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Mahabaduge, Hasitha; Pankow, Joel; Reese, Matthew O.; Burst, James M.; Rance, William L.; Barnes, Teresa M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Pkwy., Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Oxygenated cadmium sulfide (CdS:O) is commonly used as the n-type window layer in high-performance CdTe heterojunction solar cells. This layer is deposited by reactive sputtering, but the optimal amount of oxygen in the sputtering ambient is highly dependent on the specific system and process employed. In this work, the intrinsic properties of CdS:O were measured as a function of the oxygen content (0%–10%) in the sputtering ambient and correlated to device performance with the goal of better defining optimal CdS:O properties for CdTe solar cells. Optimal performance was found using CdS:O films that contained ∼40 at. % oxygen as measured by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed these results and showed that oxygen is incorporated primarily as oxygenated sulfur compounds (SO{sub x}). Device efficiency improved from 10.5% using CdS to >14% with CdS:O due largely to increases in short-circuit current density as well as a modest improvement in open-circuit voltage. The transparency of the CdS:O films was well correlated with observed improvements in blue quantum efficiency with increasing oxygen content. The optical bandgap of as-deposited CdS:O was identified as a simple metric for process optimization and transfer, with 2.8 eV being ideal for the device architecture employed.

  12. Autophagy regulated by prolyl isomerase Pin1 and phospho-Ser-GSK3αβ involved in protection of oral squamous cell carcinoma against cadmium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Keum-Young; Ahn, Sang-Gun; Oh, Seon-Hee

    2015-10-23

    Prolyl isomerase Pin1 plays an important role in cell proliferation and is overexpressed in many human tumors. However, its role in autophagy induction remains undefined. Here we show that Pin1 regulates cell survival via autophagy in cadmium (Cd)-exposed oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). OSCC exposure to Cd induced autophagy, as demonstrated by the formation of green fluorescent punctae in transfected cells expressing GFP-conjugated microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) and by LC3 flux in the presence of autophagy inhibitors. Suppression of Atg5 enhanced Cd-induced apoptosis, indicating that autophagy is involved in cell protection. In dose-response experiments, cleavage of procaspase-3, PARP-1, and LC3-II was induced by Cd with an IC50 of 45 μM. Expression of Pin1 was decreased at or above the Cd IC50 value and was inversely correlated with the level of phospho(p)-Ser-GSK3αβ. Genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of Pin1 suppressed Cd-induced autophagy, but increased p-Akt-mediated p-Ser-GSK3αβ; this was reversed by overexpression of Pin1. However, suppression of GSK3αβ inhibited Cd-induced autophagy and induced apoptosis, which could be reversed by overexpression of GSK3β. The PI3K inhibitor Ly294002 blocked p-Akt-mediated increases in p-Ser-GSK3αβ and autophagy and induced apoptosis. Therefore, p-Ser-GSK3αβ can directly regulate Cd-induced autophagy, although its function is suppressed by Pin1. Collectively, the present results indicate that targeting Pin1 and GSK3αβ at the same time could be an effective therapeutic tool for Cd-induced carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A study of metal concentrations and metallothionein binding capacity in liver, kidney and brain tissues of three Arctic seal species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonne, Christian, E-mail: csh@dmu.dk [Section for Contaminants, Effects and Marine Mammals, Department of Arctic Environment, National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, P.O. Box 358, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Aspholm, Ole, E-mail: ole.oystein.aspholm@dnv.com [NIVA, CIENS, Gaustadalleen 21, N-0349 Oslo (Norway); Dietz, Rune, E-mail: rdi@dmu.dk [Section for Contaminants, Effects and Marine Mammals, Department of Arctic Environment, National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, P.O. Box 358, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Andersen, Steen, E-mail: stan@dk4.dk [HuntersScience.com, Vingaards Alle 51, DK-2900 Hellerup (Denmark); Berntssen, Marc H.G., E-mail: Marc.Berntssen@nifes.no [NIFES, PB 2029, Nordnes, N-5817, Bergen (Norway); Hylland, Ketil, E-mail: ketilhy@bio.uio.no [NIVA, CIENS, Gaustadalleen 21, N-0349 Oslo (Norway); Department of Biology, University of Oslo, P.O.Box 1066, Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway)

    2009-12-01

    Arctic seals are known to accumulate relatively high concentrations of potential toxic heavy metals in their vital organs, such as livers and kidneys, as well as in their central nervous system. We therefore decided to determine whether mercury, copper, cadmium and zinc levels in liver, kidney and brain tissues of three Arctic seal species were associated with the intracellular metal-binding protein metallothionein (MT) as a sign of toxic exposure. Samples from four ringed (Phoca hispida), five harp (P.groenlandica) and five hooded (Cystophora cristata) seals taken during field trips to Central West Greenland (Godhavn) and the Barents Sea in the spring of 1999 were used for the present study. In all three seal species concentrations of mercury, zinc and copper were highest in the liver, except for cadmium which was highest in the kidneys. Metal concentrations increased significantly in the order: ringed seal < harp seal < hooded seal for both kidney and liver tissues. MT concentrations were highest in the kidneys and the concentrations increased in the order: ringed seal < hooded seal < harp seal. MT metal-binding capacity was highest in the kidneys for all three species and increased in the same order: ringed seals (2-10%) < hooded seals (8-15%) < harp seals (27-63%). We therefore suggest that there are species-specific differences in the sub-cellular handling of heavy metals which indicate differences in sensitivity and health implications. However, a larger sample size is needed in order to test the relationship between metal concentrations and MT up-regulation in order to decide which metals are the most important and to elucidate whether the MT binding capacity is sufficient to protect tissues (i.e. kidney) from metal toxicosis. MT with its binding capacity could be a useful marker for environmental exposure to metals and their potential toxicity in the Arctic.

  14. Ingestion resistant seal assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, David A [Chuluota, FL

    2011-12-13

    A seal assembly limits gas leakage from a hot gas path to one or more disc cavities in a gas turbine engine. The seal assembly includes a seal apparatus associated with a blade structure including a row of airfoils. The seal apparatus includes an annular inner shroud associated with adjacent stationary components, a wing member, and a first wing flange. The wing member extends axially from the blade structure toward the annular inner shroud. The first wing flange extends radially outwardly from the wing member toward the annular inner shroud. A plurality of regions including one or more recirculation zones are defined between the blade structure and the annular inner shroud that recirculate working gas therein back toward the hot gas path.

  15. Fur seal investigations, 1966

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Annually a report is made on the fur seal investigations carried on by the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries on the Pribilof Islands and at sea. Investigations on the...

  16. Spotted Seal Distribution Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains GIS layers that depict the known spatial distributions (i.e., ranges) and reported breeding areas of spotted seals (Phoca largha). It was...

  17. Turbine seal assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, David A.

    2013-04-16

    A seal assembly that limits gas leakage from a hot gas path to one or more disc cavities in a turbine engine. The seal assembly includes a seal apparatus that limits gas leakage from the hot gas path to a respective one of the disc cavities. The seal apparatus comprises a plurality of blade members rotatable with a blade structure. The blade members are associated with the blade structure and extend toward adjacent stationary components. Each blade member includes a leading edge and a trailing edge, the leading edge of each blade member being located circumferentially in front of the blade member's corresponding trailing edge in a direction of rotation of the turbine rotor. The blade members are arranged such that a space having a component in a circumferential direction is defined between adjacent circumferentially spaced blade members.

  18. Bearded Seal Distribution Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains GIS layers that depict the known spatial distributions (i.e., ranges) of the two subspecies of bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus). It was...

  19. Ringed Seal Distribution Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains GIS layers that depict the known spatial distributions (i.e., ranges) of the five subspecies of ringed seals (Phoca hispida). It was produced...

  20. Damping Seals for Turbomachinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Pragenau, G. L.

    1984-01-01

    Seals with rough surfaces proposed for stabilizing shaft motion and preventing leakage along shaft in machines such as turbopumps. Applicable to turbomachinery with speed limits raised and bearing life extended, avoiding costly shutdowns.

  1. Removal of cadmium and cyanide from aqueous solutions through electrodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marder Luciano

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The discharge of galvanic industry wastewaters containing heavy metals and cyanide is one of the largest sources of water pollution. The use of the electrodialysis technique for the treatment of a synthetic wastewater containing approximately 0.0089 mol L-1 cadmium and 0.081 mol L-1 cyanide was studied using a five-compartment electrodialysis cell. The results demonstrate that the removal of cadmium and cyanide depends on the applied current density and it is limited by the precipitation of cadmium on the cation-exchange membrane in the diluate central cell compartment.

  2. Phytotoxicity of cadmium on peroxidation, superoxide dismutase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results indicated that Cd destroyed the balance of free radical metabolisms, which resulted in increasing malondialdehyde (MDA) content and the relative cell membrane permeability (RMP). The kernel yield and kernel rate per pot showed significant decrease under cadmium stress (P < 0.05). The varieties FengHua3 ...

  3. Enhanced Electrokinetic Remediation of Cadmium Contaminated Soil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an attempt to remediate contaminated soil, a new technique of purging cadmium from soil is examined by enhanced electrokinetic method. It involves the passage of low level direct current between two electrodes in the soil to remove contaminant. An apparatus consisting of four principal parts; soil cell, electrode ...

  4. Thin film cadmium telluride, zinc telluride, and mercury zinc telluride solar cells. Final subcontract report, 1 July 1988--31 December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, T.L. [University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States)

    1992-04-01

    This report describes research to demonstrate (1) thin film cadmium telluride solar cells with a quantum efficiency of 75% or higher at 0. 44 {mu}m and a photovoltaic efficiency of 11.5% or greater, and (2) thin film zinc telluride and mercury zinc telluride solar cells with a transparency to sub-band-gap radiation of 65% and a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 5% and 8%, respectively. Work was directed at (1) depositing transparent conducting semiconductor films by solution growth and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique, (2) depositing CdTe films by close-spaced sublimation (CSS) and MOCVD techniques, (3) preparing and evaluating thin film CdTe solar cells, and (4) preparing and characterizing thin film ZnTe, CD{sub 1-x}Zn{sub 1-x}Te, and Hg{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te solar cells. The deposition of CdS films from aqueous solutions was investigated in detail, and their crystallographic, optical, and electrical properties were characterized. CdTe films were deposited from DMCd and DIPTe at 400{degrees}C using TEGa and AsH{sub 3} as dopants. CdTe films deposited by CSS had significantly better microstructures than those deposited by MOCVD. Deep energy states in CdTe films deposited by CSS and MOCVD were investigated. Thin films of ZnTe, Cd{sub 1- x}Zn{sub x}Te, and Hg{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te were deposited by MOCVD, and their crystallographic, optical, and electrical properties were characterized. 67 refs.

  5. Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor as the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in human melanocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chantarawong, Wipa [Department of Molecular Biology and Applied Physiology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Inter Departmental Multidisciplinary Graduate Program in Bioscience, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok (Thailand); Takeda, Kazuhisa; Sangartit, Weerapon; Yoshizawa, Miki [Department of Molecular Biology and Applied Physiology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Pradermwong, Kantimanee [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok (Thailand); Shibahara, Shigeki, E-mail: shibahar@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Biology and Applied Physiology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: • In human melanocytes, cadmium decreases the expression of MITF-M and tyrosinase and their mRNAs. • In human melanoma cells, cadmium decreases the expression of MITF-M protein and tyrosinase mRNA. • Expression of MITF-H is less sensitive to cadmium toxicity in melanocyte-linage cells. • Cadmium does not decrease the expression of MITF-H in retinal pigment epithelial cells. • MITF-M is the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in melanocytes. - Abstract: Dietary intake of cadmium is inevitable, causing age-related increase in cadmium accumulation in many organs, including hair, choroid and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Cadmium has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hearing loss and macular degeneration. The functions of cochlea and retina are maintained by melanocytes and RPE, respectively, and the differentiation of these pigment cells is regulated by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). In the present study, we explored the potential toxicity of cadmium in the cochlea and retina by using cultured human melanocytes and human RPE cell lines. MITF consists of multiple isoforms, including melanocyte-specific MITF-M and widely expressed MITF-H. Levels of MITF-M protein and its mRNA in human epidermal melanocytes and HMV-II melanoma cells were decreased significantly by cadmium. In parallel with the MITF reduction, mRNA levels of tyrosinase, the key enzyme of melanin biosynthesis that is regulated by MITF-M, were also decreased. In RPE cells, however, the levels of total MITF protein, constituting mainly MITF-H, were not decreased by cadmium. We thus identify MITF-M as the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in melanocytes, thereby accounting for the increased risk of disability from melanocyte malfunction, such as hearing and vision loss among people with elevated cadmium exposure.

  6. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) channel corner seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurrier, Francis R.

    1980-01-01

    A corner seal for an MHD duct includes a compressible portion which contacts the duct walls and an insulating portion which contacts the electrodes, sidewall bars and insulators. The compressible portion may be a pneumatic or hydraulic gasket or an open-cell foam rubber. The insulating portion is segmented into a plurality of pieces of the same thickness as the electrodes, insulators and sidewall bars and aligned therewith, the pieces aligned with the insulator being of a different size from the pieces aligned with the electrodes and sidewall bars to create a stepped configuration along the corners of the MHD channel.

  7. Chronic cadmium exposure stimulates SDF-1 expression in an ERα dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeralda Ponce

    Full Text Available Cadmium is an omnipotent environmental contaminant associated with the development of breast cancer. Studies suggest that cadmium functions as an endocrine disruptor, mimicking the actions of estrogen in breast cancer cells and activating the receptor to promote cell growth. Although acute cadmium exposure is known to promote estrogen receptor-mediated gene expression associated with growth, the consequence of chronic cadmium exposure is unclear. Since heavy metals are known to bioaccumulate, it is necessary to understand the effects of prolonged cadmium exposure. This study aims to investigate the effects of chronic cadmium exposure on breast cancer progression. A MCF7 breast cancer cell line chronically exposed to 10(-7 M CdCl2 serves as our model system. Data suggest that prolonged cadmium exposures result in the development of more aggressive cancer phenotypes - increased cell growth, migration and invasion. The results from this study show for the first time that chronic cadmium exposure stimulates the expression of SDF-1 by altering the molecular interactions between ERα, c-jun and c-fos. This study provides a mechanistic link between chronic cadmium exposure and ERα and demonstrates that prolonged, low-level cadmium exposure contributes to breast cancer progression.

  8. Taper-seal type metal sealing system and available applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokouchi, Satoshi; Okabe, Masayuki; Morita, Shinsaku

    2001-01-01

    A conventional disk (flat ring) gasket for ConFlat ® sealing system has been commonly applied to commercially available equipments for ultrahigh vacuum systems. However, its large redundant part which wastes the tightening force makes its handling and seal reliability problematic. We examine a taper-seal type gasket, which is newly designed to improve the inefficiency of ConFlat mechanism using conventional disk gaskets. It is remarked that the obtained seal area on a taper-seal type gasket is 1.6˜3.7 times larger than that of a conventional disk gasket. Our numencal results on stress distributions in a tightened gasket indicate that taper-seal gasket realizes highly stable seal pressure even under a lower tightening torque. High sealing reliability is thus achieved as expected which is mainly due to the wide seal area and stable seal pressure realized even for rather hard gasket material. Taper-seal type gasket also has some practical advantages. The most important of them may be that it enables to construct new edgeless metal sealing systems without a welded heavy flange. Here, edgeless sealing systems are composed of highly flexible incorporating viewports, bellows, feedthroughs, and blank-off covers, as well as any other conventional vacuum components.

  9. Seal system with integral detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiarman, Sidney

    1985-01-01

    There is disclosed a seal system for materials where security is of the essence, such as nuclear materials, which is tamper-indicating, which indicates changes in environmental conditions that evidence attempts to by-pass the seal, which is unique and cost effective, said seal system comprised of a seal where an optical signal is transmitted through a loop, with a detector to read said signal, and one or more additional detectors designed to detect environmental changes, these detectors being operatively associated with the seal so that detection of a break in the optical signal or detection of environmental changes will cause an observable change in the seal.

  10. Influence of combined antioxidants against cadmium induced testicular damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyuturk, Meral; Yanardag, Refiye; Bolkent, Sehnaz; Tunali, Sevim

    2006-05-01

    Acute effects of cadmium (Cd) and combined antioxidants were evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rat testes. The rats were subdivided into four groups. Cadmium chloride (2mg/kgday) injected intraperitoneally during 8 days. Vitamin C (250mg/kgday), vitamin E (250mg/kgday) and sodium selenate (0.25mg/kgday) were pretreated by gavage in both of control and cadmium injected rats. Testis lipid peroxidation and glutathione levels were determined by spectrophotometrically. In Cd treated rats, lipid peroxidation levels were increased and glutathione levels were decreased and combined antioxidants treatment was effective in preventing of lipid peroxidation and normalizing glutathione. In Cd treated animals, the degenerative changes were observed, but not observed in the administrated rats with Cd and antioxidants under the light microscope. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen, metallothionein and caspase-3 activities were evaluated by immunohistochemically. Proliferation activity was not seen in the spermatogonial cells of cadmium treated testis. Treatment with antioxidants in cadmium administrated testis leads to pronounced increase in proliferation activity. Cytoplasmic caspase-3 activity was determined in the spermatogenic cells but not spermatogonia in treatment of antioxidants with Cd. In control and treated with antioxidants animals, metallothionein expressions were localized in the cells of seminiferous tubules, although the expression only was observed in the interstitial cells of cadmium treated rats. Results demonstrated beneficial effects of combined vitamin C, vitamin E and selenium treatment in Cd toxicity.

  11. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Master Identification Records (seal)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains records of all individually identified Hawaiian monk seals since 1981. These seals were identified by PSD personnel and cooperating scientists...

  12. Effects of cadmium on intercellular junctions in a renal epithelial cell line grown on permeable membrane supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prozialeck, W.C.; Niewenhuis, R.J. (Philadelphia Coll. of Osteopathic Medicine, PA (United States))

    1991-03-11

    Recent findings from the authors laboratories have shown that Cd{sup 2+} has relatively specific damaging effects on adhering and occluding junctions in the established porcine renal epithelial cell line, LLC-PK{sub 1}. The present studies were undertaken in order to further characterize the junction-perturbing effects of Cd{sup 2+} in polarized monolayers of LLC-PK{sub 1} cells, and to begin to identify the mechanisms underlying these effects. LLC-PK{sub 1} cells were grown to confluency on Millicell HA chambers and exposed to Cd{sup 2+} in polarized monolayers of LLC-PK{sub 1} cells, and to begin to identify the mechanisms underlying these effects. LLC-PK{sub 1} cells were grown to confluency on Millicell HA chambers an exposed to Cd{sup 2+} by adding CdCl{sub 2} to the solutions on either side of the cell monolayer. The integrity of cell-cell junctions was assessed by monitoring the transepithelial electrical resistance. The results showed that exposure to Cd{sup 2+} caused a pronounced decrease in transepithelial resistance without causing the cells to detach from the Millicell membrane. This decrease in resistance occurred more quickly and was much more pronounced when Cd{sup 2+} was added to the basolateral surface rather than the apical surface. Furthermore, the effects of Cd{sup 2+} were greatly reduced when excess Ca{sup 2+} was present in the medium. These results suggest that Cd{sup 2+} was present in the medium. These results suggest that Cd{sup 2+} may disrupt cell-cell junctions by interacting with Ca{sup 2+} binding sites or Ca{sup 2+} channels that are oriented toward the basolateral cell surface.

  13. Structural Design and Sealing Performance Analysis of Biomimetic Sealing Ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chuanjun; Zhang, Han; Zhang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    In order to reduce the failure probability of rubber sealing rings in reciprocating dynamic seal, a new structure of sealing ring based on bionics was designed. The biomimetic ring has three concave ridges and convex bulges on each side which are very similar to earthworms. Bulges were circularly designed and sealing performances of the biomimetic ring in both static seal and dynamic seal were simulated by FEM. In addition, effects of precompression, medium pressure, speed, friction coefficient, and material parameters on sealing performances were discussed. The results show that von Mises stress of the biomimetic sealing ring distributed symmetrically in no-pressure static sealing. The maximum von Mises stress appears on the second bulge of the inner side. High contact stress concentrates on left bulges. Von Mises stress distribution becomes uneven under medium pressure. Both von Mises stress and contact stress increase when precompression, medium pressure, and rubber hardness increase in static sealing. Biomimetic ring can avoid rolling and distortion in reciprocating dynamic seal, and its working life is much longer than O-ring and rectangular ring. The maximum von Mises stress and contact stress increase with the precompression, medium pressure, rubber hardness, and friction coefficient in reciprocating dynamic seal.

  14. Structural Design and Sealing Performance Analysis of Biomimetic Sealing Ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanjun Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the failure probability of rubber sealing rings in reciprocating dynamic seal, a new structure of sealing ring based on bionics was designed. The biomimetic ring has three concave ridges and convex bulges on each side which are very similar to earthworms. Bulges were circularly designed and sealing performances of the biomimetic ring in both static seal and dynamic seal were simulated by FEM. In addition, effects of precompression, medium pressure, speed, friction coefficient, and material parameters on sealing performances were discussed. The results show that von Mises stress of the biomimetic sealing ring distributed symmetrically in no-pressure static sealing. The maximum von Mises stress appears on the second bulge of the inner side. High contact stress concentrates on left bulges. Von Mises stress distribution becomes uneven under medium pressure. Both von Mises stress and contact stress increase when precompression, medium pressure, and rubber hardness increase in static sealing. Biomimetic ring can avoid rolling and distortion in reciprocating dynamic seal, and its working life is much longer than O-ring and rectangular ring. The maximum von Mises stress and contact stress increase with the precompression, medium pressure, rubber hardness, and friction coefficient in reciprocating dynamic seal.

  15. Structural Design and Sealing Performance Analysis of Biomimetic Sealing Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chuanjun

    2015-01-01

    In order to reduce the failure probability of rubber sealing rings in reciprocating dynamic seal, a new structure of sealing ring based on bionics was designed. The biomimetic ring has three concave ridges and convex bulges on each side which are very similar to earthworms. Bulges were circularly designed and sealing performances of the biomimetic ring in both static seal and dynamic seal were simulated by FEM. In addition, effects of precompression, medium pressure, speed, friction coefficient, and material parameters on sealing performances were discussed. The results show that von Mises stress of the biomimetic sealing ring distributed symmetrically in no-pressure static sealing. The maximum von Mises stress appears on the second bulge of the inner side. High contact stress concentrates on left bulges. Von Mises stress distribution becomes uneven under medium pressure. Both von Mises stress and contact stress increase when precompression, medium pressure, and rubber hardness increase in static sealing. Biomimetic ring can avoid rolling and distortion in reciprocating dynamic seal, and its working life is much longer than O-ring and rectangular ring. The maximum von Mises stress and contact stress increase with the precompression, medium pressure, rubber hardness, and friction coefficient in reciprocating dynamic seal. PMID:27019582

  16. Static seal for turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Santiago; Gisch, Andrew

    2014-04-01

    A seal structure for a gas turbine engine, the seal structure including first and second components located adjacent to each other and forming a barrier between high and low pressure zones. A seal cavity is defined in the first and second components, the seal cavity extending to either side of an elongated gap extending generally in a first direction between the first and second components. A seal member is positioned within the seal cavity and spans across the elongated gap. The seal member includes first and second side edges extending into each of the components in a second direction transverse to the first direction, and opposing longitudinal edges extending between the side edges generally parallel to the first direction. The side edges include a groove formed therein for effecting a reduction of gas flow around the seal member at the side edges.

  17. Chip seal design and specifications : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Chip seals or seal coats, are a pavement preservation method constructed using a layer of asphalt binder that is covered by a uniformly graded aggregate. The benefits of chip seal include: sealing surface cracks, keeping water from penetrating the su...

  18. Toxicity of cadmium to grapevine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupp, D.; Ruehl, E.; Alleweldt, G.

    1985-01-01

    Cuttings of the cv. Riesling were cultivated in nutrient solutions with different amounts of cadmium. Cadmium inhibited the growth of shoot and of leaf area and produced chlorosis, necroses and leaf deformations. Old leaves showed no symptoms at all, but with high cadmium levels leaf fall occurred. The threshold of cadmium damage was beneath a level of 0.1 ppm Cd of the nutrient solution. The dry matter production of the plants was reduced by cadmium: 0.66 mg Cd/l of nutrient solution caused an inhibition of 50%. Cadmium reduced the chlorophyll content of the leaves. The transport of iron from roots to leaves was inhibited nearly completely by medium to high levels of cadmium (1.0, 3.0, 10.0 ppm). Iron was accumulated in the roots. Thus cadmium may have caused an iron deficiency chlorosis in grapevines. The uptake of cadmium showed a clear dependence on the amount of cadmium in the nutrient solution. Within the plants, decreasing amounts of cadmium were found following the pattern roots - stem - leaves.

  19. Cadmium sulfide-copper sulfide: heterojunction cell research. Quarterly Progress report-1, September 1, 1978-December 1, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    The CdS/Cu/sub 2/S cell development effort has now shifted to the planar junction cell. It has been shown that this junction gives a higher open circuit voltage than that achieved with the highly textured cell structure. Optical measurements have shown that applying a two-layer anti-reflection coating to the planar cell does not achieve the high photon economy shown by the textured structure. Total reflectance measurements have revealed that this is due to the lack of light trapping in the planar structure. Modified cell designs are now being developed with the planar junction necessary for high open circuit voltage while achieving the necessary light trapping. Work on the (CdZn)S/Cu/sub 2/S cell has revealed that cell performance is extremely sensitive to the method of Cu/sub 2/S production. Appropriate structural studies have been initiated to identify the underlying reasons. Theoretical analysis and modeling of the current flow in the Cu/sub 2/S layer has shown that the conventional one-dimensional analysis can lead to significant errors in interpreting the effects of sheet resistance. A rigorous two-dimensional current analysis is being conducted. The importance of the changes in absorption coefficient of the Cu/sub 2/S stoichiometry has been identified and the relation between stoichiometry, resistivity and absorption coefficient derived. On the basis of a review of the encapsulation task in the large scale silicon array program it has been determined that inorganic glasses are probably the only viable encapsulant for a CdS/Cu/sub 2/S cell.

  20. Four Sided Seal Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The Center for Advanced Food Technology School of Enviromental and Biological Sciences New Brunswick, NJ 08903 FTR 216 Defense Logistics Agency...specification for four sided seal tester as function of confinement plate distance” The following modifications were issued :  Jul 18, 2007 0013/01

  1. GOLD PRESSURE VESSEL SEAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A.E.

    1963-11-26

    An improved seal between the piston and die member of a piston-cylinder type pressure vessel is presented. A layer of gold, of sufficient thickness to provide an interference fit between the piston and die member, is plated on the contacting surface of at least one of the members. (AEC)

  2. Gas path seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill, R. C.; Johnson, R. D. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A gas path seal suitable for use with a turbine engine or compressor is described. A shroud wearable or abradable by the abrasion of the rotor blades of the turbine or compressor shrouds the rotor bades. A compliant backing surrounds the shroud. The backing is a yieldingly deformable porous material covered with a thin ductile layer. A mounting fixture surrounds the backing.

  3. Detection of grey seal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bleijswijk, J.; Begeman, L.; Witte, H.J.; IJsseldijk, L.L.; Brasseur, S.M.J.M.; Gröne, A.; Leopold, M.F.

    2014-01-01

    DNA was analysed from external wounds on 3 dead harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena that were stranded in the Netherlands. Puncture wounds as well as the edges of large open wounds were sampled with sterile cotton swabs. With specific primers that target the mtDNA control region of grey seal

  4. Seal for sodium sulfur battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topouzian, Armenag; Minck, Robert W.; Williams, William J.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which the sealing is accomplished by a radial compression seal made on a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  5. 29 CFR 1910.1027 - Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... battery Plate making, plate preparation 50 All other processes 15 Zinc/Cadmium refining* Cadmium refining... as an airborne concentration of cadmium of 2.5 micrograms per cubic meter of air (2.5 µg/m3... air cadmium level to which an employee is exposed means the exposure to airborne cadmium that would...

  6. Polycrystalline thin film cadmium telluride solar cells fabricated by electrodeposition. Annual technical report, 20 March 1995--19 March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trefny, J U; Mao, D [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The objective of this project is to develop improved processes for fabricating CdTe/CdS polycrystalline thin-film solar cells. Researchers used electrodeposition to form CdTe; electrodeposition is a non-vacuum, low-cost technique that is attractive for economic, large-scale production. During the past year, research and development efforts focused on several steps that are most critical to the fabricating high-efficiency CdTe solar cells. These include the optimization of the CdTe electrodeposition process, the effect of pretreatment of CdS substrates, the post-deposition annealing of CdTe, and back-contact formation using Cu-doped ZnTe. Systematic investigations of these processing steps have led to a better understanding and improved performance of the CdTe-based cells. Researchers studied the structural properties of chemical-bath-deposited CdS thin films and their growth mechanisms by investigating CdS samples prepared at different deposition times; investigated the effect of CdCl{sub 2} treatment of CdS films on the photovoltaic performance of CdTe solar cells; studied Cu-doped ZnTe as a promising material for forming stable, low-resistance contacts to the p-type CdTe; and investigated the effect of CdTe and CdS thickness on the photovoltaic performance of the resulting cells. As a result of their systematic investigation and optimization of the processing conditions, researchers improved the efficiency of CdTe/CdS cells using ZnTe back-contact and electrodeposited CdTe. The best CdTe/CdS cell exhibited a V{sub oc} of 0.778 V, a J{sub sc} of 22.4 mA/cm{sup 2}, a FF of 74%, and an efficiency of 12.9% (verified at NREL). In terms of individual parameters, researchers obtained a V{sub oc} over 0.8 V and a FF of 76% on other cells.

  7. The effects of cadmium exposure on the oxidative state and cell death in the gill of freshwater crab Sinopotamon henanense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxiang Wang

    Full Text Available We studied here the short-term toxicity effects of Cd on the oxidative state and cell death in the gill of freshwater crab Sinopotamon henanense. Crabs were exposed to Cd that resulted in Cd accumulation and a significant increase in the metallothionein (MT level in the gill, but MT level increased disproportionally compared to the Cd accumulation with an extension of exposure time. Significant changes in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were observed. An increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS and lipid peroxidation (LPO was detected that will cause oxidative stress. Histological abnormalities of the gills were discovered, including the expansion of gill cavity, a decrease in the numbers of connection of the upper and the lower of the gill lamellae and epithelial cells, and an increase in the number of hemocytes. The results of a TUNEL test and transmission electron microscope (TEM showed that more gill cells had apoptotic characteristics after 48 h of Cd treatment compared to the control, but epithelial cell necrosis and inflammatory response appeared only after 72 h. It was concluded that (1 Cd induced the ROS production and accumulation through inhibiting antioxidant enzyme activities and exceeding the saturation values of MT binging; (2 Cd led to lipid peroxidation and histopathological alternations; and (3 Cd induced apoptotic response at short time exposure, followed by necrotic features and inflammatory reaction after longer time exposure.

  8. Gulf and Dilmun Type seals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    From around 2100 BC a glyptic tradition emerges in the Arabian Gulf, which is dependant on the well-established schools of the Indus Valley seal cutters. These circular hybrids of classic Harappan seals rapidly became popular amongst the merchants of Dilmun, centered on Bahrain Island. At first...... these Gulf Type‘ seals drew heavily on Indus Valley iconography and Indus script was occasionally employed in a pidgin-like manner. While the earliest circular seals incorporate features from Mesopotamian glyptic only to a lesser extent, this becomes a more important source of inspiration for later Dilmun...... Type seals....

  9. Hermetic Seal Leak Detection Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention is a hermetic seal leak detection apparatus, which can be used to test for hermetic seal leaks in instruments and containers. A vacuum tight chamber is created around the unit being tested to minimize gas space outside of the hermetic seal. A vacuum inducing device is then used to increase the gas chamber volume inside the device, so that a slight vacuum is pulled on the unit being tested. The pressure in the unit being tested will stabilize. If the stabilized pressure reads close to a known good seal calibration, there is not a leak in the seal. If the stabilized pressure reads closer to a known bad seal calibration value, there is a leak in the seal. The speed of the plunger can be varied and by evaluating the resulting pressure change rates and final values, the leak rate/size can be accurately calculated.

  10. Failure analysis of the lithium battery: A study of the header deposit on the cell top and diffusion within the electrode glass seal using nuclear microanalysis and FFTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Razi A.

    1991-01-01

    The Solid Rocket Booster Range Safety System (SRBRSS) uses a lithium/poly-carbon monofluoride primary battery as a source of electrical power. After cell fabrication and activation, some battery cells have shown self discharge. One possible source of this cell discharge has been suggested to be the formation and growth of a conducting crystallized chemical compound across the glass bead insulator, electrically shorting the glass bead to the casing. This laboratory has begun an analysis of this compound, the glass seal holding the cathode into place, and the cell electrolyte, using Fast Fourier Transform Infrared (FFTIR) Analysis, Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), and Nuclear Reaction Microanalysis. Preliminary measurements have confirmed the existence of lithium, nitrogen, fluorine, and oxygen on a reddish-brown deposit covering parts of the glass seal holding the positive electrode in place. Cells using Li metal electrodes, have many advantages over conventional primary batteries. One principal disadvantage of using Li batteries on a commercial basis would be the environmental impact of the fluorocarbon material. Another would be the relatively high expense of (CF)n.

  11. Gas turbine sealing apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, David J; Wessell, Brian J; Ebert, Todd; Beeck, Alexander; Liang, George; Marussich, Walter H

    2013-02-19

    A gas turbine includes forward and aft rows of rotatable blades, a row of stationary vanes between the forward and aft rows of rotatable blades, an annular intermediate disc, and a seal housing apparatus. The forward and aft rows of rotatable blades are coupled to respective first and second portions of a disc/rotor assembly. The annular intermediate disc is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly so as to be rotatable with the disc/rotor assembly during operation of the gas turbine. The annular intermediate disc includes a forward side coupled to the first portion of the disc/rotor assembly and an aft side coupled to the second portion of the disc/rotor assembly. The seal housing apparatus is coupled to the annular intermediate disc so as to be rotatable with the annular intermediate disc and the disc/rotor assembly during operation of the gas turbine.

  12. Cadmium hazard in silver brazing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, S L; Tan, S H; Pinnagoda, J; Tan, K T

    1995-03-01

    This study evaluates the usage of cadmium-containing silver brazing alloys in Singapore and the potential cadmium hazard from its use. Of the 137 factories which responded to the survey questionnaire, only 28 (20.4%) carried out brazing. Of these, only 7 factories used cadmium-containing filler alloys. One hundred and six out of 123 workers from one of these factories had cadmium-in-blood concentrations exceeding 10 mcg/l. Thirty-one (29.2%) of the workers with excessive cadmium absorption had urinary beta-2 microglobulin levels exceeding 28 mcg/g creat. Workers in the other factories who were intermittently exposed had cadmium-in-blood concentrations of 10 mcg/l and below.

  13. Mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenicity in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishak, Yaser Khaje; Payahoo, Laleh; Osatdrahimi, Alireza; Nourazarian, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Cancer, a serious public health problem in worldwide, results from an excessive and uncontrolled proliferation of the body cells without obvious physiological demands of organs. The gastrointestinal tract, including the esophagus, stomach and intestine, is a unique organ system. It has the highest cancer incidence and cancer- related mortality in the body and is influenceed by both genetic and environmental factors. Among the various chemical elements recognized in the nature, some of them including zinc, iron, cobalt, and copper have essential roles in the various biochemical and physiological processes, but only at low levels and others such as cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic, and nickel are considered as threats for human health especially with chronic exposure at high levels. Cadmium, an environment contaminant, cannot be destroyed in nature. Through impairment of vitamin D metabolism in the kidney it causes nephrotoxicity and subsequently bone metabolism impairment and fragility. The major mechanisms involved in cadmium carcinogenesis could be related to the suppression of gene expression, inhibition of DNA damage repair, inhibition of apoptosis, and induction of oxidative stress. In addition, cadmium may act through aberrant DNA methylation. Cadmium affects multiple cellular processes, including signal transduction pathways, cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Down-regulation of methyltransferases enzymes and reduction of DNA methylation have been stated as epigenetic effects of cadmium. Furthermore, increasing intracellular free calcium ion levels induces neuronal apoptosis in addition to other deleterious influence on the stability of the genome.

  14. Mercury Cadmium Selenide for Infrared Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    were grown using elemental mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and selenium (Se) sources. The beam equiva- lent pressure ( BEP ) emanating from all sources was...flux), the BEP measured for the cracker source was found to vary with the cracking zone temperature, tracking with the data found in Ref. 7. This sug...The Se BEP measured for the typical cracking zone temperature of 800 C was found to be close to a factor of two lower than at the typical effusion cell

  15. Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkman, H.; Iverfeldt, Aa. [Swedish Environmental Research Inst. (Sweden); Borg, H.; Lithner, G. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Inst. for Applied Environmental Research

    1998-03-01

    This report aims at assessing possible effects of cadmium in the Swedish environment. Swedish soils and soft freshwater systems are, due to a generally poor buffering capacity, severely affected by acidification. In addition, the low salinity in the Baltic Sea imply a naturally poor organism structure, with some important organisms living close to their limit of physiological tolerance. Cadmium in soils is mobilized at low pH, and the availability and toxicity of cadmium in marine systems are enhanced at low salinity. The Swedish environment is therefore extra vulnerable to cadmium pollution. The average concentrations of cadmium in the forest mor layers, agricultural soils, and fresh-waters in Sweden are enhanced compared to `back-ground concentrations`, with a general increasing trend from the north to the south-west, indicating strong impact of atmospheric deposition of cadmium originating from the central parts of Europe. In Swedish sea water, total cadmium concentrations, and the fraction of bio-available `free` cadmium, generally increases with decreasing salinity. Decreased emissions of cadmium to the environment have led to decreasing atmospheric deposition during the last decade. The net accumulation of cadmium in the forest mor layer has stopped, and even started to decrease. In northern Sweden, this is due to the decreased deposition, but in southern Sweden the main reason is increased leakage of cadmium from the topsoil as a consequence of acidification. As a result, cadmium in the Swedish environments is undergoing an extended redistribution between different soil compartments, and from the soils to the aquatic systems. 90 refs, 23 figs, 2 tabs. With 3 page summary in Swedish

  16. Exposure to runoff from coal-tar-sealed pavement induces genotoxicity and impairment of DNA repair capacity in the RTL-W1 fish liver cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kienzler, Aude, E-mail: aude.kienzler@entpe.fr [Université de Lyon, UMR LEHNA 5023, USC INRA, ENTPE, rue Maurice Audin, Vaulx-en-Velin F-69518 (France); Mahler, Barbara J., E-mail: bjmahler@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, 1505 Ferguson Lane, Austin, TX 78754 (United States); Van Metre, Peter C., E-mail: pcvanmet@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, 1505 Ferguson Lane, Austin, TX 78754 (United States); Schweigert, Nathalie [Université de Lyon, UMR LEHNA 5023, USC INRA, ENTPE, rue Maurice Audin, Vaulx-en-Velin F-69518 (France); Devaux, Alain, E-mail: alain.devaux@entpe.fr [Université de Lyon, UMR LEHNA 5023, USC INRA, ENTPE, rue Maurice Audin, Vaulx-en-Velin F-69518 (France); Bony, Sylvie, E-mail: bony@entpe.fr [Université de Lyon, UMR LEHNA 5023, USC INRA, ENTPE, rue Maurice Audin, Vaulx-en-Velin F-69518 (France)

    2015-07-01

    Coal-tar-based (CTB) sealcoat, frequently applied to parking lots and driveways in North America, contains elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and related compounds. The RTL-W1 fish liver cell line was used to investigate two endpoints (genotoxicity and DNA-repair-capacity impairment) associated with exposure to runoff from asphalt pavement with CTB sealcoat or with an asphalt-based sealcoat hypothesized to contain about 7% CTB sealcoat (AS-blend). Genotoxic potential was assessed by the Formamido pyrimidine glycosylase (Fpg)-modified comet assay for 1:10 and 1:100 dilutions of runoff samples collected from 5 h to 36 d following sealcoat application. DNA-repair capacity was assessed by the base excision repair comet assay for 1:10 dilution of samples collected 26 h and 36 d following application. Both assays were run with and without co-exposure to ultraviolet-A radiation (UVA). With co-exposure to UVA, genotoxic effects were significant for both dilutions of CTB runoff for three of four sample times, and for some samples of AS-blend runoff. Base excision repair was significantly impaired for CTB runoff both with and without UVA exposure, and for AS-blend runoff only in the absence of UVA. This study is the first to investigate the effects of exposure to the complex mixture of chemicals in coal tar on DNA repair capacity. The results indicate that co-exposure to runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement and UVA as much as a month after sealcoat application has the potential to cause genotoxicity and impair DNA repair capacity. - Highlights: • Co-exposure to runoff from coal-tar-sealcoated pavement and UVA caused DNA damage. • Significant genotoxicity occurred with a 1:100 dilution of runoff. • Runoff collected up to 36 d following coal-tar-sealcoat application was genotoxic. • Exposure to runoff from sealed pavement impaired an important DNA repair pathway. • Repair capacity was impaired with a 1:10 dilution of runoff (1:100 not

  17. Interactions between cadmium and decabrominated diphenyl ether on blood cells count in rats-Multiple factorial regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcic, Marijana; Buha, Aleksandra; Stankovic, Sanja; Milovanovic, Vesna; Bulat, Zorica; Đukić-Ćosić, Danijela; Antonijević, Evica; Vučinić, Slavica; Matović, Vesna; Antonijevic, Biljana

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess toxicity of Cd and BDE-209 mixture on haematological parameters in subacutely exposed rats and to determine the presence and type of interactions between these two chemicals using multiple factorial regression analysis. Furthermore, for the assessment of interaction type, an isobologram based methodology was applied and compared with multiple factorial regression analysis. Chemicals were given by oral gavage to the male Wistar rats weighing 200-240g for 28days. Animals were divided in 16 groups (8/group): control vehiculum group, three groups of rats were treated with 2.5, 7.5 or 15mg Cd/kg/day. These doses were chosen on the bases of literature data and reflect relatively high Cd environmental exposure, three groups of rats were treated with 1000, 2000 or 4000mg BDE-209/kg/bw/day, doses proved to induce toxic effects in rats. Furthermore, nine groups of animals were treated with different mixtures of Cd and BDE-209 containing doses of Cd and BDE-209 stated above. Blood samples were taken at the end of experiment and red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets counts were determined. For interaction assessment multiple factorial regression analysis and fitted isobologram approach were used. In this study, we focused on multiple factorial regression analysis as a method for interaction assessment. We also investigated the interactions between Cd and BDE-209 by the derived model for the description of the obtained fitted isobologram curves. Current study indicated that co-exposure to Cd and BDE-209 can result in significant decrease in RBC count, increase in WBC count and decrease in PLT count, when compared with controls. Multiple factorial regression analysis used for the assessment of interactions type between Cd and BDE-209 indicated synergism for the effect on RBC count and no interactions i.e. additivity for the effects on WBC and PLT counts. On the other hand, isobologram based approach showed slight antagonism

  18. Speciation of Dissolved Cadmium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Peter Engelund; Andersen, Sjur; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1995-01-01

    Equilibrium dialysis and ion exchange methods, as well as computer calculations (GEOCHEM), were applied for speciation of dissolved cadmium (Cd) in test solutions and leachate samples. The leachate samples originated from soil, compost, landfill waste and industrial waste. The ion exchange (IE...... leachates showed different Cd speciation patterns as expected. Some leachates were dominated by free divalent Cd (1-70%), some by inorganic complexes (1-87%), and some by organic complexes (7-98%)....

  19. Dunaliella salina as marine microalga highly tolerant to but a poor remover of cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folgar, S. [Departamento de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidade da Coruna, Alejandro de la Sota no 1, 15008 La Coruna (Spain); Torres, E., E-mail: torres@udc.es [Departamento de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidade da Coruna, Alejandro de la Sota no 1, 15008 La Coruna (Spain); Perez-Rama, M.; Cid, A.; Herrero, C.; Abalde, J. [Departamento de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidade da Coruna, Alejandro de la Sota no 1, 15008 La Coruna (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    Cadmium tolerance and removal in the marine microalga Dunaliella salina were studied in cultures exposed to different metal concentrations (5-120 mg Cd l{sup -1}) for 96 h. This microalga can be included in the group of microalgal species most tolerant to cadmium due to the high value of EC50 that it possesses (48.9 mg Cd l{sup -1} at 96 h of culture). The greater percentage of cadmium removed was obtained in cultures exposed to 5 mg Cd l{sup -1} at 96 h, but removing only 11.3% of the added cadmium. In all cultures, the quantity of cadmium removed intracellularly was much lower than the bioadsorbed quantity and it was proportional to the sulfhydryl group levels. Both the Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models were suitable for describing the short-term biosorption of cadmium by living cells of D. salina.

  20. [The genetic action of ammonium molybdate and cadmium chloride and iodide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopikashvili, L V; Bobyleva, L A; Shapiro, A N

    1991-01-01

    Ammonium molybdate cadmium iodide and cadmium chloride have been studied in test for their genotoxic effect on induction of DNA-cellular bonding, extrasynthesis of DNA in spermatozoa of mice as well as in test to estimate a fertility criterion of Drosophila males. Ammonium molybdate, cadmium iodide and cadmium chloride are stated to be able to induce injuries of native DNA in test on induction of DNA-cellular bonding and DNA-sex cells of mice and Drosophila melanogaster in dominant-lethal test and in experiments on estimation of a fertility coefficient of Drosophila males, respectively.

  1. Aft outer rim seal arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Tham, Kok-Mun; Schroeder, Eric; Meeroff, Jamie; Miller, Jr., Samuel R; Marra, John J; Campbell, Christian X

    2015-04-28

    An outer rim seal arrangement (10), including: an annular rim (70) centered about a longitudinal axis (30) of a rotor disc (31), extending fore and having a fore-end (72), an outward-facing surface (74), and an inward-facing surface (76); a lower angel wing (62) extending aft from a base of a turbine blade (22) and having an aft end (64) disposed radially inward of the rim inward-facing surface to define a lower angel wing seal gap (80); an upper angel wing (66) extending aft from the turbine blade base and having an aft end (68) disposed radially outward of the rim outward-facing surface to define a upper angel wing seal gap (80, 82); and guide vanes (100) disposed on the rim inward-facing surface in the lower angel wing seal gap. Pumping fins (102) may be disposed on the upper angel wing seal aft end in the upper angel wing seal gap.

  2. Development of helicopter engine seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynwander, P.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental evaluation of main shaft seals for helicopter gas turbine engines was conducted with shaft speeds to 213 m/s(700 ft/sec), air pressures to 148 N/sq cm (215 psia), and air temperatures to 645 K (675 F). Gas leakage test results indicate that conventional seals will not be satisfactory for high-pressure sealing because of excessive leakage. The self-acting face seal, however, had significantly lower leakage and operated with insignificant wear during a 150-hour endurance test at sliding speeds to 145 m/s (475 ft/sec), air pressures to 124 N/sq cm (180 psia), and air temperatures to 408 K (275 F). Wear measurements indicate that noncontact operation was achieved at shaft speeds of 43,000 rpm. Evaluation of the self-acting circumferential seal was inconclusive because of seal dimensional variations.

  3. The inhibition effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin-induced aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation in human hepatoma cells with the treatment of cadmium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, How-Ran [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Neipu, Pingtung 912, Taiwan (China); Emerging Compounds Research Center, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Neipu, Pingtung 912, Taiwan (China); Tsou, Tsui-Chun [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli 350, Taiwan (China); Chen, Hung-Ta [Sustainable Environment Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Chang, Eddy Essen; Tsai, Feng-Yuan [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli 350, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ding-Yan [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Neipu, Pingtung 912, Taiwan (China); Chen, Fu-An [Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Department of Pharmacy, Tajen University, Yan-Pu, Pingtung 907, Taiwan (China); Wang, Ya-Fen, E-mail: yfwang@cycu.edu.tw [Department of Bioenvironmental Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chungli, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan (China); R and D Center of Membrane Technology, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chungli 320, Taiwan (China)

    2009-10-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs), considered as endocrine disruptors, tend to accumulate in fatty tissues. Dioxin-responsive element chemical activated luciferase gene expression assay (DRE-luciferase assay) has been recognized as a semi-quantitative method for screening dioxins for its fast and low-cost as compared with HRGC/HRMS. However, some problems with the bioassay, including specificity, detection variation resulted from different cleanup strategies, and uncertainty of false-negative or false-positive results, remain to be overcome. Cadmium is a prevalent environmental contaminant around the world. This study was aimed to examine the effects of cadmium on the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated gene expression in human hepatoma cells (Huh7-DRE-Luc cells and Huh7 cells). Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and DRE-luciferase assay were employed to determine the enzyme activity of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and activation of AhR, respectively. The results showed that Cd{sup 2+} levels significantly inhibited the induction of TCDD-induced CYP1A1 and DRE luciferase activation in hepatoma cells. The 50% inhibited concentrations (IC{sub 50}) of CdCl{sub 2} were 0.414 {mu}M (95% confidence interval (C.I.): 0.230-0.602 {mu}M) in Huh7-DRE-Luc cells and 23.2 {mu}M (95% C.I.: 21.7-25.4 {mu}M) in Huh7 cells. Accordingly, prevention of interference with non-dioxin-like compounds in a DRE-luciferase assay is of great importance in an extensive cleanup procedure.

  4. Fiber Optic Safeguards Sealing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    an intergrity check of a seal than to photograph the seal’s fingerprints and to match positive/negative overlays. The seal identification time and...INSTALLATIONS, LOGISTICS fi FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY WASHINGTON, DC 20310 ATTN OASA-IL&FM-DSM&T, E. A. ORSINI ATTK OASA-IL&FM, COL K...W, GOOCH OFFICE, DEPUTY CHIEF OF STAFF FOR LOGISTICS DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY WASHINGTON, DC 20310 ATTN DALO-SMS, T. C. UECKERT OFFICE, DEPUTY

  5. Trichosporon jirovecii-mediated synthesis of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Baz, Ashraf Farag; Sorour, Noha Mohamed; Shetaia, Youssria Mohamed

    2016-05-01

    Cadmium sulphide is one of the most promising materials for solar cells and of great interest due to its useful applications in photonics and electronics, thus the development of bio-mediated synthesis of cadmium sulphide nanoparticles (CdS NPs) is one of the essential areas in nanoparticles. The present study demonstrates for the first time the eco-friendly biosynthesis of CdS NPs using the yeast Trichosporon jirovecii. The biosynthesis of CdS NPs were confirmed by UV-Vis spectrum and characterized by X-ray diffraction assay and electron microscopy. Scanning and transmission electron microscope analyses shows the formation of spherical CdS NPs with a size range of about 6-15 nm with a mean Cd:S molar ratio of 1.0:0.98. T. jirovecii produced hydrogen sulfide on cysteine containing medium confirmed by positive cysteine-desulfhydrase activity and the colony color turned yellow on 0.1 mM cadmium containing medium. T. jirovecii tolerance to cadmium was increased by the UV treatment and three 0.6 mM cadmium tolerant mutants were generated upon the UV radiation treatment. The overall results indicated that T. jirovecii could tolerate cadmium toxicity by its conversion into CdS NPs on cysteine containing medium using cysteine-desulfhydrase as a defense response mechanism. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Fluidtight Seal for a Container

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, Edward F.

    1999-03-31

    A fluidtight seal for a container is formed by abutting a metal ring with a step machined in a convexo-concave container closure device and inserting this assembly into an open end of the container. Under compressive force, the closure device deforms causing the metal ring to pivot about the step on the closure device and interact with symmetrically tapered inner walls of the container to form a fluidtight seal between the container and the closure device. The compressive force is then withdrawn without affecting the fluidtight characteristic of the seal. A destructive force against the container closure device is necessary to destroy the fluidtight seal.

  7. Cadmium Induces Apoptosis in Freshwater Crab Sinopotamon henanense through Activating Calcium Signal Transduction Pathway: e0144392

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jinxiang Wang; Pingping Zhang; Na Liu; Qian Wang; Jixian Luo; Lan Wang

    2015-01-01

      Calcium ion (Ca2+) is one of the key intracellular signals, which is implicated in the regulation of cell functions such as impregnation, cell proliferation, differentiation and death. Cadmium (Cd...

  8. Inhibition of Yap2 activity by MAPKAP kinase Rck1 affects yeast tolerance to cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzola, Daiane; Pimentel, Catarina; Caetano, Soraia; Amaral, Catarina; Menezes, Regina; Santos, Claudia N; Eleutherio, Elis; Rodrigues-Pousada, Claudina

    2015-09-14

    Yap2 is a cadmium responsive transcription factor that interacts with MAPK-activated protein (MAPKAP) kinase Rck1. We show that Rck1 deletion confers protection against cadmium toxicity and that the mechanism underlying this observation relies on Yap2. Rck1 removal from the yeast genome potentiates Yap2 activity by increasing protein half-life and delaying its nuclear export. As a consequence, several Yap2 antioxidant targets are over-activated by a mechanism that also requires Yap1. Several genes of the cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway are upregulated under cadmium stress in a Yap2 dependent way. We showed that deletion of CWI genes renders yeast cells more sensitive to cadmium. These findings led us to suggest that in response to cadmium stress Yap2 may serve a dual purpose: oxidative stress attenuation and cell wall maintenance. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. LcMKK, a MAPK kinase from Lycium chinense, confers cadmium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    induced endogenous salicylic acid and overexpression of this gene enhances tolerance to cadmium stress in Arabidopsis. Plant. Cell Rep. 34, 871–884. Guan C., Ji J., Wu D., Li X., Jin C., Guan W. et al. 2015b The glutathione synthesis may be regulated by cadmium-induced endogenous ethylene in Lycium chinense, and ...

  10. Heterologously expressed bacterial and human multidrug resistance proteins confer cadmium resistance to Escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achard-Joris, M; van Saparoea, HBV; Driessen, AJM; Bourdineaud, JP; Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    The human MDR1 gene is induced by cadmium exposure although no resistance to this metal is observed in human cells overexpressing hMDR1. To access the role of MDR proteins in cadmium resistance, human MDR1, Lactococcus lactis lmrA, and Oenococcus oeni omrA were expressed in an Escherichia coli tolC

  11. LcMKK, a MAPK kinase from Lycium chinense, confers cadmium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CHUNFENG GUAN

    Plant. Cell Rep. 34, 871–884. Guan C., Ji J., Wu D., Li X., Jin C., Guan W. et al. 2015b The glutathione synthesis may be regulated by cadmium-induced endogenous ethylene in Lycium chinense, and overexpression of an ethylene responsive transcription factor gene enhances tolerance to cadmium stress in tobacco. Mol.

  12. Cadmium in blood and hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eum, Ki-Do; Lee, Mi-Sun [Department of Environmental Health, Graduate School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paek, Domyung [Department of Environmental Health, Graduate School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: paekdm@snu.ac.kr

    2008-12-15

    Objectives:: This study is to examine the effect of cadmium exposure on blood pressure in Korean general population. Methods:: The study population consisted of 958 men and 944 women who participated in the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), in which blood pressure and blood cadmium were measured from each participant. Results:: The mean blood cadmium level was 1.67 {mu}g/L (median level 1.55). The prevalence of hypertension was 26.2%. The blood cadmium level was significantly higher among those subjects with hypertension than those without (mean level 1.77 versus 1.64 {mu}g/dL). After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratio of hypertension comparing the highest to the lowest tertile of cadmium in blood was 1.51 (95% confidence interval 1.13 to 2.05), and a dose-response relationship was observed. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure were all positively associated with blood cadmium level, and this effect of cadmium on blood pressure was markedly stronger when the kidney function was reduced. Conclusions:: Cadmium exposures at the current level may have increased the blood pressure of Korean general population.

  13. Comparative effects of repeated administration of cadmium chloride during pregnancy and lactation and selenium protection against cadmium toxicity on some organs in immature rats' offsprings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekheet, Souad H M

    2011-12-01

    This research comprises studies on the transfer of cadmium (CdCl(2)) from the lactating dam to the pup via milk and absorbed in the suckling, showing that cadmium is transferred to the testes, ovary, cerebellum, and thyroid gland during development. The present studies were carried out in order to assess the protective effects of selenium against cadmium toxicity in pregnant rats. On the sixth day of gestation, the females were dosed subcutaneously either with cadmium or with cadmium and selenium in the following doses (mg/kg of body weight): 0, 1 Cd, 1 Cd + 1 Se, 2 Cd, 2 Cd + 2 Se. In groups treated with cadmium, no maternal or embryonic toxicities were observed; however, an increase in testes diameters of seminiferous tubules, a progressive sloughing of germ cells, vacuolization of Sertoli cells, and Leydig cells hyperplasia were noted. The reduction in the ovary size and inhibited folliculogenesis resulted in diminution of the numbers of primordial, growing, and tertiary follicles. The pathological change in the cerebellum, the migration of granular cells from the external germinal layer to the internal granular layer, was strongly retarded. Also, the formation of many microfollicles in the thyroid gland which mimic the changes was seen in thyrotoxicosis. It also appears that selenium used at a low-enough dose could be a very effective protection against cadmium-induced developmental toxicity in the testes, ovary, cerebellum, and thyroid gland but not in the higher dose in the ovary and cerebellum.

  14. ITER lip seal welding and cutting developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levesy, B.; Cordier, J.J.; Jokinen, T. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Kujanpää, V.; Karhu, M. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland); Le Barbier, R. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Määttä, T. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland); Martins, J.P.; Utin, Y. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Different TIG and Laser welding techniques are tested. • Twin spot laser welding techniques is the best. • Limited heat input gives a stable weld pool in all positions. • Penetrations is achieved. • Lip seal welding and cutting with a robotic arm is successfully performed on a representative mock-up. - Abstract: The welded lip seals form part of the torus primary vacuum boundary in between the port plugs and the vacuum vessel, and are classified as Protection Important Component. In order to refurbish the port plugs or the in-vessel components, port plugs have to be removed from the machine. The lip seal design must enable up to ten opening of the vacuum vessel during the life time operation of the ITER machine. Therefore proven, remote reliable cutting and re-welding are essential, as these operations need to be performed in the port cells in a nuclear environment, where human presence will be restricted. Moreover, the combination of size of the components to be welded (∼10 m long vacuum compatible thin welds) and the congested environment close to the core of the machine constraint the type and size of tools to be used. This paper describes the lip seal cutting and welding development programme performed at the VTT Technical Research Centre, Finland. Potential cutting and welding techniques are analyzed and compared. The development of the cutting, TIG and laser welding techniques on samples are presented. Effects of lip seal misalignments and optimization of the 2 welding processes are discussed. Finally, the manufacturing and test of the two 1.2 m × 1 m representative mock-ups are presented. The set-up and use of a robotic arm for the mock-up cutting and welding operations are also described.

  15. Cadmium exposure in the Swedish environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report gives a thorough description of cadmium in the Swedish environment. It comprises three parts: Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks;, Cadmium in goods - contribution to environmental exposure;, and Cadmium in fertilizers, soil, crops and foods - the Swedish situation. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all three parts

  16. Different effects of sodium chloride preincubation on cadmium tolerance of Pichia kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Li, Chunsheng; Dong, Xiaoyan; Wang, Dongfeng; Xu, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Application of growing microorganisms for cadmium removal is restricted by high cadmium toxicity. The effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) preincubation on the cadmium tolerance and removal ability of Pichia kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated in this study. NaCl preincubation improved the biomass of P. kudriavzevii under cadmium stress, while no obvious effect was observed in S. cerevisiae. The improved activities of peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) after NaCl preincubation might be an important reason for the decrease of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, cell death, and oxidative damage of proteins and lipids induced by cadmium, contributing to the improvement of the yeast growth. The cadmium bioaccumulation capacity of P. kudriavzevii decreased significantly after NaCl preincubation, which played an important role in mitigating the cadmium toxicity to the yeast. The cadmium removal rate of P. kudriavzevii was obviously higher than S. cerevisiae and was significantly enhanced after NaCl preincubation. The results suggested that NaCl preincubation improved the cadmium tolerance and removal ability of P. kudriavzevii. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Effects of cadmium on aneuploidy and hemocyte parameters in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouilly, Karine [IFREMER, Laboratoire de Genetique et Pathologie, La Tremblade 17390 (France); Gagnaire, Beatrice [IFREMER, Laboratoire de Genetique et Pathologie, La Tremblade 17390 (France); Bonnard, Marc [IFREMER, Laboratoire de Genetique et Pathologie, La Tremblade 17390 (France); Thomas-Guyon, Helene [Laboratoire de Biologie et Environnement Marins, FRE-CNRS, 2727, Universite de La Rochelle, 22 Avenue Michel Crepeau, La Rochelle 17042 (France); Renault, Tristan [IFREMER, Laboratoire de Genetique et Pathologie, La Tremblade 17390 (France); Miramand, Pierre [Laboratoire de Biologie et Environnement Marins, FRE-CNRS, 2727, Universite de La Rochelle, 22 Avenue Michel Crepeau, La Rochelle 17042 (France); Lapegue, Sylvie [IFREMER, Laboratoire de Genetique et Pathologie, La Tremblade 17390 (France)]. E-mail: slapegue@ifremer.fr

    2006-06-15

    Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, are commonly reared in estuaries where they are exposed to anthropogenic pollution. Much research has been made on the toxicity of cadmium to aquatic organisms because the compound recurrently contaminates their environment. Our study examined the influence of cadmium on aneuploidy level (lowered chromosome number in a percentage of somatic cells) and hemocyte parameters in C. gigas at different stages of life. Adults and juveniles were exposed to two different concentrations of cadmium. The first concentration applied was equivalent to a peak value found in Marennes-Oleron bay (Charente-Maritime, France; 50 ng L{sup -1}) and the second was 10 times higher (500 ng L{sup -1}). Exposure to 50 ng L{sup -1} cadmium caused a significant decrease in the survival time of C. gigas, but exposure to 500 ng L{sup -1} surprisingly affected the survival time positively. Significant differences in aneuploidy level were observed between the cadmium treatments and the control in adults but not in juveniles or the offspring of the adult groups. The effects of cadmium on hemocyte parameters were analyzed by flow cytometry. Several hemocyte parameters increased significantly after 21 days of cadmium exposure and subsequently decreased. Phenoloxidase-like activity, evaluated by spectrophotometry, varied over the time of the experiment and increased after 66 days of contact with 500 ng L{sup -1} cadmium. Taken together, cadmium at environmentally relevant concentrations seems to have only moderate effects on aneuploidy and hemocyte parameters.

  18. Cadmium stress disrupts the endomembrane organelles and endocytosis during Picea wilsonii pollen germination and tube growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Wang

    Full Text Available As one of the most severe pollutants, cadmium has been reported to be harmful to plant cells, but the effects of cadmium on gymnosperm pollen germination and tube growth and the mechanism of this involvement are still unclear. Here, we report that cadmium not only strongly inhibited P. wilsonii pollen germination and tube growth, but also significantly altered tube morphology in a dose-dependent manner. Time-lapse images obtained with a laser scanning confocal microscope revealed that endocytosis was dramatically inhibited by cadmium stress. Further investigation with ER-Tracker dye indicated that cadmium stress reduced the number of the Golgi apparatus, and induced dilation of ER. Additionally, Lyso-Tracker staining showed that cadmium distinctly promoted the formation of acidic organelles in pollen tubes, likely derived from the dilated ER. Taken together, our studies indicated that P. wilsonii pollens were highly susceptible to cadmium stress, and that cadmium stress strongly inhibited pollen germination and tube growth by disrupting the endomembrane organelles, inhibiting endo/exocytosis, and forming acidic vacuoles, resulting in swollen tube tips and irregularly broadened tube diameters. These findings provide a new insight into the effects of cadmium toxicity on the tip growth of pollen tubes.

  19. Seal between metal and ceramic conduits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underwood, Richard Paul; Tentarelli, Stephen Clyde

    2015-02-03

    A seal between a ceramic conduit and a metal conduit of an ion transport membrane device consisting of a sealing surface of ceramic conduit, a sealing surface of ceramic conduit, a single gasket body, and a single compliant interlayer.

  20. leonina and Cape fur seals Arctocephalus pusillus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Namibia, was observed catching, killing and attempting copulation with female fur seals Arc- tocephalus pusillus, as well as catching and occasionally kill- ing fur seal pups and participating in territorial disputes with fur seal bulls. Previous and ...

  1. Toward an Improved Hypersonic Engine Seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; DeMange,Jeffrey J.; Taylor, Shawn C.

    2003-01-01

    High temperature, dynamic seals are required in advanced engines to seal the perimeters of movable engine ramps for efficient, safe operation in high heat flux environments at temperatures from 2000 to 2500 F. Current seal designs do not meet the demanding requirements for future engines, so NASA s Glenn Research Center (GRC) is developing advanced seals to overcome these shortfalls. Two seal designs and two types of seal preloading devices were evaluated in a series of compression tests at room temperature and 2000 F and flow tests at room temperature. Both seals lost resiliency with repeated load cycling at room temperature and 2000 F, but seals with braided cores were significantly more flexible than those with cores composed of uniaxial ceramic fibers. Flow rates for the seals with cores of uniaxial fibers were lower than those for the seals with braided cores. Canted coil springs and silicon nitride compression springs showed promise conceptually as potential seal preloading devices to help maintain seal resiliency.

  2. Removal of cadmium by Lactobacillus kefir as a protective tool against toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbino, Esteban; Carasi, Paula; Tymczyszyn, E Elizabeth; Gómez-Zavaglia, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the capacity of Lactobacillus kefir strains to remove cadmium cations and protect eukaryotic cells from cadmium toxicity. Lb. kefir CIDCA 8348 and JCM 5818 were grown in a 1/2 dilution of MRS broth supplemented with Cd(NO3)2 ranging 0 to 1 mM. Growth kinetics were followed during 76 h at 30 °C by registering optical density at 600 nm every 4-10 h. The accumulated concentration of cadmium was determined on cultures in the stationary phase by atomic absorption. The viability of a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) upon exposure to (a) free cadmium and (b) cadmium previously incubated with Lb. kefir strains was evaluated by determining the mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity. Lb. kefir strains were able to grow and tolerate concentrations of cadmium cations up to 1 mM. The addition of cadmium to the culture medium increased the lag time in all the concentrations used. However, a decrease of the total biomass (maximum Absorbance) was observed only at concentrations above 0.0012 and 0.0011 mM for strains CIDCA 8348 and JCM 5818, respectively. Shorter and rounder lactobacilli were observed in both strains upon microscopic observations. Moreover, dark precipitates compatible with intracellular precipitation of cadmium were observed in the cytoplasm of both strains. The ability of Lb. kefir to protect eukaryotic cells cultures from cadmium toxicity was analysed using HepG2 cells lines. Concentrations of cadmium greater than 3×10(-3) mM strongly decreased the viability of HepG2 cells. However, when the eukaryotic cells were exposed to cadmium pre-incubated 1 h with Lb. kefir the toxicity of cadmium was considerably lower, Lb. kefir JCM 5818 being more efficient. The high tolerance and binding capacity of Lb. kefir strains to cadmium concentrations largely exceeding the tolerated weekly intake (TWI) of cadmium for food (2.5 μg per kg of body weight) and water (3 μg/l) addressed to human consumption, is an important added value when

  3. Cadmium and membrane ion transport in a French urban male population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajem, S.; Moreau, T.; Lellouch, J.; Huel, G.; Girard, F.; Sahuquillo, J. (National Inst. of Health and Medical Research, Villejuif (France)); Hannaert, P.; Garay, R.P. (INSERM, Paris (France)); Orssaud, G.; Claude, J.R. (Social and Sanitary Dept. Labs., Paris (France))

    1991-12-01

    Toxic effects of cadmium upon cell membranes structures and function have been well documented. Experimental studies have shown that cadmium is a potent Na{sup +}-K{sup +} ATPase inhibitor. One report has confirmed these findings with the human Na{sup +}-K{sup +} ATPase. Based on the above observations, several authors have suggested that a Na{sup +}-K{sup +} ATPase-inhibitory action could be involved in health related cadmium toxicity. Therefore, the authors measured hair cadmium and red blood cell Na{sup +}-K{sup +} pump (physiological counterpart of the Na{sup +}-K{sup +} ATPase) in 129 urban caucasian males, without known occupational exposure to cadmium. In addition, four other ion transport pathways were measured in red blood cells. Hair cadmium was considered, as it is known as an indicator of cadmium body burden. A particular emphasis was placed in defining the smoking habits of the subjects since tobacco is known to be the main source of cadmium exposure in the general population.

  4. Face-Sealing Butterfly Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervo, John N.

    1992-01-01

    Valve plate made to translate as well as rotate. Valve opened and closed by turning shaft and lever. Interactions among lever, spring, valve plate, and face seal cause plate to undergo combination of translation and rotation so valve plate clears seal during parts of opening and closing motions.

  5. High temperature autoclave vacuum seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, J. R.; Simpson, W. G.; Walker, H. M.

    1971-01-01

    Aluminum sheet forms effective sealing film at temperatures up to 728 K. Soft aluminum wire rings provide positive seal between foil and platen. For applications at temperatures above aluminum's service temperature, stainless steel is used as film material and copper wire as sealant.

  6. Conical O-ring seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalfant, Jr., Gordon G.

    1984-01-01

    A shipping container for radioactive or other hazardous materials which has a conical-shaped closure containing grooves in the conical surface thereof and an O-ring seal incorporated in each of such grooves. The closure and seal provide a much stronger, tighter and compact containment than with a conventional flanged joint.

  7. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B; Svendsen, P

    1988-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) is known to alleviate acute toxicity due to injection of cadmium salts. However, when cadmium chloride was administered by the oral route, DDC enhanced rather than alleviated the acute toxicity; both oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of DDC had this effect....... Thus, orally administered DDC enhanced cadmium-induced duodenal and ileal tissue damage and inhibition of peristalsis, as indicated by an increased intestinal transit time. At low cadmium doses, the whole-body retention of cadmium was increased by oral DDC administration. Intraperitoneally administered...... DDC increased cadmium-induced acute mortality and testicular necrosis, and it enhanced cadmium-induced reduction of intestinal motility and increased the whole-body retention of cadmium, indicating increased intestinal cadmium absorption. Also, DDC changed the organ distribution of absorbed cadmium...

  8. The Effect of Interference on the Friction Torque Characteristics of TPU Based Rotary Lip Seals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bulut

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of radial force (interface produced by interference on the static contact properties and frictional characteristics of a radial lip seal are investigated by experimentally. For this reason, a test system has been developed. In this test system, a cylinder is placed on four load cells in order to monitor the friction torque generated between seal and counter face. A group of experiments are carried out with thermoplastic polyurethane radial lip seals. Three different inner diameters (40, 39.80 and 39.60 mm are selected and the seals are tested under 0.5 and 0.3 bar for a short period. The frictional torque was measured and compared for different inner diameters. As a result, it is observed that the amount of interference effects seal friction torques based on seal material and seal design in different ratios.

  9. Airfoil seal system for gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    None, None

    2013-06-25

    A turbine airfoil seal system of a turbine engine having a seal base with a plurality of seal strips extending therefrom for sealing gaps between rotational airfoils and adjacent stationary components. The seal strips may overlap each other and may be generally aligned with each other. The seal strips may flex during operation to further reduce the gap between the rotational airfoils and adjacent stationary components.

  10. Ultrastructural study of the submandibular gland of the rat after 6-month exposure to cadmium and zinc in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowska, E; Szynaka, B; Kulikowska-Karpińska, E

    2006-01-01

    Cadmium toxicity in the exposure of the general, professional and cigarette smoking populations has been well known. From the dental point of view, it is important to find out whether and how separate and joint exposures to cadmium and zinc affect the structure and function of the submandibular gland, which is the major saliva-releasing gland. Cadmium, a particularly active xenobiotic, damages cellular metabolism at the level of various enzymatic systems of the cell, which may disturb functioning of the salivary glands. Mutual interactions of cadmium and zinc suggest a protective role of zinc through the induction of metallothionein which inactivates cadmium effect. The aim of the study was to assess the ultrastructural picture of chosen cell organelles of the submandibular salivary gland of the rat exposed to cadmium and zinc. The study used 90 male Wistar rats, of the initial b.w. 150-180 g. The animals were exposed to cadmium and/or zinc for 6 months. Cadmium was received in aqueous solutions of cadmium chloride with drinking water at a concentration of 5 mg Cd/dm3 or 50 mg Cd/dm3. Zinc was also given in aqueous solutions of zinc chloride ad libitum at concentrations of 30 mg Zn/dm3 and 60 mg Zn/dm3. The ultrastructural changes in the mucous and serous cells of the submandibular salivary gland were most pronounced at cadmium concentration of 50 mg Cd/dm3 and were mainly observed in the cell nucleus, Golgi Apparatus and secretory granules of the salivary gland cells. 1. Exposure to cadmium induces ultrastructural changes in the submandibular gland, which are dose and time of exposure. 2. Exposure to zinc did not affect significantly the ultrastructural picture of cells of the submandibular gland. 3. Zinc administered together with cadmium reduces the intensity of ultrastructural changes in the submandibular gland.

  11. Aerodynamic seals for rotary machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidkar, Rahul Anil; Cirri, Massimiliano; Thatte, Azam Mihir; Williams, John Robert

    2016-02-09

    An aerodynamic seal assembly for a rotary machine includes multiple sealing device segments disposed circumferentially intermediate to a stationary housing and a rotor. Each of the segments includes a shoe plate with a forward-shoe section and an aft-shoe section having multiple labyrinth teeth therebetween facing the rotor. The sealing device segment also includes multiple flexures connected to the shoe plate and to a top interface element, wherein the multiple flexures are configured to allow the high pressure fluid to occupy a forward cavity and the low pressure fluid to occupy an aft cavity. Further, the sealing device segments include a secondary seal attached to the top interface element at one first end and positioned about the flexures and the shoe plate at one second end.

  12. Acute fatal occupational cadmium poisoning by inhalation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, K.; Ueda, M.; Kikuchi, H.; Hattori, H.; Hiraoka, Y.

    1983-01-01

    A 43-year-old male smelter was admitted to a hospital on account of severe dyspnea about 2 days after exposure to brownish-yellow smoke produced by melting of ''copper'' scrap. On admission pronounced hypoxemia was revealed, and an oxygen-enriched gas was administered after intubation. Although inspired oxygen concentration was gradually increased, hypoxemia progressed and he died on day 11 in hospital. The principal autopsy finding was chiefly confined to the lungs. Both lungs were heavy (the left weighing 1,470 g; the right 1,710 g) and firm to the touch. Histologically, no normal alveoli were found throughout the entire lung. Some alveolar spaces were occupied by pneumocytes, others by organized exudate with fibrosis. Interstitial fibrosis was present. Patchy areas of inflammatory cell infiltrations as well as intra-alveolar hemorrhages were observed. On the basis of the above findings a diagnosis of diffuse alveolar damage was made. Based on the available evidence (presence of cadmium in the ''copper'' scrap, feature of the smoke, clinical signs with latent time, and high cadmium concentration of the lung), the diffuse alveolar damage was considered to have been caused by inhaled cadmium. The pulmonary change of the present case was more advanced in pathologic stage in comparison with those reported in the literature.

  13. Influenza A (H10N7 Virus Causes Respiratory Tract Disease in Harbor Seals and Ferrets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith M A van den Brand

    Full Text Available Avian influenza viruses sporadically cross the species barrier to mammals, including humans, in which they may cause epidemic disease. Recently such an epidemic occurred due to the emergence of avian influenza virus of the subtype H10N7 (Seal/H10N7 in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina. This epidemic caused high mortality in seals along the north-west coast of Europe and represented a potential risk for human health. To characterize the spectrum of lesions and to identify the target cells and viral distribution, findings in 16 harbor seals spontaneously infected with Seal/H10N7 are described. The seals had respiratory tract inflammation extending from the nasal cavity to bronchi associated with intralesional virus antigen in respiratory epithelial cells. Virus infection was restricted to the respiratory tract. The fatal outcome of the viral infection in seals was most likely caused by secondary bacterial infections. To investigate the pathogenic potential of H10N7 infection for humans, we inoculated the seal virus intratracheally into six ferrets and performed pathological and virological analyses at 3 and 7 days post inoculation. These experimentally inoculated ferrets displayed mild clinical signs, virus excretion from the pharynx and respiratory tract inflammation extending from bronchi to alveoli that was associated with virus antigen expression exclusively in the respiratory epithelium. Virus was isolated only from the respiratory tract. In conclusion, Seal/H10N7 infection in naturally infected harbor seals and experimentally infected ferrets shows that respiratory epithelial cells are the permissive cells for viral replication. Fatal outcome in seals was caused by secondary bacterial pneumonia similar to that in fatal human cases during influenza pandemics. Productive infection of ferrets indicates that seal/H10N7 may possess a zoonotic potential. This outbreak of LPAI from wild birds to seals demonstrates the risk of such occasions for mammals

  14. Turbine and Structural Seals Team Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Seals Team Facilities conceive, develop, and test advanced turbine seal concepts to increase efficiency and durability of turbine engines. Current projects include...

  15. Cadmium immobilization by hydroxyapatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smičiklas Ivana D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of air, soil and water by cadmium is a great environmental problem. If cadmium occurs in nature in ionic form, soluble in water, it easily enters into the food chain. Hydroxyapatite (HAP, Ca-o(POAe(OH2 is a sparingly soluble salt and an excellent matrix for the removal of heavy metals from solutions. Considerable research attention has been paid to the bond between Cc/2+ ions and synthetic hydroxyapatite of known composition. The sorption mechanism is complex. The dominant process is ion exchange, but surface adsorption, surface complexation and coprecipitation can also contribute to the overall mechanism. The sorption capacity depends on the characteristics of hydroxyapatite itself and on the experimental conditions. Under optimum conditions a maximum capacity of 0.8 mol Cd2+/mol HAP can be achieved. HAP is a potential sorbent for the remediation of contaminated water and soil, for industrial waste treatment, and it is also referenced as a material that can be used as a barrier around waste depositories.

  16. Cadmium colours: composition and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, J.; Knuutinen, U.

    The composition and the properties of cadmium aquarelle colours are discussed. The examined colours were 24 different aquarelle cadmium colours from six different manufacturers. The colours ranged from light, bright yellows to dark, deep-red tones. The aim of this research was to find out if the pigments contain cadmium salts: sulphides and/or selenides. This information will help in choosing watercolours in conservation processes. Today, aquarelle colours not containing cadmium pigments are being sold as cadmium colours; thus their properties might be different from actual cadmium colours. The aim of the research was to verify that the colour samples contained cadmium pigments and to estimate their compositions and ageing properties. Element analyses were performed from colour samples using micro-chemical tests and X-ray fluorescence measurements. Thin-layer chromatography was used for analysing gum Arabic as a possible binding medium in the chosen colour samples. Through ageing tests, the resistance of the colour samples to the exposure to light, heat and humidity was studied. Visible-light spectroscopy was used in determining the hues and hue changes of the aquarelle colour samples. The spectrophotometer used the CIE L*a*b* tone colour measuring system. From the colour measurements the changes in the lightness/darkness, the redness, the yellowness and the saturation of the samples were examined.

  17. Rim seal arrangement having pumping feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Myers, Caleb

    2017-04-25

    A rim seal arrangement for a gas turbine engine includes a first seal face on a rotor component, and a second seal face on a stationary annular rim centered about a rotation axis of the rotor component. The second seal face is spaced from the first seal face along an axial direction to define a seal gap. The seal gap is located between a radially outer hot gas path and a radially inner rotor cavity. The first seal face has a plurality of circumferentially spaced depressions, each having a depth in an axial direction and extending along a radial extent of the first seal face. The depressions influence flow in the seal gap such that during rotation of the rotor component, fluid in the seal gap is pumped in a radially outward direction to prevent ingestion of a gas path fluid from the hot gas path into the rotor cavity.

  18. 9 CFR 381.98 - Official seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official seal. 381.98 Section 381.98... Certificates; Certification Procedures § 381.98 Official seal. The official mark for use in sealing means of... and a serial number as shown below, and any seals approved by the Administrator for applying such mark...

  19. 36 CFR 901.6 - Seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seal. 901.6 Section 901.6... CORPORATION § 901.6 Seal. The Corporation may adopt a corporate seal which shall have the name of the Corporation and year of incorporation printed upon it. The seal may be used by causing it or a facsimile...

  20. 39 CFR 3002.3 - Official seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Official seal. 3002.3 Section 3002.3 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL ORGANIZATION § 3002.3 Official seal. (a) Authority. The Seal described in this section is hereby established as the official seal of the Postal Rate Commission...

  1. 7 CFR 29.34 - Sample seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sample seal. 29.34 Section 29.34 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.34 Sample seal. A seal approved by the Director for sealing official...

  2. 14 CFR 65.133 - Seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seal. 65.133 Section 65.133 Aeronautics and...: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.133 Seal. Each certificated parachute rigger must have a seal with an identifying mark prescribed by the Administrator, and a seal press. After...

  3. 7 CFR 29.35 - Lot seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lot seal. 29.35 Section 29.35 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.35 Lot seal. A seal approved by the Director for sealing lots of...

  4. Systematic network assessment of the carcinogenic activities of cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peizhan; Duan, Xiaohua; Li, Mian; Huang, Chao; Li, Jingquan; Chu, Ruiai; Ying, Hao; Song, Haiyun; Jia, Xudong; Ba, Qian; Wang, Hui

    2016-11-01

    Cadmium has been defined as type I carcinogen for humans, but the underlying mechanisms of its carcinogenic activity and its influence on protein-protein interactions in cells are not fully elucidated. The aim of the current study was to evaluate, systematically, the carcinogenic activity of cadmium with systems biology approaches. From a literature search of 209 studies that performed with cellular models, 208 proteins influenced by cadmium exposure were identified. All of these were assessed by Western blotting and were recognized as key nodes in network analyses. The protein-protein functional interaction networks were constructed with NetBox software and visualized with Cytoscape software. These cadmium-rewired genes were used to construct a scale-free, highly connected biological protein interaction network with 850 nodes and 8770 edges. Of the network, nine key modules were identified and 60 key signaling pathways, including the estrogen, RAS, PI3K-Akt, NF-κB, HIF-1α, Jak-STAT, and TGF-β signaling pathways, were significantly enriched. With breast cancer, colorectal and prostate cancer cellular models, we validated the key node genes in the network that had been previously reported or inferred form the network by Western blotting methods, including STAT3, JNK, p38, SMAD2/3, P65, AKT1, and HIF-1α. These results suggested the established network was robust and provided a systematic view of the carcinogenic activities of cadmium in human. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Alaska Harbor Seal Glacial Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Floating glacial ice serves as a haul-out substrate for a significant number (10-15%) of Alaskan harbor seals, and thus surveying tidewater glacial fjords is an...

  6. Northern Fur Seal Food Habits

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains food habits samples, usually scats, collected opportunistically on northern fur seal rookeries and haulouts in Alaska from 1987 to present....

  7. Cadmium induced oxidative stress in Dunaliella salina | Moradshahi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The unicellular green algae Dunaliella salina contains various antioxidants which protect the cell from oxidative damage due to environmental stresses such as heavy metal stress. In the present study, the response of D. salina at the stationary growth phase to oxidative stress generated by cadmium chloride was ...

  8. Rapid biosynthesis of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cell-associated biosynthesis of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles has been reported to be rather slow and costly. In this study, we report on a rapid and low cost biosynthesis of CdS using culture supernatants of Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 and Lactobacillus acidophilus DSMZ 20079T.

  9. Physiological and molecular characterisation of cadmium stress in Schmidtea mediterranea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plusquin, Michelle; Stevens, An-Sofie; Van Belleghem, Frank; Degheselle, Olivier; Van Roten, Andromeda; Vroonen, Jessica; Blust, Ronny; Cuypers, Ann; Artois, Tom; Smeets, Karen

    2012-01-01

    The planarian Schmidtea mediterranea is a well-studied model organism for developmental research, because of its stem cell system. This characteristic also provides a unique opportunity to study stress management and the effect of stress on stem cells. In this study, we characterised the stress signature at different levels of biological organization. The carcinogenic metal cadmium was used as a model chemical stressor. We focused on stem cell activity and its interaction with other known stress parameters. Here, we have found that S. mediterranea is able to cope with high internal levels of cadmium. At endpoints such as size and mobility, cadmium-related stress effects were detected but all of these responses were transient. Correspondingly, cadmium exposure led to an elevated mitotic activity of the neoblasts, at the same time points when the other responses disappeared. At the molecular level, we observed redox-related responses that can be linked with both repair as well as proliferation mechanisms. Together, our results suggest that these animals have a high plasticity. The induction of stem cell activity may underlie this 'restoring' effect, although a carcinogenic outcome after longer exposure times cannot be excluded.

  10. Study on removal of cadmium by hybrid liquid membrane process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortaheb, Hamid R; Zolfaghari, Alireza; Mokhtarani, Babak; Amini, Mohammad H; Mandanipour, Valiollah

    2010-05-15

    Removal of cadmium as a hazardous heavy metal is studied by applying a new design of hybrid cell for liquid membrane process. Tri-iso-octyl amine (TIOA) is used as the carrier in the organic phase. The concentration of cadmium in the samples is measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The effect of various parameters including type of supporting membrane, pH of feed and stripping phases, initial concentration of cadmium, carrier concentration, solvent nature, and also organic film resistance on mass transfer rate and removal efficiency are studied. The effect of temperature on mass transfer flux is studied by proposing a prediction model. The optimum carrier concentration is found to be about 0.05 M. The appropriate values of pH for feed and stripping phases are about 3 and 13, respectively. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Lithium protects against toxic effects of cadmium in the rat testes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omu, Florence E.; Kehinde, Elijah O.; Anim, Jeroham T.; Oriowo, Mabayoje A.; Omu, Alexander E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the protective effect of Lithium against the toxic effect of Cadmium in the rat testes. Methods Twenty four adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with four different regimens: Cadmium only, Cadmium and lithium, lithium only and controls. Rats were sacrificed after 6 weeks and testicular levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-4), anti-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α), Pro-apoptotic protein (Bax) and anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2) were measured by ELISA while serum levels of FSH, LH, Prolactin and Testosterone were measured using the Vidas parametric system. Antioxidant status (MDA, SOD) was also assessed in serum. Histopathological changes of testes were examined using light and electron microscopy. Immunohistochemical staining for Bax, Bcl-2 and Caspase 3 were performed. Results Treatment with lithium was associated with significant reduction in the toxic effects of Cadmium as shown by reduced testicular levels of TNF-α, serum levels of Malondialdehyde and testicular level of Bax, and increased levels of IL-4, Zn-Cu SOD, Bcl-2 and Testosterone. Testicular histopathology showed that Cadmium produced an extensive germ cells apoptosis and the addition of lithium in Cadmium-treated rats significantly reduced cadmium-induced testicular damage. Conclusion(s) Lithium has a protective effect against cadmium-induced testicular apoptosis in the rat. PMID:20455018

  12. Trace Element Concentrations in Bearded Seals (Erignathus barbatus Near Red Dog Mine Compared to Other Locations in Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Quakenbush

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine if bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus harvested near a zinc and lead mine (Red Dog, Alaska , USA by subsistence hunters from Kivalina, Alaska, were as safe to eat as bearded seals from other locations in Alaska, we compared 19 trace element concentrations in liver tissue. Liver concentrations from nine bearded seals harvested near the Red Dog Mine (RDM port site were compared with 15 bearded seals from two reference sites (Hooper Bay and Little Diomede, Alaska, USA. Concentrations did not differ by gender, but we found statistically significant trends in concentrations of cadmium, mercury, manganese, selenium, and vanadium with age. Arsenic and copper were the only elements found to be more concentrated in the liver of bearded seals harvested near RDM than in the other locations. The predominant form of arsenic in marine mammals is known to be a nontoxic organic form, not the toxic inorganic form, and copper is an essential element. Although elevated near RDM, neither element was found at concentrations that presented health risks. We found no evidence that bearded seals harvested near RDM were less safe to eat or that trace element concentrations were greater than those found in bearded seals harvested elsewhere in Alaska or Canada.

  13. Labeling and in vivo visualization of transplanted adipose tissue-derived stem cells with safe cadmium-free aqueous ZnS coating of ZnS-AgInS2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogihara, Yusuke; Yukawa, Hiroshi; Kameyama, Tatsuya; Nishi, Hiroyasu; Onoshima, Daisuke; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Torimoto, Tsukasa; Baba, Yoshinobu

    2017-01-01

    The facile synthesis of ZnS-AgInS2 (ZAIS) as cadmium-free QDs and their application, mainly in solar cells, has been reported by our groups. In the present study, we investigated the safety and the usefulness for labeling and in vivo imaging of a newly synthesized aqueous ZnS-coated ZAIS (ZnS-ZAIS) carboxylated nanoparticles (ZZC) to stem cells. ZZC shows the strong fluorescence in aqueous solutions such as PBS and cell culture medium, and a complex of ZZC and octa-arginine (R8) peptides (R8-ZZC) can achieve the highly efficient labeling of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs). The cytotoxicity of R8-ZZC to ASCs was found to be extremely low in comparison to that of CdSe-based QDs, and R8-ZZC was confirmed to have no influence on the proliferation rate or the differentiation ability of ASCs. Moreover, R8-ZZC was not found to induce the production of major inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-12p70, IL-6 and MCP-1) in ASCs. Transplanted R8-ZZC-labeled ASCs could be quantitatively detected in the lungs and liver mainly using an in vivo imaging system. In addition, high-speed multiphoton confocal laser microscopy revealed the presence of aggregates of transplanted ASCs at many sites in the lungs, whereas individual ASCs were found to have accumulated in the liver. PMID:28059135

  14. Labeling and in vivo visualization of transplanted adipose tissue-derived stem cells with safe cadmium-free aqueous ZnS coating of ZnS-AgInS2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogihara, Yusuke; Yukawa, Hiroshi; Kameyama, Tatsuya; Nishi, Hiroyasu; Onoshima, Daisuke; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Torimoto, Tsukasa; Baba, Yoshinobu

    2017-01-01

    The facile synthesis of ZnS-AgInS2 (ZAIS) as cadmium-free QDs and their application, mainly in solar cells, has been reported by our groups. In the present study, we investigated the safety and the usefulness for labeling and in vivo imaging of a newly synthesized aqueous ZnS-coated ZAIS (ZnS-ZAIS) carboxylated nanoparticles (ZZC) to stem cells. ZZC shows the strong fluorescence in aqueous solutions such as PBS and cell culture medium, and a complex of ZZC and octa-arginine (R8) peptides (R8-ZZC) can achieve the highly efficient labeling of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs). The cytotoxicity of R8-ZZC to ASCs was found to be extremely low in comparison to that of CdSe-based QDs, and R8-ZZC was confirmed to have no influence on the proliferation rate or the differentiation ability of ASCs. Moreover, R8-ZZC was not found to induce the production of major inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-12p70, IL-6 and MCP-1) in ASCs. Transplanted R8-ZZC-labeled ASCs could be quantitatively detected in the lungs and liver mainly using an in vivo imaging system. In addition, high-speed multiphoton confocal laser microscopy revealed the presence of aggregates of transplanted ASCs at many sites in the lungs, whereas individual ASCs were found to have accumulated in the liver.

  15. Seal testing of large diameter rocket motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, N. B.; Hellums, John W.; Bechtel, Thomas; Kittredge, Ken; Crossfield, Craig

    1991-01-01

    This investigative program examines leakage testing of elastomeric O-ring seals for a solid rocket casing and provides direction towards an improved nondestructive postassembly test. It also details test equipment for the Space Shuttle systems solid rocket boosters (SRB). The results are useful to designers of hardware for pressure containment vessels which use O-ring seals. Using several subscale seal and groove configuration test fixtures equipped with either two or three O-ring seals in series, seal integrity is investigated with both a pressure decay and flowmeter methods. Both types of test equipment adequately detect the practical range of expected seal leak rates of 1 to 0.0001 sccs. The flowmeter leak test equipment appears to reduce testing time substantially. Limited seal leakage testing is performed on full-sized rocket motor segment seals, a pre-Challenger short stack, providing comparison of bore seals to test specimen bore and face seals. The conclusions are that seal reliability, verified via a performance pressure test, can be affected by temperature, quantity of grease, test pressure, and seal pressure load direction. Potential seal failure scenarios including contamination, seal damage, and sealing surface damage are discussed. Recommendations are made for an improved test procedure.

  16. Cadmium induces apoptosis in pancreatic β-cells through a mitochondria-dependent pathway: the role of oxidative stress-mediated c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Chih Chang

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd, one of well-known highly toxic environmental and industrial pollutants, causes a number of adverse health effects and diseases in humans. The growing epidemiological studies have suggested a possible link between Cd exposure and diabetes mellitus (DM. However, the toxicological effects and underlying mechanisms of Cd-induced pancreatic β-cell injury are still unknown. In this study, we found that Cd significantly decreased cell viability, and increased sub-G1 hypodiploid cells and annexin V-Cy3 binding in pancreatic β-cell-derived RIN-m5F cells. Cd also increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS generation and malondialdehyde (MDA production and induced mitochondrial dysfunction (the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP and the increase of cytosolic cytochrome c release, the decreased Bcl-2 expression, increased p53 expression, poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP cleavage, and caspase cascades, which accompanied with intracellular Cd accumulation. Pretreatment with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC effectively reversed these Cd-induced events. Furthermore, exposure to Cd induced the phosphorylations of c-jun N-terminal kinases (JNK, extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2, and p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, which was prevented by NAC. Additionally, the specific JNK inhibitor SP600125 or JNK-specific small interference RNA (si-RNA transfection suppressed Cd-induced β-cell apoptosis and related signals, but not ERK1/2 and p38-MAPK inhibitors (PD98059 and SB203580 did not. However, the JNK inhibitor or JNK-specific si-RNA did not suppress ROS generation in Cd-treated cells. These results indicate that Cd induces pancreatic β-cell death via an oxidative stress downstream-mediated JNK activation-triggered mitochondria-regulated apoptotic pathway.

  17. Modulation of Metabolism and Switching to Biofilm Prevail over Exopolysaccharide Production in the Response of Rhizobium alamii to Cadmium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schue, Mathieu; Fekete, Agnes; Ortet, Philippe; Brutesco, Catherine; Heulin, Thierry; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Achouak, Wafa; Santaella, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd2+) affect microbial metabolic processes. Consequently, bacteria adapt by adjusting their cellular machinery. We have investigated the dose-dependent growth effects of Cd2+ on Rhizobium alamii, an exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing bacterium that forms a biofilm on plant roots. Adsorption isotherms show that the EPS of R. alamii binds cadmium in competition with calcium. A metabonomics approach based on ion cyclotron resonance Fourier transform mass spectrometry has showed that cadmium alters mainly the bacterial metabolism in pathways implying sugars, purine, phosphate, calcium signalling and cell respiration. We determined the influence of EPS on the bacterium response to cadmium, using a mutant of R. alamii impaired in EPS production (MSΔGT). Cadmium dose-dependent effects on the bacterial growth were not significantly different between the R. alamii wild type (wt) and MSΔGT strains. Although cadmium did not modify the quantity of EPS isolated from R. alamii, it triggered the formation of biofilm vs planktonic cells, both by R. alamii wt and by MSΔGT. Thus, it appears that cadmium toxicity could be managed by switching to a biofilm way of life, rather than producing EPS. We conclude that modulations of the bacterial metabolism and switching to biofilms prevails in the adaptation of R. alamii to cadmium. These results are original with regard to the conventional role attributed to EPS in a biofilm matrix, and the bacterial response to cadmium. PMID:22096497

  18. Zinc-induced protection against cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Early, J.L.; Schnell, R.C.

    1978-02-01

    Pretreatment of male rats with cadmium acetate potentiates the duration of hexobarbital hypnosis and inhibits the rate of hepatic microsomal drug metabolism. Pretreatment of rats with zinc acetate protects against these alterations in drug action elicited by cadmium.

  19. High temperature seals between ceramic separation membranes and super-alloy housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honea, G.; Sridhar, K. R.

    1991-01-01

    One of the concepts for oxygen production from Martian atmospheric carbon dioxide involves the use of tubular electrochemical membranes for oxygen separation. The tubular configuration offers the advantage of being able to separate the oxygen at pressures of up to 500 psi, thereby eliminating the need for a pre-liquefaction oxygen compressor. A key technology that has to be developed in order for the electrochemical separator to combine as a compressor is a high temperature static seal between the ceramic separation cell and the nickel-based super-alloy tube. Equipment was designed and fabricated to test the seals. Efforts are under way to develop a finite element model to study the thermal stresses at the joints and on the seal, and the optimal shape of the seal. The choice of seal materials and the technique to be used to fabricate the seals are also being investigated.

  20. A study of metal concentrations and metallothionein binding capacity in liver, kidney and brain tissues of three Arctic seal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonne, Christian; Aspholm, Ole; Dietz, Rune; Andersen, Steen; Berntssen, Marc H G; Hylland, Ketil

    2009-12-01

    Arctic seals are known to accumulate relatively high concentrations of potential toxic heavy metals in their vital organs, such as livers and kidneys, as well as in their central nervous system. We therefore decided to determine whether mercury, copper, cadmium and zinc levels in liver, kidney and brain tissues of three Arctic seal species were associated with the intracellular metal-binding protein metallothionein (MT) as a sign of toxic exposure. Samples from four ringed (Phoca hispida), five harp (P.groenlandica) and five hooded (Cystophora cristata) seals taken during field trips to Central West Greenland (Godhavn) and the Barents Sea in the spring of 1999 were used for the present study. In all three seal species concentrations of mercury, zinc and copper were highest in the liver, except for cadmium which was highest in the kidneys. Metal concentrations increased significantly in the order: ringed sealsealseal for both kidney and liver tissues. MT concentrations were highest in the kidneys and the concentrations increased in the order: ringed sealsealseal. MT metal-binding capacity was highest in the kidneys for all three species and increased in the same order: ringed seals (2-10%)seals (8-15%)seals (27-63%). We therefore suggest that there are species-specific differences in the sub-cellular handling of heavy metals which indicate differences in sensitivity and health implications. However, a larger sample size is needed in order to test the relationship between metal concentrations and MT up-regulation in order to decide which metals are the most important and to elucidate whether the MT binding capacity is sufficient to protect tissues (i.e. kidney) from metal toxicosis. MT with its binding capacity could be a useful marker for environmental exposure to metals and their potential toxicity in the Arctic.

  1. In Vitro Assessment of Cadmium Bioavailability in Chinese Cabbage Grown on Different Soils and Its Toxic Effects on Human Health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aziz, Rukhsanda; Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq; He, Zhenli; Liu, Di; Sun, Kewang; Xiaoe, Yang

    2015-01-01

      The minimum concentration of cadmium (Cd), by Chinese cabbage grown on Cd contaminated soils that can initiate toxicity in human liver cells using in vitro digestion coupled with Caco-2/HL-7702 cell models was studied...

  2. Further Investigations of Hypersonic Engine Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; DeMange, Jeffrey J.

    2004-01-01

    Durable, flexible sliding seals are required in advanced hypersonic engines to seal the perimeters of movable engine ramps for efficient, safe operation in high heat flux environments at temperatures of 2000 to 2500 F. Current seal designs do not meet the demanding requirements for future engines, so NASA's Glenn Research Center is developing advanced seals and preloading devices to overcome these shortfalls. An advanced ceramic wafer seal design and two silicon nitride compression spring designs were evaluated in a series of compression, scrub, and flow tests. Silicon nitride wafer seals survived 2000 in. (50.8 m) of scrubbing at 2000 F against a silicon carbide rub surface with no chips or signs of damage. Flow rates measured for the wafers before and after scrubbing were almost identical and were up to 32 times lower than those recorded for the best braided rope seal flow blockers. Silicon nitride compression springs showed promise conceptually as potential seal preload devices to help maintain seal resiliency.

  3. Cadmium uptake by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghiri, F.

    1973-01-01

    Absorption of /sup 115m/Cd by soybean (Gylcine max l.) plants via foliar and root systems and translocation into the seed was determined. The uptake of /sup 115m/Cd by soybeans via the root system was more efficient than that of the foliar placement. Growth and Cd concentrations of soybean and wheat (Triticum aestivum l.) tops were influenced by soil-applied Cd. In both crops, the Cd concentration of plant tops increased while yield decreased with increasing levels of applied Cd. Cadmium toxicitiy began to occur in both crops at the lowest level of soil applied Cd (2.5 ppM). With soybean plants, Cd toxicity symptoms resembled fe chlorosis. For wheat plants there were no visual symptoms other than the studied growth. The relative concentration of Cd found in several vegetable crops varied depending on the plant species. The relative Cd concentration in descending order for various vegetables was lettuce (Lactuca sativa l.) > radish top (Raphanus sativus l.) > celery stalk (Apium graveolens l.) > celery leaves greater than or equal to green pepper (Capsicum frutescens l.) > radish roots.

  4. Harbour seals (Phoca vitulina and rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nynke Osinga

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the past few decades, rehabilitation of seals has become an activity that is anchored in the present day society of many countries. Seals are primarily rehabilitated to help individual animals in distress. At the same time, the release of seals which would have otherwise died can be considered as a contribution to the population. Most rehabilitated seals are animals under one year of age. They are mainly orphans, weaned seals with complications and seals with a parasiticbronchopneumonia. For the optimal handling of seals and their diseases, centralised operations with quality standards are essential. Rehabilitation provides an instrument to monitor the health of the seal population and its ecosystem. Changes in stranding trends or the appearance of new diseases can be monitored. Moreover, rehabilitation is important to show the general public thestate of the marine environment. In the Netherlands there is significant social support for the rehabilitation of seals. Experience obtained with seal care is of importance in countries where urgent help of threatened seal species is required. Here individual seals are also ambassadors to raise support for the protection of this species in general. Given that the anthropogenic impact on the seals and their environment is extensive in the Wadden Sea, rehabilitation centres can compensate the consequences of this impact on individual seals as well as the population as a whole.

  5. Bioavailability of cadmium from linseed and cocoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Rasmussen, Rie Romme

    In Denmark and EU the exposure of cadmium from food is at a level that is relatively close to the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI). This report describes an investigation of the bioavailability of cadmium in selected food items known to contain high levels of cadmium. The purpose was to provide data ...... or crushed linseed nor the intake of cocoa and chocolate....

  6. Sealed joint structure for electrochemical device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Michael C; Jacobson, Craig P; De Jonghe, Lutgard C; Visco, Steven J

    2013-05-21

    Several members make up a joint in a high-temperature electrochemical device, wherein the various members perform different functions. The joint is useful for joining multiple cells (generally tubular modules) of an electrochemical device to produce a multi-cell segment-in-series stack for a solid oxide fuel cell, for instance. The joint includes sections that bond the joining members to each other; one or more seal sections that provide gas-tightness, and sections providing electrical connection and/or electrical insulation between the various joining members. A suitable joint configuration for an electrochemical device has a metal joint housing, a first porous electrode, a second porous electrode, separated from the first porous electrode by a solid electrolyte, and an insulating member disposed between the metal joint housing and the electrolyte and second electrode. One or more brazes structurally and electrically connects the first electrode to the metal joint housing and forms a gas tight seal between the first electrode and the second electrode.

  7. Turbine interstage seal with self-balancing capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Jacob A; Jones, Russell B; Sexton, Thomas D

    2017-09-26

    An interstage seal for a turbine of a gas turbine engine, the interstage seal having a seal carrier with an axial extending seal tooth movable with a stator of the engine, and a rotor with a seal surface that forms the interstage seal with the seal tooth, where a magnetic force produced by two magnets and a gas force produced by a gas pressure acting on the seal carrier forms a balancing force to maintain a close clearance of the seal without the seal tooth contacting the rotor seal surfaces during engine operation. In other embodiments, two pairs of magnets produce first and second magnetic forces that balance the seal in the engine.

  8. Function of a novel cadmium-induced yodA protein in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojnev, Tatjana; Harichová, Jana; Ferianc, Peter; Nyström, Thomas

    2007-08-01

    Cells of Escherichia coli increase greatly the synthesis of a small primarily cytoplasmic protein as soon as the cell growth rate falls below the maximal growth rate supported by cadmium exposure, after which the mature product is exported to the periplasm. This protein was previously identified as the product of the E. coli yodA open reading frame. We now report the isolation of an E. coli mutant defective in YodA synthesis because of insertional inactivation of the corresponding gene. In experiments to test the ability of both the wild-type and yodA mutant E. coli cells to bind cadmium, we have used gamma-labeled [(109)Cd]. Whereas the wild-type E. coli strain was able to bind metal, the yodA mutant strain failed to do so. In addition, analysis of such a mutant demonstrated that it grows at a rate distinguishable from that of the isogenic parent in the presence of cadmium ions. However, challenging cells with hydrogen peroxide and additional metals such as zinc, copper, cobalt, and nickel did not significantly affect the growth rate of the mutant. This growth phenotype was found to be the result of the loss of its ability to bind cadmium. These results suggest that the role of YodA protein might be to decrease the concentration level of cadmium ions in E. coli cells during cadmium stress by its ability to bind heavy metal.

  9. Gas Path Sealing in Turbine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, L. P.

    1978-01-01

    A survey of gas path seals is presented with particular attention given to sealing clearance effects on engine component efficiency. The effects on compressor pressure ratio and stall margin are pointed out. Various case-rotor relative displacements, which affect gas path seal clearances, are identified. Forces produced by nonuniform sealing clearances and their effect on rotor stability are discussed qualitatively, and recent work on turbine-blade-tip sealing for high temperature is described. The need for active clearance control and for engine structural analysis is discussed. The functions of the internal-flow system and its seals are reviewed.

  10. Cryogenic Flange and Seal Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    The assembly of flanges, seals, and pipes are used to carry cryogenic fluid from a storage tank to the vehicle at launch sites. However, after a certain amount of cycles these raised face flanges with glass-filled Teflon gaskets have been found to have torque relaxation and are as a result susceptible to cryogenic fluid leakage if not re-torqued. The intent of this project is to identify alternate combinations of flanges and seals which may improve thermal cycle performance and decrease re-torque requirements. The general approach is to design a test fixture to evaluate leak characteristics between spiral and concentric serrations and to test alternate flange and seal combinations. Due to insufficient time, it was not possible to evaluate these different types of combinations for the combination that improved thermal cycle performance the most. However, the necessary drawings for the test fixture were designed and assembled along with the collection of the necessary parts.

  11. Mechanical seal with textured sidewall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khonsari, Michael M.; Xiao, Nian

    2017-02-14

    The present invention discloses a mating ring, a primary ring, and associated mechanical seal having superior heat transfer and wear characteristics. According to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, one or more dimples are formed onto the cylindrical outer surface of a mating ring sidewall and/or a primary ring sidewall. A stationary mating ring for a mechanical seal assembly is disclosed. Such a mating ring comprises an annular body having a central axis and a sealing face, wherein a plurality of dimples are formed into the outer circumferential surface of the annular body such that the exposed circumferential surface area of the annular body is increased. The texture added to the sidewall of the mating ring yields superior heat transfer and wear characteristics.

  12. Sealed source peer review plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, Alexander [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Leonard, Lee [RETIRED; Burns, Ron [CONTRACTOR

    2009-01-01

    Sealed sources are known quantities of radioactive materials that have been encapsulated in quantities that produce known radiation fields. Sealed sources have multiple uses ranging from instrument calibration sources to sources that produce radiation fields for experimental applications. The Off-Site Source Recovery (OSR) Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), created in 1999, under the direction of the Waste Management Division of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque has been assigned the responsibility to recover and manage excess and unwanted radioactive sealed sources from the public and private sector. LANL intends to ship drums containing qualified sealed sources to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal. Prior to shipping, these drums must be characterized with respect to radiological content and other parameters. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires that ten radionulcides be quantified and reported for every container of waste to be disposed in the WIPP. The methods traditionally approved by the EPA include non-destructive assay (NDA) in accordance with Appendix A of the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (DOE, 2002) (CH WAC). However, because of the nature and pedigree of historical records for sealed sources and the technical infeasibility of performing NDA on these sources, LANL proposes to characterize the content of these waste drums using qualified existing radiological data in lieu of direct measurement. This plan describes the process and documentation requirements for the use of the peer review process to qualify existing data for sealed radiological sources in lieu of perfonning radioassay. The peer review process will be performed in accordance with criteria provided in 40 CFR {section} 194.22 which specifies the use of the NUREG 1297 guidelines. The plan defines the management approach, resources, schedule, and technical requirements

  13. Removal of cadmium from acidic phosphatic solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankenfeld, K.; Brodt, P.; Eich, G.; Ruschke, P.

    1985-01-08

    The invention is concerned with a process of removing cadmium from acid, especially P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-containing solutions by liquid/liquid extraction with the aid of alkyl amine salts that are dissolved in an inert, organic solvent. The cadmium ions are removed from the acid, aqueous phase and are enriched in the organic phase. The cadmium-containing organic phase, subsequently, is re-extracted with an aqueous salt solution, with the cadmium ions migrating from the organic phase into the aqueous phase. The process is particularly suitable for extracting cadmium from concentrated, highly acid aqueous solutions.

  14. Stabilizing geometry for hydrodynamic rotary seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietle, Lannie L.; Schroeder, John E.

    2010-08-10

    A hydrodynamic sealing assembly including a first component having first and second walls and a peripheral wall defining a seal groove, a second component having a rotatable surface relative to said first component, and a hydrodynamic seal comprising a seal body of generally ring-shaped configuration having a circumference. The seal body includes hydrodynamic and static sealing lips each having a cross-sectional area that substantially vary in time with each other about the circumference. In an uninstalled condition, the seal body has a length defined between first and second seal body ends which varies in time with the hydrodynamic sealing lip cross-sectional area. The first and second ends generally face the first and second walls, respectively. In the uninstalled condition, the first end is angulated relative to the first wall and the second end is angulated relative to the second wall. The seal body has a twist-limiting surface adjacent the static sealing lip. In the uninstalled condition, the twist-limiting surface is angulated relative to the peripheral wall and varies along the circumference. A seal body discontinuity and a first component discontinuity mate to prevent rotation of the seal body relative to the first component.

  15. Self-Sealing Cryogenic Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lin Xiang; Chow, Wen Lung; Moslemian, Davood; Lin, Gary; Melton, Greg

    1994-01-01

    Self-sealing fitting for cryogenic tubes remains free of leakage from room temperature to liquid-helium temperature even at internal pressure as high as 2.7 MPa. Fitting comprises parts made of materials with different coefficients of thermal expansion to prevent leakage gaps from forming as temperature decreases. Consists of coupling nut, two flared tube ends, and flared O-ring spacer. Spacer contracts more than tube ends do as temperature decreases. This greater contraction seals tube ends more tightly, preventing leakage.

  16. Magnesium supplements affect selected cadmium toxic actions and uptake of repeated doses of cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grosicki Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of magnesium supplements on organ retention of cadmium and allometric parameters after repeated exposure to cadmium chloride were studied in male Wistar rats. Magnesium chloride was given via drinking water (500 mg Mg/L to rats exposed intragastrically to cadmium chloride (labelled with cadmium 109 at a daily dose corresponding to 25 mg/kg diet for 7, 14, 21, and 28 d. Supplements of magnesium temporarily decreased cadmium retention in the duodenum and liver. No significant differences in cadmium retention were evidenced in the kidneys and testicles. The supplements of magnesium also retain more of the body weight gains and restore the relative liver and testicle weight in rats intoxicated with cadmium. Comparison of the present results with earlier reports suggests a relationship between doses of magnesium and cadmium; higher doses of cadmium need more magnesium to overcome toxic action of the heavy metal.

  17. Isolation, identification and cadmium adsorption of a high cadmium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-27

    Sep 27, 2010 ... P. chrysosporium was used to biosorp cadmium (II), lead (II), copper (II) and the adsorption capacities reached 23.04, 69.77 and 20.33mg/g dry biomass, respectively (Say et al. 2001). The maximum experimental biosorption capacities for entrapped live and dead fungal mycelia of L. sajur-caju were found ...

  18. Cadmium effect on the ovarian structure in earthworm Dendrobaena veneta (Rosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siekierska, Ewa; Urbanska-Jasik, Danuta

    2002-12-01

    Two experimental doses of cadmium damaged ovary structure. - Cadmium effects on the ovary structure and oocytes were tested in earthworms Dendrobaena veneta exposed to 10 and 50 mg Cd kg{sup -1} in soil after 10 and 20 days of the experiment. In both experimental doses cadmium caused damage to the structure of the ovary but the effects were different in each group. At 10 mg Cd kg{sup -1} concentration in soil, young stages of oocytes and trophocytes were most sensitive to cadmium deleterious effects whereas somatic cells in the ovarian stroma were only slightly affected. Cadmium, at a concentration of 50 mg Cd kg{sup -1} in soil caused most damage in the somatic cells leading to the occurrence of unnaturally swollen elements and desmosomes destruction. At both experimental concentrations cadmium induced degenerative changes in cell nuclei and an increase in number of cell organelles (RER and Golgi complex elements) in the cytoplasm of oocytes and trophocytes. These also proved to be more active. No ultrastructural changes were manifested in oogonia. In both experimental groups degenerative changes occurred as early as after 10 days of Cd exposure.

  19. Long lasting cadmium intake is associated with reduction of insulin receptors in rat adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficková, M; Eybl, V; Kotyzová, D; Micková, V; Möstbök, S; Brtko, J

    2003-12-01

    The effects of chronic cadmium exposure on adipose tissue have not been extensively reported. In adult Wistar male rats we investigated in vivo effect of 6 weeks lasting cadmium intake in drinking tap water (CdCl2 9,7 mg/l). Insulin receptors in isolated adipocytes from epididymal fat and glucose transporter protein GLUT4 content in fat tissue plasma membranes were determined. Control and Cd treated rats had similar water intake with subsequent heavy augmentation of Cd content in liver of experimental animals. In comparison with controls, Cd intake did not influence body mass increment and fat cell size, but significantly increased serum glycemia and moderately elevated insulinemia. Cadmium intake significantly reduced (approximately 50%) both, total insulin receptors number and density of the receptors in fat cells. No differences in the content of GLUT4 in crude plasma membranes of adipose tissue were observed. Diminished insulin receptors in adipocytes could account for diabetogenic effect of long lasting cadmium intake.

  20. HISTOLOGICAL AND HISTOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RAT MYOCARDIUM IN CADMIUM TOXICOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novica Bojanić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinogenic effects of cadmium on lungs, testicles and prostate are well known, so as cumulative and toxic effects on kidney, liver and bones; however, there have not been many published articles about the effects of cadmium on myocardium. The aim of this study was to estimate the morphological changes in rat myocardium chronically treated by cadmium. The study was carried out on male albino Wistar rats (n=30, age=35-37 days, body mass 120g +/- 10g. The animals were raised in controlled laboratory conditions and provided with standard laboratory rat food and tap water ad libitum. The rats were divided into two groups: ten animals composed the control group and did not undergo any treatment. The 20 experimental rats were exposed to 10mg of CdCl2 /L drinking water for 90 days. After 90 days, all animals were victimized and after the macroscopic inspection of the heart, myocardial tissue was routinely processed and embedded in paraffin. Sections 5 micrometers thick were stained by HE method and histochemical PAS-AB (pH 2, 5, Masson trichrome method for demonstrating collagen fibers and Toluidine blue for mast cells identification. Cross-striated banding pattern of cardiac cells was ruined. Noticeable atrophy and hydropic degeneration of subendocardial localized cardiac cells were found, with the focal presence of myocytolysis. Endothelial cell hyperplasia and edema of the intima were present on arteriolar type blood vessels causing the focal subocclusion. Fibrocytes, histiocytes and mast cells were numerous, perivascularly localized. Mast cells were polymorphic, larger than normal, oval and mostly degranulated. Instead of scanty endomysium, there is a noticeable interstitial fibrillar fibrosis with few fields of collagen in all myocardium layers between cardiac cells, which is particularly prominent around the larger blood vessels. Cadmium has pronounced vasculotropic properties causing morphological changes of cardiomyocytes, myocardial

  1. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Telemetry Tag Deployments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project investigates foraging behavior of Hawaiian monk seals by conducting telemetry studies. During these studies, live seals are instrumented with dive...

  2. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Argos Location Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project investigates foraging behavior of Hawaiian monk seals by conducting telemetry studies. During these studies, live seals are instrumented with satellite...

  3. Seal Apparatus and Methods to Manufacture Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, James A. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    In some implementations, apparatus and methods are provided through which a dynamic cryogenic seal is manufactured. In some implementations, the seal includes a retainer and a spring-seal assembly, the assembly being comprised of a main spring housing and fluorine-containing polymer seals. In some implementations, either a radial seal, or an axial (or "piston seal") is provided. In some implementations, methods of manufacturing the dynamic cryogenic seal are also provided. In some implementations, the methods include assembling the components while either heated or cooled, taking advantage of thermal expansion and contraction, such that there is a strong interference fit between the components at room temperature. In some implementations, this process ensures that the weaker fluorine-containing polymer seal is forced to expand and contract with the stronger retainer and spring and is under constant preload. In some implementations, the fluorine-containing polymer is therefore fluidized and retained, and can not lift off.

  4. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Handling Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains records for all handling and measurement of Hawaiian monk seals since 1981. Live seals are handled and measured during a variety of events...

  5. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Crittercam video

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project investigates foraging behavior of Hawaiian monk seals by conducting telemetry studies. During these studies, live seals are instrumented with dive...

  6. 7 CFR 330.110 - Seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS... inspector. (c) Notice of sealing. When an inspector seals any opening, product or article, he shall explain...

  7. Legacy HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Ultrasound Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ultrasounds measuring the condition of juvenile seals at Laysan Island during 2009-2010, collected when seals were handled as part of the De-Worming Project

  8. Film riding seals for rotary machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidkar, Rahul Anil; Sarawate, Neelesh Nandkumar; Wolfe, Christopher Edward; Ruggiero, Eric John; Raj Mohan, Vivek Raja

    2017-03-07

    A seal assembly for a rotary machine is provided. The seal assembly includes multiple sealing device segments disposed circumferentially intermediate to a stationary housing and a rotor. Each of the segments includes a shoe plate with a forward-shoe section and an aft-shoe section having one or more labyrinth teeth therebetween facing the rotor. The sealing device includes a stator interface element having a groove or slot for allowing disposal of a spline seal for preventing segment leakages. The sealing device segment also includes multiple bellow springs or flexures connected to the shoe plate and to the stator interface element. Further, the sealing device segments include a secondary seal integrated with the stator interface element at one end and positioned about the multiple bellow springs or flexures and the shoe plate at the other end.

  9. Legacy HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seals Observers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set documents observers that have collected monk seal data as part of the ongoing monk seal population assessment efforts by PSD personnel and cooperating...

  10. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Entanglement data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data set contains records of all entanglements of Hawaiian monk seals in marine debris. The data set comprises records of seals entangled by derelict fishing...

  11. Cadmium hampers salt tolerance of Sesuvium portulacastrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Mariem; Martos, Soledad; Pérez-Martín, Laura; Abdelly, Chedly; Ghnaya, Tahar; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Gunsé, Benet

    2017-06-01

    It is well known that salinity reduces cadmium toxicity in halophytes. However, the possible interference of Cd with the mechanisms of salt tolerance is poorly explored. The aim of this study was to see whether Cd affects salt tolerance mechanisms in the halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum. S. portulacastrum plants obtained from cuttings were grown in hydroponics for 3 weeks and then exposed to low (0.09 mM) or moderate (200 mM) NaCl concentrations, alone or in combination with 25 μM CdCl 2 . Microscopy observation revealed two strategies of salt tolerance: euhalophytism and secretion of salt by bladder cells. Cadmium exposure hardly influenced the total leaf Na + concentrations. However, Cd supply delayed the salt-induced upregulation of AHA1 (plasma membrane H + -ATPase 1) and SOS1 (plasma membrane Na + transporter "Salt Overly Sensitive 1"), genes that are essential for salt tolerance. Moreover, Cd induced the activation of BADH, coding for betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase, indicating enhanced osmotic stress due to Cd. Sodium-green fluorescence in protoplasts from plants grown with low or high NaCl, alone or in combination with Cd, revealed higher Na + concentrations in the cytoplasm of Cd-exposed plants. Taken together the results indicate interference of Cd with salt tolerance mechanisms in S. portulacastrum. This may have consequences for the efficient use of halophytes in phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated saline soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Physiological and Biochemical Changes in Moth Bean (Vigna aconitifolia L. under Cadmium Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poornima D. Vijendra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia L., a drought resistant legume, possesses high nutritional value. Cadmium (Cd is a nonessential and the most toxic heavy metal in plants. The present study was to test the hypothesis of whether moth bean being a drought resistant legume can withstand the cadmium stress. Ten-day-old moth bean seedlings were subjected to cadmium stress and investigated for a period of 15 days every 3-day intervals. Cadmium quantification in moth bean tissues suggests root accumulation and translocation to aerial parts in a concentration dependent manner. Results of physiological and biochemical studies revealed that cadmium has affected the growth parameters like shoot and root lengths and tissue dry weights. Significant alternations in relative water content and cell membrane stability were observed in stressed seedlings. Similarly superoxide radical, lipoxygenase activity, membrane lipid peroxidation products, protein carbonyls, and reduced glutathione and nonprotein thiols were found increased in stressed seedlings compared to controls. However, hydrogen peroxide and ascorbic acid levels were not altered significantly in both stressed and control seedlings. Cadmium translocation ability from roots to aerial parts and elevated levels of nonenzymatic antioxidants in stressed seedlings suggest the cadmium stress withstanding ability of moth bean.

  13. Cadmium Tolerance and Removal from Cunninghamella elegans Related to the Polyphosphate Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hercília M. L. Rolim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to study the cadmium effects on growth, ultrastructure and polyphosphate metabolism, as well as to evaluate the metal removal and accumulation by Cunninghamella elegans (IFM 46109 growing in culture medium. The presence of cadmium reduced growth, and a longer lag phase was observed. However, the phosphate uptake from the culture medium increased 15% when compared to the control. Moreover, C. elegans removed 70%–81% of the cadmium added to the culture medium during its growth. The C. elegans mycelia showed a removal efficiency of 280 mg/g at a cadmium concentration of 22.10 mg/L, and the removal velocity of cadmium was 0.107 mg/h. Additionally, it was observed that cadmium induced vacuolization, the presence of electron dense deposits in vacuoles, cytoplasm and cell membranes, as well as the distinct behavior of polyphosphate fractions. The results obtained with C. elegans suggest that precipitation, vacuolization and polyphosphate fractions were associated to cadmium tolerance, and this species demonstrated a higher potential for bioremediation of heavy metals.

  14. Cadmium tolerance and removal from Cunninghamella elegans related to the polyphosphate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Marcos A B; Franco, Luciana de O; de Souza, Patrícia M; do Nascimento, Aline E; da Silva, Carlos A A; Maia, Rita de C C; Rolim, Hercília M L; Takaki, Galba M C

    2013-03-28

    The aim of the present work was to study the cadmium effects on growth, ultrastructure and polyphosphate metabolism, as well as to evaluate the metal removal and accumulation by Cunninghamella elegans (IFM 46109) growing in culture medium. The presence of cadmium reduced growth, and a longer lag phase was observed. However, the phosphate uptake from the culture medium increased 15% when compared to the control. Moreover, C. elegans removed 70%-81% of the cadmium added to the culture medium during its growth. The C. elegans mycelia showed a removal efficiency of 280 mg/g at a cadmium concentration of 22.10 mg/L, and the removal velocity of cadmium was 0.107 mg/h. Additionally, it was observed that cadmium induced vacuolization, the presence of electron dense deposits in vacuoles, cytoplasm and cell membranes, as well as the distinct behavior of polyphosphate fractions. The results obtained with C. elegans suggest that precipitation, vacuolization and polyphosphate fractions were associated to cadmium tolerance, and this species demonstrated a higher potential for bioremediation of heavy metals.

  15. 39 CFR 2.4 - Seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seal. 2.4 Section 2.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES... (ARTICLE II) § 2.4 Seal. (a) The Seal of the Postal Service is filed by the Board in the Office of the Secretary of State, and is required by 39 U.S.C. 207 to be judicially noticed. The Seal shall be in the...

  16. Compensating For Shrinkage In A Cryogenic Seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Arnold E.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed design for seals in liquid-hydrogen plumbing eliminates leaks caused by contraction of seals at low operating temperature. Each seal consists of rubber, polytetrafluorethylene, or lead O-ring including hollow core filled with water. At temperature of liquid hydrogen, anomalous expansion of water keeps seal gland filled and leaktight despite shrinkage of surrounding O-ring material. Design also used in systems using cryogenic fluids other than liquid hydrogen.

  17. Non Destructive Seal Testing Polymeric Tray

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    School of Enviromental and Biological Science Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903 Principal Investigator...strength, tack seals and seal creep. The following modifications were issued : Jan 20, 2004 0008/01 Add incremental funding to increase total...Technologies”. Most of the “commercial off the shelf” systems are designed to detect seal integrity issues , such as seal contamination, cuts and holes. A

  18. Multi-layer seal for electrochemical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yeong-Shyung [Richland, WA; Meinhardt, Kerry D [Kennewick, WA; Stevenson, Jeffry W [Richland, WA

    2010-09-14

    Multi-layer seals are provided that find advantageous use for reducing leakage of gases between adjacent components of electrochemical devices. Multi-layer seals of the invention include a gasket body defining first and second opposing surfaces and a compliant interlayer positioned adjacent each of the first and second surfaces. Also provided are methods for making and using the multi-layer seals, and electrochemical devices including said seals.

  19. EFFECT OF SEALED MUNICIPAL WASTE LANDFILL ON THE QUALITY OF UNDERGROUND WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Halina Grygorczuk-Petersons

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of the landfill on the groundwater environment. The assessment of water status in the region of landfill sealed with a layer of clay with a thickness of 0.5 m, was based on the own research and monitoring received from the municipal office, and conducted in 2007–2010. Waters flowing out of the landfill revealed an increase in pollution indicators such as: total organic carbon (TOC, concentrations of PAHs and heavy metals including zinc, cadmium, and chromium. It was demonstrated that the landfill sealed with a clay layer does not reduce the outflow of leachate to groundwater, but also that the purity of these waters is influenced by increased agricultural activity in the areas adjacent to the landfill.

  20. 29 CFR 4002.11 - Seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seal. 4002.11 Section 4002.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION GENERAL BYLAWS OF THE PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION § 4002.11 Seal. The seal of the Corporation shall be in such form as may be approved from time to...

  1. 14 CFR 187.7 - Copies; seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Copies; seal. 187.7 Section 187.7... REGULATIONS FEES § 187.7 Copies; seal. The fees for furnishing photostatic or similar copies of documents and for affixation of the seal for a certification or validation are the same as those provided in subpart...

  2. 19 CFR 201.0 - Seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seal. 201.0 Section 201.0 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION § 201.0 Seal. (a) Pursuant to... Trade Commission has adopted an official seal, the depiction of which follows: EC05OC91.026 (b) Custody...

  3. 1 CFR 18.8 - Seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seal. 18.8 Section 18.8 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PREPARATION, TRANSMITTAL, AND PROCESSING OF DOCUMENTS PREPARATION AND TRANSMITTAL OF DOCUMENTS GENERALLY § 18.8 Seal. Use of a seal on an original document or...

  4. Solid rocket booster joint seal analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Carleton J.

    1987-01-01

    O-ring response and sealing in pressurized shell structures is examined. The study found that the key elements in the failure of the seal to be joint opening and rotation, assembly out of roundness, and O-ring seal response.

  5. Ergonomics and safety of manual bag sealing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.D. de; Bosch, T.; Eikhout, S.M.; Vink, P.

    2005-01-01

    A variety of seals is used to close bags. Each seal has advantages and disadvantages. For shop assistants sealing bags could be a repetitive physically demanding action. Opening and closing the bags again can cause some discomfort or annoyance for consumers. Besides, it is an activity which can

  6. Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    San Andres, Luis

    2006-01-01

    ..., in particular those handling large density fluids. Highlights on the bulk-flow analysis of annular seals are given with details on the performance of two water seals long and short, featuring the advantages of an anti-swirl brake to enhance the seal...

  7. Aerodynamic seal assemblies for turbo-machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidkar, Rahul Anil; Wolfe, Christopher; Fang, Biao

    2015-09-29

    The present application provides an aerodynamic seal assembly for use with a turbo-machine. The aerodynamic seal assembly may include a number of springs, a shoe connected to the springs, and a secondary seal positioned about the springs and the shoe.

  8. Dampers for Stationary Labyrinth Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Aini, Yehia; Mitchell, William; Roberts, Lawrence; Montgomery, Stuart; Davis, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Vibration dampers have been invented that are incorporated as components within the stationary labyrinth seal assembly. These dampers are intended to supplement other vibration-suppressing features of labyrinth seals in order to reduce the incidence of high-cycle-fatigue failures, which have been known to occur in the severe vibratory environments of jet engines and turbopumps in which labyrinth seals are typically used. A vibration damper of this type includes several leaf springs and/or a number of metallic particles (shot) all held in an annular seal cavity by a retaining ring. The leaf springs are made of a spring steel alloy chosen, in conjunction with design parameters, to maintain sufficient preload to ensure effectiveness of damping at desired operating temperatures. The cavity is vented via a small radial gap between the retaining ring and seal housing. The damping mechanism is complex. In the case of leaf springs, the mechanism is mainly friction in the slippage between the seal housing and individual dampers. In the case of a damper that contains shot, the damping mechanism includes contributions from friction between individual particles, friction between particles and cavity walls, and dissipation of kinetic energy of impact. The basic concept of particle/shot vibration dampers has been published previously; what is new here is the use of such dampers to suppress traveling-wave vibrations in labyrinth seals. Damping effectiveness depends on many parameters, including, but not limited to, coefficient of friction, mode shape, and frequency and amplitude of vibrational modes. In tests, preloads of the order of 6 to 15 lb (2.72 to 6.8 kilograms) per spring damper were demonstrated to provide adequate damping levels. Effectiveness of shot damping of vibrations having amplitudes from 20 to 200 times normal terrestrial gravitational acceleration (196 to 1,960 meters per square second) and frequencies up to 12 kHz was demonstrated for shot sizes from 0.032 to

  9. Immobilisation of southern elephant seals and leopard seals with cyclohexamine anaesthetics and xylazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, P J; Burton, H R

    1991-10-12

    Ketamine and xylazine were given to 55 southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) for stomach lavaging, and to three leopard seals (Hydrurga leptonyx). The elephant seals showed prolonged apnoea and two of them died owing to aspiration of stomach contents. Two of the leopard seals died from unknown causes. Tiletamine and zolazepam were given to five elephant seals and one leopard seal. Two of the elephant seals and the leopard seal died from unknown causes. Xylazine alone was administered to 34 leopard seals. Sedation was poor at low dose rates (less than 1.7 mg/kg) but four of the seals given higher dose rates died owing to the aspiration of stomach contents.

  10. Photosynthetic and cellular toxicity of cadmium in Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou-Yang, Hui-Ling; Kong, Xiang-Zhen; Lavoie, Michel; He, Wei; Qin, Ning; He, Qi-Shuang; Yang, Bin; Wang, Rong; Xu, Fu-Liu

    2013-12-01

    The toxic effects of cadmium (Cd) on the green alga Chlorella vulgaris were investigated by following the response to Cd of various toxicity endpoints (cell growth, cell size, photochemical efficiency of PSII in the light or Φ(PSII), maximal photochemical efficiency or Fv/Fm, chlorophyll a fluorescence, esterase activity, and cell viability). These toxicity endpoints were studied in laboratory batch cultures of C. vulgaris over a long-term 96-h exposure to different Cd concentrations using flow cytometry and pulse amplitude modulated fluorometry. The sequence of sensitivity of these toxicity endpoints was: cell yield > Φ(PSII) ≈ esterase activity > Fv/Fm > chlorophyll a fluorescence ≈ cell viability. It is shown that cell apoptosis or cell death only accounted for a minor part of the reduction in cell yield even at very high algistatic free Cd²⁺ concentrations, and other mechanisms such as blocked cell divisions are major contributors to cell yield inhibition. Furthermore, cadmium may affect both the electron donors and acceptors of the electron transport chain at high free Cd²⁺ concentration. Finally, the resistance of cells to cell death was size-dependent; medium-sized cells had the highest toxicity threshold. The present study brings new insights into the toxicity mechanisms of Cd in C. vulgaris and provides a detailed comparison of the sensitivity of various Cd toxicity endpoints. © 2013 SETAC.

  11. Cadmium-induced olfactory dysfunction in rainbow trout: Effects of binary and quaternary metal mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dew, William A. [Biological Sciences, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta T1 K 3M4 (Canada); Department of Biology, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario K9 J 7B8 (Canada); Veldhoen, Nik; Carew, Amanda C.; Helbing, Caren C. [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8 P 5C2 Canada (Canada); Pyle, Greg G., E-mail: gregory.pyle@uleth.ca [Biological Sciences, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta T1 K 3M4 (Canada)

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Cadmium impairs the olfactory response of rainbow trout. • Nickel and zinc, but not copper, protect against Cd-induced olfactory dysfunction. • Calcium, sodium, and magnesium also protect against the effect of cadmium. • Protection from cadmium is most likely not due to metallothionein expression. - Abstract: A functioning olfactory response is essential for fish to be able to undertake essential behaviors. The majority of work investigating the effects of metals on the olfactory response of fish has focused on single-metal exposures. In this study we exposed rainbow trout to cadmium, copper, nickel, zinc, or a mixture of these four metals at or below the current Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment guidelines for the protection of aquatic life. Measurement of olfactory acuity using an electro-olfactogram demonstrated that cadmium causes significant impairment of the entire olfactory system, while the other three metals or the mixture of all four metals did not. Binary mixtures with cadmium and each of the other metals demonstrated that nickel and zinc, but not copper, protect against cadmium-induced olfactory dysfunction. Testing was done to determine if the protection from cadmium-induced olfactory dysfunction could be explained by binding competition between cadmium and the other metals at the cell surface, or if the protection could be explained by an up-regulation of an intracellular detoxification pathway, namely metallothionein. This study is the first to measure the effects of binary and quaternary metal mixtures on the olfactory response of fish, something that will aid in future assessments of the effects of metals on the environment.

  12. Levels of non-essential elements in muscle from harp seal (Phagophilus groenlandicus) and hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) caught in the Greenland Sea area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunborg, Linn Anne [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), P.O. Box 2029 Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen (Norway)]. E-mail: linn.anne.brunborg@nifes.no; Graff, Ingvild Eide [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), P.O. Box 2029 Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen (Norway); Froyland, Livar [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), P.O. Box 2029 Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen (Norway); Julshamn, Kare [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), P.O. Box 2029 Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen (Norway)

    2006-08-01

    The non-essential elements, arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead, inevitably accumulate in marine top predators such as seals. The concentration of these elements and the essential element selenium, due to its proposed protective properties against mercury toxicity in marine mammals, were measured in muscle, liver and kidney from reproductive active females of harp seal (Phagophilus groenlandicus) and hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) caught in the drift ice between Iceland and East Greenland. Arsenic levels were below 1 {mu}g/g w.w. in all analysed samples, and were therefore low compared to other seafood products. The concentrations of arsenic found in the present study were comparable to the results reported in a similar study from 1985. Mean concentrations of total mercury in muscle from the present study were higher than levels in other seafood products. The levels of total mercury from the present study showed a tendency of lower levels in all tissue samples compared to the study from 1985. Methyl mercury displayed a trend of a lower ratio of methyl mercury to total mercury as the concentration of total mercury increased, indicating a demethylation of methyl mercury at high total mercury concentrations (e.g. mercury in liver of hooded seal). The concentration ratio of methyl mercury to total mercury in muscle samples was more than 75%, with total mercury concentration less than 0.5 {mu}g/g w.w., whereas the ratio for liver was as low as 0.2% with a total mercury concentration of 128 {mu}g/g w.w. The molar concentration ratios of selenium to mercury showed that selenium was present in a molar surplus to mercury in all tissues with low mercury concentration. However, there seemed to be a general mobilisation of selenium in liver and kidney tissues of harp seal and hooded seal, whereas an extraordinary mobilisation seemed to take place at hepatic mercury concentrations exceeding 50 {mu}g/g w.w. The mean concentrations of lead in muscles in the present study were

  13. Turbine Seal Research at NASA GRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Margaret P.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Delgado, Irebert R.; Hendricks, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    Low-leakage, long-life turbomachinery seals are important to both Space and Aeronautics Missions. (1) Increased payload capability (2) Decreased specific fuel consumption and emissions (3) Decreased direct operating costs. NASA GRC has a history of significant accomplishments and collaboration with industry and academia in seals research. NASA's unique, state-of-the-art High Temperature, High Speed Turbine Seal Test Facility is an asset to the U.S. Engine / Seal Community. Current focus is on developing experimentally validated compliant, non-contacting, high temperature seal designs, analysis, and design methodologies to enable commercialization.

  14. Energy conversion device with improved seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gerald R.; Virkar, Anil V.

    1980-01-01

    An energy conversion device comprising an improved sealing member adapted to seal a cation-permeable casing to the remainder of the device. The sealing member comprises a metal substrate which (i) bears a nonconductive and corrosion resistant coating on the major surface to which said casing is sealed, and (ii) is corrugated so as to render it flexible, thereby allowing said member to move relative to said casing without cracking the seal therebetween. Corrugations may be circumferential, radial, or both radial and circumferential so as to form dimples. The corrugated member may be in form of a bellows or in a substantially flat form, such as a disc.

  15. A neurological comparative study of the harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus) and harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walløe, Solveig; Eriksen, Nina; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    The cetacean brain is well studied. However, few comparisons have been done with other marine mammals. In this study, we compared the harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus) and the harbor porpoise brain (Phocoena phocoena). Stereological methods were applied to compare three areas of interest...... cells, whereas the harp seal have 6.1 × 10(9) neocortical neurons and 17.5 × 10(9) neocortical glial cells. The harbor porpoise have significantly more neurons and glial cells in the auditory cortex than in the visual cortex, whereas the pattern was opposite for the harp seal. These results...... are the first to provide estimates of the number of neurons and glial cells in the neocortex of the harp seal and harbor porpoise brain and offer new data to the comparative field of mammalian brain evolution....

  16. Air riding seal with purge cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sexton, Thomas D; Mills, Jacob A

    2017-08-15

    An air riding seal for a turbine in a gas turbine engine, where an annular piston is axial moveable within an annular piston chamber formed in a stator of the turbine and forms a seal with a surface on the rotor using pressurized air that forms a cushion in a pocket of the annular piston. A purge cavity is formed on the annular piston and is connected to a purge hole that extends through the annular piston to a lower pressure region around the annular piston or through the rotor to an opposite side. The annular piston is sealed also with inner and outer seals that can be a labyrinth seal to form an additional seal than the cushion of air in the pocket to prevent the face of the air riding seal from overheating.

  17. Rotary seal with improved film distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietle, Lannie Laroy; Schroeder, John Erick

    2013-10-08

    The present invention is a generally circular rotary seal that establishes sealing between relatively rotatable machine components for lubricant retention and environmental exclusion, and incorporates seal geometry that interacts with the lubricant during relative rotation to distribute a lubricant film within the dynamic sealing interface. The features of a variable inlet size, a variable dynamic lip flank slope, and a reduction in the magnitude and circumferentially oriented portion of the lubricant side interfacial contact pressure zone at the narrowest part of the lip, individually or in combination thereof, serve to maximize interfacial lubrication in severe operating conditions, and also serve to minimize lubricant shear area, seal torque, seal volume, and wear, while ensuring retrofitability into the seal grooves of existing equipment.

  18. Gonadal development and fertility of mice treated prenatally with cadmium during the early organogenesis stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, P P; Liu, W K

    1985-12-01

    Gonadal development was studied in mouse embryos that were exposed to cadmium during the early organogenesis stages. At 13.5 days, both the male and the female embryos had small genital ridges. Fewer primordial germ cells were found in the male embryos. In both sexes, many primordial germ cells were left outside the genital ridges, presumably as a result of retarded cell migration. In 16.5-day embryos, the size of the testes and ovaries and the number of differentiating germ cells were reduced. Many germ cells degenerated during the differentiation to spermatogonia and meiotic oocytes. The perturbed gonadal development was less likely to be caused primarily by a defective hypothalamopituitary axis but was more a part of the general cadmium-induced damage. The fertility of the male offspring was impaired by the prenatal cadmium insult, but the females were apparently fertile. The epididymal spermatozoa of the cadmium-affected offspring showed a lower fertilizing capacity in vitro. The impaired fertility of the cadmium-affected mice was the result of poor gonadal growth, paucity of germ cells, and defective maturation of the gametes.

  19. Cadmium content of plants as affected by soil cadmium concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehoczky, E. [Pannon Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Keszthely (Hungary); Szabados, I.; Marth, P. [Plant Health and Soil Conservation Station, Higany (Hungary)

    1996-12-31

    Pot experiments were conducted in greenhouse conditions to study the effects of increasing cadmium (Cd) levels on biomass production and Cd contents in corn, (Zea mays L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Plants were grown in two soil types: Eutric cambisol soil and A gleyic luvisol soil. Spinach proved to be the most sensitive to Cd treatments as its biomass considerably decreased with the increasing Cd levels. Cadmium contents of the three crops increased with increasing levels of Cd applications. Statistical differences were observed in the Cd contents of crops depending on soil type. With the same Cd rates, Cd tissue concentration of test plants grown in the strongly acidic Gleyic luvisol soil were many times higher than that of plants grown in a neutral Eutric cambisol soil. 14 refs., 4 tabs.

  20. Biological Synthesis of Size-Controlled Cadmium Sulfide Nanoparticles Using ImmobilizedRhodobacter sphaeroides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhaoming

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Size-controlled cadmium sulfide nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by immobilizedRhodobacter sphaeroidesin the study. The dynamic process that Cd2+was transported from solution into cell by livingR. sphaeroideswas characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Culture time, as an important physiological parameter forR. sphaeroidesgrowth, could significantly control the size of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles. TEM demonstrated that the average sizes of spherical cadmium sulfide nanoparticles were 2.3 ± 0.15, 6.8 ± 0.22, and 36.8 ± 0.25 nm at culture times of 36, 42, and 48 h, respectively. Also, the UV–vis and photoluminescence spectral analysis of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles were performed.

  1. Distribution and speciation of cadmium in the terrestrial snail, Helix aspersa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, M.; Jackson, A.; Nickless, G.; Roberts, D.J.

    1979-11-01

    Cadmium is taken up by terrestrial snails living in an environment with a relatively high cadmium concentration. The metal becomes bound to protein with a molecular weight of approximately 22,000 daltons. This cadmium-protein complex concentrates in the digestive gland and is present in a form which is soluble in water, (though difficult to extract efficiently). That no efficient excretion mechanism exists for this soluble complex implies that it cannot traverse the cell wall. The failure to observe a metal-free M2 strongly suggests that formation of M2 is induced by metal insult rather than M2 being naturally present to guard against an increase in zinc and cadmium uptake.

  2. Cadmium and Cadmium/Zinc Ratios and Tobacco-Related Morbidities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Patricia; Faroon, Obaid; Pappas, R. Steven

    2017-01-01

    Metals are one of five major categories of carcinogenic or toxic constituents in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Cadmium is highly volatile and a higher percentage of the total tobacco cadmium content is efficiently transferred to mainstream tobacco smoke than many other toxic metals in tobacco. Inhaled cadmium bioaccumulates in the lungs and is distributed beyond the lungs to other tissues, with a total body biological half-life of one to two decades. Chronic cadmium exposure through tobacco use elevates blood and urine cadmium concentrations. Cadmium is a carcinogen, and an inducer of proinflammatory immune responses. Elevated exposure to cadmium is associated with reduced pulmonary function, obstructive lung disease, bronchogenic carcinoma, cardiovascular diseases including myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, pancreatic cancer, and various oral pathologies. Cadmium and zinc have a toxicologically inverse relationship. Zinc is an essential element and is reportedly antagonistic to some manifestations of cadmium toxicity. This review summarizes associations between blood, urine, and tissue cadmium concentrations with emphasis on cadmium exposure due to tobacco use and several disease states. Available data about zinc and cadmium/zinc ratios and tobacco-related diseases is summarized from studies reporting smoking status. Collectively, data suggest that blood, urine, and tissue cadmium and cadmium/zinc ratios are often significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers and they are also different in smokers for several diseases and cancers. Additional biomonitoring data such as blood or serum and urine zinc and cadmium levels and cadmium/zinc ratios in smokers may provide further insight into the development and progression of diseases of the lung, cardiovascular system, and possibly other organs. PMID:28961214

  3. Cadmium and Cadmium/Zinc Ratios and Tobacco-Related Morbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Patricia; Faroon, Obaid; Pappas, R Steven

    2017-09-29

    Metals are one of five major categories of carcinogenic or toxic constituents in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Cadmium is highly volatile and a higher percentage of the total tobacco cadmium content is efficiently transferred to mainstream tobacco smoke than many other toxic metals in tobacco. Inhaled cadmium bioaccumulates in the lungs and is distributed beyond the lungs to other tissues, with a total body biological half-life of one to two decades. Chronic cadmium exposure through tobacco use elevates blood and urine cadmium concentrations. Cadmium is a carcinogen, and an inducer of proinflammatory immune responses. Elevated exposure to cadmium is associated with reduced pulmonary function, obstructive lung disease, bronchogenic carcinoma, cardiovascular diseases including myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, pancreatic cancer, and various oral pathologies. Cadmium and zinc have a toxicologically inverse relationship. Zinc is an essential element and is reportedly antagonistic to some manifestations of cadmium toxicity. This review summarizes associations between blood, urine, and tissue cadmium concentrations with emphasis on cadmium exposure due to tobacco use and several disease states. Available data about zinc and cadmium/zinc ratios and tobacco-related diseases is summarized from studies reporting smoking status. Collectively, data suggest that blood, urine, and tissue cadmium and cadmium/zinc ratios are often significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers and they are also different in smokers for several diseases and cancers. Additional biomonitoring data such as blood or serum and urine zinc and cadmium levels and cadmium/zinc ratios in smokers may provide further insight into the development and progression of diseases of the lung, cardiovascular system, and possibly other organs.

  4. Cadmium and Cadmium/Zinc Ratios and Tobacco-Related Morbidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Richter

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Metals are one of five major categories of carcinogenic or toxic constituents in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Cadmium is highly volatile and a higher percentage of the total tobacco cadmium content is efficiently transferred to mainstream tobacco smoke than many other toxic metals in tobacco. Inhaled cadmium bioaccumulates in the lungs and is distributed beyond the lungs to other tissues, with a total body biological half-life of one to two decades. Chronic cadmium exposure through tobacco use elevates blood and urine cadmium concentrations. Cadmium is a carcinogen, and an inducer of proinflammatory immune responses. Elevated exposure to cadmium is associated with reduced pulmonary function, obstructive lung disease, bronchogenic carcinoma, cardiovascular diseases including myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, pancreatic cancer, and various oral pathologies. Cadmium and zinc have a toxicologically inverse relationship. Zinc is an essential element and is reportedly antagonistic to some manifestations of cadmium toxicity. This review summarizes associations between blood, urine, and tissue cadmium concentrations with emphasis on cadmium exposure due to tobacco use and several disease states. Available data about zinc and cadmium/zinc ratios and tobacco-related diseases is summarized from studies reporting smoking status. Collectively, data suggest that blood, urine, and tissue cadmium and cadmium/zinc ratios are often significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers and they are also different in smokers for several diseases and cancers. Additional biomonitoring data such as blood or serum and urine zinc and cadmium levels and cadmium/zinc ratios in smokers may provide further insight into the development and progression of diseases of the lung, cardiovascular system, and possibly other organs.

  5. Relations between liver cadmium, cumulative exposure, and renal function in cadmium alloy workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, H. J.; Davison, A G; Wright, A. L.; Guthrie, C J; Fayers, P M; Venables, K M; Smith, N J; Chettle, D R; Franklin, D M; Scott, M. C.

    1988-01-01

    Detailed biochemical investigations of renal function were made on 75 male workers exposed to cadmium and an equal number of referents matched for age, sex, and employment status. The exposed group consisted of current and retired workers who had been employed in the manufacture of copper-cadmium alloy at a single factory in the United Kingdom for periods of up to 39 years and for whom cumulative cadmium exposure indices could be calculated. In vivo measurements of liver and kidney cadmium bu...

  6. Cadmium resistance in Drosophila: a small cadmium binding substance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, K.B.; Williams, M.W.; Richter, L.J.; Holt, S.E.; Hook, G.J.; Knoop, S.M.; Sloop, F.V.; Faust, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    A small cadmium-binding substance (CdBS) has been observed in adult Drosophila melanogaster that were raised for their entire growth cycle on a diet that contained 0.15 mM CdCl/sub 2/. Induction of CdBS was observed in strains that differed widely in their sensitivity of CdCl/sub 2/. This report describes the induction of CdBS and some of its characteristics. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Toxic effects of nanomaterial-adsorbed cadmium on Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Minling; Zhang, Ze; Lv, Mengting; Song, Wenhua; Lv, Yuhua

    2018-02-01

    Chemical immobilization technologies involving the use of chemical absorbents such as nanomaterials have been recommended for the remediation of Cd-contaminated water and soil. The impact of nanomaterials or nanomaterials coexisting with other contaminants on aquatic organisms has been reported, but information on the toxic effects of nanomaterial-adsorbed cadmium (Nano-Cd) on aquatic organisms is lacking. This study aimed to investigate the acute and sub-acute toxicity of Nano-Cd on Daphnia magna by using a method developed based on the standard Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 202 guidelines. The toxicity of cadmium chloride (Cd 2+ ), nano-manganese dioxide-cadmium (nMnO 2 -Cd), 20nm nano-hydroxyapatite-cadmium (nHAP 20 -Cd), and 40nm nano-hydroxyapatite-cadmium (nHAP 40 -Cd) to D. magna was in the following order: Cd 2+ > nMnO 2 -Cd > nHAP 20 -Cd > nHAP 40 -Cd. Further, nMnO 2 -Cd, nHAP 20 -Cd, and nHAP 40 -Cd showed acute toxicity to D. magna of level II grade according to the Commission of the European Communities and OECD standards. Exposure to low and medium, but not high, Nano-Cd concentrations increased the activities of peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and anti-superoxide anion. Thus, Nano-Cd, particularly at high concentrations, could exert oxidative damage in D. magna. An increase in Cd 2+ and Nano-Cd concentrations gradually increased the malondialdehyde content, indicating cell membrane damage caused by the production of excessive O 2 - . Thus, the use of nanomaterials after adsorption of Cd is associated with a potential risk to aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Seal dynamics on the Swedish west coast: Scenarios of competition as Baltic grey seal intrude on harbour seal territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Carl Johan

    2012-07-01

    The Kattegat-Skagerrak region on the Swedish west coast is home to an abundant harbour seal population (Phoca vitulina) and a small scattered grey seal population (Halichoerus grypus). In addition, grey seal from the growing population in the Baltic Sea frequently migrate into the Kattegat-Skagerrak. Harbour seals on the west coast of Sweden show relatively high population growth (approximately 9%) compared to the Baltic grey seal in ice-free habitats (approximately 6%), which, in theory, makes harbour seal the stronger competitor of the two in this region. However, incidents of disease in harbour seals that lower population growth are becoming more frequent. These epidemics are primarily caused by the Phocine Distemper Virus (PDV), and may reduce population size with up to 70%. This study models the average development under potential scenarios of competing harbour- and Baltic grey seal populations using Leslie matrices and the Lotka-Volterra model of inter-specific competition. The model is parameterised with previously published data, and resource overlap is incorporated through density dependent pup survival. Using numerical methods short- and long-term abundances are simulated under weak, moderate and strong competition and for different frequencies of PDV epidemics. Results show that the harbour seals are resilient to competition while exerting a negative effect on grey seal abundance under moderate to strong competition. Hence Baltic grey seal benefit from weaker levels of competition. Under moderate and strong competition grey seal abundance is a direct function of the PDV frequency as this reduces the competitive strength of harbour seals. Theoretically this means that higher frequencies of PDV or other pathogens epidemics could facilitate an expansion of Baltic grey seal into Kattegat-Skagerrak. Independent of interaction strength and frequency of epidemics the projected changes to abundances are slow (50-100 years), and even in exceedingly stable

  9. Cadmium tolerance, cysteine and thiol peptide levels in wild type and chromium-tolerant strains of Scenedesmus acutus (Chlorophyceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torricelli, Elena; Gorbi, Gessica; Pawlik-Skowronska, Barbara; Di Toppi, Luigi Sanita; Corradi, Maria Grazia

    2004-07-14

    Two strains of the unicellular green alga Scenedesmus acutus with different sensitivity to hexavalent chromium were compared for their tolerance of cadmium, by means of growth and recovery tests, and determination of cysteine, reduced glutathione and phytochelatin content, after short-term exposure to various cadmium concentrations (from 1.125 to 27 {mu}M). Growth experiments showed that, after 7-day treatments with cadmium, the chromium-tolerant strain reached a significantly higher cell density and, after 24-h exposure to Cd, was able to resume growth significantly better than the wild type. Constitutive level of cysteine was higher in the chromium-tolerant strain, while glutathione levels were similar in the two strains. The higher content of cysteine and the maintenance of both reduced glutathione and phytochelatin high levels in the presence of cadmium, support the higher cadmium co-tolerance of the chromium-tolerant strain in comparison with the wild type one.

  10. Effects of nitrogen sources and metal ions on ethanol fermentation with cadmium-containing medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingyun; Wu, Mengnan; Hu, Jiajun; Gao, Min-Tian

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated ethanol fermentation and its correlation with glutathione (GSH) synthesis under various cadmium-conditions with different metal ions and nitrogen sources. We found that corn steep liquor (CSL) and yeast extract have differential roles to play in GSH accumulation in cell even though both of them could alleviate the inhibition by cadmium. The different GSH accumulation in cell resulted from the different contents of metal ions in CSL and yeast extract. Intracellular GSH decreased with increasing calcium concentrations, and high calcium concentrations rendered the yeast more tolerant to cadmium stress than the nitrogen sources did. When the mole ratio of calcium to cadmium was 100:1, yeast tolerated 1000 µmol/L cadmium with no decrease in efficiency in ethanol production. As a result, the use of calcium allowed a significant saving of high-cost nutrient yeast extract with an efficient ethanol production, making the bioconversion of cadmium-containing biomass into ethanol possible. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Cadmium but not lead exposure affects Xenopus laevis fertilization and embryo cleavage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaby, Sylvain [Univ. Lille Nord de France, EA 4515 – LGCgE – Laboratoire Génie Civil et géo-Environnement, Université de Lille 1, Cité scientifique, SN3, F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Univ. Lille, CNRS, INRA, UMR 8576 – UGSF – Unité de Glycobiologie Structurale et Fonctionnelle, F-59000 Lille (France); Lemière, Sébastien [Univ. Lille Nord de France, EA 4515 – LGCgE – Laboratoire Génie Civil et géo-Environnement, Université de Lille 1, Cité scientifique, SN3, F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Hanotel, Julie; Lescuyer, Arlette [Univ. Lille, CNRS, INRA, UMR 8576 – UGSF – Unité de Glycobiologie Structurale et Fonctionnelle, F-59000 Lille (France); Demuynck, Sylvain [Univ. Lille Nord de France, EA 4515 – LGCgE – Laboratoire Génie Civil et géo-Environnement, Université de Lille 1, Cité scientifique, SN3, F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Bodart, Jean-François [Univ. Lille, CNRS, INRA, UMR 8576 – UGSF – Unité de Glycobiologie Structurale et Fonctionnelle, F-59000 Lille (France); and others

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • First embryonic steps were studied. • Fertilization success was impacted by cadmium exposures. • Oocytes were most affected instead of spermatozoa by cadmium exposures. • First embryonic cleavages were slown down or stopped by cadmium exposures. • Lead exposures did not affected fertilization and segmentation. - Abstract: Among the toxicological and ecotoxicological studies, few have investigated the effects on germ cells, gametes or embryos, while an impact at these stages will result in serious damage at a population level. Thus, it appeared essential to characterize consequences of environmental contaminant exposures at these stages. Therefore, we proposed to assess the effects of exposure to cadmium and lead ions, alone or in a binary mixture, on early stages of Xenopus laevis life cycle. Fertilization and cell division during segmentation were the studied endpoints. Cadmium ion exposures decreased in the fertilization rates in a concentration-dependent manner, targeting mainly the oocytes. Exposure to this metal ions induced also delays or blockages in the embryonic development. For lead ion exposure, no such effect was observed. For the exposure to the mixture of the two metal ions, concerning the fertilization success, we observed results similar to those obtained with the highest cadmium ion concentration.

  12. Neuroprotective effect of grape seed extract against cadmium toxicity in male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tarras, Adel El-Sayed; Attia, Hossam Fouad; Soliman, Mohammed Mohamed; El Awady, Mohammed Abdelhamid; Amin, Adnan Abelghani

    2016-09-01

    Cadmium toxicity can disturb brain chemistry leading to depression, anxiety, and weakened immunity. Cadmium disturbs the neurotransmitter dopamine, resulting in low energy, lack of motivation, and depression, which are predisposing factors for violence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ameliorative effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on the brain of 40 male albino rats after exposure to cadmium chloride (Cd) toxicity. The rats were separated into either the control group, the Cd group, the GSE group, or the GSE and Cd mixture (treated) group. The cerebrum showed evidence of degeneration of some nerve fibers and cells. Fibrosis, vacuolations, and congestion in the blood vessels were demonstrated. Satelletosis was located in the capsular cells. Immunohistochemical expression of Bax was strongly positive in the Cd group and decreased in the treated group. These histopathological changes were decreased in the brain tissue of the treated group, but a few blood vessels still had evidence of congestion. Cadmium administration increased the level of MDA and decreased MAO-A, acetylcholinesterase, and glutathione reductase (GR), while the treatment with GSE affected the alterations in these parameters. In addition, cadmium downregulated the mRNA expression levels of GST and GPx, while GSE treatment normalized the transcript levels. The expression of both dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter was downregulated in the rats administered cadmium and the addition of GSE normalized the expression of these aggression associated genes. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Seal designing of theodolite used in seaside environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Humin; Yan, Xiaoxu; Hao, Wei; Zhou, Sizhong

    2014-08-01

    Based on the environment requirements in seaside there exists static and dynamic seal designing for the photoelectric Theodolite. Static seal designing emphatically includes the designing of o-ring size and mechanical property analysis of o-ring seal, which is difficult to adopt conventional dynamic seal to meet the requirements. According to practical application, the combination of the radial labyrinth seal and high quality felt seal are designed. The combination seal which better solves the seal problem of narrow radial size is a good way of dynamic seal. At the same time, there is engineering practice needing to proof the radial labyrinth seal.

  14. The effect of cadmium ions on 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate in erythrocytes studied with 31P NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkowitz, R; Hoehn-Berlage, M; Gersonde, K

    1987-06-08

    The interaction of cadmium ions with human red blood cell (RBC) 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate (DPG) wasa studied by 31P NMR. 31P NMR spectra and 31P T1 and 31P T2 relaxation times give evidence for cadmium-2,3-bisphosphoglycerate complexation in aqueous solution. 31P NMR spectra indicate the occurrence of a similar complexation in RBC cryolysates. The lag phase (constant polyphosphate level) prior to DPG hydrolysis in incubated red blood cells is lengthened in the presence of cadmium.

  15. Protein synthesis in cadmium- and pentachlorophenol-tolerant Euglena gracilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barque, J.P.; Abahamid, A.; Chacun, H. [Laboratoire de Metabolism Cellulaire et Xenobiotiques, Chatenay-Malabry (France)] [and others

    1995-07-01

    This work is a preliminary characterization of two adapted Euglena gracilis cell lines, one to cadmium and the other to pentachlorophenol. Growth curve analysis indicate that tolerance to one pollutant did not protect against the second pollutant. These suggest that metabolic pathways that are induced by one pollutant are specific for this pollutant. This specificity is detectable at the level of gene expression. 16 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Ampoule sealing apparatus and process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnam, Jr., William J. (Inventor); Clark, Ivan O. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus 10 for effecting sealing of a fused quartz ampoule 24 while maintaining a vacuum on the ampoule via system 12 is disclosed. A plug 28 of fused quartz is lowered into the vertically disposed ampoule 24 (while maintaining the vacuum thereon) and heat sealed therein to prevent any vapor escape from, or contamination of, the contained semiconductor growth charge 29 during subsequent semiconductor crystal growth processes. A rotary vacuum feed-through mechanism 16 selectively rotates axle 34 and spool 32 to unwind wire 30 for lowering of plug 28 into the reduced diameter portion 24b of ampoule 24. Ampoule 24 is hermatically connected to vacuum housing 18 by quick release flange 20 wherein O-ring 22 retains ampoule 24.

  17. Hermetically Sealed Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwitt, Robert S.; Liu, Yanming; Elias, William

    1996-01-01

    Aluminum electrolytic capacitors are presently not allowed on NASA missions because they outgas water and organic vapors, as well as H2. As a consequence, for some applications, much larger and heavier packages of tantalum capacitors must be used. A hermetically sealed aluminum capacitor has been developed. This contains a nongassing electrolyte that was developed for this application so internal pressure would remain low. Capacitors rated from 250 V to 540 V have been operated under full load for thousands of hours at 85 and 105 C with good electrical performance and absence of gas generation. Electrolyte chemistry and seal engineering will be discussed, as well as the extension of this design concept to lower voltage ratings.

  18. Simultaneous detection of bioavailable arsenic and cadmium in contaminated soils using dual-sensing bioreporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Youngdae; Kim, Sunghoon; Chae, Yooeun; Kim, Shin Woong; Kang, Yerin; An, Gyeonghyeon; Jeong, Seung-Woo; An, Youn-Joo

    2016-04-01

    Whole-cell bioreporters (WCBs) have attracted increasing attention during the last few decades because they allow fast determination of bioavailable heavy metals in contaminated sites. Various WCBs to monitor specific heavy metals such as arsenic and cadmium in diverse environmental systems are available. However, currently, no study on simultaneous analysis of arsenic and cadmium has been reported, even though soils are contaminated by diverse heavy metals and metalloids. We demonstrated herein the development of dual-sensing WCBs to simultaneously quantify bioavailable arsenic and cadmium in contaminated sites by employing the promoter regions of the ars and znt operons as separate metal-sensing domains, and egfp and mcherry as reporter genes. The dual-sensing WCBs were generated by inserting two sets of genes into E. coli DH5α. The capability of WCBs was successfully proved to simultaneously quantify bioavailable arsenic and cadmium in amended Landwirtschaftliche Untersuchungs und Forschungsanstalt (LUFA) soils, and then, it was applied to contaminated field soils collected from a smelter area in Korea. As a result, it was noticed that the bioavailable portion of cadmium was higher than that of arsenic while the absolute amount of bioavailable arsenic and cadmium level was opposite. Since both cadmium and arsenic were assessed from the same E. coli cells, the data obtained by using dual-sensing WCBs would be more efficient and convenient than that from comparative WCB assay. In spite of advantageous aspects, to our knowledge, this is the first report on a dual-sensing WCB for rapid and concurrent quantification of bioavailable arsenic and cadmium in contaminated soils.

  19. Exposure to Nickel, Chromium, or Cadmium Causes Distinct Changes in the Gene Expression Patterns of a Rat Liver Derived Cell Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae : gene expression and identification of novel essential genes. Mol Biol Cell 15: 5295–5305. 14. Boyack KW, Wylie BN, Davidson GS (2002...major roles in postreplication mutation avoidance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae . Mol Cell Biol 19: 2000–2007. 37. Kawakami H, Katayama T (2010) DnaA, ORC...cells (ATCC, Manassas, VA) were grown in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM; Lonza, Walkers- ville, MD) containing 10% fetal bovine serum

  20. Seal for fluid forming tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovashchenko, Sergey Fedorovich [Beverly Hills, MI; Bonnen, John Joseph Francis [Milford, MI

    2012-03-20

    An electro-hydraulic forming tool for forming a sheet metal blank in a one-sided die has first and second rigid rings that engage opposite sides of a sheet metal blank. The rigid rings are contained within slots on a die portion and a hydraulic force applicator portion of the forming tool. The seals are either resiliently biased by an elastomeric member or inherently resiliently biased into contact with the blank.

  1. Seals, Concrete Anchors, and Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    coupling rigid mounted blast doors to shock iso - lated specialty doors (RFI, gas sealed, fire rated, etc.), providing portals between two rigid...26- 38500 27- 38500 3/8 x 5 50 3421 3/8 x 2-5/8 ." 1 26-12234 27-12234 112 X 2.3/4 50 3422 3/8 x 3 b0 26-12400 27-12400 1/2 X 4 50 3423 318 x 4 50

  2. Surface binding and uptake of cadmium (Cd[sup 2+]) by LLC-PK[sub 1] cells on permeable membrane supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prozialeck, W.C.; Lamar, P.C. (Chicago Coll. of Osteopathic Medicine, IL (United States). Dept. of Pharmacology)

    1993-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that Cd[sup 2+] has relatively specific damaging effects on cell-cell junctions in the renal epithelial cell line, LLC-PK[sub 1]. The objective of the present studies was to examine the surface binding and uptake of Cd[sup 2+] by LLC-PK[sub 1] cells in relation to the disruption of cell-cell junctions. LLC-PK[sub 1] cells on Falcon Cell Culture Inserts were exposed to CdCl[sub 2] containing trace amounts of [sup 109]Cd[sup 2+] from either the apical or the basolateral compartments, and the accumulation of [sup 109]Cd[sup 2+] was monitored for up to 8 h. The integrity of cell-cell junctions was assessed by monitoring the transepithelial electrical resistance. The results showed that the cells accumulated 3-4 times more Cd[sup 2+] from the basolateral compartment than from the apical compartment. The accumulation of Cd[sup 2+] from the basolateral compartment occurred in two phases: a rapid, exponential phase that occurred in 1-2 h and coincided with a decrease in transepithelial resistance, and a slower, linear phase that continued for 6-8 h. The Cd[sup 2+] that accumulated during the rapid phase was easily removed by washing the cells in EGTA, indicating that most of it was bound to sites on the cell surface. By contrast, most of the Cd[sup 2+] that accumulated during the slower phase could not be removed by EGTA, indicating that it had been taken up by the cells. Additional studies showed that the rapid phase of Cd[sup 2+] accumulation was enhanced when Ca[sup 2+] was present at low concentrations (0.1 mM), and was greatly reduced when Ca[sup 2+] was present at high concentrations (10 mM). These results suggest that ld[sup 2+] damages the junctions between LLC-PK[sub 1] cells by interacting with Ca[sup 2+]-sensitive sites on the basolateral cell surface. (orig.).

  3. Electrodialytic Removal of Cadmium from Straw Ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    1999-01-01

    A problem with flyash from straw and wood combustion is the high level of heavy metals, especially cadmium. Two electrodialytic remediation experiments were carried out on cadmium polluted flyash from straw combustion. The flyash could be cleaned to 1/3 of its initial level after 24 days of remed......A problem with flyash from straw and wood combustion is the high level of heavy metals, especially cadmium. Two electrodialytic remediation experiments were carried out on cadmium polluted flyash from straw combustion. The flyash could be cleaned to 1/3 of its initial level after 24 days...

  4. Activation of methanogenesis by cadmium in the marine archaeon Methanosarcina acetivorans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Lira-Silva

    Full Text Available Methanosarcina acetivorans was cultured in the presence of CdCl(2 to determine the metal effect on cell growth and biogas production. With methanol as substrate, cell growth and methane synthesis were not altered by cadmium, whereas with acetate, cadmium slightly increased both, growth and methane rate synthesis. In cultures metabolically active, incubations for short-term (minutes with 10 µM total cadmium increased the methanogenesis rate by 6 and 9 folds in methanol- and acetate-grown cells, respectively. Cobalt and zinc but not copper or iron also activated the methane production rate. Methanogenic carbonic anhydrase and acetate kinase were directly activated by cadmium. Indeed, cells cultured in 100 µM total cadmium removed 41-69% of the heavy metal from the culture and accumulated 231-539 nmol Cd/mg cell protein. This is the first report showing that (i Cd(2+ has an activating effect on methanogenesis, a biotechnological relevant process in the bio-fuels field; and (ii a methanogenic archaea is able to remove a heavy metal from aquatic environments.

  5. Prolyl isomerase Pin1 regulates cadmium-induced autophagy via ubiquitin-mediated post-translational stabilization of phospho-Ser GSK3αβ in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Keum-Young; Oh, Seon-Hee

    2015-12-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that prolyl-isomerase (Pin1) is an important regulator of apoptosis. In the present study, Pin1 was shown to negatively regulate the stabilization of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3αβ serine phosphorylation by inhibiting ubiquitin (Ub)-proteasome degradation, and to induce autophagy following cadmium (Cd) exposure. Cd-induced autophagy in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells has been demonstrated by green fluorescent protein (GFP)-LC3B plasmid DNA transfection, and LC3-II conversion by autophagy inhibitors. Atg5 silencing inhibited Cd-induced apoptosis, indicating that autophagy is involved in cell death. Exposing HepG2 cells to Cd (≤6 μM) initially increased p-Ser GSK3αβ, but then resulted in a gradual decrease, which correlated with polyubiquitinated protein levels, which is indicative of protein degradation. However, high Cd concentrations lead to p-Ser GSK3αβ and polyubiquitinated protein accumulation, indicating proteasome impairment. Cd-induced p-Ser GSK3αβ was enhanced by proteasome inhibition (MG132) and ubiquitin deficiency (cyclohexamide), but no ubiquitination of p-Ser GSK3αβ or GSK3αβ was detected. Cd exposure resulted in p-Ser GSK3αβ redistribution from the nucleus into the cytosol, and this along with autophagy, was inhibited by leptomycin B. Cd concentrations Ser GSK3αβ, autophagy, and polyubiquitinated protein levels, while its inhibition reversed the effects. Silencing and overexpression of GSK3αβ had no effect on Cd-induced Pin1 levels. Immunoprecipitation studies showed that Pin1 and p-Ser GSK3αβ interact. Collectively, Pin1 protects cells by inhibiting p-Ser GSK3αβ, and Pin1 decrease upregulates p-Ser GSK3αβ, through the inhibition of Ub-mediated proteasome degradation, and stimulates cell death via autophagy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. High temperature dynamic engine seal technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Dellacorte, Christopher; Machinchick, Michael; Mutharasan, Rajakkannu; Du, Guang-Wu; Ko, Frank; Sirocky, Paul J.; Miller, Jeffrey H.

    1992-01-01

    Combined cycle ramjet/scramjet engines being designed for advanced hypersonic vehicles, including the National Aerospace Plane (NASP), require innovative high temperature dynamic seals to seal the sliding interfaces of the articulated engine panels. New seals are required that will operate hot (1200 to 2000 F), seal pressures ranging from 0 to 100 psi, remain flexible to accommodate significant sidewall distortions, and resist abrasion over the engine's operational life. This report reviews the recent high temperature durability screening assessments of a new braided rope seal concept, braided of emerging high temperature materials, that shows promise of meeting many of the seal demands of hypersonic engines. The paper presents durability data for: (1) the fundamental seal building blocks, a range of candidate ceramic fiber tows; and for (2) braided rope seal subelements scrubbed under engine simulated sliding, temperature, and preload conditions. Seal material/architecture attributes and limitations are identified through the investigations performed. The paper summarizes the current seal technology development status and presents areas in which future work will be performed.

  7. Fine structure of seminiferous tubules in antarctic seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, A A; Erickson, A W; Seal, U S

    1977-03-09

    The fine structure of seminiferous tubules from 5 crabeater, 2 leopard and 2 Ross seals showed that during the nonbreeding season the tubules were essentially similar in possessing spermatogenic and Sertoli cells. However, the tubules of leopard and Ross seals had more primary and secondary spermatocytes and spermatids than the crabeater seals. In general, the tubules were devoid of spermatozoa. The spermatids showed stages of maturation such as Golgi phase of acrosome formation, acrosomal cap formation and condensation of nuclei. Some spermatids degenerated in tubules. Both maturing and degenerating spermatids were closely associated with Sertoli cells. Junctional complexes with plaques of filaments were observed between Sertoli cells and the spermatogenic cells. Sertoli cells, irregular and polygonal, contained highly convoluted nuclei, strands of rough endoplasmic reticulum, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complexes, small mitochondria, variable amounts of lipid droplets, lysosomes, lipofuscin granules and highly plicated plasma membranes. In brief, the spermatogenic activity had practically ceased in the testes and the animals probably secreted low levels of testosterone during the nonbreeding season.

  8. Effects of long-term cadmium exposure on the testis of rabbits: ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscolo, P; Sacchettoni-Logroscino, G; Ranelletti, F O; Gioia, A; Carmignani, M

    1985-01-01

    Six male rabbits received for 9 months drinking water containing 20 micrograms/ml of cadmium (Cd). At the end of the treatment, the Cd contents of kidney and testis were 175 +/- 34 and 0.8 +/- 0.2 micrograms/g wet weight, respectively. Ultrastructural examination by transmission electron microscopy (EM) showed that, in the Sertoli cells, the size of the lysosomes was increased; spermatogenetic cells, vessels and Leydig cells showed no significant alterations. Observations with both transmission and scanning EM did not evidence changes in the blood-testis barrier, but our results do not exclude that male fertility may be affected by chronic exposure to cadmium.

  9. Wet powder seal for gas containment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, Louis G.

    1982-01-01

    A gas seal is formed by a compact layer of an insoluble powder and liquid filling the fine interstices of that layer. The smaller the particle size of the selected powder, such as sand or talc, the finer will be the interstices or capillary spaces in the layer and the greater will be the resulting sealing capacity, i.e., the gas pressure differential which the wet powder layer can withstand. Such wet powder seal is useful in constructing underground gas reservoirs or storage cavities for nuclear wastes as well as stopping leaks in gas mains buried under ground or situated under water. The sealing capacity of the wet powder seal can be augmented by the hydrostatic head of a liquid body established over the seal.

  10. Air riding seal for a turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Jacob A; Brown, Wesley D; Sexton, Thomas D; Jones, Russell B

    2016-07-19

    An air riding seal between a rotor and a stator in a turbine of a gas turbine engine, where an annular piston is movable in an axial direction within a housing that extends from the stator, and a bellows is secured to the annular piston to form a flexible air passageway from a compressed air inlet through the annular piston and into a cushion cavity that forms an air riding seal between the annular piston and the rotor sealing surface. In another embodiment, a flexible seal secured to and extending from the annular piston forms a sealing surface between the annular piston chamber and the annular piston to provide a seal and allow for axial movement.

  11. Antigenic characterization of mycobacteria from South American wild seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alito, A; Romano, M I; Bigi, F; Zumárraga, M; Cataldi, A

    1999-08-31

    Tuberculosis-producing mycobacteria have been previously described in marine mammals (Cousins et al., 1990, 1993; Romano et al., 1995; Bernardelli et al., 1996). The strains belonged to the M. tuberculosis complex (M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. microti and M. africanum), but showed genetic and biochemical differences. The antigenic composition of mycobacteria isolated from wild seals was analyzed by Western blots, using antibodies against some selected antigens. The antigenic content was compared with that of M. bovis, M. tuberculosis and M. microti isolates. The lack of Hsp65 protein in supernatants suggested a low degree of cell lysis in the three-week cultures used. SOD, P27 lipoprotein, MPB64 and antigen 85 were observed in all the strains studied. The wild seal strains, as well as M. tuberculosis, did not produce MPB70 and MPB83. Only very weak bands of P36 antigen were observed in culture supernatants from wild seal mycobacteria. Summarizing, the antigenic composition of mycobacterial strains from wild seals is different from M. bovis strains.

  12. Cytogenetic effects of cadmium accumulation on water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, I; Carbajal, M E; Gómez-Arroyo, S; Belmont, R; Villalobos-Pietrini, R

    1984-04-01

    Cadmium was bioassayed to observe cytogenetic effects in the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). Plants were exposed for 96 hr to freshwater containing 0.01, 0.05, 0.10, 1.5, and 10 mg/liter of cadmium. Metal concentrations in tissues were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The highest level was found in roots, thus root-tip cells were used for cytogenetic studies; after 24 hr of exposure, micronuclei, c-mitotic effects, and pycnosis were detected and after 48 hr polyploidy was observed. A linear relationship between frequencies of micronuclei and cadmium concentrations was found: at 1.5, and 10 mg/liter micronuclei numbers were always the lowest. The inhibition of cell proliferation. shown by the low mitotic index, was proportional to the concentration and time of exposure. From the results presented in this paper it may be concluded that water hyacinth is a good sensor, due to its fast rate of metal accumulation, which allows an easy way to determine the presence of potential mutagenic compounds in water.

  13. NEW POLIMER SEALING FLUID STOPS MUD LOSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw Stryczek

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a composition of sealing fluid, prepared from acrylic acid salt water solution Solakryl M. Laboratory test results of technological properties of its modifications with mineral agents are shown. A new method of sealing mud loss operations with given sealing liquid is discussed along with comments on effects of its use for stopping mud loss in case of freeze-well drilling is described (the paper is published in Croatian.

  14. A Hot Dynamic Seal Rig for Measuring Hypersonic Engine Seal Durability and Flow Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeffrey H.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Sirocky, Paul J.; Kren, Lawrence A.

    1993-01-01

    A test fixture for measuring the dynamic performance of candidate high-temperature engine seal concepts was installed at NASA Lewis Research Center. The test fixture was designed to evaluate seal concepts under development for advanced hypersonic engines, such as those being considered for the National Aerospace Plane (NASP). The fixture can measure dynamic seal leakage performance from room temperature up to 840 C (1550 F) and air pressure differentials up to 690 kPa (100 psi). Performance of the seals can be measured while sealing against flat or distorted walls. In the fixture two seals are preloaded against the sides of a 30 cm (1 ft) long saber that slides transverse to the axis of the seals, simulating the scrubbing motion anticipated in these engines. The capabilities of this test fixture along with preliminary data showing the dependence of seal leakage performance on high temperature cycling are addressed.

  15. Embedded vertically aligned cadmium telluride nanorod arrays grown by one-step electrodeposition for enhanced energy conversion efficiency in three-dimensional nanostructured solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Liu, Shurong; Mu, Yannan; Liu, Li; A, Runa; Yang, Jiandong; Zhu, Guijie; Meng, Xianwei; Fu, Wuyou; Yang, Haibin

    2017-11-01

    Vertically aligned CdTe nanorods (NRs) arrays are successfully grown by a simple one-step and template-free electrodeposition method, and then embedded in the CdS window layer to form a novel three-dimensional (3D) heterostructure on flexible substrates. The parameters of electrodeposition such as deposition potential and pH of the solution are varied to analyze their important role in the formation of high quality CdTe NRs arrays. The photovoltaic conversion efficiency of the solar cell based on the 3D heterojunction structure is studied in detail. In comparison with the standard planar heterojunction solar cell, the 3D heterojunction solar cell exhibits better photovoltaic performance, which can be attributed to its enhanced optical absorption ability, increased heterojunction area and improved charge carrier transport. The better photoelectric property of the 3D heterojunction solar cell suggests great application potential in thin film solar cells, and the simple electrodeposition process represents a promising technique for large-scale fabrication of other nanostructured solar energy conversion devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hypersonic engine seal development at NASA Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.

    1994-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center is developing advanced seal concepts and sealing technology for advanced combined cycle ramjet/scramjet engines being designed for the National Aerospace Plane (NASP). Technologies are being developed for both the dynamic seals that seal the sliding interfaces between articulating engine panels and sidewalls, and for the static seals that seal the heat exchanger to back-up structure interfaces. This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of the candidate engine seal concepts, seal material assessments, and unique test facilities used to assess the leakage and thermal performance of the seal concepts.

  17. Sulphate, more than a nutrient, protects the microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii from cadmium toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mera, Roi; Torres, Enrique, E-mail: torres@udc.es; Abalde, Julio

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Sulphate effect on cadmium toxicity in the microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii Gerloff. • Cadmium increases the sulphur requirements in Chlamydomonas moewusii. • Kinetic coefficients for sulphate utilization and cadmium effect on them. • Sulphate and cadmium influence on the biosynthesis of low-molecular mass thiols. • Cadmium toxicity reduction by sulphate due to higher biosynthesis of thiols. - Abstract: Sulphur is an essential macroelement that plays important roles in living organisms. The thiol rich sulphur compounds, such as cysteine, γ-Glu–Cys, glutathione and phytochelatins participate in the tolerance mechanisms against cadmium toxicity. Plants, algae, yeasts and most prokaryotes cover their demand for reduced sulphur by reduction of inorganic sulphate. The aim of this study was to investigate, using a bifactorial experimental design, the effect of different sulphate concentrations in the nutrient solution on cadmium toxicity in the freshwater microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii. Cell growth, kinetic parameters of sulphate utilization and intracellular concentrations of low-molecular mass thiol compounds were determined. A mathematical model to describe the growth of this microalga based on the effects of sulphate and cadmium was obtained. An ANOVA revealed an interaction between them, 16% of the effect sizes was explained by this interaction. A higher amount of sulphate in the culture medium allowed a higher cadmium tolerance due to an increase in the thiol compound biosynthesis. The amount of low-molecular mass thiol compounds, mainly phytochelatins, synthesized by this microalga was significantly dependent on the sulphate and cadmium concentrations; the higher phytochelatin content was obtained in cultures with 4 mg Cd/L and 1 mM sulphate. The maximum EC{sub 50} value (based on nominal cadmium concentration) reached for this microalga was 4.46 ± 0.42 mg Cd/L when the sulphate concentration added to the culture medium was also 1 m

  18. Zone refining of cadmium and related characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 28; Issue 3. Zone refining of cadmium and related characterization. N R Munirathnam ... The boron impurity in cadmium can be avoided using quartz (GE 214 grade) boat in lieu of high pure graphite boat. The analytical results using inductively coupled plasma optical ...

  19. Subcellular localization of cadmium in hyperaccumulator Populus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of damage to organs of grey poplar was as follows: root > stem> leaves. It was suggested that the Populus × canescens as a renewable resource has the potential to decontaminate cadmium stress development, accumulation and distribution. Key words: Cadmium, phytoremediation, hyperaccumulator, grey poplar, organ.

  20. REMOVAL OF CADMIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION USING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The uptake of cadmium from aqueous solution appeared to follow adsorption mechanism and not ion exchange as characteristic of many other divalent hexacyanoferrates. The sorption data were fitted with Langmuir adsorption isotherm. KEY WORDS: Cadmium removal, Potassium manganese hexacynoferrates(II)/(III) Bull.

  1. Zone refining of cadmium and related characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. We present the zone refining results of cadmium using horizontal resistive zone refiner under constant flow of moisture free hydrogen gas. The boron impurity in cadmium can be avoided using quartz (GE 214 grade) boat in lieu of high pure graphite boat. The analytical results using inductively coupled plasma ...

  2. Ductile alloys for sealing modular component interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, John J.; Wessell, Brian J.; James, Allister W.; Marsh, Jan H.; Gear, Paul J.

    2017-08-08

    A vane assembly (10) having: an airfoil (12) and a shroud (14) held together without metallurgical bonding there between; a channel (22) disposed circumferentially about the airfoil (12), between the airfoil (12) and the shroud (14); and a seal (20) disposed in the channel (22), wherein during operation of a turbine engine having the vane assembly (10) the seal (20) has a sufficient ductility such that a force generated on the seal (20) resulting from relative movement of the airfoil (12) and the shroud (14) is sufficient to plastically deform the seal (20).

  3. Mars containers - Dust on teflon sealing surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, H. V., Jr.; Allton, J. H.

    As part of an evaluation of suitable hermetic seals for containers for Martian rock and soil samples, teflon o-ring static face seals were challenged with silica gel, basalt, and bentonite dust in several size ranges: 20-45 microns, 45-75 microns, and 75-125 microns. Seals were most tolerant of the soft bentonite dust and least tolerant of angular silica gel dust. Small amounts of 75-125 micron size particles can be accommodated by the teflon o-ring; however, the seals do not work well if smaller particles are concentrated enough to form layers more than 1 grain thick.

  4. 28 CFR 803.3 - Use of the seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of the seal. 803.3 Section 803.3... SEAL § 803.3 Use of the seal. (a) The Agency seal is used by Agency staff for official agency business as approved by the appropriate Director or designee. (b) Use of the Agency seal by any person or...

  5. Well sealing via thermite reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, William Edward; Dunn, Sandra Dalvit

    2016-11-15

    A platform is formed in a well below a target plug zone by lowering a thermite reaction charge into the well and igniting it, whereby the products of the reaction are allowed to cool and expand to form a platform or support in the well. A main thermite reaction charge is placed above the platform and ignited to form a main sealing plug for the well. In some embodiments an upper plug is formed by igniting an upper thermite reaction charge above the main thermite reaction charge. The upper plug confines the products of ignition of the main thermite reaction charge.

  6. Surface Seal for Carbon Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuford, D. M.; Spruiell, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    Surface pores in parts made of graphite or reinforced-carbon/ carbon materials are sealed by a silicon carbide-based coating. Coating inhibits subsurface oxidation and lengthens part life. Starting material for coating is graphite felt, which is converted to silicon carbide felt by processing it according to a prescribed time/temperature schedule. Converted felt is pulverized in a ball mill and resulting powder is mixed with an equal weight of black silicon carbide powder. Powder mixture is combined with an equal weight of adhesive to form a paste.

  7. Novel Cadmium Resistance Determinant in Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Cameron; Lee, Sangmi; Jayeola, Victor; Kathariou, Sophia

    2017-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that can cause severe disease (listeriosis) in susceptible individuals. It is ubiquitous in the environment and often exhibits resistance to heavy metals. One of the determinants that enables Listeria to tolerate exposure to cadmium is the cadAC efflux system, with CadA being a P-type ATPase. Three different cadA genes (designated cadA1 to cadA3) were previously characterized in L. monocytogenes A novel putative cadmium resistance gene (cadA4) was recently identified through whole-genome sequencing, but experimental confirmation for its involvement in cadmium resistance is lacking. In this study, we characterized cadA4 in L. monocytogenes strain F8027, a cadmium-resistant strain of serotype 4b. By screening a mariner-based transposon library of this strain, we identified a mutant with reduced tolerance to cadmium and that harbored a single transposon insertion in cadA4 The tolerance to cadmium was restored by genetic complementation with the cadmium resistance cassette (cadA4C), and enhanced cadmium tolerance was conferred to two unrelated cadmium-sensitive strains via heterologous complementation with cadA4C Cadmium exposure induced cadA4 expression, even at noninhibitory levels. Virulence assessments in the Galleria mellonella model suggested that a functional cadA4 suppressed virulence, potentially promoting commensal colonization of the insect larvae. Biofilm assays suggested that cadA4 inactivation reduced biofilm formation. These data not only confirm cadA4 as a novel cadmium resistance determinant in L. monocytogenes but also provide evidence for roles in virulence and biofilm formation.IMPORTANCEListeria monocytogenes is an intracellular foodborne pathogen causing the disease listeriosis, which is responsible for numerous hospitalizations and deaths every year. Among the adaptations that enable the survival of Listeria in the environment are the abilities to persist in biofilms, grow in the cold, and tolerate

  8. Exposure to runoff from coal-tar-sealed pavement induces genotoxicity and impairment of DNA repair capacity in the RTL-W1 fish liver cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienzler, Aude; Mahler, Barbara J; Van Metre, Peter C; Schweigert, Nathalie; Devaux, Alain; Bony, Sylvie

    2015-07-01

    Coal-tar-based (CTB) sealcoat, frequently applied to parking lots and driveways in North America, contains elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and related compounds. The RTL-W1 fish liver cell line was used to investigate two endpoints (genotoxicity and DNA-repair-capacity impairment) associated with exposure to runoff from asphalt pavement with CTB sealcoat or with an asphalt-based sealcoat hypothesized to contain about 7% CTB sealcoat (AS-blend). Genotoxic potential was assessed by the Formamido pyrimidine glycosylase (Fpg)-modified comet assay for 1:10 and 1:100 dilutions of runoff samples collected from 5 h to 36 d following sealcoat application. DNA-repair capacity was assessed by the base excision repair comet assay for 1:10 dilution of samples collected 26 h and 36 d following application. Both assays were run with and without co-exposure to ultraviolet-A radiation (UVA). With co-exposure to UVA, genotoxic effects were significant for both dilutions of CTB runoff for three of four sample times, and for some samples of AS-blend runoff. Base excision repair was significantly impaired for CTB runoff both with and without UVA exposure, and for AS-blend runoff only in the absence of UVA. This study is the first to investigate the effects of exposure to the complex mixture of chemicals in coal tar on DNA repair capacity. The results indicate that co-exposure to runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement and UVA as much as a month after sealcoat application has the potential to cause genotoxicity and impair DNA repair capacity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Exposure to runoff from coal-tar-sealed pavement induces genotoxicity and impairment of DNA repair capacity in the RTL-W1 fish liver cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienzler, Aude; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Schweigert, Nathalie; Devaux, Alain; Bony, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Coal-tar-based (CTB) sealcoat, frequently applied to parking lots and driveways in North America, contains elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and related compounds. The RTL-W1 fish liver cell line was used to investigate two endpoints (genotoxicity and DNA-repair-capacity impairment) associated with exposure to runoff from asphalt pavement with CTB sealcoat or with an asphalt-based sealcoat hypothesized to contain about 7% CTB sealcoat (AS-blend). Genotoxic potential was assessed by the Formamido pyrimidine glycosylase (Fpg)-modified comet assay for 1:10 and 1:100 dilutions of runoff samples collected from 5 h to 36 d following sealcoat application. DNA-repair capacity was assessed by the base excision repair comet assay for 1:10 dilution of samples collected 26 h and 36 d following application. Both assays were run with and without co-exposure to ultraviolet-A radiation (UVA). With co-exposure to UVA, genotoxic effects were significant for both dilutions of CTB runoff for three of four sample times, and for some samples of AS-blend runoff. Base excision repair was significantly impaired for CTB runoff both with and without UVA exposure, and for AS-blend runoff only in the absence of UVA. This study is the first to investigate the effects of exposure to the complex mixture of chemicals in coal tar on DNA repair capacity. The results indicate that co-exposure to runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement and UVA as much as a month after sealcoat application has the potential to cause genotoxicity and impair DNA repair capacity.

  10. Albinistic common seals (Phoca vitulina) and melanistic grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) rehabilitated in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osinga, Nynke; 't Hart, Pieter; Vader, Pieter C. van Voorst

    2010-01-01

    The Seal Rehabilitation and Research Centre (SRRC) in Pieterburen, The Netherlands, rehabilitates seals from the waters of the Wadden Sea, North Sea and Southwest Delta area. Incidental observations of albinism and melanism in common and grey seals are known from countries surrounding the North Sea.

  11. Seals at sea: modelling seal distribution in the German bight based on aerial survey data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herr, H.; Scheidat, M.; Lehnert, K.; Siebert, U.

    2009-01-01

    The Wadden Sea is an important habitat for harbour seals and grey seals. They regularly haul-out on sandbanks and islands along the coast. Comparably little is known about the time seals spend at sea and how they use the remainder of the North Sea. Yet, human activity in offshore waters is

  12. Preferential Elimination of Older Erythrocytes in Circulation and Depressed Bone Marrow Erythropoietic Activity Contribute to Cadmium Induced Anemia in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sreoshi; Saxena, Rajiv K

    2015-01-01

    Feeding cadmium chloride (50 or 1000 ppm CdCl2 in drinking water, ad libitum) to C57BL/6 mice resulted in a significant and sustained fall in blood erythrocyte count and hemoglobin levels that started 4 and 3 weeks after the start of 50 and 1000 ppm cadmium doses respectively. A transient yet significant reticulocytosis occurred during the first 4 weeks of cadmium treatment. Using the recently developed double in vivo biotinylation (DIB) technique, turnover of erythrocyte cohorts of different age groups was simultaneously monitored in control and cadmium treated mice. A significant accumulation of younger erythrocytes and a concomitant decline in the relative proportions of older erythrocytes in circulation was observed in both 50 and 1000 ppm cadmium groups indicating that older erythrocytes were preferentially eliminated in cadmium induced anemia. A significant increase in the erythropoietin levels in plasma was seen in mice exposed to 1000 ppm cadmium. Levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL1A, IL6, TNFα, IFNγ) were however not significantly altered in cadmium treated mice. A significant increase in cellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed in older erythrocytes in circulation but not in younger erythrocytes. Erythropoietic activity in the bone marrows and spleens of cadmium treated mice was examined by monitoring the relative proportion of cells belonging to the erythroid line of differentiation in these organs. Erythroid cells in bone marrow declined markedly (about 30%) in mice in the 1000 ppm cadmium group but the decline was not significant in the 50 ppm cadmium group. Cells representing various stages of erythroid differentiation in bone marrow and spleen were enumerated flow cytometrically by double staining with anti-Ter119 and anti-transferrin receptor (CD71) monoclonal antibodies. Decline of erythroid cells was essentially confined to pro-erythroblast and erythroblast-A, along with a concurrent increase in the splenic erythroid

  13. Effect of cadmium on the bioelement composition of Nostoc UAM208: Interaction with calcium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Pinas, F.; Mateo, P.; Bonilla, I. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain)

    1997-04-01

    Heavy metals may cause effects on the cyanobacterial cell including possible damage to the membranes and leakage from cells resulting in the loss or reduction of essential bioelements. There are many reports in the literature concerning morphological, biochemical and physiological changes caused by cadmium in cyanobacteria, but data on the influence of cadmium on the ion balance of the cell dealing with the interactive effect of cadmium and calcium are limited. Calcium has been found to exert a protective role against heavy metal toxicity in a variety of organisms, We previously reported that calcium is able to counteract the toxic effect of cadmium towards growth, photosynthesis, nitrogenase activity and pigment content of the cyanobacterium Nostoc UAM208. In the present study, we analyzed the content of essential ions, as affected by cadmium treatment, to search for possible mechanisms of heavy metal damage and toxicity in Nostoc. We also studied whether calcium enrichment (1.1 mM final concentration) has any influence on the heavy metal effect on those ionic contents. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Cadmium mobility and accumulation in soils of the European Communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraters B; van Beurden AUCJ

    1993-01-01

    In this overview of the effects of cadmium pollution on agricultural soils in the European Community, both the cadmium loads on agricultural land and the soil sensitivity to cadmium accumulation have been estimated. Cadmium loads have been estimated separately for arable land and grassland. The

  15. Corkscrew Seals: Grey Seal (Halichoerus grypus Infanticide and Cannibalism May Indicate the Cause of Spiral Lacerations in Seals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Brownlow

    Full Text Available Large numbers of dead seals with characteristic spiral lesions have been washing ashore around the North Atlantic over the past two decades. Interactions with ship propellers and shark predation have been suggested as the likely causal mechanisms. However, new evidence points towards a more likely candidate: grey seal predation. An adult male grey seal was observed and recorded catching, killing and eating five weaned grey seal pups over a period of one week on the Isle of May, Scotland. A further 9 carcasses found in the same area exhibited similar injuries. Post mortem analysis of lesions indicated the wound characteristics were similar to each other and in 12 of the 14 carcasses analysed, were indistinguishable from carcasses previously attributed to propeller interaction. We therefore propose that most of the seal carcasses displaying spiral lacerations in the UK are caused by grey seal predation. Cases in other locations should be re-evaluated using the scoring system presented here to identify whether grey seal predation is a major cause of mortality in phocid seals.

  16. Corkscrew Seals: Grey Seal (Halichoerus grypus) Infanticide and Cannibalism May Indicate the Cause of Spiral Lacerations in Seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlow, Andrew; Onoufriou, Joseph; Bishop, Amanda; Davison, Nicholas; Thompson, Dave

    2016-01-01

    Large numbers of dead seals with characteristic spiral lesions have been washing ashore around the North Atlantic over the past two decades. Interactions with ship propellers and shark predation have been suggested as the likely causal mechanisms. However, new evidence points towards a more likely candidate: grey seal predation. An adult male grey seal was observed and recorded catching, killing and eating five weaned grey seal pups over a period of one week on the Isle of May, Scotland. A further 9 carcasses found in the same area exhibited similar injuries. Post mortem analysis of lesions indicated the wound characteristics were similar to each other and in 12 of the 14 carcasses analysed, were indistinguishable from carcasses previously attributed to propeller interaction. We therefore propose that most of the seal carcasses displaying spiral lacerations in the UK are caused by grey seal predation. Cases in other locations should be re-evaluated using the scoring system presented here to identify whether grey seal predation is a major cause of mortality in phocid seals.

  17. A strategy to improve the energy conversion efficiency and stability of quantum dot-sensitized solar cells using manganese-doped cadmium sulfide quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopi, Chandu V V M; Venkata-Haritha, M; Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Kim, Hee-Je

    2015-01-14

    This article describes the effect of manganese (Mn) doping in CdS to improve the photovoltaic performance of quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). The performances of the QDSSCs are examined in detail using a polysulfide electrolyte with a copper sulfide (CuS) counter electrode. Under the illumination of one sun (AM 1.5 G, 100 mW cm(-2)), 10 molar% Mn-doped CdS QDSSCs exhibit a power conversion efficiency (η) of 2.85%, which is higher than the value of 2.11% obtained with bare CdS. The improved photovoltaic performance is due to the impurities from Mn(2+) doping of CdS, which have an impact on the structure of the host material and decrease the surface roughness. The surface roughness and morphology of Mn-doped CdS nanoparticles can be characterised from atomic force microscopy images. Furthermore, the cell device based on the Mn-CdS electrode shows superior stability in the sulfide/polysulfide electrolyte in a working state for over 10 h, resulting in a highly reproducible performance, which is a serious challenge for the Mn-doped solar cell. Our finding provides an effective method for the fabrication of Mn-doped CdS QDs, which can pave the way to further improve the efficiency of future QDSSCs.

  18. A membrane electrode assembled photoelectrochemical cell with a solar-responsive cadmium sulfide-zinc sulfide-titanium dioxide/mesoporous silica photoanode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Chen, Rong; Zhu, Xun; Liao, Qiang; An, Liang; Ye, Dingding; Zhou, Yuan; He, Xuefeng; Zhang, Wei

    2017-12-01

    In this work, a membrane electrode assembled photoelectrochemical cell (PEC) is developed for the electricity generation by degrading the organic compounds. The photocatalyst is prepared by the incorporation of mesoporous silica SBA-15 into TiO2 and the photosensitization of CdS-ZnS to enhance the photoanode performance, while the cathode employs the air-breathing mode to enhance the oxygen transport. The experimental results show that the developed PEC exhibits good photoresponse to the illumination and the appropriate SBA-15 mass ratio in the photoanode enables the enhancement of the performance. It is also shown that the developed PEC yields better performance in the alkaline environment than that in the neutral environment. Increasing the KOH concentration can improve the cell performance. There exist optimal liquid flow rate and organics concentration leading to the best performance. Besides, it is found that increasing the light intensity can generate more electron-hole pairs and thus enhance the cell performance. These results are helpful for optimizing the design.

  19. Aloe Vera Extract Effect on Sperm Quality and Testicular Tissue of Rats Induced by Cadmium Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Farhangdoost

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: A lot of physical and chemical factors cause infertility disorders. Cadmium is a chemical agent which damages the cell structure of the reproductive system. For reducing the effects of various factors, new traditional methods have been used. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Aloe vera extract on testicular tissue of rats induced by cadmium chloride. Methods: In this experimental study, 40 male Wistar rats (180-200 gr were randomly divided into four groups. Groups 1 and 2 received Cadmium chloride (1/5 mg / kg/ IP. Mice induced by cadmium chloride were treated with Aloe vera. Control and normal rats were treated with 400 mg/kg of Aloe vera extracts. After 25 days, these rats were weighed and then anesthetized using ether. Blood samples were collected from each individual to assess the level of testosterone and then the animals were debriefed. The testes were removed and transferred to 10% formalin solution. After tissue processing, 5 micron sections were prepared and stained with heamatoxillin-eosin and investigated by light microscope. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA test. Results: Mean seminiferous tubular diameter, number of spermatogonia, Leydig and Sertoli cell of cadmium control group compared to the healthy control group showed a significant decrease (p<0.05. The mean sperm count and sperm motility in extract cadmium group and healthy control group was close to normal and displayed a significant difference (p< 0.05. Conclusion: Hydroalcoholic extract of Aloe vera increases the number of spermatogonia, Leydig and Sertoli testicular tissue of mice contaminated with cadmium chloride

  20. Protective role of metallothionein during regeneration in Eisenia andrei exposed to cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorat, Agnieszka; Vandenbulcke, Franck; Gałuszka, Adrianna; Klimek, Beata; Plytycz, Barbara

    2017-12-01

    Lumbricid earthworms are often exposed to simultaneous action of various environmental stressors like soil contamination, temperature fluctuation or predators' attacks, which may induce extrusion of coelomocyte-containing coelomic fluid or loss of tail segments. If the injuries are not lethal, renewal of the immune-competent cells and soluble components of coelomic fluid and/or the regeneration of tail segments occurs. The aim of our investigations was to test the hypothesis that exposure of adult earthworms Eisenia andrei to cadmium-polluted soil at room temperature (RT) and/or low temperature (6°C) have adverse effects on restoration of experimentally depleted coelomocytes or on regeneration of amputated posterior segments. Intact control earthworms and their experimental counterparts subjected to electrostimulation-induced coelomocyte depletion or surgical amputation of posterior segments were maintained either in control soil or in soil spiked with cadmium chloride (500mg/kg air-dried soil) at RT or 6°C. Four weeks after the beginning of experiments, cadmium accumulation in earthworm bodies was significantly lower at 6°C than at room temperature. The numbers of restored cells and fluorophore contents were hardly affected by temperature or cadmium. However, cocoon production was reduced by cadmium and completely abolished at 6°C and regeneration of amputated posterior segments was inhibited in cold but was enhanced by cadmium exposure at RT. Independently on the temperature, the 4-week cadmium exposure of adult earthworms was connected with significantly upregulated expression of Cd-metallothionein (but not of catalase, lysenin and phytochelatin) in coelomocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Rodent Control: Seal Up! Trap Up! Clean Up!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... successfully trapping rodents in and around the home. Seal Up! Seal up holes inside and outside the home to ... infested areas. Before cleaning, trap the rodents and seal up any entryways to ensure that no rodents ...

  2. Performance oriented guidance for Mississippi chip seals - volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    A five year laboratory study was conducted to investigate near surface properties of flexible pavements in relation to : how they are affected by bituminous surface treatments. Chip seals and scrub seals (a specialized type of chip seal) : were the f...

  3. Polycrystalline thin-film cadmium telluride solar cells fabricated by electrodeposition. Annual subcontract report, 20 March 1992--19 March 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trefny, J.U.; Furtak, T.E.; Wada, N.; Williamson, D.L.; Kim, D. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (US)

    1993-08-01

    This report describes progress during the first year of a 3-year program at Colorado School of Mines, based upon earlier studies performed by Ametek Corporation, to develop specific layers of the Ametek n-i-p structure as well as additional studies of several transparent conducting oxides. Thin films of ZnO and ZnO:Al were deposited under various conditions. For the n-layer of the Ametek structure, a dip-coating method was developed for the deposition of CdS films. The authors also present data on the characterization of these films by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering, and other techniques. They made progress in the electrodeposition of the CdTe i-layer of the Ametek structure. They developed appropriate electrochemical baths and are beginning to understand the role of the many experimental parameters that must be controlled to obtain high-quality films of this material. They explored the possibility of using an electrochemical process for fabricating the ZnTe p-layer. Some preliminary success was achieved, and this step will be pursued in the next phase. Finally, they fabricated a number of ``dot`` solar cells with the structure glass/SnO{sub 2}/CdS/CdTe/Au. Several cells with efficiencies in the range of 5%-6% were obtained, and they are confident, given recent progress, that cells with efficiencies in excess of 10% will be achieved in the near future.

  4. Cadmium, lead, and arsenic contamination in paddy soils of a mining area and their exposure effects on human HEPG2 and keratinocyte cell-lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shengguo; Shi, Lizheng; Wu, Chuan; Wu, Hui; Qin, Yanyan; Pan, Weisong; Hartley, William; Cui, Mengqian

    2017-07-01

    A mining district in south China shows significant metal(loid) contamination in paddy fields. In the soils, average Pb, Cd and As concentrations were 460.1, 11.7 and 35.1mgkg-1 respectively, which were higher than the environmental quality standard for agricultural soils in China (GB15618-1995) and UK Clea Soil Guideline Value. The average contents of Pb, Cd and As in rice were 5.24, 1.1 and 0.7mgkg-1 respectively, which were about 25, 4.5 or 2.5 times greater than the limit values of the maximum safe contaminant concentration standard in food of China (GB 2762-2012), and about 25, 10 or 1 times greater than the limit values of FAO/WHO standard. The elevated contents of Pb, Cd and As detected in soils around the factories, indicated that their spatial distribution was influenced by anthropogenic activity, while greater concentrations of Cd in rice appeared in the northwest region of the factories, indicating that the spatial distribution of heavy metals was also affected by natural factors. As human exposure around mining districts is mainly through oral intake of food and dermal contact, the effects of these metals on the viability and MT protein of HepG2 and KERTr cells were investigated. The cell viability decreased with increasing metal concentrations. Co-exposure to heavy metals (Pb+Cd) increased the metals (Pb or Cd)-mediated MT protein induction in both human HepG2 and KERTr cells. Increased levels of MT protein will lead to greater risk of carcinogenic manifestations, and it is likely that chronic exposure to metals may increase the risk to human health. Nevertheless, when co-exposure to two or more metals occur (such as As+Pb), they may have an antagonistic effect thus reducing the toxic effects of each other. Metal contaminations in paddy soils and rice were influenced by anthropogenic activity; metal co-exposure induced MT protein in human cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. High-Efficiency Thin-Film Cadmium Telluride Photovoltaic Cells; Final Subcontract Report, Final Technical Report, 21 January 1994-31 March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compaan, A. D.; Bohn, R. G.

    1998-12-09

    This report describes work performed during the past year by The University of Toledo photovoltaics group. Researchers continued to develop rf sputtering for CdS/CdTe thin-film solar cells and to optimize the post-deposition process steps to match the characteristics of the sputtering process. During the fourth phase of the present contract, we focused on determining factors that limit the efficiency in our ''all-sputtered'' thin-film CdTe solar cells on soda-lime glass. These issues include controlling CdS/CdTe interdiffusion, understanding the properties of the CdS{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} alloy, optimizing process conditions for CdCl{sub 2} treatments, manipulating the influence of ion bombardment during rf sputtering, and understanding the role of copper in quenching photoluminescence and carrier lifetimes in CdTe. To better understand the important CdS/CdTe interdiffusion process, we have continued our collaboration with the University at Buffalo and Brookhaven National Synchrotron Light Source in measurements using grazing-incidence X-rays. Interdiffusion results in the formation of the ternary alloy material CdS{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} at or near the heterojunction, where its properties are critical to the operation of the solar cell. We have placed significant effort on characterizing this alloy, an effort begun in the last phase. A complete set of films spanning the alloy range, prepared by pulsed-laser deposition, has now been characterized by wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and optical absorption at NREL; by Raman scattering, X-ray diffraction, and electrical measurements in our lab; and by spectroscopic ellipsometry at Brooklyn College. We continued to participate in cooperative activity with the CdTe National Team. We prepared a series of depositions on borosilicate glass substrates having doped SnO{sub 2} layers coated with TiO{sub 2} (prepared by the University of South Florida and Harvard) and similar substrates having a resistive Sn

  6. Damping device for a stationary labyrinth seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Aini, Yehia M. (Inventor); Mitchell, William S. (Inventor); Roberts, Lawrence P. (Inventor); Montgomery, Stuart K. (Inventor); Davis, Gary A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A stationary labyrinth seal system includes a seal housing having an annular cavity, a plurality of damping devices, and a retaining ring. The damping devices are positioned within the annular cavity and are maintained within the annular cavity by the retaining ring.

  7. Heat and Pressure Seal for Doors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    Proposed tubular gasket for doors performs dual function: seals in pressure, and seals out heat. Composed of quartz fabric filled with alumina matting, gasket is bonded with room-temperature-vulcanizing material to periphery of door. When door is closed, gasket is compressed like O-ring: fills gap between door and frame; and prevents leakage of air and heat.

  8. Space Environment's Effects on Seal Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    deGroh, Henry C., III; Daniels, Christopher C.; Dunlap, Patrick; Miller, Sharon; Dever, Joyce; Waters, Deborah; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2007-01-01

    A Low Impact Docking System (LIDS) is being developed by the NASA Johnson Space Center to support future missions of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). The LIDS is androgynous, such that each system half is identical, thus any two vehicles or modules with LIDS can be coupled. Since each system half is a replica, the main interface seals must seal against each other instead of a conventional flat metal surface. These sealing surfaces are also expected to be exposed to the space environment when vehicles are not docked. The NASA Glenn Research Center (NASA GRC) is supporting this project by developing the main interface seals for the LIDS and determining the durability of candidate seal materials in the space environment. In space, the seals will be exposed to temperatures of between 50 to 50 C, vacuum, atomic oxygen, particle and ultraviolet radiation, and micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD). NASA GRC is presently engaged in determining the effects of these environments on our candidate elastomers. Since silicone rubber is the only class of seal elastomer that functions across the expected temperature range, NASA GRC is focusing on three silicone elastomers: two provided by Parker Hannifin (S0-899-50 and S0-383-70) and one from Esterline Kirkhill (ELA-SA-401). Our results from compression set, elastomer to elastomer adhesion, and seal leakage tests before and after various simulated space exposures will be presented.

  9. Sealing a Loosely Fitting Valve Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, L.; Tellier, G.

    1986-01-01

    Double-ring seal avoids expense of remachining or redesigning valve parts. Mating fittings on valve sealed by pair of rings - one O-ring and backup ring. Backup ring fills relatively large gap between parts. Prevents softer O-ring from being pushed into and through gap.

  10. Sealing Occlusal Dentin Caries in Permanent Molars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Vibeke; Borum, Mette Kit; Møller, Kirsten Dynes

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of postponing restorative intervention of manifest occlusal caries in young, permanent dentition by non-invasive sealing. This RCT-designed study included 521 occlusal lesions in 521 patients aged 6 to 17 y. Based on clinical and radiog......The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of postponing restorative intervention of manifest occlusal caries in young, permanent dentition by non-invasive sealing. This RCT-designed study included 521 occlusal lesions in 521 patients aged 6 to 17 y. Based on clinical...... longevity of sealings and restorations until retreatments, and 3) compare effectiveness of sealings and restorations to halt caries progression in sealed lesions and beneath restorations. Furthermore, we aimed to identify factors influencing longevity and the effectiveness of sealings and restorations.......001). The median survival time for sealings not replaced by restorations was 7.3 y (CI, 6.4 y to NA). Survival of sealings was increased in patients with low caries risk and/or excellent oral hygiene, second molars compared with first molars, and lesions not extending the middle one-third of the dentin. Survival...

  11. Performance evaluation of chip seals in Idaho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    The intent of this research project is to identify a wide variety of parameters that influence the performance of pavements treated via chip seals within the State of Idaho. Chip sealing is currently one of the most popular methods of maintenance for...

  12. Population structure of ice-breeding seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Corey S; Stirling, Ian; Strobeck, Curtis; Coltman, David W

    2008-07-01

    The development of population genetic structure in ice-breeding seal species is likely to be shaped by a combination of breeding habitat and life-history characteristics. Species that return to breed on predictable fast-ice locations are more likely to exhibit natal fidelity than pack-ice-breeding species, which in turn facilitates the development of genetic differentiation between subpopulations. Other aspects of life history such as geographically distinct vocalizations, female gregariousness, and the potential for polygynous breeding may also facilitate population structure. Based on these factors, we predicted that fast-ice-breeding seal species (the Weddell and ringed seal) would show elevated genetic differentiation compared to pack-ice-breeding species (the leopard, Ross, crabeater and bearded seals). We tested this prediction using microsatellite analysis to examine population structure of these six ice-breeding species. Our results did not support this prediction. While none of the Antarctic pack-ice species showed statistically significant population structure, the bearded seal of the Arctic pack ice showed strong differentiation between subpopulations. Again in contrast, the fast-ice-breeding Weddell seal of the Antarctic showed clear evidence for genetic differentiation while the ringed seal, breeding in similar habitat in the Arctic, did not. These results suggest that the development of population structure in ice-breeding phocid seals is a more complex outcome of the interplay of phylogenetic and ecological factors than can be predicted on the basis of breeding substrate and life-history characteristics.

  13. Earlier pupping in harbour seals, Phoca vitulina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, P.J.H.; Brasseur, S.M.J.M.; Meesters, H.W.G.

    2010-01-01

    The annual reproductive cycle of most seal species is characterized by a tight synchrony of births. Typically, timing of birth shows little inter-annual variation. Here, however we show that harbour seals Phoca vitulina from the Wadden Sea (southeast North Sea) have shortened their yearly cycle,

  14. 19 CFR 101.7 - Customs seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customs seal. 101.7 Section 101.7 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL PROVISIONS § 101.7 Customs seal. (a) Design. According to the design furnished by the Department...

  15. Quantitative differences in the pineal ultrastructure of perinatal and adult harp (Phoca groenlandica) and hooded seals (Cystophora cristata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarseth, Jo Jorem; Stokkan, Karl-Arne

    2003-10-01

    Seals are unique among mammals in that newborns have a large pineal gland and extremely high plasma levels of melatonin at birth. Melatonin levels are also high in the seal fetus but decline rapidly during the first few days of life. The aim of the present study was to provide quantitative information about the ultrastructure of the seal pineal gland using fetal, newborn, and adult hooded seals (Cystophora cristata), and newborn and adult harp seals (Phoca groenlandica). The relative and absolute volumes of pinealocytes (Pi), arteries and veins, nerves, connective tissue, capillaries and glial cells, as well as mitocondria and lipid droplets in Pi, were calculated by use of point count analysis. Whereas the pineal ultrastructure was similar in fetuses and newborns, both seal species showed a pronounced and particular reduction in the volume of Pi and a similar reduction in pinealocyte mitochondria. There was also a shift from unmyelinated to myelinated pineal nerves in adults compared with fetal/newborns. The selective and marked reduction of Pi may explain the zonated pineal structure typical of the adult seal. The results demonstrate that the fetal gland is as large and active as that of the newborn seal and support the notion that the large size and high activity of the pineal gland in the newborn seal is a fading consequence of its prenatal condition.

  16. Seroprevalence of Antibodies against Seal Influenza A(H10N7) Virus in Harbor Seals and Gray Seals from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Bodewes (Rogier); A.R. García (Ana Rubio); S.M. Brasseur (Sophie M.); G.J.S. Conteras (Guillermo J. Sanchez); M.W.G. van de Bildt (Marco); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); T. Kuiken (Thijs)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIn the spring and summer 2014, an outbreak of seal influenza A(H10N7) virus infection occurred among harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) off the coasts of Sweden and Denmark. This virus subsequently spread to harbor seals off the coasts of Germany and the Netherlands. While thousands of seals

  17. Seroprevalence of Antibodies against Seal Influenza A(H10N7) Virus in Harbor Seals and Gray Seals from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodewes, Rogier; Garcia, Ana Rubio; Brasseur, Sophie M.; Conteras, Guillermo J.S.; De Bildt, Van Marco W.G.; Koopmans, Marion P.G.; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E.; Kuiken, Thijs

    2015-01-01

    In the spring and summer 2014, an outbreak of seal influenza A(H10N7) virus infection occurred among harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) off the coasts of Sweden and Denmark. This virus subsequently spread to harbor seals off the coasts of Germany and the Netherlands. While thousands of seals were

  18. Seroprevalence of Antibodies against Seal Influenza A(H10N7) Virus in Harbor Seals and Gray Seals from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodewes, Rogier|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/33230583X; Rubio García, Ana; Brasseur, Sophie M; Sanchez Conteras, Guillermo J; van de Bildt, Marco W G; Koopmans, Marion P G; Osterhaus, Albert D M E|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074960172; Kuiken, Thijs

    2015-01-01

    In the spring and summer 2014, an outbreak of seal influenza A(H10N7) virus infection occurred among harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) off the coasts of Sweden and Denmark. This virus subsequently spread to harbor seals off the coasts of Germany and the Netherlands. While thousands of seals were

  19. Active Infrared Thermography for Seal Contamination Detection in Heat-Sealed Food Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlien D’huys

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Packaging protects food products from environmental influences, assuring quality and safety throughout shelf life if properly performed. Packaging quality depends on the quality of the packaging material and of the closure or seal. A common problem possibly jeopardizing seal quality is the presence of seal contamination, which can cause a decreased seal strength, an increased packaging failure risk and leak formation. Therefore, early detection and removal of seal contaminated packages from the production chain is crucial. In this work, a pulsed-type active thermography method using the heated seal bars as an excitation source was studied for detecting seal contamination. Thermal image sequences of contaminated seals were recorded shortly after sealing. The detection performances of six thermal image processing methods, based on a single frame, a fit of the cooling profiles, thermal signal reconstruction, pulsed phase thermography, principal component thermography and a matched filter, were compared. High resolution digital images served as a reference to quantify seal contamination, and processed thermal images were mapped to these references. The lowest detection limit (equivalent diameter 0.60 mm was obtained for the method based on a fit of the cooling profiles. Moreover, the detection performance of this method did not depend strongly on the time after sealing at which recording of the thermal images was started, making it a robust and generally applicable method.

  20. Effects of sonic booms on breeding gray seals and harbor seals on Sable Island, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Elizabeth A; Boness, Daryl J; Insley, Stephen J

    2002-01-01

    The Concorde produces audible sonic booms as it passes 15 km north of Sable Island, Nova Scotia, where gray and harbor seals occur year round. The purpose of this research was to assess how sonic booms affect these seals. The intensity of the booms was measured and three types of data (beach counts, frequency of behavior, and heart rate) were collected before and after booms during the breeding seasons of the two species. In addition to the data taken during breeding, beach counts were made before and after booms during the gray seal moult. The greatest range in overpressure within a single boom was 2.70 psf during gray seal breeding and 2.07 psf during harbor seal breeding. No significant differences were found in the behavior or beach counts of gray seals following sonic booms, regardless of the season. Beach counts and most behaviors of harbor seals also did not differ significantly following booms, however, harbor seals became more vigilant. The heart rates of four gray seal mothers and three pups showed no clear change as a result of booms, but six male harbor seals showed a nonsignificant tendency toward elevated heart rates during the 15-s interval of the boom. These results suggest sonic booms produced by the Concorde, in level flight at altitude and producing on average a sonic boom of 0.9 psf, do not substantially affect the breeding behavior of gray or harbor seals.