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Sample records for cadmium copper zinc

  1. Interactions of cadmium with copper, zinc, and iron in different organs and tissues of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julshamn, K.; Utne, F.; Brackkan, O.R.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of cadmium on tissue concentrations of iron, zinc and copper was studied in male rats. Two littermate groups were fed a stock diet with or without a supplement of 100 ..mu..g cadmium per g. Every three weeks ten animals from each group were sampled and the liver, kidneys, heart, lungs, spleen, testes, muscle, fur, feces and urine were individually analyzed. Except for the fur, all the other organs showed highly significantly increased levels of cadmium when compared with the control group. The iron levels were significantly depressed in all organs. As the content in the feces remained unchanged and the urinary excretion showed an increase, it could be concluded that the cadmium supplementation resulted in a depletion of the body stores of iron. The zinc levels showed a significant increase in the liver and testes and a correspondingly significant decrease in the spleen. The levels of copper generally showed no significant changes.

  2. Bile secretion of cadmium, silver, zinc and copper in the rat. Involvement of various transport systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, R; Vonk, RJ; Kuipers, F

    1996-01-01

    In the present study we compared, in vivo in rats, the hepatobiliary transport of monovalent (silver:Ag) and divalent metals (zinc:Zn; cadmium:Cd) with that of copper (Cu). Cu can have two oxidation states in vivo, i.e. Cu(I) and Cu(II). Studies were performed in normal Wistar (NW) rats and mutant

  3. Gastrointestinal and in vitro release of copper, cadmium, indium, mercury and zinc from conventional and copper-rich amalgams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brune, D.; Gjerdet, N.; Paulsen, G.

    1983-01-01

    Particles of a conventional lathe-cut, a spherical non-gamma 2 and a copper amalgam have been gastrointestinally administered to rats for the purpose of evaluation of the dissolution resistance. The animals were sacrificed after 20 hrs. The contents of copper, cadmium, indium, mercury and zinc in kidney, liver, lung or blood were measured using nuclear tracer techniques. From a copper amalgam an extreme release of copper was demonstrated. This study simulates the clinical conditions of elemental release from swallowed amalgam particles after amalgam insertion or after removal of old amalgam fillings. Specimens of the same types of amalgams were also exposed to artificial saliva for a period of 10 days. The amounts of copper and mercury released were measured with flame and flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry respectively. The levels of copper and mercury released from the copper amalgam were approximately 50 times those of the two other amalgam types studied. (author)

  4. Copper changes the yield and cadmium/zinc accumulation and cellular distribution in the cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhu [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu, Longhua, E-mail: lhwu@issas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Hu, Pengjie [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Luo, Yongming [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Yantai 264003 (China); Christie, Peter [Agri-Environment Branch, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Newforge Lane, Belfast BT9 5PX (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Low Cu has no significant effect on Sedum plumbizincicola plant growth and Cd and Zn uptake. • Plant held Cu in unactive areas and insoluble forms as de-toxification mechanisms. • Influence of Cu on Zn and Cd uptake and translocation were different. • Cu accumulation in leaf veins may restrain Cd/Zn unloading to the leaves -- Abstract: Non-accumulated metals in mixed metal contaminated soils may affect hyperaccumulator growth and metal accumulation and thus remediation efficiency. Two hydroponics experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of copper (Cu) on cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) accumulation by the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola, Cu toxicity and plant detoxification using chemical sequential extraction of metals, sub-cellular separation, micro synchrotron radiation based X-ray fluorescence, and transmission electron microscopy. Compared with the control (0.31 μM Cu), 5–50 μM Cu had no significant effect on Cd/Zn accumulation, but Cu at 200 μM induced root cell plasmolysis and disordered chloroplast structure. The plants held Cu in the roots and cell walls and complexed Cu in insoluble forms as their main detoxification mechanisms. Exposure to 200 μM Cu for 4 days inhibited plant Cd uptake and translocation but did not affect Zn concentrations in roots and stems. Moreover, unloading of Cd and Zn from stem to leaf was restrained compared to control plants, perhaps due to Cu accumulation in leaf veins. Copper may thus interfere with root Cd uptake and restrain Cd/Zn unloading to the leaves. Further investigation of how Cu affects plant metal uptake may help elucidate the Cd/Zn hyper-accumulating mechanisms of S. plumbizincicola.

  5. Copper changes the yield and cadmium/zinc accumulation and cellular distribution in the cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhu; Wu, Longhua; Hu, Pengjie; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Low Cu has no significant effect on Sedum plumbizincicola plant growth and Cd and Zn uptake. • Plant held Cu in unactive areas and insoluble forms as de-toxification mechanisms. • Influence of Cu on Zn and Cd uptake and translocation were different. • Cu accumulation in leaf veins may restrain Cd/Zn unloading to the leaves -- Abstract: Non-accumulated metals in mixed metal contaminated soils may affect hyperaccumulator growth and metal accumulation and thus remediation efficiency. Two hydroponics experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of copper (Cu) on cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) accumulation by the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola, Cu toxicity and plant detoxification using chemical sequential extraction of metals, sub-cellular separation, micro synchrotron radiation based X-ray fluorescence, and transmission electron microscopy. Compared with the control (0.31 μM Cu), 5–50 μM Cu had no significant effect on Cd/Zn accumulation, but Cu at 200 μM induced root cell plasmolysis and disordered chloroplast structure. The plants held Cu in the roots and cell walls and complexed Cu in insoluble forms as their main detoxification mechanisms. Exposure to 200 μM Cu for 4 days inhibited plant Cd uptake and translocation but did not affect Zn concentrations in roots and stems. Moreover, unloading of Cd and Zn from stem to leaf was restrained compared to control plants, perhaps due to Cu accumulation in leaf veins. Copper may thus interfere with root Cd uptake and restrain Cd/Zn unloading to the leaves. Further investigation of how Cu affects plant metal uptake may help elucidate the Cd/Zn hyper-accumulating mechanisms of S. plumbizincicola

  6. Cadmium, zinc, copper, sodium and potassium concentrations in rooster and turkey semen and their correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massanyi, Peter; Weis, Jan; Lukac, Norbert; Trandzik, Jozef; Bystricka, Judita

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess concentration of selected elements (cadmium, zinc, copper, sodium and potassium) in rooster and turkey semen and to find possible correlations between these elements. Samples were analyzed on the atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The analysis of cadmium showed that the concentration in rooster is 9.06 +/- 7.70 and in turkey 4.10 +/- 3.59 microg/mL. In zinc 5.25 +/- 1.96 microg/mL in rooster and 3.70 +/- 1.26 microg/mL in turkey were detected. Higher concentration of copper was found in rooster semen (6.79 +/- 6.42 microg/mL) in comparison with turkey semen (4.29 +/- 5.43 microg/mL). The level of sodium (3.96 +/- 1.02 microg/mL; 3.14 +/- 0.85 microg/mL) and potassium (2.88 +/- 0.65 microg/mL; 3.42 +/- 1.41 microg/mL) was very similar in both species. Correlation analysis detected high positive correlation between cadmium and zinc (r = 0.701) in rooster and between sodium and potassium (r = 0.899) in turkey semen.

  7. Interaction of copper, magnesium, zinc, cadmium and lead formiates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyunner, Eh.A.; Mel'nichenko, L.M.; Yakhkind, N.D.; Vel'mozhnyj, I.S.; Katseva, G.N.

    1979-01-01

    Measurements of the residual concentrations of the interacting ions and refraction index of liquid phases were useful in determining the precipitate composition in the system MA 2 -NaOH-H 2 O(A - -HCOO - ; M 2+ -Cu 2+ , Mg 2+ , Zn 2+ , Cd 2+ , Pb 2+ ). It is shown that in the system CdA 2 -NaOH-H 2 O containing as high as 40 mole% of NaOH the precipitate composition is approximately constant and corresponds to hydroxoformiate Cd(OH)A which is formed by the equation Cd 2+ +OH - +A - =Cd(OH)A. Further increase in the NaOH content leads to the formation of varying-composition precipitates and, at a NaOH content >=66.6 mole%, - to cadmium hydroxide

  8. Factors that Affect the Content of Cadmium, Nickel, Copper and Zinc in Tissues of the Knee Joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roczniak, Wojciech; Brodziak-Dopierała, Barbara; Cipora, Elżbieta; Jakóbik-Kolon, Agata; Kluczka, Joanna; Babuśka-Roczniak, Magdalena

    2017-08-01

    Osteoarthritis causes the degradation of the articular cartilage and periarticular bones. Trace elements influence the growth, development and condition of the bone tissue. Changes to the mineral composition of the bone tissue can cause degenerative changes and fractures. The aim of the research was to determine the content of cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in the tibia, the femur and the meniscus in men and women who underwent a knee replacement surgery. Samples were collected from 50 patients, including 36 women and 14 men. The determination of trace elements content were performed by ICP-AES method, using Varian 710-ES. Average concentration in the tissues of the knee joint teeth amounted for cadmium 0.015, nickel 0.60, copper 0.89 and zinc 80.81 mg/kg wet weight. There were statistically significant differences in the content of cadmium, copper and zinc in different parts of the knee joint. There were no statistically significant differences in the content of cadmium, nickel, copper and zinc in women and men in the examined parts of the knee joint. Among the elements tested, copper and nickel showed a high content in the connective tissue (the meniscus) compared to the bone tissue (the tibia and the femur).

  9. Copper, zinc, and cadmium in various fractions of soil and fungi in a Swedish forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinichuk, Mykhailo M

    2013-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi profoundly affect forest ecosystems through mediating nutrient uptake and maintaining forest food webs. The accumulation of metals in each transfer step from bulk soil to fungal sporocarps is not well known. The accumulation of three metals copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) in bulk soil, rhizosphere, soil-root interface, fungal mycelium and sporocarps of mycorrhizal fungi in a Swedish forest were compared. Concentrations of all three metals increased in the order: bulk soil soil-root interface (or rhizosphere) soil and sporocarps occurred against a concentration gradient. In fungal mycelium, the concentration of all three metals was about three times higher than in bulk soil, and the concentration in sporocarps was about two times higher than in mycelium. In terms of accumulation, fungi (mycelium and sporocarps) preferred Cd to Zn and Cu. Zinc concentration in sporocarps and to a lesser extent in mycelium depended on the concentration in soil, whereas, the uptake of Cu and Cd by both sporocarps and mycelium did not correlate with metal concentration in soil. Heavy metal accumulation within the fungal mycelium biomass in the top forest soil layer (0-5 cm) might account for ca. 5-9% of the total amount of Cu, 5-11% of Zn, and 16-32% of Cd. As the uptake of zinc and copper by fungi may be balanced, this implied similarities in the uptake mechanism.

  10. 113Cd-NMR investigation of a cadmium-substituted copper, zinc-containing superoxide dismutase from yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Pauli; Bauer, Rogert; Danielsen, Eva

    1991-01-01

    113Cd nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used to investigate the metal binding sites of cadmium-substituted copper,zinc-containing superoxide dismutase from baker's yeast. NMR signals were obtained for 113Cd(II) at the Cu site as well as for 113Cd(II) at the Zn site. The two subunits...

  11. Simultaneous Measurement of Zinc, Copper, Lead and Cadmium in Baby Weaning Food and Powder Milk by DPASV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Naficeh; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Jannat, Behrooz; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Behfar, Abdolazim; Behzad, Masoomeh; Norouzi, Narges; Oveisi, Morvarid; Jannat, Behzad

    2014-01-01

    Apart from the breast milk, infant formula and baby weaning food have a special role in infant diet. Infants and young children are very susceptible to amount of trace elements. Copper and zinc are two elements that add in infant food. Lead and cadmium are heavy metals that enter to food chain unavoidably. DPASV is a benefit and applicable method for measurement of trace elements in food products. In this study, concentration of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in four brands of baby food (rice and wheat based) and powder milk was analyzed with DPASV and polarograph set. Total Mean ± SE of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in baby foods (n = 240) were 11.86 ± 1.474 mg/100g, 508.197 ± 83.154 μg/100g, 0.445 ± 0.006, 0.050 ± 0.005 mg/Kg respectively. Also these amount in powder milk (n = 240) were 3.621± 0.529 mg/100g, 403.822 ± 133.953 μg/100g, 0.007 ± 0.003, 0.060 ± 0.040 mg/Kg respectively. Zinc level in baby food type I was higher than lablled value (P = 0.030), but in other brands was not difference. Concentration of copper in all of samples was in labeled range (P > 0.05). In each four products, level of lead and cadmium were lower than the standard limit (P < 0.05). Amount of zinc and lead in baby food I, had difference versus other products. Concentration of zinc, camium in baby food type I, was higher than type II (P = 0.043, 0.001 respectively). Concentration of lead and cadmium in baby food type II, was higher than infant formulas, but are in standard limit.

  12. Removal of Cadmium, Zinc, Lead and Copper by Sorption on Leaching Residue from Nickel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Václavíková

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A leaching resudue from the nickel production (LRNi, was used to study the removal of selected bivalent cations (Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn from model aqueous solutions. Batch-type experiments have been performed in solutions with initial concentrations of heavy metals in the range of 20-400 mg.L-1 and the adsorbent dosage 2 g.L-1. All adsorption experiments were carried out at ambient temperature (22+1°C in orbital shaker. The experimental data were modeled with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The relatively high uptake indicated that LRNi can adsorb considerable amounts of cadmium and zinc (maximum uptake capacity for cadmium: 25 mg/g at pH 7.2 and ca. 40 mg/g for zinc at pH 7. A significant uptake was also observed for copper and lead at pH 5.8 and 6 respectively, which was attributed to the precipitation of the respective insoluble hydroxides.

  13. Luminescence properties of copper(I), zinc(II) and cadmium(II) coordination compounds with picoline ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Małecki, Jan Grzegorz, E-mail: gmalecki@us.edu.pl; Maroń, Anna

    2017-06-15

    Mononuclear coordination compounds of copper(I) – [Cu(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}(picoline)(NO{sub 3})], zinc(II) – [ZnCl{sub 2}(picoline){sub 2}] (picoline=3– and 4–methylpyridine) and polymeric cadmium(II) – [CdCl{sub 2}(β-picoline){sub 2}]{sub n} were prepared and their luminescence properties in solid state and acetonitrile solutions were determined. Single crystal X-ray crystallography revealed distorted tetrahedral geometry around the central ions of the compounds. The compounds exhibit green photoluminescence in solid state and in acetonitrile solutions. The emission of copper(I) compounds originated from metal-to-ligand charge transfer state combined with nitrato-to-picoline charge transfer state i.e. ({sup 1}(M+X)LCT). The presence of nitrato ligand in the coordination sphere of copper(I) compounds quenches the emission. Luminescence of zinc(II) and cadmium(II) compounds results from chloride-to-picoline charge transfer state and the quantum efficiency in the case of the polymeric Cd(II) compound reaches 39%. The photoluminescence quantum yields of the mononuclear zinc(II) compounds vary from 10 to 16% depending on the conditions (solid state, solution). - Graphical abstract: Coordination compounds of copper(I), zinc(II) and polymeric cadmium(II) with picoline ligands were prepared and their luminescence properties in solid state and acetonitrile solutions were determined. The compounds exhibit green photoluminescence in solid state and in acetonitrile solutions. Emission of copper(I) compounds originated from {sup 1}(M+X)LCT state. Luminescence of zinc(II) and cadmium(II) compounds results from chloride-to-picoline charge transfer state and the quantum efficiency in the case of the polymeric Cd(II) compound reaches 39%. The photoluminescence quantum yields of the mononuclear zinc(II) compounds vary from 10 to 16% depending on the conditions (solid state, solution).

  14. Assessment of copper, cadmium and zinc remobilization in Mediterranean marine coastal sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellari, Aikaterini; Plavšić, Marta; Karavoltsos, Sotiris; Dassenakis, Manos; Scoullos, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The remobilization of copper, cadmium and zinc in sediments of three selected coastal microenvironments of the Aegean Sea (Eastern Mediterranean) is assessed. Various analytical methods and techniques were employed providing concentrations, profiles and forms of metals and organic matter in sediments and pore waters. At Loutropyrgos, a non-industrial site located, however, within an intensively industrialized enclosed gulf, an intense resupply of zinc in pore water from sediment was recorded, correlating with the highest value of weakly bound fraction of zinc determined at this area. The comparatively high zinc concentrations measured in the pore waters (394 nM), exceed considerably those in the overlying seawater (12.5 nM determined by DGT; 13.5 nM total), resulting in the formation of a strong concentration gradient at the sediment-water interface. Potential zinc flux at the sediment-water interface at Loutropyrgos (based on 0.4 mm DGT profile) was calculated equal to 0.8 mmol.m -2.d -1. The half lives of trace metals at Loutropyrgos site, based on the aforementioned DGT profiles, amount to 0.1 y (Zn), 2.8 y (Cd), 4.5 y (Cu), 2.2 y (Mn) and 0.4 y (Fe) pointing out to the reactivity of these metals at the sediment-water interface. The concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in pore waters of the three selected sites (2.7-5.2 mg/L) was up to four times higher compared to that of the corresponding overlying seawater. Similarly, the concentrations of carbohydrates in pore waters (0.20-0.91 mg/L monosaccharides; 0.71-1.6 mg/L polysaccharides) are an order of magnitude higher than those of seawater, forming a concentration gradient at the sediment-water interface. Total carbohydrates contribute between 34 and 48% of the organic carbon of the pore waters, being significantly higher than those of seawater from the corresponding areas, which were in the range of 15-21%. The complexing capacity as for copper ions (CCu) determined in pore water ranges widely, from 0

  15. Determination of silver, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in geologic materials by atomic absorption spectrometry with tricaprylylmethylammonium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viets, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    Interferences commonly encountered in the determination of silver, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc at crustal abundance levels are effectively eliminated using a rapid, sensitive, organic extraction technique. A potassium chlorate-hydrochloric acid digestion solubilizes the metals not tightly bound in the silicate lattice of rocks, soils, and stream sediments. The six metals are selectively extracted into a 10% Aliquat 336-MIBK organic phase in the presence of ascorbic acid and potassium iodide. Metals in the organic extract are determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry to the 0.02-ppm level for silver, cadmium, copper, and zinc and to the 0.2-ppm level for bismuth and lead with a maximum relative standard deviation of 18.8% for known reference samples. An additional hydrofluoric acid digestion may be used to determine metals substituted in the silicate lattice.

  16. Concentrations of Cadmium, Copper, and Zinc in Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Giant Freshwater Prawn) from Natural Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, Farah Akmal; Basri, Masania Mohd; Rahim, Khairul Adha A; Rahim, Nur Syazwani Abd; Chong, Melissa Dennis

    2018-03-01

    This study analyzed the levels of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) by the flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS), in the muscle tissues, exoskeletons, and gills from freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) (n = 20) harvested from natural habitat in Kerang River, Malaysia on 25th November 2015. Significant increase of the metals level in muscle tissue and gill (r > 0.70, p < 0.05) were observed with increase in length except for Cu in gills. No relationship was found between metals level in exoskeleton and length. The concentrations of Cd, Cu and Zn were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in males (muscle tissues and exoskeleton) except for Cd in exoskeleton. In gills, only Cu was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in female than male. All samples contained metals below the permissible limit for human consumption (i.e., Cd < 2.00 mg/kg; Cu < 30.00 mg/kg; Zn < 150 mg/kg). Annual metals monitoring in prawn and environmental samples is recommended to evaluate changes of metals bioaccumulation and cycling in the system, which is useful for resources management.

  17. Determination and evaluation of cadmium, copper, nickel, and zinc in agricultural soils of western Macedonia, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, A; Prochaska, C; Papadopoulos, F; Gantidis, N; Metaxa, E

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of major phytotoxic metals--including cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn)--in agricultural soils of Western Macedonia, Greece. We also wanted to determine the possible relationships among elements and between soil properties and elemental concentrations. Surface soil samples, n = 570, were collected and analyzed. The results of the elemental analysis showed that the mean metal concentrations were consistent with reported typical concentrations found in Greek agricultural soils in the cases of Zn and Cu. Cd exhibited lower and Ni higher mean concentrations than the typical levels reported in the literature. Metal concentrations in the majority of the examined samples (>69%) were found to be higher than the respective critical plant-deficiency levels. However, only 0.4% and 0.2% of the analyzed soil samples, respectively, exhibited Cd and Ni concentrations higher than the levels that cause plant toxicity, as referenced by other investigators. These results suggest that the soils studied can be considered as unpolluted with respect to the examined food-chain metal contaminants. However, the levels of the metal concentrations in some of the soil samples, and the low correlation of the metals with soil properties, suggest an anthropogenic rather that lithogenic origin.

  18. Tolerance to and Accumulation of Cadmium, Copper, and Zinc by Cupriavidus necator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayssa Pereira Vicentin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Preliminary results of in vitro experiments with multicontaminated soils and solid media indicated that nodulating diazotrophic bacteria of the genus Cupriavidus are promising for the remediation of contaminated environments due to their symbiosis with legumes and metal tolerance. Thus, strains of Cupriavidus spp. (LMG 19424T, UFLA 01-659, UFLA 01-663, and UFLA 02-71 were tested for their ability to tolerate and bioaccumulate cadmium (Cd, copper (Cu, and zinc (Zn in Luria-Bertani broth. Changes in the growth pattern of Cupriavidus strains in the presence or absence of heavy metals were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and metal allocation by transmission electron microscopy, to clarify the mechanisms of bioremediation. Highest tolerance was detected for strain UFLA 01-659 (minimum inhibitory concentration of 5, 4.95, and 14.66 mmol L−1 of Cd, Cu, and Zn, respectively. Among the removal rates of the metals tested (9.0, 4.6, and 3.2 mg L−1 of Cd, Cu, and Zn, respectively, the bacterial activity was clearly highest for Cd. The efficiency of strain UFLA 01-659 in removing the heavy metals is associated with its high biomass production and/or higher contents of heavy metals adsorbed and absorbed in the biomass. In response to the presence of heavy metals in the liquid culture medium, the bacteria produced exopolysaccharides and small and aggregated cells. However, these responses varied according to the strains and heavy metals. Regarding allocation, all heavy metals were adsorbed on the cell wall and membrane, whereas complexation was observed intracellularly and only for Cu and Zn. These results indicate the possibility of using C. necator UFLA 01-659 for remediation in areas with very high Cd, Cu, and Zn contents.

  19. Baseline blood levels of manganese, lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in residents of Beijing suburb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Long-Lian; Lu, Ling; Pan, Ya-Juan; Ding, Chun-Guang; Xu, Da-Yong; Huang, Chuan-Feng; Pan, Xing-Fu; Zheng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Baseline blood concentrations of metals are important references for monitoring metal exposure in environmental and occupational settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the blood levels of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) among the residents (aged 12–60 years old) living in the suburb southwest of Beijing in China and to compare the outcomes with reported values in various developed countries. Blood samples were collected from 648 subjects from March 2009 to February 2010. Metal concentrations in the whole blood were determined by ICP-MS. The geometric means of blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 11.4, 802.4, 4665, 42.6, and 0.68 µg/L, respectively. Male subjects had higher blood Pb than the females, while the females had higher blood Mn and Cu than the males. There was no gender difference for blood Cd and Zn. Smokers had higher blood Cu, Zn, and Cd than nonsmokers. There were significant age-related differences in blood levels of all metals studied; subjects in the 17–30 age group had higher blood levels of Mn, Pb, Cu, and Zn, while those in the 46–60 age group had higher Cd than the other age groups. A remarkably lower blood level of Cu and Zn in this population as compared with residents of other developed countries was noticed. Based on the current study, the normal reference ranges for the blood Mn were estimated to be 5.80–25.2 μg/L; for blood Cu, 541–1475 μg/L; for blood Zn, 2349–9492 μg/L; for blood Pb, <100 μg/L; and for blood Cd, <5.30 μg/L in the general population living in Beijing suburbs. - Highlights: • Baseline blood levels of metals in residents of Beijing suburb are investigated. • BMn and BPb in this cohort are higher than those in other developed countries. • Remarkably lower blood levels of Cu and Zn in this Chinese cohort are noticed. • The reference values for blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd are established

  20. Baseline blood levels of manganese, lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in residents of Beijing suburb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Long-Lian, E-mail: Longlian57@163.com [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Lu, Ling [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Pan, Ya-Juan; Ding, Chun-Guang [Institute for Occupational Health and Poison Control in China Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing 100050 (China); Xu, Da-Yong [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Huang, Chuan-Feng; Pan, Xing-Fu [Institute for Occupational Health and Poison Control in China Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing 100050 (China); Zheng, Wei, E-mail: wzheng@purdue.edu [School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Baseline blood concentrations of metals are important references for monitoring metal exposure in environmental and occupational settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the blood levels of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) among the residents (aged 12–60 years old) living in the suburb southwest of Beijing in China and to compare the outcomes with reported values in various developed countries. Blood samples were collected from 648 subjects from March 2009 to February 2010. Metal concentrations in the whole blood were determined by ICP-MS. The geometric means of blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 11.4, 802.4, 4665, 42.6, and 0.68 µg/L, respectively. Male subjects had higher blood Pb than the females, while the females had higher blood Mn and Cu than the males. There was no gender difference for blood Cd and Zn. Smokers had higher blood Cu, Zn, and Cd than nonsmokers. There were significant age-related differences in blood levels of all metals studied; subjects in the 17–30 age group had higher blood levels of Mn, Pb, Cu, and Zn, while those in the 46–60 age group had higher Cd than the other age groups. A remarkably lower blood level of Cu and Zn in this population as compared with residents of other developed countries was noticed. Based on the current study, the normal reference ranges for the blood Mn were estimated to be 5.80–25.2 μg/L; for blood Cu, 541–1475 μg/L; for blood Zn, 2349–9492 μg/L; for blood Pb, <100 μg/L; and for blood Cd, <5.30 μg/L in the general population living in Beijing suburbs. - Highlights: • Baseline blood levels of metals in residents of Beijing suburb are investigated. • BMn and BPb in this cohort are higher than those in other developed countries. • Remarkably lower blood levels of Cu and Zn in this Chinese cohort are noticed. • The reference values for blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd are established.

  1. Chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Kunz, James L.; Hardesty, Douglas K.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated in water-only exposures started with newly hatched larvae or approximately 1-mo-old juveniles. The 20% effect concentration (EC20) for cadmium from the sturgeon tests was higher than the EC20 from the trout tests, whereas the EC20 for copper, lead, or zinc for the sturgeon were lower than those EC20s for the trout. When the EC20s from the present study were included in compiled toxicity databases for all freshwater species, species mean chronic value for white sturgeon was in a relatively low percentile of the species sensitivity distribution for copper (9th percentile) and in the middle percentile for cadmium (55th percentile), zinc (40th percentile), or lead (50th percentile). However, the species mean chronic value for rainbow trout was in a high percentile for copper, lead, and zinc (∼68th–82nd percentile), but in a low percentile for cadmium (23rd percentile). The trout EC20s for each of the 4 metals and the sturgeon EC20s for cadmium or lead were above US Environmental Protection Agency chronic ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) or Washington State chronic water quality standards (WQS), whereas the sturgeon EC20s for copper or zinc were approximately equal to or below the chronic AWQC and WQS. In addition, acute 50% effect concentrations (EC50s) for copper obtained in the first 4 d of the chronic sturgeon test were below the final acute value used to derive acute AWQC and below acute WQS for copper.

  2. Electrochemical stripping determination of traces of copper, lead, cadmium and zinc in zirconium metal and zirconium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stulik, K.; Beran, P.; Dolezal, J.; Opekar, F.

    1978-01-01

    Procedures have been developed for the determination of copper, lead, cadmium and zinc in zirconium metal and zirconium dioxide, at concentrations of 1ppm or less. Zirconium metal was dissolved in sulphuric acid, and zirconium dioxide decomposed under pressure with hydrofluoric acid. Sample solutions were prepared in dilute sulphuric acid. For the stripping determination, the sample solution was either mixed with a complexing tartrate base electrolyte or the pre-electrolysis was carried out in acid solution, with the acid solution being exchanged for a pure base electrolyte (e.g. an acetate buffer) for the stripping step. The stripping step was monitored by d.c., differential pulse and Kalousek commutator voltammetry and the three methods were compared. A stationary mercury-drop electrode can generally be used for all the methods, whereas a mercury-film electrode is suitable only for the d.c. voltammetric determination of copper, lead and cadmium, as pulse measurements with films are poorly reproducible and the electrodes are easily damaged. The relative standard deviation does not exceed 20%. Some samples contained relatively large amounts of copper, which is best separated by electrodeposition on a platinum electrode. (author)

  3. Micro solid phase spectrophotometry in a sequential injection lab-on-valve platform for cadmium, zinc, and copper determination in freshwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Inês C.; Mesquita, Raquel B.R.; Rangel, António O.S.S.

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the development of a solid phase spectrophotometry method in a μSI-LOV system for cadmium, zinc, and copper determination in freshwaters. NTA (Nitrilotriacetic acid) beads with 60–160 μm diameter were packed in the flow cell of the LOV for a μSPE column of 1 cm length. The spectrophotometric determination is based on the colourimetric reaction between dithizone and the target metals, previously retained on NTA resin. The absorbance of the coloured product formed is measured, at 550 nm, on the surface of the NTA resin beads in a solid phase spectrophotometry approach. The developed method presented preconcentration factors in the range of 11–21 for the metal ions. A LOD of 0.23 μg L"−"1 for cadmium, 2.39 μg L"−"1 for zinc, and 0.11 μg L"−"1 for copper and a sampling rate of 12, 13, and 15 h"−"1 for cadmium, zinc, and copper were obtained, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to freshwater samples. - Highlights: • Multi-parametric determination of cadmium, zinc, and copper at the μg L"−"1 level. • In-line metal ions preconcentration using NTA resin. • Minimization of matrix interferences by performing solid phase spectrometry in a SI-LOV platform. • Successful application to metal ions determination in freshwaters.

  4. Evaluation of Lead, Cadmium, Zinc and Copper Levels in Blood, Hair and Teeth of Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel -Latif, A.; EL- Bedewi, A.F.; Gad, A.; Mortada, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    There is a general agreement that children are a population that suffered increased risk of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) exposure with adverse health effects. The aim of this study is to evaluate the environmental exposure to Pb and Cd in children living in Cairo since birth and their effects on other essential elements such as zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu). The relationships between these indicators for exposure and children characteristics such as sex, weight, height, blood pressure and smoking habits of parents were also estimated. Forty children (23 males and 17 females) aged 5-7 years had been included in this study. Levels of elements in the samples were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The levels of Pb in blood (Pb-B), hair (Pb-H) and teeth (Pb-T) were 18.17 ± 5.35 fig/dl, 6.29 ± 2.07 fig/g and 8.07± 1.98 fig/g, respectively. Significant differences were observed between boys and girls as regards Pb-H (P<0.001)and Pb-T(P<0.05). The Cd levels were 0.603 ±0.08 μg/dl in blood (Cd-B), 0.933 ± 0.18 fig/g in hair (Cd-H) and 4.825± 0.57 μg/g in teeth (Cd-T). Boys showed higher significant increases in Cd-B than girls (P < 0.001). Concerning Zn, the levels were 57.43± 6.86 μg/dl,148.18± 11.76μg/g and 100.32± 20.28 μg/dl in blood (Zn-B), hair (Zn-H) and teeth(Zn-T),correspondingly Girls displayed significant higher levels of Zn-H than boys (P < 0.05). Regarding Cu in blood (Cu-B), in hair (Cu-H) and in teeth (Cu-T), they were 113.42± 9.89 μg/dl, 17.9±4.18 μg/g and 10.6± 3.04 μg/g, respectively. Girls showed significant higher levels of Cu-H than boys (P < 0.05). The passive smoking children exhibited significant increased levels of Pb, Cd and Cu in blood, hair and teeth when compared to the non-exposed children. On the other hand, passive smoking leads to decrease in Zn concentrations in the three studied samples. The proper mechanism of Zn affection was explained by interactions with Cd, Pb and Cu. Correlation between Pb and Cd with

  5. Zinc and cadmium monosalicylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharitonov, Yu.Ya.; Tujebakhova, Z.K.

    1984-01-01

    Zinc and cadmium monosalicylates of the composition MSal, where M-Zn or Cd, Sal - twice deprotonated residue of salicylic acid O-HOC 6 H 4 COOH (H 2 Sal), are singled out and characterized. When studying thermograms, thermogravigrams, IR absorption spectra, roentgenograms of cadmium salicylate compounds (Cd(OC 6 H 4 COO) and products of their thepmal transformations, the processes of thermal decomposition of the compounds have been characterized. The process of cadmium monosalicylate decomposition takes place in one stage. Complete loss of salicylate acido group occurs in the range of 320-460 deg. At this decomposition stage cadmium oxide is formed. A supposition is made that cadmium complex has tetrahedral configuration, at that, each salicylate group plays the role of tetradentate-bridge ligand. The compound evidently has a polymer structure

  6. Determination of arsenic, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, molybdenum, silver and zinc in geological materials by atomic-absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viets, J.G.; O'Leary, R. M.; Clark, Robert J.

    1984-01-01

    Arsenic, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, molybdenum, silver and zinc are very useful elements in geochemical exploration. In the proposed method, geological samples are fused with potassium pyrosulphate and the fusate is dissolved in a solution of hydrochloric acid, ascorbic acid and potassium iodide. When this solution is shaken with a 10% V/V Aliquat 336 - isobutyl methyl ketone organic phase, the nine elements of interest are selectively partitioned in the organic phase. All nine elements can then be determined in the organic phase using flame atomic-absorption spectrometry. The method is rapid and allows the determination of Ag and Cd at levels down to 0.1 p.p.m., Cu, Mo, and Zn down to 0.5 p.p.m., Pb, Bi and Sb down to 1 p.p.m. and As down to 5 p.p.m. in geological materials.

  7. Potential Influence of Selenium, Copper, Zinc and Cadmium on L-Thyroxine Substitution in Patients with Hashimoto Thyroiditis and Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasic-Milutinovic, Z; Jovanovic, D; Bogdanovic, G; Trifunovic, J; Mutic, J

    2017-02-01

    Background: Besides genetic factors, it is known that some trace elements, as Selenium, Copper, and Zinc are essential for thyroid gland fuction and thyroid hormone metabolism. Moreover, there were some metals effect that suggested patterns associated with overt thyroid disease. Aim of study: Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT), chronic autoimune inflamation of thyroid gland with cosequtive hipothyroidism, is common disease in Serbia, and we thought it is worthwile to explore potential effects of essential and toxic metals and metalloides on thyroid function and ability to restore euthyroid status of them. Results: This cross-sectional, case-control, study investigated the status of essential elements (Selenium,Copper,and Zinc) and toxic metals and metalloides (Al, Cr, Mn, Co, As, Cd, Sb, Ba, Be, Pb and Ni) from the blood of 22 female, patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis and overt hypothyroidism, and compared it with those of 55 female healthy persons. We tried to establish the presence of any correlation between previous mentioned elements and thyroid function in hypothyroid patients and healthy participants. Conclusions: The results of our study suggested that the blood concentration of essential trace elements, especially the ratio of Copper, and Selenium may influence directly thyroid function in patients with HT and overt hypothyroidism.Thus, our findings may have implication to life-long substitution therapy in terms of l-thyroxine dose reduction. Furthermore, for the first time, our study shown potential toxic effect of Cadmium on thyroid function in HT patients, which may implicate the dose of l-thyroxine substitution. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Contents of cadmium, copper, zinc, and lead in organs of Rhizophora mangle in Sevilla River mouth - Cienaga Grande de Santa Marta, Colombian Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naranjo Sanchez, Yury A; Troncoso, Olivo Walberto

    2008-01-01

    In order to determine the contents of cadmium, copper, zinc, and lead in leaves, stalks, and root of Rhizophora mangle, samples from three parcels located in the river Sevilla mouth - Cienaga Grande de Santa Marta, were taken in October 2003. Measures of metals concentrations were made through the Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry technique (ICP-AES). The results indicated that lead concentration in R. mangle organs was below method detection limit ≤38 g/g) except the absorbent root (16.3 g/g); and significant differences exist in the contents of cadmium, copper, zinc, and lead into R. mangle organs, following this concentration order: absorbent roots ≥ stalk ≥ young leaves ≥adult leaves ≥ aerial roots

  9. Micro solid phase spectrophotometry in a sequential injection lab-on-valve platform for cadmium, zinc, and copper determination in freshwaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Inês C. [CBQF–Centro de Biotecnologia e Química Fina – Laboratório Associado, Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Católica Portuguesa/Porto, Rua Arquiteto Lobão Vital, Apartado 2511, 4202-401 Porto (Portugal); Mesquita, Raquel B.R. [CBQF–Centro de Biotecnologia e Química Fina – Laboratório Associado, Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Católica Portuguesa/Porto, Rua Arquiteto Lobão Vital, Apartado 2511, 4202-401 Porto (Portugal); Laboratório de Hidrobiologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar (ICBAS), Universidade do Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira no. 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Rangel, António O.S.S., E-mail: arangel@porto.ucp.pt [CBQF–Centro de Biotecnologia e Química Fina – Laboratório Associado, Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Católica Portuguesa/Porto, Rua Arquiteto Lobão Vital, Apartado 2511, 4202-401 Porto (Portugal)

    2015-09-03

    This work describes the development of a solid phase spectrophotometry method in a μSI-LOV system for cadmium, zinc, and copper determination in freshwaters. NTA (Nitrilotriacetic acid) beads with 60–160 μm diameter were packed in the flow cell of the LOV for a μSPE column of 1 cm length. The spectrophotometric determination is based on the colourimetric reaction between dithizone and the target metals, previously retained on NTA resin. The absorbance of the coloured product formed is measured, at 550 nm, on the surface of the NTA resin beads in a solid phase spectrophotometry approach. The developed method presented preconcentration factors in the range of 11–21 for the metal ions. A LOD of 0.23 μg L{sup −1} for cadmium, 2.39 μg L{sup −1} for zinc, and 0.11 μg L{sup −1} for copper and a sampling rate of 12, 13, and 15 h{sup −1} for cadmium, zinc, and copper were obtained, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to freshwater samples. - Highlights: • Multi-parametric determination of cadmium, zinc, and copper at the μg L{sup −1} level. • In-line metal ions preconcentration using NTA resin. • Minimization of matrix interferences by performing solid phase spectrometry in a SI-LOV platform. • Successful application to metal ions determination in freshwaters.

  10. Micro solid phase spectrophotometry in a sequential injection lab-on-valve platform for cadmium, zinc, and copper determination in freshwaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Inês C; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Rangel, António O S S

    2015-09-03

    This work describes the development of a solid phase spectrophotometry method in a μSI-LOV system for cadmium, zinc, and copper determination in freshwaters. NTA (Nitrilotriacetic acid) beads with 60-160 μm diameter were packed in the flow cell of the LOV for a μSPE column of 1 cm length. The spectrophotometric determination is based on the colourimetric reaction between dithizone and the target metals, previously retained on NTA resin. The absorbance of the coloured product formed is measured, at 550 nm, on the surface of the NTA resin beads in a solid phase spectrophotometry approach. The developed method presented preconcentration factors in the range of 11-21 for the metal ions. A LOD of 0.23 μg L(-1) for cadmium, 2.39 μg L(-1) for zinc, and 0.11 μg L(-1) for copper and a sampling rate of 12, 13, and 15 h(-1) for cadmium, zinc, and copper were obtained, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to freshwater samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Relative tolerance of a range of Australian native plant species and lettuce to copper, zinc, cadmium, and lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Dane T; Ming, Hui; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2010-10-01

    The tolerance of wild flora to heavy-metal exposure has received very little research. In this study, the tolerance of four native tree species, four native grass species, and lettuce to copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) was investigated in a root-elongation study using Petri dishes. The results of these studies show a diverse range of responses to Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb amongst the tested plant species. Toxicity among metals decreased in the following order: Cd ~ Cu > Pb > Zn. Metal concentrations resulting in a 50% reduction in growth (EC(50)) varied considerably, ranging from (microM) 30 (Dichanthium sericeum) to >2000 (Acacia spp.) for Cu; from 260 (Lactuca sativa) to 2000 (Acacia spp.) for Zn; from 27 (L. sativa) to 940 (Acacia holosericea) for Cd; and from 180 (L. sativa) to >1000 (Acacia spp.) for Pb. Sensitive native plant species identified included D. sericeum, Casuarina cunninghamiana, and Austrodanthonia caespitosa. However, L. sativa (lettuce) was also among the most sensitive to all four metals. Acacia species showed a high tolerance to metal exposure, suggesting that the Acacia genus shows potential for use in contaminated-site revegetation.

  12. Copper, cadmium, and zinc concentrations in aquatic food chains from the Upper Sacramento River (California) and selected tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, M.K.; Castleberry, D. T.; May, T. W.; Martin, B.A.; Bullard, F. N.

    1995-01-01

    Metals enter the Upper Sacramento River above Redding, California, primarily through Spring Creek, a tributary that receives acid-mine drainage from a US EPA Superfund site known locally as Iron Mountain Mine. Waterweed (Elodea canadensis) and aquatic insects (midge larvae, Chironomidae; and mayfly nymphs, Ephemeroptera) from the Sacramento River downstream from Spring Creek contained much higher concentrations of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn) than did similar taxa from nearby reference tributaries not exposed to acid-mine drainage. Aquatic insects from the Sacramento River contained especially high maximum concentrations of Cu (200 mg/kg dry weight in midge larvae), Cd (23 mg/kg dry weight in mayfly nymphs), and Zn (1,700 mg/kg dry weight in mayfly nymphs). Although not always statistically significant, whole-body concentrations of Cu, Cd, and Zn in fishes (threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus; Sacramento sucker, Catostomus occidentalis; Sacramento squawfish, Ptychocheilus grandis; and chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytasch) from the Sacramento River were generally higher than in fishes from the reference tributaries.

  13. The contribution of ecdysis to the fate of copper, zinc and cadmium in grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio holthius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keteles, K.A.; Fleeger, J.W. [Louisiana State Univ., Dept. of Biological Sciences, Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Depuration through ecdysis by grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, was examined by exposure to a sublethal mixture of copper, zinc and cadmium for 72 h, followed by placement in uncontaminated water to molt. Percent eliminated with the exuviae varied for each metal; of the total intermolt body burden, 11% Cu, 18% Zn and 26% Cd was associated with the exuviae. Cu concentrations of intermolt exoskeletons were significantly higher than of the exuviae of post-ecdysis shrimp suggesting that Cu contained in the exoskeleton was reabsorbed before molting. Exuvial Cd concentration was not significantly different than the concentration of the intermolt exoskeleton, suggesting that most Cd in the exoskeleton was depurated with the exuviae. Although Zn whole-body burdens were lower after a molt, Zn losses were most likely due to excretion because exuvial concentrations were significantly lower than in the intermolt exoskeleton. Cu, Cd and Zn concentrations in exuvaie shed in metal-enriched water were significantly higher due to adsorption than exuvaie produced in uncontaminated water. (Author)

  14. Accumulation of lead, zinc, copper and cadmium by 12 wetland plant species thriving in metal-contaminated sites in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, H.; Ye, Z.H.; Wong, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    The concentrations of lead, zinc, copper and cadmium accumulated by 12 emergent-rooted wetland plant species including different populations of Leersia hexandra, Juncus effusus and Equisetum ramosisti were investigated in field conditions of China. The results showed that metal accumulation by wetland plants differed among species, populations and tissues. Populations grown in substrata with elevated metals contained significantly higher metals in plants. Metals accumulated by wetland plants were mostly distributed in root tissues, suggesting that an exclusion strategy for metal tolerance widely exists in them. That some species/populations could accumulate relatively high metal concentrations (far above the toxic concentration to plants) in their shoots indicates that internal detoxification metal tolerance mechanism(s) are also included. The factors affecting metal accumulation by wetland plants include metal concentrations, pH, and nutrient status in substrata. Mostly concentrations of Pb and Cu in both aboveground and underground tissues of the plants were significantly positively related to their total and/or DTPA-extractable fractions in substrata while negatively to soil N and P, respectively. The potential use of these wetland plants in phytoremediation is also discussed

  15. Synthesis, characterization and thermal studies of nickel (II), copper (II), zinc (II) and cadmium (II) complexes with some mixed ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Samiran; Kundu, Parimal; Singh, Rajkumar Bhubon

    1998-01-01

    Dichloro-(DCA) and trichloroacetate(TCA) -cyclic ligand morpholine (Morph)/thiomorpholine (Tmorph)/methylmorpholine (Mmorph)/dimethyl-piperazine (DMP) complexes of nickel (II), copper (II), zinc (II) and cadmium (II) with the compositions [Ni(tmorph) 2 (DCA) 2 ], [Ni(tmorph) 2 (TCA) 2 ].2H 2 O, [Cu(DMP) 2 (TCA) 2 ],[ML 2 X 2 ].nH 2 O where M=Zn II or Cd II , L=Morph, DMP or tmorph and X=DCA or TCA and n=O except in case of [Cd (Morph) 2 (TCA) 2 ] where n=1 have been synthesised. Some intermediate complexes have been isolated by temperature arrest technique (pyrolysis) and characterised. Configurational and conformational changes have been studied by elemental analyses, IR and electronic spectra, magnetic moment data (in the case of Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes) and thermal analysis. E a * , ΔH, and ΔS for the decomposition reaction of these complexes are evaluated and the stability of the complexes with respect to activation energy has also been compared. The linear correlation has been found between E a * and ΔS for the decomposition of the complexes. (author)

  16. Accumulation of lead, zinc, copper and cadmium by 12 wetland plant species thriving in metal-contaminated sites in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, H.; Ye, Z.H.; Wong, M.H

    2004-11-01

    The concentrations of lead, zinc, copper and cadmium accumulated by 12 emergent-rooted wetland plant species including different populations of Leersia hexandra, Juncus effusus and Equisetum ramosisti were investigated in field conditions of China. The results showed that metal accumulation by wetland plants differed among species, populations and tissues. Populations grown in substrata with elevated metals contained significantly higher metals in plants. Metals accumulated by wetland plants were mostly distributed in root tissues, suggesting that an exclusion strategy for metal tolerance widely exists in them. That some species/populations could accumulate relatively high metal concentrations (far above the toxic concentration to plants) in their shoots indicates that internal detoxification metal tolerance mechanism(s) are also included. The factors affecting metal accumulation by wetland plants include metal concentrations, pH, and nutrient status in substrata. Mostly concentrations of Pb and Cu in both aboveground and underground tissues of the plants were significantly positively related to their total and/or DTPA-extractable fractions in substrata while negatively to soil N and P, respectively. The potential use of these wetland plants in phytoremediation is also discussed.

  17. Cadmium and zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safaya, N.M.; McLean, J.E.; Halverson, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Cadmium and zinc are naturally occurring trace metals that are often considered together because of their close geochemical association and similarities in chemical reactivity. The loss of two electrons from an atom of Cd or Zn imparts to each an electron configuration with completely filled d orbitals; this results in a highly stable 2/sup +/ oxidation state. But Cd and Zn differ greatly in their significance to biological systems. Whereas Zn is an essential nutrient for plants, animals, and humans, Cd is best known for its toxicity to plants and as a causative agent of several disease syndromes in animals and humans

  18. Factors affecting the simultaneous determination of copper, lead, cadmium, and zinc concentrations in human head hair using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wandiga, S.O.; Jumba, I.O.

    1982-01-01

    Conditions of analysis of copper, lead, cadmium and zinc content in human hair using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) and hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) have been established. Sample digestion using using the mixture HCI; H 2 O 2 ;HNO 3 in the ratio 2:1:40 by volume gave the best wet-ashing procedure. The peak currents and peak potentials of zinc, cadmium and lead, copper were maximum at pH 6-7 and 1-3 respectively, when excess H 2 O 2 was eliminated with subsequent addition of hydroxyamine hydrochloride. Matrix concentration effects were minimized by digesting weights not exceeding 50 mg per sample. The effect of selenium (IV) was negligible and was ignored. The detection limit of 0.0036 ng/cm 3 for Cd + 2 was obtained while the values for zinc, lead and copper were 0.0230, 0.0287 and 0.0269 ng/cm 3 respectively at the 95% confidence limit. The observed DPASV condition of analysis of these metals are useful for routine determination of the metals in human hair and should complement the conventional flame absorption spectrophotometry method. (author)

  19. Selective determination of cyanide complexes of copper, zinc and cadmium in electrolytes by spectrophotometric titration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, V.V.; Korchagina, O.A.; Samorukova, O.L.

    1986-01-01

    Selective, sensitive and rapid method for determining Cd, Zn, Cu and their mixtures in cyanide electrolytes of galvanic bathes has been developed. Analysis is performed by means of indicator spectrophotometric titration with barium and strontium salts of cadmium cyanide complexes in organic-aqueous solvents

  20. Acute and chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Contributions by Wang, Ning; Calfee, Robin D.; Beahan, Erinn; Brumbaugh, William G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Hardesty, Doug K.; Kunz, James L.; Little, Edward E.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Puglis, Holly J.

    2014-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are experiencing poor recruitment in the trans boundary reach of the upper Columbia River in eastern Washington State. Limited toxicity data indicated that early life stages of white sturgeon are sensitive to metals. In acute 4-day (d) exposures with larval white sturgeon, previous studies have reported that the 4-day median lethal concentrations (LC50) based on biotic ligand model (BLM) normalization for copper were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national recommended acute water-quality criterion. In previously published chronic 66-d exposures starting with newly fertilized eggs of white sturgeon, 20-percent lethal effect concentrations (LC20s) for copper, cadmium, or zinc generally were within a factor of two of the chronic values of the most sensitive fish species in the databases of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality criteria (WQC) for the three metals. However, there were some uncertainties in the chronic exposures previously performed with white sturgeon, including (1) low control survival (37 percent), (2) more control fish tested in each replicate compared to other treatments, (3) limited replication of treatments (n=2), (4) lack of reported growth data (such as dry weight), and (5) wide dilution factors for exposure concentrations (6- to 8-fold dilutions). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency concluded that additional studies are needed to generate more toxicity data to better define lethal and sublethal toxicity thresholds for metals for white sturgeon. The objective of the study was to further evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to early life stages of white sturgeon in water-only exposures. Toxicity tests also were performed with commonly tested rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under similar test conditions to determine the relative sensitivity between white sturgeon and rainbow trout to these metals. Toxicity data generated from

  1. Redistribution of fractions of zinc, cadmium, nickel, copper, and lead in contaminated calcareous soils treated with EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Mohsen; Khanlari, Zahra V

    2007-11-01

    Effect of ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the fractionation of zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb) in contaminated calcareous soils was investigated. Soil samples containing variable levels of contamination, from 105.9 to 5803 mg/kg Zn, from 2.2 to 1361 mg/kg Cd, from 31 to 64.0 mg/kg Ni, from 24 to 84 mg/kg Cu, and from 109 to 24,850 mg/kg Pb, were subjected to EDTA treatment at different dosages of 0, 1.0, and 2.0 g/kg. Metals in the incubated soils were fractionated after 5 months by a sequential extraction procedure, in which the metal fractions were experimentally defined as exchangeable (EXCH), carbonate (CARB), Mn oxide (MNO), Fe oxide (FEO), organic matter (OM), and residual (RES) fractions. In contaminated soils without EDTA addition, Zn, Ni, Cu, and Pb were predominately present in the RES fraction, up to 60.0%, 32.3%, 41.1%, and 36.8%, respectively. In general, with the EDTA addition, the EXCH and CARB fractions of these metals increased dramatically while the OM fraction decreased. The Zn, Ni, Cu, and Pb were distributed mostly in RES, OM, FEO, and CARB fractions in contaminated soils, but Cd was found predominately in the CARB, MNO, and RES fractions. The OM fraction decreased with increasing amounts of EDTA. In the contaminated soils, EDTA removed some Pb, Zn, Cu, and Ni from MNO, FEO, and OM fractions and redistributed them into CARB and EXCH fractions. Based on the relative percent in the EXCH and CARB fractions, the order of solubility was Cd > Pb > Ni > Cu > Zn for contaminated soils, before adding of EDTA, and after adding of EDTA, the order of solubility was Pb > Cd > Zn > Ni > Cu. The risk of groundwater contamination will increase after applying EDTA and it needed to be used very carefully.

  2. The concentration of heavy metals: zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, mercury, iron and calcium in head hair of a randomly selected sample of Kenyan people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wandiga, S.O.; Jumba, I.O.

    1982-01-01

    An intercomparative analysis of the concentration of heavy metals:zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, mercury, iron and calcium in head hair of a randomly selected sample of Kenyan people using the techniques of atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPAS) has been undertaken. The percent relative standard deviation for each sample analysed using either of the techniques show good sensitivity and correlation between the techniques. The DPAS was found to be slightly sensitive than the AAs instrument used. The recalculated body burden rations of Cd to Zn, Pb to Fe reveal no unusual health impairement symptoms and suggest a relatively clean environment in Kenya.(author)

  3. Transport and detoxification of cadmium, copper and zinc in the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator plant Thlaspi caerulescens

    OpenAIRE

    Leitenmaier, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    SummaryIn this thesis, various aspects on heavy metal accumulation by the hyperaccumulator plant Thlaspi caerulescens have been investigated. T. caerulescens belongs to the family of Brassicaceae and hyperaccumulates zinc. Its ecotype Ganges, originating from Southern France, additionally takes up cadmium actively. It is known from previous studies that hyperaccumulators have highly overexpressed metal transporters and that most of them store the metal in the vacuole of large epidermal cells....

  4. Accumulation of heavy metals (cadmium, zinc, and copper) from smelter in forest ecosystems and their uptakes by Shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes (Berk) Sing. ) and Nameko mushroom (Pholiota glutinosa Kawamura) through polluted bed logs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimoto, T.; Fujita, K.; Furukawa, H.; Yoshimoto, M.

    1977-12-01

    Mushrooms cultivated on sawdust medium which had been innoculated with heavy metals accumulated the metals increasingly in stems, pileus, gill and spores, in that order. There were strain differences, in accumulation, and highest concentration was found in the first-born fruit body. At 2 ppm, cadmium did not affect yield of the fruiting body. At 20 ppm, however, yield was seriously reduced. Species differences in absorption capacity for heavy metals were noted. Seasonal variations in cadmium and copper accumulation were noted, along with zinc. Cadmium concentration in fruiting bodies increased with increase of cadmium concentration in the growth substrate. 23 figures, 16 tables.

  5. Subcellular interactions of dietary cadmium, copper and zinc in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamunde, Collins; MacPhail, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: Interactions of Cu, Cd and Zn were studied at the subcellular level in rainbow trout. Metals accumulated in the liver were predominantly metabolically active. Cd, Cu and Zn exhibited both competitive and cooperative interactions. The metal–metal interactions altered subcellular metals partitioning. - Abstract: Interactions of Cu, Cd and Zn were studied at the subcellular level in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed diets containing (μg/g) 500 Cu, 1000 Zn and 500 Cd singly and as a ternary mixture for 28 days. Livers were harvested and submitted to differential centrifugation to isolate components of metabolically active metal pool (MAP: heat-denaturable proteins (HDP), organelles, nuclei) and metabolically detoxified metal pool (MDP: heat stable proteins (HSP), NaOH-resistant granules). Results indicated that Cd accumulation was enhanced in all the subcellular compartments, albeit at different time points, in fish exposed to the metals mixture relative to those exposed to Cd alone, whereas Cu alone exposure increased Cd partitioning. Exposure to the metals mixture reduced (HDP) and enhanced (HSP, nuclei and granules) Cu accumulation while exposure to Zn alone enhanced Cu concentration in all the fractions analyzed without altering proportional distribution in MAP and MDP. Although subcellular Zn accumulation was less pronounced than that of either Cu or Cd, concentrations of Zn were enhanced in HDP, nuclei and granules from fish exposed to the metals mixture relative to those exposed to Zn alone. Cadmium alone exposure mobilized Zn and Cu from the nuclei and increased Zn accumulation in organelles and Cu in granules, while Cu alone exposure stimulated Zn accumulation in HSP, HDP and organelles. Interestingly, Cd alone exposure increased the partitioning of the three metals in MDP indicative of enhanced detoxification. Generally the accumulated metals were predominantly metabolically active: Cd, 67–83%; Cu, 68–79% and Zn, 60–76

  6. Subcellular interactions of dietary cadmium, copper and zinc in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamunde, Collins, E-mail: ckamunde@upei.ca [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PE, C1A 4P3 (Canada); MacPhail, Ruth [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PE, C1A 4P3 (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: Interactions of Cu, Cd and Zn were studied at the subcellular level in rainbow trout. Metals accumulated in the liver were predominantly metabolically active. Cd, Cu and Zn exhibited both competitive and cooperative interactions. The metal-metal interactions altered subcellular metals partitioning. - Abstract: Interactions of Cu, Cd and Zn were studied at the subcellular level in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed diets containing ({mu}g/g) 500 Cu, 1000 Zn and 500 Cd singly and as a ternary mixture for 28 days. Livers were harvested and submitted to differential centrifugation to isolate components of metabolically active metal pool (MAP: heat-denaturable proteins (HDP), organelles, nuclei) and metabolically detoxified metal pool (MDP: heat stable proteins (HSP), NaOH-resistant granules). Results indicated that Cd accumulation was enhanced in all the subcellular compartments, albeit at different time points, in fish exposed to the metals mixture relative to those exposed to Cd alone, whereas Cu alone exposure increased Cd partitioning. Exposure to the metals mixture reduced (HDP) and enhanced (HSP, nuclei and granules) Cu accumulation while exposure to Zn alone enhanced Cu concentration in all the fractions analyzed without altering proportional distribution in MAP and MDP. Although subcellular Zn accumulation was less pronounced than that of either Cu or Cd, concentrations of Zn were enhanced in HDP, nuclei and granules from fish exposed to the metals mixture relative to those exposed to Zn alone. Cadmium alone exposure mobilized Zn and Cu from the nuclei and increased Zn accumulation in organelles and Cu in granules, while Cu alone exposure stimulated Zn accumulation in HSP, HDP and organelles. Interestingly, Cd alone exposure increased the partitioning of the three metals in MDP indicative of enhanced detoxification. Generally the accumulated metals were predominantly metabolically active: Cd, 67-83%; Cu, 68-79% and Zn, 60-76%. Taken

  7. Determination of Zinc, Cadmium, Lead, Copper and Silver Using a Carbon Paste Electrode and a Screen Printed Electrode Modified with Chromium(III Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Koudelkova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the preparation and electrochemical application of a chromium(III oxide modified carbon paste electrode (Cr-CPE and a screen printed electrode (SPE, made from the same material and optimized for the simple, cheap and sensitive simultaneous determination of zinc, cadmium, lead, copper and the detection of silver ions, is described. The limits of detection and quantification were 25 and 80 µg·L−1 for Zn(II, 3 and 10 µg·L−1 for Cd(II, 3 and 10 µg·L−1 for Pb(II, 3 and 10 µg·L−1 for Cu(II, and 3 and 10 µg·L−1 for Ag(I, respectively. Furthermore, this promising modification was transferred to the screen-printed electrode. The limits of detection for the simultaneous determination of zinc, cadmium, copper and lead on the screen printed electrodes were found to be 350 µg·L−1 for Zn(II, 25 µg·L−1 for Cd(II, 3 µg·L−1 for Pb(II and 3 µg·L−1 for Cu(II. Practical usability for the simultaneous detection of these heavy metal ions by the Cr-CPE was also demonstrated in the analyses of wastewaters.

  8. Determination of Zinc, Cadmium, Lead, Copper and Silver Using a Carbon Paste Electrode and a Screen Printed Electrode Modified with Chromium(III) Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudelkova, Zuzana; Syrovy, Tomas; Ambrozova, Pavlina; Moravec, Zdenek; Kubac, Lubomir; Hynek, David; Richtera, Lukas; Adam, Vojtech

    2017-08-09

    In this study, the preparation and electrochemical application of a chromium(III) oxide modified carbon paste electrode (Cr-CPE) and a screen printed electrode (SPE), made from the same material and optimized for the simple, cheap and sensitive simultaneous determination of zinc, cadmium, lead, copper and the detection of silver ions, is described. The limits of detection and quantification were 25 and 80 µg·L -1 for Zn(II), 3 and 10 µg·L -1 for Cd(II), 3 and 10 µg·L -1 for Pb(II), 3 and 10 µg·L -1 for Cu(II), and 3 and 10 µg·L -1 for Ag(I), respectively. Furthermore, this promising modification was transferred to the screen-printed electrode. The limits of detection for the simultaneous determination of zinc, cadmium, copper and lead on the screen printed electrodes were found to be 350 µg·L -1 for Zn(II), 25 µg·L -1 for Cd(II), 3 µg·L -1 for Pb(II) and 3 µg·L -1 for Cu(II). Practical usability for the simultaneous detection of these heavy metal ions by the Cr-CPE was also demonstrated in the analyses of wastewaters.

  9. Clean hydrometallurgical route to recover zinc, silver, lead, copper, cadmium and iron from hazardous jarosite residues produced during zinc hydrometallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju Shaohua; Zhang Yifei; Zhang Yi; Xue Peiyi; Wang Yihui

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The extraction fractions of various valuable metals during NH 4 Cl leaching are very high. The sintered residue was leached in 6 mol L -1 aqueous NH 4 Cl solution at 105 o C, followed by filtration. The leaching extraction of Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd and Ag are more than 95%. → The process can detoxified the hazardous elements such as Pb, As, Cd thoroughly. Then the NH 4 Cl leaching residue were leached again in 30 wt% aqueous NaOH solution for 1 h at 160 o C, and about 94% of As and 73% of Si were removed from the residue. → The final residue contains about 55 wt% Fe, and have the potential to be used as iron concentrate. - Abstract: A hydrometallurgical process for treating the hazardous jarosite residue from zinc hydrometallurgy was proposed, for not only detoxifying the residue, but also recovering the contained valuable metal components. The jarosite was initially activated and decomposed by sintering at 650 o C for 1 h. The sintered residue was leached in 6 mol L -1 aqueous NH 4 Cl solution at 105 o C, followed by filtration. The leaching extraction of Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd and Ag are more than 95%. During reduction with Zn powder, more than 93% of Pb, Cu, Ag and Cd can be simultaneously recovered. Then the NH 4 Cl leaching residue were leached again in 30 wt% aqueous NaOH solution for 1 h at 160 o C, and about 94% of As and 73% of Si were removed from the residue. The final residue was almost completely detoxified, and contains about 55 wt% Fe, which can be used as an iron concentration.

  10. Cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc determination in precipitation: A comparison of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and graphite furnace atomization atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M.M.; Benefiel, M.A.; Claassen, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    Selected trace element analysis for cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in precipitation samples by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission Spectrometry (ICP) and by atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite furnace atomization (AAGF) have been evaluated. This task was conducted in conjunction with a longterm study of precipitation chemistry at high altitude sites located in remote areas of the southwestern United States. Coefficients of variation and recovery values were determined for a standard reference water sample for all metals examined for both techniques. At concentration levels less than 10 micrograms per liter AAGF analyses exhibited better precision and accuracy than ICP. Both methods appear to offer the potential for cost-effective analysis of trace metal ions in precipitation. ?? 1987 Springer-Verlag.

  11. Preconcentration and atomic absorption spectrometric determination of cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, nickel and zinc in water samples using 6-methyl-2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde-4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khuhawar, M.Y.; Das, P.; Dewani, V.K.

    2005-01-01

    The reagent 6-methyl-2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde-4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (MPAPT) has been examined for the pre-concentration of metal ions and determination using air acetylene flame atomic absorption spectrometer. The method is based on the complexation and extraction of cadmium (II), cobalt(III), copper(II), lead(II), nickel(II), iron(II), iron(II), manganese(II) and zinc(II) in chloroform. The metal iron are back extracted in nitric acid (1:1) or after evaporation of solvent the residue is digested in nitric acid. After necessary adjustment of volume the metal ions were determined in aqueous solution. Pre-concentration is obtained 10-25 times. Metal ions recovery was 95.4-100.8% with coefficient of variation 0.2-7.5%. The method used for the determination of metals in canal and sewerage waters, within 2-6433 mu g/L with C. V 0.-5.2%. (author)

  12. Adsorption of copper, cadmium and zinc on suspended sediments in a stream contaminated by acid mine drainage: The effect of seasonal changes in dissolved organic carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macalady, D.L.; Ranville, J.F.; Smith, K.S.; Daniel, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    The release of metal-rich, acidic waters from abandoned mining operations is a major problem in Colorado and throughout the Western United States. In Colorado, over 600 km of stream reach are estimated to be affected by such releases (Wentz, 1974). The metals released adversely affect stream biota, including fish. It is therefore important to understand the chemical processes which influence metal transport in these waters. The report details studies of the role of suspended sediments with respect to the transport of several important trace metals in a stream impacted by acid mine drainage. The role of streambed sediments was studied in the same system as part of an earlier project (Acid Mine Drainage: streambed sorption of copper, cadmium and zinc, PB--93-118263)

  13. Cadmium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbelt, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Together with zinc and mercury, cadmium belongs to group IIb of the periodic table. It can be found in rocks, soil, water, coal, zinc ore, lead ore, and copper ore. In the environment, cadmium is present predominantly as the oxide or as the chloride, sulfide, or sulfate salt. It has no recognizable

  14. Survey of heavy metal pollution (copper, lead, zinc, cadmium, iron and manganese in drinking water resources of Nurabad city, Lorestan, Iran 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHodratolah Shams Khorramabadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Healthy water passes through the pipelines from supply resources to consuming places in which passing from these stages may cause some cases of contamination like heavy metal contamination. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the contamination of heavy metals (copper, lead, zinc, cadmium, iron, and manganese in water resources of Nurabad city of Lorestan in 2013. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, samples were collected from 7 wells of drinking water and 2 water storage tanks during 6 months in Nurabad. So that, heavy metal parameters such as copper, lead, zinc, cadmium, iron, and manganese were measured using an atomic absorption device and also electrical conductivity, sulfate, chloride and total dissolved solids were also measured in accordance with standard methods. Results: Results indicated that the concentration of studied metals in water sources was lower than the national standards and World Health Organization standard, and in the water supply system the concentration of some metals was more than standard level. Moreover, the results showed that the concentration of studied heavy metals were more in winter than in autumn. Conclusion: Generally, in the water resources of Nurabad city the concentration of studied heavy metals was lower than the national standards and World Health Organization standard and there are not problems for water consumers. However, due to public health and the presence of a high concentration of these metals in the distribution supply, the heavy metal concentration in drinking water of this region should be monitored regularly by responsible organizations.

  15. Molecular mechanisms of the epithelial transport of toxic metal ions, particularly mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic, zinc, and copper. Comprehensive progress report, October 1, 1975--December 31, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasserman, R.H.

    1978-10-01

    Investigations were undertaken to elucidate the mode of transepithelial transport of potentially toxic metal ions across the gastrointestinal tract, with primary attention given to cadmium, zinc, and arsenic. In addition, the toxic effects of cadmium on the metabolism of vitamin D and calcium have been investigated in some detail. Several approaches have been taken, including studies on the localization of heavy metals in the intestinal mucosa, the effects of cadmium on various parameters of calcium metabolism, the modes of intestinal absorption of cadmium, arsenate, and zinc, and the interactions of heavy metals with each other and with calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D. Details of these experiments are attached in the Comprehensive Progress Report

  16. Molecular mechanisms of the epithelial transport of toxic metal ions, particularly mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic, zinc, and copper. Comprehensive progress report, October 1, 1975--December 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserman, R. H.

    1978-10-01

    Investigations were undertaken to elucidate the mode of transepithelial transport of potentially toxic metal ions across the gastrointestinal tract, with primary attention given to cadmium, zinc, and arsenic. In addition, the toxic effects of cadmium on the metabolism of vitamin D and calcium have been investigated in some detail. Several approaches have been taken, including studies on the localization of heavy metals in the intestinal mucosa, the effects of cadmium on various parameters of calcium metabolism, the modes of intestinal absorption of cadmium, arsenate, and zinc, and the interactions of heavy metals with each other and with calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D. Details of these experiments are attached in the Comprehensive Progress Report.

  17. zinc, chromium, cadmium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-30

    Jun 30, 2016 ... Cadmium also causes destruction of the immune system, thus, predisposes the consumer to infectious diseases like tuberculosis (Khan et al., 2008). ... years, sputum specimens positive for acid-fast bacilli by microscopy and clinical and radiographic abnormalities consistent with pulmonary tuberculosis.

  18. Zinc-induced protection against cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Early, J.L.; Schnell, R.C.

    1978-02-01

    Pretreatment of male rats with cadmium acetate potentiates the duration of hexobarbital hypnosis and inhibits the rate of hepatic microsomal drug metabolism. Pretreatment of rats with zinc acetate protects against these alterations in drug action elicited by cadmium.

  19. The impact of a copper smelter on adjacent soil zinc and cadmium fractions and soil organic carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Ling; Wu Longhua; Luo Yongming [Key Lab. of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, NJ (China); Zhang Changbo [Shanghai Academy of Environmental Sciences, SH (China); Jiang Yugen; Qiu Xiya [Soils and Fertilisers Div., Fuyang City Agricultural Bureau, Hangzhou, ZJ (China)

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: We investigated the chemical fractions of Zn, Cd and Cu in soils collected from positions at different distances from a copper smelter and studied the relationships between distribution patterns of Zn, Cd and Cu, fractions and soil organic carbon (SOC), especially ''black carbon'' (BC), in contaminated soils. The relationships between soil particle size and concentrations of Zn and Cd in contaminated soil were also examined. Materials and methods: Soil samples were collected from field sites at different distances from the copper smelter, air-dried and passed through 0.25-mm and 0.149-mm nylon mesh sieves. The SOC and BC were determined. Aqua regia and sequentially extracted Zn, Cd and Cu fractions in soil and the different sizes of soil particles, and metal concentrations (Zn, Cd and Cu) in BC were also determined. Results and discussion: The soils were heavily contaminated by fly ash from the copper smelter. Concentrations of Zn, Cd and Cu in soil and SOC decreased with increasing distance from the smelter. Concentrations of Zn and Cd in the surface soil (0-15 cm) decreased from 27,017 to 892 mg kg{sup -1} and from 18.7 to 1.04 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively. Soil BC and concentrations of Zn, Cd and Cu in the BC fraction showed significant and positive relationships with the corresponding aqua regia metal concentrations in soil. Soil Zn and Cd occurred predominantly in the exchangeable and reducible fractions, but residual and oxidisable fractions of Cu that were not considered mobile or bioavailable were predominant (>60%). Concentrations of Zn and Cd in the soil particle size fractions tended to increase with decreasing particle size. Conclusions: The Cd and Zn and BC were all derived from the fly ash of the smelter. Concentrations of Zn and Cd and BC in the soil decreased significantly with increasing distance from the smelter. Zinc and Cd in contaminated soils increased as particle size decreased, and were mainly in highly available

  20. Evaluation of the Content of Lead, Cadmium, Mercury, Arsenic, Tin, Copper and Zinc during the Production Process Flow of Tomato Broth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Andrei

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are among the largest contaminants of food products. Once metals are present in vegetables, their concentrations are rarely modified by industrial processing techniques, although in some cases washing may decrease the metal content. The main objective of this study was to quantify the effect of industrial processing on the content of lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic, tin, copper and zinc in tomatoes and products resulting on flow technology of tomato broth. For the determination of essential elements and/or potentially toxic was use atomic absorption spectrometry. The analytical results for quantitative evaluation the concentrations of the investigated elements on the samples of tomatoes taken from the technological process of the production of tomato broth indicated the presence of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn but with a level of concentration that significantly decreased in the finished product and the absence of metals Hg and As in all investigated samples. Effect of industrial processing on the content of tin in tomato samples analyzed was characterized by fluctuations in the residual content that led to a significant increase in concentration of 0.100 ± 0.041 mg kg-1 (tomatoes - unprocessed to 0.200 ± 0.041 mg kg-1 (tomato broth.

  1. Separation and Pre-concentration of Cadmium, Copper, Lead, Nickel and Zinc by Solid-Liquid Extraction of their Cocrystallized Naphthalene Dithizone Chelate in Saline Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Antônio C. Spínola

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A procedure for separation and pre-concentration of trace amounts of cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc in brine samples has been proposed. It is based on the adsorption of metal ions onto dithizone co-crystallized with microcrystalline naphthalene, in the pH range 8.5-9.1. Nitric acid is used to back-extract the cations from the solid phase, which are measured by ICP-OES. Various parameters, such as the effect of pH, stirring time, and amounts of solid phase, have been studied in detail, to optimize the conditions for the determination of trace amounts of Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn in synthetic brine samples. The limits of detection values expressed in mug L-1 are 44 (Zn, 11 (Ni, 30 (Cd, 47 (Pb and 11 (Cu. The precision of the procedure was determined by running 10 replicate samples, each one containing 250 mug L-1 of each element and the relative standard deviations were 2.71 % (Cd, 2.15 % (Cu, 1.53 % (Pb, 2.47 % (Ni, and 2.78 % (Zn. The accuracy of the procedure was confirmed by applying the analyte additions method and the results indicated that quantitative recoveries (superscript three 95 % were obtained.

  2. Uptake of Cadmium, Copper, Lead, and Zinc from Sediments by an Aquatic Macrophyte and by Terrestrial Arthropods in a Freshwater Wetland Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heung-Tae; Kim, Jae Geun

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate trace-metal [cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn)] biotransference and biomagnification in terrestrial biota at different trophic levels (primary producer-top predator) of a wetland ecosystem. We investigated whether metal concentrations in the sediment are reflected in terrestrial arthropods and aquatic plants. We sampled the floating-leaved plant Trapa japonica; its species-specific primary consumer, the leaf beetle Galerucella nipponensis; and two predatory arthropods (the water strider Gerris sp. and the wolf spider Arctosa sp.) from three wetlands with different sedimentary metal concentrations. The δ(13)C and δ(15)N signatures in the trophic link between the plants and the leaf beetles supported the specificity of their feeding relationship. The stable isotope signatures indicate that the leaf beetle could be an important link in the trophic transfer of the metals. Transference factors (TFs) were 1 for all biota, and the concentrations were positively correlated with the trophic levels. Thus, there may be Cu and Zn biomagnification in the arthropods. We noted TF 1 among the arthropods. Therefore, Cd is probably not biomagnified between T. japonica and G. nipponensis, but it might be biomagnified in the arthropods. The metal burden in terrestrial arthropods may also be influenced by uptake from the sediment by aquatic plants.

  3. Copper, cadmium, and zinc concentrations in juvenile Chinook salmon and selected fish-forage organisms (aquatic insects) in the upper Sacramento River, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Michael K.; Martin, Barbara A.; Thompson, Larry D.; Walsh, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    This study assessed the downstream extent andseverity of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn)contamination from acid mine drainage on juvenile chinook salmon(Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and aquatic insects over aroughly 270-km reach of the Sacramento River below KeswickReservoir. During April–May 1998, salmon were collected fromfour sites in the river and from a fish hatchery that receiveswater from Battle Creek. Salmon from river sites were examinedfor gut contents to document their consumption of variousinvertebrate taxa, whereas salmon from river sites and thehatchery were used for metal determinations. Midge(Chironomidae) and caddisfly (Trichoptera) larvae and mayfly(Ephemeroptera) nymphs were collected for metal determinationsduring April–June from river sites and from Battle and Buttecreeks. The fish hatchery and Battle and Butte creeks served asreference sites because they had no history of receiving minedrainage. Salmon consumed mostly midge larvae and pupae (44.0%,damp-dry biomass), caddisfly larvae (18.9%), Cladocera (5.8%),and mayfly nymphs (5.7%). These results demonstrated thatinsects selected for metal determinations were important as fishforage. Dry-weight concentrations of Cu, Cd, and Zn weregenerally far higher in salmon and insects from the river thanfrom reference sites. Within the river, high metalconcentrations persisted as far downstream as South Meridian (thelowermost sampling site). Maximum concentrations of Cd (30.7 μg g-1) and Zn (1230 μg g-1),but not Cu (87.4 μg g-1), in insects exceeded amounts that other investigators reported as toxic when fed for prolonged periods to juvenile salmonids.

  4. Bioavailability of cadmium, copper, mercury, lead, and zinc in subtropical coastal lagoons from the southeast Gulf of California using mangrove oysters (Crassostrea corteziensis and Crassostrea palmula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páez-Osuna, Federico; Osuna-Martínez, Carmen C

    2015-02-01

    Cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) were assessed in the edible tissues of Crassrotrea corteziensis oysters collected during the rainy and dry seasons in 27 sites from 8 coastal lagoons of the southeast Gulf of California. In addition, C. palmula oysters were sampled at 9 sites from the same mangrove roots where C. corteziensis oysters were collected. Metal analyses were performed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Cd, Cu, and Zn), graphite furnace (Pb), and cold vapor detection (Hg). The obtained mean levels were (µg g(-1) dry weight) as follows: Cd 6.05 ± 2.77, Cu 60.0 ± 33.4, Hg 0.38 ± 0.17, Pb 1.11 ± 0.63, and Zn 777 ± 528 µg g(-1). For all metals except Hg, the concentrations were greater during dry season than during rainy seasons. The high levels, particularly that for Cd, were related to upwelling along the eastern Gulf of California. High Hg levels in the rainy season were associated with the transport of materials from the watershed to the lagoon. Shrimp farming, agriculture, and other sources were considered as potential sources to explain the differences in metal bioavailability in the 8 lagoons. The mean concentrations of Cd (Santa María-La Reforma lagoon), Cu [San Ignacio-Navachiste-El Macapule (SINM), Urías (URI), and Altata-Ensenada del Pabellón lagoons], and zinc (Zn) (URI, Santa María-Ohuira-Topolobampo, El Colorado, and SINM lagoons) during the dry season were greater than the maximum permissible limits. C. palmula collected in 8 sites where they were present simultaneously with C. corteziensis had consistently greater metal levels than C. corteziensis, but correlation analyses showed a high and significant (P < 0.05) correlation between metal concentrations in both species. The correlation equations obtained are useful where the same species is not distributed and is necessary to compare results from distinct regions.

  5. Leaching of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc from two slag dumps with different environmental exposure periods under dynamic acidic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhisheng; Liu, Taoze; Yang, Yuangen; Jackson, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Over the past few decades, zinc smelting activities in Guizhou, China have produced numerous slag dumps, which are often dispersed on roadsides and hill slopes throughout the region. During periods of acid rain, these exposed slags release heavy metals into surface water bodies. A column leaching study was designed to test the potential release of the heavy metals cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) under simulated acid rain events. Two slags with varying environmental exposure periods were packed in columns and subjected to leaching solutions of pH 3.5, 5.5, or DI H2O at intervals of 1, 7, 14, 28, 56d. Pulse concentrations of Cd in leachate were found above 5μg/L, Cr, Pb, and Zn >10μg/L, whereas, Cu reached 10μg/L. After five leaching events, the leachability (percentage of cumulative heavy metal leached after five leaching events as in its respective total concentration in slags) of Cd was 0.05 percent and 0.035 percent from the old and young slag, respectively. Cr (0.035 percent and 0.05 percent) was greater than Cu (0.002 percent and 0.005 percent) and Zn (0.006 percent and 0.003 percent), while the lowest leachability was observed for Pb (0.0005 percent and 0.0002 percent) from the old and young slags, respectively. Reaction rates (release amount of heavy metals in certain period of leaching) of heavy metals in the leachates demonstrated the sequence of Zn>Cr>Cd, Cu>Pb. Leaching release of heavy metals was jointly affected by the pH of leaching solution and mineral composition of slags (including chemical forms of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn). Environmental exposure period of slags, resulting in the alteration of minerals, could affect the release process of heavy metals in leaching as well. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. CADMIUM, COPPER, LEAD AND ZINC CONCENTRATIONS IN LOW QUALITY WINES AND ALCOHOL CONTAINING DRINKS FROM ITALY, BULGARIA AND POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Muchacka

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We studied Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations in low quality wines produced in Bulgaria and Italy and in alcohol containing multi-fruit drinks produced in Poland. All the metals were present in tested products. Cadmium was not detected in Italian and Polish products. In one of the Bulgarian wines cadmium was detected in concentration of 0.004 mg•l-1. Italian wines were not contaminated with Pb. Its concentration was the highest in Polish drinks (0.88±0.52 mg•l-1. The largest and statistically significant differences occurred between Cu and Zn contents. Both metals had the highest concetrations in Italian wines (Cu - 0.13±0.05 mg•l-1; Zn - 0.83±0.56 mg•l-1, and the lowest in Polish products (Cu - 0.04±0.001 mg•l-1; Zn -0.18±0.16 mg•l-1.

  7. Transport of trace metals in the Magela Creek system, Northern Territory. I. Concentrations and loads of iron, manganese, cadmium, copper, lead and zinc during flood periods in the 1978-1979 wet season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, B.T.; Davies, S.H.R.; Thomas, P.A.

    1981-12-01

    In order that realistic effluent standards may be established for the Ranger uranium operations at Jabiru, Northern Territory, it is necessary that there be a clear and detailed knowledge of the pre-mining levels of trace metals and their behaviour within the Magela Creek system. During the wet season, floodwaters were sampled for conductivity, suspended solids and the trace metals, iron, manganese, cadmium, copper, lead and zinc. All concentrations were found to be very low, as were the denudation rates for the trace metals and suspended materials

  8. DISSOLVED ORGANIC-MATTER, CADMIUM, COPPER AND ZINC IN PIG SLURRY-SIZE AND SOIL SOLUTION-SIZE EXCLUSION CHROMATOGRAPHY FRACTIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DELCASTILHO, P; DALENBERG, JW; BRUNT, K; BRUINS, AP

    1993-01-01

    Sephadex size exclusion chromatography was used to prepare molecular size fractions from liquid pig slurry, before and after aerobic interaction with a loamy-sand soil. In the liquid fractions organic matter was characterized and some components were identified. The distribution of zinc and copper

  9. Soil-applied zinc and copper suppress cadmium uptake and improve the performance of cereals and legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaza, Ghulam; Javed, Wasim; Hussain, Amir; Qadir, Manzoor; Aslam, Muhammad

    2017-02-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of soil-applied Zn and Cu on absorption and accumulation of Cd applied through irrigation water in legume (chickpea and mung bean) and cereal (wheat and maize) crops. The results revealed that Cd in irrigation water at higher levels (2 and 5 mg L -1 ) significantly (p soil application of Zn and Cu, singly or combined, favored the biomass production. Plant tissue Cd concentration increased linearly with the increasing application of Cd via irrigation water. While Cd application caused a redistribution of metals in grains, straw, and roots with the highest concentration of Cd, Zn, and Cu occurred in roots followed by straw and grains. Zinc addition to soil alleviated Cd toxicity by decreasing Cd concentration in plant tissues due to a possible antagonistic effect. The addition of Cu to the soil had no consistent effects on Zn and Cd contents across all crops. Inhibitory effects of Cd on the uptake and accumulation of Zn and Cu have also been observed at higher Cd load. Thus, soil-applied Zn and Cu antagonized Cd helping the plant to cope with its toxicity and suppressed the toxic effects of Cd in plant tissues, thus favoring plant growth.

  10. Simultaneous preconcentration of copper, zinc, cadmium, and nickel in water samples by cloud point extraction using 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol and their determination by inductively coupled plasma optic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Edson Luiz; Santos Roldan, Paulo dos; Gine, Maria Fernanda

    2009-01-01

    A procedure for simultaneous separation/preconcentration of copper, zinc, cadmium, and nickel in water samples, based on cloud point extraction (CPE) as a prior step to their determination by inductively coupled plasma optic emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), has been developed. The analytes reacted with 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol (PAR) at pH 5 to form hydrophobic chelates, which were separated and preconcentrated in a surfactant-rich phase of octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114). The parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of the proposed method, such as sample pH, complexing agent concentration, buffer amount, surfactant concentration, temperature, kinetics of complexation reaction, and incubation time were optimized and their respective values were 5, 0.6 mmol L -1 , 0.3 mL, 0.15% (w/v), 50 deg. C, 40 min, and 10 min for 15 mL of preconcentrated solution. The method presented precision (R.S.D.) between 1.3% and 2.6% (n = 9). The concentration factors with and without dilution of the surfactant-rich phase for the analytes ranged from 9.4 to 10.1 and from 94.0 to 100.1, respectively. The limits of detection (L.O.D.) obtained for copper, zinc, cadmium, and nickel were 1.2, 1.1, 1.0, and 6.3 μg L -1 , respectively. The accuracy of the procedure was evaluated through recovery experiments on aqueous samples.

  11. Canadian House Dust Study: Population-based concentrations, loads and loading rates of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc inside urban homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Pat E. [Exposure and Biomonitoring Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 50 Colombine Driveway, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0K9 (Canada); Department of Earth Sciences, University of Ottawa, 140 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada); Levesque, Christine [Exposure and Biomonitoring Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 50 Colombine Driveway, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0K9 (Canada); Chénier, Marc; Gardner, H. David [Exposure and Biomonitoring Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 50 Colombine Driveway, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0K9 (Canada); Department of Earth Sciences, University of Ottawa, 140 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada); Jones-Otazo, Heather [Regions and Programs Branch, Health Canada, 180 Queen Street West, Toronto, ON, Canada M5V 3L7 (Canada); Petrovic, Sanya [Contaminated Sites Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 269 Laurier Ave West, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0K9 (Canada)

    2013-01-15

    The Canadian House Dust Study was designed to obtain nationally representative urban house dust metal concentrations (μg g{sup −1}) and metal loadings (μg m{sup −2}) for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). Consistent sampling of active dust of known age and provenance (area sampled) also permitted the calculation of indoor loading rates (mg m{sup −2} day{sup −1} for dust and μg m{sup −2} day{sup −1} for metals) for the winter season (from 2007 to 2010) when houses are most tightly sealed. Geomean/median indoor dust loading rates in homes located more than 2 km away from industry of any kind (9.6/9.1 mg m{sup −2} day{sup −1}; n = 580) were significantly lower (p < .001) than geomean (median) dust loading rates in homes located within 2 km of industry (13.5/13.4 mg m{sup −2} day{sup −1}; n = 421). Proximity to industry was characterized by higher indoor metal loading rates (p < .003), but no difference in dust metal concentrations (.29 ≥ p ≤ .97). Comparisons of non-smokers' and smokers' homes in non-industrial zones showed higher metal loading rates (.005 ≥ p ≤ .038) in smokers' homes, but no difference in dust metal concentrations (.15 ≥ p ≤ .97). Relationships between house age and dust metal concentrations were significant for Pb, Cd and Zn (p < .001) but not for the other four metals (.14 ≥ p ≤ .87). All seven metals, however, displayed a significant increase in metal loading rates with house age (p < .001) due to the influence of higher dust loading rates in older homes (p < .001). Relationships between three measures of metals in house dust – concentration, load, and loading rate – in the context of house age, smoking behavior and urban setting consistently show that concentration data is a useful indicator of the presence of metal sources in the home, whereas dust mass is the overriding influence on metal loadings and loading rates

  12. Environmental hazard of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in metal-contaminated soils remediated by sulfosuccinamate formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Carmen Hernández-Soriano, Maria; Peña, Aránzazu; Mingorance, M Dolores

    2011-10-01

    Accumulation of metals in soil at elevated concentrations causes risks to the environmental quality and human health for more than one hundred million people globally. The rate of metal release and the alteration of metal distribution in soil phases after soil washing with a sulfosuccinamate surfactant solution (Aerosol 22) were evaluated for four contaminated soils. Furthermore, a sequential extraction scheme was carried out using selective extractants (HAcO, NH(2)OH·HCl, H(2)O(2) + NH(4)AcO) to evaluate which metal species are extracted by A22 and the alteration in metal distribution upon surfactant-washing. Efficiency of A22 to remove metals varied among soils. The washing treatment released up to 50% of Cd, 40% of Cu, 20% of Pb and 12% of Zn, mainly from the soluble and reducible soil fractions, therefore, greatly reducing the fraction of metals readily available in soil. Metal speciation analysis for the solutions collected upon soil washing with Aerosol 22 further confirmed these results. Copper and lead in solution were mostly present as soluble complexes, while Cd and Zn were present as free ions. Besides, redistribution of metals in soil was observed upon washing. The ratios of Zn strongly retained in the soil matrix and Cd complexed with organic ligands increased. Lead was mobilized to more weakly retained forms, which indicates a high bioavailability of the remaining Pb in soil after washing. Comprehensive knowledge on chemical forms of metals present in soil allows a feasible assessment of the environmental impact of metals for a given scenario, as well as possible alteration of environmental conditions, and a valuable prediction for potential leaching and groundwater contamination.

  13. Copper, lead and zinc production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayers, J.; Ternan, S.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter provides information on the by-products and residues generated during the production of copper, lead and zinc. The purpose of this chapter is to describe by-products and residues which are generated, how these may be avoided or minimised, and available options for the utilization and management of residues. (author)

  14. The flotation as separation method of trace amounts of cadmium, copper, zinc, and manganese by means of bromopyrogallol red and o-phemanthroline. Examination of compounds obtained in the floatation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skorko-Trybula, Z.; Kozinska, E.

    1981-01-01

    The high degree of concentration obtained during flotation and application of atomic absorption as a method of final determination, being characterized by low determination limits (Cd 0.2 ng/ml; Zn 0.5 ng/ml; Mn 1 ng/ml; Cu 1 ng/ml) have enabled analysis of real containing 10 -4 -10 -6 % of trace metals. Various tests were carried out to investigate the composition and structure of the metal-bromopyrogallol red (BPGR)-phenanthroline (fen) systems formed in the aqueous phase. It may be also assumed that cadmium and zinc cations, coordinated by phenanthroline form ion-pairs with the anions of Bromopyrogallol Red whereas copper and manganese form ternary complexes which have two kinds of ligands in the coordination sphere of the cation. (author)

  15. [A comparative study of cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic, selenium, manganese, copper and zinc in brown rice and fish by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic absorption spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Harumi; Ueno, Eiji; Saito, Isao; Matsumoto, Hiroshi

    2004-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the applicability of ICP-MS techniques for determination of metals in brown rice and fish. Cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic, selenium, manganese, copper and zinc were determined by this method. An open digestion with nitric acid (Method A) and a rapid open digestion with nitric acid and hydrochloric acid (Method B) were used to solubilize analytes in samples, and these procedures were followed by ICP-MS analysis. Recovery of certified elements from standard reference materials by Method A and Method B ranged from 92 to 110% except for mercury (70 to 100%). Analytical results of brown rice and fish samples obtained by this ICP-MS agreed with those obtained by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The results of this study demonstrate that quadrupole ICP-MS provides precise and accurate measurements of the elements tested in brown rice and fish samples.

  16. SUBSTITUTION OF CADMIUM CYANIDE ELECTROPLATING WITH ZINC CHLORIDE ELECTROPLATING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study evaluated the zinc chloride electroplating process as a substitute for cadmium cyanide electroplating in the manufacture of industrial connectors and fittings at Aeroquip Corporation. The process substitution eliminates certain wastes, specifically cadmium and cyanide, ...

  17. The relationship between maternal blood cadmium, zinc levels and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The delivery of babies with low birth weight is a prognosis of neonatal mortality, morbidity and poor health outcomes later in life. This study evaluates the levels of cadmium, zinc and calculated cadmium/zinc ratio in non-occupationally exposed pregnant women at delivery and their relationship with birth weight of babies.

  18. Cadmium and Cadmium/Zinc Ratios and Tobacco-Related Morbidities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Patricia; Faroon, Obaid; Pappas, R. Steven

    2017-01-01

    Metals are one of five major categories of carcinogenic or toxic constituents in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Cadmium is highly volatile and a higher percentage of the total tobacco cadmium content is efficiently transferred to mainstream tobacco smoke than many other toxic metals in tobacco. Inhaled cadmium bioaccumulates in the lungs and is distributed beyond the lungs to other tissues, with a total body biological half-life of one to two decades. Chronic cadmium exposure through tobacco use elevates blood and urine cadmium concentrations. Cadmium is a carcinogen, and an inducer of proinflammatory immune responses. Elevated exposure to cadmium is associated with reduced pulmonary function, obstructive lung disease, bronchogenic carcinoma, cardiovascular diseases including myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, pancreatic cancer, and various oral pathologies. Cadmium and zinc have a toxicologically inverse relationship. Zinc is an essential element and is reportedly antagonistic to some manifestations of cadmium toxicity. This review summarizes associations between blood, urine, and tissue cadmium concentrations with emphasis on cadmium exposure due to tobacco use and several disease states. Available data about zinc and cadmium/zinc ratios and tobacco-related diseases is summarized from studies reporting smoking status. Collectively, data suggest that blood, urine, and tissue cadmium and cadmium/zinc ratios are often significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers and they are also different in smokers for several diseases and cancers. Additional biomonitoring data such as blood or serum and urine zinc and cadmium levels and cadmium/zinc ratios in smokers may provide further insight into the development and progression of diseases of the lung, cardiovascular system, and possibly other organs. PMID:28961214

  19. Cadmium and Cadmium/Zinc Ratios and Tobacco-Related Morbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Patricia; Faroon, Obaid; Pappas, R Steven

    2017-09-29

    Metals are one of five major categories of carcinogenic or toxic constituents in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Cadmium is highly volatile and a higher percentage of the total tobacco cadmium content is efficiently transferred to mainstream tobacco smoke than many other toxic metals in tobacco. Inhaled cadmium bioaccumulates in the lungs and is distributed beyond the lungs to other tissues, with a total body biological half-life of one to two decades. Chronic cadmium exposure through tobacco use elevates blood and urine cadmium concentrations. Cadmium is a carcinogen, and an inducer of proinflammatory immune responses. Elevated exposure to cadmium is associated with reduced pulmonary function, obstructive lung disease, bronchogenic carcinoma, cardiovascular diseases including myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, pancreatic cancer, and various oral pathologies. Cadmium and zinc have a toxicologically inverse relationship. Zinc is an essential element and is reportedly antagonistic to some manifestations of cadmium toxicity. This review summarizes associations between blood, urine, and tissue cadmium concentrations with emphasis on cadmium exposure due to tobacco use and several disease states. Available data about zinc and cadmium/zinc ratios and tobacco-related diseases is summarized from studies reporting smoking status. Collectively, data suggest that blood, urine, and tissue cadmium and cadmium/zinc ratios are often significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers and they are also different in smokers for several diseases and cancers. Additional biomonitoring data such as blood or serum and urine zinc and cadmium levels and cadmium/zinc ratios in smokers may provide further insight into the development and progression of diseases of the lung, cardiovascular system, and possibly other organs.

  20. Effect of metallothionein core promoter region polymorphism on cadmium, zinc and copper levels in autopsy kidney tissues from a Turkish population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayaalti, Zeliha; Mergen, Goerkem; Soeylemezoglu, Tuelin

    2010-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are metal-binding, low molecular weight proteins and are involved in pathophysiological processes like metabolism of essential metals, metal ion homeostasis and detoxification of heavy metals. Metallothionein expression is induced by various heavy metals especially cadmium, mercury and zinc; MTs suppress toxicity of heavy metals by binding themselves to these metals. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the - 5 A/G metallothionein 2A (MT2A) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and Cd, Zn and Cu levels in the renal cortex from autopsy cases. MT2A core promoter region - 5 A/G SNP was analyzed by PCR-RFLP method using 114 autopsy kidney tissues and the genotype frequencies of this polymorphism were found as 87.7% homozygote typical (AA), 11.4% heterozygote (AG) and 0.9% homozygote atypical (GG). In order to assess the Cd, Zn and Cu levels in the same autopsy kidney tissues, a dual atomic absorption spectrophotometer system was used and the average levels of Cd, Zn and Cu were measured as 95.54 ± 65.58 μg/g, 181.20 ± 87.72 μg/g and 17.14 ± 16.28 μg/g, respectively. As a result, no statistical association was found between the - 5 A/G SNP in the MT2A gene and the Zn and Cu levels in the renal cortex (p > 0.05), but considerably high accumulation of Cd was monitored for individuals having AG (151.24 ± 60.21 μg/g) and GG genotypes (153.09 μg/g) compared with individuals having AA genotype (87.72 ± 62.98 μg/g) (p < 0.05). These results show that the core promoter region polymorphism of metallothionein 2A increases the accumulation of Cd in human renal cortex.

  1. An experimental study of the retention of zinc, zinc-cadmium mixture and zinc-65 in the presence of cadmium in Anguilla anguilla (L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pally, Monique; Foulquier, Luc

    1976-07-01

    Zinc uptake was studied in eels in fresh water, using stable zinc, a zinc-cadmium mixture, and zinc 65 in the presence of small amounts of cadmium. The zinc content in the eel began to increase after 45 days only, and reached approximately 85 ppm after 76 days in water initially containing 5ppm of zinc. At the conclusion of the experiment (76 days), the body organs could be classified in decreasing order in zinc content (in ppm): kidneys (152), skeleton (133), skin (129), muscles (89), head (80), gills (78), digestive tract (77), liver (63) spleen-heart-air bladder (32), and mucus (15). A comparison of experimental results obtained with the zinc-cadmium mixture and cadmium alone showed that zinc decreased the cadmium content of all organs except the gills. The presence of cadmium in water did not inhibit zinc uptake. As cadmium content in water increased, then zinc content in the digestive tract and the kidneys decreased and in all cases remained lower than when zinc alone was present. In the presence of cadmium the percentage of zinc in the kidneys was always lower than the value obtained for zinc alone, and that of the digestive tract did not increase. Contamination of eels treated with 18 and 50ppb of cadmium for 29 days, then contaminated by zinc-65 (5μCi/l) while maintaining the same low cadmium content, showed no significant difference in zinc 65 uptake in the two groups. The same applied to the body organs, and particularly the digestive tract and kidneys, where the highest activity levels were observed. By weight, muscles represented approximately 30% of the total contamination after 45 days [fr

  2. Influence of diethyldithiocarbamate on cadmium and copper toxicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    Abstract. Toxic effects of two heavy metals, cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu), and a fungicide, .... mining 50% morbid concentrations (MC50) and 50% inhibition .... WHITTON B and SHEHATA F (1982) Influence of cobalt, nickel, copper.

  3. Anaerobic Digestion Alters Copper and Zinc Speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legros, Samuel; Levard, Clément; Marcato-Romain, Claire-Emmanuelle; Guiresse, Maritxu; Doelsch, Emmanuel

    2017-09-19

    Anaerobic digestion is a widely used organic waste treatment process. However, little is known on how it could alter the speciation of contaminants in organic waste. This study was focused on determining the influence of anaerobic digestion on the speciation of copper and zinc, two metals that generally occur at high concentration in organic waste. Copper and zinc speciation was investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy in four different raw organic wastes (predigestion) and their digested counterparts (postdigestion, i.e., digestates). The results highlighted an increase in the digestates of the proportion of amorphous or nanostructured copper sulfides as well as amorphous or nanostructured zinc sulfides and zinc phosphate as compared to raw waste. We therefore suggest that the environmental fate of these elements would be different when spreading either digestates or raw waste on cropland.

  4. Potentiometric titration of zinc and cadmium in electrolytes of in galvanic baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosyuga, E.A.; Kalugin, A.A.; Gur'ev, I.A.

    1979-01-01

    The method of potentiometric titration of zinc and cadmium by complexone 3 in electrolytes of galvanic baths using sulphide - silver electrode for determining the finite point of titration is suggested. Copper (2) ions are proposed as indicator ions. The potentiometric determination should be performed at pH=10. The method is verified on model electrolyte solutions and on the electrolyte solutions of operating baths.The technique can be used for automatic control. The time for analysis is 10 minutes

  5. Reactions of organic zinc- and cadmium elementoxides with ethylene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodonov, V.A.; Krasnov, Yu.N.

    1980-01-01

    Studied are reactions of triphenylmethoxy, -triphenylsiloxyethylzinc and -cadmium with ethylene oxide in ratio of 1:1. Reactions have been carried out in tolyene solutions in ampules sealed in argon atmosphere. It is found that interaction of triphenylsiloxy-, triphenylmethoxyethylcadmium and triphenylsiloxyethylzinc with ethylene oxide occurs at the metal-carbon bond with formation of implantation products. Triphenylmethoxyethylzinc reacts with ethylene oxide both at the metal-carbon and metal-oxygen bonds. Alkoxytriphenylsiloxyderivatives of zinc and cadmium are thermally instable and decompose under the conditions of reaction (130 deg C) with migration of phenyl group from silicon to zinc or cadmium, giving alkoxyphenylderivative and with bensene splitting out

  6. Assessment of Copper, Cadmium and Lead in Organical Matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, Ariel

    2000-08-01

    In this report the electrochemical method of differential pulse anode voltametry redisolution voltametry is used to quantitative assessment of copper, cadmium and lead in solution. The methodology is described in the preparation of samples for measurement

  7. Separation of cadmium from solutions containing high concentration of zinc ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, K.D.; Bhutani, A.K.; Parvathisem, P.

    1984-01-01

    In hydrometallurgical process of extracting cadmium as a byproduct, zinc dust is added for separation of cadmium as cadimum sponge. High amounts of zinc are quite often noticed in the cadmium electrolyte subjected for electrowinning of the metal. This leads to poor quality of cadmium deposit and lower current efficiencies. Study of cadmium sponge cementation process revealed that zinc dust may be added to an acidic cadmium solution for precipitation of cadmium sponge without neutralization of the free acidity present in the system. This fact is utilized for obtaining a high cadmium sponge with 75-80 per cent cadmium and 5-10 per cent zinc with 98 per cent recovery of cadmium from the solution as sponge. The suggested process is confirmed in a cadmium production plant producing 11.0 MT of cadmium per month. (author)

  8. Reagent conditions of the flotation of copper, copper - molybdenum and copper -zinc ores in foreing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevaeva, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Reagents-collectors and frothers, used abroad in reagent regimes of flotation of copper, copper-molybdenum and copper zinc ores, have been considered. Xanthogenates, aerofloats, xanthogenformiates, thionocarbamates are mainly used as reagents-collectors. Methylizobutylcarbinol and Daufros are used as reagents-frothers

  9. Simultaneous Automatic Electrochemical Detection of Zinc, Cadmium, Copper and Lead Ions in Environmental Samples Using a Thin-Film Mercury Electrode and an Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Kudr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study a device for automatic electrochemical analysis was designed. A three electrodes detection system was attached to a positioning device, which enabled us to move the electrode system from one well to another of a microtitre plate. Disposable carbon tip electrodes were used for Cd(II, Cu(II and Pb(II ion quantification, while Zn(II did not give signal in this electrode configuration. In order to detect all mentioned heavy metals simultaneously, thin-film mercury electrodes (TFME were fabricated by electrodeposition of mercury on the surface of carbon tips. In comparison with bare electrodes the TMFEs had lower detection limits and better sensitivity. In addition to pure aqueous heavy metal solutions, the assay was also performed on mineralized rock samples, artificial blood plasma samples and samples of chicken embryo organs treated with cadmium. An artificial neural network was created to evaluate the concentrations of the mentioned heavy metals correctly in mixture samples and an excellent fit was observed (R2 = 0.9933.

  10. Coprecipitation of cadmium with copper 8-hydroxyquinolate from homogeneous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takiyama, Kazuyoshi; Kozen, Terumi; Ueki, Yasuyo; Ishida, Hiromi

    1976-01-01

    The coprecipitation of copper and cadmium 8-hydroxyquinolates from homogeneous solution was conducted from the viewpoint of crystal and analytical chemistry. To the mixed solution containing copper and cadmium ions an 8-acetoxyquinoline solution was added by keeping the pH of the solution at 9 and the resulted solution was stirred at 25 0 C. The precipitate formed at each stage of the reaction was analyzed. The precipitates in an initial stage were composed of needle crystals which characterizes copper 8-hydroxyquinolate, and were associated with a slight amount of cadmium. The first half of the coprecipitation curve for the needle crystal formation resembles the logarithmic distribution curve of lambda equal to about 0.01. The precipitation of most of the copper ions was followed by the precipitation of cadmium 8-hydroxyquinolate crystal in the plate form. The needle crystals of copper 8-hydroxyquinolate started to dissolve and transformed to plate crystals. In the second half of the coprecipitation, both crystals, owing to the identical crystal structure, precipitated simultaneously and form a solid solution. When cadmium 8-hydroxyquinolate was precipitated by the PFHS method (precipitation from homogeneous solution) in the presence of the needle crystals of copper 8-hydroxyquinolate, the above mentioned phenomenon was observed. The precipitation of cadmium 8-hydroxyquinolate in the plate form is due to the seeding effect of the plate crystals of copper 8-hydroxyquinolate, which were scantily transformed from the needle crystals. The plate crystals of cadmium compound acts as a seed to transform the needle crystals of copper compound to plate crystals. (auth.)

  11. Acidic leaching of potentially toxic metals cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc from two Zn smelting slag materials incubated in an acidic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Taoze; Li, Feili; Jin, Zhisheng; Yang, Yuangen

    2018-07-01

    A column leaching study, coupled with acid deposition simulation, was conducted to investigate the leaching of potentially toxic metals (PTM) from zinc smelting slag materials (SSM) after being incubated in an acid Alfisol for 120 days at room temperature. Two SSMs (SSM-A: acidic, 10 yrs exposure with moderate high PTM concentrations versus SSM-B: alkaline, 2 yrs exposure with extremely high PTM concentrations), were used for the incubation at 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 wt% amendment ratios in triplicate. Five leaching events were conducted at day 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28, and the leaching of PTMs mainly occurred in the first three leaching events, with the highest PTM concentrations in leachate measured from 5 wt% SSM amendments. After leaching, 2.5, 12, 5.5, 14, 11, and 9 wt% of M3 extractable Pb, Zn, Cd, Co, Cr, and Ni could be released from 5 wt% SSM-A amended soils, being respectively 25, 12, 4, 2, 2, and 2 times more than those from 5 wt% SSM-B amended soils. In the leachates, the concentrations of PTMs were mostly affected by leachant pH and were closely correlated to the concentrations of Fe, Al, Ca, Mg and P with Cd, Pb, and Zn showing the most environmental concern. Visual MINTEQ 3.1 modeling suggested metallic ions and sulfate forms as the common chemical species of PTMs in the leachates; whereas, organic bound species showed importance for Cd, Pb, Cu, and Ni, and CdCl + was observed for Cd. Aluminum hydroxy, phosphate, and sulfate minerals prevailed as the saturated minerals, followed by chloropyromorphite (Pb 5 (PO 4 ) 3 Cl) and plumbogummite (PbAl 3 (PO 4 ) 2 (OH) 5 ·H 2 O) in the leachates. This study suggested that incubation of SSMs in acidic soil for a long term can enhance the release of PTMs as the forms of metallic ions and sulfate when subjected to acid deposition leaching. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Production of high purity granular metals: cadmium, zinc, lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shcherban A. P.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium, zinc and lead are constituent components of many semiconductor compounds. The obtained high purity distillates and ingots are large-size elements, which is not always convenient to use, and thus require additional grinding, which does not always allow maintaining the purity of the original materials. For the growth of semiconductor and scintillation single crystals it is advisable to use "friable" granular high-purity distillates, which can be processed without the risk of contamination. For example, the European low-background experiment LUCIFER required more than 20 kg of high-purity granulated zinc, which was agreed to be supplied by NSC KIPT. This task was then extended to cadmium and lead. Motivated by these tasks, the authors of this paper propose complex processes of deep refining of cadmium, zinc and lead by vacuum distillation. A device producing granules has been developed. The process of granulation of high-purity metals is explored. The purity of produced granules for cadmium and zinc is >99,9999, and >99,9995% for lead granules. To prevent oxidation of metal granules during exposition to air, chemical methods of surface passivation were used. Organic solvent based on dimethylformamide used as a coolant improves the resistance of granules to atmospheric corrosion during the granulation of high purity Cd, Zn and Pb.

  13. Thermoelectric material comprising scandium doped zinc cadmium oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    There is presented a composition of scandium doped Zinc Cadmium Oxide with the general formula ZnzCdxScyO which the inventors have prepared, and for which material the inventors have made the insight that it is particularly advantageous as an n-type oxide material, such as particularly advantageous...

  14. Evaluation of some trace elements (zinc, chromium, cadmium and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Throughout the world, tuberculosis (TB) infection is on the increase and it has remained one of the most important causes of death among adults in developing countries. This study evaluated the serum concentrations of some trace elements -Zinc (Zn), Manganese (Mn), Chromium (Cr) and Cadmium (Cd), in 100 blood ...

  15. Problem of cadmium, arsenic and zinc determination in enviroment samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malyugin, M.S.; Luzhnova, M.A.; Lontsikh, S.V.

    1983-01-01

    Using the emission spectroscopy technique new information has been obtained on cadmium-, arsenic and zinc content in some reference samples (RS) of rocks and soils not previously certified as to the content of the elements, as well as in nealy issued RS of soils. Metrologic estimation of the results obtained is carried out. A comparison with the atomic-absorption analysis data as well as with those of the neutron-activation-, colorimetric and other methods of the analysis permits to refer to the advantages of using the spectrographic determination technique based on fractionated evaporation, in case of determining cadmium and arsenic in rocks and soils. Consideration of the results of cadmium, arsenic and zinc spectrography contributed greatly to the certification of reference samples of soils

  16. Copper and zinc concentrations in serum of healthy Greek adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouremenou-Dona, Eleni; Dona, Artemis; Papoutsis, John; Spiliopoulou, Chara

    2006-01-01

    Serum copper and zinc concentrations of 506 (414 males and 92 females) apparently healthy Greek blood donors aged 18-60 years old were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean copper and zinc concentrations were 115.46 ± 23.56 μg/dl and 77.11 ± 17.67 μg/dl, respectively. The mean value for copper and zinc in females was higher than in males, although the difference for zinc was smaller than the one observed for copper. When the subjects were divided into various age groups there appeared to be some increase in copper concentration as a function of age, whereas zinc concentration did not change. There were no significant variations in serum copper and zinc concentrations due to place of residence, occupation and socioeconomic status. This study is the first one evaluating the serum status of copper and zinc in healthy Greeks and it has shown that they are at the highest concentration range for copper and the lowest for zinc compared to literature data on copper and zinc levels for various countries

  17. Copper and zinc concentrations in serum of healthy Greek adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouremenou-Dona, Eleni [A' Hospital of IKA, Athens (Greece); Dona, Artemis [Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Medical School, University of Athens, M. Asias 75, Goudi, 11527 Athens (Greece)]. E-mail: artedona@med.uoa.gr; Papoutsis, John [Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Medical School, University of Athens, M. Asias 75, Goudi, 11527 Athens (Greece); Spiliopoulou, Chara [Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Medical School, University of Athens, M. Asias 75, Goudi, 11527 Athens (Greece)

    2006-04-15

    Serum copper and zinc concentrations of 506 (414 males and 92 females) apparently healthy Greek blood donors aged 18-60 years old were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean copper and zinc concentrations were 115.46 {+-} 23.56 {mu}g/dl and 77.11 {+-} 17.67 {mu}g/dl, respectively. The mean value for copper and zinc in females was higher than in males, although the difference for zinc was smaller than the one observed for copper. When the subjects were divided into various age groups there appeared to be some increase in copper concentration as a function of age, whereas zinc concentration did not change. There were no significant variations in serum copper and zinc concentrations due to place of residence, occupation and socioeconomic status. This study is the first one evaluating the serum status of copper and zinc in healthy Greeks and it has shown that they are at the highest concentration range for copper and the lowest for zinc compared to literature data on copper and zinc levels for various countries.

  18. Vapour galvanizing (Sherardizing) of copper with zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wortelen, Dietbert; Bracht, Hartmut [Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster (Germany); Natrup, Frank; Graf, Wolfram [Bodycote Waermebehandlung GmbH, Sprockhoevel (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Using a vapour galvanizing technique called Sherardizing we investigated the growth kinetics and coefficients of zinc copper phases. For this purpose polished (OFHC)-copper plates and zinc powder have been sealed in quartz ampoules under inert gas atmospheres and annealed at a temperature range between 300 and 410 C. In order to study the coating thickness and the phase composition, cross sections were prepared, which have been analyzed by means of optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. We were able to demonstrate that the coating thickness is a function of the parabolic time law and that the formed coatings are composed of two layers referring to the ordered {beta}-CuZn and {gamma}-Cu{sub 5}Zn{sub 8}-phases. To enhance the coating quality, small amounts of ZnCl{sub 2} were added to the zinc powder. It was observed that the coating thickness decreased with increasing ZnCl{sub 2}. Experiments with variable Ar-pressure demonstrated a reduced coating growth with increasing pressures. Further measurements with ZnCl{sub 2} were performed to check whether an electrochemical mechanism is involved in the coating process.

  19. Cadmium accumulation by Axonopus compressus (Sw.) P. Beauv and Cyperus rotundas Linn growing in cadmium solution and cadmium-zinc contaminated soil

    OpenAIRE

    Paitip Thiravetyan; Vibol Sao; Woranan Nakbanpote

    2007-01-01

    This research investigated the phyto-remediation potentials of Cyperus rotundas Linn (Nutgrass) and Axonopus compressus (Sw.) P. Beauv (Carpetgrass) for cadmium removal from cadmium solution andcadmium-zinc contaminated soil. Plants growth in the solution showed that cadmium decreased the relative growth rate of both grasses. However, the amount of cadmium accumulated in shoot and root was increasedwith the increase in cadmium concentration and exposure time. Growth in fertile soil mixed with...

  20. Serum zinc, copper, retinol-binding protein, prealbumin, and ceruloplasmin concentrations in infants receiving intravenous zinc and copper supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockitch, G; Godolphin, W; Pendray, M R; Riddell, D; Quigley, G

    1983-02-01

    One hundred twenty-seven newborn infants requiring parenteral nutrition were randomly assigned to receive differing amounts of zinc (40 to 400 micrograms/kg/day) and copper (20 or 40 micrograms/kg/day) supplementation within five birth weight groups (600 to 2,500 gm). The serum zinc concentration remained relatively constant in the group receiving the most zinc supplementation after two weeks of therapy, but declined sharply in the groups receiving less supplementation. No effect of increased copper intake was noted on ceruloplasmin values, but a difference in serum copper concentrations was noted at two weeks. No correlation was noted between serum zinc and copper values or among those for serum zinc, retinol-binding protein, and prealbumin. Reference ranges were defined for serum zinc, copper, retinol-binding protein, prealbumin, and ceruloplasmin in the preterm infant.

  1. Biovailability of copper and zinc in pig and cattle slurries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakubus, M.; Dach, J.; Starmans, D.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Slurry is an important source of macronutrients, micro-nutrients and organic matter. Despite the considerable fertilizer value of slurry, it may be abundant in amounts of copper and zinc originating from dietary. The study presents quantitative changes in copper and zinc in individual slurries (pig

  2. Trend analysis of copper and zinc in animal feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamse, P.; Egmond, van H.J.; Polanen, van A.; Bikker, P.; Jong, de J.

    2011-01-01

    The EC has introduced maximum inclusion levels of copper and zinc salts in animal diets from 1970 onwards and reduced these levels in recent years. In this report historical values are used to give insight into trends in levels of copper and zinc in compound feeds for animals in the Netherlands. The

  3. A theoretical and experimental study of calcium, iron, zinc, cadmium, and sodium ions absorption by aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnam, Karim; Raisi, Fatame

    2017-03-01

    Aspartame (L-Aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) is a sweet dipeptide used in some foods and beverages. Experimental studies show that aspartame causes osteoporosis and some illnesses, which are similar to those of copper and calcium deficiency. This raises the issue that aspartame in food may interact with cations and excrete them from the body. This study aimed to study aspartame interaction with calcium, zinc, iron, sodium, and cadmium ions via molecular dynamics simulation (MD) and spectroscopy. Following a 480-ns molecular dynamics simulation, it became clear that the aspartame is able to sequester Fe 2+ , Ca 2+ , Cd 2+ , and Zn 2+ ions for a long time. Complexation led to increasing UV-Vis absorption spectra and emission spectra of the complexes. This study suggests a potential risk of cationic absorption of aspartame. This study suggests that purification of cadmium-polluted water by aspartame needs a more general risk assessment.

  4. Cadmium and zinc accumulation in soybean: A threat to food safety?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shute, Tracy; Macfie, Sheila M.

    2006-01-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to quantify cadmium and zinc accumulated by soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) when the metals were supplied separately and together. The highest dose of cadmium (100 mg/kg) reduced plant height and dry weight (down to 40% and 34% of control, respectively); the highest dose of zinc (2000 mg/kg) reduced plant height to 55% of control and dry weight to 70% of control. With both metals present, the plants were approximately the same size as those treated with cadmium only. The concentration of cadmium in the roots was unaffected by zinc. In other tissues, the effect of zinc on the accumulation of cadmium depended on the doses provided. At low doses, the addition of zinc reduced the concentration of cadmium in aboveground tissues to 40-50% of that found in plants exposed to cadmium only. However, when applied in high doses, the presence of zinc in cadmium-contaminated soils increased the uptake and accumulation of cadmium in aboveground tissues by up to 42%. In contrast, at high doses, the presence of cadmium in zinc-contaminated soil resulted in approximately 35% lower concentrations of zinc in all tissues. At a lower dose, cadmium had no effect on concentration of zinc in the plant tissues. The effects of high doses of one metal on the uptake of the other metal can be partially explained by the effects of one metal on the bioavailability of the other metal. In soils to which only one metal was added, bioavailable cadmium was 70-80% of the total cadmium, and bioavailable zinc was 50-70% of the total zinc. When both metals were added to the soil, 80-100% of the cadmium and 46-60% of the zinc were bioavailable. Concentrations of both metals were highest in root tissues (10-fold higher for cadmium, and up to 2-fold higher for zinc). Although relatively little cadmium was translocated to pods and seeds, the seeds of all plants (including those from control and zinc-treated plants) had concentrations of cadmium 3-4 times above the limit of 0

  5. Gamma-ray peak shapes from cadmium zinc telluride detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namboodiri, M.N.; Lavietes, A.D.; McQuaid, J.H.

    1996-09-01

    We report the results of a study of the peak shapes in the gamma spectra measured using several 5 x 5 x 5 mm{sup 3} cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors. A simple parameterization involving a Gaussian and an exponential low energy tail describes the peak shapes sell. We present the variation of the parameters with gamma energy. This type of information is very useful in the analysis of complex gamma spectra consisting of many peaks.

  6. Regulating the electrodeposition of zinc and cadmium coatings with mixtures of o-oxyazomethyne derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigor'ev, V.P.; Shpan'ko, S.P.; Dymnikova, O.V.; Popov, L.D.

    2000-01-01

    The results of electrodeposition of zinc and cadmium metals from the sulfate electrolyte in presence of the organic compounds of the oxyazomethine reaction series are described. It is shown that the current dependences retardation coefficient and cathode polarization of electrodeposited zinc and cadmium are described by equations, following from the principle of the reaction and activation free energy linearity. The character of these dependence for the negatively charged zinc and positively charged cadmium cathodes is similar [ru

  7. Reduction kinetics of zinc and cadmium sulfides with hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turgenev, I.S.; Kabisov, I.Kh.; Zviadadze, G.N.; Vasil'eva, O.Yu.

    1985-01-01

    Kinetics of reduction processes of zinc sulfide in the temperature range 800-1100 deg C and of cadmium sulfide 600-900 deg C has been stodied. Activation energies and reaction order in terms of hydrogen are calculated. Thermodynamic processes of reduction depend on aggregate state of the metal formed. For vaporous zinc in the temperature range 1050-950 deq C activation energy constitutes 174 kJ/mol, for liquid in the range 900-850 deg - 151 kJ/mol and reaction order in terms of hydrogen is 1.0. For vaporous cadmium in the temperature range 900-700 deg C activation energy constitutes 144 kJ/mol and reaction order in terms of hydrogen is 0.86, for liquid in the range 675-600 deg C 127 kJ/mol and 0.8 respectively. The processes of zinc and cadmium sulfide reduction proceed in kinetic regime and are limited by the rate of chemical reaction

  8. Zinc-Nickel Codeposition in Sulfate Solution Combined Effect of Cadmium and Boric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Addi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined effect of cadmium and boric acid on the electrodeposition of zinc-nickel from a sulfate has been investigated. The presence of cadmium ion decreases zinc in the deposit. In solution, cadmium inhibits the zinc ion deposition and suppresses it when deposition potential value is more negative than −1.2 V. Low concentration of CdSO4 reduces the anomalous nature of Zn-Ni deposit. Boric acid decreases current density and shifts potential discharge of nickel and hydrogen to more negative potential. The combination of boric acid and cadmium increases the percentage of nickel in the deposit. Boric acid and cadmium.

  9. Effects of Nano-zinc on Biochemical Parameters in Cadmium-Exposed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazy, Marzie; Koohi, Mohammad Kazem

    2017-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic environmental and occupational pollutant with reported toxic effects on the kidneys, liver, lungs, bones, and the immunity system. Based on its physicochemical similarity to cadmium, zinc (Zn) shows protective effects against cadmium toxicity and cadmium accumulation in the body. Nano-zinc and nano-zinc oxide (ZnO), recently used in foods and pharmaceutical products, can release a great amount of Zn 2+ in their environment. This research was carried out to investigate the more potent properties of the metal zinc among sub-acute cadmium intoxicated rats. Seventy-five male Wistar rats were caged in 15 groups. Cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ) was used in drinking water to induce cadmium toxicity. Different sizes (15, 20, and 30 nm) and doses of nano-zinc particles (3, 10, 100 mg/kg body weight [bw]) were administered solely and simultaneously with CdCl 2 (2-5 mg/kg bw) for 28 days. The experimental animals were decapitated, and the biochemical biomarkers (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) were determined in their serum after oral exposure to nano-zinc and cadmium. Statistical analysis was carried out with a one-way ANOVA and t test. P zinc-treated rats. AST, ALT, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL, and free fatty acids increased significantly in the cadmium- and nano-zinc-treated rats compared with the controls. However, albumin, total protein, and HDLc significantly decreased in the cadmium- and nano-zinc-treated rats compared with the controls (P zinc, the smaller sizes with low doses and the larger sizes with high doses are more toxic than metallic zinc. In a few cases, an inverse dose-dependent relationship was seen as well. This research showed that in spite of larger sizes of zinc, smaller sizes of nano-zinc particles are not suitable for protection against cadmium intoxication.

  10. Influence of iron and zinc status on cadmium accumulation in Bangladeshi women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kippler, Maria; Ekstroem, Eva-Charlotte; Loennerdal, Bo; Goessler, Walter; Akesson, Agneta; El Arifeen, Shams; Persson, Lars-Ake; Vahter, Marie

    2007-01-01

    Cadmium is a widespread environmental contaminant present in food. The absorption in the intestine increases in individuals with low iron stores, but the effect of zinc deficiency is not clear. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of iron and zinc status on cadmium accumulation in pregnant Bangladeshi women. We measured cadmium in urine from 890 women using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Further, we also measured ferritin and zinc in plasma. The median cadmium concentration in urine was 0.59 μg/L (adjusted to mean specific gravity of 1.012 g/mL). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed that urinary cadmium was associated with plasma ferritin and plasma zinc via a significant interaction between dichotomized plasma ferritin and plasma zinc. The analysis was adjusted for age and socioeconomic status. Women with low iron stores and adequate zinc status had significantly higher urinary cadmium compared to women with both adequate iron stores and zinc status. There was no difference in urinary cadmium between women with both low iron stores and zinc status compared to those with both adequate iron stores and zinc status. In conclusion, low iron stores were associated with increased cadmium accumulation, but only at adequate zinc status

  11. Murine strain differences and the effects of zinc on cadmium concentrations in tissues after acute cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, L.M. [ARS USDA, Germplasm and Gamete Physiology Lab., Beltsville, MD (United States); Anderson, M.B. [Dept. of Anatomy, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); Sikka, S.C. [Dept. of Urology, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); George, W.J. [Dept. of Pharmacology, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1998-10-01

    The role of strain differences in cadmium tissue distribution was studied using sensitive (129/J) and resistant (A/J) mice. These murine strains have previously been shown to differ in their susceptibility to cadmium-induced testicular toxicity. Cadmium concentration was measured in testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, liver, and kidney at 24 h after cadmium chloride exposure (4, 10, and 20 {mu}mol/kg CdCl{sub 2}). The 129/J mice exhibited a significant increase in cadmium concentration in testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle at all cadmium doses used, compared to A/J mice. However, cadmium concentrations in liver and kidney were not different between the strains, at any dose, indicating that cadmium uptake is similar in these organs at 24 h. These murine strains demonstrate similar hepatic and renal cadmium uptake but significantly different cadmium accumulation in the reproductive organs at 24 h. The mechanism of the protective effect of zinc on cadmium toxicity was studied by assessing the impact of zinc acetate (ZnAc) treatment on cadmium concentrations in 129/J mice after 24 h. Zinc pretreatment (250 {mu}mol/kg ZnAc), given 24 h prior to 20 {mu}mol/kg CdCl{sub 2} administration, significantly decreased the amount of cadmium in the testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle of 129/J mice, and significantly increased the cadmium content of the liver after 24 h. Cadmium levels in the kidney were unaffected at this time. Zinc pretreatment also prevented the cadmium-induced decrease in testicular sperm concentration and epididymal sperm motility seen in 129/J mice. These findings suggest that the differences in the two murine strains may be attributed partly to the differential accumulation of cadmium in murine gonads. This may be caused by strain differences in the specificity of cadmium transport mechanisms. The protective role of zinc in cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in the sensitive strain may be due to an interference in the cadmium uptake by susceptible

  12. Analysis Of The Underpotential Deposition Of Cadmium On Copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalik R.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study the process of deposition of cadmium on polycrystalline copper electrode in sulfate solution was investigated. The process of underpotential and bulk deposition was analyzed by classical electrochemical method: cyclic voltammetry(CV, anodic stripping voltammetry(ASV and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance(EQCM. The obtained results were compared with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy(EIS measurements. CV, EQCM and EIS results suggest that the UPD of cadmium starts below potential −0.4 V vs Ag/AgCl. Additionally the stripping analysis indicates the formation of cadmium monolayer with different density of deposited atoms depending on the applied potential. The transition from UPD to bulk deposition occurs below potential −0,7 V.

  13. Phytochelatins as biomarkers for heavy metal stress in maize (Zea mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): combined effects of copper and cadmium.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keltjens, W.G.; Beusichem, van M.L.

    1998-01-01

    Abstract

    Heavy metal contaminated soils often show increased levels of more than one metal, e.g. copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb) or nickel (Ni). In case such soils are used for crop production, prediction of yield reduction or quality decline due to heavy metals in the soil

  14. Growth of cadmium oxide whiskers on cadmium sulphide single crystals with copper as growth activator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koparanova, N.; Simov, S. (Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia. Inst. po Fizika na Tvyrdoto Tyalo); Genchev, D. (Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia. Inst. za Yadrena Izsledvaniya i Yadrena Energetika); Metchenov, G. (Research Inst. of Criminalistics and Criminology, Sofia (Bulgaria))

    1985-02-01

    Some results on the growth and morphology of cadmium oxide whiskers, obtained on cadmium sulphide single crystals with copper as a growth activator, are presented in this work. Cadmium oxide whiskers have been obtained on brace 112-bar0 brace faces of cadmium sulphide plates with a copper layer deposited in advance. The whiskers grew during the annealing of the plates in a weak stream of technically pure argon at temperatures 670 to 730 deg C for 15 min to 3.5 h. Details about the procedure have been given elsewhere. The composition and morphology of the whiskers have been studied by an X-ray microanalyser JEOL 35 DDS and a scanning electron microscope JEOL, JSM 35. The optical microscopic observations have shown that after annealing, a gray-black granular layer is formed on the cadmium sulphide single crystals and this layer can easily be separated from the crystal substrate. Under the granular layer the crystal is heavily damaged. The whiskers grow on the granular layer and they are coloured yellow-brown or red-brown. The maximum whisker length attains several hundreds of micrometres and in some cases up to 1 mm or more.

  15. Growth of cadmium oxide whiskers on cadmium sulphide single crystals with copper as growth activator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koparanova, N.; Simov, S.

    1985-01-01

    Some results on the growth and morphology of cadmium oxide whiskers, obtained on cadmium sulphide single crystals with copper as a growth activator, are presented in this work. Cadmium oxide whiskers have been obtained on brace 112-bar0 brace faces of cadmium sulphide plates with a copper layer deposited in advance. The whiskers grew during the annealing of the plates in a weak stream of technically pure argon at temperatures 670 to 730 deg C for 15 min to 3.5 h. Details about the procedure have been given elsewhere. The composition and morphology of the whiskers have been studied by an X-ray microanalyser JEOL 35 DDS and a scanning electron microscope JEOL, JSM 35. The optical microscopic observations have shown that after annealing, a gray-black granular layer is formed on the cadmium sulphide single crystals and this layer can easily be separated from the crystal substrate. Under the granular layer the crystal is heavily damaged. The whiskers grow on the granular layer and they are coloured yellow-brown or red-brown. The maximum whisker length attains several hundreds of micrometres and in some cases up to 1 mm or more. (author)

  16. Determination of small amounts of zinc in cadmium with iodonitrotetrazolium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrov, A.; Kamburova, M.

    1976-01-01

    An extraction photometric method for determining small amounts of zinc in metallic cadmium with iodonitrotetrazolium chloride was suggested. This method is specific under the stipulated conditions. The mean standard deviation is 1.43%x0.01% zinc can be determined in cadmium. (author)

  17. Magnesium, zinc and copper estimation in children with attention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Magnesium, zinc and copper estimation in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... for children, Conners' parent rating scale, and Wisconsin's card sorting test.

  18. Copper Doping of Zinc Oxide by Nuclear Transmutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    Copper Doping of Zinc Oxide by Nuclear Transmutation THESIS Matthew C. Recker, Captain, USAF AFIT-ENP-14-M-30 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR...NUCLEAR TRANSMUTATION THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Engineering Physics Graduate School of Engineering and Management Air Force...COPPER DOPING OF ZINC OXIDE BY NUCLEAR TRANSMUTATION Matthew C. Recker, BS Captain, USAF Approved: //signed// 27 February 2014 John W. McClory, PhD

  19. Cadmium ban spurs interest in zinc-nickel coating for corrosive aerospace environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, J. (Pure Coatings Inc., West Palm Beach, FL (United States))

    1994-02-01

    OSHA recently reduced the permissible exposure level for cadmium. The new standard virtually outlaws cadmium production and use, except in the most cost-insensitive applications. Aerospace manufacturers, which use cadmium extensively in coatings applications because of the material's corrosion resistance, are searching for substitutes. The most promising alternative found to date is a zinc-nickel alloy. Tests show that the alloy outperforms cadmium without generating associated toxicity issues. As a result, several major manufacturing and standards organizations have adopted the zinc-nickel compound as a standard cadmium replacement. The basis for revising the cadmium PEL -- which applies to occupational exposure in industrial, agricultural and maritime occupations -- is an official OSHA determination that employees exposed to cadmium under the existing PEL face significant health risks from lung cancer and kidney damage. In one of its principal uses, cadmium is electroplated to steel, where it acts as an anticorrosive agent.

  20. Levels of lead, cadmium and zinc in vegetables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, G.; Haegglund, J.; Jorhem, L.

    1976-01-01

    The concentrations of lead, cadmium and zinc have been determined in 455 samples of fresh fruit, vegetables and mushrooms by dry ashing and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The lead content in all samples was in the range < 0.001-0.288 mg/kg, the mean being 0.02 mg/kg. Leaf vegetables (lettuce and spinach) showed higher values, mean 0.04 mg/kg. The mean values of the cadmium content in fruit, green vegetables, potatoes and root vegetables were 0.003, 0.013, 0.016 and 0.038 mg/kg respectively. The zinc contents were in the ppm range. The ratio Zn/Cd was also determined in some samples. All values concern edible parts and are calculated on wet weight basis. The fruit and vegetables were estimated to constitute about 2 percent and 8 percent respectively of the provisional tolerable weekly intake of these metals recommended by an FAO/WHO Expert Committee.

  1. Surface passivation of high purity granular metals: zinc, cadmium, lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirozhenko L. A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For the high purity metals (99.9999%, such as zinc, cadmium, and lead, which are widely used as initial components in growing semiconductor and scintillation crystals (CdTe, CdZnTe, ZnSe, (Cd, Zn, Pb WO4, (Cd, Zn, Pb MoO4 et al., it is very important to ensure reliable protection of the surface from oxidation and adsorption of impurities from the atmosphere. The specific features of surface passivation of high purity cadmium, lead and zinc are not sufficiently studied and require specific methodologies for further studies. The use of organic solutions in the schemes of chemical passivation of the investigated metals avoids hydrolysis of the obtained protective films. The use of organic solvents with pure cation and anion composition as the washing liquid prevents chemisorption of ions present in the conventionally used distilled water. This keeps the original purity of the granular metals. Novel compositions of etchants and etching scheme providing simultaneous polishing and passivation of high purity granular Zn, Cd and Pb are developed. Chemical passivation allows storing metals in the normal atmospheric conditions for more than half a year for Zn and Cd and up to 30 days for Pb without changing the state of the surface. The use of the glycerol-DMF solution in the processes for obtaining Pb granules provides self-passivation of metal surfaces and eliminates the additional chemical processing while maintaining the quality of corrosion protection.

  2. Enzymatic determination of cadmium, zinc, and lead in plant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muginova, S.V.; Veselova, I.A.; Parova, L.M.; Shekhovtseva, T.N.

    2008-01-01

    Prospects are outlined for using the following enzymes (native and immobilized on polyurethane foam) in the rapid and highly sensitive determination of cadmium, zinc, and lead ions in plant materials (wild grass, fresh pea, and grape): horseradish peroxidase and alkaline phosphatases isolated from chicken intestine and Greenland seal small intestine. The analytical ranges of the above metals are 1x10 -3 -25; 7x10 -3 -250, and 3x10 -2 -67 mg/kg dry matter, respectively. The enzymatic determination procedures developed are based on the inhibiting effect of metal ions on the catalytic activity of peroxidase in the oxidation of o-dianisidine with hydrogen peroxide and alkaline phosphatases in the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate. The rates of enzymatic reactions were monitored spectrophotometrically or visually. In the analysis of plant extracts, their high acidity was diminished by choosing optimum dilution factors and pH values for test samples and the nature and concentration of a buffer solution. The interference of iron(III) was removed by introducing a 0.1 M tartaric acid solution into the indicator reaction. The accuracy of the results of the enzymatic determination of cadmium, zinc, and lead in plant materials was supported by atomic absorption spectrometry and anodic stripping voltammetry [ru

  3. Inclusion free cadmium zinc tellurium and cadmium tellurium crystals and associated growth method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotnikov, Aleskey E [South Setauket, NY; James, Ralph B [Ridge, NY

    2010-07-20

    The present disclosure provides systems and methods for crystal growth of cadmium zinc tellurium (CZT) and cadmium tellurium (CdTe) crystals with an inverted growth reactor chamber. The inverted growth reactor chamber enables growth of single, large, high purity CZT and CdTe crystals that can be used, for example, in X-ray and gamma detection, substrates for infrared detectors, or the like. The inverted growth reactor chamber enables reductions in the presence of Te inclusions, which are recognized as an important limiting factor in using CZT or CdTe as radiation detectors. The inverted growth reactor chamber can be utilized with existing crystal growth techniques such as the Bridgman crystal growth mechanism and the like. In an exemplary embodiment, the inverted growth reactor chamber is a U-shaped ampoule.

  4. On the electrolytic crystallization of cadmium and zinc from acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedrich, H.D.; Raub, E.

    1975-01-01

    Zinc and cadmium can be precipitated from acidic sulphate electrolytes without addition of an inhibitor in compact form but only as coarse and rough crystals. Both metals exhibit a very different behaviour with electrolysis which is due to the greater tendency of the zinc sulphate to hydrolyze and the amphoteric character of the zinc hydroxide. The anodic dissociation, however especially the cathodic precipitation of the zinc are not inhibited by zinc hydroxide. Rathermore, a distinct depolarization can be seen. Anodic dissociation and cathodic precipitation of cadmium are inhibited by the presence of cadmium hydroxide arising from hydrolysis at corresponding pH-number: the polarization increases. The electrocrystallization of both hexagonally most densly packed crystallized metals takes place at the same electrolysis conditions with the occurence of different textures. The determining step for the discharge for the zinc precipitation obviously surpasses the zinc hydroxide at a sufficiently high pH. (GSC/LH) [de

  5. A zinc-resistant human epithelial cell line is impaired in cadmium and manganese import

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousselet, Estelle; Richaud, Pierre; Douki, Thierry; Chantegrel, Jocelyne Garcia; Favier, Alain; Bouron, Alexandre; Moulis, Jean-Marc

    2008-01-01

    A human epithelial cell line (HZR) growing with high zinc concentrations has been analyzed for its ability to sustain high cadmium concentrations. Exposure to up to 200 μM of cadmium acetate for 24 h hardly impacted viability, whereas most of parental HeLa cells were killed by less than 10 μM of cadmium. Upon challenge by 35 fold higher cadmium concentrations than HeLa cells, HZR cells did not display increased DNA damage, increased protein oxidation, or changed intracellular cadmium localization. Rather, the main cause of resistance against cadmium was by avoiding cadmium entry into cells, which differs from that against zinc as the latter accumulates inside cells. The zinc-resistant phenotype of these cells was shown to also impair extracellular manganese uptake. Manganese and cadmium competed for entry into HeLa cells. Probing formerly identified cadmium or manganese transport systems in different animal cells did not evidence any significant change between HeLa and HZR cells. These results reveal zinc adaptation influences manganese and cadmium cellular traffic and they highlight previously unknown connections among homeostasis of divalent metals

  6. Toxicological studies of cadmium and zinc on the crayfish Orconectes virilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirenda, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The acute toxicities of cadmium and of zinc to the crayfish Oronectes virilis were determined. Adult, intermolt crayfish were exposed to a series of concentrations of either cadmium or zinc for a two week period. Cadmium was found to be a cumulative poison to the crayfish; LC50 values decreased from 6.1 mg Cd/I for 96 hours to 0.7 mg Cd/I for two weeks. An incipient LC50 was also estimated to be 0.0604 mg Cd/I. Zinc was found to have a relatively low toxicity to O. virilis under the present exposure conditions. Whole animal and tissue analyses for cadmium or zinc were performed on the crayfish used in the acute toxicity tests. Whole animals concentrations both for cadmium and for zinc exhibited a linear relationship to exposure concentrations (r = 0.85 and 0.87, respectively). The gills had the highest concentrations (r = 0.85 and 0.87, respectively). The gills had the highest concentrations of cadmium and zinc, and displayed a linear relationship to exposure concentrations (r = 0.82 and 0.87 respectively). The hepatopancreas displayed a plateau in metal concentrations and is probably the main storage site for both metals in the crayfish. The relationship of cadmium concentration to exposure concentration in the antennal glands also showed linearity (r = 0.65), while zinc levels reached a steady state level. All the remaining tissues analyzed exhibited a plateau in metal concentration

  7. Effects of cadmium, zinc, lead, and mercury on respiration and fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grafl, H J; Schwantes, H O

    1983-01-01

    Zinc and lead did not affect the rate of respiration and fermentation. Concentrations of cadmium higher than 10/sup -7/ M and concentrations of mercury higher than 5 x 10/sup -5/ M significantly reduced the O/sub 2/ consumption and the CO/sub 2/ production. 10/sup -2/ M cadmium and 10/sup -3/ M mercury completely inhibited respiration and fermentation. Low concentrations of mercury inhibited respiration irreversibly and fermentation reversibly. High concentrations of zinc reduced the toxicity of low concentrations of cadmium but they enhanced the effects of high concentrations of cadmium and mercury. No interactions between lead and the other tested heavy metals were observed.

  8. Cadmium accumulation by Axonopus compressus (Sw. P. Beauv and Cyperus rotundas Linn growing in cadmium solution and cadmium-zinc contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paitip Thiravetyan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the phyto-remediation potentials of Cyperus rotundas Linn (Nutgrass and Axonopus compressus (Sw. P. Beauv (Carpetgrass for cadmium removal from cadmium solution andcadmium-zinc contaminated soil. Plants growth in the solution showed that cadmium decreased the relative growth rate of both grasses. However, the amount of cadmium accumulated in shoot and root was increasedwith the increase in cadmium concentration and exposure time. Growth in fertile soil mixed with Cd-contaminated zinc silicate residue (65% Si, 19% Ca, 2% Zn, 1% Mg and 0.03% Cd at the ratio of 50:50 (w/wfor 30 days showed that C. rotundas Linn accumulated cadmium in root and shoot to 2,178 and 1,144 mg kg-1 dry weight, respectively. A. compressus (Sw. P. Beauv accumulated cadmium in root and shoot to 1,965and 669 mg kg-1 dry weight, respectively. Scanning electron microscope connected to energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy suggested that the mechanism of cadmium accumulation by both grasses involved thecadmium precipitation in the stable form of cadmium silicate, which indicated that C. rotundas Linn and A. compressus (Sw. P. Beauv could be grown to prevent soil erosion and to remediate cadmium-contaminatedsoil.

  9. Quaternary oxide halides of group 15 with zinc and cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueck, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    The present thesis ''Quaternary oxide halides of group 15 with zinc and cadmium'' deals with the chemical class of oxide halides, which contain d-block element cations and pnicogens. Over the past few years compounds containing pnicogene cations are intensively investigated. The reason for this is the free electron pair of the Pn"3"+ cation, which is responsible for some interesting properties. Free electron pairs do not only impact the spatial structure of molecules but also the properties of materials. The object of this work was the synthesis and characterization of compounds containing Pn"3"+ cations with free electron pairs. Due to the structure-determining effect of these free electron pairs and in combination with halides it is possible to synthesize compounds with low-dimensional structures like chains and layers. In these compounds the structure is separated into halophilic and chalcophilic sub-structures, which are held together only by weak Van der Waals forces.

  10. Study on thermal annealing of cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, G.; Bolotnikov, A.E.; Fochuk, P.M.; Camarda, G.S.; Cui, Y.; Hossain, A.; Kim, K.; Horace, J.; McCall, B.; Gul, R.; Xu, L.; Kopach, O.V.; James, R.B.

    2010-01-01

    Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) has attracted increasing interest with its promising potential as a room-temperature nuclear-radiation-detector material. However, different defects in CZT crystals, especially Te inclusions and dislocations, can degrade the performance of CZT detectors. Post-growth annealing is a good approach potentially to eliminate the deleterious influence of these defects. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), we built up different facilities for investigating post-growth annealing of CZT. Here, we report our latest experimental results. Cd-vapor annealing reduces the density of Te inclusions, while large temperature gradient promotes the migration of small-size Te inclusions. Simultaneously, the annealing lowers the density of dislocations. However, only-Cd-vapor annealing decreases the resistivity, possibly reflecting the introduction of extra Cd in the lattice. Subsequent Te-vapor annealing is needed to ensure the recovery of the resistivity after removing the Te inclusions.

  11. Antimicrobial electrospun silver-, copper- and zinc-doped polyvinylpyrrolidone nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirós, Jennifer; Borges, João P.; Boltes, Karina; Rodea-Palomares, Ismael; Rosal, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrospun polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) nanofibers containing silver, copper, and zinc. • Antimicrobial effect for the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. • Silver strongly reduced colony forming units and bacterial viability. • Silver, copper, and zinc led to a significant increase of non-viable cells on mats. - Abstract: The use of electrospun polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) nanofibers containing silver, copper, and zinc nanoparticles was studied to prepare antimicrobial mats using silver and copper nitrates and zinc acetate as precursors. Silver became reduced during electrospinning and formed nanoparticles of several tens of nanometers. Silver nanoparticles and the insoluble forms of copper and zinc were dispersed using low molecular weight PVP as capping agent. High molecular weight PVP formed uniform fibers with a narrow distribution of diameters around 500 nm. The fibers were converted into an insoluble network using ultraviolet irradiation crosslinking. The efficiency of metal-loaded mats against the bacteria Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was tested for different metal loadings by measuring the inhibition of colony forming units and the staining with fluorescent probes for metabolic viability and compromised membranes. The assays included the culture in contact with mats and the direct staining of surface attached microorganisms. The results indicated a strong inhibition for silver-loaded fibers and the absence of significant amounts of viable but non-culturable microorganisms. Copper and zinc-loaded mats also decreased the metabolic activity and cell viability, although in a lesser extent. Metal-loaded fibers allowed the slow release of the soluble forms of the three metals.

  12. Antimicrobial electrospun silver-, copper- and zinc-doped polyvinylpyrrolidone nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirós, Jennifer [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Alcalá, 28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Borges, João P. [CENIMAT/I3N, Departamento de Ciência dos Materiais, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Boltes, Karina [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Alcalá, 28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies of Water (IMDEA Agua), Parque Científico Tecnológico, E-28805, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Rodea-Palomares, Ismael [Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Rosal, Roberto [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Alcalá, 28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies of Water (IMDEA Agua), Parque Científico Tecnológico, E-28805, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Electrospun polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) nanofibers containing silver, copper, and zinc. • Antimicrobial effect for the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. • Silver strongly reduced colony forming units and bacterial viability. • Silver, copper, and zinc led to a significant increase of non-viable cells on mats. - Abstract: The use of electrospun polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) nanofibers containing silver, copper, and zinc nanoparticles was studied to prepare antimicrobial mats using silver and copper nitrates and zinc acetate as precursors. Silver became reduced during electrospinning and formed nanoparticles of several tens of nanometers. Silver nanoparticles and the insoluble forms of copper and zinc were dispersed using low molecular weight PVP as capping agent. High molecular weight PVP formed uniform fibers with a narrow distribution of diameters around 500 nm. The fibers were converted into an insoluble network using ultraviolet irradiation crosslinking. The efficiency of metal-loaded mats against the bacteria Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was tested for different metal loadings by measuring the inhibition of colony forming units and the staining with fluorescent probes for metabolic viability and compromised membranes. The assays included the culture in contact with mats and the direct staining of surface attached microorganisms. The results indicated a strong inhibition for silver-loaded fibers and the absence of significant amounts of viable but non-culturable microorganisms. Copper and zinc-loaded mats also decreased the metabolic activity and cell viability, although in a lesser extent. Metal-loaded fibers allowed the slow release of the soluble forms of the three metals.

  13. [Effect of cigarette smoking on coexistence of cadmium and zinc in retained wisdom teeth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malara, Piotr; Kwapuliński, Jerzy; Drugacz, Jan; Malara, Beata

    2005-01-01

    The change in coexistence pattern of elements (antagonism-synergism) in conditions of excessive level of toxic element is observed in many biological samples. The aim of this study was to establish the cadmium and zinc content in hard tissues of retained wisdom teeth of smokers and non-smokers and to find out if active exposure to cigarette smoke has an influence on coexistence of both metals in these tissues. Material consisted of 127 retained wisdom teeth (65 from smokers and 62 from non-smokers). Cadmium and zinc contents were determined by means of atomic absorption spectrometry. We found out that retained wisdom tooth from smokers exhibited higher cadmium and zinc contents compared to non-smokers' teeth. Moreover, coexistence pattern of cadmium and zinc in teeth depends on exposure to heavy metals and exhibits strong synergism in smokers.

  14. In situ immobilization of cadmium and zinc in contaminated soils : fiction or fixation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osté, L.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords: beringite, cadmium, DOC, DOM, earthworms, immobilization, leaching, lime, manganese oxides, metal binding, metal uptake, organic matter partitioning, pH, soil contamination, remediation, sorption, Swiss chard, zeolites, zinc.

    It is generally

  15. Langmuir Isotherm application to the competitive adsorption of Cadmium, Nickel and Zinc on a Bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Giraldo, German Dario; Pinzon Bello, Jorge Alejo

    1999-01-01

    In the present work, it was studied the simultaneous adsorption of binary and ternary mixtures of cadmium, nickel and zinc ions in aqueous solution at 25oC over a bentonite from the Cauca Valley, in its native state as well as in its sodium homo ionic form. The Langmuir isotherm, initially introduced by Murali and Aylmore for the competitive adsorption of various adsorbents, adequately describes the simultaneous adsorption of the three ions over the studied bentonite. The lineal correlation coefficient is greater than 0.900 in the major part of the systems. The competitive effect was interpreted by means of the thermodynamic distribution coefficient, Kdm. The degree of adsorption in the binary mixtures is nickel > zinc, cadmium over the natural bentonite, and nickel > cadmium > zinc over the sodium homo ionic form, whereas in the ternary mixture the order Nickel > Cadmium > Zinc is found over both adsorbents

  16. Thermochemical investigation into coordination ability of zinc and cadmium alkyl compounds in solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, Yu.A.; Fedostseva, G.A.; Tsvetkov, V.G.; Lebedev, S.A.; Kozyrkin, B.I.

    1983-01-01

    Enthalpies of zinc alkyl compounds mixing, as well as those of dimethyl cadmium mixing with hexane, previously used as a solvent during the study of liquid-phase autooxidation of Me 2 Cd and Me 2 Zn, and with a series of organic bases at 298 K and at components ratio 1:1 or 1:2, are determined. Using calorimetric method dimethyl cadmium association in liquid state has been evaluated. Coordination ability of zinc alkyl compounds is higher than for the corresponding cadmium compounds. With the increase of alkyl radical length the electron seeking ability of zinc compounds decreases. On the basis of thermochemical data relative stability of coordination compounds of zinc and cadmium alkyl compounds with certain alkyl compounds of group 6 elements is evaluated: it has the maximum value for sulfur compounds

  17. Sorption Kinetics for the Removal of Cadmium and Zinc onto Palm Kernel Shell Based Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Muhammad

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics and mechanism of cadmium and zinc adsorption on palm kernel shell based activated carbons (PKSAC have been studied. A series of batch laboratory studies were conducted in order to investigate the suitability of palm kernel shell based activated carbon (PKSAC for the removal of cadmium (cadmium ions and zinc (zinc ions from their aqueous solutions. All batch experiments were carried out at pH 7.0 and a constant temperature of 30+-1°C using an incubator shaker that operated at 150 rpm. The kinetics investigated includes the pseudo first order, the pseudo-second order and the intraparticle diffusion models. The pseudo-second order model correlate excellently the experimental data, suggesting that chemisorption processes could be the rate-limiting step. Keywords: adsorption, cadmium, kinetics, palm kernel shell, zinc

  18. Maternal Cadmium, Iron and Zinc Levels, DNA Methylation and Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND:Cadmium (Cd) is a ubiquitous and environmentally persistent toxic metal that has been implicated in neurotoxicity, carcinogenesis and obesity and essential metals including zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) may alter these outcomes. However mechanisms underlying these relationsh...

  19. Sublethal effects of cadmium, manganese, lead, zinc and iron on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The toxicological evaluations of cadmium, iron, manganese, lead and zinc were carried out against albino mice model, Mus musculus. On the basis of 96 hrLC50 value, cadmium (0.47 mM) was found to be the most toxic followed by zinc (2.40 mM), lead (2.42 mM), iron (4.25 mM) and manganese (5.70 mM) was least toxic.

  20. Low serum zinc is associated with elevated risk of cadmium nephrotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yu-Sheng, E-mail: Lin.Yu-Sheng@epa.gov [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Ho, Wen-Chao [Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Caffrey, James L. [Integrative Physiology and Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX (United States); Sonawane, Babasaheb [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Background: Despite animal evidence suggests that zinc modulates cadmium nephrotoxicity, limited human data are available. Objective: To test the hypothesis that low serum zinc concentrations may increase the risk of cadmium-mediated renal dysfunction in humans. Methods: Data from 1545 subjects aged 20 or older in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2011–2012 were analyzed. Renal function was defined as impaired when estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) fell below 60 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2} and/or the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio surpassed 2.5 in men and 3.5 mg/mmol in women. Results: Within the study cohort, 117 subjects had reduced eGFR and 214 had elevated urinary albumin. After adjusting for potential confounders, subjects with elevated blood cadmium (>0.53 μg/L) were more likely to have a reduced eGFR (odds ratio [OR]=2.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09–4.50) and a higher urinary albumin (OR=2.04, 95% CI: 1.13–3.69) than their low cadmium (<0.18 μg/L) peers. In addition, for any given cadmium exposure, low serum zinc is associated with elevated risk of reduced eGFR (OR=3.38, 95% CI: 1.39–8.28). A similar increase in the odds ratio was observed between declining serum zinc and albuminuria but failed to reach statistical significance. Those with lower serum zinc/blood cadmium ratios were likewise at a greater risk of renal dysfunction (p<0.01). Conclusions: This study results suggest that low serum zinc concentrations are associated with an increased risk of cadmium nephrotoxicity. Elevated cadmium exposure is global public health issue and the assessment of zinc nutritional status may be an important covariate in determining its effective renal toxicity. - Highlights: • Blood cadmium was associated with increased risk of nephrotoxicity. • Low serum zinc may exacerbate risk of cadmium-mediated renal dysfunction. • Both zinc deficiency and elevated cadmium exposure are global public health issues.

  1. Trace elements cadmium and zinc in the pathogenesis of experimental hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockett, C.J.R.

    1980-01-01

    In human kidneys cadmium is bound by a protein, metallothionein, which also contains zinc, and because cadmium apparently competes with zinc on the same binding sites, the cadmium-zinc ratio is particularly important. An increase in this ratio would mean a relative deficiency in zinc which might result in some forms of hypertension in man and animals. Studies were conducted to determine the effect of small amounts of supplementary dietary cadmium on weanling and adult albino rats. Two colonies of rats were examined. The object of this study was to determine if hypertension could be induced and to investigate its effects on renal function and renin levels in these animals. Sodium and potassium levels and balances, renin, angiotensin II, and urea output were therefore estimated in these animals. In order to assess the effect of length of exposure to cadmium in relation to growth and maturation upon blood pressure, experiments were done on a second colony of male weanling rats. Tissue levels of cadmium and zinc, and serum levels of sodium, potassium, chloride, carbon dioxide, urea and urate were measured. All supplemented diets caused hypertension and a significant drop in urinary urea excretion levels. Plasma angiotensin in males, and renal cadmium-zinc ratios were higher than in controls. The results of the studies in adult rats showed slight sodium and water retention. Weanlings showed a more rapid uptake of cadmium and reached higher blood pressure levels. In conclusion, cadmium does seem to be a factor in selected animal hypertension. A possible mechanism is via interference with renal function, and our data regarding urea output support the idea of renal function impairment. The initiation of a renin-angiotensin hypertension is suggested by the raised angiotensin levels which were detected

  2. Genotoxicology: Single and Joint Action of Copper and Zinc to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Synodontis clarias and Tilapia nilotica using the sensitive micronucleus assay in fish genome. ... concentrations are important for the physiological ... Fish were divided into exposure groups for every concentration studied. Fish in twenties were exposed to copper and zinc, forty fish to the mixture of metals, and twenty fish ...

  3. Determination of Copper and Zinc in Brass: Two Basic Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Paul-Louis; Reynes, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    In this experiment, the concentrations of copper and zinc in brass are obtained by two methods. This experiment does not require advanced instrumentation, uses inexpensive chemicals, and can be easily carried out during a 3-h upper-level undergraduate laboratory. Pedagogically, the basic concepts of analytical chemistry in solutions, such as pH,…

  4. Copper and zinc distribution coefficients for sandy aquifer materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Boddum, J. K.

    2000-01-01

    Distribution coe�cients (Kd) were measured for copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in laboratory batch experiments for 17 sandy aquifer materials at environmentally relevant solute concentrations (Cu: 5±300 mg/l, Zn: 20±3100 mg/l). The Kd values ranged two to three orders of magnitude (Cu: 70±10,800 l/ kg...

  5. Combined copper/zinc attachment to prion protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodak, Miroslav; Bernholc, Jerry

    2013-03-01

    Misfolding of prion protein (PrP) is responsible for diseases such as ``mad-cow disease'' in cattle and Creutzfeldt-Jacob in humans. Extensive experimental investigation has established that this protein strongly interacts with copper ions, and this ability has been linked to its still unknown function. Attachment of other metal ions (zinc, iron, manganese) have been demonstrated as well, but none of them could outcompete copper. Recent finding, however, indicates that at intermediate concentrations both copper and zinc ions can attach to the PrP at the octarepeat region, which contains high affinity metal binding sites. Based on this evidence, we have performed density functional theory simulations to investigate the combined Cu/Zn attachment. We consider all previously reported binding modes of copper at the octarepeat region and examine a possibility simultaneous Cu/Zn attachment. We find that this can indeed occur for only one of the known binding sites, when copper changes its coordination mode to allow for attachment of zinc ion. The implications of the simultaneous attachment on neural function remain to be explored.

  6. Selective leaching process for the recovery of copper and zinc oxide from copper-containing dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun-Yi; Chang, Fang-Chih; Wang, H Paul; Tsai, Ming-Jer; Ko, Chun-Han; Chen, Chih-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a resource recovery procedure for recovering copper and zinc from dust produced by copper smelting furnaces during the manufacturing of copper-alloy wires. The concentrations of copper in copper-containing dust do not meet the regulation standards defined by the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration; therefore, such waste is classified as hazardous. In this study, the percentages of zinc and copper in the dust samples were approximately 38.4% and 2.6%, respectively. To reduce environmental damage and recover metal resources for industrial reuse, acid leaching was used to recover metals from these inorganic wastes. In the first stage, 2 N of sulphuric acid was used to leach the dust, with pH values controlled at 2.0-3.0, and a solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:10. The results indicated that zinc extraction efficiency was higher than 95%. A selective acid leaching process was then used to recover the copper content of the residue after filtration. In the second stage, an additional 1 N of sulphuric acid was added to the suspension in the selective leaching process, and the pH value was controlled at 1.5-2.0. The reagent sodium hydroxide (2 N) was used as leachate at a pH greater than 7. A zinc hydroxide compound formed during the process and was recovered after drying. The yields for zinc and copper were 86.9-93.5% and 97.0-98.9%, respectively.

  7. Analyses of soil cadmium and copper contents on a Domérien soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-19

    Mar 19, 2014 ... 2Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique(INRA), Unité de ... The aim of this study is to determine the availability of cadmium (Cd) in the soil of Yonne district, ... Since cadmium (Cd) occurs in zinc (Zn), lead (Pb) and.

  8. A cadmium-zinc-telluride crystal array spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHugh, H. R.; Quam, W.; DeVore, T.; Vogle, R.; Weslowski, J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a gamma detector employing an array of eight cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) crystals configured as a high resolution gamma ray spectrometer. This detector is part of a more complex instrument that identifies the isotope,displays this information, and records the gamma spectrum. Various alarms and other operator features are incorporated in this battery operated rugged instrument. The CZT detector is the key component of this instrument and will be described in detail in this paper. We have made extensive spectral measurements of the usual laboratory gamma sources, common medical isotopes, and various Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) with this detector. Some of these data will be presented as spectra. We will also present energy resolution and detection efficiency for the basic 8-crystal array. Additional data will also be presented for a 32-crystal array. The basic 8-crystal array development was completed two years ago, and the system electronic design has been imp roved recently. This has resulted in significantly improved noise performance. We expect to have a much smaller detector package, using 8 crystals, in a few months. This package will use flip-chip packaging to reduce the electronics physical size by a factor of 5

  9. Preliminary uranium enrichment analysis results using cadmium zinc telluride detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavietes, A.D.; McQuaid, J.H.; Paulus, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and EG ampersand G ORTEC have jointly developed a portable ambient-temperature detection system that can be used in a number of application scenarios. The detection system uses a planar cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detector with custom-designed detector support electronics developed at LLNL and is based on the recently released MicroNOMAD multichannel analyzer (MCA) produced by ORTEC. Spectral analysis is performed using software developed at LLNL that was originally designed for use with high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector systems. In one application, the CZT detection system determines uranium enrichments ranging from less than 3% to over 75% to within accuracies of 20%. The analysis was performed using sample sizes of 200 g or larger and acquisition times of 30 min. The authors have demonstrated the capabilities of this system by analyzing the spectra gathered by the CZT detection system from uranium sources of several enrichments. These experiments demonstrate that current CZT detectors can, in some cases, approach performance criteria that were previously the exclusive domain of larger HPGe detector systems

  10. Cadmium zinc telluride as a mid-infrared variable retarder

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, William; Taherion, Saeid; Kumar, F. Joseph; Giles, David; Hore, Dennis

    2018-04-01

    The electro-optic behavior of cadmium zinc telluride is examined in the mid-infrared region between 3 and 11 μm, for applied DC field strengths of up to 106 V/m. The measurements performed here include full characterization of the polarization state of the transmitted light by means of the Stokes vector. We demonstrate the suitability of this material for DC variable retarder applications such as those achieved by quarter- or half-wave retardation. A comparison of two different metallic coatings for electrodes, gold and indium, reveals important differences in performance that are attributed to the homogeneity of the field through the bulk of the crystal. We illustrate that, in the case of both metals, the same electro-optic coefficients are measured, but regions of higher and lower retardation result in significant depolarization in the case of gold. Such depolarization may adversely affect the contrast ratio in a light valve, or increase the voltage necessary for the operation of an arbitrary polarization state generator.

  11. Bioaccumulation of copper, zinc, cadmium and lead by Bacillus sp., Bacillus cereus, Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus subtilis Bioacumulação de cobre, zinco, cádmio e chumbo por Bacillus sp., Bacillus cereus, Bacillus sphaericus e Bacillus subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Augusto da Costa

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents some results on the use of microbes from the genus Bacillus for uptake of cadmium, zinc, copper and lead ions. Maximum copper bioaccumulations were 5.6 mol/g biomass for B. sphaericus, 5.9 mol/g biomass for B. cereus and B. subtilis, and 6.4 mol/g biomass for Bacillus sp. Maximum zinc bioaccumulations were 4.3 mol/g biomass for B. sphaericus, 4.6 mol/g biomass for B. cereus, 4.8 mol/g biomass for Bacillus sp. and 5.0 mol/g biomass for B. subtilis. Maximum cadmium bioaccumulations were 8.0 mol/g biomass for B. cereus, 9.5 mol/g biomass for B. subtilis, 10.8 mol/g biomass for Bacillus sp. and 11.8 mol/g biomass for B. sphaericus. Maximum lead biomaccumulations were 0.7 mol/g biomass for B. sphaericus, 1.1 mol/g biomass for B. cereus, 1.4 mol/g biomass for Bacillus sp. and 1.8 mol/g biomass for B. subtilis. The different Bacillus strains tested presented distinct uptake capacities, and the best results were obtained for B. subtilis and B. cereus.Este trabalho apresenta resultados de acumulação dos íons metálicos cádmio, zinco, cobre e chumbo por bactérias do gênero Bacillus. A bioacumulação máxima de cobre foi 5,6 mol/g biomassa para B. sphaericus, 5,9 mol/g biomassa para B. cereus e B. subtilis, e 6,4 mol/g biomassa para Bacillus sp.. A bioacumulação máxima de zinco foi 4,3 mol/g biomassa para B. sphaericus, 4,6 mol/g biomassa para B. cereus, 4,8 mol/g biomassa para Bacillus sp. e 5,0 mol/g biomassa para B. subtilis. A bioacumulação máxima de cádmio foi 8,0 mol/g biomassa para B. cereus, 9,5 mol/g biomassa para B. subtilis, 10,8 mol/g biomassa para Bacillus sp. e 11,8 mol/g biomassa para B. sphaericus. A bioacumulação máxima de chumbo foi 0,7 mol/g biomassa para B. sphaericus, 1,1 mol/g biomassa para B. cereus, 1,4 mol/g biomassa para Bacillus sp. e 1,8 mol/g biomassa para B. subtilis. As distintas linhagens de Bacillus testadas apresentaram variáveis capacidades de carregamento de íons metálicos, sendo os

  12. Effect of dietary zinc deficiency on the accumulation of cadmium and metallothionein in selected tissues of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waalkes, M.P.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of continuous dietary zinc deficiency on the metabolism of the toxic heavy metal cadmium has not been widely studied. This investigation was designed to assess the effects of subadequate dietary zinc intake on the accumulation of dietary cadmium and on metallothionein (MT) and zinc concentrations in target organs of cadmium toxicity. Adult male Wistar rats (180-200 g) were allowed, ad libitum, diets either adequate (60 ppm) or deficient (7 ppm) in zinc for a total of 9 wk. The zinc-deficient diet resulted in an approximately 40% reduction in plasma zinc (assessed at 3, 6, and 9 wk) in the absence of overt signs of zinc deficiency (i.e., reduced weight gain, alopecia, etc.). Separate groups of rats were also maintained on zinc-defined diets for a total of 9 wk, but cadmium was added to the diet (0, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 ppm) a the end of wk 3 and maintained at that level throughout the remaining 6 wk of the study, when the rats were killed. The feeding of the zinc-deficient diet markedly enhanced the accumulation of cadmium in the liver, kidney, and testes. Hepatic, renal, and testicular zinc concentrations were not affected by suboptimal zinc intake alone. However, marked reductions in renal and testicular zinc concentrations were caused by zinc deficiency in concert with cadmium exposure. MT levels, when related to tissue cadmium concentrations, were elevated to a significantly lesser extent in the kidneys of zinc-deficient animals. These results indicate that marginal zinc deficiency markedly increases cadmium accumulation in various organs and reduces zinc content and MT induction in some organs.

  13. Mineralogical Study of a Biologically-Based Treatment System That Removes Arsenic, Zinc and Copper from Landfill Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Khoshnoodi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mineralogical characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD and a high throughput automated quantitative evaluation of minerals by scanning electron microscopy (QEMSCAN was conducted on samples from a sulphate-reducing biochemical reactor (BCR treating high concentrations of metals (As, Zn, Cu in smelter waste landfill seepage. The samples were also subjected to energy dispersive X-ray (EDX analysis of specific particles. The bulk analysis results revealed that the samples consisted mainly of silicate and carbonate minerals. More detailed phase analysis indicated four different classes: zinc-arsenic sulphosalts/sulphates, zinc-arsenic oxides, zinc phosphates and zinc-lead sulphosalts/sulphates. This suggests that sulphates and sulphides are the predominant types of Zn and As minerals formed in the BCR. Sphalerite (ZnS was a common mineral observed in many of the samples. In addition, X-ray point analysis showed evidence of As and Zn coating around feldspar and amphibole particles. The presence of arsenic-zinc-iron, with or without cadmium particles, indicated arsenopyrite minerals. Copper-iron-sulphide particles suggested chalcopyrite (CuFeS2 and tennantite (Cu,Fe12As4S13. Microbial communities found in each sample were correlated with metal content to describe taxonomic groups associated with high-metal samples. The research results highlight mineral grains that were present or formed at the site that might be the predominant forms of immobilized arsenic, zinc and copper.

  14. CADMIUM AND ZINC CONCENTRATIONS IN THE HAIR AFTER OF ADULTS MAGNESIUM SUPPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sałacka

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cadmium is a biological zinc antagonist and may interfere with metabolic zinc-regulated or zincdependent processes. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between cadmium and zinc concentrations in the hair of adults after oral supplementation with magnesium. Material and methods: The levels of elements in the hair were determined by the inverse voltammetry. The analysis was performed on the hair of 32 people from the study group and 10 from the control group. Supplementation was performed using Slow-Mag B6. Results: Cadmium concentration in the study group before supplementation ranged from indeterminable levels, to 1,92 µg per gram of dry matter. The range of cadmium concentration after supplementation was between the indeterminable level, and 0,45 µg per gram of dry matter. Based on the statistical analysis, we found that cadmium concentration was significantly lower after magnesium supplementation with a significance level of p*0,02. Zinc level before supplementation was between 11,66 and 250,48 µg per gram of dry matter, and after supplementation between 68,31 and 185,24 µg per gram of dry matter. Conclusion: The results obtained suggest that supplementation with magnesium contributed to the lowering of cadmium concentration in the hair of the people examined.

  15. Copper and zinc in hair samples from Filipinos with pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolosa, L.M.; Sevilla, F. III.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation of the copper and zinc concentrations in active cases of pulmonary tuberculosis was undertaken. Concentrations of copper and zinc in scalp hair of TB patients and controls were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Elevated copper levels were characteristics of hair samples from TB patients. (Author)

  16. Mutual effect of zinc (2) and cadmium (2) during extraction with tributil phosphate from lithium chloride solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokuev, V.A.; Belousov, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    Mutual effect of zinc and cadmium chlorides during extraction with tributyl phosphate at 5, 25 and 45 deg C from LiCl solutions is studied. The conclusion about the suppression of zinc and cadmium extraction by extracting macroelement (cadmium and zinc correspondingly) as the result of manifestation of general ion effect (lithium ion) in the extraction systems is made. It is established that the suppression of zink and cadmium extraction increases with the temperature decrease. On the base of the obtained experimental data the different type of extraction element distribution curves at the extraction from the muriatic solutions and lithium chloride solutions with tributyl phosphate is discussed

  17. Serum zinc and copper levels in children with febrile convulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shokrzadeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Febrile convulsions (FC are the most common neurologic disorder in children 6-60 months of age. Zinc (Zn and copper (Cu play role as cofactors in more than 300 enzymatic activities significantly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship serum levels of Zn and Cu with seizure occurrence in febrile children. In this case-control study, 270 children with 6 month to 6 years were evaluated. The patients were enrolled in three groups: a children with febrile convulsion, b febrile children without convulsion and c healthy ones. After recording of all patients’ characteristics, 5 mL blood was taken from peripheral vessels at the first 12 hours of hospitalization. Absorption of all samples was read by BRAIC (Rayleigh instrument company, WFX-130 model with calibration diagram, considering samples dilution levels. The mean of serum Zn levels in children with FC were significantly lower than other two groups. Mean serum Cu levels in children with FC and non-FC patients were significantly higher than healthy children. No meaningful differences were observed in serum levels of Zn and Cu among the girl or boy cases. This study showed significant lower serum zinc level in children with febrile seizure and meaningful higher serum copper level than control group cases. There was no significant difference in level of serum zinc and copper in term of sex.

  18. Measured soil water concentrations of cadmium and zinc in plant pots and estimated leaching outflows from contaminated soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, P.E.; Christensen, T.H.

    1998-01-01

    Soil water concentrations of cadmium and zinc were measured in plant pots with 15 contaminated soils which differed in origin, texture, pH (5.1-7.8) and concentrations of cadmium (0.2-17 mg Cd kg(-1)) and zinc (36-1300 mg Zn kg(-1)). The soil waters contained total concentrations of 0.5 to 17 mu g...... to 0.1% per year of the total soil content of cadmium and zinc. The measured soil water concentrations of cadmium and zinc did not correlate linearly with the corresponding soil concentrations but correlated fairly well with concentrations measured in Ca(NO(3))(2) extracts of the soils and with soil...... water concentrations estimated from soil concentrations and pH. Such concentration estimates may be useful for estimating amounts of cadmium and zinc being leached from soils....

  19. Food chain transfer of cadmium and lead to cattle in a lead-zinc smelter in Guizhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Qiu; Long Meili; Zhu Ming; Zhou Qingzhen; Zhang Ling; Liu Jie

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb) are environmental pollutants. Environmental samples and bovine tissues were collected from the areas around a lead-zinc smelter in Guizhou, China for Cd, Pb, zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) analysis. Cd in soil (10 mg/kg) and feed (6.6 mg/kg) from the polluted areas was 10 times higher than the Chinese Standards, resulting in higher Cd in bovine kidney (38 mg/kg) and liver (2.5 mg/kg). Pb in feed (132 mg/kg) from the polluted area was much higher than unpolluted areas, causing higher Pb levels in bovine tissues. Environmental Zn was elevated, but bovine tissue Zn was normal. Cu in bovine liver decreased with increased Cd and Pb. Metals in drinking water and in bovine muscle were within the Standard range. Thus, in the areas of this lead-zinc smelter, the environment has been contaminated with Cd and Pb, which has been transferred to cattle through the food chain. - Cd and Pb from lead-zinc smelters contaminate the environment and accumulate in bovine tissues.

  20. Studying the state of the surface and internal mass of powder-like zinc and cadmium sulfides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundel', A.A.; Khozhainov, Yu.M.

    1979-01-01

    The investigation on the chemical and the phase composition of the surface and the bulk of powder zinc and cadmium sulphides as a function of the conditions of ignition and physico-chemical processing carried out using electron diffraction, X-ray phase and chemical analyses. The electron diffraction analysis has shown that ignition gives rise to zinc oxide on the surface of zinc sulphide particles and in the case of cadmium sulphide, to metallic cadmium. To obtain a pure zinc sulphide, free from its oxide both on the surface and in bulk, use should be made of a deoxidized preparation and all contact with oxidizing medium in subsequent ignition should be eliminated

  1. Cadmium, mercury, zinc and selenium in ringed seals (Phoca hispida from Greenland and Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Run Dietz

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Muscle, liver, and kidney tissue from 456 ringed seals (Phoca hispida from eight areas in Greenland were analysed for cadmium, mercury, zinc and selenium. In general, cadmium concentrations were high in liver and kidney tissue, with geometric means of 7.79 and 33.5 μg/g (all data on wet weight basis, respectively. Muscle levels were considerably lower, at 0.067 μg/g. The concentration of mercury was relatively high in liver tissue with a geometric mean of 2.59 μg/g. Muscle and kidney mercury levels were somewhat lower, with geometric means of 0.210 and 0.956 μg/g, respectively. Cadmium and mercury levels were strongly dependent upon age and sampling area, as well as the interaction combinations, indicating that the accumulation of cadmium and mercury varies with age and area. Mercury accumulated in all three tissues throughout life, whereas cadmium in liver and kidneys peaked in the age group 5-10 years old where after it dropped significantly. Cadmium levels showed a tendency towards higher concentrations in the northern municipalities, which may be due to the higher cadmium levels in certain prey items in the northern areas. Mercury levels were higher in seals from East Greenland compared to West Greenland. Variations in feeding habits probably explain some of the differences in levels of cadmium and mercury in ringed seals from different geographical areas. Cadmium concentrations were correlated (both pairwise and partial in the three organs. This was true for mercury as well, whereas only half of the combinations were significant for zinc and selenium. Cadmium was strongly correlated to mercury in all three tissues and zinc only in liver and kidneys. Mercury was only correlated to selenium in liver and not to zinc. High concentrations of cadmium were found in the bile from 58 ringed seals, and were about 10-fold higher than in muscle. The concentration of mercury in bile was relatively low, being only one third of the

  2. Influence of clay on the adsorption of heavy metals like copper and cadmium on chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Nagan; Latha, Srinivasan; Sudha, Persu N; Renganathan, N Gopalan

    2013-02-01

    The influence of clay on the adsorption of heavy metals like copper and cadmium on chitosan from simulated industrial wastewater is evaluated. Chitosan-clay blend with ratio of (1:1), (1:2), and (2:1) have been prepared, and these were used as membranes to remove copper and cadmium ions from synthetic industrial wastewater. The chemical parameters for quantities of adsorption of heavy metal contamination have been done, and the kinetics of adsorption has also been carried out. Clay provides enough absorbable sites to overcome mass transfer limitations. The number of absorbable sites for cadmium is more compared to copper, and thus the rate of recovery of cadmium is faster than copper, and the percentage removal of cadmium is more than copper at all times on clay over nylon 6. This difference indicates the influence of clay in the adsorption of heavy metals in comparison to synthetic polymer nylon 6. Rate constant for first-order kinetics of adsorption, k (1), for copper and cadmium is less than that of clay, which clearly indicates that clay, which is a natural polymer, is more kinetically favored compared to synthetic polymer. The difference in the intraparticle diffusion in both the natural and synthetic polymer is not much, and it suggests that the particle diffusion mechanism is the same in both cases. Copper and cadmium recovery is parallel at all times. The percentage of removal of copper increased with an increase in pH from 3 to 5. In the case of cadmium containing wastewater, the maximum removal of metal occurred at pH 5. The uptake amount of Cu(2+) ions on chitosan increased rapidly with increasing the contact time from 0 to 360 min and then reaches equilibrium after 360 min, and the equilibrium constant for copper and cadmium ions are more or less the same for the adsorption reaction. There are more adsorption sites for cadmium in the presence of clay and mass transfer limitation is avoided without resorting to rotation, which is the highlight of the

  3. Extraction of copper zinc and iron from hydrochloric acid solutions by means of different extractants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhivkova, Svetlana [Institute of Chemical Engineering - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2011-07-01

    The extraction of copper, zinc and iron from hydrochloric acid solutions has been studied. The experiments have been carried out using various solvents, involving different extraction mechanisms – solvating, anion-exchange, cation-exchange, bifunctional . Mixtures of these extractants have been also used. The extraction properties of these extractant mixtures toward copper, zinc and iron, the effect of used modifiers and diluents have been also investigated. Key words: Copper, Zinc, Iron, Extraction, Extractant, Modifier, Diluent.

  4. Altered Levels of Serum Zinc and Cadmium in Patients with Chronic Vesiculobullous Hand and Feet Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swastika Suvirya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrients serve many important functions in our body and altered levels of heavy and trace metals are associated with cutaneous and systemic disorders. Vesicular palmoplantar eczema is an entity whose etiopathogenesis is a mystery. In this prospective case-noncase study blood levels of Zinc and Cadmium in 37 patients of chronic vesiculobullous hand dermatitis were estimated and compared with 40 noncases with similar age and gender distributions. Low serum Zinc levels were found in patients as compared to noncases. The mean difference of serum Zinc between the case and noncase groups was 27.26; the mean value of serum Zinc between the two groups was statistically significant (p<0.0001. However, elevated Cadmium levels were detected in only 5 patients and in none of the noncases. The mean concentration of serum Cadmium was 2.32±0.38 μg/dL, with a range of 1.90–2.80 μg/dL for the five cases in whom Cadmium was detected. Various toxic and trace metals can interact by influencing each other’s absorption, retention, distribution, and bioavailability in the body. The clinical significance of this finding lies in the possible beneficial role of Zinc supplementation in the therapy of chronic vesiculobullous hand dermatitis.

  5. Phytoremediation of soil contaminated with cadmium, copper and polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Longhua; Li, Zhu; Han, Cunliang; Liu, Ling; Teng, Ying; Sun, Xianghui; Pan, Cheng; Huang, Yujuan; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2012-07-01

    A pot experiment and afield trial were conducted to study the remediation of an aged field soil contaminated with cadmium, copper and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (7.67 +/- 0.51 mg kg(-1) Cd, 369 +/- 1 mg kg(-1) Cu in pot experiment; 8.46 +/- 0.31 mg kg(-1) Cd, 468 +/- 7 mg kg(-1) Cu, 323 +/- 12 microg kg(-1) PCBs for field experiment) under different cropping patterns. In the pot experiment Sedum plumbizincicola showed pronounced Cd phytoextraction. After two periods (14 months) of cropping the Cd removal rates in these two treatments were 52.2 +/- 12.0 and 56.1 +/- 9.1%, respectively. Total soil PCBs in unplanted control pots decreased from 323 +/- 11 to 49.3 +/- 6.6 microg kg(-1), but with no significant difference between treatments. The field microcosm experiment intercropping of three plant species reduced the yield of S. plumbizincicola, with a consequent decrease in soil Cd removal. S. plumbizincicola intercropped with E. splendens had the highest shoot Cd uptake (18.5 +/- 1.8 mg pot(-1)) after 6 months planting followed by intercropping with M. sativa (15.9 +/- 1.9 mg pot(-1)). Liming with S. plumbizincicola intercropped with M. sativa significantly promoted soil PCB degradation by 25.2%. Thus, adjustment of soil pH to 5.56 combined with intercropping with S. plumbizincicola and M. sativagave high removal rates of Cd, Cu, and PCBs.

  6. The Functions of Metamorphic Metallothioneins in Zinc and Copper Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krężel, Artur; Maret, Wolfgang

    2017-06-09

    Recent discoveries in zinc biology provide a new platform for discussing the primary physiological functions of mammalian metallothioneins (MTs) and their exquisite zinc-dependent regulation. It is now understood that the control of cellular zinc homeostasis includes buffering of Zn 2+ ions at picomolar concentrations, extensive subcellular re-distribution of Zn 2+ , the loading of exocytotic vesicles with zinc species, and the control of Zn 2+ ion signalling. In parallel, characteristic features of human MTs became known: their graded affinities for Zn 2+ and the redox activity of their thiolate coordination environments. Unlike the single species that structural models of mammalian MTs describe with a set of seven divalent or eight to twelve monovalent metal ions, MTs are metamorphic. In vivo, they exist as many species differing in redox state and load with different metal ions. The functions of mammalian MTs should no longer be considered elusive or enigmatic because it is now evident that the reactivity and coordination dynamics of MTs with Zn 2+ and Cu⁺ match the biological requirements for controlling-binding and delivering-these cellular metal ions, thus completing a 60-year search for their functions. MT represents a unique biological principle for buffering the most competitive essential metal ions Zn 2+ and Cu⁺. How this knowledge translates to the function of other families of MTs awaits further insights into the specifics of how their properties relate to zinc and copper metabolism in other organisms.

  7. The Functions of Metamorphic Metallothioneins in Zinc and Copper Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Krężel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent discoveries in zinc biology provide a new platform for discussing the primary physiological functions of mammalian metallothioneins (MTs and their exquisite zinc-dependent regulation. It is now understood that the control of cellular zinc homeostasis includes buffering of Zn2+ ions at picomolar concentrations, extensive subcellular re-distribution of Zn2+, the loading of exocytotic vesicles with zinc species, and the control of Zn2+ ion signalling. In parallel, characteristic features of human MTs became known: their graded affinities for Zn2+ and the redox activity of their thiolate coordination environments. Unlike the single species that structural models of mammalian MTs describe with a set of seven divalent or eight to twelve monovalent metal ions, MTs are metamorphic. In vivo, they exist as many species differing in redox state and load with different metal ions. The functions of mammalian MTs should no longer be considered elusive or enigmatic because it is now evident that the reactivity and coordination dynamics of MTs with Zn2+ and Cu+ match the biological requirements for controlling—binding and delivering—these cellular metal ions, thus completing a 60-year search for their functions. MT represents a unique biological principle for buffering the most competitive essential metal ions Zn2+ and Cu+. How this knowledge translates to the function of other families of MTs awaits further insights into the specifics of how their properties relate to zinc and copper metabolism in other organisms.

  8. [Bioaccumulation of cadmium and zinc in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbartai, Hana; Djebar, Med Reda; Sbartai, Ibtissem; Berrabbah, Houria

    2012-09-01

    This work aims at evaluating the accumulation of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) (trace elements) in the organs of young tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum L. var. Rio Grande) and their effects on the rate of chlorophyll and enzyme activities involved in the antioxidant system: catalase (CAT), glutathion-S-transferase (GST) and peroxysase ascorbate (APX). Plants previously grown on a basic nutrient solution were undergoing treatment for 7 days, either by increasing concentrations of CdCl(2) or ZnSO(4) (0, 50, 100, 250, 500 μM) or by the combined concentrations of Cd and Zn (100/50, 100/100, 100/250, 100/500 μM). The results concerning the determination of metals in the various compartments of tomato plants as a function of increasing concentrations of Cd or Zn, suggest a greater accumulation of Cd and Zn in the roots compared to leaves. The combined treatment (Cd/Zn) interferes with the absorption of the two elements according to their concentrations in the culture medium. The presence of Zn at low concentrations (50 μM of Zn/100 μM Cd) has little influence on the accumulation of Cd in the roots and leaves, while the absorption of these two elements in the leaves increases and decreases in roots when their concentrations are equivalent (100/100 μM) compared to treatment alone. When the concentration of Zn is higher than that of Cd (500 μM of Zn/100 μM Cd) absorption of the latter is inhibited in the roots while increasing their translocation to the leaves. Meanwhile, the dosage of chlorophylls shows that they tend to decrease in a dose-dependent for both treatments (Cd or Cd/Zn), however, treatment with low concentrations of Zn (50 and 100 μM) stimulates chlorophyll synthesis. However, treatment with different concentrations of Cd seems to induce the activity of the enzymes studied (CAT, APX, GST). It is the same for treatment with different concentrations of Zn and this particularly for the highest concentrations. Finally, the combined treatment (Zn

  9. Transfer functions for solid-solution partitioning of cadmium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc in soils. Derivation of relationships for free metal ion activities and validation with independent data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenenberg, J.E.; Roemkens, P.F.A.M.; De Vries, W. [Soil Science Centre, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Comans, R.N.J. [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Luster, J. [Research Unit Soil Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Zuercherstrasse 111 CH-8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Pampura, T. [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Soils, Institute of Physicochemical and Biological Problems in Soil Science RAS, Pushchino, Moscow Region, 142290 (Russian Federation); Shotbolt, L. [Department of Geography, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Tipping, E. [Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Models to predict the solid-solution partitioning of trace metals are important tools in risk assessment, providing information on the biological availability of metals and their leaching. Empirically based models, or transfer functions, published to date differ with respect to the mathematical model used, the optimization method, the methods used to determine metal concentrations in the solid and solution phases and the soil properties accounted for. Here we review these methodological aspects before deriving our own transfer functions that relate free metal ion activities to reactive metal contents in the solid phase. One single function was able to predict free-metal ion activities estimated by a variety of soil solution extraction methods. Evaluation of the mathematical formulation showed that transfer functions derived to optimize the Freundlich adsorption constant (Kf ), in contrast to functions derived to optimize either the solid or solution concentration, were most suitable for predicting concentrations in solution from solid phase concentrations and vice versa. The model was shown to be generally applicable on the basis of a large number of independent data, for which predicted free metal activities were within one order of magnitude of the observations. The model only over-estimated free-metal ion activities at alkaline pH (>7). The use of the reactive metal content measured by 0.43 m HNO3 rather than the total metal content resulted in a close correlation with measured data, particularly for nickel and zinc.

  10. Zinc and copper status of women by physical activity and menstrual status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, A.; Deuster, P.A.; Kyle, S.B.; Moser, P.B.

    1986-03-01

    The zinc and copper status of 33 eumenorrheic (EU) and 12 amenorrheic (AM) female marathon runners and 19 EU and 8 AM nonrunners were determined from 3-day diet records and plasma and erythrocyte (RBC) levels. The study was conducted as a completely randomized 2 x 2 factorial. Mean daily zinc intakes of all groups fell below the recommended dietary allowances. Copper intakes of runners (EU = 1.3 mg; AM = 1.3 mg) were not significantly different. Menstrual status did not affect plasma zinc, RBC zinc or plasma copper levels. Physical activity however, affected RBC zinc and plasma copper levels. Both these parameters were significantly higher in runners. These findings suggest that exercise influences blood zinc and copper levels.

  11. The spectrographic determination of minor and trace elements in copper, lead, and zinc concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breckenridge, R.L.; Russell, G.M.; Watson, A.E.

    1976-01-01

    This report deals with the development of a method for the determination, by an emission-spectrographic technique, of magnesium, manganese, aluminium, silver, calcium, chromium, cobalt, titanium, antimony, cadmium, molybdenum, zirconium, nickel, boron, vanadium, arsenic, beryllium, tin, germanium, and bismuth in copper, lead, and zinc sulphide concentrates. The method involves the preparation of complex standards in which the volatile elements arsenic, antimony, cadmium, tin, and bismuth are incorporated as sulphide compounds at temperatures of 800 degrees Celsius in evacuated silica tubes together with a synthetic sulphide matrix. These standards are then mixed with the other minor and trace elements to form composite standards. The conditions for excitation with a direct-current arc, and the analytical lines for the elements and internal standards, are given. The procedure is rapid and convenient, and involves the minimum of sample preparation. The accuracy is about 10 per cent, and the method has a coefficient of variation for the various elements of between 2 and 13 per cent

  12. Cadmium-containing waste and recycling possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegand, V.; Rauhut, A.

    1981-01-01

    To begin with, the processes of cadmium production from zinc ores in smelting plants or from intermediates of other metal works are described. A considerable amount of the cadmium is obtained in the recycling process in zinc, lead, and copper works. The way of the cadmium-containing intermediaries, processing, enrichment, and disposal of cadmium waste are described. Uses of cadmium and its compounds are mentioned, and cadmium consumption in the years 1973-1977 in West Germany is presented in a table. Further chapters discuss the production and the way of waste during production and processing of cadmium-containing products, the problem of cadmium in household refuse and waste incineration plants, and the problem of cadmium emissions. (IHOE) [de

  13. Roadside soils show low plant available zinc and copper concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, Natalie; Walter, M. Todd; Osmond, Deanna; Hunt, William

    2016-01-01

    Vehicle combustion and component wear are a major source of metal contamination in the environment, which could be especially concerning where road ditches are actively farmed. The objective of this study was to assess how site variables, namely age, traffic (vehicles day"−"1), and percent carbon (%C) affect metal accumulation in roadside soils. A soil chronosequence was established with sites ranging from 3 to 37 years old and bioavailable, or mobile, concentrations of Zinc (Zn) and Copper (Cu) were measured along major highways in North Carolina using a Mehlich III extraction. Mobile Zn and Cu concentrations were low overall, and when results were scaled via literature values to “total metal”, the results were still generally lower than previous roadside studies. This could indicate farming on lands near roads would pose a low plant toxicity risk. Zinc and Cu were not correlated with annual average traffic count, but were positively correlated with lifetime traffic load (the product of site age and traffic count). This study shows an often overlooked variable, site age, should be included when considering roadside pollution accumulation. Zinc and Cu were more strongly associated with %C, than traffic load. Because vehicle combustion is also a carbon source, it is not obvious whether the metals and carbon are simply co-accumulating or whether the soil carbon in roadside soils may facilitate previously overlooked roles in sequestering metals on-site. - Highlights: • Low plant available zinc and copper concentrations in roadside soils of the southeast U.S. • Metals from vehicular traffic may not be adversely affecting plants in roadside environment. • Traffic volume and site age better predictor of metal pollution than traffic volume alone. - Mobile concentrations of Zn and Cu in roadside soils were below toxic levels. Zn and Cu concentrations were better correlated with lifetime vehicle load, as opposed to traffic volume.

  14. Copper zinc tin sulfide-based thin film solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    Beginning with an overview and historical background of Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide (CZTS) technology, subsequent chapters cover properties of CZTS thin films, different preparation methods of CZTS thin films, a comparative study of CZTS and CIGS solar cell, computational approach, and future applications of CZTS thin film solar modules to both ground-mount and rooftop installation. The semiconducting compound (CZTS) is made up earth-abundant, low-cost and non-toxic elements, which make it an ideal candidate to replace Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and CdTe solar cells which face material scarcity and tox

  15. The role of microRNAs in copper and cadmium homeostasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Yan-Fei; Zhu, Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Essential heavy metals (e.g., copper) and non-essential metals (e.g., cadmium) are both toxic to plants at high concentrations. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as important modulators of plants adaptive response to heavy metal stress. Plant miRNAs negatively regulate target mRNAs by post-transcriptional cleavage. miR398 regulates copper homeostasis via down-regulating the expression of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (CSD), a scavenger of superoxide radicals. miR393 and miR171 play an important role in cadmium stress mediation. This review focuses on the recent advance in the involvement of miRNAs in copper and cadmium stress regulatory networks in plants.

  16. Bioabsorption of cadmium, copper and lead by the red macroalga Gelidium floridanum: physiological responses and ultrastructure features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Rodrigo W; Schmidt, Éder C; de L Felix, Marthiellen R; Polo, Luz K; Kreusch, Marianne; Pereira, Debora T; Costa, Giulia B; Simioni, Carmen; Chow, Fungyi; Ramlov, Fernanda; Maraschin, Marcelo; Bouzon, Zenilda L

    2014-07-01

    Heavy metals, such as lead, copper, cadmium, zinc, and nickel, are among the most common pollutants found in both industrial and urban effluents. High concentrations of these metals cause severe toxic effects, especially to organisms living in the aquatic ecosystem. Cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and copper (Cu) are the heavy metals most frequently implicated as environmental contaminants, and they have been shown to affect development, growth, photosynthesis and respiration, and morphological cell organization in seaweeds. This paper aimed to evaluate the effects of 50μM and 100μM of Cd, Pb and Cu on growth rates, photosynthetic pigments, biochemical parameters and ultrastructure in Gelidium floridanum. To accomplish this, apical segments of G. floridanum were individually exposed to the respective heavy metals over a period of 7 days. Plants exposed to Cd, Cu and Pb showed discoloration of thallus pigmentation, chloroplast alteration, especially degeneration of thylakoids, and decrease in photosynthetic pigments, such as chlorophyll a and phycobiliproteins, in samples treated with Cd and Cu. Moreover, cell wall thickness and the volume of plastoglobuli increased. X-ray microanalysis detected Cd, Cu and Pb absorption in the cell wall. The results indicate that Cd, Pb and Cu negatively affect metabolic performance and cell ultrastructure in G. floridanum and that Cu was more toxic than either Pb or Cd. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluations of Effective Factors on Efficiency Zinc Oxides Nanoparticles in Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Ehrampoush

    2014-09-01

    Results: The results indicated that the adsorption process is affected by different parameters such as initial pollutant concentrations, adsorbent dose, pH, and contact time and Cadmiumremoval efficiency increases with increasing adsorbent dose and reaction time and decreases with increasing initial concentration of Cadmium. Therefore, it is observed that by raising the initial Cadmium concentration, the adsorption rate increases. The maximum efficiency of adsorptionin pH=7amounted to 89.6%. Conclusion: It is concluded that Zinc Oxide nanoparticles have proper efficiency in removal of Cadmium from aqueous solutions and can be used in the treatment of wastewater that contains ion Cadmium. However, its efficiency is deeply dependent on ion strength and the interaction of other metals in wastewater.

  18. Different roles of glutathione in copper and zinc chelation in Brassica napus roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlobin, Ilya E; Kartashov, Alexander V; Shpakovski, George V

    2017-09-01

    We investigated the specific features of copper and zinc excess action on the roots of canola (Brassica napus L.) plants. Copper rapidly accumulated in canola root cells and reached saturation during several hours of treatment, whereas the root zinc content increased relatively slowly. Excessive copper and zinc entry inside the cell resulted in significant cell damage, as evidenced by alterations in plasmalemma permeability and decreases in cellular enzymatic activity. Zinc excess specifically damaged root hair cells, which correlated with a pronounced elevation of their labile zinc level. In vitro, we showed that reduced glutathione (GSH) readily reacted with copper ions to form complexes with blocked sulfhydryl groups. In contrast, zinc ions were ineffective as glutathione blockers, and glutathione molecules did not lose their specific chemical activity in the presence of Zn 2+ ions. The effect of copper and zinc excess on the glutathione pool in canola root cells was analysed by a combination of biochemical determination of total and oxidized glutathione contents and fluorescent staining of free reduced glutathione with monochlorobimane dye. Excess copper led to dose-dependent diminution of free reduced glutathione contents in the root cells, which could not be explained by the loss of total cellular glutathione or its oxidation. In contrast, we observed little effect of much higher intracellular zinc concentrations on the free reduced glutathione content. We concluded that GSH plays an important role in copper excess, but not zinc excess chelation, in canola root cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Phyto extraction Of Cadmium And Zinc From Contaminated Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotfy, S.M.; Mostafa, A.Z.; Abdel Sabour, M. F.

    2012-01-01

    A trial was made to study the use of different plant species to extract heavy metals out of contaminated soils. Four Kg of each air-dried surface soil sample (0-20 cm) were packed in plastic containers in three replicates. Five plant species tested in this study namely, Panikum (Panicum antidotal) and napier grass (Bennisetum purpureum), squash (Cucurbita pepo), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), sunflower (Helianthus annuus); were grown on two different polluted soil types (Mostorud Clayey soil, irrigated with contaminated water for more than 30 years and El-Gabal EL-Asfar sandyloam soil, subjected to sewage effluent irrigation for more than 50 years) in a complete randomized block experimental design to study the mobility and fate of selected heavy metals and evaluate the efficiency of the tested plant species to extract Cadmium and Zinc out of polluted soils. Data indicated that sunflower and cotton shoots accumulated the highest Cd content among the five tested plant species, Shoot concentrations of Cd were as high as 9.6 mg/kg dry matter of sunflower, followed by panikum and napier grass, cotton then squash with a range of Cd between 9.6 to 1.6 mg/kg dry matter in case of the alluvium soil. However in the sandy soil, sunflower Cd -shoots were > penakium> napier grass > cotton> Squash with a lower order of magnitude which could be explained by the lower Cd -content in sandy soil compared to the alluvial soil .Calculation of recovery percentage based on Cd and Zn removed from the soil after cultivation ranged between 5.9 to 27.4 % and 16.1 to 49.1% of total initial Cd and Zn, Respectively. However, The percentage of Cd and Zn -removed by plant shoots from the initial total varied between 27.6 to 37.5% and 25.3 and 36.8 % of the removed Cd and Zn, Respectively, whereas the lowest values were observed in case of squash for Cd and Zn. As expected plant roots exhibited higher Cd and Zn accumulation than in shoots by 2-3 folds. Sunflower roots showed the highest Cd

  20. Protective Effects of Long Term Administration of Zinc on Bone Metabolism Parameters in Male Wistar Rats Treated with Cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Najafi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Violent poisoning by cadmium in human is created through drinks or meals which have packed in the metallic tins with cadmium plating. The symptoms of variation in the mineral metabolism of bones are observed and different conditions maybe appeared. The toxic (poisonous effect due to cadmium can be neutralized by intervening zinc. This study has been designed to investigate the protective effects of zinc for reducing the poisonous effects due to cadmium on the metabolism in the parameters related to the bone in rat. Methods In this experimental study, 48 male rats of wistar species were distributed in eight experimental groups and tested in the investigative lab of Falavarjan university. These groups were received 0.5 cc physiological serum, 0.5 mg/kg Zinc, 0.5, 1, 2 mg/kg Cadmium respectively and some groups were included in those were taken all there cadmium and zinc concentrations synchronously. Blood samples were taken in a 60 days period and those factors related to the bone metabolism were measured. The data were analyzed by 2-ANOVA Ways, complementary tests through software SPSS 16. Results The results showed that 0.5, 1, 2 mg/kg doses cadmium chloride caused to increase alkaline Phosphatase, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and decrease albumin as compared with control group. Also, synchronous usage of all three cadmium chloride concentrations with zinc cause to decrease alkaline phosphatase, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and increase albumin concentration. In a word, the other bone parameters have been significant in different cadmium and zinc doses (P < 0.05. Conclusions Findings showed that zinc can play a protective role on the metabolism parameters related to bone against to poisoning caused by cadmium.

  1. A study of copper, lead and cadmium speciation in some estuarine and coastal marine waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batley, G E; Gardner, D

    1978-07-01

    The significance of the measured changes in heavy metal distribution for different sampled environments was ascertained. The potential of a heavy metal speciation scheme to reflect differences in marine metal distributions was evaluated in a study of soluble copper, lead, and cadmium speciation in water samples from Port Hacking Estuary and one coastal Pacific station in Australia. In all samples, the percentages of metals associated with colloidal matter were high40-60% of total copper, 45-75% of total lead, and 15-35% of total cadmium. (1 map, 26 references, 4 tables)

  2. Cadmium, zinc and the uptake of calcium by two crabs, Carcinus maenas and Eriocheir sinensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainbow, P.S.; Black, W.H.

    2005-01-01

    The uptake of dissolved cadmium and zinc by crustaceans can usually be explained by the passive process of facilitated diffusion involving a transport protein in the membranes of permeable surfaces. Cadmium ions will also enter via uptake routes for calcium, given the similar size of the two free ions. This study has investigated the interaction of cadmium (and comparatively zinc) and calcium uptake in two crabs that show different permeability responses to changes in salinity, with consequently different effects on the uptake of cadmium and zinc with salinity change. Ca uptake rates in Carcinus maenas decreased in reduced salinity (33-15) with the decreased Ca concentration of the medium and increased if the Ca concentration was increased at salinity 20. It is concluded that Ca uptake over the salinity range 33-15 is via apical Ca channels in gill ionocytes, passively down an electrochemical gradient. The Ca uptake rate of Eriocheir sinensis showed no significant decrease over the salinity range 33-10 (probably because of the small differences in an already low Ca uptake rate in this crab against a background of inter-individual variability), but decreased significantly at salinity 5. Added calcium increased the Ca uptake rate of E. sinensis at salinities 15 and 5, supporting the interpretation that Ca uptake in gills is typically passive via apical Ca channels. Cadmium (but not zinc) inhibited calcium uptake in both crabs at 15 salinity, indicating sharing of Ca channels by Cd, but not at salinity 5 (E. sinensis only) when Ca may be taken up into gill ionocytes by another (active?) physiological process

  3. Roadside soils show low plant available zinc and copper concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Natalie; Walter, M Todd; Osmond, Deanna; Hunt, William

    2016-02-01

    Vehicle combustion and component wear are a major source of metal contamination in the environment, which could be especially concerning where road ditches are actively farmed. The objective of this study was to assess how site variables, namely age, traffic (vehicles day(-1)), and percent carbon (%C) affect metal accumulation in roadside soils. A soil chronosequence was established with sites ranging from 3 to 37 years old and bioavailable, or mobile, concentrations of Zinc (Zn) and Copper (Cu) were measured along major highways in North Carolina using a Mehlich III extraction. Mobile Zn and Cu concentrations were low overall, and when results were scaled via literature values to "total metal", the results were still generally lower than previous roadside studies. This could indicate farming on lands near roads would pose a low plant toxicity risk. Zinc and Cu were not correlated with annual average traffic count, but were positively correlated with lifetime traffic load (the product of site age and traffic count). This study shows an often overlooked variable, site age, should be included when considering roadside pollution accumulation. Zinc and Cu were more strongly associated with %C, than traffic load. Because vehicle combustion is also a carbon source, it is not obvious whether the metals and carbon are simply co-accumulating or whether the soil carbon in roadside soils may facilitate previously overlooked roles in sequestering metals on-site. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. High cadmium / zinc ratio in cigarette smokers: potential implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tobacco smoke may be one of the most common sources of cadmium (Cd) in the general population, particularly in the rising population of smokers in developing countries. Although a relationship between both cigarette smoking and environmental Cd contamination with prostate cancer exist, the mechanisms are unclear.

  5. Determination of cadmium in zinc ores by thermal neutron absorption analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Norre, L.; Op de Beeck, J.; Hoste, J.

    1983-01-01

    A method has been developed for routine determination of cadmium in zinc ores by thermal neutron absorption analysis, based on the attenuation of a thermal neutron flux passing through a neutron absorbing material. The thermal neutron flux in related to the 52 V activity induced in a vanadium detector, surrounded by pellets pressed from a mixture of powdered material with graphite. Besides cadmium, also the major constituents zinc, iron and sulfur contribute significantly to the total attenuation of the thermal neutron flux. Calibration lines for these elements are worked out. All irradiations are carried out for 200 s in the partially thermalized neutron flux of a 5 Ci 227 Ac-Be isotope neutron source. After a decay of 30 s, the 52 V activity of the vanadium detector is measured for 400 s with a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. The analysis sequence, including the computation of the results from the counting data, is automated by means of a LSI-11 Microprocessor with 12Kx16 bit memory. Zinc ores, containing 0.02 to 1.45% cadmium, have been analyzed with a precision ranging from 12.6% to 0.54%, resp. As a test for the reliability of the method, two NBS standard reference materials were analyzed in the same way as the zinc ore samples. (author)

  6. Preparation and study of the properties of indium phosphide thin films impregnated with cadmium and zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moutinho, H.R.

    1984-01-01

    Indium phosphide thin films were deposited by vacuum evaporation of indium and phosphorous, using the three-temperature method. The effects of the introduction of cadmium and zinc, group II impurities, on the properties of these films were studied. The introduction of cadmium was achieved by coevaporation of this element during the film deposition. The introduction of zinc was done by diffusion of this element in intrinsic films. Analyses of these films were carried out by the study of the composition, morphology, structure, optical properties and electrical properties. The introduction of cadmium led to the reduction of grain size and increase in the bandgap and in certain cases, even change in morphology. Phases of CdP2 and β-CdP2 were detected and the resistivity increased by some orders of magnitude. The introduction of zinc did not change the morphology, crystalline structure and bandgap. However, a new energy level corresponding to the zinc acceptor level was found and the resistivity increased by some orders of magnitude. (Author) [pt

  7. UHF-plasma torch emission spectrometry for cadmium, lead and zinc by vaporization introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Ryozo

    1978-01-01

    As the introduction technique of aerosol into the plasma torch, vaporization introduction of metals was studied. An aliquot of metal nitrates was pipetted in a graphite crucible and dried with a vacuum pump. The dried sample was heated in a high-frequency induction furnace under inert gas carrier such as argon or nitrogen (reduction introduction). Chlorination introduction with hydrogen chloride was also studied. High-purity grade of argon, nitrogen and hydrogen chloride was used as carrier. Intensities were based on the peak area of intensity-time curves at 228.8 nm (cadmium), 405.8 nm (lead), and 213.9 nm (zinc). In the reduction introduction, the minimum temperatures to attain a constant peak area, which means a complete vaporization were 700 0 C (cadmium), 1500 0 C (lead), and 1100 0 C (zinc), respectively. In the chlorination, this temperature was 500 0 C (cadmium), 700 0 C (lead), and 300 0 C (zinc) respectively. For two introduction techniques, the latter was more sensitive than the former for cadmium and zinc, while the former was more sensitive for lead. The optimum temperature, detection limits, and the coefficients of variance calculated from the measurements of 1.0 μg of metals were as follows: Cadmium: chlorination at 850 0 C, D.L. 5ng, C.V. 10%. Lead: reduction at 1600 0 C, D.L. 10ng, C.V. 15%. Zinc: chlorination at 850 0 C, D.L. 5ng, C.V. 9%. Linear calibration lines having 45 0 slope at log-log plots, were obtained over the range from 0.05 to 6 μg for cadmium and zinc, 0.06 to 6 μg for lead on the conditions above. These techniques were also applied for analyses of biological materials for three metals without prior separations. Although the sensitivity of the chlorination introduction technique for lead was rather poor compared with that of reduction technique, the chlorination technique was applied to minimize the introduction of coexisting materials such as alkali and alkaline earth metals. The analytical results agreed reasonably with the

  8. Biochemical and Physiological Responses in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Following Dietary Exposure to Copper and Cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundebye, A.-K.; Berntssen, M.H.G.; Bonga, S.E.Wendelaar; Maage, A.

    1999-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted with Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to assess the effects of dietary exposure to copper and cadmium. The results presented here provide an overview, details of each experiment will be published in full elsewhere. In the first experiment, salmon parr exposed for four weeks to 35 and 700 mg Cu kg -1 diet had significantly elevated intestinal copper concentrations, cell proliferation (PCNA) and apoptosis rates compared to control fish. No differences were observed in gill or plasma copper concentrations among the groups. In contrast to the controls, the Cu exposed groups did not grow significantly during the exposure period. The second experiment (three months exposure) was conducted to assess the effects of dietary copper (control, 35, 500, 700, 900 or 1750 mg Cu kg -1 diet) on growth and feed utilization in salmon fingerlings. Growth was significantly reduced after three months exposure to dietary Cu concentrations above 500 mg kg -1 . Similarly, copper body burdens were significantly higher in fish exposed to elevated dietary copper concentrations (above 35 mg Cu kg -1 diet). In the third experiment, salmon parr were exposed to one of six dietary cadmium concentrations (0, 0.5, 5, 25, 125 or 250 mg Cd kg -1 diet) for four months. Cadmium accumulated in the liver>intestine>gills of exposed fish. Rates of apoptosis and cell proliferation in the intestine increased following exposure to dietary cadmium. Exposure to elevated concentrations of dietary cadmium had no effect on growth in salmon parr. Results from these studies indicate that cellular biomarkers have potential as early warning signs of negative effects on the overall fitness of an organism

  9. Transfer and accumulation of lead, zinc, cadmium and copper in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TUOYO

    Ninety percent of the mining wastes come from the extraction of metals as sulfides (Moore and Luoma,. 1990). High concentrations of toxic metals (e.g. Cu, Zn,. Cd and Pb) are usually contained in these wastes (Levy et al., 1997). These metals can cause widespread contamination of soils and sediments in the vicinity of the.

  10. Critical loads and excess loads of cadmium, copper and lead for European forest soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinds, G.J.; Bril, J.; Vries, de W.; Groenenberg, J.E.; Breeuwsma, A.

    1995-01-01

    Recently, concern has arisen about the impact of the dispersion of heavy metals in Europe. Therefore, a study (ESQUAD) was initiated to assess critical loads and steady-state concentrations of cadmium, copper and lead for European forest soils. The calculation methods used strongly resemble those

  11. An Evaluation of Kinetic Parameters of Cadmium and Copper Biosorption by Immobilized Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Georgieva

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation is the use of living organisms to reduce or eliminate environmental hazards resulting from the accumulation of toxic chemicals and other hazardous wastes. This technology is based on the utilization of microorganisms to transform organic and inorganic compounds. The filamentous yeast Trichosporon cutaneum strain R57, immobilized and free cells was cultivated as batch culture on a liquid medium in the presence of various concentrations of cadmium and copper ions. The simultaneous uptake and accumulation of Cd2+ and Cu2+ ions by Tr. cutaneum cells depending on the initial concentration of Cd2+ and Cu2+ in the medium were studied. The potential use of the free and immobilized cells of Trichosporon cutaneum to remove cadmium and copper ions, from aqueous solutions was evaluated. Two important physicochemical aspects for the evaluation of the sorption process as a unit operation are the equilibrium of sorption and the kinetics. The Cd2+ and Cu2+ ions biosorption capacities of all tested adsorbent were presented as a function of the initial concentration of metal ions within the aqueous biosorption medium. The individual, as well as bicomponent sorption kinetics of copper and cadmium ions by immobilised cells of Trichosporon cutaneum R57 is presented. A second order kinetic model obtains kinetic parameters for the copper and cadmium ions.

  12. Leaching and recovery of zinc and copper from brass slag by sulfuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Ahmed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaching and recovery processes for zinc and copper from brass slag by sulfuric acid were carried out and iron and aluminum were also precipitated as hydroxides in addition to silica gel. The factors affecting the performance and efficiency of the leaching processsuch as agitation rate, leaching time, acid concentration and temperature were separately investigated. The results obtained revealed that zinc and copper are successfully recovered from these secondary resources, where the percent recovery amounts to 95% and 99% for zinc and copper, respectively. The experimental data of this leaching process were well interpreted with the shrinking core model under chemically controlled processes. The apparent activation energy for the leaching of zinc has been evaluated using the Arrhenius expression. Based on the experimental results, a separation method and a flow sheet were developed and tested to separate zinc, copper, iron, aluminum and silica gel from the brass slag.

  13. Effect of infant cereals on zinc and copper absorption during weaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.G.; Keen, C.L.; Loennerdal, B.

    1987-01-01

    Zinc and copper absorption from five infant cereal products mixed with water, human milk, or cow's milk was measured using an in vivo absorption model (rat pup) involving gastric intubation of extrinsically radiolabeled diets. Whole-body copper 64 uptake, nine hours after intubation, ranged from 14% to 31% of the dose given for the different cereal combinations. The resultant bioavailability of copper from human milk-cereal combinations (23% to 26%) was significantly lower than that from human milk alone (38%). Whole-body zinc 65 uptake, nine hours after intubation, ranged from 13% to 54% of the dose given for the different cereal combinations. These values were significantly lower than the whole-body zinc 65 uptake from milk alone (61%). Zinc availability was lower (13% to 25%) from dry cereal combinations that contained phytic acid (oatmeal and high-protein varieties) compared with the ready-to-serve cereal-fruit combinations (24% to 54%). The highest zinc uptake (37% to 54%) was from rice-fruit combinations that do not contain phytic acid. We estimated the amounts of zinc and copper that would be absorbed from these cereal products and speculated on the potential impact of these foods on the weaning infant's zinc and copper nutriture. Depending on the feeding practices employed during the weaning period, it is apparent that infant cereals may compromise utilization of zinc and copper from milk diets during weaning

  14. Determination of Cadmium, Lead and Zinc in Vegetables in Jaipur (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok; Verma, P S

    2014-01-01

    An atomic absorption spectroscopic method was used for the determination of Lead, Cadmium and Zinc in vegetables grown in and around Jaipur food stuffs irrigated with industrial waste water. Vegetable samples were collected after maturity, and analyzed, such as spinach (Spinacia oleracea), ladyfinger (Abelmoschus esulentus), pepper mint (Menthe pipereta), brinjal (Solanum melongena), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), cauliflower (Brassica oleracea), onion (Allium cepa), radish (Raphanus sativus), pointedgourd (Trichosanthes dioica), bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria), chilies (Capsicum annum), ribbedgourd (Luffa acutangula) and pumpkin (Curcurbites pepo). The concentration of Lead ranged between 1.40-71.06 ppm, Cadmium 0.61-34.48 ppm and Zinc 0.39-187.26 ppm in vegetable samples. The results reveal that urban consumers are at greater risk of purchasing fresh vegetables with high levels of heavy metal, beyond the permissible limits, as defined by the Indian Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 and WHO.

  15. Characterization of large cadmium zinc telluride crystals grown by traveling heater method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, H.; Awadalla, S.A.; Iniewski, K.

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to evaluate thick, 20 X 20 X 10 and 10 X 10 X 10 mm(3), cadmium zinc telluride (CZT), Cd0.9Zn0.1Te, crystals grown using the traveling heater method (THIM). The phenomenal spectral performance and small size and low concentration of Te inclusions/precipitates of these c......The focus of this paper is to evaluate thick, 20 X 20 X 10 and 10 X 10 X 10 mm(3), cadmium zinc telluride (CZT), Cd0.9Zn0.1Te, crystals grown using the traveling heater method (THIM). The phenomenal spectral performance and small size and low concentration of Te inclusions...

  16. Combined effect of zinc, chromium, and cadmium on bacterial biomass production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsak, M N; Nakani, D V; Chol' naya, G G

    1976-01-01

    The present work was carried out at the Rybinskoye storage-lake in 1974. Some tolerance limits of zinc, chromium and cadmium were chosen for the investigation. The bacterial production was estimated by /sup 14/C heterotrophic assimilation. Natural water included in polyethylene reservoirs was used. The bacterial production was determined in one to three days after the beginning of the experiment. In most off the experiments the negative influence of zinc and chromium on the bacterial biomass production was registered only after 3 days of exposure. The effect of cadmium during the entire period of observations proved to be unreliable. The effect of chromium was fairly constant in different seasons. The interaction of toxicants was not revealed in any the of experiments. 8 references.

  17. Copper and cadmium adsorption on pellets made from fired coal fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papandreou, A.; Stournaras, C.J.; Panias, D.

    2007-01-01

    Studies on the utilization of low cost adsorbents for removal of heavy metals from wastewaters are gaining attention. Fired coal fly ash, a solid by-product that is produced in power plants worldwide in million of tonnes, has attracted researchers' interest. In this work, fly ash was shaped into pellets that have diameter in-between 3-8 mm, high relative porosity and very good mechanical strength. The pellets were used in adsorption experiments for the removal of copper and cadmium ions from aqueous solutions. The effect of agitation rate, equilibration time, pH of solution and initial metal concentration were studied. The adsorption of both cations follows pseudo-second order kinetics reaching equilibrium after an equilibration time of 72 h. The experimental results for copper and cadmium adsorption fit well to a Langmuirian type isotherm. The calculated adsorption capacities of pellets for copper and cadmium were 20.92 and 18.98 mg/g, respectively. Desorption experiments were performed in several extraction media. The results showed that both metals were desorbed substantially from pellets under acidic solutions. For this reason, metal saturated pellets were encapsulated in concrete blocks synthesized from cement and raw pulverized fly ash in order to avoid metal desorption. The heavy metals immobilization after encapsulation in concrete blocks was tested through desorption tests in several aqueous media. The results showed that after 2 months in acidic media with pH 2.88 and 4.98 neither copper nor cadmium were desorbed thus indicating excellent stabilization of heavy metals in the concrete matrix. As a conclusion, the results showed that fly ash shaped into pellets could be considered as a potential adsorbent for the removal of copper and cadmium from wastewaters. Moreover, the paper proposes an efficient and simple stabilization process of the utilized adsorbents thus guarantying their safe disposal in industrial landfills and eliminating the risk of pollution

  18. Zinc Antimonides and Copper Chalcogenides as Thermoelectric Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichfeld, Anders Bank

    2017-01-01

    , and linked with the physical properties. The materials crystallography approach, relating physical properties with a structural understating, has been applied in this thesis for two highly interesting materials systems, zinc antimonides and copper chalcogenides. Both of these systems are high profiled....... The preparation parameters used, have a large influence on the homogeneity of the products, and new electric phases were identified and studied for ZnSb. For the samples prepared by physical vapor deposition, the growth takes place under non-thermodynamic conditions, making it possible to access kinetically...... intensity X-ray radiation at large international facilities, making it possible to measure pair distribution function data directly on thin-film samples in a normal incident setup, termed tfPDF. The tfPDF method was demonstrated on the iron antimony system. tfPDF was developed even further to include...

  19. Seasonal and spatial patterns of metals at a restored copper mine site. I. Stream copper and zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambic, Dustin G.; Alpers, Charles N.; Green, Peter G.; Fanelli, Eileen; Silk, Wendy K.

    2006-01-01

    Seasonal and spatial variations in metal concentrations and pH were found in a stream at a restored copper mine site located near a massive sulfide deposit in the Foothill copper-zinc belt of the Sierra Nevada, California. At the mouth of the stream, copper concentrations increased and pH decreased with increased streamflow after the onset of winter rain and, unexpectedly, reached extreme values 1 or 2 months after peaks in the seasonal hydrographs. In contrast, aqueous zinc and sulfate concentrations were highest during low-flow periods. Spatial variation was assessed in 400 m of reach encompassing an acidic, metal-laden seep. At this seep, pH remained low (2-3) throughout the year, and copper concentrations were highest. In contrast, the zinc concentrations increased with downstream distance. These spatial patterns were caused by immobilization of copper by hydrous ferric oxides in benthic sediments, coupled with increasing downstream supply of zinc from groundwater seepage. - Seasonal hydrology and benthic sediments control copper and zinc concentrations in a stream through a restored mine site

  20. Synthesis, characterization and thermogravimetric study of zinc and cadmium acetates-polyaniline hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes de Farias, Robson

    2004-01-01

    By dissolution of respective acetates and conducting polymer in dimethylformamide, homogeneous zinc acetate and cadmium acetate-polyaniline (PANI) hybrids were synthesized and characterized by infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and SEM microscopy. The infrared spectra suggests that there are interactions between PANI and the metal cations involving both, imine and amine nitrogens in a typical Lewis acid-base reaction. The thermogravimetric degradation profile of the synthesized hybrids resembles those exhibited by PANI samples

  1. Heavy metal pollution among autoworkers. II. Cadmium, chromium, copper, manganese, and nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, J.; Rastogi, S.C.

    1977-08-01

    Garages and auto-repair workshops may be polluted with other heavy metals besides lead. Blood of autoworkers with high lead content was analyzed for cadmium, chromium, copper, manganese, nickel, ALAD activity and carboxyhaemoglobin level. Cadmium and copper levels in blood of autoworkers were comparable with those of the control subjects while chromium and nickel levels were significantly higher (P < 0.01 for both metals), and scattered raised values of manganese were found. There was no significant mutual correlation between levels of various heavy metals determined in whole blood. High copper levels were slightly related to decreasing ALAD activity (P < 0.1). Nineteen percent of autoworkers were found to have an abnormally high blood level of carboxyhemoglobin. The amount of particulate heavy metal in autoworkshop air was not related to biochemical abnormalities found in the autoworkers. Various sources of pollution of these heavy metals in autoworkshops are discussed.

  2. Integrated micro-biochemical approach for phytoremediation of cadmium and zinc contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Dinesh; Kumar, Chitranjan; Patel, Niraj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The integrated potential of oilcake manure (OM), elemental sulphur (S(0)), Glomus fasciculatum and Pseudomonas putida by growing Helianthus annuus L for phytoremediation of cadmium and zinc contaminated soils was investigated under pot experiment. The integrated treatment (2.5 g kg(-1) OM, 0.8 g kg(-1) S(0) and co-inoculation with G. fasciculatum and P. putida promoted the dry biomass of the plant. The treatment was feasible for enhanced cadmium accumulation up to 6.56 and 5.25 mg kg(-1) and zinc accumulation up to 45.46 and 32.56 mg kg(-1) in root and shoot, respectively, which caused maximum remediation efficiency (0.73 percent and 0.25 percent) and bioaccumulation factor (2.39 and 0.83) for Cd and Zn, respectively showing feasible uptake (in mg kg(-1) dry biomass) of Cd (5.55) and Zn (35.51) at the contaminated site. Thus, authors conclude to integrate oilcake manure, S(0) and microbial co-inoculation for enhanced clean-up of cadmium and zinc-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Reproduction and biochemical responses in Enchytraeus albidus (Oligochaeta) to zinc or cadmium exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novais, Sara C.; Gomes, Susana I.L.; Gravato, Carlos; Guilhermino, Lucia; De Coen, Wim; Soares, Amadeu M.V.M.; Amorim, Monica J.B.

    2011-01-01

    To better understand chemical modes of action, emphasis has been given to stress responses at lower levels of biological organization. Cholinesterases and antioxidant defenses are among the most used biomarkers due to their crucial role in the neurocholinergic transmission and in cell homeostasis preventing DNA damage, enzymatic inactivation and lipid peroxidation. The main goal of this study was to investigate the effects of zinc and cadmium on survival and reproduction of E. albidus and to assess metals oxidative stress potential and neurotoxic effects at concentrations that affected reproduction. Both metals affected the enchytraeids' survival and reproduction and induced significant changes in the antioxidant defenses as well as increased lipid peroxidation, indicating oxidative damage. This study demonstrates that determining effects at different levels of biological organization can give better information on the physiological responses of enchytraeids in metal contamination events and further unravel the mechanistic processes dealing with metal stress. - Highlights: → Zinc and cadmium influence the survival and reproduction of Enchytraeus albidus. → Oxidative stress and membrane damage occur at reproduction effect concentrations. → Glutathione seems to be important in the antioxidant defense against metals. → Time intervals (2, 4, 8 days) allowed following the evolution of oxidative events. - Zinc and cadmium cause oxidative stress and membrane damage in Enchytraeus albidus at reproduction effect concentrations.

  4. Reproduction and biochemical responses in Enchytraeus albidus (Oligochaeta) to zinc or cadmium exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novais, Sara C., E-mail: sara.novais@ua.pt [CESAM and Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Gomes, Susana I.L. [CESAM and Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Gravato, Carlos [CIIMAR-Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigacao Marinha e Ambiental, Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia e Ecologia, Universidade do Porto, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Guilhermino, Lucia [CIIMAR-Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigacao Marinha e Ambiental, Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia e Ecologia, Universidade do Porto, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); ICBAS-Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas Abel Salazar, Departamento de Estudos de Populacoes, Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal); De Coen, Wim [University of Antwerp, Department of Biology - E.B.T., Groenenborgerlaan 171 - U.7., B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Soares, Amadeu M.V.M.; Amorim, Monica J.B. [CESAM and Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2011-07-15

    To better understand chemical modes of action, emphasis has been given to stress responses at lower levels of biological organization. Cholinesterases and antioxidant defenses are among the most used biomarkers due to their crucial role in the neurocholinergic transmission and in cell homeostasis preventing DNA damage, enzymatic inactivation and lipid peroxidation. The main goal of this study was to investigate the effects of zinc and cadmium on survival and reproduction of E. albidus and to assess metals oxidative stress potential and neurotoxic effects at concentrations that affected reproduction. Both metals affected the enchytraeids' survival and reproduction and induced significant changes in the antioxidant defenses as well as increased lipid peroxidation, indicating oxidative damage. This study demonstrates that determining effects at different levels of biological organization can give better information on the physiological responses of enchytraeids in metal contamination events and further unravel the mechanistic processes dealing with metal stress. - Highlights: > Zinc and cadmium influence the survival and reproduction of Enchytraeus albidus. > Oxidative stress and membrane damage occur at reproduction effect concentrations. > Glutathione seems to be important in the antioxidant defense against metals. > Time intervals (2, 4, 8 days) allowed following the evolution of oxidative events. - Zinc and cadmium cause oxidative stress and membrane damage in Enchytraeus albidus at reproduction effect concentrations.

  5. Alcohol vapor sensing by cadmium-doped zinc oxide thick films based chemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargar, R. A.; Arora, M.; Chackrabarti, S.; Ahmad, S.; Kumar, J.; Hafiz, A. K.

    2016-04-01

    Cadmium-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles were derived by simple chemical co-precipitation route using zinc acetate dihydrate and cadmium acetate dihydrate as precursor materials. The thick films were casted from chemical co-precipitation route prepared nanoparticles by economic facile screen printing method. The structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of the film were characterized relevant to alcohol vapor sensing application by powder XRD, SEM, UV-VIS and DC conductivity techniques. The response and sensitivity of alcohol (ethanol) vapor sensor are obtained from the recovery curves at optimum working temperature range from 20∘C to 50∘C. The result shows that maximum sensitivity of the sensor is observed at 25∘C operating temperature. On varying alcohol vapor concentration, minor variation in resistance has been observed. The sensing mechanism of sensor has been described in terms of physical adsorption and chemical absorption of alcohol vapors on cadmium-doped zinc oxide film surface and inside film lattice network through weak hydrogen bonding, respectively.

  6. Serum Zinc, Iron and Copper Concentrations in Dogs Infected with Hepatozoon canis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Seyrek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In Turkey, canine hepatozoonosis is an emerging infection with a large number of cases detected during the past five years. In the present study, serum zinc, copper and iron concentrations of dogs infected with Hepatozoon canis were measured for the first time. Compared to the controls (n = 10, serum zinc and iron concentrations in infected animals (n = 14 decreased significantly (p p p Hepatozoon canis infection may cause alterations in serum zinc iron and copper concentrations. Furthermore, in the treatment of infected animals addition of zinc and iron to the ration of infected animals should be taken into consideration.

  7. Thermal decomposition of anhydrous zinc and cadmium salicylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharitonov, Yu.Ya.; Tujebakhova, Z.K.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of studying thermograms, thermogravigrams, IR absorption spectra, X-rayograms of anhydrous znc and cadmium salicylate complexes of the M(HSal) 2 composition, (where M=Zn, Cd; HSal is an anion of once deprotonated salicyclic acid H 2 Sal) and products of their thermal transformations, the processes are characterized of stage-by-stage thermal decomposition of these compounds under continuous heating in the air from room temperature to approximately 1000 deg C. It is shown that the Cd(HSal) 2 pyrolysis proceeds with the formation of CdSal at 170-250 deg C and CdO - at 320-460 deg C

  8. Concentration dependent transcriptome responses of zebrafish embryos after exposure to cadmium, cobalt and copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnack, Laura; Klawonn, Thorsten; Kriehuber, Ralf; Hollert, Henner; Schäfers, Christoph; Fenske, Martina

    2017-12-01

    Environmental metals are known to cause harmful effects to fish of which many molecular mechanisms still require elucidation. Particularly concentration dependence of gene expression effects is unclear. Focusing on this matter, zebrafish embryo toxicity tests were used in combination with transcriptomics. Embryos were exposed to three concentrations of copper (CuSO 4 ), cadmium (CdCl 2 ) and cobalt (CoSO 4 ) from just after fertilization until the end of the 48hpf pre- and 96hpf post-hatch stage. The RNA was then analyzed on Agilent's Zebrafish (V3, 4×44K) arrays. Enrichment for GO terms of biological processes illustrated for cadmium that most affected GO terms were represented in all three concentrations, while for cobalt and copper most GO terms were represented in the lowest test concentration only. This suggested a different response to the non-essential cadmium than cobalt and copper. In cobalt and copper treated embryos, many developmental and cellular processes as well as the Wnt and Notch signaling pathways, were found significantly enriched. Also, different exposure concentrations affected varied functional networks. In contrast, the largest clusters of enriched GO terms for all three concentrations of cadmium included responses to cadmium ion, metal ion, xenobiotic stimulus, stress and chemicals. However, concentration dependence of mRNA levels was evident for several genes in all metal exposures. Some of these genes may be indicative of the mechanisms of action of the individual metals in zebrafish embryos. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) verified the microarray data for mmp9, mt2, cldnb and nkx2.2a. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Study on copper kinetics in processing sulphide ore mixed with copper and zinc with sulfuric acid leaching under pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen-bo, LUO; Ji-kun, WANG; Yin, GAN

    2018-01-01

    Sulphide ore mixed with copper and zinc is processed with pressure acid leaching. Research is conducted on the copper kinetic. The stirring rate is set at 600 rpm which could eliminate the influence of external diffusions. Research is conducted on the factors affecting the copper leaching kinetic are temperature, pressure, concentration of sulfuric acid, particle size. The result shows that the apparent activity energy is 50.7 KJ/mol. We could determine that the copper leaching process is shrinking core model of chemical reaction control and work out the leaching equation.

  10. Magnesium, zinc and copper estimation in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Elbaz

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: Children with ADHD have lower levels of zinc, copper and magnesium compared to both laboratory reference ranges and to normal controls in both hair and serum. These deficiencies are correlated with the core symptoms of ADHD.

  11. Heavy metals (copper, cadmium, lead, mercury) in mute swans from Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvestad, K.; Karlog, O.; Clausen, B.

    1982-03-01

    During the severe winter of 1978-79, large numbers of mute swans died in coastal areas of Denmark. Of these, 2111 were collected for examination. The analyses confirm previous findings of relatively high copper levels in mute swans (mean for 178 livers was 2680 mg/kg dry weight (Dw) and for 110 kidneys 34 mg/kg Dw) (Table I, Fig. 1). The copper content was not related to sex or age (Table II). The highest liver levels of copper were found in swans from Western Jutland. Cadmium was found at the same relatively low levels as recorded for waterfowl elsewhere (mean for 178 livers was 12 mg/kg Dw, for 110 kidneys 24 mg/kg Dw) (Table I, Fig. 2). The cadmium content was not sex-related, but it increased with age (Table II). The mean mercury content (liver) was 1.4 mg/kg Dw in the 10 birds analysed (Table I). The mean lead content was 15 mg/kg Dw in the 178 livers analysed and 31 mg/kg Dw in 110 sternum (Table I and Fig. 3). The lead content was not sex-related. In sternum, but not in livers, it was related to age (Table II). One third of the swans were found lead-contaminated probably after ingestion of lead pellets. None of the swans carried high levels of both copper, cadmium, and lead (Table III).

  12. Leaching and recovery of zinc and copper from brass slag by sulfuric acid

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, I.M.; Nayl, A.A.; Daoud, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Leaching and recovery processes for zinc and copper from brass slag by sulfuric acid were carried out and iron and aluminum were also precipitated as hydroxides in addition to silica gel. The factors affecting the performance and efficiency of the leaching processsuch as agitation rate, leaching time, acid concentration and temperature were separately investigated. The results obtained revealed that zinc and copper are successfully recovered from these secondary resources, where the percent r...

  13. Natural Attenuation of Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Zinc Using Hydrograph Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, J. E.; Peters, S. C.

    2009-12-01

    Strategies for remediating contaminated sites range from complete removal of the contaminated soil to in-situ monitored natural attenuation. The decision to let a property naturally attenuate is partially based on the estimated time it will take to return to ambient conditions. The Lehigh Gap Wildlife Refuge at Palmerton, PA was historically contaminated with arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc from a zinc smelting operation that ceased emissions twenty-nine years ago. This property provides an opportunity to assess whether the length of time required for the natural attenuation of metals in soil has been achieved using a watershed mass balance approach, focusing particularly on perturbations observed in the concentration-discharge relationships of contaminants compared to the conservative tracers sodium and chloride, and silicon as an indicator of rock-water interactions. Water samples were collected from 3 springs in the Wildlife Refuge for approximately 4 days following the onset of storm events and analyzed for cation and anion concentrations. Preliminary results show that while the concentrations of arsenic and lead were below detection limits, the fluxes of zinc and cadmium increase corresponding with the peak in the hydrograph relative to the fluxes of the tracers, indicating the solutes are being released from adsorption sites located in an unsaturated zone that is temporarily inundated during storm events. In comparison, the flux of the tracers remains constant, indicative of a steady-state leakage of the solutes from their respective reservoirs in the soil. Along with flux, the concentrations of zinc and cadmium also increase following the rise in discharge after storm events, further suggesting that these contaminants are being mobilized out of the soil profile.

  14. Supplementation with zinc in rats enhances memory and reverses an age-dependent increase in plasma copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandusky-Beltran, Leslie A; Manchester, Bryce L; McNay, Ewan C

    2017-08-30

    Zinc and copper are essential trace elements. Dyshomeostasis in these two metals has been observed in Alzheimer's disease, which causes profound cognitive impairment. Insulin therapy has been shown to enhance cognitive performance; however, recent data suggest that this effect may be at least in part due to the inclusion of zinc in the insulin formulation used. Zinc plays a key role in regulation of neuronal glutamate signaling, suggesting a possible link between zinc and memory processes. Consistent with this, zinc deficiency causes cognitive impairments in children. The effect of zinc supplementation on short- and long-term recognition memory, and on spatial working memory, was explored in young and adult male Sprague Dawley rats. After behavioral testing, hippocampal and plasma zinc and copper were measured. Age increased hippocampal zinc and copper, as well as plasma copper, and decreased plasma zinc. An interaction between age and treatment affecting plasma copper was also found, with zinc supplementation reversing elevated plasma copper concentration in adult rats. Zinc supplementation enhanced cognitive performance across tasks. These data support zinc as a plausible therapeutic intervention to ameliorate cognitive impairment in disorders characterized by alterations in zinc and copper, such as Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The leaching kinetics of cadmium from hazardous Cu-Cd zinc plant residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Zheng, Shili; Liu, Biao; Du, Hao; Dreisinger, David Bruce; Tafaghodi, Leili; Zhang, Yi

    2017-07-01

    A large amount of Cu-Cd zinc plant residues (CZPR) are produced from the hydrometallurgical zinc plant operations. Since these residues contain substantial amount of heavy metals including Cd, Zn and Cu, therefore, they are considered as hazardous wastes. In order to realize decontamination treatment and efficient extraction of the valuable metals from the CZPR, a comprehensive recovery process using sulfuric acid as the leaching reagent and air as the oxidizing reagent has been proposed. The effect of temperature, sulfuric acid concentration, particle size, solid/liquid ratio and stirring speed on the cadmium extraction efficiency was investigated. The leaching kinetics of cadmium was also studied. It was concluded that the cadmium leaching process was controlled by the solid film diffusion process. Moreover, the order of the reaction rate constant versus H 2 SO 4 concentration, particle size, solid/liquid ratio and stirring speed was calculated. The XRD and SEM-EDS analysis results showed that the main phases of the secondary sulfuric acid leaching residues were lead sulfate and calcium sulfate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Contamination of Soil, Water, Plant and Dust by Zinc, Lead and Cadmium in Southwest Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastaran Esmaeilpourfard

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Due to mining, considerable amounts of heavy metal bearing mineralsare scattered in the atmosphere in the form of dust and make the surrounding air, water and soils polluted.Runoff water movingfrom the mountainstowardsplains may also transport heavy metals from mines to the soils.One type ofpollutions is contamination withheavy metals.The purpose of the present research has been to investigate the effect of heavy metals of mine on soil, water, plant and dust pollution. Materials and Methods: Gushfil mine is located 3 kilometers southwest of Sepahanshahr, Isfahan. Soil profiles were dug 500 meters apart along three parallel transects, between east of Sepahanshahr and Gushfil mine. The profiles were described and samples were collected from their horizons. Ore, wells, plant and dust were sampled as well. Total concentrations of lead, zinc and cadmium were measured in the samples. To find the origin of polluted dust and soil, lead isotopes contents in the samples were measured and regressional relationships between the ratios of these contents were investigated. Results and Discussion Sepahanshahr soils are not contaminated by zinc, lead and cadmium, but within a distance of one to two kilometers from the Gushfil mine, the soils are polluted by zinc and lead. Cadmium contamination was not observed in the studied soils. In all of the soils, the heavy metals content varies downwards irregularly. The reason for this variation trend is that the studied soils are alluvial. In different periods of time, alluvium parent materials have been transported by runoff water from the lead and zinc mines towards the alluvial piedmont plain. The studied heavy metals have been distributed irregularly in different horizons of the soils that have been formed in these parent materials. Lead and cadmium concentrations of drinking water in the studied area are much higher than the maximum amount allowed by the World Health Organization. Cadmium content in

  17. Cloning and occurrence of czrC, a gene conferring cadmium and zinc resistance in MRSA CC398 Isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaco, Lina; Hasman, Henrik; Stegger, Marc

    2010-01-01

    the genetic determinant causing zinc resistance in CC398 and examine its prevalence in isolates of animal and human origin. Based on the sequence of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) element from methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) CC398 strain SO385, a putative metal resistance gene......-four percent (n = 23) of the animal isolates and 48% (n = 24) of the human MRSA isolates of CC398 were resistant to zinc chloride and positive for czrC. All 48 MSSA strains from both human and pig origins were found to be susceptible to zinc chloride and negative for czrC. Our findings showed that czr......C is encoding zinc and cadmium resistance in CC398 MRSA isolates, and that it is widespread both in humans and animals. Thus, resistance to heavy metals such as zinc and cadmium may play a role in the coselection of methicillin resistance in S. aureus....

  18. Biosorption of the Copper and Cadmium Ions - a Study through Adsorption Isotherms Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia T. Veit

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the biosorption process of copper-cadmium ions binary mixture by using marine algae Sargassum filipendula was investigated. A set of experiments was performed to obtain equilibrium data for the given batch operational conditions - T=30°C, pH=5. The interpretation of equilibrium data was based on the binary adsorption isotherms models in the Langmuir and Freundlich forms. To evaluate the models parameters, nonlinear identification procedure was used based on the Least Square statistical method and SIMPLEX local optimizer. An analysis of the obtained results showed that the marine algae biomass has higher affinity to copper ions than to cadmium ones. The biomass maximum adsorption capacity for the binary system was about 1.16 meq/g.

  19. Chemical bath deposited zinc sulfide buffer layers for copper indium gallium sulfur-selenide solar cells and device analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundu, Sambhu; Olsen, Larry C.

    2005-01-01

    Cadmium-free copper indium gallium sulfur-selenide (CIGSS) thin film solar cells have been fabricated using chemical bath deposited (CBD) zinc sulfide (ZnS) buffer layers. Shell Solar Industries provided high quality CIGSS absorber layers. The use of CBD-ZnS, which is a higher band gap material than CdS, improved the quantum efficiency of fabricated cells at lower wavelengths, leading to an increase in short circuit current. The best cell to date yielded an active area (0.43 cm 2 ) efficiency of 13.3%. The effect of the ZnS buffer layer thickness on device performance was studied carefully. This paper also presents a discussion of issues relevant to the use of the CBD-ZnS buffer material for improving device performance

  20. Localization and toxic effects of cadmium, copper, and uranium in Azolla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sela, M.; Tel-Or, E.; Fritz, E.; Huttermann, A.

    1988-01-01

    The storage and distribution of copper, cadmium, and uranium and their effects on ionic contents in roots and shoots of Azolla filiculoides has been studied by x-ray microanalysis. The relative content of copper was eightfold higher in the root than in the shoot, suggesting low mobility of this metal in Azolla plant. Cadmium relative content in the shoot was similar to its content in the root, hence its mobility was relatively high. The absence of significant uranium quantities in the shoot and its relative high content in the root suggest the immobility of this metal from Azolla root. Cadmium formed precipitates with phosphate and calcium in xylem cells of the shoot bundle and caused a two- to threefold increase in the content of phosphate in the root. Uranium in roots and cadmium in shoots were associated with calcium. All three treatments caused losses of potassium, chloride, and magnesium from Azolla roots. Accumulation of heavy metals in Azolla and their mobility from the root to the shoot can be correlated with damage caused by the loss of essential nutrients

  1. Localization and toxic effects of cadmium, copper, and uranium in azolla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sela, M; Tel-Or, E; Fritz, E; Huttermann, A

    1988-09-01

    The storage and distribution of copper, cadmium, and uranium and their effects on ionic contents in roots and shoots of Azolla filiculoides has been studied by x-ray microanalysis. The relative content of copper was eightfold higher in the root than in the shoot, suggesting low mobility of this metal in Azolla plant. Cadmium relative content in the shoot was similar to its content in the root, hence its mobility was relatively high. The absence of significant uranium quantities in the shoot and its relative high content in the root suggest the immobility of this metal from Azolla root. Cadmium formed precipitates with phosphate and calcium in xylem cells of the shoot bundle and caused a two- to threefold increase in the content of phosphate in the root. Uranium in roots and cadmium in shoots were associated with calcium. All three treatments caused losses of potassium, chloride, and magnesium from Azolla roots. Accumulation of heavy metals in Azolla and their mobility from the root to the shoot can be correlated with damage caused by the loss of essential nutrients.

  2. Localization and Toxic Effects of Cadmium, Copper, and Uranium in Azolla1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sela, Mordechai; Tel-Or, Elisha; Fritz, Eberhardt; Huttermann, Aloys

    1988-01-01

    The storage and distribution of copper, cadmium, and uranium and their effects on ionic contents in roots and shoots of Azolla filiculoides has been studied by x-ray microanalysis. The relative content of copper was eightfold higher in the root than in the shoot, suggesting low mobility of this metal in Azolla plant. Cadmium relative content in the shoot was similar to its content in the root, hence its mobility was relatively high. The absence of significant uranium quantities in the shoot and its relative high content in the root suggest the immobility of this metal from Azolla root. Cadmium formed precipitates with phosphate and calcium in xylem cells of the shoot bundle and caused a two- to threefold increase in the content of phosphate in the root. Uranium in roots and cadmium in shoots were associated with calcium. All three treatments caused losses of potassium, chloride, and magnesium from Azolla roots. Accumulation of heavy metals in Azolla and their mobility from the root to the shoot can be correlated with damage caused by the loss of essential nutrients. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 5 Fig. 7 PMID:16666274

  3. Influence of photochemical transformations upon optic-spectral characteristics of iodine cadmium crystals with copper dopant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novosad, S.S.

    2000-01-01

    The influence of photochemical transformations upon absorption. X-ray, photo- and thermostimulated luminescence of crystals CdI 2 :CuI, CdI 2 :CuI and CdI 2 :CuO grown by Stockbarger - Czochralski method has been studied. The photochemical reactions in crystals of iodine cadmium with the dopant of copper leads to reducing the intensity of X-ray, photo- and thermostimulated luminescence, the appearance of new luminescent centers is not observed

  4. Fitoremediation for the Rehabilitation of Agricultural Land Contaminated by Cadmium and Copper

    OpenAIRE

    SA'AD, N. SUTRISNO; ARTANTI, R; DEWI, T

    2009-01-01

    There are many agricultural land using irrigation water from polluted industrial waste of heavy metals. Improvement of agricultural land quality using fitoremediation is needed to overcome heavy metal pollution. The reasearch aims to make remedies for paddy field polluted by cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) using plants that have the ability to absorb heavy metals in order to increase the quality of the land. This research was conducted at the screen house of Indonesian Agricultural Enviroment Re...

  5. [Interaction among the trace elements zinc, copper and iron after depletion and repletion of dairy cows with zinc].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchgessner, M; Schwarz, F J; Roth, H P; Schwarz, W A

    1978-12-01

    Imbalances in the supply with trace elements may be caused by the excessive administration of one or several elements or the insufficient administration in relation to other trace elements. This article deals with the interactions between the trace elements zinc and copper resp. zinc and iron under the conditions of the insufficient supply with Zn (6 mg per kg dry matter of the fodder) and the supply according to the demand with other trace elements (14 mg copper resp. 83 mg iron per dry matter of the fodder). For this purpose we investigated the copper, iron and zinc content of the milk and the serum of cows that were first depleted of zinc through a semi-synthetic zinc deficiency diet and then repleted with extra allowances of zinc. The closest connections exist between the copper and zinc content of the milk. Thus extreme Zn-deficiency feeding conditions the decreased Zn-content on the one hand and increased Cu-content on the other. In contrast to this, the cows' Zn-excretion in the milk increases after Zn-repletion whereas the Cu-content decreases. This shows a distinctly negative correlation. A loose connection could only be detected for the Cu- and Zn-content of the serum. Though the Zn-content changed considerably in dependence on the Zn-supply, the Cu-content remained largely uninfluenced. The Fe-content of both milk and serum shows no interaction with the nutritive Zn-supply. Only after 19 test weeks of extreme Zn-deficiency could a slight increase of the Fe-concentration be indicated.

  6. Serum zinc and copper concentrations in maternal and umbilical cord blood. Relation to course and outcome of pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, S; Berendtsen, H; Nørgaard, J

    1988-01-01

    serum zinc and copper concentrations in maternal and umbilical cord blood from 500 Danish mothers at delivery, looking for an association between serum zinc and copper levels and various maternal and foetal complications. Preterm infants (n = 30) had significantly lower serum copper concentrations than...... reference infants (n = 346) (p = 0.01), whereas there was no difference in serum zinc concentrations. Mothers of preterm infants (n = 34) did not differ in serum zinc or copper concentrations from reference mothers (n = 220). Small for date infants (n = 37) and mothers of small for date infants (n = 47) had...... higher serum copper levels than reference infants and mothers (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively), whereas there was no difference in serum zinc concentrations. Serum zinc and copper concentrations in malformed infants (n = 14) and their mothers (n = 17) did not differ from concentrations in reference...

  7. Radiation induced structural changes in alpha-copper-zinc alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuele, W.; Gieb, M.

    1991-01-01

    During irradiation of alpha-copper-zinc alloys with high energy electrons and protons a decrease of the electrical resistivity due to an increase of the degree of short range order is observed through radiation enhanced diffusion followed by an increase of the electrical resistivity through the formation of radiation induced interstitial clusters. The initial formation rate of interstitial clusters increases about linearly with the displacement rate for electron and proton irradiation. The largest initial formation rate is found between 60 and 130 0 C becoming negligibly small above 158 0 C and decreases drastically below 60 0 C. The dynamic steady state interstitial cluster concentration increases with decreasing irradiation temperature in the investigated temperature range between 158 and 40 0 C. Above 158 0 C the formation rate of interstitial clusters is negligibly small. Thus the transition temperature for radiation induced interstitial cluster formation is 158 0 C, depending mainly on the migration activation energy of vacancies. The radiation induced interstitial clusters are precipitates in those alloys in which the diffusion rate of the undersized component atoms via an interstitialcy diffusion mechanism is larger than that of the other atoms

  8. Leaching of copper and zinc from spent antifouling paint particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Nimisha; Turner, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Leaching of Cu and Zn from a composite of spent antifouling paint particles, containing about 300 mg g -1 and 110 mg g -1 of the respective metals, was studied in batch experiments. For a given set of simulated environmental conditions, release of Cu was independent of paint particle concentration due to attainment of pseudo-saturation, but Zn was less constrained by solubility effects and release increased with increasing particle concentration. Leaching of Cu increased but Zn decreased with increasing salinity, consistent with mechanisms governing the dissolution of Cu 2 O in the presence of chloride and Zn acrylates in the presence of seawater cations. Because of complex reaction kinetics and the presence of calcium carbonate in the paint matrix, metal leaching appeared to be greater at 4 deg. C than 19 deg. C under many conditions. These findings have important environmental and biological implications regarding the deliberate or inadvertent disposal of antifouling paint residues. - Copper and zinc are readily leached from particles of spent antifouling paint under a range of environmental conditions

  9. Leaching of copper and zinc from spent antifouling paint particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Nimisha [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Turner, Andrew [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.uk

    2009-02-15

    Leaching of Cu and Zn from a composite of spent antifouling paint particles, containing about 300 mg g{sup -1} and 110 mg g{sup -1} of the respective metals, was studied in batch experiments. For a given set of simulated environmental conditions, release of Cu was independent of paint particle concentration due to attainment of pseudo-saturation, but Zn was less constrained by solubility effects and release increased with increasing particle concentration. Leaching of Cu increased but Zn decreased with increasing salinity, consistent with mechanisms governing the dissolution of Cu{sub 2}O in the presence of chloride and Zn acrylates in the presence of seawater cations. Because of complex reaction kinetics and the presence of calcium carbonate in the paint matrix, metal leaching appeared to be greater at 4 deg. C than 19 deg. C under many conditions. These findings have important environmental and biological implications regarding the deliberate or inadvertent disposal of antifouling paint residues. - Copper and zinc are readily leached from particles of spent antifouling paint under a range of environmental conditions.

  10. Role of copper, zinc, and selenium in uterine cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarita, P.; Naga Raju, G.J. [Department of Physics, Institute of Technology, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam (India); Bhuloka Reddy, S. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra Universily, Visakahpatnam (India)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of trace elements in blood sera of uterine cervix cancer patients, analyze their alteration with respect to healthy controls, ascertain the role played by them in the initiation, promotion and inhibition of cancer, and identify the best predictors amongst these for disease occurrence and progression. Moreover, the variation of trace elemental content in the sera of cervix cancer patients with the clinical stage of disease and with therapy was also studied. Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE), a well established method for elemental analysis, was used in this work to identify and quantify trace elements in the blood sera of uterine cervix cancer subjects and healthy control subjects. The PIXE measurements were carried out using 2.5 MeV collimated proton beam from the 3 MV Tandem Pelletron Accelerator at lon Beam Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar, India. Among all the trace elements identified in this work, statistically significant alterations in serum levels of copper, zinc, and selenium were observed among the various studied groups. The observed alterations are discussed with respect to the possible mechanisms by which these elements might influence the carcinogenic process. (author)

  11. Effect of zinc, copper and mercury on Channa marulius (Hamilton)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khangarot, B.S.

    1981-01-01

    Static bioassay acute toxicity tests of zinc, copper and mercury were conducted to determine the median lethal concentrations (LC/sub 50/S) of a freshwater telcost Channa marulius (HAM.) The 96 h LC/sub 50/ for Zn/sup 2 +/ were 25.61 mg/l; 0.90 mg/l for Cu/sup 2 +/ and 0.314 mg/l for Hg/sup 2 +/. However, these values decreased at 240 h of exposure and were: 21.09 mg Zn/sup 2 +//l; 0.66 mg Cu/sup 2 +//l; and 0.31 mg Hg/sup 2 +//l. The relative potency ratio of Zn/Hg, Zn/Cu and Cu/Hg suggests that fish were most sensitive to Hg, followed by Cu and Zn ions. The acute toxicities of mixtures of Zn/sup 2 +/-Cu/sup 2 +/; Zn/sup 2 +/-Hg/sup 2 +/; Cu/sup 2 +/-Hg/sup 2 +/ and Zu/sup 2 +/-Cu/sup 2 +/-Hg/sup 2 +/ up to 48 h of exposure were also investigated. The additive index and ranges for Zn/sup 2 +/-Cu/sup 2 +/ were -0.241 for Zn-Hg; 0.285 for Cu-Hg; and -0.542 for Zn-Cu-Hg. All the mixtures tested showed a greater than additive toxicity because index ranges overlapped zero.

  12. Role of copper, zinc, and selenium in uterine cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarita, P.; Naga Raju, G.J.; Bhuloka Reddy, S.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of trace elements in blood sera of uterine cervix cancer patients, analyze their alteration with respect to healthy controls, ascertain the role played by them in the initiation, promotion and inhibition of cancer, and identify the best predictors amongst these for disease occurrence and progression. Moreover, the variation of trace elemental content in the sera of cervix cancer patients with the clinical stage of disease and with therapy was also studied. Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE), a well established method for elemental analysis, was used in this work to identify and quantify trace elements in the blood sera of uterine cervix cancer subjects and healthy control subjects. The PIXE measurements were carried out using 2.5 MeV collimated proton beam from the 3 MV Tandem Pelletron Accelerator at lon Beam Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar, India. Among all the trace elements identified in this work, statistically significant alterations in serum levels of copper, zinc, and selenium were observed among the various studied groups. The observed alterations are discussed with respect to the possible mechanisms by which these elements might influence the carcinogenic process. (author)

  13. Copper and Zinc Chelation as a Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodak, Miroslav; Bernholc, Jerry

    2014-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder affecting millions of people in the U.S. The cause of the disease remains unknown, but amyloid- β (A β), a short peptide, is considered causal its pathogenesis. At cellular level, AD is characterized by deposits mainly composed of A β that also contain elevated levels of transition metals ions. Targeting metals is a promising new strategy for AD treatment, which uses moderately strong metal chelators to sequester them from A β or the environment. PBT2 is a chelating compound that has been the most promising in clinical trials. In our work, we use computer simulations to investigate complexes of a close analog of PBT2 with Cu2+ and Zn2+ ions. The calculations employ KS/FD DFT method, which combines Kohn-Sham DFT with the frozen-density DFT to achieve efficient description of explicit solvent beyond the first solvation shell. Our work is based on recent experiments and examines both 1:1 and 2:1 chelator-metal stochiometries detected experimentally. The results show that copper attaches more strongly than zinc, find that 1:1 complexes involve water in the first coordination shell and determine which one of several possible 2:1 geometries is the most preferable.

  14. Determination of iron, copper, manganese and zinc in the soils, grapes and wines of the Azores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Ribeiro de Lima

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the determination of iron, copper, manganese and zinc in the soils, grapes and wines of the three viticultural regions of the Azores. Iron, copper and zinc were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry and manganese by graphite furnace atomic absorption. The concentrations of the four elements differed in soils of the three regions; there was no difference in the concentration in grapes, whereas significant differences were observed for the wines as regards the amounts of iron, manganese and zinc. The concentrations of these four elements in wine correspond with the mean values observed for other European regions.

  15. Performance of Grass Filter Strip in Copper and Zinc Removal in Surface and Subsurface Runoff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huo Weijie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three filter strips were conducted on self-designed soil bins. Taking a filter strip with no vegetation as contrast, the effectiveness of vegetation and soil conditions on heavy metals (including copper and zinc removal efficiencies were investigated by simulated runoff experiment. The results showed that the adsorbed state is the main existing form of heavy metal. For surface runoff, most of total copper and total zinc are trapped in first 4m and it is ineffective to increase the distance beyond 4m for removal. Vegetation has no significant effect on total copper and total zinc removal, while the soil with higher content of organic matter is contributing to total Zn interception. For subsurface runoff, the removal efficiencies of total copper and total zinc can reach to above 95.38% and both vegetation and soil conditions have no significant effects. Vegetation is contributing to copper ion and zinc ion removal significantly. Soil condition is only a significant factor to zinc ion, with higher content of organic matter as a contributing factor.

  16. Cadmium purification with a vibrating reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, N.; Esna-Ashari, M.; Biallas, H.; Kangas, K.

    1986-01-01

    While electrolytically producing zinc from sulfide concentrates, purification is the most significant step. Impurities such as Co, Sn, Ge, Ni and Sb can cause extensive redissolution of the electrodeposited zinc, thus diminishing current efficiency. Other metals, particularly cadmium, lead and copper, can negatively affect zinc properties by deposition on the cathode. It is standard practice to use atomized zinc dust as a reducing agent in the purification process, either alone or combined with additives. In conventional operations, special facilities are necessary to produce zinc dust in an amount close to 8wt% of cathode production. This paper examines a technique which makes use of zinc granules instead of dust

  17. Study of Cadmium adsorption of Nickel and Zinc on a natural bentonite and homo ionic of sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Giraldo, German Dario; Pinzon Bello, Jorge Alejo

    1999-01-01

    It was studied the adsorption of cadmium, nickel and zinc in aqueous solution at 25oC over a bentonite from the Cauca Valley, in its native state as well as in its sodium homo ionic form. The Langmuir isotherm adequately describes the adsorption of these metal ions over both bentonites, and the thermodynamic distribution coefficient, Kdm, which allow quantifying the degree of adsorption, can be calculated. Baeyens-bradbury model correlates well the adsorption of the metal ions over both bentonites but Kdm cannot be calculated from it. The adsorption data do not adjust to freundlich isotherm or B.E.T. As well as they do to the previously mentioned models. The sodium homo ionic bentonite adsorbs nickel and zinc better than the native bentonite, whereas there are not significant differences in cadmium adsorption. The order of adsorption over both bentonites, Cadmium > Zinc > Nickel, follow the HSAB principle

  18. Plasma cadmium and zinc and their interrelationship in adult Nigerians: potential health implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugwuja Emmanuel Ike

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (an essential trace element and cadmium (a ubiquitous environmental pollutant with acclaimed toxicity have been found to occur together in nature, with reported antagonism between the two elements. The present study aimed at determination of plasma levels of zinc (Zn and cadmium (Cd and their interrelationship in adult Nigerians. The series comprised adults (n=443 aged ≥18 yrs (mean ± SD 38.4±13.7 yrs, consisting of 117 males, 184 non-pregnant and 140 pregnant females. Sociodemographic data were collected by questionnaire while anthropometrics were determined using standard methods. Plasma Cd and Zn were determined by using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean plasma zinc and cadmium were 94.7±18.1 μg/dl and 0.150±0.548 μg/dl, respectively. Age, sex, pregnancy, and parity had no effect on either plasma Zn or Cd. Although educational level had no effect on plasma Zn, it had a significant effect on Cd; subjects possessing either secondary or tertiary education had significantly lower plasma Cd than subjects without formal education. Moreover, there seemed to be an inverse relationship between Cd and Zn, but this was not statistically significant (r=–0.089; p=0.061. Although plasma Zn was not related to BMI (r=0.037; p=0.432, Cd was significantly negatively correlated with BMI (r=–0.124; p=0.009. It may be concluded that adult Nigerians in Ebonyi State have elevated plasma levels of Cd, with apparent impact on the levels of plasma Zn. This has important public health implications considering the essential roles of Zn in the protection of Cd mediated adverse health effects. While food diversification is recommended to improve plasma Zn, efforts should be made to reduce exposure to Cd to mitigate partially its possible adverse effects.

  19. Simultaneous determination of arsenic, copper, manganese, selenium, and zinc in biological materials by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damsgaard, E.; Heydorn, K.

    1976-08-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of arsenic, copper, manganese, selenium, and zinc in biological material was developed by the incorporation of separation procedures for copper and zinc into an existing procedure. Investigation of the performance characteristics of the method was carried out with reference to copper and zinc. For certain materials characterized by a high Cu/Zn ratio, or a high zinc content, or both, such as liver, copper ihterferes in the determination of zinc thus requiring a small correction by an iterative procedure. Blank values for copper depend on the rinsing of the irradiation container, and a single rinsing with redistilled water was found superior to other rinsing procedures. Nuclear interference was negligible. The accuracy of the method was checked by analysis of Standard Reference Materials and the precision verified by analysis of Intercomparison Samples. Results are presented for 5 male foetuses of 3-5 months' gestational age. The distribution of arsenic, manganese and selenium is similar to that previously reported for adults. With the exception of liver, concentrations of copper in foetal organs were lower than values in the literature indicate. (author)

  20. Scandium-doped zinc cadmium oxide as a new stable n-type oxide thermoelectric material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Li; Christensen, Dennis Valbjørn; Bhowmik, Arghya

    2016-01-01

    Scandium-doped zinc cadmium oxide (Sc-doped ZnCdO) is proposed as a new n-type oxide thermoelectric material. The material is sintered in air to maintain the oxygen stoichiometry and avoid instability issues. The successful alloying of CdO with ZnO at a molar ratio of 1 : 9 significantly reduced...... is a good candidate for improving the overall conversion efficiencies in oxide thermoelectric modules. Meanwhile, Sc-doped ZnCdO is robust in air at high temperatures, whereas other n-type materials, such as Al-doped ZnO, will experience rapid degradation of their electrical conductivity and ZT....

  1. Mercury, arsenic and cadmium in the unfried and fried fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand, S.J.S.

    1978-01-01

    Determination of mercury, arsenic and cadmium in unfried and fried fish samples has been carried out by neutron activation followed by chemical separation to remove the interfering activies of copper, zinc etc. This paper presents results of finding on losses of mercury, arsenic and cadmium in the unfried and fried fish. (author)

  2. Spatial mapping of cadmium zinc telluride materials properties and electrical response to improve device yield and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Van Scyoc, J M; Yoon, H; Gilbert, T S; Hilton, N R; Lund, J C; James, R B

    1999-01-01

    Cadmium zinc telluride has experienced tremendous growth in its application to various radiation sensing problems over the last five years. However, there are still issues with yield, particularly of the large volume devices needed for imaging and sensitivity-critical applications. Inhomogeneities of various types and on various length scales currently prevent the fabrication of large devices of high spectral performance. This paper discusses the development of a set of characterization tools for quantifying these inhomogeneities, in order to develop improvement strategies to achieve the desired cadmium zinc telluride crystals for detector fabrication.

  3. Cadmium and zinc activate adaptive mechanisms in Nicotiana tabacum similar to those observed in metal tolerant plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Gómez-Méndez, María F; Amezcua-Romero, Julio C; Barkla, Bronwyn J; Rosas-Santiago, Paul; Pantoja, Omar

    2017-09-01

    Tobacco germinated and grew in the presence of high concentrations of cadmium and zinc without toxic symptoms. Evidence suggests that these ions are sequestered into the vacuole by heavy metal/H + exchanger mechanisms. Heavy metal hyperaccumulation and hypertolerance are traits shared by a small set of plants which show specialized physiological and molecular adaptations allowing them to accumulate and sequester toxic metal ions. Nicotiana tabacum was used to test its potential as a metal-accumulator in a glass house experiment. Seed germination was not affected in the presence of increasing concentrations of zinc and cadmium. Juvenile and adult plants could concentrate CdCl 2 and ZnSO 4 to levels exceeding those in the hydroponic growth medium and maintained or increased their leaf dry weight when treated with 0.5- or 1-mM CdCl 2 or 1-mM ZnSO 4 for 5 days. Accumulation of heavy metals did not affect the chlorophyll and carotenoid levels, while variable effects were observed in cell sap osmolarity. Heavy metal-dependent H + transport across the vacuole membrane was monitored using quinacrine fluorescence quenching. Cadmium- or zinc-dependent fluorescence recovery revealed that increasing concentrations of heavy metals stimulated the activities of the tonoplast Cd 2+ or Zn 2+ /H + exchangers. Immunodetection of the V-ATPase subunits showed that the increased proton transport by zinc was not due to changes in protein amount. MTP1 and MTP4 immunodetection and semiquantitative RT-PCR of NtMTP1, NtNRAMP1, and NtZIP1 helped to identify the genes that are likely involved in sequestration of cadmium and zinc in the leaf and root tissue. Finally, we demonstrated that cadmium and zinc treatments induced an accumulation of zinc in leaf tissues. This study shows that N. tabacum possesses a hyperaccumulation response, and thus could be used for phytoremediation purposes.

  4. Effect of zinc fertilization on cadmium toxicity in durum and bread wheat grown in zinc-deficient soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeleli, Nurcan; Eker, Selim; Cakmak, Ismail

    2004-01-01

    The effect of increasing application of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) on shoot dry weight and shoot concentrations of Zn and Cd was studied in bread and durum wheat cultivars. Plants were grown in severely Zn-deficient calcareous soil treated with increasing Zn (0 and 10 mg kg -1 soil) and Cd (0, 10 and 25 mg kg -1 soil) and harvested after 35 and 65 days of growth under greenhouse conditions. Growing plants without Zn fertilization caused severe depression in shoot growth, especially in durum wheat and at high Cd treatment. Cadmium treatments resulted in rapid development of necrotic patches on the base and sheath parts of the oldest leaves of both wheat cultivars, but symptoms were more severe in durum wheat and under Zn deficiency. Decreases in shoot dry weight from increasing Cd application were more severe in Zn-deficient plants. Severity of Cd toxicity symptoms in durum and bread wheat at different Zn treatments did not show any relation to the Cd concentrations in shoot. Increasing Cd application to Zn-deficient plants tended to decrease Zn concentrations in Zn-deficient plants, whereas in plants with adequate Zn, concentrations of Zn were either not affected or increased by Cd. The results show that durum wheat was more sensitive to both Zn deficiency and Cd toxicity as compared to bread wheat. Cadmium toxicity in the shoot was alleviated by Zn treatment, but this was not accompanied by a corresponding decrease in shoot concentrations of Cd. Our results are compatible with the hypothesis that Zn protects plants from Cd toxicity by improving plant defense against Cd-induced oxidative stress and by competing with Cd for binding to critical cell constituents such as enzymes and membrane protein and lipids

  5. Serum levels of zinc and copper in epileptic children during long-term therapy with anticonvulsants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talat, Mohamed A; Ahmed, Anwar; Mohammed, Lamia

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the serum levels of zinc and copper in epileptic children during the long-term treatment of anticonvulsant drugs and correlate this with healthy subjects. A hospital-based group matched case-control study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt between November 2013 and October 2014. Ninety patients aged 7.1 ± 3.6 years were diagnosed with epilepsy by a neurologist. The control group was selected from healthy individuals and matched to the case group. Serum zinc and copper were measured by the calorimetric method using a colorimetric method kit. The mean zinc level was 60.1 ± 22.6 ug/dl in the cases, and 102.1 ± 18 ug/dl in the controls (p<0.001). The mean copper level was 180.1 ± 32.4 ug/dl in cases compared with 114.5 ± 18.5 ug/dl in controls (p<0.001). Serum zinc levels in epileptic children under drug treatment are lower compared with healthy children. Also, serum copper levels in these patients are significantly higher than in healthy people. No significant difference in the levels of serum copper and zinc was observed in using one drug or multiple drugs in the treatment of epileptic patients.

  6. Maternal serum copper and zinc levels and premature rupture of the foetal membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmanian, M.; Jahed, F. S.; Yousefi, B.; Ghorbani, R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the correlation of zinc and copper serum concentration level, body mass index, age and parity with premature rupture of the membranes. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted between 2009 and 2010 at the fertility ward of Amiralmomenin Hospital of Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Iran. It comprised 100 full-term pregnant women with and without premature rupture of the membranes and 50 non-pregnant women as controls. The diagnosis of rupture of membranes was made on the basis of gross leakage of fluid within the vagina and a positive nitrazin test. A sample of 5mL blood was collected. The levels of zinc and copper were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Mean values among the three equal groups were compared using standard analysis of variance. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results: Pregnant women with (p<0.027) and without (p<0.019) premature rupture of the membranes had significantly lower serum zinc concentration than non-pregnant women. Inversely, the maternal serum copper concentration level was higher in both groups of pregnant women than in the controls (p<0.001). However, the results suggest that the decreased plasma zinc concentration and increased copper concentration in pregnant women were not the cause of premature rupture of the membranes at term. Conclusion: Zinc and copper concentration levels in maternal serum had no effect on premature rupture of the membranes. (author)

  7. Changes in Serum Zinc, Copper and Ceruloplasmin Levels of Whole Body Gamma Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.I.; Shaban, H.A.; El Gohary, M.I.

    2011-01-01

    Rats are whole body irradiated with different Gamma radiation doses. Zinc and Copper, two important trace elements in the biological processes and Ceruloplasmin, a protein which carries more than 95% of serum Cu and has important roles in many vital processes are followed up in the irradiated rat sera. This work aimed to determine the changes in the serum levels of the three parameters (Zinc, Copper and Ceruloplasmin) through eight weeks follow up period (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 6th, and 8th week) post whole body gamma irradiation with three sub-lethal doses (2, 3.5 and 5 Gy) of rats. All the experimental animals did not receive any medical treatment. Zinc and Copper were measured using discrete nebulization flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Ceruloplasmin was measured using a colorimetric method. The statistical analyses of the results show that the Zinc levels of the irradiated groups decreased significantly post irradiation and then were recovered at the 6th week post irradiation. The Copper levels of the irradiated groups increased significantly and then were recovered at 6th week post irradiation. The levels of Ceruloplasmin in the same groups increased significantly throughout the whole follow up period. The conclusion is that, Zinc, Copper and Ceruloplasmin levels changed significantly in the irradiated groups compared to the control group with a maximum effect noted in the groups irradiated with the higher doses and that the lower dose irradiated groups recover earlier than the higher ones. Also the correlation between Copper and Zinc is reversible at different doses and that between Copper and Ceruloplasmin is direct

  8. Evaluation of Cadmium, Lead and Zinc Content of Compost Produced in Babol Composting Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Asgharzadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: The most important parameter is heavy metal contents in compost production technology. These heavy metals residue from substances like soap, detergents, cosmetics, packaging, leather and butteries are existed in municipal solid waste. The heavy metals can produce toxin for animal, human and plant. The aim of this research was study of produced compost quality based on heavy metals (Pb, Cd and Zn in Babol compost plant in 2012. Materials and Methods: The present research is a descriptive- cross sectional study in which was performed in six months. Total sample numbers (5 samples were randomly provided from final compost of Babol plant and then after extraction and filtration, the concentration of heavy metals like cadmium, lead and zinc was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer PG- 999. Results: In analyzed samples the maximum, minimum and average of cadmium in the final compost were 7.25, 0.47 and 1.9 mg/kg. The maximum, minimum and mean of lead were 239.2, 31.9 and 67.1 mg/kg; in zinc were 972.7, 483.5 and 603.7 mg/kg respectively. Conclusion: The concentration of heavy metals in Babol compost samples was under Iranian national and World Health Organization standards and could be used for different species of plants. However, the usability of compost depends on other parameters such as carbon to nitrogen and other components like glass, plastics and textiles.

  9. Spectrometry of X-ray beams using Cadmium and Zinc Teluride detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Paulo Henriques Bastos

    1997-06-01

    Determination of X-ray spectra to be utilized for medical diagnostics is a complementary process to the development of procedures to be applied to the quality control of radiodiagnostics X-ray equipment. Until some years ago, that was only possible using Germanium or Silicon detectors. Both have an excellent resolution in this energy range, but present also some restrictions as there are high costs and the necessity of operating them at temperature of liquid Nitrogen, which is not always available at the measurement's place. Room temperature detectors like Cadmium Telluride and Mercury Iodine don't have these restrictions. They, however, have a lower resolution and incomplete collection of the charges produced by their interaction with radiation. With technological advance of crystal growth in general and new techniques like cooling the crystal with a Peltier cell and rise time discrimination circuits, today Cadmium Telluride detectors show a resolution very close to that from Germanium detectors. This work relates to the routine use of Cadmium and Zinc Telluride detectors for measuring X-ray spectra in loco of diagnostic X-ray units. It characterizes the properties of a commercially available detector and offers a model for stripping the measured pulse height distribution. It was also developed a collimator to allow the direct measurement of the beam. The model developed and the constructed set-up were applied to two X-ray tubes and the achieved spectra compared with some spectra available from the literature. (author)

  10. Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase is activated through a sulfenic acid intermediate at a copper ion entry site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetherolf, Morgan M; Boyd, Stefanie D; Taylor, Alexander B; Kim, Hee Jong; Wohlschlegel, James A; Blackburn, Ninian J; Hart, P John; Winge, Dennis R; Winkler, Duane D

    2017-07-21

    Metallochaperones are a diverse family of trafficking molecules that provide metal ions to protein targets for use as cofactors. The copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase (Ccs1) activates immature copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Sod1) by delivering copper and facilitating the oxidation of the Sod1 intramolecular disulfide bond. Here, we present structural, spectroscopic, and cell-based data supporting a novel copper-induced mechanism for Sod1 activation. Ccs1 binding exposes an electropositive cavity and proposed "entry site" for copper ion delivery on immature Sod1. Copper-mediated sulfenylation leads to a sulfenic acid intermediate that eventually resolves to form the Sod1 disulfide bond with concomitant release of copper into the Sod1 active site. Sod1 is the predominant disulfide bond-requiring enzyme in the cytoplasm, and this copper-induced mechanism of disulfide bond formation obviates the need for a thiol/disulfide oxidoreductase in that compartment. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Quaternary oxide halides of group 15 with zinc and cadmium; Quaternaere Oxidhalogenide der Gruppe 15 mit Zink und Cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rueck, Nadia

    2014-07-30

    The present thesis ''Quaternary oxide halides of group 15 with zinc and cadmium'' deals with the chemical class of oxide halides, which contain d-block element cations and pnicogens. Over the past few years compounds containing pnicogene cations are intensively investigated. The reason for this is the free electron pair of the Pn{sup 3+} cation, which is responsible for some interesting properties. Free electron pairs do not only impact the spatial structure of molecules but also the properties of materials. The object of this work was the synthesis and characterization of compounds containing Pn{sup 3+} cations with free electron pairs. Due to the structure-determining effect of these free electron pairs and in combination with halides it is possible to synthesize compounds with low-dimensional structures like chains and layers. In these compounds the structure is separated into halophilic and chalcophilic sub-structures, which are held together only by weak Van der Waals forces.

  12. Kinetic investigation of myeloperoxidase upon interaction with copper, cadmium, and lead ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabani, M.; Ani, M.; Movahedian, A.; Samsam Shariat, Z. A.

    2011-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase, which is abundantly expressed in neutrophils, catalyzes the formation of a number of reactive oxidant species. However, evidence has emerged that Myeloperoxidase-derived oxidants contribute to tissue damage and initiation and propagation of inflammatory diseases, particularly, cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, studying the regulatory mechanisms of the enzyme activity is of great importance. For clarifying some possible mechanism of the enzyme activity, kinetic investigations of Myeloperoxidase in the presence of Copper, Cadmium, and Lead ions were carried out in vitro. Methods: Myeloperoxidase was partially purified from human white blood cells using ion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography techniques. Its activity was measured spectrophotometrically by using tetramethyl benzidine as substrate. Results: Purified enzyme had a specific activity of 21.7 U/mg protein with a purity index of about 0.71. Copper inhibited Myeloperoxidase activity progressively up to a concentration of 60 m M at which about 80% of inhibition achieved. The inhibition was non-competitive with respect to tetramethyl benzidine. An inhibitory constant (Ki) of about 19 m M was calculated from the slope of repot. Cadmium and Lead did not show any significant inhibitory effect on the enzyme activity. Conclusion: The results of the present study may indicate that there are some places on the enzyme and enzyme-substrate complex for Copper ions. Binding of Copper ions to these places result in conformational changes of the enzyme and thus, enzyme inhibition. This inhibitory effect of Copper on the enzyme activity might be considered as a regulatory mechanism on Myeloperoxidase activity.

  13. Protein Biochemistry and Expression Regulation of Cadmium/Zinc Pumping ATPases in the Hyperaccumulator Plants Arabidopsis halleri and Noccaea caerulescens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mishra, S.; Mishra, Archana; Küpper, Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, May 22 (2017), č. článku 835. ISSN 1664-462X R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_003/0000336 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : cellular compartmentation * zinc homeostasis * cadmium * metal hyperaccumulator plants Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 4.298, year: 2016

  14. Gomphrena claussenii, a novel metal-hypertolerant bioindicator species, sequesters cadmium, but not zinc, in vacuolar oxalate crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villafort Carvalho, M.T.; Pongrac, P.; Mumm, R.; Arkel, van J.; Aelst, van A.; Jeromel, L.; Vavpetic, P.; Pelicon, P.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Gomphrena claussenii is a recently described zinc (Zn)- and cadmium (Cd)-hypertolerant Amaranthaceae species displaying a metal bioindicator Zn/Cd accumulation response. We investigated the Zn and Cd distribution in stem and leaf tissues of G. claussenii at the cellular level, and determined

  15. Serum Levels of Zinc, Copper and Their Carrier Proteins in Cattle with theileriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Fartashvand

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 90 cattle with theileriosis and 90 healthy cattle were studied based on clinical and laboratory examination including parasitological and biochemical tests. Special biochemical kits were used for determination of zinc, copper, albumin, calcium, magnesium and ferrous levels in sera. Serum levels of transferin and ceruloplasmin were measured with ELISA and Sunderman & Nomoto method, respectively. The serum level of zinc was significantly decreased in cattle suffering from theileriosis (p

  16. Behavioral and dermatologic changes and low serum zinc and copper concentrations in two premature infants after parenteral alimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasubramanian, K N; Henkin, R I

    1978-11-01

    Two premature infants were observed to develop behavioral and dermatologic changes and low serum zinc and copper concentrations following cessation of prolonged parenteral alimentation, while being fed exclusively with human milk. Following treatment with exogenous oral zinc supplementation, prompt relief of symptoms and increases of serum zinc and copper concentrations were observed in both infants. These patients comprise about 5% of our premature infants who are treated with parenteral alimentation for more than two weeks. We recommend that premature infants on prolonged parenteral alimentation should be monitored for changes in serum zinc and copper concentrations and, if a marked fall is observed, supplementation should be considered.

  17. Effect of in vitro exposure to cadmium and copper on sea bass blood cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Arizza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood cells freshly collected from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax were exposed in vitro to different concentrations of cadmium (Cd and copper (Cu at 10-7 M, 10-5 M, 10-3 M, and exam- ined for neutral red retention capacity and for cell vitality with MTT assay. A relationship between heavy metal exposure and alteration in responses of blood cells in a dose-time-dependent was found. Our results showed that fish blood cells may constitute an interesting biological model for experimen- tal and applied toxicology, especially in the case of environmental pollution.

  18. The immobilisation and retention of soluble arsenic, cadmium and zinc by biochar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beesley, Luke; Marmiroli, Marta

    2011-01-01

    Water-soluble inorganic pollutants may constitute an environmental toxicity problem if their movement through soils and potential transfer to plants or groundwater is not arrested. The capability of biochar to immobilise and retain arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) from a multi-element contaminated sediment-derived soil was explored by a column leaching experiment and scanning electron microanalysis (SEM/EDX). Sorption of Cd and Zn to biochar's surfaces assisted a 300 and 45-fold reduction in their leachate concentrations, respectively. Retention of both metals was not affected by considerable leaching of water-soluble carbon from biochar, and could not be reversed following subsequent leaching of the sorbant biochar with water at pH 5.5. Weakly water-soluble As was also retained on biochar's surface but leachate concentrations did not duly decline. It is concluded that biochar can rapidly reduce the mobility of selected contaminants in this polluted soil system, with especially encouraging results for Cd. - Research highlights: → The capability of biochar to immobilise and retain arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) from a multi-element contaminated sediment-derived soil was explored by a column leaching experiment and scanning electron microanalysis (SEM/EDX). We highlight the following results from this study: → Large surface area and surface sorption of Cd and Zn to biochar reduces the concentrations of these metals in leachates from a contaminated soil 300 and 45-fold respectively. → Metal retention was not reversible by continued leaching of the sorbant biochar. → Biochar increased leachate pH and water-soluble carbon but this did not appear to be detrimental to its effects and may aid retention of Cd. → Although some arsenic was sorbed to biochar, leachate concentrations were not duly reduced. → Developments in micro-analyses techniques will allow more detailed exploration of the encouraging results seen here with regards to interior

  19. Effects of iron, tin, and copper on zinc absorption in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valberg, L.S.; Flanagan, P.R.; Chamberlain, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Zinc absorption as measured by body retention of [65Zn]zinc chloride or a turkey test meal extrinsically labeled with 65Zn was determined in human subjects by whole body counting after 7 days. Average 65Zn absorption from zinc chloride in persons with a high iron-absorbing capacity was similar to persons with a low capacity to absorb iron. Inorganic iron, 920 mumol (51 mg), or HB iron, 480 mumol (26 mg), inhibited 65Zn absorption from 92 mumol (6 mg) of zinc chloride. When 610 mumol of iron (34 mg) was added to a turkey test meal containing 61 mumol of zinc (4 mg), 65Zn absorption was not inhibited. Tin, 306 mumol (36 mg), given with zinc chloride or turkey test meals (61 mumol, 4 mg, of Zn) significantly reduced 65Zn absorption. Copper, 79 mumol (5 mg), had no significant effect on the 65Zn absorption from 7.9 mumol (0.5 mg) of zinc chloride. In summary, the capacity to absorb iron did not influence 65Zn absorption, but both inorganic iron and heme-iron inhibited 65Zn absorption from zinc chloride. Inorganic iron had no effect, however, on 65Zn absorption from the turkey test meal. Tin in a large dose also inhibited 65Zn absorption from both zinc chloride and the turkey test meal

  20. Charge sharing and charge loss in a cadmium-zinc-telluride fine-pixel detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaskin, J.A.; Sharma, D.P.; Ramsey, B.D.

    2003-01-01

    Because of its high atomic number, room temperature operation, low noise, and high spatial resolution a cadmium-zinc-telluride multi-pixel detector is ideal for hard X-ray astrophysical observation. As part of on-going research at MSFC to develop multi-pixel CdZnTe detectors for this purpose, we have measured charge sharing and charge loss for a 4x4 (750 μm pitch), 1 mm thick pixel array and modeled these results using a Monte-Carlo simulation. This model was then used to predict the amount of charge sharing for a much finer pixel array (with a 300 μm pitch). Future work will enable us to compare the simulated results for the finer array to measured values

  1. Efficiency of repeated phytoextraction of cadmium and zinc from an agricultural soil contaminated with sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kai; Ma, Tingting; Liu, Hongyan; Wu, Longhua; Ren, Jing; Nai, Fengjiao; Li, Rui; Chen, Like; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Long-term application of sewage sludge resulted in soil cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) contamination in a pot experiment conducted to phytoextract Cd/Zn repeatedly using Sedum plumbizincicola and Apium graceolens in monoculture or intercropping mode eight times. Shoot yields and soil physicochemical properties changed markedly with increasing number of remediation crops when the two plant species were intercropped compared with the unplanted control soil and the two monoculture treatments. Changes in soil microbial indices such as average well colour development, soil enzyme activity and soil microbial counts were also significantly affected by the growth of the remediation plants, especially intercropping with S. plumbizincicola and A. graveolens. The higher yields and amounts of Cd taken up indicated that intercropping of the hyperaccumulator and the vegetable species may be suitable for simultaneous agricultural production and soil remediation, with larger crop yields and higher phytoremediation efficiencies than under monoculture conditions.

  2. Removal of Cadmium and Zinc from Soil using Immobilized Cell of Biosurfactant Producing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charoon Sarin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Immobilized biosurfactant producing bacteria (Bacillus subtilis TP8 and Pseudomonas fluorescens G7 were assessed for survival in heavy metal contaminated soil and for their ability to remove cadmium and zinc from contaminated soil. P. fluorescens G7 was considered to be a good candidate for bioremediation of heavy metals because of its high minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC for each heavy metal and because of the obviously increased numbers of cell surviving after incubation in the heavy metal contaminated soil up to 4 weeks. The results of soil remediation showed that approximately 19% of Zn and 16.7% of Cd could be removed by this immobilized biosurfactant producing bacteria after incubation for 2 weeks. The results confirm the potential applicability of the immobilized biosurfactant producing bacteria for heavy metal bioremediation.

  3. Increasing cadmium and zinc levels in wild common eiders breeding along Canada's remote northern coastline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, Mark L.; Braune, Birgit M.; Robertson, Gregory J.; Gilchrist, H. Grant; Mallory, Conor D.; Forbes, Mark R.; Wells, Regina

    2014-01-01

    The common eider (Somateria mollissima) is an abundant sea duck breeding around the circumpolar Arctic, and is an important component of subsistence and sport harvest in some regions. We determined hepatic cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in the livers of breeding females sampled during three time periods including 1992/3, 2001/2 and 2008 at three sites spanning 53.7°N–75.8°N in the eastern Canadian Arctic. At all sites, concentrations of both Cd and Zn increased ∼ 300% over this time period. The reasons for this rapid increase in concentrations are unclear. - Highlights: • Cd and Zn analyzed in common eider (Somateria mollissima) liver tissue in Canadian Arctic from sites spanning 3000 km. • ∼ 300% increase in concentrations observed over ∼ 20 years • Levels of both elements considered high and near levels thought to pose concerns for wildlife health

  4. Pyrolysis of Plants After Phytoremediation of Contaminated Soil with Lead, Cadmium and Zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, Aysun; Günkaya, Zerrin; Banar, Müfide

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to remediate lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) from contaminated soil and stabilize to pyrolysis solid product. To accomplish this, phytoremediation of soil contaminated with Pb, Cd and Zn by different plants (sunflower, corn and rape) was performed with and without ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). According to phytoremediation results, rape was the most effective plant with 72 %, 76 % and 77 % removal efficiency for Pb, Cd and Zn, respectively. Also, EDTA addition had no significant effect on translocation of the metals from roots to stems. According to pyrolysis results, Pb, Cd and Zn in the contaminated plants were stabilized in the ash/char fraction. In addition, the solid product can be safely landfilled as inert waste since its toxicity leaching value is lower than the limit values given in the Turkish Regulation on Landfilling of Wastes.

  5. Growth-inhibitory and metal-binding proteins in Chlorella vulgaris exposed to cadmium or zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zhiyong; Li Lianping; Huang Gaoling; Yan Qingpi; Shi Bing; Xu Xiaoqin

    2009-01-01

    Phytochelatins, with the general structure of (γ-Glu-Cys)n-Gly (n = 2-11), are usually recognized as being strongly induced by metals in microalgae and play an important role in the detoxification of heavy metals in environment. However, there have been few studies on metallothionein (MT) synthesis in Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) exposed to heavy metals. The present study describes the growth inhibition of C. vulgaris exposed to different concentrations of cadmium and zinc, and the induction of metal-binding MT-like proteins in the cells. The amounts of metal-binding proteins, induced in the alga exposed to different concentrations of Cd and Zn, were analyzed with a size-exclusion HPLC coupled to ICP-MS. After being purified with a gel filtration column (Sephadex G-75, 3.5 cm x 80 cm) and a desalting column (G-25, 1.5 cm x 30 cm), the isoforms and sub-isoforms of Zn-binding protein were characterized by a reverse phase-HPLC coupled to electrospray ionization and a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). In addition, the ultraviolet spectra of purified Zn-binding proteins were analyzed in media with different pH values. The results showed that the significant inhibitory effects (at p -1 of Cd, and 60 and 80 μmol l -1 of Zn were added. The Cd/Zn-binding proteins induced in C. vulgaris exposed to Cd and Zn were referred to as Cd/Zn-MT-like proteins in which the mean molecular mass of the apo-MT-like was 6152 Da. The induced Cd/Zn-MT-like proteins might be involved in the detoxification of heavy metals, such as cadmium and zinc, by the alga

  6. Growth-inhibitory and metal-binding proteins in Chlorella vulgaris exposed to cadmium or zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Zhiyong [College of Bioengineering, Jimei University, Xiamen, 361021 (China)], E-mail: zhyhuang@jmu.edu.cn; Li Lianping; Huang Gaoling [College of Bioengineering, Jimei University, Xiamen, 361021 (China); Yan Qingpi [College of fisheries, Jimei University, Xiamen, 361021 (China); Shi Bing; Xu Xiaoqin [Xiamen Products Quality Inspection Institute, Xiamen, 361004 (China)

    2009-01-18

    Phytochelatins, with the general structure of ({gamma}-Glu-Cys)n-Gly (n = 2-11), are usually recognized as being strongly induced by metals in microalgae and play an important role in the detoxification of heavy metals in environment. However, there have been few studies on metallothionein (MT) synthesis in Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) exposed to heavy metals. The present study describes the growth inhibition of C. vulgaris exposed to different concentrations of cadmium and zinc, and the induction of metal-binding MT-like proteins in the cells. The amounts of metal-binding proteins, induced in the alga exposed to different concentrations of Cd and Zn, were analyzed with a size-exclusion HPLC coupled to ICP-MS. After being purified with a gel filtration column (Sephadex G-75, 3.5 cm x 80 cm) and a desalting column (G-25, 1.5 cm x 30 cm), the isoforms and sub-isoforms of Zn-binding protein were characterized by a reverse phase-HPLC coupled to electrospray ionization and a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). In addition, the ultraviolet spectra of purified Zn-binding proteins were analyzed in media with different pH values. The results showed that the significant inhibitory effects (at p < 0.05) on the cell growth were observed when excessive metals such as 80 {mu}mol l{sup -1} of Cd, and 60 and 80 {mu}mol l{sup -1} of Zn were added. The Cd/Zn-binding proteins induced in C. vulgaris exposed to Cd and Zn were referred to as Cd/Zn-MT-like proteins in which the mean molecular mass of the apo-MT-like was 6152 Da. The induced Cd/Zn-MT-like proteins might be involved in the detoxification of heavy metals, such as cadmium and zinc, by the alga.

  7. Enhancement of emulsifier production by Curvularia lunata in cadmium, zinc and lead presence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraszkiewicz, Katarzyna; Frycie, Aleksandra; Słaba, Mirosława; Długoński, Jerzy

    2007-10-01

    The influence of cadmium, zinc and lead on fungal emulsifier synthesis and on the growth of filamentous fungus Curvularia lunata has been studied. Tolerance to heavy metals established for C. lunata was additionally compared with the sensitivity exhibited by strains of Curvularia tuberculata and Paecilomyces marquandii-fungi which do not secrete compounds of emulsifying activity. Although C. lunata, as the only one out of all studied fungi, exhibited the lowest tolerance to heavy metals when grown on a solid medium (in conditions preventing emulsifier synthesis), it manifested the highest tolerance in liquid culture - in conditions allowing exopolymer production. Cadmium, zinc and lead presented in liquid medium up to a concentration of 15 mM had no negative effect on C. lunata growth and stimulated emulsifier synthesis. In the presence of 15 mM of heavy metals, both the emulsifier and 24-h-old growing mycelium exhibited maximum sorption capacities, which were determined as 18.2 +/- 2.67, 156.1 +/- 10.32 mg g(-1) for Cd2+, 22.2 +/- 3.40, 95.2 +/- 14.21 mg g(-1) for Zn2+ and 51.1 +/- 1.85, 230.0 +/- 28.47 mg g(-1) for Pb2+ respectively. The results obtained by us in this work indicate that the emulsifier acts as a protective compound increasing the ability of C. lunata to survive in heavy metal polluted environment. Enhancement of exopolymer synthesis in the presence of Cd2+, Zn2+ and Pb2+ may also suggest, at least to some extent, a metal-specific nature of emulsifier production in C. lunata. Due to accumulation capability and tolerance to heavy metals, C. lunata mycelium surrounded by the emulsifier could be applied for toxic metal removal.

  8. Cadmium and zinc in soil solution extracts following the application of phosphate fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Raphaël; Grant, Cynthia; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2007-06-01

    This study investigated the solubility of cadmium and zinc in soils after the application of phosphate fertilizers containing those two metals. The solubility of cadmium and zinc was assessed by measuring their concentration in soil water extracts. Three monoammonium phosphate fertilizers containing various amounts of metals were applied on cultivated fields for 3 years at three different rates. In order to investigate the effects of long-term applications of fertilizers on the solubility of Cd and Zn, a similar design was used to apply contaminated fertilizers to soils in a laboratory experiment using a single fertilizer addition equivalent to 15 years of application. Phosphate fertilizers increased the concentration of Cd in soil extracts compared to control in 87% and 80% of the treatments in field and laboratory experiments respectively. Both increasing the rate of application and using fertilizer containing more Cd lead to higher Cd concentrations in extracts for the field and the laboratory experiments. The addition of the equivalent of 15 years of fertilizer application in the laboratory results in higher Cd concentration in extracts compared to the field experiment. For Zn, the fertilizer treatments enhanced the metal solution concentration in 83% of field treatments, but no significant correlations could be found between Zn inputs and its concentration in solution. In the laboratory, fertilizer additions increase the Zn concentrations in 53% of the treatments and decrease it in most of the other treatments. The decrease in Zn concentrations in the laboratory trial is attributed to the higher phosphate concentrations in the soil solution; which is presumed to have contributed to the precipitation of Zn-phosphates. For both trials, the metal concentrations in soil extracts cannot be related to the Zn concentration in the fertilizer or the rate of application. The high Zn to Cd ratio is presumably responsible for the Cd increase in the soil extracts due to

  9. Sorption of copper, zinc and cobalt by oat and oat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górecka, Danuta; Stachowiak, Jadwiga

    2002-04-01

    We determined copper, zinc and cobalt sorption by oat and its products under variable pH conditions as well as the content of neutral dietary fiber (NDF) and its fractional composition. Adsorbents in a model sorption system were: oat, dehulled oat, oats bran and oats flakes. Three various buffers (pH 1.8, 6.6 and 8.7) were used as dispersing solutions. Results collected during this study indicate that copper, zinc and cobalt sorption is significantly affected by the type of cereal raw material. Zinc and copper ions are subjected to higher sorption than cobalt ions. Examined metal ions were subjected to high sorption under conditions corresponding to the duodenum environment (pH 8.7), regardless of the kind of adsorbent. A little lower sorption capacity is observed under conditions close to the neutral environment, while the lowest one is found in environment reflecting conditions of stomach juice (pH 1.8). Zinc ions are bound intensively by dehulled oat, while oats flakes bound mostly copper and cobalt, independently on environmental conditions. Contents of dietary fiber in oat, dehulled oat, oat bran and oat flakes were: 40.1, 19.3, 20.3 and 14.3%, respectively. The dominating fraction in all oat products was the fraction of hemicelluloses. The content of remaining fractions varies in dependence on the product.

  10. Analyses of alloys for quelatometry, part one, alloys with copper, lead and zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavijo Diaz, Alfonso

    1995-01-01

    A chemical-mathematic model and experimental method based on the acid base balances is developed for the analysis of metallic ions, isolated or in mixtures. The theoretical titling curves, including chelones-forming agents and metallo-chromic indicator were worked on a personal computer. This chelometric method was applied to the quantitative determination of copper, zinc and lead ions in alloys

  11. Tissue levels of iron, copper, zinc and magnesium in iron deficient rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of iron deficiency on the levels of iron, copper, zinc and magnesium in the brain, liver, kidney, heart and lungs of albino rats (Rattus novergicus) was investigated. Forty rats were divided into two groups and the first group was fed a control diet containing 1.09g iron/kg diet while the test group was fed diet ...

  12. The distribution of Magnesium, Zinc & Copper in the skin and hair of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution of magnesium, zinc and copper was investigated in the hair and skin of African dwarf sheep. The 3 elements were found to be present in varying degrees in these organs. All were more abundant in the hair than in the skin. For instance, 2026 ppm were the highest amount of magnesium found in the hair ...

  13. potentiometric studies of the complexes formed by copper (ii) and zinc

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    , P. M. B. 3011, Kano, Nigeria e-mail: jnaaliya@yahoo.com. ABSTRACT. The overall stability constants of copper (II) and zinc (II) ions with some polar uncharged amino acids including proline, threonine and asparagines were determined by ...

  14. Daily dietary intake of iron, copper, zinc and manganese in a Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Carmen; Gutiérrez, Angel José; Revert, Consuelo; Reguera, Juan Ignacio; Burgos, Antonio; Hardisson, Arturo

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate the daily dietary intake of essential metals in the Canary Islands, the iron, copper, zinc and manganese contents in 420 food and drink samples collected in local markets were analysed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The estimated daily dietary intakes of iron, copper, zinc and manganese are 13.161 mg/day, 2.098 mg/day, 8.954 mg/day and 2.372 mg/day, respectively. The iron dietary intake was found to be below the recommendations fixed for adult women, while the copper and manganese dietary intakes fulfilled the Recommended Dietary Allowances. The mean daily intake of zinc was below the Recommended Dietary Allowance. Cereals were found to be the food group that contributed most to the intake of these metals. While the island of El-Hierro presented iron, copper, zinc and manganese mean intakes over the estimated intakes for the whole archipelago, Fuerteventura island showed the lowest intakes. Tenerife and Fuerteventura showed the lowest iron intakes, being below the recommendations.

  15. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF COPPER AND ZINC ACCUMULATED BY EASTERN OYSTER AMEBOCYTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, William S. Submitted. Antimicrobial Activity of Copper and Zinc Accumulated by Eastern Oyster Amebocytes. J. Shellfish Res. 54 p. (ERL,GB 1196). The distribution of eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica near terrestrial watersheds has led to a general impression t...

  16. Accumulation of copper and zinc by balanus amphitrite in a tropical estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anil, A.C.; Wagh, A.B.

    @iBalanus amphitrite@@ (Cirripedia: Thoracica) a dominant fouling organism was analysed to assess the accumulation potentialities of copper and zinc. It was observed that it could accumulate Cu to 864.77 mu g g-1 dry wt. and Zn to 1937.50 mu g g-1...

  17. Concentration of cadmium, zinc and manganese in root, stalk and leaf of spinach and tomato in Hamedan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghobadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are considers as significant environment pollutants. Their entrance into food chain is a serious health hazard to humans. This study was conducted to determine the concentrations of Cadmium, Zinc and Manganese in root, stalk and leaf portions of spinach and tomato. For this reason, during 2014 in Hamedan city, 3 farms with 5 repetitions from each farm were sampled. Samples were subjected to acid-digestion and the concentrations of the elements were assayed by inductively coupled plasma (ICP. According to the results, the average concentrations of heavy metals in root, stalk and leaf of spinach was estimated at: cadmium, 0.14, 0.24, 0.34 mg/kg, zinc, 15.53, 24.82, 35 mg/kg and manganese, 26.59, 24.42, 45.38 mg/kg, respectively. The data for the tomato samples were: cadmium, 16.20, 24.42, 33.81 mg/kg, Zinc, 21.48, 39.74, 52.92 mg/kg and manganese, 26.60, 42.41, 61.90 mg/kg, respectively. The mean concentration of cadmium and manganese in spinach and tomato showed a significant difference with the WHO/FAO standard limit. However, in the case of zinc the difference was insignificant. It was concluded that in this experiment the spinach and tomato samples were polluted with higher concentration of cadmium and manganese than the approved limit of WHO/FAO and therefore was found risky for the consumers.

  18. The impact of tertiary wastewater treatment on copper and zinc complexation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino, C; Gardner, M; Comber, S D W; Scrimshaw, M D; Ellor, B

    2015-01-01

    Tightening quality standards for European waters has seen a move towards enhanced wastewater treatment technologies such as granulated organic carbon treatment and ozonation. Although these technologies are likely to be successful in degrading certain micro-organic contaminants, these may also destroy compounds which would otherwise complex and render metals significantly less toxic. This study examined the impact of enhanced tertiary treatment on the capacity of organic compounds within sewage effluents to complex copper and zinc. The data show that granulated organic carbon treatment removes a dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fraction that is unimportant to complexation such that no detrimental impact on complexation or metal bioavailability is likely to occur from this treatment type. High concentrations of ozone (>1 mg O3/mg DOC) are, however, likely to impact the complexation capacity for copper although this is unlikely to be important at the concentrations of copper typically found in effluent discharges or in rivers. Ozone treatment did not affect zinc complexation capacity. The complexation profiles of the sewage effluents show these to contain a category of non-humic ligand that appears unaffected by tertiary treatment and which displays a high affinity for zinc, suggesting these may substantially reduce the bioavailability of zinc in effluent discharges. The implication is that traditional metal bioavailability assessment approaches such as the biotic ligand model may overestimate zinc bioavailability in sewage effluents and effluent-impacted waters.

  19. EXAMINATION OF THE OXIDATION PROTECTION OF ZINC COATINGS FORMED ON COPPER ALLOYS AND STEEL SUBSTRATES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papazoglou, M.; Chaliampalias, D.; Vourlias, G.; Pavlidou, E.; Stergioudis, G.; Skolianos, S.

    2010-01-01

    The exposure of metallic components at aggressive high temperature environments, usually limit their usage at similar application because they suffer from severe oxidation attack. Copper alloys are used in a wide range of high-quality indoor and outdoor applications, statue parts, art hardware, high strength and high thermal conductivity applications. On the other hand, steel is commonly used as mechanical part of industrial set outs or in the construction sector due to its high mechanical properties. The aim of the present work is the examination of the oxidation resistance of pack cementation zinc coatings deposited on copper, leaded brass and steel substrates at elevated temperature conditions. Furthermore, an effort made to make a long-term evaluation of the coated samples durability. The oxidation results showed that bare substrates appear to have undergone severe damage comparing with the coated ones. Furthermore, the mass gain of the uncoated samples was higher than this of the zinc covered ones. Particularly zinc coated brass was found to be more resistant to oxidation conditions in which it was exposed as it has the lower mass gain as compared to the bare substrates and zinc coated copper. Zinc coated steel was also proved to be more resistive than the uncoated steel.

  20. Zinc, ferritin, magnesium and copper in a group of Egyptian children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Magdy M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a behavioral syndrome of childhood characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. There were many etiological theories showed dysfunction of some brain areas that are implicated in inhibition of responses and functions of the brain. Minerals like zinc, ferritin, magnesium and copper may play a role in the pathogenesis and therefore the treatment of this disorder. Objective This study aimed to measure levels of zinc, ferritin, magnesium and copper in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and comparing them to normal. Methods This study included 58 children aged 5-15 years with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder attending Minia University Hospital from June 2008 to January 2010. They were classified into three sub-groups: sub-group I included 32 children with in-attentive type, sub-group II included 10 children with hyperactive type and sub-group III included 16 children with combined type according to the DSM-IV criteria of American Psychiatric Association, 2000. The control group included 25 apparently normal healthy children. Results Zinc, ferritin and magnesium levels were significantly lower in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder than controls (p value 0.04, 0.03 and 0.02 respectively, while copper levels were not significantly different (p value 0.9. Children with inattentive type had significant lower levels of zinc and ferritin than controls (p value 0.001 and 0.01 respectively with no significant difference between them as regards magnesium and copper levels (p value 0.4 and 0.6 respectively. Children with hyperactive type had significant lower levels of zinc, ferritin and magnesium than controls (p value 0.01, 0.02 and 0.02 respectively with no significant difference between them as regards copper levels (p value 0.9. Children with combined type had significant lower levels of zinc and magnesium than controls (p value 0

  1. A preliminary evaluation of some soil and plant parameters that influence root uptake of arsenic, cadmium, cooper, and zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattemer-Frey, H.A.; Krieger, G.R.; Lau, V.

    1994-01-01

    In the absence of site-specific data, the concentration of metals in plants is typically estimated by multiplying the total concentration of metal in soil by a metal-specific soil-to-root bioconcentration factor (BCF). However, this approach does not account for various soil properties, such as pH, organic matter content, and cation exchange capacity, that are known to influence root uptake of some metals. For risk assessment purposes, a simple, predictive method for estimating root uptake of metals that is based on site-specific soil and crop data is needed so that the importance of the produce ingestion pathway and subsequent influence on human exposure can be quantitatively assessed. An easy-to-use method is necessary since collecting site-specific data on the concentration of metals in home-grown produce is often time-consuming and costly. Ideally, it should be possible to develop a statistically-reliable relationship between plant and soil metals levels that includes appropriate weighing factors for various soil properties. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to develop simple, predictive models for estimating the concentration of metals in plants via root uptake using site-specific soil data. This paper presents preliminary predictive equations for estimating root uptake of arsenic, cadmium, copper, and zinc in fruiting, root, and all vegetables combined (i.e., fruiting and root crop data were combined). Results show that by using data on additional soil parameters (other than relying solely on the concentration of metals in soil), the concentration of metals in fruiting and root vegetables can be more confidently predicted

  2. Derived reference doses for three compounds used in the photovoltaics industry: Copper indium diselenide, copper gallium diselenide, and cadmium telluride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Bernholc, N.; DePhillips, M.P.; Viren, J.

    1995-07-06

    Polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaic modules made from copper indium diselenide (CIS), copper gallium diselenide (CGS), and cadmium telluride (CdTe) arc nearing commercial development. A wide range of issues are being examined as these materials move from the laboratory to large-scale production facilities to ensure their commercial success. Issues of traditional interest include module efficiency, stability and cost. More recently, there is increased focus given to environmental, health and safety issues surrounding the commercialization of these same devices. An examination of the toxicological properties of these materials, and their chemical parents is fundamental to this discussion. Chemicals that can present large hazards to human health or the environment are regulated often more strictly than those that are less hazardous. Stricter control over how these materials are handled and disposed can increase the costs associated with the production and use of these modules dramatically. Similarly, public perception can be strongly influenced by the inherent biological hazard that these materials possess. Thus, this report: presents a brief background tutorial on how toxicological data are developed and used; overviews the toxicological data available for CIS, CGS and CdTe; develops ``reference doses`` for each of these compounds; compares the reference doses for these compounds with those of their parents; discusses the implications of these findings to photovoltaics industry.

  3. Systemic serum amyloid A as a biomarker for exposure to zinc and/or copper-containing metal fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, R; Gube, M; Markert, A; Davatgarbenam, S; Kossack, V; Gerhards, B; Kraus, T; Brand, P

    2018-01-01

    Zinc- and copper-containing welding fumes increase systemic C-reactive protein (CRP). The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of the biomarkers serum amyloid A (SAA) and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in this regard. Fifteen male subjects were exposed under controlled conditions to welding fumes containing either zinc, or copper, or copper and zinc for 6 h. Plasma samples were collected before, 6 and 24 h after start of exposure and biomarkers therein were measured by electrochemiluminescent assay. For each exposure, systemic concentrations of systemic SAA, but not VCAM-1, increased significantly at 24 h after exposure start compared with baseline ("copper only": P=0.0005, "zinc only": P=0.027, "copper and zinc": P=0.001). SAA showed a wider range of concentrations than did CRP and its levels increased up to 19-fold after welding fume exposure. The recognition of copper as a potential harmful component in welding fumes, also independent from zinc, deserves further consideration. SAA might represent a new sensitive biomarker for potential subclinical sterile inflammation after inhalation of copper- and/or zinc-containing welding fumes. As elevations of CRP and SAA protein have both been linked to a higher risk for cardiovascular disease, these findings might particularly be important for long-term welders.

  4. Properties of Nitrogen-Doped Zinc Telluride Films for Back Contact to Cadmium Telluride Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimpi, Tushar M.; Drayton, Jennifer; Swanson, Drew E.; Sampath, Walajabad S.

    2017-08-01

    Zinc telluride (ZnTe) films have been deposited onto uncoated glass superstrates by reactive radiofrequency (RF) sputtering with different amounts of nitrogen introduced into the process gas, and the structural and electronic transport properties of the resulting nitrogen-doped ZnTe (ZnTe:N) films characterized. Based on transmission and x-ray diffraction measurements, it was observed that the crystalline quality of the ZnTe:N films decreased with increasing nitrogen in the deposition process. The bulk carrier concentration of the ZnTe:N films determined from Hall-effect measurements showed a slight decrease at 4% nitrogen flow rate. The effect of ZnTe:N films as back contact to cadmium telluride (CdTe) solar cells was also investigated. ZnTe:N films were deposited before or after CdCl2 passivation on CdTe/CdS samples. Small-area devices were characterized for their electronic properties. Glancing-angle x-ray diffraction measurements and energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis confirmed substantial loss of zinc from the samples where CdCl2 passivation was carried out after ZnTe:N film deposition.

  5. Association of Zinc, Copper and triglyceride levels with low birth weight deliveries in central Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abass, R. M. E.

    2012-12-01

    Objective, to investigate the maternal and cord level of zinc, Copper and triglyceride in mothers with low birth weight babies (LBW; < 2500 gm) in comparison to mothers with normal weight babies. Method, a case control study was conducted in Medani Hospital, Sudan pre-tested questionnaires were used to gather maternal socio-demographic and clinical data. Zinc and cooper were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. And triglyceride was measured by colorimetric method. Results, case and controls (50 in each arm) were matched in their basic clinical data. The median ( 25-75 Th inter quartile) of maternal zinc ( 62.9 ( 36.3-96.8) vs. 96.2 (84,6-125.7) μg/dl; p <0.001) and copper (81.6 ( 23.7- 167.5) vs. 139.8 (319.8 (31.9 - 186.2) μg/dl; p=0.04) and triglyceride (172 (100-227) vs. 195 ( 133.7-320.2) mg/dl; p=0.052) levels were significantly lower in cases than in the controls. Likewise, cord zinc ( 87.1 (43.3 -118.1) vs. 92.2 (62.0-114.5) μg/dl; p=0.02) and triglyceride ( 45 ( 31.5-95) vs. 149.5 (97.5- 174.2) mg/dl; p<0.00) levels were significantly lower in cord serum of the case than in controls. Conclusions, in this study maternal and fetal zinc, copper and triglyceride levels were lower in mothers with LBW babies compared to mothers with normal birth weight babies. Supplementation with zinc and copper might be necessary to prevent LBW deliveries in this setting. (Author)

  6. Zinc and Copper Effects on Stability of Tubulin and Actin Networks in Dendrites and Spines of Hippocampal Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Laura; Roudeau, Stéphane; Carmona, Asuncion; Domart, Florelle; Petersen, Jennifer D; Bohic, Sylvain; Yang, Yang; Cloetens, Peter; Ortega, Richard

    2017-07-19

    Zinc and copper ions can modulate the activity of glutamate receptors. However, labile zinc and copper ions likely represent only the tip of the iceberg and other neuronal functions are suspected for these metals in their bound state. We performed synchrotron X-ray fluorescence imaging with 30 nm resolution to image total biometals in dendrites and spines from hippocampal neurons. We found that zinc is distributed all along the dendrites while copper is mainly pinpointed within the spines. In spines, zinc content is higher within the spine head while copper is higher within the spine neck. Such specific distributions suggested metal interactions with cytoskeleton proteins. Zinc supplementation induced the increase of β-tubulin content in dendrites. Copper supplementation impaired the β-tubulin and F-actin networks. Copper chelation resulted in the decrease of F-actin content in dendrites, drastically reducing the number of F-actin protrusions. These results indicate that zinc is involved in microtubule stability whereas copper is essential for actin-dependent stability of dendritic spines, although copper excess can impair the dendritic cytoskeleton.

  7. Copper and zinc content in wild game shot with lead or non-lead ammunition - implications for consumer health protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Daniela; Sommerfeld, Christine; Müller-Graf, Christine; Selhorst, Thomas; Greiner, Matthias; Gerofke, Antje; Ulbig, Ellen; Gremse, Carl; Spolders, Markus; Schafft, Helmut; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the contamination of game meat with copper and zinc and establish whether the use of alternative (non-lead) ammunition can lead to higher or unsafe levels of copper and zinc in the meat of roe deer, wild boar and red deer. The research project "Safety of game meat obtained through hunting" (LEMISI) was conducted in Germany with the purpose of examining the entry of lead as well as copper and zinc into the meat of hunted game when using either lead or non-lead ammunition. The outcome of this study shows that the usage of both lead-based ammunition and alternative non-lead ammunition results in the entry of copper and zinc into the edible parts of the game. Using non-lead ammunition does not entail dangerously elevated levels of copper and zinc, so replacing lead ammunition with alternative ammunition does not introduce a further health problem with regard to these metals. The levels of copper and zinc in game meat found in this study are in the range found in previous studies of game. The content of copper and zinc in game meat is also comparable to those regularly detected in meat and its products from livestock (pig, cattle, sheep) for which the mean human consumption rate is much higher. From the viewpoint of consumer health protection, the use of non-lead ammunition does not pose an additional hazard through copper and zinc contamination. A health risk due to the presence of copper and zinc in game meat at typical levels of consumer exposure is unlikely for both types of ammunition.

  8. Diffusive gradient in thin films technique for assessment of cadmium and copper bioaccessibility to radish (Raphanus sativus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dočekalová, H.; Škarpa, P.; Dočekal, Bohumil

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 134, March (2015), s. 153-157 ISSN 0039-9140 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP503/10/2002 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : radish * cadmium * copper * DGT technique * bioaccesibility Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.035, year: 2015

  9. Influence of Low Molecular Weight Organic Acids on Transport of Cadmium and Copper Ions across Model Phospholipid Membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Parisová, Martina; Navrátil, Tomáš; Šestáková, Ivana; Jaklová Dytrtová, Jana; Mareček, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2013), s. 27-44 ISSN 1452-3981 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400806 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : cadmium * copper * low molecular weight organic acid Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.956, year: 2013

  10. Determining the arsenic, cadmium, lead, copper and chromium contents by atomic absorption spectrometry in Pangasius fillets from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molognoni, Luciano; Vitali, Luciano; Ploêncio, Leandro As; Santos, Jacson N; Daguer, Heitor

    2016-07-01

    Pangasius is a fish produced on a large scale in Vietnam and exported to many countries. Since river contamination from human activities can affect the safety of this food, fish consumption can cause exposure to potentially toxic elements for humans. The aim of this study, therefore, was to assess arsenic, cadmium, lead, copper and chromium contents by atomic absorption spectrometry in Pangasius fillet produced in the provinces of Dong Thap and Can Tho (Vietnam) and exported to Brazil. The limits of detection were: arsenic 0.5443 µg kg(-1) , cadmium 0.0040 mg kg(-1) , chromium 0.0004 mg kg(-1) , copper 0.0037 mg kg(-1) and lead 0.0284 mg kg(-1) . Analysis of 20 samples showed results below the limit of detection for arsenic, chromium and lead, while copper average concentration was 0.0234 mg kg(-1) . Cadmium average concentration was 0.0547 mg kg(-1) , with no significant difference between the two regions studied. The samples of Pangasius had no detectable concentrations of arsenic, chromium, copper and lead, and do not represent a hazard to public health. However, cadmium analysis revealed non-compliant samples, demonstrating the importance of monitoring the quality of imported Pangasius fish. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Chemical sensors in natural water: peculiarities of behaviour of chalcogenide glass electrodes for determination of copper, lead and cadmium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seleznev, B.L.; Legin, A.V.; Vlasov, Yu.G.

    1996-01-01

    Specific features of chemical sensors (chalcogenide glass and crystal ion-selective electrodes) behaviour have been studied to determine copper (2), lead, cadmium and fluorine in the course of in situ measurements, including long-term uninterrupted testing, for solving the problem of inspection over natural water contamination. 16 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Physicochemical analysis of zinc and cadmium ions interaction with unithiol; Fiziko-khimicheskij analiz vzaimodejstviya ionov tsinka i kadmiya s unitiolom v vodykh rastvorakh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubinina, L K; Shejkkh, M A; Ospanov, Kh K; Gemanova, L N [Kazakhskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Alma-Ata (Kazakhstan)

    1995-01-01

    Zinc and cadmium interaction with sodium 2,3-dimercaptopropane sulfonate in aqueous solution is studied by means of physicochemical analysis techniques (pH-metry, conductometry, viscosimetry, volumetry). Cadmium is determined to form 1:1 and 1:2 composition complex compounds. Formation constants of complex ions are determined. Mechanism of interaction of initial reagents is suggested. 7 refs.; 1 fig.

  13. Characterization of copper oxides, iron oxides, and zinc copper ferrite desulfurization sorbents by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Poston, James A.

    1993-05-01

    Characterization of copper oxides, iron oxides, and zinc copper ferrite desulfurization sorbents was performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy at temperatures of 298 to 823 K. Analysis of copper oxides indicated that the satellite structure of the Cu22p region was absent in the Cu(I) state but was present in the Cu(II) state. Reduction of CuO at room temperature was observed when the ion gauge was placed close to the sample. The satellite structure was absent in all the copper oxides at 823 K in vacuum. Differentiation of the oxidation state of copper utilizing both Cu(L 3M 4,5M 4,5) X-ray-induced Auger lines and Cu2p satellite structure, indicated that the copper in zinc copper ferrite was in the + 1 oxidation state at 823 K. This + 1 state of copper was not significantly changed after exposure to H 2, CO, and H 2O. There was an increase in Cu/Zn ratio and a decrease in Fe/Zn ratio on the surface of zinc copper ferrite at 823 K compared to that at room temperature. These conditions of copper offered the best sulfidation equilibrium for the zinc copper ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Analysis of iron oxides indicated that there was some reduction of both Fe 2O 3 and FeO at 823K. The iron in zinc copper ferrite was similar to that of Fe 2O 3 at room temperature but there was some reduction of this Fe(III) state to Fe(II) at 823 K. This reduction was more enhanced in the presence of H 2 and CO. Reduction to Fe(II) may not be desirable for the lifetime of the sorbent.

  14. Synthesis, characterisation and anion exchange properties of copper, magnesium, zinc and nickel hydroxy nitrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswick, Timothy; Jones, William; Pacuła, Aleksandra; Serwicka, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    Anion exchange reactions of four structurally related hydroxy salts, Cu 2(OH) 3NO 3, Mg 2(OH) 3NO 3, Ni 2(OH) 3NO 3 and Zn 3(OH) 4(NO 3) 2 are compared and trends rationalised in terms of the strength of the covalent bond between the nitrate group and the matrix cation. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and elemental analysis are used to characterise the materials. Replacement of the nitrate anions in the zinc and copper salts with benzoate anions is possible although exchange of the zinc salt is accompanied by modification of the layer structure from one where zinc is exclusively six-fold coordinated to a structure where there is both six- and four-fold zinc coordination. Magnesium and nickel hydroxy nitrates, on the other hand, hydrolyse to their respective metal hydroxides.

  15. Magnesium, zinc and copper estimation in children with attention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farida Elbaz

    2016-05-14

    May 14, 2016 ... ADHD [3]. Zinc is an important cofactor for metabolism rel- evant to ... Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, fourth edition-Revised. (DSM-R IV) criteria ... 5–10 mg of hair was required for the hair analysis assay. Approximately 100 ...

  16. Microdetermination of lead, cadmium, zinc and tin in biological and related materials by atomic absorption spectrometry after mineralisation and extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiteau, H.L.; Metayer, C.

    1978-01-01

    Two technics permitting to determine either lead, cadmium and zinc, or tin in any biological material (blood, urines, organs, alimentary products of animal or vegetable origin) are described. Every operation (mineralisation and extraction) is made in the same tube and technics, conceived in a way to simplify the manipulations and to reduce the more possible the contamination risks are suitable for determination in series. By working on trial samples near 250 mg, the lower determination limits are around 2 ppb for cadmium, 40 ppb for lead and tin and 2 ppm for zinc. The repeatability studies of different technical stages show that mineralisation and extraction only have a weak incidence on the acccuracy of the results [fr

  17. Determination of zinc and cadmium with characterized Electrodes of carbon and polyurethane modified by a bismuth film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jossy Karla Brasil Bernardelli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to use electrodes modified with bismuth films for the determination of zinc and cadmium. The film was electrodeposited ex situ on a composite carbon electrode with polyurethane and 2% metallic bismuth (2BiE and on a carbon bar electrode (CBE. The electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Through differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry, the electrodes 2BiE and CBE containing bismuth films showed a limit of detection (LOD of 5.56 × 10-5 and 3.07 × 10-5 g.L-1 for cadmium and 1.24 × 10-4 and 1.53 × 10-4 g.L-1 for zinc, respectively. The presence of a bismuth film increased the sensitivity of both electrodes.

  18. Concurrent reduction and distillation: an improved technique for the recovery and chemical refinement of the isotopes of cadmium and zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caudill, H.H.; McBride, L.E.; McDaniel, E.W.

    1982-01-01

    The Electromagnetic Isotope Separations Program of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been involved in the separation, chemical recovery, and refinement of the stable isotopes of cadmium and zinc since 1946. Traditionally, the chemical refinement procedures for these elements consisted of ion exchange separations using anion exchange resins followed by pH-controlled hydrogen sulfide precipitations. The procedures were quite time-consuming and made it difficult to remove trace quantities of sulfur which interferes in subsequent attempts to prepare rolled metal foils. As demands for 113 Cd and 68 Zn (a precursor for the production of the radiopharmaceutical 67 Ga) increased, it became evident that a quicker, more efficient refinement procedure was needed. Details of an improved method, which employs concurrent hydrogen reduction and distillation in the recovery and refinement of isotopically enriched zinc, are described. Modifications of the procedure suitable for the refinement of cadmium isotopes are also described. 3 figures, 1 table

  19. Biomarker of chronic cadmium exposure in a population residing in the vicinity of a zinc producing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratveit, Magne; Mageroy, Nils; Gundersen, Hilde; Vahter, Marie; Moen, Bente E.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of cadmium (Cd) in air, soil and moss have shown elevated concentrations in residential areas close to a zinc smelter in Norway. This study aimed to evaluate whether men and women residing in the area with elevated Cd concentrations in air and soil had increased levels of Cd and microproteins in urine. An invitation to participate was mailed to 200 persons residing close to the zinc smelter and to 200 controls from an area more than 4 km away from the smelter. They were asked to complete a questionnaire, and to deliver a urine sample for analysis of cadmium (CdU), mercury (HgU), lead (PbU) and α1-microglobulin (ProteinHC). Two hundred and six participants (response rate 52%), between 19 and 88 years of age, were included. Results were analysed by multiple-adjusted linear and logistic regression. CdU was not significantly different between individuals in the two residence areas. Only ten individuals had CdU concentrations exceeding European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) critical value of 1 μg/g creatinine, whereas 35 persons (22% of the women vs. 11% of the men) had CdU concentrations higher than 0.66 μg/g creatinine, which EU suggested to be sufficiently protective for the general population. Smoking was the predominant contributing factor to values of elevated CdU. There was a tendency of higher CdU, although not statistically significant, amongst people regularly consuming fruit, berries and vegetables grown in their own garden near the smelter area. Home address in the polluted area was not a significant determinant. There was a positive correlation between CdU and ProteinHC in urine, but no significant difference was found for ProteinHC between residents from polluted area and controls. In spite of demonstrated industrial emissions of cadmium, the results do not indicate elevated cadmium exposure or kidney damage in the polluted area compared to the control area. - Highlights: → Cadmium in air and soil is elevated in the residential area close

  20. Size-dependent effects of low level cadmium and zinc exposure on the metabolome of the Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spann, Nicole, E-mail: nicole.spann@web.de [Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ (United Kingdom); Aldridge, David C., E-mail: da113@cam.ac.uk [Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ (United Kingdom); Griffin, Julian L., E-mail: jlg40@mole.bio.cam.ac.uk [Sanger Building, Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, 80 Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1GA (United Kingdom); Jones, Oliver A.H., E-mail: o.jones@gmail.com [Sanger Building, Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, 80 Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1GA (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: Small and large Corbicula fluminea were exposed to cadmium and zinc spiked sediment. Metabolomic changes in the freshwater clams were determined by NMR and GC-MS. Metabolic perturbations were related to amino acid and energy related metabolism. Small and large clams were differentiated by their metabolic composition. Size classes showed opposite responses to metal stress. - Abstract: The toxic effects of low level metal contamination in sediments are currently poorly understood. We exposed different sized Asian clams, Corbicula fluminea, to sediment spiked with environmentally relevant concentrations of either zinc, cadmium or a zinc-cadmium mixture for one week. This freshwater bivalve is well suited for sediment toxicity tests as it lives partly buried in the sediment and utilises sediment particles as a food resource. After one week, the whole tissue composition of low molecular weight metabolites was analysed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The condition index (ratio of tissue dry weight to volume inside the shell valves) was also measured. Small and large clams were clearly differentiated by their metabolic composition and the two size classes showed opposite responses to the mixture spiked sediment. No effects of zinc alone on the metabolome were found and cadmium only influenced the smaller size class. The main perturbations were seen in amino acid and energy metabolism, with small clams using amino acids as an energy resource and larger clams primarily drawing on their larger storage reserves of carbohydrates. Our study demonstrates that metabolomics is a useful technique to test for low level toxicity which does not manifest in mortality or condition index changes. The differing effects between the two size classes stress that it is important to consider age/size when conducting metabolomic and ecotoxicology assessments, since testing for the effects on only one size class makes

  1. Cycle life test. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells. [performance tests on silver zinc batteries, silver cadmium batteries, and nickel cadmium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    Considerable research is being done to find more efficient and reliable means of starting electrical energy for orbiting satellites. Rechargeable cells offer one such means. A test program is described which has been established in order to further the evaluation of certain types of cells and to obtain performance and failure data as an aid to their continued improvement. The purpose of the program is to determine the cycling performance capabilities of packs of cells under different load and temperature conditions. The various kinds of cells tested were nickel-cadmium, silver-cadmium, and silver-zinc sealed cells. A summary of the results of the life cycling program is given in this report.

  2. Bioleaching of copper, cobalt and zinc from black shale by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extractions were compared with chemical leaching, where leaching up to 54.27% Co and 35.16% Zn were achieved in medium of 1% oxalic acid whereas, copper up to 51.22% extracted in medium containing 1% citric acid. Recovery of metals from this ore has indicated that this low grade discarded ore may be potential ...

  3. The Protective Roles of Zinc and Magnesium in Cadmium-Induced Renal Toxicity in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Babaknejad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cadmium (Cd is a heavy metal that has widespread use. It enters the food chain in different ways, including soil and water. Cadmium can cause dysfunction of different body organs. Zinc (Zn and magnesium (Mg supplementation can have protective effects against cadmium toxicity due to their antagonistic and antioxidants properties. This study examines the influence of supplemental Zn and Mg on Cd renal toxicity. Methods: Young male Wistar rats were divided into six groups of five. The Cd group received 1 mg Cd/kg and the control group received 0.5 mg/kg normal saline (i.p.. The other four groups were administered 1 mg/kg Cd+0.5 mg/kg Zn, 1 mg/kg Cd+1.5 mg/kg Zn, 1 mg/kg Cd+ 0.5 mg/kg Mg, and 1 mg/kg Cd+ 1.5 mg/kg Mg (i.p. for 21 days. Then, serum sodium, potassium, urea, creatinine, and protein levels were measured. Results: The results indicated that creatinine and protein levels decreased while urea, sodium, and potassium levels increased as a result of Cd exposure. Co-administered Cd and Zn and Mg decreased urea and increased sodium serum level in comparison to the cadmium group. Treatment by Mg, contrary to co-administered Cd and Zn, reduced serum protein level compared to the cadmium group. Compared to the cadmium treated group, Zn and Mg treatment enhanced serum creatinine level and reduced serum potassium level. Conclusion: The findings seem to suggest that zinc and magnesium compounds, due to their antagonistic and antioxidant activities, can protect Cd renal toxic effects in a dose-dependent manner.

  4. New mechanical chemical equilibrium in the copper-zinc alloys obtained by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dianez, M.J; Criado, J.M; Donoso, E; Diaz, G

    2006-01-01

    A series of copper zinc alloys have been synthesized in the entire composition range Cu10Zn to Cu70Zn respectively, by mechanical alloying at room temperature in a planetary high-energy mill. A mechanism is proposed for the mechanical alloying reaction of the copper and zinc. It is made clear that the mechanical treatment considerably extends the range of composition of the α phase up to a content of 41% zinc, instead of the 36% accepted by the conventional phase diagrams. Exact determinations of the phase α reticular parameter were carried out as a function of its composition which can be used to determine the zinc content of the brass α. The results show that a brass phase α may be obtained containing 49% zinc in samples that include a mixture of phases α and β' after reaching stationary state as a function of the milling time. The stability field of phases β' and γ also displace noticeably higher values than those expected from the conventional binary Cu-Zn diagram. This behavior has been explained as a function of the nanometric texture generated by the milling (CW)

  5. Serum zinc, copper and iron status of children with coeliac disease on three months of gluten-free diet with or without four weeks of zinc supplements: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, K; Kumar, R; Sharma, L; Datta, S P; Choudhury, M; Kumar, P

    2018-04-01

    Data about the effect of zinc supplementation with gluten-free diet on normalisation of plasma zinc, copper and iron in patients with coeliac disease are scanty. We evaluated the effect of zinc supplementation on serum zinc, copper and iron levels in patients with coeliac disease, by randomising 71 children newly diagnosed with coeliac disease into two groups: Group A = gluten-free diet (GFD); and Group B = gluten-free diet with zinc supplements (GFD +Zn). The rise in iron and zinc was significantly higher in the latter, but the mean rise of copper levels was slightly higher in the former, but the difference was not significant.

  6. Characterization of the biosorption of cadmium, lead and copper with the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mata, Y.N.; Blazquez, M.L.; Ballester, A.; Gonzalez, F.; Munoz, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    The recovery of cadmium, lead and copper with the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus was characterized and quantified. The biosorption data fitted the pseudo-second order and Langmuir isotherm models, but did not adjust to the intraparticle diffusion model. The metal uptakes deduced from the pseudo-second order kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm model followed a similar sequence: Cu > Cd ∼ Pb. The Langmuir maximum metal uptakes were: 0.9626 mmol/g, Pb 1.02 mmol/g, and Cu 1.66 mmol/g. According to the equilibrium constants of this isotherm model, the affinity of metals for the biomass followed this order: Pb > Cu > Cd. Biosorption was accomplished by ion exchange between metals in solution and algal protons, calcium and other light metals, and by complexation of the adsorbed metals with algal carboxyl groups. FTIR spectra showed a shift in the bands of carboxyl, hydroxyl and sulfonate groups

  7. In situ phytoextraction of copper and cadmium and its biological impacts in acidic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongbiao; Fan, Yuchao; Yang, John; Xu, Lei; Zhou, Jing; Zhu, Zhenqiu

    2016-10-01

    Phytoremediation is a potential cost-effective technology for remediating heavy metal-contaminated soils. In this study, we evaluated the biomass and accumulation of copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) of plant species grown in a contaminated acidic soil treated with limestone. Five species produced biomass in the order: Pennisetum sinese > Elsholtzia splendens > Vetiveria zizanioides > Setaria pumila > Sedum plumbizincicola. Over one growing season, the best accumulators for Cu and Cd were Pennisetum sinese and Sedum plumbizincicola, respectively. Overall, Pennisetum sinese was the best species for Cu and Cd removal when biomass was considered. However, Elsholtzia splendens soil had the highest enzyme activities and microbial populations, while the biological properties in Pennisetum sinese soil were moderately enhanced. Results would provide valuable insights for phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The study on microstructure and microwave-absorbing properties of lithium zinc ferrites doped with magnesium and copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Xiaofei [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University (south part), Jingshi Road 73, Jinan 250061 (China); Engineering Ceramics Key Laboratory of Shandong Province, Shandong University (south part), Jingshi Road 73, Jinan 250061 (China); Sun Kangning [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University (south part), Jingshi Road 73, Jinan 250061 (China); Engineering Ceramics Key Laboratory of Shandong Province, Shandong University (south part), Jingshi Road 73, Jinan 250061 (China)], E-mail: xiaowenhoulvbu1@yahoo.com.cn; Sun Chang; Leng Liang [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University (south part), Jingshi Road 73, Jinan 250061 (China); Engineering Ceramics Key Laboratory of Shandong Province, Shandong University (south part), Jingshi Road 73, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2009-09-15

    Lithium zinc ferrites doped with magnesium and copper were prepared by means of a combination of sol-gel method and subsequent calcination. The crystalline phase and microstructure of different doped lithium zinc ferrites were measured by X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electronic microscopy analysis. The results indicate that there are no remarkable differences in phase composition between pure lithium zinc ferrite and the as-doped lithium zinc ferrites. The effects of magnesium and copper dopants on microwave absorption in low-frequency region were investigated by the transmission/reflection coaxial line method. It was found from the present work that doping with copper improved microwave-absorbing properties, while doping with magnesium had little effect on microwave absorption of pure lithium zinc ferrite.

  9. Simultaneous determination of lead, cadmium and zinc in Metro Manila air particulates by anodic stripping voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, Soledad S.

    1999-02-01

    Air particulate samples were collected from two monitoring stations in Metro Manila using a 'Gent' type dichotomous sampler for pollutant source apportionment studies. Samples were collected in two fractions: a fine fraction with aerodynamic diameter, d p p 3 : HCL: HF, 4: 1: 1) for at least 20 minutes with subsequent heating at lower power settings for a total of 20 minutes more, effectively decomposed the sample with complete recovery of the elements. The digests were evaporated to near dryness to eliminate the troublesome effect of HF and HNO 3 and to decrease acidity of the electrolytic solution to pH ≥ 2. At pH 2, the addition of at least 0.01 M KCl was needed to improve sensitivity. The formation of Zn-Cu intermetallic compounds which interfered in the accurate quantitation of zinc was eliminated by addition of gallium as a 'third' element. The amount of gallium needed varied from sample to sample and was affected by the pH of the solution. The DPASV parameters found to be optimum for the analysis of the air particulate samples are as follows: pulse amplitude, 50 mV; scan rate, 10 mV/sec; E dep , - 1.30 V; t dep , 2 min; and RDE rotation rate, 1500 rpm. Detection limits of 0.2 ppb for zinc, 0.6 ppb for lead, and 0.05 ppb for cadmium in the sample matrix were obtained. The standard addition method was found to be reliable for the quantitative determination of the analytes in the sample. All R 2 values obtained were > 0.9900 at 95% confidence level. Validation of the established analytical methodology by analyzing certified reference standards and performing parallel analysis by GF-AAS and flame AAS showed acceptable accuracy of the DPASV measurements. (Author)

  10. Assessment of cadmium, copper and lead in marine species of the atlantic and pacific oceans of Guatemala by voltametry techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Evelyn

    2000-01-01

    In this thesis results of measurements of cooper, lead, and cadmium were made using voltametry. Three points in the pacific ocean and one in the atlantic were selected to obtain samples of fish and shrimp as species that are contaminated with toxic metals. The samples were treated by physical and chemical methods to turn soluble the metals and the chemical determination could be done using voltametry or differential polarography of pulse. The results shown that copper, lead and cadmium are present in the samples in traces level. The precision of measurements was verified measuring certified by the National Institute of Standard and Technology NIST of the Commerce Departmento of the United States

  11. Investigation into the combined effects of ethanol and cadmium on rat liver and kidneys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopf, G.; Boecker, R.; Bischoff, J.; Werner, M.G.; Estler, C.J. (Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Pharmakologie und Toxikologie)

    1990-08-01

    To examine the combined hepatoxic and nephrotoxic effects of cadmium and ethanol, rats maintained on an ethanol containing liquid diet (5% w/w) were given cadmium either acutely (3 x 1 mg/kg IP) or subacutely (about 14 mg/kg/day PO for 6 weeks). Parameters tested were cadmium, zinc and copper contents of blood and various organs, metallothionein (MT) contents, polysome profile of liver and kidneys, serum SDH and GPT levels and creatinine clearnace. Ethanol reduced the hepatic MT contents without altering the polysome profile and the zinc and copper contents. Cadmium on the other hand raised the MT contents in liver and kidneys. This effect of cadmium predominated in the combined treatment. Morphological examination and functional tests (SDH, GPT, creatinine clearance) indicate that cadmium does not enhance the toxic effects of ethanol, and vice versa. (orig.).

  12. Serum copper and zinc concentrations in a representative sample of the Canarian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Romero, Carlos; Henríquez Sánchez, Patricia; López Blanco, Félix; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena; Serra Majem, Lluis

    2002-01-01

    Serum copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations of 395 individuals (187 males + 208 females) living in Canary Islands were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean copper and zinc concentrations were 1.10 +/- 0.25 mg/L and 1.16 +/- 0.52 mg/L respectively. Our data were similar to other data published in other Spanish regions. Individuals from Lanzarote presented a mean Cu and Zn concentrations higher (p EL Hierro showed the lowest (p 0.05) among the different age intervals. No clear trends in the serum Cu and Zn concentrations were observed when drinking and smoking habits were considered. The increase of physical exercise reduced (p < 0.05) the serum Cu concentrations.

  13. Effect of Intensive Phototherapy and Exchange Transfusion on Copper, Zinc and Magnesium Serum Levels in Neonates with Indirect Hyperbilirubinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Azeem El-Mazary

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMany studies reported that copper, zinc and magnesium play important roles in the pathogenesis and development of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Exchange transfusion and intensive phototherapy are known two modalities of therapy for severe neonatal hyper bilirubinemia, but the effect of them on those trace elements is unknown.Materials and MethodsCopper, Zinc and Magnesium serum levels were measured before and after treatment with intensive phototherapy and exchange transfusion in full term neonates with indirect hyperbilirubinemia admitted to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU of Minia and Sohag University hospitals, Egypt, during 2014-2016 and comparison with normal healthy neonates was done.ResultsThere were significant higher copper and magnesium and lower zinc serum levels in neonates with indirect hyperbilirubinemia than controls before and after intensive phototherapy. These levels were significantly changed after exchange transfusion to be comparable with controls. Significant positive correlations between the total bilirubin levels and hemoglobin, copper, and magnesium serum levels and significant negative correlations with serum zinc levels were present. There were no significant correlations between maternal and neonatal copper, zinc or magnesium serum levels.ConclusionNeonates with indirect hyperbilirubinemia had significant higher copper and magnesium and lower zinc serum levels than healthy neonates which were not related to their maternal serum levels. Intensive phototherapy had no effect on their levels while exchange transfusion changed these levels to be comparable with that of normal healthy neonates.

  14. Zinc and Copper status in children with high family risk of premature cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelishadi, R.; Alikhassy, H.; Amiri, M.

    2002-01-01

    Zinc and copper are beneficial to health, growth and development and also for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) with regards to improved dietary habits as a preliminary step in CVD prevention. This study was conducted among 2-18 year old children with high family risk of premature CVD in comparison to controls. One hundred randomly selected children whose parents had premature myocardial infarction were included in this study. The controls were 100 individuals randomly selected from the case group's neighbors and matched for age, sex and socioeconomic status. A four-day food record questionnaire was used to assess zinc and copper intakes and their serum levels were determined using Flame-Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The data were analyzed by SPSS/Windows V6 software, using the student's t and Mantel-Hanzel tests. Significance of differences was considered at P 0.05). Zinc deficiency was more prevalent among the case in boys than their controls (58% vs. 18%, P=0.04). This difference was not significant in girls (44% vs. 40%). The daily intake and serum of level of copper were not significantly different between the case and control groups. No case of copper efficiency was found. The mean systolic blood pressure was not significantly different between the zinc-deficient and zinc-sufficient subjects. Although the mean diastolic blood pressure of the former was higher than the latter, there was no statistically significant difference. About 23.7% of all studied sample had mild-to-moderate degree of failure to thrive, with significantly lower daily intake and serum zinc level than other subjects (5.41+-1.06 mg, 82.09+-12.74 ug/dL vs. 6.89+-2.14 mg, 99.25+-27.15 ug/dL, respectively, P<0.05). It is recommended that emphasis be placed on the consumption of food rich in zinc by children, especially those with high family risk of premature CVD. (author)

  15. Assessment of Copper and Zinc Contamination in Soils of Industrial Estates of Arak Region (Iran (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisa Solgi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contamination of the environment due to heavy metals is a major concern to human life and the environment. This study was conducted to investigate and quantify the copper and zinc concentrations in industrial estates soil in Arak, Iran. Methods: Four industrial estates were considered for the experimental design, including Arak 1, Arak 2, Arak 3, and Ghotbe Sanaati. For preliminary understanding of soil heavy metals pollution in industrial estates, the concentrations of zinc and copper in the soil are analyzed and investigated to evaluate their concentration and environmental quality based on the contamination factor. Results: The results indicated the soils had been polluted by heavy metals due to industrial processes that concentrate these metals in the soil. Copper concentrations varied from 15.69 to 49.55 mg/kg. Zinc concentrations were found to be between 23.02 and 144.17 mg/kg. The highest concentration of Zn was found in Arak 3 region which may be due to industrial activities while the highest concentration of Cu was observed in the soil of Arak 1 region that may be due to proximity of this industrial estate to Arak city. The findings of the contamination factor showed that the heavy metals are accumulated in the soil of industrial estates that are considered low risk for contamination with zinc and copper. Conclusion: The achievements of this research showed the location of the industrial estate, proximity to highways and main roads, and the area of green space of industrial estates are important factors in determining heavy metals concentration.

  16. Evaluation of iron, zinc, copper, manganese and selenium in oral hospital diets.

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Daniele Caroline Faria; Sá, Júlia Sommerlatte Manzoli de; Cerqueira, Isabel B.; Oliveira, Ana P. F. de; Morgano, Marcelo Antonio; Quintaes, Késia Diego

    2013-01-01

    Background & aims: Many trace elements are nutrients essential to humans, acting in the metabolism as constituents or as enzymatic co-factors. The iron, zinc, copper, manganese and selenium contents of hospital diets (regular, blend and soft) and of oral food complement (OFC) were determined, evaluating the adequacy of each element in relation to the nutritional recommendations (DRIs) and the percent contribution alone and with OFC. Methods: Duplicate samples were taken of six daily meals ...

  17. Zinc and copper status in childbearing age Tunisian women: Relation to age, residential area, socioeconomic situation and physiologic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ati-Hellal, Myriam; Doggui, Radhouene; Hedhili, Abderrazek; Traissac, Pierre; El Ati, Jalila

    2016-04-01

    Plasma zinc and copper status of 1689 non pregnant Tunisian women, aged 20-49 years old, was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. A multiple regression was run to predict plasma trace element concentrations from age, BMI, marital status, menopause, education level, professional activity, economic level and area of living. The mean zinc and copper values were similar to those measured among comparable populations in earlier studies. However, a high prevalence of low plasma zinc and copper concentrations was observed assuming that women at childbearing age are at high risk of zinc and copper deficiencies and specific intervention may be considered. In univariate analysis, the mean values of plasma zinc and copper were associated with sitting areas and professional activity. For only plasma copper levels, there was an increase with BMI and parity, and a decrease with increasing schooling level and economic score. After adjustment for all variables, profession and parity showed a significant relationship between plasma levels copper. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Zinc and copper supplementation in acute diarrhea in children: a double-blind randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamtani Manju

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diarrhea causes an estimated 2.5 million child deaths in developing countries each year, 35% of which are due to acute diarrhea. Zinc and copper stores in the body are known to be depleted during acute diarrhea. Our objectives were to evaluate the efficacy of zinc and copper supplementation when given with standard treatment to children with acute watery or bloody diarrhea. Methods We conducted a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial in the Department of Pediatrics at Indira Gandhi Government Medical College Nagpur, India. Eight hundred and eight children aged 6 months to 59 months with acute diarrhea were individually randomized to placebo (Pl, zinc (Zn only, and zinc and copper (Zn+Cu together with standard treatment for acute diarrhea. Results The mean duration of diarrhea from enrolment and the mean stool weight during hospital stay were 63.7 hours and 940 grams, respectively, and there were no significant differences in the adjusted means across treatment groups. Similarly, the adjusted means of the amount of oral rehydration solution or intravenous fluids used, the proportion of participants with diarrhea more than 7 days from onset, and the severity of diarrhea indicated by more than three episodes of some dehydration or any episode of severe dehydration after enrolment, did not differ across the three groups. Conclusion The expected beneficial effects of zinc supplementation for acute diarrhea were not observed. Therapeutic Zn or Zn and Cu supplementation may not have a universal beneficial impact on the duration of acute diarrhea in children. Trial registration The study was registered as an International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial (ISRCTN85071383.

  19. Low-cost cadmium zinc telluride radiation detectors based on electron-transport-only designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunett, B.A.; Lund, J.C.; Van Scyoc, J.M.; Hilton, N.R.; Lee, E.Y.; James, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this project was to utilize a novel device design to build a compact, high resolution, room temperature operated semiconductor gamma ray sensor. This sensor was constructed from a cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) crystal. It was able to both detect total radiation intensity and perform spectroscopy on the detected radiation. CZT detectors produced today have excellent electron charge carrier collection, but suffer from poor hole collection. For conventional gamma-ray spectrometers, both the electrons and holes must be collected with high efficiency to preserve energy resolution. The requirement to collect the hole carriers, which have relatively low lifetimes, limits the efficiency and performance of existing experimental devices. By implementing novel device designs such that the devices rely only on the electron signal for energy information, the sensitivity of the sensors for detecting radiation can be increased substantially. In this report the authors describe a project to develop a new type of electron-only CZT detector. They report on their successful efforts to design, implement and test these new radiation detectors. In addition to the design and construction of the sensors the authors also report, in considerable detail, on the electrical characteristics of the CZT crystals used to make their detectors

  20. Study of a high-resolution, 3-D positioning cadmium zinc telluride detector for PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y; Matteson, J L; Skelton, R T; Deal, A C; Stephan, E A; Duttweiler, F; Gasaway, T M; Levin, C S

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the performance of 1 mm resolution Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors for positron emission tomography (PET) capable of positioning the 3-D coordinates of individual 511 keV photon interactions. The detectors comprise 40 mm × 40 mm × 5 mm monolithic CZT crystals that employ a novel cross-strip readout with interspersed steering electrodes to obtain high spatial and energy resolution. The study found a single anode FWHM energy resolution of 3.06±0.39% at 511 keV throughout most the detector volume. Improved resolution is expected with properly shielded front-end electronics. Measurements made using a collimated beam established the efficacy of the steering electrodes in facilitating enhanced charge collection across anodes, as well as a spatial resolution of 0.44±0.07 mm in the direction orthogonal to the electrode planes. Finally, measurements based on coincidence electronic collimation yielded a point spread function with 0.78±0.10 mm FWHM, demonstrating 1 mm spatial resolution capability transverse to the anodes – as expected from the 1 mm anode pitch. These findings indicate that the CZT-based detector concept has excellent performance and shows great promise for a high-resolution PET system. PMID:21335649

  1. Study of a high-resolution, 3D positioning cadmium zinc telluride detector for PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y; Matteson, J L; Skelton, R T; Deal, A C; Stephan, E A; Duttweiler, F; Gasaway, T M; Levin, C S

    2011-03-21

    This paper investigates the performance of 1 mm resolution cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors for positron emission tomography (PET) capable of positioning the 3D coordinates of individual 511 keV photon interactions. The detectors comprise 40 mm × 40 mm × 5 mm monolithic CZT crystals that employ a novel cross-strip readout with interspersed steering electrodes to obtain high spatial and energy resolution. The study found a single anode FWHM energy resolution of 3.06 ± 0.39% at 511 keV throughout most of the detector volume. Improved resolution is expected with properly shielded front-end electronics. Measurements made using a collimated beam established the efficacy of the steering electrodes in facilitating enhanced charge collection across anodes, as well as a spatial resolution of 0.44 ± 0.07 mm in the direction orthogonal to the electrode planes. Finally, measurements based on coincidence electronic collimation yielded a point spread function with 0.78 ± 0.10 mm FWHM, demonstrating 1 mm spatial resolution capability transverse to the anodes-as expected from the 1 mm anode pitch. These findings indicate that the CZT-based detector concept has excellent performance and shows great promise for a high-resolution PET system.

  2. Lead, cadmium and zinc in mineral structure of deposits of the gallbladder in men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Kwapuliński

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The former studies have shown the presence of As and Sb in deposits of the gallbladder. The aim of studies: The aim of the studies was to define the level of accumulation of Pb, Cd, Zn in deposits of the gallbladder as supplementary biological test for exposure assessment in a long run. Materials and methods: Pb, Cd and Zn content was investigated with inductive coupled plasmaatomic emission spectrometry were deposits of the gallbladder in men and women living in the Silesia Region. Results: The change of these elements content was analyzed in connection with behavioral factors ( diet, alcohol, coffee, obesity and tobacco addiction of the gender. Attention was drawn to the probability of interaction of Pb, Cd, Zn with other elements during their accumulation in deposits of the gallbladder. It appeared that deposits of the gall bladder can be used as an additional biological test in individual exposure assessment to Pb, Cd and Zn. It was noted that the level of content of Pb, Zn and Cd in deposits of the gallbladder is impacted by behavioral factors (diet, alcohol, coffee, obesity tobacco addiction. A characteristic impact of the tobacco addiction on the rise in the content of lead, cadmium and zinc was demonstrated as well as significant role of the presence of these elements in the total environmental pollution in relevant living areas.

  3. Application of sequential extraction analysis to electrokinetic remediation of cadmium, nickel and zinc from contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannis, Apostolos; Pentari, Despina; Wang, Jing-Yuan; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2010-01-01

    An enhanced electrokinetic process for the removal of cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) from contaminated soils was performed. The efficiency of the chelate agents nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and diaminocycloexanetetraacetic acid (DCyTA) was examined under constant potential gradient (1.23 V/cm). The results showed that chelates were effective in desorbing metals at a high pH, with metal-chelate anion complexes migrating towards the anode. At low pH, metals existing as dissolved cations migrated towards the cathode. In such conflicting directions, the metals accumulated in the middle of the cell. Speciation of the metals during the electrokinetic experiments was performed to provide an understanding of the distribution of the Cd, Ni and Zn. The results of sequential extraction analysis revealed that the forms of the metals could be altered from one fraction to another due to the variation of physico-chemical conditions throughout the cell, such as pH, redox potential and the chemistry of the electrolyte solution during the electrokinetic treatment. It was found that binding forms of metals were changed from the difficult type to easier extraction type.

  4. Magnetic properties of alluvial soils contaminated with lead, zinc and cadmium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovský, E.; Kapička, A.; Jordanova, N.; Borůvka, L.

    2001-09-01

    Several proxy methods have been used recently to outline increased levels of pollution. One of them is based on measurements of the concentration of (ferri)magnetic minerals of anthropogenic origin. This method has been used recently in the mapping of both polluted and unpolluted areas. In order to validate this method, a more detailed study of links between magnetic parameters characterising the physical shape of magnetic minerals and concentrations of heavy metals is needed. In this study, we analysed the magnetic characteristics of alluvial soils, formed as a result of several breakdowns of wet deposit sink of ashes from a lead ore smelter. The soils were previously analysed for concentration of lead, zinc and cadmium. Our results show that in this case of a shared source of heavy metals and magnetic minerals, simple measurements of magnetic susceptibility discriminate well between polluted and clean areas. In addition, the concentration pattern agrees with the concentrations of the heavy metals studied in deeper soil layers that were not affected by post-depositional changes due to climate and remediation efforts.

  5. Application of sequential extraction analysis to electrokinetic remediation of cadmium, nickel and zinc from contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannis, Apostolos, E-mail: apostolos.giannis@enveng.tuc.gr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Politechnioupolis, Chania 73100 (Greece); Pentari, Despina [Department of Mineral Resources Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Politechnioupolis, Chania 73100 (Greece); Wang, Jing-Yuan [Residues and Resource Reclamation Centre (R3C), Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 Singapore (Singapore); Gidarakos, Evangelos, E-mail: gidarako@mred.tuc.gr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Politechnioupolis, Chania 73100 (Greece)

    2010-12-15

    An enhanced electrokinetic process for the removal of cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) from contaminated soils was performed. The efficiency of the chelate agents nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and diaminocycloexanetetraacetic acid (DCyTA) was examined under constant potential gradient (1.23 V/cm). The results showed that chelates were effective in desorbing metals at a high pH, with metal-chelate anion complexes migrating towards the anode. At low pH, metals existing as dissolved cations migrated towards the cathode. In such conflicting directions, the metals accumulated in the middle of the cell. Speciation of the metals during the electrokinetic experiments was performed to provide an understanding of the distribution of the Cd, Ni and Zn. The results of sequential extraction analysis revealed that the forms of the metals could be altered from one fraction to another due to the variation of physico-chemical conditions throughout the cell, such as pH, redox potential and the chemistry of the electrolyte solution during the electrokinetic treatment. It was found that binding forms of metals were changed from the difficult type to easier extraction type.

  6. Repeated phytoextraction of four metal-contaminated soils using the cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhu; Wu, Longhua; Hu, Pengjie; Luo, Yongming; Zhang, Hao; Christie, Peter

    2014-06-01

    A cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator extracted metals from four contaminated soils over three years in a glasshouse experiment. Changes in plant metal uptake and soil total (aqua regia-extractable) and available metals were investigated. Plant Cd concentrations in a high-Cd acid soil and plant Zn concentrations in two acid soils decreased during repeated phytoextraction and were predicted by soil available metal concentrations. However, on repeated phytoextraction, plant Cd concentrations remained constant in lightly Cd-polluted acid soils, as did plant Cd and Zn in alkaline soils, although soil available metal concentrations decreased markedly. After phytoextraction acid soils showed much higher total metal removal efficiencies, indicating possible suitability of phytoextraction for acid soils. However, DGT-testing, which takes soil metal re-supply into consideration, showed substantial removal of available metal and distinct decreases in metal supply capacity in alkaline soils after phytoextraction, suggesting that a strategy based on lowering the bioavailable contaminant might be feasible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride photon detector for epithermal neutron spectroscopy--pulse height response characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tardocchi, M.; Pietropaolo, A.; Andreani, C.; Bracco, A.; D'Angelo, A.; Gorini, G.; Imberti, S.; Senesi, R.; Rhodes, N.J.; Schooneveld, E.M.

    2004-01-01

    The Resonance Detector Spectrometer was recently revised for neutron spectroscopic studies in the eV energy region. In this technique one makes use of a photon detector to record the gamma emission from analyser foils used as neutron-gamma converters. The pulse-height response of a Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride photon detector to neutron capture emission from 238 U and 197 Au analyser foils was characterised in the neutron energy range 1-200 eV. The experiment was performed on the VESUVIO spectrometer at the ISIS neutron-pulsed source. A biparametric data acquisition, specifically developed for these measurements, allowed the simultaneous measurements of both the neutron time of flight and γ pulse-height spectra. Through the analysis of the γ pulse-height spectra the main components of the signal associated with resonant and non-resonant neutron absorption were identified. It was also shown that, in principle, energy discrimination can be used to improve the signal to background ratio of the neutron time-of-flight measurement

  8. Investigation of the Electronic Properties of Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) Detectors using a Nuclear Microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BRUNETT, BRUCE A.; DOYLE, BARNEY L.; JAMES, RALPH B.; VIZKELETHY, GYORGY; WALSH, DAVID S.

    1999-01-01

    The electronic transport properties of Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) determine the charge collection efficiency (i.e. the signal quality) of CZT detectors. These properties vary on both macroscopic and microscopic scale and depend on the presence of impurities and defects introduced during the crystal growth. Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection (IBICC) is a proven method to measure the charge collection efficiency. Using an ion microbeam, the charge collection efficiency can be mapped with submicron resolution, and the map of electronic properties (such as drift length) can be calculated from the measurement. A more sophisticated version of IBICC, the Time Resolved IBICC (TRIBICC) allows them to determine the mobility and the life time of the charge carriers by recording and analyzing the transient waveform of the detector signal. Furthermore, lateral IBICC and TRIBICC can provide information how the charge collection efficiency depends on the depth where the charge carriers are generated. This allows one to deduce information on the distribution of the electric field and transport properties of the charge carriers along the detector axis. IBICC and TRIBICC were used at the Sandia microbeam facility to image electronic properties of several CZT detectors. From the lateral TRIBICC measurement the electron and hole drift length profiles were calculated

  9. Acclimation to and recovery from cadmium and zinc exposure by a freshwater cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Jin; Yang Liuyan; Wang Wenxiong

    2009-01-01

    To understand the metal tolerance of a bloom-forming cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa, we investigated its acclimation to and recovery from cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) exposure. The intracellular Cd and Zn (intra-Cd and intra-Zn) quotas increased upon acclimation to increased metal concentrations and were reduced following 1-day or 5-day recovery. Different acclimation to varying metal concentrations or durations (5 days or 15 days) did not have significant effects on the short-term uptake of Cd or Zn, whereas a 1-day recovery period promoted Cd or Zn uptake significantly. The values of median growth-inhibition concentrations (free ion concentration or intracellular quota) increased when the cyanobacterial cells were acclimated to higher Cd or Zn concentrations, indicating that M. aeruginosa became more tolerant to these metals. Consistent with the significant increase in metal uptake, the cyanobacteria become very sensitive to metals following 1-day recovery. A longer recovery (5 days) led to comparable uptake and toxicity responses to the controls. The efflux rate constants were not significantly different following metal acclimation. In the subcellular metal measurements, Cd was mostly distributed in the soluble fraction, whereas Zn was distributed evenly in the adsorbed, insoluble and soluble fractions of the cells. This study suggested the strong ability of these cyanobacteria to acclimate to different environments.

  10. Repeated phytoextraction of four metal-contaminated soils using the cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhu; Wu, Longhua; Hu, Pengjie; Luo, Yongming; Zhang, Hao; Christie, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator extracted metals from four contaminated soils over three years in a glasshouse experiment. Changes in plant metal uptake and soil total (aqua regia-extractable) and available metals were investigated. Plant Cd concentrations in a high-Cd acid soil and plant Zn concentrations in two acid soils decreased during repeated phytoextraction and were predicted by soil available metal concentrations. However, on repeated phytoextraction, plant Cd concentrations remained constant in lightly Cd-polluted acid soils, as did plant Cd and Zn in alkaline soils, although soil available metal concentrations decreased markedly. After phytoextraction acid soils showed much higher total metal removal efficiencies, indicating possible suitability of phytoextraction for acid soils. However, DGT-testing, which takes soil metal re-supply into consideration, showed substantial removal of available metal and distinct decreases in metal supply capacity in alkaline soils after phytoextraction, suggesting that a strategy based on lowering the bioavailable contaminant might be feasible. - Highlights: • Plant shoot Cd decreased in high-Cd acid soil and also plant Zn did in two acid soils. • Plant shoot Cd remained constant in low-Cd acid soil and also plant Zn did in alkaline soils. • Acidic soils showed much higher total metal removal efficiency than the alkaline soils. - Acid soil has high total metal phytoremediation efficiency while a strategy based on stripping of the bioavailable contaminant might be feasible for alkaline soil phytoremediation

  11. Anodic stripping voltammetry of mercury, zinc, cadmium, and lead in a rice farm ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Mundo, F.R.; Vicente-Beckett, V.A.

    1990-01-01

    Analytical procedures based on differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry were developed and applied to the analysis of some trace metals in a rice farm ecosystem. A gold wire served as working electrode for the analysis of mercury in 0.1M HNO 3 ; a hanging mercury drop electrode was used for the simultaneous analyses of zinc, cadmium, and lead in 0.1M sodium acetate buffer (pH 4.5). Mercury was pre-concentrated for five minutes at + 0.20 V vs SCE. The area of the anodic stripping peaks varied linearly over the concentration range 3x10 -10 -2x10 -8 M Hg(II); the limit of detection was 0.06 ppb or 3x10 -10 M Hg(II). The simultaneous analytical method involved pre-electrolysis at -1.2 V vs SCE for ten minutes. The heights of the individual anodic stripping peaks varied linearly with concentration in a mixture of the ions over the concentration range 0.020-0.10 ppm for each ion; the limits of detection were 0.004 ppm, 0.01 ppm, and 0.01 ppm for Cd, Pb, Zn, respectively. The developed procedures were used to determine the baseline levels of these metals in soil, water, and rice plant samples from a one-hectare traditional rice farm in San Pedro, Laguna. (auth.). 26 refs.; 4 tabs.; 6 figs

  12. Environmental Exposure to Arsenic, Lead, and Cadmium in People Living near Janghang Copper Smelter in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Dae; Eom, Sang-Yong; Yim, Dong-Hyuk; Kim, In-Soo; Won, Hee-Kwan; Park, Choong-Hee; Kim, Guen-Bae; Yu, Seung-Do; Choi, Byung-Sun; Park, Jung-Duck; Kim, Heon

    2016-04-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals exceed safety thresholds in the soil near Janghang Copper Refinery, a smelter in Korea that operated from 1936 to 1989. This study was conducted to evaluate the level of exposure to toxic metals and the potential effect on health in people living near the smelter. The study included 572 adults living within 4 km of the smelter and compared them with 413 controls group of people living similar lifestyles in a rural area approximately 15 km from the smelter. Urinary arsenic (As) level did not decrease according to the distance from the smelter, regardless of gender and working history in smelters and mines. However, in subjects who had no occupational exposure to toxic metals, blood lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) and urinary Cd decreased according to the distance from the smelter, both in men and women. Additionally, the distance from the smelter was a determinant factor for a decrease of As, Pb, and Cd in multiple regression models, respectively. On the other hands, urinary Cd was a risk factor for renal tubular dysfunction in populations living near the smelter. These results suggest that Janghang copper smelter was a main contamination source of As, Pb, and Cd, and populations living near the smelter suffered some adverse health effects as a consequence. The local population should be advised to make efforts to reduce exposure to environmental contaminants, in order to minimize potential health effects, and to pay close attention to any health problems possibly related to toxic metal exposure.

  13. Size-dependent effects of low level cadmium and zinc exposure on the metabolome of the Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spann, Nicole; Aldridge, David C.; Griffin, Julian L.; Jones, Oliver A.H.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: Small and large Corbicula fluminea were exposed to cadmium and zinc spiked sediment. Metabolomic changes in the freshwater clams were determined by NMR and GC–MS. Metabolic perturbations were related to amino acid and energy related metabolism. Small and large clams were differentiated by their metabolic composition. Size classes showed opposite responses to metal stress. - Abstract: The toxic effects of low level metal contamination in sediments are currently poorly understood. We exposed different sized Asian clams, Corbicula fluminea, to sediment spiked with environmentally relevant concentrations of either zinc, cadmium or a zinc–cadmium mixture for one week. This freshwater bivalve is well suited for sediment toxicity tests as it lives partly buried in the sediment and utilises sediment particles as a food resource. After one week, the whole tissue composition of low molecular weight metabolites was analysed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The condition index (ratio of tissue dry weight to volume inside the shell valves) was also measured. Small and large clams were clearly differentiated by their metabolic composition and the two size classes showed opposite responses to the mixture spiked sediment. No effects of zinc alone on the metabolome were found and cadmium only influenced the smaller size class. The main perturbations were seen in amino acid and energy metabolism, with small clams using amino acids as an energy resource and larger clams primarily drawing on their larger storage reserves of carbohydrates. Our study demonstrates that metabolomics is a useful technique to test for low level toxicity which does not manifest in mortality or condition index changes. The differing effects between the two size classes stress that it is important to consider age/size when conducting metabolomic and ecotoxicology assessments, since testing for the effects on only one size

  14. THE EFFECTS OF COPPER AND ZINC IONS DURING THEIR BINDING WITH HUMAN SERUM γ-GLOBULIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Cheknev

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Conformational changes of human serum γ-globulin were studied during and after its binding with copper and zinc ions, using molecular ultrafiltration and differential spectrophotometry. The contents of nonbound metals in the filtrate were evaluated, resp., with sodium diethyl thyocarbamate and o-phenanthroline. It has been shown that copper and zinc exhibited common biological properties during their interactions with protein, but the binding differed sufficiently under similar experimental conditions. E.g., it was confirmed that copper was more active at the external sites of γ-globulin molecule, whereas zinc demonstrated tropicity for the areas of protein intraglobular compartments. The metal-binding sites have been described that differ in their parameters of interactions with cations and their spatial location within globular domains. Approaches are suggested for dynamic analysis of saturation for these differently located sites by the metal ions. We discuss the issues of altered conformational state of the γ-globulin molecule during the binding of cations, as well as potential usage of these data in clinical immunology.

  15. Atomic absorption spectrometric determination of copper, zinc, and lead in geological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzolone, R.F.; Chao, T.T.

    1976-01-01

    An atomic absorption spectrometric method is described for the determination of copper, zinc, and lead in geological materials. The sample is digested with HF-HCl-H2O2; the final solution for analysis is in 10 % (v/v) HCl. Copper and zinc are determined directly by aspirating the solution into an air-acetylene flame. A separate aliquot of the solution is used for determination of lead; lead is extracted into TOPO-MIBK from the acidic solution in the presence of iodide and ascorbic acid. For a 0.50-g sample, the limits of determination are 10-2000 p.p.m. for Cu and Zn, and 5-5000 p.p.m. for Pb. As much as 40 % Fe or Ca. and 10 % Al, Mg, or Mn in the sample do not interfere. The proposed method can be applied to the determination of copper, zinc, and lead in a wide range of geological materials including iron- and manganese-rich, calcareous and carbonate samples. ?? 1976.

  16. Monitoring of labile copper and zinc in estuarine waters using cathodic stripping chronopotentiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, C.M.G.

    1991-01-01

    Cathodic stripping chronopotentiometry (CSC) is readily suitable for automation, and sensitivity is often not affected by variations in major ion concentration (salinity) or by the dissolved concentration of oxygen. So this technique is very suitable for automated monitoring of certain trace elements in natural waters, including estuarine waters. The suitability of CSC for monitoring is demonstrated by measuring the concentrations of copper and zinc in the Tamar estuary in-line and automatically. The measuring rate was approximately 90h -1 . The concentrations of zinc and copper in the Tamar estuary were shown to behave in agreement with the findings of previous studies; the labile metal concentrations increased in the turbidity maximum and decreased immediately after it (at higher salinities) as a result of particle scavenging; gradual increase was apparent at intermediate salinities as result of pore-water injection, and the metal concentrations followed a dilution pattern with seawater at high salinities. In-line measurements provided a detailed picture of metal behaviour in this estuary and elucidated local inputs. The sensitivity (down to approximately 5 nM Cu and 6 nM Zn) allows monitoring of copper and zinc at levels common in estuarine and coastal waters, but is insufficient to monitor these metals in uncontaminated seawater. (author). 22 refs.; 4 figs

  17. Studies on the role of copper and zinc in liver disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, H.S.; Jaiswal, D.D.; Wadhwani, C.N.; Somasundaram, S.

    1979-01-01

    Copper and zinc have long been identified as essential trace elements which play an important role in human health and disease. Various proteins containing copper and zinc, e.g. ceruloplasmin and alcohol dehydrogenase, are synthesized in the liver and any change in their levels can affect the corresponding trace element balance in the liver. For a deeper understanding of the role of these trace elements in liver disorders, an animal model study was initiated. Liver necrosis was introduced artificially in rats by feeding them with carbon tetrachloride or ethyl alcohol. A few samples of livers from rabbits infected with Hepatitis virus (B-type) were also included in the study. The status of liver damage was determined by histopathological examination as well as SGOT and SGPT enzyme studies. The technique of neutron activation analysis was used to determine the levels of the trace elements in liver. The inherent errors in the analysis were studied and corrections were applied for all sources of error identified. The results obtained indicate that Cu and Zn levels in liver are elevated following CCl 4 treatment. The Cu and Zn levels in liver tend to remain elevated even after several weeks of termination of CCl 4 treatment, when tissue regeneration had taken place and the SGOT and SGPT levels had fallen down considerably. The changes in Cu and Zn levels in alcohol treatment are marginal. In virus-infected livers the changes in copper and zinc levels are not significant. (author)

  18. Development of a thermodynamic model for zinc, lead and cadmium in saline solutions; Entwicklung eines thermodynamischen Modells fuer Zink, Blei und Cadmium in salinaren Loesungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagemann, Sven

    2012-07-15

    Waters on aboveground and underground landfills often contain high concentrations of pollutants like zinc, lead and cadmium. Interactions between wastes and aqueous solutions could lead to a mobilisation of these elements. If their maximum solubilities are to be predicted by geochemical modelling a thermodynamic data base is needed. Due to the lack of experimental data such a data base could not be developed yet. In order to fill the gaps isopiestic as well as solubility measurements were made at 25 C. Furthermore the complex formation of zinc and cadmium was investigated and quantified by means of Raman spectrometry and evolving factor analysis. It could be proven that only complexes with two and four chlorine atoms achieve significant concentrations. On basis of these results and a critical evaluation of literature data a consistent thermodynamic data base for was developed for the calculation of activity coefficients and solubilities in the system Na, K, Mg, Ca, Zn, Cd, Cl, SO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}O at 298,15 K.

  19. Metallothionein expression during liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in cadmium-pretreated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margeli, A.P. (Dept. of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, School of Medicine, Univ. of Athens (Greece)); Theocharis, S.E. (Dept. of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, School of Medicine, Univ. of Athens (Greece)); Yannacou, N.N. (Dept. of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, School of Medicine, Univ. of Athens (Greece)); Spiliopoulou, C. (Dept. of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, School of Medicine, Univ. of Athens (Greece)); Koutselinis, A. (Dept. of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, School of Medicine, Univ. of Athens (Greece))

    1994-10-01

    Metallothionein is a low molecular mass protein inducible mainly by heavy metals, having high affinity for binding cadmium, zinc and copper. In the present study we investigated the expression of metallothionein in regenerating liver, at different time intervals, in cadmium pretreated partially hepatectomized rats. Liver metallothionein is highly expressed during regeneration induced by partial hepatectomy in rats, providing zinc within the rapidly growing tissue. Cadmium pretreatment caused inhibition of the first peak of liver regeneration, while metallothionein expression was markedly more prominent in the liver residues of cadmium-pretreated rats. These results demonstrate that although metallothionein able to bind temporarily metal ions as zinc and cadmium has been highly expressed, the liver regenerative process was inhibited possibly due to the effects of cadmium on other pivotal events necessary to the DNA replication. (orig.)

  20. The Uses of Copper and Zinc Aluminates to Capture and Convert Carbon dioxide to Syn-gas at Higher Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Y. Raskar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The uses of copper and zinc aluminates to capture and convert the CO2 to syn-gas were studied at higher temperatures. The samples of copper and zinc aluminates were prepared by solid-solid fusion method by calcining in air at 900 oC for 3 h. Those samples were characterized by acidity/alkalinity, surface area, XRD pattern, IR, SEM images and screening to capture CO2 at the different temperatures. The phases Cu2O, CuO, ZnO, CuAl2O4 and ZnAl2O4 were found to be in the samples of zinc and copper aluminates. Acidity and surface area of the samples of copper and zinc aluminates were found to be in the ranges from 0.063 to 9.37 mmol g-1 and 3.04 to 11.8 m2 g-1, respectively. The captured CO2 by the samples of copper and zinc aluminates was found to be 19.92 to 31.52 wt% for the temperature range 40 to 850 oC. The captured CO2 at 550 oC by variable Zn/Al and Cu/Al mol ratio from 0.5 to 6 of the samples of copper and zinc aluminates was found to be 12.81 to 18.04 wt%. The reduction of carbon dioxide by zinc and copper aluminates was observed. The conversion of CO2 by methane over variable mol ratio of Cu/Al and Zn/Al in copper and zinc aluminates, respectively, at 500 oC showed the production of syn-gas by using the gas hourly space velocities (GHSV 12000, 12000 and 6000 ml. h-1. g-1 of helium, CO2 and methane. The conversions of CO2 by methane over the samples of zinc and copper aluminates were studied at different mol ratios of CO2 to methane.  © 2014 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 13rd May 2013; Revised: 8th November 2013; Accepted: 8th November 2013[How to Cite: Raskar, R.Y., Gaikwad, A.G. (2014. The Uses of Copper and Zinc Aluminates to Cap-ture and Convert Carbon Dioxide to Syn-gas at Higher Temperature. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 9 (1: 1-15. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.9.1.4899.1-15[Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.9.1.4899.1-15

  1. Significant deposits of gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, K.R.; DeYoung, J.H.; Ludington, S.

    2000-01-01

    Approximately 99 percent of past production and remaining identified resources of gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc in the United States are accounted for by deposits that originally contained at least 2 metric tonnes (t) gold, 85 t silver, 50,000 t copper, 30,000 t lead, or 50,000 t zinc. The U.S. Geological Survey, beginning with the 1996 National Mineral Resource Assessment, is systematically compiling data on these deposits, collectively known as 'significant' deposits. As of December 31, 1996, the significant deposits database contained 1,118 entries corresponding to individual deposits or mining districts. Maintaining, updating and analyzing a database of this size is much easier than managing the more than 100,000 records in the Mineral Resource Data System and Minerals Availability System/Minerals Industry Location System, yet the significant deposits database accounts for almost all past production and remaining identified resources of these metals in the United States. About 33 percent of gold, 22 percent of silver, 42 percent of copper, 39 percent of lead, and 46 percent of zinc are contained in or were produced from deposits discovered after World War II. Even within a database of significant deposits, a disproportionate share of past production and remaining resources is accounted for by a very small number of deposits. The largest 10 producers for each metal account for one third of the gold, 60 percent of the silver, 68 percent of the copper, 85 percent of the lead, and 75 percent of the zinc produced in the United States. The 10 largest deposits in terms of identified remaining resources of each of the five metals contain 43 percent of the gold, 56 percent of the silver, 48 percent of the copper, 94 percent of the lead, and 72 percent of the zinc. Identified resources in significant deposits for each metal are less than the mean estimates of resources in undiscovered deposits from the 1996 U.S. National Mineral Resource Assessment. Identified

  2. Organically complexed copper, zinc, and chelating agents in the rivers of Western Puerto Rico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, J.R.; Echevarria, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    The method for determining soluble chelators gives their concentration in copper-equivalent chelating capacity units in fresh or slightly brackish (less than 3 percent salinity) water. The mean concentration of chelators in the Rio Guanajibo for December 1973 and January 1974 was 0.4 mg of copper per liter of water (N = 21, SD = 0.2) and for February 1974, 0.9 mg/liter (N = 8, SD = 0.4). The combined mean for the Rio Anasco and Culebrinas was 0.5 mg/liter (N = 7, SD = 0.4) in January and February 1974. The mean concentration of ionic copper was 0.5 μg/liter (N = 7, SD = 0.6) and of ionic zinc, 0.2 μg/liter (N = 8, SD = 0.1) in the Rio Guanajibo from November 1972 to February 1973. The concentration of organically bound copper was 0.3 μ/liter (N = 7, SD = 0.2) and that of organically bound zinc was 0.6 μg/liter (N = 8, SD = 0.6); this indicates that there was more than a sufficient quantity of chelator available in the river to complex all the soluble copper. The presence of a high ratio of Ca 2+ to Cu 2+ probably prevents the formation of larger concentrations of organically complexed copper. The mean concentration of chelating agents in the Guanajibo River seems to be directly related to the increased organic input from municipalities and a sugar mill. The concentration of chelators in tropical rivers appears to be higher than that found in Canadian lakes. The mean concentration for particulate organic carbon (POC) was 3653 μg atoms/liter (SD = 3653, N = 29). The dissolved reactive phosphate (DRP) ranged from a mean of 1.1 μg atom/liter. No significant correlation could be found between POC, DRP, and the concentration of chelators

  3. The effect of red cell and plasma transfusion on serum zinc and copper levels in the neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockitch, G; Godolphin, W J; Pendray, M R; Quigley, G

    1983-11-01

    Transfusion of packed red cells (15 to 20 ml/kg) in 11 preterm infants resulted in a slight increase in mean serum zinc levels on the 3rd post transfusion day but no effect was noted on serum copper levels. No significant difference was found between the changes in serum zinc in 141 paired specimens collected a week apart when zero, one, two or three packed cell transfusions were given in the intervening week. A slight decrease in the mean copper level was noted when one transfusion was given. Transfusion of fresh frozen plasma in six newborns with abdominal wall defects resulted in initial serum copper levels two to three times greater than the reference mean for newborns. No effect was noted on zinc levels. Serum copper results should be interpreted with caution in infants who have been transfused with plasma.

  4. Transportation and Bioavailability of Copper and Zinc in a Storm Water Retention Pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camponelli, K.; Casey, R. E.; Wright, M. E.; Lev, S. M.; Landa, E. R.

    2006-05-01

    Highway runoff has been identified as a non-point source of metals to storm water retention ponds. Zinc and copper are major components of tires and brake pads, respectively. As these automobile parts degrade, they deposit particulates onto the roadway surface. During a storm event, these metal containing particulates are washed into a storm water retention pond where they can then accumulate over time. These metals may be available to organisms inhabiting the pond and surrounding areas. This study focuses on tracking the metals from their deposition on the roadway to their transport and accumulation into a retention pond. The retention pond is located in Owings Mills, MD and collects runoff from an adjacent four lane highway. Pond sediments, background soils, road dust samples, and storm events were collected and analyzed. Copper and zinc concentrations in the pond sediments are higher than local background soils indicating that the pond is storing anthropogenically derived metals. Storm event samples also reveal elevated levels of copper and zinc transported through runoff, along with a large concentration of total suspended solids. After looking at the particulate and dissolved fractions of both metals in the runoff, the majority of the Zn and Cu are in the particulate fraction. Changes in TSS are proportional with changes in particulate bound Zn, indicating that the solid particulates that are entering into the pond are a major contributor of the total metal loading. Sequential extractions carried out on the road dust show that the majority of zinc is extracted in the second and third fractions and could become available to organisms in the pond. There is a small amount of Cu that is being released in the more available stages of the procedure; however the bulk of the Cu is seen in the more recalcitrant steps. In the pond sediments however, both Cu and Zn are only being released from the sediments in the later steps and are most likely not highly available.

  5. Characterization and metal-induced gene transcription of two new copper zinc superoxide dismutases in the solitary ascidian Ciona intestinalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro, Diana; Franchi, Nicola; Mangano, Valentina; Bakiu, Rigers; Cammarata, Matteo; Parrinello, Nicolò; Santovito, Gianfranco; Ballarin, Loriano

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Ciona intestinalis express two copper-zinc superoxide dismutases (Cu,Zn SODs), one extracellular (Ci-SODa) and one intracellular isoform (Ci-SODb). •Promoters contain consensus sequences similar to mammalian MRE. •Metal exposure results in a significant increase of gene transcription: ci-soda is induced especially by copper and zinc, the increase of ci-sodb transcription is more evident after cadmium exposure. •Genes are mostly transcribed in circulating hemocytes and in ovarian follicular cells. -- Abstract: Antioxidant enzymes are known to protect living organisms against the oxidative stress risk, also induced by metals. In the present study, we describe the purification and molecular characterization of two Cu,Zn superoxide dismutases (SODs), referred to as Ci-SODa and Ci-SODb, from Ciona intestinalis, a basal chordate widely distributed in temperate shallow seawater. The putative amino acid sequences were compared with Cu,Zn SODs from other metazoans and phylogenetic analyses indicate that the two putative Ci-SODs are more related to invertebrate SODs than vertebrate ones. Both phylogenetic and preliminary homology modeling analyses suggest that Ci-SODa and Ci-SODb are extracellular and intracellular isoform, respectively. The mRNA of the two Cu,Zn SODs was localized in hemocytes and in ovarian follicular cells, as revealed by in situ hybridization. The time course of SOD mRNA levels in the presence of three different metals showed upregulation of ci-soda and inhibition of ci-sodb. Spectrophotometric analysis confirms the presence of SOD activity in Ciona tissues. Our in silico analyses of the ci-soda promoter region revealed putative consensus sequences similar to mammalian metal-responsive elements (MRE), suggesting that the transcription of these genes directly depends on metals. These data emphasize the importance of complex metal regulation of ci-soda and ci-sodb transcription, as components of an efficient detoxification pathway

  6. Characterization and metal-induced gene transcription of two new copper zinc superoxide dismutases in the solitary ascidian Ciona intestinalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferro, Diana [Department of Biology, University of Padova, Padova (Italy); Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität, Münster (Germany); Franchi, Nicola [Department of Biology, University of Padova, Padova (Italy); Department of Biological, Chemical, Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, University of Palermo, Palermo (Italy); Mangano, Valentina [Department of Biological, Chemical, Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, University of Palermo, Palermo (Italy); Bakiu, Rigers [Department of Crop Production, Agricultural University of Tirana, Tirana (Albania); Cammarata, Matteo; Parrinello, Nicolò [Department of Biological, Chemical, Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, University of Palermo, Palermo (Italy); Santovito, Gianfranco, E-mail: gianfranco.santovito@unipd.it [Department of Biology, University of Padova, Padova (Italy); Ballarin, Loriano [Department of Biology, University of Padova, Padova (Italy)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •Ciona intestinalis express two copper-zinc superoxide dismutases (Cu,Zn SODs), one extracellular (Ci-SODa) and one intracellular isoform (Ci-SODb). •Promoters contain consensus sequences similar to mammalian MRE. •Metal exposure results in a significant increase of gene transcription: ci-soda is induced especially by copper and zinc, the increase of ci-sodb transcription is more evident after cadmium exposure. •Genes are mostly transcribed in circulating hemocytes and in ovarian follicular cells. -- Abstract: Antioxidant enzymes are known to protect living organisms against the oxidative stress risk, also induced by metals. In the present study, we describe the purification and molecular characterization of two Cu,Zn superoxide dismutases (SODs), referred to as Ci-SODa and Ci-SODb, from Ciona intestinalis, a basal chordate widely distributed in temperate shallow seawater. The putative amino acid sequences were compared with Cu,Zn SODs from other metazoans and phylogenetic analyses indicate that the two putative Ci-SODs are more related to invertebrate SODs than vertebrate ones. Both phylogenetic and preliminary homology modeling analyses suggest that Ci-SODa and Ci-SODb are extracellular and intracellular isoform, respectively. The mRNA of the two Cu,Zn SODs was localized in hemocytes and in ovarian follicular cells, as revealed by in situ hybridization. The time course of SOD mRNA levels in the presence of three different metals showed upregulation of ci-soda and inhibition of ci-sodb. Spectrophotometric analysis confirms the presence of SOD activity in Ciona tissues. Our in silico analyses of the ci-soda promoter region revealed putative consensus sequences similar to mammalian metal-responsive elements (MRE), suggesting that the transcription of these genes directly depends on metals. These data emphasize the importance of complex metal regulation of ci-soda and ci-sodb transcription, as components of an efficient detoxification pathway

  7. Bio-accumulation of copper, zinc, iron and manganese in oyster Saccostrea cucullata, Snail Cerithium rubus and Clam Tellina angulata from the Bombay coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnakumari, L.; Nair, V.R; Moraes, C.

    accumulation was high in S. cucullata, manganese in C. rubus and iron in T. angulata. Similarly, copper and zinc in S. cucullata and copper in C. rubus were found occasionally higher than accepted health standards...

  8. Clinically distinct presentations of copper deficiency myeloneuropathy and cytopenias in a patient using excessive zinc-containing denture adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathcart, Sahara J; Sofronescu, Alina G

    2017-08-01

    While copper deficiency has long been known to cause cytopenias, copper deficiency myeloneuropathy is a more recently described entity. Here, we present the case of two clinically distinct presentations of acquired copper deficiency syndromes secondary to excessive use of zinc-containing denture adhesive over five years: myeloneuropathy and severe macrocytic anemia and neutropenia. Extensive laboratory testing and histologic evaluation of the liver and bone marrow, were necessary to rule out other disease processes and establish the diagnosis of copper deficiency. The initial presentation consisted of a myelopathy involving the posterior columns. Serum and urine copper were significantly decreased, and serum zinc was elevated. On second presentation (five years later), multiple hematological abnormalities were detected. Serum copper was again decreased, while serum zinc was elevated. Zinc overload is a preventable cause of copper deficiency syndromes. This rare entity presented herein highlights the importance of patient, as well as provider, education. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of zinc-lysine on growth, yield and cadmium uptake in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Hussain, Afzal; Ali, Qasim; Shakoor, Muhammad Bilal; Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Farid, Mujahid; Asma, Maliha

    2017-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is among the most widespread toxic trace elements found in agricultural soils due to various anthropogenic activities. The role of micronutrient-amino chelates on reducing Cd toxicity in crop plants is recently introduced. The current study was conducted to highlight the role of foliar application of zinc-lysine (Zn-lys) complex on biochemical and growth parameters and Cd uptake in wheat (Triticum aestivum) grown in aged Cd-contaminated soil. Foliar concentration of Zn-lys (0, 10, 20, and 30 mg L -1 ) was applied at different time intervals (2nd, 3rd, 5th and 7th week of sowing) and plants were harvested at maturity. Folliar application of Zinc-lys significantly increased the photosynthesis, grain yield, enzyme activities and Zn contents in different plant tissues. Zinc-lys reduced Cd contents in grains, shoot and root as well as reduced the oxidative stress in wheat linearly in a dose-additive manner. Taken together, Zn-lys chelate efficiently improved wheat growth and fortified Zn contents while reduced Cd concentration in plant in a Zn-deficient Cd-contaminated soil. Although, health risk index (HRI) from the soil sampling area seems to be lower than <1 for Cd but may exceed due to long-term consumption of grains produced from such contaminated soil. Foliar applied Zn-lys reduced HRI which may help to reduce health risks associated with Cd. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Copper and Zinc Oxide Composite Nanostructures for Solar Energy Harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fei

    Solar energy is a clean and sustainable energy source to counter global environmental issues of rising atmospheric CO2 levels and depletion of natural resources. To extract useful work from solar energy, silicon-based photovoltaic devices are extensively used. The technological maturity and the high quality of silicon (Si) make it a material of choice. However limitations in Si exist, ranging from its indirect band gap to low light absorption coefficient and energy and capital intensive crystal growth schemes. Therefore, alternate materials that are earth-abundant, benign and simpler to process are needed for developing new platforms for solar energy harvesting applications. In this study, we explore oxides of copper (CuO and Cu2O) in a nanowire morphology as alternate energy harvesting materials. CuO has a bandgap of 1.2 eV whereas Cu2O has a bandgap of 2.1 eV making them ideally suited for absorbing solar radiation. First, we develop a method to synthesize vertical, single crystalline CuO and Cu2O nanowires of ~50 microm length and aspect ratios of ~200. CuO nanowire arrays are synthesized by thermal oxidation of Cu foils. Cu2O nanowire arrays are synthesized by thermal reduction of CuO nanowires. Next, surface engineering of these nanowires is achieved using atomic layer deposition (ALD) of ZnO. By depositing 1.4 nm of ZnO, a highly defective surface is produced on the CuO nanowires. These defects are capable of trapping charge as is evident through persistent photoconductivity measurements of ZnO coated CuO nanowires. The same nanowires serve as efficient photocatalysts reducing CO2 to CO with a yield of 1.98 mmol/g-cat/hr. Finally, to develop a robust platform for flexible solar cells, a protocol to transfer vertical CuO nanowires inside flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is demonstrated. Embedded CuO nanowires-ZnO pn junctions show a VOC of 0.4 V and a JSC of 10.4 microA/cm2 under white light illumination of 5.7 mW/cm2. Thus, this research provides broad

  11. Bioavailability of zinc, copper, and manganese from infant diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    A series of trace element absorption experiments were performed using the Sprague-Dawley suckling rat put and infant rhesis monkey (Macaca mulatta) with extrinsic radiolabeling to assess the bioavailability of Zn, Cu, and Mn from infant diets and to examine specific factors that affect absorption of these essential nutrients. Bioavailability of Cu as assessed by 6 h liver uptake (% of 64 Cu dose) was highest from human milk and cow milk based formula and significantly lower from cow milk and soy based formula. Copper bioavailability from infant cereal products as assessed by whole body uptake (% of 64 Cu dose) in d 20 rats, 9 h postintubation, was low compared to the bioavailability from cow milk or human milk alone. 65 Zn uptake in d 20 rats, 9 h postintubation, was significantly lower from cereals fed alone or in combination with cow or human milk as compared to the uptake from the milks fed alone. Zn bioavailability varied among cereal diets, (lowest from cereals containing phytate and highest from cereal/fruit products). Mn bioavailability from infant diets was assessed using a modified suckling rat pup model. Bioavailability (24 h whole body retention of 54 Mn) was high from all milks and commercial formulas tested

  12. Effects of ghost shrimp on zinc and cadmium in sediments from Tampa Bay, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klerks, P.L.; Felder, D.L.; Strasser, K.; Swarzenski, P.W.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects that ghost shrimp have on the distribution of metals in sediment. We measured levels of HNO3-extractable zinc and cadmium in surface sediment, in ghost shrimp burrow walls and in sediment ejected by the ghost shrimp from their burrows, at five sandy intertidal sites in Tampa Bay. Ghost shrimp densities and their rate of sediment ejection were also quantified, as were sediment organic content and silt + clay content. Densities of ghost shrimp (Sergio trilobata and Lepidophthalmus louisianensis) averaged 33/m2 at our sites, and they ejected sediment at an average rate of 28 g/burrow/day. Levels of both Zn and Cd were significantly higher in burrow walls than in surface sediments. Sediment ejected by the shrimp from their burrows had elevated levels of Zn (relative to surface sediments) at one of the sites. Sediment organic content and silt + clay content were higher in burrow-wall sediments than in ejected sediment, which in turn tended to have values above those of surface sediments. Differences in levels of HNO3-extractable Zn and Cd among sediment types may be a consequence of these sediments differing in other physiochemical characteristics, though the differences in metal levels remained statistically significant for some sites after correcting for differences in organic content and silt + clay content. We conclude that the presence of ghost shrimp burrows contributes to spatial heterogeneity of sedimentary metal levels, while the ghost shrimp bioturbation results in a significant flux of metals to the sediment surface and is expected to decrease heterogeneity of metal levels in sedimentary depth profiles.

  13. Zinc and cadmium mobility in a 5-year-old dredged sediment deposit: experiments and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lions, J. [BRGM, Orleans (France). Water Div.; Centre National de Recherche sur les Sites et Sols Pollues, Douai (France); Lee, J. van der [Ecole des Mines de Paris, Fontainebleau (France). Geosciences - Reactive Hydrodynamics Group; Guerin, V.; Bataillard, P. [BRGM, Orleans (France). Environment and Process Div.; Centre National de Recherche sur les Sites et Sols Pollues, Douai (France); Laboudigue, A. [Ecole des Mines de Douai (France). Environmental and Civil Engineering; Centre National de Recherche sur les Sites et Sols Pollues, Douai (France)

    2007-08-15

    Background. Landfill deposits of contaminated, dredged sediments are subject to chemical alteration and especially to oxidation processes. Accordingly, sulphides are gradually oxidized leading to the formation of secondary phases and associated metals could become mobile and redistributed among the sediment components, such as carbonates, clay and freshly precipitated (hydr)oxides. Once mobilised, metals could represent a hazard for the environment and especially for drinking water supply facilities. Methods. In the present study, leaching experiments have been carried out on a dredged sediment to study metal mobilisation after 5 years of field aging. First, kinetic batch tests allowed one to evaluate the impact of solid-liquid contact time and to determine the kinetic parameters. Secondly, two types of dynamic experiments have been conducted: dynamic flush reactor and column leach test to evaluate the impact of solution renewing by excluding or not excluding the transport processes, respectively. In order to evaluate the impact of calcium on the metal mobilisation, the column leaching test is conducted with pure water and Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} solution, at the beginning and at the end of the injection, respectively. Geochemical and reactive transport modelling of the experiments was performed using the geochemical code CHESS and the reactive transport model HYTEC. Results and Discussion. The studied sediment is complex with numerous reactive phases such as sulphides, (hydr)oxides, organic matter, phyllosilicates. All leaching tests highlight that zinc and cadmium are mobilised in significant concentrations and lead remains insoluble. A conceptual geochemical model of the sediment has been built to allow simulations of the whole experiments, based on a single, coherent phase description and parameter set. Simulations of the batch, flush and column experiments were performed taking into account the major reaction-controlling mechanisms including, among others, p

  14. Zinc supplementation protects against cadmium accumulation and cytotoxicity in Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Zhang

    Full Text Available Cadmium ions (Cd2+ have been reported to accumulate in bovine tissues, although Cd2+ cytotoxicity has not been investigated thoroughly in this species. Zinc ions (Zn2+ have been shown to antagonize the toxic effects of heavy metals such as Cd2+ in some systems. The present study investigated Cd2+ cytotoxicity in Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK epithelial cells, and explored whether this was modified by Zn2+. Exposure to Cd2+ led to a dose- and time-dependent increase in apoptotic cell death, with increased intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial damage. Zn2+ supplementation alleviated Cd2+-induced cytotoxicity and this protective effect was more obvious when cells were exposed to a lower concentration of Cd2+ (10 μM, as compared to 50 μM Cd2+. This indicated that high levels of Cd2+ accumulation might induce irreversible damage in bovine kidney cells. Metallothioneins (MTs are metal-binding proteins that play an essential role in heavy metal ion detoxification. We found that co-exposure to Zn2+ and Cd2+ synergistically enhanced RNA and protein expression of MT-1, MT-2, and the metal-regulatory transcription factor 1 in MDBK cells. Notably, addition of Zn2+ reduced the amounts of cytosolic Cd2+ detected following MDBK exposure to 10 μM Cd2+. These findings revealed a protective role of Zn2+ in counteracting Cd2+ uptake and toxicity in MDBK cells, indicating that this approach may provide a means to protect livestock from excessive Cd2+ accumulation.

  15. Bioremediation of cadmium- and zinc-contaminated soil using Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Weihua; Li, Xiaomin; Song, Jingxiang; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Yingying; Fan, Wenhong

    2018-04-01

    Bioremediation using microorganisms is a promising technique to remediate soil contaminated with heavy metals. In this study, Rhodobacter sphaeroides was used to bioremediate soils contaminated with cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn). The study found that the treatment reduced the overall bioavailable fractions (e.g., exchangeable and carbonate bound phases) of Cd and Zn. More stable fractions (e.g., Fe-Mn oxide, organic bound, and residual phases (only for Zn)) increased after bioremediation. A wheat seedling experiment revealed that the phytoavailability of Cd was reduced after bioremediation using R. sphaeroides. After bioremediation, the exchangeable phases of Cd and Zn in soil were reduced by as much as 30.7% and 100.0%, respectively; the Cd levels in wheat leaf and root were reduced by as much as 62.3% and 47.2%, respectively. However, when the soils were contaminated with very high levels of Cd and Zn (Cd 54.97-65.33 mg kg -1 ; Zn 813.4-964.8 mg kg -1 ), bioremediation effects were not clear. The study also found that R. sphaeroides bioremediation in soil can enhance the Zn/Cd ratio in the harvested wheat leaf and root overall. This indicates potentially favorable application in agronomic practice and biofortification. Although remediation efficiency in highly contaminated soil was not significant, R. sphaeroides may be potentially and practically applied to the bioremediation of soils co-contaminated by Cd and Zn. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Calcium, zinc and vitamin E ameliorate cadmium-induced renal oxidative damage in albino Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeepkiran Jangampalli Adi

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to examine the protective effects of supplementation with calcium + zinc (Ca + Zn or vitamin E (Vit-E on Cd-induced renal oxidative damage. Young albino Wistar rats (180 ± 10 g (n = 6 control rats, Cd, Cd + Ca + Zn, and Cd + Vit-E experimental groups and the experimental period was 30 days. Rats were exposed to Cd (20 mg/kg body weight alone treated as Cd treated group and the absence or presence of Ca + Zn (2 mg/kg each or Vit-E (20 mg/kg body weight supplementation treated as two separate groups. The activities of the stress marker enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and lipid peroxidase (LPx were determined in renal mitochondrial fractions of experimental rats. We observed quantitative changes in SOD isoenzymatic patterns by non-denaturing PAGE analysis, and quantified band densities. These results showed that Cd exposure leads to decreases in SOD, CAT, GR, and GPx activities and a concomitant increase in LPx and GST activities. Ca + Zn and Vit-E administration with Cd significantly reversed Cd-induced perturbations in oxidative stress marker enzymes. However, Vit-E showed more inhibitory activity against Cd than did Ca + Zn, and it protected against Cd-induced nephrotoxicity. Keywords: Cadmium (Cd, Oxidative stress, Lipid peroxidation, Nephrotoxicity, PAGE analysis

  17. Zinc, lead, and cadmium levels in serum and milk of lactating women in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edem, Victory Fabian; Akintunde, Kikelomo; Adelaja, Yewande Adeola; Nwozo, Sarah O; Charles-Davies, Mabel

    2017-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is known to interact with lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) reversing their toxicity and reducing their concentrations. However, lactating women are at high risk of developing Zn deficiency, which may result in Pb and Cd intoxication or increased exposure of breast-fed infants to Pb and Cd from breast milk. The aim of this study was to determine Zn, Pb, and Cd concentrations and examine their relationship in serum and breast milk of lactating women in Ibadan, Nigeria. Ninety-two lactating women were recruited into this study. Anthropometric measurements were assessed by standard methods while serum and breast milk concentrations of Zn, Pb, and Cd were assessed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Data analyzed statistically by Student's t test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and a multiple regression model were significant at p < 0.05. Zn deficiency was observed in 12 (17.1%) of lactating women. Breast milk levels of Zn, Pb, and Cd were significantly higher than their levels in serum, whereas the ratios Zn:Pb and Zn:Cd in milk were significantly less than serum ratios. Significant negative correlation was observed between milk Pb and serum Zn:Pb while milk Cd correlated positively with milk Zn. Significant positive correlations were observed between serum Zn and serum Zn:Pb, serum Zn and serum Zn:Cd, as well as serum Zn:Cd and serum Zn:Pb. Serum Cd and serum Zn were significantly negatively related. Significant negative correlations between serum Pb and serum Zn:Pb as well as milk Zn:Pb. Serum Cd and serum Zn:Pb as well as serum Zn:Cd correlated negatively. Milk Cd and Zn/Cd positively related with milk Pb while milk Zn was a negatively related with milk Pb in a multiple regression model ( R 2 = 0.333; p = 0.023). Breast milk may be contaminated by toxic metals. However, Zn supplementation in deficient mothers may protect maternal and infant health.

  18. Absorption and excretion of zinc, cadmium and mercury in the gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, H [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1975-10-01

    The absorption and excretion of inorganic zinc, cadmium and mercury in the gastrointestinal tract were compared using /sup 65/Zn, /sup 109/Cd and /sup 203/Hg. A single dose of /sup 65/Zn, /sup 109/Cd or /sup 203/Hg was administered orally or injected intravenously to investigate the distribution, excretion into bile and excretion into feces or urine. Absorption and excretion through the gastrointestinal tract of mice were studied by the tied loop method. Groups of eight mice or rats were used to measure the radioactivity in sample with a scintillation counter. Most of the orally administered /sup 65/Zn, /sup 109/Cd or /sup 203/Hg was excreted into feces and was less absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract, respectively. Absorption rate in the gastrointestinal tract was as follows: /sup 203/Hg>/sup 65/Zn>/sup 109/Cd. Intravenously injected /sup 65/Zn, /sup 109/Cd or /sup 203/Hg was escreted into the gastrointestinal tract through the gastrointestinal wall and bile duct, respectively. Excretion rate in the gastrointestinal tract was as follows: /sup 65/Zn>/sup 203/Hg>/sup 109/Cd. When comparing the absorption and excretion in each gastrointestinal tract divided into 10 parts, /sup 65/Zn, and /sup 109/Cd were relatively well absorbed from the upper and lower part of small intestine and excreted into the upper, middle, lower part. /sup 203/Hg was relatively well absorbed from the upper, lower part of small intestine and excreted into the stomach and the caecum. The major organs that accumulated absorbed /sup 65/Zn, /sup 109/Cd or /sup 203/Hg were the pancreas and liver, liver and kidney, kidney and liver, respectively.

  19. Comparative analysis of copper and zinc based agrichemical biocide products: materials characteristics, phytotoxicity and in vitro antimicrobial efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harikishan Kannan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades, copper based biocides have been extensively used in food crop protection including citrus, small fruits and in all garden vegetable production facilities. Continuous and rampant use of copper based biocides over decades has led to accumulation of this metal in the soil and the surrounding ecosystem. Toxic levels of copper and its derivatives in both the soil and in the run off pose serious environmental and public health concerns. Alternatives to copper are in great need for the agriculture industry to produce food crops with minimal environmental risks. A combination of copper and zinc metal containing biocide such as Nordox 30/30 or an improved version of zinc-only containing biocide would be a good alternative to copper-only products if the efficacy can be maintained. As of yet there is no published literature on the comparative study of the materials characteristics and phyto-compatibility properties of copper and zinc-based commercial products that would allow us to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of both versions of pesticides. In this report, we compared copper hydroxide and zinc oxide based commercially available biocides along with suitable control materials to assess their efficacy as biocides. We present a detailed material characterization of the biocides including morphological studies involving electron microscopy, molecular structure studies involving X-ray diffraction, phytotoxicity studies in model plant (tomato and antimicrobial studies involving surrogate plant pathogens (Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis, Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. Zinc based compounds were found to possess comparable to superior antimicrobial properties while exhibiting significantly lower phytotoxicity when compared to copper based products thus suggesting their potential as an alternative.

  20. Spectroscopic studies of copper doped alkaline earth lead zinc phosphate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastry, S. Sreehari, E-mail: sreeharisastry@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjunanagar 522510 (India); Rao, B. Rupa Venkateswara [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjunanagar 522510 (India); Department of Physics, V.R. Siddhartha Engineering College, Vijayawada 52007 (India)

    2014-02-01

    In this paper spectroscopic investigation of Cu{sup 2+} doped alkaline earth lead zinc phosphate glasses was done through the spectroscopic techniques like X-ray diffraction, Ultra Violet (UV) absorption Spectroscopy, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR – X band), Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) and Raman Spectroscopy. Alkaline earth lead zinc phosphate glasses containing 0.1% copper oxide (CuO) were prepared by the melt quenching technique. Spectroscopic studies indicated that there is a greater possibility for the copper ions to exist in Cu{sup 2+} state in these glasses. The optical absorption spectra indicated that the absorption peak of Cu{sup 2+} is a function of composition. The maxima absorption peak was reported at 862 nm for strontium lead zinc phosphate glass. Bonding parameters were calculated for the optical and EPR data. All these spectral results indicated clearly that there are certain structural changes in the present glass system with different alkaline earth contents. The IR and Raman spectra noticed the breaking of the P–O–P bonds and creating more number of new P–O–Cu bonds.

  1. Spectroscopic studies of copper doped alkaline earth lead zinc phosphate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastry, S. Sreehari; Rao, B. Rupa Venkateswara

    2014-01-01

    In this paper spectroscopic investigation of Cu 2+ doped alkaline earth lead zinc phosphate glasses was done through the spectroscopic techniques like X-ray diffraction, Ultra Violet (UV) absorption Spectroscopy, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR – X band), Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) and Raman Spectroscopy. Alkaline earth lead zinc phosphate glasses containing 0.1% copper oxide (CuO) were prepared by the melt quenching technique. Spectroscopic studies indicated that there is a greater possibility for the copper ions to exist in Cu 2+ state in these glasses. The optical absorption spectra indicated that the absorption peak of Cu 2+ is a function of composition. The maxima absorption peak was reported at 862 nm for strontium lead zinc phosphate glass. Bonding parameters were calculated for the optical and EPR data. All these spectral results indicated clearly that there are certain structural changes in the present glass system with different alkaline earth contents. The IR and Raman spectra noticed the breaking of the P–O–P bonds and creating more number of new P–O–Cu bonds

  2. Iron, zinc, copper and magnesium nutritional status in Mexican children aged 1 to 11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ruán, Ma del Carmen; Villalpando, Salvador; García-Guerra, Armando; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Robledo-Pérez, Ricardo; Avila-Arcos, Marco Antonio; Rivera, Juan A

    2012-01-01

    To describe the micronutrient nutritional status of a national sample of 1-11 year old Mexican children surveyed in 2006 in National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2006) and their association with dietary and sociodemographic factors. Serum samples were used (n=5 060) to measure the concentrations of ferritin, transferrin receptor, zinc, copper and magnesium. Prevalence of deficiencies in 1-4 and 5-11y old children were for iron (using low ferritin) 26.0 and 13.0%; zinc, 28.1 and 25.8%, respectively; and copper, ≈30% in both age groups. Magnesium low serum concentrations (MLSC), were found in 12.0% and 28.4% of the children, respectively. Being beneficiary of Liconsa (OR=0.32; C.I.95%, 0.17-0.61) or belonging to higher socioeconomic status (OR=0.63; C.I.95%, 0.41-0.97) were protective against iron deficiency. Increasing age (OR=0.59; C.I.95%, 1.19-1.32) and living in the Central Region (OR=0.59; C.I.95%, 0.36-0.97) were protective against MLSC. Deficiencies of iron and zinc are serious public health problems in Mexican children.

  3. Multimicronutrient Slow-Release Fertilizer of Zinc, Iron, Manganese, and Copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siladitya Bandyopadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The process for the production of a slow-release micronutrient fertilizer is described. The compound contains zinc, iron, manganese, and copper as micronutrients and is produced by polymerizing a system containing phosphoric acid, zinc oxide, hematite, pyrolusite, copper sulfate, and magnesium oxide followed by neutralization of the polyphosphate chain with ammonium hydroxide. Changes in temperature, density, and viscosity of the reaction system during polymerization were studied. Reaction kinetics was studied at three different temperatures. Rate curves revealed a multistage process with essentially linear rates at each stage. Thus, each stage displayed zero order kinetics. The product was crystalline and revealed ordering of P-O-P chains. It had low solubility in water but high solubility in 0.33 M citric acid and 0.005 M DTPA. Three different field trials showed significant yield increments using the slow-release micronutrient fertilizer compared to the conventional micronutrients. Yield increments in rice were in the range of 10–55% over control (with no micronutrient and up to 17% over the conventional micronutrient fertilizers. There were significant increases in total uptake of zinc, iron, and manganese in the grain. Slow-release fertilizers also produced significant yield increases in potato as well as significant increase in vitamin C content of the tuber.

  4. A multi-technique investigation of copper and zinc distribution, speciation and potential bioavailability in biosolids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donner, E.; Ryan, C.G.; Howard, D.L.; Zarcinas, B.; Scheckel, K.G.; McGrath, S.P.; Jonge, M.D. de; Paterson, D.; Naidu, R.; Lombi, E.

    2012-01-01

    The use of biosolids in agriculture continues to be debated, largely in relation to their metal contents. Our knowledge regarding the speciation and bioavailability of biosolids metals is still far from complete. In this study, a multi-technique approach was used to investigate copper and zinc speciation and partitioning in one contemporary and two historical biosolids used extensively in previous research and field trials. Using wet chemistry and synchrotron spectroscopy techniques it was shown that copper/zinc speciation in the biosolids was largely equivalent despite the biosolids being derived from different countries over a 50 year period. Furthermore, copper speciation was consistently dominated by sorption to organic matter whereas Zn partitioned mainly to iron oxides. These data suggest that the results of historical field trials are still relevant for modern biosolids and that further risk assessment studies should concentrate particularly on Cu as this metal is associated with the mineralisable biosolids fraction. - Highlights: ► Complementary techniques were used to investigate Cu and Zn speciation in biosolids. ► Historic and contemporary biosolids with differing metal contents were examined. ► Similarities in Cu/Zn speciation were observed irrespective of biosolids provenance. ► Key binding environments identified were organic matter for Cu and Fe oxides for Zn. ► Similarities show historic field trial results are still relevant for biosolids management. - Historic and contemporary biosolids show similarities in Cu/Zn speciation despite having very different total Zn/Cu contents.

  5. Zinc and copper levels are not correlated with angiographically-defined coronary artery disease in sudanese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutfi, Mohamed F; Elhakeem, Ramaze F; Khogaly, Raga S; Abdrabo, Abdelkarim A; Ali, Ahmed B; Gasim, Gasim I; Adam, Ishag

    2015-01-01

    We investigated zinc and copper levels in angiographically defined obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients undergoing elective coronary angiography in El-Shaab Hospital, Sudan. We performed a cross-sectional study. One hundred forty-two patients were enrolled. Sociodemographic and medical characteristics were collected using a questionnaire. Glucose, lipid, zinc, and copper levels were measured. Out of 142 patients, 102 (71.8%) had CAD and 40 (28.2%) had patent coronary arteries. There were no significant differences in median (interquartile range) zinc [118.5 (97.2-151.0) vs. 130.0 (106.0-174.0) μg/ml, P = 0.120] and copper [150.6 (125.0-183.0) vs. 158 (132.0-180.0) μg/mL, P = 0.478] levels between patients with CAD and those with patent coronary arteries. In linear regression analysis, there were no associations between CAD and zinc and copper levels. The current study failed to show any significant association between CAD and zinc and copper levels.

  6. The evaluation of zinc and copper content in tooth enamel without any pathological changes - an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimuszko, Elzbieta; Orywal, Karolina; Sierpinska, Teresa; Sidun, Jarosław; Golebiewska, Maria

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to evaluate the content of copper and zinc in individual layers of tooth enamel and to analyze the relationships between the study minerals in individual layers of tooth enamel. Fifteen human permanent teeth were cut off every 150 μm alongside the labial surface. Acid biopsy of each layer was performed. The zinc content was determined using the air-acetylene flame method. The copper content was determined using the electrothermal technique with argon. The mean zinc concentrations increased significantly starting from the outer enamel surface, with the maximum concentration in the 150-300 μm layer. The mean copper concentrations increased substantially from the outer enamel surface to a depth of 150 μm, and then a slight downward trend of this mineral levels was seen, down to a depth of 450 μm. Strong positive correlation was found between the zinc and copper concentrations at depths of 150-300, 450-600 and 600-750 μm. The levels of zinc and copper in the outer enamel layers may have an effect on the increased content of unipolar minerals at deeper enamel layers. The content of the study elements determined may reflect the process of mineralization and maturation of enamel in the pre-eruption period.

  7. Fabrication of visible light-triggered photocatalytic materials from the coupling of n-type zinc oxide and p-type copper oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorospe, A. B.; Herrera, M. U.

    2017-04-01

    Coupling of copper oxide (CuO) and zinc oxide (ZnO) was done by chemical precipitation method. In this method, copper sulfate pentahydrate and zinc sulfate heptahydrate salt precursors were separately dissolved in distilled water; then were mixed together. The copper sulfate-zinc sulfate solution was then combined with a sodium hydroxide solution. The precipitates were collected and washed in distilled water and ethanol several times, then filtered and dried. The dried sample was grounded, and then undergone heat treatment. After heating, the sample was grounded again. Zinc oxide powder and copper oxide powder were also fabricated using chemical precipitation method. X-Ray Diffraction measurements of the coupled CuO/ZnO powder showed the presence of CuO and ZnO in the fabricated sample. Furthermore, other peaks shown by XRD were also identified corresponding to copper, copper (II) oxide, copper sulfate and zinc sulfate. Results of the photocatalytic activity investigation show that the sample exhibited superior photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange under visible light illumination compared to copper oxide powder and zinc oxide powder. This may be attributed to the lower energy gap at the copper oxide-zinc oxide interface, compared to zinc oxide, allowing visible light to trigger its photocatalytic activity.

  8. Cadmium Contamination and Health Assessment in Frog Microhyla fissipes Living Downstream of Zinc Mining Area in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirarach Kitana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand, concerns have been raised over cadmium contamination, potentially due to zinc mining activities. Although there is no report of acute toxicity on animals in this area, the impact of long-term environmental exposure to cadmium on their health are of attention. Water and sediment samples collected from two field sites (low-Cd and high-Cd sites in Mae Sot during 2008 were analyzed by GFAAS. Year round cadmium contamination in water ranged from 0.0015-0.002 mg/L in low-Cd site to 0.0019-0.0023 mg/L in high-Cd site, while higher levels were found in sediment ranged from 0.1013-0.2206 mg/kg in low-Cd site to 2.9260-3.2888 mg/kg in high-Cd site. Microhyla fissipes was collected from each habitat in 2-month interval during wet season. Detectable level of cadmium residue was found only in the frog collected from high-Cd habitat. Gravimetric analysis showed that hepatosomatic indices were significantly higher in high-Cd habitat. Histopathology showed several similar alterations in the liver, however higher number of melanomacrophage center was found in high-Cd habitat. Renosomatic indices and kidney tissue alterations were not significantly different between two sites. Reproductive health in term of gonadosomatic indices (GSI was not significantly different between male frogs from both habitats. But in the females living in high-Cd habitat, significantly lower GSI were observed. The results indicate that exposure to environmentally relevant dose of cadmium may interfere with the frog health. Using the frog as a sentinel species in this study suggests an important implication for overall health of animals/human in this area.

  9. Single and combined toxicity of copper and cadmium to H. vulgare growth and heavy metal bioaccumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žaltauskaitė J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The single and combined effects of copper (Cu and cadmium (Cd (0.1-10 mg L−1 in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. plants grown in hydroponics are investigated. The aim of the study was to investigate the interactive effect of the binary mixture of Cu and Cd to the growth of H. vulgare and accumulation of these metals by the plants. Single and combined metal treatment led to major effects in the growth of roots and shoots and dry weight of barley. Exposure to metals altered the content of photosynthetic pigments and caused lipid peroxidation. It was observed that combined effects of heavy metals to plants are endpoint and concentration depending. The binary mixture Cu+Cd exhibited additive or less than additive interaction for dry weight, root length and shoot height. Analysis of tissue metal concentrations showed that Cu and Cd were mainly accumulated in the roots and the combination of Cu+Cd had less than additive response of metal bioaccumulation in the leaves and roots.

  10. Impairment of metabolic capacities in copper and cadmium contaminated wild yellow perch (Perca flavescens)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couture, Patrice; Rajender Kumar, Puja

    2003-01-01

    This study examined variations in resting oxygen consumption rate (ROCR), post-exercise oxygen consumption rate, relative scope for activity (RSA), liver and muscle aerobic and anaerobic capacities (using citrate synthase (CS) and lactate dehydrogenase, respectively, as indicators), and tissue biosynthetic capacities (using nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) as an indicator), in wild yellow perch from four lakes varying in copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) contamination. Liver Cu and Cd concentrations largely reflected environmental contamination and were positively correlated with liver protein concentrations and NDPK activities. Our results suggest that metal contamination leads to an upregulation of liver protein metabolism, presumably at least in part for the purpose of metal detoxification. In contrast, muscle NDPK activities decreased with increasing liver Cd concentrations and NDPK activities. There was a 25% decrease in ROCR for a doubling of liver Cu concentrations and a 42% decrease in RSA for a doubling of liver Cd concentrations in the range studied. Cu contamination was also associated with lower muscle CS activities. Our results support previous findings of impaired aerobic capacities in the muscle of metal-contaminated fish, and demonstrate that this impairment is also reflected in aerobic capacities of whole fish. The evidence presented suggests that mitochondria may be primary targets for inhibition by Cu, and that Cd may reduce gill respiratory capacity. Muscle aerobic and anaerobic capacities were inversely related. This work indicates that metal exposure of wild yellow perch leads to a wide range of disturbances in metabolic capacities

  11. Uptake and partitioning of copper and cadmium in the coral Pocillopora damicornis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchelmore, Carys L.; Verde, E. Alan; Weis, Virginia M.

    2007-01-01

    Coral-reef ecosystems are increasingly being impacted by a wide variety of anthropogenic inputs, including heavy metals, which could be contributing to coral reef stress and bleaching episodes. Fragments of Pocillopora damicornis were exposed in the laboratory to cadmium (Cd) or copper (Cu) chlorides (0, 5, 50 μg l -1 ) for 14 days and analyzed for metal content in the whole association, algal or animal fractions. Various physiological and biochemical parameters were also measured, such as, algal cell counts, mitotic index, chlorophyll content and levels of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH). Cd and Cu accumulation were observed at all time points and doses; there was no evidence of differential metal partitioning between the algal or animal fractions. No changes in algal cell density, mitotic index or chlorophyll content from the controls were observed in any of the metal treatments. GSH levels were significantly higher in the 5 μg l -1 Cd (Day 4) and Cu (Days 4 and 14) treatments compared with controls at the same time point. Although no evidence of a bleaching response occurred, corals in both 50 μg l -1 metal exposures sloughed off tissues and did not survive the duration of the exposure period. Our results demonstrate the accumulation of Cd and Cu in P. damicornis and mortality in the absence of a bleaching response

  12. Chelating agent-assisted electrokinetic removal of cadmium, lead and copper from contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannis, Apostolos; Nikolaou, Aris; Pentari, Despina; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2009-01-01

    An integrated experimental program was conducted to remove Cd, Pb and Cu from contaminated soil. The chelate agents nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and ethyleneglycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) were used as washing solutions under different pH conditions and concentrations. Results showed that the extraction efficiency for Cd in decreasing order was NTA > EGTA > DTPA, while for Pb and Cu it was DTPA > NTA > EGTA. The use of higher chelate concentrations did not necessarily result in greater extraction efficiency. Electrokinetic remediation was applied by conditioning anolyte-catholyte pH to neutral values in order to avoid any potential alterations to the physicochemical soil properties. The removal efficiency for Cd was 65-95%, for Cu 15-60%, but for Pb was less than 20%. The phytotoxicity of the treated soil showed that the soil samples from the anode section were less phytotoxic than the untreated soil, but the phytotoxicity was increased in the samples from the cathode section. - Cadmium, lead and copper were extracted from contaminated soil by integrated electrokinetic and soil washing studies.

  13. Chelating agent-assisted electrokinetic removal of cadmium, lead and copper from contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannis, Apostolos, E-mail: apostolos.giannis@enveng.tuc.g [Laboratory of Toxic and Hazardous Waste Management, Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Politechnioupolis, Chania 73100 (Greece); Nikolaou, Aris [Laboratory of Toxic and Hazardous Waste Management, Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Politechnioupolis, Chania 73100 (Greece); Pentari, Despina [Laboratory of Inorganic and Organic Geochemistry and Organic Petrography, Department of Mineral Resources Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Politechnioupolis, Chania 73100 (Greece); Gidarakos, Evangelos, E-mail: gidarako@mred.tuc.g [Laboratory of Toxic and Hazardous Waste Management, Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Politechnioupolis, Chania 73100 (Greece)

    2009-12-15

    An integrated experimental program was conducted to remove Cd, Pb and Cu from contaminated soil. The chelate agents nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and ethyleneglycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) were used as washing solutions under different pH conditions and concentrations. Results showed that the extraction efficiency for Cd in decreasing order was NTA > EGTA > DTPA, while for Pb and Cu it was DTPA > NTA > EGTA. The use of higher chelate concentrations did not necessarily result in greater extraction efficiency. Electrokinetic remediation was applied by conditioning anolyte-catholyte pH to neutral values in order to avoid any potential alterations to the physicochemical soil properties. The removal efficiency for Cd was 65-95%, for Cu 15-60%, but for Pb was less than 20%. The phytotoxicity of the treated soil showed that the soil samples from the anode section were less phytotoxic than the untreated soil, but the phytotoxicity was increased in the samples from the cathode section. - Cadmium, lead and copper were extracted from contaminated soil by integrated electrokinetic and soil washing studies.

  14. Combined effect of copper and cadmium on Chlorella vulgaris growth and photosynthesis-related gene transcription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Haifeng; Li Jingjing; Sun Liwei; Chen Wei; Sheng, G. Daniel; Liu Weiping; Fu Zhengwei

    2009-01-01

    Chlorella vulgaris was tested to assess their toxicities in freshwater contaminated by the metal compounds of copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd), both singly and combined. Exposure to 0.5 and 1.5 μM Cu or 1.0 and 2.0 μM Cd alone significantly decreased algal growth and chlorophyll content and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) content. Two-way ANOVA analysis shows that the combination of these two metal compounds decreased cell growth, chlorophyll content and increased ROS content synergistically. The highest algal cell inhibition was 78.55%, the lowest levels of chl a, chl b and total-chl were 10.59%, 33.33% and 17.94% of the control, respectively. The highest increase in ROS was 9.15-fold greater than that of the control when exposed to Cu(1.5) + Cd(2.0). Real-time PCR shows that Cu and Cd reduced the transcript abundance of psbA and rbcL, but without a synergistic interaction, whereas Cu and Cd increased the transcript abundance of psaB synergistically. These results demonstrate that Cu and Cd independently inhibit PSII activity and CO 2 assimilation, but synergistically increase ROS content to disrupt chlorophyll synthesis and inhibit cell growth.

  15. Combined effect of copper and cadmium on Chlorella vulgaris growth and photosynthesis-related gene transcription

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian Haifeng; Li Jingjing; Sun Liwei; Chen Wei; Sheng, G. Daniel; Liu Weiping [College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Fu Zhengwei, E-mail: azwfu2003@yahoo.com.cn [College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China)

    2009-08-13

    Chlorella vulgaris was tested to assess their toxicities in freshwater contaminated by the metal compounds of copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd), both singly and combined. Exposure to 0.5 and 1.5 {mu}M Cu or 1.0 and 2.0 {mu}M Cd alone significantly decreased algal growth and chlorophyll content and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) content. Two-way ANOVA analysis shows that the combination of these two metal compounds decreased cell growth, chlorophyll content and increased ROS content synergistically. The highest algal cell inhibition was 78.55%, the lowest levels of chl a, chl b and total-chl were 10.59%, 33.33% and 17.94% of the control, respectively. The highest increase in ROS was 9.15-fold greater than that of the control when exposed to Cu(1.5) + Cd(2.0). Real-time PCR shows that Cu and Cd reduced the transcript abundance of psbA and rbcL, but without a synergistic interaction, whereas Cu and Cd increased the transcript abundance of psaB synergistically. These results demonstrate that Cu and Cd independently inhibit PSII activity and CO{sub 2} assimilation, but synergistically increase ROS content to disrupt chlorophyll synthesis and inhibit cell growth.

  16. Bioaccumulation and chemical forms of cadmium, copper and lead in aquatic plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JinZhao Hu

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The cadmium(Cd, copper(Cu and lead(Pb accumulation, as well as their relative content of different chemical forms in Sagittaria sagittifolia L. and Potamogeton crispus L. were determined. The results showed that both the plants had the ability to accumulate large amounts of Cd, Cu and Pb, and they absorbed metals in dose-dependent manners. The roots of S. sagittifolia appeared more sensitive to Cd and Pb than the leaves of P. crispus. The potential of Cu uptake by these two plant tissues was similar. Under the same concentration, the uptake of Cu for both the plants was higher than Pb and Cd, while that of Pb was lowest. The Cd, Cu and Pb existed with various forms in the plants. Cd and Pb were mainly in the NaCl extractable form in S. sagittifolia and P. crispus. The HAc and ethanol extractable Cu were the main forms in the root, whereas the ethanol extractable form was the dominant chemical form in the caulis and bulb of the S. sagittifolia L.

  17. Use of atomic absorption spectrometry in assessment of biomonitor plants for lead, cadmium and copper pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokce, Kaya; Mehmet, Yaman

    2012-01-01

    Eleven plant species were collected from the vicinity of lead-battery plant in the city of Gaziantep, Turkey. Lead, cadmium and copper concentrations in the soil and leaves of plants were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Lead, Cd and Cu concentrations in the soil samples taken from battery area were found to be in the ranges of 304-602, 0.4-0.44 and 31-37 mg x kg(-1), respectively. Significantly increased lead concentration up to 2 750 mg x kg(-1) was found in the leaves of Eleagnus angustifolia L. plant. The lead concentrations in the other plant leaves taken from 50 m around battery factory followed the order Ailanthus altissima > Morus sp. > Juglans regia L. > Ficus carica L. > Cydonia oblonga Miller > Prunus x domestica L. The plants, Populus nigra L. , Eleagnus angustifolia L. and Salix sp. were found useful for Cd, and the plant, Eleagnus angusti folia L. for Pb, to be considered as potential biomonitor. Especially, leaves of trees and plants taken from the distance of 50 m from battery plant have relatively higher Pb concentrations. Therefore, people who and animals which live in this area and benefit from these soil and plants have vital risks.

  18. Adsorption of cadmium and copper in representative soils of Eastern Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyvison Andrey Medrado Gonçalves

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies of heavy metals adsorption in soil play a key role in predicting environmental susceptibility to contamination by toxic elements. The objective of this study was to evaluate cadmium (Cd and copper (Cu adsorption in surface and subsurface soil. Samples of six soils: Xanthic Hapludox (XH1 and XH2, Typic Hapludox (TH, Typic Rhodudalf (TR, Typic Fluvaquent (TF, and Amazonian dark earths (ADE from Eastern Amazonian, Brazil. The soils were selected for chemical, physical and mineralogical characterization and to determine the adsorption by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. All soils characterized as kaolinitic, and among them, XH1 and XH2 showed the lowest fertility. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms revealed a higher Cu (H curve than Cd (L curve adsorption. Parameters of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms indicate that soils TR, TF and ADE has the greatest capacity and affinity for metal adsorption. Correlation between the curve adsorption parameters and the soil attributes indicates that the pH, CEC, OM and MnO variables had the best influence on metal retention. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms satisfactorily described Cu and Cd soil adsorption, where TR, TF and ADE has a lower vulnerability to metal input to the environment. Besides the pH, CEC and OM the MnO had a significant effect on Cu and Cd adsorption in Amazon soils.

  19. Acute toxicities of copper, cadmium and Cu: Cd mixture to larvae of the shrimp Penaeus Penicillatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munshi, A. B.; Su, Yong-Quan; Li, Shao-Jing

    1996-06-01

    This study showed lethal concentrations (LC) of copper for Peneaus penicillatus at various stages of its life cycle were 1000 μg/L for nauplii, 1000 μg/L for Zoea I, 2000 vg/L for Zoea II, 2500 μg/L for Zoea III, 3000 μg/L for Mysis I, II and III and that for almost 100% mortality for postlarvae was 3000 μg/L. For cadmium LC were 100 μg/L for nauplii, 500 μg/L for Zoea I, 1000 μg/L for Zoea II, 2000 μg/L for Zoea III, 2500 μg/L for Mysis I and 3500 μg/L for Mysis II, III and postlarvae. For mixture of both metals, LC were 400 μg/L for nauplii, 1000 μg/L for Zoea I, 2000 μg/L for Zoea II and 3000 μg/L for Mysis I, II, III and post larvae.

  20. Uptake and partitioning of copper and cadmium in the coral Pocillopora damicornis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchelmore, Carys L. [University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, 1 Williams Street, P.O. Box 38, Solomons, MD 20688 (United States)], E-mail: Mitchelmore@cbl.umces.edu; Verde, E. Alan [Corning School of Ocean Studies, Maine Maritime Academy, Castine, ME 04420 (United States); Weis, Virginia M. [Department of Zoology, Oregon State University, 3029 Cordley Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    Coral-reef ecosystems are increasingly being impacted by a wide variety of anthropogenic inputs, including heavy metals, which could be contributing to coral reef stress and bleaching episodes. Fragments of Pocillopora damicornis were exposed in the laboratory to cadmium (Cd) or copper (Cu) chlorides (0, 5, 50 {mu}g l{sup -1}) for 14 days and analyzed for metal content in the whole association, algal or animal fractions. Various physiological and biochemical parameters were also measured, such as, algal cell counts, mitotic index, chlorophyll content and levels of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH). Cd and Cu accumulation were observed at all time points and doses; there was no evidence of differential metal partitioning between the algal or animal fractions. No changes in algal cell density, mitotic index or chlorophyll content from the controls were observed in any of the metal treatments. GSH levels were significantly higher in the 5 {mu}g l{sup -1} Cd (Day 4) and Cu (Days 4 and 14) treatments compared with controls at the same time point. Although no evidence of a bleaching response occurred, corals in both 50 {mu}g l{sup -1} metal exposures sloughed off tissues and did not survive the duration of the exposure period. Our results demonstrate the accumulation of Cd and Cu in P. damicornis and mortality in the absence of a bleaching response.

  1. CONTENT OF ZINC, LEAD AND CADMIUM IN SELECTED AGRICULTURAL SOILS IN THE AREA OF THE ŚLĄSKIE AND CIĘŻKOWICKIE FOOTHILLS

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Józefowska; Anna Miechówka; Michał Gąsiorek; Paweł Zadrożny

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the state of contamination with zinc, lead, and cadmium in selected soils of the Śląskie and Ciężkowickie Foothills and to determine the impact of the type of agricultural use and selected physico-chemical properties of soils on heavy metal content. The test soils were characterized by natural content of zinc, lead, and cadmium in most cases. Only one type of soil located on Śląskie Foothills developed increased levels of Cd (1.1 mg · kg-1). The conte...

  2. EPR of Cu(II) in sarcosine cadmium chloride: probe into dopant site - symmetry and copper-sarcosine interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Pathinettam-Padiyan, D; Murugesan, R

    2000-01-01

    The electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of Cu(II) doped sarcosine cadmium chloride single crystals have been investigated at room temperature. Experimental results reveal that the Cu(II) ion enters the lattice interstitially. The observed superhyperfine lines indicate the superposition of two sets of quintet structure with interaction of nitrogen atoms and the two isotopes of copper. The spin Hamiltonian parameters are evaluated by Schonland method and the electric field symmetry around the copper ion is rhombic. An admixture of d sub z sup 2 orbital with the d sub x sub sup 2 sub - sub y sub sup 2 ground state is observed. Evaluation of MO coefficients reveals that the in-plane interaction between copper and nitrogen is strong in this lattice.

  3. Lead, zinc and copper fine powder with controlled size and shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A Rabah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the preparation of lead, zinc and copper powders by hydrometallurgy from secondary resources. Chloride, sulphate and acetate salts of zinc, copper and lead were prepared. The powders were prepared by reducing the ionic species of these metals by hydrazine hydrate or ascorbic acid. The effect of addition of some water soluble polar organic solvents to the aqueous salt solutions on the morphology and particle size of the prepared powder was studied. Findings were explained on the basis of the transition state theory and according to the Hughes and Ingold’s rule. Aqueous solutions alone produce metal powder having different size and irregular shape. The presence of polar organic solvents with high molecular weight and polarity produce powders having controlled size and regular morphology. The reason was because solvent polarity enhances the rate of red-ox reactions between metal ions and the reducing agent. The mean particle size of the powder was 60 um with zinc, 80 um with copper, and 90 um with lead. The extent of productivity was ≥98%. Results highlighted that the chemical reduction of the ionic species took place in a sequence steps. The first is a diffusion of the reactants across a boundary layer established at the polar site of the organic solvent molecules. The next step is the direct contact of the reactants. The third step involved reduction to yield powder. The last is the backward diffusion of the powder outside the boundary layer. Results showed that addition of water-miscible solvents having high dielectric constant increased the polarity of the medium. This energizes and enhances the one or more t step of the model to be more rapid to yield particles with small size and symmetrical shape.

  4. Serum Calcium, Magnesium, Zinc and Copper Levels in Sudanese Women with Preeclampsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmugabil, Abdelmageed; Hamdan, Hamdan Z.; Elsheikh, Anas E.; Rayis, Duria A.; Gasim, Gasim I.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although the exact pathophysiology of preeclampsia is not fully understood, several elemental micronutrient abnormalities have been suggested to play a contributory role in preeclampsia. Aims To investigate the levels of calcium, magnesium, zinc and copper in women with preeclampsia. Subjects and Methods A case—control study was conducted in Omdurman Maternity Hospital, Sudan, during the period of September through December 2014. The cases were women with preeclampsia while healthy pregnant women were the controls. The medical and obstetrics history was gathered using questionnaires. The serum levels of calcium, magnesium, zinc and copper were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results There was no significant difference between the two groups in their age, gestational age, parity and body mass index. Zinc and copper levels were not significantly different between the two groups. In comparison with the controls, women with preeclampsia had a significantly lower median (inter-quartile) serum calcium [7.6 (4.0─9.6) vs. 8.1 (10.6─14.2), mg/dl, P = 0.032] and higher levels of magnesium [1.9 (1.4─2.5) vs. 1.4 (1.0─1.9) mg/dl; P = 0.003]. In binary logistic regression, lower calcium (OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.56 ─ 0.95, P = 0.021) and higher magnesium (OR = 5.724, 95% CI = 1.23 ─ 26.50, P = 0.026) levels were associated with preeclampsia. There were no significant correlations between levels of hemoglobin and these trace elements. Conclusion The current study showed significant associations between preeclampsia and serum levels of calcium and magnesium. PMID:27911936

  5. Effects of various anesthesia maintenance on serum levels of selenium, copper, zinc, iron and antioxidant capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of sevoflurane, desflurane and propofol maintenances on serum levels of selenium, copper, zinc, iron, malondialdehyde, and glutathion peroxidase measurements, and antioxidant capacity. METHODS: 60 patients scheduled for unilateral lower extremity surgery which would be performed with tourniquet under general anesthesia were divided into three groups. Blood samples were collected to determine the baseline serum levels of selenium, copper, zinc, iron, malondialdehyde and glutathion peroxidase. Anesthesia was induced using 2-2.5 mg kg-1 propofol, 1 mg kg-1 lidocaine and 0.6 mg kg-1 rocuronium. In the maintenance of anesthesia, under carrier gas of 50:50% O2:N2O 4 L min-1, 1 MAC sevoflorane was administered to Group S and 1 MAC desflurane to Group D; and under carrier gas of 50:50% O2:air 4 L min-1 6 mg kg h-1 propofol and 1 µg kg h-1 fentanyl infusion were administered to Group P. At postoperative blood specimens were collected again. RESULTS: It was observed that only in Group S and P, levels of MDA decreased at postoperative 48th hour; levels of glutathion peroxidase increased in comparison to the baseline values. Selenium levels decreased in Group S and Group P, zinc levels decreased in Group P, and iron levels decreased in all three groups, and copper levels did not change in any groups in the postoperative period. CONCLUSION: According to the markers of malondialdehyde and glutathion peroxidase, it was concluded that maintenance of general anesthesia using propofol and sevoflurane activated the antioxidant system against oxidative stress and using desflurane had no effects on oxidative stress and antioxidant system.

  6. Zinc or copper deficiency-induced impaired inflammatory response to brain trauma may be caused by the concomitant metallothionein changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, Milena; Giralt, M.; Thomsen, Pernille Sjølin

    2001-01-01

    , and this response was significantly blunted by zinc deficiency. The MT-III isoform was moderately increased by both TBI and zinc deficiency. TBI strongly increased oxidative stress levels, as demonstrated by malondialdehyde (MDA), protein tyrosine nitration (NITT), and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) levels irs......, all of which were potentiated by zinc deficiency. Further analysis revealed unbalanced expression of prooxidant and antioxidant proteins besides MT, since the levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and Cu,Zn-SOD were increased and decreased, respectively, by zinc deficiency. All......The role of zinc- and copper-deficient diets on the inflammatory response to traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been evaluated in adult rats. As expected, zinc deficiency decreased food intake and body weight gain, and the latter effect was higher than that observed in pair-fed rats. In noninjured...

  7. Determination of copper, manganese, nickel and zinc in different cigarette brands available in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, I.; Hashmi, D.R.; Khan, F.A.

    2008-01-01

    Mean values of copper, manganese, nickel and zinc in different cigarette brands sold in Pakistan were found to be in the range of 8.61 to 94.67 macro g/g, 26.40 to 98.20 macro g/g, 0.61 to 8.58 macro g/g and 16.92 to 99.60 macro g/g, respectively, through Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The results are discussed with reference to and in comparison with the mean average concentration of these elements reported in the cigarettes of other countries. (author)

  8. Copper, manganese, zinc and magnesium content in endocrine organs of horses, cattle and pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoeckl, W; Weiser, M

    1968-07-01

    In horses, cattle and pigs the content of copper, manganese, zinc and magnesium was determined in the pituitary, adrenal, thyroid, pancreas, ovary and thymus, and the mean values and standard deviations were determined. Within the same animal there were considerable variations of each element as between the different endocrine glands and similar significant differences from one animal to another. These results are not extensive enough to permit any conclusion on the relationship of the examined elements to the endocrine function or their influence on the enzyme activity. 1 table.

  9. Uptake and loss of absorbed dissolved cadmium to Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-06-16

    Jun 16, 2006 ... Res NATO Sci. Comm. Conf. 7: 187-195 London. Eisler R, Gardner GR (1973). Acute toxicology to an estuarine teleost of mistures of cadmuim, copper, and zinc salts. J. Fish. Biol. 5: 131 – 142. Eisler R (1974). Radio cadmium exchange with seawater by. Fundulus heteroclitus (L) (Pisces: Cyprinodontidae) ...

  10. Structural and optical properties of pure and copper doped zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjad, Muhammad; Ullah, Inam; Khan, M. I.; Khan, Jamshid; Khan, M. Yaqoob; Qureshi, Muhammad Tauseef

    2018-06-01

    Pure and copper-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthesized via chemical co-precipitation method where hydrazine is used as reducing agent and aqueous extract of Euphorbia milii plant as capping agent. Main objectives of the reported work are to investigate the effect of copper doping on crystal structure of ZnO nanoparticles; to study the effect of copper doping on optical band gap of ZnO nanoparticles and photoluminescence (PL) study of pure and copper-doped ZnO nanoparticles. To achieve the aforementioned objectives, XRD and SEM tests were performed for the identification and confirmation of crystal structure and morphology of the prepared samples. From XRD data the average grain size for pure ZnO was observed to be 24.62 nm which was first decreased to 18.95 nm for 5 wt% Cu-doped sample and then it was found to increase up to 37.80 nm as the Cu doping was increased to 7 wt%. Optical band gap of pure and Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles was calculated from diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) spectra and was found to decrease from 3.13 eV to 2.94 eV as the amount of Cu increases up to 7 wt%. In photoluminescence study, PL technique was used and enhanced visible spectrum was observed. For further characterization FT-IR and EDX tests were also carried out.

  11. Soil Pollution with Copper, Lead and Zinc in the Surroundings of Large Copper Ore Tailings Impoundment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musztyfaga Elżbieta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the top-soil total content of heavy metals was carried out inthe vicinity of large copper ore tailings pound in the south-western Poland with regard to soil properties, direction and distance from the tailings pound. None of the soils under study ex-ceeded the limits admitted in the official standards for soil quality, but the assessment made in accordance with IUNG-guidelines to soil contamination determination showed that more than half of the monitoring sites have elevated metal content, Cu, in par-ticular. The results confirmed high effectiveness of dust control preventing its eolian spread from the tailings pound.

  12. Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Zinc Fact Sheet for Consumers Have a question? Ask ... find out more about zinc? Disclaimer What is zinc and what does it do? Zinc is a ...

  13. Effects of mine drainage on the River Hayle, Cornwall. Factors affecting concentrations of copper, zinc, and iron in water, sediments and dominant invertebrate fauna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, B.E.

    1977-02-15

    Concentrations of copper, zinc and iron were measured in waters, sediments and invertebrates collected from the River Hayle. In river water at least 70% of copper and iron was associated with the ''particulate'' fraction whereas 80% of zinc was in the ''soluble'' form. Although total concentrations of zinc in water exceeded those of copper approximately ten fold, copper predominated over zinc in the sediments by a factor of approximately three. Iron was the most abundant metal recorded in both water and sediments. Seasonal differences in ''total'' metal content of waters suggested that concentrations of copper, zinc and iron increased during periods of high flow and decreased during lower flows. Copper concentrations in the sediment, unlike zinc and iron, showed markedly higher values during the summer sampling period when flows were minimal. In the ''free-living'' Trichoptera larvae, concentrations of copper and zinc in the tissue appeared to follow copper and zinc levels in the water. Similar relationships in Odonata and Plecoptera larvae were not obtained. Factors affecting animal/metal relationships are discussed with particular reference to adaptation shown by organisms exposed to high concentrations of heavy metals in their environment.

  14. Association of Maternal Diet With Zinc, Copper, and Iron Concentrations in Transitional Human Milk Produced by Korean Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Myung; Lee, Ji-Eun; Cho, Mi Sook; Kang, Bong Soo; Choi, Hyeon

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate zinc, copper, and iron concentrations in the transitory milk of Korean lactating mothers and to investigate the relationship between these concentrations and maternal diet. Human milk samples were collected between 5 and 15 days postpartum from 96 healthy, lactating mothers in postpartum care centers in Seoul, Korea. Dietary intake during lactation was determined based on a 3-day dietary record. The mean zinc, copper, and iron concentrations in the human milk samples collected were 3.88 ± 1.74 mg/L, 0.69 ± 0.25 mg/L, and 5.85 ± 8.53 mg/L, respectively. The mothers who consumed alcoholic beverages during pregnancy had tended to have lower concentrations of zinc and copper, as well as significantly lower concentrations of iron, in their milk (p < 0.047). In contrast, the mothers who took daily supplements had much higher iron concentrations in their milk (p = 0.002). Dietary intakes of zinc, copper, and iron during lactation did not affect the concentrations of zinc, copper, and iron in the milk samples analyzed. Intakes of vitamin C, selenium, and iodine were associated with the concentration of copper in the milk samples analyzed, and consumption of food categorized as 'meat and meat products' was positively associated with the concentration of zinc. Consumption of rice was the top contributor to the concentrations of all three minerals. In conclusion, associations between maternal diet and nutrient concentrations in transitory human milk can provide useful information, particularly in regard to infant growth. PMID:26839873

  15. Study of the influence of stable cadmium on the transfer of zinc-65 in an ecosystem irrigated by submersion (irrigated rice field)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myttenaere, C.; Merlini, M.; Dabin, P.; Mousny, J.M.; Pozzi, G.; Bittel, R.

    1975-01-01

    Irrigation water contains varying amounts of stable cadmium from industrial disposal. The presence of this element is capable of modifying the transfer of and affecting the mechanisms of absorption of zinc-65, a radionuclide which is discharged into water by nuclear power stations. This type of interaction between a nuclear contaminant and a conventional contaminant was studied in a rice-field irrigated by submersion. This ecosystem was reproduced under controlled 'mini-rice-field' conditions: the water was enriched in stable zinc (1 ppm) and in stable cadmium (2,5x10 -3 ; 50x10 -3 ppm) so as to reproduce the actual conditions; the stable zinc was traced by means of zinc-65. Fish (20 Carassius auratus L.) were introduced into each compartment of the ecosystem. Samples of irrigation water and surface water were taken during cultivation, and at the end of cultivation the content of stable zinc, radioactive zinc and stable cadmium was determined in each component of the ecosystem. The results show the important influence of a conventional contaminant on the transfer of a radionuclide and justify the use of the term 'associate contaminant' to describe it. (author)

  16. Scientific/Technical Report: Improvement in compensation and crystal growth of cadmium zinc telluride radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelvin G. Lynn; Kelly A. Jones

    2007-01-01

    Comparison of actual accomplishments with goals and objectives: (1) Growth of 12 ingots--Washington State University (WSU) more than met this goal for the project by growing 12 final ingots for the year. Nine of the twelve crystal growth ingots resolved gamma radiation at room temperature. The other three ingots where resistivity of ∼ 3 x 10 8 Ohm*cm for CG32a, CG36, and CG42 lower than expected, however none of these were tried with blocking contacts. All ingots were evaluated from tip to heel. In these three cases, the group III, dopant Aluminum (Al) was not detected to a level to compensate the Cd vacancies in the cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) thus the ingots were lower resistivity. The nine ingots that were successful radiation detectors averaged a bulk resistivity of 1.25 x 10 10 Ohm*cm and with a average μτ product for electrons of ∼ 2 x 10 -4 cm 2 /V with a 1/4 microsecond shaping time with samples ∼2 mm in thickness. (2) Attempt new compensations techniques--WSU also met this goal. Several doping schemes were attempted and investigated with various amounts of excess Tellurium added to the growth. The combination of Al and Erbium (Er) were first attempted for these ingots and subsequently CG34 was grown with Al, Er and Holmium. These compensation techniques produced radiation detectors and are currently under investigation. These growths were made with significant different doping levels to determine the affect of the dopants. CG43 was doped with Indium and Er. Indium was introduced instead of Al to determine if Indium is more soluble than Al for CZT and was less oxidized. This may decrease the amount of low resistivity ingots grown by doping with Indium instead of Al. (3) Grow large single crystals--Several changes in approach occurred in the crystal growth furnace. Steps were taken to maximize the crystal growth interface during growth by modifying liners, quartz, heat sinks, crucibles and various growth steps and temperature profiles. CG39 ingot

  17. Larval aquatic insect responses to cadmium and zinc in experimental streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebane, Christopher A; Schmidt, Travis S; Balistrieri, Laurie S

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the risks of metal mixture effects to natural stream communities under ecologically relevant conditions, the authors conducted 30-d tests with benthic macroinvertebrates exposed to cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) in experimental streams. The simultaneous exposures were with Cd and Zn singly and with Cd+Zn mixtures at environmentally relevant ratios. The tests produced concentration-response patterns that for individual taxa were interpreted in the same manner as classic single-species toxicity tests and for community metrics such as taxa richness and mayfly (Ephemeroptera) abundance were interpreted in the same manner as with stream survey data. Effect concentrations from the experimental stream exposures were usually 2 to 3 orders of magnitude lower than those from classic single-species tests. Relative to a response addition model, which assumes that the joint toxicity of the mixtures can be predicted from the product of their responses to individual toxicants, the Cd+Zn mixtures generally showed slightly less than additive toxicity. The authors applied a modeling approach called Tox to explore the mixture toxicity results and to relate the experimental stream results to field data. The approach predicts the accumulation of toxicants (hydrogen, Cd, and Zn) on organisms using a 2-pK a bidentate model that defines interactions between dissolved cations and biological receptors (biotic ligands) and relates that accumulation through a logistic equation to biological response. The Tox modeling was able to predict Cd+Zn mixture responses from the single-metal exposures as well as responses from field data. The similarity of response patterns between the 30-d experimental stream tests and field data supports the environmental relevance of testing aquatic insects in experimental streams. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:749-762. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the

  18. The effects of air pollution and smoking on placental cadmium, zinc concentration and metallothionein expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorkun, Hulya Cetin; Bir, Ferda; Akbulut, Metin; Divrikli, Umit; Erken, Gulten; Demirhan, Huriye; Duzcan, Ender; Elci, Latif; Celik, Ismail; Yozgatli, Unsal

    2007-01-01

    This study is designed to determine the placental zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) levels in mothers who were smokers, mothers who were thought to be exposed to air pollution, and mothers who were non-smokers and to investigate the relationship between the expression of placental metallothionein (MT) binding these metals and blood progesterone level. Placental Zn and Cd levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. Presence of placental MT was determined immunohistochemically. Placental changes were examined by light microscope after H and E and PAS staining. Immunohistochemical MT staining of syncytiotrophoblastic and villous interstitial cells were scored as positive or negative. Among the 92 mothers included in the study, 33 were smokers (Group I), 29 had been exposed to air pollution (Group II) and 30 were non-smoker rural residents who had never been exposed to air pollution (Group III). Mean off-spring birth weight of 3198.62 ± 380.01 g and mean placenta weight of 561.38 ± 111.55 g of Group II were lower when compared with those of other two groups. In Group I, mean placental Cd and Zn were 0.063 ± 0.022 μg/g and 39.84 ± 15.5 μg/g, respectively, being higher than in other groups. In Group II, mean placental Cd and Zn levels were higher than those of Group III. Blood progesterone levels of subjects in Group I (121 ng/ml) were the lowest of all groups. While the mean count of villi was the highest in Group III; the highest mean count of syncytial knots was in Group II. Thickening of vasculo-syncytial membrane was most prominent in Group I. Similarly, MT staining was positive and very dense in 72.7% (24/33) of cases in Group I (p ≤ 0.05). MT staining was positive in 69.0% (29/20) and denser in Group II cases compared to 36% (11/30) in Group III (p ≤ 0.05). This study showed that smoking increased Cd levels in placenta and accompanied an increase in placental MT expression immunohistochemically. The effects of exposure to air pollution are equally

  19. Determination of cadmium, lead and zinc in a candidate reference materials using isotope dilution mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, Luis; Gras, Nuri; Quejido, Alberto; Fernandez, Marta

    2001-01-01

    The growing demands placed on analytical laboratories to ensure the reliability of their results, due to the introduction of systems of quality and to the increasing use of metrology in chemical measurements has led most laboratories to validate their methodologies and to control them statistically. One of the techniques used most often for these purposes is based on the use of reference materials. The proper use of these materials means that laboratory results may be traced to the International System of Units, analytical methodologies can be validated, instruments calibrated and chemical measurements harmonized. One of the biggest challenges in developing reference materials is that of certifying their properties, a process that has been defined as assigning a concentration value that is as close as possible to the true value together with its uncertainty. Organizations that produce reference materials use several options for their certification process, and among these is the use of a primary method. Among the primary methods recognized by the International Office of Weights and Measures is the Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry technique. The Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, through its Reference Materials Program, has prepared a reference material of clam tissue, which has been chemically defined by different analytical methodologies applied in different national and international laboratories. This work describes the methodology developed with the CIEMAT for determining the elements lead, cadmium and zinc in the clam tissue reference material using the primary technique of Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry. The calculation is described for obtaining the spike amounts to be added to the sample and the procedure is explained for carrying out the isotopic exchange. The isotopic relationships 204 Pb/ 205 Pb, 111 Cd/ 114 Cd and 66 Zn/ 67 Zn were determined in an atomic emission spectrometer with a plasma source with the following characteristics: plasma

  20. Proteomic responses of oceanic Synechococcus WH8102 to phosphate and zinc scarcity and cadmium additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alysia eCox

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Synechococcus sp. WH 8102 is a motile marine cyanobacterium isolated originally from the Sargasso Sea. To test the response of this organism to cadmium (Cd -generally considered a toxin- cultures were grown in a matrix of high and low zinc (Zn and phosphate (PO43- and were then exposed to an addition of 4.4 pM free Cd2+ at mid-log phase and harvested after 24 h. Whereas Zn and PO43- had little effect on overall growth rates, in the final 24 h of the experiment three growth effects were noticed: i low PO43- treatments showed increased growth rates relative to high PO43- treatments, ii the Zn/high PO43- treatment appeared to enter stationary phase, and iii Cd increased growth rates further in both the low PO43- and Zn treatments. Global proteomic analysis revealed that: i Zn appeared to be critical to the PO43- response in this organism, ii bacterial metallothionein (SmtA appears correlated with PO43- stress-associated proteins, iii Cd has the greatest influence on the proteome at low PO43- and Zn, iv Zn buffered the effects of Cd, and v in the presence of both replete PO43- and added Cd the proteome showed little response to the presence of Zn. Similar trends in alkaline phosphate (ALP and SmtA suggest the possibility of a Zn supply system to provide Zn to ALP that involves SmtA. In addition, proteome results were consistent with a previous transcriptome study of PO43- stress (with replete Zn in this organism, including the greater relative abundance of ALP (PhoA, ABC phosphate binding protein (PstS and other proteins. Yet with no Zn in this proteome experiment the PO43- response was quite different including the greater relative abundance of five hypothetical proteins with no increase in PhoA or PstS, suggesting that Zn nutritional levels are connected to the PO43- response in this cyanobacterium. Alternate ALP PhoX (Ca was found to be a low abundance protein, suggesting that PhoA (Zn, Mg may be more environmentally relevant than PhoX.

  1. Thermodynamics of post-growth annealing of cadmium zinc telluride nuclear radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Aaron Lee

    Nuclear Radiation Detectors are used for detecting, tracking, and identifying radioactive materials which emit high-energy gamma and X-rays. The use of Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CdZnTe) detectors is particularly attractive because of the detector's ability to operate at room temperature and measure the energy spectra of gamma-ray sources with a high resolution, typically less than 1% at 662 keV. While CdZnTe detectors are acceptable imperfections in the crystals limit their full market potential. One of the major imperfections are Tellurium inclusions generated during the crystal growth process by the retrograde solubility of Tellurium and Tellurium-rich melt trapped at the growth interface. Tellurium inclusions trap charge carriers generated by gamma and X-ray photons and thus reduce the portion of generated charge carriers that reach the electrodes for collection and conversion into a readable signal which is representative of the ionizing radiation's energy and intensity. One approach in resolving this problem is post-growth annealing which has the potential of removing the Tellurium inclusions and associated impurities. The goal of this project is to use experimental techniques to study the thermodynamics of Tellurium inclusion migration in post-growth annealing of CdZnTe nuclear detectors with the temperature gradient zone migration (TGZM) technique. Systematic experiments will be carried out to provide adequate thermodynamic data that will inform the engineering community of the optimum annealing parameters. Additionally, multivariable correlations that involve the Tellurium diffusion coefficient, annealing parameters, and CdZnTe properties will be analyzed. The experimental approach will involve systematic annealing experiments (in Cd vapor overpressure) on different sizes of CdZnTe crystals at varying temperature gradients ranging from 0 to 60°C/mm (used to migrate the Tellurium inclusion to one side of the crystal), and at annealing temperatures ranging

  2. Excretion of Zinc and Copper Increases in Men during 3 Weeks of Bed Rest, with or without Artificial Gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heacox, Hayley N; Gillman, Patricia L; Zwart, Sara R; Smith, Scott M

    2017-06-01

    Background: Zinc and copper have many physiologic functions and little or no functional storage capability, so persistent losses of either element present health concerns, especially during extended-duration space missions. Objectives: We evaluated the effects of short-term bed rest (BR), a spaceflight analog, on copper and zinc metabolism to better understand the role of these nutrients in human adaptation to (simulated) spaceflight. We also investigated the effect of artificial gravity on copper and zinc homeostasis. Methods: Zinc and copper balances were studied in 15 men [mean ± SD age: 29 ± 3 y; body mass index (in kg/m 2 ): 26.4 ± 2.2] before, during, and after 21 d of head-down tilt BR, during which 8 of the participants were subjected to artificial gravity (AG) by centrifugation for 1 h/d. Control subjects were transferred onto the centrifuge but were not exposed to centrifugation. The study was conducted in a metabolic ward; all urine and feces were collected. Data were analyzed by 2-factor repeated-measures ANOVA. Results: Urinary zinc excretion values for control and AG groups were 33% and 14%, respectively, higher during BR than before BR, and fecal zinc excretion values for control and AG groups were 36% and 19%, respectively, higher during BR, resulting in 67% and 82% lower net zinc balances for controls and AG, respectively (both P zinc by men during BR suggests that their absorption of these minerals from the diet was reduced, secondary to the release of minerals from bone and muscle. These findings highlight the importance of determining dietary requirements for astronauts on space missions and ensuring provision and intake of all nutrients. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Eco-physiological studies on the uptake of the pollutants, copper, zinc and phosphate, by certain algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rana, B C; Kumar, H D

    1974-01-01

    Certain algae isolated from polluted and nonpolluted habitats were studied for their capacity to absorb copper, zinc, and phosphate from the ambient medium. They were found to possess a high gleaning capacity for these pollutants. The uptake of copper does not seem to require much metabolic energy and is independent of the growth of the alga, but the uptake of zinc seems to depend directly on its growth. Anacystis nidulans and Chlorella vulgaris are fast growing algae; they can absorb high amounts of phosphate and can be gainfully employed for retrieving the phosphate from the medium. However, the algae must be harvested before they excrete some of the phosphates back into the medium.

  4. APPLICATION OF METAL RESISTANT BACTERIA BY MUTATIONAL ENHANCMENT TECHNIQUE FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF COPPER AND ZINC FROM INDUSTRIAL WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Shakibaie ، A. Khosravan ، A. Frahmand ، S. Zare

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research, using mutation in the metal resistant bacteria, the bioremediation of the copper and zinc from copper factory effluents was investigated. Wastewater effluents from flocculation and rolling mill sections of a factory in the city of Kerman were collected and used for further experiments. 20 strains of Pseudomonas spp. were isolated from soil and effluents surrounding factory and identified by microbiological methods. Minimum inhibitory concentrations for copper (Cu and zinc (Zn were determined by agar dilution method. Those strains that exhibited highest minimum inhibitory concentrations values to the metals (5mM were subjected to 400-3200 mg/L concentrations of the three mutagenic agents, acriflavine, acridine orange and ethidium bromide. After determination of subinhibitory concentrations, the minimum inhibitory concentrations values for copper and zinc metal ions were again determined, which showed more than 10 fold increase in minimum inhibitory concentrations value (10 mM for Cu and 20 mM for Zn with P≤0.05. The atomic absorption spectroscopy of dried biomass obtained from resistant strains after exposure to mutagenic agents revealed that strains 13 accumulate the highest amount of intracellular copper (0.35% Cu/mg dried biomass and strain 10 showed highest accumulation of zinc (0.3% Zn/mg dried biomass respectively with P≤0.05. From above results it was concluded that the treatment of industrial waste containing heavy metals by artificially mutated bacteria may be appropriate solution for effluent disposal problems.

  5. Evaluation of a commercially available molybdate formulation and zinc oxide boluses in preventing hepatic copper accumulation and thus enzootic icterus in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J. Botha

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of a molybdate formulation and a zinc oxide bolus as prophylactic agents for enzootic icterus was evaluated in sheep. Before copper loading, liver biopsies were performed on 12 male, 6-month-old, Mutton Merino sheep to determine hepatic copper (Cu and zinc (Zn concentrations. The animals were restrictively randomised according to liver copper concentrations to 3 treatment groups (n = 4 to achieve similar mean liver copper concentrations per group. All sheep received 4 m /kg of a 0.5 %aqueous solution of CuSO4·5H2O intraruminally 7 days per week for 10 weeks. On Day 0 the sheep in the Mo-group were injected subcutaneously with 42 mg molybdenum (Mo contained in a commercial molybdate formulation. The animals in the Zn-group each received a zinc oxide bolus, containing 43 g zinc oxide, via a rumen cannula. Treatment was repeated on Day 42. Four animals served as untreated controls. Urinary copper excretion, plasma copper concentration, haematocrit and glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH activity were determined throughout the trial. The animals were sacrificed after 10 weeks and liver samples were submitted for histopathological examination. Liver and kidney copper and zinc concentrations were determined. Neither the molybdate treatment nor the zinc oxide boluses prevented hepatic copper accumulation. The urinary copper excretion, plasma copper concentration, haematocrit and GLDH activity were not significantly different (P > 0.05 from the controls.

  6. Serial changes in selected serum constituents in low birth weight infants on peripheral parenteral nutrition with different zinc and copper supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockitch, G; Pendray, M R; Godolphin, W J; Quigley, G

    1985-07-01

    One hundred and five infants of birth weight 2000 g or less who received peripherally administered parenteral nutrition for periods of three or more weeks, were randomly assigned to groups receiving different amounts of zinc and copper supplement. The blood concentrations of zinc, copper, retinol-binding protein, prealbumin, alkaline phosphatase and aspartate transaminase were followed weekly. Mean serum zinc, retinol-binding protein and prealbumin declined significantly over time while alkaline phosphatase rose. Only the group receiving the highest zinc supplement maintained a mean serum zinc concentration within the normal range at seven weeks. No difference in the protein or enzyme concentrations was found between the different zinc supplement groups. No difference was seen in serum copper or ceruloplasmin between copper dose groups although one intravenous supplement was double that of the other.

  7. Bioextraction of copper and zinc from fly ash from coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilczok, T; Cwalina, B; Chrostowska, D

    1986-02-01

    Results are evaluated of investigations carried out by the Institute of Chemistry and Physics of the Silesia Medical Academy in Sosnowiec into feasibility of bacterial leaching for utilization of fly ash from combustion of black coal. Fly ash separated by electrostatic precipitators in the Dolna Odra power plant fired with black coal was used. Copper content in the fly ash on the average was 0.012%, that of zinc was 0.025%. When Thiobacillus ferroxidans, Thiobacillus thiooxidans and bacteria separated from fly ash were used leaching efficiency after 21 days ranged from 69 to 87% in the case of copper and from 48 to 72% in the case of zinc. Origin of bacteria separated from fly ash was unclear. Autochthonous bacteria in the fly ash being leached increased efficiency of bacterial leaching. Effects of autochthonous bacteria were similar to those of the bacterial culture of Thiobacillus ferroxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans. Investigation results were shown in a table and 2 diagrams. 19 references.

  8. Divalent cations as modulators of neuronal excitability: Emphasis on copper and zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICARDO DELGADO

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on indirect evidence, a role for synaptically released copper and zinc as modulators of neuronal activity has been proposed. To test this proposal directly, we studied the effect of copper, zinc, and other divalent cations on voltage-dependent currents in dissociated toad olfactory neurons and on their firing rate induced by small depolarizing currents. Divalent cations in the nanomolar range sped up the activation kinetics and increased the amplitude of the inward sodium current. In the micromolar range, they caused a dose dependent inhibition of the inward Na+ and Ca2+ currents (I Na and I Ca and reduced de amplitude of the Ca2+-dependent K+ outward current (I Ca-K. On the other hand, the firing rate of olfactory neurons increased when exposed to nanomolar concentration of divalent cations and decreased when exposed to micromolar concentrations. This biphasic effect of divalent cations on neuronal excitability may be explained by the interaction of these ions with high and low affinity sites in voltage-gated channels. Our results support the idea that these ions are normal modulators of neuronal excitability

  9. Effects of zinc pyrithione and copper pyrithione on microbial community function and structure in sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, DG; Dahllof, I.; Nielsen, LP

    2004-01-01

    The effects of the new antifouling biocides, zinc pyrithione (ZPT) and copper pyrithione (CPT), on microbial communities in estuarine sediments were studied in microcosms. As functional endpoints, fluxes of nutrients (NO3-, NH4+, HPO42-, Si(OH)(4)) and protein synthesis ([C-14] leucine incorporat......The effects of the new antifouling biocides, zinc pyrithione (ZPT) and copper pyrithione (CPT), on microbial communities in estuarine sediments were studied in microcosms. As functional endpoints, fluxes of nutrients (NO3-, NH4+, HPO42-, Si(OH)(4)) and protein synthesis ([C-14] leucine...... DNA content, whereas the LOEC for CPT was 0.1 nmol/g dry sediment for the nitrate flux and total DNA content. Nitrate fluxes increased significantly following additions of both ZPT and CPT, whereas ammonium fluxes decreased significantly after ZPT addition, suggesting changes in the nitrification...... and denitrification processes. The total DNA content decreased significantly following addition of both ZPT and CPT, but at the highest addition of ZPT (10 nmol ZPT/g dry sediment), an increase in total DNA content was found. Increased protein synthesis and bacterial diversity were also observed at this concentration...

  10. Influence of alumina on mineralogy and environmental properties of zinc-copper smelting slags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostaghel, Sina; Samuelsson, Caisa; Björkman, Bo

    2013-03-01

    An iron-silicate slag, from a zinc-copper smelting process, and mixtures of this slag with 5wt%, 10wt%, and 15wt% alumina addition were re-melted, semi-rapidly solidified, and characterized using scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The FactSage™6.2 thermodynamic package was applied to compare the stable phases at equilibrium conditions with experimental characterization. A standard European leaching test was also carried out for all samples to investigate the changes in leaching behaviour because of the addition of alumina. Results show that the commonly reported phases for slags from copper and zinc production processes (olivine, pyroxene, and spinel) are the major constituents of the current samples. A correlation can be seen between mineralogical characteristics and leaching behaviours. The sample with 10wt% alumina addition, which contains high amounts of spinels and lower amounts of the other soluble phases, shows the lowest leachabilities for most of the elements.

  11. Copper and zinc removal from roof runoff: from research to full-scale adsorber systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, M; Boller, M

    2006-01-01

    Large, uncoated copper and zinc roofs cause environmental problems if their runoff is infiltrated into the underground or discharged into receiving waters. Since source control is not always feasible, barrier systems for efficient copper and zinc removal are recommended in Switzerland. During the last few years, research carried out in order to test the performance of GIH-calcite adsorber filters as a barrier system. Adsorption and mass transport processes were assessed and described in a mathematical model. However, this model is not suitable for practical design, because it does not give explicit access to design parameters such as adsorber diameter and adsorber bed depth. Therefore, for e.g. engineers, an easy to use design guideline for GIH-calcite adsorber systems was developed, mainly based on the mathematical model. The core of this guideline is the design of the depth of the GIH-calcite adsorber layer. The depth is calculated by adding up the GIH depth for sorption equilibrium and the depth for the mass transfer zone (MTZ). Additionally, the arrangement of other adsorber system components such as particle separation and retention volume was considered in the guideline. Investigations of a full-scale adsorber confirm the successful application of this newly developed design guideline for the application of GIH-calcite adsorber systems in practice.

  12. Copper and Cadmium Toxicity to Marine Phytoplankton, Chaetoceros gracilis and Isochrysis sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suratno Suratno

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In Copper (Cu based antifouling (AF paints Cu was largely used as booster biocide after organotin was banned. Cu is micronutrient which is important in photosynthesis process because Cu is an essential metal as component of enzyme and electron transport chain. But in certain dosage, Cu could be toxic to marine organism. Chaetoceros gracilis and Isochrysis sp. are dominant microalgae in aquatic ecosystem. In this study the effect of Cu and Cadmium (Cd on two marine microalgae, C. gracilis and Isochrysis sp. were compared. Toxicity test was based on American Standard for Testing Material (ASTM. IC50-96 h of Cd as reference toxicant was 2,370 mg.L-1 for C. gracilis and 490 mg.L-1 for Isochrysis sp. IC50-96 h of Cu to growth of C. gracilis was 63.75 mg.L-1 and Isochrysis sp. was 31.80 mg.L-1. Both Cd and Cu were inhibited growth of microalgae. Based on IC50-96 h value, it could be concluded that Cu was more toxic than Cd. Toxicity of Cu was 37 times stronger than Cd for C. gracilis and 15 times for Isochrysis sp. It was estimated that at concentration 10 mg.L-1 Cu does not show observable effect (NOEC to C. gracilis and 5 mg.L-1 to Isochrysis sp. The lowest observable effect of Cu (LOEC to C. gracilis was at concentration 17 mg.L-1 and 10 mg.L-1 for Isochrysis sp.

  13. Binary Component Sorption of Cadmium, and Copper Ions onto Yangtze River Sediments with Different Particle Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxin Fan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sorption is a crucial process that influences immobilization and migration of heavy metals in an aqueous environment. Sediments represent one of the ultimate sinks for heavy metals discharged into water body. Moreover, the particle size of sediments plays an extremely important role in the immobilization of heavy metals. In this study, the sorption and desorption of cadmium (Cd and copper (Cu onto sediments with different particle sizes were investigated to predict the rate and capacity of sorption, to understand their environmental behaviors in an aqueous environment. Batch sorption and kinetic experiments were conducted to obtain the retained amount and rate of Cd and Cu in a binary system. Experimental data were simulated using sorption models to ascertain the sorption capacity and the kinetic rate. Results of European Communities Bureau of Reference (BCR sequential extraction showed the highest concentration of Cd (0.344 mg kg−1, and its distribution varied with sediment particle size and site. Furthermore, most of Cu (approximately 57% to 84% existed as a residual fraction. The sorption of Cu onto six sediments followed a pseudo-first order reaction, whereas that of Cd followed a pseudo-second order reaction. Additionally, the competitive Langmuir model fitted the batch sorption experimental data extremely well. The highest sorption capacities of Cd and Cu reach 0.641 mmol kg−1 and 62.3 mmol kg−1, respectively, on the smallest submerged sediment particles. The amounts of Cu and Cd desorbed (mmol kg−1 increased linearly with the initial concentration increasing. Thus, sediment texture is an important factor that influences the sorption of heavy metal onto sediments.

  14. Changes in phytochelatins and their biosynthetic intermediates in red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) cell suspension cultures under cadmium and zinc stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. Thangavel; Stephanie Long; Rakesh Minocha

    2007-01-01

    Cell suspension cultures of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) were selected to study the effects of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) on phytochelatins (PCs) and related metabolites after 24 h exposure. The PC2 and its precursor, γ-glutamylcysteine (γ-EC) increased two to fourfold with Cd concentrations ranging from 12...

  15. Trace Elements Iron, Copper and Zinc in Vitreous of Patients with Various Vitreoretinal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulochana Konerirajapuram

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To measure the concentrations of iron, copper and zinc in human vitreous and to interpret their levels with various vitreoretinal diseases like proliferative diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment, intraocular foreign body, Eales′ disease and macular hole. Methods: Undiluted vitreous fluid collected during pars plana vitrectomy was used to measure trace elements using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: The level of vitreous iron increased threefold in Eales′ disease (1.85 ± 0.36 pg/ml, 2.5-fold in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (1.534 ± 0.17 pg/ml and 2.3-fold in eyes with intraocular foreign body (1.341 ± 0.25 pg/ml when compared with macular hole (0.588 ± 0.16 pg/ml. This was statistically significant (P < 0.05. Zinc was found to be low in Eales′ disease (0.57 ± 0.22 pg/ml when compared with other groups, though the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The increased level of iron with decreased zinc content in Eales′ disease confirms the earlier reported oxidative stress mechanism for the disease. In proliferative diabetic retinopathy and intraocular foreign body the level of iron increases. This is undesirable as iron can augment glycoxidation, which can lead to increased susceptibility to oxidative damage, in turn causing vitreous liquefaction, posterior vitreous detachment and ultimately retinal detachment and vision loss

  16. Reduction and aggregation of silver, copper and cadmium ions in aqueous solutions of gelatin and carboxymethyl cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapoor, S.; Gopinathan, C.

    1998-01-01

    Radiolytic reduction of silver, copper and cadmium ions and the subsequent formation of their clusters was studied in aqueous gelatin or carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) solutions. Presence of gelatin or CMC in the solution affects the early processes. The rate of reduction by hydrated electron reduces due to complexation. However, when the ratio of silver ions to monomeric chains decreases over a certain limit the process of reduction inhibits completely. The effect of ionic strength or pH and the reducing radical on the rate of formation of colloidal Cu and Cd is also discussed

  17. Growth of Bi doped cadmium zinc telluride single crystals by Bridgman oscillation method and its structural, optical, and electrical analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcelen, V.; Rodriguez-Fernandez, J.; Dieguez, E.; Hidalgo, P.

    2010-01-01

    The II-VI compound semiconductor cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) is very useful for room temperature radiation detection applications. In the present research, we have successfully grown Bi doped CZT single crystals with two different zinc concentrations (8 and 14 at. %) by the Bridgman oscillation method, in which one experiment has been carried out with a platinum (Pt) tube as the ampoule support. Pt also acts as a cold finger and reduces the growth velocity and enhances crystalline perfection. The grown single crystals have been studied with different analysis methods. The stoichiometry was confirmed by energy dispersive by x-ray and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy analyses and it was found there is no incorporation of impurities in the grown crystal. The presence of Cd and Te vacancies was determined by cathodoluminescence studies. Electrical properties were assessed by I-V analysis and indicated higher resistive value (8.53x10 8 Ω cm) for the crystal grown with higher zinc concentration (with Cd excess) compare to the other (3.71x10 5 Ω cm).

  18. The concentration of copper, zinc and molybdenum in serum and red blood cells of Filipinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, B. de la; Lansangan, L.M.; Asprer, G.A.; Paradero, R.R.; Acuna, T.T.

    1975-01-01

    Eighty-two samples of serum and red blood cells from 32 normal subjects and 50 patients with hypertension, old myocardial infarct and diabetes mellitus were analyzed by neutron activation analysis for copper, zinc and molybdenum. The mean value of copper in the normal serum (0.56 μg/g) was found to be lower than the reported mean values of 1.13 μg/g and 1.15 μg/g for foreign subjects. The mean value of copper in the normal red blood cells (0.55 μg/g) was also found to be lower than the reported values of 0.92 μg/g and 0.95 μg/g among foreigners. The mean concentration of copper in the serum of patients with hypertension and old myocardial infarct (1.02+-0.25 μg/g) and diabetes mellitus (1.06+-0.02 μg/g) were higher than the normal value of 0.56+-0.15 μg/g. The mean concentration of zinc in the serum of patients with hypertension and old myocardial infarct (0.74+-0.38 μg/g) and in diabetes mellitus (0.61+-0.33 μg/g) were lower than the normal value of 1.25+-0.58 μg/g. The level of copper in the red blood cells of patients with hypertension and old myocardial infarct (0.99+-0.62 μg/g) and diabetes mellitus (0.75+-0.39 μg/g) were found to be higher than the normal value of (0.55+-0.41) μg/g). The mean concentration of molybdenum in the red blood cells of patients with hypertension and old myocardial infarct (1.16+-0.73 μg/g) and diabetes mellitus (1.55+-0.91 μg/g) were higher than the normal level of 0.73+-0.43 μg/g. The results are discussed

  19. Crystal structure of Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein with a di-nuclear ferroxidase center in a zinc or cadmium-bound form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Hideshi, E-mail: h-yokoya@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan); Tsuruta, Osamu; Akao, Naoya; Fujii, Satoshi [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structures of a metal-bound Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein were determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two zinc ions were tetrahedrally coordinated by ferroxidase center (FOC) residues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two cadmium ions were coordinated in a trigonal-bipyramidal and octahedral manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The second metal ion was more weakly coordinated than the first at the FOC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A zinc ion was found in one negatively-charged pore suitable as an ion path. -- Abstract: Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein (HP-NAP) is a Dps-like iron storage protein forming a dodecameric shell, and promotes adhesion of neutrophils to endothelial cells. The crystal structure of HP-NAP in a Zn{sup 2+}- or Cd{sup 2+}-bound form reveals the binding of two zinc or two cadmium ions and their bridged water molecule at the ferroxidase center (FOC). The two zinc ions are coordinated in a tetrahedral manner to the conserved residues among HP-NAP and Dps proteins. The two cadmium ions are coordinated in a trigonal-bipyramidal and distorted octahedral manner. In both structures, the second ion is more weakly coordinated than the first. Another zinc ion is found inside of the negatively-charged threefold-related pore, which is suitable for metal ions to pass through.

  20. Occurrence of lead, copper, zinc, and arsenic compounds in atmospheric dusts, and the sources of these impurities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, J T; Bloxam, H C.L.

    1933-06-30

    The authors indicate that the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal for industrial and electrical power causes the deposition of zinc, arsenic, copper, and lead which are then found in the dust and soots of most urban areas. They express the fear that these dusts, if not poisonous, may be expected to be injurious to the health of man, animals, and plants.

  1. Solid-phase extraction of copper, iron and zinc ions on Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis loaded on Dowex optipore V-493

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuzen, Mustafa; Melek, Esra [Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Soylak, Mustafa [Erciyes University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)], E-mail: msoylak@gmail.com

    2008-11-30

    Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis loaded on Dowex optipore V-493 as new adsorbent for the separation-preconcentration of heavy metal ions has been proposed. The analytical conditions for the quantitative recoveries of copper(II), iron(III) and zinc(II) including pH, amounts of adsorbent, sample volume, etc. were investigated. The influences of alkaline and earth alkaline ions were also reported. The recovery values for the analytes are generally higher than 95%. The preconcentration factor was 37. The limit of detections of the analyte ions (k = 3, N = 21) were 1.14 {mu}g L{sup -1} for copper, 2.01 {mu}g L{sup -1} for iron and 0.14 {mu}g L{sup -1} for zinc. The relative standard deviations of the determinations were found to be lower than 9%. The procedure was validated by analyzing copper, iron and zinc contents in two certified reference materials, NRCC-SLRS-4 Riverine water and NIST SRM 1515 Apple leaves. Agreements between the obtained results and the certified values were achieved. The developed preconcentration method was applied in the flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of copper, iron and zinc in several samples including a multivitamin-multimineral tablet, dialysis solutions, natural waters and some food samples.

  2. The technical and economic efficiency in the mineral processing for lead-zinc and copper ores by Microsoft excel

    OpenAIRE

    Krstev, Aleksandar; Krstev, Boris; Krstev, Dejan; Vuckovski, Zoran

    2012-01-01

    The comparisons between economical and technical efficiency for lead flotation indicators, zinc flotation indicators in Sasa mine, Toranica and Zletovo mine. The comparisons for economic and technical efficiency for copper flotation indicators in Bucim mine. The possibility of equaled between both efficiencies for flotation indicators from mentioned mines using Microsoft Excel 2010.

  3. An Optical Fiber-Based Sensor Array for the Monitoring of Zinc and Copper Ions in Aqueous Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Kopitzke

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Copper and zinc are elements commonly used in industrial applications as aqueous solutions. Before the solutions can be discharged into civil or native waterways, waste treatment processes must be undertaken to ensure compliance with government guidelines restricting the concentration of ions discharged in solution. While currently there are methods of analysis available to monitor these solutions, each method has disadvantages, be it high costs, inaccuracy, and/or being time-consuming. In this work, a new optical fiber-based platform capable of providing fast and accurate results when performing solution analysis for these metals is described. Fluorescent compounds that exhibit a high sensitivity and selectivity for either zinc or copper have been employed for fabricating the sensors. These sensors demonstrated sub-part-per-million detection limits, 30-second response times, and the ability to analyze samples with an average error of under 10%. The inclusion of a fluorescent compound as a reference material to compensate for fluctuations from pulsed excitation sources has further increased the reliability and accuracy of each sensor. Finally, after developing sensors capable of monitoring zinc and copper individually, these sensors are combined to form a single optical fiber sensor array capable of simultaneously monitoring concentration changes in zinc and copper in aqueous environments.

  4. HEAVY METALS ABUNDANCE IN THE SOILS OF THE PANTELIMON – BRĂNEŞTI AREA, ILFOV COUNTY a CADMIUM, COBALT, CHROMIUM, COPPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Lacatusu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available More than 20 years later, a new research on heavy metals (cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper contents in the soil cover of the Pantelimon – Brăneşti area located East of the Bucharest Municipality and exposed for several decades to the influence of industrial emissions from two non-ferrous metallurgy plants is presented. A 5,912.72 ha area was investigated, 544 samples taken by geometric horizons (0-20; 20-40; 40-60 cm from 215 points have been analyzed.The dominant soils are: Preluvosols, Chernozems, Phaeozems. The analytical data showed that all the heavy metals contents are below the maximum allowable limits and of the alarm thresholds. Higher cadmium and copper concentrations have been registered in the 40-60 cm layer and higher chromium and copper concentrations in the 0-20 cm layer. Cadmium and cobalt distributions are non-central, with a right asymmetry, and the chromium and copper ones are slightly symmetric. The surface distribution of the heavy metals shows the presence of some high contents areas distributed insularly, with a higher frequency around the industrial units. The geochemical abundance indexes are higher than 1 for cadmium and lower for cobalt, chromium, and copper, and the pedo-geochemical abundance indexes are lower than 1 only for chromium.

  5. Hydrothermally treated chitosan hydrogel loaded with copper and zinc particles as a potential micro-nutrient based antimicrobial feed additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parthiban eRajasekaran

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale use of antibiotics in food animal farms as growth promoters is considered as one of the driving factors behind increasing incidence of microbial resistance. Several alternatives are under investigation to reduce the amount of total antibiotics used in order to avoid any potential transmission of drug resistant microbes to humans through food chain. Copper sulfate and zinc oxide salts are used as feed supplement as they exhibit antimicrobial properties in addition to being micronutrients. However, higher dosage of copper and zinc (often needed for growth promoting effect to animals is not advisable because of potential environmental toxicity arising from excreta. Innovative strategies are needed to utilize the complete potential of trace minerals as growth promoting feed supplements. To this end, we describe here the development and preliminary characterization of hydrothermally treated chitosan as a delivery vehicle for copper and zinc nanoparticles that could act as a micronutrient based antimicrobial feed supplement. Material characterization studies showed that hydrothermal treatment makes a chitosan hydrogel that re-arranged to capture the copper and zinc metal particles. Systemic antimicrobial assays showed that this chitosan biopolymer matrix embedded with copper (57.6 μg/ml and zinc (800 μg/ml reduced the load of model gut-bacteria (target organisms of growth promoting antibiotics such as Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus fermentum under in vitro conditions. Particularly, the chitosan/copper/zinc hydrogel exhibited significantly higher antimicrobial effect against L. fermentum, one of the primary targets of antibiotic growth promoters. Additionally, the chitosan matrix ameliorated the cytotoxicity levels of metal supplements when screened against a murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 and in TE-71, a murine thymic epithelial cell line. In this proof of concept study, we show

  6. Survey of four marine antifoulant constituents (copper, zinc, diuron and Irgarol 1051) in two UK estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comber, S D W; Gardner, M J; Boxall, A B A

    2002-06-01

    A field survey of antifoulant concentrations was undertaken in two UK estuaries (Hamble and Orwell) in 1998 and 1999. The two locations offered variations in physical aspects (Orwell estuary being significantly larger than the Hamble) as well as differences in boat densities (Hamble having almost twice as many vessels moored in the estuary and marinas). Samples were analysed for copper, zinc, diuron and Irgarol 1051, and were collected in summer and winter in order to identify potential seasonal variations in concentrations. The effect that different marina types (e.g. locked marina, one located in a natural inlet and pontooned ones in the open estuary) had on antifoulant concentrations were also investigated. Concentrations of the organic booster biocides, diuron and Irgarol 1051 in the marinas and estuaries were mainly influenced by leaching from antifoulant paints applied to the hulls of leisure craft, and so levels reflected the number of vessels present in the water. As a consequence significantly higher concentrations were found in marinas (up to ca. 900 ng l(-1) for diuron and 240 ng l(-1) for Irgarol 1051) compared with estuaries (up to ca. 400 ng l(-1) for diuron and 100 ng l(-1) for Irgarol 1051) and in summer compared with winter. Sediment concentrations of Irgarol 1051 and diuron were rarely detectable other than in the marinas where high concentrations were detected near slipways assumed to be derived from washed off paint chips. Dissolved concentration profiles for copper and zinc in the estuaries and marinas were different from those for the organic booster biocides partly because other sources of these metals contributed to estuarine and marina loads. In particular, riverine loads and inputs from sacrificial anodes attached to leisure craft, exhibited a major influence of estuarine levels of zinc. Consequently, only in the Hamble estuary for copper was there a clear distinction between summer (typically 3-4 microg l(-1)) and winter dissolved values

  7. Serum and tissue contents of copper, calcium, iron and magnesium elements in cases of acne vulgaris after zinc therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Said, S.M.; El-Bedewi, A.F.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of zinc therapy on some trace elements contents in serum and skin was studied in normal group (forty) and patients group with acne vulgaris (26 males and 14 females) with age ranged between 14-30 year. They were under medical treatment with 330 mg oral zinc sulfate for 12 weeks. Highly significant decreases in both serum and tissue contents of copper and calcium were detected, as well as, highly significant decrease in the serum content of magnesium was recorded. The serum content of iron was highly significantly increased and that for tissue content was slightly significantly increased. It could be concluded that zinc therapy could be valuable through modulation of copper. calcium, iron and magnesium in acne patients

  8. Stage-specific and age-dependent profiles of zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium in rat seminiferous tubules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma-Takeda, S.; Nishimura, Y.; Watanabe, Y.; Imaseki, H.; Yukawa, M.

    2004-01-01

    Stage-specific and age-dependent profiles of zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium in testis were examined in Wistar rats by both inductively coupled argon plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with a microdissection technique and in situ elemental imaging of micro-PIXE analysis. The young adult animals (10 weeks old) contained higher levels of zinc and manganese in the seminiferous tubules at stages VII-VIII than stages XI through VI and IX-X and the levels were higher than those of the immature and old animals. Copper and selenium levels at stages VII-VIII of the young adult animals were also higher than those of the immature and old animals. In stages VII and VIII, zinc was higher in the central area of the seminiferous epithelium, where spermatozoa were localized, demonstrating a cell-specific property. (author)

  9. Increasing cadmium and zinc levels in wild common eiders breeding along Canada's remote northern coastline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallory, Mark L., E-mail: mark.mallory@acadiau.ca [Biology Department, Acadia University, Wolfville, Nova Scotia B4P 2R6 (Canada); Braune, Birgit M. [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Raven Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0H3 (Canada); Robertson, Gregory J. [Environment Canada, Wildlife Research Division, 6 Bruce Street, Mount Pearl, Newfoundland and Labrador A1N 4T3 (Canada); Gilchrist, H. Grant [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Raven Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0H3 (Canada); Mallory, Conor D. [Chemistry Department, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Forbes, Mark R. [Biology Department, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada); Wells, Regina [Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service, 512 Lahr Boulevard, Happy Valley-Goose Bay, Newfoundland and Labrador A0P 1C0 (Canada)

    2014-04-01

    The common eider (Somateria mollissima) is an abundant sea duck breeding around the circumpolar Arctic, and is an important component of subsistence and sport harvest in some regions. We determined hepatic cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in the livers of breeding females sampled during three time periods including 1992/3, 2001/2 and 2008 at three sites spanning 53.7°N–75.8°N in the eastern Canadian Arctic. At all sites, concentrations of both Cd and Zn increased ∼ 300% over this time period. The reasons for this rapid increase in concentrations are unclear. - Highlights: • Cd and Zn analyzed in common eider (Somateria mollissima) liver tissue in Canadian Arctic from sites spanning 3000 km. • ∼ 300% increase in concentrations observed over ∼ 20 years • Levels of both elements considered high and near levels thought to pose concerns for wildlife health.

  10. In Vitro Bioavailability of Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, Zinc, and Copper from Gluten-Free Breads Supplemented with Natural Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regula, J; Cerba, A; Suliburska, J; Tinkov, A A

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the content of calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, and copper and determine the bioavailability of these ingredients in gluten-free breads fortified with milk and selected seeds. Due to the increasing prevalence of celiac disease and mineral deficiencies, it has become necessary to produce food with higher nutritional values which maintains the appropriate product characteristics. This study was designed for gluten-free breads fortified with milk and seeds such as flax, poppy, sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds or nuts, and flour with amaranth. Subsequently, digestion was performed in vitro and the potential bioavailability of the minerals was measured. In the case of calcium, magnesium, iron, and copper, higher bioavailability was observed in rice bread, and, in the case of copper and zinc, in buckwheat bread. This demonstrated a clear increase in bioavailability of all the minerals when the bread were enriched. However, satisfactory results are obtained only for the individual micronutrients.

  11. Comparative analysis of the transcriptome responses of zebrafish embryos after exposure to low concentrations of cadmium, cobalt and copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnack, Laura; Klawonn, Thorsten; Kriehuber, Ralf; Hollert, Henner; Schäfers, Christoph; Fenske, Martina

    2018-03-01

    Metal toxicity is a global environmental challenge. Fish are particularly prone to metal exposure, which can be lethal or cause sublethal physiological impairments. The objective of this study was to investigate how adverse effects of chronic exposure to non-toxic levels of essential and non-essential metals in early life stage zebrafish may be explained by changes in the transcriptome. We therefore studied the effects of three different metals at low concentrations in zebrafish embryos by transcriptomics analysis. The study design compared exposure effects caused by different metals at different developmental stages (pre-hatch and post-hatch). Wild-type embryos were exposed to solutions of low concentrations of copper (CuSO 4 ), cadmium (CdCl 2 ) and cobalt (CoSO 4 ) until 96h post-fertilization (hpf) and microarray experiments were carried out to determine transcriptome profiles at 48 and 96hpf. We found that the toxic metal cadmium affected the expression of more genes at 96hpf than 48hpf. The opposite effect was observed for the essential metals cobalt and copper, which also showed enrichment of different GO terms. Genes involved in neuromast and motor neuron development were significantly enriched, agreeing with our previous results showing motor neuron and neuromast damage in the embryos. Our data provide evidence that the response of the transcriptome of fish embryos to metal exposure differs for essential and non-essential metals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. XRF measurements of tin, copper and zinc in antifouling paints coated on leisure boats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ytreberg, Erik; Bighiu, Maria Alexandra; Lundgren, Lennart; Eklund, Britta

    2016-01-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) and other organotin compounds have been restricted for use on leisure boats since 1989 in the EU. Nonetheless, release of TBT is observed from leisure boats during hull maintenance work, such as pressure hosing. In this work, we used a handheld X-ray Fluorescence analyser (XRF) calibrated for antifouling paint matrixes to measure tin, copper and zinc in antifouling paints coated on leisure boats in Sweden. Our results show that over 10% of the leisure boats (n = 686) contain >400 μg/cm 2 of tin in their antifouling coatings. For comparison, one layer (40 μm dry film) of a TBT-paint equals ≈ 800 μg Sn/cm 2 . To our knowledge, tin has never been used in other forms than organotin (OT) in antifouling paints. Thus, even though the XRF analysis does not provide any information on the speciation of tin, the high concentrations indicate that these leisure boats still have OT coatings present on their hull. On several leisure boats we performed additional XRF measurements by progressively scraping off the top coatings and analysing each underlying layer. The XRF data show that when tin is detected, it is most likely present in coatings close to the hull with several layers of other coatings on top. Thus, leaching of OT compounds from the hull into the water is presumed to be negligible. The risk for environmental impacts arises during maintenance work such as scraping, blasting and high pressure hosing activities. The data also show that many boat owners apply excessive paint layers when following paint manufacturers recommendations. Moreover, high loads of copper were detected even on boats sailing in freshwater, despite the more than 20 year old ban, which poses an environmental risk that has not been addressed until now. - Highlights: • A new XRF application for analysing metals in antifouling paints has been used. • Almost 700 leisure boats were analysed for tin, copper and zinc. • Over 10% of the leisure boats contained high, >400

  13. Adaptive and cross-protective responses against cadmium and zinc toxicity in cadmium-resistant bacterium isolated from a zinc mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjaphorn Prapagdee

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is a major environmental hazard, which usually is detected in its ionic form of Cd2+. It also causes adverse toxic effects on human health and other living organisms. Cd-resistant bacteria were isolated from Cd-contaminated soils. One isolate, TAK1, was highly resistance level to Cd toxicity. TAK1 was isolated from soil contaminated with a high Cd concentration (204.1 mg.kg-1. The result of 16S rDNA sequence analysis found that the TAK1 showed the similarity to Ralstonia sp. Physiological adaptive and cross-protective responses to Cd and Zn killing were investigated in Ralstonia sp.TAK1. Exposure to a low concentration of Cd induced adaptive resistance to higher concentrations of Cd. In addition, pretreatment of Ralstonia sp.TAK1 with an inducing concentration of Cd conferred cross-protective response against subsequent exposure to the lethal concentrations of Zn. The induced adaptive and cross-protective response Ralstonia sp.TAK1 required newly synthesized protein(s. Cd-induced adaptive and cross-protective responses against Cd and Zn toxicity are the important mechanisms used by Ralstonia sp.TAK1 to survive in the heavy metal contaminated environments. These findings might lead to the use of Ralstonia sp.TAK1 for microbial based remediation in Cd and Zn-contaminated soils.

  14. Rhizosphere Microbial Community Composition Affects Cadmium and Zinc Uptake by the Metal-Hyperaccumulating Plant Arabidopsis halleri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehe, E. Marie; Weigold, Pascal; Adaktylou, Irini J.; Planer-Friedrich, Britta; Kraemer, Ute; Kappler, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The remediation of metal-contaminated soils by phytoextraction depends on plant growth and plant metal accessibility. Soil microorganisms can affect the accumulation of metals by plants either by directly or indirectly stimulating plant growth and activity or by (im)mobilizing and/or complexing metals. Understanding the intricate interplay of metal-accumulating plants with their rhizosphere microbiome is an important step toward the application and optimization of phytoremediation. We compared the effects of a “native” and a strongly disturbed (gamma-irradiated) soil microbial communities on cadmium and zinc accumulation by the plant Arabidopsis halleri in soil microcosm experiments. A. halleri accumulated 100% more cadmium and 15% more zinc when grown on the untreated than on the gamma-irradiated soil. Gamma irradiation affected neither plant growth nor the 1 M HCl-extractable metal content of the soil. However, it strongly altered the soil microbial community composition and overall cell numbers. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons of DNA extracted from rhizosphere samples of A. halleri identified microbial taxa (Lysobacter, Streptomyces, Agromyces, Nitrospira, “Candidatus Chloracidobacterium”) of higher relative sequence abundance in the rhizospheres of A. halleri plants grown on untreated than on gamma-irradiated soil, leading to hypotheses on their potential effect on plant metal uptake. However, further experimental evidence is required, and wherefore we discuss different mechanisms of interaction of A. halleri with its rhizosphere microbiome that might have directly or indirectly affected plant metal accumulation. Deciphering the complex interactions between A. halleri and individual microbial taxa will help to further develop soil metal phytoextraction as an efficient and sustainable remediation strategy. PMID:25595759

  15. Determination of Zinc, Cadmium and Lead Bioavailability in Contaminated Soils at the Single-Cell Level by a Combination of Whole-Cell Biosensors and Flow Cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Hurdebise

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Zinc, lead and cadmium are metallic trace elements (MTEs that are widespread in the environment and tend to accumulate in soils because of their low mobility and non-degradability. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the applicability of biosensors as tools able to provide data about the bioavailability of such MTEs in contaminated soils. Here, we tested the genetically-engineered strain Escherichia coli pPZntAgfp as a biosensor applicable to the detection of zinc, lead and cadmium by the biosynthesis of green fluorescent protein (GFP accumulating inside the cells. Flow cytometry was used to investigate the fluorescence induced by the MTEs. A curvilinear response to zinc between 0 and 25 mg/L and another curvilinear response to cadmium between 0 and 1.5 mg/L were highlighted in liquid media, while lead did not produce exploitable results. The response relating to a Zn2+/Cd2+ ratio of 10 was further investigated. In these conditions, E. coli pPZntAgfp responded to cadmium only. Several contaminated soils with a Zn2+/Cd2+ ratio of 10 were analyzed with the biosensor, and the metallic concentrations were also measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Our results showed that E. coli pPZntAgfp could be used as a monitoring tool for contaminated soils being processed.

  16. Interaction of cadmium and zinc in biological samples of smokers and chewing tobacco female mouth cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Wadhwa, Sham Kumar; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Naveed; Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas; Baig, Jamil Ahmed; Shah, Abdul Qadir; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Arain, Muhammad Balal

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that zinc (Zn) deficiency and high accumulation of cadmium (Cd) may be associated with increased risk of cancer. The incidence of mouth cancer has increased among females, who possess habits of chewing tobacco with gradients (areca nut and betel quid) and smoking tobacco in Pakistan. In present study, we measured the concentration of Cd and Zn in 96 mouth cancer patients (MCPs) and 110 female controls/referents (67 smoker and chewing tobacco), while 43 have none of smoking and chewing tobacco habits, belongs to different cities of Pakistan. Both controls and patients have same age group (ranged 35-65 years), socio-economic status, localities and dietary habits. The Zn and Cd were determined by flame/graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer, prior to microwave assisted acid digestion method. The Cd/Zn ratio in both biological samples was also calculated. The results of this study showed that the mean value of Zn was lower, while the mean concentration of Cd was higher in the blood and scalp hair samples of MCPs as compared to control subjects (p < 0.001). The controls chewing and smoking tobacco have high level of Cd in both biological samples as compared to those have not smoking or chewing tobacco (p < 0.012). The Cd/Zn ratio was higher in MCPs than control subjects. This study is compelling evidence in support of positive associations between cadmium, cigarette smoking, deficiency of Zn and cancer risk.

  17. Interaction of cadmium and zinc in biological samples of smokers and chewing tobacco female mouth cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazi, Tasneem Gul, E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Wadhwa, Sham Kumar, E-mail: wadhwashamkumar@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Afridi, Hassan Imran, E-mail: hassanimranafridi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kazi, Naveed, E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com [Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Baig, Jamil Ahmed, E-mail: jab_mughal@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Shah, Abdul Qadir, E-mail: aqshah07@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kolachi, Nida Fatima [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Arain, Muhammad Balal, E-mail: bilal_ku2004@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics and Basic Sciences, NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan)

    2010-04-15

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that zinc (Zn) deficiency and high accumulation of cadmium (Cd) may be associated with increased risk of cancer. The incidence of mouth cancer has increased among females, who possess habits of chewing tobacco with gradients (areca nut and betel quid) and smoking tobacco in Pakistan. In present study, we measured the concentration of Cd and Zn in 96 mouth cancer patients (MCPs) and 110 female controls/referents (67 smoker and chewing tobacco), while 43 have none of smoking and chewing tobacco habits, belongs to different cities of Pakistan. Both controls and patients have same age group (ranged 35-65 years), socio-economic status, localities and dietary habits. The Zn and Cd were determined by flame/graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer, prior to microwave assisted acid digestion method. The Cd/Zn ratio in both biological samples was also calculated. The results of this study showed that the mean value of Zn was lower, while the mean concentration of Cd was higher in the blood and scalp hair samples of MCPs as compared to control subjects (p < 0.001). The controls chewing and smoking tobacco have high level of Cd in both biological samples as compared to those have not smoking or chewing tobacco (p < 0.012). The Cd/Zn ratio was higher in MCPs than control subjects. This study is compelling evidence in support of positive associations between cadmium, cigarette smoking, deficiency of Zn and cancer risk.

  18. Bioavailability of zinc and copper in biosolids compared to their soluble salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heemsbergen, Diane A.; McLaughlin, Mike J.; Whatmuff, Mark; Warne, Michael St.J.; Broos, Kris; Bell, Mike; Nash, David; Barry, Glenn; Pritchard, Deb; Penney, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    For essential elements, such as copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn), the bioavailability in biosolids is important from a nutrient release and a potential contamination perspective. Most ecotoxicity studies are done using metal salts and it has been argued that the bioavailability of metals in biosolids can be different to that of metal salts. We compared the bioavailability of Cu and Zn in biosolids with those of metal salts in the same soils using twelve Australian field trials. Three different measures of bioavailability were assessed: soil solution extraction, CaCl 2 extractable fractions and plant uptake. The results showed that bioavailability for Zn was similar in biosolid and salt treatments. For Cu, the results were inconclusive due to strong Cu homeostasis in plants and dissolved organic matter interference in extractable measures. We therefore recommend using isotope dilution methods to assess differences in Cu availability between biosolid and salt treatments. - Metals in biosolids are not necessarily less bioavailable than their soluble salt.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of strontium molybdate doped with copper, cobalt and zinc for purposes photocatalytic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutra, F.B.; Silva, M.M.S.; Moriyama, A.L.L.; Souza, C.P.

    2016-01-01

    The broad concerns of contemporary society with environmental problems requires legislation and more effective techniques for wastewater treatment. In recent years, ceramic materials that have properties such as high melting points and high stability have been receiving great emphasis in several studies in particular heterogeneous photocatalysis, rapid and efficient method for the complete mineralization of contaminants. In this context, the present work deals with the synthesis and characterization of molybdate Strontium (SrMoO4) doped with copper, cobalt and zinc for the purpose of photocatalytic studies. The compounds were synthesized by complexation method EDTA / Citrate basic medium. The powders were characterized by Thermogravimetric Analysis (TG), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Particle size distribution by laser diffraction, Spectroscopy in the UV-Visible region, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), showing promising results as the crystalline phase of development and potential uses for the purpose of heterogeneous photocatalysis. (author)

  20. Variation in copper and zinc tolerance and accumulation in 12 willow clones: implications for phytoextraction*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei-dong; Wang, Yu-yan; Zhao, Feng-liang; Ding, Zhe-li; Zhang, Xin-cheng; Zhu, Zhi-qiang; Yang, Xiao-e

    2014-01-01

    Willows (Salix spp.) have shown high potential for the phytoextraction of heavy metals. This study compares variations in copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) tolerance and accumulation potential among 12 willow clones grown in a nutrient solution treated with 50 μmol/L of Cu or Zn, respectively. The results showed differences in the tolerance and accumulation of Cu and Zn with respect to different species/clones. The biomass variation among clones in response to Cu or Zn exposure ranged from the stimulation of growth to inhibition, and all of the clones tested showed higher tolerance to Cu than to Zn. The clones exhibited less variation in Cu accumulation but larger variation in Zn accumulation. Based on translocation factors, it was found that most of the Cu was retained in the roots and that Zn was more mobile than Cu for all clones. It is concluded that most willow clones are good accumulators of Zn and Cu. PMID:25183033

  1. Bioavailability of zinc and copper in biosolids compared to their soluble salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heemsbergen, Diane A., E-mail: diane.heemsbergen@csiro.a [Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, Adelaide, SA 5064 (Australia); McLaughlin, Mike J., E-mail: mike.mclaughlin@csiro.a [Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, Adelaide, SA 5064 (Australia); School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5064 (Australia); Whatmuff, Mark, E-mail: mark.whatmuff@csiro.a [Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, Adelaide, SA 5064 (Australia); NSW Department of Primary Industries, Locked Bag 4 Richmond, NSW 2753 (Australia); Warne, Michael St.J., E-mail: michael.warne@csiro.a [Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, Adelaide, SA 5064 (Australia); Broos, Kris, E-mail: kris.broos@vito.b [Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, Adelaide, SA 5064 (Australia); Bell, Mike, E-mail: Mike.Bell@dpi.qld.gov.a [Department of Primary Industries, Kingaroy, Queensland 4610 (Australia); Nash, David, E-mail: David.Nash@dpi.vic.gov.a [Department of Primary Industries, Ellinbank, Victoria 3821 (Australia); Barry, Glenn, E-mail: Glenn.Barry@nrw.qld.gov.a [Department of Natural Resources and Mines, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068 (Australia); Pritchard, Deb, E-mail: D.Pritchard@curtin.edu.a [Curtin University of Technology, Muresk Institute, Northam, Western Australia 6401 (Australia); Penney, Nancy, E-mail: Nancy.Penney@WaterCorporation.com.a [Water Corporation of Western Australia, Leederville, Western Australia 6001 (Australia)

    2010-05-15

    For essential elements, such as copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn), the bioavailability in biosolids is important from a nutrient release and a potential contamination perspective. Most ecotoxicity studies are done using metal salts and it has been argued that the bioavailability of metals in biosolids can be different to that of metal salts. We compared the bioavailability of Cu and Zn in biosolids with those of metal salts in the same soils using twelve Australian field trials. Three different measures of bioavailability were assessed: soil solution extraction, CaCl{sub 2} extractable fractions and plant uptake. The results showed that bioavailability for Zn was similar in biosolid and salt treatments. For Cu, the results were inconclusive due to strong Cu homeostasis in plants and dissolved organic matter interference in extractable measures. We therefore recommend using isotope dilution methods to assess differences in Cu availability between biosolid and salt treatments. - Metals in biosolids are not necessarily less bioavailable than their soluble salt.

  2. Copper, Zinc Superoxide Dismutase is Primarily a Cytosolic Protein in Human Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crapo, James D.; Oury, Tim; Rabouille, Catherine; Slot, Jan W.; Chang, Ling-Yi

    1992-11-01

    The intracellular localization of human copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD; superoxide:superoxide oxidoreductase, EC 1.15.1.1) was evaluated by using EM immunocytochemistry and both isolated human cell lines and human tissues. Eight monoclonal antibodies raised against either native or recombinant human Cu,Zn-SOD and two polyclonal antibodies raised against either native or recombinant human Cu,Zn-SOD were used. Fixation with 2% paraformaldehyde/0.2% glutaraldehyde was found necessary to preserve normal distribution of the protein. Monoclonal antibodies were less effective than polyclonal antibodies in recognizing the antigen after adequate fixation of tissue. Cu,Zn-SOD was found widely distributed in the cell cytosol and in the cell nucleus, consistent with it being a soluble cytosolic protein. Mitochondria and secretory compartments did not label for this protein. In human cells, peroxisomes showed a labeling density slightly less than that of cytoplasm.

  3. Copper, zinc, molybdenum and uranium distribution in bottom sediments of the Black Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhorov, V.A.; Sovga, E.E.; Solov'eva, L.B.; Oguslavskij, P.G.; Babinets, A.E.; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Geologicheskikh Nauk)

    1983-01-01

    The results of investigations of bottom sediments of the Black Sea by four expeditions aboard scientific ships ''Academician Vernadsky'', ''Michael Lomonosov'', ''Academician Vavilov'' in 1972-1978, are presented. 70 columns of bottom sediments are studied, about 200 samples are analyzed for Cu, Zn, Mo and U using chemical methods with photometric ending. Charts of Cu, Zn, Mo and U distribution in modern, ancient Black Sea and neoeuxenic sediments of the basin are prepared. Preferable uranium concentration in modern sediments, copper and molybdenum - in sapropelic muds of ancient Black Sea sediments and zinc - in neoeuxenic layers, is shown. Uranium geochemical behaviour is determined by physico-chemical regime of the basin, the presence of restoring situation which promotes the formation of uranium sorption-active forms in the upper layer of modern sediments. Neither sapropelite (organic matter), nor the peculiarities of lithological composition of sediments affect uranium behaviour

  4. Zinc and copper distribution in swine wastewater treated by anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestonaro do Amaral, André; Kunz, Airton; Radis Steinmetz, Ricardo Luís; Justi, Karin Cristiane

    2014-08-01

    Swine wastewater contain high levels of metals, such as copper and zinc, which can cause a negative impact on the environment. Anaerobic digestion is a process commonly used to remove carbon, and can act on metal availability (e.g., solubility or oxidation state). The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of anaerobic digestion on total Zn and Cu contents, and their chemical fractioning due to the biodegradation of the effluent over different hydraulic retention times (HRTs). The sequential extraction protocol proposed by the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR), plus two additional fractions, was the method chosen for this study of Cu and Zn distribution evaluation in swine wastewater. The Zn and Cu concentrations in raw swine manure were 63.58 ± 27.72 mg L(-1) and 8.98 ± 3.99 mg L(-1), respectively. The metal retention capacity of the bioreactor decreased when the HRT was reduced from 17.86 d to 5.32 d. Anaerobic digestion had a direct influence on zinc and copper distribution when raw manure (RM) and digested manure (DM) were compared. The reducible fraction showed a reduction of between 3.17% and 7.84% for Zn and between 2.52% and 11.92% for Cu when DM was compared with RM. However, the metal concentration increased in the oxidizable fraction of DM, viz. from 3.01% to 10.64% for Zn and from 4.49% to 16.71% for Cu, thus demonstrating the effect of anaerobic conditions on metal availability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Changes in metal mobility assessed by EDTA kinetic extraction in three polluted soils after repeated phytoremediation using a cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhu; Wu, Longhua; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2018-03-01

    Phytoextraction is one of the most promising technologies for the decontamination of metal-polluted agricultural soils. Effects of repeated phytoextraction by the cadmium (Cd)/zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola on metal (Cd, Zn, copper (Cu) and lead (Pb)) mobility were investigated in three contaminated soils with contrasting properties. EDTA kinetic extraction and the two first-order reactions model showed advantages in the assessment of soil metal mobility and clearly discriminated changes in metal fractions induced by phytoextraction. Repeated phytoextraction led to large decreases in readily labile (Q 1 0 ) and less labile (Q 2 0 ) fractions of Cd and Zn in all three soils with the sole exception of an increase in the Q 2 0 of Zn in the highly polluted soil. However, Q 1 0 fractions of soil Cu and Pb showed apparent increases with the sole exception of Pb in the acid polluted soil but showed a higher desorption rate constant (k 1 ). Furthermore, S. plumbizincicola decreased the non-labile fraction (Q 3 0 ) of all metals tested, indicating that the hyperaccumulator can redistribute soil metals from non-labile to labile fractions. This suggests that phytoextraction decreased the mobility of the metals hyperaccumulated by the plant (Cd and Zn) but increased the mobility of the metals not hyperaccumulated (Cu and Pb). Thus, phytoextraction of soils contaminated with mixtures of metals must be performed carefully because of potential increases in the mobility of non-hyperaccumulated metals in the soil and the consequent environmental risks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. SOME BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN SERUM AND TISSUES OF BROILERS EXPOSED TO CADMIUM AND TRIAL TO REDUCE ITS EFFECT BY ZINC SUPPLEMENTATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KAMAL, A.M.; ABD EL-HAKIM, T.; ABU-TALEB, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the changes in biochemical parameters of blood and tissue mineral levels caused by various levels of dietary cadmium (Cd) and the effects of zinc on cadmium-induced changes in broilers. A total of 210 days old broiler chicks were randomly distributed into 7 dietary groups of 30 chicks in each. Group 1 was feed basal diet and served as control group. The diets of the groups 2, 3 and 4 were supplemented with 50, 75 and 100 mg Cd/kg, respectively. Groups 5, 6 and 7 received 50, 75 and 100 mg Cd /kg plus 40 mg Zn/kg which added to the basal ration from one day to 42 days. Water and feed were provided ad libitum. The results showed that addition of Cd in the ration of broiler caused the significant reduction in live body weight as well as body weight gain and significant increase in serum total protein, globulin, urea, creatinine and activities of AST, ALT, ALP, LDH and GGT. In addition, Cd caused significant increases in triiodothyronine (T3), T3/T4 ratio and lipid peroxidation. On the other hand, decrease in calcium, phosphorus, zinc and cholesterol was observed while serum glucose did not affect by cadmium.Supplementation of zinc in the diet of broiler improved the reduction in body weight and body weight gain and also increased calcium, phosphorus and zinc and improved liver and kidney functions

  7. Common and metal-specific proteomic responses to cadmium and zinc in the metal tolerant ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Oidiodendron maius Zn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapello, M; Martino, E; Perotto, S

    2015-05-01

    Although adaptive metal tolerance may arise in fungal populations in polluted soils, the mechanisms underlying metal-specific tolerance are poorly understood. Comparative proteomics is a powerful tool to identify variation in protein profiles caused by changing environmental conditions, and was used to investigate protein accumulation in a metal tolerant isolate of the ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Oidiodendron maius exposed to zinc and cadmium. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and shotgun proteomics followed by mass spectrometry lead to the identification of common and metal-specific proteins and pathways. Proteins selectively induced by cadmium exposure were molecular chaperons of the Hsp90 family, cytoskeletal proteins and components of the translation machinery. Zinc significantly up-regulated metabolic pathways related to energy production and carbohydrates metabolism, likely mirroring zinc adaptation of this fungal isolate. Common proteins induced by the two metal ions were the antioxidant enzyme Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and ubiquitin. In mycelia exposed to zinc and cadmium, both proteomic techniques also identified agmatinase, an enzyme involved in polyamine biosynthesis. This novel finding suggests that, like plants, polyamines may have important functions in response to abiotic environmental stress in fungi. Genetic evidence also suggests that the biosynthesis of polyamines via an alternative metabolic pathway may be widespread in fungi.

  8. CONTENT OF ZINC, LEAD AND CADMIUM IN SELECTED AGRICULTURAL SOILS IN THE AREA OF THE ŚLĄSKIE AND CIĘŻKOWICKIE FOOTHILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Józefowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the state of contamination with zinc, lead, and cadmium in selected soils of the Śląskie and Ciężkowickie Foothills and to determine the impact of the type of agricultural use and selected physico-chemical properties of soils on heavy metal content. The test soils were characterized by natural content of zinc, lead, and cadmium in most cases. Only one type of soil located on Śląskie Foothills developed increased levels of Cd (1.1 mg · kg-1. The content of zinc, lead, and cadmium in the surface layer (0-30 cm was higher in the soils of Śląskie Foothills than in soils of Ciężkowickie Foothills. The bedrocks from which the soils of these two mesoregions are formed differed significantly only in the content of zinc (it was higher in the soils of Śląskie Foothills. The content of Zn, Pb, and Cd in the surface layer of soil depends on its texture and organic carbon and total nitrogen content. There was also a positive correlation between the content of Pb and Cd and hydrolytic acidity and between the content of Zn and Ca and CEC. Different types of land uses did not influence the content of the metals.

  9. Exploration of the phycoremediation potential of Laminaria digitata towards diflubenzuron, lindane, copper and cadmium in a multitrophic pilot-scale experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anacleto, Patrícia; van den Heuvel, Freek H M; Oliveira, C

    2017-01-01

    The presence of contaminants in aquatic ecosystems can cause serious problems to the environment and marine organisms. This study aims to evaluate the phycoremediation capacity of macroalgae Laminaria digitata for pesticides (diflubenzuron and lindane) and toxic elements (cadmium and copper) in s...

  10. Secondary poisoning of cadmium, copper and mercury: implications for the Maximum Permissible Concentrations and Negligible Concentrations in water, sediment and soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit CE; Wezel AP van; Jager T; Traas TP; CSR

    2000-01-01

    The impact of secondary poisoning on the Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPCs) and Negligible Concentrations (NCs) of cadmium, copper and mercury in water, sediment and soil have been evaluated. Field data on accumulation of these elements by fish, mussels and earthworms were used to derive

  11. Zinc, nickel and cadmium in carambolas marketed in Guangzhou and Hong Kong, China: Implication for human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.T.; Liao, B.; Lan, C.Y.; Qiu, J.W.; Shu, W.S.

    2007-01-01

    Carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) is a popular juicy fruit throughout the tropical and subtropical world. This study was designed to quantify the levels of zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd) in carambolas marketed in southern China, and further to evaluate the potential health risk of human consumption of carambola. Zinc concentrations, ranging from 1.471 to 2.875 mg/kg (on fresh weight basis), were below the maximum permissible concentration for Zn in fruit of China (5 mg/kg). However, Ni concentrations (0.134-0.676 mg/kg) were considerably higher than the related recommendation values. Furthermore, Cd concentrations in 51% of the carambolas purchased from Guangzhou exceeded the maximum permissible concentration for Cd in fruit of China (0.03 mg/kg). Our results implicated that the consumption of 0.385 kg carambola contaminated by Cd per day would cause the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of Cd by the consumer to be exceeded. In addition, the remarkably high Ni concentrations in carambolas should also be of concern. The status of heavy metal contamination of carambola products marketed in the other regions and their implications for human health should be identified urgently by in-depth studies

  12. Phytoavailability, human risk assessment and transfer characteristics of cadmium and zinc contamination from urban gardens in Kano, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdu, Nafiu; Agbenin, John O; Buerkert, Andreas

    2011-12-01

    Quantitative data about phytoavailability and transfer into consumed plant parts for heavy metals in intensively managed urban vegetable production areas of sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. We therefore studied the transfer of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) from soil to the root and subsequent translocation to edible portions of four vegetables in six urban gardens. While respective diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-available Zn and Cd concentrations ranged from 18 to 66 mg kg(-1) and from 0.19 to 0.35 mg kg(-1) , respectively, in soils, total Zn and Cd were 8.4-256 mg kg(-1) and 0.04-1.7 mg kg(-1) in shoot parts. Metal transfer factor (MTF) ratios were higher in Zn (0.2-0.9) than in Cd (0.1-0.6). Our data suggest that total Zn concentration in soil is a reliable indicator to assess its transfer from soil to crop in lettuce, carrot and parsley, while for Cd DTPA-extractable concentration may be used to estimate soil-crop transfer of Cd in amaranthus and carrot. Overall, Cd was more easily translocated to the aerial plant parts than Zn. Zinc and Cd accumulation by vegetables in our soils is mainly a metabolically controlled process. Such accumulation can contaminate the ecosystem but under our conditions intake and ingestion of these metals will likely have to occur over a prolonged period to experience health hazard. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Zinc, nickel and cadmium in carambolas marketed in Guangzhou and Hong Kong, China: Implication for human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J.T.; Liao, B.; Lan, C.Y. [School of Life Sciences and State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275, Guangdong (China); Qiu, J.W. [Deparment of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Shu, W.S. [School of Life Sciences and State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275, Guangdong (China)], E-mail: shuws@mail.sysu.edu.cn

    2007-12-15

    Carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) is a popular juicy fruit throughout the tropical and subtropical world. This study was designed to quantify the levels of zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd) in carambolas marketed in southern China, and further to evaluate the potential health risk of human consumption of carambola. Zinc concentrations, ranging from 1.471 to 2.875 mg/kg (on fresh weight basis), were below the maximum permissible concentration for Zn in fruit of China (5 mg/kg). However, Ni concentrations (0.134-0.676 mg/kg) were considerably higher than the related recommendation values. Furthermore, Cd concentrations in 51% of the carambolas purchased from Guangzhou exceeded the maximum permissible concentration for Cd in fruit of China (0.03 mg/kg). Our results implicated that the consumption of 0.385 kg carambola contaminated by Cd per day would cause the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of Cd by the consumer to be exceeded. In addition, the remarkably high Ni concentrations in carambolas should also be of concern. The status of heavy metal contamination of carambola products marketed in the other regions and their implications for human health should be identified urgently by in-depth studies.

  14. Zinc, nickel and cadmium in carambolas marketed in Guangzhou and Hong Kong, China: implication for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J T; Liao, B; Lan, C Y; Qiu, J W; Shu, W S

    2007-12-15

    Carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) is a popular juicy fruit throughout the tropical and subtropical world. This study was designed to quantify the levels of zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd) in carambolas marketed in southern China, and further to evaluate the potential health risk of human consumption of carambola. Zinc concentrations, ranging from 1.471 to 2.875 mg/kg (on fresh weight basis), were below the maximum permissible concentration for Zn in fruit of China (5 mg/kg). However, Ni concentrations (0.134-0.676 mg/kg) were considerably higher than the related recommendation values. Furthermore, Cd concentrations in 51% of the carambolas purchased from Guangzhou exceeded the maximum permissible concentration for Cd in fruit of China (0.03 mg/kg). Our results implicated that the consumption of 0.385 kg carambola contaminated by Cd per day would cause the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of Cd by the consumer to be exceeded. In addition, the remarkably high Ni concentrations in carambolas should also be of concern. The status of heavy metal contamination of carambola products marketed in the other regions and their implications for human health should be identified urgently by in-depth studies.

  15. Exposure of cultured human proximal tubular cells to cadmium, mercury, zinc and bismuth: toxicity and metallothionein induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodilla, V; Miles, A T; Jenner, W; Hawksworth, G M

    1998-08-14

    The kidney, in particular the proximal convoluted tubule, is a major target site for the toxic effects of various metals. However, little is known about the early effects of these metals after acute exposure in man. In the present study we have evaluated the toxicity of several inorganic metal compounds (CdCl2, HgCl2, ZnCl2, and Bi(NO3)3) and the induction of metallothionein by these compounds in cultured human proximal tubular (HPT) cells for up to 4 days. The results showed that bismuth was not toxic even at the highest dose (100 microM) used, while zinc, cadmium and mercury exhibited varying degrees of toxicity, zinc being the least toxic and mercury the most potent. A significant degree of interindividual variation between the different isolates used in these experiments was also observed. All metals used in the present study induced MT, as revealed by immunocytochemistry. All metals showed maximal induction between 1 and 3 days after treatment. Although a certain amount of constitutive MT was present in the cultures, the intensity of the staining varied with time in culture and between the different isolates studied. No correlation could be made between the intensity of the staining in control cultures (indicating total amount of constitutive MT) and the susceptibility of a given isolate to metal toxicity. Furthermore, no correlation could be made between metal-induced MT and the susceptibility of a given isolate to that particular metal.

  16. Arsenic, copper and zinc occurrence at the Wangaloa coal mine, southeast Otago, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, A.; Craw, D.

    2001-01-01

    Waste piles, created from open cast coal mining activities at the abandoned Wangaloa mine in SE Otago, have exposed pyrite (FeS 2 ) to atmospheric conditions. This has led to the acidification of the surface tailings and nearby drainage waters (acid mine drainage, AMD). Mobilisation of trace metals arsenic (As), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) has occurred, partly as a result of the low pH levels (ca. pH 2-4), leading to elevated concentrations of these metals in receiving waters. Authigenic pyrite deposited in a marginal marine coal-forming environment is enriched in As with levels reaching up to 100 ppm. Copper and Zn in solid solution are not elevated above background levels in either coal measures or associated pyrite. Water discharges, sediments, waste rock and background samples were sampled and analysed during the driest (summer) and wettest (winter) seasons of 1998 and 1999. During the winter season, water discharging from the waste piles contained up to 0.7 ppm (mg/kg) As, as measured in 1998. During the 1999 wettest season, no such levels of As were observed, with the highest level attaining 0.07 ppm As. Copper and Zn were locally elevated in waters, with Zn concentrations reaching 1 ppm. During the summer season of 1999, only one sampling site recorded elevated metal concentrations. Adverse effects from the remnant waste piles appear to be highly localised due to downstream natural remediation processes occurring in a wetland area. The absence of strongly elevated metal concentrations during the drier season is a result of strongly depressed water levels within the waste piles. Flushing of acid and metals occurs when the water levels increase with the onset of the winter season. During the summer season, pyrite within the waste piles has been readily decomposing from the increased availability and transport of atmospheric oxygen

  17. Effects of cell condition, pH, and temperature on lead, zinc, and copper sorption to Acidithiobacillus caldus strain BC13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aston, John E.; Apel, William A.; Lee, Brady D.; Peyton, Brent M.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: →At. caldus sorbs lead, zinc, and copper across a range of pH and temperature. →At. caldus shows a relatively high sorption capacity for zinc and copper at low pH. → Lead, zinc, and copper sorption decreases in tertiary mixtures. → Copper appears to sorb via a different mechanism(s) than lead or zinc. - Abstract: This study describes the effects of cell condition, pH, and temperature on lead, zinc, and copper sorption to Acidithiobacillus caldus strain BC13 with a Langmuir model. Copper exhibited the highest loading capacity, 4.76 ± 0.28 mmol g -1 , to viable cells at pH 5.5. The highest k L (binding-site affinity) observed was 61.2 ± 3.0 L mmol -1 to dehydrated cells at pH 4.0. The pHs that maximized loading capacities and binding-site affinities were generally between 4.0 and 5.5, where the sum of free-proton and complexed-metal concentrations was near a minimum. Of additional importance, lead, zinc, and copper sorbed to viable cells at pH values as low as 1.5. Previous studies with other acidithiobacilli did not measure viable-cell sorption below pH 4.0. In separate experiments, desorption studies showed that far less copper was recovered from viable cells than any other metal or cell condition, suggesting that uptake may play an important role in copper sorption by At. caldus strain BC13. To reflect an applied system, the sorption of metal mixtures was also studied. In these experiments, lead, zinc, and copper sorption from a tertiary mixture were 40.2 ± 4.3%, 28.7 ± 3.8%, and 91.3 ± 3.0%, respectively, of that sorbed in single-metal systems.

  18. Electrochemical determination of the levels of cadmium, copper and lead in polluted soil and plant samples from mining areas in Zamfara State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modupe Mabel Ogunlesi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of lead, copper and cadmium in soil and plant samples collected from Abare and Dareta villages in Anka local government area of Zamfara State, Nigeria have been electrochemically determined. The study was carried out because of the high mortality of women and children under five, reported for these areas in June 2010. The cause was ascribed to the lead poisoning which has been related to the mining and processing of gold-containing ores. Linear sweep anodic stripping voltammetry technique was used with the glassy carbon working, Ag/AgCl reference and platinum auxiliary electrodes. Voltammetric peaks for lead, copper and cadmium that were observed at -495 mV, -19.4 mV and -675 mV, respectively, have formed a basis for construction of the corresponding calibration plots. The concentrations (in mg/kg of lead, copper and cadmium in the soil samples were found in the ranges of 18.99−26087.70, 2.96−584.60 and 0.00−1354.25, respectively. The concentration values for lead were far above already established USEPA (2002 and WHO (1996 maximum permissible limits for residential areas. The concentrations of lead, copper and cadmium in the food samples ranged between 5.70−79.91, 11.17−41.21 and 0.00−5.74 mg/kg. Several of these values are found well above the FAO/WHO limits of 0.1, 2 and 0.1 mg/kg, respectively. The results indicate that in addition to the lead poisoning, copper and cadmium poisoning may also be responsible for sudden and high mortality in this population.

  19. Effects of dissolved metals and other hydrominerals on in vivo intestinal zinc uptake in freshwater rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glover, Chris N.; Hogstrand, Christer

    2003-01-01

    For aquatic organisms, zinc is both an essential nutrient and an environmental contaminant. The intestine is potentially the most important route of zinc absorption, yet little is known regarding this uptake pathway for zinc in fish. A recently developed in vivo perfusion system was used to investigate the effect of luminal composition upon intestinal zinc uptake in freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Perfusate cadmium and copper had specific, yet distinct, antagonistic effects upon lumen to tissue zinc movement. Copper significantly reduced the proportion of zinc taken up from the perfusate, and concomitantly limited the passage of zinc into the circulation and beyond. Conversely, cadmium decreased subepithelial zinc accumulation, with rates falling to 29 nmol g -1 h -1 from the control (zinc alone) values of 53 nmol g -1 h -1 . Calcium had a similar action to copper, also reducing post-intestinal zinc accumulation from 0.06 to 0.02 nmol g -1 h -1 , an effect attributed to interactions between calcium and the zinc uptake pathway. In addition to these effects, luminal composition also had a marked influence upon epithelial response to zinc. Calcium, copper and magnesium all greatly reduced zinc-induced mucus secretion. Cadmium, a toxic metal, significantly increased mucus secretion. It is proposed that these modifications were related to the essentiality of each element, and their potential mechanisms of uptake. Despite changes at the epithelium, the post-epithelial accumulation of zinc was dependent mainly upon the nature of the competing cation. Intestinal saline ion substitution experiments suggested a potential link of potassium ion efflux to zinc uptake. The effect of pH buffering of luminal solutions was also investigated

  20. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the simultaneous separation of trace amounts of zinc and cadmium ions in water samples prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometry determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Zia Mohammadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the proposed method, carbon tetrachloride and ethanol were used as extraction and dispersive solvents. Several factors that may be affected on the extraction process, such as extraction solvent, disperser solvent, the volume of extraction and disperser solvent, pH of the aqueous solution and extraction time were optimized. Under the optimal conditions, linearity was maintained between 1.0 ng mL-1 to 1.5 mg mL-1 for zinc and 1.0 ng mL-1 to 0.4 mg mL-1 for cadmium. The proposed method has been applied for determination of trace amount of zinc and cadmium in standard and water samples with satisfactory results.

  1. The use of retardion 11A8 amphoteric ion exchange resin for separation and determination of cadmium and zinc in geological and environmental materials by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samczynski, Z.; Dybczynski, R.

    2001-01-01

    In this work the ion exchange separation scheme with the use of amphoteric ion exchange resin Retardion 11A8 underlying the method for the determination of cadmium and zinc in geological and environmental materials by neutron activation analysis has been devised. The accuracy of the elaborated method was tested by determining Cd and Zn content in two reference materials: Lake Sediment (SL-1) of environmental and Zinnwaldite ZW-C of geological origin. The results of quantitative determinations show good agreement with the certified values. Gamma ray spectra of zinc and cadmium fractions are practically free from other activities apart from those, which are normally observed in the background. Analytical results were corrected for the blank resulting from using reagents, glassware and contact with atmosphere when isolation of analytes before neutron activation is accomplished. Considerable minimization and good reproducibility of the blank was finally achieved.(authors)

  2. Cholinesterase activity in the cup oyster Saccostrea sp. exposed to chlorpyrifos, imidacloprid, cadmium and copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncaleano-Niño, Angela M; Luna-Acosta, Andrea; Gómez-Cubillos, Maria Camila; Villamil, Luisa; Ahrens, Michael J

    2018-04-30

    In the present study, the sensitivity and concentration dependence of three functionally-defined components of cholinesterase activity (total: T-ChE; eserine-sensitive: Es-ChE; and eserine-resistant: Er-ChE) were quantified in the gill, digestive gland and adductor muscle of the tropical cup oyster Saccostrea sp., following acute (96h) aqueous exposure to commercial formulations of the organophosphate (OP) insecticide chlorpyrifos and the neonicotinoid (NN) imidacloprid (concentration range: 0.1-100mg/L), as well as to dissolved cadmium and copper (concentration range: 1-1000μg/L). Oysters (1.5-5.0cm shell length), field-collected from a boating marina in Santa Marta, Colombia (Caribbean Sea) were exposed in the laboratory to each substance at five concentrations. T-ChE, Es-ChE, and Er-ChE activity were quantified in the three tissues in pools of 5 individuals (3 replicates per concentration), before and after inhibition with the total cholinesterase inhibitor eserine (physostigmine, 100µM). Oysters exposed to chlorpyrifos, imidacloprid and Cd showed reduced T-ChE and Es-ChE activity in gills at highest exposure concentrations, with Es-ChE activity being inhibited proportionally more so than T-ChE, whereas Er-ChE activity showed no significant concentration-response. Digestive gland also showed diminished T-ChE, Es-ChE and Er-ChE activity for highest chlorpyrifos and Cd concentrations relative to controls, but an increase of T-ChE and Er-ChE activity at the highest imidacloprid concentration (100mg/L). For Cu, T-ChE, Es-ChE and Er-ChE activities in gills and digestive gland were elevated relative to controls in oysters exposed to Cu concentrations > 100µg/L. In adductor muscle, T-ChE, Es-ChE and Er-ChE activity showed no apparent pattern for any of the four xenobiotics and concentration levels tested. Although this study confirms acute (96h) concentration-dependent reduction of tissue T-ChE and Es-ChE activity in gills and digestive glands of Saccostrea sp

  3. Health risk assessment of heavy metals (cadmium, nickel, lead and zinc in withdrawed parsley vegetable from some farms in Hamedan city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cheraghi

    2014-11-01

    Results: Average concentration of cadmium, nickel, lead and zinc in parsley vegetable is in the order of 1/14, 2/56, 16/65 and 25/23 mg/kg and average concentration of this metals in soil is in the order of 0/23, 23/51, 20/85 and 57/5 mg/kg. Results of this study showed that average concentration of Cadmium and Leadin parsley is above WHO/FAO whereas average concentration of Nickel and Zink in parsleywas assessed less than WHO/FAO. Also the average concentration of every four metals in soil of farms was less than WHO/FAO levels.On the other hand the amount of risk and health index (HRI in parsley for lead metal was above 1 and for cadmium, nickel and zinc metals was less than 1. Conclusion: According to the studing results, cultivated parsley in this area was polluted to the heavy metalsCadmium and Lead, and the results indicates the very easy transferring of this metals from soil to parsley that was not healthy for human daily consumption and risk and health index (HRI that was above 1 for lead metal shows the hygienic potential risk of this metal in relation to the polluted parsley consumption in human daily alimentary diet.

  4. Capacity of waters in the Magela Creek system, Northern Territory, to complex copper and cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, B.T.; Davies, S.H.R.

    1984-08-01

    Two methods were used to determine the concentrations of copper-binding ligand (complexing capacity) and conditional formation constants for waters collected from the Magela Creek system, Northern Territory. These data are particularly important in estimating the concentrations of toxic forms of copper that may result from particular effluent discharge strategies from the Ranger uranium operation

  5. The influence of green microstructure and sintering parameters on precipitation process during copper-nickel-zinc ferrites sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barba, A.; Clausell, C.; Jarque, J. C.; Monzo, M.

    2014-01-01

    Microstructural changes that occur during heat treatment of copper-nickel-zinc ferrites have been studied. The process of precipitation of the two types of crystals that occur during the sintering process has been analyzed. It is found that this process depends on dry relative density of the press specimens and on the following sintering parameters: sintering temperature, sintering time and cooling rate of the thermal cycle. Crystal precipitates characterization have been done by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). These techniques have allowed to determine the nature of these crystals, which in this case correspond to zinc and copper oxides. It has been used two chemical reactions to explain the bulk precipitation and subsequent re-dissolution of these crystal precipitates during sintering. (Author)

  6. Synthesizing photovoltaic thin films of high quality copper-zinc-tin alloy with at least one chalcogen species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeter, Glenn; Du, Hui; Young, Matthew

    2013-08-06

    A method for synthesizing a thin film of copper, zinc, tin, and a chalcogen species ("CZTCh" or "CZTSS") with well-controlled properties. The method includes depositing a thin film of precursor materials, e.g., approximately stoichiometric amounts of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), tin (Sn), and a chalcogen species (Ch). The method then involves re-crystallizing and grain growth at higher temperatures, e.g., between about 725 and 925 degrees K, and annealing the precursor film at relatively lower temperatures, e.g., between 600 and 650 degrees K. The processing of the precursor film takes place in the presence of a quasi-equilibrium vapor, e.g., Sn and chalcogen species. The quasi-equilibrium vapor is used to maintain the precursor film in a quasi-equilibrium condition to reduce and even prevent decomposition of the CZTCh and is provided at a rate to balance desorption fluxes of Sn and chalcogens.

  7. A possible association between dietary intake of copper, zinc and phosphate and delayed puberty in heifers in Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M M M; Fadlalla, I M T; Barri, M E S

    2002-02-01

    Zinc and copper deficiencies have been reported in heifers of various breeds at four different locations in Sudan. These were Kuku (5 km north of Khartoum), Seleit (20 km northwest of Khartoum), Medani (180 km south of Khartoum) and El Obeid (600 km west of Khartoum). Phosphorus deficiency was only observed in the serum of heifers at El Obeid. The heifers at all locations showed delayed puberty, stunted growth and infertility. The heifers of the local breeds at El Obeid only attained puberty by 1530 days of age compared with 840 days for the pure Friesian heifers at Seleit. The crossbred animals at Kuku and Medani attained puberty at 1440 and 1020 days of age, respectively. The marginal or low zinc and copper contents in pasture, soil or animal feed may have been predisposing factors for the observed deficiencies and might have been responsible for the delayed age of puberty.

  8. Mobility of arsenic, cadmium and zinc in a multi-element contaminated soil profile assessed by in-situ soil pore water sampling, column leaching and sequential extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beesley, Luke; Moreno-Jimenez, Eduardo; Clemente, Rafael; Lepp, Nicholas; Dickinson, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Three methods for predicting element mobility in soils have been applied to an iron-rich soil, contaminated with arsenic, cadmium and zinc. Soils were collected from 0 to 30 cm, 30 to 70 cm and 70 to 100 cm depths in the field and soil pore water was collected at different depths from an adjacent 100 cm deep trench. Sequential extraction and a column leaching test in the laboratory were compared to element concentrations in pore water sampled directly from the field. Arsenic showed low extractability, low leachability and occurred at low concentrations in pore water samples. Cadmium and zinc were more labile and present in higher concentrations in pore water, increasing with soil depth. Pore water sampling gave the best indication of short term element mobility when field conditions were taken into account, but further extraction and leaching procedures produced a fuller picture of element dynamics, revealing highly labile Cd deep in the soil profile. - Mobility of arsenic, cadmium and zinc in a polluted soil can be realistically interpreted by in-situ soil pore water sampling.

  9. Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some early research suggests that zinc supplementation increases sperm count, testosterone levels, and pregnancy rates in infertile men with low testosterone levels. Other research suggests that taking zinc can improve sperm shape in men with moderate enlargement of a ...

  10. Analysis of Serum and Urinal Copper and Zinc in Chinese Northeast Population with the Prediabetes or Diabetes with and without Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiancheng Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the association of copper and zinc levels in the serum or urine of patients living in northeast China, with either prediabetes or diabetes. From January 2010 to October 2011, patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D, n=25, type 2 diabetes (T2D, n=137, impaired fasting glucose (IFG, n = 12 or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, n=15, and age/gender matched controls (n=50 were enrolled. In the T2D group, there were 24 patients with nephropathy, 34 with retinopathy, and 50 with peripheral neuropathy. Serum copper levels were significantly higher in IFG, IGT, and T2D groups. Serum zinc level was dramatically lower, and urinary zinc level was significantly higher in both T1D and T2D subjects compared with controls. The serum zinc/copper ratio was significantly lower in all the patients with IFG, ITG, T1D, and T2D. The serum copper level was positively associated with HbA1c in T2D subjects. Simvastatin treatment in T2D patients had no significant effect on serum and urinary copper and zinc. These results suggest the need for further studies of the potential impact of the imbalanced serum copper and zinc levels on metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and diabetic complications.

  11. National monitoring study in Denmark finds increased and critical levels of copper and zinc in arable soils fertilized with pig slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, John; Larsen, Martin Mørk; Bak, Jesper

    2016-07-01

    The increasing consumption of copper and zinc in modern farming is linked to their documented benefit as growth promoting agents and usefulness for controlling diarrhoea. Copper and zinc are inert and non-degradable in the slurry and the environment and thereby introducing new challenges and concern. Therefore, a follow-up to pervious national soil monitoring programs on heavy metals was initiated in 2014 with special focus on the historical trends in soil concentrations of copper and zinc in Danish arable soils. Hereby it is possible to analyse trends for a 28 year period. Data shows that: 1) Amendment of soils with pig slurry has led to a significant increase in soil concentrations of copper and zinc, especially in the latest monitoring period from 1998 to 2014; 2) Predicted no-effect concentrations for soil dwelling species published by the European Union is exceeded for zinc in 45% of all soil samples, with the highest proportion on sandy soils; 3) The current use of zinc and copper in pig production may lead to leaching of metals, especially zinc, from fields fertilized with pig slurry in concentrations that may pose a risk to aquatic species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of zinc and cadmium interactions on root morphology and metal translocation in a hyperaccumulating species under hydroponic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tingqiang; Yang Xiaoe; Lu Lingli; Islam, Ejazul; He Zhenli

    2009-01-01

    Effects of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) interactions on root morphology and metal translocation in the hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) and non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE) of S. alfredii were investigated under hydroponic conditions. Specific root lengths (SRL), specific root surface areas (SRA) and specific root volumes (SRV) of the HE increased significantly when plant were treated with 500 μM Zn or 100 μM Cd + 500 μM Zn, whereas these root parameters were significantly decreased for the NHE when plant were treated with 100 μM Cd, 500 μM Zn or 100 μM Cd + 500 μM Zn. SRL and SRA of the HE were mainly constituted by roots with diameter between 0.2-0.4 mm (diameter class 3 and 4) which were significantly increased in treatment of 500 μM Zn or 100 μM Cd + 500 μM Zn, whereas in the NHE, metal treatments caused a significant decrease in SRL and SRA of the finest diameter class root (diameter between 0.1-0.3 mm). The HE of S. alfredii could maintain a fine, widely branched root system under contaminated conditions compared with the NHE. Relative root growth, net Cd uptake and translocation rate in the HE were significantly increased by adding 500 μM Zn, as compared with the second growth period, where 100 μM Cd was supplied alone. Cadmium and Zn concentrations in the shoots of the HE were 12-16 times and 22-27 times higher than those of the NHE under 100 μM Cd + 500 μM Zn combined treatment. These results indicate strong positive interactions of Zn and Cd occurred in the HE under 100 μM Cd + 500 μM Zn treatment and Cd uptake and translocation was enhanced by adding 500 μM Zn.

  13. Effects of zinc and cadmium interactions on root morphology and metal translocation in a hyperaccumulating species under hydroponic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Tingqiang, E-mail: litq@zju.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Yang Xiaoe; Lu Lingli [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Islam, Ejazul [Nuclear Institute of Agriculture, Tandojam, 48800 Hyderabad (Pakistan); He Zhenli [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, Florida 34945 (United States)

    2009-09-30

    Effects of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) interactions on root morphology and metal translocation in the hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) and non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE) of S. alfredii were investigated under hydroponic conditions. Specific root lengths (SRL), specific root surface areas (SRA) and specific root volumes (SRV) of the HE increased significantly when plant were treated with 500 {mu}M Zn or 100 {mu}M Cd + 500 {mu}M Zn, whereas these root parameters were significantly decreased for the NHE when plant were treated with 100 {mu}M Cd, 500 {mu}M Zn or 100 {mu}M Cd + 500 {mu}M Zn. SRL and SRA of the HE were mainly constituted by roots with diameter between 0.2-0.4 mm (diameter class 3 and 4) which were significantly increased in treatment of 500 {mu}M Zn or 100 {mu}M Cd + 500 {mu}M Zn, whereas in the NHE, metal treatments caused a significant decrease in SRL and SRA of the finest diameter class root (diameter between 0.1-0.3 mm). The HE of S. alfredii could maintain a fine, widely branched root system under contaminated conditions compared with the NHE. Relative root growth, net Cd uptake and translocation rate in the HE were significantly increased by adding 500 {mu}M Zn, as compared with the second growth period, where 100 {mu}M Cd was supplied alone. Cadmium and Zn concentrations in the shoots of the HE were 12-16 times and 22-27 times higher than those of the NHE under 100 {mu}M Cd + 500 {mu}M Zn combined treatment. These results indicate strong positive interactions of Zn and Cd occurred in the HE under 100 {mu}M Cd + 500 {mu}M Zn treatment and Cd uptake and translocation was enhanced by adding 500 {mu}M Zn.

  14. Copper, Cadmium and Lead in superficial sediment, water and the fish Cyprinodon Dearborni, in two Lagoons of Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo, J.; Lemus, M.; Chung, K. S

    2000-01-01

    The concentration of copper, cadmium and lead in superficial sediment, water and the fish Cyprenodon dearborni was determined in two coastal lagoons of Sucre State, Venezuela. Chacopata lagoon is hyper saline while Los Patos Lagoon is hypo saline and receives significant waste water from Cumana city. Water, sediment and fish samples were collected in Frebruary 1998. In the laboratory, samples underwent acid digestion and were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean values of the metals in C dearborni from the Chacopata lagoon were: 159.26± 210.68 μg/g for Cu, 44.71±45.58 μg/g for Cd, and 9.31±23.34 μg/g for Pb, while for Los Patos lagoon the mean values were: 64.88±16.30, 19.48± 5.81 and 22.85±20.00, respectively. In the water column, the metal concentration ranges were: 2.3-11.6, 3.9-5.4 and 21-32 mg/l for cooper, cadmium and lead, respectively. These results suggest that metal levels in sediment, water column and organisms in both lagoons do not differ, except for lead, even though only Los Patos receives waste water. (Author) [es

  15. Determination of silver, gold, zinc and copper in mineral samples by various techniques of instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez R, N. I.; Rios M, C.; Pinedo V, J. L.; Yoho, M.; Landsberger, S.

    2015-09-01

    Using the method of instrumental neutron activation analysis, mineral exploration samples were analyzed in order to determine the concentrations of silver, gold, zinc and copper; these minerals being the main products of benefit of Tizapa and Cozamin mines. Samples were subjected to various techniques, where the type of radiation and counting methods were chosen based on the specific isotopic characteristics of each element. For calibration and determination of concentrations the comparator method was used, certified standards were subjected to the same conditions of irradiation and measurement that the prospecting samples. The irradiations were performed at the research reactor TRIGA Mark II of the University of Texas at Austin. The silver concentrations were determined by Cyclical Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis. This method in combination with the transfer pneumatic system allowed a good analytical precision and accuracy in prospecting for silver, from photo peak measurement 657.7 keV of short half-life radionuclide 110 Ag. For the determination of gold and zinc, Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis was used, the photo peaks analyzed corresponded to the energies 411.8 keV of radionuclide 199 Au and 438.6 keV of metastable radionuclide 69m Zn. On the other hand, copper quantification was based on the photo peak analysis of 1039.2 keV produced by the short half-life radionuclide 66 Cu, by Thermal Neutron Activation Analysis. The photo peaks measurement corresponding to gold, zinc and copper was performed using a Compton suppression system, which allowed an improvement in the signal to noise relationship, so that better detection limits and low uncertainties associated with the results were obtained. Comparing elemental concentrations the highest values in silver, zinc and copper was for samples of mine Tizapa. Regarding gold values were found in the same range for both mines. To evaluate the precision and accuracy of the methods used, various geological

  16. Determination of calcium, copper, chromium, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium and zinc in ethanol by atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, E.A.N.

    1981-01-01

    The direct determinacao of calcium, copper, chomium, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium and zinc in ethanol by atomic absorption spectrometry with, air-acetylene flame is proposed. Effects of fuel/oxidant ratio, burner height and water content in the samples were investigated in detail. The method allows the determition of the elements with good precision (r.s.d. -1 for the elements tested. (author) [pt

  17. The mineralogy and geochemistry of the copper lead and zinc sulphides of the Otavi Mountainland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emslie, D.P.

    1980-01-01

    A study of 44 samples from the area revealed that the major primary sulphides, which constitute the bulk of the mineralization, are galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, and tennantite. The copper mineralization is concentrated in the Huttenberg Formation of the Tsumeb Subgroup and in the Nosib Subgroup, and the lead and zinc mineralization mainly in the Berg Aukas, Gauss, Auros, Maieberg, and Elandshoek Formations of the Otavi Group. Antimony, manganese, and silver were detected in all the samples of galena analysed, and selenium in four deposits. Silver, iron, and zinc were found within tennantite exsolutions in sphalerite. The concentrations of these minor and trace elements are probably too low to affect the economic potential of any of the deposits. Manganese was also observed in samples of sphalerite, which were found to vary in colour according to their manganese content, being dark red when the manganese content is high and ranging through orange to yellow as the manganese content decreases.The deposits of the Otavi Mountainland are similar in many ways to deposits of the Mississippi Valley type, and a similar genesis is proposed for the Mountainland. It is sugessted that the genesis involved the deposition of sediments and chemical deposits in the Swakop Basin, the leaching of the contained metals from the clay particles by the fluid trapped in the sediments, and the transportation of these metals in brine solutions. Bacterial action resulted in the formation of hydrogen sulphide, which was then trapped in the solutions. Bacterial action resulted in the formation of hydrogen sulphide, which was then trapped in the carbonates and later released when the dolomitic rocks of the area were subjected to folding, faulting, and brecciation. On its release, the hydrogen sulphide reacted with the brine solutions to form sulphide deposits in the fault and breccia zones

  18. Lead, zinc and copper accumulation and tolerance in populations of Paspalum distichum and Cynodon dactylon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, W.S.; Ye, Z.H.; Lan, C.Y.; Zhang, Z.Q.; Wong, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    Metal-tolerant populations of the plants Paspalum distichum and Cunodon dactylon were identified. - Both Fankou and Lechang lead/zinc (Pb/Zn) mine tailings located at Guangdong Province contained high levels of total and DTPA-extractable Pb, Zn and Cu. Paspalum distichum and Cynodon dactylon were dominant species colonized naturally on the tailings. Lead, zinc and copper accumulation and tolerance of different populations of the two grasses growing on the tailings were investigated. Tillers of these populations including those from an uncontaminated area were subjected to the following concentrations: 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg l -1 Pb, 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 30 mg l -1 Zn, or 0.25, 0.50, 1 and 2 mg l -1 Cu for 14 days, respectively, then tolerance index (TI) and EC 50 (the concentrations of metals in solutions which reduce 50% of normal root growth) were calculated. The results indicated that both Lechang and Fankou populations of the two grasses showed a greater tolerance to the three metals than those growing on the uncontaminated area, which suggested that co-tolerant ecotypes have evolved in the two grasses. P. distichum collected from Fankou tailings had the highest tolerance to Cu while Lechang population the highest tolerance to Pb and Zn among the tested populations, and tolerance levels in P. distichum were related to metal concentrations in the plants. P. distichum had a better growth performance than C. dactylon when both of them were grown on the tailings sites. Tolerant populations of these species would serve as potential candidates for re-vegetation of wastelands contaminated with Pb, Zn and Cu

  19. Lead, zinc and copper accumulation and tolerance in populations of Paspalum distichum and Cynodon dactylon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, W.S.; Ye, Z.H.; Lan, C.Y.; Zhang, Z.Q.; Wong, M.H

    2002-12-01

    Metal-tolerant populations of the plants Paspalum distichum and Cunodon dactylon were identified. - Both Fankou and Lechang lead/zinc (Pb/Zn) mine tailings located at Guangdong Province contained high levels of total and DTPA-extractable Pb, Zn and Cu. Paspalum distichum and Cynodon dactylon were dominant species colonized naturally on the tailings. Lead, zinc and copper accumulation and tolerance of different populations of the two grasses growing on the tailings were investigated. Tillers of these populations including those from an uncontaminated area were subjected to the following concentrations: 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg l{sup -1} Pb, 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 30 mg l{sup -1} Zn, or 0.25, 0.50, 1 and 2 mg l{sup -1} Cu for 14 days, respectively, then tolerance index (TI) and EC{sub 50} (the concentrations of metals in solutions which reduce 50% of normal root growth) were calculated. The results indicated that both Lechang and Fankou populations of the two grasses showed a greater tolerance to the three metals than those growing on the uncontaminated area, which suggested that co-tolerant ecotypes have evolved in the two grasses. P. distichum collected from Fankou tailings had the highest tolerance to Cu while Lechang population the highest tolerance to Pb and Zn among the tested populations, and tolerance levels in P. distichum were related to metal concentrations in the plants. P. distichum had a better growth performance than C. dactylon when both of them were grown on the tailings sites. Tolerant populations of these species would serve as potential candidates for re-vegetation of wastelands contaminated with Pb, Zn and Cu.

  20. Zinc and Copper Release Kinetics in a Calcareous Soil amended with Manure and Vermicompost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamid reza motaghian

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Use of organic fertilizers such as vermicompost in agricultural soils with low organic matter content is almost considered as a one way for adding nutrients in these soils. However, application of these fertilizers may affect micronutrient release characteristics. Micronutrient release Kinetics in soils especially in amended soils give information about potential of amended soils to release these elements into solution. Although it is important to study kinetics of micronutrient release from soils to identify soil micronutrients buffering capacity, little attention has been paid to micronutrients desorption rate studies especially in amended soils. The rate of release micronutrients from soil solid phase by considering micronutrients as adsorbed ions or in mineral forms is an important parameter in nutrition of plants by microelements and a dynamic factor that regulates its continuous supply to growing plants; nonetheless, little attention has been paid to micronutrients kinetics inrelease studies. Material and Methods: In this study, kinetics of zinc (Zn and copper (Cu were compared in one calcareous soil amended with 0, 0.5, and 1% (w/w of manure and vermicompost in a completely randomized design and then amended and un-amended soils were incubated at field capacity, for 30 days. After incubation period, amended and un-amended soils were air-dried and were prepared to kinetics study. Kinetics of Zn and Cu release were studied by successive extraction with DTPA-TEA solution. Two grams of the amended and un-amended soils, in triplicate, suspended in 20 ml DTPA-TEA solution were equilibrated at 25±10C for 1, 8, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, 336 and 504 h by shaking for 15 min. before incubation and 15 min. before the suspensions were centrifuged. Seven drops of toluene were added to each 1000 ml of extractant to inhibit microbial activity. Zinc and copper desorption with time was fitted by using different equations (Zero

  1. The analysis of pilot-plant products for copper, zinc, and lead with the telsec lab-x-250 analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domel, G.

    1977-01-01

    Suites of sulphide material representative of copper, zinc, and lead concentrates, as well as 'intermediate' products, low-grade material, and tailing samples, were analysed with the Telsec Lab-X-250 Analyser, which is a radio-isotope x-rayfluorescence instrument using 'balanced' filters for energy selection. A brief description of the instrument is given, stress being laid on the principle of 'balanced' filters. The determination of optimum instrumental parameters is described, and diagrams are provided to demonstrate the efficacy of energy selection. Correlation diagrams are given for all three elements in each of the materials analysed. The scatter of data points encountered is examined in terms of possible spectral interference and matrix variation. It was found that, within specified limits of acceptability, all three elements could be determined satisfactorily in copper and lead concentrates and in low-grade material. Zinc concentrates could be analysed only for zinc. The mechanisms of the spectral interference effects peculiar to the use of balanced filters are discussed, and a correction procedure is described and applied to improve the correlation for copper in the presence of a high zinc content. It is shown that the poor correlation found for 'intermediate' products and for lead in zinc concentrates is mainly due to matrix variations. The concentration range covered, the sensitivity, the precision, and, where applicable, the detectionlimits are tabulated for all three elements and all types of material analysed. A comparison of the results obtained with the Analyser and those obtained by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry is provided [af

  2. Speciation of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in the waters of River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The water of river Mzimbazi and its attributaries are known to contain heavy metals originating from industry and the water is used for domestic and vegetable irrigation purposes. The present study describes chemical forms of some of the heavy metals found in the water. Water samples from different locations along river ...

  3. Accumulation of cadmium, copper, lead, zinc and iron in the edible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TANIMA

    collected from Shankarpur of East Midnapur and Satgelia of Sundarbans. ... in Asia, and also considered as a global biodiversity ... Parganas District of Indian Sundarbans region during the period of ... (Mean ± S.E.) .... culture. Mar. Poltn. Bull. 5: 74-78. Cheung YH, Wong MH (1992). Trace metal contents of the Pacific.

  4. Determination of cadmium, zinc, copper chromium and arsenic in crude oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stigter, J.B.; Haan, H.P.M. de; Guicherit, R.

    1998-01-01

    One of the sources of trace heavy metal elements in air are emissions by the oil industry, either directly t